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Full text of "A topographical dictionary of Scotland ..."



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



OF 



SCOTLAND, 



COMPRISING THE 



SEVERAL COUNTIES, ISLANDS, CITIES, BURGH AND MARKET TOWNS, 
PARISHES, AND PRINCIPAL VILLAGES, 

WITH 

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL DESCRIPTIONS 

EMBELLISHED "WITH 

A LARGE MAP OF SCOTLAND, 

AND 

ENGRAVINGS OF THE SEALS AND ARMS OF THE DIFFERENT BURGHS AND UNIVERSITIES. 



BY SAMUEL LEWIS. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. II. 

From KEANLOCHBERVIE to ZETLAND. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED BY S. LEWIS AND CO., 13, FINSBURY PLACE, SOUTH. 



M.DCCC.XLVI. 



- 









LONDON : 
GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, PRINTERS,, 

st. john's sauARE. 






TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



SCOTLAND. 



KEI G 

KEANLOCHBERVIE, a district, in the parish of 
Eddrachillis, county of Sutherland ; containing 
1028 inhabitants, of whom 105 are in the village, 
14 miles (N. by E.) from Eddrachillis. This place is 
situated on the western shore of the county, on the 
north side of Loch Inchard, and near its mouth : the 
coast is much indented. In the interior are numerous 
lakes ; and the district, generally, partakes of the moun- 
tainous character of the land in this quarter. The 
Duke of Sutherland is the sole proprietor ; and under 
him, the aspect of the country, though still rugged, has 
been much improved within the last few years. Kean- 
lochbervie was separated, for ecclesiastical purposes, 
from the rest of the parish, under an act of parliament 
passed in the 5th of George IV. ; and as that arrange- 
ment was afterwards set aside, it is proposed by the 
Court of Session to again erect it into a quoad sacra 
district. It is under the presbytery of Tongue and 
synod of Sutherland and Caithness, and the patronage 
is vested in the Crown : the stipend of the minister is 
£120, paid from the exchequer; and there is a good 
manse, with a glebe of some acres. The church was 
erected in 1S28-9, at the expense of government; it 
contains 350 sittings, and is of sufficient height to be 
enlarged by galleries. The members of the Free Church 
have also a place of worship. A school was built and 
endowed in 1845. 

KEARN, Aberdeen. — SeeAucHiNDOiRandKEARN. 
KEIG, a parish, in the district of Ai.ford, county 
of Aberdeen, 4| miles (N. E. by E.) from Alford ; con- 
taining 662 inhabitants. This parish, which includes 
the north-eastern portion of the vale of Alford, is 
bounded on the north by the mountain range of Be- 
nachie, and on the east by the Menaway hills. It is 
about five miles and a half in length, of irregular form, 
and nearly two miles and a half in average breadth, 
comprising an area of 7900 acres, of which 3100 are 
arable, 2300 woodland and plantations, and the remain- 
Vol. II._ l 



KEIG 

der moorland pasture and waste. The surface in the 
central part of the parish is generally flat ; and even 
the acclivities of the hills are under tillage, to a height 
of 700 feet above the level of the sea. The river Don 
flows in a winding course through the parish, dividing 
it into two nearly equal portions, and, after receiving 
numerous tributary streams, falls into the German 
Ocean ; it abounds with trout and salmon. The scenery 
is everywhere of pleasing character, being enriched with 
wood, and in many parts beautifully picturesque ; and 
it derives much additional interest from the extensive 
and finely planted demesne of Castle-Forbes, which is 
within the parish. 

The soil is mostly a gravelly sand combined with 
clay, with the exception of the grounds along the banks 
of the river, which have a rich alluvial mould ; there 
are also some tracts of peat-moss, furnishing but very 
indifferent fuel. The chief crops are, oats and bear, 
with a small quantity of wheat occasionally, and pota- 
toes and turnips, of which, however, not more is raised 
than is sufficient for home consumption. The system 
of husbandry is improved, and a due rotation of crops 
regularly observed ; much of the waste has been drained 
and brought into cultivation, and the lands are well 
inclosed, chiefly with dykes of stone. The cattle are 
generally of the native Aberdeenshire breed, with a few 
crosses of the Galloway; but not more than 1100 or 
1200 are reared, and of these a considerable number are 
fed for the market, and sent by steamers to London. 
The sheep, of which about 600 are reared in the pas- 
tures, are chiefly of the black-faced Highland breed, 
with some of the Leicestershire ; they are kept princi- 
pally for their wool, which is used for domestic pur- 
poses. The plantations, chiefly on the lands of Castle- 
Forbes, consist of oak, ash, white and black poplar, 
birch, weeping-birth, aspen, beech, laburnum, elm, 
lime, plane, cork, horse-chesnut, larch, maple, Wey- 
mouth pine, and silver, spruce, and Scotch firs. The 

B 



K EI R 



K E I S 



prevailing rocks in the parish are granite, with gneiss, 
greenstone, and clay-slate ; some masses of porphyry, 
also, are found, and fine specimens of rock-crystal. The 
rateable annual value of Keig is £"2563. Castle- Forbes, 
the seat of Lord Forbes, premier baron of Scotland, is 
a spacious and elegant mansion in the castellated style, 
beautifully situated on the north bank of the Don, and 
on the acclivity of the mountain of Benachie, com- 
manding a fine view of the river. The demesne, which 
is very extensive, is tastefully laid out in walks and 
rides, and richly embellished with full-grown timber and 
thriving plantations. There is no village ; neither is 
there any important manufacture, except the knitting of 
■worsted stockings for the Aberdeen nouses, in which 
many of the poorer females are employed. At White- 
house, on the borders of the parish, is a post-office, 
by which a mail-coach runs daily to Aberdeen; and 
facility of communication is maintained by the Aber- 
deen and Alt'ord turnpike-road ; by statute roads kept 
in good repair; and by a handsome bridge of one arch, 
101 feet in span, erected over the Don, in 1817, at a 
cost of £2300, of which one-half was contributed by 
government. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Alford and synod of 
Aberdeen. The minister's stipend is £158. 13. 6., of 
which one-fourth is paid from the exchequer, with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum ; patron, 
the Crown. The church, erected in 1S35, is a handsome 
structure in the later English style, crowned with pin- 
nacles, and containing 500 sittings, all of which are free. 
The parochial school is conveniently situated ; the mas- 
ter has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and 
a portion of the Dick bequest ; and the fees average 
£20 per annum. There are two Druidical circles in the 
parish, of which one, more entire than the other, is 
within the grounds of Castle-Forbes, about half a mile 
from the house, in a wood on the Cothiemuir hill. This 
circle, which appears to have consisted of eleven up- 
right stones, is twenty-five yards in diameter ; the other, 
situated near the farm of Old Keig, is about twenty- 
two yards in diameter, and within the area are two 
upright stones, nine feet high, between which is an 
immense slab, apparently used as an altar. On the 
summit of a hill on the north-west of the parish, is a 
circular wall of loose stones, inclosing an area nearly 
eighty yards in diameter, called the Barmekin ; but 
nothing of its history is known. The place anciently 
gave the title of Baron to the Bishop of St. Andrew's, 
who sat in the Scottish parliament as Lord Keig and 
Monymusk. 

KEIR, or Kier, a parish, in the county of Dum- 
fries, 2 miles (S. W.) from Thornhill ; containing, with 
the village of Barjarg, 984 inhabitants. This parish is 
supposed to derive its name from the British word Caer, 
signifying " a fort," used in reference to some fortress 
of importance, of which all traces have now disappeared. 
It is thought to have anciently belonged to the abbey 
of Holywood, or, as some say, was a vicarage belonging 
to the parish of Caerlaverock, which latter was a par- 
sonage connected with the abbey. After the Reforma- 
tion, the feus which used to be paid to the church 
were given to the Earl of Morton ; but that nobleman 
having disobliged the sovereign, they were afterwards 
granted to the Earl of Nithsdale, whose successors were 
2 



the chief heritors of the parish till 1702, when James, 
Duke of Queensberry, purchased the barony of Keir. 
The property has since been increased by several pur- 
chases, and consists at present of three large portions, 
held by the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, and 
extending to nearly one-half of the whole parish. The 
other estates are, Capenoch, Waterside, Barjarg, and 
Blackwood, one of which is still in the possession of a 
very ancient family. 

The parish is about seven miles and a half long, and 
two and a half in extreme breadth, and contains be- 
tween 7000 and 8000 acres. It is bounded by Penpont 
on the north ; by Dunscore on the south ; by Closeburn 
on the east ; and by Tynron and Glencairn on the west. 
The surface is diversified by numerous hills, which 
afford excellent sheep pasture. The rivers are, the 
Nith, and its tributary the Scar, the former of which 
washes the eastern boundary of the parish. The holm 
land on the banks of the rivers consists of a fine rich 
loam. In other parts, where the ground is level, there 
is a light, dry, and fertile earth, producing good crops 
in moist weather, but soon parched up with drought. 
The soil on the high grounds is deep and strong, but 
very stony, and generally covered with coarse, though 
nutritious grasses. About 3375 acres are cultivated for 
the usual white and green crops ; 750 are meadow 
land, and nearly 2600 natural pasture : between 600 
and 700 acres are under wood, natural and planted. 
The sheep are chiefly the black-faced, and the cattle the 
Galloway and Ayrshire. Many improvements have been 
introduced into the district, the chief of which is the 
extensive reclaiming of waste land, by drainage and 
other means, so as to increase, to a very great degree, 
the arable grounds. The rocks in the parish consist of 
greywacke, in many varieties, with sandstone and abun- 
dance of limestone, of the latter of which one quarry 
is worked, producing a good return. The rateable 
annual value of Keir is £4562. The mansions are, 
Barjarg, Capenoch, Waterside, and Blackwood Houses, 
all modern, with the exception of the first, which is 
partly an old edifice. There are two villages, named 
Keir-Mill and Barjarg. About eight miles and a half 
of turnpike-road run through the parish, on part of which 
public coaches travel; and five bridges connect Keir 
with the adjoining districts. One of these bridges, a 
suspension-bridge, of a new construction, was lately 
erected by the Duke of Buccleuch, over the Scar ; the 
span is 110 feet. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject 
to the presbytery of Fenpont and synod of Dumfries 
and Galloway ; patron, the Duke of Buccleuch. The 
stipend is £220 ; and there is a good manse, with a 
glebe of ten acres, worth about £1S per annum. The 
church, which is situated inconveniently, at Keir-Mill, 
near the upper end of the parish, was built in 1814 ; it 
contains 430 sittings, and is in good repair. There are 
two parochial schools, in which Greek, Latin, mathe- 
matics, and all the usual branches 'of education are 
taught: each of the masters' salaries is £25. 13. 4., 
with, respectively, £16 and £15 fees. Dr. Hunter, pro- 
fessor of theology in the university of Edinburgh, resided 
at Barjarg. 

KEISS, formerly a quoad sacra parish, partly in the 
parish of Wick, and partly in that of Canisbay, county 
of Caithness, 7t miles (N.) from Wick ; containing, 
with the village of Keiss, 1009 inhabitants. The portion 



K E IT 



KEIT 



of this district which is within the parish of Wick is 
about five miles in length and three in breadth, contain- 
ing S09 inhabitants, and after the erection and endow- 
ment of a church by government, in 1S27, was, with a 
contiguous portion of Canisbay, formed into a quoad 
sacra parish by act of the General Assembly, in 1S33. 
Whin-Stone and red sandstone prevail in the district ; 
and the soil is principally composed of a strong clay. 
The herring-fishery, which is prosecuted in the months 
of July and August, is very considerable, and cod, ling, 
and haddock are also obtained : in 1840, a salmon- 
fishery on a small scale was commenced, but was not 
attended with much success. A cattle-market is held 
in the month of June. Keiss House, a plain massive 
building, erected about 1760, is at present in a very 
dilapidated state, not having been for a number of years 
the residence of its owner. The village, situated at the 
head of Kciss harbour, in Sinclair bay, and on the great 
coast-road from Wick to Huna, is chiefly inhabited by 
persons engaged in the fisheries. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of 
Caithness and synod of Caithness and Sutherland : the 
stipend of the minister is £120, paid by endowment of 
the government, with a manse, built near the church. 
The church, erected by government, in 1S27, on a rising 
ground to the west of the harbour, at an expense of 
£1500, is a plain structure containing 350 sittings, and, 
by the addition of galleries, would contain 200 more. 
The Baptists have a place of worship. A school, also, 
has been erected, of which the master receives a salary 
of £15, one-half derived from the Rev. William Halla- 
wall's endowment, and the other paid by the Society for 
Propagating Christian Knowledge : he has likewise the 
fees. On a rock overhanging the sea are remains of an 
old castle, called Keiss Castle ; and there are some ves- 
tiges still to be seen of two ancient chapels, and a Pictish 
house. 

KEITH, a parish, partly in the county of Elgin, 
but chiefly in that of Banff ; containing, with the 
villages of Fife-Keith and New-mills, 4456 inhabitants, 
of whom 2*6 are in the county of Elgin, and 1804 are 
in the town of Keith, 10| miles (N. W.) from Huntly, 
and 49 (N. W.) from Aberdeen. This place, of which 
the name is of uncertain derivation, is of very remote 
antiquity ; and the old town was, for many years, the 
principal seat of jurisdiction for the surrounding dis- 
trict, and had precedence of Fordyce, Cullen, and Banff, 
at that time the only other towns within the county. 
The ancient courts of regality held their sittings in the 
church, for the determination of all pleas, including 
even those of the crown, and for the trial of capital 
offences ; the tower of the church was used for a prison, 
and the hill on which the new town is built was the 
place of execution for malefactors. In 1645, a skirmish 
occurred here, between the forces under the Marquess 
of Montrose and a party of the Covenanters led by 
General Baillie ; and in 1667, the peasantry, headed by 
the Gordons of Auchinachy and Glengarrick, defeated 
the banditti of Patrick Roy Mac Gregor, and took then- 
leader prisoner. The New Town of Keith is pleasantly 
situated on the acclivity of a gentle eminence, to the 
south-east of the Old Town, and consists of several spa- 
cious and well-formed streets, parallel with each other, 
and intersected at right angles by smaller streets and 
lanes. The houses are well built, and attached to each 



of them is a spacious garden. In the centre of the town 
is an ample market-place, 700 feet in length and 150 
feet wide. Fife-Keith, on the north bank of the river 
Isla, was commenced by the Earl of Fife, in 1816, and 
consists of regular streets of good houses, and a hand- 
some square, &c. It is connected by two bridges with 
Old Keith ; and as Old Keith communicates with New 
Keith by a street extending for 250 yards along the 
great north road, the three places may be considered as 
forming one town, about a mile in length. A public 
library, containing a good collection of volumes on his- 
tory and general literature, is supported by subscrip- 
tion ; and there are also a library connected with a lite- 
rary association, and several congregational libraries. 

The linen manufacture was formerly carried on here 
to a very considerable extent ; but since the introduc- 
tion of the cotton manufacture it has been discon- 
tinued. There are mills for carding and spinning wool, 
and home-grown flax ; and also some corn and flour 
mills which supply the country for many miles round. 
A distillery producing about 20,000 gallons of whisky 
annually, and a tobacco and snuff manufactory, are in 
active operation. There are also a tannery and a 
bleachfield ; and many of the inhabitants are employed 
in the extensive lime-works in the p;;rish, from which 
40,000 bolls of lime are sent every year. The numerous 
handsome shops are amply stored with merchandise of 
every description ; and branches of the Aberdeen, the 
Town and County, and the North of Scotland banks, 
have been established in the town. A spacious and 
commodious inn and posting-house, at which the mail 
stops daily, was erected by the Earl of Seafield, in 1823. 
A weekly market, supplied with grain and provisions of 
all kinds, is held on Friday ; and fairs, chiefly for cattle, 
horses, and sheep, occur annually, on the first Friday in 
January and March ; the first Tuesday, O. S., in April 
and June, and the Friday before Huntly fair in July. 
Fairs, also, for hiring servants and general business, are 
held on the Wednesday after the first Tuesday in Sep- 
tember and on the third Friday, O. S., in November. 
The September fair, called " Summer Eve fair," formerly 
continued for a fortnight, and was the great mart for 
the exchange of produce between the north and south 
parts of Scotland ; it was resorted to by crowds who, 
for want of accommodation, took up their lodgings in 
barns and outhouses, and it is still numerously attended. 
The post-office has a good delivery ; and facility of com- 
munication is maintained by the great north road and 
other turnpike roads which pass through the parish, 
and by bridges over the river Isla. Though not a 
burgh of barony, yet, being within the barony of Keith 
or Ogilvie, courts may be held by the baron-bailie of 
the Earl of Seafield. The sheriff's court for the recovery 
of small debts, and a justice-of-peace court, are also held 
inthe town, the former six times in the year; and^the 
latter on the first Wednesday in every mouth. A 
gaol has been erected within the last few years ; but, 
there being at present no town-hall in the burgh, *he 
various courts are held in the inn erected by the Earl of 
Seafield. 

The parish, which is situated in the beautiful and 
fertile valley of the Isla, is of irregular form, about six 
miles in length and nearly of equal breadth, comprising 
an area of thirty-six square miles, of which one-half is 
arable, and the remainder pasture and waste. The sur- 

B 2 



K E I T 



REIT 



face rises gradually from the banks of the river, which 
runs through the vale from south to north, towards the 
confines of the parish, where there are hills of moderate 
elevation. The river has its source in the adjoining 
parish of Botriphnie, and, flowing through this parish, 
takes a south-eastern course, and, after receiving seve- 
ral smaller streams, falls into the Doveran ; it abounds 
with trout of good quality, and, half a mile below Keith, 
forms a picturesque cascade. The soil is generally 
clay, alternated with loam, in some parts of great fer- 
tility, and in others poorer and of lighter quality. The 
chief crops are oats and barley, with potatoes and tur- 
nips ; flax is also raised on some lands, but little or no 
wheat is sown. The system of husbandry is improved, 
and a regular rotation duly observed ; but the lands are 
not inclosed, and much yet remains to be done. The 
cattle are of the native breed, with a cross of the Tees- 
water, and great numbers are sent to London ; the 
dairy-farms are well managed, and the butter and cheese, 
which are much esteemed, find a ready sale in the 
southern markets. The plantations, formed chiefly by 
the Earl of Fife, on such parts of the land as were inca- 
pable of cultivation, are in a thriving state, and have 
been recently much extended by the Earl of Seafield 
and the other proprietors. The principal substrata are, 
limestone, freestone, and slate ; the limestone is made 
into lime, for which there are several works in the pa- 
rish, affording employment to a considerable number of 
persons. In the limeworks at Maisly, a vein of anti- 
mony has been found ; and fluor spar has also been 
discovered in some places. The only seat of a landed 
proprietor is Edintore, a handsome mansion recently 
erected. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
returned at £S001. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Strathbogie and synod of 
Moray. The minister's stipend is £222, with a manse, 
and a glebe valued at £50 per annum ; patron, the 
Earl of Fife. The church, which is situated in the 
centre of the parish, is a very handsome structure, in 
the later English style of architecture, with a square 
tower 120 feet high ; it was built in 1816, and contains 
1800 sittings. There are a Free Church, places of wor- 
ship for members of the United Secession and Inde- 
pendents, and an Episcopal, and a fine Roman Catholic 
chapel. The parochial school, for which a spacious 
building was erected in 1833, capable of receiving 260 
children, is well attended. The master, who keeps an 
assistant, has a salary of £34, with an allowance of £10 
for a house and garden ; the fees average £S0, and he 
also receives a portion of Dick's bequest, and £16. 13. 4., 
the residue of an endowment, from the lauds of Eden- 
drach, bequeathed for the support of the school. There 
are likewise schools at Newmills and in other parts in 
the parish. Chalybeate springs occur in several places ; 
but they are not much used medicinally. About half a 
mile below the town are the ruins of an ancient castle, 
formerly the seat of the Oliphant family. Ferguson, the 
eminent astronomer, though not a native, was brought 
up from his infancy in the parish. 

KEITH and HUMBIE, a parish, in the county of 
Haddington, eight miles (S. W. by S.) from Hadding- 
ton ; containing 881 inhabitants. This parish was 
formed, subsequently to the Reformation, by the union 
of the two parishes of Keith-Symmars and Keith-Hun- 



deley. It is about six miles in length, from east to 
west, and five in breadth, from north to south, compris- 
ing an irregular area which, towards the south-western 
extremity, is intersected by part of the parish of Fala. 
It is bounded on the north by the parish of Pencaitland ; 
on the east by the parishes of Bolton and Salton ; on 
the south by the Lammermoor hills ; on the west and 
south-west by the parishes of Crichton and Fala ; and. 
on the north-west by those of Ormiston and Cranston. 
The surface is greatly diversified, rising gradually from 
the northern part of the parish, which is 350 feet above 
the level of the sea, till it attains a height of 600 feet at 
the base of the Lammermoor hills, of which Lammer- 
law, the loftiest of the range, has an elevation of 1200 
feet, and others vary from S00 to 1000 feet. The lands 
are watered by three rivulets, which have their source in 
the higher grounds, and in their way through the parish, 
acquire a sufficient strength to give impulse to several 
mills. Of these streams the Keith and the Humbie unite 
their waters a little below the church, and, after flowing 
in one channel for nearly two miles, receive the waters 
of the burn Birnswater, which, from its rise to its junc- 
tion forms the eastern boundary of the parish ; they all 
abound with trout of good quality. The scenery is en- 
riched with timber of mature growth, and with young 
and thriving plantations. Humbie wood comprises an 
area of 400 acres of oak, birch, beech, and firs, of which 
many display luxuriancy of growth, and in combination 
with the adjoining woods in the parish of Salton, form a 
conspicuous and beautiful feature in the landscape, 
finely contrasting with the various aspects of the Lam- 
mermoor hills, of which some are covered with barren 
heath and others with lively verdure. 

The soil is in some places a rich loam, in others a 
light sand, and in others again, clayey and mossy ; the 
number of acres in the parish is estimated at 17,000, of 
which about 7000 are arable or capable of tillage. A 
considerable portion of the mossy bogs in the Lammer- 
moor range has been reclaimed by open surface-draining, 
and converted into excellent pasturage ; and from 200 
to 300 more might be brought into profitable cultivation. 
In addition to the 400 acres forming Humbie wood, 
about one hundred are covered with plantations in the 
different demesne lands ; and 2500 acres are hilly pas- 
ture and moor. The system of agriculture, which has 
always been good, is at present in a highly improved 
state ; the crops are, wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, peas, 
and turnips. Rape-dust manure has been successfully 
employed in the cultivation of wheat, and bone-dust on 
the turnip grounds. The farm houses and offices are 
substantial and well arranged : the lands are inclosed 
partly with stone dykes, but chiefly with hedges of 
thorn, which have been made at considerable expense, 
even where the soil was not originally favourable to 
their growth. Great attention is paid to live stock. 
The sheep are generally of the Cheviot breed, or a cross 
between the Cheviot and the Leicestershire, with a few 
of the black-faced, which, however, are diminishing in 
number ; about 3000 sheep are annually reared, and 
more than three hundred head of cattle are reared and fat- 
tened for the market. The rateable annual value of Keith 
and Humbie is £7603. Whitburgh, a handsome modern 
mansion ; that of Johnstonburn ; and Keith House, 
an ancient mansion, formerly the residence of the Earls- 
Marischal of Scotland, and the timber for the erection 



K EI T 



K ELL 



of which was a present from the King of Denmark, are 
the only houses of note in the parish. The hamlets are 
neatly built, and have facility of communication with the 
towns of Haddington and Dalkeith, which are the chief 
markets in this part of the country for the sale of agri- 
cultural produce. The roads throughout the parish are 
kept in repair by statute labour ; and over each of the 
rivulets is a good stone bridge of one arch. The ecclesi- 
astical affairs are under the superintendence of the 
presbytery of Haddington and Synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale. The stipend of the incumbent is £272 ; 
the manse was erected in 1/90, and enlarged in 1822, 
and is a comfortable residence; the glebe is valued at 
£10 per annum. The church, situated nearly in the 
centre of the parish, was built in 1800; it is a plain 
substantial edifice adapted to a congregation of 400 
persons, and all the sittings are free. A place of wor- 
ship has been erected for members of the Free Church. 
There are two parochial schools, the masters of which 
have each a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and 
the fees. 

KEITH-HALL and KINKELL, a parish, in the 
district of Garioch, county of Aberdeen, one mile 
(E. by S.) from Inverury ; containing 913 inhabitants. 
Keith-Hall was anciently called Montkeggie, a word of 
uncertain derivation ; it assumed the present appellation 
after the larger part of it had come into the possession 
of Keith, Earl-Marischal of Scotland. The Gaelic term 
Kinkell, signifying " the head or principal church," was 
applied to the ancient parish of that name, because the 
incumbent, who was of great importance in the chapter 
of Aberdeen, had also in his possession the six inferior 
parishes of Kintore, Kinnellar, Skene, Kemnay, Dyce, 
and Drumblade. This patronage, however, about the 
year 1662, was annexed, by the influence of Archbishop 
Sharpe, to the office of principal of St. Leonard's College, 
St. Andrew's. In 1*54, one third of the parish of Kin- 
kell was joined to Kintore, and the remaining portion 
to Keith-Hall. The parish is separated, on the west, 
from the parish of Inverury by the river Urie, and from 
that of Kintore, in the same quarter, by the river Don, 
which two streams unite about the centre of the western 
boundary. Its figure is very irregular : it stretches in 
length about five miles, and its breadth is exceedingly 
variable, measuring, however, in some parts, nearly as 
much as its length. It comprises between 7000 and 
S000 acres, of which 2000 are arable, 400 plantations, 
and the remainder waste. The ground, though occa- 
sionally, undulated and hilly, is marked by no particular 
elevations, and the principal features in the scenery are 
the two rivers, of which the Don, after the junction of 
the Urie, runs in a south-eastern course, with numerous 
picturesque windings, till it falls into the sea at Aber- 
deen. The canal from Inverury passes parallel to the 
Don, all the way, to the same city. Pike, eels, and 
trout are found in both the streams, and salmon are 
also taken in the Urie. In rainy seasons they overflow 
their banks, especially the Don, and occasion much 
damage to the neighbouring crops. 

The best land is in the western district, near the rivers, 
where the soil is either loamy or alluvial, and very fertile ; 
the eastern portion has a great variety of soil, mostly of 
inferior quality, and the usual subsoil is gravel or clay. 
The grain and green crops comprehend the usual kinds. 
The South-Down, Leicester, and Scotch breeds of sheep 



are kept ; the cattle are in general excellent, and of the 
Old Aberdeenshire kind. Lord Kintore, who possesses 
about two-thirds of the parish, has cultivated, with 
great spirit and success, the Ayrshire and Teeswater 
breeds ; and his beautiful stock is well known as having 
produced the celebrated Keith-Hall ox, which obtained 
the first premium at the Highland Society's show, in 
1S34, and was sold, at seven years of age, for £100. 
Portions of waste land have been recovered within these 
few years, though not to the same extent as in many 
other parishes, the proprietors not offering much en- 
couragement for those improvements. The old farm- 
houses with turf roofs have gradually disappeared, and 
more convenient buildings have been raised, neatly 
thatched, and, in some instances, slated. Some of the 
farms are enclosed with hawthorn hedges ; but the 
enclosures are in general of stone, many of them of a 
secure and substantial nature. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £4067. 

The plantations consist of beech, oak, elm, ash, plane, 
Scotch fir, and larch, all growing well except the larch 
and oak. In the grounds of Keith-Hall, the seat of the 
Earl of Kintore, the luxuriant plantations constitute a 
beautiful feature in the scenery, and increase the effect 
produced by the view of the noble mansion, a quadran- 
gular structure of ancient and modern architecture, 
with an elegant front. The immediate vicinity of the 
house commands extensive and striking prospects over a 
rich valley, well wooded and watered, with a fine range 
of mountains in the distance. The burgh of Inverury is 
only about a quarter of a mile from the western boun- 
dary ; and to it, therefore, the farmers convey their 
grain and other disposable produce, to be sent to Aber- 
deen by canal. The turnpike road from Aberdeen to 
Inverury runs past the western boundary of the parish, 
at a short distance ; and that from the same place to 
Old Meldrum passes on the east ; but neither inter- 
sects the parish. An annual fair is held at Kinkell on 
the Wednesday after the last Tuesday of September, 
O. S., and is much frequented. The parish is in the 
presbytery of Garioch and Synod of Aberdeen, and in 
the patronage of the Earl of Kintore : the minister's 
salary is £217, with a manse, and a glebe of 25 acres, 
valued at £30 per annum. The church was built in 
1771, and accommodates 600 persons with sittings, all 
of which are free. The Society of Friends have a place 
of worship at Kinmuck, attached to which is a cemetery. 
The parochial school affords instruction in Latin and 
geography, with all the elementary branches ; the master 
has a salary of £30, with a house, and £15 fees. Many 
illustrious persons who fell in the battle of Harlaw 
were interred in the churchyard, among whom was the 
high constable of Dundee. 

KEITHTOWN, a village, in the parish of Fod- 
dertv, county of Ross and Cromarty ; containing 
64 inhabitants. It is one of three small villages in the 
parish, and is of recent formation. 

KELLAS, a hamlet, in the parish of Murroes, 
county of Forfar ; containing 25 inhabitants. 

KELLS, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, 14 miles (N. W. by N.) from Castle-Douglas, 
and 19 (N. by W.) from Kirkcudbright ; containing, 
with the burgh of New Galloway, 112] inhabitants. 
This place is supposed by some to derive its name from 
its elevated situation, of which, in the Gaelic language, 



K ELL 



K E L S 



the word is descriptive ; others deduce it from the Bri- 
tish Cell, on account of the extensive woods formerly 
existing here, and of which considerable remains are 
still found imbedded in the various mosses. The parish, 
which is one of the largest in the county, is bounded 
on the west and south by the river Dee, which separates 
it from the parishes of Miunigaff, Girthon, and Balma- 
ghie ; and on the east by the river Ken, which divides 
it from Dairy, Balmaclellan, and Parton. It is about 
sixteen miles in length and eight miles in extreme 
breadth, comprising an area of 47,500 acres, of which 
by far the greater part is mountain pasture, and, with 
the exception of about 400 acres of woodland and plan- 
tations, the remainder is arable and in good cultivation. 
The surface is irregularly broken, rising towards the 
north into a range of lofty mountains, including the 
most conspicuous heights of Galloway, of which some 
have an elevation of 2700 feet above the sea. The ara- 
ble lands, which are chiefly along the banks of the Ken, 
are tolerably level, and interspersed with copses of oak 
and birch. The lower grounds are watered by nume- 
rous rivulets, which intersect the parish in various direc- 
tions, and form tributaries to the Dee and to the Ken. 
The Ken has its source on the confines of Dumfries- 
shire, and, after entering the parish on the north-east, 
receives the waters of the Deuch, and at the southern 
extremity unites with the Dee. There are also many 
lakes, of which those of Loch Dungeon and Loch Har- 
row, in the north, are of considerable extent, but both 
inferior to Loch Ken, on the eastern border of the 
parish, which is about five miles in length and three 
quarters of a mile in breadth, and by far the most emi- 
nent for the beauty of its scenery. 

The soil of the lands along the Ken is a rich clay, 
producing good crops of oats, but not in larger quantity 
than is sufficient for home consumption. The district 
is chiefly pastoral, and, under the auspices of the Glen- 
kens Society, established in 1S30, with the patronage of 
Mr. Yorstoun, of Garroch, has been greatly improved : 
the cottages, especially, have in many instances been 
rendered much more comfortable and commodious. 
The progress of agricultural improvement, however, is 
retarded by the difficulty of obtaining lime at any mo- 
derate expense ; and consequently, several farms which 
would otherwise be capable of tillage are thrown toge- 
gether as sheep-walks. The number of sheep pastured 
is 17,500 ; 1300 head of cattle, mostly of the Highland 
breed, are annually reared, and 300 horses of the Gallo- 
way kind. The sheep and cattle are sent to the mar- 
kets in the south. The hills in the parish are chiefly of 
granite : there are neither mines nor quarries of any 
description. The remains of ancient wood are princi- 
pally copses of oak and birch, both of which are indi- 
genous, and appear well adapted to the soil ; and the 
plantations, which are of recent formation, consist of 
oak, intermixed with Scotch fir and larch, and are well 
managed, and in a flourishing condition. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £5246. Kenmure Castle, 
the seat of Lord Viscount Kenmure, the principal landed 
proprietor, is a very ancient structure, seated on a cir- 
cular mount, at the head of Loch Ken, within a mile of 
the town of New Galloway, and is supposed to have 
been the residence of John Baliol. It suffered frequent 
assaults during the wars with England in the time of 
Edward I. ; and was burnt in the reign of Mary, Queen 
6 



of Scots, and again during the usurpation of Cromwell. 
The estate subsequently belonged to the Gordons, of 
Lochinvar, of whom Sir John was created Lord of 
Lochinvar and Viscount Kenmure, in 1633 ; but it be- 
came forfeited to the crown in the time of William, the 
sixth viscount, who was attainted for his participation 
in the rebellion of 1715, and beheaded on Tower Hill, 
London, in the following year. The propei'ty was, how- 
ever, purchased from the crown by a member of his 
family ; and the title was restored by act of parliament, 
in 1S24, to his grandson, the late viscount and pro- 
prietor. The grounds are tastefully embellished with 
stately timber and thriving plantations, and the ap- 
proach to the castle is by a noble avenue of lime trees. 
Glenlee is a handsome mansion, which has been greatly 
enlarged, and is finely situated on the banks of the 
Ken, in a park embellished with many oaks of majestic 
growth. Knocknalling and Ballingear are also good 
houses, recently erected. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and synod 
of Galloway. The minister's stipend is £300, with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum ; patron, 
the Crown. The church, erected in 1S22, is a hand- 
some structure in the early English style of architec- 
ture, with a square embattled tower ; it contains 560 
sittings, and is capable of being made to hold a greater 
number. The parochial school is attended by about 
100 children; the master has a salary of £34, with a 
house and garden, and the fees average £30 per annum. 
The Glenkens Society annually award prizes to the 
most deserving of the scholars. A school-house has 
recently been erected in the northern part of the parish, 
by Mr. Kennedy, of Knocknalling, who pays the salary 
of the master ; and there is also a Sabbath school, to 
which is attached a good library. The poor are partly 
supported by the interest of £522 bequeathed by various 
individuals, in the hands of the Kirk Session. There 
are several chalybeate springs in the parish, of which 
one, on Cairn-Edward, about two miles from New Gal- 
loway, was formerly in great repute, and is still used by 
the inhabitants in its neighbourhood. Among the na- 
tives of the parish have been, Lowe, the author of 
Marifs Dream ; Heron, author of a history of Scotland; 
Gordon, the translator of Tacitus ; and the Rev. Wil- 
liam Gillespie, author of the Progress of Refinement, of 
Consolation, and other works. 

KELSO, a burgh of 
barony, market-town, and 
parish, in the district of Kel- 
so, county of Roxburgh, 23 
miles (S. \V.) from Berwick, 
and 41 (S. E.) from Edin- 
burgh, containing, with the 
village of Maxwellheugh, 
5328 inhabitants, of whom 
4594 are in the burgh. This 
place is said to have derived 
its name, anciently written 
Calchow, or Calkow, from 
the chalky cliff on which the original village was situ- 
ated. The district now occupied by the town and 
parish appears to have formerly included the parishes 
of Kelso on the north, and of Maxwell and St. James 
on the south, side of the river Tweed : of these the two 




Burgh .Seal. 



KELS 



K EL S 



first had separate churches, and the last was part of the 
ancient burgh of Roxburgh. The churches of Kelso 
and Maxwell were both destroyed during the earlier 
period of the border warfare ; that of St. James seems 
to have been burnt down at a later date. These seve- 
ral parishes were all granted to the abbey of Kelso by 
David I., the founder of that institution, which he en- 
dowed for brethren of the order of Benedictines, of the 
class called Tyronenses, whom he placed in the abbey 
on its completion, about the year 1130. Under the 
munificent endowment, of that monarch's successors, 
the establishment became one of the most wealthy in 
the kingdom. The monastery, however, from its situa- 
tion so near the border, was frequently exposed to vio- 
lence and plunder ; and after suffering repeated injuries, 
from which, in process of time, it always recovered, it 
was, finally, almost destroyed in 1 523, by a party of 
the English under Lord Dacre. Having plundered the 
town, and laid waste the adjacent country, they burnt 
the conventual buildings, and removed the roof from 
the church, which they otherwise defaced ; compelling 
the monks to retire to a village in the neighbourhood, 
to celebrate the offices of religion. In 1545, the town 
again sustained devastation from the English forces, 
who also destroyed the greater portion of what was left 
of the abbey, which never afterwards recovered ; the 
north and south aisles and the choir were battered down 
by artillery, and the venerable and stately structure 
was reduced to a mere ruin. The monks, however, still 
maintained a religious establishment here, and inha- 
bited the remains of the conventual buildings till the 
Reformation, after which the site and revenues were 
granted, in 1587, to Sir John Maitland, lord high chan- 
cellor, and subsequently to the Earl of Bothwell,^ on 
whose attainder, reverting to the crown, they were 
bestowed on Sir Robert Ker, of Cessford, warden of the 
East marches, and ancestor of the Duke of Roxburghe, 
the present proprietor. 

The foundation of the abbey naturally led to the in- 
crease and importance of the town, which previously 
was only an inconsiderable village, and a comparatively 
insignificant appendage to the burgh of Roxburgh, at 
that time a place of great note. In the reign of Ro- 
bert I., the town had so greatly augmented in extent 
as to be divided into the two portions of Easter and 
Wester Kelso ; and on the demolition of Roxburgh, it 
became the residence of many of the inhabitants of that 
burgh. Its increase was now still more rapid, and it 
had attained a high degree of prosperity in 1545, when, 
participating in the disastrous fate of its abbey, it was 
so reduced by the English under the Earl of Hertford, 
that the markets could no longer be held in it, and 
were consequently transferred to the neighbouring vil- 
lage of Hume. On the accession of the Ker family to 
the revenues and jurisdiction of the abbots, the town 
recovered ; and the abbey was erected into a temporal 
lordship in 1607, by charter of James VI. to the Earl 
of Roxburghe, who subsequently granted to the inha- 
bitants all the privileges of a free burgh of barony. 
But it was arrested in its career of prosperity by a 
destructive fire, which, in 1686, burnt down more than 
one half of the houses ; it was again partly destroyed 
by fire in 1738, and subsequently sustained considerable 
damage by similar calamities till within a comparatively 
recent period. These losses, however, did not impede 
7 



the progress of the place so much as might have beea 
expected ; and it is now in a prosperous state. 

The town is finely situated on the north bank of 
the river Tweed, near its confluence with the Teviot, 
and consists chiefly of a principal street, irregularly 
built, several smaller streets, and a handsome square of 
considerable extent, comprising ranges of buildings in a 
very pleasing style. The houses are generally of light- 
coloured stone, roofed with slate ; and the whole has 
a cheerful and prepossessing appearance. The streets 
are paved and lighted ; the inhabitants are amply 
supplied with water, and a good approach from the 
opposite shore is formed by a well-built bridge over 
the river. The surrounding scenery, remarkable for 
many peculiarities of feature, is agreeably varied, and, 
when viewed in combination with the ruins of the 
ancient abbey, is deeply interesting. The bridge is an 
elegant structure of stone, erected in 1S03, to replace a 
bridge which had been swept away by an inundation of 
the river in 1797. It consists of five elliptical arches, 
seventy-two feet in span, and about fifty feet in height 
above the surface of the stream ; it is nearly 500 feet in 
length, and was completed by the late Mr. Rennie, at 
an expense of £18,000. The bridge forms a conspi- 
cuous feature in the landscape of the town, and derives 
additional interest from the beauty of the scenery on 
both banks of the river. The Kelso library, supported 
by a proprietary of shareholders, contains a well as- 
sorted collection of rather more than 5000 volumes in all 
departments of literature, and is held in a commodious 
building. The "New Library" and the "Modern Li- 
brary" are also well supported, in a similar manner ; 
the former has 2000, and the latter 1500 volumes, chiefly 
modern works. There is likewise a book club, main- 
tained by subscribers, for the purchase and circulation 
amongst its members of standard and periodical publi- 
cations ; and a reading-room has been established. 
The Kelso Physical and Antiquarian Society has col- 
lected a valuable museum of natural history and anti- 
quities. 

The chief trade here is in corn, and in the various 
articles of merchandise that are requisite for the supply 
of the neighbouring district. There are no manu- 
factures carried on to any considerable extent ; the 
principal are those of leather and tobacco, and the 
weaving of linen and stockings, all of which together 
scarcely afford employment to 150 persons. Close to 
the town, there are some very valuable salmon-fisheries 
on the river Tweed, one of which, of but inconsiderable 
extent, was recently let to some gentlemen, at the ex- 
tremely high rent of £210 per annum; the season 
commences in February, and terminates in November. 
The chief market is on Friday, and is amply supplied 
with corn, and well attended ; and there is a daily 
market for butchers' meat, fish, and vegetables. Markets, 
also, for cattle are held on the second Friday in every 
month. Fairs occur on the four Fridays in March, 
for horses, and on the second Friday for cattle also ; 
and a very ancient fair is held on the 5th of August, 
on St. James' Green, the site of the ancient church 
of that name. This fair is numerously attended ; and 
the magistrates of the town attend, and divide the 
tolls with the lord of the barony. 

The lands belonging to the abbey of Kelso, after the 
dissolution of monasteries, were, as is already stated, 



K EL S 



K EL S 



granted, under the title of the lordship and barony of 
Hallydean, to the Kers, of Cessford, ancestors of the 
Dukes of Roxburghe, in 1607 ; and in 1634, that portion 
of the lands which constitutes the town and parish 
of Kelso was separated and erected into a burgh of 
barony by James VI., who conferred upon the superior, 
Robert, Earl of Roxburghe, the right of holding a 
weekly market and fairs, and of creating burgesses, 
a baron-bailie, and other officers. The government is 
now vested in a bailie, appointed by the superior; a 
body of sixteen commissioners, appointed under the 
act of the 3rd and 4th of William IV., for establishing a 
general system of police in Scotland ; a town clerk ; 
procurator-fiscal ; and others. The bailie holds his 
office during pleasure. There are seven incorporated 
trades, the merchants, shoemakers, tailors, hammer- 
men, skinners, weavers, and fieshers ; and no person 
is authorized to carry on trade in the burgh who is 
not a member of one of these companies. The bailie 
holds a weekly court for the trial and determination 
of civil and criminal cases, of which, on an average, 
about forty of the latter may be said to take place 
annually. The town-house, situated on the east side 
of the public square, is a handsome edifice of stone, 
two stories in height, with a portico of four Ionic 
columns supporting a triangular pediment surmounted 
by a neat turret. There is likewise a small prison, 
employed chiefly as a place of temporary confinement for 
vagrants. 

The parish, which is of triangular form, is about 
five miles in length and three in extreme breadth, and 
is divided into two nearly equal parts by the Tweed ; 
it comprises 4400 acres, of which 3800 are arable, 300 
meadow and pasture, and 215 woodland and plantations. 
The surface is boldly diversified with broad vales and 
undulating heights, and abounds with much variety 
and beauty of scenery. The rivers Tweed and Teviot, 
especially, present some pleasingly picturesque views 
in their devious courses through the parish, flowing 
between richly wooded banks, and receiving numerous 
tributary streams from the higher lands. The soil is 
various, but generally fertile, and of light dry quality; 
the crops are, oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, and turnips. 
The system of agriculture is improved, and the four and 
five shift courses of husbandry are prevalent: lime and 
bone-dust form the principal manures. The lands 
have been well drained, and enclosed, partly with stone 
dykes, but chiefly with hedges of thorn ; the farm- 
houses are substantially built, and some, of more recent 
erection, are elegant ; threshing mills have been erected 
on most of the farms, some of them driven by steam ; 
and all the improvements in the construction of agri- 
cultural implements have been adopted. The sheep 
reared and fed in the parish are chiefly of the Lei- 
cestershire breed, and much attention is paid to them ; 
the cattle are all the short-horned, or Teeswater. The 
Union Agricultural Society hold meetings in the town, 
for awarding prizes to successful competitors at the 
monthly show of cattle, and for improvements in agri- 
culture. The woods consist of oak, beech, ash, and 
other forest-trees, of which many fine specimens are 
found in the park of Floors and Springwood ; the 
plantations are chiefly firs, intermixed with hard-woods. 
There are several mansions in the parish, of which 
Floors, the property of the Duke of Roxburghe, is a 
8 



stately edifice, erected in 1718, after a design by Sir 
John Vanbrugh, and situated in an extensive park 
embellished with stately timber and rich plantations. 
In the park is a holly bush of venerable growth, which 
marks out the spot where James II. was killed by the 
bursting of a cannon, while employed in the siege of 
Roxburgh Castle, in 1460. Ednam House is also an 
elegant residence, in tastefully-disposed grounds. The 
mansion of Springwood Park, to which is an approach 
by a Grecian archway ; Hendersyde; Wooden ; Pinnacle 
Hill ; and Woodside, are all handsome ; and in the 
vicinity of the town are numerous pleasing villas. 
Facility of intercourse with the neighbouring places is 
afforded by excellent roads in every direction, and by 
bridges kept in good repair. The rateable annual value 
of the parish is £19,755. 

The ecclesiastical, affairs are under the presbytery 
of Kelso and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and the 
patronage in the Duke of Roxburghe. The stipend is 
£320. 13. 6, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £54. 15, 
per annum. The church, erected in 1773, and repaired 
and reseated in 1S33, is an octagonal edifice, con- 
veniently situated, and is adapted for a congregation 
of 1314 persons. An additional church was erected 
in 1S37, on a site to the north of the town, at an 
expense of more than £3500, towards which £1500 
were contributed by Mr. James Nisbet, of London ; 
it is a handsome edifice in the later English style of 
architecture, with a lofty square tower, and contains 
877 sittings, of which 144 are free. A certain portion 
of the parish was allotted to it for a short time, as a 
district, and called the North quoad sacra parish, with 
a population of 23S3. Adjoining it is a building for 
an infant and a juvenile school. The parish also con- 
tains an Episcopal chapel, and places of worship for 
members of the Free Church, Reformed Presbyterians, 
Original Seceders, Relief, United Secession, the Society 
of Friends, and Wesleyans : some of these are of very 
recent erection. 

There are two parochial schools, one of which is a 
grammar school, and the other a school for reading, 
writing, and arithmetic. The master of the former 
has a salary of £34, with £S0 fees, and a house and 
garden ; and the master of the latter a salary of £5 11. 
with £50 fees, and the interest of a bequest of £240 for 
teaching gratuitously a number of poor children. Another 
school is maintained partly at the expense of two of 
the heritors, who give the masters a school-room and 
dwelling-house rent free, in addition to the fees, for 
teaching children of the south division of the parish. 
A school for boys and girls, also, is supported by the 
Duke of Roxburghe and others, who pay the mistress 
£15 per annum, including fees, and give the master as 
much as will raise the amount of his fees to £60. The 
poor have the interest of funded bequests, producing 
£35. 10. a year. A savings' bank, under good manage- 
ment, has contributed to prevent the increase of appli- 
cations for parochial relief; and there are several 
charitable institutions, which have also been highly 
beneficial to the poorer inhabitants. The dispensary, 
established in 1777, and supported by subscription, 
contains wards for the reception of patients whose cases 
require residence in the institution, and has hot, cold, and 
vapour baths, which are accessible to the public. The 
majority of the patients, however, are visited at their 



KELT 



KELT 



own dwellings ; the establishment is under the direction 
of a physician and surgeons, and, on an average, affords 
relief annually to about 500 patients. The principal 
relics of antiquity are the interesting ruins of the ancient 
abbey, which, within the last fifty years, have been 
cleared from the barbarous incrustations of masonry 
by which they had been long concealed, and have been 
prevented, by judicious repairs, from sinking into entire 
dilapidation. Of this once magnificent cruciform struc- 
ture, of the Norman style of architecture, combined 
with details of the early English and later styles, the 
principal parts remaining are, a portion of the choir, 
and the central tower, with part of the nave and tran- 
septs, all exhibiting rich details of the various styles 
embraced in this truly beautiful ruin. A portion of 
the building was, in 1649, fitted up as a parish church, 
which was in use till 1771 ; and the masonry employed 
for that purpose, which concealed some of the finest parts 
of the abbey, and disfigured the whole, was removed 
partly in 1S05, and completely in 1S16. By this means, 
the ruins were restored to their original beauty ; and 
in 1S23, their further dilapidation was prevented, by 
replacing much that was decayed, and thoroughly re- 
pairing what remained. There were till lately vestiges 
of the ancient residence of the Earl of Morton, who 
resided in the village of Maxwellheugh in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. Kelso gives the title of Earl to the 
Duke of Roxburghe. 

KELTON, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright ; including the villages of Rhonehouse and 
Gelston, and containing 2S~5 inhabitants, of whom 
1S4S are in the town of Castle-Douglas, 10 miles (N. E. 
by E.) from Kirkcudbright. This parish derives its name, 
of Celtic origin, from the extensive woods formerly in its 
vicinity ; and is bounded on the west by the river Dee, 
which separates it from the parishes of Balmaghie and 
Tongland. It extends nearly six miles in length, and is 
about three miles in average breadth, comprising an 
area of almost 11,400 acres, of which 3000 are arable, 
560 woodland and plantations, and the remainder moor- 
land pasture and waste. The surface rises gradually 
from the river into a ridge of hills of conical form, most 
of which are arable to the summit, and which, towards 
the south, increase in loftiness till they attain, in some 
parts, an elevation of 1200 feet above the level of the 
sea. The highest of these hills are, Bengairn, the Skreel, 
and Dungyle : from the two former is obtained an ex- 
tensive view embracing the whole vale of the Dee, 
the hill of Cairnsmuir, the mountain range that sepa- 
rates the county of Kirkcudbright from Ayrshire, St. 
Bees Head, and the Cumberland hills. The river Dee, 
which here attains its greatest breadth, divides into two 
streams above and below the bridge, inclosing two large 
and beautifully wooded islands ; and several rivulets, 
descending from the hills, intersect the parish in different 
directions. The Slack burn and the Auchlane burn, 
which have their rise in Bengairn, after flowing for 
some distance towards the north, take a western di- 
rection, and fall into the Dee. Three other burns 
descend from the Skreel, of which one, taking a northern 
course, flows past the village of Gelston, into Loch 
Carlinwark, and the other two run south-easterly into the 
Solway Frith. The loch of Carlinwark, situated in the 
north angle of the parish, was originally 180 acres in 
extent ; but in 1765 it was partly drained by the con- 

Vol. II.— 9 
I 



struction of a canal, one mile and a half in length, which, 
conveying its water to the Dee, reduced its height to 
the same level, and diminished its surface to 100 acres. 
By the draining of the lake, great quantities of rich 
marl were obtained, and, being carried by the canal to 
the Dee in boats, was shipped to many of the sur- 
rounding parishes for the improvement of the lands. 

The soil is mostly a thin hazel loam, or brown 
mould, mixed in some places with sand, and in others 
incumbent on gravel and a stiff retentive clay, but gene- 
rally fertile, producing abundant crops of grain, with 
potatoes and turnips, and the various grasses. The 
system of agriculture has been greatly improved under 
the encouragement of an agricultural society comprising 
Kelton and the adjacent parishes, in each of which 
ploughing matches take place by turns ; and a general 
shew of stock is held annually, at Castle-Douglas, on 
the first Tuesday in October, when prizes are awarded. 
The farm-houses are substantially built, and roofed with 
slate ; the lands have been much enriched by the marl 
from Carlinwark loch, and are inclosed partly with 
stone dykes, and partly with hedges of thorn ; bone- 
dust is used as manure for turnips ; and all the more 
recent improvements in the implements of husbandry 
have been adopted. The moorlands afford good pas- 
ture for black- cattle, of which considerable numbers are 
reared : and though none of the farms are exclusively 
appropriated to the purpose, numbers of sheep, chiefly 
of the black-faced, with a few of the Leicestershire and 
Cheviot breeds, are fed on the several lands. There is 
no established fishery ; but salmon are taken in the 
Dee, and trout, pike, and perch in the loch, which is 
also frequented by almost every variety of water-fowl. 
The substrata are chiefly greywaeke and slate, with 
veins of porphyry ; and granite is found in the hills. 
The plantations, most of which are of modern growth, 
consist of oak, ash, elm, larch, and Scotch and spruce 
firs, and are in a very thriving state. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £91*0. Gelston Castle 
was built by the late Sir William Douglas, and is con- 
spicuous for the elegance of its architecture, and the 
romantic beauty of its situation. Carlinwark, erected 
by the late Mr. Mc Culloch, and Daldawn, built by the 
late proprietor, Captain Mc Dougall, are also handsome 
mansions. The village of Rhonehouse, on Kelton hill, 
was long celebrated for its annual fairs for cattle and 
horses, all of which have been removed to Castle- 
Douglas, except the June fair, which is still held at 
Rhonehouse, chiefly for horses and for hiring servants. 
There are no manufactures of importance ; but a few 
of the inhabitants are employed in hand-loom weaving 
for the houses at Carlisle. Facility of communication 
is afforded by good roads, of which the military road 
from Carlisle to Portpatrick passes through the northern 
part of the parish for about four miles, and others in- 
tersect it in various directions. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and synod 
of Galloway ; and the parish includes the ancient pa- 
rishes of Gelston and Kilcormack, which, after the 
decay of their churches, were annexed to it about the 
year 16S9. The minister's stipend is £246. IS., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum ; patron, 
the Crown. The present church, a plain substantial 
structure with a campanile turret, was erected on a 

C 



KELT 



K EM B 



more eligible site than that of the old edifice, in 1S06, 
and has since been enlarged by the addition of galleries ; 
it now contains 1000 sittings, but from the rapid in- 
crease of Castle-Douglas, it is quite inadequate to the 
wants of the parish. There are places of worship for 
members of the Free Church, Reformed Presbyterians, 
and the Relief. Three parochial schools are supported, 
of which the original is at Rhonehouse, and the two 
others respectively at Gelston and Castle-Douglas : about 
440 children are instructed. The master in Rhonehouse 
has a dwelling-house, and one-third of £51. 6., paid by 
the heritors, with £2 from a bequest by Sir William 
Douglas, and £~. 10. from the seat-rents of the galleries 
in the church. The master of Gelston receives nearly the 
same income, but has no dwelling-house ; and the fees 
in each of the two schools average £3 C 2. The master at 
Castle-Douglas has one-third of £51. 6., £7. 10. from 
Sir William Douglas's fund, and £15 from seat-rents, 
in addition to the fees, which average £120 per annum. 
There are three other schools, for females, unendowed, 
but of which the teachers, besides their fees, receive 
a small sum from the Douglas fund. Miss Harriet 
Douglas bequeathed £100, of which the interest is dis- 
tributed in coal among the poor. The parish contains 
numerous remains of antiquity, among which is part of 
a Druidical circle on the farm of Torrs. There are 
several British forts, of which two are in good preserva- 
tion, on the hill of Dungyle, and both defended by 
three ramparts of stones and earth ; the one has a 
circular area of 117, and the other of 68, paces in 
diameter. In a tumulus near Gelston, have been found 
a stone coffin containing human bones of gigantic size, 
a copper helmet, and some military weapons greatly 
corroded. At Mid Kelton, a Roman tripod has been 
discovered by the plough ; and on an island in Carlin- 
wark loch, has been found a large iron hammer, sup- 
posed to have been used by the Druids. Several canoes; 
a Roman dagger, plated with gold, and twenty-two inches 
long ; the remains of an iron forge said to have been 
employed by the troops of Edward I. for shoeing their 
horses ; and various other relics, have also been dis- 
covered in the loch. 

KELTON, a village, chiefly in the parish of Caer- 
laverock, but partly in that of Dumfries, 3| miles (S. 
by E.) from Dumfries ; containing 154 inhabitants. This 
village lies on the eastern bank of the river Nith, and 
on the high road from Glencaple-Quay to Dumfries. 
It has a small harbour, in which the water rises fifteen 
feet at spring-tides, and which affords anchorage for 
vessels of ninety tons' burthen at all times. A consi- 
derable trade was formerly carried on in the exportation 
of grain and potatoes ; but the prosperity of the place 
has latterly been checked by the more central position 
and increasing traffic of neighbouring towns, and it is 
likely to decay. 

KELTY, a village, in the parish of Beath, district 
of Dunfermline, county of Fife, 6 miles (N. E. by E.) 
from Dunfermline ; containing 257 inhabitants. The 
population consists chiefly of colliers employed in the 
mines of the parish. There is a place of worship here 
for members of the Free Church. 

KELTY, a village, in the parish of Cleish, county 
of Kinross, 5 miles (S. by W.) from Kinross ; con- 
taining 164 inhabitants. It is situated in the south- 
eastern part of the parish, and a short distance west of 
10 



the road from Burntisland to Kinross. In the vicinity 
is Blair-Adam inn, where is a post-office. 

KEMBACK, a parish, in the district of St. An- 
drew's, county of Fife, 3 miles (E. byN.) from Cupar; 
containing, with the village of Blebo-Craigs, 778 inha- 
bitants. This place is supposed to derive its name from 
the rivulet called the Kem, or Kam, which rises in the 
hills of the parish of Scoonie, and, flowing through this 
parish, falls into the river Eden. The parish, which is 
bounded on the north by the river Eden, is about three 
miles in length and a mile and a half in breadth, and 
comprises 2200 acres, of which 1*00 are arable, with a 
due proportion of meadow and pasture, and 320 are 
woodland and plantations. The surface is varied with 
hills, of which a ridge traverses the parish from east to 
west, sloping gently towards the south, and more ab- 
ruptly towards the north ; the highest eminence is 
Clatto hill, which has an elevation of 54S feet above 
the level of the sea. The whole of this range, formerly 
a wild barren heath, is now covered with thriving plan- 
tations, adding greatly to the beauty of the scenery, for 
which this district is distinguished. The river Eden 
flows in a winding course, along the boundary of the 
parish, between banks which in some places are level 
with its stream, and in others rise into precipitous ele- 
vation ; and the Kem brook, frequently called the Ceres 
burn, runs through a thickly-wooded ravine called Dura 
Den, nearly a mile in length, abounding with romantic 
scenery, and enlivened by a picturesque cascade. The 
Eden contains plenty of trout in the spring and autumn, 
and is a favourite resort for anglers. 

The soil displays every possible variety ; along the 
banks of the river, a rich alluvial clay of great fertility ; 
in other parts, black and brown loam, alternated with 
peat-moss, sand, and gravel. The system of agriculture 
is in an improved state; the farm-buildings are sub- 
stantial, and on many of the farms are threshing-mills, 
driven by horses, water, or steam. The substratum is 
chiefly sandstone of a bright yellow colour, occurring in 
beds of great thickness, and abounding with organic 
remains ; there are some quarries of whinstone, and 
coal and ironstone have been discovered, but are not 
wrought. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£3515. Blebo House, the seat of General Alexander 
Bethune, the principal landed proprietor, is a handsome 
modern mansion ; there are also good houses at Dura 
and Kemback, belonging to other proprietors, and of 
which the latter is an ancient building. The village is 
small, and consists chiefly of scattered cottages, on the 
road to St. Andrew's. The inhabitants are partly em- 
ployed in the spinning of yarn, for which there are two 
mills belonging to Mr. David Yool, both situated on the 
Ceres burn. Of these, Yoolfield mill was built in 1839, 
and the machinery is impelled by a water-wheel of 
thirty-nine feet diameter, and, when water is scarce, by 
steam ; Blebo mill, farther up the stream, is driven by 
a water-wheel, and a steam-engine of ten-horse power ; 
and in the two about 195 persons are employed, of 
whom 125 are females. Connected with the Blebo mill 
are, a meal-mill, a barley-mill, and a mill for scutching 
flax ; and lower down the stream, at Kemback, is a 
mill, also belonging to Mr. Yool, driven by a water- 
wheel of sixteen -horse power, for grinding meal, sawing 
timber, and crushing bones. The ecclesiastical affairs 
are under the superintendence of the presbytery of St. 



K E M N 



KENM 



Andrew's and synod of Fife. The minister's stipend 
is £159. 7-> with a manse, and a glebe valued at £24 
per annum ; patrons, the University of St. Andrew's. 
The church, erected in 1S14, is a neat plain building. 
The parochial school is attended by about forty chil- 
dren ; the master has a salary of £34, with a good 
house and garden, and the fees average £16 per annum. 
There are three other schools, partly supported by 
subscription and the fees. The poor have bequests 
producing about £10 per annum. There are several 
tumuli in the parish ; and some relics of Roman anti- 
quity have been occasionally discovered. 

KEMNAY, a parish, in the district of Garioch, 
county of Aberdeen, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Kintore; 
containing 637 inhabitants. This place is situated on 
the banks of the river Don, which, by its circuitous 
course in this part, forms the boundary on two sides, 
separating Kemnay on the north from the parish of In- 
verury, and on the west from Chapel of Garioch and 
Monymusk. The parish is irregular in figure, and 
measures between four and. five miles in length, and 
about three in breadth ; it comprises 6000 acres, of 
which about half is pasture and in tillage, and the re- 
mainder in plantations and uncultivated. The surface 
in general is uneven, and diversified with a picturesque 
range of small hills called kerns, running nearly parallel 
with the river. The scenery is beautiful, combining 
well cultivated arable grounds, rich and verdant pas- 
tures, and numerous thriving plantations, ornamented 
by the serpentine course of the Don ; and the burn of 
Ton, one of the tributaries of that river, contributes in 
no small degree to heighten the interesting appearance 
of this pleasing locality. The soil is a light mould 
resting on sand, on most of the lands ; but in the vici- 
nity of the rivers are some tracts of fine deep loamy 
earth ; and the higher grounds, which are cultivated to 
the summit, are for the most part clayey. The crops 
consist chiefly of oats, bear, potatoes, and turnips, peas 
and wheat being very scantily sown : the rotation sys- 
tem is followed. Much of the mossy land has been 
brought into cultivation, and now produces good corn ; 
bnt considerable tracts still remain, supplying the inha- 
bitants with their ordinary fuel. The whole of the 
lands, till lately, were held by Lord Kintore and another 
proprietor ; but the former has alienated part of his 
property. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£2340. 

The rocks are of the granite formation, quartz and 
mica prevailing in their composition : the stone admits 
of a fine polish, and is raised from two or three quarries, 
as well as found in detached masses on the hills. Kem- 
nay House, a modern structure, is surroxmded with 
thick and thriving plantations, and is approached from 
the public road by an ornamental avenue of very fine 
beech-trees. The road from Aberdeen to Monymusk 
passes through the parish, and the basin of the Aber- 
deenshire canal, at Inverury, is only five miles distant : 
the marketable produce is sent for sale to Aberdeen, 
Inverury, and Kintore. The parish is in the presbytery 
of Garioch and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage 
of the Earl of Kintore : the minister's stipend is £159, 
of which about two-fifths are received from the exche- 
quer ; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per 
annum. The present church is a handsome edifice, 
erected in 1S44 : the old building was very ancient, and 
11 



last repaired in 1794. The parochial school, which, 
for some years, has been admirably conducted, and has 
excited much interest, affords instruction in all the 
branches of a sound education ; the master has a salary 
of £25. 13., with a house, and £2, the interest of various 
bequests, and £50 fees : he also largely participates in 
the Dick bequest. There is a parish library, containing 
works on divinity, history, and general literature. The 
only relics of antiquity are several tumuli and cairns. 

KENDROCHAD, or Bridgend,. Perth. — See 
Bridgend. 

KENMORE, a parish, in the county of Perth ; 
containing, with the villages of Acharn, Blairmore, 
Bridgend, and Stronfernan, 2539 inhabitants, of whom 
106 are in the village of Kenmore, 6 miles (S. W. by W.) 
from Aberfeldy. This place derives its name, in the 
Gaelic language signifying " a great headland," from the 
situation of its church on a headland forming the south 
bank of the river Tay, near its source, and stretching 
far into the lake of that name. The parish comprises 
an area of nearly sixty-two square miles, of extremely 
irregular form, and in several parts separated into de- 
tached portions by the intervening lands of other pa- 
rishes ; it is bounded on the north and south by the 
hills that rise from the shores of Loch Tay, and com- 
prises about 40,000 acres of land, of which 5400 are 
arable, S600 meadow and pasture, 5000 woods and 
plantations, and the remainder moorland and waste. 
The surface, with the exception of that part of it covered 
with the water of the several lakes situated in the 
parish, is mountainous and hilly, with small portions 
of level ground, the chief of these being a part of the 
valley of the Tay, a fine open plain about a mile in 
width, through which that river flows with a full and 
rapid stream. Loch Tay, a magnificent expanse of 
water, nearly sixteen miles in length, and averaging 
about a mile in breadth, is of a serpentine form, extend- 
ing from the north-east, to the south-west, and is in 
many parts not less than 600 feet in depth. From the 
margin of the lake, on both sides, the surface rises gra- 
dually to a great height, forming two almost parallel 
ranges of mountains, of which Ben-Lawers, the highest, 
has an elevation of more than 4000 feet above the level 
of the sea. The lower acclivities of these mountains 
are in some parts in a high state of cultivation, and in 
others afford luxuriant pasture, interspersed with woods 
of ancient growth, and plantations of recent formation, 
giving to the scenery of the lake a rich variety, which 
renders it pre-eminent in beauty. The lake, at its south- 
western extremity, receives the waters of the rivers 
Dochart and Lochay, and on both sides is fed by nume- 
rous torrents, which descend from the mountains, and 
in their progress form picturesque cascades. Loch 
Fraochy, of which part is within the limits of the parish, 
is a fine sheet of water, about two miles and a half in 
length and nearly one mile in average breadth ; it is 
situated in Glenquaich, a sequestered dell to which the 
Quaieh, a mountain torrent in this parish, gives its 
name. The scenery in this part is, however, destitute 
of beauty, the dell possessing no features of interest, and 
the shores of the lake being little more than a dead 
swamp. The river Tay issues from the north-eastern 
extremity of the loch of that name, and, flowing through 
the parks of Taymouth, the vale of Tay, part of Strath- 
more, and along the Carse of Gowrie, falls into the 

C8 



KENM 



KENM 



North Sea below Dundee. Of the numerous cascades 
formed by the various mountain streams, the principal 
is the fall of Acharn, or the Hermitage, about two miles 
from the village of Kenmore, and which is strikingly 
grand. Salmon are found in Loch Tay, and for a short 
distance up the Dochart and Lochay ; and pike, perch, 
eels, chai - , and trout are abundant in both the lakes : the 
trout in Loch Fraochy, though small, are of excellent 
quality, and in great request. 

The soil in general is a light brown loam, with a 
mixture of clay, and in the hills a light moss; the crops 
are, oats, bear, potatoes, and turnips. The system of 
agriculture is improving, and considerable progress has 
been made in draining and inclosing the lands ; some 
of the farmhouses and offices are inferior to others in 
the country, but those of more recent erection are of 
very superior character. Considerable attention is paid 
to the breeding of cattle, which are chiefly of the West 
Highland kind, with a mixture of the Ayrshire ; the 
average number reared in the parish every year is more 
than 3000. The sheep, for which the hills afford ex- 
cellent pasturage, are mostly the black-faced, and about 
1200 are generally reared annually : on the lands of 
Taymouth are some of the Leicestershire and South-Down 
breeds. Horses, chiefly for agricultural purposes, are 
bred by the farmers, but not in very great numbers, the 
average scarcely exceeding 500 : about the same num- 
ber of pigs are also bred. The woods of natural growth, 
for which the soil is well adapted, are oak, birch, com- 
mon and mountain ash, alder, hazel, cherry, hawthorn, 
and holty. The plantations are larch and Scotch fir, 
interspersed 'with numerous fine specimens of beech, 
elm, sycamore, lime, and chesnut, and with various 
other ornamental trees of luxuriant growth, among 
which are some remarkable cedars, abundance of com- 
mon and Portugal laurels, cypress, yew, pines, and 
laburnums. The substrata are chiefly mica and clay- 
slate, of which the rocks are mostly composed, horn- 
blende, primitive limestone, and talc- slate. The lime- 
stone, and other stone of peculiarly fine quality, and 
well adapted for building, are extensively quarried ; and 
a stone of harder grain is obtained from the quarry near 
Kenmore, and is susceptible of a very high polish. 
Quartz is also found in large masses in several places, 
and is wrought for building and other purposes ; it is of 
remarkably white colour, and has been used in the 
construction of the dairy in Taymouth Park. The rate- 
able annual value of Kenmore is £8266. 

The whole of the parish, with the exception of part 
of Glenquaich, the property of the Misses Campbell, of 
Shian, belongs to the Marquess of Breadalbane, who has 
greatly contributed to the improvement of the soil and 
the embellishment of the district, by the liberal encou- 
ragement he has given to his tenantry in draining the 
lands, and extending the plantations. Under his lord- 
ship*s patronage, also, the Breadalbane Agricultural 
Society has effected considerable benefit, by the distri- 
bution of premiums annually. Taymouth Castle, the 
seat of the marquess, and formerly the Castle of Balloch, 
of which some remains are incorporated with the present 
mansion, is a spacious and elegant edifice, beautifully 
situated on the southern bank of the Tay, and em- 
bosomed in woods of almost interminable extent. It is 
a quadrangular building, with a lofty square tower in 
the centre of the principal range, rising to a considera- 



ble height above the roof of the mansion, and contain- 
ing a magnificent staircase, which leads to the principal 
apartments, and is lighted from the roof of the tower, 
and by windows in the walls, of elegant design, and 
embellished with stained glass. The great hall, the 
dining-room, and drawing-room, are noble apartments, 
splendidly fitted up ; and the library, which is in a part 
of the old castle, is an extensive and valuable collection. 
The mansion contains also a gallery of paintings by the 
first masters of the Flemish and Italian schools. The 
grounds are laid out with exquisite taste ; and the sce- 
nery of the spacious demesne is richly diversified with 
wood and water, and with every variety of hill and dale 
in striking combination, the castle forming an object, of 
imposing grandeur in every point of view from which it 
can be seen. Taymouth Castle was visited by Her 
Majesty during her tour in Scotland, in September 
1842. She arrived here on the afternoon of the 7th of 
that month ; and in the evening a singularly magnifi- 
cent scene presented itself, from the simultaneous kind- 
ling of numerous bonfires in the neighbourhood, and 
the variety of the illuminations on the demesne. On 
the evening of the 9th, a grand ball was given ; and on 
the following morning Her Majesty took her departure 
for the town of Crieff, amid the cheers of the assembled 
people. Shian, the residence of the Misses Campbell, 
stands on the north bank of the Quaieh, about a mile 
from its influx into Loch Fraochy, and in the glen to 
which that stream gives name. The village of Kenmore 
is pleasantly situated, and the houses neatly built : a 
post-office has been established, which has a daily de- 
livery of letters from Dunkeld ; and a small library has 
been opened, promising, in due time, to be well sup- 
ported. The nearest market-town is Crieff, distant as 
many as twenty-two miles ; but facility of intercourse 
with the neighbouring district is maintained by good 
roads, which branch off from the village in various 
directions. In the immediate vicinity of the village is a 
small establishment for the dyeing, spinning, and weav- 
ing of wool, which affords employment to twelve or 
fourteen persons. There was once also a distillery in 
the parish, in which 7000 gallons of whisky were annually 
manufactured. Fairs are held on the first Tuesday in 
March, O. S., for horses and general merchandise ; 28th 
of June, for wares of all kinds ; 26th of July, for 
horses and wool ; the 17th September, for cattle and 
agricultural produce ; the Friday in November before 
the festival of' St. Donat ; and the 22nd of December. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Weem and synod 
of Perth and Stirling, and patronage of the Marquess of 
Breadalbane ; the minister's stipend is £253. 14. 9., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. 
The church, erected in 1761-2, is a spacious cruciform 
structure, with a tower at the west end, and is beauti- 
fully situated, but at an inconvenient distance from 
many parts of this very extensive parish; it is adapted 
for a congregation of 636 persons. There are two cha- 
pels of ease, one at Ardeonaig, and the other at Lawers, 
both erected by the Marquess of Breadalbane, at his 
own expense, for the accommodation of the more dis- 
tant parishioners ; they are under the patronage of the 
Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, by whom, 
conjointly with the Marquess, the salaries of the mi- 
nisters are paid. That of the minister of Ardeonaig is 
£60 per annum, with seventeen and a half acres of glebe 



K EN N 



KENN 



land, and a comfortable residence built by the Mar- 
quess ; the minister ot'Lawers has £50, with a dwelling- 
house, and six and a quarter acres of glebe. There is 
also a place of worship for members of the Free Church ; 
and at Lawers is one for a small congregation of Bap- 
tists. The parochial school affords a useful education 
to the children of the parish ; the master has a salary of 
£34, with £20 fees, and a house and garden. There 
are three schools endowed by the Society for Propa- 
gating Christian Knowledge, situated respectively at 
Moreinsh, Ardtallanaig, and Shian; the masters have 
each a salary of £15, paid by the society, with a house 
and garden given by the Marquess of Breadalbane, in 
addition to the fees. A school is also carried on at 
Kiltrie, the teacher of which is paid £10 per annum by 
the Marchioness. The poor have the interest of chari- 
table bequests, producing £56 annually ; and the Bread- 
albane family, by private hospitality, provide for the 
wants of their poorer tenantry by various distributions 
of provisions and clothing, and by other donations. 
On an island in Loch Tay, near the source of the river, 
and separated from the main land only by a narrow 
creek, are the ruins of a priory founded by Alexander I., 
as a cell to the monastery of Scone : the remains are, 
however, scarcely perceptible among the wood by which 
they are overgrown. Sibilla, daughter of Henry I. of 
England, and consort of the founder, was interred in 
the chapel of this priory. Coins of the reigns of Ed- 
ward I. of England, and Alexander III. of Scotland, 
have been found in a field near Loch Fraochy ; they 
are of silver, in good preservation, and some of them 
are in the possession of the Marquess of Breadalbane. 
In making a road from Taymouth to Glenquaich, in 
1775, were found some Roman coins of the Antonines, 
imbedded in a substance resembling charcoal ; they 
were also of silver, with the legends in a perfect state. 

KENNET, a village, in the parish and county of 
Clackmannan, f of a mile (S. E.) from Clackmannan ; 
containing 23S inhabitants. This is a neat village, lying 
to the west of the high road from Clackmannan to Kin- 
cardine, and is one of several in the parish, the late 
increase of whose population is ascribable to the exten- 
sion of mining operations in their respective neighbour- 
hoods, particularly the working of coal. The mansion 
of Kennet is beautifully situated on ascending ground 
which overlooks the Forth, and is about a mile distant 
from the river ; it is more remarkable, however, for 
its internal elegance, than exterior appearance. In 
the village is a very handsome school-house, with 
a master's dwelling, and a garden attached, built by 
the Bruce family, by whom the school is endowed. 
On the shore of the Forth, is the hamlet of Kennet- 
Pans, where is a distillery, and where, formerly, were 
salt-works. 

KENNETHMONT, Aberdeen. — See Kinneth- 

MONT. 

KENNOWAY, a parish, in the district, of Kirk- 
caldy, county of Fife ; containing, with the village of 
Baynton, and part of Star, 2044 inhabitants, of whom 
1 101 are in the village of Kennoway, 3| miles (E.) from 
Markinch. This parish, which derives its name from 
the situation of the village at the head of a small, but 
beautifully-romantic, glen, is about three miles in length, 
from east to west, and two in breadth from north to 
south ; and comprises 3750 acres, of which 3470 are 
13 



arable, 250 woodland and plantations, and the remain- 
der pasture and waste. The surface, which is gently 
but irregularly undulating, is diversified with hills and 
valleys ; and the higher grounds command extensive 
and richly-varied prospects over the adjacent country, 
comprehending a fine view of the Frith of Forth, with 
the shipping, the island of May, the Bass Rock, and 
Inchkeith, the southern coast from Dunbar to Edin- 
burgh, the Lammermoor, and part of the Pentland hills. 
From the highest eminence in the northern part of the 
parish, is a more extended prospect, including nearly the 
whole of the county, with large portions of the counties 
of Perth, Angus, and Stirling, and the range of the 
Grampians. The scenery is enlivened by numerous small 
rivulets that intersect the parish in various directions, 
and by others flowing along its boundaries. Of these, 
one, entering the parish near Balnkirk, in the north, 
meanders through a deep dell, darkened by the foliage 
that crowns its banks, and, quitting the southern boun- 
dary of Kennoway, shortly falls into the river Leven, 
after a circuitous course through lands which every where 
abound with richly-diversified scenery. 

The soil is fertile, though varying in quality ; in 
some parts light, in others a dry loam, in others a rich 
loam intermixed with clay, and towards the western 
extremity of the parish, a peat-moss. The crops are, 
wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, turnips, and a few acres 
of beans. The rotation system of husbandry is gene- 
rally practised ; and through the improvement of the 
lands by draining, and the abundant use of lime and 
other manures, the crops are greatly superior, both in 
quantity and quality, to what they formerly were. The 
cattle reared are of the Old Fifeshire black breed, with 
occasionally a cross of the Teeswater, which produces a 
stock nearly as forward at three years old as the Fife- 
shire at four, and which is more easily fattened ; the 
cows on the dairy-farms are all of the Fifeshire breed. 
The plantations consist chiefly of larch and Scotch fir, 
which thrive well, and attain to a considerable growth ; 
and many hard-wood trees have been interspersed, and 
appear to be adapted to the soil. Great improvements 
have been made on their respective lands by the various 
proprietors ; the farm-buildings are substantial and com- 
modious, and some have been recently built in a very 
superior style. On most of the farms threshing-mills 
have been constructed, some of which are set in motion 
by steam ; the lands are well inclosed with hedges, and 
the fences are kept in good repair. The substrata are 
freestone and whinstone. The former, of very soft qua- 
lity, and coarse in its texture, is quarried only on a 
very limited scale ; the whinstone, which is good, is 
quarried in various parts for building, and for mending 
the roads. Coal is found in several places, and is 
worked at Balgrie, by J. B. Fernie, Esq., of Kilmux, 
who, in consequence of the exhaustion of the former 
mines, which had been in operation for more than sixty 
years, lately opened a new mine in that part of the 
parish. The coal lies at a depth of above fifty fathoms ; 
the vein is nearly six feet in thickness, and of very good 
quality, affording an ample supply of fuel for the neigh- 
bourhood. About fifty persons are employed in these 
pits, from which the water is drawn off by a steam- 
engine of forty-eight horse-power. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £4654. The seats are, Auchter- 
mairnie, a fine old house, pleasantly situated in a taste- 



K E II E 



KETT 



fully-embellished demesne ; and Kingsdale and Newton 
Hall, both handsome modern mansions, in grounds or- 
namented with flourishing plantations, which are a very 
considerable improvement to the scenery. 

The village of Kennoway, where the church stands, 
is neatly built on the banks of the principal stream, 
which are richly clothed with plantations. The chief 
employment of the inhabitants is the weaving of linen, 
in which more than 300 persons are engaged ; and 
several are occupied in spinning and winding yarn. 
Exclusive of two mills for grinding oats and barley, 
there are a mill used for sawing wood and a mill 
for spinning tow, both driven by water. The principal 
articles manufactured are, dowlas, sheetings, twills, 
diapers, and Darlingtons, employing nearly 70,000 spin- 
dles. For the greater facility of procuring reeds for the 
use of the weavers, a society has been established in the 
village, called the Kennoway Reed Society, consisting 
of 120 persons, who form a proprietary of 200 shares. 
Fairs are held in April and October ; but they are not 
very numerously attended, and little business is trans- 
acted. Intercourse with the neighbouring market-towns 
of Cupar and Kirkcaldy is maintained by good turn- 
pike-roads, and easy communication between the seve- 
ral parts of the parish is afforded by convenient roads 
in every direction. Kennoway is in the presbytery of 
Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife, and patronage of the 
Crown : the minister's stipend is £24*2. 17-, with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The 
church is an ancient structure, displaying some inter- 
esting architectural details; it was substantially repaired 
in 1S32, at an expense of £200, and is adapted for a 
congregation of nearly 500 persons. There are places 
of worship in the village for members of the United 
Secession and Original Burghers. The parochial school 
affords instruction to about 120 scholars ; the master 
has a salary of £34, with £30 fees, and a house and 
garden. There are also Sabbath schools, in connexion 
with which is a juvenile library, consisting of 400 
volumes. An annual distribution of coal and meal is 
made among the poor, about the commencement of the 
year, for which an extraordinary collection is raised at 
the church. A savings' bank has been established for 
upwards of ten years, and still continues in full opera- 
tion. 

KEPP, a village, in the parish of Kippen, county of 
Perth, two miles (w.) from Kippen ; containing forty- 
three inhabitants. It is about a mile south of the river 
Forth, and on the high road from Kippen to Buck- 
lyvie. 

KEPPOCK-HILL, a suburban village, in the late 
ecclesiastical parish of Camlachie, parish of Barony, 
and within the jurisdiction of the city of Glasgow, 
county of Lanark. This place is contiguous to Glas- 
gow, and is a precinct of that city, chiefly occupied by 
hand-loom weavers and labourers. There are five 
schools, attended by about 300 children. 

KERERA, an island, in the parish of Kilbride, 
district of Lorn, county of Argyll; containing 187 
inhabitants. This isle is situated in the sound of Mull, 
about eight miles eastward of that island, and one mile 
from the main land of the district of Lorn, in which 
direction it contributes to form the excellent and 
romantic harbour of Lorn. It is four miles in length 
and two in breadth, and is very mountainous : many of 
14 



the rocks have a volcanic appearance. It possesses two 
good harbours, called the Ardintrive and the Horse- 
Shoe bay. In the latter, Alexander II. anchored a large 
fleet of 160 galleys, when upon an expedition against 
the Danes ; and here he caught a fever, which obliged 
him to be removed on shore, where he died on the 
eighth of July, 1249. The place where his pavilion was 
erected still bears the name of Dalrigh from this cir- 
cumstance, signifying " the King's field." On the south 
point of the island are the ruins of the old Danish fort 
of Gylen. 

KERRYCROY, a village, in the parish of Kingarth, 
Isle and county of Bute, 2^ miles (S. E. by S.) from 
Rothesay; containing 97 inhabitants. It lies on the east 
side of the island, and on the western shore of the Frith 
of Clyde ; and consists of several neatly-built houses at 
the bay of Scoulag : the coast road from Kilchattan 
bay to Rothesay passes through it. South of the village, 
in the demesne of Mountstuart, is a neat church, still 
in tolerable repair, and at one time used as the parish 
church. 

KETTINS, a parish, in the county of Forfar ; 
containing, with the villages of Campmuir, Ford of 
Pitcur, Ley of Hallyburton, and Peatie, 1109 inhabitants, 
of whom 171 are in the village of Kettins, 1 mile (S. E. 
by E.) from Cupar-Angus. This parish is situated prin- 
cipally on the south side of the valley of Strathmore, 
and on the northern declivity of the Sidlaw hills, and 
measures in length four miles from east to west, and 
three from north to south, exclusive of the detached 
portion called Bandirran, in Perthshire, six miles distant 
to the south-west. It comprises 8238 acres, of which 
6130 are arable, 1579 plantations, ISO uncultivated pas- 
ture, and chiefly hilly, and the remainder roads, gardens, 
&c. The scenery is delightfully picturesque. The 
whole parish, with slight exceptions, is richly adorned 
with larch and pine, interspersed with many other trees : 
and the village of Kettins is pleasantly situated on the 
banks of a l'ivulet which, after passing through Cupar- 
Angus, falls into the Isla, and, being embosomed in wood, 
forms a striking and beautiful feature of this interesting 
locality. The soil is generally light and thin, consisting 
of a dryish black mould, or silicious loam, tolerably 
fertile, and resting on a loose red tilly or gravelly sub- 
soil ; but in many parts the land is wet and spongy ; 
and in others there is a considerable portion of strong 
red clay. Much has been done in the way of draining ; 
and waste land to some extent, on the hills of Baldowrie, 
has been reclaimed and brought under cultivation. 
Great improvements have also taken place in the breed 
of live stock, promoted by the encouragement of several 
local agricultural associations. The cattle are of the 
Angus or polled breed, and the Teeswater, with a few of 
the Ayrshire, and several crosses. The rocks in the 
parish are of the old red or grey sandstone, except in 
the southern quarter, towards the Sidlaw hills, where the 
substrata are much intermixed with trap ; several quar- 
ries are in operation, supplying an excellent and durable 
material for building. The rateable annual value of 
Kettins is £8524. 

The chief mansions are, Hallyburton House, Lintrose, 
Bandirran, Newhall, and Baldowrie, some of which have 
grounds handsomely laid out, and are ornamented with 
fine clusters of wood. The village of Kettins is generally 
much admired as a picture of neatness, seclusion, and 



K ETT 



KETT 



rural simplicity. The cottages, furnished with pleasing 
gardens, are clustered round a green, the site of rustic 
sports and pastimes ; and in the immediate vicinity are 
the mansions of Newhall, Beechwood, and Hallyburton, 
the whole being shrouded among shady and verdant 
trees, and enlivened by the course of the silvery rivulet. 
About fifty persons are employed in the weaving of 
brown linen, and at Borlands is a small bleachfield. 
The turnpike road from Dundee to Cupar-Angus passes 
through the parish : the former place and Perth are the 
markets for the sale of the grain raised here ; and pota- 
toes are sent in considerable quantities to London. The 
Newtyle and Cupar-Angus railway, which is an exten- 
sion of that between Dundee and Newtyle, also passes 
through a part of the locality. The parish is in the 
presbytery of Meigle and Synod of Angus and Mearns, 
and in the patronage of the Crown ; the minister's sti- 
pend is £226, with a manse, and a glebe of four acres, 
valued at £12 per annum. The church was built in 
176S. The parochial school affords instruction in the 
usual branches ; the master has a salary of £30, with 
£32 from other sources, of which £13 are the produce of 
different bequests for teaching children. Besides several 
considerable bequests for the benefit of the poor, there is 
one by the Rev. James Paton, amounting now to £500, 
for educating one or two girls at the public schools of 
Dundee. The parish contains the castle of Pitcur, now 
in ruins, but which once gave the title of baron to the 
ancient family of Hallyburton, great promoters of the 
Reformation. At Campmuir are the remains of a camp 
supposed to be Roman ; and at Baldowrie is a Danish 
monument, six feet high, marked with figures now 
almost defaced. Prior to the Reformation, the church 
of Kettins belonged to the Red Friars at Peebles, and 
had six chapels dependent on it, most of them with 
small enclosures for burial-places, none of which, how- 
ever, now remain. 

KETTLE, a parish, in the district of Cupar, county 
of Fife; including the villages of Balmalcolm, Bankton- 
Park, Coalton, and Holekettle-Bridge, and the hamlets 
of Muirhead and Myreside; and containing 2312 in- 
habitants, of whom 4S0 are in the village of Kettle, 6 
miles (S. \V. ) from Cupar. This place derives its name, 
which, in ancient documents, is written Catril and 
Katel, from its having belonged to the kings of Scotland, 
by whom it was appropriated to the pasture of the cattle 
of the royal household ; and towards the close of the last 
century there were, on the lands of Blackdikes, the 
remains of an ancient building, said to have been the 
residence of the king's herdsman. The greater portion 
of the lands is still the property of the crown, and the 
rents are duly paid into the exchequer. The parish is 
situated on the river Eden, and is bounded on the north 
by the parishes of Auchtermuchty and Collessie ; on the 
south by Markinch, Kennoway, and Leven, on the east 
by the parishes of Ceres and Cults ; and on the west by 
the parish of Falkland. It is about eight miles in length, 
and three miles at its greatest breadth, forming an irregu- 
lar area of nine square miles. The surface, in some parts, 
is level, and in others rises to a considerable elevation : 
the lower parts are watered by the Eden, which abounds 
with red and white trout, pike, and eels ; and though in 
summer its stream is very shallow, yet, from its winding 
course, and the sluggishness of its current, it sometimes 
inundates the adjacent lands. To remedy this evil, 
frequent attempts were long ago made to open a canal 
15 



of considerable depth, to receive and carry off the super- 
fluous waters ; and Mr. Johnstone, in 1783, cut a spa- 
cious canal through the extent of his own lands, which 
materially improved his property ; but the neighbouring 
proprietors not continuing the line through their estates, 
the evil is but partially removed, and many of the low 
grounds are still subject to occasional floods. 

The soil is very various, even in the level lands, part 
of which are extremely rich and fertile, and others 
sandy, with moss resting on beds of stiff clay. On the 
rising grounds are light friable moulds, with a strong 
clayey soil, which, under proper management, produces 
good crops ; the more hilly parts of the parish afford 
excellent pasture, and even to their summits are covered 
with verdure. The whole number of acres is 6375, the 
principal portion of which is arable ; very little land is 
in pasture, and the chief plantations comprise not more 
than 200 acres. A moderate extent of common has 
been divided, and partly brought into cultivation, and 
partly planted, by which the appearance of the parish 
is greatly improved. The crops are, barley, wheat, oats, 
potatoes, and turnips, with the usual green crops ; the 
system of husbandry is of a highly advanced kind, and 
much greater quantities of grain, and of finer quality, 
than formerly, have been lately raised, a very consider- 
able portion being now sent to the neighbouring markets. 
The farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, 
generally roofed with slate ; and all the improvements 
in agricultural implements have been adopted. Consi- 
derable progress has also been made in draining and 
inclosing the lands ; the fences, partly of stone and 
partly of thorn, are kept in good order. The substratum 
is mostly limestone, freestone, and fine trap whinstone. 
The limestone is of excellent quality, containing, accord- 
ing to an analysis, ninety-eight parts of fine lime in 
every hundred, and is worked at Forthar, belonging 
to General Balfour, from whose pits at Balbirnie the 
kilns are supplied with coal. This quarry affords em- 
ployment to a considerable number of men ; and the 
produce, after supplying the neighbourhood, is sent to 
Newburgh, whence it is shipped to Dundee and other 
places. Coal was formerly wrought at Burnturk, in the 
parish ; but, with the exception of a little which is em- 
ployed in burning lime, it is not now worked. Ironstone 
is also found, but in small quantities. One of the beds 
of trap whinstone rises perpendicularly in pentagonal 
columns from five to seven feet in height ; and these, 
when detached from the quarry, are, without further 
preparation, used for gate pillars. There is also a quarry 
of trap tuffa, which, from the durability of the stone, and 
its capability of resisting the action of fire, is admirably 
adapted for ovens and other purposes subjecting it to 
intense heat. The rateable annual value of the parish 
is £8675. 

The lands are divided among numerous proprietors ; 
the late Mr. Johnstone, of Lathrisk, built an elegant man- 
sion upon that estate, and there are several other hand- 
some houses, belonging to resident proprietors, which, 
with the plantations on their demesnes, greatly enliven the 
scenery. The village of Kettle is pleasantly situated on 
the south side of the river Eden, and is well inhabited; 
it is plentifully supplied with provisions of every kind 
at a moderate price. Many of the inhabitants are em- 
ployed in weaving linen, in which, upon an average, 400 
hand-looms are engaged ; the principal article is dowlas, 
and about forty looms are occupied in weaving window- 



KI'LA 



KILB 



blinds. There is also a mill for the manufacture of 
linen yarn. Facility of intercourse with the neigh- 
bouring district is greatly promoted by the line of road 
forming the thoroughfare from the Frith of Forth to the 
Frith of Tay, which is continued for four miles through 
the parish. A general post-office has been established 
in the village. The ecclesiastical concerns are under 
the superintendence of the presbytery of Cupar and 
synod of Fife ; and the patronage is in the Crown. 
The stipend of the incumbent, is £223 : the manse, 
built in 1792, is a substantial and comfortable residence 
in good repair ; and the glebe is valued, with £2. 3. 4. in 
lieu of pasturage, at £5. 3. 4. per annum. The church, a 
handsome cruciform edifice in the later English style, 
with a square tower, was erected in 1S34-5, at an expense 
of £3000, and is adapted for 1200 persons. There are 
places of worship for members of the Free Church and 
Relief. The parochial school is under good regulation 5 
the master has a salary of £34, with an excellent house 
and garden, and the fees, which are very moderate. 
On the hills of Bowden and Downfleld are some re- 
remains of ancient encampments ; and there are several 
barrows in the parish, of which two, called respectively 
Pundlers Know and Lowries Know, are in the grounds 
of Forthar, and a third, called Lackerstone, in the 
grounds of Kettle. In the eastern extremity of the 
parish are some lands called Clatto, which were formerly 
the residence of the Seatons, whose predatory excursions 
are still remembered. 

KILARROW and KILMENY, a parish, in the dis- 
trict of Islay, county of Argyll, 10^ miles (S. S. W.) 
from Portaskaig ; containing, with the villages of Bow- 
more and Bridgend, 5/S2 inhabitants, of whom 4026 
are in the district of Kilarrow. These two ancient 
parishes, now united, are said by some to derive their 
names from the original founders of their respective 
churches ; and are frequently designated as the parish 
of Bowmore, from the erection of the new church of 
Kilarrow in that village. The feuds which had so long 
subsisted in this quarter between the Macdnnalds, lords 
of the Isles, and the Macleans, of the Mull, terminated 
about the commencement of the seventeenth century, in 
the succession of the Campbells of Argyll, whose de- 
scendant, W. F. Campbell, Esq., of Islay, is the sole 
proprietor of the lands. The parish, which is situated 
on the eastern shore of Loch Indal, is about seventeen 
miles in length and eight in extreme breadth, com- 
prising 49,920 acres, of which 15,000 are arable, 1000 
woodland and plantations, and the remainder rough 
pasture and waste. The surface, though generally level, 
is diversified with hills of moderate elevation, covered 
with heath and fern. The rivers are, the Laggan, which, 
taking a south-western course, falls into the bay of 
that name ; and the Kilarrow, which empties itself into 
Loch Indal. There is a salmon-fishery on the Laggan. 
The soil is various, and on some of the farms rich and 
fertile. The system of agriculture has been much ad- 
vanced by the spirited and liberal efforts of the pro- 
prietor ; the pasture lands have been improved by 
surface draining, and large tracts of moor have been 
reclaimed and brought into cultivation. Furrow drain- 
ing is growing into extensive use ; a tile-work has been 
recently established for that purpose, and the drains 
have been partly formed by Mr. Campbell at his own 
expense. Great attention is paid to the rearing of 
sheep and black-cattle, and prizes for the improvement 
16 



of the breed are"" awarded by an agricultural society, 
which has been established here for some years. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £8888. 

The plantations are well attended to, and are in a 
tolerable state ; the soil appears best adapted to the 
growth of hard- wood trees. Islay House, the seat of 
Mr. Campbell,' is a handsome mansion, beautifully situ- 
ated on the north shore of Loch Indal, in grounds 
tastefully laid out, and embellished with plantations. 
The villages of Bowmore and Bridgend are described 
under their own heads. The ecclesiastical affairs 
of the parish, which originally formed part of the parish 
of Kildalton, from which it was separated in 1767, 
when Kilmeny was annexed to it, are under the super- 
intendence of the presbytery of Islay and Jura and 
synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £15S. 6. S., 
of which two-thirds are paid from the exchequer, with 
a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum ; patron, 
the Crown. The parish church is an elegant structure 
of circular form, with a handsome spire, erected in 
1767, enlarged by the addition of galleries in 1S2S, 
and containing S30 sittings. A church, also, has 
long existed at Kilmeny (which see), about seven miles 
distant ; the minister has a stipend of £120. The paro- 
chial school, situated in Bowmore, is a commodious 
building, erected by Mr. Campbell ; the master has a 
salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees 
average £25 per annum. Prizes for the most promising 
scholars were formerly awarded at the public examina- 
tions, at the cost of Lady Ellinor Campbell. A parlia- 
mentary school has been established at Ballygrant, in 
Kilmeny, of which the master has a salary of £35 ; two 
schools are supported by the Gaelic Society; and near 
Bridgend is a female school, supported by Mrs. Camp- 
bell, who allows the teacher a house and garden, and a 
salary of £12. There are in several places various re- 
mains of forts, the ancient strongholds of the Macdo- 
nalds. 

KILBARCHAN, a parish, in the Upper ward of the 
county of Renfrew ; containing, with the village of 
Linwood, 5595 inhabitants, of whom 23S2 are in the 
village of Kilbarchan, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Paisley. 
This place, which is of considerable antiquity, derives its 
name, either from the founder of its ancient church, or 
from the situation of the church in a vale bounded by 
hills, of which the Celtic terms Kil, Bar, Chan, are 
said to be descriptive. The parish, which is unconnected 
with any event of historical importance, is situated 
nearly in the centre of the county, and is rather more 
than seven miles in length, from east to west, and about 
two miles in average breadth. It is bounded on the 
north by the river Gryfe, separating it from the parish 
of Houston and Kilallan ; on the east, by the parish of 
Renfrew ; on the north-east, by Inchinnan ; on the 
south-east, by the Abbey parish of Paisley ; on the 
north-west, by the parish of Kilmalcolm ; and on the 
south-west, by the parish of Lochwinnoch. The surface 
is agreeably varied ; in the eastern portion, between the 
rivers Gryfe and Black Cart, generally level ; and to- 
wards the west and north-west, rising into considerable 
eminences, most of which are richly wooded. The 
scenery is enriched with thriving plantations, and enli- 
vened with numerous gentlemen's seats and pleasing 
villas. The Barr hill, extending for nearly a mile to 
the east of the church, commands some beautiful pros- 
pects, which suddenly burst upon the view after an. 



K I LB 



KILB 



extensive ride through an avenue obscured by the thick 
foliage in which it is embosomed. The river Locher, a 
tributary of the Gryfe, forms various cascades in its 
progress through the lands, flowing, in several parts of 
its course, between rocky banks of precipitous elevation, 
crowned with overhanging plantations of hazel, birch, 
and mountain-ash. 

The entire number of acres has been estimated at 
9216; the soil in the lower portions of the parish is a 
peat-moss, alternated with a rich loam, and in the 
upper lands of a gravelly nature. The system of agri- 
culture, though the population is chiefly manufacturing, 
has been considerably improved, and large portions of 
unproductive land have been brought into cultivation, 
by clearing the surface from moss. The cattle are 
mostly of the Ayrshire breed ; the dairy-farms are well 
managed, and the produce finds a ready market in the 
neighbouring towns. The horses are principally of the 
Clydesdale breed. The farm-buildings are substantial, 
and in general roofed with slate ; the lands are inclosed 
with fences of stone in the upper, and with hedges of 
thorn in the lower, parts. Coal is abundant 5 and iron- 
stone has been searched for, but unsuccessfully : the 
former has long been wrought, and the produce of the 
mines is considerable. Limestone of tolerable quality is 
quarried both for building, and for burning into lime, 
for which latter purpose part of the coal found here is 
used. Freestone and greenstone are also quarried ; the 
former is of excellent quality, and the latter is used for 
the roads. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£17,394. There are numerous handsome houses be- 
longing to resident proprietors, of which one of the 
principal is Milliken House, a modern mansion, finely 
seated in an ample demesne, tastefully disposed in plea- 
sure-grounds, and embellished with thriving plantations. 
Glentyan House is a spacious mansion of modern style, 
situated above the village of Kilbarchan, in grounds 
commanding some pleasing views : this house, which 
was built at the commencement of the present century, 
contains a valuable collection of paintings. Blackstone 
House is a substantial and well-built mansion, erected 
about the middle of the last century, on the site of a 
country seat of the abbots of Paisley. Craigends is of 
ancient foundation, with modern additions and improve- 
ments, and is beautifully situated on the right bank of 
the river Gryfe. Clippens House is a handsome villa, 
erected about twenty years since, by the late Peter 
Cochrane, Esq., M.D. 

The village is built of freestone from the quarries of 
Barr hill, and consists of several well-formed streets. 
There are two public libraries, supported by subscrip- 
tion, and a masonic lodge ; and the Kilbarchan Agricul- 
tural Society hold their annual meetings here, for the 
distribution of premiums for the most approved speci- 
mens of live stock, and for the general improvement, of 
agriculture. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in 
the weaving of silk and cotton for the manufacturers of 
Paisley and Glasgow, in which more than 600 looms 
are sometimes engaged ; and a very considerable num- 
ber of the female population are occupied in tambour- 
work, and embroidering the finer muslins. The cotton- 
mill lately belonging to Findlay and Co., is an exten- 
sive structure, 120 feet in length, thirty-two in breadth, 
and six stories in height, and contains 7000 spindles : 
in the mill at Barbush, belonging to Messrs. Napier, there 
Vol. II.— 17 



are 13,000 spindles at work. In the village of Linwood, 
of which an account is given under its own head, the 
cotton manufacture is also carried on to a very consi- 
derable extent. On the river Locher, a print and bleach- 
field had been established for more than half a century ; 
but, the water of that stream not being sufficient for 
the purpose, the works lately passed into different 
hands. Part of the village of Bridge of Weir is within 
this parish, and the remainder in the parish of Houston 
and Kilallan, on the opposite bank of the river Gryfe, 
over which is a substantial bridge of stone, connecting 
the two portions of that village, which, together with 
the village of Linwood, is indebted chiefly for its origin 
to the establishment of cotton factories. The agricul- 
tural produce of the parish is mostly sent to Paisley ; and 
communication is maintained by good turnpike-roads ; 
by the Glasgow, Paisley, and Greenock railway, which 
intersects the eastern portion of the parish ; and the 
Glasgow and Ayr railway, which passes within a mile of 
it. The canal from Johnstone to Glasgow, on which 
boats ply daily, also affords great facility of inter- 
course. A fair is held on the second Tuesday in Decem- 
ber, which is a great market for horses ; and a cattle- 
show takes place in the last week in July. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Paisley and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr; the minister's stipend is £294. 10. 8., 
with a manse, and a glebe worth £32 per annum ; pa- 
tron, Sir William Milliken Napier, Bart. The church 
was built in 1724, and has been recently repaired ; it is 
a neat structure containing 620 sittings. There are 
places of worship for members of the Free Church, the 
Relief, Original Burghers, and Scottish Baptists. The 
parochial school is well attended ; the master has a 
salary of £34, with an allowance of £10 in lieu of house 
and garden, and the fees average £15. 10. per annum. 
A school is also supported in the village of Linwood, by 
the proprietors of the cotton factories, for the accom- 
modation of the children of their workmen. About 
half a mile from Bridge of Weir are some remains of 
the castle of Ranfurley, the ancient seat of the Knox 
family, from whom descended the celebrated reformer, 
John Knox. There are also remains of several chapels; 
and on the farm of Clochoderick, or Clach-na-Druid, is 
a large stone twenty-two feet in length, seventeen feet 
in breadth, and twelve feet high, from which, sup- 
posed to be a Druidical relic, the farm appears to 
have derived its name. On the Barr hill are the re- 
mains of a camp thought to be of Danish origin ; and 
near it are some rocks of greenstone, among which is a 
recess called Wallace's Seat. Ranfurly Castle gives the 
title of Earl to the family of Knox, a dignity created in 
the year 1831. 

KILBERRY, Argyllshire. — See Kilcalmonell. 
KILBIRNIE, a parish, in the district of Cunning- 
hame, county of Ayr, 3 miles (\V. by N.) from Beith ; 
containing 2631 inhabitants. This place derives its 
name from the term Kil, signifying a church, chapel, or 
monastic cell, and Birnie, or Birinus, the tutelar saint of 
the parish, the church of which, with the rectorial tithes 
and revenues, belonged in ancient times to the monastery 
of Kilwinning, the monks providing a vicar to serve the 
cure. The parish is situated in the northern extremity 
of the county, bordering on Renfrewshire, and is of an ob- 
lone form, measuring in length, from south-east to north- 

D 



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west, between seven and eight miles, and about two and 
a half miles in average breadth. It consists of the three 
nominal baronies of Kilbirnie, Glengarnock, and Lady- 
land, and comprises S576 Scottish acres, of which 1280 are 
arable, 2209 in cultivated grass lands and meadows, 1009 
greenhill pasture, 59 in plantations, and the remainder 
heath, moss-land, and water. The surface is much diversi- 
fied in appearance, and is naturally formed into two dis- 
tinct tracts. Of these, one is wholly arable, and orna- 
mented by the beautiful water of Kilbirnie loch on its east- 
ern limit, and the winding stream of the Garnock, running 
from north to south. The other is marked by hill pastures, 
bog, and moorland, and has a very irregular surface : 
it rises first into lofty uplands, and these are succeeded 
by dreary tracts of moss and heath, and ranges of barren 
and uninviting hills, of which the highest, called the hill 
of Staik, is 1691 feet above the level of the sea, and 
commands prospects the most extensive, varied, and 
beautiful. The loch contains trout, perch, roach, pike, 
and abundance of eels. The Garnock and the Maich, 
also, are good trouting-streams ; the former has its 
source in the hill of Staik, flows near the northern 
boundary, displaying a beautiful cascade called the Spout 
of Garnock, and, running in a south-eastern direction 
through well-wooded ravines, passes the village, and 
hastens through the parishes of Dairy and Kilwinning 
to the sea at Irvine. The Maich runs along the northern 
boundary of the parish, nearly parallel with the Garnock ; 
and, after a course of about five miles in a deep channel, 
through lonely moorlands, with very little interesting 
scenery about its banks, except when, like the Garnock, 
passing one or two favoured spots, it falls into the loch 
of Kilbirnie. 

The son, comprises several varieties, with numerous 
modifications and admixtures. That in the lower, or 
south, part of the parish is a very fertile alluvial loam, 
which, higher up the Garnock, assumes the character 
of a rich clayey loam : towards the east, near Kilbirnie 
loch, and along part of the Maich, the soil is a light red 
clay, incumbent on a stiff clayey subsoil. West of the 
Garnock, clayey loam is again found, and also a tenacious 
clay mixed with sand, crossed with stripes of meadow 
land. The soil of the higher ground is a light, dry, and 
fertile earth, resting on trap and lime stone, and well 
suited to pasture ; the moorish uplands consist of 
mossy tracts lying on clay, much interspersed by pools 
of stagnant water. The produce comprehends all the 
usual white and green crops ; but wheat is now culti- 
vated only to a very limited extent, the returns for 
several years having been unsatisfactory, in consequence, 
principally, of the humidity and coldness of the climate, 
and the moist retentive nature of the subsoil. The farms 
vary much in size ; those under the plough are from 50 
to 180 acres, and all are under the rotation system of 
husbandry. There is one corn-mill in the parish, to 
which all the lands are thirled ; and fifteen of the farms 
have threshing-mills. The inclosures on the lower 
grounds are chiefly ditches and thorn hedges ; those on 
the higher grounds and pastures are stone walls ; and 
in addition to the great improvements effected during 
the present century by liming and draining, some supe- 
rior farm-houses have been built, with good offices, 
although the old, ill-constructed, thatched tenements 
are still numerous. The sheep, of which upwards of 2000 
are kept, are principally the black-faced, and fed on the 
13 



moorlands ; but a few crosses of various English breeds 
are to be seen on the arable farms. There are about 
550 milch-cows, with 600 or 700 head of cattle, mostly 
of the Cunninghame breed, to the selection of which, 
and the management of the dairy, much attention is 
paid : the horses used for husbandry are of the Clydes- 
dale kind. The strata of the parish comprise coal of 
several descriptions, freestone, limestone, and ironstone ; 
the coal is generally found in moderate-sized basins, 
and has long been worked, though to no great extent. 
Both freestone and limestone are wrought in abundance; 
as is the ironstone, several furnaces having been just 
erected. The rateable annual value of Kilbirnie is 
£7678. 

The plantations were chiefly formed in the early part 
of the present century ; but they are of little interest, 
with the exception of a few fine old trees in the vicinity 
of Kilbirnie House and the mansion of Ladyland. The 
first of these residences, sometimes called the Place of 
Kilbirnie, is situated a mile west of the village, and em- 
braces fine views of the vale of Kilbirnie loch and the 
Garnock, with the country beyond. It consists of an 
ancient quadrilateral tower, and a modern addition built 
about 1627, extending at right angles from its eastern 
side, the whole forming a large commanding edifice. 
The structure was accidentally destroyed by fire in the 
year 1757, leaving a ruin which time has since been 
gradually desolating ; and all the beautiful wood that 
once surrounded it, with the ornamental grounds and 
approaches, have nearly disappeared. The old house of 
Ladyland, with the exception of a small portion, was 
demolished in 1815 ; but in the following year, an ele- 
gant and spacious mansion was built on the estate, which 
is situated on a gentle eminence, and adorned with some 
thriving plantations, intermixed with fine old trees. 
The village consists principally of a long street lying 
along the right bank of the river Garnock, and a shorter 
one extending westward from its upper end. Its general 
appearance is neat, clean, and interesting : many of the 
houses, which are of a light-coloured freestone, have been 
recently built; and the population, amounting to 1500 
or 1600, has been doubled within the last twenty years, 
through the progress of manufactures in the locality. 
The houses are mostly lighted with gas, procured partly 
from a power-loom manufactory, and partly from the 
works of Mr. John Allan, erected at his own expense, 
and capable of supplying half the village. 

In the beginning of the present century, a small cotton 
factory was established, which, being burnt down in 
1831, was rebuilt on an enlarged scale. This establish- 
ment, in 1834, was sold to a Glasgow merchant, who 
converted it into a spinning power-loom manufactory, 
on an extensive footing ; the machinery is driven by 
two steam-engines, and the works employ altogether 
350 persons. In 1834, also, a mill was erected for the 
spinning of flax ; the machinery is impelled by steam- 
power, and the works employ 150 hands. On the oppo- 
site side of the river is a bleachfield, in full operation, 
where about 140,0001b. of linen thread-yarn are an- 
nually bleached for the manufacturers of Beith, besides 
which, 90 ; 000lb. of coloured thread are finished, the 
whole engaging from 90 to 100 hands. The proprietors 
have recently erected, near these works, a mill for spinning 
flax. About 160 hand-loom weavers, also, reside here, 
who are engaged in the usual kinds of work given by 



KILB 



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the Glasgow and Paisley manufacturers, and 150 females 
are occupied in ornamental work on muslin. A rope- 
work is likewise in operation, employing twenty men and 
boys ; the produce is sold chiefly at Paisley. A sub- 
post office, situated in the village, communicates with 
Beith twice a day ; the turnpike-road from Dairy 
to Lochwinnoch runs in a north-eastern direction across 
the lower part of the parish, and another, to Largs, 
intersects it on the west. There are also two good 
parish roads, and several bridges, opening easy com- 
munication in every direction. The Glasgow and Ayr 
railway proceeds to the south, on the eastern verge of 
Kilbirnie loch, where the line attains its summit level, 
which is seventy feet above the Glasgow terminus, and 
nineteen miles from that station ; it then continues its 
course on the east of the Garnock river. The agricul- 
tural produce of the parish is disposed of at Paisley, 
Glasgow, and several neighbouring places. A fair called 
Brinnan's, a term corrupted from the name of St. Bran- 
dane, the apostle of the Orkneys, is held on the third 
Wednesday in May, O. S., and being the largest horse- 
market in the west of Scotland, is attended by a great 
concourse of people. Coopers' work and culinary uten- 
sils are also sold at it in great quantities, and general 
business is transacted extensively. A fair held on the 
first Tuesday in July, and one on the last Tuesday in 
October, have dwindled away. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Irvine and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Earl 
of Eglinton : the minister's stipend is £193, with a 
manse, and a glebe of nearly nine acres, valued at 
£18 per annum. The church, situated about halt a mile 
south of the village, is one of the most ancient in the 
west of Scotland, the body of it having been built a 
considerable time before the Reformation. An aisle, 
called the Glengarnock aisle, bears the date of 1597; 
but it is considered to be a much more recent, addition. 
The most modern part of the structure is the Craufurd 
gallery, erected opposite to the aisle, in 1654, by Sir John 
Craufurd, according to an inscription, in relief, over one 
of the windows. The church has long been an object of 
interest to the antiquary and others, on account of the 
rich carvings in oak, profusely displayed on this gallery 
and on the pulpit, the former of which also exhibits the 
armorial bearings of twelve of the ancestors of John, first 
viscount Garnock, by whose order the edifice was repaired, 
and the ornamental work executed, about the year 1/00. 
In the churchyard is the tomb of captain Thomas Crau- 
furd, of Jordanhill, who performed the remarkable ex- 
ploit of storming the castle of Dumbarton in 1571 : the 
monument, built of sandstone, is nine feet long and six 
■wide, and through an aperture in the east end are faintly 
seen the recumbent statues of the captain in a military 
garb, and of his lady in the costume of the times. There 
is a place of worship in the village for the Reformed Pres- 
bytery; and the members of the Free Church, also, 
have a place of worship. The parochial school affords 
instruction in Latin, Greek, practical mathematics, and 
book-keeping, in addition to the usual branches ; the 
master has a salary of £25. 13. 4., with a school-house 
and dwelling, erected in 1S23, two acres of land, and 
about £42 fees. A subscription library was established 
in 1820, and now contains upwards of 500 volumes A 
society was instituted a few years since for granting 
relief in sickness, called " the Kilbirnie Gardeners' So- 
19 



ciety;" it has above 100 members, and £100 stock. 
The chief relic of antiquity is the ruin of Glengarnock 
Castle, situated on a precipitous ridge overhanging the 
river Garnock, about two miles north of Kilbirnie. 
The date of the erection of this extensive fortification is 
uncertain ; but it is conjectured to have existed in the 
time of the de Morevilles. 

KILBRANDON, with Kilchattan, a parish, in 
the district of Lorn, county of Argyll, 14 miles 
(S. by W.) from Oban ; containing 2602 inhabitants. 
There were in ancient times four churches or chapels 
within the boundaries of this parish, dedicated respec- 
tively to saints calkd Brenan or Brandon, Cattan, 
Bride or Bridget, and Coan. The two first names have 
been retained, and are now, with the common prefix 
Kil, the proper designation of the parish, though the 
natives usually adopt the term Cuan, on account of the 
proximity of the church to the sound of Cuan, a small 
channel so called, perhaps, from the Gaelic Cumhan, sig- 
nifying "narrow." The parish is situated in that part 
of the county styled Nether Lorn, and consists of a 
portion of the main land, and of a group of islands, of 
which those of Seil, Luing, Easdale, Torsay, and Shuna 
are inhabited. The whole measures between ten and 
eleven miles in length, from north to south ; and the 
extreme breadth, from east to west, is six miles, in- 
cluding the sound of Kilbrandon. The main land por- 
tion is four miles long and two broad, and is washed on 
its south-eastern boundary by Loch Melfort, and on the 
west by the sound of Kilbrandon, at the northern ex- 
tremity of which is the spacious bay of Ardmaddy, 
formed by the recession of the shore. The island of 
Seil, also four miles long and two broad, is separated 
from the parish of Kilninver and Kilmelfort, on the 
north-east, by the sound of Clachan. a shallow and very 
narrow channel, in some places nearly dry at low water, 
and over which a bridge was built at the end of the 
last century. South of Seil, and divided from it only 
by the sound of Cuan, is the island of Luing, extending 
six miles from north to south, and two from east to 
west ; and on the east of Luing is the island of Shuna, 
measuring two miles and a half by one and a half, 
and separated by a narrow strait of its own name. 
Each of the other islands is less than a square mile in 
extent : Torsay lies on the east of the northern division 
of Luing, and Easdale, celebrated for its fine slate-quar- 
ries, a little to the west of Seil. The sound of Jura 
runs on the south and south-west of the parish, and the 
sound of Mull on the north-west, exposing it to the 
impetuosity of the Atlantic. The coast on the east side 
of the islands of Seil and Luing, which constitute the 
chief portion of the parish, is low, and marked by 
numerous bays, affording a secure retreat and good 
anchorage in stormy weather : those of Blackmill, To- 
beronchy in Luing, and Balvicar in Seil, are the most 
considerable. On the west, however, are bold and lofty 
rocks, especially in the direction of Easdale; they form 
a striking feature, and supply an important barrier 
against the fury of the ocean. 

The surface of the main land is chiefly hilly, and 
covered with pasture ; some of the ridges rise from 600 
to S00 feet above the level of the sea. The island of 
Luing is mostly level ; but Seil consists, to a great ex- 
tent, of a series of undulations, interspersed with fertile 
slopes and pleasant valleys. The soil in both the isles 

D 2 



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is tolerably good, and suited to all kinds of crops, 
which, however, are frequently spoiled through the 
moisture and variableness of the climate. The agricul- 
tural character of the parish has been much improved 
within the last few years, by draining, the reclaiming of 
waste land, and the introduction of a superior method 
of cultivation. The rotation system is in operation ; 
the six-shift course is preferred for the larger farms, a 
five-shift for farms of moderate extent, and a four-shift 
for crofts. The Marquess of Breadalbane, to whom about 
three-fourths of the parish belong, has adopted regula- 
tions for the protection, comfort, and independence of 
the cottars, and affords his patronage to an agricultural 
society established on his property about the year 1S3S. 
Premiums are awarded for the best black-cattle and 
sheep, to the rearing of which considerable attention is 
paid ; the former are of the West Highland breed, and 
in general of excellent quality, and the latter, the native 
black-faced, but not so fine as the cattle. Prizes are 
also given to the most expert ploughmen, and for the 
best-kept horses and harness, as well as to those cottars 
who manage their gardens in a superior manner ; and the 
cultivation of turnips, especially, has been much improved 
under the same auspices. The strata of the parish are 
chiefly of the schistose formation ; and the fine durable 
slate quarried here for nearly two centuries, has conferred 
great and well-deserved celebrity on the district. Though 
this material is procured at Balvicar, in Seil, and at 
two places in Luiug, yet the principal seat of operations 
is Easdale, where one of the quarries is 120 feet below 
the level of the sea ; the number of men employed at 
the different works averages 200, and they raise between 
four and five millions of slates yearly. Indications of 
lead-ore and zinc have been observed in Luing and Seil ; 
and there is a marble-quarry near Ardmaddy, which 
was formerly worked. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £4928. 

Ardmaddy Castle, the chief mansion, and the property 
and occasional residence of the Marquess of Breadal- 
bane, is situated on the main land, at the head of the 
bay of the same name, and commands extensive pros- 
pects of sea and land. It is an ancient structure, and 
was once the residence of a branch of the Mc Dougalls. 
In the reign of Charles II., and of his successor, James, 
it was occupied by Lord Niel Campbell, brother of the 
Earl of Argyll, who made additions to the edifice, and 
whose initials, with those of his lady, may be seen, cut 
in stone, with the date 16*6. The only other mansion, 
situated at Ardincaple, was built at the close of the last 
century. The parish contains five villages, namely, 
Easdale, which is the largest ; Balvicar, in Seil ; and 
Toberonchy, Millbay, and Colipool, in Luing; all built 
in the neighbourhood of slate-quarries. The village of 
Easdale, standing on each side of the sound of that 
name, contains several hundred persons; most of the 
houses are neatly constructed, one story high, and co- 
vered with slate. A few persons in the parish are 
engaged in the herring-fishery : in May and June, con- 
siderable numbers are caught with the fly, and usually 
fetch a high price. Attempts have been recently made, 
tinder the patronage of the principal proprietor, to in- 
troduce cod and ling fishing. Easdale contains a post- 
office, which communicates daily with Oban. The 
steam-vessels plying between Glasgow and the ports 
in the north pass along the sound of Easdale, and 
20 



touch at its harbour ; and the coal used by the quarry- 
men is obtained from the former place, but the farmers 
mostly burn peat. The means of communication with 
the interior are also easy, on account of the number of 
ferries and roads, of which latter that from Oban enters 
the parish from the north-east, at Clachan bridge, aud 
passes through the centre of Seil and Luing. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Lorn and synod of 
Argyll, and in the alternate patronage of the Duke of 
Argyll and the Marquess of Breadalbane. The stipend 
is £173, of which £14 are annually paid out of the 
exchequer ; there is a manse, with a glebe valued at 
£15 per annum. The church, which is more than a 
hundred years old, was repaired and enlarged in 1816, and 
accommodates about 600 persons : it is situated at the 
south end of the island of Seil, which renders it neces- 
sary for all the parishioners who attend, except those 
dwelling in the island, to cross one or more ferries 
on their journey. The members of the Free Church 
and the Reformed Presbyterians have places of worship. 
A parochial school is established at Kilbrandon, and 
another at Luing; the ordinary branches of education 
are taught, with Latin, mathematics, and navigation, 
if required. The master of the Kilbrandon school, who 
resides at Seil, receives the maximum salary, with a 
house and garden, and £26 fees ; and the other master, 
£25 per annum, with the same amount in fees, and a 
garden. A school is supported at Easdale by the 
Society for Propagating Christiau Knowledge, the mas- 
ter receiving a salary of £15; and there are several 
schools, partially supported by the proprietors of 
estates in the respective localities, and others entirely 
dependent on fees. The scholars of all are eligible to 
join in a public competition held annually, at which 
prizes are awarded by the liberality of the Marquess 
of Breadalbane. 

KILBRIDE, county of Argyll. — See Kilmore. 

KILBRIDE, a parish, in the island of Arran, 
county of Bute, 20 miles (S. W. by W.) from Saltcoats ; 
containing, with the villages of Brodick and Corrie, 
2~86 inhabitants, of whom 271 are in the village, or 
kirktown, of Kilbride, called also Lamlash from its 
situation on the bay of that name. This parish, which 
derives its name from the dedication of its ancient 
church to St. Bridget or St. Bride, was the scene of 
some interesting events during the wars with England 
which originated in the disputed succession to the 
Scottish throne, after the death of Alexander III. In 
1306, Robert Bruce, who, during his reverses of fortune, 
had remained for some time in concealment in Ireland, 
landed on the Isle of Arran, with a small fleet, and, 
being joined by Sir James Douglas and others of his 
adherents, assaulted and reduced the castle of Brodick, 
which was then held by Sir John Hastings, for Edward I. 
of England. Upon this occasion, Bruce, in recom- 
pense of their important services, conferred upon his 
friends many of the lands of Arran, which, however, 
long since passed from their descendants, and are now 
the property of the Duke of Hamilton. The island, 
which at that time was thickly wooded, became a 
favourite resort of the Scottish kings, for pursuing the 
diversion of the chase; and the castle of Loch Ranza, 
of which the remains denote its former magnificence, 
was erected as a hunting-seat by one of the Stuarts, 
prior to the year 13S0. 



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In 1544, the castle of Brodick was demolished by the 
Earl of Lennox, whom Henry VIII. of England had 
sent with an army to punish the Scots for their re- 
fusal to concur in the proposed alliance of the Princess 
Mary, afterwards Queen of Scots, with Prince Edward, 
afterwards King of England. A few years subsequently, 
the Earl of Sussex, lord lieutenant of Ireland, who had 
landed with a considerable force in Cantyre, then in the 
possession of the Macdonalds, to retaliate the frequent 
incursions of the islanders into the north of Ireland, 
sailed to the bay of Brodick, and laid waste the adja- 
cent country. In 1651, the castle of Brodick was gar- 
risoned by Cromwell, who also repaired the fortifications, 
and erected an additional bastion ; but the garrison, 
who had rendered themselves obnoxious to the inha- 
bitants, were surprised while on a foraging party, and 
put to the sword. The remains of this fortress are 
considerable, though, from its frequent demolition, but 
little of its ancient character is preserved. The Duchess 
of Hamilton, more than a century since, made a large 
addition to the buildings ; and it is still the occasional 
residence of the Hamilton family. The principal tower 
fell down in February, 1S45, but has been rebuilt. 

The parish, which occupies nearly one-half of the 
Isle of Arran, is bounded on the east by the Frith of 
Clyde, and on the west by a range of mountains sepa- 
rating it from the parish of Kilmorie, which forms the 
remainder of the island. It is about twenty-two miles 
in extreme length, from north to south, varying from 
two miles to four and a half in breadth ; and comprises 
an area of 42,000 acres, of which nearly 6000 are arable, 
900 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill 
pasture, moorland, and waste. The surface is strikingly 
varied with hills and mountains, interspersed with deep 
and narrow glens of picturesque character ; and the 
scenery abounds with features, either of wild magnifi- 
cence, majestic grandeur, or romantic beauty. The 
hills, from the southern boundary of the parish to the 
bay of Brodick, rise gradually in gentle undulations to 
a height of 800 feet, and are covered to their summits 
with grass and heath. Towards Loch Ranza, near the 
northern boundary, however, they rise precipitously in 
rugged masses of barren rock, of which the highest, 
Goatfell, has an elevation of nearly 3000 feet above the 
level of the sea. The glens, of which the principal are 
Glen-Rosa, Glen-Sannox, Glencloy, and Ashdale, are 
watered by their respective rivers, flowing between nar- 
row banks of mountainous acclivity which darken their 
stream. The river of Ashdale, obstructed in its course 
by masses of rock, forms two romantic cascades, falling 
respectively 100 and 50 feet from ledges of columnar 
basalt. These rivers, which, in their progress through 
the glens, receive numerous tributary streams, abound 
with trout and eels of small size ; and when swollen 
with rains in summer, salmon and sea-trout ascend in 
considerable numbers. The only inland lake belonging 
to the parish is Loch Urie, on the hill of that name, but 
it is of small extent. Springs of the purest water, issuing 
from the rocks, occur in many parts ; and some are 
impregnated with iron and other minerals. 

The whole extent of sea-coast, except where it is 
indented with bays, is guarded by a ledge of rude cliffs 
and rugged precipices, between which and the sea is a 
narrow tract of level land. These rocks are in many 
places clothed with ivy, and interspersed with birch 
21 



ash, oak, and brushwood. On the eastern shore are 
the bays of Lamlash and Brodick, the former a fine cir- 
cular haven, about three miles in length, of sufficient 
depth to afford safe anchorage to a large fleet of vessels 
of any burthen, and surrounded with a fine sandy beach. 
The entrance to this bay is by two inlets at the extre- 
mities of the island of Lamlash, or the Holy Isle, which 
lies in front of it, a picturesque island of conical form, 
rising to a height of 900 feet above the level of the sea. 
A quay was formed here by the Duchess of Hamilton, 
at a cost of nearly £3000 ; but the materials were, from 
time to time, removed for building the village at the 
head of the bay, and the loss is now severely felt. The 
bay of Brodick, to the north of Lamlash, is about two 
miles in length, and of considerable depth ; and at the 
northern extremity are the remains of the ancient cas- 
tle, now Arran House, the occasional residence of the 
Duke of Hamilton. To the south of Lamlash is Whiting 
bay, of smaller dimensions, but of which the shores 
abound with interesting scenery ; and to the north of 
Brodick is the bay of Corrie, where is a small harbour. 
There is also a good harbour at Loch Ranza, on the 
north-west. The sea, off the coast, abounds with various 
kinds of fish ; the most numerous are whiting and 
haddock, but cod, ling, mackerel, conger-eels, skate, 
flounders, soles, and turbot are likewise taken in con- 
siderable quantities. Lobsters, crabs, and great varie- 
ties of shell-fish are also to be obtained on every part of 
the coast ; oysters are found only at Loch Ranza. 
Herrings occasionally visit the coast, but in greater 
numbers on the north and west sides of the. island. 

The soil of the cultivated lands is generally light. 
In the valleys it is extremely various ; in some places, 
little more than sand ; and in others, a fine alluvial 
loam, and moss and marsh converted by draining and 
manure into rich black loam, more or less interspersed 
with gravel. The crops raised are, oats, barley, beans, 
peas, potatoes, and turnips, with a few acres of flax. 
The system of husbandry has been greatly improved 
under the encouragement of the principal proprietor, 
and the stimulus of a farming association which awards 
prizes for the best specimens of stock and rural ma- 
nagement. The lands have been well drained and 
inclosed ; the farm houses and offices are generally sub- 
stantial and commodious ; and the various recent im- 
provements in the construction of agricultural imple- 
ments have been introduced. The hills afford good pas- 
turage for numerous flocks of sheep, which are of the 
black-faced breed, with a few of the Cheviot and Merino 
on the lower grounds. The cattle are mostly of the Argyll- 
shire Highland breed, to the improvement of which 
much attention is paid. Ayrshire cows are kept on 
the dairy-farms, which are well managed ; and the but- 
ter and cheese produced here are equal to what is made 
in the best districts of Ayrshire. There are some re- 
mains of the ancient woods, which were very extensive. 
The plantations round the castle of Brodick, near the 
bay of Lamlash, and at Kilmichael, which last are of 
very recent date, consist of larch, Scotch, spruce, and 
silver firs, oak, ash, elm, sycamore, and birch, and are 
in a very thriving state. The rateable annual value of 
the parish is £4548. 

The rocks are chiefly composed of granite, trap, por- 
phyry, and porphyritic clay-stone ; and rock crystals of 
almost every variety are found. The substrata com- 



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KIL B 



prise sandstone, clay-slate, limestone, ironstone, and 
coal, which last is fouud near the Cock of Arran. There 
are quarries of limestone and freestone near Corrie. An 
attempt was once made to work the coal, but was for 
some reason abandoned ; and a slate-quarry in the 
neighbourhood was for a time in operation, but has 
been discontinued. At Sannox is a quarry of barytes, 
the proprietor of which has erected a large mill for pul- 
verizing the mineral, and extracting the sulphate, which 
obtains a high price in the market. The ironstone, 
though abundant, is not wrought. The whole of the 
parish, with the exception only of the farm of Kilmi- 
chael, belonging to John Fullarton, Esq., who resides on 
his estate, is the property of the Duke, of Hamilton. 
The village of Lamlash consists chiefly of a few rural 
cottages and some shops, and, during the summer, is 
the resort of visiters for sea-bathing, for whose accom- 
modation there are three good inns. A small fair is 
held at Lamlash, about the commencement of winter, 
principally for horses, but it is not much frequented ; 
and there is also a fair at Brodick, for cattle, horses, 
and wool, held in the last week of June, and nume- 
rously attended. There are two branch offices in the 
parish, under the post-office of Saltcoats, which have 
daily deliveries. Facility of communication is afforded by 
good roads in various directions, and by steamers which 
frequent the bay, plying in summer daily, and in winter 
twice in the week, between Arran and Ardrossan, and 
also twice in the week between Arran and Glasgow, from 
the beginning of June till the end of September. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Cantyre and synod of 
Argyll. The minister's stipend is £'259, with a manse, 
and a glebe valued at £20 per annum ; patron, the Duke 
of Hamilton. The church, situated on the shore of 
the bay of Lamlash, was erected in 1773 ; it is a plain 
structure, without either tower or spire, and contains 
560 sittings, all of which are free. A chapel in con- 
nexion with the Established Church was erected at Loch 
Ranza, about the year 17S2, by the Duke of Hamilton, 
for the accommodation of both the parishes of Arran ; 
it contains 400 sittings. The minister has a stipend of 
£41, arising from an endowment by the Duchess of 
Hamilton. A church was erected at Brodick in 1S39, 
at an expense of £850, of which £100 were given by the 
duke, £167. 15. by the extension committee of the 
General Assembly, and the remainder raised by sub- 
scription; the service is now performed by a Free 
Church minister, who derives his income from the 
seat-rents and collections. The salary of the parochial 
school is divided among four teachers, of whom one, at 
Lamlash, has £19 ; one at Brodick £16 ; one at Corrie 
£4 ; and the fourth, at Loch Ranza, £6, with nearly an 
equal sum from the parish of Kilmorie, to which that 
school is open. The masters have each a house and 
garden, rent-free, from the Duke of Hamilton, in addi- 
tion to their fees, which vary from £14 to £5 per 
annum. There is also a school at Whiting bay, to the 
master of which a salary of £25 is paid by the General 
Assembly. A parochial library, which was established 
in 1824, and has now a collection of more than 300 
volumes, is supported by subscription. 

There are some remains of Druidical circles ; and 
several have been destroyed at different times, to fur- 
nish materials for building. Near the manse are two 
22 



sepulchral cairns ; and at the head of Moniemore glen, 
is one more than 200 feet in circumference at the base, 
on the removal of part of which stone coffins were 
found. Similar coffins have been found in various 
places, containing human bones ; and in one of them 
was a piece of gold, supposed to have been part of the 
guard of an ancient sword. The Holy Isle, at the 
entrance of Lamlash bay, was the solitary retreat of St. 
Molios, a disciple of St. Columba, who, for greater seclu- 
sion, is said to have removed from Iona to this place, 
whence he diffused the light of Christianity among the 
pagan inhabitants of Arran. The cave which was his 
residence was hewn in a sandstone rock ; and in the 
roof is a Runic inscription, setting forth his name and 
office. A monastery was afterwards founded on the 
island, of which the ruins were visible in 1594: the 
cause of its abandonment was the loss of a vessel, con- 
veying a number of people attending a corpse for inter- 
ment in its cemetery, which was distinguished by vari- 
ous rude tombstones till within the last five years, when 
they were removed. There were in Glencloy, till lately, 
the remains of the ancient, chapel of Kilmichael ; and 
at Sannox was a church, of which the only vestige now 
remaining is a rude figure of its patron saint, built up 
in the wall of the cemetery, which is still used. 

KILBRIDE, EAST, a parish, in the Middle ward of 
the county of Lanark ; containing 3810 inhabitants, 
of whom 926 are in the village, S miles (S. S. E.) from 
Glasgow. This place, distinguished by its affix from 
West Kilbride, in the county of Ayr, and including the 
ancient parish of Torrance, is of great antiquity, and 
once formed part of the see of Glasgow, to which the 
original grant was confirmed by a bull of Pope Alexan- 
der III., in 1178, and by some of his successors. A 
castle was erected here by Robert, de Valnois, about the 
year 1182; and previously to the reign of Robert 
Bruce, nearly two-thirds of the lands belonged to the 
family of Cummin, in whose hands they remained till 
1382, when, on their forfeiture by John Cummin, they 
were granted by that monarch to John Lindsay, of 
Dunrode, as a reward for his fidelity. The lands of 
Calderwood were the property of the Maxwell family 
in the reign of Alexander III., and are still in the pos- 
session of their descendant, Sir William A. Maxwell, 
Bart. Those of Torrance belonged to Sir William 
Stuart, who, in 1398, was one of the sureties on the part 
of Scotland for the peace of the western marches, and 
whose representative, Miss Stuart, of Torrance, is the 
present proprietor. During the prevalence of the plague 
in Glasgow, the inhabitants of this neighbourhood used to 
deposit the produce with which they supplied the city, at 
a spot on the old Glasgow road, about a mile and a half 
to the north of the parish, to which the citizens resorted 
as a temporary market, and which has since retained 
the name of the Market Hill. 

The parish, which takes its name from the dedica- 
tion of the church to St. Bride or Bridget, is about ten 
miles in length, and varies from two to five miles in 
breadth, comprising an area of 22,786 acres, of which 
almost 18,000 are arable, and the remainder chiefly 
peat-moss and moorland, affording tolerable pasturage 
for sheep. The surface is greatly diversified with hills, 
from 200 to 1600 feet above the level of the sea. The 
lower lands are watered by various streams, of which 
the principal is the Odder, flowing for nearly seven 



K ILB 



KILB 



miles along the eastern boundary of the parish ; the sce- 
nery on its banks, at Torrance and Calderwood, is richly 
diversified, and near Calderwood House the river forms a 
beautifully picturesque cascade. The Powmillon has its 
rise in the south-eastern confines of the parish, and, 
after a course of about two miles, runs into the parish 
of Avondale, and thence into the river Avon. The Kit- 
tock has its source in the northern portion of the parish, 
in a marsh about two miles from the village of Kilbride, 
and, after a winding course, falls into the river Cart 
near Busby. The Cart, after bounding the parish for 
four miles on the north-west, flows into the parish of 
Carmunnock near the village of Jackton. 

The soil is chiefly a stiff wet clay, which has been 
rendered more fertile by tile-draining within the last 
few years ; considerable improvement has also been 
made in the system of agriculture. The crops are, oats, 
barley, potatoes, and turnips ; but the principal reliance 
is on the dairy-farms, which have been greatly increased, 
and are under excellent management. Great quantities 
of cheese, of the Dunlop kind, were formerly sent to the 
markets of Glasgow and Rutherglen ; the quantity an- 
nually produced on the several farms being estimated at 
above 50,000 tons. The dairy produce now consists 
principally of butter and milk, which are largely sent 
to Glasgow. Much attention is paid to the treat- 
ment of the milch-cows, which are of the Ayrshire breed ; 
and considerable improvement has been made in the 
breed of cattle generally, under the encouragement of 
an agricultural society established in 1816, which holds 
an annual meeting here on the second Friday in June, 
when a cattle-show takes place. Numbers of sheep, 
also, are pastured on the hills and moors. The lands 
have been partly inclosed ; and the farm-buildings have 
been rendered much more commodious than formerly, 
and are still improving. The plantations are chiefly 
confined to the grounds of Torrance and Calderwood, 
and the lands belonging to Glasgow College. Around 
most of the farm-houses, however, even in the more 
exposed situations, are large trees of various kinds, the 
favourable growth of which is attributed to especial care 
in the preparation of the soil by draining, previously to 
planting, and to their protection from early injury by 
the cattle; and it is thought that the subdivision of 
property has alone operated as an obstacle to the in- 
crease of plantations throughout the parish. Coal, iron- 
stone, and limestone are abundant : the coal was for- 
merly wrought, but, being of inferior quality, the works 
were discontinued, and a better supply is now obtained 
from the collieries in the neighbouring parishes. The 
ironstone, which is of a good kind, is wrought by the 
Clyde Iron Company, who employ about eighty men in 
their works in the parish. The limestone, which occurs 
in beds varying from three to ten feet in thickness, and 
much intermingled with seams of greenstone, is also 
extensively quarried, and burnt into lime for manure. 
Freestone is found in several parts ; clay of good qua- 
lity for tiles is also abundant, and Roman cement is 
made in considerable quantities. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £24,190. 

Torrance House is a spacious ancient mansion, with 
modern additions of various dates ; in front are the 
arms of Scotland on a stone removed from the old cas- 
tle of Mains by Colonel Stuart. It is beautifully situ- 
ated, and the grounds are embellished with thriving 
23 



plantations. Calderwood House is an elegant mansion, 
to which some very tasteful additions have been re- 
cently made ; the demesne is richly planted, and the 
grounds command a fine view of the fall of the river 
Calder, and comprise much beautiful scenery. Law- 
moor is a neat modern house, pleasingly situated ; and 
Crossbasket is a handsome residence, principally of mo- 
dern character, as was also Kirktoun Holm, now dilapi- 
dated. Cleughorn Lodge is likewise a good residence. 
There are several villages in the parish, namely, Kirk- 
toun, or East Kilbride, Maxwellton, part of Busby, and 
the smaller hamlets of Aldhouse, Jackton, Braehead, 
Kittockside, and Nerston. The village of East Kilbride 
was constituted a burgh of barony in the reign of Queen 
Anne, and had a charter for a weekly market on Tues- 
day, and four annual fairs. The market has, however, 
been discontinued for many years ; and of the fairs, the 
only one that is still observed is held on the second 
Friday in June, for the sale of cattle and sheep. The 
village is pleasantly situated near the river Kittock, and 
is neatly built ; a subscription library has been esta- 
blished, and there is a post-office subordinate to that of 
Glasgow, which has a daily delivery. The cotton manu- 
facture is carried on to a considerable extent, affording 
employment to about 300 of the inhabitants. A savings' 
bank has been instituted in connexion with the Glas- 
gow National- Security Savings' Bank. Facility of com- 
munication is afforded by the road from Glasgow to 
Strathavon, which passes through the village, and for 
nearly five miles through the parish ; and by other 
roads kept in good repair, of which one runs from the 
village to Eaglesham, and another from Busby to Car- 
munnock. At the southern boundary of Torrance is a 
bridge over the river Calder, leading to the parish of 
Glassford. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £2S0. S., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £1S per annum ; 
patron, the Crown. The church, which is situated in 
the village of Kilbride, is a plain neat structure, with a 
tow-er surmounted by a spire ; it was erected about 
1774, and contains 913 sittings, which number, if the 
whole of the interior were rendered available, might 
be increased to 1200. There are places of worship for 
members of the Free Church, and the Relief. The 
parochial school is in the village of Kilbride, and 
has branches at Aldhouse and Jackton ; the master 
receives a salary of £34, and the fees may be stated 
to average about £40 per annum. The master of the 
branch school at Aldhouse has a salary of £8, with a 
house rent-free, and the master at Jackton, a salary of 
£8, without a house, the residue of their income being 
made up with the fees. There is also a school at Max- 
wellton, supported by Sir William Maxwell. A paro- 
chial library has been established, which has a good 
collection of volumes ; and several friendly societies 
have tended materially to diminish applications for 
parochial aid. Near Kittockside were some remains of 
two fortifications, situated respectively on Castle Hill 
and Rough Hill, about 200 yards distant from each 
other ; but the stones of both have been long removed, 
and the site of the former planted with trees. Near the 
latter, an ancient stone celt was found, six and a half 
inches in length, and three inches in breadth, formed of 



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KI LB 



a coarse kind of ironstone. About a mile to the north 
of the church are the ruins of Mains Castle, the once 
stately baronial residence of the Cummins, and the 
Lindsays, of Dunrode ; and the same distance to the 
south of the village, was the castle of Lickprivick, of 
which nothing remains except the mound near its site. 
There were also several cairns formerly in the parish, 
among which was Herlaw, where urns with fragments 
of human bones were discovered. One near Mains Cas- 
tle was remarkable for having at the base a circle of 
flagstones, set on their edges, and sloping outwards ; 
but the stones were long since removed. Dr. William 
Hunter, the eminent physician, and his brother, Dr. 
John Hunter, the distinguished surgeon and anatomist, 
both of whom were at the head of their profession in 
London, were born at Long Calderwood, in the parish. 

KILBRIDE, WEST, a parish, in the district of 
Cunninghame, county of Ayr, 5§ miles (N. W. by W.) 
from Saltcoats; containing 1S85 inhabitants. This 
place derives its name from the dedication of its church, 
which was anciently an appendage of the monastery of 
Kilwinning, to St. Bride, a virgin occupying a distin- 
guished rank in the Scottish calendar. In 1263, it was 
the scene of a severe conflict with a party of Norwegians 
that had made a descent on the coast of Largs under 
Haco, who was here attacked and defeated by a body 
of Scottish forces commanded by Sir Robert Boyd, 
ancestor of the Kilmarnock family. As a reward for 
his conduct in this instance, Boyd obtained a grant of 
land in Cunninghame ; and his services as the firm ad- 
herent of Bruce procured him the lands of Kilbride and 
Ardneil, in this parish. The parish is advantageously 
situated on a peninsular projection in the. Frith of Clyde, 
below the Cumbray islands, of which the smaller, for 
all ecclesiastical purposes, is included within its limits ; 
it is six miles in length and two and a half in average 
breadth, and comprises about 11,000 acres, of which 
7500 are arable, and 3000 pasture and waste. The 
surface is diversified with hills forming part of the con- 
tinued chain of the Renfrewshire range, and of which 
the highest within the parish, called Kame Hill, has an 
elevation of nearly 1000 feet above the level of the sea. 
There are also many hills of smaller elevation, partly 
cultivated, and some nearly to their summit; and others 
in detached situations, of which the chief are Law, Ard- 
neil, and Tarbert. The coast is low, consisting of shelv- 
ing rocks of sandstone, with the exception of the pro- 
montory of Portincross, which is precipitous, terminating 
in a point called Ardneil Bank, or Goldberrie Head. 
The sands of Southanan extend for two miles in the 
north of the parish ; immediately to the south of them, 
the coast for nearly a mile is formed of the promontory, 
a wall of rock rising to the height of 300 feet, and sepa- 
rated from the sea only by a narrow slip of verdant 
land. This majestic rampart, of which the base is 
thickly studded with coppice wood, interwoven with 
oak, ash, hazel, and hawthorn, has a romantic gran- 
deur of appearance as seen from the water : three de- 
tached cliffs that rise above the general height have 
obtained the appellation of the Three Sisters. To the 
south of the promontory is the bay of Ardneil, of semi- 
circular form, the shores of which, a fine compact sand, 
afford a delightful promenade, with every facility for 
bathing, for which this part of the coast is peculiarly 
adapted. The Gourock, Kilbride, Southanan, and Fairly 
24 



burns, which have their rise in the eastern confines, 
flow in various directions through the parish into the 
Frith. The Southanan, in part of its course between 
banks richly wooded, forms a pleasingly picturesque cas- 
cade ; the others are not distinguished by any particular 
features. Numerous springs are also found in dif- 
ferent parts, affording an abundant supply of excellent 
water. 

The soil in the lower lands near the coast is in some 
places a rich loam, in others sandy and gravelly ; the 
higher parts are of very inferior quality, generally thin, 
cold, and spongy moor, with the exception of some por- 
tions around the bases of the hills, which are of loam 
mixed with calcareous earth. The crops are, wheat, 
oats, barley, a small quantity of rye, beans, peas, pota- 
toes, turnips, and carrots ; but, as well from the nature 
of the soil, as from the situation of the parish in a wide 
manufacturing district, most of the farms are appro- 
priated to the dairy. The number of milch-cows, which 
are of the Ayrshire or Cunninghame breed, is about 
600, and of cattle of other kinds, S00 : the number of 
horses reared is exceedingly small ; about 2500 sheep, 
chiefly of the black-faced breed, are pastured on the 
moorlands and hills, and 250 swine kept. The chief 
produce of the dairy is cheese, of which great quantities 
are sent to the neighbouring markets, where it is sold 
under the appellation of Dunlop cheese. The system of 
agriculture is advanced, and the implements of hus- 
bandry generally of the most approved kind. The farm- 
buildings, which were formerly of a very inferior de- 
scription, have in many instances been rebuilt in a sub- 
stantial and commodious style, and on most of the 
farms threshing-mills have been erected ; the lands are 
all inclosed with hedges and ditches in the lower parts 
of the parish, and in some of the higher parts with 
stone dykes. The woods are of small extent, not more 
than 150 acres, and of these about one-third is coppice 
wood ; the remainder consists of oak, ash, plane, elm, 
and beech, with a little fir. On some of the lands are 
fine specimens of old timber ; but they are compara- 
tively few, and in general the proper management of 
plantations is little regarded, though a great quantity of 
land, which, from its quality, is incapable of cultivation, 
might, on account of its favourable situation, be advan- 
tageously appropriated to this use. The substrata are, 
sandstone of brown and red colour, whinstone porphy- 
rytic and basaltic, some slight veins of limestone, and a 
white sandstone intermixed with quartz. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £9S05. 

Underbank, a pleasing villa, recently erected near the 
site of the old mansion-house of the barony of South- 
anan, is finely situated in a richly-wooded demesne. 
Crosby has been lately restored in harmony with its 
original character, and is now a tolerable residence. 
Hunterston is beautifully situated at some distance, 
towards the sea, from the ancient mansion-house, 
which is now occupied by a tenant, and of which 
the square tower is still in good preservation. The 
village is about a mile from the sea, in a small se- 
cluded vale watered by the Kilbride burn, which in 
its course gives motion to five different mills, two for 
grinding oats, one for bark, one for grinding charcoal, 
and one for dressing flax. There is a public library, 
supported by subscription ; and a post-office has been 
established under good regulation. The tanning of 



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leather was once carried on here, affording employment 
to a dozen persons ; but the inhabitants are now chiefly 
occupied in weaving for the manufacturers of Glasgow 
and Paisley, in which more than one hundred hand- 
looms are constantly at work ; and a large portion of the 
female population are engaged in sewing and embroider- 
ing muslins. A few lobsters are taken in the season, 
and sent to the Glasgow market, and herrings are occa- 
sionally taken in large quantities ; the other fish are, 
cod, whiting, mackerel, and a few others, but they are 
not in any great abundance. The streams that flow 
through the parish abound in trout of good quality. A 
small quay was constructed at Portincross some years 
since, at the expense of the proprietor ; it is accessible 
at high water to vessels of forty or fifty tons. The 
Clyde steamers from Glasgow to Ardrossan and Ayr pass 
by the coast, and facility of intercourse with the neigh- 
bouring towns is maintained by good roads, of which 
the turnpike-roads to Greenock and Portpatriek run 
through the whole length of the parish, and a line from 
the village communicates with the road to Glasgow at 
the village of Dairy. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Irvine and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr ; the minister's stipend is £203. 12., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £13. 12. per annum. 
The church, situated on a gentle eminence in the centre 
of the village, was rebuilt in 1/32 ; subsequent additions 
have been made to it, and within the last few years an 
aisle has been erected by voluntary subscriptions. It is 
now adapted for a congregation of S00 persons. There 
are places of worship for members of the Free Church 
and the United Secession. The parochial school affords 
instruction to about 130 children; the master has a 
salary of £27. 17- S., with £40 fees, and a house and 
garden. There are three friendly societies, which tend 
to diminish the number of applications for parochial 
relief. Along the steep banks opposite the sea are several 
circular mounds, at unequal distances, called the Castle 
Hills; the area on the summit, about forty feet in dia- 
meter, is inclosed with walls of undressed stone. Their 
origin is uncertain ; by some they are ascribed to the 
Danes, by others referred to a more remote period. Tu- 
muli have been explored in various places, containing urus 
with calcined bones and ashes ; and in forming the new 
line of road along the coast, some few years since, four 
entire urns, rudely formed of coarse red clay, were dug 
out of a stratum of gravel. A silver brooch, of exquisitely 
delicate workmanship, and bearing an inscription in 
Runic characters, was found at Hunterston a few years 
since. The walls of the ancient castle of Portincross 
are still tolerably entire, and form a singularly romantic 
object, standing on a ledge of rock projecting into the 
sea ; it is supposed to have been a residence of the 
Scottish kings. One of the large ships of the Spanish 
armada sank near the promontory, in ten fathoms of 
water ; and an iron cannon which, with others, was 
recovered from the wreck, is still remaining on the 
beach : the arms of Spain, and a crown engraved on 
it, may be faintly traced. On an eminence overlooking 
the village of Kilbride, are the remains of a very stately 
tower called Law Castle, the walls of which are in perfect 
preservation. Dr. Robert Simson, professor of ma- 
thematics in the university of Glasgow, and the \vell- 
known translator of Euclid, is thought to have been a 
native of the parish. General Robert Boyd, lieutenant- 
Vol. II.— 25 



governor of Gibraltar during the siege of that fortress 
in 1/S2, was born here; and it is supposed that John 
Hunter, the celebrated physician, was descended from 
the Hunterston family of this place. 

KILBUCHO, county of Peebles. — SeeBnorGHTON. 
KILCADZOW, a village, in the parish of Carluke, 
Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 2 miles (E. S. E.) 
from Carluke ; containing 160 inhabitants. It lies in 
the south-eastern part of the parish, on the high road 
from Carstairs to Carluke. Limestone of excellent quality 
abounds in its neighbourhood. Kilcadzow Law, the 
most elevated hill in the parish, is about 900 feet above 
the level of high water; and from its summit is a wide 
and magnificent view of the surrounding country. The 
Roman road which passed through Clydesdale to the 
western extremity of the wall of Antoninus may be traced 
here. 

KILCALMONELL and KILBERRY, a parish, in 
the county of Argyll ; containing, with the village of 
Tarbert, 3325 inhabitants. The former of these two 
ancient parishes, now united, derives its name from the 
Gaelic term signifying " the burial-place of Malcolm 
O'Neill." The word Kilberry is by some traced to the 
compound term Cill-a-Mhairi, "the burial-place of Mary." 
The district of Kilcalmonell is situated at the northern 
extremity of the peninsula of Cantyre ; it stretches to 
Loch Fine on the north-east, and is bounded on the 
north-west, nearly throughout its whole length, by West 
Loch Tarbert and the Atlantic Ocean : it is about sixteen 
miles long, and two and a half or three broad. Kilberry 
approaches, in figure, to an equilateral triangle, each 
side measuring eight miles, and is situated in the district 
of Knapdale ; it is separated from Kilcalmonell by West 
Loch Tarbert, and bounded by the sea or the loch on 
all sides, except the north-east. The surface of Kilcal- 
monell is irregular and varied, rising in some parts with 
a gentle acclivity, and in others much more abruptly, 
and terminating in a hilly range on the south-east, about 
1500 feet high; it is diversified occasionally by low 
valleys, 100 or 150 feet above the level of the sea. The 
coast of this part of the parish is sandy, and altogether 
uniform and uninteresting, except in the vicinity of 
Loch Tarbert, where birch, alder, and other trees, dis- 
playing a wild profusion of foliage, relieve the tameness 
of the scenery. In the Kilberry district is a ridge of 
lofty hills running from west to east, and increasing in 
elevation, in a gradual manner, till it reaches Sliobh- 
ghoil. One of the two bases of this height spreads itself 
out into a large tract of sterile moorland, while the 
other affords a striking contrast in the superiority of its 
soil, and its eligibility for agricultural operations. The 
shore presented to the Atlantic is bold. The only bay 
of consequence in the parish is Storiwway, near which is 
the headland of Ardpatrick, the landing-place, accord- 
ing to tradition, of St. Patrick, on his way from Ireland 
to Icolmkill. West Loch Tarbert, which divides the two 
parochial districts, is a branch of the Atlantic, nine 
miles long and one broad : at the northern extremity 
stands the populous fishing-town of Tarbert, where a 
narrow isthmus, separating East Loch Tarbert from 
West Loch Tarbert, makes Cantyre a peninsula. There 
are several fresh-water lochs ; but they are small and 
unimportant, and contribute little to the improvement 
of the generally unattractive scenery. 

A few of the farms are well cultivated : potatoes con- 

E 



KILC 



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stitute the principal crop, and a large quantity of them 
is sent annually to the English and Irish markets. The. 
tenants mostly hold their lands at will, and but little 
improvement in husbandry has taken place ; but there 
are some exceptions, especially on the farm of Crear, in 
Kilberry, where the land has been brought into good 
cultivation, and received much embellishment. Lime- 
stone occurs in several places ; but it lies in thin beds, 
and is not much used. The rateable annual value of 
the parish is £7563. The principal mansions are, 
Stonefield, situated in Kilcalmonell ; Dunmore and 
Ardpatrick Castles, in Kilberry ; and an elegant castel- 
lated edifice lately erected near Tarbert. The village of 
Tarbert, which is separately described, is supposed to 
have been anciently the county-town of Argyll ; it is 
now chiefly famed for its harbour, and for the herring- 
fishery in which its inhabitants are actively and success- 
fully engaged. It has a general post-office, communi- 
cating by steam daily with Glasgow ; and a road runs 
through Kilcalmonell to Campbelltown, by which letters 
are forwarded to the latter place. The produce of the 
parish is sent for sale, partly to Campbelltown, but 
chiefly, especially the potatoes, to Ireland and England. 
A fair, principally for horses, is held at Tarbert in the 
beginning of August. The parish is in the presbytery 
of Cantyre and synod of Argyll, and in the patronage of 
the Duke of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £21S, 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £17. 10. per annum. 
The church of Kilcalmonell was built about the year 
1760; that of Kilberry in 1S21 : the former contains 
600 sittings, and the latter 700, all free. A chapel is 
supported at Tarbert by Royal Bounty ; and the Inde- 
pendents have a place of worship. There are two paro- 
chial schools, affording instruction in the ordinary 
branches ; the masters each receive a salary of £25 per 
annum, with the fees. The parish contains the forts of 
Dunskeig, forming part of a chain of strongholds built 
along the coast of Cantyre ; they are very ancient, lofty, 
and strong, and command extensive views. The castle 
of Tarbert, now in ruins, was, formerly, also a place of 
great strength ; and there was once a large vitrified fort 
in the parish; the remains of which are still to be seen. 

KILCHATTAN, Argyllshire. — See Kilbrandon. 

KILCHATTAN-BAY, a village, in the parish of 
Kingarth, Isle and county of Bute, 6 miles (S. by E.) 
from Rothesay: containing 167 inhabitants. This vil- 
lage derives its name from the fine bay on the south- 
east of the island, opening into the Frith of Clyde, 
and eastward of which, and immediately opposite to it, 
are the isles of Great and Little Cumbray. In the vil- 
lage, from which is a good coast-road to Rothesay, are 
about fifty inhabited houses ; and there is a wharf for 
lading and unlading small vessels. A rapid increase 
has taken place here, within the last few years, in the 
exportation of agricultural produce and of lime, which 
is very abundant in the neighbourhood. Near the 
north-east shore of the bay are two barrows, a short 
distance from each other. 

KILCHENZIE, Argyllshire. — See Killean. 

KILCHOMAN, a parish, in the Islay district of the 
county of Argyll, 12 miles (W. by S.) from Bowmore; 
containing 4505 inhabitants. This place, which is situ- 
ated at the south-western extremity of the island of 
Islay, is supposed to have derived its name from a 
church founded here by St. Chomanus, who was sent by 
26 



St. Columba from the monastery of Iona, to convert the 
inhabitants to Christianity. Little more of its ancient 
history is known than that, for many years, it was in 
the possession of the Danes and Norwegians, and sub- 
sequently became the property of the Macdonalds, 
lords of the Isles, of whose baronial seat the site is now 
occupied by the manse and gardens of the minister. In 
158S, a sanguinary battle took place between the 
Macdonalds and the Macleans, of whom the latter, of 
the isle of Mull, landed a considerable force to dis- 
possess the former of their territory. The conflict 
occurred near the shore of Loch Gruinard, and termi- 
nated in the defeat of the Macleans, whose leader fell in 
the action ; and his followers giving way, many of them 
took refuge in the church of Kilnave, near the field of 
battle, pursued by the Macdonalds, who set fire to the 
building. The body of Maclean, being found among 
the slain, was buried in the church of Kilchoman. 

The parish, which is of peninsular form, is bounded 
on the west by the Atlantic, and on the east by Loch 
Indal ; and is deeply indented on the north by Loch 
Gruinard, between which and Loch Indal there is little 
more than a mile of land at high water. It is about 
twenty miles in extreme length, and five at its greatest 
breadth, comprising upwards of 50,000 acres, of which not 
more than 5000 are arable, and the remainder, with the 
exception of twenty acres of plantations, is hill pasture 
and waste. The surface is diversified with ridges of hills of 
moderate elevation, the highest not exceeding 500 feet 
above the level of the sea ; and between these undu- 
lating ridges are large tracts of level ground, covered 
with moss, and interspersed with lakes, of which the 
largest, Lochgorum, is about 600 acres in extent, and 
from five to seven feet in depth. There is no river of 
any importance. The coast, which is more than thirty 
miles in circuit, is mostly bold and precipitous, abound- 
ing on the east with creeks, and on the west with bays. 
The largest bay is that of Kilchoman ; but it is so ex- 
posed to the swell of the Atlantic that fishing-boats, to 
be in safety, must be drawn above high-water mark. 
Loch Gruinard is about four miles in length, and affords 
shelter for small vessels, but is partly dry at low water; 
Loch Indal is twelve miles in length, and eight in breadth 
at the entrance, forming a good roadstead, and is much 
frequented by vessels in adverse weather. 

The soil includes almost every variety : on the shore 
of Loch Indal is some rich alluvial land of great fertility ; 
on the western shore the soil is less productive, and in 
other parts nearly sterile. The crops are, oats, barley, 
potatoes, turnips, peas, and beans, with the usual 
grasses. The system of husbandry is improving on 
some of the farms ; considerable progress has been 
made in draining the lands, and several tracts of moss 
have been reclaimed ; but from the tenure of the smaller 
farms, the spirit of enterprise is much restrained. The 
chief attention is paid to the improvement of live stock ; 
the cattle are generally of the West Highland breed, but 
the sheep, with the exception of a few of the black- 
faced, are of a very ordinary kind. The principal sub- 
strata are, clay-slate, greywacke, alternating with thin 
beds of quartz, basalt, greenstone, and porphyry. There 
is no limestone ; but the want of it is supplied by the 
abundance of shell-marl found in the numerous creeks 
and bays. Slate of good colour and quality is exten- 
sively quarried at Kilchiaran. The rateable annual 



K I L C 



KILC 



value of the parish is £7430. Sunderland House is a 
spacious mansion, erected by the proprietor in 1820, 
pleasantly situated on an acclivity, about a mile from 
the shore of Loch Indal, and surrounded with thriving 
plantations. Balinaby is also a handsome residence. 
There are three villages in the parish, viz., Portnahaven, 
Port- Charlotte, and Port-Wymss, which last has but 
recently grown into existence. At Bridgend, about nine 
miles distant, is a post-office, from which letters are 
brought daily by a private messenger ; and facility of 
communication is afforded by good roads, which inter- 
sect the parish in various directions, and are kept in 
proper order. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintend- 
ence of the presbytery of Islay and Jura and synod of 
Argyll. The minister's stipend is £15S. 6., of which two- 
thirds are paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £15 per annum ; patron, the Crown. The 
parish church, erected in 1S25, is a handsome structure 
containing 700 sittings, all of which are free. A church 
has been built at Portnahaven. There is a place of 
worship for members of the Free Church ; and at Port- 
Charlotte is one for Independents. The parochial school 
is well attended ; the master has a salary of £25. 13. 4., 
with a house, an allowance in money in lieu of garden, 
and about £4 fees. Two schools are supported by the 
General Assembly, one by the Society for Propagating 
Christian Knowledge, and one by the Edinburgh Gaelic 
Society; there are also six Sunday schools. The poor 
have the interest of some charitable bequests and private 
contributions ; and the Kirk Session possess the pri- 
vilege of recommending patients to the royal infirmary 
of Glasgow. There are numerous ruins of religious 
houses, to which are attached cemeteries still in use ; 
and in the present churchyard is an ancient cross, 
beautifully sculptured. On several of the hills are 
obelisks, of which the history is unknown ; and on 
islands in the lakes, and in various ravines on the shores 
of the coast, are remains of fortifications. Under a large 
stone near Sunderland House, which had fallen from 
the erect position in which it originally stood, were 
found two golden ornaments, weighing nearly six ounces ; 
and in the hills around have been found rude coffins of 
stone, some containing human bones, and others urns of 
unbaked clay, rudely formed. 

KILCHRENAN and DALAVICH, a parish, in the 
district of Lorn, county of Argyll, 1 1 miles (w. by S.) 
from Dalmally ; containing 943 inhabitants, of whom 
553 are in Kilchrenan. The names of these places, 
which are of Gaelic origin, signify respective!}', " the 
church or burial-place of Chrenan," the tutelary saint 
of this locality, and "the field of Avich," a term de- 
scriptive of a level tract situated near the river Avich. 
This is an inland parish, lying on each side of the beau- 
tiful piece of water named Loch Awe, and measures 
about sixteen miles in length, and eight in average 
breadth, comprising, it is supposed, between 70,000 and 
80,000 acres, of which considerable portions are arable 
and pasture land. The surface is finely diversified, 
rising in each direction from the lake, in a gradual 
manner, for nearly four miles. On the east it reaches 
the summit of a range of hills called the Muir of 
Leckan, twenty-four miles long ; and on the west is 
another range, also twenty-four miles long, called the 
Mid-Muir. The scenery is of the highest order, consist- 



ing of a rich combination of almost every picturesque 
and romantic object usually seen in the most admired 
Highland districts. There are several wooded islands in 
Loch Awe, with interesting and ancient ruins ; nume- 
rous creeks intersect its shores, and the whole lake is 
relieved, with great effect, by the bold mountain heights 
overhanging the district. The average breadth of the 
loch is about a mile ; and on its banks are two ferries, 
one three-quarters of a mile from Dalavich, and the 
other a mile from Kilchrenan. The island of Inish- 
Chonnel, a beautiful spot, lying opposite the church of 
Dalavich, exhibits an ivy-mantled ruin of great antiquity, 
for many centuries the chief residence of the Argyll 
family. Near this is the isle named In ish-Errich, con- 
taining the ruins of a chapel, and an old burial-ground 
still in use ; and at a small distance from Inish-Errich. 
is Eileun'n Tagart, otherwise Priests' isle, formerly the 
priests' residence. 

The parish also contains Loch Avich, anciently called 
Loch Luina, a prominent feature in the scenery, situated 
a little west of Loch Awe, and communicating with it by 
the Avich stream. It is of triangular form, measuring 
about eight miles along the entire line of its shores, and 
is well supplied with trout. The vicinity of this lake, 
which has a castle and several islands frequented by a 
great variety of water-fowl, was the scene of Cathluina, 
or the conflict of Luina, described in an ancient Celtic 
poem ; and one of its isles was the scene of another 
event, the subject of a poem called Laoi Fraoich, or 
"the Death of Fraoch." Many places, also, in the 
parish are named after some of the heroes of Ossian. 
Besides these lakes, contributing so largely to the embel- 
lishment of the scenery, there are several streams, 
tributaries of Loch Awe, flowing among numerous 
elevations and hollows, ornamented in some parts with 
good natural pasture, and in others with tracts of valu- 
able wood. 

The fertile banks of Loch Awe are well cultivated, 
producing good crops ; the mosses, covering a large 
space, are to some extent capable of improvement, and 
draining has lately been carried on in several places. 
The chief avocation of the inhabitants, however, is the 
rearing of black-cattle and sheep ; and the district 
is more distinguished for its imposing scenery than 
for agricultural operations. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £42S0. The rocks consist of 
mica, quartz, limestone, and whinstone. The mansion 
called Eridine House, and that named Sonachan House, 
are both situated within the parish. A manufactory for 
pyroligneous acid has been erected, in connexion with an 
establishment at Camlachie, near Glasgow. The parish 
is in the presbytery of Lorn and synod of Argyll, and 
in the patronage of the Duke of Argyll. The minister's 
stipend is £150, of which about a sixth is received from 
the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe of ten acres 
valued at £11 per annum. There are two churches, 
more than nine miles distant from each other : that of 
Kilchrenan was built in 1770, and is in good repair ; 
the church of Dalavich was erected a year later ; the 
one containing 280, and the other 242 sittings. The 
incumbent generally takes the services alternately, but 
occasionally preaches in both churches on the same Sun- 
day, though this is seldom practicable, the climate being 
rainy, and the roads very bad. The members of the 
Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial 

E 2 



KILC 



K I L C 



school at Kilchrenan affords instruction in the usual 
branches; the master has a salary of £17, with about 
£6 fees. He receives, in addition, £11. 10., of which 
£10 are the interest of a charge on the Marquess of 
Breadalbane's property, left for the education of poor 
children. There are also two parochial schools at Dala- 
vich : the masters have salaries respectively of £17. 4. 
and £17. 10., with £7 and £5 fees; they likewise 
receive £1. 15. and £1 from other sources. 

KILCONQUHAR, a parish, in the district of St. 
Andrew's, county of Fife ; containing, with the port 
of Earlsferry, the market-town of Colinsburgh, and the 
village of Barnyards, 2605 inhabitants, of whom 334 are 
in the village of Kilconquhar, 1| mile (N. by W.) from 
Elie. The lands of Kilconquhar belonged originally to 
the Lindesays, of whom Walter and William de Lindesay, 
brothers, occupied stations of importance in the reign 
of David I.; the latter became the head of the family, 
and one of his descendants was created Earl of Crawfurd 
in 139S. The property is now in the possession of Sir 
Henry Lindesay Bethune, a descendant of the family, who, 
for his services in Persia, was created a baronet. John, 
second son of David, eighth earl of Crawfurd, obtained 
the estate of Balcarres, in the parish, which, together 
with other lands, was erected into a barony in 1592 ; 
and his son, David, who was created Lord Lindsay, of 
Balcarres, founded a chapel at this place, in which he 
was interred. David's son, Alexander, who was the first 
earl of Balcarres, was a firm adherent of Charles II., 
whom he attended while in exile at Breda, where he died 
a short time before the Restoration, and whence his 
remains were brought home, and deposited in the family 
chapel. The estate is now in the possession of his 
descendant, Colonel James Lindsay. 

The parish, which derives its name from its situation 
at the head of a fresh-water lake, of which the Gaelic 
term is descriptive, is about nine miles in length, and 
two miles in average breadth ; it is bounded on the south 
by the Frith of Forth, and on the west by the bay of 
Largo, and comprises 5400 acres, of which 2300 are 
arable, 2000 meadow and pasture, and 1000 woodland 
and plantations. The surface varies greatly in elevation. 
From the south, where it is mostly fiat, the land rises 
gradually towards the north until it reaches the middle 
of the parish, in the hills of Reres and Kilbrachmont, 
which are points of a ridge extending from Kellie Law 
on the east, to Largo Law on the west, and having an 
elevation of more than 600 feet above the level of the 
sea. In the southern portion of the parish is the hill 
of Kincraig; and in the northern part is situated the 
hill of Dunikier Law, which has a height of 750 feet. 
From the summit of this hill is an extensive and varied 
prospect, embracing the estuaries of the Forth and the 
Tay, and, towards the north and west, the mountains of 
the counties of Perth, Angus, and Argyll. The craig of 
Balcarres commands a diversified view of the adjacent 
lands, in high cultivation, and beautifully wooded ; the 
towns on the coast, extending from Dysart to Crail, with 
numerous handsome mansions surrounded by planta- 
tions ; the Frith of Forth and the shipping in the har- 
bour ; the rich lands of East Lothian, the city of Edin- 
burgh, the hills of Linlithgow, Pentland, and Lammer- 
moor, and the German Ocean. The scenery of the parish 
is greatly enriched by the beautiful loch of Kilconquhar, 
which is about half a mile in breadth and two miles in 
28 



circumference, abounding with pike and eels, and fre- 
quented by numerous swans, teal, wild-duck, and other 
aquatic fowl. The banks are ornamented with planta- 
tions ; and from its proximity to the village, the whole 
forms an interesting and beautifully picturesque feature 
in the landscape. A small stream issuing from the lake 
falls into the sea at Elie. A burn, which in its course 
drives several mills, flows into Largo bay ; and some 
streamlets that rise in the northern portion of the parish 
join the river Eden. 

The soil, though generally fertile, varies considerably ; 
in the portions near the sea, it is a light loam intermixed 
with sand ; and in those more remote, a rich and deep 
loam producing abundant crops. The rotation plan of 
husbandry in its most improved state is practised, and 
the system of agriculture has been brought to great 
perfection ; the crops are, oats, wheat, barley, beans, 
potatoes, and turnips, with a small quantity of flax. 
Much attention is paid to the rearing of cattle, which 
are of the Fifeshire breed, with an occasional mixture 
of the Teeswater ; and in order to encourage improve- 
ment in this respect, the East Fife Agricultural Society 
hold annual meetings at Colinsburgh, for the distribution 
of premiums to the most successful competitors. The 
average number of cattle annually reared is 1500; and 
about 300 are fattened for the butcher. The number 
of horses employed in agriculture is 200, and an equal 
number are bred for sale ; the feeding of sheep, also, 
has been introduced to a considerable extent, chiefly of 
the Cheviot breed. The plantations are oak, ash, beech, 
plane, and larch. Some most valuable timber is found on 
the lands of Balcarres, in which are many trees of ma- 
jestic growth, more than two centuries old ; and in that 
part of the estate called the Den are about 100 acres, 
chiefly of hard-wood of great height, and which have 
been planted for above half a century. The farm- 
buildings are generally substantial and commodious, and 
roofed with slate ; threshing-mills are in use on the 
various farms, and several of them are driven by steam- 
engines, which have been recently introduced, and ap- 
pear to be on the increase. The lands have been much 
improved by draining ; and the fences, which are usually 
stone dykes, are kept in good repair. The rateable 
annual value of Kilconquhar is £10,998. 

The general coal formation extends throughout the 
whole of the parish ; and in its various sections are 
found basalt, greenstone, clinkstone, trap tuffa, amygda- 
loid, wacke, and porphyritic claystone, sandstone, shale, 
ironstone, and coal. The basalt is of a greyish black 
colour, and extremely hard, and is found in columnar 
groups of great beauty, on the south-west extremity of 
the parish. Kincraig Hill, ascending abruptly from the 
beach to the height of 200 feet, abounds with all these 
varieties, comprehending every species of trap forma- 
tion ; and Balcarres Craig, which rises from a deep 
ravine to a similar height, and is completely detached 
from all the surrounding hills, displays, near its summit, 
a beautiful specimen of columnar formation, of a dark 
blue colour, exceedingly close grained and hard, and 
which, though possessing the properties of felspar or 
clinkstone rock, is frequently supposed to be basaltic. 
The Balcarres coalfield comprises four distinct seams, 
two of which are splint, and two common coal. The 
seams of splint coal are respectively six and two feet 
thick ; and the seams of common coal, of which one is 



KILD 



K I L D 



subdivided by an intermediate layer of marl, are about 
three feet in thickness. Coal is likewise found at Lath- 
allan, Largoward, and Falfield, in the upper division of 
the parish, in which is also cannel coal of very superior 
quality. Limestone is not plentiful, but is found at 
Kilconquhar, Balcarres, and some other places ; and large 
boulders of greenstone, mica-slate, and granite occur 
along the sea-shore. The principal seats in the parish 
are, Balcarres, Kilconquhar House, Charleton, Lathallan, 
Falfield, and Cairnie, all handsome mansions, situated 
in tastefully-disposed and richly-embellished demesnes. 
The produce of the agricultural districts is more than 
requisite for the supply of the population, and large 
quantities are consequently conveyed to the neighbouring 
towns, with which an easy intercourse is maintained by 
turnpike-roads kept in excellent repair. The village of 
Kilconquhar is neatly built and pleasantly situated; the 
inhabitants are chiefly employed in agriculture, and in 
weaving for the manufacturers of Dundee and Kirk- 
caldy. The principal articles are checks, sheetings, and 
dowlas, in which about 230 persons are employed, of 
whom 120 are females, all working at handlooms in 
their own dwellings ; there is also a tannery, in which a 
few men are engaged. The parish, which formerly com- 
prehended the whole of the parish of Elie, and the barony 
of St. Monan's, both separated from it in 1639, is in 
the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife, and 
patronage of the Earl of Balcarres. The minister's sti- 
pend is about £300, with a manse, and a glebe valued 
at £27. 10. per annum. The church, erected in 1821, 
is a handsome edifice in the later English style of 
architecture, with a lofty tower, and is adapted for a 
congregation of 1030 persons. There is a chapel of ease 
at Largoward, built in 1S35, for the accommodation of 
the northern part of the parish ; the service is performed 
by a minister appointed by the presbytery. The parish 
also contains places of worship for members of the Re- 
lief, the Associate Synod, Independents, and Baptists. 
The parochial school, situated in the village of Kilcon- 
quhar, affords a liberal course of instruction ; the master 
has a salary of £34, with £60 fees, a house and garden, 
and the privilege of taking boarders. There is also a 
school at Largoward, to the master of which the heritors 
pay 100 merks per annum. Under Kincraig Hill is the 
picturesque and romantic cavern called Macduff's Cave, 
in which that thane, in his flight from the usurper 
Macbeth, is generally supposed to have concealed himself 
for some time. 

KILDA, ST., an isle, in the county of Inverness. 
This island, also called Hirta, is the most remote of the 
Western Isles : the nearest land to it is Harris, from 
which it is distant sixty miles in a west-south-west 
direction ; and it is 140 miles from the nearest point 
of the main land of Scotland. In length it is about 
three miles, from east to west, and in breadth two miles, 
from north to south. The whole island is fenced by 
one continued perpendicular face of l-ock, of prodigious 
height, with the exception of a part of the bay, or 
landing-place, lying towards the south-east, and even 
there the rocks are of considerable height. The bay is 
inconvenient ; and the tides and waves are so impetuous 
that, unless in calm weather, it is extremely hazardous 
to approach. The surface of the island rises into four 
high mountains, covered with a blackish loam, except 
at their summits, where is moss of about three feet in 
29 



depth ; but the soil is rendered fertile by the industry 
of the inhabitants, who manure their fields so as to con- 
vert them into a sort of gardens. There are several 
springs that form a burn running close by the village, 
which is situated about a quarter of a mile from the 
bay. The ordinary means of intercourse with the island 
is, by the packet from Dunvegan, in Skye, to Rodel, in 
Harris, and thence to the isle of Pabbay, at the extre- 
mity of the sound of Harris, whence a number of fisher- 
men make the voyage in large open boats. It is now- 
accessible, also, by steamers during summer, and is 
visited occasionally by revenue cruisers. 

KILDALTON, a parish, in Isi.ay district, county of 
Argyll, 14 miles (E. by S.) from Bowmore ; con- 
taining, with Port-Ellen and the late quoad sacra dis- 
trict of Oa, 3315 inhabitants, of whom 904 are in the 
village of Port-Ellen. This parish, which is supposed 
to have taken its name from one of the step-sons of the 
Macdonalds, who was buried in the church, is situated 
in the south-eastern portion of the isle of Islay, and is 
bounded on the north-east by the sound of Islay, and 
on the south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It is twenty- 
four miles in length and seven in breadth ; the number 
of acres has not been ascertained, and only a very small 
portion of the parish is arable. The surface is broken 
by a range of hills extending from south-west to north- 
east, and increasing in elevation towards the sound of 
Islay; of these, Benvigory and Mc Arthur's Head are 
the highest. To the north-west of the hills is a large 
extent of level ground, gradually coming into cultiva- 
tion ; and the valleys, which intersect the parish from 
east to west, are in general fertile, yielding good crops 
of oats, barley, and potatoes. There are numerous ex- 
cellent springs in various places, but no rivers of any 
importance; also several small lakes, in most of which 
arc found trout of large size, and in some pike. The 
coast extends for more than fifty miles ; it is in general 
low and rocky, and is indented with bays, of which 
the principal are, Port-Ellen, Lagamhulin, Lochknock, 
Lochintallin, Ardmore, Kenture, Aross, Claigean, Ard- 
tealla, and Proaig. The most prominent headlands are, 
Mc Arthur's Head on the north, Ardmore Point on the 
east, and the Mull of Oa on the south. In different 
parts, the rocks are perforated with caverns of romantic 
appearance, of which one is about 300 feet in circum- 
ference, and nearly 200 feet in depth : the sea flows 
into this cavern through two apertures, of which one 
is a lofty arch of considerable span, and the other a 
narrow fissure in the rock. There are also numerous 
small islands near the coast, the chief of which are, 
Texa, Ellan-nan-Caorach, Ellain-Imersay, the Arde- 
listers, and a cluster of islands in the bay of Ardmore. 

The soil is extremely various. The system of agri- 
culture is improving; and within the last few years 
considerable tracts of land have been brought into cul- 
tivation under the auspices of the proprietor, W. F. 
Campbell, Esq., of Islay, who has also formed planta- 
tions of large extent. These consist of oak, ash, fir, 
plane, horse-chesuut, and beech, which are all in a 
thriving state; and in the north-east of the parish are 
many acres of brushwood. Numbers of black-cattle of 
the native breed, and sheep, are reared in the pastures ; 
and great attention is paid to their improvement. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £4562. The 
principal substrata are, slate and granite, of which the 



KI LD 



K I L D 



rocks are composed, whinstone, and limestone ; and in 
some parts indications of ironstone are observed, with 
appearances of lead and copper ore ; but the slate and 
limestone only are wrought. A neat shooting-lodge 
has been recently erected by Mr. Campbell, in which 
he occasionally resides during the season. There are 
five distilleries, employing about forty persons. Fairs 
for black-cattle are held at Port-Ellen, in the beginning 
of June, Jul} 7 , August, September, and November; and 
a runner from the post-office at Bowmore conveys 
letters regularly to a receiving-house at Lagamhulin. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintend- 
ence of the presbytery of Islay and Jura and synod 
of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £158. 6. S., of 
which two-thirds are paid from the exchequer, with a 
gratuity of £5 from the heritor, a manse, and a glebe 
valued at £25 per annum ; patron, the Crown. The 
church, situated nearly in the centre of the parish, is a 
neat structure, erected in 1S16, and enlarged in 1830, 
and contains 600 sittings, all of which are free. A 
church has been built at Oa, in the south-west. The 
parochial school is well attended ; the master has a 
salary of £25, with a house and garden, and the fees 
average £10 per annum. A school is supported by the 
Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, who allow 
the master a salary of £16, with a house and some 
land ; and there is also a school, to the master of which 
the Gaelic Society pay £20. The poor have the interest 
of a bequest of £100 by Major McNeill. Near the 
ruins of the old church are two crosses of grey granite, 
one of which is richly ornamented with sculpture ; there 
are also remains of several churches, consisting chiefly 
of the roofless walls. Vestiges of ancient forts may be 
seen at the Mull of Oa, near Port-Ellen, and at the bay 
of Lagamhulin. The first is supposed to have been 
erected by the Danes, and was one of the last of the 
strongholds of the Macdonalds ; the fort near Lagam- 
hulin is called Dun-uaom-haig, and is thought to have 
been built by the Macdonalds. 

KILDONAN, a parish, in the county of Suther- 
land, 9 miles (N. W. by W.) from Helmsdale ; con- 
taining 256 inhabitants. This parish takes its name 
from Kil, a " cell or chapel," and Donan, the name of 
the saint who promulgated Christianit}' in this part, and 
whose memory has been handed down by tradition with 
great veneration. It is chiefly remarkable as having 
been, for several ages, the residence of the celebrated 
clan Gun. They are supposed to have descended from 
the Norwegian kings of Man; and Lochlin, the Gaelic 
name for ancient Scandinavia, or at least for Denmark, 
is still spoken of by the Highlanders as the native 
country of the Guns, the Macleods, and the Gillanders. 
The immediate ancestor of the Guns is said to have been 
the son of Olave, fifth Norwegian king of Man, who had 
three sons by his third wife, Christina, daughter of'Far- 
quhar, Earl of Ross. These were, Gun, or Guin, the 
founder of the clan Gun ; Leoid, Loyd, or Leod, 
from whom sprang the Macleods ; and Leaundris, the 
first of the clan Landers, or Gillanders, of Ross-shire, 
many of whom afterwards assumed the name of Ross. 
These several heads of clans appear to have been de- 
pendent on their grandfather the Earl of Ross, who at 
that time possessed great power and influence in differ- 
ent parts of the country, and especially in Caithness. 
In that county, Gun was originally settled ; and his 
30 



first stronghold was the castle of Halbury, at Easter 
Clythe, usually called Crowner Gun's Castle, and which 
was situated on a precipitous rock nearly surrounded by, 
and overhanging, the sea. The clan of Gun continued 
to extend their possessions in Caithness till about the 
middle of the fifteenth century, when, in consequence 
of their rancorous feuds with the Keiths and others, 
they thought it expedient to establish their chief, and 
a strong detachment of the clan, in the adjoining county 
of Sutherland, where, by the protection of the earls of 
Sutherland, they obtained, among other places, lands in 
the parish of Kildonan, which they held for a consider- 
able period. 

The parish is twenty-eight miles in extreme length, 
and varies in breadth from five to seventeen miles. 
It is bounded on the north by the parishes of Reay and 
Farr ; on the south by Clyne and Loth ; on the east 
by the county of Caithness ; and on the west by Farr 
and Clyne. This is altogether an inland parish. Its 
northern division is lofty, and marked by several high 
and massive mountains. The southern part consists 
of two parallel ranges of mountains, separated by the 
beautiful valley of Helmsdale, through which runs the 
winding river of the same name, which, after passing 
many verdant holms and hauglis, and some ornamental 
clumps of birch, falls into the German Ocean at the 
village of Helmsdale, in the parish of Loth. The moun- 
tain of Ben-Griam-more is nearly 2000 feet high, and, 
with the other lofty elevations, characterized by wide 
chasms, rent or worn by powerful torrents, gives to the 
scenery a wild and magnificent appearance. The upper 
district is remarkable for the number and size of its 
lakes, of which Loeh-na-Cuen, one of the largest, is 
adorned with two or three small islands and several 
winding bays. The waters abound with char and trout, 
and some of them are famed for angling. 

The soil of the haughs near the river is formed of 
deposits of mossy earth, with sand and decomposed 
rock : much of the uplands consists of tracts of moss, 
lying contiguous to the pastures. The entire parish is 
the property of the Duke of Sutherland, and has been 
from time immemorial part of the ancient earldom of 
Sutherland. Almost the whole of it is occupied with 
sheep-farms, which are in the hands of six tenants ; and 
the number of sheep grazed, all of the Cheviot breed, is 
estimated at 18,000. Previously to the year 1811, the 
land was let in small portions, and much attention was 
paid to the rearing of Highland cattle ; but between 
that period and 1821 the cattle gradually yielded to the 
introduction of Cheviot sheep. In consequence of this 
change, and the consolidation of the small farms, the 
population was diminished in numbers from 1574 to 
565 ; and it is now not half the latter number. There 
are two or three good roads in the parish, chiefly for 
local convenience. The principal communication of the 
people is with Helmsdale. The ecclesiastical affairs are 
directed by the presbytery of Dornoch and synod of 
Sutherland and Caithness ; patron, the Duke of Suther- 
land. The stipend is £158, of which £70 are received 
from the exchequer ; and there is a good manse, with a 
glebe of fourteen acres, in addition to which the minis- 
ter has the privilege of grazing sixty sheep. The church 
is a plain building, erected about 1740, and rebuilt in 
1786. There is a parochial school, the master of which 
has the maximum salary, and about £3 fees, with a 



K I L F 



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school-house. The remains of several circular or Pict- 
ish towers may still be seen in the parish, as well as 
numerous barrows or tumuli ; it also contains some 
mineral springs, supposed to have been anciently used 
for medicinal purposes. 

KILDRUMMY, a parish, in the district of Alford, 
county of Aberdeen, 6 miles (W. by N.) from Alford ; 
containing 627 inhabitants. This place, of which the 
name is of Gaelic origin, and signifies " the little burial 
mount," was distinguished for its castle, anciently the 
property of David, Earl of Huntington, and a seat of 
King Robert Bruce. It now presents a venerable ruin, 
situated on an eminence overlooking a rivulet that falls 
into the Don ; but was originally an extensive and 
strongly-fortified pile, consisting, according to tradition, 
of one stately circular tower of five stories, known as 
the Snow tower, in the western corner of the fabric, and 
of six other towers of different dimensions. The castle 
was besieged by Edward I. in 1306, when the wife of 
Bruce, his daughter, his two sisters, and the Countess of 
Buchan, had fled to it for refuge ; and it is supposed 
that they made their escape from it by means of a sub- 
terraneous passage, of which there are still traces. It 
was afterwards partly destroyed by fire, but, having 
been repaired, became the principal residence of the 
earls of Mar, to the year 17 15. Soon after the for- 
feiture of that family, the whole building was suffered 
to fall to decay. 

The parish is bounded on the north by that of Auch- 
indoir and Keai-n, on the east by the parishes of Forbes 
and Alford, and on the west and south by the parish of 
Towie ; it chiefly comprises a valley from two to three 
miles square, and is divided into two unequal parts by 
the Don, upwards of twenty miles from its source. The 
soil is a rich loam, and very fertile : the Kildrummy 
oats are well known as a light thin grain, having plenty 
of straw, and ripening earlier than most ordinary kinds. 
The general surface of the parish is undulated ; and a 
sandstone bed runs from north to south through it. A 
considerable extent of natural birchwood covers a bank 
overhanging the rivulet near the castle ; and there are 
plantations at Clova, Brux, and other places in the vale. 
Cattle-markets are held on the first Tuesdays in Febru- 
ary and May, O. S. On the edge of a romantic ravine, 
stands a mansion in the Elizabethan style ; and at 
Clova is another, in a more modern style of architec- 
ture. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2282. 
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence 
of the presbytery of Alford and synod of Aberdeen, and 
the patronage is vested in the Crown. The stipend of 
the minister is £159, of which about a third is received 
from the exchequer ; and there is a manse, with a glebe 
of six acres, valued at £10 per annum. The church is 
a plain edifice, erected in 1805. The parochial school 
affords instruction in the usual branches ; the master 
has a salary of £25. 13. 4., with a school and dwelling- 
house built in 1S22, and about £11 fees ; also a portion 
of the Dick bequest. Among the ruins of the castle are 
the remains of a chapel, which was used as a magazine 
for forage during the siege of 1306. Lord Elphinstone, 
who was slain at the battle of Flodden, and the Earl of 
Mar, attainted in 1715, were buried in the churchyard 
of the parish. 

KILFINAN, a parish, in the district of Cowal, 
county of Argyll, 30 miles (S. S. W.) from Inverary ; 
31 , 



containing 1816 inhabitants. The name of this place, 
signifying the " church or burial-place of Finan," is 
derived from a saint of the seventh century, a disciple of 
St. Columba, to whom the church was dedicated. The 
parish is situated in the south-eastern part of the 
county, and is girt by water in every direction except 
on the north. The west and north-west sides are 
bounded by Loch Fine ; the east by Loch Riddon and 
part of the Kyles of Bute ; and the southern point by 
the sea, which, by a channel three or four leagues across. 
separates it from the Isle of Arran. It extends longi- 
tudinally about seventeen miles, from north to south, 
and varies in breadth from three to nearly six miles, 
comprising 50,000 acres, of which 4000 are arable, 2500 
under natural wood, and plantations, and the remainder 
mostly hilly ground, fit only for the pasturage of sheep 
and cattle. The coast, which is of course of great 
extent, is in some parts a little rocky, but frequently 
varied and relieved by pleasant slopes, or level tracts of 
arable land ; and it contains numerous headlands and 
bays. Among the former, that of Airdlamont is the 
most prominent, situated at the southern extremity of 
the parish ; and the chief bays are, Kilfinan bay, below 
the church ; Achalick bay, two or three miles more 
southerly; and Kilbride bay, still nearer Airdlamont. 
In the north is a sand-bank, of beautiful appearance 
at ebb tide, and measuring, it is said, above a mile from 
its margin to its termination at low-water mark. 

The surface of the parish, though in general hilly, 
rises in no part to any remarkable height. The greatest 
eminences are those of a ridge, of moderate elevation, 
forming the boundary between Kilfinan and the parish 
of Kilmodan, commanding beautiful views of the Kyles 
of Bute and part of Loch Fine, as well as of some of 
the Hebrides, and displaying on their bosom an agree- 
able variety of pleasant valleys, ornamented with arable 
lands. There are four burns, of inconsiderable size, 
but increased by numei'ous tributaries, which, when 
swollen in rainy weather, rush down from the moun- 
tains with great rapidity and violence. The fresh-water 
lochs are two in number : they extend about half a mile 
in length, and between 300 and 400 yards in breadth, 
and, though not of large dimensions, contribute to 
improve the scenery, and supply abundance of the 
common yellow trout. The soil differs to a great ex- 
tent, according to the situation : that near the sea, on 
the more level ground, is a light fertile earth, somewhat 
sharp, resting on a fine gravelly subsoil, and, when well 
cultivated, produces excellent grass, as well as good 
crops of grain and potatoes. At some distance inland, 
upon the higher grounds, there is a mixture of moss 
covering extensive tracts, much of which is in tillage ; 
and the whole of this description of soil is thought 
capable of being brought under profitable cultivation by- 
good management. 

Agriculture is, however, in general, in a rather low 
condition. Many obstacles are presented by a variable, 
rainy, and stormy climate, and, in most places, a com- 
paratively sterile soil ; and all the crops, with the ex- 
ception of the potatoes, show the necessity for the 
introduction of still further improvements in the system 
of tillage. The arable land on some farms is barely 
sufficient to supply the tenant with food for his family, 
and provender for his cattle during the winter; and 
deficiencies in draining and inclosures are observable in 



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several directions. The larger tenants depend chiefly on 
their cattle and sheep. The sheep are generally of the 
black-faced breed, and of small size in consequence of 
the inferior character of the pasture, though latterly, by 
the construction of drains, and in other ways, attempts 
have been made to improve both the sheep and the 
cattle. The maintenance of the poorer tenants is in 
summer derived principally from the herring-fishing, in 
which most of them are engaged. The leases usually 
run only nine years, a circumstance unfavourable to the 
investment of capital for the improvement of the land. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £5546. The 
rocks consist chiefly of mica-slate, mixed with white 
quartz ; and whinstone is found, though in small quan- 
tities. Limestone is plentiful in the north, and is of 
good quality both for building and for agricultural pur- 
poses. Plantations are scattered in various directions, 
comprising oak, ash, larch, fir, and the other kinds 
common to the country ; and there are several oak cop- 
pices, which are cut for sale every twenty years. Birch, 
ash, and hazel are also found growing in coppices ; but 
they are entirely neglected. 

The parish contains several interesting mansions, the 
chief of which are, Airdlamont House, a plain structure, 
situated not far from the point of the same name, and 
ornamented with good plantations; Ardmarnock House, 
near Loch Fine ; Ballimore House, a neat and elegant 
residence, also near the loch ; and Otter House, on the 
bay of Kilfinan. All of these, except Otter House, have 
been built within the last few years. The only hamlets 
are the small clusters of tenements lying here and there, 
occupied by the farmers and cottars, and containing 
twelve or fifteen families each. The gunpowder manu- 
facture has been pursued here since the year 1839, 
and has recently been much extended, now employing 
upwards of thirty persons, and producing from 8000 
to 9000 barrels annually : the buildings are about 
six miles south of the church, near the Kyles of Bute. 
The herring-fishing on Loch Fine is prosecuted with 
activity ; and upwards of 100 boats belong to the 
parish, each requiring three men, and producing from 
£50 to £60 per annum, a sum, however, far inferior to 
that formerly obtained, and found barely sufficient to 
meet the heavy expenses. Salmon-fishing is also carried 
on, in the Kyles of Bute. A post-office was established 
at Kilfinan about the year 1840, and is subordinate to 
that at Cairndow, thirty miles distant, with which it 
communicates three times a week. The roads are all 
kept in repair by statute labour, and are generally in 
bad order. Tnere is a small pier at Otter Ferry, which 
was formerly an important point of transit for the 
people of this district of Argyllshire, in travelling to the 
low country; but since the use of steam-boats, it has 
been almost entirely neglected. Markets for cattle are 
held in May and October, near the ferry. 

Kilfinan is in the presbytery of Dunoon and synod 
of Argyll, and in the patronage of Archibald James 
Lamont, Esq. The minister's stipend is £200, with a 
manse, a glebe of four arable acres, valued at £8 per 
annum, and the privilege of grazing on an adjoining 
farm. The church is situated at a short distance from 
the head of Kilfinan bay, and, among other objects, 
commands a good view of Loch Fine, which, in this 
part, is five or six miles broad. It is a rather inconvenient 
edifice, low and narrow, supposed to have been built 
32 



about the beginning of the 1 7th century; it was tho- 
roughly repaired in 1759, and is at present undergoing 
further, and very considerable, alterations. An addi- 
tional church, situated at the south end of the parish, 
was opened in May, 1S39, and till lately was sup- 
plied by a missionary supported by contributions from 
the heritors and other parishioners. This church, which 
is eight miles distant from the parish church, was built 
by subscriptions from the district and various other 
quarters, aided by a grant of £174. 10. from the General 
Assembly's extension committee, making a total of £600, 
the cost of the edifice. The parochial school affords 
instruction in the ordinary branches, and in Gaelic ; the 
master has a salary of £34, with the legal accommoda- 
tions, but £6 of the salary are deducted, and divided 
between two branch schools. He also receives about 
£26 fees, and the interest of £95. 10., of which part 
was bequeathed for this purpose, about a century since, 
by a member of the Lamont family, and another part 
by John Lamont, Esq., in 1814. In addition to this 
school and its branches, in the upper district, there are 
three in the lower division, but all unendowed, with the 
exception of a grant of land to one of them by Mr. 
Lamont. On the border of one of the lochs stand the 
ruins of an ancient castle, a former residence of the 
Lamont family, which was destroyed by order of the 
Marquess of Argyll, in the reign of Charles II. The 
parish also contains several duns, consisting of rows of 
circular stones, generally on eminences ; and there are 
remains of numerous cairns. 

KILFINICHEN and KILVICEUEN, a parish, in 
the district of Mull, county of Argyll ; containing, 
with Iona, 4113 inhabitants, of whom 250 are in the vil- 
lage of Bonessan. This place takes its name from the 
churches of the two ancient parishes whereof it consists, 
the one in the district of Airdmeanach, and the other 
in that of Ross, by which latter appellation the whole 
parish is frequently designated. The parish, which is 
situated in the south-west portion of Mull, including the 
isles of Iona, Inniskenneth or Inch-Kenneth, and Eorsa, 
with several small islets, is bounded on the north and 
north-east by a ridge of mountains separating it from 
the parish of Torosay, on the south by an arm of the 
Atlantic, and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean itself. 
Exclusive of the isles, it is about twenty-four miles in 
length and thirteen in extreme breadth, comprising an 
area of nearly ISO square miles; and is divided into 
the four districts of Iona, Ross, Brolas, and Airdme- 
anach. Iona, which is separated from Ross by the 
sound of Iona, is three miles in length and almost one 
mile in breadth. Ross and Brolas are divided from 
Airdmeanach by Loch Scridain, and are each about 
twelve miles in length and from three and a half to 
seven miles in breadth ; and Airdmeanach, which joins 
Brolas at the upper extremity of Loch Scridain, is thir- 
teen miles in length, varying from three to six in 
breadth. The surface is hilly, and the lands generally 
are better adapted for pasturage than for the plough : in 
some portions the grounds are low and flat, consisting 
of heath, pasture, and arable land. 

Of the range of mountains that separate the parish 
from Torosay, the most conspicuous is Benmore, which 
has an elevation of 3097 feet above the level of the sea, 
commanding from its summit a most unbounded view 
of the numerous islands in this part of the Atlantic, the 



K I L F 



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whole of the circumjacent country, and Ireland in the 
distance. The promontory of Burg, also, at the western 
extremity of Airdmeanach, has a very considerable ele- 
vation, rising precipitously from the sea in an irregular 
series of basaltic columns. The island of Iona is des- 
cribed in a separate article. The island of Inniskenneth, 
which takes its name from Kenneth, a disciple and com- 
panion of St. Columba, who lived here in seclusion, is 
separated from the northern shore of Airdmeanach by a 
sound nearly half a mile wide ; it is a mile in length 
and about half a mile in breadth. It formerly belonged 
to the monastery of Iona, to which it was a cell ; the 
remains of the ancient chapel are in tolerable preserva- 
tion, and in the cemetery, which is still used as a place 
of sepulture, are numerous monuments. The remains 
of the cottage of Sir Allan Maclean, in which he hospi- 
tably entertained Dr. Johnson, when on a visit to the 
Hebrides, are also preserved here, The island is now 
the property of Col. Robert Macdonald, who has built 
a handsome mansion, in which he resides. Eorsa, to 
the north-east of Inniskenneth, is about a mile in length, 
and is the property of the Duke of Argyll ; it is very 
fertile, producing formerly good crops of grain, and still 
affording excellent pasturage for sheep, but it is uninha- 
bited. 

The sea-coast, including its numerous indentations, 
is not less than 100 miles in circuit; the shores are bold 
and rocky throughout the whole of its extent. On the 
south side of Ross is the creek of 1'ortuisgen, affording, 
in favourable weather, safe anchorage for vessels not 
exceeding thirty tons ; and in the sound of Iona are the 
creeks of Barachan and Poltairve, in which vessels of 
large burthen may ride. There is, however, a sand- 
bank nearly in the middle of the sound, to pass which, 
with safety, vessels must keep within one- third channel 
of the island of Iona. To the east of the sound is Loch 
Lahaich, which extends for about two miles into the 
district of Ross, and affords good anchorage for ships 
of considerable burthen. The whole of Loch Scridain 
forms a roadstead ; and at Kilfinichen, vessels of the 
largest size may find excellent anchorage, and secure 
shelter from all storms. The headland of Burg, and 
the entire north coast of Airdmeanach, are exceedingly 
dangerous, abruptly rocky, and without any harbour. 
There are numerous rivers, of which some, in their 
descent from the rocks, precipitously steep and cragged, 
form strikingly romantic cascades ; but none of them 
are of sufficient importance to require particular descrip- 
tion. 

The soil of the arable land is chiefly clay, alternated 
with sand, and, though in some parts fertile, is in others 
thin and light, and better adapted for spade husbandry 
than for the plough. The principal crops are, oats, 
bear, which is sold to the distillers of Oban and Tober- 
mory, potatoes, turnips, and other green crops. The 
cattle, of which great numbers are pastured on the hills, 
are of the Highland black breed ; and on the dairy- 
farms are a few cows of the Ayrshire. The sheep, for- 
merly of the small Highland breed, are now the Cheviots, 
of which large numbers are pastured. There are plan- 
tations at Kilfinichen, though not of any considerable 
extent ; and in the district of Airdmeanach is some na- 
tural wood, consisting of oak, ash, and beech ; but none 
of the trees have attained any great growth. The rocks 
are mostly of the trap and oolite formation, and many 
Vol. II.— 33 



of the cliffs are of basalt and greyvvacke. The substrata 
of the isle of Inniskenneth are red sandstone and lime- 
stone ; and on the south side of Ross, granite and 
micaceous schistus. Limestone is found at Carsaig, 
where, also, are some good quarries of freestone. Seve- 
ral indications of coal occur on the lands near the coast, 
and in the bed of a rivulet on the side of the mountain ; 
there are also favourable appearances at Brolas and 
Gribund, and the proprietor of Carsaig is now boring for 
coal with every prospect of success. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £4569. 

The principal mansions in the parish are Kilfinichen 
House, Pennycross House,and the house of Inniskenneth, 
the seat of Col. Macdonald, previously noticed. The 
only village is Bonessan, containing several shops wel 
stocked with various kinds of merchandise for the supply 
of the adjacent district : a post-office, subordinate to that 
of Aros, has been established here; and fairs for black- 
cattle are held on the Friday before the Mull markets in 
May and October. Facility of communication is afforded 
by numerous steam-boats, which, during the summer 
especially, convey visiters to the islands of Iona and 
Staffa. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the su- 
perintendence of the presbytery of Mull and synod of 
Argyll. The minister's stipend is £180. 10., with an 
allowance of £42 in lieu of manse, and a glebe valued at 
£15 per annum; patron, the Duke of Argyll. There 
are two churches, one at Bonessan, in the district of 
Ross, and the other at Kilfinichen, in Airdmeanach, both 
built in 1S04, and repaired in 182S, the former con- 
taining 350 sittings, and the latter 300. Divine service 
is performed for two Sundays at Bonessan, and on the 
third at Kilfinichen ; and a church has been erected in 
the island of Iona. There are also two parochial schools, 
of which the masters have respectively salaries of £30 
and £21. 6. 3., with fees averaging £S each, and a house 
and garden. A school is supported by the General As- 
sembly, who pay the master a salary of £22 ; and two 
Gaelic schools are maintained in the parish, the teachers 
receiving £20 and £15 respectively, with a house and 
garden each. These schools together are attended by 
about S00 children. 

KILLARROW, county of Argyll. — SeeKiLARROw. 

KILLEAN and KILCHENZIE, a parish, in the 
district of Cantyre, county of Argyll, 18 miles (N.N. 
W.) from Campbelltown ; containing 2402 inhabitants. 
The name of the first of these two ancient parishes, now 
united, is of doubtful origin, but is supposed to be de- 
rived either from Killian, a saint of the seventh century, or 
from a Gaelic term signifying a " river churchyard," in 
allusion to a rivulet forming the northern boundary, 
and, in union with a tributary stream, surrounding the 
site, of the church and burial-ground. Another saint, 
called St. Kenneth, is considered to have given name 
to Kilchenzie, and to have been the tutelar saint o 
that district. The present parish is situated on the 
western coast of the peninsula of Cantyre, and is 
eighteen miles in length, and about four and a half in 
breadth, comprising 51,840 acres, of which between 
5000 and 6000 are arable, several portions pasture, and 
the remainder, to a great extent, barren moors and wild 
mountains altogether incapable of cultivation. The 
coast is much varied. In many parts it is low and 
sandy, especially in the direction of the islands of 
Gigha, Cara, Jura, and Islav, which afford great protec- 

F 



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tioa against the fury of the waves. Farther south, it is 
more rocky and elevated ; and though neither harbour 
nor secure anchorage is to be found, for want of those 
arms of the sea which penetrate many Highland dis- 
tricts, yet the shores are marked by numerous head- 
lands, small bays, caves, and piles of rocks, serving to 
vary the uniformity of outline, and to create interesting 
scenery. The principal headland towards the north is 
Runahaorine point, consisting of a narrow neck of 
mossy land, stretching for about a mile into the sea, 
opposite to the north end of the island of Gigha, and, 
with a promontory in the parish of Kilberry, forming 
the entrance into West Loch Tarbert from the Atlantic 
Ocean. Bealochintie bay, more southerly, comprehends 
a circuit of nearly two miles, and has in its vicinity a 
projecting mass of rocks and stones of vast dimensions, 
overhanging the water. The sea is thought to have 
receded to a considerable extent. Traces of its ancient 
limits are evident in many places ; and among these 
especially is a strip of alluvial land, extending near the 
shore, throughout the whole line of coast, and bearing 
marks of its former subjection to the element. The in- 
habitants are, indeed, of opinion that this recession is 
still gradually going on. The sound between the main 
land and the islands of Gigha and Cara is rendered 
perilous by numerous sunken rocks ; and vessels ap- 
proaching the coast, having no harbour here, are often 
obliged, upon a change of wind, to retreat suddenly to 
Gigha, and wait for a favourable opportunity of return- 
ing. 

The surface of the interior is also considerably 
varied. The land gradually rises from the shore to the 
height of 700 or 800 feet, and exhibits several glens, 
and elevations of some magnitude, enlivened by small 
streams. The general scenery, however, is uninterest- 
ing, and is almost entirely destitute of natural wood. 
The hills range in a direction from north to south : the 
most conspicuous, on account of its height, is Beinn-an- 
tuirc, or " wild boar mountain," at the head of Glen- 
Barr, which rises 2170 feet above the level of the sea. 
The slopes of the hills towards the shore, for about 
half a mile, are well cultivated, and afford crops of 
grain, peas, and beans ; but beyond, the ground is 
dreary, bleak, and barren, consisting of lofty moors 
abounding with small lochs, and tracts covered with 
heath, coarse grass, and rushes. The soil varies very 
much in different parts, comprising clay, moss, loam, 
sand, and gravel ; but that which most prevails is a 
light gravelly loam. Near the sea the soil is very sharp 
and sandy. In most parts it has from time immemo- 
rial been plentifully manured with sea-weed. The 
crops comprise peas, beans, potatoes, oats, and bear, 
especially the last, which is cultivated in large quan- 
tities. Potatoes likewise form an important article ; 
they have been in great demand for seed since the 
opening of a communication with the English and Irish 
markets, and are the staple on which the tenants rely 
chiefly for the payment of their rents. The rotation 
system is in operation ; but the successful prosecution 
of this method of husbandry is much retarded by the 
want of subdivisions in the land, and the scarcity of 
good inclosures j and no little difficulty arises from 
the distance of the market, the farmers being compelled 
to cart their produce to Campbelltown. The cattle are 
of the black Highland breed, but small, and altogether 
34 



inferior ; the sheep are of the ordinary black-faced kind. 
Great efforts have been made for many years past to 
improve the breed of horses, and those used for agricul- 
tural and other purposes are now of superior condition. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £9532. 

The rocks consist principally of mica, quartz, limestone, 
and whinstone, which, in some parts near the shore, are 
varied with different admixtures. The district is bare of 
natural wood, the very small portion seen here being only 
brushwood, and in detached spots ; but within the last 
forty years, plantations of larch and other forest-trees 
have been formed to some extent, and are kept in good 
order. Great discouragements, however, operate against 
such improvements, for, though the soil is considered 
particularly suited to the growth of trees, the severity 
of the climate, the fury of the winds, and the sea air 
unite together to neutralize, to a considerable extent, 
the efforts of the planter. The chief seats are those of 
Largie and Glenbarr, the former an ancient family man- 
sion, and the latter a modern residence built in the style 
of a priory. The parish contains only two small ham- 
lets, and the great bulk of the population are cottars or 
day labourers, dwelling in very humble tenements, and 
but scantily provided with the necessaries of life. A 
few persons are employed in taking lobsters, which they 
send by the steamers to the Irish and Liverpool mar- 
kets j but the fine fish of the usual kinds abounding on 
the western coast, and the shoals of herrings passing by, 
are almost entirely neglected. Turf and peat are the 
ordinary fuel, obtained from a considerable distance, 
and with great labour. The public road from Inverary 
to Campbelltown passes through the district. An an- 
nual fair is held here regularly for the hiring of harvest 
servants. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Cantyre and synod 
of Argyll, and in the patronage of the Duke of Argyll : 
the minister has a stipend of £178, with a manse, and 
a glebe of nearly eight acres, valued at £10 per annum. 
There are two churches, the one erected in 17'S7, and 
the other in 1S26, containing respectively 650 and 750 
sittings. The parish contains two parochial schools, 
affording instruction in the ordinary branches : the 
master of the first school has £31. 6. salary, and a 
house and garden, and the master of the second, a salary 
of £20 ; the fees of both are about £15. A school is 
supported by the Society for Propagating Christian 
Knowledge, the master receiving a salary of £22, with 
a house, and two and a half acres of land, purchased by 
a bequest ; and another is maintained by the General 
Assembly's Committee, the master of which has £25 
per annum, with a house and a portion of k nd. The 
poor enjoy the interest of a bequest of £1000, made by 
Captain Norman Macalister, late governor of Prince of 
Wales' Island. Near the middle of the parish is the 
ruin of an old castle, said to have belonged to the Mac- 
donalds, lords of the Isles ; and in several places are 
tumuli, and circles of stones, usually called Druidical 
circles. 

KILLEARN, a parish, in the county of Stirling ; 
containing 1224 inhabitants, of whom 390 are in the 
village, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Drymen. The name of 
this place is supposed to have been derived from the 
compound Celtic term Kill-ear-rhin , signifying "the 
church of west point," which is descriptive of the situ- 
ation of the church near the western extremity of a 



KILL 



KILL 



mountainous ridge twenty miles in length, extending 
from Killearn to Kilsyth, and called Campsie Fells. 
The parish lies in the western district of the county ; it 
is twelve miles iu length, varies in breadth from two and 
a quarter to four miles, and comprises about 17,000 acres, 
of which 7000 are under tillage, 1140 in plantations, 
and the remainder pasture and waste. The river Endrick 
runs along the northern boundary, separating the parish 
from Drymen and Balfron ; and from this stream the 
surface gradually rises towards the south, where the 
mountainous ridge already referred to has an elevation 
of 1200 feet above the level of the sea. The intermediate 
lands comprehend, in succession from the river, first, a 
rich though narrow tract of alluvial soil on its banks ; 
secondly, an arable portion from one to two miles broad, 
on which are situated the village and church, and which 
from its commanding height, in some parts, of 500 or 
600 feet above the sea, affords extensive and beautiful 
prospects ; and, thirdly, a belt of pasture land a mile 
broad, which is followed by the lofty ridge, of trap rock, 
at the southern boundary. In the last-mentioned quarter 
are several semicircular excavations, formed in the 
western extremity of the range, and known by the 
name of Corries. Some of these measure a mile in dia- 
meter, and have a highly interesting aspect, from the 
variety of stone of which the rocks consist ; and in the 
same part of Killearn, where it joins Kilpatrick, is an 
artificial lake of 150 acres, formed as a reservoir for a 
supply, in dry seasons, to the Partick mills, situated on 
the Kelvin, near Glasgow. The Endrick is a turbid im- 
petuous stream, which is joined by the river Blane in 
the lower part of the parish, and flows in a western 
direction, for several miles, till it falls into Loch Lomond. 
There are also numerous rivulets and mountain streams, 
forming strikingly picturesque cascades in their precipi- 
tous courses through rocky fissures : the most romantic 
of these cascades is in the glen of Dualt, where there is 
a fall of sixty feet. 

The soil is various, but in general mossy ; in some 
places it is rich and fertile, and produces barley, abun- 
dance of oats, a little wheat, and good crops of potatoes, 
hay, turnips, and beans. The milch-cows, fat-cattle, 
English and Highland sheep, horses, and other live 
stock, kept or reared in the parish, are valued at £6000 
per annum. A large portion of the waste land is capable 
of being brought under the plough ; but little attention 
is paid to this circumstance, the extensive and effectual 
draining of the parts already under cultivation being 
found to answer better for the employment of capital. 
The estate of Killearn, especially, has received the ad- 
vantage of this kind of improvement ; and the pro- 
prietor, in 1S37, built a kiln, in which about 500,000 
tiles for draining are anuually made. The parish is not 
so forward as many others in scientific husbandry ; but 
much has been effected within the last thirty years, and 
the amount of produce has been doubled. The rateable 
annual value of Killearn now amounts to £6S50. The 
prevailing substratum is red sandstone ; but in several 
places are limestone and freestone, of which latter some 
quarries are in operation, the material being generally 
used for houses, but occasionally formed into mill- 
stones, though in little repute for durability. The 
higher parts of the mountains are trap rock, which is 
supposed, from the numerous fissures, to have been 
thrown up through the sandstone, in a state of fusion. 
35 



Coal, also, is said to exist ; but the numerous attempts 
to find it have all failed. The wood consists chiefly of 
young oak, which is cultivated for the sake of the bark, 
though, on account of the deteriorated value of this 
article, the firs and larch are beginning to receive more 
attention. The original plantations, comprising larch 
and the usual forest trees, were formed, about the begin- 
ning of the last century, by one of the Graham family, 
whose ancestors had possessed almost the whole parish ; 
and the late Mr. Dunmore, who, many years afterwards, 
projected turnpike-roads, and introduced the cotton 
manufacture and various rural improvements, encouraged 
also the planting of waste lands. In the vicinity of his 
residence at Ballikinrain, are some fine old yew-trees, of 
large bulk, and in a very thriving condition ; and near 
the old mansion-house of Killearn are beautiful speci- 
mens of oak and silver fir, of great height. On the last- 
named estate, an elegant seat has lately been erected, 
on the margin of the river Blane ; and there is a man- 
sion in the castellated style, at Carbeth, which, as well 
as several other neat residences of proprietors, is richly 
ornamented with wood. 

The village, traversed by the turnpike-road to Glas- 
gow, is built in an irregular straggling form. It is prin- 
cipally inhabited by families occupying small plots of 
ground, let on long leases by Sir James Montgomery 
about 1//0, with the privilege of building, which cir- 
cumstance has operated to produce a gradual increase 
of the population, previously to that year reduced by 
the consolidation of several small farms. There is a 
woollen-factory, in which the raw material, amounting to 
about 400 cwt. annually, passes through each process 
till made into cloth. A post-office has been established 
under Glasgow. The parish is in the presbytery of 
Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the 
patronage of the Duke of Montrose. The minister's 
stipend is £152, with a manse, built in 1S25, and a 
glebe of eight acres, valued at £12 per annum. The 
church was rebuilt in 1S26, and contains 500 sittings. 
The parochial school is situated in the village ; the 
master receives a salary of £31, with £8 in lieu of house 
and garden, and about. £10 fees. There is a mineral 
spring in the parish, one of the ingredients of which is 
lime, and which petrifies the moss growing near it. At 
a place called Blaressen Spout-head, marked by several 
erect stones, tradition asserts that a battle was fought 
between the Romans and Scots. George Buchanan, the 
celebrated historian, was born in 1506, at Moss, to the 
south of the church, in a farm-house occupied by his 
father, part of which remained till 1S12, when a modern 
edifice was erected on its site. An obelisk 103 feet high, 
after the model of that erected on the Boyne, in Ireland, 
in honour of the victory of William III., was raised in 
the village in 178S, by several gentlemen, in memory of 
this distinguished man. Napier of Merchiston, also, 
the inventor of logarithms, held property in Killearn, 
and resided for a considerable period in the adjoining 
parish of Drymen. 

KILLELLAN, Renfrew. — See Houston and Kil- 

LALLAN. 

KILLIERNAN, a parish, in the county of Ross and 
Cromarty, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Beauly ; con- 
taining 1643 inhabitants. This place is said to have 
derived its name from the circumstance of its having 
been the burial-ground of Irenan, a Danish prince, the 

F 2 



KILL 



KILL 



prefix Kill, signifying a chapel, church, or cemetery. 
On the northern boundary of the parish, a sepulchral 
monument called Cairn-Irenan still exists ; and it is 
probable that the Danes had a settlement here, or were 
often engaged in conflicts with the original inhabitants. 
Tradition states that two religious houses formerly 
existed in Killearnan ; but nothing certain is known 
about them, though the names of two hamlets, Chapel- 
town and Spital, give some authority to the assertion. 
More recently, the family of the Mackenzies, so well 
known in Scottish history, resided at Redcastle and 
Kilcoy. The three parishes of Killiernan, Kilmuir Wester, 
and Suddy were formed into two, in 1756, and the eccle- 
siastical stipends equally apportioned. The parish of 
Killiernan is between five and six miles long, and between 
two and three broad. It is bounded on the north by 
the parish of Urquhart ; on the south by the Frith of 
Beauly ; on the east by Kilmuir Wester and Suddy ; 
and on the west by the parish of Urray. The ground 
rises gently from the southern boundary to the top of 
Mulbuy on the north, where it has its greatest elevation. 
Along the shore it is smooth and level, and unbroken 
by bays or headlands. The water of the Frith is of a 
dark hue, from the large quantities of moss and mud 
brought into it by the river of Beauly. 

The soil varies considerably ; and very frequently, on 
the same farm, light loam, red and blue clay, and gravel 
succeed each other. Deep clay is common on the 
shore, and is here used as compost, and often for 
mortar in buildings. Many of the lands are covered 
with small stones, which require clearing every year ; 
and throughout the larger part of the parish, broom 
grows spontaneously, and, if left to itself, would shortly 
overspread the fields. The whole of the parish is the 
property of two families, whose estates are called Red- 
castle, and Kilcoy and Drumnamarg. The former com- 
prises 3796 acres, of which 1566 are arable, 577 pasture, 
and 1653 wood; the latter contains 3041 acres, of 
which 977 are arable, S82 wood, and 11S2 pasture. The 
crops consist of wheat, barley, oats, rye, clover, turnips, 
and potatoes ; and the rateable annual value of the 
parish amounts to £4275. Many agricultural improve- 
ments have been made ; and the lands, within the last 
twenty years, have assumed an entirely different appear- 
ance. The native heath and broom are gradually yield- 
ing to valuable crops of grain ; and the gratuity of £5 
allowed for the improvement of every Scottish acre, and 
the permission to enjoy it rent-free during the remainder 
of the current lease, have given an impulse to the ener- 
gies of the cultivator, the effects of which are conspi- 
cuous in every direction. The union of several small 
farms, and the building of good houses and offices, with 
inclosures, especially on the Redcastle property, have 
introduced superior tenants, and, with them, better 
means of cultivation ; and the encouragement afforded 
by the spirited proprietors in the parish bids fair to 
raise it, in a few years, to a level with the best culti- 
vated districts in the country. The farmers generally 
breed only the cattle necessary for ploughing, &c, on 
their own ground ; but at the close of harvest, they 
purchase young cattle, in considerable quantities, to 
consume their straw, and others for the purpose of 
fattening them upon turnips, with the sheep, in the 
winter, by which they make a considerable profit at the 
markets in the summer time. The substratum of the 
36 



parish is one continued bed of red freestone, which is 
easily prepared, and well suited to buildings of every 
description. A quarry of this stone has been wrought 
for some centuries, from which Inverness has been 
freely supplied, and from which the stones used in the 
locks of the Caledonian canal were taken. 

Formerly, each of the estates had a castle in which 
the proprietor resided. That on the Kilcoy estate is 
now in ruins ; but the mansion on the property of Red- 
castle, so named from the colour of the stone of which 
it is built, and formerly used as a place of defence, is 
in good and habitable condition. It is a large pile, 
surrounded with beautiful plantations, which occupy 
many hundreds of acres, and consist of oak, ash, birch, 
Scotch fir, and larch. In many other parts, also, the 
same trees are to be seen. There are two villages : Mil- 
town, a name common to many other villages in this 
district, is chiefly remarkable for its delightful situation, 
and its miniature likeness to a town ; and Quarry, 
deriving its name from the rock immediately behind it, 
consists of a line of neat cottages, extending along the 
base of a sandstone rock, which rises to the height of 
a hundred feet above the village, giving it a very sin- 
gular appearance. There is a corn-mill on each of the 
two estates, for the use of the parish. Two fairs, the 
staple horse-markets of the country, are held, the one 
in February, and the other in July. Facility of commu- 
nication is afforded by a good road from the ferry at 
Kessock to Dingwall, Invergordon, and Fortrose, the 
repairs of which are supported by a regular toll ; and 
there are two small vessels belonging to the parish, em- 
ployed in carrying timber and coal between Killiernan 
and Newcastle, in England. Ships, also, touch here, 
and land their cargoes on the shore at the eastern extre- 
mity of the parish, as there is no harbour. 

The ecclesiastical affairs arc directed by the pres- 
bytery of Chanonry and synod of Ross ; and the patron- 
age is vested in the Hon. Mrs. Hay Mackenzie. The 
stipend of the minister is £200, with a manse, built 
about a century ago, and repaired and enlarged a few 
years since. The glebe consists of about six acres of 
arable land ; and one-half, also, of the glebe of Kilmuir 
Wester has belonged to Killiernan since 1756. The 
church, which is built in the form of a cross, is very 
ancient, and of considerable dimensions. It was thatched 
with heather until about fifty years ago, when it was 
roofed with slate, and supplied with fresh seats ; it 
has been just again repaired, and is now a very com- 
fortable building. The members of the Free Church 
have a place of worship. There is a parochial school, 
in which Greek, Latin, English grammar, geography, 
and practical mathematics are taught : the salary of the 
master is £30, with a house, an allowance in lieu of 
garden, and about £8 fees. Another school is endowed 
by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge ; 
English, Gaelic, writing, and arithmetic are taught, 
and the master has £15 per annum, and a small house. 
There is also a female school supported by the same 
society. The chief relics of antiquity are, the ruins of 
Redcastle, and the cairn already referred to, supposed 
to have been raised to commemorate the murder of a 
Danish prince ; and in the vicinity of the cairn are 
remains of a Druidical temple. 

KILLIGRAY, an island, in the parish of Harris, 
district of Lewis, county of Inverness ; containing 



KILL 



KILL 



7 inhabitants. This is one of numerous isles in the 
sound of Harris] and lies a short, distance south of 
Ensay, and four and a half miles east of Bernera ; its 
length is about two miles, and its breadth one. The 
south end is a deep moss ; but the isle is verdant all 
over, and has in general a good soil, latterly well culti- 
vated. In the northern part, particularly, the ground 
is managed with care, and the crops are early. Here, 
however, as in the neighbouring isles, the inhabitants 
live chiefly by fishing and the manufacture of kelp. 
A temple to the goddess Annat, of Saxon mythology, 
who presided over young maidens, anciently existed on 
the island. 

KILLIN, a parish, in the county of Perth ; con- 
taining, with part of the late quoad sacra district of 
Strathfillan, 1702 inhabitants, of whom 426 are in the 
village, 8 miles (N. by W.) from Lochearnhead. This 
parish, which is situated within the Highland district of 
Breadalbane, extends from Loch Tay, on the east, to 
Loch Lomond, on the west ; and is about twenty-four 
miles in length, varying from five to nine miles in 
breadth, and comprising an area of 90,000 acres, of 
which 2500 are arable, 1000 woodland and planta- 
tions, and the remainder mountain pasture. The sur- 
face is strikingly diversified with ranges of lofty moun- 
tains interspersed with deep and richly-wooded glens 
and fertile valleys, and enlivened with numerous streams 
descending from the heights, and, after a devious course 
through the lower lands, forming tributaries to the rivers 
that intersect the parish. The highest of the moun- 
tains is Benmore, which has an elevation of 3900 feet 
above the level of the sea ; it rises from the plains of 
Glendochart in a conical form, and the whole of the 
range which reaches to the head of Loch Lomond dis- 
plays a character of romantic grandeur not surpassed in 
any part of the Highlands. The range of Craig Chail- 
leach, ascending abruptly from the lands of Finlarig, 
near the western extremity of Loch Tay, and richly 
wooded from its base nearly half way to its summit, 
extends westward to the vale of Glenlochay, forming, from 
the intervals between its several points of elevation, an 
apparent succession of forts. The hills, also, though of 
very inferior elevation, still rise to a considerable height, 
and, clothed with verdure to their summits, afford ex- 
cellent pasturage for sheep and cattle. 

Among the principal valleys is Glendochart, spreading 
to the westward for nearly ten miles, and watered by 
the river Dochart, which, issuing from a lake of that 
name within the glen, passes through a tract of roman- 
tic beauty into Loch Tay. The valley of Strathjillan 
extends for almost eight miles, in a similar direction, to 
the borders of the parish of Glenorchay, and is enlivened 
by the river here called the Fillan, which flows into the 
lake in Glendochart, and, issuing thence, is for the 
remainder of its course designated the Dochart. The 
valley of Glenfalloch, branching off to the south from 
that of Strathfillan, reaches to the confines of Dumbar- 
tonshire, and is watered by the river Falloch, which 
runs into Loch Lomond. The braes of Glenlochay, in 
which the river Lochay has its source, extend for about 
fourteen miles from the village of Killin, towards the 
west, in a direction nearly parallel with Glendochart, 
from which they are separated by a chain of hills called 
the Mid hills ; they are partly in the parishes of Ken- 
more and Weem, and form a rich and fertile district, 
abounding with romantic beauty. The scenery of the 
37 



parish, indeed, almost in every point, is marked with 
features of interesting character. The streams which 
issue from the heights make pleasing and picturesque 
cascades in their descent ; and the rivers that flow 
through the lower lands, in various places obstructed in 
their course, fall from considerable heights with great 
effect. The cataracts on the Dochart near the village, 
and those of the Lochay about three miles distant from 
it, are strikingly romantic ; and those of the latter, 
where the stream is obstructed by the rocks which in- 
tersect the glen, are considered equal in beauty to the 
falls of the Clyde. 

The soil, though generally light and dry, resting on 
a substratum of limestone, is in some places wet and 
marshy, particularly in the valleys of Glendochart and 
Strathfillan, rendered so by the occasional inundation 
of the rivers. The crops are, oats, barley, potatoes, and 
turnips ; but the principal resource of the farmers is 
the pastures, which in many parts are luxuriantly rich. 
The sheep, of which more than 30,000 are annually fed, 
are chiefly of the black-faced breed, with a few of the 
Leicestershire and South-Down, which are kept on the 
lands of the proprietors. The cattle, of which 1200 are 
pastured, are of the West Highland breed, with some of 
the Ayrshire on the dairy-farms. Considerable improve- 
ments are gradually taking place in the system of hus- 
bandry; draining has been extensively practised, under 
the assistance and encouragement of the proprietors ; 
the farm houses and offices, though usually of inferior 
description, are giving way to others of more commo- 
dious construction ; and it is in contemplation to deepen 
and embank the rivers. The plantations are for the 
greater part of recent formation, and are in a thriving 
state. They consist chiefly of Scotch, silver, and spruce 
fir, and larch ; and the natural woods, which were for- 
merly much more extensive, especially in the higher parts 
of Strathfillan, are oak, ash, mountain-ash, birch, elder, 
hazel, and hawthorn. At Finlarig are some yew-trees, 
and a plane supposed to be 300 years old ; specimens 
of holly and laburnum are also frequent, and the dis- 
trict abounds in interesting botanic specimens. Lime- 
stone of a greyish colour, and of crystalline formation, 
is plentiful, and there are veins of trap and greenstone ; 
lead-ore is also abundant, and some mines of it are at 
present in operation at Tyndrum, where a large crush- 
ing-mill has been recently erected. Cobalt, containing 
sixty ounces of silver in one ton of ore, is found ; and in 
Craig-Chailleach is a rich vein of sulphuret of iron. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £1S, 137. 

The principal seats are, Kinnell, for centuries the 
baronial residence of the Mc Nabs, and now the property 
of the Marquess of Breadalbane, finely situated on the 
river Dochart ; Finlarig Castle, formerly the seat of the 
Breadalbane family, an ancient structure at the north- 
west extremity of Loch Tay, near which is the family 
mausoleum, embosomed in woods of venerable growth; 
Auchhjne House, occupied, during the shooting season, 
by the Duke of Buckingham ; Glenure, the seat of T. H. 
Place, Esq., the only resident proprietor, beautifully 
seated on the banks of the Lochure, near Benmore ; 
Auchmore, a handsome mansion belonging to the Bread- 
albane family ; and Borland, romantically situated in 
the woods of Glenlochay. The village of Killin stands 
at the head of Loch Tay, near the confluence of the 
rivers Dochart and Lochay ; and the environs abound 
with romantic scenery. It is irregularly built, and a 



KILL 



KILM 



few of the inhabitants are employed in the carding and 
spinning of wool, for which there is a mill ; there are 
several shops for the sale of various kinds of merchandise 
and wares, and an excellent inn. A branch of the 
Central Bank of Scotland, and a savings' bank, have 
been established ; there is a daily post to and from the 
south of Scotland, and a post three days in the week 
to Kenmore and Aberfeldy. Fairs are held on the 
third Tuesday in January, for general business ; the 
first Tuesday in May, also for general business, and on 
the 12th for cattle ; on the 27th of October, for cattle ; 
and the first Tuesday in November, O. S., for general 
business. Facility of communication is maintained by 
good roads, and bridges over the several rivers, all kept 
in excellent order; one road communicates with Loch Lo- 
mond, where, during the summer, a steamer plies daily. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Weem and synod of Perth 
and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £240. 19. 5., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £13 per annum; 
patron, the Marquess of Breadalbane. The church, 
erected in 177-1, and repaired in 1S32, isaneat structure 
conveniently situated, and containing 905 sittings, of 
which fifty are free. A church was erected towards the 
close of the last century, on the lands of Strathfillan ; 
and at Ardeonaig is a mission under the Society for 
Propagating Christian Knowledge, for which a church 
was built by the late Marquess of Breadalbane, at an 
expense of £600. The latter church contains 650 
sittings, and the minister has a stipend of £60, of which 
one-half is paid by the marquess, and the other by the 
society ; he has also a manse, and a glebe of seventeen 
and a half acres, valued at £12 per annum. The mem- 
bers of the Free Church have a place of worship ; and 
there are small congregations of Baptists and Indepen- 
dents, who assemble in a room, but have no regular 
minister. The parochial school is attended by about 
eighty children ; the master has a salary of £34, with 
a house and garden, and the fees average £10 per annum. 
Three schools are supported by the Society for Propa- 
gating Christian Knowledge, the masters of which have 
salaries varying from £15 to £1S, with a house, and 
land for a cow, in addition to the fees. Two schools, 
also, are endowed by the Marchioness of Breadalbane, 
in one of which, at Killin, ten boys and fifty girls are 
instructed gratuitously by the master, who has a salary 
of £20, with a house and garden ; the girls are also 
taught sewing and knitting. In the village is likewise 
a school for young children, to the mistress of which the 
marchioness gives a house and garden rent-free. 

The parochial library contains a collection of about 
300 volumes, principally on religious subjects ; and the 
Breadalbane Philanthropic Association furnishes a sup- 
ply of Bibles and school-books to the poor at a very 
reduced cost. The poor are supported partly by the 
liberality of the Breadalbane family, who allow, almost 
to each, a house and garden rent-free, with the liberty 
of cutting peat, and distribute annually among them 
meal to the amount of £40, and a supply of clothing at 
Christmas. In Loch Dochart are some remains of one of 
the seven towers built by Sir Duncan Campbell, and which 
■was, during a frost, taken by the Mc Gregors, who, ap- 
proaching on the ice, put the whole of its inhabitants 
to death ; and in the possession of Mr. Sinclair, tenant 
of Inverchaggarnie, are the powder-horn, and a gold 
brooch, worn by the celebrated Rob Roy Mc Gregor. 



The same gentleman has also an old rifle which belonged 
to the Mc Nabs ; it is four feet in length with an octago- 
nal bore, and in the stock is a recess for holding a sup- 
ply of bullets. A spot near the village of Killin, with- 
in what was once the site of the ancient churchyard, is 
pointed out as the grave of Fingal. The present transla- 
tion of the Bible into the Gaelic language was commenced 
by the Rev. James Stewart, minister of this parish, who 
died in 1789, having at that time translated the New 
Testament ; the remainder was performed by his son, 
Dr. Stewart, of Luss, who was born here. Dr. Dewar, 
principal of Aberdeen, and eminent in literature and 
theology, is also a native of the parish. 

KILLOCHYETT, a hamlet, in the parish of Stow, 
county of Edinburgh, 5 a mile (N. N. W.) from Stow.; 
containing 42 inhabitants. It lies in the south-eastern 
part of the parish, near the confluence of the Cock- 
ham rivulet with the Gala water, and on the high road 
from Stow to Middleton. 

KILMADOCK, a parish, in the county of Perth, 
9 miles (N. W.) from Stirling ; containing, with the 
late quoad sacra parish of Deanston and part of that of 
Norrieston, the town of Doune, and the villages of 
Buchany and Drumvaich, 4055 inhabitants. This place 
derives its name from the dedication of its ancient church 
to St. Madocus or Madock, one of the Culdees, who 
lived here in sequestered solitude. It is sometimes called 
Doune, from the removal of the parochial church to the 
town of that name. The parish, which is situated in the 
western part of the county between the Ochil and the 
Grampian hills, includes a considerable portion of the 
old stewartry of Monteith, and is about twelve miles in 
length and nearly of equal breadth, comprising an area 
of 51,200 acres, of which a large part is waste. The sur- 
face is varied with hills, of which the most conspicuous 
is Uamvar, or Uaighmor, commanding an extensive and 
richly-diversified prospect over the adjacent country ; 
and the lands are intersected with numerous small vales. 
The ground rises from the river Forth, which bounds 
the parish on the south, by a regular and gradual ascent, 
to a great elevation ; and on the acclivity of Uaighmor 
is a large cavern, said to have been, till the year 1750, 
infested with bands of robbers. The river Teith rises 
in two streams, of which one flows through the Lochs 
Katrine, Achray, and Vennachar, and the other passes 
by the braes of Balquhidder, and runs through Lochs 
Voil and Lubnaig : above Callander they form one 
stream, which intersects the parish, and falls into the 
Forth about two miles above Stirling. The river Ardoch 
issues from Loch Maghaig, and, uniting with the burn 
of Garvald, joins the Teith below the castle of Doune. 
The river Kelty bounds the parish on the west, and 
flows into the Teith at Cambusmore : and the Annat, or 
Cambus, which makes some picturesque cascades near 
the site of the old mansion of Annat, and has formed a 
deep glen in the solid rock, called the Caldron Linn, 
runs into the Teith at the ancient church of Kilmadock. 
There are two considerable lakes in the parish, Loch 
Watston, on the lands of Gartincaber, and Loch Maghaig, 
in the braes of Doune, each of circular form, and about 
a mile in diameter. Numerous springs flow from the 
sides of the Grampians, and from the acclivities of 
Uaighmor. Near the burn of Garvald is one issuing 
out of the solid rock, in the form of a spout ; the water 
is supposed to possess mineral qualities, but has not 
been fully analysed. 



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The soil is exceedingly various ; near the Forth, a fine 
carse clay ; on the rising grounds to the north, rich 
garden mould ; upon the south bank of the Teith, a tilly 
loam, but on the north bank less productive, being 
alternated with sand. The soil around Doune, being 
enriched with the manure of the town, is luxuriantly 
fertile. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, beans, peas, 
potatoes, and turnips, with rye-grass, flax, and clover. 
The system of agriculture has recently been much im- 
proved ; and considerable tracts of waste land have been 
rendered fertile, and brought into profitable cultivation, 
by the adoption of the Deanston plan of thorough-drain- 
ing introduced by Mr. Smith, of that place. The farm- 
buildings have also been much improved, and are in 
general substantial and commodious. The catte a re 
principally of the Highland black breed, for which the 
pastures are better adapted than for sheep, of which few 
only are kept, and these chiefly on the braes of Doune, 
and on the moors of Lanrick and Cambusmore. There 
is little wood of native growth ; but plantations have been 
formed on the lands of the Earl of Mora}', to whom one- 
third of the parish belongs, and on the pleasure-grounds 
of Cambusmore and Newton, which are celebrated by 
Scott in his Lady of the Lake. The mansions are, Doune 
Lodge, Gartincaber, Lanrick Castle, Cambusmore, New- 
ton, and Argaty. Doune is a post-town, and the 
cotton manufacture is carried on extensively at Dean- 
ston, besides which there are several villages in the 
parish, all noticed under their respective heads. Fa- 
cility of communication is afforded by good roads ; and 
a suspension-bridge has been thrown over the river 
Teith, at Lanrick, under the superintendence of Mr. 
Smith, of Deanston. The rateable annual value of 
the parish is £1S,200. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Dunblane and synod of 
Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £28S. 7., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £7 per annum ; 
patroness, Lady Willoughby de Eresby. The ancient 
church of Kilmadock was, with, the exception of the 
eastern gable, taken down in 17^4, and a church erected 
at Doune, which is now the parish church ; it is a hand- 
some structure in the later English style, and is seated 
for 1121 persons, but. capable of holding a congregation 
of 1400. On the opening of the church, a service of 
communion-plate was presented by William Mitchell, 
Esq., of Jamaica, a native of the town of Doune. A 
church has been erected at Deanston ; and there are 
places of worship for members of the Free Church, the 
United Secession, the Congregational Union of Scotland, 
and Wesleyans. The parochial school, for which a hand- 
some building was erected in 1830, by the heritors, at 
a cost of £257', is well conducted, and attended by about 
seventy children; the master has a salary of £34, with 
a house and garden, and the fees average £40 per 
annum. There are several other schools in the parish, 
of which two are partly endowed, together affording 
instruction to about 600 children. 

KILMAHOG, a village, in the parish of Callander, 
county of Perth, 1 mile (N. W. byW.) from Callander; 
containing 116 inhabitants. It is situated in the south- 
eastern part of the parish, and on the road from Doune 
to Lochearnhead, the principal road to the Western High- 
lands. On the west and south flows a stream issuing 
from Loch Lubnaig, and which, uniting with a rivulet 
39 



from Loch Vennachar, forms the Teith. The village, the 
only one besides Callander in the parish, is beautifully 
seated on a plain ; and in its vicinity is Leney House, 
the property of the Buchanan family. 

KILMALCOLM, a parish, in the Lower ward of the 
county of Renfrew, 4 miles (S. E. by S.) from Port- 
Glasgow ; containing 1616 inhabitants, of whom 377 
are in the village. This parish, which is situated on the 
Frith of Clyde, is about six miles in length and nearly 
of equal breadth. It comprises 25,000 acres, of which 
S000 are arable land in a state of profitable cultivation, 
to which might be added 1000 more ; about 250 natural 
wood and plantations; 6000 moorland in undivided 
common ; and 10,000 pasture and waste. The surface 
is gently undulating, rising from the bank of the Clyde, 
and in various parts relieved by tracts of ornamental 
planting, which add much to the beauty and variety of 
the scenery. The village has an elevation of nearly 400 
feet above the level of the sea, and commands an exten- 
sive and interesting view of the surrounding country, 
embracing the Frith, which skirts the parish for nearly 
four miles. The rivers Gryfe and Duchal, which have 
their source in the western confines, after intersecting 
the parish, unite their streams, and flow into the river 
Cart, which falls into the Clyde at Inchinnan. These 
streams abound with trout, and, towards the close of the 
year, with salmon, which come up from the Clyde to 
spawn. The soil is in general light and unproductive, 
and consequently a very small proportion is under culti- 
vation : the system of husbandry is, notwithstanding, 
considerably improved ; and with due encouragement, 
a great part of the waste lands might be reclaimed. 
The farm-buildings are also improving in their style ; 
and the crops of grain are favourable, and equal in qua- 
lity those of any other parish. Great numbers of sheep 
and cattle are fed on Duchal moor, which comprises 
nearly 6000 acres of undivided common ; the cattle are 
generally of the Ayrshire breed. Some improvement 
has taken place in draining and inclosing the lands ; 
but the fences are badly made, and indifferently kept. 
The rocks with which the parish abounds are of granite, 
and frequently extend to a great depth ; but few mine- 
rals of any value have been found. The rateable an- 
nual value of Kilmalcolm is £9025. 

The seats are, Duchal, a handsome modern mansion, 
well situated, and embellished with thriving planta- 
tions ; Carruth, a substantial and elegant residence, with 
a tastefully-planted demesne; Finlayston, a modern man- 
sion, commanding an extensive view of the Clyde ; and 
Broadfield. The village is neatly built; there are three 
mills for grinding oats and barley; and acirculating library 
has been formed, with every probability of its being well 
supported. The public roads are convenient, and are 
kept in good repair. The parish is in the presbytery of 
Greenock and the synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and patron- 
age of Dr. Anderson ; the minister's stipend is £246, 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16 per annum. The 
church, which is situated in the village, and has been 
rebuilt within the last few years, is adapted for a con- 
gregation of 1000 persons. There are places of worship 
for Baptists and Reformed Presbyterians. The paro- 
chial school, also situated in the village, is well attended ; 
the master has a salary of £34, with £10 fees, and a 
house and garden. John Knox, the celebrated Reformer, 
dispensed the sacrament at Finlayston House, then oc- 



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cupied by the family of the Earl of Glencairn. On this 
occasion the wine was put into the hollow of the lower 
parts of two candlesticks of silver, which, while that 
family remained at Finlayston, were regularly used in 
the church ; but, upon their removal from the parish, 
they were exchanged for four cups of gilt copper, by 
the countess, who took the candlesticks away with her. 
The lords Lyle, as well as] the earls of Glencairn, had 
property anciently in the parish ; and several members 
of the two families are interred in the cemetery of the 
church. 

KILMALIE, a parish, partly in the district and 
county of Argyll, and partly in the county of Inver- 
ness ; containing, with the village of Fort- William, and 
the quoad sacra district of Ballichulish, 5397 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 2741 are in the county of Inverness. 
The wide district comprehending the present parishes 
of Kilmalie and Kilmonivaig anciently formed one parish, 
under the appellation of Lochaber ; but the two places 
were separated about the middle of the seventeenth 
century. The parish of Kilmalie is supposed to have 
derived its name from the dedication of its church to 
the Virgin Mary. During the rebellion in 1745, it suf- 
fered in some degree from the devastations of the royal 
forces, who, after their victory at Cullodeu, encamped 
at Fort-Augustus, whence they sent detachments to 
Lochaber; and a party of troops was finally stationed 
at the head of Loch Arkaig, to check the movements of 
the clan Cameron, whose chief, Locheil, had joined the 
Pretender. The parish is about sixty miles in length 
and thirty miles in extreme breadth. The surface is 
mountainous and wild, and is deeply indented with 
lakes, and diversified with, ravines, which, when they 
intervene between the higher mountains, are narrow and 
precipitous, and when between those of inferior eleva- 
tion, assume more the appearance of valleys. The 
mountain of Ben-Nevis, to the east of Fort-William, 
the loftiest in the country, has an elevation of 4370 feet 
above the level of the sea, commanding from its summit, 
which is difficult of ascent, a most unbounded and mag- 
nificent prospect. The summits of most of the higher 
mountains are perfectly sterile, and have a dreary aspect; 
and in the clefts on the north-east, snow in a frozen 
state is found at all times. 

The principal inlets from the sea, in the parish, are, 
Loch Linnhe, in the south-west, reaching along the 
shores of Ardgour to the entrance of Loch Eil ; Loch 
Leven, branching from Loch Linnhe towards the east, 
about ten miles to the south of Fort-William, and ex- 
tending for almost twelve miles between the mountains 
of Glencoe and Lochaber ; and Loch Eil, stretching in 
a north-eastern direction to Fort-William and the Cale- 
donian canal, and then taking a north-western direction 
for nearly ten miles towards Arisaig. The only inland 
lake wholly within the parish is Loch Arkaig, situated 
among the mountains, and skirted by the military road 
from Fort-William by Corpach ferry. This lake is 
about sixteen miles in length and a mile broad ; and 
near one extremity is a densely-wooded island, which 
has been for ages the burying-place of the family of 
Locheil and their chieftains. Loch Lochy, on the line 
of the Caledonian canal, and about a mile and a half to 
the east of Loch Arkaig, is chiefly in the parish of Kil- 
monivaig, but extends for nine miles into this parish. 
The valley between these two lakes abounds with ro- 
40 



mantic scenery. The river Lochy, issuing from the lake 
of that name, forms a confluence with the Spean at 
Mucomre Bridge, constituting, for about eight miles, 
a boundary between the parishes of Kilmalie and Kil- 
monivaig ; and after receiving the river Nevis, which 
descends from Ben-Nevis in an impetuous torrent form- 
ing a magnificent cascade, it flows into the sea at Fort- 
William. The Lochy abounds with salmon, which are 
taken in great quantities, and sent to the London market ; 
and herrings of small size, but of excellent quality, cod, 
whitings, haddocks, and flounders, with various other 
kinds of fish, are found in the lake. A considerable 
quantity of salmon, also, is packed in tin boxes, her- 
metically sealed, at Corpach Ferry, and forwarded to 
India. There are commodious bays at Corran-Ardgour, 
where is likewise a ferry ; at Eilan-na-gaul ; and at 
Camus-na-gaul, near the south entrance of the Caledo- 
nian canal, opposite to Fort-William. There is also a 
ferry on the Lochy, where are good quays on both banks 
of the river, and where, from the great intercourse with 
Fort-William, about two miles distant, a substantial 
bridge would afford very desirable accommodation. 

The quantity of arable land in this extensive parish 
is very inconsiderable. Some attempts to reclaim por- 
tions of waste, and bring them under cultivation, have 
recently been made, and the result has been such as to 
encourage further efforts ; but the people at present are 
chiefly dependent on the rearing of sheep and cattle, and 
on the fisheries. The soil on the coast, and along the 
shores of the rivers, is tolerably fertile, but in other 
parts sandy and shallow ; the chief crops are oats and 
potatoes, of which latter great quantities are raised. 
The sheep-farms are well managed, and considerable 
attention is paid to the rearing of cattle, for which the 
hills afford good pasture ; both the sheep and cattle are 
sent to the Falkirk trysts, where they find a ready sale. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £S079. The 
rocks are mostly gneiss and mica-slate, and there are 
extensive beds of quartz and hornblende. At Balli- 
chulish is a quarry of slate, which has not yet been much 
wrought ; and at Fassfern is a quarry of good building- 
stone, from which were raised materials for the con- 
struction of the Caledonian canal, and the quay at Fort- 
William. In the mountain of Ben-Nevis are found 
large detached masses of grey granite, weighing from 
ten to forty tons. The ancient woods, which were very 
extensive, have been partly cut down ; but there are 
still remaining great numbers of venerable oaks, and 
firs of luxuriant growth. Extensive plantations, also, 
have been formed on the lands of the principal pro- 
prietors, and are all in a thriving state. Achnacarry, 
the seat of Cameron of Locheil, is an elegant modern 
structure, built of materials found near the spot. Ard- 
gour, the seat of Colonel Mc Lean, is a handsome man- 
sion of more ancient style, but recently repaired and 
enlarged ; it is pleasantly situated near Corran Ferry, in 
gi-ounds tastefully laid out, and enriched with planta- 
tions. Callart, the seat of Sir Duncan Cameron, of 
Fassfern, Bart., is beautifully situated on the banks of 
Loch Leven. The only villages in the parish are, Balli- 
chulish and Fort-William, both of which are described 
under their respective heads, and Corpach, near the 
south extremity of the Caledonian canal, where the 
parish church is situated, and where a post-office has 
been established. Facility of communication is afforded 



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by steamers twice in the week during the summer, and 
once during the winter, between Inverness and Glasgow. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Abertarif and synod of 
Glenelg. The minister's stipend is £287. 15. 8., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £60 per annum ; patron, 
Cameron of Lochiel. The church is a neat plain struc- 
ture, erected in 17S3, at a cost of £440, and contains 
1000 sittings, all of which are free. A church has been 
erected at Fort- William, where are also an episcopal and 
a Roman Catholic chapel ; and there are two churches 
in the quoad sacra district of Ballichulish. The mem- 
bers of the Free Church have a place of worship. The 
parochial school, situated at Fort-William, is well con- 
ducted ; the master has a salary of £34, with a house 
and garden, and the fees average £45. Three schools 
are supported by the Society for Propagating Christian 
Knowledge, who allow the masters a salary of £17 each, 
with a house and garden ; and there is also a female 
school, at Fort-William, of which they give the teacher £8. 
A school is supported by the Gaelic School Society, who 
allow £20 per annum for the gratuitous instruction of 
fifty children ; and there is a school on the grounds of 
Achnacarry, near the mansion, of which the teacher 
receives £10 per annum from Mrs. Cameron. At the 
western extremity of the parish is a monument, erected 
on the spot where Prince Charles Edward first un- 
furled his standard for the gathering of the clans, in the 
rebellion of 1/45. In the churchyard is a monument to 
the memory of Colonel John Cameron, of Fassfern, of the 
92nd Highland regiment, who was killed at the battle of 
Waterloo. Evan Mc Lachlane, of the grammar school 
of Aberdeen, an eminent scholar, who translated part of 
Homer's Iliad intoGaelic verse, was a nativeof this parish. 
KILMANY, a parish, in the district of Cupar, 
county of Fife ; containing, with the village of Rathil- 
let, 659 inhabitants, of whom 5S are in the village of 
Kilmany, 5 miles (N. by E.) from Cupar. This parish, 
of which the name is supposed by some writers to sig- 
nify " the church of the monks," and by others " the 
church of the valley," is situated in the north of the 
county, and forms part of a rich and fertile vale, encom- 
passed by the range of the Ochil heights, by one branch 
of which it is separated from the river Tay. It is about 
five miles in length, and one in average breadth, and 
comprises 4477 acres, of which 200 are woodland and 
plantations, and the remainder arable and in good cul- 
tivation. The surface is diversified with hills, of which 
the highest has an elevation of about 400 feet above the 
level of the sea ; the scenery is generally pleasing, being 
partially enriched with plantations, and in some parts 
picturesque. An aperture in the hill of Kilmany forms 
a romantic glen, called Goales Den, which has been 
finely planted. Several of the hills, also, have been 
covered with thriving plantations ; and on those that 
separate the parish from the Tay are some rich woods 
through which walks have been cut, affording beautiful 
views of the river, the Carse of Gowrie, and the hills of 
Angus. The plantations are of larch, fir, beech, and 
ash, interspersed with a few oaks; the most ancient 
timber is found in the grounds of Mountquhanie, Loch- 
malonie, and Rathillet, the proprietors of which estates 
have contributed greatly to the improvement of their 
lands. The valley is watered by the river Motray, which 
has its source in the height called Norman Law, from 
Vol. II.— 41 



opposite sides of which descend two small streama : 
these unite their waters on the confines of the parish, 
to make the Motray, and, flowing near the base of the 
eminence whereon the church is built, run into the 
river Eden. The Motray, though but an inconsiderable 
stream, frequently in winter overflows its banks. A 
small rivulet called the Cluthie, which rises within the 
parish, after a course of about a mile falls into the Motray 
below the church ; and there are also two small burns 
which, flowing through the pasture lands, add much to 
their fertility. The climate is temperate, and the air salu- 
brious; and the inhabitants generally are of robust, health. 
The soil is good, and the system of agriculture 
improved ; draining has been practised with success ; 
lime has been long used with advantage, and within the 
last few years bone-manure has been introduced. The 
crops are, wheat, barley, oats, peas, potatoes, and turnips. 
The sheep are principally of the Leicester, Cheviot, and 
Highland breeds, of which 1000 are annually fed ; the 
cattle are of the Old Fife breed, with an occasional mix- 
ture of the Teeswater, and on an average about 200 
head are reared and fed in the parish. No horses are 
reared, except for agricultural purposes. The lands are 
but very imperfectly inclosed; and there is still great 
room for improvement in the fences and plantations, 
which are comparatively on a limited scale. The sub- 
stratum of the hills is mostly trap rock or whinstone ; 
in some places of a dark blue colour, and extremely 
brittle ; and in others of a reddish white, and not very 
easily worked. This stone is occasionally quarried for 
building, but generally for the roads, and for the con- 
struction of drains and dykes. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £7937. Mountquhanie, Kilmany 
Cottage, Lochmalonie House, Hill-Cairnie, and Rathillet 
House are all handsome mansions, pleasantly situated. 
The village consists of a few cottages, the residence of 
such as are not employed in agriculture, and who carry 
on the pursuit of weaving, at their own homes, for the 
manufacturers of Dundee and Cupar : many of the 
females are also employed in weaving during the winter. 
There are three corn-mills, seventeen threshing-mills, 
and a saw-mill, the last employed in converting inferior 
timber into staves for barrels, of which great numbers 
are sent to Leith and other places connected with the 
herring-fishery. The roads are good ; and there are 
tolerable facilities of intercourse with the neighbouring 
market-towns, of which Cupar is the nearest. The 
parish is in the presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife, 
and in the patronage of the United college of St. An- 
drew's ; the stipend is £225. 7- 11., with a manse, and 
a glebe valued at £30 per annum. The church, situated 
on rising ground overlooking the river Motray, is a 
plain edifice erected in 1768, in good repair, and adapted 
for a congregation of about 350 persons. There is a 
place of worship for the United Associate Synod. The 
parochial school is at Rathillet, nearly in the centre 
of the parish ; the master has a salary of £34, with 
£17 fees, and a house and garden. Two other schools, 
for younger children and for girls, are supported by 
Mrs. Gillespie, and Mrs. Thomson, of Charleton ; the 
teachers have each an allowance of £10 per annum, with 
a house and garden, and the fees. The late Rev. Dr. 
John Cooke, professor of divinity in the university of 
St. Andrew's, and the Rev. Dr. Chalmers, were ministers 
of this parish. 

G 



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Bureh Seal. 



KILMARNOCK, a burgh 
of barony and a parish, in the 
district of Cunninghame, 
county of Ayr ; containing 
1 9,956 inhabitants, of whom 
17,S46 are in the burgh, 12 
miles (N. N. E.) from Ayr, 
and 22 (S. W. by S.) from 
Glasgow. This place, which 
is of great antiquity, derives 
its name from the foundation 
of a church by St. Marnoch, 
an eminent apostle of Chris- 
tianity, who flourished in the fourth century, and to 
whose memory many churches in various parts of the 
country have been dedicated. The lands, at an early 
period, were part of the possessions of the ancient 
family of the Boyds, descendants of Simon, brother of 
Walter, the first high steward of Scotland, and of whom 
William, the ninth lord Boyd, was created Earl of Kil- 
marnock in 1661. The castle of Dean, the baronial re- 
sidence of the earls of Kilmarnock, was destroyed by an 
accidental fire in 1/35. In 1745, William, the fourth 
earl, having joined in the rebellion, was taken prisoner 
at the battle of Culloden, and sent to London, where he 
was beheaded in 1746 ; and the title and estates became 
forfeited to the crown. This place, originally a small 
hamlet depending solely on the baronial castle, which 
now forms an interesting ruin, gradually acquired im- 
portance from the introduction of various manufactures, 
for which the abundance of coal in the vicinity, and its 
facilities of water-carriage, rendered it peculiarly appro- 
priate ; and in 1592, it had so far increased in popula- 
tion and extent as to obtain from James VI. a charter 
erecting it into a burgh of barony. In 1S00, an acci- 
dental fire, originating in some thatched buildings in the 
lower part of the town, spread with amazing rapidity 
to the houses on both sides of the street, which was 
nearly destroyed. 

The town is pleasantly situated in the south-western 
part of the parish, on a stream called the Kilmarnock 
water, about half a mile above its influx into the river 
Irvine, and over which are five substantial bridges, 
affording facility of communication. The streets in the 
older portion of the town are narrow and irregularly 
formed, but in the central portion of it, spacious and 
well built, consisting of handsome houses of freestone, 
of which many are of elegant aspect ; and towards the 
south and east, in which directions the buildings have 
been greatly extended, are numerous pleasant villas, 
which add much to its appearance. Considerable im- 
provements have recently taken place ; the streets are 
well paved, and lighted with gas from works erected by 
a company of £10 shareholders, established in 1S23; 
and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. A 
public library, having an extensive collection of volumes 
on general history and literature, is supported by sub- 
scription ; and there is a good library attached to the 
mechanics' institution. A handsome structure called 
the Exchange buildings, containing a commodious read- 
ing and news room, was erected in IS 14, and is under 
the management of a committee of directors ; there is 
also a newsroom for tradesmen, well supplied with daily 
journals and periodical publications. Two weekly news- 
papers are published in the town; the Kilmarnock 
42 



Journal, which has been established for many years, 
and has an extensive circulation ; and the Ayrshire 
Examiner, which is of more recent date. The first 
manufacture carried on here was that of the broad 
fiat bonnets originally worn by the peasantry, and of red 
and blue caps called the Kilmarnock cowls, which was 
the chief trade till about the middle of the 18th century. 
The manufacture of carpets, however, was subsequently 
introduced, and soon became the staple trade of the 
place, for which it is still celebrated, the weaving of 
carpets of every variety of pattern and texture being 
carried on to a great extent, and affording employment 
to 1200 persons. The principal kinds are, Brussels, 
Venetian, Turkey, and Scotch carpets, for the finest 
specimens of which premiums were, in 1831, awarded 
by the commissioners to the manufacturers of this 
place, to the amount of £210. The value of the carpets 
made annually in the town is estimated at £150,000. 
About 1200 persons, too, are engaged in the manufac- 
ture of worsted and printed shawls, of which more than 
1,250,000 are sold every year, estimated at £230,000 : 
this trade, which was introduced in 1824, also affords 
employment to 200 printers. The number of bonnets 
annually made, the manufacture being still carried on, 
is about 20,000 ; and 2400 pairs of boots are made 
weekly, of which three-fourths are exported. There are 
also extensive tanneries and establishments for the 
dressing of leather, in which nearly 150,000 sheep and 
lamb skins are annually prepared. 

Considerable improvements in machinery have been 
made by Mr. Thomas Morton, of this town, which have 
been adopted in the carpet factories with great advan- 
tage ; and the same gentleman has also built an obser- 
vatory, and furnished it with telescopes of a very supe- 
rior description, made under his own inspection, and 
for which he has established a large manufactory. A 
handsome piece of massive plate was, in 1826, presented 
to Mr, Morton by the inhabitants of the town, in ac- 
knowledgment of his having so eminently contributed 
to the prosperity of their manufactures. There are also 
manufactories for machinery of all kinds, tobacco, can- 
dles, hats, hosiery, and saddlery, in all of which an ex- 
tensive trade is carried on ; and numerous handsome 
shops in the town are amply stored with various kinds 
of merchandise. Several branch banks have been opened ; 
the principal is that of Ayr, for which an elegant build- 
ing has been erected. The market days are Tuesday 
and Friday, on both of which business is transacted to a 
very great extent ; and fairs are held on the second 
Tuesday in May, for cattle ; the last Thursday in July, 
for horses, black- cattle, and wool ; and the last Thurs- 
day in October, for horses. The post-office has a good 
delivery ; and facility of communication is maintained 
by excellent roads, of which the turnpike-road from 
Glasgow to Portpatrick passes through the town, and 
several others through different parts of the parish. In 
addition to the bridges across the Kilmarnock water, 
there are two over the river Irvine, which bounds the 
parish on the south, communicating respectively with 
the town. The Kilmarnock and Troon railway, the 
first public railway formed in Scotland, was commenced 
under nn act passed in 1808, with a view to connect the 
port of Troon, on the coast near Ayr, and the collieries 
in the neighbourhood, with the town of Kilmarnock and 
the north-eastern part of Ayrshire. It is nine and three- 



KILM 



K I L M 



quarter miles in length, and was opened in 1S12, at a 
cost of £50,000, and, throughout the whole line, which 
has a double way of flat rails, is worked by horses. An 
act was obtained in 1837, to enable the company to 
raise a further sum of money, and alter and amend the 
line by converting it into an edge railway ; but it has 
not been acted upon, except to improve the line as a 
tram-road. The line of the Glasgow, Paisley, Kilmar- 
nock, and Ayr railway separates near Dairy, into two 
branches, of which one runs direct to Kilmarnock ; this 
branch is about eleven miles in length, and was opened 
on the 4th of April, 1843. 

The government of the burgh, under the charter of 
James VI., confirmed by charter of Charles II. in 1672, 
is vested in a provost, four bailies, a treasurer, dean of 
guild, and eleven councillors, chosen under the provi- 
sions of the Municipal Reform act, and assisted by a 
town-clerk, who is appointed by the Duke of Portland, 
superior of the burgh. There are five incorporated 
trades, viz., the skinners, tailors, weavers, bonnet- 
makers, and shoemakers, the fees for admission into 
which vary, for sons of burgesses from 10s. to £2. 2., 
and for strangers from £1. 1 1. 6. to £7. Persons hold- 
ing leases under the Duke of Portland are privileged to 
carry on trade in the burgh. The magistrates exercise 
the usual civil and criminal jurisdiction ; the municipal 
are less extensive than the parliamentary boundaries, 
which include the village of Riccarton, on the opposite 
bank of the Irvine. Bailie-courts are held for the deter- 
mination of civil actions to any amount, in which the 
town-clerk acts as assessor; there is also a convener's 
court, in which debts not exceeding 6s. Srf. are recover- 
able, and the jurisdiction of the dean of guild is exer- 
cised by the bailie-court. The criminal jurisdiction is 
confined chiefly to cases of assault and police matters, 
all weighty offences being transmitted to the sheriff of 
the county. The burgh is associated with those of 
Dumbarton, Port-Glasgow, Renfrew, and Rutherglen, 
in returning a member to the imperial parliament ; the 
number of qualified voters is 612. The town-hall, a 
handsome building two stories high, and crowned with 
a campanile turret, was erected in 1S05, and contains 
the several courts, and apartments for the transaction 
of the public business of the burgh. 

The parish is about nine miles in extreme length 
and four in breadth, comprising an area of nearly 9000 
acres, of which by far the greater part are arable. The 
surface slopes gently from the river Irvine, and is pleas- 
ingly diversified with wood : the Kilmarnock water, 
which rises in the upper part of the parish of Fenwick, 
intersects the parish, and flows into the Irvine. The 
soil is generally fertile, and the lands are under good 
cultivation, producing excellent crops of oats, wheat, 
barley, beans, potatoes, and turnips ; the system of hus- 
bandry is in a highly-improved state ; the lands have 
been well drained, and inclosed with hedges of thorn ; 
and the farm-buildings are substantial and well ar- 
ranged. The pastures are rich, and great attention is 
paid to the management of the dairy-farms, on which 
cows of the Ayrshire breed are kept ; about 12,000 
stone of cheese are annually produced, and abundant 
supplies of milk for the use of the town. The sheep 
bred on the pastures are of the black-faced and Cheviot 
breeds ; the cattle, of which 400 are annually reared, 
are of various breeds ; and the horses, of which a few 
are reared for agricultural use, are the Clydesdale. 
43 



Coal is found in abundance, and ironstone in sufficient 
quantity to remunerate the establishment of works. 
Freestone occurs in several places, in seams ten feet 
thick ; and near Dean Castle is a bed forty feet thick, 
of a fine white colour, and well adapted for buildings of 
the higher class. Coal-mines are in operation on the 
lands of the Duke of Portland, affording employment to 
about 300 men, and producing annually 90,000 tons of 
coal, of which 30,000 are consumed in the parish, and. 
the remainder sent by the Kilmarnock and Troon rail- 
way for exportation. Fire-bricks, for which clay of 
good quality is found in abundance, are made in great 
quantities on the lands near Dean Castle. The princi- 
pal mansion in the parish is Crawfurdland Castle, an 
ancient structure in the early English style of architec- 
ture, of which the central portion was erected by the 
present proprietor ; it is beautifully situated to the 
north-east of the town, and the older part of the build- 
ing is remarkable for its strength and solidity. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £37,570. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Irvine and synod of Glas- 
gow and Ayr. The old, or Laigh, parish church is 
collegiate, and under the care of two ministers, whose 
stipends are £150 each, with a manse and glebe; the 
glebe of the minister of the first charge is valued at 
£30, and that of the second at £12 per annum; patron, 
the Duke of Portland. The former church, with the 
exception of the tower and spire, was taken down in 
consequence of an alarm excited by the falling of some 
plaister from the ceiling in 1801, which, creating a 
panic in the minds of the congregation, produced a 
simultaneous rush to escape, in which many lives were 
lost. It was rebuilt in 1802, and repaired in 1S31 at an 
expense of £1200, and contains 1457 sittings. The 
High church, to which a district of the parish, con- 
taining 3237 persons, was till lately annexed, was erected 
in 1732, by subscription, at a cost of £1000 ; it is a 
handsome structure in the Grecian style, with a tower 
eighty feet high, and has 902 sittings. The minister's 
stipend is £150, with £50 in lieu of manse and glebe. 
Henderson church, to which also was attached a quoad 
sacra district, with a population of 2377, is a neat edi- 
fice, recently erected. There are places of worship for 
members of the Free Church, the United Secession, 
Original Burghers, Original Seceders, the Relief, Re- 
formed Presbyterians, Independents, and Wesleyans. 
The Academy, a spacious building, erected in 1 807, at the 
joint expense of the heritors and the burgh, is under 
the superintendence of a committee of fifteen directors, 
of whom five are nominated by the town-council. There 
are a classical master, who has a salary of £34, with a 
house and garden ; and an English master and commer- 
cial master, each of whom has £ 1 5, (without either house 
or garden,) in addition to the fees, which are fixed by 
the directors. The academy is attended by more than 
300 pupils. There are branch schools at Rowallan and 
in the barony of Grongar, the masters of which have 
houses and gardens in addition to the fees, and nume- 
rous other schools throughout the parish, in which, col- 
lectively, above 2000 children receive instruction. The 
dispensary was established in 1S27, and is supported by 
subscription ; it is gratuitously attended by most of the 
medical practitioners, and administers extensive relief 
to the sick poor. There are also numerous benefit and 
friendly societies, and a savings' bank in which are 

G2 



KILM 



KILM 



many depositors. The late Mrs. Mary Cunninghame 
bequeathed £200, and John Mac Nider, Esq., £40, in 
trust to the minister of the High church, to be lent out 
in small sums, and the interest given to the poor. 
Rowallan Castle, about three miles to the north-west 
of the town, for many generations the seat of the barons 
of Rowallan, is a very ancient structure, and is sup- 
posed to have been the birthplace of Elizabeth More, 
first wife of Robert, high steward, and afterwards king 
of Scotland, as Robert II. : the more modern portion 
was built about the year 1560. It is beautifully situ- 
ated, and surrounded with plantations ; but the whole 
is passing rapidly into decay. The former Soules Cross, 
a rude stone pillar about nine feet high, surmounted 
with a gilt cross, was erected to the memory of Lord 
Soules, an English nobleman, who was killed on the 
spot by an arrow from one of the Boyds, of Kilmar- 
nock, in 1444. A handsome fluted column, supporting 
a vase, was placed in a niche in the wall surrounding 
the churchyard, in 1825, in lieu of the old cross : on the 
pedestal is an appropriate inscription referring to Lord 
Soules' death. The Earl of Errol bears the title of 
Baron Kilmarnock. 

KILMARONOCK, a parish, in the county of Dum- 
barton, 1 mile (W. by S.) from Drymen ; containing 
931 inhabitants. The name of this place signifies "the 
cell, chapel, or burial-place of St.Marnoch." The parish 
is beautifully situated on the southern bank of the 
river Endrick, and on Loch Lomond, and is about five 
miles in length and three in mean breadth. The sur- 
face rises in some places to 500, and in others to 1000, 
feet above the level of the sea : the highest parts are, 
the range of hills on the west, commonly called Mount 
Misery ; Duncruin, in the centre ; and the elevation 
towards Dumbarton moor, on, the south. The lands 
are, however, mostly in tillage, the quantity of hill or 
moorland being very inconsiderable. Numerous planta- 
tions, hedge-rows, and natural wood adorn the parish ; 
and it is watered by several springs and rivulets, and by 
the river Endrick, along which commodities are con- 
veyed in flat-bottomed craft, as far as from Drymen 
bridge to Loch Lomond, a distance of nearly eight 
miles. It contains pike, perch, eels, trout, and other 
fish. The best land in the parish lies along the banks 
of this river, the soil being deep and rich, and pro- 
ducing excellent crops, though exposed, in rainy sea- 
sons, to injury from sudden and violent floods. The 
soil in the higher parts is damp and tilly, and at length 
degenerates into a sterile moss. Several impediments 
depending upon the peculiar locality have retarded the 
advance of the improved system of husbandry, which 
has been for some time introduced. In spite, however, 
of every obstacle, a spirit of industry and enterprise 
prevails, which is leading to many considerable changes. 
Above 660 acres arc under wood. On the moorland 
grounds, about 500 sheep are reared, which are all of 
the black-faced or Highland breed ; and a few of the 
Cheviots and Leicesters are kept on the lower grounds. 
The cattle are of the Argyllshire and the Ayrshire 
breeds, to the improvement of which considerable atten- 
tion is paid. The fences are in general thorn hedges or 
stone dykes, which are, in many parts, in very bad con- 
dition. The rocks in the parish principally consist of 
red or grey sandstone ; and limestone of good quality 
is also found. The rateable annual value of Kilmaro- 
nock is £~444. 
44 



The chief seat is Baturrich Castle, finished about 
twelve years ago, and which is built on part of the ruin 
of the ancient castle of the same name, upon rising 
ground about half a mile from Loch Lomond ; it com- 
mands a very fine view of the lake, studded with its 
numerous wooded islands, and also of the whole vale of 
Leven to the river Clyde. Ross Priory, which is situ- 
ated on the south-east bank of Loch Lomond, is about 
two miles from Baturrich ; it is beautified with some very 
handsome trees. Catter House is an old mansion, seated 
on an eminence near Drymen bridge, on the river En- 
drick, and occupied by the factor of the Duke of Mon- 
trose, who is the principal heritor in the parish. There 
are two annual fairs, one for horses, at Craftammie, on 
the second Tuesday in February, and the other chiefly 
for milch-cows, at. the farm of Ardoch, on the last 
Thursday in April. The road from Dumbarton to Dry- 
men passes through the parish, as well as the Drymen 
and Glasgow road. There is a bridge across the En- 
drick, an old structure of four arches, situated at the 
boundary of the parish, on the road to Drymen. The 
ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of 
Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; patron, 
the Duke of Montrose. The stipend of the minister is 
£200, with a manse, and a glebe of seven acres, valued 
at £1 1 per annum. The church was built in 1813, and 
is in good repair ; it contains 400 sittings, but, on ac- 
count of its situation near the northern extremity of the 
parish, it is found inconvenient for a great part of the 
population. There is also a Relief meeting-house. The 
parochial schoolmaster has £31 per annum as his salary, 
with a house, and about £26 fees. A parochial library 
was instituted in 1838, and is under the management of 
the Kirk Session. 

KILMARTIN, a parish, in the district and county 
of Argyll, 7 s miles (N. N. W.) from Lochgilphead ; 
containing 1233 inhabitants. This place, which is sup- 
posed, like many olhers, to have derived its name from 
the founder of its ancient church, formed part of the 
possessions of the Campbell family, of whose baronial 
residence, Duntroon Castle, there are still considerable 
remains. The parish, which is bounded on the north- 
east by Loch Awe, on the north-west by Loch Craignish, 
and on the south-west by Loch Crinan, is about twelve 
miles in length and three and a half in breadth, com- 
prising 24,530 acres, of which 3456 are arable, 400 
meadow, 1200 woodland and plantations, and the re- 
mainder rough pasture and waste. The surface, to- 
wards the north-east, for some miles along the shore 
of Loch Awe, rises abruptly from the margin of the 
lake to an elevation of 1000 feet, from which it descends 
precipitously in the direction of Loch Craignish, form- 
ing a continuous ridge of hills, of which the highest, 
Benvan, adjoining the hill of Kilmartin, is 1200 feet above 
the level of the sea. The beautiful valley of Kilmartin 
extends from within a mile of Loch Awe, for nearly 
three miles, towards the west, between lofty hills ascend- 
ing perpendicularly from their base. Not far from its 
termination at the village, it expands into a level plain 
almost 6000 acres in extent. Throughout the windings 
of the vale may be traced the channel of a large river, 
through which the waters of Loch Awe anciently dis- 
charged themselves into the bay of Crinan ; and in 
several parts are terraces rising to a height of fifty or 
sixty feet above the level of the valley, supposed to have 
been formed by the river in its course. 



KILM 



K I L M 



The soil is generally a light friable mould, alternated 
in some parts with tracts of greater depth and fertility ; 
the chief crops are, oats, bear, and barley, with turnips 
and potatoes, for which last the soil is more especially 
adapted. The system of husbandry is in an advancing 
state; draining is extensively practised, and tiles for 
that purpose are made in the vale of Kilinartin, where 
good clay is found. Great quantities of waste land 
have been reclaimed and brought into cultivation on the 
Poltalloch estate. The cattle are of the West Highland 
breed, with a few of the Ayrshire, Galloway, and Dur- 
ham breeds, to the improvement of which much atten- 
tion is paid ; about 2000 head of all kinds are pastured 
in the parish. The sheep, of which 9000 are reared on 
the several farms, are of the black-faced native breed, 
with some of the Cheviot, Leicestershire, and South 
Down breeds, which have been recently introduced. 
The plantations are, ash, oak, birch, alder, hazel, larch, 
poplar, beech, plane, lime, holly, elm, and Scotch and 
silver firs, all of which are in a very thriving state. The 
substrata are chiefly mica and chlorite slate, with veins 
of crystalline limestone and hornblende : copper-ore 
has also been found, and was formerly worked, but 
with what success is uncertain. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £5852. Kilmartin House is a 
handsome mansion, pleasantly situated about half a 
mile from the village, and the remains of the ancient 
castle of Duntroon have been repaired, and formed into 
a comfortable residence. The village has been entirely 
rebuilt within the last few years, and consists of substan- 
tial and neat cottages roofed with slate, to each of which 
is attached a garden and shrubbery, inclosed with railings. 
Large markets for the sale of horses and hiring of ser- 
vants are held in the village, on the first Thursday in 
March and the fourth Thursday in November : and at the 
Ford, near Loch Awe, on the first Thursdays in August 
and September, at which considerable sales of lambs, 
sheep, and wool take place. A private runner brings 
letters daily from the post-office at Lochgilphead ; and 
facility of communication is afforded by good roads, and 
by steamers from Lochgilphead to Glasgow and the 
intermediate ports, daily in winter, and twice in the day 
during the summer. There is an excellent harbour at 
Loch Crinan, which is much frequented by vessels 
taking shelter in stormy weather. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Inverary and synod of 
Argyll. The minister's stipend is £1S9, with a manse, 
and a glebe valued at £15 per annum ; patron, the 
Duke of Argyll. The church, erected in 1835, is a 
handsome structure in the early English style of archi- 
tecture, with a square embattled tower, and contains 
520 sittings : divine service is performed both in the 
English and Gaelic language. The parochial school is 
well attended ; the master has a salary of £34, with a 
house and garden, in addition to the fees. There are 
two other schools at the extremities of the parish, for 
younger children, who, from its distance, are unable to 
attend the parochial school : Mr. Malcolm gives a salary 
to the masters. A school of industry for girls has re- 
cently been established within a mile of Kilmartin, for 
the tenants on the Poltalloch estate, and for which Mr. 
Malcolm has built a handsome house, at a cost of £1000 : 
in addition to the usual routine of instruction, the 
children are taught all the most useful branches of 
45 



needle-work, knitting, and laundry-work. In the val- 
ley of Kilmartin, are several large circular cairns, in 
which have been found stone coffins about four feet in 
length, containing ashes and human bones ; and in one 
of them were some silver coins of Ethelred, and in 
others implements of war. Near the cairns are nume- 
rous upright stones. Not far from Duntroon is an 
ancient circular building of great thickness, inclosing a 
large area, into which is only one narrow entrance, and 
which is supposed to have been a place of safety for 
cattle and other property in times of danger. On an 
eminence to the north of the village are the ruins of the 
old castle of Kilmartin ; and at the head of the valley 
are the remains of the castle of Carnassary, the resi- 
dence of Bishop Carswell, who was appointed to the see 
of Argyll soon after the Reformation, and whose name 
is intimately associated with the controversy that was 
subsequently carried on respecting the authenticity of 
Ossian's poems. 

KILMAURS, a burgh of barony and a parish, in 
the district of Cunninghame, county of Ayr ; con- 
taining, with the villages of Knockentiber, Kirkton, 
Milton, and Crosshouse, 2617 inhabitants, of whom 
1035 are in the burgh, 2 miles (N. N. W.) from Kilmar- 
nock. This place, of which the name is obviously 
derived from the dedication of its church, was granted 
in the twelfth century to the ancestor of the Glencairn 
family, who came from England in the reign of Mal- 
colm IV., and assumed the surname of Cunninghame 
from the name of the manor. The family obtained 
additional lands from Robert Bruce ; and about the 
beginning of the fifteenth century, Sir William Cun- 
ninghame having enlarged his possessions by marriage, 
his descendant, Alexander, was created Earl of Glen- 
cairn by James II. William, the ninth earl, for his 
zealous attachment to the royal cause during the usur- 
pation of Cromwell, was made chancellor of Scotland, 
and died in 1664. After the death of John, the twenty- 
fifth earl, without issue, in 1796, the title became extinct ; 
and the lands are now divided among several pro- 
prietors. 

The town is pleasantly situated on the north bank of 
the rivulet Kilmaurs, and consists of one main street 
of considerable length, and of another intersecting it 
nearly at right angles. At a distant period, this place 
was celebrated for the manufacture of cutlery ; and the 
clasp knives, or whittles, made here were in great re- 
pute ; but the only manufactures at present carried on 
are those of cotton goods and shoes, in which most of 
the inhabitants are employed. The weekly market has 
fallen into disuse ; but fairs, chiefly for cattle, are held 
in June and at Martinmas. A branch office, under the 
post-office at Kilmarnock, has been established ; and 
facility of communication is maintained by the turnpike- 
road from Stewarton to Kilmarnock, and by good 
statute roads which intersect the parish. The town was 
erected into a burgh of barony by charter of James V., 
granted to the Earl of Glencairn in 1527 ; and the 
government is vested in two bailies, and a council of 
burgesses, who derive their qualification from the te- 
nure of certain lands leased to them in free burgage by 
charter of Cuthbert, Earl of Glencairn, and his son, Lord 
Kilmaurs. The magistrates have all the jurisdiction of 
royal burghs, both in civil and criminal cases, but hold 
no regular courts, the number of causes in both not 



KI L M 



KILM 



exceeding two or three in a year. There are no exclu- 
sive privileges enjoyed by the burgesses ; and the only 
patronage is that of a vote in the appointment of the 
parochial schoolmaster. The town-hall, situated in the 
centre of the main street, is a neat but small structure, 
ornamented with a steeple ; it contains the necessary 
arrangements for transacting the public business of the 
burgh. 

The parish, which is situated on the confines of the 
district of Kyle, is partly bounded on the south by the 
river Irvine, which separates it from the parish of 
Dundonald. and on the west by the Carrier burn, which 
divides it from the parish of Dreghorn. It is nearly 
six miles in length, and two miles and three-quarters in 
extreme breadth, comprising an area of almost 6000 
acres, of which not far from the whole is arable and 
pasture in about equal portions. The surface is gene- 
rally undulated, rising in some places into hills of 
moderate elevation, of which the summits are richly 
wooded, and command interesting views over the sur- 
rounding country, which is in a high state of cultivation. 
The river Kilmaurs, which has its source in the adjoin- 
ing parish of Fenwick, divides this parish into two nearly 
equal parts : at some distance to the south of the town, 
it assumes the name of Carmel ; and in its course west- 
ward, after receiving the waters of the Garrier burn, it 
flows into the Irvine. The soil is exuberantly fertile, 
producing abundant crops of wheat, beans, barley, oats, 
and potatoes ; and the system of husbandry has been 
brought to great perfection. The lands have been drained 
and inclosed ; the farm-buildings are substantial and 
commodious, and all the more recent improvements in 
agricultural implements have been extensively adopted. 
The pastures are luxuriantly rich ; the cattle reared in 
the parish are of the best possible breeds, with cows of 
the Ayrshire on the dairy-farms, which are under excel- 
lent management. Large quantities of butter and cheese 
of good quality are produced, the latter of the Dun- 
lop kind ; and both obtain a ready sale in the markets. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is returned at 
£12,970. 

The plantations, though not extensive, aire in a very 
flourishing state, and, from their situation generally 
upon the hills and rising grounds, add much to the 
beauty of the scenery. The main substratum is coal, 
of which there are several mines in operation in the 
parish and in the immediate vicinity; the principal of 
these is at Gatehead, where a considerable number of 
persons are regularly employed. The chief seats in the 
parish are, Kilmaurs House, an ancient mansion, for- 
merly the seat of the Cunninghame family ; Thornton 
House; Carmel-Bank ; and Craig; all modern man- 
sions beautifully situated. There are some small ham- 
lets, of which the principal are, Crosshouse, containing 
a population of 255 inhabitants, and Gatehead, in which 
are about 167, chiefly employed in the collieries. The 
ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence 
of the presbytery of Irvine and synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr. The minister's stipend is £261, with a manse, 
and a glebe valued at £10 per annum ; patroness, Lady 
Mary Montgomerie. The church, a very ancient struc- 
ture, was originally founded in 1403, by Sir William 
Cunninghame, who endowed it with lands for the sup- 
port of a provost, seven prebendaries, and two choristers, 
which establishment was dissolved at the Reformation. 
46 



The structure was repaired in 1804, and contains 550 
sittings. In the aisle, which was the sepulchral chapel 
of the Glencairn family, is a beautiful monument to the 
memory of William, the ninth earl, chancellor of 
Scotland ; but it has been much defaced. There are 
places of worship for members of the Free Church and 
the United Secession ; and a missionary, who was sup- 
ported by subscription, till lately officiated at Gate- 
head and Crosshouse. The parochial school is well 
attended ; the master has a salary of £25. 13., with a 
house and garden, and the fees average £33 per annum. 
Among the monuments of antiquity are the remains of 
some tumuli, whereof one, near Carmel-Bank, of which 
the fosse may still be traced, is supposed to have been 
a place for distributing justice. The ruins of Busby 
Castle, an ancient seat of the Barclay family, are now 
the property of the Duke of Portland. 

KILMELFORD, county of Argyll.— See Kil- 

NINVER. 

KILMENY, a large quoad sacra parish, in the parish 
of Kilarrow, district of Islay, county of Argyll, 
4 miles (S. W. by S.) from Portaskaig ; containing 1756 
inhabitants. This district is in the north-eastern part 
of the island of Islay, and is between eleven and twelve 
miles in its greatest length, and from eight to nine 
miles in its greatest breadth, forming an area of sixty- 
six square miles. The description of the surface and 
nature of the soil is comprehended in the account given 
of Kilarrow, which see. There are lead-mines, but they 
have not been worked to any extent for a number of 
years ; and limestone and mica-slate abound. The 
road from Bowmore to Portaskaig passes through ; and 
the latter village is the place of ordinary communication 
with the main land of Scotland. A horse-market is held 
two or three times annually. The ecclesiastical affairs 
are under the presbytery of Islay and synod of Argyll, 
and the patronage is vested in the Crown : the stipend 
of the minister is £120, received from the exchequer, 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £8 per annum. 
The church, built about sixty-four years ago, and re- 
paired in 1S26, is a plain structure. The parochial 
school has been lately erected, by government ; the 
salary of the master is £35. There are some remains 
of encampments ; and in Portanellan lake are the ruins of 
a chapel and dwelling-house, the latter said to have been 
inhabited at one time by the Mac Donalds, of the Isles. 

KILMICHAEL-GLASSARY, a parish, in the district 
and county of Argyll, 18 miles (S. W.) from Inverary ; 
containing, with part of the late quoad sacra parish of 
Lochgilphead, 4700 inhabitants. This place, of which 
the early history is almost unknown, is supposed to have 
derived its name of Glassary from the general appear- 
ance of its surface, as being more adapted for pasture 
than for tillage. It is said to have formed part of the 
possessions of the Mac Donalds, of whose baronial 
castle, on the northern bank of Loch Awe, and which, 
according to tradition, was destroyed by fire, there are 
still considerable remains. From the 11th to the 13th 
century, the place appears to have been exposed to fre- 
quent incursions of the Danes, who held nearly the 
whole of the western coast; and there are several watch- 
towers yet existing, which were erected to give notice of 
their approach. The parish is bounded on the south 
and south-east by Loch Fine, and on the north-east by 
Loch Awe, and varies from twelve to sixteen miles in 



K1LM 



K I L M 



length, and from eight to ten miles in breadth, com- 
prising an area of nearly 150 square miles. The surface, 
which rises gradually from both sides towards the centre, 
is diversified with hills of no great elevation ; and on 
the west is an extensive valley, varying in height from 
200 to 600 feet above the level of the sea. The acclivities 
of the valley are partially wooded, and in the centre is 
the small lake Lochan Leamhan. There are other lakes 
in the parish, of which the principal is Loch Ederlin, 
about a mile to the west of Loch Awe, beautifully em- 
bosomed in hills crowned with thriving plantations ; and 
Loch Glaissean and Loch Shineach, from which latter 
issues the river Ad, are situated in the moorlands. The 
main river is the Ad, which, after leaving its source, 
flows through the valley of Glassary into the Crinan : 
this stream, which is subject to great inundations from 
heavy rains, abounds with tront and salmon, and a 
fishery for the latter is conducted under the superintend- 
ence of the proprietor. 

The soil along the banks of Loch Fine, towards the 
south-east, is gravel intermixed with peat ; and towards 
the south-west, a deep rich loam of great fertility. 
Considerable portions of land have been improved by 
furrow-draining ; but much yet remains in an unprofit- 
able state. The system of husbandry, also, has made 
some progress under the auspices of the Agricultural 
Society established here, which includes also the neigh- 
bouring parishes of Craignish, Kilmartin, and North and 
South Knapdale j but the lands are but very partially 
inclosed, and the farm-buildings are still of an inferior 
description. The cattle reared in the pastures are ge- 
nerally of the Argyllshire or West Highland breed, and 
the sheep principally the black-faced, with some of the 
South Down breed on the lands of Kilmory, which thrive 
well. There are considerable remains of natural wood, 
consisting chiefly of oak, birch, and hazel, of which there 
are fine specimens on the shores of Loch Awe ; and 
extensive plantations of oak, Scotch and silver firs, larch, 
ash, and other trees, have been formed in several parts, 
all of which, with the exception of the ash, are in a 
thriving state. The principal substrata are mica-slate, 
of which the rocks are mainly composed, with greenstone 
and limestone. Copper- ore, also, has been found, and 
a mine was recently opened by the Duke of Argyll ; 
but, though the ore was of good quality, it did not 
occur in sufficient quantity to remunerate the expense 
of working it, and the mine has been abandoned. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £11,343. 

The principal mansion is Kilmory House, the seat of 
Sir John P. Orde, Bart., by whom it has been enlarged 
and greatly improved : the present structure, which is 
of blue ashler stone, is spacious, and surmounted at the 
south-west angle by a lofty octagonal tower, containing 
a dining-room twenty-nine feet in diameter, and other 
stately apartments. Over the entrance hall is a Chinese 
drawing-room, fifty-seven feet long, and twenty-seven 
feet wide, fitted up in appropriate style, and furnished 
with hangings and drapery made for the purpose in 
China. From the summit of the tower is obtained an 
extensive prospect, embracing the mountain of Ben- 
Ghoil, in Arran, the Mull, and the hills of Cowal. The 
village of Kilmichael is small, and not distinguished by 
any important features : that of Lochgilphead is sepa- 
rately noticed. Fairs for cattle are held at Kilmichael 
in May and October, and on the followina; days at Loch- 
47 



gilphead ; and they are so regulated, that the stock re- 
maining unsold may be driven to the Inverary markets. 
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintend- 
ence of the presbytery of Inverary and synod of Argyll. 
The minister's stipend is £266, with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £28 per annum ; patron, Campbell, of 
Auchinellan. The church, erected in 1827, is a spacious 
structure containing 1500 sittings. A government 
church was erected at the village of Lochgilphead in 
1S2S; and in 1841, a church was built by the com- 
mittee of the General Assembly at Camlodden, for the 
benefit of that portion of the parish and the adjacent 
district of Inverary. There are preaching stations at 
Lochfineside and Lochaweside, where a missionary 
preaches alternately ; also places of worship in the 
parish for Independents and members of the Free 
Church. The parochial schoolmaster has a salary of 
£25, with a house and garden, and the fees average £35. 
There is a female school in the village of Lochgilphead, 
maintained by the heritors ; and a school in the Cam- 
lodden district is supported by the General Assembly, 
who pay £25 per annum to the master, for whom a 
house and garden are provided rent-free by Sir Archi- 
bald Campbell, Bart. Remains of ancient churches 
exist in various parts of the parish, of which the most 
prominent are, Kilbride, on the west ; Killevin, on the 
shore of Loch Fine ; Kilmory, near Lochgilphead ; and 
Kilneuair, on the bank of Loch Awe. The remains of 
Kilneuair display much beauty of style ; the cemetery 
of Kilmory is still used as a place of sepulture. 

KILMODAN, a parish, in the district of Cowal, 
county of Argyll, 16 miles (N. W. by N.) from Rothe- 
say ; containing 56/ inhabitants. This place derives its 
name from the dedication of its church to St. Modan, 
soon after the introduction of Christianity into Britain. 
The parish is separated from Loch Fine, with the excep- 
tion of about three miles of coast, by the intervening 
parish of Kilfinnan, and is twelve miles in length, the 
arable lands lying principally in the bottom of a deep 
glen scarcely half a mile in breadth. The surface is 
boldly diversified with hills of mountainous elevation, 
chiefly covered with heath, and affording tolerable pas- 
ture for sheep and cattle. The river Ruail, which flows 
through the glen, after a course of a few miles falls into 
Loch Ridon, forming at its mouth a small bay, afford- 
ing shelter for a few vessels of from twelve to thirty 
tons' burthen, employed in the herring-fishery. The 
Ruail once abounded with salmon and trout ; but, 
within the last few years, the number has greatly dimi- 
nished. The shore is flat and sandy; and off the coast 
are found cod, ling, haddocks, mackerel, and other white- 
fish. Of the lands, about 1500 acres are arable, 1000 
woodland and plantations, and nearly 20,000 chiefly 
moorland pasture and waste. The soil of the arable 
ground is deep and fertile, and the system of agricul- 
ture has lately been much improved ; the lands have 
been drained, and a due rotation of crops is regularly 
observed. Large quantities of potatoes are shipped 
from the bay of Ruail to the several ports on the Clyde, 
in smacks which return laden with manure. The sheep 
pastures have been greatly benefited by surface-drain- 
ing ; and much attention is paid to the management of 
the stock, under the inducements held out by a pas- 
toral association in the district. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £3439. 



KILM 



KILM 



There is a considerable tract of natural wood, mostly 
copse ; and very extensive plantations have been formed 
at Dunans, Glendaruel, and Ormidale, consisting chiefly 
of larch and the various kinds of fir, all of which are in 
a thriving state. The principal substrata are limestone 
and pipe-clay ; but the scarcity of fuel renders the for- 
mer inapplicable to the purpose of manure. The man- 
sion-houses in the parish are, Dunans, Glendaruel, and 
Ormidale, which last estate has been greatly improved 
and embellished with plantations. The ecclesiastical 
affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery 
of Dunoon and synod of Argyll. The minister's sti- 
pend is £150., of which sum £6. 8. are paid from the 
exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 
per annum ; patron, the Duke of Argyll. The church, 
which is conveniently situated, was built in 1783. There 
is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. 
The parochial schoolmaster has a salary of £27. 10., 
with a house and garden, and the fees average £10 per 
annum. There are several cairns in the parish ; and 
some stone coffins have been found, supposed to have 
contained the ashes of chieftains slain in battle with the 
Danes. Colin Maclaurin, professor of mathematics in 
the university of Edinburgh, and the Rev. John Maclau- 
rin, an eminent divine, were born in this parish, of 
which their father, the Rev. John Maclaurin, was minis- 
ter in 1698. 

KILMONIVAIG, or Kilmanivaig, a parish, in the 
county of Inverness, 10 miles (N. N. E.) from Fort- 
William ; containing 2791 inhabitants. This place is 
situated towards the western extremity of the county, 
in the district of Lochaber, and was the territory of 
Bancho, thane of Lochaber, and ancestor of the royal 
house of Stuart. That chief, as well as other thanes 
of Lochaber, is supposed to have occupied either the 
castle of Inverlochy, now in ruins, or a more ancient 
structure standing on the site ; and their fortress was 
the most conspicuous feature in the once thriving burgh 
of Inverlochy, which has been termed by some of the 
old historians "the emporium of the west of Scotland." 
The castle is traditionally reported to have been ori- 
ginally a royal residence ; and it is said that the cele- 
brated league between Charlemagne, and Achaius, king 
of the Scots, was signed here about the end of the 
eighth century. Near this spot, a fierce encounter took 
place in 1645, between Montrose and Argyll ; and near 
Keppoch, also in the parish, is a place called Mulray, 
the scene of the last feudal battle which was fought in 
Scotland by hostile clans, when, after a sanguinary 
engagement between the Macintoshes and the Mc Ro- 
nalds, the former were completely routed, and their 
chief taken prisoner. Kilmonivaig, and part of the 
adjacent country, have been denominated " the cradle 
of the rebellion" in 1745. The Pretender, in that year, 
erected his standard in this dreary and mountainous 
district, and was joined by the famous Cameron, of 
Locheil ; and the first act of rebellion was an attack of 
the royal troops by the Macdonalds of Keppoch. After 
the suppression of the rebellion, Prince Charles Edward 
availed himself of the secluded glens of this district as 
a convenient refuge. 

The parish is divided into the two districts of 

Lochaber and Glengarry. It was once united to Kil- 

malie, the two together being called the parish of 

Lochaber : but they were separated, by the authority 

48 



of the Church courts, about the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. It is said to be the most wild 
and mountainous district in the kingdom, measuring 
in length, from south to north, about sixty miles, and 
twenty miles at its greatest breadth, and comprising 
300,000 acres, of which a small portion is under natural 
wood and plantations, a much smaller part under tillage, 
and the remainder natural pasture. Glenspean, forming 
the chief part of the parish, is bounded on the south 
by Ben-Nevis, and its subordinate range, which stretches 
towards the east, and on the north by a series of eleva- 
tions which, though lofty, reach a far less altitude than 
those on the opposite boundary. It commences near 
Ben-Nevis, and contracts its width gradually towards 
the middle until, a little above Keppoch, its whole 
breadth is occupied by the rapid stream of the Spean, 
a river issuing from Loch Laggan, and augmented by 
the Treig, from the south-west, and several other tribu- 
taries. After this, the glen expands again, and extends 
to the west end of Loch Laggan. It is joined near the 
centre by Glenroy ; and in the parish is also a part of 
the great Caledonian glen, extending from the west end 
of Loch Lochy to the east end of Loch Oich, a distance 
of nearly fifteen miles, between which two lakes a por- 
tion of the Caledonian canal is cut. The Spean, with 
most of the rapid mountain streams, celebrated for their 
fine trout, empties itself into the river Lochy, which 
runs into Loch Eil, a branch of the Atlantic, at Fort- 
William. 

The soil in some places is excellent, especially in 
Glenspean; but very little has been done in the way of 
husbandry, the hills and glens, atfording superior pas- 
ture, being appropriated to sheep and black-cattle, which 
engross the chief attention. Upwards of 100,000 sheep 
are reared in the parish every year. Two of the sheep- 
farms exceed 100 square miles in extent; and the stock 
reared supplies large quantities of valuable wool, pur- 
chased by staplers from England, Glasgow, and Aber- 
deen. Very few agricultural improvements have been 
attempted ; but the large number of acres of superior 
land in Glenspean alone, amounting to above 40,000, 
and capable of the highest cultivation, offer a temptation 
to wealthy proprietors, and might make an ample re- 
turn for an outlay of capital. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £12,745. The substrata consist 
chiefly of gneiss and mica- slate, and occasionally are 
seen enormous masses of protruding granite and of 
compact felspar rocks. A plumbago-mine exists in 
Glengarry, but it is not in operation. The only man- 
sion of importance is Glengarry House, the seat of Lord 
Ward, beautifully situated on the margin of Loch Oich, 
and erected shortly after the demolition of the ancient 
castle of the same name by the order of the Duke of 
Cumberland. The roads to Inverness and Edinburgh 
pass through the parish ; and at High-Bridge is a fine 
bridge of three arches over the Spean, built by General 
Wade. The chief traffic consists in sheep, black- cattle, 
and wool, mostly disposed of at the southern markets 
and in England ; and there are salmon-fishings on the 
Garry, on Loch Oich, and on the Lochy river. There 
are five annual fairs for the sale of black-cattle and 
sheep, or for general business, respectively held in 
June (two), September, October, and November. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Abertarff and synod 
of Glenelg, and in the patronage of the Marquess of 



K I L M 



KILM 



Huntly: the minister's stipend is £289, with an allow- 
ance of £70 per annum in lieu of manse and glebe. The 
church is a very plain edifice, built about the year 1S14. 
There are two missionaries in connexion with the Esta- 
blishment, supported by the Royal Bounty; one officiates 
in the district of Brae Lochaber, and in a district of 
the parish of Kilmalie, alternately, and the other at 
three preaching stations in the district of Glengarry. 
There is a chapel at Brae Lochaber for Roman Catho- 
lics, who make about half of the population of the 
parish. The parochial school affords instruction in the 
usual branches ; the master has a salary of £34, with 
£20 fees. There is also an Assembly's school at Bun- 
roy, and a Society's school at Invergarry. The anti- 
quities comprise the ruin of Inverlochy Castle, and a 
vitrified fort; and the parallel roads of Glenroy are 
highly celebrated, and have exercised the ingenuity of 
numerous antiquaries in the attempt to account for 
their formation. They are situated in the glen called 
Glenroy, a tract eleven miles in length and one in 
breadth, skirted with tolerably steep banks, on each of 
which are the terraces or roads, three in number, com- 
posed of gravel and clay. The roads are quite level, 
and exactly parallel with each other, varying from sixty 
to seventy feet in breadth, and accommodating them- 
selves, throughout the whole extent of the glen, to the 
curvatures and windings of the mountains on each side. 
Imperfect terraces of a similar kind have been traced 
in some of the neighbouring glens ; and the prevailing 
opinion with regard to their origin is, that the re- 
spective roads are deposits from the adjacent heights, 
brought down at three different periods, when the valley 
was a lake. It is thought that the loose materials car- 
ried down by floods met with a check when they reached 
the waters, and thus formed the highest road; that 
the lake afterwards was partially drained, and allowed 
of the formation of the second road ; and that the third 
was subsequently made, in a similar manner. Ian Lom, 
the Jacobite Gaelic poet, well known in the era of the 
rebellion, resided in the parish. 

KILMORACK, a parish, in the county of Inver- 
ness, 11 miles (W. by S.) from Inverness; containing, 
with the village of Beauly, 2694 inhabitants. The 
term Kill-Mlwrac signifies " the burial-ground of young 
Marion ;" but it is uncertain what person is referred to 
in the appellation. The parish, which is of great ex- 
tent, and chiefly a sylvan and pastoral district, is partly 
situated on the northern bank of the Beauly river, by 
which it is separated from the parish of Kiltarlity ; and it 
reaches in the opposite direction to the southern confines 
of the county of Ross, measuring sixty-five miles in length, 
and about ten in average breadth. The surface is richly 
diversified, and the scenery in several places exquisitely 
beautiful, consisting of hill and mountain covered with 
pasture and wood, and rural valleys, with well-cultivated 
tracts, rivers, and lochs. The eastern division contains 
an open plain about three miles wide ; and the Beauly, 
gently gliding, with some fine windings, along the 
southern boundary, amidst beautiful wood, from the 
wild and romantic district in the west, here advances 
to Loch Beauly. The western portion of the parish, 
where is the most striking scenery, is wild and moun- 
tainous, and indebted for its imposing character prin- 
cipally to the three great glens of Strath-Glass, Glen- 
Farrar, and Glen-Cannich, which are named from the 
Vol. II. — 49 



several streams running through them, and contributing 
to form the principal river, the Beauly. 

This river, in its course through the district called 
Dhruim, which extends two or three miles west of the 
church, passes between ranges of lofty mountains 
covered with birch and fir; and its banks are fringed 
with oak, alder, and weeping-birch. There are nume- 
rous cascades, falling over broken sandstone rocks, 
especially at the farm of Teanassie ; but its finest dis- 
play is about two miles west of the village, where is a 
splendid cataract, called the Falls of Kilmorack, formed 
by the stream dashing over a succession of precipitous 
rocks. The parish contains numerous lochs ; the chief 
are, Loch Monar, Loch Beinevean, and Loch Affric, 
situated in the remains of an extensive pine forest, and 
seldom surpassed in striking scenery. The mountain 
of Maum-Soule, on the north side of Loch Beinevean, 
is distinguished for its summit of perpetual snow, 
which, even in the hottest summer weather, yields but 
very slightly to the rays of the sun. At the end of 
Glen-Farrar is Loch Muilie, containing an island where, 
it is said, Lord Lovat found a retreat after the defeat 
at Culloden, and on which the present proprietor has 
erected a shooting-box, the neighbouring hills and 
mountains abounding with grouse, partridges, and al- 
most every kind of game. About four or five miles 
westward, is the mountain called Scour-na-lapich, almost 
as high as Ben-Nevis, and near which is Loch Monar, 
a favourite resort of the lovers of angling. The lochs 
in general are well stocked with various kinds of trout 
and pike, the latter of which are found also sometimes 
in the Beauly, though this river is most distinguished 
for its salmon, grilse, and trout, the fishery of which 
rents at £1600 per annum. 

The parish belongs to Lord Lovat and Chisholm of 
Chisholm ; but, from its great size, and the different 
situations of the farms, pastures, and woods, no correct 
estimate of their respective or aggregate extent has 
been made. Many thousands of acres are under natural 
wood and plantations, which are managed with great 
care, and annually thinned ; the firs are usually sold 
for railway sleepers, and the birch made into staves for 
barrels. The upper part of the parish is more parti- 
cularly pastoral, and the little attention paid to tillage 
is merely for the supply of domestic wants. The Lovat 
property is supposed to contain about 2000 arable acres, 
and that of the Chisholm 900 ; and the farms, some 
of which have been united within the last few years, to 
the exclusion of a considerable part of the population, 
many of whom have emigrated, are now remarkably 
well cultivated, and are subject to the five-shift rota- 
tion, producing wheat, barley, oats, and the usual green 
crops. Numerous improvements have been recently 
introduced, comprising the use of lime and bone-dust 
for manure ; and draining, also, is making progress, 
being much required in some parts, as the soil, though 
it consists, to a great extent, of rich loamy, sandy, 
clayey, and gravelly earth, is frequently heavy and wet. 
There are, however, few inciosures ; and the farm- 
buildings are in general indifferent, the want of capital 
on the part of the tenant being a great impediment to 
more extensive advancement. The sheep, which tra- 
verse the pastures in very large flocks, are of many 
different breeds ; but those most common are the 
Cheviot and black-faced. The rocks in the district 

H 



KILM 



KILM 



comprehend gneiss ; inferior red sandstone, which is 
quarried ; and conglomerate. A lead-mine was opened 
some years since on the Lovat property ; but, the ope- 
rations having been found difficult, and the material 
of inferior quality, it is no longer worked. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £9931. 

The only village is that of Beauly {which see), plea- 
santly situated at the eastern extremity of the parish ; 
its buildings are of some extent, and in the principal 
street, the houses of which are slated, are some good 
shops, a post-office, used by the surrounding district, 
and a branch bank of the North of Scotland Banking 
Company, lately established. It has a small harbour 
formed by the river Beauly, which here expands into 
the basin called Loch Beauly, communicating with the 
Moray Frith. Two small vessels belong to the place ; 
and it is visited by many others, chiefly from Inverness, 
Leith, Glasgow, and Liverpool, with coal, lime, and 
various other articles, taking in return, among other 
produce, cargoes of timber, many thousands of trees 
being annually cut down in the woods around. The 
village is traversed by the parliamentary road from 
Inverness, which runs through the whole of the parish, 
and on which the northern mail daily passes. A hand- 
some bridge of five arches was, some time since, erected 
over the Farrar ; and one was built across the Beauly 
in 1810, at a cost of nearly £10,000. The largest cattle- 
fair in the north of Scotland is held on the Muir of 
Ord, for the accommodation of dealers from every part 
of Scotland, particularly the south, on the third Wed- 
nesday in April, the second Wednesdays in May and 
June, the third Thursday in July, the third Tuesdays 
in August, September, and October, and second Wed- 
nesday in November. There are also four annual fairs 
in the village of Beauly, in May, August, October, and 
November, the two last for the sale of country produce, 
and that in August for engaging shearers : but these 
fairs are ill attended. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Dingwall and synod 
of Ross, and in the patronage of Professor Scott, of 
King's College, Aberdeen, to whom the presentation has 
been transferred by Lord Lovat. The minister's stipend 
is £244, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £8 per 
annum. The church is conveniently situated a few 
miles from the eastern boundary ; it was enlarged in 
1/86, and lately new-seated, and now contains 506 sit- 
tings. A missionary, supported by the Royal Bounty, 
divides his services between this and the adjoining 
parish of Kiltarlity ; and some of the inhabitants attend 
a church in the latter parish, built a few years since by 
the late Chisholm, on his property, and which accommo- 
dates 300 persons. In the same locality, the inhabitants 
of the higher district being chiefly Roman Catholics, arc 
two Roman Catholic chapels, the one situated at Wester 
Eskadale, and the other not far from the house of Fas- 
nakyle, and together accommodating about 500 persons. 
The parochial school affords instruction in English and 
Gaelic reading, the classics, algebra, and mathematics, 
in addition to other branches ; the master has a salary 
of £25. 13., with a house and garden, and £24 fees. A 
school, also, is supported by the Chisholm ; and the 
inhabitants enjoy the advantages of two schools be- 
longing to the adjoining parish. There are remains of 
several Druidical temples, and a chain of walled struc- 
tures along the course of the Beauly and the other 
50 



streams ; but the principal antiquity is the ruin of the 
priory of Beauly. This establishment was founded in 
1230, by James Bisset, of Lovat, for monks of the order 
of Valliscaulium, a reformed branch of the Cistercians, 
and followers of the disclipine of St. Bennet, and who 
were brought into Scotland by Malvoison, Bishop of St. 
Andrew's, early in the thirteenth century. There are, 
however, no traces of turrets, or any kind of ornament ; 
and the inclosed area is merely covered with tomb- 
stones, many without letters, and the earliest inscription 
dated 300 years after the foundation of the priory. The 
north aisle is the property of the Mackenzies of Gair- 
loch ; and Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, eighth laird of 
Kintail, who died in 1493, is represented by the effigy, 
in a recumbent posture, of a knight in full armour, 
under an arched canopy. The other portions consist of 
the burying-grounds of the chief branches of the clan 
Fraser, of the Chisholms, and others. Farquharson, a 
collector of Gaelic poetry, and conspicuous in the con- 
troversy concerning the poems of Ossian, resided for 
upwards of thirty years in the Strath-Glass district, in 
the capacity of Jesuit missionary. 

KILMORE, county of Argyll. — See Kilninian. 
KILMORE and KILBRIDE, a parish, in the dis- 
trict of Lorn, county of Argyll, 3^ miles (S. by E.) 
from Oban ; containing, with the island of Kerera, 
and the late quoad sacra district of Oban, 2773 inha- 
bitants. These two ancient parishes, which appear to 
have been united soon after the Reformation, are sup- 
posed to have derived their names, of Gaelic origin, 
from the dedication of their churches respectively 
to the Virgin Mary and St. Bridget. The early history 
of the place is involved in great obscurity, referring 
to a period of remote antiquity, of which few au- 
thentic records have been preserved. The castle of 
Dunstaffnage, of which neither the name of its 
founder nor the date of its erection is known, seems 
to have been either the seat of government, or the 

the Pictish kings, till their 
Mc Alpine, who, about the 
year 834, finally established the Scottish monarchy. 
In this castle, which Kenneth for a time made his chief 
seat, was preserved the celebrated stone whereon the 
kings of Scotland were crowned, till its removal to the 
abbey of Scone by Mc Alpine, who, in 843, transferred 
the place of government to Forteviot, in the county of 
Perth, where he died. Alexander II., King of Scotland, 
having assembled a fleet in the bay of Oban, in order to 
exact from Angus, Lord of Argyll, that homage for his 
territories which the lords of Argyll had previously 
paid to the kings of Norway, was seized with a fever, of 
which he died in the island of Kerera in July, 1249. In 
1305, Robert Bruce, having defeated the McDougals at 
the pass of Loch Awe, laid waste the lands of Argyll, 
and besieged the castle of Dunstaffnage, which he re- 
duced, and garrisoned with his own forces. In 1436, the 
castle, and the lands belonging to it, were granted by 
James II. to Dugald, son of Colin, Knight of Lochawe, 
in whose descendants, as " Captains of Dunstaffnage," 
they have remained till the present time. The castle 
was maintained as the principal stronghold of the 
Campbells, and, in the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, was 
garrisoned by the royal troops. The remains of this 
ancient palace are situated on a rock washed on the 
west by the Atlantic, and on the north skirted by Loch 



occasional residence, of 
subjugation by Kenneth 



KILM 



K I L M 



Etive, and consist chiefly of the walls, inclosing a qua- 
drangle defended at three of the angles with circular 
towers. On three sides, the building is little more than 
a ruin ; on the fourth, it is in tolerable preservation. 
A commodious tenement has recently been erected as a 
residence for the steward of the Duke of Argyll, who is 
hereditary keeper ; and near it are the remains of a 
small roofless chapel, of elegant design, in which many 
of the kings of Scotland are interred, and of which the 
cemetery is still used as a burial-place by the inhabitants 
of Oban. 

The parish is bounded on the north by Loch Etive, 
on the south by Loch Feochan, and on the west by the 
sound of Mull ; it is twelve miles in length and nearly 
nine in breadth, but the number of acres has not been 
ascertained. The surface is diversified with hills of 
moderate elevation, and with valleys which are fertile 
and in good cultivation. There are several lakes in the 
parish, exclusively of those which form its boundaries ; 
the largest is Loch Nell, abounding with trout ; and in 
the river issuing from it are found salmon. The coast 
is indented with numerous bays, of which those of Oban 
and Dunstaffnage are excellent harbours ; and in the 
north of the sound of Kerera is the Horse-shoe bay, 
which also forms a good harbour. The island of Kerera, 
inclosing the bay of Oban on the west, is about three 
miles in length and nearly two in breadth. The soil is 
in general light and sandy, and there are some extensive 
tracts of moss, of which considerable portions might be 
reclaimed ; the chief crops are barley, oats, potatoes, 
and turnips. The system of agriculture has been much 
improved ; and great attention is paid to the rearing of 
live stock, for which the hills afford good pasture. The 
cattle are of the West Highland breed, with the excep- 
tion of some Ayrshire cows on the dairy-farms ; the 
sheep are the black-faced, with some South-Downs on 
one of the farms. Freestone of superior quality, and 
slate, are found in abundance ; and on the lands of 
Gallanach are quarries in operation. There are several 
fishing stations, chiefly for salmon and trout, and her- 
rings are frequently taken in Loch Etive and Loch Feo- 
chan ; shell-fish are found on the shores, and various 
kinds of white-fish off the coast. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £S744. 

The castle of Dunolly, the ancient seat of the lords 
of Lorn, together with the lands, became forfeited to the 
crown on the rebellion of 1715 ; but the property was 
subsequently restored to Alexander, grandfather of the 
existing proprietor, Capt. John McDougal, R.N. The 
present family mansion is situated beneath the romantic 
ruins of the old castle, on the border of Loch Etive, 
about a mile from Oban : the principal remains of the 
castle are the keep and some portions of other buildings, 
overgrown with ivy. In the grounds is an upright pillar, 
called the Dog's pillar, and said to have been used by 
Fingal for fastening his dog " Bran." In the house are 
preserved many ancient relics, among which is the 
brooch of Robert Bruce taken by Allaster Mc Dougal 
from the owner, whom he had defeated at the battle of 
Dalree, near Tyndrum, and which, after passing through 
various hands, was purchased by General Duncan Camp- 
bell, of Lochnell, who, in 1826, restored it to the pro- 
prietor of Dunolly. Fairs are held four times in the 
year in Kilmore, but are not well attended. Facility of 
communication is afforded by good roads, and by ferries 
at Oban, Dunstaffnage, in the island of Kerera, and other 
51 



places, and by one to the island of Mull. The ecclesi- 
astical affairs are under the superintendence of the 
presbytery of Lorn and synod of Argyll. The minister's 
stipend is £249. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at 
£40 per annum ; patron, the Duke of Argyll. The 
church of Kilmore was erected about the year 1490, and 
contains 350 sittings ; the church of Kilbride, of a later 
date, contains 300 sittings. Divine service is performed 
in each on alternate Sundays. A church has also been 
erected at Oban, where are likewise places of worship 
for Seceders. There are two parochial schools, one at 
Kilmore, and the other in the island of Kerera ; the 
master of the former has a salary of £25, with fees 
averaging £10, and that of the latter a salary of £21, 
with fees averaging £6 : both have houses and gardens. 
There are also three Sabbath schools. Some remains 
exist of Gylen Castle, one of the strongholds of the 
Mc Dougals, romantically situated on a rocky promon- 
tory in Kerera, and which, in 1647, was besieged and 
taken by the forces under General Leslie. 

KILMORIE, a parish, in the Isle of Arran, county 
of Bute, 24 miles (S. W. by W.) from Saltcoats ; con- 
taining 3455 inhabitants. This place, which occupies 
the western portion of Arran, and derives its name from 
the dedication of its ancient church to St. Mary, is, in 
all its historical details, identified with the parish of 
Kilbride, which occupies the eastern portion of the 
island. Kilmorie is bounded on the south by the Frith 
of Clyde, and on the west by the sound of Kilbrandon, 
which separates it from Can tyre, and is here about eight 
miles wide. It extends from Largy beg Point, in the south- 
east, to Loch Ranza in the north-west, and is thirty miles 
in length and six miles in breadth, comprising an area 
of nearly 93,000 acres, of which S300 are arable, and the 
remainder hill pasture and waste. The surface is gene- 
rally mountainous, and diversified with hills interspersed 
with deep and narrow glens ; and the lands are watered 
by numerous rivulets descending from the heights, and 
of which some are of great rapidity, forming in their 
course beautiful cascades, the falls of Essmore and 
Esscumhan being the most prominent. The highest 
of the mountains is Beinn-Bharf hionn, or " the white- 
topped mountain," so called from its summit being 
usually covered with snow, and which has an elevation 
of more than 3000 feet above the level of the sea. There 
are several lakes in the parish, of which the principal 
are, Loch Tanna, about two miles, and Loch Iorsa, about 
one mile, in length ; they are both very narrow, the for- 
mer abounding with trout, and the latter with salmon. 
Trout are also found in the rivulets, all of which afford 
good sport to the angler. 

The sea-coast, more than thirty miles in extent, is 
generally bold and rocky. The chief headlands are, 
Dippen Point, Benan Head, Brown Head, and Drumi- 
doon ; and the bays are, Pladda Sound, Drumidoon, 
Machray, and Loch Ranza, the last at the north-west- 
ern extremity of the parish, and the only one affording 
safe anchorage for vessels. Opposite to Kildonan, in 
the sound, is the island of Pladda, on which a light- 
house was erected in 1800, and another, of greater ele- 
vation, in 1826, both exhibiting fixed lights, visible at a 
distance of five leagues. Fish of various kinds are taken 
off the coast ; the chief are, haddock, whiting, mackerel, 
and cod. Ling and turbot are found towards the south ; 
lobsters and crabs are caught in abundance near Kildo- 
nan, for the Glasgow market ; and off the northern 

H 2 



K IL M 



KILM 



coast, the herring-fishery is carried on with consider- 
able profit by the inhabitants. The rocks are indented 
with numerous caverns, of which one, at Drumidoon, 
called the King's Cave, was for some time the retreat of 
Robert Bruce, during his reverse of fortune, when con- 
tending for the throne. This cavern is 114 feet long, 
forty-four feet broad, and forty-seven and a half in 
height ; and at the upper end is a hunting-scene 
rudely sketched in the rock, said to have been done by 
that monarch while in concealment. 

The soil varies in different parts of the parish ; near 
the shore, it is sandy and gravelly; towards the interior, 
clayey ; and in the vicinity of the hills, mostly moss : the 
valleys, along the banks of the rivers, are generally a loam. 
The arable lands in the vale of Shisken and near the sea- 
coast are usually fertile, and in good cultivation; the 
crops are, wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, and the various 
grasses. The system of husbandry has, within the last 
few years, been greatly bettered ; the lands have been 
drained, and inclosed with hedges of thorn ; and the 
farm buildings and offices are now substantial and well 
arranged. The cattle, formerly a mixture of the Gallo- 
way, Ayrshire, and Argyllshire breeds, are gradually 
improving under a more careful management ; and the 
native breed of sheep, supposed to have been originally 
Norwegian, has been exchanged for the black-faced and 
Cheviots. The moors abound with black game, and 
grouse are found in profusion ; but, since the destruc- 
tion of the ancient forests, the roe, wild-boar, and other 
animals of the chase, have disappeared. There are still 
some small remains of old wood ; and plantations have 
been formed upon a moderate scale, which are in a 
thriving state. The rocks are chiefly granite, mica and 
clay slate, conglomerate and trap ; the principal sub- 
strata are, red and white sandstone, and limestone, of 
which last there are mines at Clachan and Glenloig, in 
operation to a moderate extent. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £6806. There is a shooting-lodge 
at Dugharidh, about a mile below Loch Iorsa, and plea- 
santly situated on the river of that name. The only 
village is Shisken, and this is but inconsiderable ; at 
Shedog is a grain-mill ; and there is likewise a mill 
for lint and wool at Burican. About ninety boats are 
engaged in the herring-fishery, which are of the bur- 
then of four tons and a half on an average, each hav- 
ing a crew of three men. Fairs are held at Shedog in 
November and December, and a fair, chiefly for horses, 
at Lag about the third week in November. The near- 
est post-offices are at Brodick and at Lamlash, in the 
parish of Kilbride. Facility of communication is main- 
tained by the turnpike-roads to Brodick and Lamlash, 
and by packet-boats from Southend to Ayr, and from 
Blackwater to Campbelltown. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Cantyre and synod of 
Argyll. The minister's stipend is £237, with a manse, 
and a glebe valued at £15 per annum; patron, the 
Duke of Hamilton. The parish church, rebuilt on the 
original site in 1785, and enlarged in 1824, is a neat 
structure, containing 832 sittings. A church at Shis- 
ken was rebuilt in 1805, at a cost of £700, raised by 
subscription, and contains 640 sittings : divine service 
is performed every third Sunday by the minister of the 
parish. The church at Loch Ranza, noticed in the 
account of Kilbride, is open to the inhabitants of both 
parishes. The members of the Free Church have a 
52 



place of worship. There are three parochial schools, 
situated respectively at Kilmorie, Shisken, and Ima- 
char ; the masters of the two first have salaries of 
£17- 10. and £15 respectively, with a house and garden 
and some land, and the master of Imachar has a salary 
of £5. ]6. : the fees in the aggregate average £10. 
There is also a school at Loch Ranza, common to both 
parishes. The principal relics of antiquity are, the 
ruins of Danish forts, Druidical monuments, obelisks 
of unhewn stone, cairns, and tumuli, which last are 
scattered in profusion over the whole island. On 
the lands of Drumidoon are the remains of a large 
fortress called the Doon, in front of which the cliffs 
rise perpendicularly from the sea to a height of 300 
feet. Around the summit of the hill, which has a 
steep declivity towards the land, is a wall of dry 
stones, inclosing a level area of several acres, in which 
are the ruins of various rude buildings ; the walls have 
been partly removed for the sake of the materials, but 
the gateway is still plainly to be seen. The largest of 
the cairns in the parish is Blackwater-Foot, originally 
200 feet in diameter at the base, but of which a great 
part has been used for building. To the north of it is 
a tumulus where Fingal is said to have held his courts 
of justice. There are also vestiges of numerous ancient 
chapels ; and in the burying-ground at Shisken is the 
grave of St. Molios, who removed from the isle of Lam- 
lash, and ended his days here. The Rev. William Shaw, 
author of the first Gaelic grammar and dictionary ever 
published, was a native of the parish ; he was favoured 
in his difficult undertaking by the patronage and advice 
of Dr. Johnson and the then Earl of Eglinton. 

KILMUIR, a parish, in the Isle of Skye, county 
of Inverness, 18 miles (N. by \V.) from Portree; con- 
taining, with nearly all of the quoad sacra parish of 
Steinscholl, 3625 inhabitants. This place, which forms 
the northern extremity of the Isle of Skye, is known 
to have derived its name from the dedication of its 
church to St. Mar)'. Its early history is involved in 
great obscurity ; but it is generally supposed to have 
been inhabited, in common with the adjacent districts, 
by the ancient Caledonians, or Picts, and subsequently 
by a colony of Norwegians, whom the tyranny of Harold 
Harfager, their king, had induced to quit their native 
country and to settle here. From this and the sur- 
rounding islands the settlers made frequent piratical 
incursions upon the coast of Norway ; and for the sup- 
pression of these, the king, in concert with his allies, 
assembled a powerful fleet, which he sent against his 
revolted subjects ; and he ultimately succeeded in an- 
nexing the islands to the crown of Norway. After the 
defeat of the Norwegians in the battle of Largs, by 
Alexander III., the Western Isles were ceded to the 
kingdom of Scotland, but were still under the govern- 
ment of the lords of the Isles, who exercised a kind of 
sovereignty independent of the crown. Of these chief- 
tains the most important were the Macdonalds, descend- 
ants of Somerled, Lord of Argyll, between whom and 
the Macleods of Dunvegan, and other clans, feuds pre- 
vailed to such an extent as to induce James V., in 1540, 
to arm a fleet to reduce them to subjection. The king 
in person visited the different islands of the Hebrides, 
and in the parish of Kilmuir was met by a number of 
chiefs who claimed relationship with the lords of the 
Isles. In 1715, Sir Donald Macdonald sent a strong 
body of his vassals from this and neighbouring parishes 



K I LM 



KI LM 



to the battle of Sherriffmuir ; but neither he nor Mac- 
leod of Dunvegan could be prevailed upon to join the 
forces of the Pretender at the battle of Culloden. Of 
this family was the heroic Flora Macdonald, who, in the 
disguise of a servant, conducted Prince Charles from 
Long Island to Monkstadt, in this parish, and was sent 
as a prisoner to the Tower of London, from which, how- 
ever, she was released at the intercession of Frederick, 
Prince of Wales. 

The parish is bounded on the north, east, and west 
by the sea, and on the south by the parish of Snizort ; 
it is about sixteen miles in length, varying from six to 
ten miles in breadth, and comprises 30,000 acres, of 
which 5000 are arable, nearly the same quantity mea- 
dow and pasture, and the remainder chiefly moorland, 
hill pasture, and waste. The surface is intersected by a 
range of hills, of which the highest has an elevation of 
1200 feet above the level of the sea ; and there are 
several smaller hills, covered with verdure, and of pic- 
turesque appearance. Within the bosom of a moun- 
tainous height, of precipitous acclivity on the west, and 
on the north-east inaccessible on account of rugged 
rocks and masses of columnar basalt, is a fertile plain 
of singular beauty, designated Quiraing, of sufficient 
extent to afford pasture for a short time to 4000 head 
of cattle, and which was formerly resorted to as a place 
of safety in times of danger. The coast is indented with 
numerous bays, of which the principal are those of 
Cammusmore, Duntulm, Kilmaluag, and Altivaig ; but 
Duntulm alone affords safe anchorage. The chief islands 
off the coast are, Iasgair or Yesker, Fladdachuain, Tulm, 
Trodda, Altivaig, and Fladda : of these, Fladdachuain, 
about three-quarters of a mile long and 300 yards in 
breadth, w 7 as the site of a Druidical temple. The isles 
are uninhabited, affording only pasture for cattle. There 
are some small lakes, in which are found black and yel- 
low trout : one lake has been lately drained, and con- 
verted into good arable ground. 

The land in cultivation is principally a tract about 
two miles in breadth along the shores, and the soil in 
that part is tolerably fertile, though the system of hus- 
bandry is still in a very imperfect state ; the chief crops 
produced are oats and potatoes. The sheep generally 
reared in the pastures, are of the black- faced and Che- 
viot breeds ; and the cattle, of the Highland, with the 
exception of cows on the dairy-farms, which are of the 
Ayrshire, breed. There is no village of any importance : 
a post-office, under that of Portree, has been established, 
from which letters are conveyed to Kilmaluag and 
Steinscholl districts, by a private runner. A road along 
the south-east boundary of the parish was opened about 
the year 1830, and is kept in repair by statute labour. 
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence 
of the presbytery of Skye and synod of Glenelg. The 
minister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £10 per annum; patron, the Crown. 
The church was built, in 1S10, and contains 700 sit- 
tings, which are all free. The parochial school is well 
attended ; the master has a salary of £30, with a house 
and garden, and the fees average £3 per annum. There 
is also a school, of which the master has a salary of £15, 
with a house and a portion of land, supported by the 
Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge ; and an- 
other school is maintained by the Gaelic School Society. 
The parish contains some interesting remains of the 
53 



once magnificent castle of Duntulm, the ancient resi- 
dence of the Macdonalds, situated on a lofty rock over- 
looking the bay of that name ; and there are vestiges of 
Culdee cells, and numerous remains of ancient forts, 
supposed to be chiefly of Danish origin. 

KILMUIR EASTER, a parish, in the county of 
Ross and Cromarty, 6 miles (S. S. W.) from Tain ; 
containing, with the villages of Barbaraville, Milntown, 
and Portlich, 14S6 inhabitants, of whom 1023 are in the 
rural districts of the parish. This place, which is situ- 
ated on the shore of the Frith of Cromarty, derives its 
name from the dedication of its ancient church to St. 
Mary, and the adjunct by which it is distinguished, 
from its relative position with reference to the parish of 
Kilmuir, in the district of Wester Ross. The lands 
formed part of the ample possessions of the earls of 
Cromarty, of whom George, first earl, obtained the pri- 
vilege of erecting his estates in this parish, and in the 
adjacent parts of Ross, into a separate county, called 
after him Cromarty. These estates became forfeited to 
the crown on the attainder of George, third earl, for his 
participation in the rebellion of 1*45 ; and the baronial 
mansion, Tarbat House, which had been the family re- 
sidence, was suffered to fall into a state of neglect and 
dilapidation. The forfeited estates were, however, re- 
stored, in 1784, to the late Lord Macleod, son of the 
last earl, who erected the present house of Tarbat, and 
extended and improved the ancient demesne, which was 
one of the most splendid and magnificent in the country ; 
and the lands of Kilmuir are now the property of his 
descendant, John Hay Mackenzie, Esq., the principal 
landed proprietor. 

The parish, which is bounded on the south by the 
Frith, is about ten miles in extreme length and four 
miles in breadth, comprising 21,500 acres, of which 
3500 are arable, 5600 woodland and plantations, and 
the remainder meadow, pasture, and moorland. The 
surface near the shore is generally level ; in other parts, 
diversified with rising grounds ; and towards the north, 
skirted by a range of hills of moderate elevation, culti- 
vated nearly to their summits. The Balnagown, a small 
stream, after bounding the parish on the north-east, 
flows into the Frith of Cromarty ; it abounds with 
trout, and salmon of small size are sometimes found in 
its waters. The higher grounds command extensive 
views of the Moray Frith and country adjacent, which 
are seen with beautiful effect in the opening between 
the rocks called the Souters, at the entrance of the bay 
of Cromarty, in which the ships passing and repassing 
form an interesting feature in the landscape. The pre- 
vailing scenery of the parish, enriched with wood, and 
enlivened with the highly-ornamented grounds of Tar- 
bat House and other handsome mansions, is generally 
pleasing, and in some parts strikingly picturesque. The 
coast, however, is flat and sandy; and at low water, the 
bay, which is here from three to four miles in breadth, is 
almost dry, and quite fordable to the opposite coast of 
Nigg. The sands on the sea-shore abound with cockles 
and muscles of fine quality ; and there are some oyster- 
beds, which are tolerably productive, yielding a consi- 
derable revenue. 

The soil is various ; in most of the low lands, of a 
light gravelly quality, which has been greatly improved 
by careful management ; in the higher lands, principally 
moor; and in others, alternated with tracts of moss. 



K I LM 



KILN 



The crops are, oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, turnips, 
peas, and beans ; the system of husbandry has been 
steadily improving ; the lands have been partly drained 
and inclosed, and the farm-buildings generally are sub- 
stantial and commodious. The sheep, of which more 
than 2000 are reared, are of the black-faced, Cheviot, 
and Leicestershire breeds ; the cattle, of which about 
1000 are fed on the hills, are of the Aberdeenshire 
black breed. A considerable number of swine are also 
reared for the markets ; and large quantities of butter 
and cheese are made on the dairy-farms. There are 
very considerable remains of natural wood, though, 
during the continuance of the forfeiture, vast quantities 
of timber were cut down in the grounds of Tarbat House. 
On the demesne attached to it are still some groves of 
venerable and stately trees ; and on the estate of Bal- 
nagown is a splendid avenue of oak, elm, birch, and 
chesnut, all of ancient and majestic growth. The more 
modern plantations consist chiefly of larch and Scotch 
fir. The substrata in the parish are principally red and 
white sandstone. White freestone of fine texture, re- 
sembling the Craigleith stone, and susceptible of a high 
polish, is quarried at Kenrive, on the lands of Kindace ; 
and there are also several quarries of red sandstone, but 
of inferior quality. The rateable annual value of Kil- 
muir Easter is £3391. 

Tarbat House, on the shore of the Frith, the seat of 
Mr. Mackenzie, is a handsome structure, beautifully situ- 
ated in an extensive and richly-embellished demesne, 
and has been greatly improved since the date of its 
erection. Within the grounds are some inconsiderable re- 
mains of the old castle, the seat of the earls of Cromarty. 
The plantations have been extended, and the place is 
rapidly recovering its ancient magnificence. Balna- 
gown Castle, the seat of Sir Charles W. A. Ross, Bart., 
is an old structure, originally the residence of the earls 
of Ross, and has been much improved by the present 
proprietor, who has erected some additions in a very 
elegant style ; it is seated in a demesne adorned with 
stately timber, and commanding an extensive view over 
the surrounding country. Milnmount House, near the 
village of Milntown, a well-built edifice, was pulled 
down in the year 1S45. Kindace House, in the upper 
part of the parish, and Rhives, are both handsome 
mansions. The villages of Barbaraville, Milntown, and 
Portlich are separately described. At Parkhill, in the 
village of Milntown, is a post-office, which has a daily 
delivery ; and facility of communication is maintained 
by the high road from Tain to Inverness, and other good 
roads which intersect the parish. At Balintraid, on the 
shore of the Frith, is a small harbour affording accom- 
modation for vessels from Leith and Aberdeen, and 
others, which bring supplies of coal and various kinds 
of goods ; and considerable quantities of grain from 
Easter Ross, and fir timber for the use of the collieries, 
are annually shipped from the pier. The ecclesiasti- 
cal affairs are under the superintendence of the presby- 
tery of Tain and synod of Ross. The minister's stipend 
is £211. 13., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 
per annum; patrons, the Mackenzie family. The 
church, erected in 1798, is a substantial structure, con- 
taining 900 sittings ; at the east end is a round tower, 
used as a belfry, on which is the date 16 16. The mem- 
bers of the Free Church have a place of worship. The 
parochial school affords instruction to more than sixty 
54 



children ; the master has a salary of £32, with a dwell- 
ing-house, and the fees average about £12 per annum. 
On a small hill covered with wood, on the lands of Kin- 
dace, were the remains of a Drnidical circle, of which 
the stones were removed some few years since by the 
farmer, to afford materials for building a dyke. The 
hill of Kenrive, on the same property, is supposed to 
have been so called from a king who was killed in a 
battle near the spot, and over whose remains was reared 
the large cairn which crowns its summit. 

KILMUIR WESTER, Ross-shire.— See Knock- 
bain. 

KILMUN, county of Argyll. — See Dunoon. 

KILNINIAN and KILMORE, a parish, in the dis- 
trict of Mull, county of Argyll : comprising the late 
quoad sacra districts of Tobermory and Ulva, and part 
of Salen ; and containing 4335 inhabitants. These two 
ancient parishes, now united, and the names of which 
respectively express to what saints the churches were 
dedicated, chiefly occupy the northern part of the island 
of Mull. The parish, to speak more particularly, con- 
sists partly of a peninsula, separated from the southern 
portion of the island by an isthmus formed by the sound 
of Mull on the east, and by the estuary called Loch- 
nan-gaul, a large bay of the Atlantic Ocean, on the west ; 
and partly of two groups of islands. Of these groups, 
one comprehends Ulva, Gometray, Little Colonsay, and 
Staffa, situated in the entrance of Loch-nan-gaul ; and 
the other, called the Treshinish isles, comprehends 
Fladda, Linga, Bach or the Dutchman's Cap, and the 
two Cairnburghs, and lies a little further to the west- 
ward. Exclusive of the islands, the parish is supposed 
to cover about 150 or 160 square miles; and the whole 
number of acres, including the islands, is computed at 
90,000, or 100,000, of which 15,000 are capable of tillage, 
14,000 are under pasture, 1000 in plantation, and the 
remainder hilly ground producing only coarse grass or 
moss. Loch Sunart, a large arm of the Atlantic, washes 
the parish on the north, sepai-ating Mull from Ardna- 
murchan, the headland of which district is the western 
extremity of the mainland of Scotland, and is distinctly 
seen, with the isles of Canna, Rum, Eigg, and Muck, 
farther north, from this locality. The Sound of Mull 
separates the parishes on the east from that of Morvern, 
and the Atlantic washes it on the west, the most violent 
gales here knowu proceeding from this and the south- 
west points. The coast is much varied in its outline, 
but without exhibiting any remarkable indentations, 
except on the north-west, where a long narrow inlet 
forms a partial division between the Kilninian and Kil- 
more districts. On the eastern shore, where there is a 
flexure of the sound of Mull, is the Bay of Aros, once 
protected by an ancient castle of the same name, said to 
have been built and inhabited by Mc Donald, Lord of the 
Isles, and still remaining. There are also, in different 
parts of the coast, several small creeks, especially on 
the north side, comprising those ofLaorin, Lockmingary, 
Pollach, and Calgarry, the last opening towards Tiree. 
The principal harbour, however, is the bay of Tobermory, 
a bustling sea-port in the north-east. 

Ulva, the largest of the islands, covers eighteen square 
miles, and is separated from Mull by the sound of Ulva, 
which is about 100 yards wide, and offers, as well as the 
bay of Ardnacallich, situated here, safe and convenient 
anchorage. On the north of Ulva, the bay of Soribi, 



KILN 



KILN 



and on the south, that of Crakaig, afford the same ad- 
vantages, especially the former, which is sufficiently 
capacious for shipping of any tonnage. The shores of 
Ulva are marked by many headlands, islets, and rocks, 
several of them agreeably clothed with verdure, and de- 
pastured by sheep and cattle. On the east is the pro- 
montory of Ardnacallieh, or " Old Wife's point," so 
named from the summit, which, as seen from a certain 
point in sailing out of the sound of Ulva towards Inch- 
kenneth or Gribon, resembles the head and face of a 
woman, with the features distinctly pourtrayed. To- 
wards the southern side of the island, near a cluster 
of columns called the Castles, is an extensive and remark- 
able cave, covering an area of nearly 3500 square feet, 
and displaying, at its arched entrance and in the interior, 
a singular combination of natural beauties, many of the 
portions assuming the character of a finished artificial 
structure. Not far distant, on the Ormaig shores, is 
Chirsty's Rock, also called Sceair Caristina, from a tragical 
event of ancient times. The basalt and wacken strata, 
beautifully varied in many instances by mixtures of 
zeolite, and sometimes phrenite and chalcedony, give a 
peculiar interest to the geological character of the island ; 
but its fine assemblage of basaltic columns are, to a great 
extent, unnoticed, being eclipsed by the surpassing com- 
positions of the celebrated Staffa. Gometray, situated on 
the west of Ulva, and separated only by a very narrow 
channel, is of much smaller extent and importance : 
attached to it, however, are two harbours, one on the 
south, and the other on the north. The islet of Colonsay, 
on the south of Ulva, is of still smaller size, and con- 
tains but a few inhabitants. 

Staffa, lying at some distance to the south-west, is 
about a mile long and a quarter of a mile broad, and 
totally uninhabited. This rocky spot, diminutive in 
size, is, however, the centre of attraction to the tourist, 
and exhibits, in the grand assemblage and composition 
of its basaltic columns and caves, one of the most strik- 
ing geological phenomena in the world. The name 
is of Scandinavian origin, and signifies " the island of 
columns." The isle, at its loftiest part, has an eleva- 
tion of 144 feet above the sea ; but in some places, es- 
pecially in the north, it is nearly level with the water, 
and towards the west the cliffs are much depressed, and 
comparatively destitute of interest. The great face, at 
its highest point, is 112 feet above high-water mark, 
but sinks towards the west, the extreme elevation near 
Mackinnon's cave being only eighty-four feet. At the 
Clamshell cave, also, the same appearance is exhibited, 
the vertical cliffs being here displaced by an irregular 
columnar declivity, beneath which the landing-place is 
seen, in the midst of columns stretching in almost every 
direction, and of various forms. The Boat cave, which 
can be approached only by sea, is sixteen feet high, 
twelve broad, and 150 feet long; and Mackinnon's cave, 
or the Cormorant, approached by a gravelly beach, is 
fifty feet high at the entrance, forty-eight feet wide, and 
224 feet long. There is also a celebrated rock called 
Buachaille, or " the Herdsman," a columnar pile about 
thirty feet high ; but the chief point of interest is Fin- 
gal's cave, which is forty-two feet wide at the entrance, 
227 feet long, and measures, from the top of the arch 
to the surface of the water at low-tide, sixty-six feet. 
The whole of this part of the island is supported by 
ranges of basaltic colonnades, much diversified in appear- 
55 



auce. The columns along the sides of the cave are per- 
pendicular, from two to four feet in diameter, and ge- 
nerally hexagonal and pentagonal in form, though often 
varying from this geometrical figure. 

The shores of all the islands attached to the parish, 
as well as those of the Mull portion, afford a large supply 
of excellent fish, especially about Ulva, comprising skate, 
flounders, soles, and turbot, with lobsters, crabs, and 
other shell-fish. An almost incredible number of sea- 
fowl, also, and various migratory birds, frequent the 
district. The surface of the interior of the Mull por- 
tion of the parish is hilly, though no where assuming a 
mountainous appearance. The eminences are mostly 
covered with heath ; but the inland parts of the more 
level ground consist of good pasture, interspersed with 
moss and heath, and along the sea-shore is some arable 
land. The scenery is much improved by the lakes, 
which are five in number, and supply good trout and 
pike, the former, also, and salmon, being found in the 
rivers. The soil is principally a light reddish earth, fre- 
quently mixed with moss, and occasionally mai-shy, and 
lying under water. That in Ulva, though sharp, is very 
fertile, and produces good crops of oats and bear. Wheat 
and peas were tried in the island a few years since, and, 
favoured by a genial climate, have succeeded far beyond 
expectation ; potatoes and turnips, also, attain a great 
size. The grass-land in the parish supplies good nutri- 
tious pasture. Lime-shell sand, found in abundance 
round the shores, and sea-weed, furnish excellent ma- 
nure ; and from the sea-weed, about 100 tons of the 
best kelp are annually manufactured in Ulva. The farms 
are small, and well fenced with stone dykes ; every 
tenant in Ulva is the owner of at least one boat, and has 
the privilege of feeding his horses and cattle, which are 
numerous and of fine quality, on the hilly grounds. 
Leases have recently been introduced ; and an allowance 
is now made by the landowner of Ulva for the cultivation 
of every acre of waste ground, in consequence of which 
many improvements have taken place. A very great im- 
pediment, however, is found in the bad condition of the 
roads of the parish. The rateable annual value of Kil- 
ninian and Kilmore, including the isles, is £7900. 

The strictures of Dr. Johnson show that, when he 
visited this place, in his tour through the Hebrides, it 
was entirely destitute of wood ; but plantations have 
since sprung up in different parts, to the advantage of 
the scenery, and others are in progress. These planta- 
tions, with the other improvements already noticed, the 
recent introduction of turnips and clover, and the en- 
couragement of the Cheviot breed of sheep, have produced 
a great change in the aspect and the agricultural character 
of the parish. The most commanding mansion is a 
modern building in the island of Ulva, situated in the 
midst of a large park, and about 400 yards distant from 
the old mansion of the Macquaries, the former owners 
of the property. The picturesque beauties of the grounds, 
and the plantations in the vicinity, greatly enrich the 
district j and a fine view is obtained of the mountains 
and the sound of Mull, its verdant islands, and the 
striking cataract of Esse-forse on Laggan Ulva. The 
other residences of most note are, Coll House, near To- 
bermory, an elegant modern structure ; Quinish Lodge, 
towards the west ; the Retreat Cottage ; Morinish Castle, 
a small neat modern building ; Ulva House ; Achada- 
shenag House : and Torloisk, surrounded by beautiful 



KILN 



KILN 



plantations, and commanding a fine view of the Tre- 
shinish islands. The chief traffic is carried on at To- 
bermory, whence black-cattle of fine quality, mostly 
reared in Ulva, are exported in considerable numbers, 
as well as sheep, horses, pigs, potatoes, bear, and eggs, 
with a portion of kelp : and besides a variety of other 
merchandise, oatmeal, seeds, corn, leather, and salt are 
imported, and coal for the more wealthy classes. There 
are two quays ; and the town contains the post-office for 
the surrounding district, a branch of the Western Bank, 
and the court of the sheriff-substitute. It is also the 
polling-place, at county elections, for the electors residing 
in Mull, Ulva, Iona, Tiree and Coll, and Morvern. 

The parish is ecclesiastically in the presbytery of 
Mull and synod of Argyll, and in the patronage of the 
Duke of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £231, with 
an allowance in lieu of a manse, and a glebe of the 
annual value, of £20. There are two churches, about 
seven miles distant from each other, the one situated at 
Kilninian, and containing 300 sittings, and the other at 
Kilmore, having 3o0 ; they were both erected in 1754, 
and thoroughly repaired in 1842. In the year 1827, 
two quoad sacra parishes were formed by the parliamen- 
tary commissioners, with a church and manse to each ; 
and a part of the parish was added to the new quoad 
sacra parish of Salen. These arrangements, however, 
are now abolished. One of the two parishes, called 
Ulva, consisted of the islands of Ulva, Gometray, Little 
Colonsay, Staffa, and a part of Mull, covering about 
sixty square miles. The other parish, named Tober- 
mory, extended about six miles in length, and nearly 
two in breadth, comprehending about twelve square 
miles. The parochial school is situated in the Kilninian 
and Kilmore district ; the salary of the master is £25, 
with a house and garden, and about £3 fees. There is 
also a school supported by the General Assembly ; and 
others are maintained by the Society for Propagating 
Christian Knowledge, and other societies. The Ulva 
district contains three schools ; two are branches of the 
parochial school, and the other is supported by the 
Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. One of 
these is on the main land of Mull, and the remaining 
two in the island of Ulva. In the Tobermory district is 
a school supported by government ; and a female school 
of industry is maintained chiefly by the Queen Dowager. 
The ruins of religious edifices are to be seen in different 
places ; and on the height above Kilmore is a Druidical 
circle, consisting of five large stones. Cairnburgh, one 
of the Treshinish isles, a lofty rock, was taken by Crom- 
well's troops in the time of the Commonwealth, and 
was garrisoned by the Mc Leans in 1715- This, and 
the adjacent rock called Little Cairnburgh, are said to 
have been the boundary between the Nodorees and 
Sodorees, or Northern and Southern isles, which formed 
two distinct governments when the Hebrides were sub- 
ject to Denmark. — See Staffa, Tobermory, Ulva, &c. 
KILNINVER and KILMELFORD, a parish, in the 
district of Lorn, county of Argyll, 8 miles (S. by W.) 
from Oban ; containing 896 inhabitants. The name of 
the first of these two ancient parishes is formed from 
the two Gaelic words, kil, a " cell, chapel, or burying- 
place," and inver, "the foot of the river or water," the 
latter term being descriptive of the situation of the an- 
cient chapel or place of sepulture. Kilmelford, cor- 
rupted from Kilnarnaolphort, or Kilnameallphort, or per- 
56 



haps Kilnameallard, is also formed from two Gaelic 
words, signifying, as is generally supposed, " the burial- 
ground of the smooth or round bays," though some 
think the name means " the promontory's bay." Each 
of the derivations is strictly applicable to a rocky point 
of land projecting into the head of Loch Melford, and 
forming on either side two round bays. The parish, 
covering about twelve square miles, is situated on the sea- 
coast, embracing a line of shore fourteen miles, marked by 
numerous inlets and bays affording convenient and safe 
anchorage. Kilninver is washed on the north by Loch 
Feuchan, and Kilmelford on the south by Loch Melford, 
each of them a branch of the Atlantic Ocean, which 
forms various channels or sounds bounding the parish 
on the west. Loch Feuchan, separating Kilninver from 
the parish of Kilbride, usually called Mid Lorn, is a 
boundary of the parish for three miles, and is about a 
mile broad, the depth being fifteen fathoms. Loch Mel- 
ford is nearly four miles long, about half as wide, and 
thirty-five fathoms deep : the line of its northern shore, 
however, on account of its numerous indentations and 
curvatures, forming many excellent inlets and bays, 
measures as many as six miles. 

On the western coast of the parish, for about five 
miles, from the estuary of the Euchar to the sound of 
Clachan-Seil, is a spacious and beautiful bay, formed by 
two lofty rocky promontories ; it has a clayey bottom, 
and a fine smooth sandy beach. After this, and as far 
northward as the sound of Clachan, the rugged nature 
of the coast exposes shipping to great danger. This 
sound, which is a part of the western boundary of 
Kilninver, is two miles long, and eighty feet broad, 
exhibiting, on account of its smooth and straight course, 
the appearance of a fine canal. It may be crossed in 
some places at low water, and at all times by the ferry ; 
but for greater convenience, a bridge has been thrown 
over, consisting of one arch, spanning seventy-two feet, 
and placed twenty-seven feet above the highest water- 
mark. Under this, vessels of twenty-tons' burthen can 
pass with ease, and obtain good anchorage either at the 
northern or southern ends of the sound. The whole of the 
coast supplies abundance of salmon, mackerel, turbot, 
herrings, ling, haddock, skate, and a variety of other fish ; 
and on the shores of the two lochs are found oysters, 
lobsters, crabs, muscles, cockles, and welks. 

The general surface of the parish is much diversified, 
comprising high mountains, hills, and dales, intersected 
by rivers, and ornamented with lochs, amidst a great 
profusion of beautiful and interesting scenery : there 
are also some tracts of level ground. The most lofty 
eminence is Ben-Chapull, or " Mares' mountain," rising 
about 1500 feet above the level of the sea, and com- 
manding extensive and magnificent views to the west and 
north. The other hills are comprehended in four dif- 
ferent ranges, which extend to the sea-coast. Glen- 
Euchar, taking its name from the river running through 
it, and stretching for about six miles through the Kil- 
ninver district, from east to west, confers much pleas- 
ing variety on the scenery ; its elevations produce, in 
rainy seasons, fine pasture, and the lower parts good 
crops of corn and potatoes. Another strath, called the 
Braes of Lorn, in the south, and parallel with Glen- 
Euchar, though not so extensive or well cultivated, yet 
surpasses it in the richness of its pasture, and is remark- 
able also for its plentiful supply of limestone and peat, 



KILN 



K I L P 



the latter affording the principal fuel. A tract in the 
west of the parish, called Nether Lorn, extending for 
about three miles, and having in general a clayey soil, 
but being in some parts loamy, on a sandy and slaty 
bottom, is exceedingly rich and fertile, yielding potatoes, 
grain, turnips, and fancy grasses. 

The Euchar, the largest stream, rising in Loch Seama- 
dale, after running westward for about two miles, takes, 
for the same distance, a northerly course, and falls into 
the sea at Kilninver. It is swelled by numerous tribu- 
tary streams, and passes, for the most part, between 
finely-wooded banks. About a mile from the ocean, it 
flows through a deep rocky ravine, and forms a water- 
fall, distinguished both for its strikingly romantic 
scenery, and as the resort of fine salmon : near this 
spot, on the southern bank, formerly stood the man- 
sion of the Mc Dougalls, of Raray. The river Ou.de, 
which rises in Loch Trallaig, and is nearly five miles in 
length, in its course from north-east to south-west runs 
for two miles through the braes of Lorn, in the parish 
of Kilninver. About a mile from its junction with the 
sea at the expansive bay north of the head of Loch 
Melford, it traverses a locality crowded with grand and 
romantic scenery, and crossed by the great road between 
Lochgilphead and Oban : the rocks in many places 
overhang the road, and rise on each side several hundred 
feet high. Of the numerous inland lochs, numbering 
about twenty, the largest is Loch Scamadale, measuring 
two miles in length and half a mile in breadth. The 
water is twenty fathoms deep ; and the beautiful scenery 
in the vicinity is enlivened by tributary streams and 
mountain torrents, which, in time of flood, pour with im- 
petuosity and deafening roar through the deep and narrow 
ravines around. Loch Trallais;, more than a mile long 
and half a mile broad, is situated in the braes of Lorn : 
near it, at the base of a very lofty rock, is the school- 
house of the district ; and on its northern side, a range 
of hills, 800 feet high, forms a conspicuous and striking 
feature in the scenery. Of the remaining lakes, that 
called Parson's lake is distinguished for the wildness of 
its vicinity, for its beautifully-wooded island, and the 
ruins of a castle or monastery containing twelve apart- 
ments. All the lochs, as well as the rivers, contain fine 
trout and perch, especially Line, or String, lake, in the 
eastern quarter, in which the trout, for size and flavour, 
are said to surpass all other trout in the county. 

The soil, near the rivers, is frequently an alluvial 
deposit on clay or sand, and in other parts exhibits se- 
veral varieties, comprising, frequently, loamy, clayey, or 
sandy earth. The husbandry approximates, as nearly as 
is practicable, to that in the southern districts of the 
country; and the tenants of the Marquess of Breadal- 
bane, who holds two-thirds of Kilninver, as well as the 
proprietors who farm their own estates, are emulous to 
promote every agricultural improvement. Cattle-shows 
and ploughing-matehes are annually held. The cattle 
are chiefly the black Highland breed, of which about 
1200 are kept, besides 15,000 sheep. The rocks on the 
coast are chiefly sandstone and slate, with mixtures of 
whinstone ; and limestone abounds in the hills skirting 
the parish on the east and south-east. The native trees 
comprise oak, ash, elm, alder, birch, mountain-ash, and 
hazel ; those planted are, Scotch fir, larch, spruce, plane, 
poplar, lime, beech, and chesnut, covering altogether a 
considerable portion of ground. The rateable annual 
Vol. II.— 57 



value of the parish is £4S82. The only seats of impor- 
tance are those of Melford and Glenmore. The inhabit- 
ants, who have diminished in number about 100 since 
the year 1881, are engaged in agriculture, with the 
exception of those employed at a large distillery, and in 
the salmon and herring fisheries. There are two salmon- 
fisheries, one at the confluence of the Euchar with Loch 
Feuchan, and the other at the mouth of the Oude, pro- 
ducing togetherabout£70per annum : theherring-fishery 
is carried on in Loch Melford, and supplies a large 
stock of fish for the parish and surrounding district. 
About fourteen miles of public road pass through the 
parish ; and important facilities for exporting agricul- 
tural produce are afforded by the extent of sea-coast. 
A fair or market is held in May, and another in Novem- 
ber, for the purpose of hiring servants. 

The parish is ecclesiastically in the presbytery of 
Lorn and synod of Argyll, and in the alternate presen- 
tation of the Duke of Argyll and the Marquess of Bread- 
albane, the former as possessing the old patronage of Kil- 
melford, and the latter that of Kilninver. The minister's 
stipend is £166, with an allowance of £50 in lieu of a 
manse ; the glebe, situated chiefly at Kilmelford, is valued 
at £20. 10. per annum. There is a church in each district, 
kept in excellent order, and sharing alternately the minis- 
try of the incumbent. That at Kilninver, built about J 793, 
accommodates 450 persons ; and the edifice at Kilmel- 
ford, distant from the former eight miles, seats 250. 
The parochial school at Kilninver affords instruction in 
the usual branches ; the master has a salary of £34, 
with an allowance of £6. S. in lieu of house and garden. 
In the school at Kilmelford the same kind of instruction 
is given, the master receiving a salary of £25, and £4 
in lieu of house and garden. The fees respectively 
amount to £20 and £15. There is also an Assembly's 
school, the master of which has £25 per annum, with 
an allowance for house and garden. The antiquities 
comprise tumuli, cairns, and perpendicular stones, with 
the ancient ruin called Dun-mhie Raonaill, or " Ronald- 
son's tower," formerly used as a watch and signal station. 
A tower or stronghold in Line lake served a desperate 
band of adventurers, for upwards of a century, as a se- 
cure retreat, whence they made predatory incursions 
throughout the country. There is also a place called 
the " Bones' barn," where the well-known Alexander 
McDonald, usually called in this locality Alastair Mac- 
Cholla, burnt to death a large number of women and 
children who had fled thither to escape from his bar- 
barity. 

KILPATRICK, NEW, or EAST, a parish, partly in 
the county of Dumbarton, and partly in the county of 
Stirling, 6 miles (N. W. by N.) from Glasgow ; contain- 
ing, with the village of Milngavie in the latter county, 
and in the former the villages of Blue-Row, Cannesburn, 
Craigton-Field, Dalsholm, New Kilpatrick, Knights- 
wood, and Netherton- Quarry, 3457 inhabitants, of whom 
1748 are in the county of Dumbarton, and 1709 in that 
of Stirling. This place occupies the eastern portion of 
the ancient parish of Kilpatrick, now called Old or West 
Kilpatrick, from which it was separated in 1649, and 
erected into an independent parish by the civil and ec- 
clesiastical authorities. The new parish is about seven 
miles and a half in extreme length, and more than three 
miles in average breadth, comprising 13,500 acres, of 
which about 7000 are arable, S00 woodland and planta- 



K I L P 



K I L P 



tions, and the remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. 
The surface is diversified with pleasing undulations, 
which increase in boldness as they recede from the 
banks of the rivers, and with numerous large knolls, 
which are partly arable and partly wooded. The Kirk- 
patrick range of hills, of which some have an elevation of 
nearly 1200 feet, skirt the parish from east to west. 

The principal river is the Kelvin, which has its source 
in the hills of Kilsyth ; and though for the greater part 
of its course an inconsiderable stream, it expands into a 
broad and rapid current as it approaches Garscube 
House, in this parish, and, flowing between richly- wooded 
banks along its south-eastern boundary, falls into the 
Clyde below Glasgow. The Allander, a small stream 
issuing from a reservoir in the parish of West Kilpatrick, 
after skirting the northern boundary of this parish for 
more than a mile, takes a south-easterty course, and, 
supplying the bleachfields of Clober, and turning the 
mills of Milngavie, joins the Kelvin. The Forth and 
Clyde canal passes through the southern portion of the 
parish, and is carried over the river Kelvin by a noble 
aqueduct, 350 feet in length, fifty-seven feet in width, 
fifty-seven feet in height from the surface of the river to 
the top of the parapet, and supported on four arches of 
fifty feet span. There are several lakes in the parish, of 
which the largest, in the pleasure-grounds of Dugalston, 
is nearly 30 acres in extent. Another, in the grounds 
of Kilmardinny, of about ten acres, beautifully encom- 
passed with shrubberies and plantations, abounds with 
perch, eels, and pike ; and the still smaller lake of 
St. Germanus is enriched with many rare aquatic plants. 

The soil generally is a retentive clay, of no great 
depth, resting upon a substratum of till : and along the 
banks of the rivers, a deep rich loam ; several of the 
knolls are of a light dry quality, and on the higher 
grounds are extensive tracts of moorland and peat-moss. 
The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, beans, potatoes, and 
turnips ; the system of husbandry is in a highly im- 
proved state, and a due rotation of crops is regularly 
observed. The lands have been drained, and inclosed 
partly with hedges of thorn, and partly with stone 
dykes. The farms vary from 40 to 400 acres in extent ; 
and the buildings, of which several are of modern erec- 
tion, are usually substantial and commodious. Great 
attention is paid to the management of the dairies, con- 
siderable quantities of butter being sent to the Glasgow- 
market. The cattle fed on the pastures are of the West 
Highland breed, and on the dairy-farms, of the Ayrshire ; 
they are mostly bought in at the neighbouring fairs, 
few being reared in the parish. The sheep are chiefly 
of the common black-faced breed. The plantations 
consist of ash, elm, beech, sycamore, and other forest 
trees, with Scotch, silver, and spruce firs, of all of which, 
on several of the lands, are some remarkably fine speci- 
mens. In most of the more recent plantations, the 
oak has been introduced with every prospect of success. 
The substrata are principally coal, forming part of the 
spacious basin surrounding the city of Glasgow, sand- 
stone, whinstone, trap, and basalt ; the coal is wrought 
at Garscube, Law Muir, and Castle-Hill, where it occurs 
at depths varying from eighteen to fifty fathoms from 
the surface. Limestone is worked at Culloch ; and 
various strata of clay ironstone are found, of which one, 
at Garscube, was wrought some years since ; but the 
ore was neither in sufficient quantity, nor of the requisite 
56 



quality, for smelting. There are some quarries of excel- 
lent freestone of a fine cream colour in operation at 
Netherton, affording employment to about seventy per- 
sons : the stone, though comparatively soft when first 
taken from the quarry, becomes hard when exposed to 
the air ; and formerly, large quantities of it were ex- 
ported to Ireland and the West Indies. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £2S,03S, including £4145 
for the Dumbartonshire portion. Garscube House, the 
seat of Sir Archibald Campbell, Bart., is a spacious and 
elegant mansion, erected in 1S27, and pleasantly situated 
on the banks of the Kelvin, in a demesne tastefully laid 
out, and embellished with stately timber. Clober House ; 
Killermont House, partly ancient and partly modern ; 
Garscadden ; and Kilmardinny, are also handsome 
mansions finely situated ; and the seat of Dugalston, 
which has been for some time deserted, is beautifully 
seated in extensive and well-ornamented grounds. 

Various branches of manufacture are carried on in 
different parts of the parish, of which the principal are, 
the printing of calico, the spinning of cotton, the bleach- 
ing of cotton and linen, for which there are extensive 
works at Clober, and the manufacture of paper, snuff, 
and various other articles, which are minutely detailed 
in the notices of the several villages where they are 
carried on. The village of East Kilpatrick, in which 
the church is situated, contains thirty-five inhabitants, 
and consists of a few neat cottages : a fair, chiefly for 
milch-cows, is held on the 1st of May, O. S., and is 
still tolerably attended. There are post-offices in the 
village and at Milngavie ; and facility of communication 
is maintained by the turnpike-roads from Glasgow and 
Dumbarton, by the Forth and Clyde canal, and by good 
bridges over the Kelvin and Allander. The ecclesi- 
astical affairs are under the superintendence of the 
presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr. The minister's stipend is £270, with a manse, 
and a glebe valued at £11. 13. 4. per annum; patron, 
the Duke of Montrose. The church, erected in 180S, 
is a neat plain structure centrally situated, and con- 
taining 704 sittings. There is a place of worship in the 
village of Milngavie for members of the Relief. The 
parochial school is well conducted ; the master has a 
salary of £34, with an allowance of £10 in lieu of a 
house and garden, and the fees average about £10 per 
annum. There are still considerable vestiges of the 
wall of Antoninus, which intersected the parish from 
east to west, and some remains of two ancient forts, 
from the ruins of which were dug two votive tablets, 
now preserved in the Hunterian museum of the univer- 
sity of Glasgow. On the lands of Dalsholm, near 
Garscube House, in a tumulus lately opened, was dis- 
covered a flight of steps, leading to a slab on which 
were ashes and cinders ; and underneath it, was found 
a chamber inclosed with flag-stones, in which were 
fragments of ancient armour, military weapons, and 
various utensils. At Drumry, near Garscadden, are the 
remains of a chapel, of which the tower, overhanging a 
steep acclivity, bears much resemblance to a fortress. 
There was also a chapel at Lurg, of which little more 
than the site can now be traced ; the tombstones in 
the cemetery have for many years been removed, and 
the land is under tillage. 

KILPATRICK, OLD, or WEST, a parish, in the 
county of Dumbarton; containing, with the late quoad 



K I L P 



KILP 



sacra parish of Duntocher, and the villages of Bowling- 
Bay, Dalmuir, Dalmuir-Shore, Dumbuck, Little-Mill, 
and Milton, 7020 inhabitants, of whom 819 are in the 
village of Old Kilpatrick, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Dum- 
barton, and 10 (N. W. by W.) from Glasgow. This 
place derives its name from the dedication of its ancient 
church to St. Patrick, the tutelar saint of Ireland, by 
whom it was originally founded, and who, though va- 
rious places dispute the honour of his birth, is generally 
said to have been a native of this parish. That it had 
attained a considerable degree of importance at a very 
early period, appears evident from the numerous ves- 
tiges of Roman occupation that may still be traced. The 
wall of Antoninus between the Forth and the Clyde 
terminated at Chapel-Hill, in the parish ; and though 
all remains of that structure have long been obliterated 
by the plough, the fosse by which it was defended is 
yet discernible. At Duntocher was a Roman fort, of 
which the site is obscurely pointed out ; and an ancient 
bridge at the same place, which was repaired in 1*72, 
by Lord Blantyre, is said to have been built in the time 
of the Emperor Adrian, though some antiquaries re- 
gard its sole claim to Roman origin as arising from 
its having been constructed with materials supplied from 
the ruins of the fort. Votive altars, also, and various 
stones with Roman inscriptions, have been found at 
Chapel-Hill and at Duntocher. Near the former place, 
a subterranean recess, containing Roman vases and 
coins, was discovered in 1790, by the workmen employed 
in digging the canal ; and at the latter, the remains of 
a Roman sudatorium were found in 1775. 

The parish is bounded on the south by the river 
Clyde, along which it extends for nearly eight miles, 
and is four miles and a half in extreme breadth, com- 
prising 11,500 acres, of which 6000 are arable, 600 
woodland and plantations, and the remainder meadow 
and pasture. The surface rises by a gentle acclivity 
from the river towards the north, and is diversified 
with hills, of which the most conspicuous are those 
of Dalnotter, Chapel-Hill, and Dumbuck, commanding 
from their summits extensive views of the Clyde, the 
county of Renfrew, and part of Lanarkshire. The 
Kilpatrick hills, of which Dumbuck hill forms a part, 
terminate near the western extremity of the parish ; 
they are a prominent and lofty range, and some of them 
attain an elevation of upwards of 1200 feet above the 
level of the sea. The parish, as seen from the Clyde, 
constitutes one of the richest features in the picturesque 
and beautiful scenery for which that river is so cele- 
brated. A nameless stream is supplied from two small 
lakes behind the range of the Kilpatrick hills, and, 
flowing southward, by Faifley and Duntocher, falls into 
the Clyde at Dalmuir. The soil along the banks of 
the Clyde is a fine deep loam, resting on a bed of clay ; 
and in the higher grounds, light and gravelly. The 
crops are, oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, and turnips. 
The system of husbandry is improved, and the arable 
lands are in a high state of cultivation : great attention 
is paid to the management of the dairy-farms, and 
large quantities of butter are sent to the Glasgow mar- 
ket, where they find a ready sale. The cattle are gene- 
rally of the Highland black breed, and on the dairy- 
farms the cows are of the Ayrshire breed; both are 
chiefly purchased at the neighbouring fairs, few being 
reared in the parish. The sheep, of which considerable 
59 



numbers are reared in the moorland pastures, are all of 
the black-faced breed. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £23,524. 

The plantations, which are well managed, and in a 
thriving state, consist of oak, ash, elm, beech, plane, 
lime, and the various kinds of fir, for all of which the 
soil appears to be well adapted ; and both in the low- 
lands and higher grounds are many fine specimens, of 
stately growth. The substrata of the parish are prin- 
cipally of the coal formation ; and the rocks are com- 
posed of greenstone, amygdaloid, trap, greywacke, and 
basalt. Limestone and ironstone are also found. The 
coal, which is wrought in the lands near Duntocher, 
occurs at depths varying from 120 to 200 feet, in seams 
about five feet in thickness, and of good quality. The 
limestone, which is also of good quality, is wrought for 
manure ; and there are some quarries of freestone and 
whinstone in operation. The principal seats within 
the parish are, Cochno, Edinbarnet, Milton House, 
Auchintorlie, Auchintoshan, Glenarbuck, Mount-Blow, 
Barnhill, and Dumbuck, most of which are handsome 
mansions, finely situated in richly-planted demesnes. 
The village of Kilpatrick was formerly a burgh of barony, 
and, by charter under the great seal, dated 1679, was 
made head of the barony, and invested with power to 
create burgesses, and appoint bailies for its government. 
These privileges have long been extinct, though it is 
not recorded by what means they became obsolete ; and 
the old gaol, with the iron bars on the windows, is now 
a private house. A post-office has been established 
under the office at Glasgow; and facility of communi- 
cation is afforded by the turnpike-road from Dumbarton 
to Glasgow, which intersects the parish for nearly eight 
miles ; by other good roads ; by the Forth and Clyde 
and the Monkland canals ; by the Erskiue ferry near 
Kilpatrick ; and by numerous steamers which frequent 
the Clyde. 

Various branches of manufacture are carried on, to 
a very great extent, in the several villages within the 
limits of the parish. The principal works are the cotton- 
mills at Faifley, Duntocher, Milton, and Hardgate, in 
which 74,045 spindles and 530 power-looms are em- 
ployed, producing as many as 875,0001b. of yarn, and 
2,000,000 yards of cloth annually, and affording occupa- 
tion to nearly 1500 persons. At Dalmuir are paper- 
mills, producing paper of all kinds to the amount of 
£30,000 annually, and giving employment to 176 per- 
sons, of whom one-half are women and children. There 
are soda-works at Dalmuir-Shore, in which thirty tons 
of sulphuric acid are produced weekly, and used in the 
making of bleaching-powder, chloride of lime, and 
soda : about 100 persons are engaged here. At Milton 
are an extensive bleachfield and some calico-printing 
works, in which from 400 to 500 people are employed ; 
and at Cochney were once works for dyeing cotton cloth 
a Turkey red, and printing them when dyed, in which 
more than seventy persons were occupied. At Bowling- 
Bay is a ship-building yard, where about twenty persons 
are employed in building sloops of 170 tons' burthen, 
and vessels for canal navigation; and at Little-Mill, 
likewise, nearly one hundred people were formerly 
engaged in building steam-vessels of large dimensions. 
There is an iron-forge at Faifley, for the manufac- 
ture of spades and shovels, in which thirty persons 
are employed. At Little-Mill and Auchintoshan are 

12 



K I L R 



K I L R 



distilleries, in the former of which about 50,000, and in 
the latter about 16,000, gallons of whisky are annually 
made. Several handloom-weavers throughout the pa- 
rish are employed by the Glasgow and Paisley houses ; 
and a considerable number of females are engaged in 
embroidering muslin. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £225, 
■with a manse, and a glebe valued at about £40 per 
annum ; patron, Lord Blantyre. The parish church, 
erected in 1812, is an elegant structure in the later 
English style of architecture, with a square embattled 
tower, and contains 750 sittings. A church has been 
erected at Duntocher, in connexion with the Establish- 
ment ; and there are places of worship at Old Kilpatrick 
for members of the Free Church and the Relief; at Dun- 
tocher, for the United Secession, Roman Catholics, and 
the Free Church; and at Faifley, for the United Seces- 
sion. The parochial schoolmaster has a salary of £34, 
with a house and garden, and the fees average £15 per 
annum. There are also schools in several of the vil- 
lages. On a promontory near the margin of the Clyde 
are the ruins of the ancient castle of Dunglass, the 
baronial seat of the Colquhouns, who were lords of the 
whole lands between it and Dumbarton, which lands 
constituted the barony of Colquhoun. A little to the 
west of it, is a lofty basaltic rock of singular form, 
called Dumbuck, resembling the rock of Dumbarton. 
In the churchyard is an erect stone, sculptured with 
the effigy of an armed knight ; and in the gardens at 
Mount-Blow js a monumental cross, on which the figures, 
from its having been formerly used as a bridge, are 
much obliterated. There are also numerous vestiges of 
hill fortresses on the heights, and several tumuli of arti- 
ficial formation. 

KILRENNY, a royal 
burgh and a parish, in the 
district of St. Andrew's, 
county of Fife, 3 miles (S. 
W. by W.) from Crail, and 
10 (S. S. E.) from St. An- 
drew's ; including the village 
of Nether Kilrenny or Cel- 
lardykes, and that of Upper 
Kilrenny ; and containing 
2039 inhabitants, of whom 
1652 are in the burgh. This 
parish, which is situated on 
the north of the Frith of Forth, at the south-eastern ex- 
tremity of the county, is supposed to have derived its 
name from the dedication of its church to St. Ireneus. 
The village of Nether Kilrenny, which is on the coast, 
is separated from Anstruther Easter only by a small 
rivulet ; it obtained the name of Cellardykes from the 
numerous storehouses ranged along the shore for the 
use of the fisheries, which have long been carried on to 
a very great extent. The fish taken here are, cod, 
ling, haddocks, halibut, turbot, and salmon, of which 
supplies are sent to Edinburgh and other markets; and 
not less than seventy boats, with crews of six men each, 
belonging to this place, are employed in the herring- 
fishery. The fisheries are in a prosperous state, and 
still increasing, the fishermen hardy and enterprising, 
and their boats in first-rate order, and well managed. 
60 




Burgh Seal. 



Cellardykes has a population of 1486, and consists 
chiefly of one main street irregularly built, and extend- 
ing along the shore ; a pier was erected in 1831, for the 
accommodation of vessels engaged in the fishery, and 
there is a favourable site for the construction of a com- 
modious harbour. The village of Upper Kilrenny con- 
tains 233 persons, and is about a mile to the north-east 
of Cellardykes, with which it is connected by the road 
from Anstruther to Crail ; it consists only of the church 
and manse, the houses of Innergelly and Renny-Hill, an 
inn, and some rural cottages. The post-town is Anstru- 
ther ; and facility of communication is afforded with 
St. Andrew's and other towns by good roads which pass 
through the parish. 

The bvjrgh of Kilrenny, which includes both the vil- 
lages already described, though said to have been erected 
into a royal burgh by James VI., does not appear to 
have received any regular charter of incorporation. The 
magistrates, appointed by Bethune of Balfour, the supe- 
rior of the burgh, returned a member to the Scottish 
parliament without any legitimate authority ; and at 
the time of the union, though it had been expunged 
from the list of royal burghs at the request of its magis- 
trates, it was inadvertently classed with the royal 
burghs of the district. The government was until 1829 
vested in a provost, two bailies, and twelve councillors, 
duly chosen ; but in that year, the burgh was disfran- 
chised owing to an irregularity in the election of the 
officers, and its affairs were placed under the direction 
of managers by the court of session. There never were 
any incorporated guilds possessing exclusive privileges, 
nor was any fee exacted for admission as a burgess. The 
magistrates had the usual civil and criminal jurisdiction 
within the burgh ; but no civil causes had been brought 
for their decision within the last twenty years, and their 
criminal jurisdiction had been exercised only in breaches 
of the peace. The town-house is a small inferior build- 
ing. The burgh is associated with those of St. Andrew's, 
Anstruther Easter, Anstruther Wester, Crail, Cupar, and 
Pittenweem, in returning a member to the imperial par- 
liament ; the number of qualified voters is fifty. 

The parish is of triangular form, its base extending 
along the sea-shore for nearly three miles. The surface 
rises gradually from the coast towards the north, and is 
diversified with a few hills of inconsiderable height : 
there are no rivers in the parish, except the small burn 
that divides it from Anstruther, and another burn that 
intersects it about its centre. The coast is bold and 
rocky, and indented with some small bays ; on the east 
of Cellardykes are some rocks called the Cardinal's 
Steps, and others are perforated with caves, of which 
one is of considerable extent. The soil is generally fer- 
tile, and the lands, chiefly arable, produce favourable 
crops of grain of every kind ; the system of husbandry 
is improved, and sea-weed, of which abundance is thrown 
upon the coast, is used as manure. The ecclesiastical 
affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery 
of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife. The minister's sti- 
pend is £251. 17. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued 
at £27. 10. per annum; patron, Sir W. C. Anstruther, 
Bart. The church is a neat plain structure in good re- 
pair. The parochial school is well conducted ; the 
master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, 
and the fees may be said to average from £30 to £40 
per annum. 



KILS 



K I L S 



KILSPINDIE, a parish, in the county of Perth ; 
containing, with the villages of Pitrodie and Rait, 709 
inhabitants, of whom 56 are in the village of Kilspin- 
die, 2 miles (N. W.) from Errol. This place includes 
the ancient parish of Rait, which, after the dilapidation 
of its church, whereof there are still some portions 
remaining, was united to the parish of Kilspindie, prior 
to the year 1634. The present parish, situated partly in 
the Carse of Gowrie, and partly among the Stormont 
hills, is about five miles in length and three and a half 
miles in breadth, comprising 6500 acres, of which 3500 
are arable, 200 woodland and plantations, 200 undi- 
vided common, and the remainder permanent pasture 
and heath. The surface, towards the south, is flat for 
nearly a quarter of a mile, and thence rises gradually 
towards the north for almost two miles, till it attains an 
elevation of more than 600 feet above the level of the 
sea. It is diversified with several hills, of which that 
of Evelick, the highest of the range, and nearly in the 
centre of the parish, has an elevation of 832 feet. This 
hill, which is of a conical form, and covered with ver- 
dure, commands one of the most interesting prospects 
in this part of the country, embracing a portion of the 
beautiful vale of Strathmore, with the Grampians imme- 
diately behind, and the lofty mountains of Benglo, Schi- 
hallion, and Benvoirlich in the distance ; the Carse of 
Gowrie on the south-east and south-west ; and, beyond 
the Tay, the coasts of Fife, with the Lomond hills, and 
the hills near Stirling. Between the hills, which are 
generally of barren aspect, are several narrow glens of 
great fertility and pleasing appearance ; the slopes of 
the hills towards the carse are well cultivated, and 
the scenery is enriched with wood, and enlivened with 
the windings of the burns of Kilspindie, Rait, and 
Pitrodie. 

The soil of the lower grounds is extremely rich, pro- 
ducing fine crops of grain of all kinds ; the slopes of the 
hills are of lighter quality, yielding a great abundance 
of turnips and potatoes. The system of agriculture is 
in a highly-improved state; the lands are well drained 
and inclosed ; the buildings are substantial, and on 
most of the farms are threshing-mills. The hilly dis- 
tricts afford good pasture for sheep and cattle. The 
plantations, which are well managed, and in a thriving 
condition, consist chiefly of Scotch fir and ash. The 
substrata are mostly amygdaloid, trap, and whinstone, 
of which the hills are mainly composed ; and beautiful 
specimens of agate are frequently found, which are made 
into brooches and other ornaments. Sandstone of coarse 
grain, and of a grey colour, is also met with ; and whin- 
stone is quarried at Pitrodie. The rateable annual value 
of the parish is £5S22. Fingask Castle, the seat of Sir 
Patrick Murray Threipland, Bart., is beautifully situated 
on the braes of the carse, and commands a highly inter- 
esting view of the vale through which the river Tay 
pursues its course till it falls into the German Ocean, a 
few miles below Dundee. The castle, which is built on 
the brow of a deep glen thickly wooded, is a very an- 
cient structure, bearing in one part the date 1194, but 
has been greatly enlarged and modernised by the addi- 
tion of recent buildings, though still retaining its castel- 
lated form. The old castle was besieged by Cromwell 
in 1642 ; and in I716, the Chevalier de St. George slept 
here, on his route from Glammis to Scone, on the 7th 
of January. In 1746, the castle was completely dis- 
61 



mantled, and a great part of the building levelled with 
the ground, by the English troops, in consequence of 
the attachment of the Threipland family to the house of 
Stuart. There are three villages : a few families are 
employed in the weaving of linen for the manufacturers 
of Dundee, but the population of the parish is princi- 
pally agricultural. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth 
and Stirling; patrons, the family of Robertson. The 
minister's stipend is returned at £224. 17. 3., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The 
church, a plain structure erected in 1796, is pleasantly 
situated on an eminence in the village of Kilspindie, 
near the confluence of two small rivulets ; it contains 
350 sittings, and is in good repair. The parochial 
school is attended by about sixty children ; the master 
has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the 
fees average £10 per annum. Attached to the school 
is a small library. A private school in the village of 
Rait, which is attended by about the same number, is 
supported partly by the fees, and partly by subscription. 
On the summit of Evelick hill are the remains of a cir- 
cular encampment, inclosing an area of twenty yards 
in diameter, of which the vallum and fosse are still 
plainly discernible. Upon the high grounds at no great 
distance, are the ruins of Evelick Castle, the ancient 
seat of the Lindsays, and the birthplace of Helen Lind- 
say, wife of John Campbell, Esq., of Glenlyon, whose 
daughter, Helen, according to the session records, was 
married on the 22nd of September, 1663, to the far- 
famed Rob Roy. 

KILSYTH, a burgh of barony and a parish, in the 
county of Stirling; containing, with the late quoad 
sacra parish of Banton, and the village of Auchinmully, 
5613 inhabitants, of whom 4106 are in the burgh, 12§ 
miles (N. E.) from Glasgow. This place was anciently 
called " Monaebrugh," from the name of the barony 
which now forms the eastern portion of the parish, and 
of which alone it for many years consisted till the an- 
nexation of the barony of Kilsyth in 1649. Since that 
period, the whole parish has assumed the appellation of 
Kilsyth, from the name of that barony, which previously 
was a portion of the parish of Campsie, and of which 
the etymology, like that of Monaebrugh, is involved in 
doubt and obscurity. The lands once formed part of 
the possessions of the Livingstone family, of whom Sir 
James Livingstone, in acknowledgment of his services 
in defending the castle of Kilsyth against Cromwell, was 
elevated to the peerage by Charles II., in 1661, by the 
titles of Lord Campsie and Viscount Kilsyth. The 
estates continued with his descendants till the year 
1715, when they became forfeited to the crown on the 
attainder of William, third viscount Kilsyth, for his 
participation in the rebellion ; and the lands were pur- 
chased in 17S4, by Sir Archibald Edmonstone, of Dun- 
treath, whose grandson, Sir Archibald Edmonstone, 
Bart., is now the chief proprietor of the parish. The 
principal event of historical importance connected with 
the place is the memorable battle of Kilsyth, in 1645, 
between the army of the Covenanters, consisting of 6000 
infantry and 1000 cavalry, commanded by General 
Baillie, and the forces of the Marquess of Montrose, 
consisting of 4400 infantry and 500 cavalry. This san- 
guinary battle, which occurred near the site now occu- 



KI L S 



K IL S 



pied by the reservoir of the Forth and Clyde canal, 
terminated in the entire defeat of the Covenanters, with 
the slaughter of nearly the whole of their infantry ; 
while of the forces of the marquess, a very inconsider- 
able number were slain. 

The town is situated on the north road from Glas- 
gow to Edinburgh, and consists of several streets irre- 
gularly formed ; it is lighted with gas, and the inhabit- 
ants are amply supplied with water, conveyed from a 
spring in the neighbourhood into public cisterns by 
earthen pipes. The principal trade is the weaving of 
cotton by handlooms, in which more than 1300 persons 
are engaged for the Glasgow merchants ; and there are 
two factories recently established, in which lappets, 
cloth for umbrellas, and checked ginghams are made, 
affording occupation to about 130 persons. The manu- 
facture of white and brown paper is also carried on, to 
a moderate extent, employing from forty to fifty per- 
sons ; and many of the inhabitants are engaged in mines 
of ironstone and coal, and in the quarries in the parish. 
There is no regular market-day, though the town is 
amply supplied with provisions of every kind : fairs are 
held on the second Friday in April and the third Friday 
in November, but they are not much frequented. The 
post-office, under that of Glasgow, has a daily delivery 
by a post gig, which also carries one passenger ; and 
facility of communication is afforded by the road from 
Glasgow to Edinburgh, and by the great canal within 
a mile to the south of the town. Kilsyth was erected 
into a burgh of barony by charter of George IV., in 
1826 ; the government is vested in a bailie, dean of 
guild, and four councillors, elected under the provisions 
of the act of the 3rd of William IV. There are no in- 
corporated trades possessing exclusive privileges ; and 
the occupation of a tenement of the annual value of £5, 
on lease, is sufficient to qualify as a burgess, upon pay- 
ing a fine of five shillings on admission. The magisti-ates 
exercise jurisdiction, in criminal matters, only in petty 
offences ; and no regular courts are held. 

The parish, which is bounded on the north by the 
river Carrou, and on the south by the river Kelvin, is 
about seven miles in length and three and a half in 
average breadth, and comprises 15,000 acres, of which 
nearly 4000 are arable, 7000 meadow and pasture, and 
the remainder, with the exception of a few acres of plan- 
tations, moorland and waste. The surface is boldly 
diversified with hill and dale, and is generally of bleak 
and barren aspect. The Kilsyth hills, which intersect 
the parish from east to west, and a portion of the 
Campsie fells, which skirt it on the north-west, are 
among the most lofty elevations ; and some of them 
attain a height of more than 1200 feet above the level 
of the sea. From the summit of these hills is an un- 
bounded view, extending from the Atlantic Ocean to 
the German Sea, and commanding nearly the whole 
country at a glance. The Meikleben, which unites the 
Kilsyth range with the Campsie fells, has an elevation 
of 1500 feet ; and the Garrel and Laird's hills, also in 
the parish, rise to a height of 1300 feet. The chief 
river is the Carron, which has its source in the adjacent 
parish of Fintry, flowing eastward into the Forth at 
Grangemouth ; it abounds with trout, and forms in its 
sinuous course numerous romantic cataracts. The Kel- 
vin has its source within the parish, and, though for 
some distance from its rise but a small rivulet, has been 
62 * 



diverted by Sir Archibald Edmonstone into a wider and 
deeper channel, and, after flowing under the aqueduct 
of the Forth and Clyde canal, increases in importance 
as it advances towards Glasgow. Of the smaller streams 
that intersect the parish, the. principal is the Garrel, 
which descends from the Garrel hill, and, in its course, 
within a mile and a half, has a fall of 1000 feet. Its 
waters, as it approaches the ancient village of Kilsyth, 
have been partly diverted into the reservoir at Town- 
head, for the supply of the Forth and Clyde canal ; but, 
after receiving some small tributaries, it flows south- 
ward into the Kelvin. The reservoir is of oval form, 
about seventy -five acres in extent, and occupies a natu- 
ral hollow of considerable depth, by filling up the en- 
trance to which, to the height of twenty-five feet, the 
inclosure was formed at a very inconsiderable expense. 

The soil in the lower parts of the parish is a rich 
and deep loam ; in the higher parts, light and sand)', 
but of great fertility ; in other parts, gravel alternated 
with clay, and there are also some large tracts of peat- 
moss. The crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, 
and turnips. The cultivation of potatoes in the open 
fields is said to have been first practised in this parish 
by Mr. Graham, of Tamrawer, who, from one peck 
planted in April, 1762, obtained a produce of 264 pecks 
in the October following. The system of husbandry 
has been greatly improved under the encouragement 
held out by the Farmers' Association for this parish 
and others adjacent, which meets at the principal inn 
annually, in June, when a cattle-show takes place, and 
prizes are awarded to the successful competitors. The 
farm-buildings have been rendered commodious, and 
the lands inclosed with fences of thorn, kept in excellent 
repair ; tile-draining has been extensively practised, 
and all the more recent improvements in the construc- 
tion of agricultural implements have been adopted. 
The hill-pastures are well adapted for the feeding of 
sheep, and the meadows in the vale of Kilsyth are 
among the most luxuriant in the country. Great at- 
tention is paid to the dairy-farms, on which all the 
cows are of the Ayrshire breed ; the chief produce is 
butter and milk, of which large quantities are sold for 
the supply of the neighbourhood. The plantations were 
formerly on a very limited scale, chiefly confined to the 
demesnes of the principal landholders ; but they have 
lately been extended. They consist of ash, birch, 
mountain-ash, elm, alder, oak, and sycamore, for which 
the soil seems well adapted. The substratum is mostly 
of the coal formation, and ironstone and limestone are 
found in abundance : the coal, which is of good quality, 
is wrought for the supply of the adjacent district, and 
the ironstone by the Carron Company. There are also 
quarries of limestone, and of freestone of a fine colour, 
and of good quality for building. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £9288. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £271. 6. 7., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum ; 
patron, the Crown. The parish church, erected in 
1816, at the western extremity of the town, is an elegant 
structure in the later English style of architecture, and 
containing 860 sittings. A church has been built at 
Banton ; and there are places of worship for members 
of the Free Church, the Relief, and Wesleyans. Paro- 



KILT 



KILT 



chial schools are maintained in the burgh, at Chapel- 
Green, and at Banton j the master of the first has a 
salary of £30, with a house and garden, and the fees, 
averaging £60. The master of the Banton school has 
a salary of £12. 6., with fees amounting to £23 ; and 
the master at Chapel -Green a salary of £9, to which are 
added £22, the proceeds of a bequest by Mr. John 
Patrick, and fees averaging £30 per annum. At Con- 
ney park and Balcastle are remains of Pictish forts, of 
which the latter is the most entire of all the works of 
the kind in the kingdom. There are also some of the 
ruins of Colzium Castle, and of a smaller mansion of 
the Livingstone family which was burnt by Oliver 
Cromwell on his route to Stirling. Small remains still 
exist of the ancient castle of Kilsyth, on an eminence 
overlooking the town ; and in the town is the old man- 
sion of Kilsyth, now inhabited by poor families, but in 
which are yet preserved the apartments where Prince 
Charles Edward spent a night. Under the old church 
was the burying-place of the Livingstone family, of whom 
William, the third viscount, after his attainder retired to 
Holland, where Lady Kilsyth and her infant son were 
killed by the accidental falling in of the roof of the 
house in which they lived. Their bodies were em- 
balmed, and, being inclosed in a leaden coffin, were 
sent to Scotland, and interred in the family vault, now 
in the open churchyard. On examining the coffin in 
1796, the remains of both were found in so perfect a 
state, and even the complexion so fresh, as to present 
every appearance of natural sleep. 

KILTARLITY, a parish, in the county of Inver- 
ness, 4 miles (S. W. by W.) from Beauly ; containing 
2S69 inhabitants. This place, the origin of the name of 
which is altogether uncertain, and which comprehends 
the old parish of Convinth, is situated in one of the 
most beautiful and romantic districts in the Highlands. 
The parish is separated from the main part of that of 
Kilmorack by the Beauly river, which, a few miles to 
the north-east, forms the loch of the same name, the 
latter communicating with the Moray Frith. It is one 
of the largest parishes in the country, measuring in 
length, from the north-eastern to the south-western 
extremity, about forty-five miles, though the average 
breadth doth not exceed six miles. The surface is 
characterized by hills and mountains, and thickly- 
wooded glens and ravines, interspersed with numerous 
lochs, and some verdant pastures and well-cultivated 
tracts, rendered more strikingly picturesque in many 
parts by the course of rapid streams with various cas- 
cades. Among the lochs, which are of great number 
and diversity of appearance, and which abound in pike, 
trout, char, and other fish, the largest, and those most 
famed for their scenery, are, Loch Affaric, Loch Naluire, 
and Loch Beinnemhian. Each of these is about a mile 
broad, and varies in length from three to seven miles ; 
all are very deep, and embosomed in hills and moun- 
tains, shrouded with birch, mountain-ash, and stately 
firs, the remains of the old Caledonian forest. The 
three lakes are united by the river Glass, which, rising 
in Loch Affaric, and proceeding north-easterly through 
the other two lakes, is in its course along the north- 
western boundary of the parish, skirted on each side by 
lofty hills, and joined at Fasnacoil by the rapid stream 
of Deaothack. The Deaothack is celebrated for its 
waterfalls, especially those of Plodda and Easnambroc, 
63 



and for the splendid firs on its banks, intermixed with 
birch and oak. At Invercannich, about four miles from 
Fasnacoil, the Glass is joined by the river Cannich, a 
large stream ; and again, at the distance of a few miles, 
by the Farrer, after which it takes the name of Beauly. 
The distance from the last junction to the Beauly Frith is 
about nine miles ; and though the river is only naviga- 
ble for a mile and a half from the frith, up to the village 
of Beauly, it is found of great service for transporting 
timber for exportation. The fishery of the Beauly be- 
longs to Lord Lovat, producing a rent of £1600 per 
annum. 

On the north-eastern side of the parish is a tract of 
land measuring about nine square miles, which is flat 
and low ; but, with this exception, the surface is hilly 
and rocky throughout, and intersected with glens and 
valleys, the principal of which are Glen-Convinth and 
Strath-Glass. The latter of these was formerly covered 
with wood, which supplied Cromwell with a large por- 
tion of the timber used in the fortifications at Inverness, 
but of which none now remains except the forest of 
Cugie, where are firs of immense bulk and stature. The 
highest hill is supposed to be that of Aonach-Sassan, 
" English Hill," rising about 2000 feet above the level 
of the sea. In the south-western part of the parish 
the rocks are so lofty, rugged, and inaccessible, that they 
are not only the resort of eagles, falcons, and numerous 
birds of prey, but furnish lurking-places for large herds 
of goats, so wild as to bid defiance to capture. The 
soil is generally thin and light, of a reddish hue, and 
very hard. It is found intractable for successful hus- 
bandry, except on the lower grounds in the north- 
eastern district, which are much more fertile than the 
higher portion, where, on account of its mossy cha- 
racter, the crops are stunted and sickly, especially in 
seasons of drought. Agriculture has, however, made 
considerable progress within the last twenty ) 7 ears. The 
most approved rotation of cropping has been introduced ; 
and where trenching, liming, and draining have been 
adopted to a sufficient extent to counteract the natural 
impediments of the land, the produce is of good quality. 
The rocks in the parish consist chiefly of gneiss, inter- 
sected with veins of granite ; and sandstone, with 
asbestos, rock-crystal, and other varieties, is found in 
the hills. There are several interesting caves, one of 
which, called Corriedow, is said to have been a retreat, 
for some days, of Prince Charles Edward Stuart. Wood 
was once the only article exported from this locality ; 
and independently of the old Scotch firs, and other 
noble trees, the memorials of former ages, extensive 
plantations still exist, and have been recently aug- 
mented. These comprise ash, elm, beech, plane, and 
especially larch, all of which attain a fine growth, 
and prove a source of considerable emolument to the 
proprietors. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£6160. 

The gentlemen's seats are numerous, and in general 
are so well situated as to command views of the most 
interesting groups of scenery. Beaufort Castle, the 
property of Lord Lovat, is a spacious but plain building, 
standing on the site of the old fortress of Beaufort, or 
Downie, which, in the time of Alexander I., was be- 
sieged by the royal troops. Cromwell, also, seized a 
castle here, and demolished the citadel ; and imme- 
diately after the battle of Culloden, the then fortress 



KILT 



KILT 



was burnt to the ground by the Duke of Cumberland's 
army. Indeed, the present is said to be the twelfth 
edifice erected on the same site : it is thought to have 
been built as a residence for the government factor 
while the estate lay under forfeiture, the proprietor, the 
aged Lord Lovat, having been executed in 1747 for 
aiding in the rebellion. The mansion commands exten- 
sive and beautiful views, comprehending the Beauly 
Frith ; and the large parks attached are ornamented 
with fine specimens of ancient trees, and with well laid 
out pleasure-grounds and gardens. The present pro- 
prietor, a Roman Catholic, and the principal heritor in 
the parish, was raised to the peerage in 1837. Erchless 
Castle, the seat of " the Chisholm," situated near the 
confluence of the Farrer and Glass rivers, is a lofty 
turreted building, erected in the fifteenth century, and 
still in very good preservation. Attached to it is a 
splendid park, ornamented with many stately trees, 
relics of the old Caledonian forest ; and in addition to 
750 acres of land constantly kept in cultivation, the 
estate comprehends 1000 acres, planted, within the last 
thirty years, with larch, elm, beech, oak, Scotch fir, and 
chesnut. About four miles east of Erchless, on the 
opposite bank of the Beauly, is the beautiful mansion of 
Eskadale ; and not far off, the house of Aigas, the pro- 
perty of the Chisholm. At a short distance north of 
Aigas, the river divides and again unites, forming the 
romantic island of Aigas, covered with oaks and weeping- 
birches, and on which a mansion of elegant design has 
been erected by Lord Lovat. A few miles to the south- 
east of this spot, about a quarter of a mile from the 
public road, is Belladrum, a modern mansion, splendidly 
fitted up, and almost shrouded with the foliage of plan- 
tations. Attached is a very superior farm-steading. 
This estate, comprising 2600 acres of hill pasture, 700 
acres under tillage, and 1000 under wood, chiefly Scotch 
fir and larch, formerly belonged to James Fraser, Esq., 
but has passed by purchase to John Stewart, Esq., of 
Carnousie, for the sum of £80,000. The other man- 
sions are those of Ballindown, Guisachan, and the house 
of Struij. The last is the seat of a branch of the clan 
Fraser, and is situated on the border of the Farrer, a 
mile from its junction with the Glass, each of which 
streams, at about the same distance from their con- 
fluence, is crossed by an excellent bridge. The parlia- 
mentary road from Inverness traverses the parish, from 
north-east to south-west ; the nearest post-office is at 
the village of Beauly, two miles from the boundary. 
The produce is sent for sale to Inverness, twelve miles 
distant. The only "manufacture" is that of timber, 
large quantities of which are cut down every year, and 
prepared for sale at three saw-mills, as well as by 
numerous handsaws. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Inverness and synod 
of Moray, and in the patronage of Professor Scott, of 
King's College, Aberdeen, to whom Lord Lovat has 
transferred his right of presentation. The minister's 
stipend is £239, with a manse, and a glebe of nearly 
fifty acres, of the annual value of £20. The church, 
built in 1829, is finely situated in the midst of a cluster 
of lofty trees, and contains about 800 sittings, all free. 
A. church, also, was erected by the late Chisholm, at 
Erchless, in connexion with the Establishment, and has 
400 sittings ; the salary of the minister is paid by the 
Chisholm. There is a mission at Strath-Glass, com- 
64 



prehending the upper part of this parish and that of 
Kilmorack ; the salary is £S0 per annum, £60 of which 
are from the Royal Bounty, and the remainder raised by 
subscription. The members of the Free Church have a 
place of worship. A chapel was erected a few years 
since, by Lord Lovat, on an eminence near the small 
rural hamlet of Wester Eskadale, about four miles from 
Erchless, for the accommodation of the Roman Catholic 
population, which is of considerable extent. There are 
three parochial schools, which afford instruction in the 
usual elementary branches ; the master of the principal 
one has a salary of £25. 16., with a house, and about 
£20 fees. The salary in each of the other schools, 
which are of recent establishment, is £12. 18., increased 
by the Chisholm to £25. The mistress of a female 
school has £15 per annum from the Lovat family, with 
a neat school-house and accommodations. 

KILTEARN, a parish, in the county of Ross and 
Cromarty, 5f miles (N. E. by N.) from Dingwall ; con- 
taining, with the villages of Drummond and Evanton, 
1436 inhabitants. This place derives its name from two 
Gaelic words, Kiell Tighearn, signifying " the burying- 
place of the laird," though the particular circumstance 
which gave rise to the appellation is unknown. The 
family of Munro of Fowlis, which, even from ancient 
times, has been the most conspicuous in the parish, is 
said to have been founded by Donald Munro, who, 
among many others, received gifts of land from Malcolm 
II., for important services rendered : in assisting the 
king in the expulsion of the Danes. When this desir- 
able end was accomplished, Malcolm feued out the 
country to his friends ; and that part between the burgh 
of Dingwall and the water of Alness was assigned to 
Donald Munro, from which circumstance it received the 
name of Ferindonuil, or " Donald's land." A portion of 
these lands was afterwards erected into a barony, called 
Fowlis ; and the present Sir Hugh Monro, Bart., who 
is proprietor of about two-thirds of the parish, and line- 
ally descended from the above-named Donald Munro, 
is the 29th baron. 

The parish is situated in about the middle of the 
county, and extends six miles along the north shore of 
the Frith of Cromarty, whence it stretches inward twenty- 
two miles ; it is bounded on the north by Contin and 
Lochbroom parishes, on the east by Alness, and on the 
west by Dingwall and Fodderty. The whole, except a 
small tract on the shore, consists of one mass of hills, 
overspread with heath, or, in some places, planted with 
firs. The hill ofWyvis rises 3720 feet above the level of 
the sea, and is never without snow, even in the hottest 
summer : the forest of Wyvis is held of the king, on the 
singular condition of paying a snow-ball any day in the 
year, if required. The valleys between the hills are 
covered, to a great extent, with coarse grass : in some 
of them, small lakes have been formed by the mountain 
streams, diversifying the scenery, and affording good 
sport to the angler. The principal lake is Loch Glass, 
near the south end of which is a small island, where the 
lairds of Fowlis had at one time a summer-house : its 
waters are discharged into the sea by the Aultgraad, a 
stream which flows along a remarkably deep and narrow 
channel, formed in the solid rock by the action of the 
waters. The only river is the Skiack, which is supplied 
by mountain streams, and falls into the sea near the 
church. Several varieties of trout are found in the 



K I L VV 



KILW 



lochs and streams ; and shell-fish, of the smaller kinds, 
are obtained on the shore. 

The soil on the high grounds is moss, and near the 
Frith chiefly alluvial; it varies in other parts, exhibiting 
many of the ordinary combinations. About 3000 acres 
are cultivated, or occasionally in tillage ; 600 are undi- 
vided common, and the rest natural pasture. There are 
a considerable number of plantations, comprising all the 
trees suited to the climate : many tracts were planted 
about the middle of the last century. All the usual 
white and green crops are raised ; and as the improved 
system of agriculture has been for some time followed, 
and much attention is paid to the cultivation of the soil, 
the produce is equal in quality to any in the country. 
The sheep are chiefly the native black-faced, but on the 
low grounds are a number of Cheviots : the cattle are 
of the Ross-shire and the Argyllshire breeds, the latter 
of which is much preferred. The principal rock in the 
parish is sandstone : coal has been discovered, but not 
in sufficient quantity to defray the expense of working ; 
and a small amount of lead-ore has also been met with. 
The rateable annual value of Kiltearn is £5106. 

The village of Evanton, built within the present 
century, upon a piece of waste land, is remarkable for 
the regular and neat appearance of the houses : a fail- 
is held here on the first Tuesday in June, and another 
on the first Tuesday in December. The hamlet of 
Drummond is seated on the Skiack. There are several 
extensive tracts of moss in the heights of the parish, 
where the inhabitants cut peat in summer to serve for 
winter fuel. The great parliamentary road runs along 
the shore, and communicates with the northern parts 
by means of excellent county roads ; it passes over two 
good bridges, one at the east, and the other at the west, 
end of the village of Evanton. The ecclesiastical 
affairs are directed by the presbytery of Dingwall and 
synod of Ross ; patron, the Crown. The stipend of the 
minister is £249, with a commodious manse, and a glebe 
of nine arable acres, valued at £12 per annum. The 
church, situated on the coast, was built in 1791, and is 
a neat edifice, accommodating nearly 700 persons. There 
is a place of worship in the village of Evanton connected 
with the United Secession. A parochial school is main- 
tained, in which Latin and Greek, with the usual branches, 
are taught ; the master has a salary of £30, with a house 
and garden, and about £20 fees. The family of Munro 
is distinguished for the eminent individuals who have 
belonged to it. Sir Robert Munro, grandfather of the 
present baronet, when a very young man, served for seve- 
ral years in Flanders under the Duke of Marlborough, 
and there formed an intimacy with the celebrated Col. 
Gardiner, whose history and character have become 
so well known through the memoir written by Dr. 
Doddridge. 

KILVICKEON, county of Argyll.— See Kilfini- 

CHEN. 

KILWINNING, a manufacturing town and parish, 
in the district of Cunninghame, county of Ayr ; con- 
taining, with the villages of Dalgarvan, Doura, and 
Fergushill, 5251 inhabitants, of whom 2971 are in the 
town, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from Irvine, and 3 (N.E. byE.) 
from Saltcoats. This place, which is of great antiquity, 
derives its name from the dedication of its original 
church to St. Winnin, who came from Ireland in 715, 
to convert the inhabitants of this part of the country to 
Vol. II.— 65 



Christianity. In 1 140, a monastery was founded in 
honour of this saint by Hugh de Moreville, lord high 
constable of Scotland, for monks of the Tyronensian 
order, whom he introduced into it from the abbey of 
Kelso. This monastery, which was amply endowed by 
the founder, and enriched with large grants of land from 
several of the Scottish monarchs, continued to flourish 
till the Dissolution, when its revenues, notwithstanding 
previous alienations, amounted to £880. 3. 4., exclusive 
of numerous payments in kind. In 1296, the abbot of 
Kilwinning swore fealty to Edward I. of England ; in 
1513, the abbot of the monastery accompanied James 
IV. to the battle of Flodden Field, where he was killed 
fighting by the side of his sovereign. Of the other 
abbots none are distinguished in history, with the ex- 
ception of Gavin Hamilton, the last, the zealous adhe- 
rent of Mary, Queen of Scots, whom he attended at the 
battle of Langside, and for whom he afterwards appeared 
at York, as one of her commissioners to treat with 
Elizabeth of England. The site of the monastery, and 
the lands appertaining to it, were, after the Reformation, 
granted by the crown to Alexander Cunningham, son 
of the Earl of Glencairn, who was appointed commen- 
dator, and, during his tenure, alienated a portion of the 
lands. In 1592, the remainder of the lands belonging 
to the monastery were erected into a temporal lordship, 
in favour of William Melville, who subsequently trans- 
ferred the lordship to Hugh, fifth earl of Eglinton, 
whose descendants are the present proprietors. Of that 
once stately and venerable structure, which was almost 
demolished at the Reformation, the gable of the south 
transept, portions of the walls, with a few of the finely- 
pointed arches, and an ancient gateway, are the only re- 
mains. A part of the abbey church, a spacious cruciform 
structure, was repaired, and appropriated as the paro- 
chial church till the year 1775, when it was taken down, 
and the present church erected on its site. The tower 
of the abbey church, a square massive structure 103 
feet high, and which had been repaired by the Earl of 
Eglinton in 1789, remained till the year IS 14, when it 
fell from natural decay ; and in the year following, a 
similar tower, of nearly equal dimensions, was erected on 
the site. 

The introduction of freemasonry into Scotland ap- 
pears to have originated in the building of the monastery 
of Kilwinning, for which purpose several of those ma- 
sons and artificers of Rome whom the pope had incor- 
porated for the promotion of ecclesiastical architecture, 
and invested with peculiar privileges, were brought over 
from the continent. The architect who superintended 
the erection of the monastery, the masons who ac- 
companied him, and such of the workmen of the neigh- 
bourhood as were qualified to assist them, were formed 
into a society, of which the architect was elected master- 
mason. Similar societies were gradually instituted in 
various parts of the country, subordinate to that of 
Kilwinning, which, as the oldest of the kind, retained 
an acknowledged pre-eminence, and of which the mas- 
ter-mason was chosen as grand master over all the 
others. After his return from England, James I. of 
Scotland patronized the lodge of Kilwinning, and pre- 
sided as grand master of the order for some time ; sub- 
sequently delegating the election of a grand master, 
generally a man of high rank, to the brethren of the 
various lodges. James II., however, conferred the 

K 



KILW 



KILW 



office of grand master on William Sinclair, Earl of 
Orkney, and Baron of Roslin, and made the office here- 
ditary in his family ; and his successors, barons of Roslin, 
held their courts or grand lodges at this place. In 1736, 
Lord Roslin assembled thirty-two of these lodges at 
Edinburgh, to whom he resigned all his hereditary rights 
as grand master ; and the grand lodge of Scotland, con- 
sisting of representatives from all the other lodges of 
the kingdom, has since that period been established 
there. 

The town is pleasantly situated on an acclivity, rising 
gently from the west bank of the river Garnock, and 
consists of one narrow street nearly a mile in length, 
from which diverge some lanes, and of some ranges of 
detached houses. The houses are indifferently built, 
and of antique appearance, with the exception of a few 
of modern erection ; but the environs abound with a 
variety of beautiful scenery, in which the pleasure-grounds 
of Eglinton Castle form a conspicuous and interesting 
feature. A society for the practice of archery, which 
has existed in the town since the year 148S, holds an- 
nual meetings in July, which are numerously attended 
by persons from all parts of the country. The chief 
prize is a silver arrow, which is given by the society to 
the successful competitor, who becomes captain for the 
following year, and presides as master of the ceremonies 
at a ball given on the occasion. The principal trade 
is the weaving of silk, woollen, and cotton goods, in which 
about 400 looms are employed ; there are three factories 
for carding and spinning cotton-wool ; and an extensive 
tannery has been established for more than half a cen- 
tury. Many of the inhabitants, also, are engaged in the 
mines and collieries in the immediate vicinity ; and in 
the town are several shops, well supplied with various 
articles of merchandise. The post-office has a daily 
delivery ; a branch of the Commercial Bank of Scotland 
has been opened ; and fairs for horses and cattle are held 
in the town on the 1st of February and the first Wed- 
nesday in November. Facility of communication is 
maintained by excellent roads, which intersect the 
parish in different directions, and of which eleven miles 
are turnpike ; the Glasgow and Ayr railway, also, passes 
the western extremity of the town, where it has an in- 
termediate station, and where it meets the branch line 
to Ardrossan. A branch from the main line to Kilmar- 
nock also runs through the parish, within a mile of the 
town j and a railroad from the collieries of Doura and 
Fergushill was some years since laid down, which joins 
the Ardrossan branch of the Glasgow and Ayr railway 
about two miles from the harbour. 

The parish, which is of very irregular form, is about 
seven miles in length and five in extreme breadth, 
and comprises nearly 12,000 acres, of which from 3000 
to 4000 are arable, and the remainder woodland, 
pasture, and moor, the proportions whereof cannot be 
well ascertained. The surface rises in graceful undula- 
tions from the south-east to the north-west, without 
attaining any great degree of elevation; and is inter- 
sected by the beautiful valleys of the Garnock and the 
Lugton, of which the former is richly cultivated, and 
the latter thickly wooded. The high lands command 
an extensive and beautifully- diversified prospect, em- 
bracing the vale of Garnock, the woods of Mountgreenan 
and Eglinton, the towns of Saltcoats, Stevenston, and 
Irvine, with the bay of Ayr, the rock of Ailsa, the Mull 



of Cantyre, and the mountains of Arran. The river 
Garnock, which has its source among the hills of Kil- 
birnie, flows in a copious stream southward through the 
parish, and, after passing the town, pursues a remarkably 
sinuous course towards the south-west, and falls into the 
sea near the mouth of the Irvine. The Lugton issues 
from Loch Libo, in Renfrewshire, and, taking a south- 
western course, runs through the demesne of Mount- 
greenan and the pleasure-grounds of Eglinton into the 
river Garnock, about two miles from its influx into the 
sea. The Caaf, a small tributary of the Garnock, after 
forming for a short distance a boundary between this 
parish and that of Dairy, flows through a narrow 
wooded dell at Craigh-Head mill, where it forms a beau- 
tifully-picturesque cascade. The only lake is that of Ash- 
grove, about a mile and a half to the north-west of the 
town, and partly in the parish of Stevenston ; it contains 
pike and perch, but is neither of great extent nor dis- 
tinguished by any peculiar features. Salmon and 
salmon-trout are still found in the Garnock, on which 
the fisheries were formerly lucrative, yielding a consider- 
able rent to the proprietors ; but, from stake-fishing at 
the mouth of the river, and from various other causes, 
they have been for many years comparatively unpro- 
ductive. 

The soil on the higher grounds, and in the central 
parts of the parish, is generally a clay of no great depth ; 
on the lands sloping towards the rivers, a richer loam ; 
and in other parts, light and sandy, but of great fer- 
tility. The chief crops are oats and potatoes, with a 
moderate proportion of wheat, and the usual grasses ; 
the system of husbandry has been gradually improving, 
and a due rotation of crops is invariably observed. 
Much progress has been made in surface-draining ; the 
lands have been inclosed with hedges of thorn, which 
are kept in good repair ; and the farm-buildings, though 
of inferior order, are generally adapted to the size of 
the farms, which vary from fifty to eighty acres. Great 
attention is paid to the improvement of live stock. The 
sheep are mostly of the black-faced breed, with some 
few of the Leicestershire and South-Down kind ; the 
cattle are usually of the Ayrshire, and the horses of the 
Clydesdale, breed. There are very considerable remains 
of ancient wood, particularly in Eglinton Park, where 
many fine specimens of stately timber are found : among 
these are numerous beeches of venerable growth, of 
which kind of tree the planting has for some years been 
discontinued. The plantations, which are very exten- 
sive, and in a thriving state, consist of ash, elm, oak, 
larch, and Scotch fir, and contribute greatly to enrich 
the scenery. The substrata of the parish are princi- 
pally of the coal formation, with bands of ironstone, 
limestone, and sandstone ; and clay for making bricks 
and draining-tiles is also found. The coal, which occurs 
in several varieties, and of good quality, is wrought at 
Doura, Fergushill, Redstone, and Eglinton. The mines 
afford employment to about 250 men ; and of the pro- 
duce, exclusively of what is sold for the supply of the 
neighbourhood, 50,000 tons are annually sent by the 
railroad to the harbour of Ardrossan, whence they are 
shipped for Ireland and the Mediterranean. There are 
two quarries of limestone, and a quarry of excellent 
freestone, in constant operation, and which together 
employ a considerable number of men. The^ rateable 
annual value of the parish is £15,261. 



KILW 



K I N C 



Eglinton Castle, the seat of the earls of Eglinton, 
descendants of Roger de Montgomerie, a near relative 
of William the Conqueror, whom he accompanied to 
England, is a splendid castellated mansion, erected 
about the year 1793, by Hugh, the twelfth earl, and 
beautifully situated in an extensive park, about a mile 
to the south-east of the town. The castle occupies a 
spacious quadrangular area, defended at the angles with 
circular turrets, and comprehending the ancient keep, 
a round tower of great strength and lofty dimensions. 
It contains numerous stately apartments superbly em- 
bellished, to which an entrance is afforded from a mag- 
nificent circular saloon, thirty-six feet in diameter, 
rising to the roof, and lighted from an elegant dome. 
The park, which comprises above 1200 acres, and is 
well stocked with deer, is tastefully laid out in lawns, 
parterres, and pleasure-grounds, through which the 
river Lugton takes its winding course to the Garnock, 
adding greatly to the beauty of the scenery of the 
demesne, which is also embellished by more than 400 
acres of thriving plantations, diversified with ancient 
timber of majestic growth. A tournament was cele- 
brated within the grounds, on a truly magnificent scale, 
by the present earl, in August, 1839, and attracted a 
large concourse of nobility and gentry from all parts of 
the United Kingdom and from the continent. The lists 
were formed in the gently-sloping grounds near the 
castle, and inclosed an area 650 feet in length and 250 
feet in breadth ; and a splendid pavilion was erected 
immediately behind the mansion, 3/5 feet long and 
forty-five feet wide, for the accommodation of 2000 
persons, who were courteously entertained on the occa- 
sion. The Earl of Eglinton presided as lord of the 
tournament ; Lord Saltoun officiated as judge of the 
lists ; the Marquess of Londonderry as king of the 
tournament ; and Lady Seymour, attended by a nume- 
rous train of ladies of high rank, and followed by the 
Irvine archers, appeared as the Queen of Beauty. 
Among the knights that entered the lists were, the 
Marquess of Waterford, the Earl of Craven, Viscount 
Alford, Lord Glenlyon, Lord Cranstoun, the Earl of 
Cassilis, and Prince Louis Napoleon Buonaparte. The 
tournament continued for two days ; and though more 
than S0,000 spectators were assembled within the park, 
which was thrown open indiscriminately to the public, 
not the slightest damage of any kind occurred. Mcunt- 
greenan House is an elegant modern mansion, situated 
in a well-planted demesne watered by the Lugton ; and 
Monkcastle and Ashgrove are also handsome residences. 

The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under 
the superintendence of the presbytery of Irvine and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is 
£266. 12., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14. 10. 
per annum ; patron, the Earl of Eglinton. The church, 
situated in the centre of the town, is a neat plain struc- 
ture erected in 1771, and contains 1030 sittings. There 
are places of worship for the United Secession, Free 
Church, and Original Seceders. The parochial school 
is well attended ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., 
with a house and garden, and the fees average about 
£20 per annum. Near the village of Doura, a large 
schoolroom, with a play-ground, and a dwelling-house 
for a master, has been erected at the sole expense of 
the Earl of Eglinton; and there are schools in con- 
nexion with the collieries. 
67 



KINBETTOCK, county of Aberdeen.— See Towie. 

KINBUCK, a village, in the parish of Dunblane, 
county of Perth, 2| miles (N. by E.) from Dunblane ; 
containing 131 inhabitants. It is seated in the centre 
of the parish, on the road from Dunblane to Auch- 
terarder ; and is formed of East and West Kinbuck. 
The population are partly employed in the woollen 
manufacture, for which there is a mill in the village. 

KINCAIRNIE, a village, in the parish of Caputh, 
county of Perth, 2 miles (N.) from Caputh ; containing 
S3 inhabitants. It lies in the eastern part of the parish, 
and south of the road from Cluny to Dunkeld. Kin- 
cairnie House, in the vicinity of the village, is the seat 
of the Murray family. 

KINCAPLE, a village, in the parish and district of 
St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 2j miles (W. N. W.) from 
St. Andrew's ; containing 1S6 inhabitants. It is situated 
upon the eastern coast, near the mouth of the Eden, in 
St. Andrew's bay ; and on the road from St. Andrew's 
to Leuchars. The population is chiefly agricultural. 
In 1S34 a minister was appointed to perform divine 
service, once a month, in each of four villages in the 
parish, of which this is one. 

KINCARDINE, county of Inverness. — See Aeer- 
nethy. 

KINCARDINE, a sea-port town and a burgh of 
barony, in the parish of Tulliallan, county of Perth, 
5 miles (S. E.) from Alloa, and 12 (E. S. E.) from 
Stirling ; containing 2S75 inhabitants. The name of 
this now considerable place was formerly West Pans, 
from the number of its salt pans, of which, in 1780, 
there were fifteen, though none exist at present. It is 
pleasantly seated on the north-east bank of the river 
Forth ; and though irregularly built, and having some 
narrow streets, it contains several of good breadth, 
with a number of substantial houses and neat villas, 
surrounded by gardens. The harbour, which is one of 
the best for trade on the Forth, and very commodious, is 
capable of admitting vessels of between three and four 
hundred tons' burthen ; and as many as a hundred of 
this size may have safe anchorage within it. Ship- 
building, principally of the class of vessels adapted to 
coasting traffic, is carried on here; and this avocation, 
together with rope-making, and the manufacture of sail- 
cloth, employs a great part of the population. There 
are about forty ship-owners in the town, who form a 
local marine insurance association, and have a consi- 
derable capital ; and ships belonging to the port, whose 
aggregate burthen exceeds 9000 tons, visit America, the 
West Indies, the shores of the Baltic, and St. Peters- 
burgh. In the neighbourhood was once a distillery ; and 
in the town are two good inns, a post-office, a library 
consisting of more than 1000 volumes, and branches of 
the Glasgow and Commercial Banks, these last affording 
great encouragement to enterprise, and accommodation 
to the surrounding district. The coast-road from Stir- 
ling passes through it; a coach runs daily to Glasgow; 
the river is crossed by a steam-boat ferry ; and steamers 
ply regularly between Stirling and Edinburgh, taking 
in passengers at the pier, at any state of the tide. The 
trustees of Lord Keith are the superiors of the town, 
and they appoint baron-bailies, who act as magistrates. 
There is an elegant new church ; also a place of wor- 
ship for the United Secession, and schools in which the 
ordinarv branches of education are taught. It was from 

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this barony that the ancient and illustrious family of 
Bruce took the title of Earl, now conjoined with the 
earldom of Elgin, the present, and sixth, Earl of Elgin 
being also eleventh Earl of Kincardine. 

KINCARDINE, a parish, in the county of Ross and 
Cromarty, 14 miles (W. N. W.) from Tain ; containing 
2108 inhabitants, of whom 316 are in that part of the pa- 
rish which formed the late quoad sacra parish of Croich. 
This place perhaps derives its name, of Celtic origin, 
signifying " the termination of the heights," from its 
situation at the extremity of some ranges of lofty hills. 
It appears to have been, at a very early period, the 
baronial residence of the chiefs of the clan Ross, and to 
have been the scene of various hostilities between them 
and rival clans, of which the most sanguinary was 
the battle of Tuiteam-Tarbhach, about the year 1397. 
In 1650, the Marquess of Montrose arrived at Orkney 
with a force of 1500 men, and, crossing the Pentland 
Frith, landed at the northern extremity of Caithness, 
and took possession of the castle of Dunbeath, whence 
he advanced to Ross-shire. The Earl of Sutherland, his 
opponent, at first retired before him, but afterwards 
passed over into Sutherland, to intercept his retreat to 
the north ; and Colonel Strachan advancing to meet 
Montrose with a force of 230 cavalry and 170 infantry, 
a battle ensued near the pass of Invercharron, on the 
borders of this parish, which terminated in the defeat 
of the Marquess, and the slaughter of nearly the whole 
of his men. The spot where the battle was fought has 
been since called " Craigachaoineadh," or the Rock of 
Lamentation. Montrose, after the engagement, throwing 
off his embroidered cloak, and changing clothes with a 
Highland soldier, swam across the Kyle, a sheet of water 
dividing part of this parish from Sutherland, and effected 
his escape from the field of slaughter. But, after wan- 
dering for several days in Strath-Oikell, and concealing 
himself in the woods of Assynt, he was at length dis- 
covered by Neil Macleod, the proprietor of that place, 
who had been formerly one of his followers, and to 
■whom, in the hope of finding protection, he made him- 
self known. Macleod, however, being either afraid to 
conceal him, or tempted by the large reward offered for 
his apprehension, betrayed Montrose to his pursuers, 
who sent him, by order of General Leslie, to Skibo 
Castle, whence he was removed to Braan Castle, and 
afterwards to Edinburgh, where, after suffering the most 
barbarous indignities, he was publicly executed, and his 
head placed on the Tolbooth. There are still some ves- 
tiges of the ancient residence of the family of Ross, 
whose territories were, in the eleventh century, erected 
by Malcolm Canmore into an earldom, which remained 
iu that family till the death of William, the last earl, 
without issue male, in 1371, after which the dignity 
continued to be held by various claimants till the year 
147S, when it was finally annexed to the crown. The 
present representative of the title, and of the chieftain- 
ship of the clan, is George Ross, Esq., of Pitcalnie, a 
descendant from the brother of the Earl William, who 
died in 1371 ; and the chief proprietor of the lands in the 
parish is Sir Charles W. A. Ross, of Balnagown, Bart. 

The parish, which is bounded on the north-east 
mainly by the Frith of Tain, is about thirty-five miles 
in length, and varies from three to sixteen miles in 
breadth, comprising an area of nearly 230 square miles, 
of which hut a very small portion is arable. The sur- 
68 



face is strikingly diversified with hills of various eleva- 
tion, and with open valleys and narrow glens ; and near 
the western extremity is the ancient and extensive forest 
of Balnagown, in which are deer of unusually large 
size. The most lofty of the hills are, Cairnchuinaig, on 
the lands of Dibbisdale, in which are found cairngorms 
of great beauty ; and Sithain-a-Charra, in Balnagown 
forest, in which, though it is at a very considerable dis- 
tance from the sea, have been discovered shells of 
different kinds. The principal river is the Oikell, which 
has its source in the adjoining parish of Assynt, and, 
after a course of thirty miles, in part of which it forms 
the northern boundary of the parish, falls into the Kyle 
Frith ; it is navigable for nearly twelve miles. The 
river Carron intersects the parish from west to east, 
and joins the Kyle at Bonar-Bridge. There are also 
numerous lakes, some of which contain trout of excel- 
lent quality, especially Loch-a-Chorry, in which are trout 
weighing six pounds ; but none of these lakes are of 
great extent, or distinguished by any interesting features. 
The rivers Oikell and Carron abound with salmon ; 
there is likewise a salmon-fishery at Bonar-Bridge, and 
flounders are taken at ebb-tide. The fisheries are all 
the property of the Duke of Sutherland. 

The soil is exceedingly various. On the arable lands, 
which are under good cultivation, producing favour- 
able crops, it is tolerably fertile ; but the hills and other 
parts are heathy and barren. The hills afford, however, 
good pasture for sheep, of which great numbers are 
reared, and sent mainly to the Falkirk trysts and to 
Edinburgh : the cattle, which are generally of the High- 
land black breed, are grazed in large herds on the 
pastures, and forwarded chiefly to Leith and to London, 
by the northern steamers. There are some considerable 
remains of ancient wood ; and extensive plantations 
have been formed on some of the lands, consisting 
chiefly of oak, birch, and firs, all of which are in a very 
thriving state. The prevailing rocks are of the granite 
or the conglomerate kind, alternated with gneiss and 
whinstone ; mica-slate and greywacke are sometimes met 
with ; and at Knockierny, on the confines of the parish 
of Assynt, white and variegated marbles of the purest 
quality are found. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £5 172. Invercarron House, on the north bank 
of the river Carron ; Gladefield House, the property of 
the Duke of Sutherland ; Braelangwell Lodge, belonging 
to Sir Charles W. A. Ross, beautifully situated on the 
Carron, which forms a picturesque cascade near the 
house ; and Amat Cottage, the occasional residence of 
George Ross, Esq., of Pitcalnie, near the confluence of 
some small rivulets with the Carron, are all handsome 
residences. The parish is connected with the coast of 
Sutherland by a substantial and elegant bridge across 
the Frith at Bonar, erected in 1812, to supersede the 
dangerous ferry, previously the only means of commu- 
nication. This important structure, which cost £ 14,000, 
consists of three arches : one, on the Sutherland side, 
is of cast iron, 150 feet in span ; and the others, which 
are of stone, are of fifty and sixty feet respectively. 
There are no manufactures ; but some trade is carried 
on here in the exportation of grain, wool, oak-bark, and 
salmon, and in the importation of coal, lime, salt, meal, 
and other articles for the supply of the district. Many 
fishing-boats, also, visit the Frith during the season. A 
good pier of stone was constructed at Bonar some years 



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since, by Mr. Ross, late of the Balnagown Arms inn, 
at his own expense ; and the harbour affords safe shelter 
and accommodation to vessels not exceeding sixty tons' 
burthen, which can come up to the bridge. A post- 
office at Bonar has a daily delivery : the mail is con- 
veyed from Tain by a post gig, which carries also four 
passengers. A fair is held annually, generally in the 
last week of November, but sometimes in the first 
week of December ; it continues for three days, and 
is numerously attended by dealers from all parts of 
the adjacent districts. On the first day there is a fine 
show of Highland cattle ; and on the two others, large 
quantities of dairy and agricultural produce, and various 
kinds of merchandise, with home-spun webs in abun- 
dance, are exposed for sale, and general business to a 
great extent is transacted. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superinten- 
dence of the presbytery of Tain and synod of Ross. The 
minister's stipend is £2/8, with a manse, and a glebe 
valued at about £15 per annum ; patron, John Hay 
Mackenzie, Esq., of Cromarty. The church is a neat 
substantial structure, erected in 1799. an d containing 
650 sittings, all free : in the steeple is a fine-toned bell 
which was found in a French ship of war of 74 guns, 
captured in 1775 by Admiral Sir John Lockhart Ross, 
of Balnagown. A church was erected by parliamentary 
grant, in 1S27, at Croich, a remote pastoral district; 
and another portion of this extensive parish is under 
the care of a missionary connected with the Esta- 
blished Church, whose charge also extends over a part 
of the parish of Criech, in the county of Sutherland, 
where his station is, at Rosehall. The chapel for the 
mission, erected by Dunning, Lord Ashburton, and re- 
paired in 1832, contains 300 sittings; and the mis- 
sionary, who is appointed by the Royal Bounty com- 
mittee, receives a stipend of £60, to which £5 are 
added by the Duke of Sutherland. The members of 
the Free Church have also a place of worship. The 
parochial school, situated near the church, is attended 
by about 100 children ; the master has a salary of 
£34, with a house, and an allowance of £2. 2. in lieu 
of garden, the fees averaging £20 per annum. A pa- 
rochial library, consisting chiefly of religious books, 
is supported by subscription. There are numerous cir- 
cular forts in the parish, supposed to be of Pictish or 
Danish origin ; but most of them are in a very imperfect 
state, from the removal of the stones as materials for 
building. In the churchyard is a stone five feet in 
length, and about two feet in breadth and thickness ; it 
has been hollowed into two unequal cells, and is elabo- 
rately sculptured with various figures, among which 
are a man on horseback in the act of darting a javelin, 
an imperial crown, and what appears to be a camel. 
This relic is supposed to be part of a sarcophagus in 
which, according to tradition, the remains of a warrior 
who died here of the wounds he received in battle, were 
deposited. There are also some remains of Druidical 
circles in different parts of the parish. 

KINCARDINE IN MONTEITH, a parish, in the 
county of Perth, 2 miles (S. by W.) from Doune ; 
containing, with the villages of Kirklane and Woodlane, 
2232 inhabitants. This parish, of which the name is of 
very uncertain etymology, is pleasantly situated in the 
vale of Monteith, and in the southern part of the county ; 
it is of triangular form, having the east angle washed by 
the confluence of the rivers Forth and Teith, of which 
69 



the former bounds the parish on the south, and the 
latter on the north-east. The parish extends from the 
east point for nearly ten miles to the south-west, and 
for about twelve miles to the north-west ; but is 
intersected by a portion of the parish of Kilmadock, 
three miles in breadth, which reaches from the Teith to 
the Forth. It comprises by computation 7500 acres, of 
which 5000, on the shores of the Forth, are mostly rich 
carse land, and the remainder, on the banks of the Teith, 
dry-field. The surface towards the Forth is generally 
level, but rises in gentle undulations, westward of Blair- 
Drummond, into a ridge, which has an elevation of 
300 feet above the level of the sea, and commands a fine 
view of the Grampian mountains to the north and west ; 
of the Ochils to the east, with the castle of Stirling, the 
field of Bannockburn, and the hill of Craigforth ; and 
to the south, of the hills of Lennox, extending from the 
castle of Stirling to Dumbarton. The river Goodie, 
which has its source in the loch of Monteith, in the 
parish of Port, intersects this parish in its course to- 
wards the Forth ; and there are numerous springs, and 
several small burns in various parts. The carse land 
includes the moss of Kincardine, which to a consider- 
able extent has been cleared, and also part of Moss 
Flanders. 

The soil, where the moss has been removed, is gene- 
rally a rich blue clay of great depth and fertility, pro- 
ducing grain of all kinds and good green crops ; that of 
the dry-field is chiefly a light loam, yielding excellent 
crops of oats, barley, potatoes, turnips, and the various 
grasses. The farms are of moderate extent, and the 
system of agriculture in an improved state ; the farm- 
buildings are substantial and commodious, and the 
lands have been partly inclosed. Considerable attention 
is paid to live stock ; the cattle were formerly of the 
Highland breed, but on most of the dairy-farms cows of 
the Ayrshire breed have been introduced. Few sheep 
are pastured. The horses used for agriculture on the 
dry-field lands are of a moderate size ; but on the 
carse, which requires a stronger kind, a breed between 
the hardier of the Perthshire, and the Clydesdale, is pre- 
ferred. The substratum of the parish is chiefly of the 
old red sandstone formation ; in some parts, of good 
quality for building, for which purpose it is quarried ; 
but in other parts, of too soft a texture for that use. 
Veins of calcareous spar, and occasionally barytes, are 
found in the quarries ; but no organic remains, except a 
few vegetable impressions, have been discovered. The 
woods and plantations are of oak, ash, beech, elm, birch, 
and firs, for which the soil appears well adapted ; and 
the plantations, which have been recently much ex- 
tended, are well managed and in a thriving condition. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,500. 
Blair-Drummond, the seat of Henry Home Drummond, 
Esq., M. P., the principal landowner, is a spacious and 
handsome mansion, erected about the year 1715, by his 
ancestor, George Drummond, Esq., and to which a wing 
has been added by the present proprietor. It is situated 
in a richly-wooded park planted by Lord Kames, who, 
by marriage with the grand-daughter of George Drum- 
mond, succeeded to the estate, which at that time 
included 1500 acres of Kincardine Moss. Of this moss 
a considerable portion was recovered by his exertions ; 
and under those of his son and successor, nearly the 
whole of the remainder was reclaimed. In the house is 
a collection of portraits by Sir Godfrey Kneller, among 



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which are those of the Lord Chancellor Perth and his 
brother, the Earl of Melfort, and, in the drawing-room, 
a portrait of the late Lord Kames in his robes of office 
as a judge. Ochtertyre, the seat of David Dundas, 
Esq., M.P. for Sutherlandshire, is beautifully situated on 
the banks of the Teith. On the lands of Blair-Drum- 
mond, and also on those of Ochtertyre, various com- 
fortable cottages have been built by the proprietors, 
for the accommodation of the families of the persons 
employed on their estates ; and in the district which 
formed part of the late quoad sacra parish of Norrieston 
is the village of Thornhill, noticed in the account of 
Norrieston. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Dunblane and synod of 
Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £255. 8., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14 per annum 5 
patroness, Lady Willoughby de Eresby. The church, 
which was greatly dilapidated, was rebuilt in 1S14, 
chiefly through the exertions of Mr. Drummond, who, in 
addition to the payment of more than two-thirds of the 
expense of a plainer building, contributed the whole 
additional charge of the present elegant structure after 
a design by the late Mr. Crichton, of Edinburgh. It is 
a cruciform edifice in the later English style, with an 
embattled tower crowned by minarets, and contains 
7?0 sittings. The parochial school is well conducted, 
and is attended by about seventy children ; the master 
has a salary of £34, with a good house and garden, and 
the fees average £14 per annum. There are schools, 
also, at Norrieston ; a school in Kincardine Moss, of 
which the master has a dwelling-house, with an acre of 
land, the gift of Mr. Drummond ; and two others, un- 
endowed. Within the gardens of Blair-Drummond is a 
tumulus, 92 yards in circumference and fifteen feet in 
height ; and in the pleasure-grounds is one of larger 
dimensions. Near the east lodge is another, in which 
were found fragments of urns and human bones ; it is 
surrounded with a circular fosse, called Wallace's trench. 
In clearing the moss, several remains of antiquity were 
discovered, among which were a large brass camp kettle, 
some spear heads, and part of a Roman road, of which 
seventy yards were clearly defined, crossing the moss of 
Kincardine from the Forth to the Teith. 

KINCARDINE O'NEIL, a parish, in the district of 
Kincardine O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, II miles 
(S. by E.) from Alford ; containing 1857 inhabitants, of 
whom 288 are in the village. This place, which is of 
some antiquity, derives its name from its situation near 
the termination of a range of hills ; and its distinguish- 
ing adjunct, O'Neil, from the name of a rivulet which 
flows round the village. A small hospital for the sup- 
port of eight aged men was built at an early period, by 
one of the bishops of Aberdeen, and subsisted till the 
time of the Reformation, when it was suppressed : no 
vestiges of the building now remain. The parish, which 
is bounded on the south by the river Dee, is about seven 
miles in extreme length, and nearly five miles in breadth, 
comprising 15,000 acres, of which almost 6000 are ara- 
ble, 3500 woodland and plantations, and the remainder, 
of which 1500 are capable of improvement, moorland 
pasture and waste. The surface is divided into three 
wide valleys by ranges of hills of great extent and vari- 
ous degrees of elevation ; and at the eastern boundary 
is the hill of Fare, which rises to a height of 1800 feet 
above the level of the sea, forming a well-known land- 
70 



mark to vessels navigating the eastern coast. The hill 
of Learney, which is a continuation of Fare, abounds 
with peat, furnishing a plentiful supply of fuel for the 
inhabitants ; and most of the other hills in the parish 
are either cultivated, or clothed with wood, to their very 
summits. The river Dee is here seventy yards in width, 
and, about two miles below the village, is crossed by an 
elegant bridge of granite, erected in 1812, at a cost of 
£3500, of which one-half was paid by government, and 
the other raised by subscription. Salmon are found in 
the Dee, frequently in great abundance, and are gene- 
rally taken with the rod, affording excellent sport to the 
angler ; but very few trout are seen in the stream, and 
even the numbers of salmon have greatly diminished 
within the last few years. The only other stream of 
any importance in the parish is the burn of Belty, which 
rises among the hills at its north-western boundary, 
and, flowing in a south-eastern direction through the 
central valley, which it divides into two nearly equal 
portions, falls into the Dee in the parish of Banchory- 
Ternan. Though a very inconsiderable stream, it fre- 
quently, after rains, swells into an impetuous torrent, 
and inundates the level valley through which it passes, 
doing much injury to the crops : in 1829, it carried away 
two bridges, and greatly damaged three others. Some 
trout, but of very small size, are found in this river. 

The soil along the banks of the Dee is light ; in the 
valley of the Belty, much deeper, and of richer quality, 
resting on a subsoil of clay ; and in the higher parts of 
the parish, heathy moorland, with large tracts of peat- 
moss. The crops are, oats, bear, barley, potatoes, and 
turnips, with the usual grasses ; the system of hus- 
bandry has for many years been steadily advancing, 
and is at present in a highly improved state. Large 
portions of the waste grounds have been reclaimed, and 
brought under profitable cultivation, both by the pro- 
prietors and tenants. The lands have been inclosed 
with stone fences; substantial and commodious farm- 
buildings have been erected, many of which are roofed 
with slate; and on almost every farm, threshing-mills 
of good construction are found. Great attention is 
paid to the improvement of the breed of horses, black- 
cattle, and sheep, and to the management of the dairy- 
farms ; and large quantities of butter of excellent qua- 
lity, with a moderate proportion of cheese, and eggs 
and poultry, are sent to the Aberdeen market, whither, 
also, considerable numbers of fat-cattle are forwarded, 
to be shipped for London. The plantations, which are 
of great extent, consist chiefly of larch and Scotch firs, 
for both of which, especially for the former, the soil is 
well adapted ; oak and ash have recently been tried 
with success, and birch seems to be indigenous along 
the banks of the river Dee. The principal substrata 
are whinstone and sandstone ; and there is also abun- 
dance of granite of very excellent quality, which occurs 
in large masses, from some of which have been cut 
blocks seventeen feet in length. There is, however, 
neither slate nor limestone in the parish ; nor are there 
quarries of any kind in regular operation. The rateable 
annual value of Kincardine O'Neil is £7018. 

Craigmile, the seat of the principal heritor, a hand- 
some mansion to which additions have been made by the 
present proprietor, is well situated in a richly-planted 
demesne. The house of Learney, which was destroyed 
by an accidental fire some few years since, has been 
rebuilt in an elegant modern style ; and Campfield, 



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Kincardine Lodge, and Stranduff, are also pleasant resi- 
dences. The village, which is on the turnpike-road 
from Ballater to Aberdeen, is neatly built ; it has a rural 
aspect, and is frequented during the summer months by 
invalids for the benefit of their health. An excellent 
inn has been erected of late years by Mr. Gordon ; and 
a circulating library, containing a well-assorted collec- 
tion, has been established. There are no manufactures 
carried on here ; but many of the women are employed 
in knitting stockings for the Aberdeen houses. The 
post-office has a daily delivery; and the mail passes 
regularly through the village. Fairs for black- cattle, 
sheep, and horses, are held in May and September, in 
the village ; and during the winter months, markets for 
agricultural produce of every kind are held monthly at 
Tomavern, in the northern district of the parish. The 
ecclesiastical, affairs are under the superintendence 
of the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and synod of 
Aberdeen. The minister's stipend is £232. 4., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum ; patron, 
Sir John Forbes, Bart. The church is an ancient struc- 
ture, of which the date is unknown. The roof was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1733, and only the walls, which are 
built of small stones imbedded in lime, left standing : 
the edifice was, however, restored immediately, has 
since been repaired, and is now in good condition, afford- 
ing accommodation for a congregation of 640 persons. 
The members of the Free Church have a place of wor- 
ship. There are three parochial schools, in the three 
divisions of the parish ; the masters have salaries of 
£25 each, with a house, and the original master has also 
a garden. They all partake of the Dick bequest, and 
the fees average to each about £20 per annum. 

KINCARDINESHIRE, or The Mearns, a mari- 
time county, in the east of Scotland, bounded on the 
north-west by the river Dee and part of Aberdeenshire, 
on the east and south-east by the German Ocean, and 
on the south-west by the county of Forfar. It lies 
between 56° 46' and 57° 7' (N. Lat.) and 2° 1' and 
2° 45' (W. Lon.), and is about thirty-two miles in 
length, and twenty-four in extreme breadth ; comprising 
an area of 380 square miles, or 243,444 acres ; 7620 
houses, of which 7304 are inhabited ; and containing a 
population of 33,075, of whom 15,829 are males, and 
17,246 females. The county is supposed by some to 
have derived the name Mearns, which is proper only to 
a particular portion of it, from Mernia, brother of Ken- 
neth II. ; but, with greater probability, others deduce it 
from the Vernicones, by whom the district was inhabited 
in the time of Ptolemy. Few events of historical im- 
portance are recorded, though it is conjectured that the 
battle between the Caledonians under Galgacus and the 
Romans under Agricola took place here. Prior to the 
Reformation, the county was included partly within the 
archdiocese of St. Andrew's, and partly within the 
dioceses of Aberdeen and Brechin ; it is at present 
chiefly in the synod of Angus and Mearns, and com- 
prises the presbytery of Fordoun, in that synod, and 
part of the presbyteries of Kincardine O'Neil and Aber- 
deen, in the synod of Aberdeen. For civil government 
it is undivided, and for session purposes is associated 
with the counties of Aberdeen and Banflf, in the former 
of which the courts are held ; it contains Stonehaven, 
which is the county town, and the towns and villages of 
Bervie, Gourdon, Johnshaven, Laurencekirk, Fetter- 
71 



cairn, and Aucbinblae. Under the act of the 2nd of 
William IV., the county returns one member to the 
imperial parliament. The number of parishes is nine- 
teen. 

The surface near the coast is tolerably level, though 
varying in elevation. The Grampians occupy the cen- 
tral, western, and northern parts of the county ; and 
from their base the land subsides towards the south-east, 
into what is generally called the Howe of the Mearns, 
forming a continuation of the vale of Strathmore, and 
between which and the sea there is a tract of swelling 
ground. The Howe is a beautiful tract of champaign 
country, about fifty square miles in extent, richly culti- 
vated, embellished with plantations, and defended from 
the colder winds by the Grampians, and by the hills of 
Garvock and Arbuthnott, which are from 500 to S00 
feet high. The principal mountains are, the Strath 
Fenella, detached from the Grampian range by a narrow 
vale from which it takes its name, and about 1500 feet 
in height ; Cairn-a-Mount, which is 2500 feet ; the 
hill of Fare, 1800 feet; Clachnabane, which has an ele- 
vation of 2370 feet, and is crowned with a mass of rock, 
rising perpendicularly almost one hundred feet above 
the main surface, and resembling an old fortress ; and 
Mount Battoch, the highest point of the Grampian 
range in the county, and which has an elevation of 
3465 feet. The principal river is the Dee, which has 
its source in Aberdeenshire, and, after intersecting this 
county for about eight miles in a course from west to 
east, forms its northern boundary for fourteen miles, 
and falls into the sea at Aberdeen. The other rivers 
are, the North Esk, which rises in the sequestered vale of 
Glen-Esk, on the confines of Forfarshire, and, after form- 
ing the boundary between the Mearns and that county 
for above ten miles, falls into the sea three miles to the 
north of Montrose ; the Bervie ; the Cowie ; and several 
smaller streams. The chief lakes are, Drum, which is 
partly in the county of Aberdeen, and Loch Leys ; each 
is about three miles in circumference, and the latter has 
a small artificial island containing the remains of an 
ancient edifice of which there are no authentic notices. 

About one-third of the land is arable, and in good 
cultivation ; one-eighth capable of being cultivated with 
advantage, one-twelfth woodland and plantations, and the 
remainder rough mountain pasture. The soil varies from 
the most sterile to the most fertile ; the district of the 
Howe of the Mearns is extremely rich, and the sys- 
tem of agriculture in a high state of improvement. 
Great attention is paid to the rearing of live stock. The 
number of cattle, which are generally the Angus black, 
is on an average 25,000, of which 5000 are milch-cows ; 
and the number of sheep is about 24,000, of various 
breeds, but chiefly the black-faced. There are no mine- 
rals of any importance : limestone is quarried in some 
places, and there is an abundance of granite in the 
northern, and of red sandstone in the southern, section 
of the county. Various gems are found in the mountains 
and in the rocks, of which the principal are the topaz or 
Cairngorm. The seats are, Arbuthnott House, Dun- 
nottar, Fetteresso, Fettercairn, Crathes, Blackhall, Kirk- 
ton Hill, Tilquhilly, Inch Mario, Thornton, Drumtochty 
Castle, Durris, Ury, Glenbervie, Muchalls, Mount Cyrus, 
Inglismaldie, Lauriston, Fasque, Johnston, and others. 
The manufactures are neither important nor extensive; 
they are chiefly of canvass and coarse linens, with 



KINC 



KINF 



some trifling branches of the cotton manufacture. 
At Laurencekirk, the highly-esteemed snuff-boxes of 
wood are made. Facility of communication is afforded 
by good roads in various directions, of which some are 
turnpike ; and a road over the Grampian hills has been 
made, and is kept in good repair. The rateable annual 
value of real property in the county is £134,341, in- 
cluding £3858 for fisheries. There are numerous re- 
mains of antiquity, of which the chief are those of Kin- 
cardine Castle, once a royal residence, and of Dunnottar 
Castle, the ancient seat of the Keiths, earls-marischal of 
Scotland, romantically situated on the summit of a lofty 
rock boldly projecting into the sea. 

KINCLAVEN, a parish, in the county of Perth, 
5 miles (S. by W.) from Blairgowrie ; containing 880 
inhabitants. This place, of which the name, of Celtic 
origin, is descriptive of the situation of its church, is 
bounded on the north by the river Tay, which separates 
it from Caputh ; and on the east and south by the 
same river, which divides it from the parish of Cargill. 
It is about five miles in length and two miles in average 
breadth, comprising an area of ten square miles. The 
ancient castle, now in ruins, is said to have been built 
by Malcolm Canmore, and to have been for many cen- 
turies an occasional residence of the kings of Scotland, 
from which several of their charters are dated. During 
the wars that arose, from the contested succession to 
the throne, between Bruce and Baliol, the castle was 
occupied by an English garrison, which, being at an 
unguarded moment surprised by Sir William Wallace, 
was taken and dismantled so far as to render it no 
longer tenable as a place of strength. It is the property 
of Baroness Keith, who pays to the Duke of Atholl, 
annually, a small sum as its hereditary constable. The 
parish comprises about 6400 acres, of which 3900 are 
arable, 1500 woodland and plantations, 800 moorland 
pasture, and the remainder moss, water, and waste. 
The surface is broken by an elevated ridge, extending 
across the centre of the parish from north-east to south- 
west, and from which the lands slope in a gentle decli- 
vity to the Tay on the north and south. The scenery, 
enlivened by the windings of the Tay, and enriched 
with woods and plantations, has a very pleasing appear- 
ance. The river Isla, descending from the lower Gram- 
pian range, flows through the vale of Strathmore, and 
falls into the Tay at the eastern extremity of the parish ; 
and there are several small lakes, in which pike, perch, 
and eels of large size are found. 

The soil, though various, is generally fertile, pro- 
ducing good crops of wheat, barley, oats, turnips, and 
potatoes, of which last great quantities are raised for 
the London market. The state of agriculture is much 
improved ; the rotation plan of husbandry is in use, and 
carefully adapted to the different soils. The lands have 
been well drained; several tracts of moorland have 
been brought into profitable cultivation, and the various 
farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, and 
some of them highly ornamental. The cattle are of a 
mixed breed, and great attention is paid to their im- 
provement ; Ayrshire cows, and bulls of the Teeswater 
breed, have been introduced ; and the horses, previously 
of small size, are now improved by the introduction of 
the Clydesdale breed. The plantations are chiefly larch 
and common fir, of which, however, the former are not 
in a very thriving state ; and there are numerous cop- 
72 



pices of oak, which are generally felled when they have 
attained twenty-five years' growth. The rateable an- 
nual value of the parish is £4537. There were formerly 
several small villages, of which at present the sites are 
only to be distinguished by some of the ancient trees 
yet standing. The village of Arntully (which see), though 
much reduced in extent and population, is still remain- 
ing. The roads from the ferries at Caputh, Kinclaven, 
and others over the Tay, intersect the parish, and afford 
facilities of communication ; the post-town is Perth, to 
which, and also to Dunkeld, a sub-office has been esta- 
blished at Stanley. The ecclesiastical affairs are 
under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dun- 
keld and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's 
stipend is £276. 11. 5., with a manse, and a glebe valued 
at £1S per annum ; patrons, the family of Richardson. 
The church, inconveniently situated at the eastern ex- 
tremity of the parish, contains 320 sittings, all of which 
are free ; at the east end is a large monument to the 
memory of Alexander Campbell, Bishop of Brechin, who 
is styled " Laird of Kerco, in this parish," and who died 
in 1608. The church is in a very indifferent state of 
repair ; and it is expected that another will be soon 
built on a more convenient site. There is a place of 
worship for members of the United Secession. The 
parochial school is attended by about sixty children ; 
the master has a salary of £34, with a good house and 
garden, and the fees, &c, average £24 per annum. There 
is also a school in connexion with the Seceding congre- 
gation, supported by subscription. 

KINFAUNS, a parish, in the county of Perth, 1§ 
mile (E. by S.) from Perth ; containing 720 inhabitants. 
This place, of which the name, in the Celtic language, 
is descriptive of its situation at the head of a narrow 
valley inclosed with hills, and opening into the Carse of 
Gowrie, was anciently the seat of the Charteris family, 
of whom Thomas Charteris de Longueville, a native of 
France, having killed a nobleman of the court of Philip 
le Bel in a duel, was compelled to make his escape, and 
for some time subsisted by piracy on the open seas. 
Charteris, called, from the colour of his flag, the Red 
Reaver, was encountered and taken prisoner by Sir 
William Wallace, on that hero's route to France, 
where, making intercession with the French monarch, 
Sir William obtained for his captive a full pardon and 
the honour of knighthood. Sir Thomas Charteris now 
became the zealous friend and adherent of Wallace, 
whom he accompanied to Scotland ; and on Wallace 
being betrayed into the hands of Edward, King of 
England, he retired to Lochmaben till Bruce asserted 
his claim to the crown. He was a companion of Bruce at 
the taking of Perth, in 1313, and, in reward of his ser- 
vices, obtained a grant of the lands of Kinfauns, which 
remained for many years in the possession of his de- 
scendants. The lands passed afterwards to the Carne- 
gies, a branch of the Northesk family, and subsequently 
to the Blairs, whose sole heiress conveyed them by mar- 
riage to John Lord Gray, grandfather of the present 
Lord Gray, of Kinfauns Castle. 

The parish, which forms the western portion of the 
Carse of Gowrie, is bounded on the south by the river 
Tay ; it is about five miles in length and one mile and a 
half in average breadth, comprising an area of 4800 acres, 
of which 2380 are arable, 240 meadow and pasture, and 
the remainder woodland and plantations. The surface, 



K I NF 



KING 



towards the river, is level, and thence rises, by a gra- 
dual and easy ascent, to the base of a ridge of hills 
which traverses the parish in a line from east to west. 
Of these hills the highest is the hill of Kinnoull, which 
is but partly in this parish, and has an elevation of 632 
feet above the level of the Tay, presenting to the south 
an abruptly-precipitous mass of rock, covered for nearly 
three-fourths of its height with trees, and thence bare 
to its summit. On the east of this hill, the ground has 
a gentle declivity ; and in a level spot here, at a con- 
siderable height above the Tay, is the castle of Kin- 
fauns. Still farther east, the ground again rises abruptly, 
forming the western acclivity of the hill of Binn, or the 
Tower Hill, so called from a tower on its summit, built 
within the last forty years by the late Lord Gray, for an 
observatory. To the east of this hill the land slopes 
gradually till it subsides into a deep ravine, on the oppo- 
site side of which is another hill, and, farther off, a 
fourth, the latter commanding from its summit a va- 
ried and extensive view of the whole carse, the tower 
of Dundee, Broughty Castle, and of the course of the 
Tay from a mile below Perth to its influx into the Ger- 
man Ocean : to the south is a fine view over the vale of 
Strathearn. Beyond these hills, which are mostly 
wooded to their summit, rise various others towards the 
north, in gentle undulations, and gradually subsiding in 
the vale of Strathmore, of which they form the southern 
boundary. The Tay, which bounds the parish for more 
than three miles, is the only river of importance ; but 
three small streamlets, rising among the hills, intersect 
the parish from north to south. The Tay abounds with 
salmon and different kinds of trout ; pike are numerous, 
and sturgeon are found occasionally. 

The soil is various ; near the Tay, a rich loamy clay 
producing excellent crops of wheat, barley, oats, beans, 
peas, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual grasses ; and 
for a considerable height on the acclivities of the hills, 
a light, but deep and fertile, black mould. The system 
of agriculture is improved ; the farms vary from 125 to 
300 acres in extent ; the farm-buildings are substantial 
and well arranged, and most of them of modern erec- 
tion. The lands have been well drained, chiefly with 
tiles, for the making of which good clay is found ; and 
on the estate of Kinfauns, an embankment has been 
formed, connecting an island in the river with the main 
land. The cattle are of a mixed breed, with the excep- 
tion of cows for the dairy, which are generally the Ayr- 
shire. Sheep are kept only upon one farm ; they are 
of the pure Leicestershire breed, and not more than 300 
in number. The plantations are, oak, ash, elm, beech, 
and Scotch fir, with larch and spruce intermixed ; birch 
and mountain-ash are scarce. In the grounds of the 
mansions, sycamore, lime, poplar, Spanish and horse 
chesnut, and silver fir attain a luxuriant growth. The 
substratum is principally whinstone, of which the hills 
are all composed ; and there are several quarries in 
operation, producing excellent materials for the roads. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £8832. 

Kinfauns Castle, seated on an eminence overlooking 
the Tay, is of modern character, erected between 1819 
and 1S26, after a design by Smirke : here is preserved 
the two-handed sword of Sir Thomas Charteris, besides 
a variety of pictures and a superb library. Seg- 
gieden House is finely situated near the margin of the 
river. Glendoick House is a good mansion, built by 
Vol. II.— 73 



Robert Craigie, lord president of the court of session, 
and grandfather of the present proprietor ; and Glen- 
carse House is also a handsome modern mansion. There 
are no villages, and the largest hamlet contains only 
twelve families : the turnpike-road from Perth to Dun- 
dee passes through the parish. It was proposed to form 
a railway through this place from Dundee, by Perth, to 
Crieff, and the ground was surveyed for that purpose ; 
but the proposal has not been carried into effect. The 
Tay is navigable to Perth for vessels of 200 tons. The 
salmon-fisheries in the parish produce a rental of £3366, 
of which about £2200 belong to Lord Gray, £766 to the 
city of Perth, and £400 to Mr. Hay, of Seggieden ; the 
number of men employed is 104. There is a branch 
post-office in the parish ; steam-boats ply daily in the 
river between Perth and Dundee ; and there are piers 
at this place for the landing of passengers and goods, at 
which, also, potatoes and grain are shipped, chiefly for 
London. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the 
superintendence of the presbytery of Perth and synod 
of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is 
£242. 11.6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 
per annum ; patron, the Crown. The church, which is 
well situated, has been built at various times ; the nave 
is very ancient, and the aisles of comparatively modern 
date. It is in substantial repair, and contains 416 sit- 
tings, the whole of which are free. A parochial library 
was established in 1826, by donations of books from 
the heritors, and is supported by small quarterly sub- 
scriptions. The parochial school is attended by about 
seventy children} the master has a salary of £34, with 
a house and garden, and the fees average £13 per an- 
num. There is another school in the parish, attended 
principally by children from Kinnoull and Kilspindie, 
supported chiefly by the fees. On the side of the hill 
of Kinnoull is a cave called the Dragon Hole, the hiding- 
place of Sir William Wallace ; and on the lands of Glen- 
doick is an old house in which Prince Charles Edward 
passed a night after his defeat at Culloden. 

KINGARTH, a parish, in the connty of Bute, 
S miles (S. by E.) from Rothesay ; containing, with the 
villages of Kilchattan-Bay, Kerrycroy, and Piperhall, 
931 inhabitants. This parish takes its name from the 
promontory of Garroch Head, forming its extreme point 
to the south, and called in Gaelic Ceann Garbh, which 
signifies " stormy head." Very little is known con- 
cerning the ancient history of the place ; but there are 
traditions of its having been of considerable importance. 
Christianity was early introduced here. The name of 
Saint Catau, or Cathanus, has been transmitted in the 
appellation of a bay called Kilchattan, "the cell or 
burial-place of Catan." St. Blane, also, is said to 
have been born here, and to have been the founder of 
the original church of Kingarth, of which the ruins, 
still remaining, are designated by his name, as is a 
hill ascending from Garroch Head. The parish was 
anciently the scene, too, of some military conflicts. On 
the south-west shore is the fort of Dunagoil, " the for- 
tified hill of the Lowlanders," commanding nearly the 
best landing-place on the whole coast, and having a 
view of the passage from the western seas by Kilbrannan 
sound, and of the entrance into the Frith of Clyde from 
the south. Its origin is not known ; but it has fre- 
quently been attributed to the Danes. The lands of the 
district were formerly held by several proprietors called 



KING 



KING 



Barons, who are at present represented by only four 
owners of small portions of ground, the larger part of 
the parish being the property of the Marquess of Bute. 

Kingarth is six aad a half miles in length, from north 
to south, and two and a half in mean breadth, containing 
S325 acres. It is situated in the Isle of Bute,, and is 
bounded on the north-west by the loch of Ascog, a 
part of Loch Fad, and Quien loch, which separate it 
from the parish of Rothesay ; and on the east, south, 
and south-west by the Frith of Clyde. Its figure is 
irregular. The shore is indented by several small bays ; 
and the parish is marked by a gradual narrowing from 
its north-western boundary till it becomes an isthmus a 
mile and a half in breadth, beyond which is a peninsula 
two miles in length, terminating in the promontory of 
Garroch Head. The coast on the east and south is 
rocky and precipitous ; on the south-west it rises more 
gently. It is marked by the bays of Ascog, Scoulag, 
and Kilchattan, to the east ; and of Scalpsie, Stravanan, 
and Dunagoil, to the south-west. The frith is eight 
miles wide between Scoulag bay and the nearest point of 
Ayrshire at Largs, and nine miles wide between Dunagoil 
bay and the nearest part of the island of Arran ; it is 
ninety fathoms deep between Garroch Head and Little 
Cumbray, where its depth is greatest. The land in 
general is considerably elevated above the level of the 
sea : the principal hills are Suidhe-Chatain, " the seat 
of Catan," 520 feet high, and Saint Blane's hill, 436 
feet high. The loch of Ascog, Quien loch, and Loch 
Fad cover respectively seventy-five, sixty-nine, and 170 
acres. The climate, though moist, is mild and salu- 
brious. 

The soil in general is light and gravelly, though in 
some places loam and clay are to be found. About 
3936 acres are occasionally under tillage; 3071 are 
moor and pasture ; and 940 acres are under wood, both 
natural and planted, the latter consisting of spruce, 
larch, Scotch fir, oak, and other hard-woods. All kinds 
of grain, and the usual green crops, are grown. The 
cattle are chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, to the rearing 
of which great attention has been recently paid : the 
sheep, also, are tolerably numerous. The modern system 
of husbandry is followed, and the improvements in 
every department have been rapidly advancing for the 
last ten or twelve years : most of the farm-houses have 
been rebuilt, and the grounds inclosed chiefly with 
thorn-hedges. The prevailing rock is the old red sand- 
stone, with conglomerate, and numerous veins and beds 
of trap : coal exists, but is not wrought, and some lime- 
works are in operation. The rateable annual value of 
the parish is £3954. The mansion-house of Mount- 
stuart, built by James, second earl of Bute, in 1718, 
is surrounded by beautiful and extensive plantations, 
aud is particularly famed for its choice flower-garden. 
On the east coast stands Ascog House, with several 
ornamental villas recently erected. In the year 1703, 
the first earl of Bute obtained a charter from the crown 
for the erection of a burgh of regality, to be named 
Mountstuart, with the privilege of holding a weekly 
market, exercising handicraft trades, and having three 
annual fairs. The provisions of this charter, however, 
were never carried into effect, the thriving burgh of 
Rothesay, with which the parish chiefly communicates, 
superseding the necessity. The roads are in good order, 
and the bridges sufficient for general convenience. 
74 



There is a wharf at Kilchattan-Bay, and another at 
Scoulag bay, adapted for small craft. The shipping 
belonging to the parish does not exceed fifty tons ; but 
craft of considerable burthen from other parts fre- 
quent the ports for the purposes of importation and 
exportation. The fisheries are productive. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the pres- 
bytery of Dunoon and synod of Argyll ; patron, the 
Marquess of Bute. The stipend is £197, with a good 
manse and offices, and a glebe of nearly eleven acres, 
worth about £12 per annum. The church was built in 
1826, and contains 600 sittings, all of which are free. 
The members of the Free Church have a place of wor- 
ship. The parochial school affords instruction in Latin 
and Greek, with the usual branches ; the master has 
the legal accommodations, with the minimum salary, and 
£24 fees. The antiquities of the parish consist of two 
barrows or tumuli, a Druidical circle, the fort of Dunagoil, 
and the ruin of the church of St. Blane, who flourished 
about the close of the tenth century. The last stands on 
an artificial elevation, which is inclosed by a wall of 
massive stones piled one over another, 500 feet in cir- 
cumference, the whole of the space having mason-work 
underneath at a distance of two feet from the surface. 
A considerable portion of the walls of the church still 
remains, and displays architecture of great antiquity. 
This parish confers the titles of Viscount Kingarth and 
Baron Mountstuart upon the Marquess of Bute. 

KING-EDWARD, a parish, in the district of Tur- 
riff, county of Aberdeen, 5 miles (S. S. E.) from 
Banff; containing, with the village of Newbyth,2492 in- 
habitants. This place, originally Kin-Edart, of which the 
present nameis an obvious corruption, is of some antiquity, 
and appears to have formed part of the possessions of 
the family of the Cumyns, earls of Buchan. There are 
still some remains of their baronial residence, now called 
King-Edward Castle, situated on a rocky eminence to 
the south-east of the church, and also of Eden Castle and 
others ; but nothing which can throw any light upon the 
early history of these fortresses has been recorded. The 
parish, which is bounded on the west by the river Dove- 
ran, is about eleven miles in length, and varies from two 
to five miles in breadth, comprising 17,500 acres, of which 
nearly 9500 are arable, 1S00 woodland and plantations, 
and the remainder pasture and meadow, with large 
portions of moss and waste. The surface is boldly un- 
dulated, rising in some parts into considerable elevation, 
and in others subsiding into low valleys ; but there are 
no hills, properly so called, which attain any remarkable 
height. The principal river is the Doveran, which for 
some miles forms the boundary of the parish, and falls 
into the sea at Banff ; it abounds with salmon of excellent 
quality, and the fisheries produce a good rental to their 
proprietor. A copious stream called King-Edward 
burn, of which the chief source is in the parish of 
Gamrie, intersects this parish from east to west, and 
flows into the Doveran about a mile to the west of the 
church. 

The soil is very various. The higher grounds are in 
general mossy, resting on a bed of clay or gravel ; in 
the low grounds, and especially along the banks of 
the Doveran, the soil is principally alluvial, and very 
fertile ; in other parts is a black loam, resting on 
beds of rock or gravel. The chief crops are, oats, 
barley, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual grasses ; 



KING 



KING 



very little wheat is raised. The system of husbandry 
has been greatly improved ; and a due rotation of crops 
is observed, according to the nature of the soil. Trench- 
ploughing and surface-draining have been for some 
years in practice, by which the lands have been rendered 
much more productive ■ the fields have been inclosed ; 
and the fences, partly of stone and partly of thorn, are 
kept in good repair. The farm-buildings, also, have 
been made more comfortable and commodious ; and all 
the more recent improvements in the construction of agri- 
cultural implements have been generally adopted. The 
cattle are of the Aberdeenshire or Buchan breed, with 
a few of the Teeswater, and some of the short-horned 
breed from Yorkshire, recently introduced ; the sheep 
are of the Highland and Leicestershire breeds, and 
great attention is paid to them. The plantations con- 
sist of Scotch fir, interspersed with spruce fir, larch, 
ash, beech, oak, plane, and chesnut ; they are of consi- 
derable extent, and in a thriving state. The principal 
substrata are, red sandstone, greywacke, and clay- 
slate; and iron-ore is supposed to exist. The grey- 
wacke and the red sandstone are both quarried ; and 
the latter, which is found in the eastern parts, is in 
extensive operation. The rateable annual value of King- 
Edward is £6103. The mansions are, Montcoffer House, 
the property of the Earl of Fife, a handsome modern 
building, beautifully situated near his lordship's park 
of Duff, which is partly in this parish ; Eden House 
and Byth House, also modern mansions, finely situated ; 
and Craigston Castle, a venerable ancient structure, 
seated in grounds tastefully embellished. The village of 
Newbyth, which is separately described, is at the south- 
eastern extremity of the parish. Facility of communi- 
cation is maintained by excellent roads, of which the 
turnpike-road from Aberdeen to Banff intersects the 
western portion of the parish ; and by bridges over the 
various streams, kept in good repair. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are nnder the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aber- 
deen. The minister's stipend is £204. 7- 10., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum ; patron, 
the Crown. The church, a plain structure built in 
16*21, contains 550 sittings. A chapel of ease in con- 
nexion with the Established Church has been erected in 
the Tillage of Newbyth ; it is a neat structure contain- 
ing 400 sittings. There is a place of worship in the 
parish for Independents. The parochial school is well 
attended ; the master has a salary of £34, with a house 
and garden, and the fees average about £10 per annum : 
he has also a portion of the Dick bequest. With the 
exception of the ruins of King-Edward Castle, there are 
no relics of antiquity of any historical importance. In a 
semicircular arch on the north wall of the church, is a 
monument inscribed to the memory of his mother by 
John Urquhart, tutor of Cromarty in 1599 ; and in the 
Craigston aisle of the church, are monuments to the same 
John Urquhart and others of the Urquhart family. 
The distinguished characters connected with King- 
Edward have been, Dr. William Guild, minister of the 
parish, and afterwards principal of King's College, 
Aberdeen, and the founder of an hospital in that city 
for the incorporated trades ; Sir Thomas Urquhart, 
author of the Jewel, who, jointly with Dr. Guild, pre- 
sented a service of communion plate to the church ; 
and Sir Whitelaw Ainslie, author of Materia Indica. 
75 




KINGHORN, a royal 
burgh and a parish, in the 
district of Kirkcaldy, 
county of Fife ; containing, 
with the village of West 
Bridge, and the island of 
Inch-Keith, 2935 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 1389 are in 
the burgh, 3 miles (S. by W.) 
from Kirkcaldy, and 9 (N.) 
from Edinburgh. This place, 
at a very early period, was 
Burgh Seal. one of the res id e nces of the 

Scottish kings ; and till within the last few years, there 
were to be traced the remains of an ancient castle, situated 
on rising ground near the town, and commanding a view of 
the whole of the Frith of Forth. This castle, of which 
the portion lately existing was called Glammis Tower, 
was probably selected as a temporary residence for the 
diversion of hunting in the extensive forest which lay 
immediately behind it ; and the town is fancifully said 
to have derived its name from the frequent soundings of 
the horn during the royal sports of the chase ; the true 
derivation being from the Gaelic terms Keari or Kin, a 
"chief or headland," and Gorn, "green." The date of the 
foundation of the town cannot be precisely ascertained, 
though, if not at an earlier period the abode of fishermen, 
whom its advantageous situation might have attracted to 
settle on the coast, it would naturally have arisen from the 
proximity of the castle. Whatever its origin, it appears 
to have attained such a degree of importance in the reign 
of David I. as induced that monarch to confer upon it 
the privileges of a royal burgh. This grant was con- 
firmed by Alexander III., who, some time afterwards, 
returning to Kinghorn Castle from a hunting excursion 
late in the evening, by a road winding along some pre- 
cipitous cliffs, was thrown, with his horse, about half a 
mile to the west of the town, and killed on the spot, on 
the 16th of March, 12S5. A cross was erected at the 
place where the king fell, and remained till the reign of 
James II. ; but no vestiges of it can now be traced. 
The castle of Glammis, with the lordship of Kinghorn, 
was granted by Robert II., as a marriage portion with 
his daughter, Janet, to Sir John Lyon, whose successors 
were invested by James VI. with the title of earls of 
Kinghorn, which in the reign of Charles II. was merged 
in that of the earls of Strathmore. 

The to~wn is situated on the shore of the Frith of 
Forth, directly opposite to the port of Leith, and on the 
great road from Edinburgh to Dundee ; it is built on 
the slope of some gently rising ground which, towards 
the north-west, attains a considerable elevation. The 
principal street has lately been much improved, and 
many of the houses have been rebuilt in better style ; 
but the inferior streets have a very indifferent appear- 
ance. There are two public libraries, supported by sub- 
scription ; but the reading-rooms, supplied with the lead- 
ing journals, have just been discontinued. The chief 
trade carried on here is the spinning of flax, for which 
there are three extensive mills ; the machinery is partly 
impelled by steam, and partly by Mater-power, the latter 
derived from the loch of Kinghorn, about half a mile 
from the town. In these mills 4/0 persons are em- 
ployed, of whom more than 300 are females. There 
is also a bleachfield, in which about seventy persons 

L 2 



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are generally engaged ; and a considerable number of 
the inhabitants are occupied in hand-loom 'weaving. 
A harbour which, from its situation near the church, 
was called the Kirk harbour,is now in a ruinouscondition ; 
but it is in contemplation to restore it, for which an es- 
timate of the expense has been made, amounting to from 
£20,000 to £30,000. At present, it gives accommodation 
only to a few fishing-boats ; but a considerable traffic 
is maintained by another harbour, Pettycur, half a mile 
west of the town, and which is one of the principal 
ferries between Fife and Mid Lothian. The quay at 
Pettycur affords convenient opportunities of landing 
passengers, goods, and cattle, when the state of the tide 
will permit vessels to approach. The harbour and anchor- 
age dues produce to the town a revenue of about £1S0 
per annum. 

The burgh was formerly 
governed by a provost, two 
bailies, a treasurer, and a 
council comprising thirteen 
merchants, sailors, and brew- 
ers, and the deacons of the 
five trades. The magistrates 
held their various courts, 
and exercised, both in civil 
and criminal cases, all the 
jurisdiction of a royal burgh. 
The incorporated trades con- 
Second Seal of the Burgh. sisted of the hammermen, 

weavers, shoemakers, tailors, and bakers, all possess- 
ing exclusive privileges. This state of things continued, 
with little alteration, till the year 1841, when, on the day 
fixed for the election of the corporation officers, a quo- 
rum of the council could not be mustered, and the burgh 
was consequently disfranchised. Application, under these 
circumstances, was made to the court of session ; but 
nothing could be done beyond the appointment of three 
resident managers to preside over the affairs, without 
being invested with any judicial authority ; and the peace 
of the town is now under the superintendence of the 
county police. The town-hall, to which a gaol is at- 
tached, is a handsome building in the Elizabethan style, 
standing in the centre of the town, and erected in 1826, 
at an expense of about £2400, under the direction of 
Mr. Hamilton, of Edinburgh, who designed the new 
High School, and other edifices in that city. The post- 
office has a good delivery ; and facility of communication 
with Edinburgh is maintained by the ferry, and with the 
neighbouring towns by roads, kept in excellent order. 
Four public coaches pass daily, as well as the mail, between 
Edinburgh and Dundee. The burgh is associated with 
those of Kirkcaldy, Dysart, and Burntisland, in returning 
a member to the imperial parliament. 

The parish is about four miles in length and three 
and a half in extreme breadth, comprising an area of 
5440 acres, of which 4800 are arable, 250 woodland and 
plantations, and the remainder meadow, pasture, and 
waste. The surface is beautifully varied, rising in some 
places gradually, and in others more abruptly, from 
the frith ; and is intersected with narrow straths, 
watered by small rivulets, and stretching from the shore 
to the hill of Glassmount, which has an elevation of 
601 feet above the level of the sea. To the north-west 
of this hill, the surface undulates gently, and with oc- 
casional tracts of table-land. The coast is bold, and in 
76 



some parts precipitous. Near Burntisland, to the west, 
is the projecting cliff memorable for the death of Alex- 
ander III., whence, towards the harbour of Pettycur, 
the shore is a level sand, terminating in a rock of 
columnar basalt, forming the headland of Kinghorn ness. 
From this the bay of Kinghorn curves towards the north, 
terminating in the Kirkcraig, a mass of rock near the 
church, projecting for a considerable way into the sea, 
and constituting a natural breakwater to the Kirk harbour. 
The low lands are watered by numerous copious springs, 
issuing from the declivities of the higher grounds, and 
to the west is the loch of Kinghorn, covering about 
twenty acres, and affording an abundant supply of water 
for the town, to which it is conveyed by pipes. 

The soil along the shore, for u considerable distance, 
is a deep black loam of great fertility ; towards the hills, 
of lighter quality ; and still further in the direction of 
the north-west, more variable, and inclining to clay. 
The crops are, oats, barley, wheat, turnips, and pota- 
toes. The system of agriculture is in an advanced state ; 
the lands have been well drained and inclosed ; the 
farm-buildings are generally substantial and well ar- 
ranged, and the various recent improvements in agricul- 
tural implements have been adopted. The cattle, of 
which few are reared in the parish, are of the Fifeshire 
and short-horned breeds ; great numbers are annually 
bought, and fattened for the markets, in which they sell 
at from £20 to £30 per head. A considerable number 
of sheep are also pastured, chiefly of the half Cheviot 
breed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £"410. 

The whole parish lies within the coal basin of the 
Forth ; but the coalfields are so disturbed by the trap 
rocks bursting through them, and overlaying them, 
that, with the exception of a few acres on which the 
town stands, and about a hundred acres near Auchtertool 
village, the substratum appears to be formed of trap. 
Indeed, the soil, which is remarkable for fertility, seems 
as if entirely composed of the decayed portions of this 
species of rock. The bearing of the stratified rocks, 
where they are least disarranged, is northward ; and the 
coal-bed is the lowermost one of the coalfield which 
stretches from this parish eastward to Largo. Car- 
boniferous or mountain limestone is obtained at Inver- 
tiel ; it lies immediately under the coal strata, and has 
been extensively quarried for many years, both for build- 
ing and agricultural porposes. Coal was formerly 
wrought; but the works have been discontinued. There 
are two annual fairs, and a weekly market is, held on 
Thursdays, under a charter ; the former are for cattle, 
horses, &c, and the latter for butter, cheese, and other 
country produce ; but. both are very ill attended, and for 
the last thirty years have been falling into disuse. Ab- 
den, the property of R. Stocks, Esq., is an ancient man- 
sion originally belonging to the Bishops of St. Andrew's ; 
and in the charters granting the lands to the prede- 
cessors of the present proprietor, is a distinct reserva- 
tion that the king, in crossing the ferry to Kinghorn, 
should have lodging and hospitality in the house of 
Abdcn. The building is a plain structure on the north 
of the town, commanding a fine view over the Frith. 
Balmuto, the seat of John Boswell, Esq., in whose family 
it has been for more than four centuries, is an ancient 
mansion consisting of a square tower to which repeated 
modern additions have been made ; it is finely situated 
in a demesne richly planted, and the gardens and plea- 



KING 



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sure-grounds are laid out with exquisite taste. Grange- 
hill is also one of the chief mansions in the parish. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of 
Fife. The minister's stipend is £245. 19. 7., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £19 per annum; patron, 
the Earl of Strathmore. The parish church, which is 
near the old harbour, was rebuilt in 1/74 ; it is a very 
plain structure, and contains 700 sittings. A church 
has recently been built on the eastern boundary of the 
parish, bordering upon Abbotshall, to which a quoad 
sacra district was until lately annexed, including por- 
tions of each of the two parishes. There are places of 
worship for members of the Free Church and the United 
Secession. Until 1830 there was no parochial school. 
In that year, Mr. Barclay, the town-clerk, applied to the 
burgh and the heritors to found a school ; and he built 
premises for it, on an acre of waste ground, at his own 
risk. They have since repaid him, by subscriptions and 
donations, above £500 of his expenditure, £800 ; and 
they give the minimum salary to the master, who also 
receives £50 a year from the fund of the late Mr. Pbilp, 
for teaching fifty children, and £10 annually for teach- 
ing a Sunday school. A wide range of instruction 
is provided, in the usual branches, together with French, 
Latin, and Greek ; and an infant school and a drawing 
school are maintained, by subscription, within the build- 
ing. There is also an apartment appropriated to an exten- 
sive geological collection, and a small collection of other 
objects in natural history, and to a library consisting of 
about S00 volumes on historical and scientific subjects. 
In the grounds around the school-house is a shrubbery, 
where are arranged in regular order more than 250 
plants ; and the portion allotted to play-ground contains 
gymnastic apparatus. In the village of Invertiel is 
a good school, where the elementary branches are 
taught, and of which the master has a house, and the 
fees. The late Robert Philp, Esq., of Edenshead, left 
his property for the endowment of schools. One-eighth 
of the fund it produces is apportioned for the instruc- 
tion and clothing of fifty children, now educated at the 
parochial school ; and the residue is given to the chil- 
dren, on leaving school, in such portions as the managers 
of the fund deem proper. The Rev. Henry James, late 
minister of the parish, left £300 to aid in supporting a 
scholar for four years in his philosophical studies at the 
■united college of St. Salvador and St. Leonard, in the 
university of St. Andrew's ; it yields £15 per annum, 
and the appointment is vested in the Kirk Session of 
Kinghorn, the presbytery of Kirkcaldy, and the town- 
council of the burgh. An old chapel called St. Leonard's, 
of exquisite Saxon architecture, in which the courts 
were once held, having been struck by lightning, and 
being likely to fall, was removed by order of the Supreme 
Court, to make way for the present town-hall. Wil- 
liam Kirkaldy, of Grange, who flourished in the reign of 
Mary ; and Patie Birnie, a famous comic character, 
musician, and song- writer, immortalized by Allan Ram- 
say in his poems, were natives of this place. 

KINGLASSIE, a parish, in the district of Kirk- 
caldy, county of Fife; containing 1155 inhabitants, 
of whom 421 are in the village of Kinglassie, 7 miles 
(N. W.) from Kirkcaldy. The name of this place is 
supposed to have been derived from a Gaelic term sig- 
nifying marshy or grey land, from the ancient appear- 



ance of the surface ; and near the village there is still 
some portion of land which retains that character. 
The parish is about five miles in length, and varies from 
one to three miles and a half in breadth, comprising a 
very irregular area of 7260 acres, of which 6250 are 
arable and in good cultivation, 450 woodland and plan- 
tations, and 300 pasture and waste. The surface is 
uneven, rising into several steep ridges, and in some 
places forming gentle acclivities interspersed with hills. 
The river Leven, which issues from the loch of that 
name, washes the northern part of the parish; and the 
river Lochty flows through the village, and receives the 
streamlet called the Saucbie in its immediate vicinity. 
The Orr, which rises in the parish of Ballingry, inter- 
sects the southern portion of this parish, and, together 
with the Lochty, falls into the Leven at a short distance 
from its eastern extremity. The soil is various, con- 
sisting of loam, clay, and gravel, which in parts are 
found in combination ; the greater portion is a stiff clay, 
and in some places are tracts of moss and sand. The 
principal crops are, oats, barley, and wheat, with pota- 
toes, turnips, and the usual green crops : flax, the cul- 
tivation of which was for some years discontinued, is 
also raised in considerable quantities. The system of 
husbandry is very much advanced ; iron ploughs are in 
general use, and the most recent improvements in agri- 
cultural implements have been adopted. Draining has 
been extensively practised ; and much waste land has 
been reclaimed, and brought into cultivation, under the 
auspices of an agricultural association consisting of 
practical farmers and the principal landed proprietors, 
who hold an annual meeting in the village in August. 
Attached to most of the farms are threshing-mills ; three 
are put in motion by water, and one by a steam-engine 
of seven-horse power. Great attention is paid to the rear- 
ing of cattle, which are of the pure Fifeshire breed ; the 
number of calves annually reared is about 300. The 
plantations consist chiefly of larch, ash, spruce, and 
Scotch fir ; and in one, are some fine specimens of oak 
and beech : they are generally well managed. The sub- 
stratum is mostly whinstone ; and limestone, coal, and 
ironstone are found in several places. Coal was formerly 
wrought, but for some years the working of it has been 
discontinued ; limestone has also been worked, and some 
quarries of freestone have been opened, and are at pre- 
sent in operation. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £7457. Inchdairnie is an ancient mansion to 
•which a handsome addition has been made within the 
last thirty years. 

The village is inhabited chiefly by weavers, and per- 
sons employed in the different trades requisite for the 
supply of the parish ; the number of looms is twenty- 
four. There is a public ale and porter brewery, which 
is carried on extensively ; and fairs, chiefly for cattle, 
horses, and shoes, are held on the third Wednesday in 
May, O. S., and the Thursday before Michaelmas-day, 
O. S. Facility of communication with Kirkcaldy and 
the neighbouring towns is afforded by good roads, of 
which one, from Kirkcaldy to Cupar, traverses the eastern 
portion of the parish, giving also means of intercourse 
between Edinburgh and Dundee. The parish is in the 
presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife, and patronage 
of Lord Rothes ; the minister's stipend is £223. 4. 4., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £18 per annum. 
The church, an ancient edifice, was, with the exception 



KING 



KING 



of the eastern gable and part of the side walls, rebuilt 
in ] 773, and within the last twenty years has been re- 
paired, and adapted for a congregation of 346 persons. 
The parochial school affords education to about 100 
pupils : the master has a salary of £34, with £30 fees, 
and a good house and garden ; also six bolls of oats 
annually, the gift of an old proprietor. There is in the 
village a female school, in which knitting and sewing are 
taught on very moderate terms ; and on the southern 
boundary of the parish is a school erected by Mr. Fer- 
guson, of Raith, who gives the master a salary, with a 
house and garden rent-free. A Sabbath school is main- 
tained in the village; and a parochial subscription 
library has been established. The poor possess land 
situated in the parish of Abernethy, in the county of 
Perth, and producing a rental of £100 per annum, but 
subject to a considerable drawback for the payment of 
improvements previously made on the estate. On the 
farm of Dogtown is a pillar of hewn stone, sculptured 
with some allegorical devices, which are much mutilated. 
It is by some supposed to have been erected by the 
Danes, to commemorate the fall of some of their chieftains 
in their hostile irruption into the county in the reign of 
Constantine II., and by others to have been raised by 
the Scots as a memorial of their having defeated and 
repulsed the Danes, who had encamped on the shores 
of the river Leven. The height in this parish called 
Goats Milk Hill is thought to have been one of the chain 
of Danish forts which were thrown up between Fifeness 
and Stirling, and during the occupation of which, a mill 
was built on the bank of the river Leven, which is still 
called Mill-Danes. Some workmen recently employed 
in deepening the bed of that river discovered a Roman 
sword and battle-axe, and several heads of iron spears ; 
and on reopening a well on a farm in the parish, which 
had been closed for several centuries, an antique dagger, 
with a handle of wood inlaid with brass, was found. 

KINGOLDRUM, a parish, in the. county of Forfar, 
4 miles (W. by N.) from Kirriemuir ; containing 440 
inhabitants. The name of this place is compounded of 
three Gaelic words signifying "the head of the burn of 
the drums, or low hills." The lands were bestowed 
upon the abbey of Aberbrothock by a charter of William 
the Lion, which grant was confirmed by Alexander III., 
and afterwards by Robert Bruce ; and Alexander also 
issued a proclamation prohibiting every one from cutting 
wood, destroying game, or hunting, without consent of 
the abbots, in the forest of Kingoldrum. Of this descrip- 
tion of land, however,no traces now remain. The parish, 
which is of very irregular figure, stretches along the base 
of the Grampian mountains, and is situated in the 
district called the Braes of Angus. It is about seven 
miles in length, and between two and three in breadth, 
comprising 12,800 acres, of which nearly 4000 are under 
tillage, 1500 in natural wood and in plantations, and 
the remainder waste, consisting of moor, moss, bog, 
and pasture. The surface is everywhere undulated, and 
marked principally by three ranges of low hills, the 
intervening spates being occupied by considerable tracts 
of level ground. Much of the scenery is interesting ; 
and from the summit of Catlaw, the highest hill, ele- 
vated 2264 feet above the level of the sea, extensive and 
beautiful prospects may be obtained. These embrace 
the German Ocean from Montrose round to the Frith of 
Forth, part of the coast of Fife, the Bell-rock light- 
78 



house, Berwick law, some of the highest mountains in 
the Western Highlands, and, on the north, the loftiest 
eminences of the Grampians. The streams of Prosen, 
Carrity, and Melgum, all abounding in trout, enliven 
the lands in different directions ; and the last, in its 
course through a deep, narrow, and winding channel, 
forms a series of beautiful waterfalls, called the Loups 
of Kenny. The burn of Crombie, after passing the 
village, falls into the Melgum ; and in several places 
are copious springs, some of them supplying abundance 
of excellent water. 

The soil is, to a great extent, alluvial and deep, but in 
some parts very thin. It rests frequently on a subsoil 
intermixed with the debris of the red sandstone rocks ; 
in some places it is sandy, and in others moorish, loamy, 
or clayey. Husbandry has much improved within 
these few years ; the farms are generally cultivated un- 
der the six-shift course ; considerable portions of waste 
land have been reclaimed, and furrow-draining has been 
practised with great advantage. From 1200 to 1500 
sheep are kept, chiefly the black-faced ; and the cattle, 
which are the black Angus, are excellent. The geological 
features of the parish are highly interesting, and afford 
a large field of observation to the scientific enquirer. 
The rocks lie chiefly in parallel ridges, each containing 
a distinct formation, and comprise conglomerate, sand- 
stone, trap, and a dyke of serpentine. A great variety 
of other beds, and boulders of rocks, are to be met with, 
embracing almost every species ; and quarries of sand- 
stone are in operation. Peat-mosses are common; 
and marl, procured from the loch of Kinnordy, partly 
in this parish, has been used by the farmers with great 
benefit. The plantations are principally larch and Scotch 
fir, all in a thriving condition, with the exception of 
some of the larches, which, after a growth of twenty or 
thirty years, rapidly decay. The mansion-house of Bal- 
dovie, pleasantly situated in the midst of fertile lands, 
derives considerable interest from its ornamental wood. 
That of Pearsie, also, from some points breaking suddenly 
on the view, has around it fine clusters of natural birch, 
oak, and alder. The rateable annual value of Kingol- 
drum is £3695. 

The population of the parish, which is almost entirely 
agricultural, has been gradually diminishing during the 
present century, mainly through the abolition of small 
farms and of the croft system. Indeed, about fifty 
cottages, besides several small hamlets, have wholly 
disappeared, the only collection of houses now entitled 
to the appellation of village being in the neighbourhood 
of the church. Peat and wood at present constitute the 
chief fuel ; but Scotch and English coal, obtained from 
the Newtyle, Glammis, and Forfar railway depots, about 
six miles distant, is coming much into use. The public 
road from Kirriemuir to Glenisla and Glenshee passes 
through the parish. The inhabitants dispose of their 
produce partly at Kirriemuir, the nearest market-town, 
and partly at Forfar, Dundee, and some of the places in 
the vicinity : many cattle fattened here are sent to 
London, Edinburgh, and Glasgow. The parish is in 
the presbytery of Meigle and synod of Angus and 
Mearns, and in the patronage of the Crown. The minis- 
ter's stipend is £159, with a manse, and a glebe of four 
acres of excellent land, and twelve of grass land. The 
church is a small neat edifice, erected in 1840, and ac- 
commodating 240 persons with sittings. The living was 



KING 



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originally a parsonage belonging to the abbey of Ar- 
broath ; but, alter the erection of that abbacy into a 
temporal lordship, the payment of the minister devolved 
on the titular of the tithes ; and by the " decreet of pro- 
visions" dated in the year 1635, a considerable part of 
the stipend was charged upon abbey lands in the neigh- 
bourhood of Arbroath, from which it continues to be 
payable. The parochial school affords instruction in 
the usual branches ; the master has a salary of £2S, 
including the value of six and a half bolls of oats, and 
receives £16 fees. There is a circulating library of re- 
ligious books. Upon the top of the Catlaw hill is a large 
cairn of stones ; but the chief relic of antiquity in the 
parish is the ruin of the castle of Balfour, built by 
Cardinal Beaton, and which has long been dismantled. 
On taking down the old church, among numerous stones 
with curious devices, two were found wrought into the 
building, marked with finely-carved crosses and hiero- 
glyphics. 

KINGOODIE, a village, in the parish of Long- 
forgan, county of Perth, 1^ mile (E. by S.) from 
Longforgan ; containing 263 inhabitants. This village, 
which is on the banks of the river Tay, is chiefly inhabited 
by persons employed in the extensive quarries of free- 
stone situated here, and which have been in operation 
for five or six centuries. The stone of these quarries is 
of a blueish colour, and exceedingly compact and du- 
rable, though consequently difficult to work ; it is 
susceptible of a very high polish. The tower of Dundee, 
which was built towards the close of the twelfth century, 
and at present exhibits no symptoms of decay, and 
Castle-Huntly, built in the fifteenth century, were both 
erected with stone from these quarries. Considerable 
quantities of it are raised for various buildings in the 
vicinity, and for exportation to Aberdeen, Perth, and 
Dundee, where it has been used in the construction of 
docks, piers, and other works. The rock in some parts 
is more than seventy feet in depth ; and immensely 
large blocks are obtained entire, some of which are more 
than, ten tons in weight. The lessees of the quarries 
have constructed a small harbour here for the boats 
employed, of which there are two of thirty and one of 
fifty tons' burthen, the former confined chiefly to the 
navigation of the river, and the latter occupied in the 
conveyance of the stone to more distant ports. At this 
small port, lime and coal are landed from Sunderland, 
for the supply of the neighbourhood ; and grain and 
potatoes are shipped for the London market. Facility 
of intercourse is maintained with the other parts of the 
parish by good roads, kept in repair by statute labour ; 
and from the high road by the coast to Aberdeen, a line 
branches off at Longforgan to the quarries of this place. 

KINGSBARNS, a parish, in the district of St. An- 
drew's, county of Fife ; containing 96S inhabitants, of 
whom 529 are in the village, 3 miks (N. N. W.) from 
Crail, and 6 (S. E. by E.) from St. Andrew's. This place 
derived its name from its having been appropriated as 
a granary by the kings of Scotland, to whom it belonged, 
as part of their private estate, during their residence at 
Falkland ; and near the village are vestiges of an ancient 
building, said to have been a castle, though in all pro- 
bability its strength and fortifications were intended 
only for the protection and security of the grain depo- 
sited there for the use of the royal household. The 
remains of this building, situated on the beach, and 
79 



consisting only of the foundations, were removed by the 
tenant a few years since, and from their small extent, 
showed no indications of the edifice having ever been 
occupied either as a royal or baronial residence. The 
parish is situated on the coast, between the friths of 
Forth and Tay, and is bounded on the east by the Ger- 
man Ocean ; it is nearly equal in length and breadth, 
and comprises about 3S60 acres, of which 3650 arc 
arable, 199 woodland and plantations, and the remain- 
der rocky land along the shore. The surface, though 
sloping gradually from the sea, is tolerably even, at- 
taining no considerable degree of elevation ; the shore 
is low, and interspersed with rocks, which form some- 
what of a barrier against the encroachment of the waves, 
which make considerable inroads. The soil, in the 
lower portion of the parish, towards the sea, is rather 
light and sandy, and farther inland a deep black loam, 
in some parts inclining to clay ; both, under proper 
management, are rendered fertile and productive. The 
rotation system of husbandry is prevalent ; the crops 
are, barley, oats, wheat, and potatoes, with beans and 
the usual green crops. The prevailing breed of cattle is 
the Fifeshire ; the Teeswater breed was introduced by 
the late Earl of Kellie, but it has not been found so well 
adapted to the land, or so profitable to the farmer. 
About 1 50 head of cattle are on the average annually 
fattened for the market ; sheep are kept only for home 
use. The woods are chiefly forest trees ; but the plan- 
tations, mostly around the houses of the resident gentry, 
consist only of shrubberies and evergreens. The farm 
houses and offices are substantially built, and conve- 
niently arranged ; and considerable improvements have 
been made in draining and fencing the lands. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £7S49. 

The substratum is generally limestone and freestone, 
interspersed in parts with boulders of granite. Coal 
appears to have been worked formerly in some places ; 
and at present, where it occasionally crops up, it is 
quarried by some of the poor; but from the quantity of 
water to be drained off, it would require a considerable 
effort and an extensive capital to render the coal-beds 
available to the supply of the parish. Lime is burnt on 
the lands of Cambo, for the use of the tenants ; but no 
regular quarries have been opened, though both the 
quantity and quality of the limestone would amply 
remunerate the expense of working it on a more exten- 
sive scale. Ironstone is found near the shore, and a 
few persons are employed in procuring it by digging ; 
what is thus obtained is usually shipped to Newcastle, 
and exchanged for coal. The gentlemen's seats are 
Cambo and Pitmilly, both ancient mansions of hand- 
some appearance. The village has been greatly improved 
within the last few years ; the streets have been levelled, 
and many of the old houses have been taken down, and 
replaced by others of larger dimensions, with neat 
flower-gardens in the front. The appearance is lively 
and cheerful; and the village has become a pleasant, 
place of residence. Many of the inhabitants are en- 
gaged in weaving with hand-looms at their own dwellings ; 
the general articles manufactured are, linens for domestic 
use, dowlas, and Osnaburgs. About twenty looms are 
constantly employed, and on an average 50,000 yards 
of these fabrics are produced annually. A subscription 
library has been for some time established in the village ; 
a savings' bank has also been opened. There are fairs 



KING 



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in July and October, but little business is transacted 
except the sale of pedlery. The parish is in the presby- 
tery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife, and patronage of 
the Earl of Glasgow ; the minister's stipend is £251. 18., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum. 
The church is a neat structure in the later English style, 
thoroughly repaired in 1811. The parochial school 
affords a liberal course of instruction ; the master has a 
salary of £34, with £30 fees, and a dwelling-house and 
garden. There is also a Sabbath evening school. In 
levelling the coast, several stone coffins containing hu- 
man bones were found ; and in one instance, some of 
the bones had the appearance of having been burnt. 

KINGSTON, lately a quoad sacra parish, consisting 
of part of the parish of Go van, in the Upper ward of the 
county of Renfrew, but chiefly of part of the parish of 
Gorbals, in the suburbs of the city of Glasgow, county 
of Lanark ; the whole containing 2882 inhabitants. 
This place, which is situated on the south bank of the 
river Clyde, and to the west of Tradeston, to which it 
forms an appendage, consists of several well-formed 
streets ; the houses are handsomely built, generally 
three or four stories in height, and attached to them are 
spacious courts and garden-grounds. The town is plea- 
santly situated, commanding a fine view of the Clyde, 
and of the port of Broomielaw, on the opposite bank of 
the river. The population are chiefly employed in the 
various manufactures connected with the city of Glas- 
gow and vicinity ; and there are several shops for the 
supply of the inhabitants with various articles of mer- 
chandise. The Glasgow and Paisley canal, and the 
Glasgow, Greenock, and Ayr railway skirt the parish on 
the north for nearly a mile. The late quoad sacra 
parish was separated in 1839, by act of the General 
Assembly. The church was erected at an expense of 
£3000, raised by subscription, chiefly by the friends of 
the Rev. James Gibson, the minister, as a public testi- 
mony of their esteem ; it is a handsome structure in 
the later English style, with a light and well-propor- 
tioned spire 120 feet in height, and contains more than 
1000 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a 
place of worship. 

KINGSTON- PORT, a village, in the parish of Spey- 
mouth, county of Elgin, 4| miles (N. by W.) from 
Fochabers ; containing 396 inhabitants. This village is 
seated at the mouth of the Spey, and, with the excep- 
tion of a few houses, has been built within the last 
forty years. The original dwellings were mostly of 
wood, and were erected for the accommodation of the 
workmen of Messrs. Dodsworth and Osbourne, timber- 
merchants and ship-builders, by whom the place was 
named Kingston-Port, after Kingston-upon-HulI, in the 
county of York. These gentlemen, having purchased 
the forest of Glenmore from the Duke of Gordon, about 
the year 1*84, commenced building numerous vessels 
here, several of them of the burthen of 500, 600, and 
700 tons ; and various other builders, following their 
example, have since launched as many as 150 vessels 
at this place, of from thirty to 200 tons each. The 
trade in timber has latterly very much declined, the 
forest having been exhausted about thirty years ago ; 
but the commerce of the port is still considerable. In 
a recent year 200 vessels sailed hence, of which one- 
fourth were loaded with grain, chiefly wheat and oats, 
for the southern parts of Scotland and for England ; 
80 



and in the same year were imported forty cargoes of 
Scotch coal, and twenty of English coal from Sunder- 
land. The harbour suffered very severely from the 
memorable flood on the 4th of August, 1829 ; and 
as the channel is shifted by the occasional heavy action 
of the sea, and the gravelly nature of the soil renders it 
impracticable to obtain a secure foundation for a pier, 
the improvement of the port is difficult. The village of 
Garmouth closely adjoins Kingston. 

KINGUSSIE, a parish, in the Mainland district of 
the county of Inverness, ^ a mile (E. by N.) from. 
Pitmain ; containing, with part of the late quoad sacra 
parish of Insh, the villages of Kingussie and Newton- 
more, and the hamlet of Ralia, 2047 inhabitants, of 
whom 460 are in the village of Kingussie. This place, 
which is of remote antiquity, derives its name, in the 
Celtic language Ceannghiubhsaiche, from the situation of 
its ancient church at the head of a wood of firs, of 
which that term is significant. The whole of the lord- 
ship of Badenoch, in the centre of which this parish 
lies, originally belonged to the Cumyns, earls of Bade- 
noch and Buchan, of whom John, the first lord of 
Badenoch, laid claim to the throne of Scotland on the 
death of Alexander III. in 1285. As superior baron 
of the kingdom, he was summoned by Edward I. of 
England to attend him in his wars in Gascony. Upon 
his death, he was succeeded by his son, John, who, 
after a continued struggle to maintain the independence 
of his country, in which he obtained a victory over the 
English at Roslin, was compelled, subsequently to the 
battle of Stirling, to yield to the superior power of 
Edward. At the succession of Bruce to the crown of 
Scotland in 1306, the lord of Badenoch became a victim 
to the resentment of that king ; and the lordship was 
included among the lands which Bruce erected into the 
earldom of Moray in 1314, and bestowed upon his 
nephew, Randolph. The earldom continued in the pos- 
session of that family till the year 1371, about which 
time it became the property of the Stuarts, of whom 
Robert, the first Stuart who ascended the throne of 
Scotland, conferred it on his son, Alexander, in whose 
favour he revived the title of lord of Badenoch. Alex- 
ander, who, from the ferocity of his character, was 
styled the Wolf of Badenoch, resided chiefly in the 
castle of Ruthven, in this parish, the ancient seat of the 
Cumyns, a strong fortress situated on the banks of the 
river Spey. Here, in perfect security, and presuming 
upon his connexion with the crown, he exercised despotic 
tyranny over his vassals, and spread terror and dismay 
throughout the adjacent districts. Upon his death, 
about the year 1394, the lordship descended to his son, 
who was the last of the family of the Stuarts connected 
with the earldom of Moray, which subsequently passed 
to the first earl of Huntly, upon whom the lordship of 
Badenoch was conferred by James II., in reward of his 
services at the battle of Brechin in 1452. The site of 
the castle of Ruthven, the seat of the lords of Badenoch, 
was occupied by barracks erected soon after the rebel- 
lion in 1715, to keep the inhabitants in check; and in 
1745, the garrison stationed here, with the exception of 
a serjeant and twelve privates who were left for the 
protection of the buildings, accompanied Sir John Cope 
on his march to the battle of Prestonpans. During 
their absence the barracks were defended by this small 
party against a body of 200 insurgents; and in the 



KING 



KING 



following year, they sustained a violent assault for three 
days from 300 of the rebels, under Gordon, of Glen- 
bucket, to whom the force surrendered on terms of 
honourable capitulation. The barracks were soon after- 
wards burnt by the insurgents, and are now a heap of 
ruins. 

The parish, which is bounded on the south by the 
Grampian hills, is about twenty-one miles in length, 
from east to west, and nearly eighteen miles in breadth ; 
but, from the extreme irregularity of its form, and the 
great inequality of the surface, it has been found im- 
possible to ascertain its superficial extent with any 
degree of accuracy. The surface is strikingly varied, 
and even the lowest grounds have an elevation of 850 
feet above the level of the sea. In the northern portion, 
the mountains of Monadhliadh stretch for a considerable 
distance along the boundary ; and from their base the 
lands gradually subside into an extensive vale, beyond 
which they as gradually ascend towards the Grampians 
on the south. The principal river is the Spey, which 
has its source in a small lake of that name in the parish 
of Laggan, and, winding in an easterly course through 
the open and fertile valley previously noticed, for more 
than seven miles, flows into Loch Insh at the eastern 
extremity of the parish, whence, taking a more northerly 
direction, it falls into the Moray Frith at Garmouth. 
The river Truim, which forms part of the western boun- 
dary of the parish, has its source in the forest of 
Drumuachter, near the Grampians, and, flowing north- 
ward through the parish, joins the Spey not far from 
Laggan. The Tromie, which separates this parish from 
that of Insh, on the east, rises to the south of the parish, 
and, running northward through the glen to which it 
gives name, falls into the Spey near Old Milton. The 
Calder, which has its source in the mountains to the 
north, and the Gynag, which issues from a small lake 
of that name, both take a southern course, and flow 
into the Spey. There are also numerous lakes ; but 
few exceed a mile and a half in length and three-quarters 
of a mile in width. In Loch Gynag is a small island, 
on which may still be traced the vestiges of what is 
supposed to have been a castle : nothing, however, of 
its history is recorded. About six miles of Loch 
Ericht are likewise within the boundaries of the parish ; 
but the shores are altogether destitute of beauty or 
variety, with the exception of a small portion near the 
southern extremity of the parish, where the banks are 
rather steep, and in some parts fringed with trees. 
Salmon, and char for some weeks in October, are found 
in the Spey ; and trout and pike in the smaller rivers 
and lakes. The forest of Gaick, though almost destitute 
of wood, abounds with numerous herds of deer, and is 
much frequented by sportsmen. 

The soil in the meadows, and along the banks of the 
Spey and its tributaries, is deep and fertile. The valley 
through which the Spey flows is especially rich, and in 
good cultivation, constituting almost the only arable 
land in the parish, the hills and uplands being generally 
heathy, adapted only for pasture, and portioned out in 
sheep-walks. The chief crops are oats and barley, with 
other kinds of grain ; but not more grain is raised than 
is sufficient for the supply of the parish. The system 
of husbandry is improved, and a due rotation of crops 
is regularly observed; considerable portions of waste 
land have been reclaimed by draining and embanking, 
and the farm-buildings of the larger holders are sub- 
Vol. II.— 81 



stantial and commodious. The sheep reared are of the 
black-faced breed, with a few of the Cheviot on the 
lower lands ; the cattle, with the exception of some of 
the Ayrshire on the dairy-farms, are all of the common 
Highland breed, to the improvement of which the 
greatest attention is paid. Though formerly the face of 
the country was covered with wood, and a very exten- 
sive forest of fir reached almost to the village, there 
are but small remains of ancient timber. The planta- 
tions, which are chiefly of recent growth, consist of fir 
and larch, interspersed with mountain-ash and oak, for 
which the soil is well adapted ; and alder, hazel, and 
birch appear to be indigenous, especially the last, with 
which the rising grounds on the south bank of the 
Spey are extensively covered. The prevailing rocks 
throughout the parish are, quartz, felspar, and mica- 
slate : there are neither mines nor quarries in operation. 
Specimens of silver and lead ore have been found in the 
river Gynag, but in very small quantity ; and some 
years since, silver-ore was discovered at no great dis- 
tance from the village, the working of which has, how- 
ever, long been discontinued. The rateable annual value 
of the parish is £4626. Belleville House, pleasantly 
situated to the east of the village, near Loch Insh, and 
formerly the residence of Macpherson, translator of the 
poems of Ossian, is in the parish of Alvie. 

The village of Kingussie is on the north bank of the 
river Spey ; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the 
handicraft trades requisite for the supply of the neigh- 
bourhood, and there are several shops amply stored 
with various kinds of merchandise. A public library 
is supported by subscription, and has a collection of 
about 300 volumes on history and general literature. 
The post-office has a delivery each day in the week, both 
from the north and south parts of the kingdom; and 
facility of communication is maintained by good roads, 
of which the great Highland road from Perth to Inver- 
ness passes for sixteen miles through the parish ; and 
by bridges over the various rivers, kept in excellent 
repair. Fairs, chiefly for cattle and for hiring servants, 
are held in the village, on the last Tuesday in May, the 
Friday in the week after the Falkirk tryst in September, 
and the Friday before the Falkirk tryst in October ; 
and markets for cattle and for general business are held 
monthly, on Tuesday, from April to November. A 
building was erected in the village in 1806, which con- 
tains a neat court-room for the meetings of the magis- 
trates for the district, and a small prison for the tem- 
porary confinement of offenders till their commitment 
to the county gaol. The ecclesiastical affairs are 
under the superintendence of the presbytery of Aber- 
nethy and synod of Moray. The minister's stipend is 
£269- 18., with an allowance of £50 in lieu of a manse ; 
and the glebe, which has been greatly improved by the 
present incumbent, is valued at £50 per annum : patron, 
the Duke of Richmond. The church, which is situated 
on a wooded eminence in the village, was built in 179*2, 
and contains 900 sittings : being in a state of dilapi- 
dation, it was very fully repaired a few years ago. 
The members of the Free Church have a place of wor- 
ship. The parochial school is well attended ; the master 
has a salary of £34, with a good house, and an allow- 
ance in lieu of garden, and the fees average about £20. 
There are some slight remains of Druidical circles, 
and vestiges of a Roman camp : in clearing the ground 
near the latter, a Roman urn containing burnt ashes, 

M 



KI NL 



K I N L 



and a tripod, were found a few years since, and both 
are careful!)' preserved. There are also vestiges of an 
ancient building said to have been a priory, and a 
monastery once existed in the parish : but little of the 
history of either is known. 

KINKELL, county of Aberdeen. — See Keith- 
hall. 

KINLOCH, a village, in the parish of Coll-essie, 
district of Cupar, county of Fife, 5 miles (W.) from 
Cupar; containing 58 inhabitants. It is situated a 
little to the south of the road from Cupar to Auchter- 
muchty, and a short distance from the village of Col- 
lessie. Not many years since, it was the largest village 
in the parish, having nearly four times its present 
amount of population ; a number of families, however, 
■who resided here, have removed to Monkton. The 
houses form a line, with an interval of twelve feet be- 
tween every four. The lands around the village have 
latterly been much improved by draining. 

KINLOCH, county of Perth. — See Lethendy. 

KINLOCH-LUICHART, a large quoad sacra parish, 
in the county of Ross and Cromarty; consisting of 
parts of the parishes of Contin, Fodderty, and Urray ; 
and containing 6S1 inhabitants. This district, which was 
disjoined for ecclesiastical purposes from the above- 
mentioned parishes in 1S33, b)' authority of the General 
Assembly, is wholly rural ; its greatest length is twenty- 
two, and greatest breadth seventeen miles. The popu- 
lation is all of the poor and working classes, and is 
thinly dispersed over this large extent, the land being 
chiefly let out as sheep-walks to tenants who do not 
themselves reside in the district. The ecclesiastical 
affairs are under the controul of the presbytery of Ding- 
wall and synod of Ross, and the patronage is vested in 
the Crown : the stipend of the minister is £120, en- 
tirely paid from the exchequer ; and he has a manse, 
and a glebe of the annual value of £3. The church 
was built in 1825-6, under the act for building addi- 
tional churches in the Highlands; it contains 310 
sittings, all of which are free. There is as yet no paro- 
chial school ; but a school in which English and Gaelic 
are taught is supported by the Free Church ; and there 
is a catechist, who was once allowed £8 per annum from 
the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. 

KINLOCHSPELVE, lately a quoad sacra district, 
in the parish of Torosay, district of Mull, county of 
Argyll ; containing 453 inhabitants. This district is 
in the eastern part of the island of Mull, and comprises 
between thirty and forty thousand acres, of which not 
more than the one-fortieth part is under tillage ; be- 
tween forty and fifty acres are under plantation ; a con- 
siderable extent is natural wood, and the rest mostly 
sheep-walks. Two arms of the sea, called Loch Buy 
and Loch Spelve, may be said to divide the district 
ito two nearly equal parts, and, with very moderate 
exceptions, the whole surface of the land is moun- 
tainous. In the northern division the mountains attain 
an elevation of about two thousand feet, and in the 
southern part they are twelve hundred feet in height : 
the prevailing rocks are trap and mica-slate, but there 
is also sandstone. During the spring months, cod and 
salmon, particularly the former, are taken in consider- 
able quantity ; and Loch Buy abounds in fish of various 
kinds : the produce of the season is partly forwarded 
to Glasgow, and much of it to Oban. The sheep and 
black-cattle reared here are sent to the great markets 
82 



of the south, principally the Dumbarton and Falkirk 
trysts. The mansion of Lochbuy, the residence of the 
Maclaine family, is a splendid structure at the head of 
the loch, with two wings, and a handsome porch ; the 
central portion has three stories. It stands in a level 
plain of several hundred acres, from which the moun- 
tains rise to an immense height all around, except in 
front, where the sea approaches. The ecclesiastical 
affairs are under the presbytery of Mull and synod of 
Argyll, and the patronage is vested in the Crown : the 
stipend of the minister is £120, with a manse and 
glebe. The church is a neat plain building, beautifully 
situated at the end of the romantic fresh-water lake 
named Loch Uisge, and in a narrow vale with an aspeet 
to the south ; it was erected in 1S28, and is seated for 
360 persons. There is a parochial school, of which the 
master has a salary of £15., with about £8 fees. 

KINLOSS, a parish, in the county of Elgin ; con- 
taining, with the village of Findhorn, 1202 inhabitants, 
of whom 24 are in the hamlet of Kinloss, 2 miles 
(N. E.) from Forres. This place derives its name from 
the Celtic words Ceann-Loch, signifying " the head of the 
bay," and descriptive of its situation on the border of 
Burgh-Head bay, in the Moray Frith, by which it is 
washed on the north. A magnificent abbey was founded 
here by David I., in the year 1150, and its establishment 
confirmed in 1174 by a papal bull; the abbots were 
mitred, and sat in parliament. It was richly endowed, 
and became the scene of many splendid banquets. King 
Edward I., also, resided here for the space of six weeks 
in the year 1303, and a part of his army remained for a 
still longer period. At the Reformation, Edward Bruce, 
of Clackmannan, was commendator ; he was created 
Baron Kinloss in 1601, and his son, Thomas, became 
Earl of Elgin and Baron Bruce, of Kinloss, in 1633. 
By the latter, the lands and feu-duties were sold to 
Brodie, of Lethen. The parish was disjoined from 
Alves, Rafford, and Forres, and erected into a separate 
parish in 1657; it is nearly four miles long, and of 
about the same breadth, and comprises 5065 acres, of 
which 2S50 are cultivated, 1765 undivided common, 
250 under plantations, and the remainder waste. The 
coast extends for about four miles eastward, and is low, 
except in parts where sand-banks have been formed by 
repeated drifts. On the west is Findhorn loch, a capa- 
cious and secure natural harbour, formed by the expan- 
sion of the river of the same name, and communicating, 
by a narrow strait, with the Frith ; at the mouth is the 
bar, a sandy ridge which shifts with heavy floods and 
strong easterly winds, but the nature and soundings of 
which are so well known to the pilots that an accident 
is of very rare occurrence. 

The site of the parish is generally low, being not more 
than ten or twelve feet above the sea at high water; 
but near the southern boundary the surface rises consi- 
derably, and affords an extensive view, embracing the 
plantations of Grangehall, the ruins of the ancient abbey, 
with the church and several fertile and well-cultivated 
tracts, interspersed with farm-houses, and in the dis- 
tance, on the north, the town of Findhorn, with its 
shipping. The sea is supposed to have made great 
encroachments on this coast, the bar at the entrance of 
the harbour being partly formed of land once in tillage, 
and the present town being the third of the same name, 
owing to inundations. The burn of Kinloss, which, 
flowing from east to west, falls into the bay of Findhorn 



K I" N N 



KIMN 



a little below the church, divides the parish into two 
nearly equal parts. The soil exhibits several varieties ; 
but they are all sandy, clayey, or gravelly modifications 
of the rich loamy earth which generally prevails : the 
proportion of moss is inconsiderable. The ordinary 
subsoil of the whole is sand or gravel. All kinds of 
white and green crops are raised, of good quality, 
amounting in annual value to nearly £12,000 ; and the 
produce of dairy-cows, fat-cattle, sheep, swine, and 
horses is also considerable. The six-shift course of 
husbandry, with every improved usage, is followed ; 
and much attention is paid to the breed of the various 
kinds of stock. Among the most conspicuous advances 
are, the reclaiming of large tracts of waste ground ; 
draining and inclosing ; and the erection of neat and 
commodious farm houses and offices. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £3925. The mansion of 
Grangehall is a spacious and handsome modern resi- 
dence, of quadrangular form, and ornamented with thriv- 
ing plantations of Scotch fir, larch, birch, and oak. That 
of Seapark, also a modern building, has been of late 
greatly improved, and the grounds beautified with many 
young trees. 

A considerable part of the population are engaged in 
fisheries, and reside at Findhorn, in the northern por- 
tion of the parish. There is a daily post ; and a turn- 
pike-road runs between Findhorn and Forres, which 
has, at the bridge of Kinloss, a branch eastward to 
Burgh-Head and Elgin. Grain, sheep, cattle, and swine 
are sent for sale to Aberdeen, Glasgow, and London, 
and salmon also to the last place ; herrings are exported 
to Ireland, the continent, and the West Indies. Fairs 
are held for sheep, cattle, and horses, at Findhorn, on 
the second Wednesday, O. S., in March, July, and 
October. The parish is in the presbytery of Forres 
and synod of Moray, and in the patronage of the Earl 
of Moray, and Mr. Brodie, of Lethen, alternately : the 
minister's stipend is £240, with a manse, and a glebe 
of between four and five acres, valued at £5 per annum. 
The church was built in 1765, and thoroughly repaired 
in 1830. The members of the Free Church have a place 
of worship. The parochial school affords instruction in 
the usual branches ; the master has a salary of £34, 
with a house, and £10 fees ; also an allowance from 
the Dick bequest. The parish contains a flourishing 
friendly society ; and a savings' bank, in connexion 
with that in Forres, has been lately established. The 
chief relic of antiquity is the ruin of the abbey, which, 
till it became dilapidated, was used as the parish church. 
In the year 1652, the walls were broken down, and the 
stones sold to Cromwell's soldiers, for the erection of 
the citadel of Inverness. Since that period, depreda- 
tions have been made upon the materials, at different 
times; and all that now remains of this once imposing 
structure is the east gable, for the preservation of which 
a buttress of mason- work has been raised by the libe- 
rality of a resident gentleman. — See the article upon 
Findhorn. 

KINNAIRD, a parish, in the county of Perth ; 
containing, with the hamlets of Craigdallie, Flawcraig, 
Nethermains, and Pitmiddie, 458 inhabitants, of whom 
90 are in the hamlet of Kinnaird, 4 miles (N. by W.) 
from Errol. The name is derived from a compound 
word of Celtic origin, signifying " high end or head," 
and is descriptive, either of the elevated site of the 
S3 



village, or of the high ground at the end of the estate of 
Kinnaird, on which stands an ancient castle. Very 
little is known concerning the early history of the place ; 
but it is recorded that it belonged originally to the noble 
family of Kinnaird, whose present seat is Rossie, in the 
neighbouring parish of Inchture. In the reign of King 
William, in 11/0, Randolph Rufus obtained from that 
prince the lands of Kinnaird, from which he took his 
surname, and which continued in his family till the 
time of Charles I. 'The parish is nearly three miles 
long and two broad, and contains above 3000 acres. 
It is situated half way beyond Perth and Dundee, and 
has a fine south-eastern exposure, looking down on the 
Carse of Gowrie, part of which is contained within its 
bounds. It has the parish of Collace on the north- 
west, Errol and Inchture on the south-east, Abernyte 
on the north-east, and Kilspindie on the south-west. 
Some of the higher grounds command extensive views, 
especially of the Highland mountains. 

The land which lies in the Carse, though small in 
extent, is the richest part of the parish, the soil, con- 
sisting of a fertile black clayey earth. On the south 
side of the braes skirting the Carse, the land, though 
good, is inferior to the former, and chiefly a stringent 
binding earth ; on the north side the soil is light and 
shallow, and covered for the most part with bent and 
heath, intermixed occasionally with natural pasture. 
About 1550 acres are under tillage, and 1500 are uncul- 
tivated, consisting principally of moor ground, pastured 
with Highland sheep in the winter, and at other times 
with oxen. Green crops are cultivated ; but grain is 
the chief produce of the arable land, most of which is 
capable of yielding wheat, in general of very good 
quality. Live stock are but little attended to. The 
husbandry is excellent ; and improvements, commenced 
here at an early period, have been ever since gradually 
advancing. The parish is entirely agricultural. Its 
rateable annual value amounts to £3195. The chief 
communication of the people is with Perth and Dundee, 
the great road between which places passes within half 
a mile ; and there is a port on the Tay, about four 
miles off, from which much grain is shipped, and at 
which coal and lime are imported. The higher and 
lower parts of the parish have been connected by a new 
road, which forms a kind of thoroughfare between 
Strathmore and the Carse of Gowrie. The ecclesiastical 
affairs are directed by the presbytery of Dundee and 
synod of Angus and Mearns ; patron, the Crown. The 
stipend of the minister is £184, with a commodious 
and substantial manse, recently built, and a good glebe 
consisting of ten acres. The church is large, built only 
a few years ago, and fitted up in a comfortable manner. 
There is a parochial school, the master of which has the 
maximum salary, with about £24 fees. The only relic 
of antiquity is the ruin of the ancient castle, erected in 
feudal times, with massive walls, and strong stone arches 
under the respective floors, and evidently intended as a- 
place of defence as well as residence. 

KINNAIRD, avillage,inthe parish of Moulin, county 
of Perth, 1 mile (E. N. E.) from the village of Moulin ; 
containing 70 inhabitants. This small village, which is 
beautifully situated on the banks of a tributary to the 
river Garry, has a pleasingly rural aspect, and is inha- 
bited chiefly by persons engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits. The surrounding scenery is richly diversified, 

M 2 



K INN 



K I N N 



and abounds with features of interest ; and from the 
hills in the immediate vicinity is obtained a fine view of 
the valley of Glenbrierachan. 

KINNAIRD, a village, in the parish of Larbert, 
county of Stirling, 3§ miles (N. by W.) from Falkirk ; 
containing"304 inhabitants. This village, which is situ- 
ated in the south of the parish, has arisen on the lands 
of Sir Michael Bruce, Bart., whose seat is in the vicinity, 
from the quantity of coal underneath that estate ; and 
is chiefly inhabited by persons engaged in the collieries, 
and in the works of the Carron Iron Company. The 
making of nails affords employment to a few of the in- 
habitants ; and many of the females are engaged in 
tambouring muslin for the Glasgow manufacturers, at 
their own dwellings. 

KINNEFF, a parish, in the county of Kincardine, 
2 miles (N. E. by N.) from Bervie ; containing, with the 
village of Catterline, 1029 inhabitants. This place is 
supposed to have derived its name from its castle, 
founded, according to tradition, by Kenneth, one of the 
kings of Scotland, and of which there are still some 
vestiges near the church. In 1341, King David Bruce, 
returning from France with his queen and retinue, in 
order to avoid the English fleet, by which he was closely 
pursued, effected a landing on the shore of this parish. 
In gratitude for his escape, he afterwards built a chapel 
on the spot, of which, till within the last thirty years, 
there were considerable remains; and in commemo- 
ration of the event, the cliff under which he landed is 
still called Craig-David. During the siege of Dunnottar 
Castle by the forces of Cromwell, the regalia, which had 
been for security deposited in that fortress, were, on the 
prospect of its inability to hold out much longer against 
its assailants, dexterously removed from it by Mrs. 
Grainger, wife of the minister of this parish, and con- 
cealed under the pulpit of the church here till the Res- 
toration. The parish, to which that of Catterline, 
which had previously formed a part of it, was reannexed 
in 1709, is of nearly triangular form, and extends for 
more than five miles along the coast of the German 
Ocean. It comprises an area of 6408 acres ; 4798 are 
arable, about fifty woods and plantations, and the re- 
mainder meadow, pasture, and waste. The surface is 
intersected by several ridges of elevated ground, and 
diversified with hills, of which the hill of Bruxie, towards 
the north-western boundary, has an elevation of 650 
feet above the level of the sea. The coast is precipitously 
rocky along its whole extent, presenting a rampart of 
cliffs rising abruptly to the height of 180 feet, and in 
some parts indented with small bays, the shores of 
which arc covered with verdure almost to the margin of 
the sea, the whole forming a bold line of beautifully 
romantic scenery. 

The soil near the coast is a rich deep loam, cele- 
brated for its abundant produce of grain ; in the interior 
it is of inferior quality, and in some parts, but for the 
improvement it has received from persevering efforts, it 
would be absolutely sterile. The crops are, wheat, oats, 
barley, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture 
is in an advanced state; the lands have been partially 
drained, and inclosed chiefly with fences of stone ; the 
farm-houses are substantially built and well arranged. 
Considerable portions of waste have been brought 
into profitable cultivation. The moorlands afford good 
pasture for cattle, which are chiefly of the polled Angus 



breed; and. on many of the farms much attention is 
paid to their improvement. There are some quarries of 
freestone, from which is raised stone of good quality, 
in quantities sufficient for the buildings within the 
parish ; and along the coast, the rocks furnish excellent 
material for millstones. The rateable annual value of 
the parish is £6122. Fawside is a handsome modern cot- 
tage, pleasantly situated ; there are also several ancient, 
mansions, formerly the residences of proprietors, but 
now occupied as farm-houses. The village of Catterline 
is situated on the coast, and chiefly inhabited by fisher- 
men, who employ two boats ; the smaller village of 
Shieldhill employs only one boat. The fish taken here 
are, cod, ling, skate, haddock, and various kinds of shell- 
fish. A small harbour has been constructed at Catter- 
line, which see. There are also some salmon-fisheries in 
the parish, of which, however, the aggregate rents do not 
exceed £15 per annum ; and several of the inhabitants 
are employed in hand-loom weaving for the linen manu- 
facturers in the neighbourhood. Facility of communi- 
cation is afforded by good roads : the coast road from 
Edinburgh to Aberdeen, and the great Strathmore road, 
pass through the parish. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Fordoun and synod of 
Angus and Mearns. The minister's stipend is £232. 3. 6., 
with a manse ; and the glebes of Catterline and Kinneff 
are valued together at £2S per annum : patron, the 
Crown. The church, situated on the sea-shore, was 
built in 1738, and repaired in 1831 ; it is a neat struc- 
ture containing 424 sittings. There are some remains of 
the ancient church in which the regalia were preserved 
during the interregnum. The members of the Free 
Church have a place of worship ; and there is a tempo- 
rary place of worship at Catterline for Episcopalians. 
The parochial school is well attended ; the master has 
a salary of £34, with a good house and garden, and the 
fees average £25 per annum. A parochial library was 
established in 1S3S, under the direction of the Kirk 
Session. In 1841, Sir Joseph Straton bequeathed £100 
for promoting education, and £100 for encouraging 
industry among the poor. There are remains of a 
house called the Temple ; and at the base of St. John's 
Hill is a farm named the Chapel of Barras, from which 
is inferred the probability of there having been an esta- 
blishment of the Knights Templars here. Of the castle 
of Kinneff, little more than the foundations are left. On 
the summit of a peninsular rock, not far from it, are 
the remains of an ancient work called the Castle of 
Cadden ; on another rock are the remains of some 
buildings styled the Castle of Whistleberry ; and at a 
small distance are other remains, designated Adam's 
Castle. In digging a grave for Lady Ogilvie, of Barras, 
in the church, an earthen pot was found, containing a 
great number of small coins of silver, bearing inscrip- 
tions of Edward of England and Alexander of Scotland, 
and supposed to have been buried during the possession 
of the castle of Kinneff by an English garrison. Within 
a tumulus on St. John's Hill, which was opened about 
thirty years since, was found a tomb of flat stones, con- 
taining rich black earth, with a mixture of half-burnt 
bones and charcoal, but no sepulchral urn. In 1831, 
near the site of the castle, was found, by some workmen 
employed by the late Rev. A. Stewart, a vase containing 
a number of brass rings of various dimensions, two of 



K I N N 



KINN 



which were entire, and a spear head of bronze; the vase 
was filled with strongly compacted black earth, in 
which the rings were imbedded. Dr. John Arbuthnott, 
the intimate friend of Pope and Swift, and physician to 
Queen Anne, lived for some time in this parish, at Kin- 
gorny, the property of his father, who, on being deprived 
of the living of Arbuthnott, of which he was minister, 
at the time of the Revolution, retired to this his patri- 
monial estate. 

KINNELL, a parish, iu the county of Forfar, 5| 
miles (E. by N.) from Letham ; containing 853 inhabit- 
ants. This place, of which the name, in the Gaelic 
language, is descriptive of the situation of its church 
upon a conspicuous eminence, is of considerable anti- 
quity, and at one time formed part of the possessions of 
the abbey of Arbroath. The barony was granted by 
King Robert Bruce to his steady adherent, Sir Simon 
Fraser, in acknowledgment of his gallant conduct at the 
battle of Bannockburn ; and Fraser, during the lifetime 
of his uncle, was styled the Knight of Kinnell. The 
lands were subsequently divided into four portions, of 
which Bolshan is now the property of Sir James Carnegie, 
Bart., Wester Braky of Lord Panmure, Easter Braky 
of the heirs of Mr. Alison, and Rinmure of the repre- 
sentatives of the late John Laing, Esq. The parish 
comprises an area of 5000 acres, exclusive of a large 
portion of the ancient forest of Monthrewmont, and 
part of Rossymoor, an undivided common; 4400 acres 
are arable, about seventy woodland and plantations, 
and the remainder moorland pasture and waste. The 
surface is gently undulated, and towards the east rises 
to a considerable elevation, forming the hill of Bolshan, 
near whose foot stood an ancient baronial castle, of 
which the last remains were removed about the year 
1770, and the hill of Wuddy-law, where was a spacious 
tumulus. The lower grounds are enlivened with the 
windings of the river Lunan, which flows for nearly two 
miles through the southern part of the parish, dividing 
it into two very unequal portions. The Gightyburn 
forms its eastern boundary, separating it from the parish 
of Inverkeillor, and afterwards runs into the Lunan. 
The soil, though various, is not unfertile, and has been 
improved by judicious management; the crops are, 
wheat, barley, oats, peas, turnips, and potatoes. The 
rotation system of husbandry is prevalent, and all the 
different improvements in agriculture have been adopted ; 
considerable portions of moor have been brought under 
cultivation, and the lands have been drained and par- 
tially inclosed. The farm houses and offices, most of 
which have been recently rebuilt, are substantial and 
well arranged ; and on the several farms are thirteen 
threshing- mills, of which one is driven by a steam- 
engine of eight-horse power. The timber is chiefly oak, 
ash, elm, plane, and birch ; the plantations, which are 
of modern growth, are Scotch firs, which seem to thrive 
best in the soil, with some larch and spruce. The cattle 
are of the black breed, to the improvement of which 
much attention is paid ; and considerable numbers of 
sheep and swine are reared. The rateable annual value 
of the parish is £3878. 

There are no villages properly so called ; but about 
eighty scattered houses are termed Muirside. The popu- 
lation is chiefly agricultural ; but many persons are 
employed in the weaving of linen-sheeting and Osna- 
burghs, for which 125 looms are in operation. There are 
S5 



also several mills for the spinning of flax, which are 
usually driven by water, but have steam-engines for use 
when the supply of water is deficient. Communication 
with the neighbouring towns is afforded by good roads, 
of which that from Montrose to Forfar passes for nearly 
four miles through the northern part of the parish. 
Markets are held at Glesterlaw, on the lands of Bolshan, 
on the last Wednesday in April, the fourth Wednesday 
in June, the third Wednesday in August, and the first 
Wednesday after the 12th of October ; they are chiefly 
for the sale of cattle, and are well attended. The Eastern 
Forfarshire Agricultural Association hold their meetings 
at the same place, at Lammas, when there is a show of 
cattle and horses, as well as an exhibition of improve- 
ments iu the construction of implements. The ecclesi- 
astical affairs are under the superintendence of the 
presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearns. 
The minister's stipend is £229. 10. 10., with a manse, 
and a glebe valued at £14 per annum; patron, the 
Crown. The church, almost entirely rebuilt in 1766, 
and repaired in 1836, is a sombre structure containing 
about 400 sittings. The parochial school is well at- 
tended ; the master has a salary of £31, with a house 
and garden, and the fees average £15 per annum. 
There is also a school erected in the Muirside of Kin- 
nell, by Sir James Carnegie, for the instruction of girls 
in reading, sewing, and knitting. A considerable num- 
ber of silver pennies was found some time ago on the 
bank of the Lunan, between Hatton and Hatton-mill, 
together with a halfpenny of John Baliol ; several of 
the coins were of the time of Edward I. of England. 
The tumulus on the summit of Wuddy-law was forty-five 
yards in length and four yards in height, formed of 
alternate layers of stones and earth. On the removal 
of a cairn on Hatton-mill, in 1835, a grave of rude 
stones was discovered, containing bones and a skull. 

KINNELLAR, a parish, in the district and county 
of Aberdeen, 2 miles (S. E. by E.) from Kintore; 
containing 483 inhabitants. The remains of antiquity 
still visible show the Druids and the Danes to have been 
each connected with this parish. In the churchyard, 
several immense stones, some sunk in the earth, and 
others remaining above ground, point out the site of a 
Druidical temple ; and in the western direction, on an 
extensive common covered with heath, are the remains 
of numerous tumuli, the depositaries of urns, skulls, 
ashes, and bones calcined on beds of hot clay. This 
common is supposed to have been the spot where 
some sanguinary conflict took place between the Scots 
and Danes, probably on occasion of the latter, in one 
of their frequent incursions, landing at the mouth of 
the Don river, and encountering the former. A stone 
coffin was found a few years ago, in Cairn-a-Veil, about 
six feet long, constructed of six flags, and containing 
some black dust. On the hill of Achronie stands Cairn- 
Semblings, seen to a considerable distance on the west 
and north, and near which is a large stone whereon 
Irvine, Laird of Drum, sat, in order to make his will, 
when on his route to the battle of Harlaw, in which 
he fell. 

The parish is rather more than four miles in length ; 
but its breadth no where much exceeds two. It con- 
tains between 3000 and 4000 acres, and is bounded on 
the north by the parish of Fintray, from which it is 
separated by the river Don ; on the south by the parish 



KINN 



K I N N 



of Skene ; on the east by Dyce and. Newhilte ; and on 
the west by Skene and Kintore. The land throughout 
is a series of undulations, and the climate is bleak, the 
parishi being almost without shelter from winds and 
storms. The soil is light and thin, and rests frequently 
upon a rough stony subsoil,, requiring great labour and 
expense toi reduce it to agricultural use ; where, how- 
ever, proper methods have been adopted, good crops 
are obtained. Almost the whole of the parish is arable, 
there being but a few acres under wood, and only a 
small district of rocky moor. Oats, barley, and turnips 
are the crops chiefly raised, the last of which is much 
promoted in growth by the prevailing use of bone-dust 
manure. The rotation is usually the six-years' shift ; 
and every farmer has a threshing-mill on his premises. 
There are but few sheep ; the cattle are of the black 
breed. Considerable improvements have taken place in 
husbandry within the last few years. Much land which 
was poor, and covered with heath and stones, has been, 
with considerable expense, brought into a state of pro- 
fitable cultivation, well inclosed, and made to produce 
good crops of grain and turnips. The farm-houses, 
also, have been rendered comfortable and commodious. 
A spirit of emulation has been excited, leading to im- 
portant practical results, by the institution about the 
year 1S08 of prize-matches for ploughing, by a farmers' 
club in the neighbourhood ; and much skill has been 
acquired in this branch of husbandry. The rateable 
annual value of Kinnellar is £2S40. 

A superior turnpike-road, from Aberdeen to Inverury, 
intersects the parish, and is traversed by the mail and 
three coaches every day to and from JVberdeen. The 
parish roads, however, are in bad repair, with the ex- 
ception of one connected with a farm ; and part of the 
road most used, leading to the church, is said to have 
been neglected for the last twenty-five years. The canal 
between Aberdeen and Inverury, constructed in 1797, 
passes through the parish, at its northern extremity ; 
but, though of great advantage to those who reside in 
the upper districts, it is productive of little benefit to 
the larger portion of the inhabitants here, who are more 
distant from it. A passage-boat plies regularly ; and 
several boats bring coal, lime, and manure from Aber- 
deen, and take back grain, wood, slate, and other com- 
modities. Among the few mansions in. the parish, is 
that of Glasgoego, not now in very good repair, its 
former proprietor having built a new residence in its 
vicinity. On the bank of the Don is a commodious 
house belonging to the Tower family ; and on the pro- 
perty of the Ewing family is a small but elegant house, 
with very improved grounds around it. In the hamlet 
of Blackburn are a post-office, an inn, and some houses 
inhabited by tradesmen and others. The ecclesias- 
tical affairs are subject to the presbytery and synod 
of Aberdeen ; patron, the Earl of Kintore. The stipend 
of the minister is £160, of which £62 are received from 
the exchequer; and there is a manse, built in 1778. 
The glebe consists of five acres of land, valued at 
£13. 15. per annum ; the minister also has an allowance 
of £20 as grass-money, and the like sum as moss-money, 
there being a want of moss in the parish. The church, 
a small building, of plain style, erected in 1801, is in 
good repair, and contains 250 sittings : it stands on the 
north side of the Don, about a mile from the river. In 
the 17th century, Archbishop Sharp gave the patronage 
86 



to the dean of the university of St. Andrew's, reserving 
to himself and his successors a veto upon any appoint- 
ment ; and the university held this privilege till 1761. 
There is a parochial school, where the usual branches 
of education are taught, with Latin and geometry if 
required. The master has a salary of £26, with a house 
and garden, and about £11 fees; also an allowance 
from Dick's bequest to the schoolmasters of Aberdeen, 
Banff, and Moray. 

KINNESSWOOD, a village, in the parish, of Port- 
moak, county of Kinross, 4 miles (E.) from Kinross; 
containing 479 inhabitants. It is situated in the western 
part of the parish, and on the east side of Loch Leven : 
the road from Kinross to Leslie passes through it. A 
parchment manufactory, in which vellum is now made, 
has been carried on here for a considerable period ; at 
present it employs but a few hands. The population 
chiefly consists of weavers. There is an annual fair in 
M.3.J, latterly very ill attended. Michael Bruce, the 
poet, remarkable for the beautiful effusions of his muse, 
collected after his death, which was caused by con- 
sumption, in his twenty-first year, was born in the 
village in 1746. 

KINNETHMONT, a parish, in the district of Al- 
ford, county of Aberdeen, 2 miles (N.) from Clatt ; 
containing 1107 inhabitants. This place is supposed by 
some to have taken; its name, formerly Kennethmont, 
from one of the Kenneths, kings of Scotland, having been 
interred in the churchyard, which is an eminence similar 
to a mount. Others, regarding its present orthography 
of Kinuethmont as more correct, derive it from two 
Gaelic words signifying "head" and "moss," which 
express the proximity of the high ground of the church 
site to a mossy tract in the vicinity. The parish con- 
sists of Kinnethmont properly so called, and of the old 
parish of Christ's-Kirk, which has been annexed to it 
from time immemorial; it is situated at the western 
extremity of the fertile district of the Garioch. It is 
nearly oblong in figure ; is six miles in length from. 
east to west, and about three in breadth ; and, with the 
exception of several hundreds of acres in plantations, 
and a few other tracts, is under tillage. The surface 
is pleasingly diversified with hills and vales, and enli- 
vened by the Bogie, a good trout stream, which runs 
along the western boundary, and separates this parish 
from that of Rhynie. The ground is in some parts 
mossy, supplying the inhabitants with peat for fuel ; 
but the prevailing soil is a light loamy earth, producing, 
when well cultivated, excellent crops. All kinds of 
crops are raised, under the operation of the rotation 
system ; the farms vary in general from eighty to 100 
acres, but there are many of much smaller extent. 
Houses built of stones and lime, and roofed with slate, 
are gradually displacing the old turf tenements ; the 
scythe has entirely superseded the sickle, in the cutting 
of corn ; and on the larger estates, threshing operations 
are performed by machinery. Much land has been, 
trenched, marshy ground drained, and moorland brought 
under tillage to a considerable extent, during the pre- 
sent century, many portions now producing most luxu- 
riant crops. The rateable annual value of the parish 
is £4578. 

The mansion of Leith Hall is the seat of Sir Andrew 
Leith Hay, who served in the peninsular war, a narra- 
tive of which he has published, with some smaller works. 



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There is also the residence of Ward House, situated 
upon an estate greatly improved and beautified, during 
a period of twenty years, by the late proprietor, Mr. 
Gordon. A turnpike-road, finished a few years ago, 
runs through the parish, from east to west, affording 
facilities of communication with Aberdeen, Huntly, In- 
verness, and other parts : public coaches once travelled 
on it. The agricultural produce is sent to Invemry, 
eighteen miles distant, whence it is conveyed by canal 
to Aberdeen for sale ; and the carts, on their return 
from Inverury, bring lime and coal. An annual cattle- 
fair is held in April, another in July, and a third in 
October. The parish is in the presbytery of Alford 
and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of Sir 
Andrew Leith Hay: the minister's stipend is £195, 
with a manse, and a glebe of twelve acres, valued at 
£15 per annum. The church, a neat and commodious 
structure, was built in 1S12, and is capable of accom- 
modating 600 persons. The members of the Free 
Church have a place of worship. The parochial school 
affords instruction in the ordinary branches; the mas- 
ter receives a salary of £25. 13., with a house, and about 
£10 fees, augmented by an allowance from the Dick 
bequest. The parish once had a small circulating library, 
consisting of historical and religious works ; and a 
savings' bank, instituted fifteen years since. The re- 
mains of two Druidical temples are still visible ; and a 
bag of silver coins has been found, with "Alexander I." 
engraved on one side. On the hill of Melshach is a 
chalybeate spring which has long been in much repute. 

KINNETTLES, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 
3 miles (S. W.) from Forfar ; containing, with the vil- 
lage of Douglaston, and hamlet of Kirkton of Kinnettles, 
437 inhabitants. This place appears to have derived its 
name from the situation either of its church, or of an 
ancient mansion-house, near the extremity of a tract of 
marshy land, once the bed of a river. It is uncon- 
nected with any event of historical importance, though, 
from various relics which have at different times been 
discovered, it appears to have been inhabited at a very 
remote period. The parish is abr.ut two miles in length 
and the same in breadth, and comprises 370S acres, of 
which 2S40 are arable and in good cultivation, about 
120 woodland and plantations, and the remainder waste. 
The surface is traversed by a hilly ridge of elliptical 
shape, which, by a very easy ascent, attains an elevation 
of about 350 feet above the level of the sea, dividing the 
parish into two valleys of nearly equal extent. It forms 
a branch of the Sidlaw hills, and one portion is called the 
Brigton and the other the Kinnettles hill, from its being 
in the two estates into which the lands are principally 
divided. This ridge is mostly in a high state of culti- 
vation, and clothed near the top with' rich plantations, 
forming a very interesting feature in the scenery ; and 
from its summit, which is fiat, are many extensive and 
varied prospects over the surrounding country. The 
lands are watered by a beautiful rivulet called the Ker- 
bit, which has its source in the parish of Carmylie, and 
winds through the parish with a tranquil current, giving 
motion to several mills, and falling into the river Dean ; 
it abounds with trout of excellent quality, and is much 
frequented by anglers. There are also numerous copi- 
ous springs, affording an abundant supply of water. 

The soil is extremely various, consisting of rich dry 
loam in some parts, in others being of a more damp 
87 



clayey character, in others sandy and gravelly, and in 
some places an improvable moss. The crops are, oats, 
barley, wheat, a few acres of rye and peas, with turnips 
and potatoes. The system of agriculture is advanced ; 
the rotation plan of husbandry is in general practice ; 
the lands have been drained and partially inclosed, 
chiefly with stone dykes ; and the farm houses and 
offices are substantially built, and well arranged. On 
most of the farms, threshing-mills have been erected ; 
and all the more recent improvements in the con- 
struction of implements have been adopted. The dairy- 
farms are well managed, and all due attention is paid 
to the rearing of live stock : the milch-cows, of which 
about 100 are kept on the farms, are the Ayrshire 
and Angus. The cattle, generally of the Angus breed, 
average annually 500 ; and the sheep, which are of the 
Leicestershire and Cheviot breeds, with a few of the 
Linton, South-Down, and Merino, number 350. The 
plantations consist of silver, spruce, and Scotch firs, 
and larch, intermixed with oak, ash, plane, elm, beech, 
lime, birch, and other varieties. The substrata are 
chiefly whinstone, sandstone, and slate. The whinstone 
is of compact texture, varying in colour from a dark 
blue to a pale grey, and is extensively quarried both in 
the northern and southern districts of the parish ; it is, 
however, very difficult to work, and is obtained only in 
blocks of small size, of very irregular form, and used 
chiefly for drains, and for repairing the roads. The 
sandstone is partly of a grey colour, and partly tinged 
with a reddish hue ; it is quarried for building, and is 
raised in blocks of massive dimensions. The slate, 
which is of a fine grey colour, is found chiefly on the 
banks of the Kerbit rivulet, but not to any great extent ; 
it produces good slates for roofing, and flagstones of 
very large dimensions and of excellent quality. Copper- 
ore, and also veins of lead, are imbedded in the sand- 
stone ; manganese is found in the whinstone strata ; 
and garnets, mica, quartz, and calc and lime-spar in the 
freestone rocks. The rateable annual value of the parish 
is £4342. 

The mansion-house of Kinnettles is a rather recent 
building. Brigton is a spacious mansion, partly an- 
cient, but principally of modern erection, having been 
greatly improved and enlarged by the late proprie- 
tor ; and there are some other good houses in the 
parish, of which those erected within the last fifty years 
are built of stone, and roofed with slate. The village 
of Kirkton is small, but neatly built, and is mostly 
inhabited by persons employed in the several handicraft 
trades requisite for supplying the wants of the inhabit- 
ants of the parish. The weaving of various kinds of 
cloth, chiefly Osnaburghs and brown sheetings, is pur- 
sued in different parts of the parish, but only to a 
very moderate extent. Facility of communication with 
the neighbouring towns is afforded by good roads, ot 
which the Strathmore turnpike-road passes for more 
than two miles through the centre of the parish, and 
the road from Forfar to Dundee through the eastern 
portion of it. There are bridges over the Kerbit, of 
which one, at the village of Kirkton, is a suspension- 
bridge. The parish is in the presbytery of Forfar and 
synod of Angus and Mearns, and patronage of the 
Crown; the minister's stipend is £158. 6. S„ with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £12. 15. per annum. The 
church, erected in 1812, at the expense of the heritors, 



K I N N 



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is a neat handsome edifice, adapted for a congregation 
of 400 persons. The parochial school is well attended ; 
the master has a salary of £34, with £40 fees, a house, 
and two bolls of meal annually in lieu of a garden. 
There is also a female school, of which the mistress has 
a house and garden, in addition to the fees. The poor 
have the interest of a bequest of £50 by Mr. James 
Maxwell. The upper stone of a hand-mill for grinding 
corn was discovered by the plough, in a field, in the 
year 1S33; it was rather more than two feet in dia- 
meter, and an inch and a half in thickness, of mica 
schist intermixed with portions of siliceous spar, and 
studded with small garnets. A small conical hill near 
the banks of the Kerbit, and which is still called the 
Kirk Hill, is supposed to have been the site of some re- 
ligious foundation ; but nothing certain of its history is 
known. There are several springs of chalybeate pro- 
perties, and two springs strongly impregnated with 
copper. Colonel William Patterson, F. R. S., many 
years lieut. -governor of New South Wales, was born 
in this parish in 1755 ; and John Inglis Harvey, Esq., 
who held the office of a civil judge in India, is also a 
native. 

KINNOULL, a parish, in the county of Perth, \ a 
mile (E.) from Perth ; containing, with the suburb of 
Bridgend, and the villages of Balbeggie and Inchyra, 
■2879 inhabitants, of whom 920 are in the rural districts. 
This place, which is supposed to have derived its name, 
of Gaelic origin, from the extent and beauty of the pros- 
pects obtained from the high grounds, was at an early 
period the property of the family of Hay. Sir George 
Hay, lord chancellor of Scotland, was created Earl of 
Kinnoull by Charles I. in 1633 ; and his descendant, 
the present earl, is still the chief proprietor in the parish. 
Of the ancient castle of Kinnoull, the baronial residence 
of the Hays, some slight vestiges were remaining till 
within the last fifty years ; but the site is now occupied 
as a garden belonging to one of the villas on the banks 
of the river Tay. The parish, which is bounded on the 
west by the Tay, is about twelve miles in extreme 
length, and nearly four miles in breadth, comprising in 
the rural districts an area of 3700 acres, of which 5S0 
are woodland and plantations, and the remainder, with 
the exception of about twenty acres of undivided com- 
mon, arable, meadow, and pasture. The surface is diver- 
sified with wooded hills of pleasing aspect, of which the 
hill of Kinnoull, rising from the bank of the Tay to the 
height of 632 feet, is justly celebrated for the romantic 
beauty of its scenery. The ascent on the south is pre- 
cipitously steep and rocky ; but on the north, a spiral 
road of gradual ascent has been formed to the summit, 
which is crowned with thriving plantations, and com- 
mands a most varied prospect, embracing the city of 
Perth and the adjacent country. Not far from the top, 
which is divided into two points, is a hollow called the 
Windy Gowle, near which is a remarkable echo of nine 
distinct reverberations ; and in a steep part of the ac- 
clivity is a cave, in which Sir William Wallace is said 
to have concealed himself from his pursuers. About 
two miles distant, from the hill of Kinnoull, and forming 
part of the same range, is the hill of Murray's Hall, 
nearly of equal elevation, and commanding also an ex- 
tensive prospect abounding with interesting features. 
The Tay divides, near the church, into two branches 
inclosing the island of Moncrieff, of which one-half is 
88 



within this parish, and the other in the parish of Perth : 
the branch in this parish is navigable for vessels of sixty 
tons' burthen, and affords a more direct passage to the 
burgh of Bridgend. The river abounds with salmon of 
excellent quality, and the fisheries belonging to the 
parish produce a rental of £1200 per annum. 

The soil, comprehending every variety, is luxuriantly 
rich ; and the lands are in the highest state of cultiva- 
tion, under a system of husbandry combining all the 
most recent improvements. A very extensive nursery 
was formed on the east bank of the Tay, by Mr. 
Dickson, in 1767, and, since his decease in 1835, has been 
conducted by his nephew, affording employment to about 
eighty persons : from this establishment most of the 
plantations in the parish, which are in a highly flourish- 
ing condition, have been supplied. There is also a 
nursery at the extremity of Bridgend. The principal 
substrata are of the trap formation, with some veins of 
sandstone of a reddish-grey colour, and of good quality 
for building, for which purpose it is extensively quarried. 
Agates of great beauty are found in the hill of Kinnoull, 
and many specimens of them are preserved in different 
museums. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£S667. The mansion-houses are, Balthayock, an ancient 
castle of the Blair family, of which the more modern 
portion was built in 1578; Inchyra, of recent date, in 
the Grecian style of architecture ; Murray's Hall, a 
handsome building; Barnhill, or Woodend, pleasantly 
seated on the Kinnoull branch of the Tay ; and Bell- 
wood, beautifully situated on the hill of Kinnoull, front- 
ing the city of Perth. The village of Inchyra is on the 
east bank of the Tay, in a detached portion of the parish; 
about six miles from the church ; it has a convenient 
harbour, accessible to vessels of 100 tons, with a yard 
for building and repairing ships, from which two vessels 
of sixty tons have been launched within the last few 
years. There is also a ferry across the Tay established 
here. Facility of communication is afforded by the 
river, and by good roads, of which the turnpike-road 
from Perth to Dundee passes through the parish. The 
suburb of Bridgend, and the village of Balbeggie, are 
noticed under their respective heads. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintend- 
ence of the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and 
Stirling. The minister's stipend is £269. 16. 9., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum ; patron, the 
Earl of Kinnoull. The present church, erected in 1826, 
after a design by Mr. Burn, at an expense of £4000, is a 
handsome structure in the later English style of archi- 
tecture, containing more than 1000 sittings. In the aisle 
of the old church, which is still remaining as the burial- 
place of the Hay family, is preserved a monument to 
George, first earl of Kinnoull, who died in 1634, and 
whose statue has the left hand resting on a table, on 
which are placed the great seal of Scotland and a human 
skull, but without any inscription. There is a place of 
worship at Balbeggie for members of the United Seces- 
sion. The parochial school is attended by about 140 
children ; the master has a salary of £34, with a house 
and garden, and the fees average £40 per annum. 
Murray's royal asylum for lunatics was founded by 
Mr. James Murray, a few years since, with funds 
which he inherited from his mother, to whom they had 
been bequeathed by Mr. Hope, her son by a previous 
marriage. Mr. Hope, with his whole family, was lost 



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in the wreck of the Duchess of Gordon East Indiaman, 
on their return from Madras in 1S09. The buildings 
were erected on the acclivity of Kinnoull Hill, after a 
design by Mr. Burn, at a cost of £40,000 ; and the in- 
stitution was incorporated by royal charter, and opened 
for the reception of patients, in 1827, and placed under 
the superintendence of twenty-five directors, of whom 
nine are ex officio, four chosen for life, and twelve elected 
annually. The house is situated in the centre of a park, 
of twelve acres, laid out in gardens, shrubberies, and 
walks, affording ample opportunities of recreation and 
amusement ; and, under an excellent system of manage- 
ment, affords reception and relief to 140 patients. At 
Balthayock are the remains of an ancient castle, supposed 
to have belonged to the Knights Templars : the walls, 
which are about fifty feet in height, and inclose an area 
fifty-two feet in length and thirty-seven feet wide, are 
of massive thickness, and still entire. It is situated on 
the brink of a deep ravine of very romantic appearance. 
KINROSS, a post-town and parish, in the county 
of Kinross, of which it is the capital, 15 miles (S.) from 
Perth, and 25 (N. N. W.) from Edinburgh ; containing 
2822 inhabitants, of whom 2062 are in the town, and 
760 in the rural districts of the parish. This place, 
which derives its name, of Gaelic origin, from its situa- 
tion at the head of a promontory extending into Loch 
Leven, is of very great antiquity. It was selected as a 
stronghold by the Pictish kings, of whom Congal, son 
of Dongart, founded a castle on an island in the lake, 
which subsequently became the occasional residence of 
several of the kings of Scotland. In 1257, Alexander 
III., after his return from Wark Castle, whither he had 
gone to have an interview with his father-in-law, Henry 
III. of England, resided at the Castle of Lochleven, 
where he was surprised, and, together with his queen, 
forcibly conveyed to Stirling. In 1301, and also in 
1335, the castle was besieged by the English; but on 
both occasions the assailants were compelled to raise 
the siege, and to retire with considerable loss. In 1429, 
Archibald, Earl of Douglas, was confined here by James 
I., for some expression of disloyalty towards his sove- 
reign j and in 1477, Patrick Graham, Archbishop of St. 
Andrew's, after having been for some time under restraint 
in a cell at Inchcolm, in pursuance of a sentence of de- 
privation pronounced by Pope Sextus and a college of 
cardinals, was imprisoned in the castle till his death. 

But this ancient fortress derives its chief celebrity 
from the imprisonment in it of the unfortunate Mary, 
Queen of Scots, who was placed within its dreary walls 
in 1567. A captive in the hands of the confederate 
nobles, she was sent from Edinburgh to the Castle of 
Lochleven, then belonging to William Douglas, one who 
had taken an active part against her ; and in her 
journey thither she was treated with studied indignity, 
exposed to the gaze of the mob, miserably clad and 
mounted, and under the escort of men of the rudest 
bearing. The queen was now completely a prisoner, 
and her confinement was accompanied with circum- 
stances of the greatest rigour ; she was put under the 
charge of Lindsay and Ruthven, two noblemen familiar 
with blood, and of coarse and fierce manners. The lady 
of the castle, Margaret Erskine, daughter of Lord Ers- 
kine, had been mistress to the queen's father, James V., 
and was mother to the Earl of Murray. She had been 
afterwards married to Sir Robert Douglas ; and their 
Vol. II.— 89 



son, William, was, as already stated, proprietor of the 
Castle of Lochleven at this period. It was here that 
Mary made her celebrated resignation of the government 
in favour of her son, the infant James, and of the Earl 
of Murray. Feeling assured that her refusal to sign the 
necessary papers would endanger her life ; listening to 
the insinuation of Robert Melvil, that any deed executed 
in captivity, and under fear of life, was invalid ; and 
terrified by the stern demeanour of Lord Lindsay, she 
submitted to what she had at first passionately resisted. 
Without reading their contents, she, with a trembling 
hand, affixed her name to three instruments prepared 
by the confederates. By the first of these she was made 
to resign the government of the realm in favour of her 
son, and to give orders for his immediate coronation. 
By the second, the queen, in consequence of his tender 
infancy, constituted Murray regent of the kingdom ; 
and by the third she appointed the Earls of Lennox, 
Argyll, Atholl, and Morton, with others, regents until 
the return of Murray from France, with power to con- 
tinue in that high office if he refused it. From the 
galling restraint thus imposed upon her in the castle, 
however, Mary at length, on the evening of the 2nd of 
May, 1568, found means to escape. George Douglas, 
younger brother of the proprietor of Lochleven, had 
enthusiastically devoted himself to her interest ; and 
though dismissed from the castle on that account, he 
had contrived to secure the services of a page who waited 
on his mother, Lady Douglas, and by his assistance effec- 
tually achieved his purpose of releasing the queen. On 
the evening in question, this youth, in placing a plate 
before the castellan, dropped his napkin over the keys 
of the castle, and carried them off unperceived : he 
hastened to Mary, and hurrying down to the outer gate, 
they threw themselves into a boat, first turning the locks 
they had found it necessary to open, and casting the keys 
into the lake, where they were discovered in the year 1 806. 
Some friends of the rescued queen were lying in wait 
in the immediate vicinity, and with their aid she fled 
in the direction of Lanarkshire. In 1569, the Earl of 
Northumberland, who had incurred the displeasure of 
Elizabeth of England by the interest which he took in 
the fate of Mary, was imprisoned for three years in the 
castle, whence he was removed to England, and publicly 
executed for treason. 

The town, though the chief town of Kinross-shire, 
and the place where the sessions are held, and the 
business of the county transacted, is not distinguished 
by any features of importance. It is not even a royal 
burgh ; and the market which was formerly held here 
has been gradually discontinued, and is now entirely 
transferred to Milnathort, in the adjoining parish of 
Orwell. The streets are lighted with gas ; works for that 
purpose having been erected on a site nearly equi- 
distant from Kinross and Milnathort, by a company of 
shareholders established for'the accommodation of both 
places. A public library is supported by subscription, 
under the direction of a committee ; and there is a 
reading and news room established in an appropriate 
building in a central part of the town ; also a library 
maintained by the tradesmen and artisans, and three 
juvenile libraries in connexion with Sabbath schools. 
The manufacture of cutlery, formerly carried on here to 
a very considerable extent, has been altogether discon- 
tinued. The chief manufactures at present are those of 

N 



KINR 



K1NR 



ginghams, checks, and pullicates, for the houses of Glas- 
gow ; and also, and of still more recent introduction, 
tartan shawls, plaids, and other articles of similar cha- 
racter, hy some companies settled in the town. There 
is likewise a manufactory for damasks. The post-office 
has a daily delivery ; and a branch of the British Linen 
Company's bank has been established. Facility of in- 
tercourse with the neighbouring places is afforded by 
excellent roads, of which the great north road passes 
through the town ; and there are not less than thirteen 
bridges of stone over the various streams that intersect 
the parish. Fairs are held on the last Wednesday in 
March, the 1st of June, the last Wednesday in July, 
and the 18th of October, all O. S. ; they are for cattle, 
agricultural produce, and various articles of merchandise. 
The government is under the management of a presi- 
dent, treasurer, and clerk, assisted by a committee of 
eight or ten persons ; they are annually chosen by the 
inhabitants, at a general meeting held for that purpose, 
and the police and all other regulations are conducted 
by them, the expenses being defrayed by subscription. 
The county-hall is a handsome edifice, erected in 1826, 
at an expense of £2000, of which £750 were granted by 
government, and the remainder raised by voluntary 
contribution, and assessment of the heritors of the 
county ; it contains a spacious hall for the courts, and 
the apartments requisite for conducting the public 
business. Attached to it is the gaol, comprising three 
wards for debtors, two cells for criminals, and a guard- 
room. 

The parish, which is about four miles in length, 
from east to west, is bounded on the east by Loch Leven, 
and comprises 7062 acres, of which 660S are arable, 
271 woodland and plantations, and the remainder rough 
pasture and waste. The surface, though generally ele- 
vated, is flat, in no part rising into hills ; the chief river 
is the Leven, which issues from the lake of that name, 
and has been rendered more copious and powerful in its 
stream by a contraction of the expanse of the lake. 
There are numerous springs of excellent water ; and the 
scenery, in many parts romantic, is enriched by thriving 
plantations. Loch Leven, the principal object of attrac- 
tion, as well from its natural beauty as from the histo- 
rical events with which it is associated, was, previously 
to the contraction of its surface by draining, fifteen miles 
in circumference, and in its present state may be esti- 
mated at about twelve miles. It is studded with islands, 
of which the chief are, the island of St. Serf, in the 
parish of Portmoak, and the Castle island, in this parish, 
so called from the erection of the ancient castle. The 
latter isle, situated near the north-western extremity of 
the lake, is five acres in extent. The castle, which is 
defended by an outer rampart of stone, inclosing a spa- 
cious quadrangular area, consists chiefly of a lofty square 
tower at the north-west angle of the inclosure, and a 
round tower of smaller dimensions at the south-east. 
The building is without a roof, and at present is a mere 
ruin ; some portions of what is supposed to have been the 
chapel are still remaining, and under the square tower 
is a dungeon. The whole area within the rampart is 
about 600 feet in circumference. The island is planted 
with trees, of which some are of great antiquity ; and the 
surface affords good pasturage. The lake abounds with 
trout and various kinds of fish, but not in such variety 
as before its contraction ; the season commences in 
90 



January, and ends in September, and the fish chiefly 
taken are, trout, pike, perch, and eels, in which two 
boats and four men are constantly employed. The fish- 
ery is let at a rent of £204 ; the produce is sent to the 
markets of Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Manchester, at 
which last place it is in great demand. 

The soil is generally fertile and productive ; the crops 
are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips. The 
system of agriculture is improved ; the lands have been 
well drained and inclosed ; the farm houses and offices 
are substantial and commodious j and on most of the 
farms threshing-machines have been erected, of which 
one is impelled by steam. Considerable attention is paid 
to the rearing of live stock, and much improvement has 
been made under the auspices of the various agricultural 
societies established in the vicinity, several of which hold 
their cattle-shows in the town. About 400 cows, and 
a nearly equal number of calves, with 650 head of young 
cattle, are pastured annually ; the number of sheep is 
400, and of horses 300. The rateable annual value of 
the parish is £11,102. The plantations are larch, and 
Scotch and spruce firs, intermixed in some parts with 
different kinds of forest-trees ; they are judiciously 
managed, and in a thriving condition. The substrata are, 
sandstone, which is found in two varieties, the old red for- 
mation and the carboniferous ; whinstone ; and limestone. 
The whinstone, which is very compact, is quarried for 
the roads, for which purpose it is well adapted. Coal 
is supposed to exist, and it has been in contemplation 
to explore it ; but an abundant supply of that mineral 
is procured from works not more than five miles dis- 
tant, and at a very moderate cost. There are three ex- 
tensive mills in the parish, all formerly for grain ; but 
two of them have been converted into mills for spinning 
and carding, connected with the manufactories of tartan 
plaids. Kinross House, the seat of Sir Graham Mont- 
gomery, Bart., a spacious mansion erected by Sir William 
Bruce, architect to Charles II., was originally intended 
as a residence for James, Duke of York ; it is finely situ- 
ated, and was once surrounded by some very ancient and 
stately timber. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Dunfermline and 
synod of Fife, and patronage of Sir Graham Mont- 
gomery ; the minister's stipend is £1S4. 16. 8., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £35 per annum. The 
present church, a handsome edifice in the later style of 
English architecture, was erected in 1S32, at an expense 
of £1537, towards which the Rev. Geo. D. C. Buchanan 
contributed about £300 ; it is situated on an eminence 
nearly in the centre of the parish. The tower of the old 
church is still standing, by itself, in the town. There 
are places of worship for members of the Free Church 
and of the United Secession. The parochial school 
affords a liberal education, and is well attended ; the 
master has a salary of £34, with £55 fees, and a house 
and garden. A savings' bank, established in 1837, con- 
tributes to diminish the number of applicants for paro- 
chial relief; and there are four friendly societies, and a 
ladies' society for the distribution of oatmeal to neces- 
sitous females. The sum of £8. 6. 8. is annually given to 
twelve poor persons, in lieu of the foundation of an alms- 
house which was projected by Sir William Bruce ; and 
the poor have also the interest of a bequest of £100 by 
George Graham, Esq., of Kinross. About a mile from 
the town is a small cairn ; and there were formerly 



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others, in one of which, when removed, was found a 
coffin, rudely formed of upright stones, with a slab rest- 
ing on them, and inclosing several human bones, and 
some ashes apparently of burnt wood. On the lands 
of Coldon have been discovered about 400 silver coins, 
chiefly of Edward I. and II. of England, and a few of the 
reigns of Alexander III. and John Baliol. At West Green, 
in 1899, was found, deeply imbedded in the earth, an 
ancient seal of pure gold, of singular workmanship ; it 
has the arms of Scotland on the dexter side of the shield, 
impaled with those of England on the sinister, and is 
supposed to have been the private signet of James IV. 
On the lands of Lathro have been discovered, by the 
plough, several graves, containing some human bodies 
and a skull : near the spot is an eminence called the 
Gallows Know, which renders it probable that these 
may have been the skeletons of malefactors, executed 
here prior to the abolition of heritable jurisdictions. 
Dr. John Thomson, professor of general pathology in 
the university of Edinburgh, was a native of this parish. 
KINROSSIE, a village, in the parish of Collace, 
county of Perth, 1% mile (W.) from Collace ; con- 
taining 157 inhabitants. It lies in the western part of 
the parish, on the road from Collace to Cargill, and is 
built on an eminence not far distant from the church. 
Formerly, two considerable annual fairs were held at 
this plate, of which the ancient cross is now the only 
memorial, the business in cattle and small wares having 
been transferred to Burreltown and other places in the 
neighbourhood. A part of the population is engaged in 
loom manufactures, which have latterly much increased 
in the parish. 

KINROSS-SHIRE, an inland county, in the south- 
east of Scotland, bounded on the north by the Ochils, 
which separate it from Strathearn, in the county of 
Perth ; on the east, by the Lomond hills ; on the south- 
east and south-west, by the Benarty range ; and on the 
west by the Cleish hills, which divide it from the county 
of Fife'. It lies between 56° 9' and 56° IS' (N. Lat.) and 
3° 14' and 3° 35' (W. Bong.), and is about eleven miles 
in length and nine miles in extreme breadth ; com- 
prising an area of seventy square miles, or 44,S00 acres ; 
192S houses, of which 1S12 are inhabited; and con- 
taining a population of 8"63, of whom 4195 are males, 
and 456S females. Prior to the year 1426, the greater 
portion of the county was part of that of Fife ; and for 
a considerable time after its separation, it contained only 
the parishes of Kinross, Orwell, and Portmoak; but in 
1685 were added the parishes of Cleish and Tulliebole, 
and some small portions of the county of Perth. It 
remained, however, notwithstanding this accession of 
territory, under the jurisdiction of the sheriff of 
Fifeshire till the year 1S07, when, conjointly with 
Clackmannan, it was erected into a sheriffdom. Before 
the Reformation the county was included within the 
archdiocese of St. Andrew's ; it is at present in the 
synod of Fife and presbyteries of Dunfermline, Kirk- 
caldy, &c. For civil purposes it is under the superin- 
tendence of a sheriff-substitute, who resides at Kinross, 
the county-town, where all the courts are held ; it con- 
tains the populous village of Milnathort and a few 
hamlets. The shires of Kinross and Clackmannan 
unite in sending a member to parliament. 

The surface, though hilly towards the boundaries, 
is generally level in the interior, and is divided into 
91 



several extensive plains. The chief of these are, Blair- 
Adam, between the Benarty and Cleish hills, through 
which the great north road passes ; a wide level opening 
towards the Crook of Devon, on the road to Stirling ; 
and another between the Ochil and Lomond hills, to the 
north-west, leading towards Cupar of Fife. The prin- 
cipal river is the Leven, which issues from Loch Leven, 
and flows through a narrow valley into the Frith of 
Forth at the town of Leven. Several rivulets rise in 
various parts, and flow into Loch Leven, the only lake 
in the county. This noble sheet of water, which has an 
elevation of nearly 360 feet above the level of the sea, 
is of oval form, and twelve miles in circumference, 
covering about 4000 acres, and abounding in trout, 
pike, perch, and eels. There are some small islands in 
it, of which one, near the shore at Kinross, is five acres 
in extent, and contains the remains of the castle in 
which Mary, Queen of Scots, was detained a prisoner, 
and which is supposed to have been originally founded 
by Congal, King of the Picts, in the fifth century, 
and subsequently enlarged. Another island, called 
St. Serf's, from the foundation of a priory dedicated to 
St. Serf, or Servanus, at a very ancient period, and of 
which no vestiges are to be traced, is 100 acres in 
extent, and affords pasturage to great numbers of cattle 
and sheep. An act of parliament was obtained within 
the last few years, for partly draining this lake, which 
has been carried into effect, at an expense of £40,000 ; 
and about 1000 acres have been recovered from it; but 
the soil, contrary to expectation, is poor and sterile, and 
not likely to afford any equivalent remuneration. 

About four-fifths of the land are in profitable culti- 
vation, and divided into farms varying from 50 to 300 
acres in extent ; the soil is partly light and dry, partly 
a rich loamy clay, and partly moor. The system of 
agriculture is greatly improved ; the lands have been 
well drained and inclosed ; and excellent crops of oats 
and barley are produced, and, in the best soils, fine 
crops of wheat. The pastures on the low lands are 
principally for cattle ; and considerable numbers of 
sheep are fed upon the Cleish and Ochil hills. Above 
3000 acres are in woodland and plantations, of which 
latter the most important are on the lands of Blair- 
Adam, 1300 acres in extent, consisting of oak, ash, 
larch, elm, spruce, and silver and Scotch firs, all, except 
the Scotch firs, in a thriving condition. The minerals 
are not extensive. Coal is found in the south, but is 
not-wrought ; freestone of excellent quality is quarried 
in the parish of Cleish, and whinstone is every where 
abundant. Red sandstone prevails in the district to the 
north of Kinross, and limestone may be obtained in 
abundance on the Lomond hills. The manufacture of 
cutlery, which was formerly carried on to a great extent, 
has been discontinued; and the only branches now pur- 
sued are, the weaving of cotton for the manufacturers 
of Glasgow, and the manufacture of tartan shawls and 
plaids, for which some large establishments have been 
commenced at Kinross and Milnathort. Facility of 
communication is afforded by excellent roads in every 
direction. The rateable annual value of the real pro- 
perty in the county is £44,010, of which £38,S9'2 are 
for lands, £4375 for houses, £210 for fisheries, £93 for 
mines, £29 for quarries, and the remainder for other 
descriptions of property not comprised in the foregoing 
items. 

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KINTAIL, a pai-ish, in the county of Ross and 
Cromarty, 10 miles (E. S. E.) from Lochalsh ; contain- 
ing, with the village of Dornie and Bundalloch, 116S 
inhabitants. This parish derives its name from a Gaelic 
term, signifying " the head of two seas," and descriptive 
of its situation on a point of land where two seas meet. 
Nothing is known concerning its history earlier than 
the period of Alexander III., who presented to Colin 
Fitzgerald, the founder of the noble family of Macken- 
zie, the Castle of Donan, in the village of Dornie, now a 
ruin, for his eminent services in the royal cause, both 
by sea and land, at the battle of Largs. The family, 
indeed, derive their crest, of a burning mount from the 
lofty and famous mountain here, called Tulloch-ard, 
upon the top of which, in ancient times, a barrel of 
burning tar was exhibited as a signal for the rendezvous 
of the vassals of the Mackenzies, on the commencement 
of hostilities. The parish, which is situated on the 
west coast of Ross-shire, is about eighteen or twenty 
miles long, and five or six broad ; it is surrounded by 
hills in every direction, and is altogether one of the 
most mountainous and wild districts in the country. 
The northern division, called Glenelchaig, is separated 
from the southern and western parts by a lofty and 
almost inaccessible ridge ; and a length of about ten 
miles only of the extent of ground in the parish is in- 
habited, which portion is contained between the north- 
east end of Loch Loing and the south-east end of Loch 
Duich. The approaches on all sides are majestic and 
commanding. The mountains of Ben-Ulay, Glasbhein, 
Soccach and Maam-an-Tuirc, in the parish, abound with 
picturesque and romantic scenery ; and their vicinity is 
plentifully enriched with every variety of valley, wood, 
and water. The mountain of Tulloch-ard, however, 
situated on the north side of Loch Duich, and em- 
bracing an extensive view of the Western Isles, is the 
most celebrated, both for its towering appearance and its 
history in legendary song. The pass of Bealach, a few 
feet only in breadth, and inclosed by lofty and preci- 
pitous rocks, the whole encompassed with lonely glens 
and wild mountain woods, is a spot which has always 
interested the admirer of wild and lonely scenery. There 
are many good springs, and a few inland lochs, the 
chief of which are Loch-a-Bhealich and Loch Glassletter, 
abounding with fine trout, and famous for angling. The 
waterfall of Glomach, situated in a sequestered valley 
about seven miles from Shealhouse, is highly celebrated. 
The stream is precipitated from an elevation of 350 feet, 
and, obstructed in its fall by the projection of a rugged 
crag, throws forth a volume of beautiful spray, of un- 
usual dimensions ; it is surrounded on all sides with 
mountainous and barren scenery. The chief rivers are 
the Loing, which separates Kintail from Lochalsh ; the 
Croe, which divides it from Glensheil ; and the Elchaig. 
The Croe runs into Loch Duich, and the two others into 
Loch Loing. 

The parish is almost entirely pastoral. The larger 
farms are held by the proprietors of the parish, two or 
three in number ; and the most improved system of 
husbandry is adopted on these lands. The chief atten- 
tion is paid to the breeding of sheep ; and by crossing 
the old stock with the Cheviots, it has of late years 
been greatly improved, the sheep now fetching the 
highest price at the markets in the south, particularly 
that of Falkirk, to which they are chiefly sent. There 
92 



are several small but thriving plantations, which con- 
sist of Scotch firs, spruce, larch, oak, ash, birch, and 
elm. The rocky strata are composed chiefly of gneiss, 
distinguished frequently by a variety of veins ; there are 
also considerable beds of granite and sienite. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £3017. Dornie and Bun- 
dalloch form one village, situated on the north-east 
shore of Loch Loing ; it is inhabited principally by 
fishermen, and is very thickly peopled. The bays 
worth notice are those of Dornie, Corfhouse, and In- 
verinate. A parliamentary road from the western coast 
to Inverness runs through the parish, and is in very ex- 
cellent condition ; and more distant communication is 
afforded with this neighbourhood by the Glasgow and 
Skye steam-boats, by which all necessaries are obtained. 
There are fisheries for salmon established on Loch 
Duich and the river Croe ; they are let to strangers, 
who send the fish to the London market. The eccle- 
siastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Loch- 
carron and synod of Glenelg, and the patronage is in the 
Crown : the stipend of the minister is £177, with a 
good manse, built in 1831, and a glebe of the annual 
value of £40. The church, which is inconveniently 
situated at a great distance from the body of the pa- 
rishioners, is capable of accommodating about 300 per- 
sons ; it was repaired about 1S20, when two small 
galleries were erected ; but is at" present in a dilapidated 
state, and too small for the population. The Roman 
Catholics have a place of worship. There are two 
catechists in the parish ; and a parochial school is main- 
tained, where the usual branches of education are taught, 
the master having a salary of £27, with a house, and 
an allowance in lieu of garden. Two other schools are 
supported by the Gaelic Society. The chief relic of an- 
tiquity is the ruin of Ellandonan Castle, near the village 
of Dornie, surrounded by beautiful and picturesque 
scenery ; it is supposed to have been built about the 
time of Alexander III. 

KINTESSACK, a village, in the parish of Dyke, 
county of Elgin, 3 miles (W. by N.) from Forres ; con- 
taining 122 inhabitants. It is a small village, lying a 
short distance from the shore of the Moray Frith. 
Until within these few years there was a good school 
here, but it was given up for want of sufficient support ; 
there is, however, a small female school. 

KINTORE, a royal burgh and a parish, in the district 
of Garioch, county of Aberdeen, 4 miles (S. S. E.) 
from Inverury, and 12 (N. W. by W.) from Aberdeen ; 
containing, with the village of Port-Elphinstone, 1'299 
inhabitants. The name of Kintore siguifies in Gaelic 
"the head of the forest." This place was formerly 
remarkable for its castle, said to have been built by 
Robert Bruce for a hunting-seat, and which was the 
occasional residence of several of the Scottish kings, 
who enjoyed the pleasures of the chase in the adjacent 
royal forest. This castle, called the Castle of Hall 
Forest, was granted, with surrounding lands, which are 
supposed to have extended from the west part of the 
parish to the church of Dyce, a distance of five or six 
miles, to Robert de Keith, great marischal of Scot- 
land, by Bruce, after the battle of Inverury, or, as is 
more generally supposed, after that of Bannockburn, for 
his eminent services rendered to the king. Upon this, 
it became the seat of the family ; the son of Robert de 
Keith was created Earl of Kintore, and it continued to 



KINT 



K I N T 



be inhabited so late as the 17th century by the family, 
who hold the property at the present time. The castle 
appears to have been of considerable strength, and its 
vicinity was the scene of various conflicts : here, indeed, 
Bruce is said to have completed the destruction of the 
army of Edward I., after the defeat of Cumyn, Earl of 
Buchan, near Inverury. 

The town, situated on the bank of the river Don, 
was once of some consequence, being the place of meet- 
ing of the great northern road by Aberdeen, and the 
roads leading to some of the principal passes of the 
Grampian mountains. It is, however, at present of 
small dimensions, and the houses and buildings are not 
of sufficient importance to merit particular notice, the 
village of Port-Elphinstone having become, chiefly on 
account of its situation at the head of the Aberdeenshire 
canal, the main point of interest and traffic. The burgh 
contains several good shops for necessary commodities ; 
but, through the facilities of intercourse with Aberdeen, 
many articles are procured from that place. There are 
a subscription library and a savings' bank ; and the 
post-office established in the town is the oldest in the 
district of Garioch. A branch of the great northern 
road from Aberdeen to Inverness extends westward, 
and at last joins the Alford turnpike-road ; and the 
royal mail besides several other coaches pass and re- 
pass daily : there is likewise a dep6t at the town, on 
the Aberdeenshire canal. The northern part of the 
parish, as well as Port-Elphinstone, has Inverury as 
its post-town. Monthly markets are held, chiefly for 
the sale of cattle. Kintore was erected into a royal 
burgh by a charter of King James IV., dated February 
4th, 1506, and is governed by a provost, two bailies, 
a dean of guild, a treasurer, and nine councillors. The 
old council, with the magistrates, choose the new magis- 
trates ; then the old council, with the new magistrates, 
choose the new council : there is no restriction with 
respect to re-election, and the present resident chief 
magistrate has consequently been in office for many 
years. The burgh has neither property nor debt ; its 
only revenue consists of feu-duty paid by Lord Kintore, 
amounting to £9- 6. Scots, and of £1. 13. 4. sterling, paid 
annually by the family of Craigievar to the poor of 
Kintore, as a fine for the murder within the burgh of 
one of the family of Gordon of Craigmile. The magis- 
trates have no power of taxing the inhabitants ; the 
cess and burgh charges, amounting to £5. 2. per annum, 
are paid by Lord Kintore. Nor have they for many 
years been in the practice of exercising jurisdiction, 
either civil or criminal, except in confining a disorderly 
person for the night ; peace is maintained by a town- 
serjeant and one or two special constables, Lord Kintore 
providing a gaol and town-house. The burgh is classed 
with the Elgin district of burghs in returning a member 
to the imperial parliament. 

The parish, including the lands of Creecby and 
Thainston, which were detached from the parish of 
Kinkell, and annexed to it in 1/60, is above six miles 
in length, from the southern to the northern extremity, 
and at its greatest breadth measures a little more than 
three miles. It comprises 8430 acres, of which 3408 
are under cultivation, 24/8 waste or permanent pasture, 
652 waste, but capable of cultivation, and 1892 under 
wood. The surface is uneven, and in many places 
rugged ; but there is no hish land except the hill of 
93 



Thainston, which rises about 280 feet above the level 
of the sea, and by its beautifully-wooded scenery, in 
connexion with the smoothly-gliding stream of the Don, 
invests the locality with a lively and interesting appear- 
ance. The lands rising from the town, which is situated 
in the vale of the Don, are alluvial and rich, occasionally 
interspersed with hollows of mossy soil. The level and 
cultivated parts not immediately on the side of the 
river consist of a light sandy earth, or drained moss ; 
on the higher grounds the soil is so thin in many places 
that the substratum is scarcely covered. Considerable 
portions of peat-moss have been reclaimed, and the 
remainder supplies fuel. Grain of all kinds, potatoes, 
and turnips are raised ; and their aggregate annual 
value, with the revenue from pasturage, hay, and the 
cuttings of woods and plantations, amounts to above 
£10,000. The cattle are chiefly of the Aberdeenshire 
breed, and much care is taken in selecting those of 
good shape, and without horns. Formerly large flocks 
of sheep, numbering upwards of 2000, were pastured 
upon the moors ; but very few are now kept, on account 
of the extensive plantations since formed. The most 
improved system of husbandry is followed ; large tracts 
of waste land have been reclaimed and cultivated, and 
embankments have been raised against the inundations 
of the river Don. Furrow-draining has been successfully 
practised ; and during the last thirty years more than 
300 acres have been trenched, drained, and inclosed by 
the tenants, under the encouragement of the proprietor. 
The rateable annual value of Kintore is £4525. 

The rock in the parish, as in most of the neighbour- 
ing parts, consists of granite, which exists in large 
masses forming the substratum, and is also found in 
blocks lying on the surface, and rendering the improve- 
ment of some of the waste grounds a work of great 
labour. Part of the wood is ancient ; but a large 
proportion is plantation, containing chiefly larch and 
Scotch and spruce firs, about 250 acres of which, for 
some years past, have been annually planted by Lord 
Kintore. The mansion of Thainston is an elegant 
modern structure, beautifully situated in a well-wooded 
tract, and commanding fine and extensive views. The 
parish is in the presbytery of Garioch and synod of 
Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Earl of Kintore : 
the minister's stipend is £184, with a manse, and a 
glebe of eight acres, valued at £23 per annum. The 
church, situated in the town, was built in 1819, and 
contains accommodation for 700 persons. The members 
of the Free Church have a place of worship. The 
parochial school affords instruction in Latin and Greek, 
in addition to the elementary branches ; the master 
has a salary of £30, with £30 fees. A legacy was 
lately left by Mr. John Buchan, of Aberdeen, a native 
of Kintore, for the promotion of education, the will 
directing £200 to be put to interest, to form an endow- 
ment for a school to be founded in the western extremity 
of the parish. A charitable bequest of £9 per annum, 
called Davidson's, is confined to the poor of the burgh. 
The only relic of antiquity of interest is the ruin of the 
castle, situated about a mile to the west of the Aberdeen 
road ; it is a rectangular structure, containing two lofty 
arched apartments, one over the other, and forms an im- 
pressive object from several points of observation. Arthur 
Johnston, the poet, celebrated for his elegant Latinity, was 
a pupil in the parochial school of Kintore; and Sir Andrew 



K I P P 



K I P P 



Mitchell, ambassador to the court of Prussia in the 
reign of Frederick the Great, possessed the estate of 
Thainston, where he often resided. 

KINTULLOCH, a village, in the parish of Dun- 
barny, county of Perth, 3 miles (S. by E.) from 
Perth; containing 119 inhabitants. This place takes 
its name from a Gaelic term signifying " the top of a 
gentle rising ground or green eminence," on account of 
its contiguity to a slope near a brook. The lands were 
granted, under William the Lion, to Hugh Say, an 
Englishman, whose estate, having descended to Arabella, 
his sister, passed in part from her by gift, after the 
death of her husband, Reginald de Warrene, to the 
monks of Scone in 1249, and finally, after frequently 
changing proprietors, came into the possession of Mr. 
Grant, of Kilgraston. The village is situated half a 
mile south-west of the church, and is chiefly inhabited 
by cottars, whose tenements are remarkable for the 
cleanliness of the interior, and for the tasteful manner 
in which the fronts are ornamented with roses and ever- 
greens. At one extremity of this pleasing spot, is a 
splendid gateway leading to Kilgraston. There is a 
school, of which the master has a free house and gar- 
den, allowed by the Grant family. 

KIPPEN, a parish, partly in the county of Perth, 
but chiefly in the county of Stirling ; containing, with 
the greater portion of the late quoad sacra parish of 
Bucklyvie, the village of Kippen, and the hamlets of 
Arnprior, Cauldhame, Kepp, and Shirgarton, 1922 in- 
habitants, of whom 397 are in the village of Kippen, 10 
miles (W.) from Stirling. This place derives its name, 
in the Gaelic language signifying "a promontory," from 
the situation of the village at the extremity of an emi- 
nence which terminates near Boquhan, in the eastern 
portion of the parish. Few events of historical import- 
ance are recorded in connexion with the place, though, 
from the names of several localities, indicating ancient 
fortresses, of which there are now scarcely any vestiges 
remaining, it appears to have been the scene of frequent 
hostilities between the different clans in the vicinity. 
In the reign of James V., a dispute arose between the 
inhabitants of the baronies of Arnprior and Glentirran, 
respecting the course of the stream issuing from Loch 
Leggan, which dispute terminated in a sanguinary battle 
near the loch, when many persons on each side were 
killed. Upon this occasion, the king, who at that time 
resided in the castle of Stirling, ordered the stream to 
be diverted into the channel it at present occupies, and, 
depriving both parties of their claim, erected on its 
banks a mill, which still retains the appellation of the 
Royal mill. 

The parish is bounded on the north by the river 
Forth, and is about eight miles in extreme length, vary- 
ing from two to four miles in breadth, and comprising 
rather more than 10,000 acres, of which 5300 are arable, 
600 woodland and plantations, and the remainder 
meadow, pasture, and waste. The surface of the parish, 
which contains two portions of the county of Perth, 
stretching from north to south, and detaching nearly 
one-third of Kippen from the county of Stirling, is 
pleasingly diversified with rising grounds of moderate 
elevation. Along the shore of the Forth extends a level 
tract of carse land in a state of the richest cultivation, 
from which the ground rises towards the south by a 
partly abrupt, but generally gradual, ascent for more 
94 



than a mile, beyond which it again subsides by a gentle 
declivity. From the higher grounds is obtained an ex- 
tensive and varied prospect over the surrounding country, 
embracing the whole of the carse, Stirling Castle, the 
rocks of Craigforth and the Abbey Craig, the braes of 
Monteith, and the range of the Grampians from the 
Ochil hills to Ben-Lomond. The river Forth is here of 
inconsiderable width, and the stream greatly discoloured 
by the floating moss, which has also injured the fishery, 
previously very lucrative. There are several rivulets 
flowing through the glens that intersect the parish, and 
most of them abound with trout of good quality. The 
burn of Broich, issuing from Loch Leggan, runs through 
the beautiful glen of Broich, and afterwards, in its course 
to the Forth, serves chiefly to float off the moss in the 
plain below. The burn of Boquhan, which is the boun- 
dary line between the parish and Gargunnock, has its 
rise in the rock of Ballochleam, and in its descent has 
made for itself a channel through the substratum of red 
sandstone, which it has excavated into caverns of sin- 
gular form : flowing along the richly-wooded glen of 
Boquhan, it falls into the Forth at the bridge of Frew. 
Some smaller rivulets, in their way through their 
respective glens, exhibit, picturesque cascades ; and on 
the moor of Kippen is Loch Leggan, a fine sheet of 
water about a mile in circumference, of which the shores 
are well wooded, and which is the only lake in the 
parish. 

The soil for some breadth from the shore of the 
Forth is light and fertile, and in the carse between it 
and the higher grounds, a deep rich clay ; on the accli- 
vities, a loam alternated with sand and gravel ; and 
towards the summit, of lighter and less productive qua- 
lity. There are also considerable tracts of moss, with 
which, indeed, the whole carse appears to have been 
formerly overspread. The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, 
beans, potatoes, and turnips ; the system of husbandry 
is in a highly-improved state. The lands have been 
drained, and are generally well inclosed ; and much 
moss has been reclaimed and brought into cultivation : 
the farm-houses are substantial and commodious, and 
on most of the farms are threshing-mills. The dairy- 
farms are well managed ; the cows are usually of the 
Ayrshire breed. Considerable attention is paid to live 
stock, and all the more recent improvements in the 
construction of agricultural implements have been 
adopted. There are about sixty or seventy acres of 
ancient woods remaining. The plantations, which are 
extensive, are chiefly, on the higher lands, larch and 
Scotch fir ; and on the lower, oak, ash, and elm, which 
are all in a thriving state. In the glens are also large 
tracts of coppice-wood, and a great part of the moor has 
recently been planted. The principal substrata are red 
sandstone and limestone ; and coal is supposed to 
exist, though some attempts to explore it have not 
been attended with success. The sandstone is exten- 
sively quarried on the moor ; it is soft when taken 
from the quarry, but hardens on exposure to the air, 
and is of excellent quality for building, for which pur- 
pose large quantities are sent to a considerable distance. 
The limestone is found chiefly in the southern district 
of the parish, and is also of good quality ; but, from 
the want of coal, which is to be obtained only from a 
great distance, it is but little wrought for manure. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £S775. The seats 



KIRK 



KIRK 



are, Garden, a handsome modern mansion, to which 
recent additions have been made; and Broich House, 
also a modern residence, beautifully situated, and in the 
grounds of which is a stately and venerable yew-tree, 
said to be about 300 years old. 

The village of Kippen is near the turnpike-road from 
Stirling to Dumbarton, and has a pleasingly-rural ap- 
pearance. A public library is supported by subscription, 
and there is a library of religious books for gratuitous 
circulation ; a post-office, also, has been established 
under that of Stirling, and has a daily delivery. There 
was until recently a distillery for whisky, which paid 
duties amounting to £17,000 per annum. Fairs for 
cattle are held on the first Wednesday in January, the 
second Wednesday in April, the '36th of May, the 23rd 
of October, and the first, second, and third Wednesdays 
in December. Facility of "communication is maintained 
by the road from Stirling to Dumbarton, which passes 
for seven miles through the parish ; by a turnpike-road 
from the village to Glasgow, which intersects the parish 
for three miles in a south-west direction ; and by good 
bridges over the Forth, in excellent repair. The eccle- 
siastical affairs are under the superintendence of the 
presbytery of Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling. 
The minister's stipend is £250, with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £12 per annum ; patrons, the Galbraith 
family, of Blackhouse. The church, erected in 1S25, is 
a handsome structure in the later English style of archi- 
tecture, with a square embattled tower, and contains 
800 sittings. The members of the Free Church have 
a place of worship. A church in connexion with the 
Establishment was built in 1S35, at Bucklyvie, where is 
also a place of worship for the United Secession. There 
are two parochial schools, one at Kippen, of which the 
master has a salary of £27. 15. 6., with a house and 
garden, aud fees amounting on the average to £20 ; and 
the other at Claymires, in Bucklyvie, of which the 
master, in addition to the fees, has a salary of £5. 11., 
with a house and garden. The late Rev. James Miller, 
of Edinburgh, who was a native of this parish, be- 
queathed, in trust to the Kirk Session, property for the 
foundation of a bursary of £24 in each of the univer- 
sities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, for young men 
who are intended for the ministry. There are not any 
remains of the ancient castle of Arnfinlay, or of the 
tower of Garden, formerly in the parish ; and of several 
small heights called Keirs, supposed to have been origi- 
nally Pictish or Celtic fortresses, and on which are still 
vestiges of military works, nothing of the history is dis- 
tinctly known. 

KIPPOCHILL, a village, in the parish of Barony, 
suburbs of the city of Glasgow, 1| mile (N.) from 
Glasgow ; containing 235 inhabitants. 

KIRK, a hamlet, in the parish of Lundie andFow- 
lis, county of Forfar, 7 miles (W. N. W.) from Dundee ; 
containing 75 inhabitants. The population of this small 
place is entirely agricultural. 

KIRKALDY, county of Fife.— See Kirkcaldy. 

KIRKANDREWS, a village, in the parish of Bor- 
gue, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 2 miles (W.) from 
Borgue ; containing 47 inhabitants. It is seated on the 
south-east shore of Wigton bay, into which opens a 
small bay of its own name, about a mile north-west of 
Boreness Point. This small village was formerly of 
greater extent and importance than it is at present, and 
95 



was noted for the periodical celebration of horse and foot 
races, to which numbers were attracted from all quar- 
ters. The ruins of its ancient church have a beautifully- 
picturesque and romantic appearance. 

KIRKBEAN, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, 12 miles (S.) from Dumfries: containing, 
with the villages of Carsethorn and Preston-Mill, 891 
inhabitants, of whom 91 are in the village of Kirkbean. 
This parish, of which the name, in the Gaelic language, 
is descriptive of the situation of its church at the foot of 
a mountain, is bounded on the east and south by the 
Solway Frith, and is about six miles in length and three 
in average breadth, comprising nearly 11,000 acres, of 
which 5000 are arable, and the remainder hill pasture, 
plantation, moorland, and waste. The surface is moun- 
tainous and rugged, especially towards the west, where 
are lofty ridges of hills terminating in the height of 
CrifFel to the north, which has an elevation of 1900 feet 
above the sea. From CrifFel the land slopes gradually 
towards the shore, which is tolerably level, and in a 
high state of cultivation. The hill commands from its 
summit very extensive and varied prospects, embracing 
views of Annan, Carlisle, Dumfries, Castle-Douglas, and 
the Isle of Man ; and in favourable weather the moun- 
tains of North Wales, and the north coast of Ireland, 
may be indistinctly seen. The coast is generally low and 
sandy, but interspersed with rocky precipices of con- 
siderable elevation, in one of which, near Arbigland 
House, is a naturally-formed arch of romantic appear- 
ance ; the principal bay is that of Carse, and the most 
prominent headlands are Borron Point and Saturness. 

The soil in some parts is light and sandy ; in others 
of greater depth and fertility ; and a considerable tract 
of land, recovered from the sea by an embankment con- 
structed by the late Mr. Oswald, has been brought into 
profitable cultivation. The crops are, oats, barley, 
wheat, potatoes, and turnips ; the rotation system of 
husbandry is practised, and guano has been intro- 
duced as manure. Much improvement has been, and 
continues to be, ma,de by draining the lands, which are 
also well inclosed ; many of the farms are extensive, and 
the farm houses and offices are substantial, and kept in 
good repair. The hill pastures are stocked usually 
with sheep of the Cheviot breed, and great attention is 
paid to the rearing of live stock ; the cattle are of the 
native breed, with the exception of the cows on the 
dairy-farms, which are Ayrshire. There is little ancient 
wood, and the plantations are far from being extensive. 
The substrata are chiefly white granite, of which most of 
the rocks are composed, and limestone and sandstone 
of a coarse kind ; the limestone is of inferior quality, 
though well adapted for building purposes. Indications 
of coal have been observed, but not holding out sufficient 
inducement to operation. The rateable annual value of 
the parish is £5758. Arbigland House is a handsome 
mansion, situated near the coast, in a tastefully-embel- 
lished demesne ; Cavens is also a handsome residence, 
belonging to the Oswald family. The village of Kirk- 
bean stands on the estuary of the Nith, in a beautifully- 
rural valley, and consists of pleasing cottages kept in 
the neatest order, and surrounded by thriving plan- 
tations ; there is a post daily to Dumfries, and facility 
of communication is afforded by the turnpike-road to 
Dumfries, which passes through the parish. At Satur- 
ness, on the coast, are several small cottages, which. 



KIRK 



KIRK 



during the season, are inhabited by respectable families 
for the purpose of sea-bathing ; and at Preston-Farm 
there was anciently situated a village which possessed 
the various rights and privileges of a burgh of regality, 
and of which the ancient cross is still remaining. At 
Carsethorn, also a bathing-village, steam-packets touch 
twice a week, in their passage from Dumfries to White- 
haven and Liverpool ; and vessels anchor safely in its 
bay when they cannot proceed so far as the harbour of 
Dumfries. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superinten- 
dence of the presbytery and synod of Dumfries. The 
minister's stipend is £202. 12. 8., with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £18 per annum ; patron, the Duke of 
Buccleuch and Queensberry. The church, erected in 
1776, is a commodious and handsome structure, with 
a tower crowned by a dome, the latter erected by sub- 
scription in 1835 ; it is beautifully situated in the vale, 
and its site is adorned with clumps of plantation on 
little knolls surrounding it. The members of the Free 
Secession have a place of worship. The parochial school 
affords instruction to about seventy children ; the 
master has a salary of two chalders of meal, with a 
house and garden, and the interest of a bequest of 
£60S. 4., producing £24. 6. 6., for which sum he teaches 
thirty poor children gratuitously : the fees average £2S 
per annum. There is also a school, about three miles 
distant from the former ; the master has the interest of 
a bequest of £400 by Messrs. Marshall, of Glasgow, to 
which £100 have been added by the present minister. 
The poor have the interest of various bequests, amount- 
ing in the aggregate to £350. At Wreaths, and also at 
Cavens, are some remains of castellated buildings, of 
which the latter was the property, and occasionally the 
residence,of the Regent Morton; and at Borron Point are 
vestiges of an ancient moat and ditch called Mc Culloch's 
Castle, of which the history is unknown. Among the 
distinguished natives of the parish have been, Admiral 
John Campbell, who accompanied Commodore Anson 
in his voyage of circumnavigation, Jjorn here in 1719, 
while his father was minister of the parish; and the 
late Dr. Edward Milligan, lecturer on medical science 
in Edinburgh, who died in 1833, at the age of 47. John 
Paul, better known as the notorious Paul Jones, and 
whose father was gardener at Arbigland, was also a 
native. 

KIRKCALDY, a royal 
burgh, a sea-port, and pa- 
rish, in the district of Kirk- 
caldy, county of Fife, 14 
miles (E. by N.) from Dun- 
fermline, and 10 (N. by E.) 
from Edinburgh ; contain- 
ing 5275 inhabitants, of 
whom 4785 are in the 
burgh. This place derives 
its name from an ancient 
church founded here by the 
Culdees, and annexed, in 
the reign of David I., to the monastery of Dunferm- 
line, into which that monarch had introduced an esta- 
blishment of Benedictine monks from Canterbury. The 
origin of the town is very obscure, neither is there any 
authentic history of its early progress, though it is sup- 
posed that its proximity to the sea, and the abundance 
96 




Bursrh Seal. 



of fuel in the vicinity, induced numbers to settle here 
at a remote period, for the cultivation of commerce and 
manufactures. The first notice of the town occurs in 
a charter of David II., erecting it into a burgh of rega- 
lity in favour of the abbot of Dunfermline and his suc- 
cessors, in whose possession it remained for more than 
a century. In 1450, it was granted by the commen- 
dator and convent to the bailies and community of the 
burgh, together with the harbour, the burgage acres, 
and common pastures, with all the tolls, customs, and 
other privileges pertaining to it, to be held by them for 
ever. This tenure, however, was subsequently altered ; 
and instead of being one of the burghs of Dunfermline, 
the town was constituted a royal burgh, and invested 
with all the immunities enjoyed by royal burghs in 
their fullest extent ; but, the original charter being lost, 
the date of this change cannot be precisely ascertained. 
Under these rights the town continued to flourish, and 
in 1622 contributed 1030 merks towards the relief of 
the French Protestants. It had, about this time, not 
less than 100 vessels belonging to the port, and had 
attained a degree of importance which placed it next in 
rank after St. Andrew's. In 1644, the privileges of the 
burgh were confirmed and extended by charter of 
Charles I., who created it de novo a royal burgh and 
free port ; and the government, which had been pre- 
viously exercised by two bailies and a treasurer, was 
vested in a provost, who was also admiral of the port, 
two bailies, a dean of guild, treasurer, and council. 

During the war in this reign the inhabitants em- 
braced the cause of the parliament, and zealously sub- 
scribed the solemn league and covenant. They sent 
large numbers to join the army of the Covenanters ; 
and at the battle of Kilsyth, in which they were defeated 
with great slaughter by the Marquess of Montrose, not 
less than 480 of the men of Kirkcaldy were killed. In 
the progress of the war the town suffered repeated 
injuries; and under the usurpation of Cromwell it con- 
tinued to languish and decline. According to the burgh 
records, from the commencement of the civil war to the 
restoration of Charles II., as many as ninety-four ves- 
sels belonging to the port were captured by the royal- 
ists, or lost at sea; and in 16S2 the town was reduced 
to such distress, that an application was made to the 
convention of royal burghs to take its poverty into con- 
sideration, and administer to its relief. At the time of 
the Revolution, the inhabitants, in the zeal of their 
attachment to the cause of William III., apprehended 
the chancellor of Scotland, the Earl of Perth, and, after 
detaining him for some time in custody under a guard 
of 300 men, delivered him to the Earl of Mar at Alloa. 
William, in return for their loyalty, granted the inha- 
bitants an abatement of their annual assessment ; and 
the town, with the trade of the port, now began to 
revive, and continued to prosper till the Union, when, 
in common with all the other sea-ports on the coast of 
Fife, it fell into decay. It then and afterwards suffered 
so much, indeed, that its shipping, in I76O, was reduced 
to one coasting sloop of sixty tons' burthen, and two 
ferry-boats of thirty tons each. From this time, how- 
ever, the trade began to increase ; and though it was 
much impeded by the disputes with America, it con- ' 
tinned to advance, and at the conclusion of the war 
there were twelve vessels belonging to the place, which 
is now one of the most nourishing sea-ports in Fife. 



KIRK 



KIRK 



The town is situated on the north of the Frith of 
Forth, upon a narrow strip of level land at the base of 
a ridge of rising ground, and extends for a mile and 
a half along the shore, consisting principally of one 
street of, to a large extent, old ill-built houses. To- 
wards the centre of this line, the street expands for 
some distance into greater width, containing numerous 
modern well-built houses of handsome appearance, and 
a few good inns. Considerable improvements have been 
for some time in progress ; and the town has recently 
been enlarged by the formation of several streets diverg- 
ing from the main line towards the sands on the south, 
and others built on the acclivities of the hills towards 
the north. The streets are well paved, and lighted 
with gas by a company who have erected works for 
that purpose ; the inhabitants are amply supplied with 
water. Numbers of the ancient houses have been taken 
down, and rebuilt in a better style; and the town gene- 
rally is in a state of progressive improvement. A sub- 
scription library is well supported, and contains a 
collection of more than 4000 volumes ; a mechanics' 
library has also been established, in which are 1500 
volumes ; and there are two circulating libraries, 
comprising together nearly 3000. An institution has 
been formed within the last few years, in which lec- 
tures on literary and scientific subjects are regularly 
delivered during the winter months. Two public read- 
ing and news rooms are supported by subscription, and 
are well supplied with newspapers and periodical pub- 
lications ; and a weekly journal is published in the 
town. An agricultural association has also been found- 
ed, which holds meetings twice in the year, and awards 
premiums for samples of seed, the finest specimens of 
live-stock, and the best crops of every description raised 
in the district. 

The chief manufactures carried on are those of 
the various kinds of coarse linen, consisting of checks, 
striped holland, dowlas, ticking, sail cloths, and other 
articles, in which great improvements were some time 
since made by Mr. James Fergus, who adapted the 
manufacture of ticking, which had previously been 
made here for the manufacturers of Glasgow only, to 
the use of the English markets, and introduced the 
making of checks of cotton and linen mixed, drills, and 
ducks. The gross value of the linens manufactured is 
now estimated at £S0,000 per annum, and, including 
the different descriptions of linen goods, £200,000 per 
annum, affording occupation to more than 1 100 weavers, 
exclusively of hand-looms in private dwellings. Con- 
nected with the factories are extensive bleaching- 
grounds and dye-houses. There are several mills for 
the spinning of flax, in which about 6000 spindles of 
yarn are produced daily, and of which quantities are 
exported to France and other parts of the continent to 
the value of £60,000 annually ; these mills are driven 
by steam-engines of twenty-horse power, and give 
employment to considerable numbers of females. The 
manufacture of steam-engines and the various kinds of 
machinery for the use of the mills, for which there are 
three establishments in the town, engages about '200 
men. The manufacture of salt, formerly very exten- 
sive, is still carried on, but upon a limited scale; there 
are also two tanneries, two breweries, a distillery, and 
several collieries in the parish. 

The trade of the port consists chiefly in the exporta- 
Vol. II. — 97 



tion of yarn and various manufactured goods, coal, and 
agricultural produce ; and in the importation of flax, 
timber, and other merchandize. The foreign trade is 
with North and South America, the Mediterranean! 
France, the Baltic, Norway, Denmark, Prussia, the 
Hanse Towns, and Germany : about ninety vessels from 
foreign parts annually visit the port. The coasting- 
trade is also considerable. The number of vessels regis- 
tered in 1S42 as belonging to the port was ninety-one, 
of the aggregate burthen of S911 tons, and employing 
about 800 seamen. A couple of vessels are engaged 
in the whale-fishery, which was formerly much more 
extensive. Two smacks sail regularly from Kirkcaldy 
to London, and trading vessels to Leith and Glasgow ; 
steam ferry-boats ply four times a day between this place 
and Newhaven, and contribute greatly to facilitate the 
trade of the town. The jurisdiction of the port extends 
over fifty-two miles of coast, from Aberdour, in the 
Frith of Forth, to the upper part of the bay of St. 
Andrew's, including the sub-port of Anstruther and 
various creeks. The harbour, which is under the direc- 
tion of a number of trustees appointed under an act of 
parliament in 1S29, is situated at the eastern extre- 
mity of the town, and is inclosed by two stone piers at 
the east and west ends. Though capacious, however, 
it is very inadequate for the trade of the port, being 
accessible to vessels of any considerable burthen only 
at spring tides. Attempts are consequently now in 
progress for its improvement, by the extension of the 
eastern pier under the superintendence of Mr. Leslie, 
civil engineer, of Dundee ; the cost is estimated at 
£10,000, and further improvements are in contempla- 
tion, which, when carried into effect, will render it safe 
and convenient, at an expense of £40,000. The shore 
dues, from which the corporation derive their chief re- 
venue, amounted in 1S42 to £1715. The custom-house 
establishment consists of a collector, comptroller, land- 
surveyor, three land-waiters, and fourteen tides-men ; 
and the amount of duties paid in 1S42, according to 
official returns, was £4766. 

There are branches of the Bank of Scotland, the 
Commercial Bank, the National Bank of Scotland, and 
the Union Bank of Scotland, the buildings for which 
add much to the appearance of the town. The post- 
office has two deliveries daily ; and in addition to the 
facilities of communication by steam-boats, the roads 
to Dundee, Perth, St. Andrew's, and Glasgow pass 
through Kirkcaldy. The chief market, which is amply 
supplied with corn, is on Saturday, and is attended by 
dealers from all parts ; the average quantity of grain 
sold is about 35,000 quarters, of which 10,000 only are 
disposed of by sample, and the remainder in the stock 
market. Fairs for horses and cattle are held on the 
third Friday in February, the third Friday in July, and 
the first Friday in October. The government of the 
burgh, since the passing of the Municipal Reform act 
in the reign of William, has been vested in a pro- 
vost, two bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and a 
council of twenty-one members, including the provost, 
bailies, dean of guild, and treasurer. The provost, 
who is ex officio a justice of the peace for the county, 
and the other officers of the corporation, are elected 
by the council, and the council are elected by the 
constituency at large. There are seven incorporated 
trades, the smiths, wrights and masons, weavers, shoe- 

O 



KIRK 



KIRK 



makers, tailors, bakers, and fleshers, all of which, ex- 
cept the weavers, possess exclusive privileges of trading. 
The magistrates hold courts for the adjudication of civil 
causes to any amount ; in criminal cases their jurisdic- 
tion is limited to misdemeanors. The town-hall and 
gaol form one building in the High- street, surmounted 
with a spire : the hall, in which the courts are held 
and the public business transacted, is spacious and 
handsomely fitted up, and contains a portrait of Walter 
Fergus, Esq., of Strathore. The gaol is under excellent 
regulations ; proper attention is paid to the health and 
comfort of the prisoners, who are profitably employed, 
and its management is well adapted for their reforma- 
tion. The whole buildings, which are in the Norman 
style of architecture, were erected at a cost of £5000. 
The burgh is associated with those of Dysart, Kinghorn, 
and Burntisland, in returning a member to the imperial 
parliament. 

The parish formerly included the chief part of that 
of Abbotshall, which was separated from it in the year 
1650; but it is now of very inconsiderable extent. It 
is only two miles and a half in length, and scarcely one 
mile in breadth ; and comprises little more, besides the 
town site, than the burgh acres, and the common lands 
once belonging to the town, not exceeding in the whole 
1050 acres, of which 160 are woodland and plantations, 
and the remainder arable. The soil near the town is 
rich and fertile, from the abundance of manure ; in 
other parts less productive. The surface rises from the 
shore of the Frith, a level sandy beach, towards the 
north into a bold ridge, which has an elevation of 300 
feet above the sea : the only stream is the Eastburn, 
which, after receiving some tributaries in a course of 
less than three miles, flows into the frith at the extre- 
mity of the parish bordering upon that of Dysart. The 
substrata are principally sandstone, slate, and coal, 
which last occurs in several seams varying from nine 
inches to three and a half feet in thickness ; one mine 
only is at present in operation, and the coal is raised 
from a depth of forty- six fathoms. Iron-ore is found 
in the coal district, in globular masses ; but the price 
obtained does not remunerate the trouble of working 
it. The rateable annual value of the parish is £1S,239. 
Dunnikier House, the seat of James Townsend Os- 
wald, Esq., a handsome mansion erected about 1790, is 
beautifully situated in a richly-wooded demesne ; and 
in the town and immediate vicinity are some pleasing- 
villas. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Kirkcaldy, of which this is 
the seat, and the synod of Fife. The minister's stipend is 
£200, with a manse and glebe valued at about £50 per 
annum ; patron, the Crown. The parish church, situ- 
ated upon rising ground in the High-street, is a hand- 
some structure in the later English style, erected in 
1807, on the site of the ancient building, which had 
fallen into a state of dilapidation. A portion of the old 
tower, however, is attached to the west end, and de- 
tracts greatly from the appearance of the church ; but 
its removal, and the erection of a tower or spire of cor- 
responding style, are in contemplation. The interior is 
well arranged, and contains 1480 sittings. A church 
to which a quoad sacra district was till lately annexed, 
containing a population of 1977 persons, has been 
erected near the east end of the town, at an expense 
98 



of £2000 ; it is called East Port Church, and has 840 
sittings. There are also places of worship for members 
of the Free Church, the United Secession, Episcopalians, 
Independents, Bereans, Original Burghers, and Scottish 
Baptists. The Burgh school is supported by the cor- 
poration and by the fees, and is under the superintend- 
ence of a rector, to whom they pay £50, and an assist- 
ant, who has a salary of £40 ; it is attended by 170 
children, who are instructed in the classics and in the 
various branches of a commercial education. The fees 
produce £50 per annum to each master ; but neither has 
a dwelling-house. Schools have been erected in the town 
and in Pathhead, Kinghorn, and Abbotshall, and teach- 
ers appointed, under an endowment by Robert Philp, 
Esq., who, in 1828, bequeathed £74,000 for the educa- 
tion and clothing of 400 of the most needy children of 
the district. To each of these, on leaving school, are 
allowed from £7 to £10, according to merit, to enable 
them to acquire a trade, or to introduce them into cre- 
ditable employment. The master of the Kirkcaldy 
school, under this trust, has £100 per annum ; and a 
mistress to teach the girls to sew has a salary of £15. 
There are numerous other schools, partly endowed, and 
partly supported by the fees ; and the number of chil- 
dren attending them is about 700. Mr. John Thom- 
son, in 1S10, bequeathed £7S0, of which he appropriated 
one-half of the proceeds to the payment of school fees 
for poor children, and the remainder to the relief of the 
aged. An institution for the benefit of old and disabled 
mariners belonging to the port, and for their widows and 
orphans, was established about the year ] 590, to the 
support of which the masters and crews of the various 
vessels long contributed a per-centage of their pay. 
This institution is called the " Prime Gilt-Box of Kirk- 
caldy," and has funds amounting to nearly £3000. 
There are also a ladies' benevolent society, a clothing 
society, and a fund for supplying the poor with coal. 
In 1S2S, the gallery on the north side of the church, 
which was densely crowded to hear the Rev. Edward 
Irving, of London, fell down ; and many lives were lost. 
Dr. Adam Smith, author of The Wealth of Nations, and 
one of the most illustrious men, as a writer, to whom 
Scotland has given birth, was born at Kirkcaldy in 
1723. After an absence of many years, which were 
occupied in literary pursuits, and, for some time, in dis- 
charging his professional duties in the chair of moral 
philosophy in the university of Glasgow, he returned to 
Kirkcaldy, where he composed his most celebrated work. 
He died in 17S9 ; and it is not a little remarkable that, 
to this day, no monument to his memory has been 
erected in his native town. 

KIRKCOLM, a parish, in the county of Wigton, 
6 miles (N. by W.) from Stranraer; containing 1793 in- 
habitants, of whom 391 are in the village. The word 
Kirkcolm is evidently corrupted by usage from Kirk- 
Columba, a name at first applied to the church, which 
was dedicated to St. Columba, and afterwards used as a 
proper name for the parish. The place is of great anti- 
quity, the original church having been built at, or shortly 
after, the time when the saint flourished to whom it is 
dedicated. It is doubtful whether St. Columba was of ' 
Irish or Scottish origin; but he was in high repute in 
Scotland in the 6th century. He fixed his residence in 
the isle of Icolmkill, or " the chapel of Columba," and 
spent his whole life in endeavouring to convert the 



KIRK 



KIRK 



natives to Christianity, and in sending out missionaries 
into the western parts of Scotland for the same purpose. 
The remains of Corswall Castle, said by Sympson, who 
wrote in 16S4, to be then a heap of ruins ; an ancient 
church dedicated to St. Bride ; and the chapel of the 
Virgin, called Kilmorie, also testify to the great anti- 
quity of the parish. 

Kirkcolm is about five and a half miles in length 
and four in breadth. It forms a small peninsula, being 
bounded on the north and west by the sea ; on the 
east by the bay of Loch Ryan ; and on the south by 
the parish of Leswalt. The surface, in its general ap- 
pearance, is irregular, sloping gently towards the west. 
From Portmore bay northward, then westward round 
Corswall point, and southward along the Irish Channel, 
the scenery is varied by the bold rocky elevations of the 
coast. There is a considerable stream, turning the mill 
of Corswall ; and near the middle of the parish is Loch 
Connel, about a mile in circumference. Springs of good 
fresh water are found in every direction. The soil, in 
the interior is a productive loam ; but near the coast 
which encompasses the larger extent of the parish it is 
poor, and so thin as scarcely in many parts to cover the 
rock. The number of acres under cultivation is between 
10,000 and 11,000; there are upwards of 1200 acres 
waste and pasture, and between 100 and 200 planted. 
The crops of wheat, oats, and barley on lands covered 
fifty years back with whins and heath, show the great 
progress of the parish ; but the climate is bleak and 
rainy, and not favourable to the highest improvement of 
the soil. The farm-houses, with few exceptions, are 
substantial and comfortable dwellings. The best black 
Galloway cattle without horns are numerous ; but the 
cross of the Ayrshire cow with the black Galloway bull 
is generally preferred in the dairy-farms. The subsoil 
is gravelly and rocky ; the rocks are of the greywacke 
transition class, and there are considerable quantities of 
red sandstone, as well as greywacke-slate, clay-slate, 
and pure clay. Quartz and granite are also sometimes 
found. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£6267. Corswall House, standing in an elevated posi- 
tion on the margin of Loch Ryan, in the midst of 
spreading plantations, is seen from a distance as a pleas- 
ing object. The only village is Stewartown, where the 
young women, as in most other parts of the parish, are 
chiefly employed in embroidering muslin webs. Little 
traffic is carried on ; but the basin called the Wig, on 
the coast of Loch Ryan, is a convenient and safe retreat 
for vessels, two or three of which, under forty tons' 
burthen, belong to Kirkcolm. Corswall lighthouse, 
finished in 1816, and situated on a rocky projection on 
the western side of the parish, is a noble and commanding 
structure ; it is built of whinstone, and has a revolving 
light on the top of the tower, which is eighty-six feet 
high, and embraces a very extensive view, comprehend- 
ing a large part of the Irish coast. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the pres- 
bytery of Stranraer and synod of Galloway ; patrons, 
James Carrick Moore, Esq., &c. The stipend of the 
minister is £216, with a good manse, and a glebe of 
ten acres, valued at £15 per annum. The church is a 
commodious and substantial edifice, accommodating 650 
persons ; it was built in 1S24, and is in good repair. 
There is a parochial school, in which reading and writ- 
ing, English grammar, arithmetic, and book-keeping, 
99 



with mensuration, navigation, and Latin, are taught ; 
the master has a house and garden, with a salary of 
£27, and about £18 in fees. Among the relics of anti- 
quity are the ruins of Corswall Castle, distant a mile 
from the sea, in the northern part of the parish : a 
cannon seven feet long, a gold ring, some coins, and a 
silver plate with an inscription, were found here some 
years since. About a mile from this castle are the 
foundations of the ancient church dedicated to St. 
Bride ; and on the southern part of the coast of Loch 
Ryan are the ruins of a wall belonging to the chapel of 
Kilmorie. A stone from this chapel was placed over 
the west door of the old church of Kirkcolm when it 
was repaired in 1719, and left in the churchyard when 
the church was taken down in 1821. It is a rude spe- 
cimen of ancient sculpture, so much worn by time that 
the figures can scarcely be traced with any accuracy. 
One side appears to bear a shield, with an animal 
sculptured on it, and, on the top of the shield, a large 
cross ; the other side is distinguished by a figure having 
the arms extended on a cross, with another figure be- 
neath. The stone is of grey whinstone. 

KIRKCONNEL, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 
4 miles (N. W. by W.) from Sanquhar; containing 1130 
inhabitants, of whom 500 are in the village. St. Con- 
nel, to whom the church was dedicated, appears to have 
given the name to the parish. The church at one time 
belonged to the monks of Holywood, who received the 
tithes, establishing a vicarage for the due performance 
of divine service. At the Reformation the revenues were 
held by Lord Crichton, of Sanquhar, on the payment of 
£20 Scots yearly to the monks ; but after that event, 
the patronage and tithes, with other property of the 
abbey, were vested in the crown, and granted by it to 
John Murray, of Lochmaben. In the reign of Charles 
II. the patronage was transferred to the Duke of Queens- 
berry ; and upon the death of the last Duke, William, 
it came, with the title, into the family of Scott, to whom 
nearly the whole of this parish, with very extensive 
property in the neighbouring districts, now belongs. 
The parish is about fifteen miles in length and eight in 
breadth, and contains upwards of 26,000 acres. It is 
bounded on the north and north-east by the parish of 
Crawfordjohn, in the county of Lanark ; on the north- 
west and west by New Cumnock and Auchinleck, in 
the county of Ayr ; and on the south-east and south- 
west by the parish of Sanquhar. The surface through- 
out is irregular and hilly. The ground gradually 
rises for some distance on each side of the river Nith, 
which intersects the parish from west to east, after 
which it forms a continued range of hills, of considerable 
elevation, distant from the river on each side about 
two or three miles, and affording good sheep pasture. 
Beyond these hills, to the north and south, the land 
consists of peat-moss covered with heath and grass, or 
cold and swampy land, intersected with narrow valleys 
and deep ravines. 

The soil under cultivation in some parts is a light 
gravelly mould ; in other places it is a loam or clay, 
and sometimes a mixture of moss and clay. Occasion- 
ally there is a deep rich earth, especially upon the holm 
lands at the banks of the river. About 6300 acres are 
arable; about 19, 100 are hill pasture, 542 low pasture, and 
17S under wood : grain and green crops of all kinds are 
raised, but barley and wheat are sown in but small quan- 

02 



KIRK 



KIRK 



titles, on account of the great distance from a regular 
market. The sheep, of which 1 ] ,000 or 12,000 are kept, 
are chiefly of the native black-faced breed, as being the 
most hardy, and the best suited to the bleak exposure 
of hill pasturage : about 7000 lambs are annually reared, 
5000 of which are sent to market. The cows, which 
are principally kept for the dairy, are of the Ayrshire or 
Cunniughame breed. Improvements in every branch of 
agriculture have been extensively carried on, chiefly by 
the noble proprietor of the parish ; and the rateable 
annual value of Kirkconnel now amounts to £5647. 
Limestone and ironstone are found in this district ; but 
it is chiefly celebrated for its coal, which is of the best 
quality, and was extensively wrought until the mining 
operations were transferred to the neighbouring parish 
of Sanquhar, for more general convenience. There is an 
iron-plating forge upon a small scale, employing eight 
or ten men. A great public road runs through the 
upper district, upon which the Glasgow and Carlisle 
coach passes and repasses daily : the parish roads are 
in good repair, but bridges are much wanted on the 
great road. The village is principally inhabited by 
labourers. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject, to the 
presbytery of Penpont and synod of Dumfries ; patron, 
the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry. The stipend 
is £221, with a good manse and convenient offices, and 
a glebe valued at £18 per annum. The church, a plain 
structure bearing the date 1729, has been enlarged and 
repaired within the present century, and is in very good 
condition. There is a parochial school, in which English, 
writing, and arithmetic are taught ; the master has the 
minimum salary, with a house, and about £34 fees. On 
the farm of Rigg are two mineral springs, useful in 
stomachic complaints, but owing to the want of accom- 
modation they are not much frequented ; the waters, 
however, are often sent to distant parts of the country. 

KIRKCUDBRIGHT, a 
ro5 r al burgh and a parish, in 
the stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, of which it is the 
capital, 28 miles (S. W. by\V.) 
from Dumfries, and 100 (S. 
W.) from Edinburgh; con- 
taining 3526 inhabitants, of 
whom 2692 are in the burgh. 
This place is supposed to 
have derived its name, origi- 
nally Kirk- Cut hbert, from the 
dedication of its ancient 
church to the Northumbrian saint of that name ; and a 
cemetery about a quarter of a mile to the east of the 
town still retains the appellation of St. Cuthbert's church- 
yard. Prior to the time of the Romans, this part of the 
country contained a chain of forts belonging to the 
Selgovae, of which Caerbantorigum, the principal border 
garrison of that people, and situated here, was taken by 
Agricola about the year S2. His successors retained pos- 
session of the district for nearly three centuries, and 
here formed the Roman station llenutium. During the 
minority of Malcolm IV., son of David I., Fergus, lord 
of Galloway, whose baronial castle was situated on an 
island in Loch Fergus, near the town, threw off his alle- 
giance to the Scottish crown, and exercised a kind of sove- 
reignty as an independent prince. Malcolm twice in- 
vaded Gallowav, with a view to reduce him to obedience, 
100 




without success ; but, having greatly increased his army, 
he again attacked him in his dominions, and obtained a 
triumphant victory. Fergus resigned the lordship of 
Galloway in 1160, and, retiring into the abbey of Holy- 
rood, upon which he had bestowed the churches and 
lands of Dunrod and Galtway, within the present parish 
of Kirkcudbright, died in the following year. He had 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Henry I. of England, 
and was ancestor of the families of Bruce and Baliol. 
Fergus was succeeded in the lordship by his two sons, 
Uchtred and Gilbert, between whom, according to the 
Celtic law, his dominions were equally divided. The 
former, who gave the church of Kirk-Cuthbert to the 
monks of Holyrood, resided in the castle of Loch Fergus ; 
but in 1174 he was attacked there, and inhumanly 
murdered, by his brother Gilbert. The last of the male 
line of the ancient lords was Allan, who died in his 
castle of Kirkcudbright, and was interred in the abbey 
of Dundrennan, founded by Fergus, his great-grand- 
father. 

During the competition for the crown of Scotland 
between Bruce and Baliol, the castle of Kirkcudbright 
was delivered, by mandate of Edward I. of England, 
who had been appointed umpire, to Baliol, to whom he 
awarded the crown. The next event of importance re- 
lates to Wallace, who, subsequently to his defeat at the 
battle of Falkirk, sailed from this town for France, 
accompanied by Mac Lcllan of Bombie, and fifty of his 
adherents ; and soon after, Edward, with his queen and 
court, remained for ten days in the castle of Kirkcud- 
bright, whence he shipped large quantities of grain into 
England and Ireland, to be ground for the supply of his 
army. Some time afterwards, Edward Bruce, having 
subdued Galloway for his brother, received, in acknow- 
ledgment of his services, the lordship, together with the 
castle of Kirkcudbright and the whole of Baliol's for- 
feited possessions ; the lordship passed subsequently by 
intermarriage to the family of Douglas. In the reign of 
James II., a sanguinary battle took place near the town, 
when the retainers of Sir John Herries, who, assisted by 
Mac Lellan of Bombie, had invaded the territories of 
Douglas to recover compensation for robberies com- 
mitted by the dependents of that powerful chieftain, 
were totally defeated. Sir John was made prisoner, and 
executed ; and the conquerors, having obtained admit- 
tance into the castle of Raeberry, the residence of the 
Bombie family, seized the chieftain, whom they carried 
off to Threave Castle, and beheaded. The king, about 
three years after this event, visited Kirkcudbright, while 
making preparations for the siege of Threave Castle, the 
last stronghold of the Douglases, in which siege he was 
assisted by the inhabitants ; and for this service he con- 
ferred upon the town, which had been previously a burgh 
of regality, all the privileges of a royal burgh, by charter 
dated at Perth, the 26th October, 1455. After the 
battle of Towton in 1461, the town afforded an asylum 
to Henry VI. of England and his queen, who resided 
here till their departure for Edinburgh ; and on the 16th 
April, 1462, the queen, with a convoy of four Scottish 
ships, sailed from this port to Bretagne, leaving Henry 
with a small retinue, who returned to England in 1463. 

James IV., in one of his pilgrimages to the shrine of 
St. Ninian, at Whithorn, visited the town, in 1501. In 
1507, it was nearly destroyed by the Earl of Derby, 
who, at the head of a large body of Manxmen, made a 



KIRK 



KIRK 



descent on the shores of Galloway. James again visited 
the town in 150S, and was hospitably received by the 
burgesses, to whom he granted the castle of Kirkcud- 
bright, and the lands appertaining to it, which had 
reverted to the crown, on the forfeiture of the Douglases. 
In 1513, many of the inhabitants, under the command 
of Sir William Mac Lellan of Bombie, attended James 
to the battle of Flodden, and fell with their leader on 
the field. In 1523, the Duke of Albany, Regent of 
Scotland, landed here from Brest, and was joyfully 
received. During the minority of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, the town was summoned by the English forces 
who had gained possession of Dumfries to acknowledge 
the authority of Edward VI. This summons, however, 
the inhabitants refused to obey ; and having barred 
their gates, and secured their dykes, Mac Lellan of 
Bombie, at the head of a party of his retainers, attacked 
the assailants, who, having made some unavailing efforts, 
retired to Dumfries. After the battle of Langside, 
Mary, accompanied by Lord Herries and his followers, 
retreated into Galloway, and remained for three days 
in the district, previously to proceeding to England. 
James VI. visited the place while in pursuit, of Lord 
Maxwell, who had arrived here from Spain to arm his 
followers in aid of the Spanish descent ; and the king 
presented to the corporation a miniature silver musket, 
to be given as a prize to the most successful competitor 
in shooting at the target, in order to induce improve- 
ment in the use of fire-arms. Charles I., on his visit to 
Scotland, conferred upon Sir Robert Mac Lellan of Bom- 
bie the title of Lord Kirkcudbright, and granted to the 
burgh a new charter, vesting the government in a pro- 
vost, two bailies, a treasurer, and thirteen councillors, 
which charter is still partially in force. 

The town, which anciently consisted only of one 
irregular street leading down to the harbour, and was 
encompassed by a wall and fosse, of which there are still 
some vestiges remaining, has been greatly extended and 
improved, and, being surrounded by a tract of richly- 
wooded country, has a pleasing appearance. It now 
consists of several well-formed streets, intersecting each 
other at right angles; the principal are, High-street, 
Castle-street, and St. Cuthbert's and Union streets, the 
two former leading to the river Dee, which bounds the 
town on the west. The houses, most of which are 
modern, are neatly built ; and among them are many 
handsome residences of opulent families, contributing 
greatly to the appearance of the town. The streets are 
lighted with gas, from works established by a company 
in 1838; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with 
excellent water from springs about half a mile distant, 
conveyed by pipes laid down in 1763. A public library, 
founded in 1777, is still supported by subscription, 
though containing a very small collection of vo- 
lumes ; and two circulating libraries are remaining, but 
nearly superseded by the publication of cheap periodi- 
cals. A public reading and news room, also, is sup- 
plied with Scottish and English newspapers. Although 
formerly celebrated for its extensive manufactures of 
gloves, boots and shoes, soap, candles, and leather, the 
town has at present very little trade ; and the only 
manufactures now carried on are, that of hosiery, and 
the weaving of cotton, upon a limited scale : there is 
now no brewery. As a sea-port, however, the town 
derives a moderate traffic from the importation of coal 
101 



and other commodities for the supply of the neighbour- 
ing district. 

There are two harbours, both commodious and safe. 
The one at the town, formed by the river Dee, which is 
here about 500 feet wide, has a depth of thirty feet 
at spring, and of from twenty to twenty-five feet at 
neap, tides ; aud below it is a ford across the river, 
which at some particular times has only a depth of a 
foot and a half of water. Vessels frequently deliver 
their cargoes on the beach, and take in their lading in 
a dock which is partly of wood and partly of stone. 
The other harbour is at Torr's or Manxman's lake, 
about two and a half miles from the mouth of the river, 
where almost any number of vessels may ride in safety: 
in front of the entrance, however, there is a bar, over 
which ordinary vessels cannot pass till half-flood, when 
there is a depth of ten or twelve feet water on it. A 
lighthouse on the island of Little Ross, of which the 
lantern, about fifty feet above the level of the sea at 
high water, exhibits a revolving light visible at a great 
distance, forms a guide to the entrance: and by keeping 
this and two towers in a right line, strange vessels may 
safely enter the haven. The number of vessels regis- 
tered as belonging to the port is twenty-six, of the 
aggregate burthen of 922 tons ; and according to the 
custom-house returns, fifty-four vessels, of 2069 tons in 
the aggregate, entered the harbour, and the creeks of 
Kirkcudbright, in a recent year. The chief imports are, 
coal and lime from Cumberland, and groceries, haber- 
dashery, iron, lead, slates and freestone, bone-dust, 
guano, and various wares, from Liverpool and other 
ports ; there is no foreign trade, and seldom more than 
one cargo of wood is annually imported. The exports 
are, corn, meal, potatoes, turnips, beans, black-cattle, 
sheep, wool, salmon, and grass-seeds ; the amount of 
wool shipped in 1842 was 7840 stone, and in the same 
year were exported 721 head of black-cattle and 12,000 
sheep. A little above the harbour is a ferry across the 
river, for horses and carriages, for which a convenient, 
flat-bottomed boat has been constructed. 

The Dee abounds with excellent salmon, for which 
there are three fisheries. One of these, belonging to 
Alexander Murray, Esq., produced some short time since 
a rental of £700 per annum ; another, the property of 
the Earl of Selkirk, £150 ; and the third, belonging to 
the burgh, a rental of £S0. Considerable quantities, 
also, of cod and other fish are taken off the coasts. A 
market is held weekly, on Friday, but is not much fre- 
quented ; and a market for provisions every Tuesday. 
Fairs, chiefly for hiring servants, are held on the last 
Friday in March and September ; and for general 
business on the 12th of August, if on Friday, otherwise 
on the Friday following. There are branches of the 
Bank of Scotland and the Western Bank established 
in the town ; also a branch of the National- Security 
Savings' Banks. The post-office has two deliveries 
daily ; and facility of communication is afforded by 
roads kept in excellent order, and by two bridges over 
the Dee between Kirkcudbright and Tongland, the one, 
which is still in good repair, erected about the year 
1730, at an expense of £400, and the other, of one 
arch of 110 feet in span, erected in 1S0S, at an expense 
of £7350. Two steamers sail weekly to Liverpool in 
summer, and every fortnight during the winter, and are 
of great benefit. 






KIRK 



KIRK 




Ancient Seal. 



The burgh, under its 
charter, is governed by a 
provost, two bailies, a trea- 
surer, and a council of thir- 
teen members, chosen under 
the provisions of the Muni- 
cipal Reform act ; and the 
municipal and parliamen- 
tary boundaries, which are 
nearly identical, comprise 
the whole of the royalty. 
There are six incorporated 
trades, the squaremen, tai- 
lors, clothiers, hammermen and glovers, shoemakers, 
and weavers ; the fees of admission as members vary 
from £1 to £1. 10. for sons and apprentices of freemen, 
and from £3 to £6 for strangers. The revenues of the 
corporation, arising from lands, the fishery, ferry, and 
harbour dues, average about £1000 per annum. The 
magistrates exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction ; but, 
as the seat of the sheriff's court is within the burgh, 
very few cases of the former are brought under their 
consideration, and the latter kind of jurisdiction is 
chiefly confined to petty cases of misdemeanor. The 
burgh is associated with those of Dumfries, Annan, 
Lochmaben, and Sanquhar, in returning a member to 
the imperial parliament ; the right of election is vested 
in the £10 householders, of whom there are 150, and 
there are about 205 whose rents are above £5 and 
under £10. The county-hall and gaol, erected in 1816, 
at an expense of £5000, form a handsome range of 
building in the castellated style, with a lofty tower ; the 
hall and court-room are elegantly decorated, and the 
gaol is under excellent regulation. On the opposite 
side of the High-street are the old gaol and court- 
house, a curious building, near which is the ancient 
market-cross, with a pair of jougs for the punishment 
of delinquents, and the date 1054. 

The parish includes the ancient parishes of Gait- 
way and Dunrod, which, on the dilapidation of their 
churches, were annexed to it in 1 683. It is bounded on 
the south by the Solway Frith, and is about eight miles 
in length, and three and a half in breadth, comprising 
an area of 15,000 acres, of which 3000 are arable, 500 
meadow and pasture, 500 woodland and plantations, and 
the remainder hilly moor, affording tolerable pasturage 
for sheep and cattle. The surface is diversified ; on the 
shores of the Dee it is tolerably level, but in some other 
parts rises by continued undulations to a height of 400 
feet above the level of the sea. The river, after uniting 
with the streams of the Deugh and the Ken, forms a 
boundary of the parish, and joins the Frith at Kirkcud- 
bright bay; it flows through a romantic tract of country, 
between banks of rugged and precipitous rocks clothed 
with wood, and makes some picturesque cascades. It is 
navigable for ships of any burthen to Kirkcudbright, 
and to the lower bridge of Tongland for vessels of 200 
tons. There are several burns in the parish, in which 
are found abundance of yellow trout, and, towards the 
end of autumn, sea-trout and herling ; and near the 
farms of Culdoch and Jordieland is a lake abounding 
with trout equal to those of Loch Leven. 

The soil is principally a clay loam, alternated with 
moss ; in some parts of a dry and gravelly quality, and 
in others of unrivalled fertility. The crops are, oats, 
102 



barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips ; the system of 
agriculture is improved ; the lands have been well 
drained and inclosed, and the farm-buildings generally 
are substantially built. The cattle are mostly of the 
Galloway breed, and are reared in considerable numbers, 
as are also the sheep, which are mainly the Leicestershire 
breed. The substrata of the parish are chiefly grey- 
wacke, porphyry, and trap ; and near the shore are found 
boulders of granite and greenstone. There is but little 
indigenous wood. The plantations are usually oak, ash, 
elm, beech, plane, Spanish chestnut, larch, spruce, and 
Scotch and silver fir ; they are well managed, and in a 
thriving state, and on some of the lands are various 
other varieties, including walnut, birch, alder, maple, 
laburnum, poplar, and willow. The rateable annual value 
of the parish is £11,541. St. Mary's Isle, the seat of 
the Earl of Selkirk, is beautifully situated a mile to 
the south of the town, on what was formerly an island, 
but is now a peninsula projecting into the bay of Kirk- 
cudbright ; it was the site of a priory founded by Fergus, 
lord of Galloway, for Augustine monks, and dedicated 
to St. Mary. There are still remaining some portions of 
the ancient priory, incorporated in the present noble 
mansion, which is embosomed in a demesne enriched with 
stately timber, and commanding some highly-interesting 
and diversified prospects. The houses of Balmae, Jane- 
field, St. Cuthbert's Cottage, and Fludha, are handsome 
residences finely situated. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the super- 
intendence of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and 
synod of Galloway. The minister's stipend is £281. 10., 
with an allowance of £50 in lieu of manse, and a glebe 
valued at £1S per annum; patron, the Crown. The 
church, which is one of the most elegant ecclesiastical 
structures in the country, was erected in 183S, at an 
expense of £7000, towards which the Earl of Selkirk 
contributed more than £4000 ; the interior is well ar- 
ranged, and contains 1500 sittings. There are places 
of worship for members of the Free Church, and the 
United Secession. The Kirkcudbright academy is under 
a rector and two other masters, all appointed by the 
corporation, who pay to the rector a salary of £60, and 
to each of the others £50, in addition to the fees. 
The course of instruction includes the classics, mathe- 
matics, and the whole routine of a commercial educa- 
tion ; the number of scholars is 200 on the average. 
The buildings, which were erected in 1815, on a site 
given by the Earl of Selkirk, were completed at an ex- 
pense of £1129, and contain three large class-rooms, a 
library, and other apartments : in front is a piazza, for 
the use of the pupils in unfavourable weather. Two 
parochial schools are maintained, of which the masters 
have a salary of £25. 13. each, with a house and garden. 
There are also a school for females, of which the mistress 
receives £20 per annum from the funds of the burgh ; 
and a school, of which the master has £10 per annum 
paid jointly by the burgh and by the Countess of Sel- 
kirk ; with various other schools partly endowed ; and 
a Sabbath school under the superintendence of the 
minister, in which are about 300 children. Some ves- 
tiges remain of the ancient churches of Galtway and 
Dunrod, of which the cemeteries are still used as places 
of sepulture. Loch Fergus has been drained, and nothing 
is now left of the original castle of the lords of Galloway; 
but there are some remains of that of Kirkcudbright, 



KIRK 



KIRK 



also a fortress of the lords. The castle at Bombie, from 
which the Mac Lellans took their title, is now a heap of 
ruins ; they had a second castle at Raeberry, situated 
on a precipitous rock overhanging the Solway Frith, 
but the site and fosse alone remain. There are numerous 
vestiges of British forts ; a Roman vase was lately dis- 
covered at Castledykes ; and near Drummore Castle was 
found, about the commencement of the last century, a 
plate of pure gold, valued at £20. 

KIRKCUDBRIGHT, Stewartry of, a district, in 
the south of Scotland, bounded on the north and north- 
east by the county of Dumfries ; on the north and north- 
west by the county of Ayr; on the south and south- 
east by the Solway Frith ; and on the south-west by 
the county and bay of Wigton. It lies between 54° 43' 
and 55° 19' (N. Lat.) and 3° 33' and 4° 34' (W. Long.), 
and is forty-eight miles in length, from east to west, 
and thirty miles in extreme breadth ; comprising an area 
of about S82 square miles, or 564,4S0 acres ; S4S5 
houses, of which 8162 are inhabited; and containing a 
population of 41,119, of whom 1S,S56 are males, and 
22,263 females. This district, which, from its ancient 
tenure, is called a stewartry, though to all purposes a 
county, occupies the eastern portion of the ancient pro- 
vince of Galloway ; and prior to the Roman invasion of 
Britain, was principally inhabited by the British tribe of 
the Novantes. The Romans, on their invasion of the 
island, erected several stations in the district of Gallo- 
way, and constructed various roads ; but, though they 
maintained something like a settlement in this part of 
the country, which they included in their province of 
Valentia, they were not able completely to reduce the 
original inhabitants under their dominion. After the 
departure of the Romans from Britain, the county, 
owing to its proximity to the Isle of Man and the Irish 
coast, became the resort of numerous settlers from those 
parts, who, intermingling with the natives, formed a 
distinct people, subject to the government of a chieftain 
that exercised a kind of subordinate sovereignty under 
the kings of Northumbria, or kings of Scotland, to 
whom they paid a nominal allegiance. Upon the death 
of Allan, Lord of Galloway, in the thirteenth century, 
the country, distracted by the continual struggles of the 
various competitors for its government, fell under the 
power of Alexander II., King of Scotland ; and on the 
subsequent marriage of Devorgilla, one of Allan's 
daughters, with the ancestor of Baliol, King of Scot- 
land, it became the patrimonial property of that family. 
During the contest between Baliol and Bruce for the 
crown, the province was the frequent scene of hostilities; 
and from the attachment of the inhabitants to the cause 
of Baliol, it suffered severely. Ultimately it became 
the property of the Douglas family, on whose attainder 
it escheated to the crown, and was divided by James II. 
among several proprietors. 

The stewartry of Kirkcudbright was for some time 
included in the county of Dumfries, and was under the 
jurisdiction of the same sheriff; but every vestige of 
that connexion was lost prior to the time of Charles I., 
since which period it has, to all intents, formed a dis- 
tinct and independent county, though still retaining its 
ancient appellation. Previously to the Reformation, 
the district was part of the diocese of Galloway ; it is 
now mostly included in the synod of Galloway, and 
comprises the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and parts of 
103 



others, and twenty-eight parishes. For civil purposes, 
it is under the jurisdiction of a sheriff, or Stewart, by 
whom a stewart-substitute is appointed. The courts of 
quarter-session are held at Kirkcudbright in March, 
Ma}', August, and October ; there are courts at the 
same place for the recovery of small debts, on the second 
Tuesday in every month. Small-debt courts are held 
also at New Galloway, Maxwelltown, Castle-Douglas, 
and Creetown ; and there are different courts of other 
descriptions. Kirkcudbright, which is the chief town, 
and New Galloway, are royal burghs in the stewartry; 
and in addition to the towns above-enumerated, are the 
town of Gatehouse of Fleet and some inconsiderable 
hamlets. By the Act of the 2d and 3d of William IV.* 
the stewartry returns one member to the imperial par- 
liament ; the number of qualified voters is 1336. 

Of the lands, about one-third are arable, and the re- 
mainder principally mountain pasture, moorland, and 
waste. The surface is strikingly varied, and towards 
the coast is diversified with numerous hills of moderate 
height, generally of bleak and rugged aspect, and inter- 
spersed with masses of projecting rock. In other parts 
are mountains of lofty elevation, of which the principal 
are, the Criffel, rising 1900 feet above the level of the 
sea, and the Cairnsmore and Cairnbarrow, nearly of 
equal height. The mountainous district is intersected 
with valleys of great fertility, and in a high state of 
cultivation. Many of the hills are easy of ascent, arid 
afford rich pasturage for cattle and sheep ; and some, 
which are of more moderate elevation, are cultivated to 
their summit. The rivers are, the Dee, the Ken, the 
Cree, and the Urr. The Dee has its source in the west- 
ern part of the stewartry, on the confines of Ayrshire, 
and, flowing south-eastward, pursues an irregular course 
for about forty miles; it forms in its progress some 
picturesque cascades, becomes navigable at Tongland 
for vessels of 200 tons' burthen, and falls into the bay 
at Kirkcudbright. The Ken rises in the north-west 
part of the stewartry, and, after a south-easterly course 
of several miles, expands into the loch to which it gives 
name, and shortly forms a confluence with the Dee. 
The river Cree has its source on the confines of Ayr- 
shire, and, flowing south-easterly, forms a boundary 
between the stewartry and the county of Wigton ; it 
runs past Newton-Stewart, on the east, and falls into 
the creek at the head of Wigton bay. This river 
abounds with smelts ; and, for several miles in the latter 
part of its course through a district abounding with 
romantic scenery, is navigable for small vessels. The 
Urr has its source in the lake of that name, on the 
northern boundary of the stewartry, and, after a course 
of nearly thirty miles through a pleasant and richly- 
wooded strath, falls into the Solway Frith nearly oppo- 
site to the island of Hestan. There are various less- 
important streams, of which some are navigable for small 
craft ; the chief are the Fleet, the Tarf, the Deugh, and 
the Cluden. Numerous lakes, also, adorn the county, 
but few of sufficient extent to require particular notice ; 
the principal is Loch Ken, nearly five miles in length, 
and about half a mile in breadth. 

The whole of the district appears to have been at a 
very early period in a forward state of cultivation • 
and during the war of the Scots with Edward I. of 
England, it furnished the chief supplies of grain for the 
subsistence of the English army after the conquest of 



KIRK 



KIRK 



Galloway. In the subsequent periods of intestine strife, 
however, it fell into a state of neglect, in which it re- 
mained till the commencement of the eighteenth century, 
since which time it has been gradually improving. The 
soil is generally a brown loam of small depth, alternated 
with sand, and resting usually on a bed of gravel or 
rock. In some parts a clayey loam is prevalent; in 
others are large quantities of flow-moss of considerable 
depth, which are supposed to be convertible into a rich 
soil, a very wide tract of such land having been rendered 
productive within the last thirty years. The crops are, 
oats, barley, potatoes, turnips, and the different green 
crops ; the farms on the arable lands vary from 150 to 
500 acres in extent, and those on the moors from 4000 
to 5000 acres. The rotation plan of husbandry is 
adopted ; the lands have been drained, and inclosed 
principally with stone fences, called Galloway dykes. 
Some of the farm-buildings, however, are of rather in- 
ferior order, and only roofed with thatch. The cattle, of 
which more than 50,000 head are annually pastured, 
are of the Galloway breed ; and great attention is paid to 
their improvement. The sheep, of which upwards of 
180,000 are fed on the moorland farms, are of the High- 
land black -faced breed, with some of the Lowland breeds, 
of small stature, white-faced, and bearing very fine 
fleeces ; these are supposed to be of Spanish origin. 
Great numbers of swine are also reared, and form a 
valuable stock ; the horses, of which more than 6000 
are bred, though not pure Galloways, are much esteemed. 
Numbers of horses, cattle, and sheep are shipped off for 
various markets. 

There are no remains of the ancient forests with 
which the district formerly abounded, except a few 
trees on the banks of some of the streams ; but con- 
siderable plantations have been formed on the lands of 
the various proprietors, and in other parts, which have 
added greatly to the appearance of the country. The 
minerals, on account of the scarcity of coal, have not 
been rendered available to any profitable extent ; copper 
is wrought near Gatehouse of Fleet by an English com- 
pany, and lead-mines were formerly in operation in the 
parish of Minnigaff. Iron-ore is found in abundance, 
but, from the want of coal, is of little value ; the lime- 
stone and coal used here are all brought from Cumber- 
land. Indications of coal, and also of limestone, have 
been perceived on the lands of Arbigland, in the parish 
of Kirkbean ; but no mines have as yet been opened. 
The manufacture of linen, cotton, and woollen goods is 
carried on to a considerable extent in the towns and 
villages ; but the principal trade of the district, which 
is almost entirely pastoral or agricultural, is the large 
export of cattle, sheep, and grain, for which the facility 
of steam navigation affords ample opportunity. The 
salmon-fisheries at the mouths of the various rivers are 
highly productive, and the Solway Frith abounds with 
fish of every kind ; but little benefit is derived from this 
source, and comparatively few fishermen's cottages are 
to be found upon the shores. The coast is generally 
precipitous, with intervals of low shelving sands ; and 
the navigation is for the most part dangerous, though 
some of the bays afford safe anchorage. The harbour 
of Kirkcudbright is easy of access, and affords secure 
shelter from all winds ; it has a considerable depth at 
high water. About two miles from the small island of 
Little Ross, at the mouth of Kirkcudbright harbour, and 
104 



on which a lighthouse has been erected, is a fine bay 
called Manxman's lake, in which 100 vessels of large 
burthen can ride in safety. Communication with Liver- 
pool is maintained by steamers, which sail regularly 
from the port. The rateable annual value of the real 
property in the county is £193,801, of which £182,926 
are for lands, £9444 for houses, £1204 for fisheries, 
and £227 for quarries. 

KIRKDEN, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 
5 miles (E. by S.) from Forfar ; containing, with the 
village of Friockheim, 1483 inhabitants. This place, 
which was anciently called Idvie, from the situation of 
the glebe lands in that barony, derives its present name 
from the position of its church in a deep and narrow 
valley. It appears to have been the scene of a sanguinary 
conflict with the Danes in the reign of Malcolm II. ; 
and near the spot are the remains of an obelisk erected 
by that monarch in commemoration of their defeat, not 
far from which, in a tumulus raised over the slain, have 
been found several tirns containing ashes. In the 
adjoining plain, also, numerous stone coffins ranged 
side by side, and each containing an entire skeleton, 
were discovered towards the close of the last century. 
The parish is about seven miles in length, from east to 
west, and of very irregular form, varying from less than 
a quarter of a mile to two miles in breadth, and com- 
prising an area of 4514 acres, of which 3000 are arable, 
1300 woodland and plantations, and the remainder 
meadow, pasture, and waste. The surface is boldly 
undulated, and towards the south rises to a considerable 
acclivity, forming part of the termination of the Sidlaw 
hills, and commanding an extensive and richly varied 
prospect over the surrounding country, with the vale of 
Strathmore and the passes of the Grampian hills. The 
small river Vinny flows for three or four miles along the 
northern border of the parish, and, uniting with the 
Lunan, afterwards intersects the parish, and frequently, 
in rainy weather, inundates the lower lands ; both these 
streams abound with excellent trout, and in the latter 
pike are also sometimes found, and occasionally a few 
salmon. 

The soil is mostly a friable clay, but has been greatly 
improved by a mixture of marl found in the lakes in 
the vicinity, and by good cultivation has been rendered 
generally fertile. The crops are, grain of all kinds, with 
potatoes and turnips ; and considerable attention is 
paid to the management of the dairy-farms, and to the 
improvement of live stock : the breed of cattle is prin- 
cipally of the polled or Angus kind. The lands are 
inclosed chiefly with stone fences. Within the last few 
years, a very large portion of ground has been reclaimed 
from absolute sterility, and brought into profitable 
cultivation, by draining ; the farm-buildings are in good 
condition, and on most of the farms threshing-mills 
have been erected. The woods consist of oak, ash, elm, 
plane, and beech ; and the plantations, which are com- 
paratively of modern growth, of larch, and spruce and 
silver firs. The substratum is partly sandstone, of 
durable texture and of a greyish colour ; and in the 
southern part, trap-rock, which is a continuation of the 
Sidlaw hills, is prevalent. Freestone of good quality 
is also found ; and there are two excellent quarries, 
which, when in operation, employ a considerable num- 
ber of men. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£4012. Gardyne Castle is a spacious baronial structure 



KIRK 



KIRK 



of venerable aspect, beautifully situated on the steep 
acclivity of a deep and picturesque dell watered by a 
streamlet ; the demesne attached to it is richly planted, 
and laid out with great taste. Middleton is a hand- 
some modern mansion, seated in a wooded plain, near 
the banks of the Vinny; Pitmuies is also a modern 
mansion, similarly situated in grounds tastefully em- 
bellished. 

There are two villages ; the one, Cot-town of Gardyne, 
consisting of a few scattered cottages inhabited by about 
eighty persons ; and the other called Friockheim, which 
has arisen in consequence of the increase of the linen 
manufacture, and contains SOS inhabitants. The people 
of both are chiefly employed in the weaving of Osna- 
burghs by hand-looms, and in mills for spinning flax, 
of which there are three within the parish. Facility of 
intercourse with the neighbouring districts is afforded 
by numerous roads, of which the Arbroath and Forfar 
road passes for nearly three miles through the parish ; 
and the Arbroath and Forfar railway intersects the 
eastern portion of it. The ecclesiastical affairs are 
under the superintendence of the presbytery of Arbroath 
and synod of Angus and Mearns. The minister's sti- 
pend is £15". 18., of which nearly one half is paid from 
the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at 
£13 per annum; patron, the Crown. The parish church, 
erected in 1 S25, on the site of the former, is a neat and 
commodious structure containing 525 sittings ; and a 
church has been built in the village of Friockheim. 
The members of the Free Church have also a place of 
worship. The parochial school is well attended; the 
master has a salary of £25. 13. 10., with a house and 
garden, and the fees average about £12 per annum. A 
school at Friockheim is supported by subscription. A 
parochial library was established in 1827, by James 
Douglas, Esq., who presented a collection of seventy- 
two volumes, chiefly on religions subjects ; and the 
number has been greatly augmented by James Mudie, 
Esq. The poor till lately received the proceeds of a 
fund of £260, and of bequests by Miss Gardyne and 
her sister of £14 and £20 respectively. There is a 
weak chalybeate spring at the extremity of the parish, 
in considerable repute. On the lands of Idvie and on 
the estate of Gardyne are conical mounds called respec- 
tively Bractullo and Gallows Hill, supposed to have 
been anciently places for the trial and execution of 
criminals ; they are both planted with trees. Upon 
the farm of Bractullo were recently found some stone 
coffins containing human bones, with strings of beads 
apparently of charred wood. 

KIRKFIELD, lately an ecclesiastical district, in the 
parish of Gorbals, within the jurisdiction of Glasgow, 
county of Lanark ; containing 2S35 inhabitants. This 
place, which is situated on the south bank of the river 
Clyde, is inhabited principally by persons employed in 
the several factories connected with the city of Glas- 
gow. The parish, which was of moderate extent, was 
separated for quoad sacra purposes, by act of the 
General Assembly in 1S34: the ecclesiastical affairs 
are under the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £150, 
without either glebe or manse, and is paid from the seat 
rents by the proprietors of the church, who are patrons. 
The church, originally the parish church of Gorbals, 
and subsequently a chapel of ease, was purchased by 
Vol. II.— 105 



the proprietors in 1813, at a cost of £1200, and contains 
1023 sittings. There are places of worship for members 
of the Free Church, and of the United Secession. 

KIRKFIELD-BANK, a village, in the parish of 
Lesmahago, Upper Ward of the county of Lanark, 
1 mile (W. by S.) from Lanark , containing 1023 inha- 
bitants. This place is situated in the eastern extremity 
of the parish, and on the west side of the river Clyde, 
which flows at a short distance from it, and is crossed 
by a bridge of three arches. The population is chiefly 
employed in hand-loom weaving for the manufacturers 
of the district ; and in the neighbourhood is a distillery. 
There is a regular communication with Glasgow by 
means of coaches and carriers. In the village is a 
school, to the master of which the heritors make a 
small annual allowance. 

KIRKGUNZEON, a parish, in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, 9 miles (S. W.) from Dumfries ; con- 
taining, with the village of Gateside, 638 inhabitants, 
of whom 40 are in the village of Kirkgunzeon. This 
place is supposed to have derived its name, anciently 
Kirkicynon, from the dedication of its church to St. 
Wynnin ; and this opinion is corroborated by the name 
of a spring near it, which still retains the appellation of 
St. Wynnin's well. In the reign of David Bruce, the 
church and lands belonged to the abbey of Holm-Cul- 
tram, in Cumberland ; but in 1369, the abbot, having 
sided with the English against that monarch, was dis- 
possessed of his property in Scotland. The abbey lands 
were then conferred by the king upon Sir John Herries, 
of Terregles, from whose family they passed to the 
Maxwells, of Nithsdale, whose descendant, Marmaduke 
Constable Maxwell, of Terregles, Esq., is now the princi- 
pal proprietor in Kirkgunzeon. The parish is about five 
miles in length, and nearly three in average breadth, 
comprising an area of 7600 acres, of which 5000 are 
arable, meadow, and pasture, 400 woodland and planta- 
tions, and the remainder moor and waste. The surface 
is irregularly broken into hills of moderate elevation, 
abounding with grouse and black game. The lower 
grounds are intersected by a nameless river, which has 
its source in two lakes in the parish of Newabbey, and, 
flowing through the centre of this parish, after a course 
of nine miles, falls into the Urr, about a mile below 
the village of Dalbeattie. The river abounds with trout, 
and, in the deeper parts, with perch and pike ; and 
during the spawning season some very large trout, of 
excellent quality, and weighing from four to six pounds, 
are taken at the outlets of the lakes in which the stream 
has its source. Partridges and hares are found in 
abundance, and occasionally pheasants, but in much 
smaller numbers. 

The ground along the banks of the river is level, and 
in various other places also flat, and well adapted for 
the plough ; the soil on these lands is rich and fertile, 
but of lighter quality on the upland districts. The 
crops are, barley, oats, and a small quantity of wheat, 
with potatoes and turnips. The system of agriculture 
is improved; the farm-houses are substantial and well 
built, chiefly of granite, and roofed with slate ; the lands 
are well inclosed, and the fences kept in good repair ; 
and all the more recent improvements in husbandry are 
generally practised. The cattle, of which considerable 
numbers are pastured on the hills, are mostly of the 
Galloway breed ; and Highland bullocks are bought in 



KIRK 



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at Falkirk, at the end of harvest, and during the winter 
fattened for the markets. Comparatively few sheep are 
reared ; and on two farms only are shepherds kept to 
tend the flocks. The plantations, which, within the 
last few years, have been greatly extended, are in a 
thriving state. Granite, of which the rocks are princi- 
pally composed, is the only stone found. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £4084. The village is 
very inconsiderable, consisting only of a few houses 
around the church. There is a post-office at Dalbeattie, 
about four miles from the village, which has a daily 
delivery ; and facility of communication is afforded by 
the turnpike-road from Dumfries to Kirkcudbright, 
which passes through the parish. The ecclesiastical 
affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery 
and synod of Dumfries. The minister's stipend is 
£158. 6. 6., of which nearly one half is paid from the 
exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per 
annum ; patron, Mr. Maxwell, of Terregles. The church, 
situated in the centre of the parish, was erected in 
1790, and is a plain neat structure containing 224 
sittings. The parochial school is well attended ; the 
master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, 
and the fees average £15 per annum. There is also a 
small school at the lower end of the parish, for which a 
building was erected by the farmers, at their own ex- 
pense ; and in addition to the fees, £4 are allowed out 
of the parochial salary, to the master, who lives by turns 
with the parents of his pupils. There are still the 
remains of two ancient houses, formerly seats of the 
Herrries family, and both of which appear to have been 
places of strength ; parts are left also of the tower of 
Drumcoltran. On the farm of Glaisters was a large 
cairn, of which the stones have been removed for build- 
ing dykes, and in which were found many urns con- 
taining human ashes that crumbled into dust on expo- 
sure to the air. A beautiful gold coin of James V., in 
good preservation, was found some years since on the 
lands of Lochend ; and within the last few years was 
discovered in the glebe, a silver medal, supposed to have 
been struck on the dispersion of the Spanish Armada. 

KIRKHILL, a village, in the parish of Penicuick, 
county of Edinburgh, \ a mile (N. E. by E.) from 
Penicuick; containing 315 inhabitants. It is situated 
on the west bank of the North Esk river, on which are 
considerable mills for the manufacture of paper. The 
population is chiefly engaged in these mills, and in 
weaving. 

KIRKHILL, a parish, in the Mainland district of 
the county of Inverness, 6 miles (W.) from Inverness; 
containing 1S29 inhabitants. This place, which consists 
of the two united parishes of Wardlaw and Farnua, 
derives its name from the situation of its church on a 
hill ; its Gaelic name refers to the dedication of its 
church to the Virgin Mary. The parish, which is 
bounded on the north by the Beauly loch and the Frith 
of Moray, and on the north-west by the river Beauly, 
is about eight miles in length, varying from one mile to 
three miles in breadth. The surface is diversified with 
hills, of which those in the south-eastern portion of the 
parish rise to a considerable elevation, and are mostly 
covered with heath, affording scanty pasture for sheep 
and cattle. The river, which skirts the parish for nearly 
three miles, is navigable for vessels of sixty tons to the 
village of Beauly, in the parish of Kilmorack,and abounds 
106 



with salmon, and trout, of various kinds. Herrings are 
taken in moderate quantities during the season in the 
Beauly loch ; and on the shore, at Fopachy and Wester 
Lovat, are landing places where vessels deliver cargoes 
of lime and coal for the supply of the parish. 

The soil in the valleys, and along the Frith, is a strong 
clay, and on the rising grounds a rich loam. The crops 
are, wheat, barley, and oats, with potatoes and turnips ; 
the system of husbandry is improved, and the lands are 
generally in a state of profitable cultivation. Consider- 
able portions of moor have been rendered fertile by 
draining ; the farms are partly inclosed, and the build- 
ings are mostly substantial and commodious. There 
are some natural woods, chiefly of alder and birch, of 
which the former is predominant ; and extensive plan- 
tations have been formed, consisting of firs and the 
various kinds of forest and ornamental trees, all in a 
thriving state. The rateable annual value of the parish 
is £6807. The mansions are, Moniack, Newton, Len- 
tran, Auchnagairn, Fingask, Reeliek, and Bunchrew, the 
birthplace of President Forbes. The village, or Kirktown, 
is pleasantly situated on the bank of the Beauly river ; 
and facility of communication is afforded by the road 
to Inverness, which passes through the whole length of 
the parish. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the 
superintendence of the presbytery of Inverness and 
synod of Moray. The minister's stipend is £247, with 
a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. ; patron, 
Hercules Scott, Esq. The church, originally erected in 
1220, on Wardlaw or St. Mary's Hill, was taken down, 
and rebuilt near the former site, in 1791, and is in good 
repair. The members of the Free Church have a place 
of worship. The parochial school is well attended ; the 
master has a salary of £30, with a house and garden, 
and the fees average from £15 to £20 per annum. 
There is also a school supported by the Society for 
Propagating Christian Knowledge. On the summit of 
Wardlaw Hill, and on the site of the old church, is a 
chapel, the burial place of the Fraser family, and which 
contains elegant monuments to Thomas and Simon 
Fraser, Lords Lovat. 

KIRKHILL, a village, in the parish of Cambus- 
lang, Middle ward of the county of Lanark ; con- 
taining 216 inhabitants. This is one of thirteen villages 
in the parish, and is among the largest. It has about 
forty-three families, of whom thirty-two are engaged in 
the manufactures of the district, chiefly hand-loom 
weaving for the Glasgow houses. 

KIRKIBBOST, an isle, in the parish of North Uist, 
county of Inverness ; containing 25 inhabitants. This 
isle lies on the south of Uist, and west of the island of 
Balishear ; and is about a mile in length, but of no 
great breadth, and insulated only at high water. It is 
composed of fine sand; and being exposed to the west- 
erly gales, a great tract has been blown away, and the 
sea now covers fields which produced good crops of 
barley and other grain. The suppression of sand-drift 
has, however, been effectually secured here, as in other 
parts of the parish, by sloping the sand-banks, and cover- 
ing them with sward from neighbouring places ; and 
bent is also employed for this purpose. 

KIRKIBOLL, a village, in the parish of Tongue, 
county of Sutherland, \ a mile (W.) from Tongue ; 
containing 92 inhabitants. This is a pretty village, 
situated on a bay of its own name, which opens into the 



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KIRK 



Kyle of Tongue : it contains the manse, and a commo- 
dious inn ; and at a short distance is Tongue House. 

KIRKINNER, a parish, in the county of Wigton ; 
containing, with the hamlets of March farm and Slo- 
habert, 1*69 inhabitants, of whom 229 are in the village 
of Kirkinner, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Wigton. This 
place, which is of very remote antiquity, derives its name 
from the virgin saint Kinneir, by whom its ancient church 
was consecrated, and who suffered martyrdom at Co- 
logne in the year 450. The church was granted by 
Edward Bruce, Lord of Galloway, to the priory of Whit- 
horn ; and on its resignation by the brethren of that 
establishment to James V., in 1503, in exchange for the 
church of Kirkandrews, it was attached to the chapel 
royal of Stirling. Subsequently, it formed the benefice 
of the sub-dean of the chapel. The original parish in- 
cluded the whole of the district now forming the parish 
of Kirkowan, after the separation of which, the ancient 
parish of Longcastle was united to Kirkinner on the 
decay of its church, which fell into ruins in 1630. The 
early history of the place is not distinguished by any 
other events of importance. The old castle of Baldoon, 
for nearly two centuries the seat of the Dunbar family, 
and which furnished Sir Walter Scott with incidents 
for his tale of the Bride of Lammennoor, passed, by mar- 
riage with the heiress, to the Hamiltous, and then to 
the Douglases, with whom it remained till 1793, when 
the estate was purchased by the Earl of Galloway. 

The parish is bounded on the east by the bay of 
Wigton, along which it extends for about three miles, 
and on the north by the river Bladenoch ; and comprises 
15,000 acres, of which 13,500 are arable, 300 woodland 
and plantations, and the remainder hill pasture, moor, 
and moss. The surface along the shore of the bay is 
perfectly level, but in most other parts is diversified with 
gentle undulations, and hills of moderate height, some- 
times covered with verdure, or crowned with plantations, 
which add much to the beauty of the scenery. The bay 
is here from seven to eight miles in width at high water, 
but retires, at the ebb of the tide, to a considerable dis- 
tance from the shore, leaving a level tract of sand more 
than a mile in breadth. The river Bladenoch has its 
source near the borders of Ayrshire, and flows in a 
winding course into Wigton bay ; it abounds with 
salmon, trout, and Sperlings, and is navigable for nearly 
two miles from its mouth. The other streams in the 
parish are the Malzie and the Mildriggen ; the former 
joins the Bladenoch soon after that river enters the 
parish, on the west, and the latter flows north-eastward 
through the grounds of Barnbarroch and Baldoon park, 
into the Bladenoch near its influx into the bay. At the 
south-western extremity of the parish is the lake of 
Dowalton, or Longcastle, a sheet of water about two 
miles in length and a mile and a half in breadth, of which 
the larger portion is in the parish of Sorby. Pike and 
perch are found in this lake; and on the Kirkinner 
side, at a small distance from the shore, are two small 
islands, one of which is thirty acres in extent. There 
are numerous springs of excellent water in various parts 
of the parish, and also some of which the water is 
strongly impregnated with iron ; the principal of these 
is on the lands of Barnbarroch, and was formerly much 
rosorted to by invalids. 

The most prevailing soil is of a gravelly nature ; on 
the low lands of Baldoon are some large alluvial tracts. 

ior 



In other parts are patches of moss ; but the lands ge- 
nerally have been greatly enriched by the use of shell- 
marl for manure, of which abundant supplies are ob- 
tained from the shores of the bay. The crops are, oats, 
wheat, barley, potatoes, and turnips, with the various 
grasses ; the system of husbandry is in an improved 
state, and a due rotation of crops is carefully observed. 
The lands have been drained, and inclosed partly with 
fences of thorn and partly with dykes of stone ; the 
farm-houses and offices are substantial and well-arranged, 
and many of them of superior order. The cattle reared 
are usually of the Galloway breed, and great attention 
is paid to their improvement ; large numbers are an- 
nually fattened for the Liverpool market, and shipped 
at Wigton. Few sheep are bred ; but many of the High- 
land kind, purchased at the Falkirk tryst, are fed on 
turnips during the winter and spring, and afterwards 
sent to Whitehaven and Liverpool, where they find a 
ready sale. The plantations, which are mostly of modern 
growth, consist of firs, interspersed with various sorts of 
forest trees, for which the soil is well adapted ; they are 
under careful management, and in a thriving state, es- 
pecially the beech, ash, plane, and Huntingdon willow, 
of which many have attained a luxuriant growth. The 
prevaling rocks are of the transition kind, and boulders 
of granite are found in some places ; but stone of good 
quality for building is very scarce, and there are not 
any mines or quarries. The rateable annual value of 
Kirkinner is £10,997- Barnbarroch House, the seat of 
the Agnew family, is a stately modern mansion, situated 
nearly in the centre of the parish, in an extensive and 
richly-planted demesne. The village is on the road that 
leads to Wigton ; a few of the inhabitants are em- 
ployed in weaving linen by hand-looms at their own 
dwellings. A post-office has been established here, and 
has a daily delivery ; and facility of communication is 
maintained by good roads, which intersect the parish, 
and by bridges over the various streams, of which that 
across the river Bladenoch is a substantial structure. 
At Baldoon is a small harbour, for the accommodation 
of vessels bringing supplies of coal and other articles 
required in the district, and for the shipment of grain, 
cattle, and other agricultural produce. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superinten- 
dence of the presbytery of Wigton and synod of Gallo- 
way. The minister's stipend is £230, with a manse, and 
a glebe valued at £20 per annum, patrons, the Agnew 
family. The church, erected in 1828, is a handsome 
and substantial structure containing S00 sittings, and 
is situated at a small distance to the east of the village. 
The parochial school is well conducted, and attended 
by about 100 children ; the master has a salary of £34, 
with a house and garden, and the fees average £30 per 
annum. The school-house is a spacious building near 
the church, and contains a small library for the use of 
the scholars. At Cairnfield was a Druidical circle, of 
which the stones have long been removed ; and in a 
cairn near the site, which has also been taken down 
and the stones used for building fences, were found, in- 
closed in a coffin of rudely-formed slabs, human bones 
partly consumed by fire. There are vestiges of two cir- 
cular camps, of which the history is unknown ; and 
not far from Loch Dowalton are some remains of the 
ancient church of Longcastle. Numerous ancient coins 
have been found at different times on the farm of Bar- 

P2 



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ness. Of the family of Vaux, formerly proprietors of 
Barnbarroch, Alexander was consecrated Bishop of Gallo- 
way in 1426, and in 1429 was appointed by James I. 
one of the conservators of peace on the Scottish borders ; 
his cousin, George Vaux, was bishop of Galloway in the 
reign of James III. Sir Patrick Vaux, the last distin- 
guished member of the family, was made a lord of ses- 
sion by James VI., and was subsequently sent by that 
monarch as ambassador to the court of Denmark. 

KIRKINTILLOCH, a burgh of barony and a parish, 
in the county of Dumbarton, 7 miles (N. E. by N.) 
from Glasgow, and 40 (W.) from Edinburgh ; containing 
8SS0 inhabitants, of whom 6698 are in the burgh. 
This place, during the time of the Romans, formed part 
of the province of Valentia ; and the vestiges of three 
forts on the line of the Roman wall, which passed 
through the whole length of the parish, may be still 
distinctly traced. The barony was granted by charter 
of William the Lion to William Cumyn, lord of Lenzie 
and Cumbernauld ; and the town, under the appellation 
of W T ester Lenzie, was, by charter of the same monarch, 
erected into a burgh of barony in 1184. The ancient 
castle of the Cumyns, of which no vestiges are now re- 
maining, appears to have been of great strength in the 
beginning of the 14th century, when, on the forfeiture 
of John Cumyn, it was bestowed, together with the 
barony, by Robert Bruce, upon Sir Robert de Fleming, 
in reward of his eminent services during the struggles 
in which Bruce had been engaged with England, in 
asserting his right of succession to the Scottish throne. 
The present name of the town, Kirkintilloch, supposed 
to be a corruption of Caer-pen-tulach, signifying in the 
Gaelic language " the termination of a promontory," is 
minutely descriptive of the situation of the place at the 
extremity of a ridge which extends from the south of 
the parish into a plain on the banks of the river Kelvin. 
In 1745, the Highland army of the Pretender passed 
through the town, when a shot from a barn killed one 
of their men, and the inhabitants, being unable to de- 
liver the offender into their custody, were subjected to 
a heavy fine. The people suffered severely from the 
Asiatic cholera, which visited the town in 1832, when 
many fatal cases occurred ; but since that time no event 
of importance has taken place. 

The town is situated on the banks of the river Lug- 
gie, near its influx into the Kelvin, and consists of nu- 
merous irregularly-formed streets, diverging from each 
other in various directions ; the houses are of indifferent 
appearance, and built without any regard to uniformity. 
The streets are, however, lighted with gas from works 
recently established by a company of shareholders ; and 
the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. A 
public library is supported by subscription, and has a 
collection of useful volumes ; and there are other 
libraries in the parish. The environs abound with 
pleasing scenery, enlivened by gentlemen's seats, of 
which the grounds are enriched with thriving planta- 
tions. From the abundance of coal and ironstone in 
the immediate vicinity, and the facilities of water 
carriage, the place has become a seat of manufacture, 
and has greatly increased in population. The cotton- 
manufacture is pursued to a very considerable extent, 
chiefly for exportation to India; the articles are, flow- 
ered-muslins, gauzes, and similar fabrics, which afford 
occupation to about 2000 hand-loom weavers, most of 
108 



whom are resident in the town of Kirkintilloch. The 
printing of calico is also carried on, giving employment 
to 120 persons ; about twenty persons are engaged in 
the manufacture of silk hats, and there are a distillery 
and an iron-foundry. The quantity of whisky pro- 
duced annually from distilleries, until recently, averaged 
116,500 gallons. The market is on Saturday, but is 
not numerously attended : fairs, chiefly for cattle, are 
held on the second Tuesday in May, the last Thursday 
in July, and the 21st of October. The post-office has a 
good delivery. Facility of communication is afforded 
by the turnpike-road from Glasgow to Edinburgh, 
which passes through the town, and by numerous good 
roads that intersect the parish in various directions ; 
by the Forth and Clyde canal, which runs for several 
miles along the northern border of the parish ; and 
also by the Monkland and Kirkintilloch railway, which 
has its northern terminus in the town, and connects 
the rich coal districts in the parishes of Old and New 
Monkland with the canal. The act for the construction 
of this railway was obtained in 1S24 : the original 
capital, £32,000, was increased to £52,000 in 1833, and 
to £124,000 in 1839; and by an act passed in 1843, 
the company were empowered to increase their capital 
to £210,000, to enable them to form additional lines. 
The government of the burgh, under the charter of 
William the Lion, confirmed by Malcolm Fleming, 
who, in 1525, granted to the burgesses the lands of the 
burgh, a gift ratified by his successors, the earls of 
Wigton, is vested in two bailies, a treasurer, and twelve 
councillors, assisted by a town-clerk. These officers 
are annually elected by the burgesses, twenty-two in 
number, who derive their qualification from the feudal 
tenure of one of the twenty-two portions, called New- 
land Mailings, into which the rural district of the burgh 
is divided : the tenure of the lands whereon the town 
is built affords no right to vote in the election of the 
officers. The magistrates are invested with all the 
jurisdiction of royal burghs, which in civil cases they 
exercise to an unlimited amount, but in criminal cases 
only as to petty offences ; the town-clerk acts as asses- 
sor, but courts are held only as occasion may require. 
The court-house, to which a prison is attached, is a 
substantial building with a spire ; it is situated at the 
market-cross, and was erected in 1S14. 

This parish and that of Cumbernauld were originally 
one, under the appellation of Lenzie, and continued as 
such till 1659, when, a church being built for the 
accommodation of the eastern portion at Cumbernauld, 
the ancient chapel of the Virgin Mary became the 
church of the western portion, which constitutes the 
present parish of Kirkintilloch. The parish is bounded 
on the north by the river Kelvin, and is nearly six 
miles in length, and about three miles and a half in 
extreme breadth, comprising an area of 10,6/0 acres, of 
which 4000 are arable, 300 woodland and plantations, 
and the remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. The 
surface, though undulated, is nowhere broken into hills 
of precipitous elevation. The principal river is the Kel- 
vin : its tributary, the Luggie, intersects the southern 
portion of the lands, and flows into the Kelvin at 
a spot north-west of the town : both these streams 
abound with trout. At Gartshore is a lake called the 
Bord loch, about four acres in extent. The soil around 
the town is a light black loam of considerable depth ; in 



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the southern portion of the parish, a strong clay : other 
parts are peat-moss. The crops consist of wheat, bar- 
ley, oats, peas, beans, potatoes, and turnips, and there 
is much land cultivated as gardens and orchards : the 
system of husbandry is improved ; the lands have been 
partly drained and inclosed, and some large tracts of 
moss and waste have been reclaimed. Considerable 
numbers of cattle are reared in the pastures, of various 
breeds ; on the dairy-farms the cows arc all of the Ayr- 
shire. The plantations, which are principally round the 
mansions of the landed proprietors, are larch and spruce, 
and Scotch firs, intermixed with the different kinds of 
forest trees. The substrata of the parish are chiefly 
coal, limestone, and ironstone. Coal is wrought exten- 
sively on the lands of Barr hill, the property of Mr. 
Gartshore, at Stron, and at Shirva ; and limestone at 
Orchardstown ; whinstone and greenstone, also, are 
quarried for the roads. The rateable annual value of 
the parish is £1S,0*1. The mansion-houses are, Gart- 
shore, for many centuries the seat of the ancient family 
of the Gartshores ; Oxgang, Shirva, Unthank, Garn- 
gaber, Broomhill, Bellefield, Woodhead, Luggiebank, 
Merkland, Meiklehill, and Duntiblae. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £262, 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum ; 
patron, J. Fleming, Esq. The parish church, formerly 
the chapel of St. Mary, was erected in 1644, and, though 
it has been repaired within the last few years, is still 
inconvenient ; it contains S00 sittings. The church of 
St. David, to which a district containing a population of 
3414 was till lately annexed as a quoad sacra parish, 
was erected in 1S3", at an expense of £2300, raised by 
subscription ; it is a neat substantial structure with 
1000 sittings. The minister, who is appointed by the 
managers and subscribers, derives his stipend chiefly 
from the seat-rents. There are also places of worship 
for members of the Free Church, United Secession, 
Associate Burghers, and Wesleyans. The parochial 
school is attended by about 120 children ; the master 
has a salary of £34, with an allowance of £8 in lieu of 
house and garden, and the fees average £30 per annum. 
There are also a subscription school, and another for 
which a handsome building was erected by a lady of 
the Gartshore family ; the masters receive salaries of 
£12 and £4 respectively, in addition to the fees. The 
wall of Antonine may be traced for nearly six miles 
through the parish ; the three Roman forts already 
noticed were at Barr hill, Auchendavie, and near the 
west end of the town, respective!}'. On clearing the 
ground near them were found stones with various in- 
scriptions, on one of which was inscribed Legio Secunda 
Augusta fecit; and a wedge of lead was discovered, 
weighing eleven stone, on which is stamped, in Roman 
characters, the date " C.C.L.XX." 

KIRKLAND, a hamlet, in the parish of Glencairn, 
county of Dumfries; containing "1 inhabitants, who 
are chiefly employed in agriculture. 

KIRKLAND, a village in that part of the parish of 
Wemyss which was included in the late quoad sacra 
parish of Metiiill, county of Fife, lA mile (\V. by S.) 
from Leven ; containing 534 inhabitants. This village, 
which is pleasantly situated, and neatly built, is chiefly 
inhabited by persons engaged in the weaving of linen, 
109 



a very extensive factory having been established here by 
Messrs. Neilson and Company. The principal articles 
manufactured are, canvass, sheeting, dowlas, and ducks, 
in which, and in the spinning of yarn, the dressing of 
flax, and other branches, nearly 500 persons of the vil- 
lage and neighbourhood are constantly employed. In 
these extensive works, about 1000 tons of flax and hemp 
are annually consumed ; almost 300,000 spindles are at 
work, and the average amount of wages paid annually 
exceeds £12,000. The buildings are spacious, substan- 
tial, and handsome; the interior is wholly lighted with 
gas, and the most approved machinery has been intro- 
duced. There is a school in the village, to the master 
of which the proprietors of the factory give a salary of 
£30 per annum, for the instruction of the children of 
their establishment. 

KIRKLAND of TINWALD, a village, in the parish 
of Tinwald, county of Dumfries, 4 miles (N. E. by N.) 
from Dumfries; containing 116 inhabitants. It lies in 
the southern part of the parish, and a short distance 
east of the road from Dumfries to Moffat : it consists 
for the most part of thatched dwellings, several of them 
at present in a state of decay. 

KIRKLANE, a village, in the parish of Kincar- 
dine in Monteith, county of Perth ; containing 
310 inhabitants. 

KIRKLISTON, a parish, partly in the county of 
Edinburgh, but chiefly in that of Linlithgow ; con- 
taining, with the villages of Newbridge, Niddry, and 
Winchburgh, 2489 inhabitants, of whom 440 are in the 
village of Kirkliston, 2 J miles (S.) from South Queens- 
ferry. This parish, of which about one- fourth lies in 
the county of Edinburgh, and three-fourths in that of 
Linlithgow, was formerly called Temple-Liston, an 
appellation partly acquired from the knights Templars, 
who obtained the chief lands in the twelfth century. 
The ancient name of Liston is supposed to have been 
derived from some considerable family residing here, or 
from the Celtic term lioston, signifying " an inclosure on 
the side of a river," and exactly answering to the loca- 
lity. Authentic information relating to the history of 
Kirkliston reaches back to the year 995, when a battle 
was fought between Kenneth, natural brother, and com- 
mander of the army, of Malcolm II., king of Scotland, 
and Constantine, the usurper of the crown. The an- 
tique monument here, called the Cat-stane, is said to have 
been erected in memory of this battle, in which both the 
generals were slain. In 1298, Edward I. of England, 
when marching to engage the Scots at Falkirk, rested for 
some time with his army close to the village of Kirk- 
liston ; and the field in which the king's tent was 
pitched is still shown, immediately to the south-west of 
the village, on the property of Newliston. Upon the 
dissolution of the fraternity of Knights Templars, the 
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem became owners of 
their large estates in this district, which they held till 
the Reformation, when the whole were converted into a 
temporal lordship in favour of Sir James Sandilands, 
the chief of their order. At an early period, a bishop of 
St. Andrew's obtained possession of the church, with the 
village, mill, and some contiguous lands called the Mains, 
or demesne, and kirk-lands of Kirkliston. Afterwards, 
the bishops acquired a regal jurisdiction over their es 
tates on the southern side of the Forth, and made Liston 
the seat of authority, where the hall in which their 



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bailie held his courts was standing so late as the year 
1700. On the abolition of hereditary jurisdictions in 
174S, the Earl of Hopetoun claimed £1500 for the re- 
gality of St. Andrew's south of the Forth. The estate 
of Newliston, in 1543, fell to the family of Dundas, of 
Craigton, who enjoyed it till the Revolution, when it 
came to the Dalrymples, by the marriage of Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir John Dundas, with the second viscount 
of Stair, who, in 1703, was created Earl of Stair and 
Lord Newliston. 

The parish is 5f miles in length, from east to west, 
and 4§ in breadth, from north to south ■ and contains 
7722 acres. It is bounded on the north and north-east 
by the parish of Daimeny ; on the north and north- 
west by Abercorn ; on the west and south-west by 
Uphall, Mid-Calder, Ecclesmachen, and a detached por- 
tion of Daimeny, named Auldcathie ; on the south by 
Kirknewton and Ratho ; and on the east by Corstor- 
phine and Cramond. A detached part of the parish, 
called Liston-Shiels, and lying on the slope of the Pent- 
land hills, is included for ecclesiastical purposes in the 
parish of Kirknewton. The river Almond, rising in 
Lanarkshire, and entering this parish at the south- 
western point, winds for about four miles and a-half to 
the village of Kirkliston, and then runs towards the 
north-east for a mile and a-half, when it passes into the 
parish of Cramond, and falls into the Frith of Forth at 
the village of that name. The soil varies throughout 
from a strong clay to a rich dark mould, in different 
admixtures and proportions. On the banks of the 
river, and on the neighbouring haughs, it consists of al- 
luvial deposits, forming in some places a fertile loam, 
capable, with good husbandry, of producing the best 
crops. By far the larger part of the ground is under 
tillage ; the wood, plantations, and permanent pasture 
bearing but a small proportion to the arable districts. 
On the estates of Newliston, Clifton Hall, Carlowrie, 
Niddry, Humbie, and Foxhall, a considerable quantity 
of ancient timber may be seen ; and in different parts 
are some young clumps of beech, ash, elm, and fir ; but, 
with these exceptions, and exclusive of the lawns be- 
longing to the mansions of the gentry, the whole of the 
lands are cultivated, and distinguished by good in- 
closures. All kinds of grain, with potatoes, turnips, 
and the several grasses, are produced. Few parishes 
have made such rapid improvements in agriculture 
within the last half century as this, the whole face of 
the district having been completely changed by the con- 
solidation of small farms, the introduction of extended 
leases, inclosures, superior drainage, and manuring, with 
the rotation system, modified to suit every peculiarity of 
soil. The cattle are generally a cross between the Tees- 
water and Ayrshire breeds, though Ayrshire cows are 
preferred for the dairy ; the sheep are the black-faced, 
Cheviots, and Leicesters. Few sheep and cattle, how- 
ever, are kept, as the ground is turned to better account. 
The rocks in the parish are chiefly sandstone, limestone, 
and trap, and ironstone and shale are found in large 
quantities : coal is supposed to exist, but none has yet 
been discovered. On the farm of Humbie is a quarry 
which produces a beautiful and durable stone, suited 
to a superior class of buildings. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £3966. 

The mansion of Newliston, the chief seat, and the 
residence of the Hog familv, is a large and elegant house, 
110 



built at the close of the last century ; it stands in the 
midst of extensive pleasure-grounds and plantations, 
disposed in a somewhat original style. Clifton Hall, 
built a great many years since, is the seat of Sir Alex- 
ander Maitland Gibson, Bart., a family of considerable 
antiquity ; and Carlowrie, an ancient mansion, is the 
residence of the Falconers. The principal villages are, 
Kirkliston and Winchburgh in the county of Linlithgow, 
and Newbridge in the county of Edinburgh. At the 
extremity of that of Kirkliston is a distillery, established 
about 25 years ago ; but, with the exception of the 
hands here employed, and those engaged in domestic 
trades, the whole population are occupied in agriculture. 
A fair is held at Kirkliston on the last Tuesday in July, 
and one at the village of Winchburgh on the first Friday 
in June, at neither of which, however, is any business 
transacted. There is a post-office, receiving and des- 
patching letters once every day. Three turnpike-roads 
run through the parish, viz. the road from Edinburgh 
to Stirling, and to Glasgow by Falkirk, which passes 
through the village ; the road from Edinburgh to Glas- 
gow by Bathgate ; and the road from Queensferry to the 
last- mentioned road. On all these a number of coaches, 
as well as carriers, formerly travelled. The Union 
canal also intersects the parish, and is conveyed over 
the river Almond by an aqueduct. There are two good 
bridges, likewise, over the Almond, one of which is on 
the line of the Stirling road, and the other on the middle 
road to Glasgow. The railroad between Edinburgh and 
Glasgow crosses the Almond, near the village of Kirk- 
liston, by a splendid stone viaduct, one of the most ex- 
tensive works of the kind on the line : this viaduct is 
720 yards in length, twenty-eight feet in width, and 
fifty feet above the level of the water, resting upon 
thirty-six segmental arches, each of seventy-five feet 
span, with piers seven feet in thickness, the whole pre- 
senting a very noble appearance. At Winchburgh the 
railway passes through a tunnel 330 yards in length, 
twenty-six feet in breadth, and twenty-two in height, 
the second in extent of the five on the line. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the pres- 
bytery of Linlithgow and synod of Lothian and Tweed- 
dale, and the patronage is in the Crown. The stipend 
of the minister is £2S5. 10. including £5. 11. feu-fees 
from the lands of Hallyards, an annual gift of the 
crown ; with a manse, built in 1692, and repaired and 
enlarged in 1S3S, and a glebe of seven acres of land, 
valued at £30 per annum. The church, thoroughly 
repaired in 1S22, will accommodate 700 persons, and is 
furnished with a fine-toned bell, which is rung every 
evening at eight o'clock, and every morning at five in 
summer and six in winter. This is an ancient structure, 
formerly belonging to the Knights of St. John of Jeru- 
salem, and supposed to have been built in the twelfth 
century. The members of the Free Church have also a 
place of worship. There is a parochial school, at which 
the usual branches of education are taught ; the master 
has the maximum salary, with the fees, and a house and 
garden. In 179S a friendly society was established, 
the benefit of which to the sick members and the widows 
of members has been very considerable. Among the 
antiquities of Kirkliston, one of the chief is the monu- 
ment erected to perpetuate the battle between Kenneth 
and Constantine, already noticed. At Clifton, under an 
old cot-house, was found, some time since, an earthen 



KIRK 



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money-box containing between 300 and 400 silver coins 
of England and Scotland ; and near this spot was dis- 
covered a gold coin, about fifteen feet under the ground, 
■with the inscription Robertus II., Rex Scotorum. In the 
south-western part of the parish, on the Hopetoun 
estate, is an ancient baronial residence named Il-Liston, 
supposed to have been a hunting-seat of James II., 
James IV., and other kings. About two miles west of 
the village of Kirkliston stands Niddry Castle, a fine 
ruin, formerly possessed by the earls of Wintoun, and 
where Queen Mary is said to have slept when on her 
flight from Lochleven to join her supporters at Hamil- 
ton, on the 2nd of May, 1568. Andrew Dalzel, professor 
of Greek in the universit)' of Edinburgh, was a native 
of this parish ; and the celebrated John, 2nd earl of 
Stair, who succeeded to the estate of Newliston, in 
1725, has left behind him lasting memorials of skill, 
spirit, and perseverance, in the agricultural improve- 
ments introduced here under his immediate auspices. 
Indeed, the superior state of husbandry attained in this 
district may be fairly traced to the efforts of this dis- 
tinguished nobleman. There are several springs in the 
parish, impregnated with lime, iron, and magnesia. 

KIRKMABRECK, a parish, in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, 3| miles (E. by N.) from Wigton ; 
containing, with the burgh of Creetown, 1S54 inhabit- 
ants, of whom S70 are in the rural districts of the parish. 
This place derives its name from the situation of its 
ancient church in a brake, at that time overgrown with 
thorns and brambles. The lands were part of the pos- 
sessions of the abbey of Dundrennan and the priory of 
Whithorn, but, after the Reformation, were granted by 
the crown to different families, and at present are divided 
among many proprietors. The parish, which includes 
the greater portion of the ancient parish of Kirkdale, is 
bounded on the west by the river Cree, and on the south- 
west by Wigton bay, and is about nine miles in length 
and five miles and a half in breadth. The whole number 
of acres is not known; 5030 are arable, 900 meadow, 
1000 woodland and plantations, and the remainder moor- 
land pasture and waste. The surface is mountainous in 
some parts, and in others diversified with hills of only 
moderate elevation, and fertile valleys. The principal 
mountains are, the Clints of Drumore, Craig, Pibble, 
Cairnharrow, and Larg, varying from S00 to 1000 feet in 
height ; and a portion of Cairnsmore, which has an 
elevation of 2222 feet above the level of the sea, is also 
within the parish. The coast, which is about six miles 
in length, is in general flat and sandy ; but the shores 
of Kirkdale are bold and precipitous, and the rocks per- 
forated with numerous caverns and fissures, some of 
which are identified with the scenes described by Sir 
Walter Scott jn the novel of Guy Mannering. The river 
Cree has its source in Loch Moan, near the spot where 
the counties of Ayr and Wigton unite with Kirkcud- 
brightshire, and flows into Wigton bay, from which it 
is navigable for small vessels to Carty. 

The soil along the banks of the river, and in the 
valleys, is rich ; but on the hills and other parts, of 
lighter quality, interspersed with tracts of moss. The 
crops are, wheat, barley, oats, and potatoes ; the system 
of agriculture is in a state of progressive improvement, 
and the lands in many parts have been rendered fertile 
by the use of bone-dust and guano as manure. The 
farm-buildings in Kirkdale are generally substantial 
111 



and well arranged, but in other parts of the parish many 
of them are of very inferior order ; the lands are in- 
closed with stone dykes. Much attention is paid to the 
improvement of live stock : the cattle, of which large 
numbers are pastured, are of the pure Galloway breed, 
with some cows of the Ayrshire on the dairy-farms. 
The sheep are mostly the black-faced, and of small size, 
with some of the Cheviot and Leicestershire breeds ; of 
the first description about 7000, and of the others 800, 
are reared in the pastures. There are considerable re- 
mains of ancient wood : the plantations of more recent 
growth are, oak, ash, hazel, alder, beech, sycamore, 
chesnut, elm, and firs, for all of which the soil is well 
adapted. The substrata are, clay-slate, greywacke, and 
granite, of which last the rocks are principally com- 
posed. Lead-ore has been discovered in several parts, 
and pure specimens of galena have been found ; a copper- 
mine was formerly wrought, but has been abandoned. 
There are some extensive quarries of granite, opened by 
the trustees of the Liverpool Docks about 1830, and in 
which, in 1834, not less than 450 men were engaged; 
they are still in operation, but on a smaller scale, em- 
ploying about 160 persons. The stone, which is raised 
in large blocks, and split into any required form or di- 
mensions, is of excellent quality and in high repute. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £58S9. Kirk- 
dale House, a splendid mansion of polished granite, in 
the Grecian style of architecture, after a plan by Mr. 
Adam, is finely situated in a demesne tastefully em- 
bellished, and abounding with picturesque and romantic 
scenery. Barholm House is a handsome residence of 
chaste design, pleasingly situated in grounds to which 
the approaches are well laid out. Cassencarrie is an 
ancient mansion, with a tower of interesting character ; 
and Hill House is a substantial building, fronted with 
polished granite, and commanding some good views. 
The only village in the parish is Creetown, which is 
noticed under its own head. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the super- 
intendence of the presbytery of Wigton and synod of 
Galloway. The minister's stipend is £249, with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum ; patrons, 
the Crown and John Mc Culloch, Esq. The church, 
erected in 1834, at an expense of £2000, is a very hand- 
some structure in the later English style ; it is near the 
burgh, and contains 800 sittings. The ruins of the an- 
cient churches of Kirkmabreck and Kirkdale are yet re- 
maining in their respective churchyards, which are still 
used as places of burial ; and in the latter is the vault 
of the Hannay family, built of granite. There is a 
place of worship for members of the Secession. The 
parochial school is attended by about 100 children ; the 
master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, 
and the fees average £30. A second school is supported 
by the fees and by the heritors, who allow the master a 
house and garden, and a salary of £10 per annum j 
and a school of industry, in which thirty girls are taught, 
is under the patronage of the minister. There are 
several chalybeate springs in the parish, of which one, at 
Pibble, is strongly impregnated. Remains of Druidical 
circles are found in different places ; and iu 177S, while 
removing some stones from a tumulus, were discovered 
a coffin containing a skeleton of gigantic size, an urn 
inclosing ashes, and an earthen vessel for holding water. 
In 1809 was found a coffin of rude form, containing a 



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skeleton of large dimensions, the arm of which had been 
nearly separated from the shoulder by a stone axe : the 
blade was still remaining in the wound. Cairn-Holy is 
traditionally said to have been raised over the remains 
of a bishop of Whithorn, who, with many of his brethren, 
was slain in a battle with the English on Glenquicken 
Moor in 1150, and buried here. Dr. Thomas Brown, 
late professor of moral philosophy in the university of 
Edinburgh, was born in this parish, of which his father 
was minister, in 1778; he died in 1820, and was buried 
in the churchyard of Kirkmabreck. 

KIRKMAHOE, a parish, in the county of Dum- 
fries, 3^ miles (N.) from Dumfries ; containing, with 
the villages of Dalswinton, Duncow, and Kirkton, 156S 
inhabitants. The appellation of this parish is of doubt- 
ful origin; but it is supposed to have been derived 
from the position of its ancient church in a valley, 
or near the course of the river Nith. The place is 
of considerable antiquity. In the fourteenth century, 
according to ancient records, the monks of Arbroath 
obtained from David II. a grant of " the church of 
Kirkmaho, in the diocese of Glasgow," the patronage of 
which, however, appears to have been retained by the 
Stewarts, who had succeeded the Cumins in the barony 
of Dalswinton. In 1429, the rectory was constituted 
one of the prebends of the bishopric of Glasgow, with 
the consent of Marion Stewart, the heiress of Dalswin- 
ton, of Sir John Forrester, her second husband, and of 
William Stewart, her son and heir ; and the Stewart 
family long continued to be patrons of this prebend. 
At the Reformation, the rectory of Kirkmahoe was held 
by John Stewart, second son of the patron, Sir Alex- 
ander Stewart, of Garlies. In the seventeenth century, 
the patronage passed, with the barony of Dalswinton, 
from the Stewarts, earls of Galloway, to the Earl of 
Queensberry, in whose family it remained until, in the 
year 1810, it came to the Duke of Buccleuch and 
Queensberry. 

The lands were portioned in ancient times into the 
four large estates of Dalswinton, Duncow or Duncol, 
Milnhead or Millhead, and Cai-nsalloch, with which the 
historical memorials of the parish are mostly interwoven. 
The estate of Dalswinton, or "the Dale of Swinton," 
was first possessed by the Cumins : in 1250, Sir John 
Cumin held this manor as well as that of Duncol, and 
gave the monks the liberty of a free passage through 
the lands of the two manors to their granges in the 
west. On the accession of Bruce, Dalswinton was 
granted to Walter Stewart, third son of Sir John 
Stewart, of Jedworth ; and it remained in the family 
till 1680, when, with some exceptions, the barony was 
disposed of to the Earl of Queensberry. The estate 
afterwards came to the Maxwells, by whom, at the 
latter end of the last century, it was sold to the late 
Patrick Miller, Esq. It contains 4100 acres, and com- 
prehends about one-third part of the parish. The 
barony of Duncow was forfeited by the Cumins, like 
that of Dalswinton, on the accession of Bruce, and 
given to Robert Boyd. In 1550, Robert, Lord Maxwell, 
was returned as owner of it in right of his father, of the 
same name and title ; and it continued in the family 
until sixty years ago, when it was sold to various per- 
sons. It was in this village that James V. spent the night 
before he paid the angry visit, recorded by historians, 
to Sir John Charteris, of Amisfield : the site of the cot- 
11-2 



tage where the king slept, near the Chapel hill, was 
pointed out by a large stone which remained there till 
about forty years ago. The estate of Millhead was pos- 
sessed in 1700 by Bertha, wife of Robert Brown, of 
Bishopton, and heiress of Homer Maxwell, of Kilbean, 
from which family it passed, about 1810, to Frederick 
Maxwell, Esq. : it contains 1061 acres. Carnsalloch, in 
1550, belonged to Robert, Lord Maxwell, whose family 
held it till 1750, when it was sold to P. Johnston, Esq. 

The parish is seven and a half miles long, anil its 
extreme breadth is five and a half miles. It contains 
about 1 1,840 Scotch acres, and is bounded on the north 
by Closeburn parish ; on the north-east and east by 
Kirkmichael and by Tinwald ; on the south and south- 
east by Dumfries ; on the west by Holywood ; and on 
the north-west by Dunscore. The northern and eastern 
parts are hilly, the land ascending gradually till it ter- 
minates in heights some of which are between 600 and 
S00 feet above the level of the sea : the hills of Ward- 
law and Auchengeith rise to 770 feet, and have a declivity 
southward. The loftier grounds are covered with heath 
and coarse grass, supplying pasture fit only for sheep. 
In the vicinity of Tinwald, also, are some undulations 
interspersed with low-lying tracts of morass, and which, 
when not kept in tillage, are soon overspread with furze 
and broom. Though this is entirely an inland parish, 
the hills, especially the Watchman's hill, command a 
fine view of the sea ; and in a clear day, the Solway 
Frith is seen in the distance. The river Nith runs along 
the western boundary of the parish, and intersects it at 
one corner. There are also several small streams or 
burns, which abound in trout, and are in many parts 
distinguished by romantic scenery : the Duncow burn 
forms three waterfalls, one of which, in rainy seasons, 
has a striking and imposing appearance. 

The soil on the high grounds consists in numerous 
places of deep moss, beneath which is a gravelly earth, 
resting upon a red till or slaty rock. On the sloping 
grounds it is gravelly, with a considerable mixture of 
sand, and small round stones ; and on the low or holm 
land the soil is alluvial, mixed with clay. In every 
direction is a profusion of pebbles, of different sizes, 
rounded and polished by continued attrition, and many 
of them variegated with beautiful lines and colours. 
This is altogether an agricultural parish, and the capa- 
bilities of the soil are, for the most part, developed. 
About S500 acres have been under the plough, but of 
these a great portion is now pasture ; 600 are wood, and 
the rest of the parish uncultivated. Grain of all kinds 
is grown, with the usual green crops. The sheep 
are Cheviots, crossed with the Leicester ; numerous 
lambs are raised on the hilly grounds, and, with ewes 
fattened for sale, are sent to the Liverpool market. A 
considerable stock of calves, also, is disposed of to the 
Dumfries salesmen, when about six weeks old. The 
husbandry in the district is of the most approved kind : 
the land is subject to good surface drainage, and is 
secured, where necessary, by strong embankments. The 
farm-houses, likewise, are comfortable dwellings, and 
suited to the character and circumstances of the highly- 
respectable tenants who occupy them. Much has been 
done in the reclaiming of land ; and plantations, with 
neat and elegant villas, are now seen in many places. It 
was in this parish that an inestimable addition was first 
made, in 17S6-7, to the agricultural products of Britain, 



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by the late Patrick Miller, Esq., of Dalswinton, who, in 
that year, introduced the Swedish turnip into Scotland. 
From a couple of ounces of seed, a great part of the now 
extensive culture of this valuable esculent may be said 
to have sprung ; for, as soon as Mr. Miller had obtained, 
from the original plants on his own estate, a sufficiency 
of seed for his neighbours, and his friends in the 
Lothians and elsewhere, it was sown by them with 
avidity ; and in a short time, extensive breadths of land 
were laid out in its successful cultivation. Large impor- 
tations of the seed, it is true, were subsequently made 
l)y the British seed-merchants, to supply the increasing 
demand for it ; yet prodigious quantities of the turnip 
are now raised in both countries, and in Ireland, from 
the proceeds of the stock sown at Dalswinton. The 
rocks in the parish consist chiefly of sandstone, fre- 
quently impregnated with red iron-ore : white marl has 
been found in the southern parts ; and red soft sand, 
mixed with gravel and stones, is in some places abun- 
dant. The rateable annual value of Kirkmahoe is 
£9357. 

The principal mansions are Dalswinton and Carn- 
salloch, both modern. The different estates are orna- 
mented with very fine specimens of stately timber, 
consisting of ash, elm, chesnut, and rows of beech : in 
one of the parks is a tree of immense size, under whose 
extended branches there is a space in which, it is said, 
1000 armed men might stand without inconvenience. 
There are five villages, of which Duncow, the largest, 
has a manufactory for coarse woollen-cloths, wrought by 
water and steam : the village of Dalswinton is of recent 
origin. The public road from Dumfries to Closeburn 
runs for nearly six miles through the parish, and, as 
well as the bridges, is kept in good repair. The eccle- 
siastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of 
Dumfries and synod of Dumfries ; patron, the Duke of 
Buccleuch. The stipend of the minister is £238, with a 
manse, built in 1799, and a glebe of eight acres of good 
land, valued at £14 per annum. The church, erected 
in 1822, is a handsome structure, rendered pleasing and 
picturesque by the foliage in the churchyard and its 
vicinity. There was a meeting-house at Quarrelwood, 
belonging to the Cameronian Presbyterians ; but it 
has been abandoned. Three schools are maintained, 
each of which is partially supported by a parochial 
allowance. The master of the school at the village of 
Duucow receives a salary of £25. 13. 3.; the salary 
of the master at Dalswinton village is £17; and £S 
are given for the support of the third school, situated at 
Lakehead, a remote corner of the parish. At each of 
the schools, all the usual branches of education are 
taught ; and instruction is occasionally afforded in the 
classics and mathematics. The total amount of fees 
received by the three masters is £80 a year. About 
£500 have been bequeathed to the poor, and the sum 
of £5 per annum left by Mrs. Allan, of Newlands, for 
the gratuitous instruction of fatherless children at the 
parish schools. In digging for the foundation of the 
church, some inconsiderable relics were met with. It 
may be stated, in relation to this parish, that the 
application of steam-power to the navigation of vessels 
was first successfully illustrated at Dalswinton, in 178S, 
by Mr. Miller, of whom mention has been already made. 
It is also deserving of record, that the introduction, in 
1790, of the modern threshing-machine into this district, 
was effected under the auspices of Mr. Miller, who first 
Vol. II — 113 



used it on his own farm of Sandbed, in the presence of 
the agricultural classes, whom he had invited to witness 
its operation, with a view to manifest its efficiency and 
encourage its adoption. Bishop Corrie, of Madras, was 
a native of the parish, as was also the late Allan Cun- 
ningham. — See Dalswinton. 

KIRKMAIDEN,a parish, in the county of Wigton, 
16 miles (S. by E.) from Stranraer; containing, with 
the villages of Drumore and Port-Logan, 2202 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 1700 are in the rural districts of the 
parish. This place, which occupies the southern ex- 
tremity of Scotland, derives its name from the dedica- 
tion of its ancient church to St. Medan, to whom some 
other churches in this part of the country were also 
dedicated ; and the original name, Kirk-Medan, after 
suffering various modifications at different periods, has 
since the Reformation invariably retained its present 
form. From the names of some localities within the 
parish, it would appear that other churches were founded 
here at an early period, of which slight vestiges of the 
cemeteries may still be traced. The principal on record 
are those of Kirkbride, Kilstay, Kildonnan, Kirkleish, 
and Kirkdraiu; and upon the shore of Maryport bay 
was an ancient chapel in honour of the Virgin Mary, of 
which the ruins were standing in 1680. The promontory 
called the Mull of Galloway, at the southern extremity 
of the parish, is said to have been the last retreat of the 
ancient Picts, where, when no longer able to withstand 
the assaults of their victorious enemies, they leaped from 
the rocks, and perished in the sea. 

The parish is bounded on the east by the bay of 
Luce, and on the south and west by the Irish Sea. It 
is about ten miles in length, from north to south, and 
varies from a mile and a half to nearly four miles in 
breadth, comprising 13,000 acres, of which 4000 are 
arable, 6000 meadow and pasture, 300 woodland and 
plantations, and the remainder moor and waste. The 
form is very irregular, and the surface greatly diversified. 
In some parts the ground is low and flat, though inter- 
spersed with numerous hills of moderate height, of 
which some are clothed with plantations ; in other parts 
the lands rise into mountainous elevation, and almost in 
the centre the parish is intersected by a range of heights 
extending from the bay of Luce to the Irish Sea. Among 
the more conspicuous of the hills that diversify the sur- 
face, and of which some attain to nearly 900 feet above 
the level of the sea, are, Montlokowre, Dunman, Cairn - 
hill, Cairn of Dolt, and Grennan Hill, from all of which 
are obtained extensive and interesting views. The bold 
rocky promontory of the Mull of Galloway, a peninsula 
nearly a mile and a half in length, and a quarter of a 
mile in breadth, is connected with the main land by a 
narrow isthmus, little more than a quarter of a mile 
in width, and on which a lighthouse was erected in 
1830, displaying an intermitting light, visible at a dis- 
tance of twenty-three nautical miles. From the balcony 
of the lighthouse is an unbounded prospect, embracing 
the mountains of Cumberland, the whole of the Isle of 
Man, the coast of Ireland from the mountains of Morne 
to Fairhead, the heights of Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, 
and Ayrshire, and the summits of Mountjura, in Argyll- 
shire, all of which are distinctly seen in clear weather. 
The coast on the eastern side of the parish is flat, 
and the shore gravelly ; but on the west, rocky and pre- 
cipitous, and worn by the waves into caverns of romantic 
appearance. The principal headland on the east is Killi- 

Q 



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ness Point ; on the west are, Crammag, Gounies, and 
the Mull of Logan. Of the numerous bays that indent the 
coast the most important are, Chapelrossan, Balgown, 
New England, Tirally, Grennan, Curghie, Drumore, Culli- 
ness, Maryport, and East Tarbet, on the bay of Luce ; and 
West Tarbet, Barncorkrie, Clanyard, Portnessock, and 
Port Gill, on the shore of the Irish Sea. The harbours 
are, Port- Logan in the bay of Portnessock, and Drumore. 
At both of these, commodious quays have been erected, 
where vessels of any burthen may land and take in their 
cargoes, and find safe anchorage in the bays ; but the 
former cannot be entered at low water by vessels of 
great size. Several of the other bays, also, are accessible 
to small vessels in fine weather ; but they are not much 
frequented. Fish of many kinds are found in abundance 
off the coast ; the most general are, cod, whiting, mullet, 
mackerel, skate, turbot, soles, oysters, lobsters, and 
crabs, of which two last great numbers are taken by 
fishermen from Ireland, for the supply of the Dublin 
market. Herrings, after having for years abandoned 
this part of the coast, are beginning to return, and pro- 
mise to be abundant, in which case the fisheries, not now 
conducted upon any regular plan, may become a source 
of much profit to the inhabitants. 

The soil, though various, is tolerably fertile, and the 
lands are in profitable cultivation ; the crops are, wheat, 
barley, oats, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual grasses. 
The system of husbandry is in a great degree advanced, 
but is still susceptible of improvement. Thorough-drain- 
ing has been introduced to a moderate extent, with con- 
siderable benefit, and due regard is had to the rotation 
of crops ; the lands, also, have been mostly inclosed. 
But the fences, which are partly of stone and partly of 
thorn, are but indifferently constructed ; and though 
the buildings on some of the larger farms are substantial, 
many are still of very inferior order. The cattle reared 
are of the Galloway breed, with the exception of the 
cows for the dairy, which are of the Ayrshire ; and great 
attention is paid to their improvement : the sheep reared 
in the hill pastures are all of the black-faced, but such 
as are kept on the farms for domestic use are of the 
Leicestershire breed. The plantations, chiefly confined 
to the vicinity of Logan House, consist of ash, mountain- 
ash, sycamore, elm, beech, birch, and Huntingdon wil- 
low, for all of which the soil is well adapted ; and in 
places sheltered from the sea, pineaster, white-spruce, 
Scotch fir, holly, and yew, are in a thriving state. The 
rocks are generally composed of greywacke and argilla- 
ceous schist, alternated with portions of granite and 
gneiss. Slate of tolerable quality for roofing is found 
in abundance, and in some places has been wrought to 
a considerable extent ; but there are neither mines nor 
quarries at present in operation. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £6396. Logan House, the seat of 
the principal landed proprietor, is a handsome modern 
mansion, situated in an extensive demesne richly em- 
bellished. No manufactures are carried on ; but in the 
villages of Drumore and Port-Logan, which are sepa- 
rately described, a few of the inhabitants are employed 
in the requisite handicraft trades. There is a post- 
office established under that of Stranraer, from which 
town the mail is conveyed daily to Port-Logan and 
Drumore, three days in the week by a gig merely, 
and on other days by a car carrying passengers. A 
fair is held near the church on the Tuesday after the 
21st of November : it was formerly frequented by dealers 
114 



from various parts of the country, but has recently de- 
generated into a mere pleasure-fair. Facility of com- 
munication is maintained by statute-labour roads, re- 
cently much improved, and kept in good repair. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the super- 
intendence of the presbytery of Stranraer and synod of 
Galloway. The minister's stipend is £150. 16. 5., of 
which £5. 7- 8. are paid from the exchequer, with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £8 per annum ; patron, 
the Earl of Stair. The church, situated nearly in the 
centre of the parish, was erected in 1638; it is a very 
plain structure, with 275 sittings. The parochial school 
is attended by about ninety children ; the master 
has a salary of £25. 15., with a house and garden, and 
the fees average £18. A parochial library, containing a 
collection of 600 volumes, is supported by subscription. 
There are slight vestiges of ancient fortresses on the 
hills, supposed to have been of Pictish origin : on the 
isthmus connecting the Mull of Galloway with the main 
land, are some traces of a double line of fortifications 
extending from sea to sea. Upon the coast, near East 
Tarbet, is a cave thought to have been the retreat of 
St. Medan ; and near it, in the adjoining rock, is a 
cylindrical well, about four feet in diameter and six 
feet deep, naturally formed, and supplied with water by 
the surf breaking over the rock at spring tides. There 
are some remains of the ancient castles of Logan, Clan- 
yard, and Drumore ; and the dinner-bell of the old 
castle of Clanyard, which, according to an inscription, 
appears to have been originally cast for the grandfather 
of the first Earl of Dalhousie, in 1534, is now suspended 
in the steeple of the parish church. Near Logan is a 
natural cavity in the rocks, into which the tide enters at 
every flood, and which is generally stored with various 
kinds of fish. Andrew Mc Douall, Lord Bankton, author 
of Institutes of Scottish Law, and Robert Mc Douall, ad- 
miral both in the Portuguese and British service, were 
natives of the parish. 

KIRKMICHAEL, a parish, in the district of Carrick, 
county of Ayr ; containing, with the village of Cross- 
hill, 2933 inhabitants, of whom 499 are in the village 
of Kirkmichael, 3 miles (E. by S.) from Maybole. This 
place, which derives its name from the dedication of its 
church, appears to have been at an early period part of 
the possessions of the Kennedy family, to whose an- 
cestor a grant of the lands was confirmed by charter of 
David II., about the year 1360. By the marriage of Sir 
James Kennedy with the daughter of Robert III., this 
family obtained a considerable degree of rank and in- 
fluence. Gilbert Kennedy, the second Earl of Cassilis, 
was employed in many of the most important offices of 
state ; he was assassinated at Prestwick by Hugh 
Campbell, sheriff of Ayrshire. His son, Quintin Ken- 
nedy, who became Abbot of Crossraguel, is distinguished 
for having maintained the tenets of popery in a discus- 
sion with the celebrated reformer, John Knox, and on 
his decease was canonized for his zeal and profound 
devotion to the Roman Catholic faith. Gilbert, the 
third earl, was the friend and pupil of the historian, 
George Buchanan ; and John, the sixth Earl of Cassilis, 
was one of the ruling elders who attended the assembly 
of divines at Westminster, in 1643. The parish is 
about twelve miles in length, and rather more than five 
miles and a half in extreme breadth ; it is bounded on 
the north and north-east by the parish of Dalrymple, on 
the east by that of Straiton, on the south by Dailly, 



KIRK 



KIRK 



and on the west and north-west by the parishes of 
Kirkoswald and Maybole. The surface generally, with 
the exception of some level tracts along the banks of 
the rivers, is undulated and hilly, in some parts attaining 
considerable elevation. The hill of Glenalla is 1612 feet 
above the level of the sea ; and there are several other 
eminences, of which Guiltree hill commands a beautiful 
prospect, embracing on one side the valley of the Girvan, 
with the Galloway hills, and on the other, the bay of 
Ayr, the peaks of Arran, and the towns along the coast, 
with the Highlands and Ben-Lomond in the back ground. 
The river Girvan has its source among the hills of Barr 
and Straiton, and, running below Blairquhan, enter this 
parish, which it divides into two nearly equal parts, 
passing by the grounds of Cloncaird, where it assumes a 
wide expanse, and presents a finely-picturesque appear- 
ance : flowing between richly -wooded banks, it pursues 
its course to the village of Crosshill, and then forms a 
boundary between the parishes of Kirkoswald and 
Dailly. The river Doon passes by one extremity of the 
parish, about two miles below Patna, washing the base 
of the eminence on which is situated the stately mansion 
of Cassilis ; and the Dyrock, issuing from Shankston 
loch, and augmented by the streams of the Barnsbean 
and Spalander, flows by the church and village of Kirk- 
michael into the Girvan. There are numerous lakes in 
the parish, of which the principal are, Loch Spalander, 
about forty-five acres in extent, abounding in excellent 
trout, and sometimes with char ; Loch Barnsbean, 
twenty-eight acres in extent ; Loch Croot, ten acres ; 
Shankston loch, twelve acres ; Drumore, nine acres ; 
and Kirkmichael loch, about five acres in extent. 

The soil in the low lands is extremely fertile, pro- 
ducing luxuriant herbage ; in some parts, and especially 
near the bases of the lower hills, light and gravelly ; 
and in others, clayey, and intermixed with loam. The 
whole number of acres in the parish is estimated at 
15,250, of which about 1130 are in natural woods and 
in plantations, 500 waste, and the rest arable, meadow, 
and pasture land. The system of agriculture has greatly 
advanced ; and the lands have been much improved 
under the influence of the example given by the Rev. 
John Ramsay, incumbent of the parish about forty 
years since, and who was the founder of the Carrick 
Farmers' Society : and also under the encouragement 
afforded to the tenants by the late Earl of Cassilis and 
the present proprietors. Furrow-draining has been 
extensively carried on ; and in 1S32, Henry Ritchie, 
Esq., of Cloncaird Castle, erected a work for the manu- 
facture of draining-tiles, which at present produces on 
the average about 330,000 tiles annually. The farm- 
buildings are substantial and commodious, and generally 
slated ; and all the recent improvements in husbandry 
are extensively practised. The substrata are chiefly 
sandstone, greenstone, and limestone ; clay of excellent 
quality for making tiles is found in abundance, and 
there are some veins of galena, which appear to have 
been wrought, and are said to have yielded a consider- 
able proportion of silver. The surface of the land in 
several parts is thickly strewn with boulders of granite, 
some of vast magnitude. There are quarries of free- 
stone, at Auchalton, Clonclaugh, Balgreggan, and Glen- 
side, which have been all extensively wrought ; and also 
a quarry of peculiarly fine quality at Trochain, on the 
lands of Cloncaird. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £10,035. Cloncaird Castle, an old castellated 
115 



mansion, has been entirely new fronted, and is now a 
very elegant residence, beautifully situated in a highly- 
embellished demesne abounding with stately timber. 
Kirkmichael House stands in grounds well laid out, 
near the lake of that name, which forms an interesting 
feature. Cassilis House, the property of the Marquess 
of Ailsa, who bears the inferior title of Earl of Cassilis, 
occupies an eminence rising from the bank of the river 
Doon, and is an ancient mansion, supposed to have been 
built about the fifteenth century ; it was enlarged and 
much improved in 1S30, and is now a stately structure, 
surrounded with trees of noble growth, and with thriv- 
ing plantations. LTnder the ancient castle was a sub- 
terraneous apartment, which, on being cleared out some 
years since to form a wine-cellar, was found to be 
replete with human bones. 

The village of Kirkmichael is neatly built and plea- 
santly situated, and has a post-office dependent on that 
of Maybole : its inhabitants, in addition to the various 
trades usually carried on, are employed in weaving for 
the Glasgow and Paisley manufacturers, and the female 
population in working muslins, which branches of trade 
are pursued to a still greater extent at Crosshill. Faci- 
lity of communication is afforded by numerous good 
parish roads, and there are about twenty-six miles of 
turnpike-road. The ecclesiastical affairs are under 
the superintendence of the presbytery of Ayr and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr. The stipend of the incumbent is 
£261 ; the manse is a handsome antique building of 
modern erection, and a very comfortable residence, and 
the glebe comprises sixteen acres of profitable land. 
The church, which is pleasantly situated on the Dyrock 
stream, and surrounded by a spacious burial-ground 
planted with ash-trees of stately growth, was built in 
17S7; it is in good repair, and adapted for a congrega- 
tion of 556 persons. A chapel of ease has been erected 
for the accommodation of the inhabitants of Crosshill, 
by the liberal assistance of Sir Charles Dalrymple Fer- 
gusson, of Kilkerran, Bart., and others ; it is a neat 
edifice, adapted for nearly 460 persons, and may be 
considerably increased by the addition of galleries. 
The parochial school affords instruction to about 
seventy children ; the master has a salary of £34, with 
a house and garden, and the fees average £30. There 
is also a school at Crosshill, for which a former pro- 
prietor erected a spacious schoolroom ; the master 
once received an annual payment of £3. 10. from the 
proprietors of the lands, in addition to the school fees. 
A parochial library is supported by subscription ; and 
two savings' banks have been established. In several 
parts of the parish are traces of ancient circular forts, 
about 100 yards in diameter, and surrounded by a ditch 
fifteen feet broad : on being removed by the plough, 
fragments of spears, horns, urns, and ashes were found 
in profusion. There were also till lately some remains 
of a chapel, supposed to have been subordinate to the 
abbey of Crossraguel ; the well is still known by the 
name of the " Chapel well." 

KIRKMICHAEL, a parish, in the county of Banff, 
1 1 miles (E. S. E.) from Grantown ; containing, with the 
late quoad sacra district of Tomintoul, 15/6 inhabit- 
ants. This parish, named after the saint to whom the 
church was dedicated, is situated on the Avon, a tribu- 
tary of the river Spey, and is a bleak Highland district, 
stretching for more than thirty miles, from north to 
south, along the banks of the stream, and measuring in 

Q2 



KIRK 



KIRK 



average breadth from three to four miles. It com- 
prises, as is supposed, about 140,000 acres, of which 
2400 are cultivated; more than 60,000 are compre- 
hended in the forest of Glenavon, and the remainder are 
waste and pasture. The general aspect of the parish is 
mountainous, dreary, and barren, it being situated at 
the base of the Grampian mountains. The main range 
of the Grampians bounds it on the south, and branches 
from this skirt it on the east and west, the only vista 
or outlet being a narrow opening on the north, which 
forms a passage for the waters of the Avon. The 
north side of Benmacdui, and the eastern side of Cairn- 
gorum, rising respectively 4362 feet and 4060 feet above 
the level of the sea, and exhibiting throughout the year 
collections of snow in their chasms, are in the southern 
portion of the parish. The forest of Glenavon has been 
lately converted by the proprietor, the Duke of Rich- 
mond, into a range for deer ; and the mountains and 
hills in all directions are well stocked with various 
kinds of game. The inhabited parts of the parish mea- 
sure only about eighteen miles in length ; they consist 
of the narrow valley of the Avon, and the glens of the 
Conglass and Kebat on the east, and of that of Lochy 
on the west. Of this extent, nine miles, with the whole 
uninhabited portion, belong to the district of Tomin- 
toul. The Avon, a deep, rapid, and pellucid stream, 
affords trout, and also salmon grilse from June till 
November : after being increased by numerous tributa- 
ries in its course of forty miles, it falls into the Spey 
at Ballindalloch, in the parish of Inveraven, adjoining 
Kirkmichael on the north. The pleasant and romantic 
valley of this river furnishes a beautiful relief to the 
wild and dreary aspect of the surrounding country. 
The scenery is also enlivened by several lochs ; the 
principal one is Loch Avon, at the southern extremity 
of the parish, distant fifteen or twenty miles from any 
habitation. It is three miles long and one broad, and 
is encompassed by the loftiest mountains, except at its 
eastern side, where the Avon finds a narrow outlet ; and 
the whole of the adjacent scenery is imposing and mag- 
nificent. Trout, of a black colour and slender form, 
are found in abundance in its deep water ; and at the 
west end is the celebrated Clachdhian, or Shelter-stoue, 
a ponderous block of granite, resting on two other 
masses, and thus forming a cave sufficient to contain 
twelve or fifteen men. 

The soil most prevalent is a loam, incumbent on 
limestone ; that bordering on the Avon and its several 
tributary streams is alluvial. Barley and bear, and the 
usual grasses and green crops, are raised in consider- 
able quantities, partly under the six-shift course ; but the 
Duke of Richmond, who, and the Earl of Seafield, are the 
sole landowners, confines his principal tenants to the 
five-shift course. The climate is an impediment to hus- 
bandry ; but the soil is in general good, and the lauds 
are well farmed. Draining, inclosing, and the reclaim- 
ing of waste ground, have for several years been suc- 
cessfully carried on ; and the dwelling-houses and 
farm-steadings have been much improved. The sheep 
are of the common black-faced breed ; the cattle are 
mostly the West Highland, the character of which has 
been lately much advanced by the encouragement of the 
Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland. Besides 
the masses of granite constituting the Grampian range, 
the substrata comprise sandstone and slatestone, the 
latter supplying a superior grey slate ; and limestone is 
116 



abundant in every direction. Good plumbago is found 
in the neighbourhood ; and ironstone, which formed an 
article of profit more than a century since, when it 
was largely wrought in the hill of the Leacht, in the 
south-eastern part of the parish, is expected shortly to 
furnish occupation for a considerable number of per- 
sons. The parish is entirely destitute of plantations ; 
the only wood to be seen is the natural birch and alder 
which ornament the banks of the Avon. The rateable 
annual value of Kirkmichael is £3325. 

The village of Tomintoul, situated about five miles 
south of the church, contains a population of 530, and 
has a post-office with a daily delivery ; but few roads 
pass through the parish, or approach its boundaries. 
Cattle and sheep are sent in droves to the south, and 
grain to the sea-ports on the Moray Frith ; the supply 
of merchandize is chiefly from Aberdeen. Markets are 
held in the village, for the sale of cattle and sheep, and 
some of them also for the hiring of servants, on the last 
Friday in May, the last Friday in July, the third Wed- 
nesday in August, the Friday after the second Tuesday 
in September, and the second Friday in November ; the 
four last, O. S. The parish is ecclesiastically in the 
presbytery of Abernethy and synod of Moray, and in 
the patronage of the Earl of Seafield : the minister's 
stipend is £121, with a manse, and a glebe of nine acres, 
valued at £40 per annum. The church, built in 1807, 
is a plain structure, about four miles from the northern 
boundary, and contains accommodation for 350 persons. 
A church was erected by government in 1S26, at a cost 
of £750, in the village of Tomintoul. Its minister's 
stipend, including communion elements, is £120, and is 
paid by the government : the manse, the expense of 
which was £738, has a glebe of about half an acre, with 
a garden. A Roman Catholic chapel, accommodating 
464 persons, was built in the village in 1S38 ; and the 
members of the Free Church have a place of worship. 
The parochial school affords instruction in Latin, 
mathematics, and geography, in addition to the usual 
branches ; the master has the maximum salary, and 
£10 fees, and also shares in the Dick bequest. There are 
two schools in the village, the master of the one receiv- 
ing £30 a year from the crown, with a house and gar- 
den from the Duke of Richmond, and the other endowed 
by the trustees of the late Mr. Donaldson. The poor 
also enjoy various bequests amounting to £l800. 

KIRKMICHAEL, a parish, in the county of Dum- 
fries, 85 miles (N. by E.) from Dumfries ; containing 
1108 inhabitants. This place, which derives its name 
from the dedication of its church to St. Michael, in- 
cludes the ancient parish of Garvald, or Garrel, which, 
with the exception of some lands now in the parish of 
Johnstone, was united to it about the year 1670. Sir 
William Wallace, previously to his assault of the castle 
of Lochmaben in 1297, occupied a small fortress in this 
parish, with a party of his followers, and made frequent 
sallies to annoy the English under Greystock and Sir 
Hugh Moreland, in one of which Sir Hugh and several 
of his men were killed. Greystock, enraged at this 
defeat, and strengthened by fresh supplies from Eng- 
land, advanced with 300 men to give battle to Wallace, 
who, overpowered by numbers, retreated to the hills : 
here, the Scots being joined by Sir John Graham and a 
party of his retainers, a general engagement took place, 
in which Greystock fell, and Wallace obtained a com- 
plete victory. The parish, which is of elliptical form, 



KIRK 



KIRK 



is about nine miles in length and nearly five in extreme 
breadth, comprising an area of 17,0/0 acres, of which 
6/00 are arable, 300 are woodland and plantations, and 
the remainder, of which part is convertible into mea- 
dow, is sheep pasture, moorland, moss, and waste. 
The surface towards the south is level, with the excep- 
tion of a few hills of inconsiderable height ; and in the 
northern part is intersected by two ranges of mountains 
extending from north to south. The western range, 
at the hill of Holehouse, its northern extremity, has an 
elevation of 1500, and at Woodhill, on the south, of 
1250 feet above the level of the sea : the eastern range 
rises at Knock- Craig, on the north, to a height of 1400, 
and at Kirkmichael fell, the southern extremity, to a 
height of 1100 feet. From these ranges the surface 
gradually slopes towards the south ; and at Cumrue, 
near the southern boundary of the parish, the lands are 
comparatively flat, and only 190 feet above the sea. 
The river Ae has its source in the hills of Queensberry, 
in the adjoining parish of Closeburn, and, after flowing 
for some distance along the southern borders of Kirk- 
michael, bends its course to the cast, and falls into the 
river Kinuel, at Esby, in the parish of Lochmaben. 
The Glenkill burn, which rises in the north of the 
parish, intersects it from north to south, and runs into 
the Ae near the church. The Garrel burn has its rise 
in the Garrel craigs, at the northern extremity of the 
parish, and, taking a southerly course, in which, flowing 
with a rapid current, it makes some small but very 
picturesque cascades, joins the river Ae on the confines 
of Lochmaben. There are several smaller burns and 
numerous springs, of which latter a few are slightly 
chalybeate, but not resorted to for medicinal use. The 
parish also contains some lakes, the principal being 
Loch Crane and Loch Cumrue ; the former is one acre 
in extent, and of very great depth. Loch Cumrue, 
though now reduced by draining to little more than 
four acres, originally comprised an area of about twelve; 
it is fourteen feet deep, and abounds with pike and 
eels. 

The soil along the banks of the Ae and the river Kin- 
nel, and in the south and west portions of the parish, 
is richly fertile, but in the more central parts dry and 
gravelly ; the crops are, wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, 
. and turnips, with the usual grasses. The hills afford 
good pasture for sheep and cattle. The system of hus- 
bandry has been greatly improved, especially on the 
lands of Ross, the property of the Duke of Buccleuch ; 
and a due rotation of crops is generally observed : the 
lands have been inclosed partly with stone dykes, but 
principally with hedges of thorn. Most of the farm 
houses and offices are substantial and commodiously 
arranged ; and many, of more recent erection, are even 
of elegant appearance. The cattle, of which about 1700 
head are reared, are all of the Galloway breed : the 
sheep, whereof nearly 6000 are fed in the pastures, are 
chiefly of the Highland and Cheviot breeds. Much 
attention is paid to the improvement of the stock, and 
great numbers are sent to the markets of Dumfries, 
Lockerbie, and Moffat. The plantations, mostly of 
recent date, consist of larch, and Scotch and spruce firs, 
interspersed with oak, ash, and elm, all well managed 
and in a thriving state. There are some considerable 
remains of natural wood, consisting principally of oak, 
ash, birch, and alder, stately specimens of which adorn 
117 



the grounds of Kirkmichael House. The prevailing 
substrata are of the old red sandstone formation, and 
the hills are mainly composed of transition rock ; veins 
of ironstone and ochre are found in some places, and an 
attempt was recently made to discover coal, but without 
success. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£6S94. Kirkmichael House is an elegant mansion in 
the ancient manorial style, recently erected after a design 
by Mr. Burn, of Edinburgh, and pleasantly situated in 
grounds tastefully laid out. There are no villages in the 
parish, neither are any manufactures carried on. A 
post-office, under that of Dumfries, has been established 
at a place called Pleasance ; and facility of communica- 
tion is afforded by the high road from Dumfries to 
Edinburgh, which passes through the parish, and by 
statute roads kept in good repair. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of 
Dumfries. The minister's stipend is £246. 8. 11., with 
a manse, and a glebe valued at £18 per annum ; patron, 
the Duke of Buccleuch. The church, situated near the 
south-western boundary of the parish, is a neat cruci- 
form structure, erected in 1S15, and containing 500 
sittings. The parochial school is well conducted, and 
attended by about sixty children; the master has a 
salary of £34, with a house and garden, and an acre 
and a half of land ; and the school fees average £20 per 
annum. On the bank of the Garrel burn are the re- 
mains of the church of Garvald, which was rebuilt in 
1617, but, after the union of the parishes, suffered to 
fall into decay ; the cemetery is still preserved, sur- 
rounded by a stone wall, and embellished with weeping- 
birch trees, and others appropriate to the character of 
the place. On the farm of Wood are the ruins of the 
old tower of Glenae, which, in 1666, gave the title of 
baronet to a branch of the family of Dalzell, afterwards 
earls of Carnwath. Part of the ancient Roman road 
from Netherby, in Cumberland, to the chain of forts 
between the Forth and the Clyde, may still be traced to 
its termination at a fort of which some remains are dis- 
tinctly visible in the garden of the manse. Near the 
line of this road were found, in 1785, two vases of cop- 
per, whereof the smaller stood upon three feet about an 
inch and a half high ; and in 1833, a similar vase, with 
a handle and a spout, and supported on three feet two 
inches and a half in height, was found in a moss near 
the Mains of Ross. There are several circular camps, 
in some of which have been discovered ashes, broken 
querns, and other relics of antiquity, and in one a 
broken sword. Silver coins of Alexander III. and 
James I. of Scotland, and Edward I. of England, have 
also been found. The lands of Ross give the title of 
Viscount to the Duke of Buccleuch. 

KIRKMICHAEL, a parish, in the county of Perth, 
14 miles (N. W. by N.) from Blairgowrie; containing 
1412 inhabitants, of whom 104 are in the village. This 
parish, the site of which is elevated, and the climate 
cold, is situated on the great military road from Perth 
to Fort-George, and is in form nearly a parallelogram, 
measuring seventeen miles in length, from north to 
south, and from six to seven miles in breadth. It com- 
prehends the greater part of Strathardle, which is about, 
ten miles long, and between one and two broad ; the 
whole of Glenshee, measuring seven miles in length and 
nearly a mile in breadth ; and a district at the lower 



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extremity of the latter, on the west side of the river 
called Black Water, nearly semicircular in form, and 
two miles in diameter. The whole comprises 51, ITS 
acres, of which 4419 are cultivated, 1460 undivided 
common, 683 wood, and the remainder in a natural 
state. At the head of Glenshee is a hill called Beinn- 
Ghulbhuinn, celebrated as the scene of a hunt in which 
Diarmid, one of the Fingalian heroes, lost his life ; and 
his grave is still shown here, with the den of the wild 
boar that was the object of the chase. Another hill 
is Mount Blair, separating this parish from Glenisla ; 
and the chief lochs are Sheshernich and Loch-nanean 
which are situated among the hills, and afford good 
trout-angling. Strathardle is watered by the Ardle. 
Near that river the soil is thin and dry, on a sandy 
bed, and yields in general light crops ; on the higher 
grounds, as well as in Glenshee and the district of the 
Black-water, it is wet and spongy, and requires a dry 
and warm season for the maturity of the crops. In the 
lower parts the most improved system of husbandry is 
followed ; and lime has been extensively and success- 
fully applied to the land recovered from waste, amount- 
ing, within a few years, to 400 acres. The huts on 
most of the farms have been replaced by neat and com- 
fortable houses, and the interests of agriculture much 
promoted by the construction of good roads. The rate- 
able annual value of Kirkmichael is now £7993. The 
parish contains the mansion-houses of Ashintully and 
Woodhill, and the small village of Kirkmichael. The 
inhabitants are all engaged in husbandry : some years 
ago a few were employed at a distillery. An important 
addition has been made to the facilities of communica- 
tion by the erection of a handsome bridge of two arches, 
in 1840, over the Ardle, at a cost of £500, raised by 
subscription. A cattle-fair is held on the Thursday 
before the October Falkirk tryst, and another on the 
Thursday before the May Amulrie fair : the farmers 
usually dispose of their ordinary marketable produce at 
Blairgowrie. The parish is in the presbytery of Dun- 
keld and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the patron- 
age of Mr. Farquharson, of Invercauld : the minister's 
stipend is £158, of which two-thirds are received from 
the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe of six and a 
half acres, valued at £10 per annum. The members 
of the Free Church have two places of worship. There 
are two parochial schools, affording instruction in the 
usual branches : the master of the one situated in the 
village has a salary of £34, with a house, enlarged in 
1821, and about £20 fees; the other master, in Glen- 
shee, receives a salary of £15, with £12 fees. The poor 
in Glenshee enjoy the benefit of a bequest of £200 ; and 
there are two other bequests, one amounting to £17 
yearly for educating poor children in the parish of the 
name of Stewart, and the other of £20 per annum for 
bursaries in any of the Scotch universities, for natives 
of the parish, or, in case of failure, for those of the 
neighbouring parish of Moulin. On a large moor is a 
cairn, once ninety yards in circumference and twenty- 
five feet high ; and at some distance is a Druidical 
rocking-stone, besides numerous concentric circles. 

KIRKMICHAEL and CULLICUDDEN, a parish, 
in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 7 miles (N. N. 
W.) from Fortrose ; containing, with the village of 
Jemimaville, and the hamlets of Balblair and Gordon- 
Mills, 1549 inhabitants, of whom 1410 are in the rural 
IIS 



districts of the parish. This place, in some public docu- 
ments called Resolis, a term implying "a sunny in- 
clined plain," derives its name of Kirkmichael from the 
dedication of its church to St. Michael. It includes the 
extinct parishes of St. Martin and Cullicudden, which, 
after their union, were both annexed, under the deno- 
mination of Cullicudden, to the parish of Kirkmichael 
towards the close of the 17th century. Few particulars 
of the early history of this place, which appears to be 
of some antiquity, are recorded ; but on account of the 
greater number of camps once to be found here than in 
almost any other parish in the north, it must have been 
of no inconsiderable importance. From their form, 
these intrenchments are supposed to have been of 
Danish origin ; and owing to their situation partly 
on an eminence near the shore, commanding prospects 
in every direction, the invading forces stationed here 
could easily, upon the approach of the natives in supe- 
rior numbers, return to their vessels, and land again on 
some other part of the coast. On the summit of a pre- 
cipitous rock near the shore of Cromarty Frith are the 
ruins of Castle-Craig, said to have been originally built 
by the Urquharts, barons of Cromarty, one of whose 
descendants having incurred the censure of the Pope, 
the castle and the lands attached to it fell to the church, 
and were bestowed upon the bishops of Ross. The 
castle continued to be the chief episcopal residence of 
that see till after the Reformation, when the property 
came into the possession of the Williamsons, by whom 
it was sold to the Roses, of Kilraveck, owners of a con- 
siderable portion of the Black Isle. It subsequently 
passed to the Gordons, of Newhall, and now forms 
part of the estate of J. A. S. Mc Kenzie, Esq., the princi- 
pal proprietor of the parish. Of the castle, five stories 
in height, nearly one-half is still entire ; the walls are 
of great strength, and the various apartments have 
vaulted roofs of stone, and were ascended by a spiral 
staircase which has within the last few years been re- 
moved. The roof is in a perfect state ; and the eastern 
gable is defended on each side by a bastion crowned with 
a turret. 

The parish extends along the southern shore of 
Cromarty Frith for about eight miles, from east to 
west, and varies from three to four miles in breadth, 
comprising, exclusively of an extensive tract of common, 
14,000 acres, of which nearly 4000 are arable, 1500 
meadow and pasture, 350 woodland and plantations, 
and the remainder moor and waste. The surface rises 
gradually from the Frith for almost a mile towards 
the south, and as gradually subsides into a fertile valley 
including very much of the arable land in the parish, 
beyond which the ground ascends abruptly to a height 
of 800 feet above the level of the sea, terminating 
in the summit of Maole-Buidhe, the southern boundary 
of the parish. The only stream of any importance is 
the burn of Resolis, which, issuing from a small lake 
near the western extremity of the parish, flows eastward 
through its whole extent, driving several mills, and, 
after receiving in its course a few tributaries, falls into 
the Frith at the hamlet of Gordon-Mills. There are 
several copious springs of excellent water in the south 
district ; but scarcely any are found in the northern 
parts, the inhabitants of which are supplied from wells 
dug at their own individual expense. Of one of these, 
dug by the incumbent in 1836, the water, both in smell 



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and in taste, resembles the mineral water of Strath - 
peffer. 

The soil in general is a light black loam resting on a 
subsoil of clay, easy to work, but not highly fertile : 
near the shore of the Frith it is of richer quality, resting 
on a bed of freestone, but still light, and, even with 
careful management, producing only moderate crops. 
The system of husbandry has made comparatively little 
progress. All the farms, except a few, are occupied by 
tenants holding but from forty to fifty acres ; and with 
the exception of the lands attached to the houses of the 
resident proprietors, on which improvements have been 
made, there is little either in the agricultural or pastoral 
features of the parish deserving of notice. No natural 
wood is to be seen, except some patches of birch, ash, 
and hazel, on the banks of rivulets : the plantations are 
chiefly Scotch fir and larch, interspersed with a few 
hard-wood trees ; and the soil appears to be tolerably 
well adapted for them. On the lands of Newhall and 
Poyntzfield are some very fine specimens of ash, beech, 
and elm, of nearly a hundred years' growth ; and on the 
same estate, and also on the lands of Braelangwell, very 
extensive plantations of Scotch fir have been cut down 
within the last few years. The prevailing substrata are 
of the old red sandstone formation, of which the rocks 
are also composed. Coal is supposed to exist ; and in 
1786 a vein of lead-ore was found by Mr. Gordon, of 
Newhall, but none has since been noticed. At Culli- 
cudden is a quarry of freestone varying both in quality 
and in colour, from which materials have been taken for 
numerous public buildings : the best of the produce is 
found at a depth of from nine to twelve feet, all lying 
above that level being more or less friable. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £71 1. Newhall House, the 
seat of J. A. S. Mc Kenzie, Esq., is a handsome mansion 
in the modern style of architecture, erected about the 
year 1805, and situated in a demesne tastefully laid out. 
Poyntzfield House, an ancient mansion with a tower sur- 
mounted by a cupola, and seated on an eminence com- 
manding a very extensive prospect, is approached by an 
avenue of fine trees ; and the grounds, like those of 
Newhall, are ornamented with plantations of stately 
growth. Braelangwell House is also a spacious and 
elegant mansion, recently erected, and beautifully situated 
in a highly-picturesque demesne. 

The village of Jemimaville is described under its own 
head. The hamlet of Gordon-Mills was erected towards 
the close of the last century, by Mr. Gordon, of New- 
hall, from whom it takes its name, and who established 
a snuff-mill, which has, however, long been discontinued, 
the premises being now occupied as a mill for carding 
wool. The small hamlet of Balblair consists of a few 
rustic cottages. Near Braelangwell is a distillery for 
whisky. Many of the poorer females in the parish are 
employed in the spinning of linen-yarn for the manu- 
facturers of Cromarty ; and of the males some few are 
engaged in the salmon-fishery in the Frith, in which 
they make use of stake-nets. Cockles and muscles are 
found in abundance; and in August, considerable quan- 
tities of cuddie fish are taken ; and sometimes herrings. 
Fairs are held annually at the village of Jemimaville ; 
and facility of communication is maintained by the 
roads running from Fort George to Invergordon, and 
from Cromarty to Dingwall, both which pass through 
the parish. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the 
119 



superintendence of the presbytery of Chanonry and 
synod of Ross. The minister's stipend is £219. 6. 7., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum ; 
patron, Mr. Mc Kenzie. The church, erected in 1764, 
and enlarged and greatly improved in 1839, is a neat 
plain structure in the early English style of architecture, 
containing 700 sittings. The parochial school is well 
attended ; the master has a salary of £30, with a house 
and garden, and the fees average £10 per annum. 
Some portions of the ancient churches of St. Martin 
and Cullicudden still remain, consisting chiefly of the 
gables. In opening a barrow on the farm of'Woodhead, 
about thirty years since, a sarcophagus of rudely-formed 
slabs was found, containing human bones of large size, 
which, when exposed to the air, crumbled into dust. 
An earthen urn of very antique character has been met 
with in a tumulus near Jemimaville. On the glebe was 
recently discovered the foundation of an ancient Pictish 
house; and near it, a vessel of stone in the form of a 
cup, about four inches in diameter, was found by the 
incumbent, in trenching a patch of moorland. 

KIRKMUTRHILL, a village, in the parish of Les- 
mahago, Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 5 miles 
(E.) from Lanark ; containing 242 inhabitants. This 
village lies in the northern part of the parish, and on the 
road from Lesmahago to Hamilton, at its junction with 
that from Lanark to Strathaven. The population is 
partly engaged in hand-loom weaving for the manufac- 
turers of the district, and partly in agriculture. There 
is a regular communication with Glasgow by means of 
coaches and carriers. 

KIRKNEWTON and EAST CALDER, a parish, in 
the county of Edinburgh, IO5 miles (W. S. W.) from 
Edinburgh; containing 1441 inhabitants, of whom 2S9 
are in the village of Kirknewton, and 419 in that of East 
Calder. These two ancient parishes, which were united 
about the year 1750, on the erection of the present 
church, are bounded on the north by the river Almond, 
and on the south by the Water of Leith ; and the whole 
district is about six miles in length and four miles in 
breadth. The surface is comparatively level towards 
the north, but rises towards the south to a very con- 
siderable elevation, by a succession of three terraces, of 
which the lowest is traversed by the road to Glasgow, 
the highest by the road to Lanark, and the central forms 
the site of the church and village of Kirknewton. The 
lands are watered by numerous streamlets, which inter- 
sect the parish in various directions ; and there are 
several springs of excellent water, but none of them 
possessing any mineral qualities. About two-thirds of 
the land are arable and in good cultivation, about 
600 woodland and plantations, and the remainder mea- 
dow and permanent pasture. The soil of the arable 
land, which lies chiefly in the northern portion of the 
parish, is generally a light free mould, with alternations 
of clay ; and the hills, chiefly in the southern portion, 
afford excellent pasture for sheep and cattle. The crops 
are, wheat, oats, barley, peas, beans, potatoes, and 
turnips. The system of husbandry is greatly advanced ; 
the lands have been partly drained and inclosed, and all 
the more recent improvements in the construction of 
agricultural implements have been adopted. Consi- 
derable attention is paid to the management of the dairy- 
farms, and great quantities of cheese and butter are sent 
to Edinburgh, where a ready market is obtained. The 



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cattle are chiefly of the Teeswater and Ayrshire breeds, 
of which latter are the cows on the dairy-farms ; the 
sheep are of the black-faced, Leicestershire and Cheviot 
breeds. The plantations, which are extensive, and gene- 
rally in a thriving state, consist of Scotch, spruce, and 
silver firs, with elm, beech, sycamore, and chesnut : 
there are some fine specimens in Hatton Park, an estate 
partly within the parish. The principal substrata are 
sandstone and limestone, both of which are quarried to 
a considerable extent. On the islands of Ormiston, a 
seam of coal has been discovered by boring, but no mine 
opened ; and on the lands of the Earl of Morton is a 
seam twenty inches in thickness, though not of quality 
sufficient to encourage the working of it. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £5485. 

The seats are, Linnburn, Hillhouse, Meadowbank, 
Ormiston Hill, and Calderhall. The village of Kirk- 
newton, situated to the east of the church, consists 
chiefly of numerous detached cottages with gardens : 
the village of East Calder, on the road from Edinburgh 
to Glasgow, to the north-east of Kirknewton, forms a 
considerable range of houses on both sides of the road, 
with gardens in the rear. Both villages are neatly built; 
they contain shops amply supplied with the various 
articles of merchandize requisite for general use, and are 
inhabited by persons exercising the usual handicraft 
trades. On the north side of the Glasgow road, about 
two miles to the west, is the hamlet of Wilkieston, con- 
taining eighty-one inhabitants. A post-office in the 
village of Kirknewton has two deliveries daily ; and 
facility of intercourse is maintained by the turnpike- 
roads from Edinburgh to Glasgow and to Lanark, by 
the Edinburgh and Glasgow Union canal, and the rail- 
way between those cities. The canal passes three, and 
the railway five, miles to the north of the parish. The 
ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the 
presbytery of Edinburgh and synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £'282. 16. 1 1., with 
a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum ; alter- 
nate patrons, the Duke of Buccleuch and the Earl of 
Morton. The church is a plain substantial structure, 
containing 430 sittings, and conveniently situated nearly 
in the centre of the parish. There are some remains of 
the ancient churches of East Calder and Kirknewton, 
of which the churchyards are still used as places of in- 
terment. The United Secession have a meeting-house. 
The parochial school affords instruction to about eighty 
children ; the master has a salary of £34, with a house 
and garden, and the fees average £40 per annum. 
At East Calder is a private school, built originally by 
subscription ; and in the parish are schools for females, 
who have instruction in the branches peculiar to their 
sex. Among the distinguished persons connected with 
the parish have been, the eminent physician, Dr. Cullen, 
proprietor of Ormiston Hill, and his son, Robert Cullen, 
Esq., a senator of the college of justice, both whose 
remains are interred in the churchyard of Kirknewton ; 
and Allan Maconochie, Esq., proprietor of Meadowbank, 
from which he took his title of Lord Meadowbank when 
appointed lord commissioner of justiciary. The lands 
of Morton, in the parish, give the title of Earl to the 
family of Douglas. 

KIRKOSWALD, a parish, in the district of Car- 
rick, county of Ayr, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Maybole; 
containing, with the village of Mardens, 2030 inhabit- 
120 



ants. The name of this place is derived from Oswald, 
a Northumbrian king, who built a church here, in gra- 
titude, it is said, for a victory he had obtained. An 
abbey called Cross-Regal, or Crossraguel, was founded 
about the middle of the 13th century, by Duncan, for 
monks of the Cluniac order : the last abbot was Quintin 
Kennedy, brother to the Earl of Cassilis. The building 
still remains, about two miles east of the village, and, 
being the most entire abbey in the west of Scotland, is 
preserved with the greatest care. From this institution 
the celebrated George Buchanan received £500 (Scots) 
yearly, on which account he denominated himself 
Pensionarius de Crosragmol. Both the temporalities and 
the spiritualities of the abbey were annexed to the 
bishopric of Dunblane by James VI., in 1 61". The parish 
was also formerly remarkable as containing the ancient 
castle of Turnberry, the seat of the earls of Carrick, 
and which in 12*4 was occupied by Martha, Countess of 
Carrick, who, in that year, was married to Robert Bruce, 
Earl of Annandale, from which union sprang the kings 
of Scotland of the Stuart race. The castle was held in 
the year 1306 by an English garrison under Percy; it 
was afterwards stormed by Robert Bruce, and the 
structure was thus greatly desolated by the contending 
parties. 

The parish, situated in the district of Carrick, and 
on the shore of the Atlantic Ocean, is six miles in 
length, from north to south, and comprises 1 1,000 
Scottish acres, of which 7432 are arable, 521 pasture, 
and the rest under wood. It is skirted nearly for its 
whole length, by a fine sandy beach ; and the shore is 
covered with verdure almost to the margin. The sur- 
face is hilly : but the eminences, of which those called 
Mochrum and Craigdow are the most considerable, 
do not attain any great height. From every part of the 
coast are interesting and beautiful prospects, compre- 
hending the Frith of Clyde, with the rock of Ailsa, and 
the islands of Bute and Arran, and the coast of Ireland. 
There are two lochs, each about thirty acres in extent ; 
and numerous small streams traverse the parish in 
different directions, and supply plenty of very excellent 
water. The whole of the lands are under tillage, with 
the exception of the summits of the two highest hills, 
several tracts of moss, and the plantations. Wheat is 
grown in considerable quantities, and a little barley ; 
but the principal grain is oats, which are of very superior 
quality. Dairy-farming receives much attention, and 
the produce is chiefly cheese, disposed of at the Glasgow 
market, whither also, and to Ayr, many cattle and sheep 
are sent for sale, having been previously fattened on 
turnips. Draining is extensively carried on ; and three 
works are established here, producing yearly about 
1,000,000 draining-tiles. Sandstone is the prevailing 
rock ; and coal is obtained at Dulzellowlie, to the 
amount of about £1750 annually, thirty persons being 
generally employed in raising it. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £10,556. The principal mansion 
is Culzean Castle, the seat of the Marquess of Ailsa, 
built by David, Earl of Cassilis, in the year 1777- This 
edifice, surrounded by about 700 acres of park and plea- 
sure-grounds, interspersed with thriving plantations, 
is a splendid pile, situated on a rock projecting a little 
into the sea, and commanding a beautiful view of the 
Frith of Clyde ; a little below are the gardens of the 
old house of Culzean, formed on three terraces cut out 



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of a rock, and kept in fine order. The village has about 300 
inhabitants, who, with the other part of the population, 
are chiefly agricultural ; but a few persons are employed 
as cotton-weavers, and obtain work from Maybole, 
Girvan, and Glasgow ; and many females procure 
flowering-webs from the same places. The agricultural 
produce is sent chiefly to Glasgow, from the ports of 
Ayr and Girvan, especially from the latter place, seven 
miles distant, whither large quantities of potatoes are 
forwarded, as well as wheat and oatmeal. There is a 
regular fishing-station ; and besides various kinds of 
shell-fish, many plaice, haddock, turbot, cod, salmon, 
and herrings are taken, valued at about £360 per 
annum. The public road from Glasgow to Portpatrick 
passes through the parish, and steam-vessels are con- 
stantly passing. 

Kirkoswald is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Crown : 
the minister's stipend is £213, with a manse, and a 
glebe of four acres and three-quarters, valued at £6 
per annum. A church, on the decay of that of Oswald, 
was erected here by David I., in the 12th century; the 
present edifice, a neat structure, was built in 1777- 
The parochial school affords instruction in the usual 
branches ; the master has a salary of £30, with £40 
fees. There is also a school endowed by the Kilkerran 
family, with accommodations and £12 per annum for a 
master. The most striking and interesting remains of 
antiquity, the ruins of the monastery, stand in the 
middle of eight acres of ground called the Abbot's yard, 
or the Precinct of Crossraguel, and consist of the side- 
walls of the church and choir to the height of fourteen 
feet. Towards the east is the niche formerly containing 
the principal altar ; and on the right are the vestry 
and the abbot's court-room, both entire, and handsomely 
arched; besides which there are several vaults and 
cells, built of fine dressed stone. At the east end of the 
abbey is the ruin of the abbots' original house, and on 
the west are the remains of the last mansion they in- 
habited. The ruins of the old castle of Turnberry are 
still to be seen, occupying a promontory on the barony 
of the same name ; and about half a mile to the south- 
east of Culzean is the castle of Thomaston, built, accord- 
ing to tradition, in 1335, by a nephew of Robert Bruce ; 
it was inhabited towards the close of the last century. 
Near Culzean Castle are some caves, six in number, 
supposed to have been originally designed for the cele- 
bration of worship. The parish contains also the remains 
of a vitrified fort, a Druidical temple, and numerous 
tumuli, cairns, and vestiges of encampments. 

KIRKOWAN, a parish, in the county of Wigton ; 
containing, with the hamlet of Kiltersan, 1423 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 607 are in the village of Kirkowan, 
6 miles (S. W. by W.) from Newton-Stewart. This 
place, which derives its name from the dedication of 
its church to St. Owan, of whose history few particu- 
lars are recorded, anciently formed part of the adjacent 
parish of Kirkinner, from which it appears to have been 
separated about the time of the Reformation. The 
parish is bounded on the east by the river Bladenoch, 
and on the west by the river Tarf; it is about fifteen 
miles in length, and varies from less than two miles to 
nearly seven in breadth, comprising 30,580 acres, of 
which "000 are arable, 300 woodland and plantations, 
and the remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. The 
Vol. II.— 121 



surface is diversified with numerous hills, of which few, 
however, attain any considerable degree of elevation, 
and with large tracts of moors, interspersed with patches 
of arable land of moderate fertility and in a tolerable 
state of cultivation. The principal rivers are the Blade- 
noch and the Tarf. The former has its source in Loch 
Maebearie, in the north, and, flowing in a southern 
direction, separates the parish from that of Penning- 
hame : on quitting Kirkowan, it changes its course to 
the east, and runs into the bay of Wigton. The Tarf, 
which rises on the southern confines of Ayrshire, bounds 
the parish for some miles in a beautifully-winding course, 
and, afterwards altering its direction, intersects the 
south-eastern portion of the parish, and flows eastward 
into the Bladenoch near the church. There are several 
lakes ; the most extensive is Loch Maebearie, about a 
mile and a quarter in length, and half a mile in breadth. 
Nearly in the centre of the parish, and within a mile of 
the Tarf, is a continuous chain of three lakes, connected 
with each other by rivulets, and extending for a mile 
and a half in length. Salmon, trout, pike, and eels are 
found in the rivers and lakes, but not in great abun- 
dance. 

The soil of the arable lands in the north-west district 
is cold and thin, but in the south-east of richer quality, 
light and dry, and, under good management, producing 
excellent crops of grain, chiefly oats and barley. The 
system of husbandry is much improved ; the lands 
have been drained and inclosed ; the farm-buildings are 
generally substantial and commodious, and most of the 
more recent improvements in the construction of agri- 
cultural implements have been adopted. The hills 
afford good pasturage for sheep, of which more than 
10,000 are reared, principally of the black-faced breed ; 
they are much prized for the fineness of their wool, 
about 1200 stone being annually sold, producing an 
income of £900. The cattle are all of the pure Gallo- 
way breed, and are usually disposed of when two years 
old to dealers from Dumfries, whence they are sent 
southwards, and, after a year's pasture in England, for- 
warded to the London market, where they are in great 
estimation. The plantations are in general under care- 
ful management and in a thriving state. The substrata 
are greywacke and clayslate, and large boulders of 
granite are found in several parts : the granite, which is 
of good quality, is hewn into blocks for lintels, door- 
posts, and other purposes in which strength or ornament 
is required. There is also a quarry of stone, of good quality 
for building, at no great distance from the village. A vein 
of slate was some years since discovered on the Culven- 
nan hill, and was for a time in operation ; but the quality 
was not such as to render the working of the quarry de- 
sirable, and it has been long discontinued. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £5393. Craiglaw House, 
an ancient mansion finely situated in a well-planted 
demesne, is the principal seat. The village is on the 
road to Wigton, and near the river Tarf, on which a 
mill was erected in 1822, for the manufacture of woollen 
cloths, affording employment to about seventy persons ; 
the articles made are, blankets, plaidings, flannels, and 
plain and pilot cloths, for the dyeing and dressing of 
which the water of the Tarf, from its peculiar softness, 
is well adapted. A post-office has been established 
under that of Newton-Stewart. There are several han- 
dicraft trades carried on for the accommodation of the 

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district, and some shops in the village for the sale of 
various kinds of merchandize. Four annual fairs were 
formerly held here. Facility of communication is main- 
tained by the roads to Wigton and Portpatrick, which 
pass through the parish, and by bridges over the rivers. 
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence 
of the presbytery of Wigton and synod of Galloway. 
The minister's stipend is £20/2. 11. 8., with a manse, 
and a glebe valued at £6 per annum • patrons, the 
Agnew family. The church, erected iu 1829, is a neat 
substantial structure with a tower, and is conveniently 
situated in the village. A congregation of Seceders 
assembles for public worship in an old barn which has 
been fitted up for the purpose. The parochial school 
is well conducted ; the master has a salary of £25. 13., 
with a house and garden, and the fees average about 
£30 per annum. There are some remains of the ancient 
castle of Mindork in the south-western portion of the 
parish ; but nothing of its history is recorded. 

KIRKPATRICK-DURHAM, a parish, in the 
stewartry of Kirkcudbright; containing, with part 
of the village of Crocketford, 1484 inhabitants, of whom 
500 are in the village of Kirkpatrick-Durham, 5§ miles 
(N. N. E.) from Castle-Douglas. This place derives its 
name from the dedication of its church to St. Patrick : 
the adjunct, Durham, distinguishing it from other 
places of the name of Kirkpatrick, arose from the dry 
and barren nature of the district in which the parish is 
situated. On account of its secluded position in the 
interior of the county, it does not appear to have been 
connected with any events of political importance ; and 
few particulars of its early history are recorded. In 
various parts are found remains of circular walls and 
mounds, called moats ; but from their general character, 
they seem to have been intended merely as places of 
security for cattle during the frequent ravages of the 
border warfare. The parish is bounded on the west 
by the river Urr, and is about ten miles in length, from 
north to south, and nearly four miles in extreme breadth, 
comprising 20,000 acres, of which 8000 are arable, 500 
woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill pas- 
ture, moorland, and waste. The surface, though not 
mountainous, rises gradualy towards the north, and is 
diversified with cragged hills of considerable elevation, 
mostly covered with heath, and affording pasturage for 
sheep and cattle ; the moors in this part of the parish 
abound with game of every variety, and are much fre- 
quented during the shooting season. In the southern 
districts the surface is comparatively level, gradually 
subsiding into gentle declivities, and is better adapted 
for agricultural purposes. The river Urr has its source 
in Loch Urr, on the western confines of the county of 
Dumfries, and, flowing southward through a romantic 
valley, falls into the Solway Frith about ten miles below 
the southern extremity of the parish. The salmon- 
fishery on this river was formerly very considerable ; 
but, from the extensive use of stake-nets near the mouth, 
and from various other causes, it has within the last few 
years been greatly injured, and very few salmon are now 
obtained. Herlings, however, are still found in large 
numbers. There are a few lakes, one of which abounds 
with trout ; but none of them are of any great extent, 
or distinguished by any interesting features entitling 
them to particular notice. Various small burns, also, 
flow through the lands into the river Urr. 
122 



The soil in the lower lands is tolerably good, and, 
though thin and sandy, is, under proper management, 
rendered productive, yielding favourable crops of grain : 
there are, too, some tracts of old pasture which, when 
brought under cultivation, are luxuriantly fertile. The 
system of husbandry has been progressively advancing, 
and is at present quite on a par with what is pursued in 
the adjacent districts ; but the parish, upon the whole, 
is rather of a pastoral than an agricultural character, 
and the farmers rely chiefly on the rearing of black- 
cattle and sheep, of which large numbers are annually 
sent to Dumfries, Castle- Douglas, and Liverpool. There 
are some small remains of ancient wood on the lands of 
Kilquhanity and Kirklebride. The plantations, which 
are tolerably extensive, are chiefly of modern date, and 
consist of the usual forest and hard- wood trees, largely 
interspersed with larch and firs to protect them from the 
severity of the winds ; they are generally in a thriving 
state. The rocks are usually of slaty and stratified 
composition : the substrata exhibit nothing but lime- 
stone, in small veins and of very inferior quality, totally 
unfit for use ; and there are neither mines nor quarries 
of any kind in operation. The rateable annual value of 
Kirkpatrick-Durham is £7234. Handsome mansions 
are scattered throughout the parish, and inhabited by 
landed proprietors ; the principal are, Brooklands, 
Chipperkyle, Croyes, Doonpark, Durhamhill, Kilqu- 
hanity, and Walton Park, all good houses pleasantly 
situated in grounds tastefully laid out, and embellished 
with plantations. 

The village of Kirkpatrick-Durham is above a mile 
from the Bridge of Urr An attempt was made some 
years since to establish the cotton and woollen manufac- 
tures on a small scale, and was for a time attended with 
success ; but they have both been discontinued, and 
there is no manufacture of any kind carried on here at 
present. Some of the inhabitants are employed in the 
usual handicraft trades, and there are several good shops 
for the supply of the district. A post-office, which has 
a daily delivery, has been established in the village ; and 
a fair is held annually, on the Thursday after the 17th 
of March (O. S.), chiefly for plants and garden-seeds, 
but is not much frequented. Races are held at. the time 
of the fair, which were for a while numerously attended, 
a course having been formed near the village. In the 
evening a ball used to take place in some assembly- 
rooms erected for the purpose, and elegantly decorated : 
this ball attracted considerable numbers of the people 
in the surrounding districts. Facility of communication 
is maintained by the road from the village to Castle- 
Douglas, the great road from Dumfries to Portpatrick, 
and others which intersect the parish ; and by good 
bridges over the river Urr and its tributaries. About 
a mile and a half to the south of the village is the 
pleasingly-rural hamlet called the Bridge of Urr, con- 
taining about fifty inhabitants. The village of Crocket- 
ford, of which part only is situated within the parish, is 
described under its own head. The ecclesiastical affairs 
are under the superintendence of the presbytery and 
synod of Dumfries. The minister's stipend is £288. 19. 5., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10. 16. per annum; 
patron, the Crown. The church, erected in 1748, and 
enlarged by the addition of an aisle in 1797, is a plain 
structure near the southern extremity of the parish, 
containing 374 sittings. A Free church has been erected. 



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There are two parochial schools in the parish : the master 
of the principal school, in the village, has a salary of 
£31. 6., with a house and garden, to which is added the 
interest of a bequest of £270 for the gratuitous instruc- 
tion of poor children ; and the school fees average about 
£30 per annum. The master of the other school has a 
salary of £16. 10., with fees averaging £10. On the 
lands of Doonpark are some slight remains of an ancient 
moat, near which were found, a few years since, frag- 
ments of old armour; and on the lands of Areeming are 
the foundations of a church, from which the adjoining 
farm received the appellation of Kirk-le-Bride. In va- 
rious parts are the remains of other moats or mounds, 
of circular form, and apparently constructed for pur- 
poses of defence, or as places of security for cattle. 

KIRKPATRICK-FLEMING, a parish, in the county 
of Dumfries, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from Annan ; containing, 
with the hamlet of Newton, and the village of Fairyhall 
with Hollee, 1692 inhabitants. This parish derives its 
appellation from the celebrated Irish saint, Patrick ; 
Fleming, the name of the ancient lord of the manor, 
having been added, to distinguish it from other parishes 
called Kirkpatrick. On account of its situation near the 
border, it was formerly the arena of many sanguinary 
conflicts ; and the numerous towers still remaining in 
the vicinity testify the active warfare to which its po- 
sition exposed it. The family of the Flemings, who were 
very conspicuous in the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- 
turies, held certain lands here by the tenure of defending 
them at all times against the English. Their chief seat 
and castle was at Red-Hall, where, towards the conclu- 
sion of the reign of John Baliol, thirty of their followers 
were besieged by an English force at the time of one of 
Edward's incursions into Scotland, and, after bravely 
defending their post for three days, chose rather to 
perish in the flames kindled around the castle by the 
enemy, than to submit to capture. This castle, as well 
as another at Holm-Head, the property of the Flemings, 
has entirely disappeared ; but a third, at Stone-house, also 
formerly possessed by the family, and now the property 
of the Earl of Mansfield, is still partly standing in the 
neighbourhood. 

The old Tower of Woodhouse, said to have been the 
first house in Scotland to which Robert Bruce came, 
when fleeing from Edward Longshanks, also remains. 
It was then possessed by the Irvines, one of whom Bruce 
took into his service; and after having made him his 
secretary, he knighted him, and in reward for his fidelity 
and services, presented him with the lands of the forest 
of Drum, in the north of Scotland. Near this tower, a 
little northward, stands the cross of Merkland, an oc- 
tagonal stone pillar about nine feet high, and elegantly 
sculptured. The time and occasion of its erection are 
doubtful ; but it is supposed to have been raised to 
perpetuate the memory of the murder of Maxwell, 
master-warden of the marches, who was stabbed on 
this spot by a man of the name of Gas, from the parish 
of Cummertrees, in revenge for a sentence which Maxwell 
had passed upon a cousin of his. The particulars are 
these. Maxwell, just before the murder, had been in 
pursuit of the Duke of Albany and the Earl of Douglas, 
who for some time had been exiles in England, but who, 
making an incursion into their native land in 1483, 
proceeded to Lochmaben, and plundered the market 
there, in order to try the disposition of their countrymen 
123 



towards them. He came up with their forces at Burns- 
wark, from which place an action was fought as far as 
Kirkconnel, when Douglas was taken prisoner, but the 
duke contrived to make his escape. Maxwell, having 
recovered the booty, and obtained a victory, was leisurely 
pursuing the remnant of the hostile army, and resting 
from his weariness through marching and fighting, when 
he fell by the clandestine attack of his malicious foe. 

The present parish comprehends the old parish of 
Kirkconnel, which is said to have derived its name from 
Connel, a saint who flourished at the commencement of 
the seventh century ; and within the burial-ground of 
Kirkconnel, a part of the ancient church is still standing. 
The parish is about six miles long and three broad, and 
contains 11,575 acres. It is bounded on the north and 
north-west by Middlebie, on the east and north-east by 
Halfmorton, on the south and south-east by Graitney, 
and on the west and south-west by Annan and Dornock. 
The surface consists of a succession of gentle undulations 
and fertile vales, in the latter of which are cultivated 
fields inclosed by fine hedge-rows, or ornamented by 
thriving plantations. The Kirtle, the only river, runs 
through a romantic vale ; the banks are covered with 
rich clusters of natural wood, and adorned with planta- 
tions, gentlemen's seats, and ancient towers. It contains 
trout, eels, and perch ; and after a course of about eighteen 
miles from its source in the parish of Middlebie, it 
falls into the Solway to the east of Redkirk, in Graitney. 

The soil in some parts is light, resting upon gravel, 
sand, or rock. In other places it consists of a deep 
strong earth, of a red cast, and mixed with a considerable 
proportion of sand ; and this description of soil, with 
slight variations, and lying upon a subsoil, sometimes 
of clay and sometimes of gravel, is the prevailing kind 
in the south part. Large portions of the parish are mossy 
land, varying in depth from six to eighteen inches, and 
resting upon a bed of clay. The clay found as a subsoil 
under ridges, peat-mosses, and soft bogs, is generally 
white, blue, or red. There is also in the parish a por- 
tion of the land called Whitestone land, which, though 
naturally barren, is capable of some degree of improve- 
ment. About S060 acres are cultivated or occasionally 
in tillage; 2009 are in coarse pasture; 900 are wet 
moss ; and 605 are under wood. Many of the acres now 
waste are considered capable of profitable cultivation. 
All kinds of grain and green crops are produced, and of 
good quality : of the latter, turnips and potatoes are the 
most abundant, and the grain is principally barley and 
oats. An immense number of swine are annually fed, 
and fattened to a great extent upon potatoes. The best 
method of husbandry is understood and practised. The 
manures used are farm-dung and lime, which latter is 
procured from several neighbouring places ; and great 
advances have been made in the draining of morasses, 
and the conversion of moors into good arable land. The 
houses, also, have undergone an entire change within 
the last thirty years, the mud and clay huts covered 
with thatch having been displaced by neat and convenient 
buildings of stone and lime, roofed with slate. The 
rocks in the parish are principally of the sandstone 
formation, and are found of various colours ; but those 
that prevail most are a dark red and white, which are 
exceedingly hard and durable, and admit of a fine polish. 
There is also excellent limestone. The rateable annual 
value of Kirkpatrick-Fleming is £7032. The mansions 

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in or close to the parish are those of Springkell, the seat 
of Sir Heron Maxwell, a remarkably elegant building 
in the Grecian style ; Mossknowe, the residence of Col. 
Graham, of modern date, enriched with fine plantations 
and gardens ; the Tower of Blackethouse ; Kirtleton ; 
Langshaw ; Wyesbie ; the mansion of the Irvings, of 
Bonshaw ; Robgill Tower ; Cove ; Broatshouse ; and 
some others. The larger number of these mansions 
are situated on the banks of the river Kirtle, and sur- 
rounded with romantic scenery. The population are 
principally employed in agriculture, the only manu- 
facture being that of cotton, which is carried on by about 
150 weavers employed by a house in Carlisle. The 
road from Carlisle to Glasgow and to Edinburgh, by 
Moffat, passes for five miles through the middle of the 
parish, and crosses, in the western corner, a road which 
runs from Annan to Edinburgh, by Langholm and 
Selkirk, in a northern direction. Four bridges are 
thrown over the Kirtle, and there are one or two in 
other parts : all of these, as well as the roads, are in 
good repair. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the pres- 
bytery of Annan and synod of Dumfries ; patrons, 
alternately, Sir Heron Maxwell and Colonel Graham. 
The stipend of the minister is £226, with a good manse, 
and a glebe of about twenty- four acres, worth £25 a year. 
The church, a plain edifice, was partly rebuilt about the 
year 1780, and was thoroughly repaired in 1835; it is 
capable of accommodating 800 persons. The members 
of the Free Church have a place of worship. There are 
two parochial schools : the master of the Kirkpatrick 
school receives £25. 13. as a salary, with about £30 
fees, and £5 from a bequest by Dr. Graham, of Moss- 
knowe, for instructing eight poor children gratuitously. 
The master of the Gair school receives the same amount 
of salary as the other master, with £23 in fees ; and 
both masters have the allowance of house and garden. 
The usual branches of education are taught, in addition 
to which, at the Kirkpatrick school, instruction is given 
in the classics, mathematics, and French. A parochial 
library and a savings' bank have been established. In 
the burial-ground of Kirkconnel are still to be seen the 
tombstones of " Fair Helen" and her favourite lover, 
Adam Fleming. A. rival of Fleming's having unsuccess- 
fully courted Helen, vowed revenge, and soon found an 
opportunity to attempt his purpose. Seeing the lovers 
walking together on the banks of the Kirtle, he was 
about to take the threatened revenge on Fleming ; but, 
being observed by Helen in the midst of the bushes, she 
rushed to her lover's bosom to rescue him from the 
danger, and received the fatal wound herself and ex- 
pired. Fleming immediately dispatched the murderer 
on the spot, and afterwards went abroad to serve under 
Spain against the Infidels, in the hope of wearing out 
the impressions of his love and grief. He soon returned, 
however, and stretching himself on her grave, expired, 
and was buried by her side. Upon the tombstone are 
engraven a sword and a cross, with the inscription, Hie 
jacet Adam Fleming. The Scotch ballad so well known, 
describing the murder, is said to have been written in 
Spain by Fleming himself. Not far from Cove, a piece 
of gold worth £12 was found about ninety years ago, 
eighteen inches under ground : on one end, the word 
Helenus was stamped in Roman capitals. There are 
three chalybeate springs in the parish, nearly alike in 
124 



quality, and also one of a strong sulphureous nature, 
highly celebrated in scrofulous and scorbutic cases, and 
which Sir Humphrey Davy considered as possessing pro- 
perties similar to those of the Moffat well. The late 
eminent physician, James Currie, was born here in the 
year 1756. He was the author of A Commercial and 
Political Letter to Mr. Pitt, published under the assumed 
name of Jasper Wilson, in 1793, and which excited 
much attention, and passed through several editions. 
He also published an edition of the Poems of Burns. 
This is likewise the birthplace of the late Rev. Mr. 
Stewart, minister of Erskine, so famous for the cure of 
consumption. 

KIRKPATRICK-IRONGRAY, a parish, in the 
stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 5 miles (W. N. W.) from 
Dumfries ; containing, with the village of Shawhead, 927 
inhabitants. This parish derives the adjunct by which 
it is distinguished from other parishes of the same name 
in this part of the country, from the lands on which its 
ancient church was erected. It is bounded on the north 
by the river Cluden, which separates it from the county 
of Dumfries ; and is about nine miles in length, and 
from one mile to four miles in breadth, comprising nearly 
14,500 acres, of which 7125 are arable, 2114 woodland 
and plantations, and the remainder rough pasture and 
waste. The surface in the eastern portion of the parish 
is nearly a level plain. Towards the centre the land 
rises into bold undulations, forming a part of a ridge of 
hills which intersects the county ; the summits are richly 
wooded, and the acclivities in the highest state of culti- 
vation. Of these hills, the most conspicuous are the 
Bishop's Forest and Glenbennan, which have an eleva- 
tion of 1500 feet above the level of the sea, and com- 
mand extensive and diversified prospects, embracing 
portions of Nithsdale and Annandale, the Solway Frith, 
and the hills of Cumberland. The only river strictly 
belonging to the parish is the Auld, which has its source 
on the confines of Kirkpatrick-Durham, and, after flow- 
ing for some miles through this parish in an eastern 
course, curves towards the north, and falls into the 
Cairn, which, afterwards taking the name of the Cluden, 
forms a boundary of the parish. The Auld water, near 
its influx into the Cairn, makes a small but picturesque 
cascade of two falls, the highest of which is twenty feet ; 
and near the lower fall is a romantic bridge of one arch, 
which, from the noise of the water, has obtained the 
appellation of the Routiug Bridge. The river abounds 
with trout and par, and, during the season, with grilse. 

The soil in some parts is of a light and sandy quality, 
alternated with gravel, and in others a mixture of clay, 
with tracts of rich alluvial soil near the shores of the 
rivers ; the crops are, oats, barley, and wheat, with 
potatoes and turnips, and the various grasses. The 
system of husbandry is improved ; the lands are inclosed, 
and the fences kept in good order : considerable quan- 
tities of waste have been brought under cultivation, and 
the farm houses and buildings are substantial and com- 
modious. Great attention is paid to the improvement 
of live stock ; the cattle are principally of the Galloway 
breed, and, instead of being sold as formerly to drovers, 
are fattened by the farmers at home for the markets, to 
which they are forwarded by steam-boats. The sheep 
are of the native breed, partaking of the Galloway kind ; 
the horses, of which many are bred, are of the Clydes- 
dale. Large numbers of pigs are kept till one year old, 



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and sent to the market of Dumfries. The substrata of 
the parish are, whinstone, of which the rocks are gene- 
rally composed, slate, freestone, and puddingstone : an 
attempt was made recently to discover coal, but without 
success. The rateable annual value of Kirkpatrick- 
Irongray is £6206. The Grove is a handsome mansion, 
recently erected, in the castellated style, with a tower 
rising from the south entrance ; Drumpark is also a 
handsome residence. The village of Shawhead consists 
chiefly of a few cottages and a small ale-house : facility 
of communication is afforded by good roads and bridges. 
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superinten- 
dence of the presbytery and synod of Dumfries. The 
minister's stipend is £231. 6. 2., with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £25 per annum 5 patron, James Oswald, 
Esq., of Auchencruive. The church, built in 1803, and 
situated on the bank of the river Cluden, is a neat struc- 
ture containing 400 sittings, of which fifty are free. The 
members of the Free Church have a place of worship. 
There are two parochial schools, one of which is in the 
village of Shawhead ; the masters have each a salary of 
£25. 13. J., with a house and garden, and the fees 
average about £15 each annually. A parochial library 
has been established, and contains about 200 volumes. 
The poor have bequests yielding £23 per annum. Helen 
Walker, whose history is recorded by Walter Scott in 
his Heart of Mid Lothian, under the name of " Jeanie 
Deans," was a native of this parish ; and a stone to her 
memory was erected here by the poet. 

KIRKPATRICK-JUXTA, a parish, in the county of 
Dumfries, 3^ miles (S.) from Moffat; containing, with 
the village of Craigielands, 934 inhabitants. The ancient 
name of this parish was S^t-patrick, the prefix of which 
is of the same signification as that of Kirk patriek. 
The suffix juxta has been added to distinguish the place 
from several other places of the same name which are 
more remote from the capital of Scotland. All the Kirk- 
patricks appear to have received their distinguishing epi- 
thets from the celebrated saint, Patrick. This locality 
was formerly the residence of Randolph, Earl of Murray, 
regent of Scotland during the minority of David Bruce, 
and who possessed the old castle of Achincass, in the 
parish. The well-known family of the Johnstones, of 
Corehead, also, occupied the tower of Lochhouse. 

The parish is irregular in form, but may be consi- 
dered as of the mean length of six miles, and of about the 
same breadth. It contains 21,000 acres, and is bounded 
on the north and east by Wamphray and Moffat parishes, 
on the north-west and west by Crawford and Closeburn, 
and on the south by Johnstone parish. The lands of 
White-holm, in the parish, belong to the shire of Lan- 
ark. The general appearance of the district is bleak 
and hilly : the land on the west consists of the mountain 
range of Queensberry ; and two or three miles to the 
east of this, is a parallel range, between which and 
Queensberry lies the pastoral valley of Kinnel Water. 
Between the second range of hills and the river Annan, 
washing the eastern boundary of the parish, is a tract of 
land nearly two miles broad and eight miles long, con- 
sisting of hill and valley, and which is chiefly arable, 
and constitutes the best part of the parish. A small 
portion of this land, however, is rocky, and some of it 
peat-moss ; another portion has been reclaimed from 
waste moor. The highest part of the parish is the 
mountain of Queensberry, the summit of which is 2140 
125 



feet above the level of the sea. The Kinnel, Evan, 
Annan, and Garpel are the streams connected with the 
parish : the Annan enters from Moffat, and, after a course 
of about thirty miles, in which it receives several tribu- 
tary waters, falls into the Solway Frith near the royal 
burgh of Annan. 

The soil in general is dry, and tolerably fertile ; the 
richest and best cultivated lies in the eastern quarter of 
the parish. About 7000 acres are in tillage ; 230 are in 
woods or plantations, of Scotch fir, oak, beech, elm, ash, 
and spruce ; and 14,000 are uncultivated, 2000 of which, 
however, are supposed capable of tillage, or fit for plan- 
tations. The cattle are chiefly the black Galloways, 
without horns ; and the sheep consist of the native 
black-faced, with some Cheviots. The improvements in 
agriculture in the parish, during the present century, 
have been considerable. Formerly it was almost entirely 
destitute of inclosures ; but this deficiency has been, to 
some extent, remedied. Draining, manuring, and the 
raising of green crops, have each received much attention ; 
and the use of bone-dust manure for turnip land, and 
the practice of letting sheep eat off the turnip crops, may 
be stated as two of the most approved usages of modern 
husbandry adopted here. The farm houses and offices 
are in a way of progressive improvement throughout the 
parish, and much attention is paid to the neatness 
of these buildings, most of which are constructed of stone 
and lime, and roofed with slate. The improvement also 
of cattle, and of the breeds of sheep, has received great 
attention. The rocks in the parish consist of freestone, 
trap, and greywacke or bluestone, which last is much 
used for common buildings. The rateable annual value 
of Kirkpatrick-Juxta is £5557- 

The only village is Craigielands, which is of small 
extent, but consists of neat buildings on a regular plan, 
raised some few years ago by one of the proprietors, 
for the accommodation of persons residing on his lands. 
In its vicinity is Craigielands, a handsome mansion 
surrounded by a park. The lines of turnpike-road 
running through the parish are, part of the road from 
Glasgow to Carlisle, and another, intersecting it at 
Beattock Inn, from Dumfries to Edinburgh : on both 
are mail-coaches daily. The roads and bridges are kept 
in good condition. The ecclesiastical affairs are 
directed by the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of 
Dumfries ; patron, J. J. Hope Johnstone, Esq. The 
stipend of the minister is £195, exclusive of the vicarage 
tithes, which consist of twenty-four lambs, and forty- 
eight pounds' weight of wool ; with a manse, and a 
glebe of four arable and five meadow acres, worth, with 
garden, about £10 a year. The church, built in 1799, 
and thoroughly repaired in 1824, is a plain building, 
accommodating between 500 and 600 persons. There 
are two parochial schools, the master of the first of which 
receives £34 a year as salary ; the master of the second 
school, who labours only during pleasure, receives about 
£17. Each has also fees, amounting to £15 or £20 
a year. Two other schools, upon a smaller scale, are 
supported entirely by fees ; and a library has lately been 
established. A bequest of £130 was recently vested in 
the purchase of a house and land, now yielding £6 per 
annum, appropriated to teaching poor children ; and a 
school, erected from the accumulations of an ancient 
fund, is chiefly maintained by Mr. Hope Johnstone. 
The chief antiquity is the ruin of the castle of Achincass, 



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the walls of which are about 150 feet square, twenty feet 
high, and fifteen feet thick. Traces are still visible of 
the Roman road leading from the great camp at Burns- 
wark, in the parish of Middlebie, to a small rectangular 
encampment in this parish called Tatius-Holm. There 
are also numerous cairns and circular inclosures upon 
the hills. The parish contains several strong chalybeate 
springs. 

KIRKTON, a village, in the parish of Balmerino, 
district of Cupar, county of Fife; containing 111 in- 
habitants. This is a small village, or hamlet, lying 
north of the ruins of the celebrated abbey of Balmerino, 
which occupy a beautiful situation in the neighbourhood 
of the Tay, and form the chief object of attraction as 
respects the antiquities of the parish. 

KIRKTON, a village, in the parish of Largo, dis- 
trict of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 1 mile (N. E. by 
E.) from Largo ; containing 395 inhabitants. It lies in 
the south-eastern part of the parish, on the road from 
Kilconquhar to Largo ; and derives its name from the 
situation of the parish church within its limits. The 
population is chiefly agricultural. 

KIRKTON, a village, in the parish of Kirkma- 
hoe, county of Dumfries ; containing 221 inhabitants. 

KIRKTON, a village, in the parish of Auchter- 
house, county of Forfar, 8 miles (E. by S.) from 
Cupar- Angus ; containing 134 inhabitants. The village 
is seated in the centre of the parish, east of the high 
road from Dundee to Meigle, and on an elevated site 
about a hundred feet above the level of the sea. From 
it, on the west, through an opening of the Sidlaw hills, 
called the Glack of Newtile, is a fine view of part of 
Strathmore, the district of Stormont, and the Grampians; 
and on the south and east are seen the Lomond hills, 
Largo Law, the city and bay of St. Andrew's, the Frith 
of Tay, and the German Ocean, which last terminates 
the prospect. The church is situated in the village. 

KIRKTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Glenisla, 
county of Forfar, 8 miles (N. by W.) from Alyth ; 
containing 44 inhabitants. This is a very small place, 
only distinguished as containing the church. It is in 
the southern part of the parish, and on the north bank 
of the Isla, which here flows in a devious course, and 
in nearly a south-eastern direction, until it joins the 
river Melgum behind Airlie Castle. The road from 
Lentrathen to Fergus, in the parish, passes close to the 
hamlet. 

KIRKTON, a village, in the parish of Stkathmar- 
tine, county of Forfar, 4 miles (N. N. W.) from 
Dundee ; containing 96 inhabitants. It is nearly in the 
centre of the parish, on the road to Dundee, and on the 
banks of the Dighty water. In the village, as its name 
imports, is situated the kirk, and also the manse. 

KIRKTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Tealing, 
county of Forfar, 6 miles (N.) from Dundee ; contain- 
ing 48 inhabitants. It lies in the central part of the 
parish, a short distance eastward of the road from 
Dundee to Kirriemuir. The church is in the hamlet. 

KIRKTON of KINNETTLES, a hamlet, in the 
parish of Kinnettles, county of Forfar, 9\ miles 
(S. W. by W.) from Forfar ; containing 49 inhabitants. 
This place is situated in the south-western part of the 
parish, a short distance eastward from Douglaston ; and 
is a pleasing hamlet, built in 1813, and having a chain- 
bridge across the Kerbit rivulet, by which the parish is 
126 



intersected. Though the population is so small, it com- 
prehends persons in various trades. 

KIRKTON of WEEM, a village, in the parish of 
Weem, county of Perth, 1 mile (N. W. by W.) from 
Aberfeldy ; containing 50 inhabitants. It is situated in 
one of the detached portions of the parish, and is sepa- 
rated by the waters of the Tay, over which is Tay bridge, 
from the town of Aberfeldy. The bridge is a fine build- 
ing of five arches, and was finished in 1733, under the 
direction of General Wade, then commander of the 
forces in Scotland. In the village is a good inn ; and 
the church, in its vicinity, is conveniently situated for 
a large part of the population of the district. 

KIRKTOUN, a village, in the parish of Burnt- 
island, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 4 miles 
(S. by W.) from Kirkcaldy ; containing 251 inhabitants. 
The village is pleasantly situated, and, from the favour- 
able state of the climate, and the pleasantness of the 
surrounding district, is much resorted to during the 
season for sea-bathing, fur which this part of the coast 
is celebrated. It is well supplied with provisions of 
every kind from the market-town of Kirkcaldy, with 
which it has facility of intercourse by good turnpike- 
roads ; and there is intercourse with Newhaven and 
other towns by steam-boats, which regularly sail from 
the port of Burntisland. 

KIRKTOUN, a parish, in the district of Hawick, 
county of Roxburgh, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Hawick ; 
containing 313 inhabitants. This parish is about eight 
miles in length, from east to west, and two miles in 
breadth, from north to south ; and is bounded on the 
north-east by the parish of Hobkirk ; on the west, 
partly by the parish of Cavers, and partly by that of 
Hawick ; and in all other directions, by the parish of 
Cavers. The surface is undulated, rising in many parts 
into green hills of moderate elevation and of great 
variety of form ; and is intersected by the river Slitrig, 
on the western bank of which the ground rises by a 
gradual and continued acclivity to the boundary of the 
parish. The scenery is generally pleasing ; but the 
want of wood renders it comparatively barren of pic- 
turesque beauty. The soil is mostly fertile, and the pas- 
tures rich ; the whole number of acres in the parish is 
estimated at 10,200, comprising arable, pasture, and 
uncultivated land, with a very small portion in wood 
and plantations. The system of agriculture is in an im- 
proved state ; the lands have been well drained, and 
inclosed partly with stone dykes, and partly with hedges, 
kept in good order; a few farm- buildings are substan- 
tial and commodious, and the various improvements in 
the construction of implements have been adopted. A 
quarry of very excellent whinstone has been opened, 
which provides abundant materials for the roads and 
for other purposes. Facility of communication with the 
neighbouring market-towns is afforded by the roads 
from Hawick to Liddesdale and Newcastle, which pass 
through the parish ; and there are various good roads 
kept in repair by statute labour. The rateable an- 
nual value of Kirktoun is £3599. The ecclesiastical 
affairs are under the superintendence of the pres- 
bytery of Jedburgh and synod of Merse and Teviot- 
dale. The stipend of the incumbent is £174; the 
manse, with offices, was built in the summer of 1840, 
and the glebe is valued at £11 per annum. The 
church is a neat plain edifice, also built in the sum- 



KIRK 



KIRK 



rner of 1S40, but very inconveniently situated. The 
parochial school is well conducted and well attended ; 
the master has a salary of £26, with a house and 
garden, and the fees average about £15 per annum. 
About a mile south-west of the church is an encamp- 
ment, upon rising ground ; and still further west, in one 
or two places, similar vestiges occur. Dr. Leyden, the 
eminent Orientalist, received the rudiments of his 
education in the parochial school of this place, his 
parents residing on the farm of Nether Tofts : his 
native place was Denholm, in the parish of Cavers. 

KIRKTOWN, a village, in the parish of Fenwick, 
district of Cvjnntnghame, county of Ayr, 5 miles 
(N. E. by N.) from Kilmarnock ; containing 1 17 inhabit- 
ants. This village is a short distance from that of 
Fenwick, and is of very small extent, and little better in 
appearance than a mere hamlet. The greater part of it 
is built upon the glebe land. 

KIRKTOWN of FORDOUN, a hamlet, within the 
parish of Fordoun, countj r of Kincardine, 3 miles 
(S. W. by W.) from Glenbervie ; containing 34 inhabit- 
ants. It consists of the manse, the parochial school- 
house, an inn, and three or four cottages. 

KIRKTOWN of NEW DEER, a village, within the 
parish of New Deer, district of Buchan, county of 
Aberdeen, 6 miles (E. S. E.) from Cuminestown ; con- 
taining 322 inhabitants. It is situated on the ridge of 
a hill, upon the high road from Ellon to Newbyth, and 
consists of a long street of above a hundred houses and 
cottages, the fields declining to the east and west : the 
population is almost wholly agricultural. There are 
a sub-post office, and two or three good inns in the 
village ; and fairs are held in it in April, May, June, 
October, and November, at all which cattle and horses 
are exposed for sale. The mail-coach from Banff to 
Peterhead passes daily, and a stage-coach three times a 
week from Aberdeen to Ellon. The church stands near 
the village, where are also the parochial school and a 
circulating library. 

KIRKURD, a parish, in the county of Peebles, 6| 
miles (N. E.) from Biggar ; containing 305 inhabitants. 
This place derives its name from the situation of its 
church on an eminence, urd being the Celtic for a height. 
It appears to have formed part of the lands conferred 
by James II. upon Sir David Scott, of Buccleuch, 
ancestor of that ducal family, in recompense of his ser- 
vices during the civil wars with the Douglases, whose 
defeat at the battle of Arkinholme, in the valley of Esk, 
was attributed to the important aid giveu to his sove- 
reign on that occasion. The parish is about five miles 
and a half in length, from east to west, and from three 
to four miles in average breadth ; and is bounded on 
the north by the water of the Tarth, which separates it 
from the parishes of Linton and Newlands ; on the 
east by the parishes of Newlands and Stobo ; on the 
south by Broughton ; and on the west by Skirling and 
Dolphington. The surface is diversified with hill and 
dale in nearly equal portions. The highest of the hills 
is Hell's Cleuch, which has an elevation of 2100 feet 
above the level of the sea, and on the summit of which 
is a cairn, situated on a point where the parishes of 
Stobo and Broughton come in contact with this parish ; 
it is called the Pyked Stane, and commands an exten- 
sive view, embracing the country beyond the Forth, and 
the chain of mountains extending from the eastern 
127 



portion of the county of Fife to the county of Dumbar- 
ton, as well as North Berwick, the Eildon hills near 
Melrose, and the Cheviot hills in the county of Northum- 
berland. The Tarth is the only stream of any impor- 
tance ; but there are several springs of excellent water, 
affording an ample supply, and near Castle-Craig a 
sulphureous spring, which, on being analysed, was found 
to contain properties similar to those of Harrogate, but 
inferior in strength. The scenery is generally pleasing, 
and in many parts enriched with thriving plantations. 

The soil is light and gravelly, and seems well adap- 
ted for the growth of timber. The whole number of 
acres, according to actual measurement, is 6620, of which 
2200 are arable, about the same quantity meadow and 
pasture land capable of being brought into cultivation, 
600 in woods and plantations, and the remainder chiefly 
sheep-pasture and waste. The crops are, oats, barley, 
peas, potatoes, and turnips : wheat has been raised in 
very small quantities, but. was not found suited to the 
soil. The system of husbandry is advanced; the lands 
are well drained, and irrigation is practised on some of 
the meadow lands with singular benefit : the farm- 
buildings are comfortable, though inferior to many 
others in the neighbourhood ; and the various improve- 
ments in the construction of agricultural implements 
have been adopted. Considerable attention is paid to 
the management of the dairy, and to live stock: about 
2000 sheep are annually pastured, chiefly of the black- 
faced kind, and 250 black-cattle of the Ayrshire breed 
are annually reared. The woods and plantations are 
carefully attended to, and have been much increased of 
late. The substrata are not various ; the prevailing 
rocks are of the transition class, but there are neither 
mines nor quarries. In digging for marl, the horns of 
an elk were discovered in excellent preservation ; and 
in some of the boggy lands, have been dug up quantities 
of hazel-nuts in a perfectly sound state. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £2638. Castle-Craig, the 
seat of Sir Thomas G. Carmichael, Bart., is a spacious 
and handsome mansion, erected by Sir John G. Car- 
michael, and enlarged and embellished by the present 
proprietor ; it is situated in a highly-cultivated and 
improved demesne, and the gardens and pleasure-** 
grounds are laid out with great taste. Netherurd House, 
formerly Cairnmuir House, is also a handsome residence, 
the seat of the White family. The nearest market- 
towns are Biggar and Peebles, with which, and with 
other places, the inhabitants have facilities of intercourse 
by roads kept in excellent repair ; and the turnpike- 
roads from Edinburgh to Dumfries, and from Glasgow 
to Peebles, pass through the parish. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superinten- 
dence of the presbytery of Peebles and synod of Lothian 
and Tweeddale ; and the patronage is in Sir Thomas 
Carmichael. The stipend of the incumbent is £15S, of 
which more than a half is a grant from the exchequer ; 
the manse was erected in 17S8, and the glebe comprises 
about nineteen acres, nearly the whole of which is good 
arable land. The church, built in 1766, and conve- 
niently situated for the population, is a neat and sub- 
stantial edifice adapted for a congregation of 300 per- 
sons ; every tenant in the parish has a sitting in it for 
himself and family. The members of the Free Church 
have a place of worship. The parochial school is well 
attended ; the master has a salary of £34, with a house 



KIRK 



KIRK 



and garden, and the fees average £26 per annum. 
Attached to the school is a good library ; and until the 
last few years there was also a parochial library, sup- 
ported by subscription, in which was a considerable 
collection of standard works • on its discontinuance the 
books were divided among the members. In the vicinity 
of Old Harestanes are some remains of Druidical origin. 
Near Castle-Craig are the ancient mounts called the 
Castle and the Law ; they are supposed to have been 
stations for the administration of justice in former times. 
To the east of them is a circular intrenchment on an 
eminence, named the Ring; and to the west of them, 
another fortification, styled the Chesters ; both probably 
military stations. A stone kistvaen, inclosing an urn of 
clay with human bones, was found in 1754, at Mount- 
Hill ; and at the base of that eminence was discovered, 
some years afterwards, a stone coffin containing human 
bones, with several rudely-formed weapons of flint, and 
a small ring. James Geddes, of Rachan, author of an 
essay on the Composition and Manner of Writing of 
the Ancients, and of several other tracts, was born in 
this parish in 17 10; and the enlightened Dugald 
Stewart resided for some time at Netherurd House. 

KIRKWALL and ST. 
OLA, a royal burgh, a sea- 
port, and parish, and for- 
merly the seat of a diocese, 
in the county of Orkney, of 
which it is the capital ; con- 
taining 3599 inhabitants, of 
whom 2205 are in the burgh, 
21 miles (N. by E.) from 
Huna, and 327 (N.) from 
Edinburgh. This place, 
which is situated in the 
south-eastern portion of the 
Mainland, is of great antiquity, and from a very early 
date has been distinguished for its importance. The 
rural district around the town, called St. Ola, and sup- 
posed to have been originally a separate parish, derived 
its name from the foundation of a church by Olave, the 
first Christian king of Norway, to whom the Orkney 
Islands at that time belonged, at a period anterior to 
the erection of the ancient cathedral. The buildings 
near its site, which now constitute a portion of what is 
styled the Old Town, bear evident traces of remote an- 
tiquity. The burgh appears to have derived its name, 
originally " Kirkcovog," now Kirkwall, from the erection 
of the Cathedral of St Magnus, founded in 1138, by 
Ronald, Earl of Orkney, in honour of his uncle, Magnus, 
the preceding earl, who had been assassinated by his 
relative, Haco, of Norway, in 1110, and canonized after 
his death : this cathedral, from its splendour and mag- 
nificence, was called the Great Kirk, an appellation sub- 
sequently appropriated to the town. The see, which 
had jurisdiction over the whole of the county of Orkney, 
subsisted under a regular succession of prelates, of 
whom Robert Reid was the last Roman Catholic bishop, 
till the abolition of episcopacy in Scotland. Among its 
earliest endowments were the lands of the parish of 
St. Ola, which, on the erection of the town into a royal 
burgh by charter of James III., and the cession of these 
islands to the Scottish crown, were partly vested in the 
magistrates and burgesses as a fund for keeping the 
cathedral of St. Magnus in repair. This ancient church 
128 




Burgh Seal. 



is a stately cruciform structure of red freestone, partly 
in the Norman, and partly in the early and later English 
styles of architecture, with a massive central tower, 
formerly surrounded by a lofty spire, which, being de- 
stroyed by lightning in 1671, has been replaced by a 
low pyramidal roof. The entire length of the cathedral 
is 226 feet, and the breadth fifty-six. The roof, which 
is richly groined, is seventy-one feet in height from the 
floor, and is sustained by a range of fourteen pillars on 
each side, fifteen feet in circumference, exclusive of four 
massive columns twenty-four feet in circumference, 
supporting the central tower, which rises to a height of 
133 feet, and contains a fine set of musical chimes, pre- 
sented by Bishop Maxwell in 152S. The east window, 
inserted by Bishop Stewart, in the reign of James IV., 
is of elegant design, thirty-six feet high and twelve feet 
in width, surmounted by a circular window twelve feet 
in diameter ; in the south transept is a circular window 
of equal dimensions, and at the west end of the nave a 
window similar to that of the choir, but inferior in size 
and embellishment. This venerable pile, from its remote 
situation, escaped the havoc committed on such struc- 
tures at the Reformation, and is still entire. It contains 
numerous finely-sculptured monuments, of which one at 
the east end, of white marble, was erected to the me- 
mory of Haco, King of Norway, who died in the bishop's 
palace after his return from the disastrous battle of 
Largs, in 1264, and was interred within the choir : 
there are also many monuments of Scandinavian chief- 
tains, saints, and warriors, with some of modern date, 
among which is a tablet to the historian Laing. The 
Episcopal palace appears to have been of very ancient 
foundation, probably coeval with that of the cathedral ; 
but by whom it was erected is not known. It was partly 
rebuilt in the time of Mary, by Bishop Reid, whose 
initials and armorial bearings are inscribed on several 
parts of the walls ; and on that side of the round tower 
facing the town is a niche, in which is a rude statue of 
the prelate. This tower forms at present the only 
portion of the palace that is in any tolerable state of 
preservation. The palace was, in 1264, for some time 
the abode of Haco, King of Norway : and was also the 
temporary residence of James V., who was entertained 
by the bishop when, on a progress through his domi- 
nions, he visited the Orkney Islands. 

The town is situated in the northern portion of a 
tract of land extending from the bay of Kirkwall, on the 
north, to Scalpa bay, on the south ; and is divided into 
the Old Town, along the shore of the former, and the 
New Town, a little to the south, by a small rivulet over 
which is an ancient bridge of one arch. It consists 
chiefly of one narrow and irregularly-formed street, 
about a mile in length, and is lighted with gas by a 
company of shareholders. The houses in the Old Town 
are mostly of very antiquated character, built with the 
end fronting the street, and having steep roofs, and 
doors and windows of diminutive size ; but such of 
them as are of more modern erection are of handsome 
appearance. TheNewTown consists of well-built houses ; 
in front of each is a neat garden, and there are several 
pleasing villas inhabited by opulent families, and nume- 
rous well-stored shops for the supply of the inhabitants 
with various articles of merchandize from Edinburgh, 
London, and other markets. There are two subscrip- 
tion libraries, and card and daucing assemblies are held 



KIRK 



KIRK 



in the rooms at the town-hall. The manufacture of 
kelp, formerly very extensive, has been greatly reduced ; 
and the principal manufacture at present carried on is 
that of straw-plat, by females at their own dwellings, 
for the manufacturers of the district, whose agents are 
stationed here. The plat is of various degrees of fine- 
ness, and is considered as superior to that of foreign 
production. The manufacture of sail-cloth and ropes 
is also extensive ; and there are two distilleries of 
whisky, which, besides supplying the neighbourhood, 
produce considerable quantities for exportation : two 
branch banks, also, have been established in the town. 
The trade of the port is mainly in the exportation of 
kelp, corn, fish, cattle, and wool ; and the importation of 
wood, hemp, iron, tar, groceries, cloth, and coal. The 
harbour, which is commodiously situated in Kirkwall 
bay, has been greatly improved under an act of the 9th 
of George IV., and is under the management of trustees 
consisting of the provost and six other members of the 
town-council, three registered owners of ships, and three 
landed proprietors of the county. A commodious pier 
has been erected for the despatch of business, at an ex- 
pense of £1100. In 1843 there were sixty-four vessels 
registered as belonging to the port, of the aggregate 
burthen of 4312 tons ; and the customs received in the 
same year amounted to £6 IS. Boat-building, for which 
there are several yards, is carried on to some extent. 
There is no regular fishery established here ; but cod, 
ling, haddocks, skate, halibut, and coal-fish are found 
off the coast in abundance, for the supply of the inha- 
bitants. A fair is held in August, and is plentifully 
furnished with Manchester, London, and Glasgow goods, 
and with jewellery, haberdashery, and other wares. A 
powerful steamer plies weekly between this place and 
Leith, and numerous smaller boats to the adjacent 
islands. 

Kirkwall was erected into a royal btjrgh, as already 
stated, by charter of James III., which recited and con- 
firmed all previous privileges, and was ratified by char- 
ters of James V. and of Charles II. of England ; there 
were also granted to the burgesses the burgh and city 
of Kirkwall, the cathedral church of St. Magnus, and 
various lands for upholding it in repair. The govern- 
ment is vested in a provost, four bailies, a dean of guild, 
treasurer, and sixteen councillors, assisted by a town- 
clerk and other officers. The provost and bailies are 
magistrates, and exercise jurisdiction extending over the 
whole of the royalty. They hold courts for the adjudi- 
cation of civil suits, and also for trivial nuisances and 
petty misdemeanors, the town-clerk acting as assessor; 
but their decisions in the criminal cases seldom extend 
beyond the imposition of a small fine, or a confinement 
of twenty-four hours. There are four incorporated 
crafts, viz., the shoemakers, tailors, weavers, and ham- 
mermen, of one of which every one exercising trade 
within the burgh must be a member, and in which the 
fees for admission vary from £3 to £5 for sons of free- 
men or apprentices, and from £4 to £10 for strangers. 
The burgh is associated with those of Wick, Cromarty, 
Dingwall, Dornoch, and Tain, in returning a member to 
the imperial parliament; the right of election is vested 
in the resident burgesses and £10 householders. The 
town-hall is a handsome building with a piazza in front, 
and is three stories in height. The ground-floor con- 
tains the prison for the burgh, consisting of several 
Vol. II.— 129 



separate cells ; the first-floor has a spacious assembly- 
room, with court-rooms, and the story above it is ap- 
propriated to the use of the masonic lodge. 

The parish, which is about five miles in length, and 
of nearly equal breadth, is bounded on the north by 
the bays of Firth and Kirkwall, on the east by Inganess 
bay and the parish of St. Andrew's, on the south by 
Scalpa bay, and on the west by the parish of Orphir. 
The surface is diversified with hills, of which that of 
Wideford, the only one of any considerable elevation, is 
about 500 feet above the level of the sea, and covered 
to its summit with heath. In the rocks on the east of 
Scalpa bay are some singular excavations, made by the 
action of the waves, and one of which, about 100 yards 
in depth, forms a narrow winding passage in the rock, 
generally twelve feet in height, but in some parts nearly 
twenty feet, with beautiful stalactites of lime depending 
from the roof. The soil is various ; towards the hills, 
and in the higher lands, a mixture of cold clay and 
moss ; near the shore, sandy ; and in several parts, a 
rich black loam. The exact area of the parish has not 
been ascertained, but the probable number of acres of 
arable land is estimated at 1500; the crops are, oats, 
barley, bear, potatoes, and turnips, with the various 
artificial grasses, all of which are cultivated with suc- 
cess. The system of agriculture has been greatly im- 
proved, and the rotation plan introduced ; considerable 
progress, also, has taken place in draining and inclosing 
the lands. There is a large tract of undivided common, 
affording good pasturage for sheep, the breed of which, 
as well as that of cattle and horses, has been much 
improved. A handsome mansion has been erected by 
the Earl of Zetland ; and to the east of the town is Pap- 
dale House, the residence of Mr. Laing, and formerly of 
Mr. Malcolm Laing, author of the History of Scotland, 
which was wholly written here. There are several gar- 
dens where various kinds of fruit are raised with great 
success, and in some of which grapes are produced in 
hot-houses ; but there is little or no wood, and trees 
of any considerable size cannot thrive unless in well- 
sheltered spots. The substratum is principally clay- 
slate, alternated with coarse sandstone, and in some 
places with veins of limestone, and spar containing 
small crystals of galena. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Kirkwall, of which this is 
the seat, and of the synod of Orkney, which also holds 
its meetings in the parish. The church, being colle- 
giate, has two ministers, who officiate alternately. The 
minister of the first charge has a stipend of £150. 18., 
including an allowance of £4. 3. 4. for communion ele- 
ments ; with £30 in lieu of a manse, and a glebe valued 
at £42 : the minister of the second charge has a stipend 
of £154, including £4. 3. 4. for communion elements : 
with an allowance of £50 in lieu of manse and glebe : 
patrons of both, the Corporation and Burgesses. The 
choir of the cathedral is appropriated as the parish 
church, and contains 835 sittings. A church dedicated 
to St. Mary has been recently erected by subscription, 
at an expense of £1400, of which £200 were granted 
from the Church Extension fund ; it is a neat struc- 
ture containing 1000 sittings. The patronage is vested 
in a committee of twenty-five, appointed by the sub- 
scribers to its erection. There are also places of wor- 
ship for members of the Free Church, United Secession, 

S 



K I R R 



K I R R 



Original Seceders, and Independents. The grammar 
school, which is of very early foundation, was origi- 
nally an appendage of the ancient cathedral establish- 
ment, and under the care of the prebendaries ; and 
after the dissolution of that body, the master for some 
time continued to receive the emoluments of the pre- 
bend of St. Peter, which subsequently, with the other 
revenues of the see, merged in the crown. The present 
master has a salary of £38, arising partly from a volun- 
tary contribution hy the clergy and gentry of Orkney, 
of 2000 merks vested in the Earl of Zetland, and partly 
from the proceeds of £500 bequeathed by John Balfour, 
Esq. : the fees average £50 per annum. The school is 
attended by about 100 scholars, who are instructed in 
the Greek and Latin classics, the French and English 
languages, arithmetic, mathematics, and navigation. 
The patronage is vested in the council of the burgh, 
who, in 1820, erected an elegant school-house in lieu 
of the ancient building, which had become dilapidated. 
A school is maintained by the Society for Propagating 
Christian Knowledge, which pays a salary of £15 to the 
master, who also receives £5 from the Kirk Session ; 
there is likewise a school for females, supported by the 
ladies resident in the town. Three friendly societies 
have been established for the relief of widows and 
orphans and of the indigent sick ; and there are 
two subscription societies. Mr. Meason, of Moredun, 
in 1810 bequeathed £1000, the interest of which he 
appropriated towards keeping the cathedral in repair. 

There are considerable remains of what is called the 
King's Castle, and of the ancient palace of the earls of 
Orkney. At what period and by whom the former 
was founded, is not distinctly known. From some in- 
scriptions and a mitre on the walls, it is supposed to 
have been originally built by one of the bishops ; but it 
is with more probability ascribed to Henry Sinclair, 
first Earl of Orkney, in the fourteenth century. This 
fortress, of which the walls are of great thickness, was 
in a tolerably perfect state in the time of Robert Stew- 
art, created Earl of Orkney in 1581, whose son, Patrick, 
having committed many acts of rebellion, defended it 
for some time against the king's forces, by whom it was 
at length taken and demolished. The palace of the earls 
of Orkney was erected in 1607, by the above-named 
Patrick Stewart ; it was a spacious structure of grey 
stone, two stories in height, and embellished with pro- 
jecting towers and oriel windows of elegant design. The 
grand hall, a magnificent apartment fifty-eight feet long 
and twenty feet wide, was approached by a triple flight 
of steps, leading from the principal entrance in the 
lower story, and was lighted by a range of noble win- 
dows. The walls that are still left are in as perfect 
a state as when first erected ; and the remains display 
much of ancient grandeur, though the buildings were 
greatly dilapidated by Cromwell's soldiers, who removed 
the stones for the erection of a fortress on the east side 
of Kirkwall bay, the mounds and intrenchments of 
which, raised to protect it from the sea, are yet tolera- 
bly entire. Among the eminent characters connected 
with the parish have been, Sir Robert Strange, a cele- 
brated engraver ; Malcolm Laing ; and Dr. Traill, pro- 
fessor of medical jurisprudence in the university of 
Edinburgh, all of whom were natives. 

KIRRIEMUIR, a burgh of barony, market-town, 
and parish, in the county of Forfar ; containing, with 
130 



the village of Northmuir, 7085 inhabitants, of whom 
3067 are in the town, 6 miles (W. N. W.) from Forfar, 
and 20 (N. by W.) from Dundee. This place derives its 
name, which is of disputed origin, most probably from 
its local appearance and position, which would equally 
justify its appellation, in the Gaelic signifying " a large 
hollow," or, as is supposed by some, " a wide district." 
With the exception of sanguinary conflicts between the 
chieftains of the several clans, during the feudal times, 
there are no events of historical importance connected 
with the place. It was usual in the fourteenth century 
for the Highlanders beyond the Grampian hills to form 
themselves into bands under some warlike chieftain, 
and make depredations in this part of the country; and 
in 1392, three chiefs commanded by Duncan Stewart, 
natural son of the Earl of Buchan, came to ravage the 
district, when a battle took place near the town, in 
which Sir John Ogilvy, of this place, with many of his 
retinue, was slain. In 1411, Donald, Lord of the Isles, 
a firm adherent of the English interest, who acted as an 
arbitrary and despotic prince, advanced with his follow- 
ers to Kirriemuir, to prosecute his claim to the earldom 
of Ross, in which he was opposed by Lord Ogilvy, at 
that time sheriff of Angus, who mustered his war- 
like vassals, and, with the assistance of the Earl of 
Mar, obtained a victory over the invader, whom he 
defeated with great loss. In 1445, a memorable conflict 
occurred between the clans of the Ogilvys and the Lind- 
says, in which it is said not less than 500 of the former 
were slain on the field of battle. At a subsequent 
period, a bitter feud arose between the royal burgh of 
Forfar and this place, originating in some disputed 
ground, called the Muir Moss, which was claimed by 
both towns, and where a battle was eventually fought, 
in which the inhabitants of Kirriemuir had the advan- 
tage. Among the families that have been connected 
with the place is that of Ogilvy, of Airlie, a collateral 
branch of the Gilchrists, earls of Angus : its ancestor 
obtained from William the Lion a grant of the barony 
of Ogilvy, whence he took his name. His descendant, 
Sir James Ogilvy, was in great favour with James IV., 
who created him a peer of the realm by the title of 
Baron Ogilvy, of Airlie ; and the seventh lord, in con- 
sideration of important services rendered to Charles I. 
of England, was by that monarch created Earl of Airlie 
in 1639. 

The town is pleasantly situated, partly on a plain 
and partly on rising ground, and consists of streets 
irregularly planned, from which numerous others branch 
off in various directions, with some handsome ranges of 
houses in the upper part. From the upper part is an 
extensive and richly-varied prospect over the whole 
vale of Strathmore, with its towns, castles, churches, 
seats, plantations, rivers, and lakes, and the other pictu- 
resque and romantic features that enliven and charac- 
terize its surface. The streets are paved and kept in 
order by statute labour ; the town is well lighted by 
a company, and the inhabitants are scantily supplied 
with water. A public library, in which is a large col- 
lection of volumes of general literature, is supported by 
subscription ; and there is also a reading and news 
room, furnished with daily papers and periodical pub- 
lications. The chief trade carried on here, and that to 
which the town is indebted for its prosperity, is the 
manufacture of brown linen, introduced into this part 



K I R R 



K I R R 



of the country about the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, since which time it has steadily continued to 
increase, now affording employment to about 3000 per- 
sons. The manufacture has maintained itself at this 
place in rivalry with towns more advantageously situ- 
ated ; and it has attained to such perfection that con- 
siderable quantities of yarn are sent here from Mon- 
trose and Dundee, to be manufactured for those markets. 
The average number of pieces made annually exceeds 
50,000, containing 6,500,000 yards. The post-office 
has a daily delivery; and a branch of the British Linen 
Company's bank has been established in the town. 
The market, which is abundantly supplied and nume- 
rously attended, is on Friday ; and fairs are held on the 
hill at the upper extremity of the town, on the Wednes- 
day after the 24th of July and the Wednesday after the 
19th October, for sheep ; and, on a smaller scale, in June 
and December, on the Wednesdays after Glammis fairs. 
Means of communication are afforded by a good turn- 
pike-road, and by bridges over the Esk and Prosen ; 
and the Dundee railroad passes within four miles of the 
town. This place was a burgh of royalty at a very re- 
mote period, and is subject to a baron, who had formerly 
unlimited jurisdiction both in civil and criminal eases, 
but whose power, since the abolition of hereditary juris- 
dictions, has been greatly diminished. A bailie is 
appointed by the baron, Lord Douglas ; but his juris- 
diction is limited in civil cases to pleas not exceeding 
forty shillings, and in criminal cases to offences punish- 
able by fines not above twenty shillings, or imprison- 
ment not beyond one month. There is a justice-of- 
peace court held here for the district, including the 
parishes of Glenisla, Lintrathen, Airlie, Kingoldrum, 
Cortachy, Tannadice, and Oathlaw ; and the peace of 
the town is preserved by a sufficient number of con- 
stables. A trades' hall was some time ago erected by 
the various friendly societies of the place ; the lower 
part is now let for shops, and the upper part has 
been recently appropriated as a place of worship for 
members of the Relief. There is also a small prison for 
the temporary confinement of vagrants, and offenders 
against the peace, till brought to trial. 

The parish, which is situated to the north of the 
vale of Strathmore, is divided into two extensive dis- 
tricts by an intervening portion of the parish of Kin- 
goldrum. The northern district is thinly peopled, is nine 
miles in length, and from two to four in breadth, and 
comprises 18,000 acres, of which 2000 are arable, inter- 
spersed with portions of fine pasture and meadow, 500 
woodland and plantations, and 15,500 mountain pasture 
and waste. The southern district of the parish is five 
miles inlength,and of nearly equal breadth, and comprises 
about 16,000 acres, of which 11,000 are arable, 2000 
woodland and plantations, 2000 moor and pasture, and 
the remainder roads, water, and waste. The surface in 
the north is hilly and mountainous, extending on both 
sides of the river Prosen, and hemmed in by a con- 
tinued chain of mountains, of which the most conspi- 
cuous is the Catlaw, the first in the range of the Gram- 
pians, having an elevation of 2264 feet above the level 
of the sea, and by some writers supposed to be the 
Mons Grampius of Tacitus. These mountain ridges are 
indented with numerous small glens and occasional 
openings ; and from many of the steep acclivities descend 
torrents, which afterwards form tributaries to the Prosen. 
131 



The surface of the southern division of the parish is 
nearly level, in some parts gently sloping, and in others 
varied with gentle inundations ; the only heights of any 
importance being the braes of Inverquharity and the 
hill of Kirriemuir, which are richly cultivated to their 
very summit. The principal streams are, the South Esk, 
the Prosen, the Carity, and the Garie. The South Esk 
has its source among the mountains in the parish of 
Clova, and, after receiving many tributary streams in its 
progress through this parish, runs into the sea at Mon- 
trose. The pearl muscle is common in this river, and a 
pearl-fishery was formerly carried on with success : some 
years since a considerable number of pearls found here 
were sold to a jeweller in the town for a considerable sum, 
one of them being nearly a quarter of an inch in diameter. 
The Prosen rises in the northern extremity of the parish, 
and extends through the whole length of the glen to 
which it gives name. Augmented in its course by 
the streams of the Lidnathy, Glenloig, Glenlogy, and 
numerous others issuing from the sides of the moun- 
tains, it falls into the South Esk near Inverquharity, 
not far from the influx, into the same stream, of the 
Carity, which rises at Balintore, in the parish of Lintra- 
then. The Garie has its source in the lake of Kinnordy, 
in this parish, and joins the river Dean near Glammis 
Castle. Loch Kinnordy, which was formerly extensive, 
and abounded with perch, pike, and eels, was drained 
about a century since, by Sir John Ogilvy, for the marl ; 
but the draining having been imperfectly accomplished, 
it is still a lake, although of inconsiderable size. The 
stream which issues from it, in dry weather, is scarcely 
sufficient to turn a mill, though, by the construction of 
numerous dams to collect the water, it is made to give 
motion to the machinery of a large number of corn and 
spinning mills. 

The soil is very various. In the northern division of 
the parish, it is sometimes of a gravelly nature : on the 
acclivities of the mountains, particularly those of gentler 
elevation, of a richer alluvial quality ; and in other 
parts, especially towards the mountain summits, a deep 
moss, which in many places has been partially drained. 
The soil in the southern division is for a considerable 
extent sandy and gravelly : on the sloping grounds, 
where there is frequently an accumulation of alluvial 
deposit, it is richer, intermixed with black and brown 
loams of great fertility ; in the lower tracts it is thin 
and dry ; in some places mossy, and in others deep and 
fertile. The crops comprise oats, barley, wheat, pota- 
toes, and turnips : the system of agriculture is in a very 
advanced state ; the lands have been well drained, and 
inclosed partly with dykes of stone and partly with 
hedges of thorn, which are kept in good order. Irriga- 
tion has been practised with success on lands requiring 
that process ; and all the more recent improvements in 
agricultural implements have been generally adopted. 
The natural woods in the parish, of which the eastern 
portion formed part of the ancient forest of Plater, are 
now inconsiderable ; they consist chiefly of birch, alder, 
hazel, blackthorn, and willow. Around the castle of 
Inverquharity are some ancient chesnut and ash trees ; 
and in other parts, some beeches of stately growth. The 
plantations are Scotch fir, with a few larch, and various 
kinds of forest-trees ; they are well managed, and in 
a flourishing condition. The principal substrata are, 
the old red sandstone, alternated with red schistose and 

S3 



K I R R 



KIRT 



trap rock ; slate ; and limestone. A dyke of serpen- 
tine occurs on the farm of Balloch, and in Glenprosen 
are rocks of primitive formation, containing mica-schist, 
hornblende-slate, and gneiss, in which last are found 
beautiful specimens of rock-crystal and garnets. The 
slate, which is of grey colour, and contains some vege- 
table impressions, is of good quality for roofing; and 
the limestone is quarried, and burnt into lime in rudely- 
constructed kilns. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £11,591. Kinnordy is a handsome mansion 
pleasantly situated ; the gardens contain many rare and 
valuable plants, and in the house is a museum of natural 
curiosities and antiquities. Balnaboth, Logie, Ballandarg, 
and Shielhill, are the other gentlemen's seats worthy of 
being mentioned. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Forfar and synod 
of Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of Lord 
Douglas ; the minister's stipend is £246. 4. 8., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £11 per annum. The 
church, a neat plain edifice, was erected in 1787, and is 
adapted for a congregation of 1240 persons. There 
is also a church at South Kirriemuir, to which a district 
was till lately annexed, with a population of 2691 ; it 
contains 1021 sittings. A missionary, who has an in- 
come from the Royal Bounty, officiates alternately at 
Clova and Glenprosen ; and there are in the town and 
parish an episcopal chapel, and places of worship for 
members of the Free Church, the Original Constitu- 
tional Synod, the United Secession, and the Relief 
Church. The parochial school affords a very liberal 
course of instruction ; the master has a salary of £34, 
with £128 fees, a good house, and an allowance of 
£2. 2. 9|., in lieu of garden-ground. John Webster, 
Esq., in 1829, bequeathed £8000 to Charles Lyell, Esq., 
the minister of the parish, and others, in trust for the 
erection and endowment of a school ; a handsome house 
containing five spacious schoolrooms has been erected, 
and teachers have been appointed by the trustees. Mr. 
Henry, of Kensington, near London, a native of this 
place, bequeathed £1400 to the ministers and elders, in 
trust for the education of children, to which purpose the 
interest of £1200 was to be appropriated, that of the 
remainder being directed to be paid to the parochial 
schoolmaster for keeping the accounts. Fifty boys are 
taught in the parochial school from this • fund, with 
preference of admission to those of the name of Henry ; 
and their fees are paid out of the funds for four years. 
A savings' bank, and some friendly societies established 
in the town, long tended to diminish the number of 
applications for parochial relief. 

There are within the limits of the parish several 
erect stones of large dimensions, none of which, how- 
ever, have any inscription ; and near the hill of Kir- 
riemuir were lately two rocking-stones, within a short 
distance of each other, one of whinstone, and the other 
of Lintrathen porphyry. The parish also contains some 
caves, the most remarkable of which is one called Weems 
Hole, on the summit of the hill of Mearns. It is of 
artificial construction, built with stones, and covered 
with flags of rough stone six feet in width ; it is about 
seventy yards in length, and has the entrance to the 
south. When first explored, a great number of human 
bones were found in it, with some querns and other 
relics of antiquity. There is a similar cave at Auchlishie, 
called the Weems Park, in which, when opened, were 
132 



found a currach and several querns. In the bed of the 
loch of Kinnordy was found, in 1S20, a canoe, of which 
one extremity was scarcely hidden under the surface. 
There are also various mutilated remains of ancient 
buildings, supposed to be the ruins of some of the 
earliest religious establishments after the introduction 
of Christianity into Britain. Many eminent persons 
have been connected with the parish. Of a branch 
of the Ogilvy family, resident at Inverquharity, was 
Alexander, second son of Sir John Ogilvy ; he joined 
the Marquess of Montrose at the battle of Philiphaugh, 
in which he was taken prisoner, and for his loyalty he 
was executed at Glasgow in 1646. Captain Ogilvy, son 
of Sir David, attended James II. at the battle of the 
Boyne, and was afterwards killed in an engagement on 
the Rhine ; he was one of a hundred gentlemen who 
volunteered to attend that monarch in his exile. David 
Kinloch, a descendant of the very ancient family of 
Kinloch, of Logie, was born in 1560, and educated as 
a physician, in which profession he acquired a high pre- 
eminence. He travelled much in foreign countries, and 
was incarcerated in the dungeon of the inquisition in 
Spain, from which, however, he was liberated in recom- 
pense for having performed an extraordinary cure upon 
the inquisitor-general, after he had been given over by» 
his own physicians. Afterwards, he became physician 
to James VI., and wrote several poems in elegant Latin. 
A portrait of him is preserved at the family seat at 
Logie. In a bed of marl in this parish was found the 
skeleton of a stag of large dimensions ; it was discovered 
in an upright position, the tips of the horns reaching 
nearly to the surface of the marl, and the feet resting 
upon the bottom at a depth of nearly six feet. The 
horns had nine branches, and when dried weighed nearly 
eighteen pounds. Above the marl in this part of the 
parish is a deep layer of peat, in which the. skeleton of 
other stags, though of very inferior size, have been 
frequently found. 

KIRTLE, lately a quoad sacra parish, formed out of 
the parishes of Annan, Dornock, and Middlebie, in 
the county of Dumfries, 2| miles (S. E. by E.) from 
Ecclesfechan ; and containing above 1000 inhabitants. 
This district derives its name from the river Kirtle, by 
which it is bordered on the east. It is about four miles 
in length and two in breadth, and comprises tillage and 
pasture land in nearly equal portions, with considerable 
mosses, which, however, feed cattle and sheep ; and 
some plantations in the vicinity of the river. Much of 
the land is of poor soil, but capable of improvement from 
good culture. The geological features of the district are 
not remarkable : red sandstone of excellent quality pre- 
vails, and is much used for building and for gravestones, 
and two quarries are in operation. There are also two 
celebrated lime-works, from which the lime supplies the 
country around, and is even sent to Moffat, a distance 
of twenty miles. The scenery along the banks of the 
stream is diversified and beautiful ; and towards Annan, 
the ground attains a considerable elevation, but is in no 
part mountainous. Throughout the whole of its course 
here, the Kirtle is studded on both banks with handsome 
mansions, among which are, Springkell, the seat of Sir 
J. Heron Maxwell, Bart. ; Kirtleton, the seat of the 
Murrays ; and Blackethouse, that of the Smith family ; 
the grounds around them, and others, adding much to 
the beauty of their respective localities. The village of 



KNAP 



KNAP 



Eaglesfield, in the district, has its name from the late 
proprietor of Blackethouse, Eaglesfield Smith, Esq. ; 
and is large and populous, having at present between 
450 and 500 inhabitants, many of whom are employed 
as weavers for the Carlisle manufacturers. Means of 
communication are afforded by the high road between 
Glasgow and Carlisle, which runs through the middle 
of the district, and by other roads. The ecclesiastical 
affairs are under the presbytery of Annan and synod of 
Dumfries, and the patronage is in the male commu- 
nicants with one or two members of the presbytery. 
The church, situated in the north-eastern extremity of 
Annan parish, is a plain building of red sandstone, 
erected about 1840, by voluntary contributions, aided 
by the Commissioners of the Church Extension fund ; 
it contains 600 sittings. There are two schools, one at 
Eaglesfield, the other at Breconbeds ; the master of 
each receives a salary of £10, with the fees : they afford 
instruction each to about 100 children. In the district 
is a remarkable old tower, vulgarly reputed to be 
haunted by (Scottice) a bogle, called the " Bogle of the 
Blackethouse." 

KIRTLEBRIDGE, a village, in the parish of Mid- 

dlebie, county of Dumfries ; containing S3 inhabit- 

.ants. It has its name from a bridge over the Kirtle 

river, and is one of three villages in the parish which 

have arisen within the last thirty-five years. 

KITTERSAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Kirkowan, 
county of Wigton, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Kirkowan ; 
containing 31 inhabitants. 

KITTOCH-SIDE, a village, in the parish of East 
Kilbride, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, l^ 
mile (S. E.) from Carmunnock. It lies in the northern 
part of the parish, on the road from Carmunnock to 
Kilbride, and near the banks of the Kittoch, whence its 
name. Upon two hills in its neighbourhood are the 
remains of ancient fortifications, respectively called 
Castle Hill and Rough Hill. 

KNAPDALE, NORTH, a parish, in the district of 
Islay, county of Argyll, 8 miles (VV. S. W.) from 
Lochgilphead; containing 2170 inhabitants. This place, 
of which the name, in the Celtic language, is accurately 
descriptive of the surface of the land, diversified with 
hill and dale, was in 1734 created a separate parish, as 
was also South Knapdale. The two districts previously 
formed one parish, called Kilvic-O-Charmaig after Mac- 
O-Charmaig, an Irish saint who, from his solitary re- 
tirement on a small island off the coast, founded several 
chapels in the neighbourhood. This part of the country 
was alternately subject, for a long period, to the aggres- 
sions of the Irish and the Danes, against whose invasions 
the inhabitants were continually on their guard ; and on 
the approach of an enemy, a series of watch towers along 
the coast, were instantly lighted up as a signal for the 
assembling of the military force of the district. The 
lords of the Isles exercised an independent sovereignty 
over their vassals here till, in the reign of Bruce, they 
were ultimately compelled to acknowledge the royal 
authority. The parish is bounded on the north by 
Loch Crinan and the canal of that name, and on the 
south and west by the sound of Jura ; it is about thirteen 
and a half miles in length, and nearly six miles in breadth. 
The exact number of acres has not been ascertained ; 
there are, however, 3400 acres arable, 22,126 meadow 
and pasture, 1925 in natural wood, and about 250 under 
133 



plantation. The surface is beautifully diversified with 
hills and valleys, and in some parts with gentle undula- 
tions and gradual slopes. The principal hills are, 
Cruachlusach, which has an elevation of 2004 feet above 
the level of the sea, and Dunardary, Duntaynish, Ervary, 
and Arichonan, of which the lowest rises to the height 
of 1200 feet ; they all command from their summits 
interesting and extensive prospects, but from Cruach- 
lusach the view is unbounded and strikingly grand. 
There are not less than twenty inland lakes scattered 
over the surface ; the largest is about a mile and a 
quarter in length, and nearly one-third of a mile in 
breadth, and all abound with trout. Several streams, 
likewise, intersect the parish ; the most considerable is 
the Kilmichael, which has its source in the moor of that 
name, near the foot of Mount Cruachlusach, and, after 
a winding course, in which it forms a picturesque cas- 
cade, falls into the sea about 300 yards below the bridge 
of Kilmichael-Inverlussay. The streams of Dunrostan 
and Aunhnamara are of less importance. The coast is 
deeply indented on the west by the inlet of Loch Swein, 
which is from about two to three miles broad, and 
intersects the parish for nearly ten miles in a north- 
eastern direction, almost dividing it into two distinct 
parts. The extent of coast, including the shores of 
Loch Swein, is almost fifty miles : the rocks in the 
north rise precipitously to a height of 300 feet; in some 
parts the coast is bounded by low ledges of rocks, and 
in others by a level sandy beach. 

The soil near the coast is light and sandy ; in other 
places, a gravelly loam ; towards the south-west, a rich 
friable mould of great fertility ; and in other parts, an 
unproductive moss. The system of agriculture is im- 
proving ; but the principal attention of the farmers is 
paid to the rearing of live stock. The chief crops are 
oats and potatoes ; the lands have been improved by 
draining and the use of lime, and the arable farms are 
inclosed with stone dykes. The cattle are all of the 
pure West Highland breed, and in respect of size and 
quality are not surpassed by any in the country; the 
sheep are generally of the black-faced breed. The dairy- 
farms are well managed, and the produce abundant. 
The ancient woods consist of oak, ash, mountain-ash, 
willow, birch, alder, hazel, and holly ; and the planta- 
tions, which are in a thriving condition, are oak, ash, 
larch, spruce, Scotch and silver fir, elm, and beech. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £5S91. The 
villages are, Bellanoch, in which is a post-office under 
that of Lochgilphead, with three deliveries weekly, and 
Tayvallich. Facility of communication is afforded by 
good roads : that from Lochgilphead to Keills passes 
for fifteen miles through the parish, and a branch of it 
leads to the church of Kilmichael. A road from Inver- 
lussay to Loch Swein is in progress, which, when com- 
pleted, will greatly promote the intercourse with the 
eastern portion of the parish. There are five vessels, of 
thirty tons each, belonging to this place, employed in 
trading to Greenock, Liverpool, and the Irish coast ; 
and steam-boats from Glasgow to Inverness pass daily 
during the summer along the Crinan canal. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the super- 
intendence of the presbytery of Inverary and synod of 
Argyll. The minister's stipend is £164. 6. 10., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £22 per annum ; patron, 
the Crown. There are two churches, in which the 



KNAP 



KNAP 



minister officiates alternately. The church of Kilmichael- 
Inverlussay is a neat structure, erected in 1S19, and con- 
tains 432 sittings ; the church of Tayvallich, on the op- 
posite shore of Loch Swein, distant from Kilmichael 
three miles by sea and ten by land, was erected in 1827, 
and contains 700 sittings. There are three parochial 
schools, of which the masters have each a salary of £17, 
and fees averaging £10 annually; the whole afford in- 
struction to about 240 children. At Keills, in the south- 
western extremity of the parish, are the ruins of an 
ancient chapel of Mac-O-Charmaig's, near which is an 
old cross ; and on Drimnacreige are those of another 
religious house. Not far from the site of a chapel at 
Kilmahunaig, of which only the cemetery remains, is a 
conical mound, 120 yards in circumference at the base, 
and thirty feet in height, called Dun-Donald, where the 
lords of the Isles held their courts for dispensing jus- 
tice. There are also numerous remains of fortresses, of 
which one, called Dun-a-Bheallich, on a hill near the 
church of Tayvallich, appears to have been raised to 
defend the pass from the bay of Carsaig to that of Tay- 
vallich. On a rock close to the sea are the ruins of 
Castle-Swein, commanding the entrance of that loch, 
and of which the foundation is by tradition ascribed to 
Swein, Prince of Denmark ; the remains consist of roof- 
less walls 105 feet in length, seven feet in thickness, and 
thirty-five feet in height. A portion called Macmillan's 
tower seems to be of more recent date than the rest. 

KNAPDALE, SOUTH, a parish, in the district and 
county of Argyll, 13 miles (N. by W.) from Tarbert ; 
containing, with a portion of the quoad sacra district of 
Lochgilphead, 2223 inhabitants. The Gaelic term that 
gives name to this place consists of the two words knap, 
a hill, and daill, a plain, field, or dale, and is descriptive 
of the general appearance of the surface, which is marked 
by numerous hills and dales. The parish was formed 
at the same time as that of North Knapdale, in 1734. 
It is bounded on the east by Loch Fine, and on the 
west by the sound of Jura, a large arm of the Atlantic 
Ocean ; and is computed to be about twenty miles in 
length, and in one part half that breadth, comprising 
chiefly tracts appropriated as sheep-walks and to the 
pasturage of black-cattle, the soil and climate being alike 
unfriendly to extensive agricultural operations. The 
parish approximates in form to a peninsula. On the 
south-east is a small loch, a branch of Loch Fine, called 
East Loch Tarbert, and having only the narrow isthmus 
of Tarbert between it and West Loch Tarbert, which 
latter borders the parish also on the south-east, and joins 
the Atlantic at the southern extremity of South Knapdale. 
The parish is washed on the west, as already stated, 
by the sound of Jura, its coast extending northward to 
Loch Chaolis-port, or Killisport, an arm of the sound, 
running into the land in a north-eastern direction for 
five or six miles ; and thus the parish is almost encom- 
passed by water, rendering it a peninsula, of which 
Loch Fine is the eastern boundary. The shore of the 
sound is marked by several bays. 

The north-western coast of Loch Killisport is much 
indented, and abrupt and rocky ; but the south-eastern 
shore is gradual in its ascent. Both sides are richly 
ornamented with copse wood ; and excellent anchorage 
is found in several of its bays, for vessels seeking refuge 
from the swell of the south-west and other gales. The 
shelter is especially good within Ellanfada, at the head of 
134 



the loch, where the north winds are broken by the hills 
rising in that direction in the form of an amphitheatre. 
The islands of Ellanfada, Ellan-na-Muick, and Lea- 
Elian, with others, are situated in the loch ; and off 
the point of Knap, at the extremity of its north-western 
shore, is a dangerous rock called Bow-Knap, the sum- 
mit of which is seen only at low water during spring 
tides. Near the north-west coast, also, is Ellan-na- 
Leek; besides which there are the islands of Elian- 
More, Ellan-na-Gamhna, and Core-Elian, all celebrated 
for the excellent beef and mutton produced on their 
pastures. The waters of the loch afford abundance of 
fish, comprising salmon, trout, whiting, ling, seethe, 
haddock, skate, halibut, turbot, flounders, and occa- 
sionally the John-Dory. Herrings formerly visited it, 
and large numbers were caught ; but they are now 
seldom seen here in any quantity. Loch Fine is their 
chief resort in this part of the country ; and between 
forty and fifty boats belonging to the parish are engaged 
in the fishery there during the season, each, in a pros- 
perous time, making about £70. 

The interior of the parish is hilly and mountainous. 
The highest range is that of Sliabh-Ghaoil, stretching 
from Inverneill to Barnellan, a distance of twelve miles, 
and the summits of which command beautifully-diver- 
sified and extensive prospects, comprehending the Ayr- 
shire coast, Bute, the Cumbray isles, and the serrated 
peaks of Arran, with Cantyre and Ireland, the isles of 
Rathlin, Scarba, Mull, and Jura, and many other in- 
teresting objects, both near and far. The heights also 
embrace a view of the Kyles of Bute, the mouth of the 
Clyde, the sound of Kilbrannan, the channel towards 
Ireland, West Loch Tarbert, the sound of Jura, Loch 
Fine, and other waters. Parallel with Sliabh-Ghaoil run 
subordinate ranges, with intermediate valleys traversed 
by numerous streams, of which those named Ormsary 
and Loch-head are celebrated for their fine trout. 
Salmon-trout, also, of good quality, are found in the 
different inland lakes, four or five in number. Some 
portions of the parish are subject to tillage ; the farms 
are of small size, and the usual crops are, oats, bear, 
barley, peas, beans, turnips, clover, and rye-grass, with 
potatoes, the last raised in considerable quantities, and 
exported. The average rent of land, however, does not 
exceed one shilling per acre, in consequence of the very 
large proportion of moor pasture. On some of the best 
farms, the tenements and offices have been recently 
much improved ; and on one estate a threshing-mill, 
worked by water, and at present the only one in the 
parish, has been erected. The sheep are all of the 
black-faced kind; and the black-cattle, many of which 
are of superior quality, and have obtained prizes at the 
cattle-shows in the district, are the West Highland. The 
wood, which is partly natural and partly planted, and 
of considerable extent, comprises oak, ash, birch, hazel, 
and holly, larch, spruce-fir, ash, beech, plane and wil- 
low : some of the plantations are of recent growth, and 
very flourishing. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £5777. The mansion of Ormsary, one of the 
principal seats, is a beautiful residence, with a fine 
garden and shrubbery, from which plantations are in- 
tended to be continued in clumps to the north, and in 
belts to the shore on the south, for the shelter of this 
agreeable locality. The parish also contains the man- 
sions of Inverneill, Erines, Drimdrissaig, and Achin- 



KNAP 



K N O C 



darroch, the last situated on the bank of the Crinan 
canal, and surrounded with ornamental grounds ; and 
a spacious mansion has been built at Barmore. 

An excellent road runs from Daill, the north-eastern 
extremity of the parish, to Barnellan, in the south, and 
for about twelve miles is called the Sliabh-Ghaoil road, 
on account of its route along the eastern base of the 
hilly range of that name. It was constructed with 
much labour and difficulty, under the superintendence, 
and by the persevering exertions, of Sheriff Campbell, 
and has proved of eminent service to this parish, as well 
as to several others, offering the only inland means of 
communication between the peninsula of Cantyre and 
the other parts of Argyllshire. The Crinan canal, begunin 
1793, by a company, under an act of parliament obtained 
for that purpose, commences at the loch and village from 
which it takes its name, in the parish of Kilmartin, and, 
after a south-eastern course of nine miles, falls into the 
Loch Gilp branch of Loch Fine, in the north of this 
parish. It is a convenient and safe channel for vessels 
plying between the West Highlands and the Clyde : by 
it the dangerous course round the Mull of Cantyre is 
avoided ; and it has been found highly beneficial to the 
coasting and fishing trade, for whose use it was chiefly 
designed. At its opening into Loch Gilp, a village has 
been formed since the commencement of the canal ; it 
is called Ardrissaig, and contains about 400 people, who 
are chiefly supported by the herring-fishery : 100 boats 
are frequently in the harbour during the season of the 
fishery ; and there is also much traffic by means of the 
Glasgow steamers, three of which in summer, and one 
in winter, arrive at the port daily, for the conveyance of 
goods and cattle, and passengers. The northern parts 
of the parish chiefly use Lochgilphead, a large village 
in the parish of Kilmichael-Glassary, as their post-town, 
and the southern district the village of Tarbert. To the 
latter place the mail-bag was formerly sent from Loch- 
gilphead daily, upon its arrival from Inverary ; but it is 
now despatched by steam from Ardrissaig, a change 
productive of someinconvenience. The village of Tarbert, 
situated partly in the parish, affords means to those 
residing in the south for the disposal of their produce ; 
those in the north generally resort to Lochgilphead. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Inverary and 
synod of Argyll, and in the patronage of the Crown : 
the minister's stipend is £159, with a manse, and a glebe 
of fourteen acres, valued at £10 per annum. There are 
two churches, the one situated at Achoish, and the other 
at Inverneill, both built about the year 1/75, and re- 
paired a few years since ; they are seated respectively 
for 212 and 300 persons. The incumbent formerly 
officiated at these churches alternately ; but, since the 
erection of a church at Lochgilphead in 1828, and the 
annexation of Ardrissaig, and some parts adjacent, to the 
district of that church, he has performed public worship 
at Inverneill every third Sabbath only. There are four 
parochial schools, affording instruction in English and 
Gaelic reading, and the other branches of a plain edu- 
cation ; and at two of the schools instruction is given in 
Latin, geography, and navigation. The masters each 
receive a salary of £12. 12., but no allowance is made 
to any of them for dwelling-house or ground ; their fees 
amount respectively to £20, £8, £12, and £7. There 
is also an Assembly's school, the master of which is in- 
debted for a house and some ground, and for the school- 
135 



house, to the munificence of Mrs. Campbell, of Ormsary. 
The remains of three ancient chapels are still visible, 
one of which, in Elian-More, was built by Mac-O-Char- 
maig ; it is arched over, and in good preservation ; and 
in the recess of the wall is a stone coffin, with the figure 
of a man cut on the lid. The same saint founded the 
church of Kilvic-O-Charmaig, the mother church of the 
two Knapdales, and, after many acts of devotion, was 
buried in his own island, where his tomb is yet to be 
seen. At Cove is a chapel in ruins, built, according to 
tradition, by St. Columba, before he took his departure 
for Iona to found his seminary there ; the altar and 
fount remain in good order, and the former exhibits a 
well-sculptured cross. Near the Point of Knap is a rock 
on which was engraved, in Celtic characters, now no 
longer visible, the charter of the Mc Millans, declaring 
their right to the lands of South Knapdale, nearly the 
whole of which they possessed, and retained against the 
violent attempts of the Mc Neils, a powerful clan in North 
Knapdale, to wrest the property from them, until the 
year 1775, when it came by purchase to the Campbell 
family, who now hold it. 

KNIGHTSWOOD, a village, in the parish of New 
Kilpatrick, county of Dumbarton, if mile (S. byE.) 
from New Kilpatrick ; containing 178 inhabitants. It 
is situated in the south part of the parish, a short dis- 
tance from the river Kelvin, which here flows on the 
east. At Netherton, in its neighbourhood, is a valuable 
freestone quarry, of which the stone is of a cream colour, 
easily cut when fresh from the quarry, but hardening 
considerably by exposure. At one period it was largely 
exported to Ireland and the West Indies ; and it is 
still wrought in vast quantities, affording employment to 
between sixty and seventy persons. 

KNOCK, or Un, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the 
parish of Stornoway, island of Lewis, county of Ross 
and Cromarty, 5 miles (E.) from the town of Storno- 
way ; containing 1637 inhabitants. This district, which 
is called also Eye, is connected •with the main part of 
the parish of Stornoway by a narrow isthmus, and is 
bounded on the west by Broad bay, and on the east 
and south by the channel of the Minch, which separates 
it from the main land of the county. It comprises 
about 12,000 acres, and was erected into a quoad sacra 
district on the building of a church by parliamentary 
grant within the last few years. In all its statistical 
details it is identified with Stornoway ; it comprises 
only a few rural hamlets, of which the inhabitants are 
engaged in the fisheries common to that parish. The 
church, a neat structure, contains about 800 sittings, 
and the minister has a stipend of £120, with a manse 
and glebe ; patron, the Crown. The members of the 
Free Church have a place of worship. There are also 
two schools supported by the Gaelic Society of Edin- 
burgh. In the cemetery of the old church of Uii, of 
which there are considerable remains, it is traditionally 
recorded that not less than sixteen of the Mc Leods, the 
ancient lords of Lewis, were interred. 

KNOCKANDO, a parish, in the county of Elgin, 
14 miles (S.) from Elgin ; containing, with the village 
of Archiestown, 1 676 inhabitants. Knockando derives 
its name from two Gaelic words signifying " the black 
hill," or " hill with the black head." It has the ancient 
parish of Elchies united to it, but no distinct record of 
union is preserved : both parishes were vicarages, the 



K N O C 



K NOC 



former depending on the parson of Inveraven, and the 
latter on the parson of Boterie. This is considered a 
Highland parish, though the provincial Scotch, with a 
mixture of English, has entirely superseded the Gaelic 
language, which is spoken in the neighbouring parishes. 
A place here, called Campbell's Cairns, is thought by 
some to derive its name from a battle fought between 
the Campbells and some other clan, in which the former 
were defeated. Others, however, think the name arose 
from Cossack Dhu, an ancient freebooter, who is said to 
have concealed his plunder among the cairns. The 
most important event of modern times connected with 
the district is the terrible flood which occurred in 1829, 
and produced appalling desolation to fields, houses, mills, 
and every description of property within the range of its 
fury, and the details of which have now become inter- 
woven with the history of Moray. 

The parish is of an irregular figure, stretching along 
the bank of the river Spey, extending between sixteen 
and seventeen miles in length, and varying from two to 
six in breadth. It is bounded on the north by Dallas 
and Birnie parishes ; on the south by the Spey, which 
separates it from Inveraven and Aberlour, in the shire 
of Banff ; on the east by Rothes ; and on the west by 
the parishes of Cromdale and Edinkillie. The surface 
is considerably diversified by a succession of hills and 
glens, with several level haughs near the river; and 
there is an eminence towards the west, called James 
Roy's Cairn, supposed to be the highest ground in Moray- 
shire. In the moorlands are two lakes called Benshalgs 
and Loch Coulalt ; but the larger does not exceed a 
mile in circumference. A number of burns, also, water 
the parish, in all of which trout are found, and which, in 
a rainy season, overflow their banks, and rush forward 
with great impetuosity : in the celebrated flood of 1829, 
they came down with tremendous force from the hills, 
swollen to the size of rivers, and carrying every thing 
before them to the Spey. The Spey is the most rapid 
river, as well as one of the principal rivers, in Scotland ; 
and many rafts of timber are sent down its stream from 
the forests of Rothiemurchus and Abernethy. 

The soil varies very considerably, running through 
the different kinds of land, black gravelly mould, heavy 
clay, and moss ; resting in some parts upon clay, and in 
others upon gravel. The alluvial deposits consist of 
clay, bog-iron ore, peat, fullers'-earth, and marl ; and 
oak and fir roots, and whole trees, have been found im- 
bedded in the several large mosses. Independently of 
the estate of Knockando, which comprehends about a 
third part of the whole parish, 2034 acres are in tillage 
or pasture, 7986 are uncultivated, and 6S0 under plan- 
tation. All kinds of grain and green crops are grown ; 
but agriculture is generally backward, and modern 
practices have been only partially adopted ; very few 
lands are inclosed, and the farm-buildings are usually 
of an inferior kind. Improvements are, indeed, ad- 
vancing on the grounds of some of the larger propri- 
etors ; but the smallness of the farms, and the limited 
use of manure, with the want of capital, operate to 
prevent the extension of these improvements throughout 
the parish. The rocks are all of the primitive formation, 
and consist of granite, felspar, mica, sandstone, and 
roek-crystal. The rateable annual value of the parish 
is £3857. 

The mansions are those of Easter Elehies, built in 
136 



the year 1700, by the father of the late Lord Elehies ; 
the house of Knockando, built in 1732, now partly in 
ruins, but capable of repair, and beautifully situated 
near the banks of the Spey; and Wester Elehies, a 
building of more modern date, in the castellated style, 
belonging to the Grant family. The scenery around 
these seats, particularly Knockando, is exceedingly pic- 
turesque and beautiful. The only village is Archiestown ; 
it is three-quarters of a mile in length, and consists of 
a double row of houses, with a square in the centre of 
about half an acre. There are four meal-mills, a waulk- 
mill, a carding-mill, and some saw and threshing mills : 
at the waulk and carding mills, wool is dyed and manu- 
factured into plaiding and broad cloth, blankets and 
carpets. Weaving and spinning are also carried on in the 
parish ; and there are two distilleries, which have a very 
high character. On the Spey is a salmon -fishery, and 
trout-angling is practised to a great extent on that river 
and all the burns. Roads to Elgin and Forres run 
through the parish, and are in good order ; but the other 
roads are in general in a deplorable state. The bridge 
of Craigellachie affords a transit over the Spey ; and 
there are numerous ferries ; as well as wooden bridges 
across the burns. The ecclesiastical, affairs are sub- 
ject to the presbytery of Aberlour and synod of Moray ; 
patron, the Earl of Seafield. The stipend of the minister 
is £158, of which a small portion is received from the 
exchequer ; with a manse, and a glebe of about fourteen 
acres, valued at £13 per annum. The church, built in 
1757, and repaired in 1832, is a small plain edifice, 
though remarkably neat within ; it contains 477 sittings, 
and is conveniently situated for the population. The 
Independents have a place of worship. There are two 
parochial schools, each of the masters of which has a 
salary of £25. 13., with a share of the Dick bequest, and 
about £8 or £10 fees : instruction is given in Latin, the 
mathematics, and the usual branches of education. 
Three other schools are supported by the Society for 
Propagating Christian Knowledge ; two of them are 
taught by females. In the parish are several mineral 
springs occasionally used for medicinal purposes. There 
are two ancient caves, one of which is designated the Cave 
of Hairnish An Tuim, supposed to be James Grant, 
nephew of the well-known Carron : the other is called 
Bane's Hole, from Donald Bane, the robber, who is said to 
have been shot and buried in the neighbourhood. Lord 
Elehies, already mentioned, a distinguished judge, was 
born in Easter Elehies ; and the Messrs. Grant, of 
Manchester, who have established one of the most exten- 
sive mercantile concerns in England, are also natives 
of the parish. 

KNOCKBAIN, or Kilmuir Wester and Suddy, 
a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 
3| miles (N. N. W.) from Inverness ; containing, with 
the villages of Charlestown and Munlochy, 2565 inha- 
bitants. Previously to the union of the counties of Ross 
and Cromarty, this parish was locally in the county 
of Ross only. The name Kilmuir is Gaelic, implying " a 
church dedicated to Mary ;" and Suddy signifies "a good 
place for a settlement." The two districts, once separate 
parishes, were united in 1756, when they received the 
name of Knockbain, by which they have since been 
called, but which was originally applied only to a cold 
and desolate moor, whereon the church and manse are 
built. Little is known concerning the ancient history 



KNOC 



LADY 



of the parish ; but the remains of many cairns on the 
field of Blair-na-coi are said to be the memorials of a 
sanguinary conflict which took place near the spot, in 
the thirteenth century, between the famous Mc Donalds 
and the people of Inverness. The length of the parish 
is between six and seven miles, and its breadth between 
five and six ; it is bounded on the south by the Moray 
Frith, and on the north-west by the parish of Killearnan. 
The climate is tolerably healthy. The soil is generally 
good, but differs greatly throughout, consisting of the 
several varieties of sandy loam, clay loam, moor earth, 
moss, gravel, and alluvial deposits. The number of 
acres on the estates of four of the five heritors in the 
parish is, 3458 arable land, 3496 plantation, and 3323 
pasture or uncultivated : the number of acres on the 
estate of Suddy is not precisely known. Large quantities 
of wheat and barley are raised, and the farmers grow 
also oats, peas, turnips, and potatoes. The woods 
consist of Scotch fir, larch, and one very large and 
recent plantation of oak, for which the planter received 
a premium from the Highland Society. The estate of 
Drumderfit contains the most important farm in the 
parish : this farm has been for some centuries in posses- 
sion of the same family, who have brought it to a high 
state of cultivation by the large sums from time to time 
expended upon it. At Allangrange, Suddy, Muirends, 
Munlochy, and Wester Kessock, considerable quantities 
of waste land have been recovered. The farms generally 
have been portioned into the most suitable dimensions ; 
good houses and fences have been raised, and the most 
recent improvements in husbandry skilfully applied. On 
some lands, particularly those of Wester Kessock, great 
encouragement has been given by granting long leases. 
The subsoil of the parish is clayey, in many parts tena- 
cious, and sometimes covered with a thin stratum of 
iron-ore, mixed with gravel and sandstone : the rocks 
are of the old sandstone formation. The rateable annual 
value of Knockbain is £6772. 

There are two villages, one named Munlochy, the 
other Charlestown ; the latter is opposite the northern 
entrance of the Caledonian canal, and both are built on 
the estate of Sir Colin Mc Kenzie, Bart., of Kilcoy. A 
considerable trade has been carried on for several years 
with Newcastle and Hull, by the exportation of fir-props, 
in exchange for which lime and coal are received. A 
post-office is established, and the roads are in good 
repair : that from Dingwall to Kessock-Ferry passes 
through the western part of the parish, and the roads 
from Kessock to Fortrose and Invergordon, and from 
Fortrose to Beauly, run through the centre of it. The 
ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of 
Chanonry and synod of Ross. The stipend of the 
minister is £205, with a manse, a glebe of the annual 
value of £22, and a composition of £1 yearly in lieu of 
the privilege of cutting peat : the patronage belongs to 
the Crown, and the family of Mc Kenzie, of Cromarty. 
The church is an ancient structure : when repaired about 
thirty years ago, it was sufficiently enlarged to admit 
250 additional hearers, and at present it accommodates 
nearly 800 persons. The members of the Free Church 
have a place of worship ; and there is an episcopal 
chapel. The parochial schoolmaster has the maximum 
salary, with a house, and about £13 fees. There is 
another school, supported by the General Assembly's 
committee, and called Principal Baird's school, the 
Vol. II.— 137 



master of which has a salary of £25, and the fees. In 
each of these schools the ordinary branches of education 
are taught, and some of the Latin authors. Major- 
General Mc Kenzie, who was M.P. for Sutherland, and 
who fell while supporting one of the wings of the British 
army at Talavera, was born here : a monument has been 
raised to his memory in St. Paul's Cathedral, London. 

KNOCKSHOGGLE-HOLM, a village, in the parish 
of Coylton, district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 5| miles 
(E. by N.) from Ayr; containing 102 inhabitants. It 
is situated in the north-western part of the parish, a 
short distance west of the road from Coylton to Tar- 
bolton, and consists of a group of cottages, chiefly inha- 
bited by persons engaged in agriculture. 

KYLEAKIN, a village, in the parish of Strath, 
Isle of Skye, county of Inverness, 8§ miles (E.) from 
Broadford ; containing 231 inhabitants. The name is 
partly a corruption of Uaco, the place being called Ky- 
leakin, or Haco's-Kyle, in commemoration of events 
connected with King Haco's Norwegian expedition in 
1263. The extremities of the strait between this part 
of Skye and the main land are styled Kyle Rhea, or the 
King's Kyle ; and here is a ferry about a third of a 
mile in breadth. Lord Macdonald intended to erect a 
sea-port town at this place; in 1811 the plans were 
prepared, and on the 14th of September the foundation 
stone was laid with great pomp and ceremony ; but the 
design was a failure, as the houses to be erected, of 
which a few compose the present village, were on too 
expensive a scale for the resources of the people gene- 
rally, and no person of wealth or enterprise could be 
found to settle on the spot. It is now merely a fishing- 
village. There is a good line of road from the Sconcer 
road to Kyleakin, and thence through the district of 
Lochalsh to Strome Ferry, whereby the Lochcarron 
road is made to form a more convenient means of com- 
munication between Skye and the north-east coast of 
Scotland. 



LADHOPE, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish 
and district of Melrose, county of Roxburgh ; contain- 
ing, with the villages of Buckholmside, Comely-Bank, 
and Darlingshaugh, 2367 inhabitants. This district is 
situated in the western part of the parish of Melrose, on 
the borders of the Gala water. Its populous villages, of 
which those of Buckholmside and Darlingshaugh are 
beautifully seated on the bank of the river, are chiefly 
appendant on Galashiels, in the manufactures of which 
town the inhabitants are largely engaged : the first- 
named village is immediately connected with Galashiels 
by a stone bridge. Besides the church of the district, 
there is a place of worship for members of the Free 
Church ; also several schools. — See Melrose, and Ga- 
lashiels. 

LADY, an isle, in the parish of Dundonald, county 
of Ayr, 5 miles (S. S. W.) from Irvine, and 5 (N. W. by 
N.) from Ayr. This island is situated in the Frith of 
Clyde, about two miles and a half from Troon, the near- 
est point of the main land of the county ; and is of an 
oval figure, and half a mile in length. On the eastern 
side is good anchorage ground ; and two towers or pil- 

T 



LADY 



LADY 



lars, which may be easily seen at a distance, have been 
erected on the north-west part of the isle, for the guid- 
ance of vessels in the Frith, the coast in this part being 
flat and dangerous. 

LADY, a parish, in the island of Sanda, North Isles 
of the county of Orkney, 25 miles (N. E. by N.) from 
Kirkwall ; containing 909 inhabitants. This parish, 
which includes the eastern portion of the island, is 
about nine miles in length, from south to north, and 
one mile in average breadth ; it is bounded on the west 
by the parish of Cross and the bay of Otterswick, and 
on all other points surrounded by the sea. It is of sin- 
gularly-irregular form, stretching out into the sea by 
numerous narrow headlands of considerable length, of 
which that called the Start projects from the shore of 
the main land for more than two miles, in a direction 
duly eastward. The surface is generally flat, having little 
elevation above the sea, and is subdivided into many 
small districts ; the principal are, Elsness, Overbister, 
Tressness, Coligarth, Newark, Silibister, and Northwall. 
At Elsness is an inlet of the sea, about 125 acres in ex- 
tent, which is dry at low water ; and at Tressness is 
another, of more than twice the dimensions : both 
might be easily converted into good harbours. On the 
extremity of the Start, a lighthouse was erected in 1802 ; 
it is 100 feet in height to the lantern, and displays a 
revolving light, which may be distinctly seen at a dis- 
tance of eighteen nautical miles. In the northern part 
of the parish are four considerable lakes, of which those 
of Northwall and Westair are separated from each other, 
and also from the sea, only by a narrow slip of inter- 
vening land, and, with the others, less in extent, and 
more widely detached, occupy by far the greater por- 
tion of the north-eastern part of the island. The soil 
is generally sand, in some parts intermixed with clay; 
about two-thirds of the parish are under cultivation, 
and the remainder heath and waste. The exact number 
of acres has not been ascertained : of the land in cultiva- 
tion, 2000 acres are arable, and the remainder good 
pasture. The crops are, oats, bear, potatoes, and tur- 
nips, and in the two latter the drill system of husban- 
dry is prevalent ; the principal manure is sea- weed, 
which is found to answer well. The breed of blacU- 
cattle, since the introduction of turnips, has been much 
improved. Garamount House, erected by the late John 
Traill Urquhart, Esq., of Elsness, is a handsome mo- 
dern mansion, finely situated. There is no village ; the 
population are chiefly agricultural, and employed in the 
manufacture of kelp and in the fisheries. The manu- 
facture of kelp, though formerly much more extensive, 
still affords employment to a considerable number of 
persons during the months of June and July ; and the 
produce is sent to Newcastle. Cod, turbot, skate, and 
herrings abound in the surrounding sea, and small 
quantities of dried cod are occasionally exported ; but 
there is no regular station for curing, and few more are 
taken than are required for the supply of the inha- 
bitants. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of North Isles and the synod 
of Orkney. The minister's stipend is £15S. 6. S., inclu- 
ding an allowance of £8. 6. 8. for communion elements ; 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £4. 8. per annum : 
patron, the Earl of Zetland. The church, rebuilt in 
1814, is a neat and spacious structure containing ample 
138 



accommodation for all the parishioners. There is a 
place of worship for members of the United Secession. 
The parochial school is common to the three parishes 
of the island, and is well attended ; the master has a 
salary of £46. 10., with a dwelling-house. A school 
for the more immediate use of this parish is supported 
by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, 
who pay the master a salary of £15 per annum ; he has 
also a house, with fuel, and an allowance for the keep 
of a cow from the heritors. There are numerous ves- 
tiges of ancient chapels of very diminutive structure, 
few of them exceeding twelve feet in length ; but the 
names of St. Peter's and St. Magdalene's only have been 
preserved. At Newark were lately discovered the re- 
mains of a circular building of flat stones, fitted 
together without cement ; the walls were about six feet 
thick, and in some parts surrounded by an outer wall, 
with an interval of three feet between. The diameter 
of the inner wall was about twelve feet, and the interior 
filled with stones, gravel, and a layer of red ashes, in- 
terspersed with bones of cattle, sheep, swine, rabbits, 
geese, and various kinds of shell-fish. There are seve- 
ral tumuli in the parish ; and at Coliness, numerous 
graves were discovered lined with flag-stones, in which 
were many skeletons nearly entire, one with a wound in 
the upper part of the skull. In one of the graves was 
found a gold ring, and on one of the flag-stones was a 
rudely-sculptured cross. 

LADYBANK, a village, in the parish of Collessie, 
district of Cupar, county of Fife ; containing 102 in- 
habitants. 

LADYKIRK, a parish, in the county of Berwick, 
6 miles (N. E. by N.) from Coldstream ; containing, 
with the villages of Horndean and Upsetlington, 504 
inhabitants. This place originally consisted only of the 
parish of Upsetlington, of which the name is of very 
uncertain derivation. It appears to have acquired a 
considerable degree of importance at an early period ; 
and during the disputed succession to the crown of 
Scotland, towards the close of the thirteenth century, 
a meeting took place here between eight of the compe- 
titors, attended by several of the Scottish prelates and 
nobility, and Edward I. of England, for the purpose of 
investigating their several claims, and more especially 
for settling the feuds of Bruce and Baliol. In 1 500, a 
new church was erected by James IV., and dedicated 
to the Virgin Mary ; the parish then took the name of 
Ladykirk, and its former appellation has since been 
confined to the village that had risen up around its 
ancient church. Soon after the treaty of Cateau Cam- 
bresis, a supplementary treaty was concluded here by 
the English and Scottish commissioners, for which pur- 
pose they met in the church of St. Mary ; and on the 
same day the duplicates were interchanged at Norham 
Castle. The present parish, which includes the sup- 
pressed parish of Horndean, annexed to it at the time 
of the Reformation, is four miles in length and one 
and a half in average breadth ; and is bounded on the 
north by the parish of Whitsome, on the east by that 
of Hutton, on the south by the river Tweed, and on the 
west by the parish of Swinton. The surface is gene- 
rally level, diversified only by a few eminences which 
attain no considerable elevatiou, and in some parts 
sloping gently towards the banks of the Tweed. 

The soil is various, but fertile ; the whole number of 



LADY 



L A G G 



acres is estimated at 3100, of which about three-fourths 
are arable, fifty acres in plantations, and the remain- 
der in meadow and pasture. The crops are, grain 
of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips ; the system of hus- 
bandry is advanced, the farm houses and offices well 
built and commodious, and all the more recent im- 
provements in agricultural implements in use. Great 
attention is paid to live stock, for which the pastures 
are peculiarly favourable. The cattle are mostly the 
short-horned, and have been much improved by the 
introduction of some of the finest specimens of the 
Durham breed : of the cattle reared here several have 
been sold for very high prices, and one. bull for 1000 
guineas. The sheep are all of the Leicestershire breed, 
and are in high estimation for their quality and the fine- 
ness of their wool. The woods consist chiefly of oak 
and plane, which appear to be best adapted to the soil ; 
and the plantations of Scotch and spruce firs, inter- 
mixed with various kinds of forest-trees. The sub- 
strata are, on the banks of the river, compact micaceous 
sandstone alternated with schistose, marl, and limestone 
of inferior quality ; and in other portions of the parish, 
sandstone of the old red formation. No quarries, how- 
ever, have been opened hitherto. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £4430. The only mansion in the 
parish is Ladykirk House, a handsome modern resi- 
dence. A salmon-fishery on the Tweed is carried on at 
three several stations ; but it is not so lucrative as for- 
merly, and the whole rental does not exceed £100 per 
annum. An annual fair is held on the 5th of April, for 
the sale of linen and lintseed ; and facility of communi- 
cation with Coldstream, Berwick, and other places, is 
maintained by good roads. A post between this place 
and Berwick has a deliver)' daily. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Chirnside and synod of 
Merse andTeviotdale; patron, the Crown. The stipend 
of the incumbent is £171 : the manse, recently repaired 
and enlarged, is a very convenient and comfortable 
residence ; the glebe comprises eleven acres and a half 
of profitable land, valued at £33 per annum. The church 
is a handsome cruciform structure in the decorated 
English style of architecture, but has been greatly dis- 
figured by injudicious alterations and additions ; and 
the general effect of the interior, originally of lofty pro- 
portion and elegant design, has been destroyed by the 
partitioning off a portion of it for a schoolroom. It is 
adapted for a congregation of 300 persons. There is a 
place of worship for Burghers. The parochial school 
is well attended; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., 
with a house and garden, and the fees average £25 per 
annum. There are some very slight vestiges of an 
ancient monastery on the bank of the Tweed, below the 
village of Upsetlington, in a place still called the Cha- 
pel Park ; and near them are three springs of excellent 
water, called respectively the Nuns', the Monks', and 
St. Mary's well. Numbers of cannon balls have been 
found, in a field opposite to Norham Castle, a cele- 
brated fortress situated on the south side of the river, 
in England. 

LADYKIRK, county of Orkney. — See Stronsay. 

LADYLOAN, lately a quoad sacra parish, consist- 
ing of part of the parishes of Arbroath and St. Vi- 
gean's, in the county of Forfar ; and containing 2116 
inhabitants. — See Arbroath. 
139 



LAGGAN, a parish, in the county of Inverness, 

IO5 miles (W. S. W.) from Kingussie; containing 1201 
inhabitants. This parish, the name of which is derived 
from the Gaelic word Lag, signifying " a small round 
hollow or plain," is situated on the river Spey, and is 
twenty-two miles in length, from north to south, and of 
about the same breadth, from east to west, comprising 
256,000 acres, of which 25,660 are under wood, 1700 
under cultivation, and the remainder mountain and hill 
pasture and waste. The elevation of the district is 
nearly the highest in Scotland, and the surface is marked 
by the greatest possible diversity of features. There 
are several chains of very lofty eminences, enbosoming 
level and fertile tracts ornamented richly with wood and 
water ; and in some places is a display of picturesque 
and romantic scenery almost unrivalled. The locality 
takes its principal character from the wild and imposing 
aspect of these mountains, of which, at a distance, it 
appears entirely to consist ; but, upon a nearer approach, 
the interesting vale of the Spey is seen, dressed in 
verdure, stretching east and west for about twenty miles, 
and measuring between one and two miles in breadth. 
This vale is bounded on the north by the Monadlia, an 
immense ridge rising 3000 feet above the level of the 
sea, in some parts thirty miles broad, and reaching to 
the east for more than eighty miles. To the south is 
the interesting chain called the Benalder mountain, of 
equal height with the former, and once the resort of 
numerous herds of deer, which receded before the flocks 
of sheep that were till the year 1843 pastured upon its 
surface : it is now again a deer forest. 

These majestic elevations are relieved by the water of 
Loch Laggan, eight miles long and one broad, from 
which views are obtained of the peaks and forms of the 
different members and masses of the Benalder range 
especially. The hills of Drummond separate the vale 
of the Spey from that of this loch. The principal loch, 
however, in the parish is Loch Ericht, upwards of 
twenty miles in length, and nearly two in breadth, 
extending southward from Dalwhinnie, and dividing the 
ancient forest of Drumochtor, on the east, from that of 
Benalder, on the west : about one-third of it is in the 
parish of Fortingal. The Pretender, in 1/46, was con- 
cealed for the space of two weeks near the banks of this 
sheet of water, with some of his companions, after their 
defeat at Culloden ; and from this spot he set out for 
the ship which conveyed him to France. The mountain 
springs and rivulets are very numerous, and occasionally 
pour down their torrents with prodigious rapidity, 
swelling the burns and rivers below, to the destruction 
of crops, bridges, and tenements. The streams in general 
contain good trout, and with the lochs, in which there 
are pike, afford fine sport to anglers. Salmon come up 
to spawn as far as Loch Spey, where the river of that 
name rises, in the western part of the parish. 

The soil in the valleys is alluvial, in some places ten 
or twelve feet in depth, and, when the season is propitious, 
producing heavy crops of bear, oats, and potatoes, as 
well as sown and natural grasses. The climate, however, 
is highly unfavourable to agriculture ; frost, snow, and 
rain often delaying the timely sowing, and destroying 
the fruits of the ground before they are ripe. No 
regular system of husbandry is followed ; the short 
leases, and the precarious nature of the in-gathering, 
discourage the expenditure of capital and the labours of 

T 2 



L A G G 



LAIR 



industry; and for the same reasons, the ordinary methods 
of improving land and recovering waste ground are 
neglected for the appropriation of the farms to pasture, 
which is found to be more profitable. About 40,000 
sheep are usually kept, mostly the black-faced ; black- 
cattle are also reared, and in general sold, when young, 
to the south-country dealers. The late Duke of Gordon 
possessed two-thirds of the lands, but this portion passed 
by sale to other proprietors. The rents are determined 
by the number of sheep pastured ; the tenants generally 
expect the wool to pay the landlord, and they hold their 
farms either as tenants at will, or on leases for a few 
years only. The rocks in the parish comprise gneiss, 
an inferior kind of slate, and excellent limestone, a bed 
of the last running through the centre : peat is supplied 
by the mosses, and is the ordinary fuel of the inhabit- 
ants. Most of the wood is natural, consisting of alder, 
birch, hazel, and willow ; the plantations are of Scotch 
fir, birch, and several hard-woods, and chiefly in the 
vicinity of Cluny Castle. This mansion, beautifully 
situated on the north side of the Spey, was erected at 
the beginning of the present century, on the site of 
the ancient castle burnt to the ground by the king's 
troops in 1~46, soon after the battle of Culloden, Cluny 
Macpherson, the owner, having espoused the cause of 
Prince Charles Edward. The present proprietor is the 
chief of the Macphersons, and has in his possession, 
among many other relics of antiquity, several pieces of 
armour worn by the prince. The other mansions are, a 
splendid shooting-seat belonging to the Marquess of 
Abercorn, situated at Ardveirge, on the border of Loch 
Laggan, in the midst of richly-diversified scenery ; 
Glentruim House, a modern structure ; and a residence 
on the verge of a loch at Glenshirra. The rateable 
annual value of Laggan is £6951. The Highland mail 
passes and repasses every day through one extremity of 
the parish : there is also regular communication, by 
carriers, with Perth, Kingussie, Fort- William, and Inver- 
ness, to the two last of which places the marketable 
produce is sent. The roads have been much improved 
since 1820; and the parliamentary road from Fort- 
William, meeting the Highland road at the bridge of 
Spey, near Kingussie, was made about that time. There 
is a good road from DaKvhinnie to Fort-Augustus. Near 
the church is a handsome wooden bridge over the Spey; 
there is a stone bridge on the line of the military road 
at Garvamore, and two or three others cross the smaller 
streams. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Abertarff and synod 
of Glenelg, and in the patronage of the Duke of Rich- 
mond. The minister's stipend is £158, of which nearly 
half is paid by the exchequer ; he has a manse, of very 
recent erection, and a glebe of twenty-four acres of 
very inferior land, to which is attached the privilege of 
pasturage on the adjoining hills. The church was built 
in 1843, and contains about 600 sittings, all free. The 
members of the Free Church have a place of worship ; 
and there is a chapel for Roman Catholics. The paro- 
chial school affords instruction in the usual branches ; 
the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and £20 
fees. At Ardveirge, or " the Height of Fergus," near the 
side of Loch Laggan, tradition reports that one or more 
of the kings Fergus were buried. They used to resort 
hither, as well as many others of the ancient kings, for 
the purpose of hunting ; and it is said that the dogs 
140 



were kept on an island in the loch, called E'dean nan con, 
or " Dogs' island," near which, in the same loch, is 
another isle called Eilean an Righ, or " Kings' island." 
A silver coin of the reign of Henry II. has been found in 
the vicinity. In the middle of the parish is a very lofty 
perpendicular rock, with the remains of a fortification 
on its summit ; and at the east end of Loch Laggan, the 
ruins of the old church are still to be seen. Lachlan 
Macpherson, Esq., one of the coadjutors of James 
Macpherson in collecting the poems of Ossian, and also 
himself a very superior Gaelic poet, was born and buried 
in the parish. Mrs. Grant, the poetess, resided for some 
time in the place, with her husband, the Rev. James 
Grant, formerly parochial minister. She was one of the 
last survivors of those who met Dr. Johnson, in 1*73, 
while on his tour, being at that time a resident at Fort- 
Augustus, and in her eighteenth year ; and she frequently 
described to her friends the strong impression made 
on her mind by the bulky stature and singular appear- 
ance of the great moralist. 

LAIRG, a parish, in the county of Sutherland, 
19 miles (W. by N.) from Golspie; containing 913 
inhabitants, of whom 69 are in the village. The name 
of Lairg is generally supposed to be derived from 
the Gaelic word Lorg, signifying " a footpath," and to be 
descriptive of the situation of the parish, which lies in 
the direct line from the northern to the southern part 
of the county, and the way through which was only a 
footpath till the present high road was constructed. 
Some, however, derive the name from the compound 
La-rl-Leig, " bordering on the lake," in allusion to the 
extensive and beautiful sheet of water called Loch Shin. 
The parish is not remarkable for any events of historical 
importance ; but there are still remaining several cairns, 
concerning the origin of which very little is known, the 
people of the country, when questioned upon the subject, 
merely repeating the tradition that they were built by 
the Fingalians. At a place called Cnoek a chath, " the 
hill of the fight," also, a number of tumuli are visible, 
which are reported to be the graves of those who fell in 
an encounter between the Sutherlands and Mackays. 

The parish is thirty miles in its greatest length, from 
east to west, and about ten miles in breadth, from north 
to south, containing 40,000 acres. It is twenty miles 
distant from the sea, and is bounded on the north by 
the parish of Farr ; on the south by Criech ; on the 
east by Rogart ; and on the west by Assynt and Eddra- 
chillis. The surface throughout is hilly, and by far the 
larger part of it covered with heath : the hills vary in 
height in different parts, but are generally lofty, and on 
the northern boundary stands Ben-Chlibrig, the highest 
mountain in the county. The whole site of the parish, 
indeed, is very considerably elevated, and the air in 
winter is bleak and piercing, the cold being often accom- 
panied with heavy falls of rain and snow; the climate, 
however, is healthy, and the inhabitants hardy and 
long-lived. The lakes are about twenty in number : the 
principal is Loch Shin, extending nearly the whole length 
of the parish ; it is twenty-four miles long, and its 
average breadth is about one mile, the depth varying 
from twenty to thirty fathoms. There are five rivers, 
four of which fall, and some with great impetuosity, 
into this loch. From the east end of it issues the river 
Shin, which, after a rapid course of three miles, precipi- 
tates itself over a rock twenty feet high, forming a fine 



LAMB 



L A N A 



cascade, and at last loses itself in the waters of the Kyle 
of Sutherland. Trout are found in many of the lakes ; 
in Loch Craggy they abound, and are considered to be 
of as fine quality as any in the kingdom. 

The common alluvial deposit in the parish is peat, 
resting upon a subsoil of gravel ; in a few places the 
earth is loamy and very fertile. The mossy ground, 
which is of great extent, is wet and spongy, and in every 
part imbedded with large quantities of fir, the certain 
indications of a once well-wooded district, though at 
present scarcely a tree is to be seen, except some birch 
growing along the lake. The agricultural character of 
the parish stands very low ; the larger part of it is moor- 
land, and the whole, with the exception of the lots occu- 
pied by the small tenants, has been turned into large 
sheep-walks. The population has consequently consider- 
ably decreased ; and the old tenantry have gradually 
passed away, and settled either on the coast, or near 
grounds more susceptible of cultivation. There is no 
great corn farm in the parish ; but the lotters raise 
enough of grain for domestic use. The breed of sheep is 
the Cheviot, and usually makes a very fine show, much 
attention having been paid to the rearing of them for 
some years past : they are sent to the markets of the 
Kyle and Kincardine, in Autumn and November. The 
rocks of the parish are chiefly coarse granite and trap, 
in addition to which, at the side of the lake, is a large 
bed of limestone : this, however, though much wanted 
for agricultural purposes, the inhabitants have no means 
of working. The rateable annual value of Lairg is re- 
turned at £1913. There are about forty miles of road, 
in very good condition, and affording every facility of 
communication : the Tongue line from south-east to 
north-west, and, branching from it, the Strathfleet county 
road, pass through the parish. A post-gig carrying 
passengers arrives twice in the week. The ecclesiastical 
affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dornoch and 
synod of Sutherland and Caithness ; patron, the Duke 
of Sutherland. The stipend of the minister is £1S4, 
with a manse, built in 1795, and a glebe of ten acres 
valued at £9 per annum. The church, though distant 
from the western extremity of the parish about twenty 
miles, is conveniently situated, as the greater portion of 
the people reside in its neighbourhood ; it was built in 
1794, and is a very plain structure, now ruinous, but 
accommodating 500 persons with sittings, all of which 
are free. A new church and manse are in course of 
erection. There is only one school, the parochial, in 
which all the ordinary branches of education are taught, 
with Latin and Gaelic, the latter being the vernacular 
tongue : the master's salary is £34, with a house, and 
about £8. 10. fees. The poor have the interest of £500, 
bequeathed by Capt. Hugh M'Kay, son of a late minister 
of Lairg. Capt. William M'Kay, author of the narrative 
of the ship Juno, from which, Moore states, Byron drew 
his description of a shipwreck, was a native of the 
parish, and brother of Capt. Hugh M'Kay. 

LAMBA, an isle, in the parish of Northmavine, 
county of Shetland. This is a small uninhabited isle 
of the Shetland group, situated on the north-east coast 
of the Mainland of Shetland, about a mile and a half 
westward of Bigga island. 

LAMBHOLM, an isle, in the parish of Holm and 

Paplay, Isles of Orkney; containing 12 inhabitants. 

It is a small islet, almost circular, and about three miles 

in circumference, situated in Holm sound, near to the 

141 



west entrance of that bay. Between it and the main 
land is a pretty secure harbour for vessels of 200 tons' 
burthen. 

LAMLASH, an island, in the parish of Kilbride, 
Isle of Arran, county of Bute ; containing 271 inhabit- 
ants. This island is two miles and a half in length 
and half a mile in breadth, rising in a conical shape to 
the height of 1000 feet ; it is situated eastward of the 
main land of Arran, and serves as a shelter to a spacious 
bay of the same name. Buchanan gives the island the 
Latin name of Molas, from its having been the retreat 
of St. Maol Ios ; and, for the same reason, it is also 
called the Holy Island : anciently a monastery of friars, 
founded by one of the lords of the Isles, existed here. 
Lamlash bay, an excellent harbour, in the form of a 
semicircle, on the south-east side of Arran, is land- 
locked by the island, at the extremities of which, on 
the north and south, are convenient entrances. At the 
head of the bay is the village of Lamlash, or Kilbride, a 
favourite resort for sea-bathing, and having several good 
inns for the accommodation of visiters. — See Kil- 
bride. 

LAMMINGTOUNE, a village, in the parish of 
Wandell and Lammingtoune, Upper ward of the 
county of Lanark, 65 miles (S. W.) from Biggar ; con- 
taining 122 inhabitants. It is situated on the eastern 
bank of the Clyde, and on the road from Biggar to 
Roberton. The place was formerly a market-town, a 
charter having been obtained from Charles I. to hold a 
weekly market here every Thursday, and two annual 
fairs, one on the 1 5th of June, and the other on the 
22nd of October ; but they have all been discontinued. 
The Lammingtoune burn, a tributary to the Clyde, flows 
on the south-west side of the village. In the vicinity 
is a fine old tower, built by a laird of Lammingtoune of 
the ancient family of Baillie ; it is of considerable height, 
and the walls are of great thickness. 

LANARK, a burgh, mar- 
ket-town, and parish, in the 
Upper ward of the county 
of Lanark; containing, with 
the villages of Cartland and 
New Lanark, 7679 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 4831 are 
within the burgh, 25 miles 
(S. E.) from Glasgow, and 
32 (S. W. by W.) from Edin- 
burgh. This place, the name 
of which is of uncertain deri- 
vation, is of very remote an- 
tiquity, and from the traces of a Roman road leading to 
the site of its ancient, castle, is supposed to have been a 
Roman station. By some writers, indeed, it is identified 
with the Colania of Ptolemy. It appears to have attained 
to great importance at an early period ; and Kenneth II. 
is said to have assembled here, in 978, the first parlia- 
ment of which there is any record in the history of the 
country. It is referred to as a royal burgh in one of 
the charters of Malcolm IV., by which a portion of its 
lands was granted to the monks of Dryburgh ; and a 
charter bestowed by William the Lion upon the inhabit- 
ants of the town of Ayr, in 1197, is dated from a royal 
castle at this place, the foundation of which is attributed 
to David I. The town was burned to the ground in 
1244, the houses being chiefly built of wood; but it. 
was soon restored, and not long afterwards it became 




Burgh Seal. 



L A N A 



L A N A 



the scene of a battle between Sir William Wallace and 
Sir William Heslerigg, the English sheriff, in which the 
latter, with the forces under his command, was defeated, 
and driven from the town. The castle of Lanark, with 
all its dependencies, was given as security for the dower 
of the niece of Philip, of France, in the treaty negoti- 
ating for her marriage to the son of John Baliol, in 
1298. It seems to have been garrisoned by the English 
in 1310, when it was, together with Dumfries, Ayr, and 
the Isle of Bute, surrendered to Robert Bruce, King of 
Scotland. 

The town is beautifully situated on a gentle acclivity 
rising to the height of nearly 300 feet above the level of 
the river Clyde, and consists of five principal streets, 
with a few others of less note ; most of the houses have 
been rebuilt, and many of them in a handsome style, 
by which the appearance of the town has been greatly 
improved. It is paved, lighted, and amply supplied with 
water at the expense of the corporation ; and though 
there is no regular police establishment, it is watched by 
constables appointed by the magistrates of the burgh. 
There are two bridges over the Clyde, affording facility 
of access to the town. Of these, one, about a mile below 
Lanark, was erected in the middle of the seventeenth 
century, and displays no features of architectural im- 
portance ; the other, two miles from the town, is 
remarkable for the elegance of its structure. The 
inhabitants are partly occupied in weaving for the manu- 
facturers of Glasgow and Paisley at their own homes, 
not only in the town, but in several other parts of the 
parish : more than 1000 persons, of whom nearly 900 
are in the town, derive support from this work, the 
wages, however, being now greatly reduced. The 
manufacture of shoes is also carried on to a consider- 
able extent, giving occupation to about 100 persons : 
the making of lace employs 120 females; there are 
three breweries upon a moderate scale, and several flour- 
mills. The principal manufacture of the parish, how- 
ever, is cotton-spinning and weaving, introduced at New 
Lanark, a handsome village on the side of the river, by 
Mr. Dale, who, in 17S4, erected mills on a very extensive 
scale, which, till 1827, were conducted with great suc- 
cess by Robert Owen, and are now the property of 
Messrs. Walker and Company. In these extensive and 
flourishing works, nearly 1200 persons are regularly 
engaged. A branch of the Commercial Bank of Scot- 
land is established here, for which a handsome house 
has been built of freestone. There is also a branch of 
the Western Bank ; and a spacious and commodious 
inn has been opened for the accommodation of the 
visiters who resort to this place during the season for 
visiting the falls of the Clyde, which are much fre- 
quented for the beauty and grandeur of the scenery that 
the river displays in this part of its course. Elegant 
assembly-rooms have been added to the hotel within the 
last few years, at an expense of £2400. The markets 
are on Tuesday and Saturday ; the former, which is the 
chief, is abundantly supplied and numerously attended. 
Fairs are held on the last Wednesday in May, O. S., for 
black-cattle ; the last Wednesday in July, for horses 
and lambs ; and the last Wednesday in October, and 
the Friday after Falkirk tryst, for black-cattle and 
horses. There are also three fairs for the sale of various 
goods, the hiring of servants, and for pleasure. 

Lanark, by charter of Alexander I., was constituted a 
royal burgh ; and the inhabitants, at various times, 
142 



received charters from his successors, conferring 
different privileges, down to the reign of Charles I. of 
England. An act of parliament of 1617 records that, 
from a very early date, the standards of weights and 
measures had been preserved here, for the adjustment 
of all the weights and measures in the kingdom ; and 
these continued to be used till, by the act of 1826, they 
were superseded by the introduction of the imperial 
standard. The government of the burgh is vested in a 
provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and fourteen coun- 
cillors, assisted by a town-clerk and other officers ; 
they are chosen under the authority, and are subject 
to the provisions, of the act of the 3rd and 4th of 
William IV. There are six incorporated trades, the 
smiths, Wrights and masons, tailors, shoemakers, wea- 
vers, and dyers, who are under the direction of a dean 
of guild, appointed by the deacons of the several trades : 
none but burgesses are eligible as members. The free- 
dom of the burgh is inherited by birth, acquired by 
servitude, or obtained by purchase or gift of the corpo- 
ration ; the only privilege, however, now enjoyed by the 
burgesses is that of pasturing cattle on the common 
lands. The provost and bailies are magistrates within 
the limits of the burgh, and exercise jurisdiction in 
both civil and criminal matters ; but their power is 
chiefly limited to holding a bailies' court, for the deter- 
mination of civil pleas, and to the summary punish- 
ment of petty offences against the peace, the town- 
clerk acting as assessor in the bailies' court. All cases of 
importance are referred to the sessions for the county, 
which are held here as being the county town. The 
election of a member for the shire is held here, and 
Lanark is one of the Falkirk district of burghs : the 
right of election for the burgh member, previously 
vested in the burgesses, is, under the Reform act, re- 
stricted to the resident freemen, and extended to the 
occupiers of houses of the value of £10 per annum. The 
number of registered voters is 160, of whom eighty- 
eight are burgesses, and seventy- two are £10 house- 
holders. The county-hall, to which a prison is attached, 
was erected in 1S34 ; it is well adapted to the purpose, 
containing good accommodation for holding the courts, 
and for transacting the business of the county and the 
burgh. 

The parish, which is nearly in the centre of the 
county, extends from six to seven miles in length, along 
the bank of the Clyde, and from three to five miles 
in breadth ; it is bounded on the north by the parish of 
Carluke, on the south by Pettinain and Carmichael, on 
the east by Carstairs, and on the west by Lesmahago. 
The surface, though generally elevated, is almost uni- 
formly flat, scarcely rising into hills, though in some 
parts sloping and undulated. It is intersected by the 
valley of the Mouss, in a direction from east to west, 
between the two level tracts of Lee moor on the north 
and Lanark moor on the south, both of which are nearly 
700 feet above the sea. Along this valley the river 
Mouss flows with a very devious course ; and within 
about a mile of its union with the Clyde, it seems to 
have worn for itself a channel through the hill of Cart- 
lane, forming a deep ravine about half a mile in length, 
composed of cragged and lofty masses of precipitous 
rock, rising on the one side to the height of 300, and on 
the other of 400, feet above the bed of the river. The 
Mouss has its source in the northern portion of Carn- 
wath moor, and, though it receives numerous tributary 



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streams in its progress, is but very inconsiderable till, 
after issuing from the Cleghorn rocks, it spreads into a 
wide channel between banks which on one side are pre- 
cipitously lofty, and on the other more gently acclivous, 
and both crowned with wood. Passing through the 
Cartlane Craigs, it falls into the river Clyde opposite to 
the village of Kirkfield Bank. The Craigs abound with 
prominent features of romantic beauty and majestic 
grandeur ; and the chasm, which in itself is of suffi- 
ciently impressive appearance, derives additional in- 
terest when regarded as having afforded security, as a 
place of refuge, to Sir William Wallace in his unwearied 
efforts to maintain the integrity of his country. Near 
the lower extremity, an elegant bridge of three arches 
has been thrown over the chasm, harmonizing with the 
prevailing character of the spot, and adding much to 
the beauty of the scenery. 

The river Clyde washes the parish on the south and 
west. Entering from the east, it flows with silent course 
through a rich and fertile tract of level land, which it 
occasionally overflows ; and deflecting slightly to the 
south and south-west, it becomes narrower in its chan- 
nel, and more rapid in its progress, passing over a rocky 
and irregular bed, between rugged and precipitous banks, 
till it reaches the bridge of Hyndford. Beyond this it 
is greatly increased by the influx of the Douglas water, 
and, proceeding northward, and dividing its stream at 
Bonnington, is precipitated over a ledge of rocks about 
thirty feet high, forming a picturesque cascade. After 
continuing its progress for half a mile, between rocks 
nearly 100 feet in height, it exhibits another beautiful 
scene at Corehouse, where its waters descend in a per- 
pendicular fall of eighty-four feet ; and advancing with 
greater tranquillity through the low land at the base, 
for about a quarter of a mile, it presents a small but 
picturesque cascade called Dundaf Lin. From this 
point, the river flows between gently-sloping banks, 
richly wooded, and in some parts cultivated to the 
margin of the stream, and for three or four miles pur- 
sues an equable and noiseless course to Stonebyres. 
Here, passing through a ridge of rocks, its waters de- 
scend in three successive falls, from a height of eighty 
feet, into the plain below, along which, for the remainder 
of its course in the parish, it flows in a tranquil stream, 
amid lands highly cultivated, and between banks plea- 
singly embellished with natural wood and luxuriant 
plantations. Among the chief points of attraction to 
persons visiting the falls of the Clyde, is the Bonnington 
fall, about two miles distant from the town, and to which 
the approach is, for the greater part of the way, through 
the grounds of Bonnington House : these grounds are 
tastefully laid out in walks, with seats at all the points 
from which the finest views of the scenery are to be had, 
and are open to the public on every day in the week 
except Sunday. A bridge has been thrown across the 
northern branch of the stream by the proprietor of the 
mansion, whence the best prospect of the fall is obtained, 
with the richly-varied scenery by which it is surrounded. 
But the Corra Lin or Corehouse fall is the most interest- 
ing of the whole. Till lately it was difficult to gain any- 
thing like a good view of it ; but a flight of steps has 
been excavated along the face of the opposite rock, 
leading to a spacious amphitheatre on a level with the 
bottom of the fall, from which it is seen in all its 
beauty, combining every characteristic of sublimity and 
143 



grandeur. The fall at Stonebyres closely resembles that 
of Corra Lin in all its leading features. 

The soil in the western portion of the parish is a 
stiff clay ; along the banks of the rivers, light and 
gravelly ; in some parts, wet and clayey ; and in the 
moors of Cartlane and Lanark, of a hard tilly nature, 
with some tracts of moss. The whole number of acres 
has not been ascertained ; about 6500 Scotch acres are 
arable, 600 in common belonging to the burgh, 600 in 
woods and plantations, 1200 in pasture and waste land, 
and about forty or fifty in orchards. The crops are, 
oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, and turnips : the system 
of agriculture is improved ; much of the land has been 
drained, and irrigation has been practised to some 
extent. The farm-buildings, however, are indifferent, and 
the lands but very partially inclosed. Considerable 
attention is paid to the dairy and the improvement 
of the cattle, to which the distribution of premiums by 
the various agricultural societies has greatly contributed ; 
the cows are all of the Ayrshire breed. Horses, chiefly 
for draught, are reared for the use of the parish and 
neighbouring districts. The woods consist of oak, ash, 
birch, hazel, mountain-ash, alder, and hawthorn ; the 
plantations are of Scotch fir, larch, and spruce fir. On 
the lands of Lee is a fine old oak of extraordinary size, 
supposed to be a relic of the ancient Caledonian forest ; 
also a larch of very stately growth, thought to have 
been one of the first trees of that kind introduced into 
the country. The substratum is chiefly the old red 
sandstone, traversed in some parts with whinstone. 
On the lands of Jerviswood, a vein of quartz alternated 
with small seams of iron-ore has been found, but not in 
sufficient quantity to encourage any attempt to render 
it available. Carboniferous limestone, also, in which 
petrified shells are found, occurs in some places, and 
is extensively quarried at Craigend hill : freestone was 
wrought formerly, but the works have been abandoned. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £17,780. 
Lee, the seat of Sir Norman Macdonald Lockhart, is a 
handsome castellated mansion, situated in a well-planted 
demense containing some stately timber ; Bonnington 
House is a modern mansion, also in a highly-picturesque 
demesne. Smyllum and Cleghorn are spacious antique 
mansions, and Sunnyside Lodge an elegant villa on the 
steep bank of the Clyde, about a mile and a half from 
the town. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superinten- 
dence of the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr. The stipend of the incumbent is £315 ; the 
manse is a comfortable residence, and the glebe com- 
prises about four acres, valued at. £16 per annum. The 
church, situated in the centre of the town, was built in 
1777, and has been thoroughly repaired within the last 
ten years ; it is a neat and substantial edifice, and is 
adapted for a congregation of '2300 persons. There are 
places of worship in the town for members of the Free 
Church, the Relief, Independents, and Burghers. The 
grammar school is supported by the corporation, who 
appoint the master, to whom they pay a salary of £40, 
and to an assistant £"20 per annum. Connected with 
this school are twenty-eight bursaries, of which nine 
were endowed in 164S by Mr. Carmichael, commissary 
of Lanark, and the others by one of the earls of Hynd- 
ford, by the Mauldslie family, and by Chamberlain 
Thompson ; they are of different values, and, after the 



L A N A 



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payment of the school fees, leave a remainder of £2 
or £3 to the holders. A free school in the town was 
founded by Mrs. Wilson, who endowed it with £1200, 
for the instruction of fifty children. There is a school 
supported by subscription ; and at Nemphlarand Cart- 
lane are schools of which the masters receive £5 per 
annum from the heritors, in addition to the school fees. 
A school at New Lanark is supported by the proprietors 
of the cotton-works, and attended by about 500 children. 
The poor have the rents of hospital lands producing £70 
annually : Mr. Wilson bequeathed property yielding 
£32 a year, and the late Mr. Howison, of Hyndford, 
£700, of which the interest is distributed among the 
poor not receiving parochial relief. There are several 
benevolent and friendly societies in the parish, and a 
savings' bank in the town. The Castle hill near the 
town, is supposed to have been the site of a Roman 
fort or station, and a silver Faustina is said to have been 
found there; but nothing remains either of the Roman 
fort, or of the royal castle which formerly existed. The 
site has been ploughed up, and converted into a bowling- 
green. There are some remains of two Roman camps 
in the vicinity, of which the larger, near Cleghorn 
House, including an area 600 yards in length and 
420 in breadth, is said to have been constructed by 
Agricola ; the smaller, situated on Lanark moor, is still 
more distinctly to be traced. The Roman road from 
Carlisle to the wall of Antoninus passed through the 
area of this camp. Upon an eminence on the bank of 
the river Mouss are the remains of a lofty tower, of 
which nothing, however, is known ; it gives title to the 
Lockharts, of Cambusnethan. On a prominent part of 
the Cartland Craigs are the small vestiges of an ancient 
stronghold called Castle Quaw ; but nothing of the his- 
tory is recorded. About a quarter of a mile from the 
town are the venerable remains of the old parish church, 
displaying traces of an elegant structure, of which a 
series of six arches that separated the aisle from the nave 
is in good preservation. The cemetery, also, is still 
used as the parish churchyard ; but the effect of these 
fine ruins, which had been suffered for a long time to 
fall into dilapidation, has been destroyed by the erection 
of an unsightly square tower in the centre, for the pur- 
pose of watching the graves. The area has, however, 
been surrounded with a wall to prevent further dilapi- 
dation ; and some steps have been taken to restore part 
of the ruins. Lanark gives the title of Earl to the Duke 
of Hamilton. 

LANARK, NEW, a populous manufacturing village, 
in the parish, and Upper ward of the county, of Lanark, 
1 mile (S. by W.) from the town of Lanark ; containing 
1642 inhabitants. This place owes its rise to the in- 
troduction of the cotton manufacture by Mr. David Dale, 
who, in 1784, erected extensive mills for spinning and 
weaving cotton. The village is situated near the river 
Clyde, and is surrounded by steep and richly- wooded 
hills, which give it an air of seclusion and retirement ; 
it is regularly and handsomely built, and is inhabited 
chiefly by persons employed in the cotton-works, which 
ever since their introduction, have been carried on with 
increasing success. The first of the mills erected was 
154 feet in length, twenty-seven feet in width, and sixty 
feet in height ; and a tunnel nearly 100 yards in length 
was cut through a rocky hill, to form a passage for the 
water of the Clyde, by which it was propelled ; in 1788 
144 



a second mill of the same dimensions, and two others 
subsequently, were built. The mill first erected was 
totally destroyed by an accidental fire in the same year, 
17S8, but was rebuilt in the year following. The works 
were afterwards carried on with great success by Robert 
Owen, son-in-law of Mr. Dale, till 1827, since which 
time they have been conducted by the firm of Messrs. 
Walker and Company. The machinery employed is of 
the most improved construction. About 1200 persons 
are employed in these works, of whom nearly sixty are 
mechanics and labourers engaged in keeping the ma- 
chinery in repair : many are children, for whose comfort 
the company have made every requisite provision. A 
school has been established in the village, by the pro- 
prietors of the works, for the instruction of the children 
of the factory, of whom a large number attend at stated 
hours, and receive a course of instruction adapted to 
their improvement in knowledge and in morals. A 
benefit society, for the support of its members in cases 
of sickness, is maintained by small weekly payments ; 
and there are also two funeral societies in the village. 

LANARKSHIRE, an extensive inland county, in 
the south of Scotland, bounded on the north by the 
counties of Dumbarton and Stirling ; on the east, by 
the counties of Linlithgow, Edinburgh, and Peebles ; 
on the south, by Dumfriesshire ; and on the west, by 
the counties of Renfrew, Ayr, and Dumfries. It lies 
between 55° 14' 42" and 55° 56' 10" (N. Lat.) and 
3° 22' 51" and 4° 22' 51" (W. Long.), and is about fifty- 
two miles in length, and thirty-three miles in extreme 
breadth, comprising an area of 926 square miles, or 
592,640 acres ; 85,326 houses, of which 3868 are uninha- 
bited ; and containing a population of 426,972, of whom 
20S,312 are males, and 218,660 females. This county, 
called also Clydesdale, from the valley of the Clyde, 
which forms its central portion, was at the time of the 
Roman invasion inhabited by the Damnii, and under the 
Roman yoke formed part of the province of Valentia. 
After the departure of the Romans, the original inhabit- 
ants appear to have extended their ancient limits, which 
they called Ystrad Cluyd, in the British language, signi- 
fying " the warm vale ;" and to have acquired the 
sovereignty over Liddesdale, Teviotdale, Dumfriesshire, 
Ayrshire, Renfrewshire, part of Peebles, the western 
part of Stirling, and the greater part of Dumbartonshire. 
This ample territory formed a kind of independent 
kingdom, including nearly all that portion of Scotland 
to the south of the Forth. It was peopled with subor- 
dinate British tribes, among whom were the Selgova, 
Attacotti, and others, who had frequent wars with the 
Picts and Saxons, but resolutely maintained their inde- 
pendence till, on the union of those people, their power 
began to decline, and their metropolis, Dumbarton, was 
taken about the middle of the eighth century. 

After the subjugation of the Picts by Kenneth II., 
every exercise of independent power gradually gave way 
to the authority of the Scottish monarchs ; and the 
various British tribes of Strath-Cluyd, by degrees, inter- 
mingled with the Saxons, Normans, Gaelic Scots, and 
Irish from Cantyre, by whom successive encroachments 
were made. The descendants of the Damnii alone, when 
they could no longer retain their independence, rather 
than yield to the power by which their territories were 
assailed, resolved to emigrate, and, crossing the Solway 
and the Mersey, found a retreat in the mountains of 



LANA 



L AN A 



Wales. la the twelfth centurjr, numerous Flemish 
families settled in the Strath of Cluyd, of whom many 
obtained grants of land from the Abbot of Kelso ; and 
with the exception of a few brief intervals, the county 
progressively advanced in prosperity till after the death 
of Alexander III., when the wars which arose on the 
disputed succession to the Scottish throne, involved it, 
in common with other parts of the kingdom, in frequent 
calamities. It was here that the celebrated hero, Wallace, 
performed his first exploit, in expelling the English from 
the town of Lanark. In the reign of James I., a portion 
of Strath-Cluyd was separated from the county of Lanark, 
and formed into the county of Renfrew. James II., 
exasperated by the turbulent ambition of the Douglas 
family, marched into Lanarkshire, and destroyed the 
castle, and all the lands of Douglas, including Douglas- 
dale and Avondale, with those of the first lord Hamil- 
ton. During the war in the reign of Charles I., and 
the attempts to re-establish episcopacy during that of 
Charles II., this part of the country suffered materially; 
but, since the Revolution, it has continued to make 
steady progress in agricultural improvement, and in 
manufacturing and commercial prosperity. 

Prior to the Reformation, the county was included in 
the diocese of Glasgow ; it is at present in the synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr, and comprises several presbyteries, and 
fifty parishes. For civil purposes, the county is divided 
into the Upper, Middle, and Lower wards, under the 
jurisdiction of three sheriffs-substitute, who reside 
respectively at Lanark, Hamilton, and Glasgow. It 
comprises the royal burghs of Glasgow, Rutherglen, 
and Lanark ; the towns of Hamilton, Douglas, Biggar, 
Strathaven, Carnwath, Bothwell, Airdrie, and Lesma- 
hago ; and numerous villages. Under the act of the 
2nd of William IV., the county returns one member to 
the imperial parliament. The surface is greatly varied; 
in the Upper ward, which is the largest division of the 
county, it is principally mountainous, rising to the 
greatest height towards the confines of Dumfriesshire. 
The summit of one of the Lowther hills is 2450 feet 
above the level of the sea ; the Culter Fell has nearly 
the same height ; and the hill of Tinto, the loftiest on 
the northern boundary of the mountain district, has an 
elevation of 2236 feet. The land in the Middle ward 
may be averaged at only 300 feet above the level of the 
sea ; but throughout that district the surface is every 
where diversified with undulations, leaving little level 
ground except in the valleys of the river Clyde. The 
principal river is the Clyde, which has its source in 
numerous small rills issuing from the wastes and moun- 
tains that separate Lanarkshire from the counties of 
Peebles and Dumfries. It takes a northern course, 
receiving various tributaries in its progress, and making 
a curve towards Biggar, after which, being augmented 
by other streams in its approach to Lanark, its course 
is obstructed by projecting rocks and precipices. Here 
it makes several picturesque and beautifully-romantic 
cascades ; the principal of these celebrated falls are 
Bonnington, Corra, and Stonebyres. The Clyde after- 
wards flows in gentle meanderings through a fertile 
vale, pleasingly embellished with woodlands, planta- 
tions, orchards, seats, and numerous interesting features, 
to Glasgow, and, running thence to Greenock, after a 
course of 100 miles disappears in the Frith of Clyde. 
The principal tributaries of the Clyde are, the Douglas 
Vol. II.— 145 



water, the Mouss, the Nethan, the Aven, the Calder, 
the North Calder, and the Kelvin. There are numerous 
lakes in the county, but none of them are of sufficient 
extent or importance to require particular notice ; they 
all contain trout, pike, and perch. 

The soil, varying in different parts of the county, is 
in many places exuberantly fertile, and even in the 
higher lands light, dry, and productive. In some of 
the uplands are tracts of spongy moor; in others, pas- 
tures richer than are found in some of the lower lands. 
The soil of the Middle ward generally, both in the arable 
and meadow lands, is luxuriantly fertile, but a very con- 
siderable portion of it is moss : this district abounds 
with orchards, gardens, and plantations, and is through- 
out in the highest state of cultivation, constituting the 
chief agricultural district and the greater portion of the 
vale of the Clyde. The crops of all kinds are abundant, the 
system of agriculture being in the most, advanced state; 
the lands have been well drained and inclosed ; the 
farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, and all 
the more recent improvements in the implements of 
husbandry have been adopted. The cattle are usually 
of the Ayrshire breed, and particular attention is paid 
to the rearing of cows for the dairy, of which about 
30,000 ere pastured; the sheep, of which 120,000 are 
fed on the hills, are of the black-faced breed, with a few 
other varieties. The substrata are, freestone, limestone, 
and whinstone, of which last the hills generally consist. 
Under the freestone are seams of coal, which prevail 
throughout Clydesdale, and are extensively wrought ; 
there are also quarries of limestone, both for agricul- 
tural and building purposes. Between the several beds 
of coal, ironstone is found in detached masses, and 
occasionally in continuous seams ; and near the southern 
extremity of the county are extensive mines of lead. 
A vein of copper-ore was discovered in the same part of 
Lanarkshire, but has not been wrought with any profit- 
able success ; antimony has also been found in the 
immediate neighbourhood. The ancient forests have 
long since disappeared ; but there are numerous coppices, 
and some flourishing plantations, together occupying 
nearly 10,000 acres, the greater portion of which has 
been formed within the last thirty years. The seats are, 
Hamilton Palace, Douglas and Bothwell Castles, Car- 
stairs House, Bonnington House, Corehouse, Stonebyres, 
Lee House, Mauldslie Castle, Milton-Lockhart, Dalzicl 
House, Cambusnethan Priory, Allanton House, Airdrie 
House, Newton House, Monkland House, Castlemilk, 
and numerous other elegant mansions. 

The principal manufactures are, the cotton, the linen, 
the woollen, and the iron manufactures. The cotton 
manufacture, which is by far the most extensive, and of 
which the principal seat is Glasgow, gives employment 
to great numbers of people throughout the county, who 
work for the houses of Glasgow, at their own dwellings ; 
and the linen and woollen manufactures, though vastly 
inferior in extent, still afford occupation to a considerable 
number. The Clyde and other iron-works are very 
important, and embrace every department of that manu- 
facture ; and the lead-works at the village of Leadhills, 
to which they have given rise, are also extensive. The 
New Lanark mills for the spinning of cotton are 
conducted on a very extended scale, as are similar mills 
at Blantyre. The rateable annual value of real property 
in the county is £1,834,999, of which £902,992 are 

U 



LANG 



LANG 



returned for houses, £341, 122 for lands, £140,213 for 
railways, £129,827 for iron-works, £66,098 for canals, 
£58,303 for mines, £9193 for quarries, and the remainder 
for other kinds of property not comprised in the fore- 
going. Facility of communication is afforded by good 
roads in almost every direction. Of these the most 
important are, the great road to England by Carlisle, a 
new line between Edinburgh and Ayr intersecting the 
county from Cambusnethan to Strathaven, and new 
lines of road from Glasgow to Dumfries by Lanark, and 
from Edinburgh by Biggar and Chesterhall. A railway 
from Glasgow to Carlisle has been for some time under 
contemplation : those railroads already completed are 
noticed in other articles. There are several remains 
of Roman roads, of which that from Carlisle to the wall 
of Antoninus is the most conspicuous ; and on Lanark 
moor, and near Cleghorn House, are vestiges of Roman 
camps, of which the latter is 600 yards in length and 
420 in breadth, and the other, of less dimensions, is 
still more distinct. Roman vases, coins, and other 
relics have been found in the vicinity. There are also 
remains of British camps, numerous ruins of ancient 
castles, cairns, tumuli, Druidical circles, and remains of 
abbeys, priories, and other religious establishments. 

LANGHOLM, a burgh of barony and a parish, in 
the county of Dumfries ; containing, with the village 
of New Langholm, 2820 inhabitants, of whom 1305 are 
in the burgh, 18 miles (N. E. by N.) from Annan, and 
20| (N.) from Carlisle. This place derives its name 
from the level lands, or holms, here, on the river Esk ; 
and appears to have been indebted for its origin to the 
erection of an ancient border fortress by the powerful 
family of the Armstrongs, of which fortress the ruins 
are still in tolerable preservation. The town is situated 
on the east bank of the Esk, in a beautifully-wooded 
portion of the dale through which the stream flows, and 
on the road from Carlisle to Edinburgh. It consists 
principally of one spacious street of well-built houses, 
roofed with slate obtained in the quarries of the vicinity ; 
and is connected with the village of New Langholm, on 
the west side of the river, by a handsome bridge of three 
arches. The streets are lighted with gas, and the inha- 
bitants amply supplied with water. A public subscription 
library was established in 1800, and is well supported; 
it contains a valuable collection of standard volumes 
and periodical works, and claims to receive a disputed 
bequest of £1000 by the late Mr. Telford, civil engineer, 
who was a native of this place. There is also a library 
for tradesmen, called the New Langholm Library, 
established in 1815. The woollen manufacture is carried 
on to a considerable extent, in two factories, one near the 
town, and the other at New Langholm, both belonging 
to the same company, and together affording employ- 
ment to about 120 persons. The cotton manufacture 
was established at New Langholm about the year 1800, 
and is still continued : about ninety persons are occupied 
in this and in the linen trade, working by hand-looms 
for the houses of Glasgow and Carlisle. There are also 
a distillery and a brewery. 

Langholm was erected into a burgh of barony by 
charter granted in 1643; and the Duke of Buccleuch, 
who is the superior of the burgh, appoints a baron-bailie. 
Courts are sometimes held for the trial of assaults and 
petty offences, punishable by fine or imprisonment ; but 
the number of cases is very inconsiderable. The town- 
146 



hall and gaol, situated in the market-place, were erected 
in 1811 ; they form a handsome structure surmounted 
with a spire. The post-office has a good delivery ; 
and there are two branch banks established here. A 
customary market is held weekly on Wednesday, for 
provisions : fairs take place annually on April 1 6th, for 
seeds ; the last Tuesday in May, O.S., for cattle ; the 
Wednesday before Whitsunday, for hiring servants ; the 
26th of July, for lambs and wool, which is numerously 
attended ; the 5th of November, for cattle ; and the 
Wednesday before Martinmas, O.S., for hiring servants. 
At all these fairs, shoes, earthenware, haberdashery, and 
jewellery articles are also exposed for sale. Facility of 
communication is afforded by roads and bridges kept in 
excellent repair ; the road from Carlisle to Edinburgh 
passes through the town, and roads to Annan, Lockerbie, 
Lochmaben, and Dumfries, through other parts of the 
parish. 

The parish, to which, for ecclesiastical purposes, that 
of Halfmorton was formerly annexed, was erected in 
1703 ; and the burgh was made the seat of a presbytery 
in 1743. It comprises about 14,320 acres, of which 
12,800 are the property of the Duke of Buccleuch ; the 
remainder mostly belongs to George Maxwell, Esq., of 
Broomholm ; and of the whole, 1 900 acres are arable, 
420 woodland and plantations, and the rest meadow and 
pasture. The surface along the banks of the rivers is 
level, and in other parts diversified with numerous hills 
of no great elevation, which are in general clothed with 
verdure to their summits, affording excellent pasturage 
for sheep. The river Esk has its source in the moun- 
tainous districts to the north, and flows through the 
parish in a southern direction, receiving in its course 
the waters of the Black Esk, the Megget, the Ewes, and 
the Wauchope, and falling into the Solway Frith. The 
soil in the lower lands is a light and fertile loam, and on 
the hills of a gravelly quality: on the south-west of the 
town is some fine orchard-ground, p