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T is pretty generally known that the most authentic and valu- 
able mass of facts and statistical details ever brought together, 
in relation to the Ecclesiastical, Educational, and Municipal 
institutions of Scotland, are to be found in the several extensive series of 
i Reports which have been published, within the last ten years, by the 
different Parliamentary and Royal Commissions appointed to inquire into 
these matters. An elaborate and careful digest of the information contained 
in these Reports forms the principal feature of value in The Topo- 
graphical, Statistical, and Historical Gazetteer of Scotland, 
which will be found to contain, in an abstract and condensed yet com- 
prehensive form, not the results only, but also a considerable portion of 
the details embraced in the voluminous Reports of which the following 
is a list : 

I. Reports of the Royal Commissioners appointed to inquire into the State of the 
Universities of Scotland. Published between the years 1830 and 1839, in 5 vols, 

II. Reports upon the Boundaries of the several Cities, Burghs, and Towns in Scot- 
land, in respect to the Election of Members to serve in Parliament. Published 
in 1832, in folio. 

III. Reports of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the State of Municipal 
Corporations in Scotland. Published in 1835, in 2 vols, folio. 

IV. Abstract of the Answers and Returns on the subject of Education in Scotland, 
made pursuant to an Address of the House of Commons dated 9th July, 1834. 
Published in 1837, in folio. 

V. Reports of the Commissioners of Religious Instruction in Scotland. Published 
betwixt the years 1837 and 1839, in 9 vols, folio. 

VI. Reports by the Inspectors of Prisons in Scotland. Published betwixt the years 
1836 and 1842, in 6 vols, folio. 

The Reports now enumerated have furnished the most valuable mate- 
rials to the present Work ; and in the existence of such documents as 


these, the Compilers of this Gazetteer conceive themselves to have 
enjoyed advantages above all their predecessors in the same department 
of literature. The following Parliamentary papers have also afforded 
much interesting and valuable matter, viz. : 

I. The Reports of the Commissioners on Highland Roads and Bridges. 

II. The Reports of the Commissioners under the Act for building additional Places 
of Worship in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. 

III. The Reports of the Commissioners for making and maintaining the Caledonian 

IV. Reports of the Commissioners on the Herring Fishery. 

V. Reports of the Commissioners on Northern Lights. 

VI. Returns on the Small Debt Courts, Prisons, Burgh- Revenues, Electoral Inhabi- 
tants, Teinds, Crown- Revenues, &c. of Scotland. 

The Publishers feel themselves warranted in claiming for their volumes 
a superiority over every other existing Gazetteer of Scotland, on the 
single ground of its presenting a careful digest of these, and of the Old 
as well as the New Statistical Account of Scotland, arranged in alpha- 
betical order, and of easy consultation as a book of reference. But 
while the compilers have directed their principal attention to the mate- 
rials now enumerated, they have not confined themselves to these, nor to 
what has hitherto been generally understood to be the strict limits of a 
Gazetteer. In the Topographical, Statistical, and Historical 
Gazetteer of Scotland — as indeed is implied in the name itself — they 
have endeavoured to concentrate a variety of details which it has not 
hitherto been customary to introduce into a mere Gazetteer ; nay, they 
have not hesitated, wherever they thought such matter would be likely to 
interest the general reader, to introduce Legendary, Poetical, Antiqua- 
rian, and Artistical notices of different localities. 

It has not entered into the plan of the present Work to notice every 
hamlet and name that may have a place in the local history and topogra- 
phy of Scotland ; but it is hoped that no name will be found to have been 
omitted in the following pages which has acquired any importance or 
celebrity in the annals of the country ; while a comparison of the number 
of names introduced, with those of any other Gazetteer, will satisfy any 
one that it has been drawn up on a more comprehensive plan than has 
ever before been attempted. An Index has also been supplied to the names 
of persons and places incidentally mentioned in the course of the Work. 


It is not expected, nor held out to the Public, that in a work of such 
minute and multiform details, perfect accuracy has always been attained ; 
a pledge for absolute correctness is not given, and were it given would 
not be accepted. But it is hoped that the means which have been em- 
ployed to guard against error, and above all the high character of the 
chief sources of information before enumerated, have conferred a very 
reasonable degree of accuracy on the present Work ; and the Publishers 
will feel themselves highly favoured by any respectably authenticated infor- 
mation which may enable them to increase the accuracy and consequent 
utility of their Gazetteer. 

The Publishers, in addition to several other spontaneous and highly 
gratifying Testimonials to the general accuracy and value of their 
Gazetteer of Scotland, have been honoured by the following communica- 
tion from Archibald Alison, Esq., Sheriff of Lanarkshire, the well- 
known Historian of the French Revolution. 

" Sheriff's Office, Glasgow, 
11th September, 1841. 
" Gentlemen, 

" I have received with much pleasure the 10th No. of your new and valuable 
Statistical Work, the Gazetteer of Scotland. 

" I have read all the Numbers of this Work, as they came out, with unmingled plea- 
sure, and think it no more than an act of justice to say, that it is the very best work of 
the kind I ever read in any language ; combining, in a degree which I never before 
saw equalled, historical and romantic interest with antiquarian details and valuable 
statistical information. There are few books comprising a greater variety of local, his- 
torical, and valuable details ; and none which I would in preference read, as a source of 
amusement or entertainment, to fill up a leisure hour. 

" As I think it of the highest importance that such a Work should be as generally 
known as its merit deserves, you are at liberty to make any use of this Letter which 
you may deem of service for your Publication. 

" I remain, 

" Gentlemen, 

" Your obedient and faithful Servant, 




A view of Scotland, introductory to a copious Gazetteer, must necessarily be very general. 
Every natural, political, and ecclesiastical division of the country, each great cluster of 
islands, every chain of heights and remarkable mountain or hill, each lake and river and 
arm of the sea, every city, town, village, and conspicuous mansion, and every interesting 
object, be it what it may, a landscape, an antiquity, a natural curiosity, or a work of art, 
are so fully noticed in their regular places, that a general article has no scope for de- 
scription, and needs not even to be studded with references. Yet such a rapid geogra- 
phical outline as shall indicate the mutual relations of the parts, — some details which 
refer strictly to the country as a whole, and a few particulars which, while belonging to 
only some localities or to classes of objects, could not, without frequent repetition, be 
inserted in the body of the work,— will form both suitable and pleasing materials for our 


Scotland is bounded on the north by the great North sea ; on the east by the German 
ocean ; on the south-east by the liberties of Berwick, and by England ; on the south by the 
Solway frith, and the Irish sea ; and on the west by the Atlantic ocean. The line of its 
boundary on the south-east, from a point 31 miles north of Berwick to the head of the 
Solway frith at the embouchure of the Sark, measures, inclusive of sinuosities, about 97 
miles. This line has very numerous but not great windings ; and, over great part of its 
length, is very capricious, and not physically marked. The curious reader may trace it 
by reference to our articles on the counties of Berwick, Roxburgh, and Dumfries, whose 
southern boundary-lines are identical with this. Popular language is utterly at fault in 
speaking of Scotland as the part of Britain which lies north of the Tweed ; that river 
running in the interior till 18 miles before it reaches the sea, and having on its left bank, 
for the last 4 of these miles, the liberties of Berwick. Scotland, as to its mainland, lies 
between 54° 41' and 58° 41' north latitude, and 1° 43' and 5° 38' west longitude ; and 
including its islands, it extends to 60° 49' north latitude, and 8° 55' west longitude. The 
greatest length of the mainland along the meridian, is from the Mull of Galloway, its 
most southerly land, or south-west extremity, to Cape- Wrath, and in any possible direc- 
tion, is from the same point, to Dunnet-head ; and it measures, in the former case, 274 
miles, — in the latter, 280. Its breadth, from St. Abb's-head in Berwickshire to the 
point of Knap in Argyleshire, is 134 miles ; from the mouth of the South Esk in Forfar- 
shire to Ardnamurchan-point in Argyleshire, is 137 miles ; and from Buchanness in 
Aberdeenshire to the extremity of Applecross in Ross-shire, is 146 miles. North of the 
Moray frith, the greatest breadth, from Duncansby-head to Cape- Wrath, is only 70 
miles ; and the least, from the Dornoch frith to Loch- Broom, is 36. The whole country 
is so penetrated by friths and inlets of the sea, that it constantly and very widely varies 
in breadth, and has no spot which is upwards of 40 miles inland. Owing partly to the 
great irregularity of outline, both in the mainland and in the islands, and partly to the 
want of accurate surveys, hardly any two statements agree as to the extent of Scotland's 
area. According to a report made to the Board of Agriculture, — probably the best 
authority which can be followed, — its cultivated lands amount to 5,043,450 English 
acres, and those uncultivated to 13,900,550 : jointly, 18,944,000 English acres, or 
29,600 square miles. Of this area, about 4,000 square miles belong to the islands ; and, 
in addition to it, 638 square miles are occupied by lakes and rivers. 



From the liberties of Berwick, the coast extends along Berwickshire and part of Had- 
dingtonshire, north-westward to near North Berwick : and there, over a commencing 
width of 11 miles, it yields to the long westward indentation of the frith of Forth. Over 
the greater part of this distance it is bold and rocky, presenting a firm rampart against 
the attacks of the sea, and offering few points where even fishing-boats may approach. 
On the north side of the Forth it makes an almost semicircular sweep round the most 
easterly land of Fifeshire to St. Andrew's-bay ; it thence trends northward to the north- 
east extremity of Fife ; and it there gives place to the indentation of the frith of Tay. 
Between the Forth and the Tay, and over a considerable part of Forfarshire to the 
north, it is in general low and sandy ; wearing alternately the softest and the tamest 
aspects. From Buddonness, on the north side of the entrance of the Tay, all the way 
along Forfarshire, Kincardineshire, and part of Aberdeenshire, to Buchanness, its direc- 
tion is north-north-eastward, slightly variegated by sinuosities. Over the next 18 miles 
it trends northward, and north-north-westward, to Kinnaird-head ; and between that 
promontory and Duncansby-head in the extreme north-east, it recedes to the vast extent 
of between 70 and 80 miles, and admits a triangular gulf or enormous bay, called the 
Moray frith. On the south side of this gulf it stretches almost direct to the west, and 
on the other side it extends to the north-east ; but at the inner extremity of the gulf, it 
is confusedly and entirely broken by the friths of Beauly, Cromarty, and Dornoch. 
From Duncansby-head, it undulates 14 miles in a prevailing direction of north-west by 
west to Dunnet-head in the extreme north ; it thence stretches 4 miles south-westward 
to the indentation of Thurso-bay ; and from this bay to Cape-Wrath, in the extreme 
north-west, and in nearly the same longitude as the entrance of the bay, it describes, 
over a distance of about 50 miles, a small segment of a circle, the curvature being inland, 
but, besides having a rugged outline, is broken in three places by the inroads of respec- 
tively Loch-Tongue, Loch-Eribole, and Durness-bay. Over nearly all the north it is 
bold and dangerous, abutted with rocky headlands, crowned with frowning cliffs, torn into 
fissures, and assailed by very generally a tumbling and chafed sea. From Cape-Wrath 
to the Mull of Kintyre, a distance of about 30 miles more than from the meridian of the 
liberties of Berwick to that of Duncansby-head, and comprising the whole west boundary 
of the mainland, the coast, as to its general direction, diverges very little from the 
straight line southward, or from a line a point or two westward of south ; but over nearly 
its whole extent, it is so torn and shattered by inroads of the sea, yields to so many large 
and variform indentations, and, amidst its curious and ever-recurring recesses, leaps so 
mazily over the inner line of the Hebridean rocks and islets and islands, that it defies 
description, and bewilders an uninitiated tourist. Its aspect here is throughout wild and 
Highland, alternately picturesque, grand, sublime, and savage. At the Mull of Kintyre 
the coast becomes narrowed with the continent, or rather with the long peninsula which 
projects from it, and runs down to the Mull, into a point or headland ; and there, over a 
commencing width of 35 or 40 miles, measured south-eastward to Ayrshire at Ballantrae, 
it recedes in the large, many-bayed, and curious gulf, which forms the frith of Clyde. 
From Ballantrae to the Mull of Galloway, a distance of 37 miles, it describes the segment 
of an ellipsis, the curvature being toward the sea, but is broken a few miles south of 
Ballantrae by the entrance of Loch- Ryan. Over this distance it is rocky, beetling, and 
inhospitable, but not high, and is curiously perforated with large and numerous caverns. 
From the Mull of Galloway to a point 31 miles north-east by east, it yields successively 
to the large ingress of Luce-bay, the considerable one of Wigton-bay, and the smaller 
of the estuary of the Dee, and comes down in the mere headlands by which these friths 
are separated. After passing the estuary of the Dee, it begins to be confronted with the 
coast of England ; and thence onward it is identified with the shore of the Solway frith. 


In enumerating the principal capes, promontories, and other headlands, we shall mark 
in italics those which are the sites of lighthouses, and shall follow the coast-line in the 
order in which we have just traced it. St. Abb's-head is in the middle of the coast- 
line of Berwickshire, and forms the most projecting, bold, and conspicuous piece of sea- 


board between the liberties of Berwick and the frith of Forth. Fast Castle-head is 3i 
miles to the north-west. Barness, Whitberry-head, and Gulane-point, are in Hadding- 
tonshire, — the last on the coast of the frith of Forth. Fifeness, a low, sandy, naked 
headland, is the termination of the peninsula of Fife. Buddonness, similar to the former, 
and Red-head, a beetling and bold promontory, are in Forfarshire. Jodhead, Garron- 
point, Finnonness, and Girdleness, are in Kincardineshire, — the last at the mouth of the : 
Dee, and at the end of a range of the Grampians. Buchanness is the most easterly land 
in Aberdeenshire, and even in Scotland. Rattray-point, Cairnbulg-head, and Einnaird- 
head, are in the same county, — the two last at the entrance of the Moray frith. Knockie- 
head is in Banffshire. Coulard-hill and Burgh-head are in Elginshire. Tarbetness, 
the termination of the long narrow peninsula between the Dornoch and the Beauly friths, 
belongs to Ross-shire. Ord of Caithness, Clytheness, Noss-head, Duncansby-head, 
Bunnet-head, and Holborn-head, are in Caithness, — the three last looking across the 
Peutland frith to the Orkney Islands. Strathey-point, Whiten-head, Far-out-head, 
Cape- Wrath, and Assynt-point, are in Sutherlandshire, — the last on its west coast, and 
the three first on its north. More-head, or Ru-more, is on the west coast of Cromarty. 
Udrigal-head, and Rhu-Rea-head, are on the west coast of Ross-shire. Ardnamur- 
chan-point, the most westerly ground on the mainland, — the Midi of Kintyre, at the 
entrance of the Clyde, and of the Irish channel, — and Lamont-point and Tov:ard-point, 
the southern terminations on the east and the west of the district of Cowal, on the Clyde, 
— are in Argyleshire. Glougli-point, on the Clyde, is in Renfrewshire. Kirkcolm-point, 
at the entrance of Loch- Ryan, — Corsewall-point, at the north-west extremity of the 
Rhinns of Galloway, — and the Mull of Galloway and Burrow-head, at the southern 
extremities of Scotland, — are in Wigtonshire. Ross-head, between Wigton and Kirk- 
cudbright bays, — Balcarry-point, at the west side of Auchencairn-bay, — Almerness- 
point, between that bay and the estuary of the Urr, — and Southerness-point, at the 
extreme south-east of Galloway, — are hi Kirkcudbrightshire. 


The German ocean, where it washes the mainland of Scotland, is closed up on the 
east side by Denmark, the entrance to the Baltic, and Christiansand in Norway. The 
North sea and the German ocean, where they girdle the northern and western shores, 
are — as we shall afterwards see — thickly occupied by the archipelagoes of Scotland, and 
both tamed in the fury of their billows, and to a considerable extent stripped of their 
superincumbent vapours, by the numerous and boldly screening islands, before they reach 
the main shore ; from just the same circumstance, too, or owing to currents, whirlpools, 
shoals, rocks, variable winds, and intricacy of channel, among the girdlings of the islands, 
or between them and the mainland, these seas are not a little difficult and dangerous of 
navigation ; and, owing to the gullets and narrow sounds, which serve like funnels for the 
wind between high grounds, and to the great number and magnitude and power of the 
rocky or mountainous obstructions which are presented to the breeze and the tide, and to 
the labyrinth of paths, and the positions of successive or alternate propulsion, vexation, 
opposition, and becalming which have to be traversed by a current, the seas likewise 
exhibit in the frequent storms of winter, or amidst a gale on the longest and far extend- 
ing day of the hyperborean summer, scenes of awful sublimity, which would appal almost 
any sensitive person except a native of the islands or of the mainland sea-board. The 
Irish channel, where it washes the Mull of Kintyre, looks up the frith of Clyde, and 
sweeps along the Rhinns of Galloway from Carsewell-point to the Mull of Galloway, is 
curtained on its west or south-west side by the county of Antrim, the entrance of BeLast 
loch, and the county of Down in Ireland, is 13 miles broad at the Mull of Kintyre, and 
21 at Portpatrick, and may be viewed as having an average breadth along Wigtonshire 
of 24 or 25 miles. At the point where it expands into the Irish sea, or immediately off 
the Mull of Galloway, the tides, which come in one slow and majestic current across the 
Atlantic, which encounter the long, vast obstruction of the island of Ireland, and which, 
sweeping round the ends of that country, enter the space between Ireland and Great 
Britain by the opposite inlets at the Mull of Kintyre, and at St. George 's-channel, run 
against each other in a tumult of collision, and produce, even in calm weather, a tum- 
bling, troughy sea, which no landsman loves to traverse. Resulting from the same 
causes, the tidal currents in the adjacent parts of the Irish sea, and above all in the 


Solway Frith [which see], are the most curious in the world. Some miles southward 
of the Galloway coast, where the efflux is felt from both the Galloway estuaries, and the 
Solway frith, or even some miles southward of the extreme land of the Mull of Gallo- 
way, where the current is less powerful, a Glasgow and Liverpool steamer of the old 
build might, in certain stages of the tide, have paddled away northward for a couple of 
hours, and scarcely preserved herself from being swept toward the Isle of Man. The 
Irish sea, where it washes Galloway, looks direct southward to the Isle of Man, and the 
north coast of North Wales ; and the Solway frith, from the line 22 miles wide where 
it commences between Balmae-head at the entrance of Kirkcudbright bay and St. Bees- 
head in England, to the narrow point where it terminates at the mouth of the Sark, is 
all the way flanked on the English side by Cumberland, and is overlooked at intervals 
on its English shore by the towns of Whitehaven, Workington, Maryport, and Bowness. 
The penetrations which the great encincturing marine waters of Scotland make in the 
shape of gulfs, bays, friths, and what are called lochs, are so numerous that a full and 
minute list of them would task a reader's powers of endurance quite as severely as the 
continuous perusal of three or four pages of a pocket English dictionary. All the im- 
portant, and, in any respect interesting ones too, are so fully noticed each in its appro- 
priate place in the Gazetteer, that even they can bear enumeration only with the view of 
indicating their mutual and relative positions. Belhaven-bay, between Dunbar and Whit- 
berry-head in Haddingtonshire, though a comparatively small marine inlet, is the only 
noticeable one on the east coast south of the Forth. The frith of Forth divides all Fife- 
shire, a detached part of Perthshire, and part of Clackmannanshire on the north, from all 
Lothian, East, Mid, and West, and part of Stirlingshire on the south ; and it makes several 
interior indentations, the chief of which are Aberlady-bay in East-Lothian, Musselburgh 
bay in Mid-Lothian, and Inverkeithing and Largo-bays in Fifeshire. St. Andrew's-bay, 
at the mouth of the Eden, cuts Fifeshire into two peninsulse, the larger on the south, 
and the smaller on the north. The frith of Tay divides Forfarshire on the north from 
Fifeshire on the south, and afterwards penetrates considerably into Perthshire. Lunan- 
bay makes but a small and segmentary indentation on the coast of Forfarshire, but is 
attractive for its beauty, and valuable as anchoring-ground. Montrose basin is a 
curious landlocked lagoon behind the town which gives it name. The Moray frith is 
greatly the broadest gulf in Scotland, having part of Aberdeen, all Banff, Elgin, and 
Nairn, and part of Inverness on one side, and Cromarty, Ross, Sutherland, and Caith- 
ness on the other, and measuring in a line, which may be considered its mouth, from 
Kinnaird's-head to Duncansby-head about 70 miles. Spey-bay makes a comparatively 
short and slender incision between Banff and Elgin. Burgh-head-bay forms a notice- 
able expansion between Elgin and Nairn. The Beauly frith, opening from the inner 
extremity or angle of the Moray frith, penetrates, first south-westward and then west- 
ward, between Nairn and Inverness on the one side, and Ross and Cromarty on the 
other ; and it sends off from its south side, near the town of Inverness, the navigation of 
the Caledonian canal. Cromarty frith, opening with a narrow entrance from the Moray 
frith a few miles north of the mouth of the Beauly frith, describes a demi-semicircle to 
the town of Dingwall, and forms the best harbour on the east coast of Great Britain, 
and one of the finest in the world. The Dornoch frith extends westward between Ross 
and Sutherland. Wick-bay makes a large semicircular indentation, on the east coast 
of Caithness, immediately north of Noss-head. The Pentland frith — strictly a strait or 
sound — intervenes between the mainland and the Orkney archipelago, forms the marine 
highway, in the extreme north, to vessels going round Scotland ; and, on account of its 
powerful tidal currents, and its rugged and broken coasts, is of difficult and very peril- 
ous navigation. Thurso-bay broadly indents the middle of the north coast of Caithness. 
Lochs Tongue, Eribole, and Durness, make sharp, considerable incisions, at rapid in- 
tervals, on the north coast of Sutherland. Lochs Inchard, Laxford, Assynt, Eynard, 
Broom, Little Broom, Greinord, Ewe, Gair, Torriden, Kishorn, Carron, Ling, and some 
others, curiously cleave into fragments the west coast of Sutherland and Ross. The 
Minch, a broad sound or little sea, intervenes between the mainland at Sutherland and 
Ross, and the archipelago of the Long Island ; and the Little Minch, a much narrower 
sound, intervenes between that archipelago and the group of Skye. The Kyle and the 
sound of Sleat — the former a confined and winding strait, and the latter gradually ex- 
pansive — separate Skye from the mainland along the coast of Inverness. Lochs Hourn, 
Nevish, and Nuagh, opening off from these straits, run. eastward into the mainland. 


The sound of Mull, a narrow strait, extends south-eastward between Morvern in Argyle- 
shire and the island of Mull. Loch-Linnhe, a large and long sound, stretches north and 
south between Lorn in Argyleshire and the island of Mull ; and is thickly sprinkled 
with islands and islets belonging to the Mull group of the Hebrides. Lochs Eil, Leven, 
Crinan, and Etive branch away from it, and run far into the interior, — the first leading 
the way from the west to the navigation of the Caledonian canal. The sound of Jura, 
extending north and south, intervenes between the district of Knapdale and the island 
of Jura ; and the sound of Isla, extending in the same direction, forms a narrow stripe 
between Jura and Isla. The frith of Clyde, previously to its being ramified into a 
lab} T rinth of straits and sound and curiously elongated bays, rolls, in its great gulf of 
waters, its little ulterior sea, between the long peninsula of Kintyre on the west and the 
coast of Ayrshire on the east ; and, in its higher waters, it encloses the various parts or 
islands of Buteshire, cleaves southern Argyleshire into a series of wildly Highland and 
singular peninsula?, makes a considerable cleft in Dumbartonshire, and, as to its main 
channel, divides the counties of Argyle and Dumbarton from those of Ayr and Renfrew. 
Loch- Ryan and Luce-bay invade Wigtonshire on a line with each other, and on opposite 
sides, — make such a mutual advance as to leave a comparatively narrow isthmus between 
their inner extremities, — and divide the Rhinns of Galloway from the rest of Wigtonshire. 
Wigton-bay makes a long inroad between the two great political divisions of Galloway. 
Fleet, Kirkcudbright, and Auchencaim bays, and the estuary of the Urr, indent the 
coast of Kirkcudbrightshire. The estuary of the Xith divides, for a considerable dis- 
tance, the stewartry of Kirkcudbright from the country of Dumfries. 


Hundreds and even thousands of parishes in England so closely or exactly resemble 
one another in all their features of landscape, that a sufficiently graphic description of 
one might be superscribed successively with the names of all. But so wondrously diver- 
sified is the surface of Scotland, that each of all its parishes, except a few, has some 
broad distinctive features of its own, each of the great majority might be the subject of 
a picture replete with individuality, and each of very many offers to the painter entire 
groups, sometimes multitudinous clusters of scenes which are rich in the peculiarities of 
their respective elements. Any general description of such a country is in the highest 
degree susceptible of colouring from the bias of aversion or of favourable predilection. 
Scotland has spots as lusciously lovely, or as superbly magnificent as ever poet sang, 
and spots as unutterably dreary or as inhospitably sequestered as ever a dreaming or 
misanthropic anchorite conceived ; and, in respect both to scenery and to climate, can 
probably exhibit some actual tract of territory to justify, or at least to countenance, on 
the one hand, each sneer or sarcasm which has been written against her by illiberal pre- 
judice, and, on the other, each of the most impassioned panegyrics which have been 
sung upon her by patriotic and enthusiastic admiration. To be fully understood, the 
country must be seen or studied in minute detail : no general description of it can be 
made the vehicle of very distinct ideas. Only such readers as acquaint themselves with 
it through some such medium as a copious Gazetteer, can be said to comprehend it, 
— examining it piece by piece in such large districts as those of counties and grand 
divisions, and then looking in detail at its parishes, its principal mountains, its lakes, 
its rivers, and all its various interesting objects. Whoever shall peruse the present 
work, first in the great and comprehensive articles, and next, in the multitudinous briefer 
articles which exhibit the individual objects, and describe the minute features of the 
grand picture, must rise, we should hope, from the perusal with conceptions of the sur- 
face of Scotland incomparably clearer than if he had read any conceivable amount of con- 
secutive description. He will be surprised, perhaps bewildered, by the amount of va- 
riety ; he will be delighted, or even thrilled, by the frequency with which scenery occurs, 
ever new or peculiar, and addressing itself by turns, or in combinations, to every power 
of taste, from the love of the calmly beautiful to the sturdiest and sternest capacity for 
the awfully sublime ; he will wonder to discover many a fairy nook or striking lusus na- 
turce in a district which probably rash satire had pronounced repulsive even to a savage ; 
and when he reflects how spiritedly and copiously Wordsworth and Scott, and many 
other masters of song, have written upon Scottish landscape, he will conjecture how 
mighty an impulse they must have felt, and how resistlessly they were hurried along, 


and into what a whirl of poetic excitement they were carried, in the careering of their 
descriptive poetry. But he must be aided, in this introductory article, by such a general 
view of the surface of the country as, though unneeded and useless for the purposes of 
description, will indicate to him the .prevailing characteristic, where there is one of each 
great district, and assist him to see the mutual connexion of counties, mountain systems^ 
valleys, and the basins of the great rivers. 

Scotland, then, as to its mainland, is naturally and very distinguishably separated 
both into two and into three great divisions. The two great divisions are the Highlands 
and the Lowlands, so noticed and traced in separate articles in the body of this work, 
that they need not be further mentioned. The three great divisions are, the Southern, 
lying south of the friths of Forth and Clyde, and of a great valley which connects them, 
and now traversed by the Forth and Clyde canal, 1 — the Central, lying north of this 
line, and south of the Gleuniore-nan-albin, or great Glen of Caledonia, occupied by a 
chain of slender lakes, and now traversed from the -Beauly frith to Loch-Linnhe by the 
Caledonian caaal, — and the Northern, lying north and north-west of the •Glenmore-- 

Though the Southern division is all comprehended in what are called the Lowlands, 
and contains much champaign country, -or many of the districts which obtain in Scot- 
land the name of plains, it contains yery little level, ground except in the alluvial tracts, 
• — the luxuriant and the richly screened Scottish 'haughs' and 'holms,' — along the 
courses of the greater rivers. Its southern extremity, comprising all Wigtonshire ex- 
cept a belt on the north, is strictly neither mountainous nor lowland;- — a remarkably tu- 
inulated expanse, — a sea of hillocks, very thinly crested with wood, and wearing the 
changeful hues of constant hesitation between wilderness, green ^pasture, and arable cul- 
tivation. Along the north of Wigtonshire, but chiefly -in the adjacent portions of Kirk- 
cudbrightshire and Ayrshire, from the head of Wigton-baj 7 on the east, to the sea at -Loch- 
Ryan, and to the frith of 'Clyde opposite Ailsa- Craig, 'Commences a very broad and far- 
stretching System of mountains which are often called the Scottish Southern Highlands, 
•and whichform the. grandest feature of the southern district of the country. This sys- 
tem extends in a broad phalanx of spurs and ridges cut by gorges and. glens, quite-across 
the kingdom in the direction of north-east by east, to the -Cheviots on the boundary of 
Roxburghshire, and there ..passeson to Northumberland. It attains its highest altitudes 
about mid-distance in the country, and thence sends off huge spurs northward to the 
great bend of the Clyde round Tinto, north-north-eastward to the abrupt stoop of the 
Pentlaud-hills, a few miles south of Edinburgh, and north-eastward to the termination 
of the Moorfoot-hills in the valeof Gala-water. From the western end up to the central 
-masses, no regular ridge-can be traced ; the mountains form an elevated region unmarked 
by order, and penetrated in various directions by deep long gorges and-vales. East of the 
central heights, a distinctly marked but deeply serrated ridge, constituting an -uniform 
water-shed, and shooting up in a continued series of summits, runs along the northern 
■boundary of Dumfries-shire and Liddesdale, and afterwards bends -north-eastward and 
northward along the boundary with England, to the vicinity of Yetholm. The heights, 
•in a few instances, have sharp and pinnacled outlines, or .present a bare and roGky as- 
.pect ; but, in general, they are soft in feature and in dress, angularities being rounded 
away from side and summit, and verdure successfully struggling to maintain ascendency 
over heath. On their south side they run far down in lateral ridges, and frequently 
subside with -comparative suddenness, allowing the parallel narrow valleys to open boldly 
and sweepingly out into a great ..plain. In their main broad line they ocoupy the north- 
ern .parts of Kirkcudbrightshire and Dumfries-shire, and the southern, parts of the coun- 
ties of Ayr, Lanark, Peebles, Selkirk, and Roxburgh. Their altitude, in the central 
masses, averages nearly 3,000 feet above sea-level, and, in other, parts, varies from 700 
or S00 feet 'to a little upwards of 2,000. The great-plain, or rather champaign country, 
which lies between them and the Solway-frith, exhibits on the easta considerable expanse 
of level ground, — in the centre, an agreeable variety of flats, and. gentle hilly ridges, — 
and in the west, an irregularly tumulated surface. Greatly the boldest variety in this 
quarter, is the ridge of the Criffel-hills, which lifts a .grand summit in the immediate 
flank of the Solway, at the mouth of the estuary of the Nith, and thence runs inland in 
a considerable ridge of 10 or 12 miles. The broad spurs toward Edinburgh and Gala- 
water, fill all Peebles-shire and Selkirkshire ; they are quite as irregular as the great 
main line, not so bold, more softly dressed, and forming over a considerable space a 


"hugely undulated expanse of verdure. As they become identified with the Moorfoot- 
bills in the south of Mid-Lothian, they lose much of both their greenness and their 
altitude. After the intervention of the vale of the Gala, they rise suddenly up in a 
broad and very moorish ridge, which takes the name of the Lammermoor-hills, occupies 
the northern part of Berwickshire, and the southern part of East- Lothian, and extends 
in a direction north >of east to 'the German ocean at St. Abb's-head, An irregular 
triangle, formed by the east end of the main line of the Southern Highlands, and the 
spurs onward to the coast of the Lammermoors, constitutes the basin of the parent-stream 
and the affluents of the Tweed. This, over a large part of its extent, is identical with 
the dells, and glens, and vales of the -mountain-territory ; but in the eastern and south- 
ern divisions of Berwickshire, and a small part of the north-eastern division of Rox- 
burghshire, .it forms the largest plain in Scotland, an expanse of very slightly undulated 
ground, closely resembling many districts in England, — the luxuriant, calmly pretty, 
garden-looking Merse. Intervening between the South Highlands and the friths of 
Forth and Clyde, the great champaign grounds' of Lothian and Strathclyde extend from 
sea to sea, the .former a hanging plain, declining to thejiorth, and picturesquely varie- 
gated -with hill and rising ground, and the latter a great valley opening broadly .out from 
among the glens and vales of the Highlands, stretching westward in agreeable undula- 
tions, which decline on both sides to a line along the centre, and becoming pent up in 
the west between the Lennox-hills and a ridge in Renfrewshire. The water-shed 
between these two great champaign districts is everywhere very slightly marked, and 
contains less hill, and greatly less boldness and variety, than several ridges. or congeries. 
of heights in the interior of Lothian. An insulated range, vacillating in character 
between hill and mountain, commences behind Greenock, at the west end of the valley 
of the Clyde, and runs southward near the west coast to the hill of Knockgeorgan, 700 
feet high, about 3 miles north of Ardrossan bay. Mistie-Law, near the middle of the 
range, irises 1,558 feet above sea-level. From the heights north of Ardrossan, .the high 
land or water-shed, makes a circular sweep to the south, with the concave side to the 
west, enclosing in a sort of amphitheatre the great hanging plain of Ayrshire, frequently, 
but very slightly, tumulated, containing much level ground, .and, in .its southern part, 
several bold heights, and having a prevailing declination to the west. This water-shed, 
afterleaving the insulated chain from Greenook to Ardrossan, is for a long way of very 
inconsiderable elevation ; and where it 'forms the boundary-line between Strathclyde or 
the vale of Avon, and the plain of Ayrshire, it is so low as to admit, from some points 
on '.the east bank of the Clyde in the centre iof Clydesdale, .not more than .120 or 160 
feet^above sea-level, a view of the heights of Arran, distant 50 miles in the frith of 
Clyde:; but over its southern half it becomes identified, for some distance, with the 
water-shed of the main line of the Southern Highlands, and then sweeps westward to the 
sea, immediately on the left bank of the outlet of Girvan-water. The extreme north of 
the southern division of Scotland, or that which forms the .middle part of the common 
boundary between it and the central division, is a strath or belt of low land, stretching 
along the south base of the .Lennox-hills, from the head of the estuary >of the Forth 
between Grangemouth and Stirling, to a point a little above the head of the estuary of 
the Clyde, between the village of East Jvilpatriok and the 'vicinity of Glasgow. This 
strath is identical, at its west end, with the valley of the 'Clyde; in the chief of its 
central .part, it forms a detached district ■■ of Dumbartonshire ; and in its 'west end, and 
the rest'of its central part, it constitutes 'the plain of Stirlingshire. So low. and slightly 
variegated is its surface, that a glance at its appearance and position brings conviction 
of its-having once lain under. water, and .formed :a natural sea communication, or con- 
tinuous frith, between the eastern and western marine waters' of Scotland. 

The Lennox-hills, -which skirt the central division of the kingdom between the Forth 
and the 'Clyde, extend from Stirling to Dumbuck, immediately above Dumbarton, in tho 
direction of west-south-west. Along the north side, a moorish descent terminates, over 
the western half, in a narrow and richly -variegated vale, chiefly traversed by the river 
Endrick, and partly declining to Loch- Lomond, and the channel of its superfluent stream 
the level, — and over the eastern half, in a flat broad belt of carse-ground, which is very 
sinuously watered by "the river Forth, and which, after sweeping past a narrowed and 
pent-up part at Stirling-castle, becomes identified with the plain of Stirlingshire. The 
mountains beyond extend over a vast region ; occupy, with their intervening vales and 
lakes, the whole of the middle and western portions of the central division of Scotland ; 


and press closely on the whole flank of the Glenmore-nan-albin. One of the highest 
summits of the region, as well as of all Scotland, is Bennevis, 4,380 feet above sea-level, 
situated on the south-east side of Loch-Eil, near the entrance of the Caledonian canal. 
The boundary of the most mountainous part of the region extends south-westward from 
this monarch-height to Ben-Cruachan, on the south side of Loch-Etive ; it runs thence 
south-eastward to the mountains of Arroquhar on the east side of Loch-Long, one of the 
most northerly branches of the frith of Clyde ; it extends thence eastward to Benlomond, 
at the sources of the Forth ; it thence passes on in the direction of east-north-east to 
Benledi, on the west side of the fresh-water lake Loch-Lubnaig ; it thence diverges east- 
ward to the enormously-based Beniglo, in latitude 56° 50', and west longitude 3° 40'; it 
runs thence due east to the lofty ridge of Lochan-nagar, nearly in latitude 57°, and west 
longitude 3° ; it extends thence northward, to the water-shed between the sources of the 
river Deveron and those of the Avon, an affluent of the Spey ; it thence passes on west- 
ward to the northern extremity of Loch- Ness ; and it thence extends south-westward 
along the flank of the whole of Glenmore-nan-albin to Bennevis. All the country com- 
prehended within these boundaries, excepting Strathspey and a few deep glens, lies pro- 
bably at a minimum of 1,000 feet above sea-level ; it embosoms multitudinous scenes of 
grand and magnificent beauty, and of alternately savage and picturesque sublimity ; it 
has many tracts which afford rich pasture, and not a few which are finely and produc- 
tively feathered over with forest ; it even contains, in well-sheltered situations, spots, 
small individually, but considerable in the aggregate, which are available for agriculture ; 
but over by far the greater part of its extent, it either sends up wild and untameable 
summits to the clouds, or is an impracticable waste and wilderness region of rocky 
steeps, unproductive moors, and extensive bogs. Large tracts of continuous mountains 
lie on all sides, except the north-west, immediately beyond the boundaries we have indi- 
cated, and form, jointly with the great territory within these boundaries, the upland 
district of the central division of Scotland ; but, though equally inhospitable, they are 
much inferior in mean height, and, in general, have less boldness, angularity, and rocki- 
ness of surface. The greatest range of the whole region cuts it from west to east into 
not very unequal parts, forms all the way a water-shed between streams respectively on 
the north and on the south, has a breadtli of from 12 to 25 miles, runs at no great dis- 
tance south of the 57th parallel, and extends from Bennevis by Loch-Ericht, and along 
the northern boundary of the counties of Perth and Forfar, to Mount-Caerloch in Kin- 
cardineshire, 18 miles west by north of Stonehaven, and thence sends off two hilly ridges 
to the coast, one terminating at Stonehaven, and the other at Girdleness. It thus 
bristles up as a stupendous rampart from sea to sea, sends up many summits 3,000 feet 
above sea-level, has probably a mean altitude, west of Caerloch, of 2,500 feet, measures 
in length from Bennevis to Girdleness about 100 miles, and, besides carrying the great 
north mail-road over the east end of its forking hilly ridges, is pierced in three places 
with gorges or passes which admit the transit of military roads. Another range com- 
mences in the vicinity of Loch-Lydoch, several miles from the south side of the former 
range, in west longitude 4° 35' ; and runs south-westward to Bendoe, and thenie south- 
ward, by the mountains of Arroquhar, along the west side of Loch- Long and the frith of 
Clyde, to a soft and gentle termination at Toward-point, the eastern peninsular headland 
of the district of Cowal. This range is not more than 50 miles in length, and, in Cowal, 
not more than 6 in mean breadth, and considerably less than 2,000 feet in the average 
height of its summits ; but, north of Arroquhar, it is from 12 to 15 miles broad, sends 
up numerous summits to the height of nearly 3,000 feet, and forms a water-shed between 
the streams which flow respectively to the German and the Atlantic oceans. The section 
of the mountain or Highland district lying east of this range, and south of the great 
central range from Bennevis to Caerloch, somewhat nearly resembles in outline the 
figure of a quadrant, and contains many elevations, such as Benlomond, Benvenu, Ben- 
ledi, Benvoirlich, Benlawers, and Schihallion, which rise about 3,000 ieet or upwards, 
and in one instance even 4,000 feet, above sea-level. Its mountains are in some cases 
isolated ; but, in general, they run in lateral spurs or offshoots eastward from the south 
and north range, and more or less parallel with the great central range. These are 
short in the southern part of the district, but towards the north they gradually increase 
from 10 to 15 or 18, and even to upwards of 20 miles ; they enclose glens which are 
deep throughout, and in part high above sea-level, which have a contracted narrowness 
on the west, akin to that of profound gorges, but usually expand into vales toward the 


east, and which contain aggregately large pendicles of arable land and forest, and em- 
bosom a great proportion of the loveliest and far-iarned scenery of the Highlands. 
Between the most northerly of these flanking screens of the glens, and the great east and 
west central mountain-range, extends the vale of Rannoch, traversed along the east by 
the tumultuous river Tummel, and occupied on the west by Loch- Rannoch ; and from 
the west end of this lake, past the northern termination of the north and south great 
range, away south-westward to the spurs of Bencruachan, extends the moor of Rannoch, 
an immense level bog lying about 1,000 feet above the level of the sea, a dismal wilder- 
ness occupying an area of about 400 square miles. The section of country south and 
south-west of this, north of the peninsula of Knapdale and Kintyre, and west of the 
north and south mountain-range, measures about 40 miles by 25, and with the exception 
of the stupendous mass of Bencruachan and some attendant heights, is a series of table- 
lands, elevated from 500 to 700 feet above sea-level, separated by narrow and deep glens 
ploughed up by water-courses, and covered partly with heath and grass, and partly with 
moorish soil and bog. The glens, though deep, are, in general, open, or expand into 
vales, and in common with the banks of far-stretching bays and marine lochs, are subject 
to the plough or luxuriant in wood. The long narrow peninsula of Knapdale and Kin- 
tyre, extending nearly 50 miles southward, with a mean breadth of about 7 miles, rises 
at its southern extremity to an altitude of about 1,000 feet above sea-level, but elsewhere 
is very moderately and even gently hilly, has many interspersions of plain and valley, 
and wears an arable, sheltered, and softly picturesque appearance. From the north side 
of the great central range, at a point north-north-west of Beniglo, a range upwards of 
30 miles in length, and about 10 or 11 in mean breadth, goes off in the direction of north 
by east, to the stupendous mountain-knot of the Cairngorm heights — according to some 
authorities, the loftiest in Britain — and there forks into two branches, the one extending 
north-eastward, and lowering in its progress, along the right flank of the upper basin of the 
Deveron, and the other, under the name of the Braes of Abernethy, running northward 
between the vale of the Avon and the valley of the Spey, to the terminating and lofty 
heights of Cromdale. This range, except near the north end of its divergent branches, 
is unpierced by any road or practicable pass ; and, from the Cairngorm group to its 
junction with the great central range, has a mean altitude of probably about 3,000 feet. 
In the triangle, the two greater sides of which are formed by the Glenmore-nan-albin, 
and the western moiety of the great central range, stretches north-eastward, a range 30 
miles in length, and considerable in breadth, called the Monadh-Leadh mountains. 
These heights commence, at their south-west end, in the Corryarrack mountains, 18 
miles north-east of Bennevis : they divide in their progress into two branches, which 
enclose the upper basin of the river Findhorn, and terminate nearly due south-east, from 
the frith of Beauly entrance of the Caledonian canal ; and they possess an extreme alti- 
tude above sea-level of not much more than 2,000 feet. The south side of the east end 
of the great central range from Caerloch to Beniglo, and the ends facing the south-east 
and east, of the lateral offshoots of the great range north and south, have a broad fringe 
of shelving upland, which, in a general view, may be described as descending in tiers, 
or as forming a declination by successive gradients to the Lowlands. This fringe — moun- 
tainous on the inner side, and merely hilly in the exterior — varies in breadth from 3 to 
8 miles toward the south, and from 6 to 12 miles toward the north ; it is everywhere 
chequered or striped with glens and vales, bringing down the roaring and impetuous 
streams cradled among the alps to the champaign country below ; it exhibits, as seen 
from a distance, a magnificently varied breastwork thrown round the Highlands ; and it 
encloses in its glens and vales a surpassing rich assemblage of scenery, a vast aggregate 
area of picturesque and romantic forest, and not a small proportion of excellent arable 
ground. Along the whole south-east side of this far-stretching and sublime and myriad- 
featured declivity, from the Forth, between the vicinity of Stirling to the vicinity of 
Aberfoil, to the German ocean at Stonehaven, a distance of about 80 miles, extends the 
plain of Strathmore, or the Great Valley, from 1 mile to 16 miles in breadth, over the 
most part from 6 to 8, and almost everywhere level, and in fine cultivation. This fine 
strath sends off to the German ocean at Montrose, a short one of kindred character, and 
farther north it becomes narrowed, and assumes the name of the Howe of Mearns ; and 
at the point where it is crossed by the river Tay, it looks down a transverse valley 
watered by that stream ; but over nearly all its length it is flanked along its south-east 
side by ranges of heights which, in some places, almost vie with the Grampians along the 


north-west side, and in others wear the aspect of soft and gentle hills. The most consi- 
derable range, called the Ochils, extends from a point 2 miles from the river Forth, and 
about 4 miles from Stirling, in the direction of east-north-east, to the frith of Tay ; it is 
24 miles in length, and has a mean breadth of about 12 miles ; and it is loftiest toward 
the Forth, and attains an extreme altitude of 2,300 feet above sea-level. Another range, 
called the Sidlaw-hills, is continuous of the Ochils, except for the intervention of the 
valley of the Tay ; it rises abruptly up a little below Perth, in a surpassingly picturesque 
height of 632 feet above sea-level, and extends to a point some miles south of Montrose, 
sending up, over the earlier half of its progress, numerous summits upwards of 1,000 feet 
in altitude, and afterwards forming naturally moorish terraces, which now are either 
arable, or, for the most part, clothed with wood. South-eastward of the Ochils, all the 
way to the German ocean, the surface is singularly rich in the calm and soft beauties of 
landscape, and exhibits an interminable blending of valley, slope, and gentle hill ; its 
boldest variety being an isolated table-ridge, a few miles from the Ochils, 4 miles in 
length, and shooting up at the extremities into beautifully outlined summits, respectively 
1,466, and 1,721 feet high. Eastward from the south end of the Sidlaws, and along the 
north shore of the frith of Tay to the vicinity of Dundee, stretches the Carse of Gowrie, 
a level expanse of wheat-bearing soil, unsurpassed in strength and richness. The surface 
elsewhere between the Sidlaws and the sea, is partly diversified with the soft low heights 
called Laws, and partly consists of sandy downs, but in general is a waving, well-culti- 
vated plain. North of the great central mountain-range from Bennevis to the German 
ocean, and east of the strictly Highland region, some high hilly ridges run eastward to 
near the sea, and send aloft numerous summits of mountainous aspect and altitude. The 
surface of the ridges and the intervening tracts, alternately pleases and tantalizes by 
incessant change ; it abounds in rocky ruggedness, and steep declivities, and niggard 
moorlands ; and it admits the dominion of the plough only or chiefly on the low grounds 
of its glens and valleys. The country lying to the north-east, and terminating in Kin- 
naird's-head, at the entrance of the Moray frith, has plains which, in some instances, 
run 10 or 12 miles inland from the sea, and swell into hills, most of which are graceful 
in outline, and beautifully verdant, while some are ploughed to the summit, and all, with 
one exception, rise less than 600 feet above the level of the sea. The country lying 
along the Moray frith to the north-east end of the Glenmore-nan-albin, has a breadth 
between the Highlands and the sea of only from 12 to 18 miles ; its level ground along 
the sea-board runs 9 miles inland in the vicinity of the Spey, but elsewhere is seldom 
more than 2 miles broad ; its interior district is traversed seaward by lofty offshoots of 
the mountain region beyond ; and its sea-board on the Beauly frith is a barren moor 10 
miles by from 2 to 3, — the famous moor of Culloden. The Glenmore-nan-albin extends 
north-east and south-west, in a straight line from sea to sea ; it is 60 miles in length from 
Loch-Eil to the Beauly frith ; and it is principally occupied by three long stripes of 
fresh-water lake, aggregately upwards of 37 miles in length. 

The northern or third great division of Scotland, with the exception of two compara- 
tively small portions, is all Highland. One of the low tracts consists of the peninsula; 
respectively north and south of the Cromarty frith, and of a tract round the head of that 
frith from 2 to about 4 miles in breadth, which unites them. The southern peninsula, 
seaward from an isthmus which nowhere rises more than 50 feet above sea-level, swells 
on its west side into a fiat-backed height, which, with a mean breadth of 2 miles, extends 
northward to the coast. The northern peninsula, though much and roughly variegated 
with high moorish grounds, and lifting up in one place a bold rampart on the coast, is 
crossed by the fine Plain of Fearn, stretching from Tain to the most northerly bay of 
the Cromarty frith. The other level, though somewhat variegated district, comprehends 
about four-fifths of the whole of Caithness, and will be quite understood as to both its 
character and its relative position, by reference to the article on that county. The 
mountain region, while vast in area and multitudinous in feature, exhibits such masses 
and congeries of heights, and is so undisposed in ridges or ranges, that only a longer 
description than the patience of most readers could endure would serve to depict it. Its 
greatest elevation extends across nearly its centre, from Ben- Wyvis on the east, to Loch- 
Torridon on the west, and sends aloft its summits from a base lying at probably 1,500 
feet above sea-level. On the north side of this line, or toward Cape-Wrath, the eleva- 
tion decreases more than on the south, or toward the peninsula of Morvern. On its 
west side occur most of those Ion"' and narrow indentations of the sea noticed in the 


sections on the coasts and the marine waters ; remarkable for rendering so desolate a 
region inhabitable, and especially for their being of a class which occurs elsewhere only 
on the coasts of Norway, Greenland, Iceland, and the hyperborean country around 
Hudson's Bay. 


Most of the running waters of Scotland, owing to the prevalence of mountain, and the 
frequent penetrations of the sea, have small length of course, and, even in the country 
itself, are not designated rivers. Yet though very numerous, and, for the most part, 
individually unimportant, they will be found distinctively noticed in the articles on 
counties, and fully described in the alphabetical arrangement. We can here, without 
useless repetition, only name the principal streams, and state their locality and direction 
of course. South of the west end of the Southern Highlands, or in two cases in Wigton- 
shire, and in the third between that county and Kirkcudbrightshire, the Luce, the 
Bladenoch, and the Cree, run south-eastward to the Irish sea. South of the main range 
of the Southern Highlands, the Dee, the Urr, the Nith, the Annan, and the Esk, run 
southward to the Solway frith. In the large triangular district, two sides of which are 
formed by the main range of the Southern Highlands, and by the long spur to St. Abb's- 
head, and whose aggregate basin comprehends about 1,870 square miles, the Tweed, 
aided chiefly by the affluents of the Gala, the Teviot, and the Whitadder, runs east- 
ward, north-eastward, and northward, to the German ocean. The Lothians and the 
plain of Stirlingshire, are drained north-eastward or northward to the frith of Forth, 
principally by the Tyne, the Esk, the Leith, the Almond, the Avon, and the Carron. 
Ayrshire is drained in a direction more or less westerly to the frith of Clyde, by the 
Stinchar, the Girvan, the Doon, the Ayr, the Irvine, and the Garnock. The basin of 
the Clyde, comprehending an area of 1,200 square miles, is drained in a direction north 
of west to the head of the frith of Clyde, by its cognominal stream, whose chief affluents 
are the Douglas, the Avon, the Kelvin, and the Leven. The Forth, drawing greatly 
the majority of its head-waters from the central division of Scotland, fed principally by 
the Teith, the Allan, and the Devon, and draining an area of 574 square miles, flows 
eastward to its frith. The streams which, throughout both the central and the northern 
divisions of Scotland, run westward to the Atlantic, are all individually too inconsider- 
able to bear separate mention. Those which drain the district east of the Ochil-hills, 
are chiefly the Leven and the Eden, — the former eastward to Largo-bay, and the latter 
north-eastward to St. Andrew's-bay. A vast territory lying immediately south of the 
great central range of mountains, and comprehending large portions of both the High- 
lands and the Lowlands, is drained to the extent of 2,396 miles, chiefly eastward, and 
partly southward, by the Tay and its tributaries, the principal of which are the Tummel, 
the Isla, the Almond, and the Earn. The north-east corner of this territory is drained 
eastward to the German ocean, chiefly by the South-Esk and the North-Esk. In the 
district immediately north of the central mountain-range, and east of the Cairngorm 
mountain-knot, the Dee and the Don run eastward to the sea at Aberdeen. In the dis- 
trict lying between this and the eastern half of the Moray frith, the Deveron runs north- 
ward to that frith, and the Ythan and the Ugie eastward to the German ocean. The 
district enclosed by the great central mountain-range, the north-east branch of the 
Cairngorm ramification, the Moray frith, and the Glenmore-nan-albin, is drained to the 
extent of 1,300 square miles, north-eastward to the sea by the Spey, to the extent of 500 
miles northward to the frith by the Findhorn, and to a less extent for each stream, north- 
ward to the frith by the Nairn, and westward to Loch-Lochy, near the west end of the 
Glenmore by the Spean. In the great northern division of Scotland, the chief streams 
eastward are the Beauly to the head of the Beauly frith, the Conan to the head of the 
Cromarty frith, the Oykell to the head of the Dornoch frith, the Brora, the Helmsdale, 
the Berriedale, and the Wick ; and the chief streams northward are the Thurso, the 
Forss, the Halladale, and the Naver. Of all the rivers, the Clyde alone is navigable by 
sea-craft for any considerable distance above the estuary ; and even it possesses this 
high property only in consequence of great artificial deepening and embanking, and over 
a distance of but about 12 miles. 



The lakes of Scotland are very numerous, and, in many instances, are large, and 
singularly rich in scenery. The principal, for extent or scenic attractions, are Ken, 
drained by a cognominal stream, the chief affluent of the southern Dee ; Skene, 1,300 
feet above sea-level, drained by a remote tributary of the Annan, forming the magnifi- 
cent cataract called the Grey-Mare 's-Tail ; St. Mary's- Loch, and the Loch of the Lows, 
drained by the classic Yarrow, a remote affluent of the Tweed ; Doon, drained by its 
cognominal stream ; Lomond, drained by the western Leven, the tributary of the Clyde ; 
Leven and G-lin, drained by the eastern Leven ; Conn and Ard, drained by the Forth ; 
Katrine, Achray, Vennachoir, Voil, and Lubnaig, drained by the Teith, the chief afflu- 
ent of the Forth ; Tay, Earn, Lydoch, Ericht, Rannoch, Tummel, Garry, Lows, Cluny, 
and Quiech, drained by the Tay and its affluents ; Loch-Lee, drained by the North-Esk ; 
Awe, Avick, Shiell, and Eck, south of the central mountain-range, and near the west 
coast ; Laggan, Ouchan, and Treag, drained by the Spean ; Lochie and Archaig, drained 
by the Lochie into Loch-Eil ; Oich and Garry, drained by the Ness into the Beauly 
frith ; Duntalliak, drained by the Nairn ; Ruthven and Ashley, drained into Loch-Ness; 
Maree, Fuir, Shallag, Fannich, Rusk, Luichart, Monar, Glas, Moir, and Slin, in Ross- 
shire ; and Shin, Naver, Furan, Baden, Loval, and More, in Sutherland. The area in 
square miles, of 26 of the principal, is respectively of Lomond, 45 ; Ness, 30 ; Awe, 30 
Shin, 25 ; Maree, 24 ; Tay, 20 ; Archaig, 18 ; Shiell, 1G ; Lochy, 15 ; Laggan, 12 
Morrer, 12 ; Fannich, 10 ; Ericht, 10 ; Naver, 9 ; Earn, 9 ; Rannoch, 8 ; Stennis, 8 
Leven, 7 ; Ken, 6; Lydoch, 6 ; Fuir, 6 ; Loyal, 6 ; Katrine, 5 ; Glas, 5 ; Doon, 4i 
and Luichart, 3. All are mountain or hill lakes ; and all, with very few exceptions, are 
embosomed in the Highlands. 


The islands of Scotland are very numerous, and, in many instances, are large and 
important. The greatest archipelago, that of the Hebrides, extends along nearly the 
whole west coast of the mainland. It is broadly distinguishable into two divisions, the 
outer and the inner, but is capable of subdivision into live groups. Three of these press 
close upon the coast, the group of Isla and Jura on the south, that of Mull in the centre, 
and that of Skye on the north, — the last separated from the second by the seas which 
wash the far-projecting Point of Ardnamurchan on the mainland, and the first and second 
so concatenated as to admit a line of separation chiefly by their geognostic properties. 
The fourth, largest, most northerly, and far-stretching group, lies quite away from the 
mainland, and even from the group of Skye, separated from the northern part of the 
former by the Minch, and from the western skirts of the latter by the Little-Minch. It 
consists of about 140 islands and islets, about 140 miles in aggregate length, and lying 
so compactly as to be popularly viewed as one, and conventionally called the Long- Island. 
The fifth group is very small, lies to the far-west in profound loneliness, amidst a desert 
of waters, and draws attention chiefly by the romance of its situation and character, — 
consisting only of St. Kilda, itself more an islet than an island, and a tiny sprinkling on 
the bosom of the sea around it of dark, coarse gems, which pendulate between the char- 
acter of islets and that of mere rocks. These groups are all fully treated in the article 
Hebrides. Another archipelago, that of Orkney, is separated at its south end by the 
Pentland frith, G miles broad from the north coast of Caithness, or extreme north of the 
mainland of Scotland. Its islands and islets lie somewhat compactly ; but are divisible into 
two groups, the larger and more compact on the south, the smaller and more dispersed 
on the north-east, — the two separated by a sound which bears on the east side the name 
of Stronsa frith, and on the west side that of Westra frith. A full general description 
of the whole will be found in the article Okkney. An islet called Stroma, lies in the 
Pentland frith, 4 miles north-west of Duncansby-head. A third archipelago, that of 
Shetland, lies 48 miles north-north-east from Orkney. About two-thirds of their whole 
superficies are amassed in a very long island, of surpassingly irregular outline, and in 
several places very nearly dissevered, called the Mainland. Yell sound, a winding strait, 
separates this island on the south from the other chief island on the north, but is, in 
some places, thickly strewn with islets. One small island, Fowla, lies quite away to the 


west from the main group. Another, called Fair- Island, lies about half-way between 
that group and the Orkneys. All the details of a general description are given in the 
article Shetland. The other principal islands of Scotland are Mugdrum, in the frith of 
Tay ; the Isle of May, Inchkeith, Cramond, Inchcolm, Inchgarvey, Inchmickry, Craig- 
leith, Lamb, Fidra, and the Bass, in the frith of Forth, — the first and second the sites of 
lighthouses ; and Arran, Bute, Great Cumbrae, Little Cumbrae, Pladda, Lady-Isle, and 
Ailsa-rock, in the frith of Clyde, — Pladda and Little Cumbrae the sites of lighthouses, 
and Lady- Isle the site of two beacon-towers. Of seaward rocks and sandbanks, the chief 
are Car- rock, a beacon-station, 1J mile north-east of Fifeness ; Bell-rock, a dangerous 
ledge bearing aloft a lighthouse, 12 miles east of Buddonness ; Marr's-bank, a shoal, 30 
miles east of the Bell-rock ; Murray -bank, a sandbank 10 miles east of Montrose ; the 
Long- Forties, a shoal, extending from the exterior side of Murray-bank, in a line nearly 
parallel with the coast, to within 70 miles of Kinnaird-head ; Outer-Montrose-pits, a 
shoal, 90 miles east of Montrose ; the Pentland-skerries, the site of a lighthouse, at the 
east end of the Pentland frith ; Lappoch-rock, between Lady- Isle and Irvine harbour, 
in the frith of Clyde ; and the Big and Little Scaurs, rocks at the middle of the entrance 
of Luce-bay. 


Without supplying a geological map, and writing twentyfold more copiously than our 
space will admit, we could not give an adequate view of the distribution of the rocks of 
Scotland, and of the varieties and structure of its minerals. But from ' Malte Brun's 
and Balbi's Systems of Geography Abridged : Edinburgh, Adam and Charles Black, 
1840,' we shall extract a summary, which will please the scientific by its clearness, and 
the popular reader by its wealth of information ; and then we shall exhibit in a brief sum- 
mary the names and localities of all the rarer minerals of the country. " In a general 
point of view," says the work referred to, " Scotland may be separated, geologically as 
well as geographically, into three portions. By passing a line on the map nearly straight, 
from Stonehaven, through Dunkeld to the middle of the Isle of Bute, and thence with a 
slight curve to the Mull of Cantyre, we shall have traced the southern boundary of the 
primary non-fossiliferous system of rocks. Another line, but more irregular than the 
former, drawn from St. Abb's-head, passing near Peebles, Abington, Sanquhar, New 
Cumnock, to about Girvan, will have a general parallelism with the former line, and will 
have the older greywacke, now named the Cumbrian system, lying to the south, and 
extending to the borders ; while the land included between the two lines comprehends the 
old red sandstone, and great central coal basin of Scotland. 

" I. Stratified Rocks. — We shall first notice the stratified systems of those three 
divisions of the country, beginning with the oldest. 

" That extensive tract of Scotland which constitutes the northern division, is composed 
chiefly of Primary Stratified rocks, namely, gneiss, mica slate, chlorite slate, and clay 
slate, with subordinate masses of hornblende slate, talc slate, and primitive limestone. 
These, often with granitic centres, rise into magnificent mountains, of which the Gram- 
pians form a part. In many of these deposits, particularly in the mica slate, garnets of 
a brown colour are very abundant. The mountains of the Trossachs, so effectively 
described by Sir Walter Scott, are chiefly composed of mica slate. In these primary 
deposits no organic remains have ever been discovered. But these are not the only 
stratified formations which constitute this extensive district. The old red sandstone 
fringes the extremities of the land, commencing about Fochabers, on the east side of the 
Murray frith ; extending on both sides of Loch-Ness within a short distance of Fort- 
Augustus, and then proceeding northwards with a variable breadth through Fortrose, 
Tain, Dornoch ; expanding the whole breadth of Caithness, and constituting the prin- 
cipal formation of the Orkney Isles. On the western side of the mainland, the old red 
sandstone is deposited in numerous patches on the gneiss formation, as at Loch-Broom, 
Gairloch, and Applecross. The newer secondary rocks have been but very sparingly 
observed in Scotland ; yet it is rather a curious fact, that the few patches which have 
been discovered, are superimposed generally on the old red sandstone, and have not been 
seen reposing in their uninterrupted order in the secondary series. Thus, the lias shales, 
highly micaceous, and some of the upper beds of the Oolitic system, occur at the mouth 
of the Cromarty frith, from Dunrobin-castle to the Ord of Caithness ; Applecross and 


other points on the mainland ; and in the Western Isles, on the borders of Mull, the 
south and east of Skye, and near the Cock of Arraii, on a small coal deposit. The 
equivalent of the fresh-water deposits of the Wealds of Sussex, geologically situate above 
the oolitic group, and below the chalk, is seen near Elgin in Murray, and Loch-Staffers 
in Skye. In the central and southern divisions of Scotland, those newer groups of rocks 
have not been detected. In tracing the geological features of the country in the ascend- 
ing order of the groups, and confining ourselves to the geographical divisions pointed out, 
we nest come to the Transition or Greywacke system, now divided into two principal 
sections, — the Lower or Cumbrian, and the Upper or Silurian. So far as is hitherto 
ascertained, the silurian division is unknown in Scotland, but the Cumbrian rocks, nearly 
destitute of organic remains, cover the principal part of the great area of the south of 
Scotland. These greywacke strata stand at high angles of from 60' to 90 Q from the 
horizon, and consist chiefly of coarse slaty strata, seldom divisible into thin roofing slates, 
and often alternating with arenaceous and coarse conglomerates. Amongst these strata 
limestone is seldom found, and when it is, the quality is inferior. In the division of the 
island of which we now treat, coal and its accompaniments are known in very few places. 
Coal is, however, worked at Canoby, and on the borders at the Carter-Fell. The only 
other rock formation found in connection with the old transition group here (with the 
exception of igneous rocks), is a red sandstone, ascertained, in some situations, to be the 
old red, but in some other places, considered to be the new red sandstone, particularly 
in Dumfries-shire, where the surfaces of the slabs have curious impressions, supposed to 
be those of the feet of a species of tortoise. 

" The Old Bed Sandstone and the Carboniferous System. — In the central division is 
placed the great coal basin of Scotland ; but adhering to our rule of marking the succes- 
sive formations in the ascending order, we shall first treat of the Old Red Sandstone, the 
most ancient rock in this subdivision of the country. This rock abuts against the line of 
the primary rocks, and stretches across the whole country, from the German ocean to the 
Atlantic, pursuing a south-westerly and north-easterly direction. From the northern 
line of division it stretches south to the frith of Tay, bearing through Dunning near 
Stirling, Dumbarton, and thence through the Western Isles, Bute and Arran, and is 
wrapped nearly round the extremity of the mainland at the Mull of Cantyre. The old 
red sandstone thus forms a long, uninterrupted, and extensive fertile valley. In the 
north-western part it rises into hills, in the sides of one of which, Uam Vor, are deep 
and hideous fissures, the effect of some convulsion. It is more irregularly distributed on 
the southern boundary of the middle division, commencing on the east about Dunbar, 
and stretching westerly on the line of the transition range of Moorfoot and Lammer- 
moor-hills beyond Middleton, where it is interrupted by a range of trap, but is again 
found in the country round Lanark. This formation appears to be of vast thickness, 
especially in the northern part of the division, and may, it is supposed from recent 
observation, be divided into three portions, the lower, the middle, and the upper beds. 
In what is considered the lower strata, the remains of fishes have been found in a high 
state of preservation, and also large scales and other remnants of a sauroid character, 
such as those of the holoptj'chus. The well-known Arbroath pavement belongs to the 
old red sandstone series. The most important group in the central district is the Coal 
Formation, consisting of limestone, ironstone, freestone, coal, and cla} T s. Its extent from 
east to west is bounded only by the extremities of the land. To the north it is cut off 
from the old red sandstone by a range of trap hills, crossing the country from east to 
west. On the south it is bounded by the greywacke and old red sandstone. Its breadth 
averages 40 miles, and is in length about 70. The mountain limestone forms generally 
the basis of this group, though it is frequently found interstratified with other members 
of the series, and abounds with countless numbers of organic remains. Below the moun- 
tain limestone, however, but belonging to the same group, a bed of limestone is worked 
at Burdiehouse, near Edinburgh, in which the organic remains differ essentially from 
those of that just named. These remains consist of many of the plants which distinguish 
the coal formation ; but it also includes the teeth, scales, and other bones of fish, which 
partake of the reptile character, some of which must have been of gigantic dimensions. 
Small fishes (the paleoniscus, &c.) are also found in a fine state of preservation. The 
same limestone has been found in other parts of the country, and is of superior quality 
to the common limestone for mortar, plaster, and the smelting of iron. The clay iron- 
stone is found in beds and nodules, the workable kinds containing from 27 to 45 per cent. 


of iron. The kind termed black-band is in high request. From this ore a vast quantity 
of pig-iron is smelted. The coal is found in beds, varying from a few inches to 40 feet 
in thickness ; and one bed in Ayrshire is about 100 feet thick, interrupted only by thin 
seams of shale from 1 to 3 inches, and is extracted in great quantity, and used as fuel 
for domestic purposes,, the burning of lime, smelting of iron, working of steam-engines on 
sea and land. One variety, cannel-coal, is of superior quality for the preparation of gas. 
From the fire-clay are manufactured fire-brick and gas retorts ; and the sandstone fur- 
nishes an inexhaustible store of substantial and beautiful material for building. These 
several deposits contain in abundance the impressions of the vegetables ■which distinguish 
the carboniferous period ; and what is remarkable, the remains of animals,, the same as 
noted as occurring in the Burdiehouse limestone, are found in the shales, and even in 
the coal itself. La this district, no strata newer than the carboniferous system is known 
to exist ; all is covered over with accumulations of clays, gravels, sands, and soil. 

" II. Unstratified Rocks.— Having thus noticed the direction and geographical 
position of the several stratified formations of Scotland, we now come to treat briefly of 
the Unstratified System ; and in order to bring this department? more clearly to the appre- 
hension of the general reader, we must remark, that the unstratified rocks are of igneous 
origin — they were, in fact, melted volcanic matter, which had burst through the strati- 
fied deposits, which were thus elevated into mountain-ranges ; the strata being at the 
same time raised on edge to various angles with the horizon. This being the case, we 
consequently find that the unstratified follow the same course with the stratified moun- 
tains, since the former were the elevating cause of the latter.. Now granite, an igneous 
rock, is more generally found connected with the primary non-fossiliferous, than with the 
succeeding formations, forming centres in gneiss and mica slate, and rising above them 
in magnificent pinnacles ; it is therefore in the primary region that granitic mountains 
may be expected to predominate ; of this we find an instance in the Grampian chain 
which stretches in a north-east and south-west direction, intersecting the country. The 
granite is most largely developed on the north-east side of. the country ; it there com- 
mences about the parallel of Stonehaven, extends northward to Peterhead and Banff ; 
and,, in a westerly direction, along the courses of the Dee and the Bon ; and still con- 
tinues along the banks of the Tilt, Loch-Bricht, Loch-Lydoch, and terminates in this 
line near Oban and Fort- William ; from the latter rises Ben-Nevis, composed of granitic 
sienite. But this is not the only range. Another may be traced commencing in the 
north between Thurso and Portskerry, which passes along, at irregular distances, near 
Loch-Baden, the neighbourhood of Dornoch, Loch-Oieh, on the line of Loch-Ness, and 
terminates in a lofty mountain at the head of Loch-Sunart, on the west coast. Granite 
is found in several of. the Western Isles, as in Rum,, and is magnificently displayed in 
the Isle of Arran ;— Goatfell and the surrounding peaks are of granite. The granitic 
summits of these mountains form the highest land in Britain. Ben-Nevis is 4,.373 feet 
above the level of the sea, and Ben-Macdui rises about 17 feet higher. Though the 
granitic formation covers a greater area, and rises to a greater altitude in the north than 
in the south of. Scotland, yet the latter is not deficient in this interesting, rock. It rises 
through the older greywacke (the Cumbrian system) in Duinfries-shire ; occupies a 
great space in. New Galloway and in Kirkcudbright ; and near Kirkmaiden, in the form 
of dykes.. In some of those mountains, stones fit for the purposes of the jeweller have 
been found. The mountain Cairngorm, in Inverness-shire, has long been celebrated for 
its rock crystal, of. a snioke-brown colour, and named Cairngorm from its locality, which, 
when cut by the lapidary, is highly esteemed for its colour and brilliancy, and is employed 
for seals, brooches,, and other ornamental purposes. Topazes of a light blue colour, 
and sometimes of very large size, have occasionally been found on the same mountain, 
and also beryl (aqua marine), more rarely. Unstratified rocks of every other kind also 
prevail in Scotland ; including all the varieties of Trap (commonly named whinstone), 
basalt, greenstone, compact feltspar, pitchstone, porphyries, and amygdaloids, which in 
many parts- display ranges of symmetrical columns, sometimes- of great extent~as at 
Arthur-Seat near Edinburgh, in several parts of the coast of Fife, in the islands of Bigg, 
Arran, Lamlash, and in the incomparable Staffa. But we shall attend to the distribution 
of these rocks throughout the country. They are connected with the older greywacke and 
red sandstones of the south of Scotland. Trap forms a great part of the Cheviots on the 
borders, and passes northwards into the districts of Dunse, Coldstream, Kelso, Melrose, 
Selkirk, and Roxburghshire, rising into beautiful dome-shaped hills. Hounam-Law, the. 

i, b 


Eildons, and Ruberslaw (the last, near 1,500 feet high), maj be cited as examples. 
But in the great central valley of Scotland, beginning at Montrose on the east coast, 
trap hills appear in patches in the old red sandstone, passing in an irregular line to the 
frith of Tay, from the south-eastern extremity of which they proceed in a south-westerly 
course, without interruption, but varying greatly in breadth, through Dunning, Kinross, 
and Stirling, to Dumbarton. Another line, but less continuous, commences about 
Cupar, near St. Andrews, along the coasts of Fifeshire, and appears in groups about 
Linlithgow, Bathgate, near Glasgow, onwards to Paisley, and thence to Greenock, where 
it is greatly expanded, and turns north to the banks of the Clyde, nearly opposite the 
Dumbarton range. A third parallel range, also in interrupted masses, commences at 
Dunbar, is continued in the Pentlands, Tintoc, and other hills in Lanarkshire,- and in 
Ayrshire, about Kilmarnock, Ayr, and New Cumnock. In Galloway, trap is in some 
parts greatly expanded. A few of those localities may be mentioned, as we are not 
aware that any public notice has yet been given of its existence in those parts. A dyke 
of greenstone occurs near Kirkcolmpoint in greywacke, at the western extremity of Loch- 
Ryan ; Cairn-Pat, between Stranraer and Port- Patrick, is also greenstone ; and thence, 
the greywacke of the whole coast to the Mull of Galloway is intersected by dykes and 
hills of several varieties of trap. On the northern side of Loch- Ryan, it is seen involved 
amongst the roofing slates of the Cairn ; and a range of trap hills extends thence, rising 
through the greywacke, flanking the edge of the loch, taking a south-easterly direction, 
passing by Castle- Kennedy to the north, and onwards to New- Luce. Here it expands 
to an enormous extent in every direction ; to the south it approaches Glenluce-bay. At 
Knocky-bay, a short distance north of New- Luce, a lead mine was at one time worked, 
but becoming unproductive, was abandoned. It may, however, be observed, that the 
greatest development of trap is in the great central coal district, where it has fractured 
the strata, and raised the edges of the coal seams to the surface, an important natural 
operation, by which coal and its other useful accompaniments, ironstone, limestone, and 
building materials, have been made known and accessible. In the trap rocks of Scot- 
land many interesting minerals are found. The far-famed Scotch agate or pebble, 
abounds in nodules included in trap, near Montrose, Perth, and other places ; and many 
of the most beautiful of the zeolites are found among the hills around Dumbarton, the 
opposite side of the Clyde, and in many other localities. 

" The coal-fields constitute the principal mineral treasures of Scotland. The great 
coal district extends across the island from the eastern corner, or, as the district is termed 
in Lowland Scotch, the ' East Neuk ' of Fife, to the mouth of the Clyde in Dumbarton- 
shire on the west, and into East-Lothian on the east. It is not, however, continuous 
throughout the whole distance, but consists rather of a succession of large detached coal- 
fields. Its superficial extent has been estimated at nearly 1,000 square miles ; and it 
has also been calculated that, according to the present consumption, it may be worked 
with advantage during 3,000 years. The Fife coal-field, north of the Forth, extends 
from Stirling to St. Andrews, and is in some places 10 miles broad. The richest portion 
of it lies between Dysart and Alloa. The Lothian coal-field, on the south and east of 
Edinburgh, is about 25 miles in length, with a breadth of five or six, and covers an area 
of 80 square miles. To the westward of Edinburgh there is no coal for several miles ; 
but at Bathgate, workable beds are found, which extend westward, with some interrup- 
tions, to the neighbourhood of Glasgow, forming the great coal-field of Lanarkshire. 
The Clyde and the Forth form the boundaries of this field ; but beyond Blantyre, the 
coal extends on the south side of the Clyde to the Cathkin-hills. After passing Glasgow, 
the coal-field stretches westward from the south bank of the Clyde, and occupies the 
valley in the line of the Ardrossan canal, extending through Renfrewshire to Dairy in 
Ayrshire ; the most southerly point being at Girvan. Several small fields occur at dif- 
ferent parts of the south of Scotland, particularly at Sanquhar, in Dumfries-shire, and 
Canoby ; in the same county, on the borders of England. Coal is found also at Brora in 
Sutherlandshire, and Campbelton in Cantyre f but in insignificant quantities. Besides 
the fossil fuel yielded by the coal-fields, ironstone of excellent quality abounds in many 
of them ; and is smelted to a great amount, and manufactured into articles suited for 
every useful purpose, at the great works of Carron, Shotts, Cleland, Airdrie, Clyde, 
Wilsontown, Muirkirk, Glenbuck, and some other places. It is the abundance and 
cheapness of coal in its vicinity that has enabled Glasgow to rival Manchester as a manu- 
facturing emporium. Next to coal and ironstone, the most valuable mineral product of 


Scotland is lead, of which there are rich mines at Leadhills and Wanlockhead, in the 
Lowther-hills, on the borders of Lanarkshire and Dumfries-shire. Lead is also procured 
at Dollar in Clackmannanshire, Strontian in Argyleshire, Belleville in Inverness-shire, 
and Leadlaw in Peebles-shire. A considerable quantity of silver is extracted from the 
lead. Particles of gold have frequently been found in the small streams among the 
Lowther-hills, and also immediately under the vegetable soil which covers the surface of 
the latter. Scotland abounds in quarries of the finest building materials, particularly 
sandstone, — hence the beauty of the numerous public edifices which adorn its cities and 
towns. The principal sandstone quarries are Craigleith, a little to the west of Edin- 
burgh ; Binnie, near Uphall, Linlithgowshire ; Humbie, near South Queensferry, also 
in Linlithgowshire ; Giffneugh, near Glasgow, Lanarkshire ; Longannet, near Kincardine, 
Perthshire ; and Milnefield or Kingoodie, near Longforgan, Perthshire. Roofing-slates, 
only inferior to those procured in Wales, are quarried extensively at Ballachulish, and 
in the island of Easdale, both in Argyleshire. Granite is brought from Aberdeen to 
pave the streets of London ; and the granite of Kirkcudbright has been partly used in 
the construction of the Liverpool docks. Variegated or veined marble, of a beautiful 
appearance, is found in Sutherlandshire, at Glentilt in Perthshire, at Tyree in Argyle- 
shire, at Muriston in West- Lothian, and in other places." 

Octohedral alum occurs at Hurlet near Paisley, at Creetown in Galloway, and in the 
vicinity of Moffat ; rock-butter, at Hurlet ; compact gypsum, in the Campsie-hills ; 
fibrous gypsum, in Dumbartonshire, in the vicinity of Moft'at, and on the banks of the 
Whitadder ; foliated fiuor, in various situations, but rarely, though abundant in Eng- 
land ; conch oidal apatite, or asparagus stone, near Kincardine, in Ross-shire, and in 
the Shetland isles ; common arragonite, or prismatic limestone, in the lead mines of 
Leadhills, and in secondary trap-rocks, in various situations ; fibrous calc-cinter, the 
alabaster of the ancients, in Macallister's-cave in Skye ; slate-spar, imbedded in marble 
in Glen-Tilt, and in Assynt ; common compact lucullite, or black marble, forms hills in 
Assynt ; stinkstone, or swinestone, occurs in Kirkbean, and the vicinity of North-Ber- 
wick ; white domolite occurs in beds containing tremolite, in Iona ; brachytypous lime- 
stone, or rhomb-spar, near Newton- Stewart, and on the banks of Loch-Lomond ; foliated 
brown-spar, in the lead mines of Leadhills and Wanlockhead ; columnar brown-spar, on 
the banks of Loch- Lomond, and near Newton- Stewart ; prismatic, or electric calamine, 
at Wanlockhead ; pyramido-prismatic baryte, or stroutianite, at Strontian in Argyle- 
shire ; foliated prismatoidal baryte, or celestine, at Inverness, and in the Calton-hill of 
Edinburgh ; white lead-spar, and black lead-spar, at Leadhills ; indurated, friable, and 
green earthy lead-spars, prismatic lead-spar, or sulphate of lead, and radiated prismatic 
blue malachite, or blue copper, at Leadhills and Wanlockhead ; — fibrous common mala- 
chite, at Sandlodge, in the mainland of Shetland ;— radiated cobalt-mica, or cobalt- 
bloom, at Alva in Stirlingshire, and in the limestone of the coal measures in Linlith- 
gowshire ; earthy blue iron, on the surface of peat-mosses in Shetland ; scaly graphite, 
in Strath-Beauly in Inverness-shire, and in the coal formation near Cumnock ; foliated 
chlorite, in Jura ; earthy chlorite, along with common chlorite, at Forneth-cottage in 
Perthshire ; other chlorites, variously, and in abundance ; common talc, in Perthshire, 
Aberdeenshire, and Banffshire ; indurated talc, or talc-slate, in Perthshire, Banffshire, 
and Shetland ; steatite, or soapstone, in the limestone of Iona, and the trap-rocks of the 
Lothians, Arran, Skye, and some other places ; — diatomous schiller-spar, in the serpen- 
tine of Fetlar, and Unst in Shetland, and of Portsoy in Banffshire, in the greenstone of 
Fifeshire, in the porphyritic rock of Calton-hill, and in the trap of Craig- Lochart, near 
Edinburgh ; hemiprismatic schiller-spar, or bronzite, in Skye, and near Dimnadrochit 
in Inverness-shire : prismatoidal schiller-spar, or hypersthene, in Skye and Banffshire ; 
kyanite, in primitive rocks at Boharm in Banffshire, and near Banchory in Aberdeen- 
shire, and in mica-slate near Sandlodge in the mainland of Shetland ; fibrous prehnite, 
in veins and cavities in the trap of Castle-rock, Salisbury-Crag, and Arthur-Seat, Edin- 
burgh, of Bishopton and Hartfield in Renfrewshire, of Cockney-burn and Loch-Hum- 
phrey in Dumbartonshire, of the vicinity of Beith in Ayrshire, and of Berwickshire, 
Mull, and Raasay ; rhomboidal zeolite, or chabasite, in crystals in the vesicular cavities of 
the Mull and Skye trap ; mealy zeolite, or mesotype, near Tantallan-castle in Hadding- 
tonshire, and in Mull, Skye^ and Canna ; pyramidal zeolite, or apophyllite, in the frap- 
rocks of Skye ; some other species of zeolite, variously, and in abundance ; adularia, a 
rare sub-species of prismatic felspar, in the granite of Arran ; compact felspar, a more 


common sub-species, in the Pentland and the Ochil hills, in Tinto, and in Papa- Stour in 
Shetland ; other sub-species of prismatic felspar, in numerous localities ; sahlite, a sub- 
species of pyramido-prismatic augite, in Unst, Tiree, Harris, Glentilt, Glenelg, and 
Rannoch ; asbestous tremolite, in Glentilt, Glenelg, Iona, Shetland, and other places ; 
common tremolite, in Glentilt, Glenelg, and Shetland ; rock-cork, a kind of asbestos, in 
veins in the serpentine of Portsoy, and in the red sandstone of Kincardineshire, in small 
quantities at Kildrummie in Aberdeenshire, and in plates in the lead veins of Leadhills 
and Wanlockhead ; flexible asbestos, or amianthus, in the serpentine of Portsoy, Lewis, 
and Harris, of Mainland, Unst and Fetlar in Shetland, and in some other places ; rigid 
or common asbestos, in the serpentine of Shetland, Long-Island, and Portsoy ; epidote, 
or pistacite, in the syenite of Arran and the Shetland mainland, in the gneiss of Suther- 
land, in the trap of Mull and Skye, in the quartz of Iona and Rona, and in the por- 
phyry of Glencoe, and other districts ; common zoisite, in Shetland, Glenelg, and the 
banks of Loch-Lomond ; common andalusite, in the primitive rocks of Aberdeenshire, 
Banffshire, and Shetland ; — saussurite, between Ballantrae and Girvan ; common topaz, 
in an alluvium in the granite and gneiss districts of Mar and Cairngorm ; schorloua 
topaz, or schorlite, in Mar ; beryl, along with topaz and rock-crystal, in an alluvium 
among the Cairngorm range ; common amethyst, in greenstone and amygdaloid, in many 
localities ; rock or mountain crystal — a variety of which is the Scottish Cairngorm stone 
— in the alluvium of the Cairngorm district, in druse cavities in the granite of Arran, 
and in various other geognostic and topographical positions ; rose or milk quartz, in the 
primitive rocks of various districts ; conchoidal hornstone, in the Pentland-hills ; com- 
mon calcedony, in most of the trap districts ; carnelian, in most of the secondary trap 
districts, solitarily, or in agate ; striped jasper, in the clay porphyry of the Pentland- 
hills ; porcelain jasper, among pseudo-volcanic rocks in Fifeshire ; agate jasper, in the 
agates of central Scotland ; precious and common garnet, variously in primitive rocks ; 
prismatic garnet, or cinnamon-stone, in gneiss near Kincardine in Ross-shire ; prisma- 
toidal garnet, or grenatite, in Aberdeenshire and Shetland ; common zircon and hyacinth, 
in Galloway, Inverness-shire, Sutherland, Shetland, and other districts ; — common 
sphene, or prismatic titanium-ore, in the syenite of Inverary and of Criffel, and other 
Galloway-hills, and in some other parts of Scotland ; rutile, or prismato-pyramidal 
titanium-ore, in the granite of Cairngorm, and the quartz of Killin and Beniglo ; pris- 
matic wolfram, in the island of Rona ; iron sand or granular magnetic iron-ore, in the 
trap-rocks of various districts ; micaceous specular iron-ore, at Fitful-head in Shetland, 
in clay-slate near Dunkeld, and in the mica-slate of Benmore ; red hematite, or fibrous 
red iron-ore, in veins in the secondary greenstone of Salisbury-Crags, and in the sand- 
stone of Cumber-head in Lanarkshire ; columnar red clay iron-ore, among other pseudo- 
volcanic productions in Fifeshire ; pea-ore, or pisiform brown-clay iron-ore, in the secon- 
dary rocks of Galston ; bog iron-ore, in various parts of the Highlands and Islands ; 
scaly brown manganese-ore, near Sandlodge in Shetland ; grey manganese-ore, near 
Aberdeen ; — octahedral copper, in the serpentine of Yell, and the sandstone of Mainland 
in Shetland ; — prismatic nickel pyrites, or copper-nickel, at Leadhills and Wanlockhead, 
and in the coal-field of Linlithgowshire ; nickel ochre, in the same localities as the last, 
and at Alva ; prismatic arsenic pyrites, at Alva ; magnetic, or rhomboidal iron pyrites, 
in Criffel, Windyshoulder, and other Galloway hills ; yellow, or pyramidal copper pyrites, 
near Tyndrum in Perthshire, and in the Mainland of Shetland ; — grey copper, or tetra- 
hedral copper-glance, at Sandlodge in Shetland, at Airth in Stirlingshire, at Fassney- 
burn in Haddingtonshire, and in the vicinity of Girvan ; vitreous copper, or prismatic 
copper-glance, in Ayrshire, at Fassney-burn, and in Fair Isle ; rhomboidal molybdena, 
in granite and syenite at Peterhead, in chlorite-slate in Glenelg, and in granite at the 
head of Loch-Creran ; molybdena ochre, along with the last, at the head of Loch-Creran ; 
grey antimony* or prismatoidal antimony-glance, in greywacke at Jamestown in Dum- 
fries-shire, and among primitive rocks, accompanied by green fiuor in Banffshire ;— 
yellow zinc-blende, at Clifton near Tyndrum ; brown zinc-blende, at Clifton, and in 
small veins with galena, in the Mid- Lothian coal-field ; — amber, or yellow mineral resin, 
on the sea-beach ; petroleum, or mineral oil, at St. Catherine's well in the parish of 
Liberton, and in Orkney ; asphaltum, or slaggy mineral pitch, in secondary lime- 
stone in Fifeshire, and in clay ironstone in Haddingtonshire ;• — indurated lithomarge, 
in nidular portions, occasionally in secondary trap and porphyry rocks ; mountain 
soap, in secondary trap in Skye ; chiastolite, in clay-slate near Balahulish in Argyle- 


sliire ; iserine, in the sand of the Don and the Dee ; pinite, in porphyry in Beniglo, and 
near Inverary. 


The climate of the Hebrides, of the Orkneys, and of Shetland, has, in the case of 
each, some marked peculiarities, which are noticed in the articles devoted to their 
description. Even that of the mainland, owing to the bold and singularly varied contour 
of the country, is so singularly various, as to offer matter for distinctive remark in 
notices of most counties, and even of not a few parishes. In a general view, the heat, 
in consequence of the country's insularity, and of its frequent and long indentations by 
the sea, is much higher in winter, and more moderate in summer, than in the same lati- 
tudes on the continent. The temperature, except in moorlands in the interior, and the 
more mountainous districts, seldom remains long at the freezing-point ; nor, in any part 
of the country, does it often rise to what is called Indian heat, or to an intensity which 
incommodes the labour of the field. The extremes, so far as they have been observed, 
are 92° of Fahrenheit, and 3° below zero ; but, in the case of both, are rarely and very 
briefly approached. The ordinary greatest range of the thermometer is between 84° and 
8°. The mean annual temperature for the whole country is from 45° to 47° ; and at the 
lowest is 41° 11 , — at the highest 50° 32. Nor does the average descend as the observer 
moves northward, or to the vicinity, or into the interior of the Highlands ; for the mean 
temperature of Dumfries, deduced from the observation of 9 years, is 42° 327 ; that of 
Glasgow, as determined by Professor Thomson, is 47° 75 ; that of Edinburgh, as deter- 
mined by Professor Playfair, is 47° 7 ; that of St. Andrews, deduced from the observa- 
tion of 8 years, 48° 01 ; that of Perth, deduced from the observation of 9 years, is 
48° 131 ; that of Aberdeen, deduced from the observation of 10 years, 47° 648 ; and 
that of Inverness, deduced from the observation of 13 years, 48° 09. The range of the 
barometer is often both great and rapid, and averages throughout the mainland, 2'82 
inches, or from 36'92 to 28'10. Snow is less copious, though probably more frequent, 
in its falls than in the south of England ; and rain, on the average, is less than in the 
west of England. The joint quantity of the two has an annual mean amount for tho 
kingdom of from 30 to 31 inches, but differs widely on the east and on the west coast, 
— varying, on the former, from 22 to 26 inches, and, on the latter, from 35 to 46 inches. 
At Dumfries, the mean annual quantity, as deduced from the observation of 7 years, is 
33'54 inches ; at Glasgow, from the observation of 31 years, 224 inches ; at Perth, from 
the observation of 9 years, 23'01 inches ; at Aberdeen, from the observation of 4 years, 
27'37 inches ; and at Inverness, from the observation of 7 years, 26'21. The average 
number of days in the year on which rain or snow ialls, is variously stated to be, on the 
east coast, 135 and about 145, and on the west coast, 205 and 200. The least humid 
district in the Lowlands, is East- Lothian ; and the most humid, Ayrshire. Thick fogs, 
and small drizzly rains, visit the whole country, chiefly in spring and autumn, and 
during the prevalence of easterly winds ; and, in many localities, the fogs lie along a 
champaign country like seas of fleecy vapour, with the hills and loftier uplands appear- 
ing like islands on their bosom. Snow, except in the milder districts of the Lowlands, 
generally begins to fall about the middle of November, and seldom ceases its periodical 
visits till March or April. The winds are to a high degree variable, both in force and 
direction ; and, in the Highlands and Southern Highlands, produce not a few curious 
phenomena in connexion with the peculiar configuration of localities. They often rise 
to gale and storm, and in some places even to tempest ; and, about the period of the 
equinoxes, are more violent than in England. Those from the west are, in autumn and 
the early part of winter, the most prevalent, and, in general, they are the highest ; and 
those from the north-east prevail from the beginning of March till May or June, and are 
often keen and severe. At St. Andrews, the winds are westerly, except in the spring 
and early summer months, when those which are easterly prevail ; at Perth, during 9 
years ending with 1833, the winds were from the west and north-west, on 1,197 days, 
from the east and south-east, on 996, from the south and south-west, on 957, and from 
the north and north-east, on 137 ; and at Inverness, as the result of 13,800 observations, 
made during 21 years preceding 1825, the proportions of the winds in parts of 1,000, were 
westerly and south-westerly, 478, easterly and north-easterly, 237, northerly and north- 
westerly, 205, and southerly and south-easterly, 80. These instances, however, indicate 


in but a general way the comparative prevalence of the different winds throughout Scot- 
land, and afford no hides whatever to it in peculiar localities. On the whole, the cli- 
mate of Scotland, as compared with that of England, is cold, wet, and cloudy, occasions 
lateness in harvest to the average amount of at least three weeks, and prevents the 
remunerative cultivation of hops, and several other valuable vegetables, yet over by far 
the greater part of the area of the country is to the full as healthy. 


The soils of Scotland, as might be expected from the peculiarities of its surface and 
geology, are often very various in even a single field, and much more in extensive dis- 
tricts. Yet they have, in many instances of both the excellent and the inferior, long and 
broad expanses of uniformity ; and, while in aggregate character poorer than those of 
England, they vie in their rich tracts with the wealthiest in the three kingdoms, and 
have prompted and tutored, over their penurious tracts, a keenness of georgic skill, and 
a sturdiness in the arts of husbandry, which have made Scottish farmers the boast of 
Europe. The carses of Stirling, Falkirk, and Gowrie, most of the three Lothians ; the 
Merse, Clydesdale, and Strathearn, large portions of Fifeshire, Strathmore, Annan- 
dale, Nithsdale, Kyle, Cunningham, and of the low grounds along the Moray and the 
Cromarty friths, and even some straths and very numerous haughs in the mountainous 
districts, are highly productive, and can bear comparison with the best tracts of land in 
England. According to Sir John Sinclair's digest of the productive soils, or of those on 
lands fully or partially cultivated, the loams amount to 1,869,193 English acres, the rich 
clays to 987,070, the gravelly soils to 681,862, the cold or inferior clays to 510,265, the 
improved mossy soils to 411,096, the alluvial haugh or carse land to 320,193, and the 
sandy soils to 263,771, — in all, as we stated at the outset, 5,043,450 English acres. 
According to the same authority, the extent of plantations and of natural woods which 
existed at the date of the digest, on lands not included in this classification, was, of the 
former, 412,226 English acres, of the latter, 501,469,— jointly, 913,695. Plantations, 
since that period, have been raised to a vast aggregate amount on the waste lands, and 
disposed in innumerable tiny forests, clumps, belts, and rows, among the cultivated 
grounds. Pines are the most common trees ; but, in later plantations, the hard woods, 
in many instances, prevail. Though agriculture has, in most districts, attained bold 
approaches to perfection, the crops, in the aggregate, are inferior in quality to those of 
England, and considerably more exposed to risk. Grain of the same weight, raised on 
Scottish and on English soils, differs in the proportion of the most valued elements ; and 
fruit, according to its species, is richer now in Scotland and now in England, and of the 
same species widely varies as raised in the two ends of the island. A fair view of Scot- 
tish agriculture in its palmiest state, may be obtained by perusal of the agricultural 
section of our article on Haddingtonshire. The grand characteristics of the aggregate 
agriculture of the country are, in the words of M'Culloch, " 1st, The nearly universal 
prevalence of leases of a reasonable endurance, and containing regulations as to manage- 
ment, which, while they do not improperly shackle the tenant, prevent the land from 
being exhausted previously to the termination of the lease ; 2d, The absence of tithes, 
and in most cases, also, of poor-rates, and of all oppressive public burdens ; 3d, The 
prevention of assignment and sub-letting by tenants, and the descent of the lease to the 
heir-at-law ; and 4th, The general introduction of thrashing-machines, and the universal 
use of the two-horse plough and one-horse cart." The dairy commands attention prin- 
cipally in the counties of Ayr, Renfrew, and Dumfries. The annual produce of wheat 
is estimated in value at £1,650,000, or 660,000 quarters at 50s. per quarter ; of barley, 
at £1,470,000, or 980,000 quarters at 30s. per quarter; of oats, at £7,171,875, or 
5,737,000 quarters at 25s. per quarter ; of potatoes and turnips, at £2,250,000 ; of flax, 
at £128,000 ; of garden and orchard produce, at £416,000 ; or the total of agricultural 
and horticultural produce, exclusive of pulse and the grasses, at £13,355,875. Pasture 
on arable lands is averaged at £2 per acre, and estimated in aggregate value at 
£4,979,450 ; and upland pasture, together with plantations and waste lands, is averaged 
at 3s. per acre, and estimated in aggregate value at £2,100,000. According to these 
estimates — which we borrow from Malte Brun and Balbi Abridged, as the most recent 
and a very intelligent publication — the total annual value of the land produce of Scotland 
amounts to £20,435,325. The gross rental of land, in 1811, was £4,792,243. 



It has been estimated by the late Sir John Sinclair, and his calculations were con- 
finned by many of the parochial clergy, that the rental of estates in Scotland increased 
at least from two to three fold, from the year 1660 to the year 1750. This increased 
rental doubled previous to 1770, and in the next twenty years it again doubled. The 
rental had thus increased from eight to ten fold in one hundred and thirty years ; and 
again, from 1791 to 1841, it had increased two-and-a-half times on the average of ninety- 
nine parishes taken indiscriminately to illustrate this increase, and of which a list is 
subjoined ; and as Scotland contains only 919 parishes, it may be taken to have been 
general. The land- rental of parishes in Scotland, it would thus appear, has increased 
since the Restoration, in 1660, twenty to thirty fold ; or about two thousand per cent. ! 






Real Real 
Pariah. Rental in Rental in 

1791-6. 1832-40. 

fKineller, £900 £3,000 

Dyce, 350 1,140 

I Udney, 2,000 7,000 

<j New Deer, 3,000 8,940 

St. Fergus, 2,838 5,720 

Lonmay, 1,465 5,393 

King Edward, 2,285 5,770 

Ochiltree, 3,000 8,176 

Ardrossan, 2,970 7,800 

Dairy, 6,350 17,712 

Dalrymple, 1,570 5,192 

Dunlop, 3,000 7,864 

Monkton and Prest- 

wick...... 2,000 4,509 

•jMaybole, 346 2,400 

West Kilbride, 2,528 9,662 

Straiton, 3,000 9,000 

Girvan, 3,200 12,000 

Dumfries, ... 

Edinburgh, . 



Ballantrae, 2,000 

Stevenston, 1,170 

Old Cumnock, 3,000 

Kirkmichael, 2,500 

Inveraven, 2,294 

Swinton and Simprin, 4,030 

Merton, 2,400 

Eccles, 11,000 20,000 

Longformacus, 1,700 4,000 

Buncle and Preston 

Ellim, 3,200 

Whitsome and Hilton, 3,0t0 

Coldstream, 6,000 

Nenthorn, 2,040 

Polwartb, 1,000 

Chirnside 2,500 

Edrom, 6,493 15,200 

Cockburnspath and Old 

Cambus, 4,500 

Wamphray, 1,900 

Applegarth and Sib- 

baldine, 2,500 

Tundergarth, 1,800 

St. Mungo, 1,800 

Ruthwell, 1,600 

Cummertrees, 2,800 

Dornoek, 1,700 

Kirkpatrick-Fleming, . 2,870 

Hoddam, 2,668 

Glencairn, 8,500 11,175 

Holywood, 3,000 7,436 

Libberton, 10,000 28,000 

, Knockando, 2,000 3,000 

}Alves 3,000 6,000 

Scoonie, 2,000 6,500 








Rental in 

Forfar, . 

Denino, £1,157 

fLochlee, 385 

Craig, 4,000 




Peebles, ... 




Logie-Pert, 1,800 

Glammis, 3,000 

Carmylie, 1,000 

'Prestonkirk, 4,700 

Dunbar, 8,000 

Humbie, 2,700 

■j Yester, 2,000 

Dirleton, 6,000 

Innerwick, 4,000 

Bolton, 1,400 

"Garvock, 1,000 

Fordoun, 3,500 

Laurencekirk, 2,000 

Glenbervie, 1,000 

"Bothwell, 5,500 

Carstairs, 2,000 

Blantyre, 1,400 

Culter, 1,600 

Cadder, 6,000 

Cambuslang, 2,850 

Crawford-John, 2,500 

Dolphinston, 600 

"Peebles 3,000 

Innerleithen, 3,000 

Manner, 1,685 

Kirkurd, 850 

Newlands, 2,500 

Linton, 2,350 

'Methven, 3,000 

Meigle, 2,100 

Rhynd, 1,600 

Errol, 8,000 

Kenmore, 2,800 

Comrie, 2,600 

Culross, 3,000 

St. Madoes, 900 

"Neilston, 4,200 

"Roberton, 3,000 

Makerston, 1,800 

Linton, 2,113 

Yetholm, 2,104 

Crailing, 2,500 

Hobkirk, 2,830 

Eckford, 3,699 

Ashkirk, 2,000 

("Whithorn, 2,000 

Wigton,....-3 Stonykirk, 3,169 

( Wigton, 2,400 

Rental in 














Total Rental of 99 Parishes,.. .£287,139 £748,847 




Scotland and England have so freely interchanged their esteemed or approved breeds 
■of domestic animals, that few varieties exist in either except such as, in order to be dis- 
criminated, require the nice distinctions of the natural historian. Scotland's most noted 
peculiar breeds, are the Shetland pony, the Clydesdale horse, the Ayrshire, Galloway, 
Buchan, and Argyllshire black cattle, the Cheviot and Shetland sheep, and the colley 
or shepherd's dog. But even some of these now belong more or less to both divisions of 
the island. The wild animals and birds, if Wales be included, are also, with few excep- 
tions, the same or similar. Game, owing chiefly to the vastness of the extent of waste 
lands, is exceedingly abundant. 


A fair estimate of the manufactures of Scotland, may be formed by reference to otir 
articles on Glasgow and Dundee. If a view be desired of nearly the whole, reference 
aeeds only to be made further to the articles -on Paisley, Kilmarnock, Dunfermline, 
■Stirling, Hawick, Galashiels, Montrose, Hamilton, Musselburgh, Irvine, Kirkcaldy, 
Aberdeen, East Kilpatrick, and Lasswade. Hand-loom weaving — the department most 
deeply affecting by far the largest class of the population interested in manufactures- — 
was made the subject of commission inquiry in 1838, and of reports returned to the 
House of Commons in February, 1839. The inquiry was made in two territorial divi- 
sions ; one «over all Scotland south of the Forth and Clyde, including Kilsyth and 
'Campsie on the further side of the connecting canal ; the other, over what the report 
calls the east of Scotland, but over, in point of fact, very nearly every site of a loom not 
included in the former division. The following table indicates, as exhibited in the 
report, the number of separate trades or fabrics in the country south of the Forth and 
•Clyde, the locality of each fabric, the number of looms employed in each, and the aver- 
age rate of nett wages earned in each department, and distributed into two classes, — the 
first being the average nett amount earned, by adult skilled artisans, on the finer quali- 
ties of the fabric, — the second being the average nett amount earned by the less skilled 
and younger artisans, on the coarser qualities of the fabric. 


-Districts where woven. 

Pullicates, ginghams, Lanarkshire.especially in Air- 
stripes, checks, &.C., drie, Lanark, and Glasgow; 
also at Girvan, and other pla- 
ices on the west coast. 

Shawls, -zebras, &c, 

Plain muslins, ........ 

Fancy muslins, silk 
gauzes, &c, 

Thibets and tartans, 

Carlisle ginghams, ... 
Woollens, ,. ............ 

Carpets,.... ...... 

Sailcloths, coarse lin- 
ens, and haircloth,... 

Paisley, Glasgow, &c. 

Lanarkshire, Glasgow, Irvine, 
Hamilton, Eaglesham, &c. 
Renfrewshire and Lanark- 

Thibets in Lanarkshire ; a few 
tartans in Dalmellington, Strai 
ton, Sanquhar, and Hawick. 
South-east of Scotland, Gala- 
shiels, Hawick, Jedburgh, &c. 

Kilmarnock, Glasgow, and 


Leith, and 






Clear Weekly "Wages. 



1st Class. 

2d Class. 



18,-: 20 

7s. 0d. 

4s. 6d. 

1802 to 

Paisley, Glas- 


gow, and Ed- 



10s. 6d. 

6s. Od. 




7s. 6d. 

4s. 6d. 

Silk gauzes 

Paisley and 

in 1760. 



9s. -6d. 

'6s. Od. 

Thibets in 

Glasgow and 




7s. Od. 

5s. 6d. 



7s. 6d. 

4s. 6d. 



Hawick, and 



16s. 6d. 

lis. Od. 



Glasgow, and 



18s. Od. 

lis. Od. 


Leith, and 



13s. Od. 

10s. Od. 




More than half of the whole number of weavers are employed on the lowest paid fabrics. 
The number of weaving families., being to that of the looms in the proportion of 5 to 9, 
amounts to about 28,366 ; and as this number indicates all the adult male weavers, 
22,694 looms must be worked by women and children, ■"Coupling these facts," says 
the reporter, " with the great number of old men who come into the class of heads of 
families, and are usable to work hard, I am decidedly of opinion that not less than two- 
thirds of the whole number of weavers belong to the second class of wages in the above 
table ; whilst no less than 30,075, out of the 51,060 looms, are employed on the worst 
paid work."" The report on the country north of the Forth, the Clyde, and the connect- 
ing canal, distributes the fabrics generally into woollen, linen, and cotton. The weavers 
are employed on carpets in factories, and on hard and soft tartans, and tartan shawls, in 
their own oottages ; and "are in a condition similar to that of the other labouring 
classes in the country." The manufacture of tartans is seated chiefly at Stirling and its 
vicinity, and at Aberdeen, employs probably 2,500 looms, and may be considered as very 
prosperous, and likely to improve. The linen manufacture employs about 26,000 looms ; 
and may be distributed into harness work, heavy work, and ordinary work. The harness 
work, as damask table-cloths, table-covers, and napkins, is carried on almost exclu- 
sively in and near Dunfermline ; has doubled the number of its looms since 1826 ; 
employed in 1838 about 3.000 ; exports nearly half of its produce to the United States ; 
and yields average weekly wages of about 8s. 6d. The heavy work, as sail-cloth, 
broad-sheetings, floor-cloth, and some kinds of bagging, is seated principally in Dundee, 
Arbroath, Aberdeen, Montrose, and Kirkcaldy ; employs about 4,000 looms, — all in 
factories ; and yields weekly wages, in not rare cases, of 15s., and of not less than 8s. 6d. 
average. The ordinary work, as dowlas, common sheetings, and osnaburghs, may be 
considered as the staple linen-manufacture of Scotland, is seated principally in Forfar- 
shire ; employs from 17,000 looms in summer, to 22,000 or 23,000 in winter, — nearly all 
small detached buildings adjacent to the weavers' cottages ; and yields average weekly 
wages of from 6s. to 7s. 6d. to the first class, and from 4s. to 5s. 6d. to the second. The 
cotton-manufacture employs about 5,000 looms ; and, next to Perth, which is its prin- 
cipal seat, is carried on chiefly at Dunblane, Aucbterarder, Balfron, and Kinross. 
The weavers, except at Perth, and in a few instances at Kirkcaldy and Aberdeen, are 
employed wholly by Glasgow manufacturers ; and at Kinross, Dunblane, and Auchter- 
arder, earn not more than 4s. of average weekly wages.* From returns made to the 
House of Commons, by Mr. James Stuart, factory-inspector, a clear tabular view is 
obtained of the statistics of all the factories of Scotland in 1838. 

* Originally, hand-loom weaving was in 'the British islands, as it continues to be in general on the con- 
tinent of Europe, a domestic occupation. At first, indeed, the weaver was both capitalist and labourer, 
as the linen-weaver is still in many parts of the north of Ireland. He and his family there cultivate the 
flax, heckle it, s,pin it into yarn, weave it, and sell the web in the linen-market. This almost total 
absence of the division of labour is, however, confined to the material and the district that we have men- 
tioned. In every other branch of weaving, even in Ireland, and in every branch in Great Britain, with the 
unimportant exception of a small class of weavers called customer-weavers in the north of England and in 
Scotland, the material is supplied by the capitalist or manufacturer (generally called the putter out of 
work) to the weaver, and he is paid on returning a given quantity of finished cloth. In most cases the 
loom belongs to the weaver, or is hired by him. If he has not a loom, he must work either at a loom 
belonging to some other weaver, or at one belonging to a manufacturer. In the former case he is called 
a journeyman, and the weaver at whose loom he works a master weaver: the journeyman has no imme- 
diate connexion with the manufacturer, and receives from his own immediate employer, the master weaver, 
a fixed portion, generally two-thirds, of the price which the former receives from the manufacturer. The 
weaver who works on the looms belonging to a manufacturer is called a factory- weaver, or shop-weaver, 
a designation arising from the circumstance that the manufacturers' looms are placed in his manufactory, 
or as it is usually called, his shop. Neither the factory- weavers, nor the journeymen, form large portions 
of the weaving population. The bulk'of the hand-loom weavers own or hire their own looms, keep them 
in their own cottages, and perform themselves, assisted by their wives and children, both the weaving and 
the operations which are subsidiary to it. — Report of the Commissio7ters on the condition of the Hand-loom 
Weavers, dated February 19, 1841. 










Kirkcudbright, .... 
















Kirkcudbright, .... 

























Nr>. of Mills. I 

Moving Power. 










































6 |193 



























































280 5,4224 


















249 J 

































Persons Employed. 











173 J 













































41.15J? 234 






15,156i[ 12,444^1,816 































































" 2 




























































10,290 17,897 







Females employed In cotton-mills, 601 between 9 and 13; 10,052 between 13 and 18; and 13,981 

above 18; total, 24,634. In woollen- mills, 119 between 9 and 13; 1,354 between 13 and 18; and 1,055 
above 18; total, 2,528. In flax-mills, 142 between 9 and 13; 5,105 between 13 and 18; and 7,912above 
18; total, 13,159. In silk-mills, 74 between 9 and 13; 253 between 13 and 18; and 220 above 18; 
total, 547. No children under 9 were employed in any of the factories. 



The soap-manufacture is of large aggregate, and is carried on at Leith, Prestonpans, 
Aberdeen, Montrose, Glasgow, and Paisley. — The manufacture of kelp, once producing 
above £200,000 vearlv, has nearly ceased since the reduction of the duty on barilla and 
salt. The iron trade — which is great and increasing — belongs principally to Lanark- 
shire, Fifeshire, Carron, and Muirkirk, and will be well understood by reference to the 
articles on these localities, and to those on Glasgow, and the Monklands. The distilla- 
tion of spirits produced, in 1708, 50,844 gallons ; in 1791, 1,696,000 gallons ; in 1831, 
6,021,536 imperial gallons for home consumption, and 149,849 for exportation to Eng- 
land ; and in 1838, 6,124,035 imperial gallons for home consumption. 2,215,329 for ex- 
portation to England, and 861,069 for exportation to Ireland. The following is a return 
of the proof gallons of spirits distilled in each collection of excise, and within the limits 
of the head-office of excise in Scotland, in each year, from 10th October 1839 to 10th 
October 1841, and showing the total proof gallons for each of these years : — 


Artryle, Xorth 
Arevle, South 

Caithness . 
Edinburgh • 
Elgin , 

Carry up 

Tears ended Oct. 10, 






Brought up • 











" ,-- 


















Years ended Oct. 10, 











. 586.716 




. 326,252 




9,C32^53 8,570,744 

Scotland's exports consist principally of the produce of her cotton and linen manufac- 
tures ; and her imports, of the raw materials for her cotton and linen fabrics, and of 
articles of colonial and foreign produce, which are demanded by the growing taste and 
luxuriousness of her population. To enumerate subordinate articles, or those included 
in this general classification, would be to write a list of goods as long, tasteless, and 
tiresome, as that of a Tender of all wares. Till about the year 1755, when the exports 
amounted in Talue to £535,576, and the imports to £465,411, Scotland's commerce was 
almost as unknowing of foreign lauds as her own hardy mountaineers, and as cold and 
cheerless as their climate and their dress. But from that period, and especially from a 
decade before the close of last century, it has progressively, though not uniformly, moved 
on to importance. The following is an account of the official and declared value of the 
imports into and the exports from the different Scottish ports, from 1824 to the latest 
period at which the accounts are made up : — 

Official Value of Exports. 

Official Value of Expohts. 



British and 





British and 





Irish Pro- 

and Colo. 


Value of 



Irish Pro- 

and Colo- 


Va^ne of 


duce and 

nial Mer- 


:'-:? 2: i 

nial Mer- 













£2 636 840 




109.81 1 




4.663 955 



7.276 666 

2 647,212 











S 529.333 














182 3 

A. 023,642 









7.364. SS6 











134 790 


























4,391 S71 













The distribution of the commerce, if simply remembrance be had that Greenock and 
Port-Glasgow are dependent on Glasgow, and Leith dependent on Edinburgh, will be 
understood from a tabular view of the gross customs, paid during the years 1835, 1840, 
and 1841, at each of the Scottish ports : — 



Cos loses, 









Ayr .... 




Ailoa (from 5th January, 1341) 



Bai.ff .... 








Campbeltown . . 




Dumfries . . . 


9 107 


Dundee • 








Grangemouth . . . 







4-. .-:' 

lnverue=s , . a 











Irvine . . 




Kirkcaldy '_ . 











6' 4,C~3 

Lerwick • • 

1 272 



Mi.ntrose . • 




Perth (from 5th July, 1840) 







Stornoway ... 















The fisheries of Scotland have long formed a valuable and important branch of indus- 
try. — The total annual value of the salmon-fisheries has been estimated at £150,000. 
The Ayr, Beauly, Clyde, Conon, Dee, Deveron, Don, Earn, Eden, North and South 
Esks, Findhorn, Langwell, Moy, Ness, Shin, Spey, Tay, Teith, Tweed, and Ythan 
rivers, are all celebrated for their salmon-fishings. — The total quantity of herrings cured 
in Scotland within the year ending 5th April, 1840, was 543,945 barrels ; the total 
quantity found entitled to the official brand, under the act 1st Will. IV, c. 54, was 152,231 
barrels ; and the total quantity exported was 252,522 barrels ; being a decrease of 
11,614$ barrels in the quantity cured, of 1,428* in the quantity branded, but an increase 
of 12,7911 in the quantity exported, as compared with the preceding year. Of cod and 
ling, 93,5601 cwts. were cured dried, and 6,053 barrels cured in pickle ; the quantity 
found entitled to the official stamp and brand, under the provisions of the said act, was 
21,695i cwts. dried, and 3,205 barrels pickled, and the total quantity exported was 
29,656i cwts. dried, and 24 barrels pickled ; being an increase over the preceding year 
of 8,281 cwts. in the quantity cured dried, but a decrease of 3,9981 barrels pickled, a 
decrease in the quantity punched and branded of 2,2401 cwts. and 1,888 barrels, but an 
increase of 2,954i cwts. in the quantity exported. In catching and curing these fish, 
11,893 boats, manned by 52,037 fishermen and boys, were employed in the shore-curing 
department of the fishery ; the number of curers, coopers,, gutters, and labourers 
employed, was 36,681 ; and the total number of persons employed was 88,718 ; being 
an increaso over the preceding year of 536 boats, 1,799 fishermen, and of 3,143 in the 
total number of persons employed. 

The following is an account of the total number of barrels of white herrings which 
have been cured on board vessels cleared out for the fishery, or cured on shore, in the 
year ended 5th April, 1840 ; and also of the number of boats and hands which have 
been employed in the shore-curing, herring, cod, and ling fisheries. 

Barrels of 

Stations. herrings 


Campbeltown and Islay,... 1,511 

Dumfries and Stranraer,.. 1,665 

Glasgow 8,640 

Greenock and Ayr, Irvine 

and Saltcoats 17,418 

Inverary and Lochgilphead 3,225 

Loch-Broom, 1,461 

Loch-Carron and Dunve- 

gan, 101 

Loch-Shildag, 392 

Rothsay 17,119 

Stornoway and Bana, 1,178 

Tobermory and Fort- Wil- 
liam, 1,841 

Isle of Man, 21,152 


St. Ives, 

Anstruther, 39,542 

"Whitehaven, 3,008 

Banff, 14,057 

Burntisland, 13,021 

Cromarty 8,342 

Eyemouth 31,521 

Findhorn 8,713 

Fraserburgh, 36,806 





















of tislif r- 

iii en and 













Orkney, North Isles, 

Orkney, South Isles, 



Shetland, Lerwick, 

Shetland, IJnst, 

Shetland, Walls, 





London, including Dover, 
Portsmouth, Gravesend, 
and Yarmouth, from 
which resident officers 
have now been with- 

North Sunderland, 


Barrels of 















of fisher- 
men and 









Total 543,945 11,893 52,037 


The shipping of Scotland, at a comparatively recent period, was inconsiderable ; and 
even so late as 1656, comprised only 137 vessels, of from 250 to 300 tons each ; and 
aggregately, 5,736 tons. In 1760, the vessels employed in the foreign and coasting trade, 
and in fisheries, were 999 in number, and 53,913 in tonnage. In 1800, the number 
was 2,415, carrying 171,728 tons, and employing 14,820 seamen. In 1828, the number 



carrying more than 100 tons each was 983, the number carrying less than 100 tons each 
was 2,160, and the aggregate tonnage of both classes was 300,836. Of this gross 
amount of tonnage, Aberdeen claimed 46,587 tons ; Greenock, 37,786 ; Glasgow, 
36,220; Leith, 26,107; Grangemouth, 24,635; Dundee, 24,227; Montrose, 15,778; 
Irvine, 14,230 ; Dumfries, 12,283 ; Kirkcaldy, 11,540 ; Borrowstounness, 8,740 ; Port- 
Glasgow, 7,155; Banff, 6,431; Inverness, 5,092; Anstruther, 4,130; Perth, 4,116; 
Kirkwall, 3,247; Stornoway, 3,133; Campbeltown, 3,088; Lerwick, 2,622; Thurso, 
2,241 ; and Stranraer, 1,448. A considerable increase has been made in the aggregate 
amount, and a very material change has occurred in the distribution since 1828 ; and 
both will be best seen in a tabular view, of the number of ships belonging to Scottish 
ports on the 31st of December, 1835, and of the amount of tonnage, and number of 

Ports. Ships. 

Glasgow, 312 

Dundee and Perth 387 

Aberdeen, 359 

Greenock, 367 

Leith, 227 

Grangemouth, 184 

Montrose, 181 

Kirkcaldy, 179 

Irvine and Ayr, 128 

Dumfries, 192 

Borrowstounness,.. 121 

























Ports. Ships. 

Inverness, 160 

Port-Glasgow, 50 

Kirkwall, 77 

Banff, 75 

Lerwick, 101 

Thurso, 40 

Stornoway, 56 

Campbeltown, 54 

Stranraer, 37 





















Total, 3,287 335,820 23,924 

On the 31st December, 1840, the number of vessels belonging to Scotland was 3,479, of 
an aggregate tonnage of 429,204 tons, and manned by 28,428 men. The number of 
vessels built in Scotland, iu the year ending 5th January, 1841, was 263, of an aggre- 
gate tonnage of 42,322 tons. — Steam navigation, which was introduced, or for the first 
time successfully experimented, in 1812, and which, for many years, was comparatively 
tiny and timid, has, for about 14 years past, received rapid increase, undergone great 
improvements, and singularly enhanced the country's commerce. Steam-vessels of all 
descriptions, from the superb ship of 400 tons or upwards, to the sturdy tug-boat or the 
toy like shallop, almost everywhere smoke along the coast, or athwart the friths, or 
across the ferries. Their number, in 1838, — their tonnage, exclusive of engine-room, — 
and their distribution among the several ports, will be best stated in a table. 

Ships. Tone. 

Aberdeen 13 2,630 

Alloa, 5 352 

Campbeltown,... 3 311 

Dumfries 1 160 

Dundee,, 10 1,773 

Glasgow,. 53 3,491 

Ships. Tone. 

Greenock, 2 186 

Inverness 1 18 

Irvine, 1 58 

Kirkcaldy 3 286 

Leith, 7 1,225 

Montrose, 2 469 








Total,... 106 








Five of the Scottish banks — the Bank of Scotland, the Royal bank of Scotland, the 
British Linen Company, the Commercial bank of Scotland, and the National bank of 
Scotland, the first of which was established by Act of Parliament, and the other four 
incorporated by Royal charter — do not require, in pursuance of the act 7th Geo. IV., 
cap. 67, to lodge lists of partners. All the others involve the responsibility of each 
partner to the full extent of his possessions ; and most are joint-stock establishments, 
with large constituencies. Their notes, which are permitted to be for twenty shillings, 
but not less, leave scope for an ample silver currency, but almost entirely exclude from 
the country coins of gold. Each bank is obliged to have exchequer bills in its possession 
equal to the average amount of its issues. A system of mutual exchange and security, 
established and worked by the banks themselves, acts as a check upon over-issues ; the 
exchange is made in the country weekly, and in Edinburgh twice a-week ; and whatever 
surplus remains of one bank's notes over those of another with which the exchange is 
made, must be bought up with specie, exchequer bills, or an order on the Bank of Eng- 
land. The following table exhibits the names, numbers, dates and statistics, for the 
years 1837, 1838, and 1839, of all the public banks. 






1838. 1839. 

Bank of Scotland, Edinburgh,. 

Royal Bank of Scotland, Edinburgh,. 

British Linen Company, Edinburgh,. 

Commercial Bank o( Scotland, Edinburgh,. 

National Bank of Scotland, .Edinburgh,. 

Aberdeen Bank,... Aberdeen,.. 

Ayr Bank, Ayr 

Dundee Banking Company, Dundee, 

Dundee Union Bank, ..Dundee,.... 

Dundee New Bank (dissolved Oct. 10, 1838,).. 

Glasgow and Ship Bank, Glasgow,..., 

Greenock Bank (Private Bank,)., 

Leith Bank, Leith 

Paisley Bank (discontinued Nov. "20, 1833,) 

Perth Banking Company,... .Perth 

Renfrewshire Bank Co.,... (Private Bank,)., 

Paisley Union Bank, (Joined to No. 21,)., 

Aberdeen Town and County Bank, Aberdeen,.., 

Arbroath Bank .Arbroath, ... 

Dundee Com. Bank (dissolved Oct. 10, 1838,)., 

Glasgow Union Banking Co — Glasgow, 

Ayrshire Banking Co., Ayr 

Western Bank of Scotland, Glasgow,... 

Central Bank of Scotland Perth, 

North of Scotland Banking Co Aberdeen,.. 

Clydesdale Banking Co Glasgow,.... 

Southern Bank of Scotland, Dumfries,.. 

Eastern Bank of Scotland, Dundee 

Edinburgh and Leith Bank, Edinburgh,. 













































































The roads of Scotland, till about the middle of last century, were so few and bad, that 
three-fourths of the whole country were inaccessible to a wheeled vehicle. The High- 
lands, in particular, could be traversed only by their own chamois-moving mountaineers, 
and, even on their least upland grounds, were sublimely uncognizant of both the motion 
and the mechanism of a wheel ; and at enormous cost and labour — as will be found de- 
tailed in our article on the Highlands — they were literally revolutionized in political, social, 
and agricultural character, simply by their being pierced and traversed with roads, and 
brought into acquaintance with the unpoetic cart. Both turnpike and subordinate roads 
are now ramified through most districts to an amount so nearly co- extensive with the 
wants of the country, that the absence of them in any locality is, in most instances, 
evidence of its being a tract of moorish or mountain waste ; and as Sir H. Parnell 
remarks, in his Treatise on Roads, " in consequence of the excellent materials which 
abound in all parts of Scotland, and of the greater skill and science of Scottish trustees 
and surveyors, the turnpike roads in Scotland are superior to those in England." Owing 
to almost constant, and generally bold, inequality of surface, Scotland offers few facili- 
ties for the construction of canals ; yet it has seven of these works, two of which connect 
the eastern and the western seas, while the features of the others combine interest with 
utility. The Caledonian canal extends from the vicinity of Inverness on the north-east, 
to Corpach, near Fort- William, on the south-west, a distance of 60J miles, 374 of which 
are through Lochs Ness, Oich, and Lochy ; and communicates between the Beauly 
frith and the head of Loch-Eil. The Forth and Clyde canal extends from the frith of 
Forth, or mouth of the Carron, at Grangemouth, to Bowling-bay on the Clyde, a dis- 
tance of 35 miles ; and sends off a small branch to Glasgow, and a smaller one to the 
mouth of the Cart, to communicate by that river with Paisley. The Edinburgh and 
Glasgow union canal extends from Port-Hopetoun at Edinburgh, to the Forth and Clyde 
canal at Port-Downie, near Falkirk, a distance of 3H miles. The Monkland canal 
extends from the basin at the north-east extremity of Glasgow, to Woodhall, about 2 
miles south-east of Airdrie, a distance of 12 miles ; communicates at its west end by a 
tut of a mile in length with the basin of the Glasgow branch of the Forth and Clyde 


canal : and, in terms of an act obtained in 1837, may send off a branch to the north side 
of Duke-street, Glasgow. The Oman canal lies across the northern extremity of the 
long peninsula of Knapdale and Kintyre, is about 9 miles in length, and connects Loch- 
Fyne with the Western ocean. The Aberdeenshire canal extends from the harbour of 
Aberdeen, up the valley of the Don, to Port-Elphinstone, near Inverury, a distance of 
18i miles. The Glasgow, Paisley, and Ardrossan canal, was projected to extend from 
Port-Eglinton, on the south side of Glasgow, to the harbour of Ardrossan, but has been 
executed only to Johnstone, a distance of 11 miles. A railway to continue the commu- 
nication of this incompleted work, was projected to extend from Johnstone to Ardrossan, 
a distance of 22* miles, but has been constructed only to Kilwinning, about one-third of 
the distance. The Kilmarnock and Troon railway, extending 9J miles between the 
places mentioned in its designation, was the earliest public railway, or rather tram-road, 
in Scotland. The Monkland and Kirkintilloch railway connects the rich coal districts 
of Old and New Monkland with the Forth and Clyde canal, in the vicinity of Kirkintil- 
loch, 10 miles from Glasgow. The Ballochney railway extends from the termination of 
the Monkland and Kirkintilloch railway in the parish of New Monkland, 4 miles east- 
ward ; and there forks into two lines, the one of which traverses the ironstone and coal- 
field lying to the south, and the other that lying: to the north, of Airdrie-hill. The 
Wishaw and Coltness railway extends about 4 miles southward, from the termination of 
the former line, in the parish of Old Monkland, and is projected to be executed further 
southward, to the estates of Wishaw, Coltness, and Allanton. The Glasgow and Garn- 
kirk railway extends 8i miles westward from the vicinity of Gartsherrie bridge, where it 
joins the western termination of the Ballochney railway, to the junction of the Forth and 
Clyde and the Monkland canals at Glasgow ; and was the earliest railway in Scotland 
constructed with double lines, and for the transit of locomotive engines. The Slamannan 
railway extends from the east end of the Ballochney railway to the Union canal, not far 
from Linlithgow, a distance of about 12i miles ; and sends off a branch to Bathgate. 
The Pollock and Govan railway connects the mineral fields on the south-east of Glasgow 
with that city ; and terminates at the harbour, on the level of the quay. The Glasgow, 
Paisley, Kilmarnock, and Ayr railway, extends from the harbour of Glasgow to that of 
Ayr, a distance of 40 miles ; joins the Ardrossan railway at Kilwinning, and the Kil- 
marnock and Troon railway at Troon ; and will send off from the vicinity of Dairy a 
branch about 11 miles long, to Kilmarnock. The Glasgow and Greenock railway is 
common to the former railway to Paisley, and thence extends to the centre of Greenock, 
near the harbour, a distance from Glasgow of 22 i miles. The Paisley and Renfrew 
railway extends from the north side of Paisley to the Clyde at Renfrew, a distance of 31 
miles. The Edinburgh and Glasgow railway connects these cities by way of Linlithgow 
and Falkirk, is 46 miles in length, and pursues nearly the same course as the Union and 
the Forth and Clyde canals. The Edinburgh and Dalkeith railway extends from the 
south side of Edinburgh to the South-Esk at Dalhousie-Mains, a distance of 8i miles ; 
sends off branches to Leith, Fisherrow, and Dalkeith, which increase its aggregate 
length to 15 miles ; and from its south end is continued by private lines to the collieries 
of Newbattle and Arniston. The Edinburgh and Newhaven extends about 2i miles 
from the centre of the metropolis to Trinity-pier at Newhaven. The Dundee and New- 
tyle railway extends 10i miles from the north side of Dundee to Newtyle, and sends off 
branches to Cupar- Angus and Glammis. The Dundee and Arbroath extends from the 
harbour of Dundee to Arbroath, a distance of 161 miles. The Arbroath and Forfar 
railway connects these towns, extending 15i miles from a point of junction with the 
Dundee and Arbroath railway. Most of the works thus traced in outline and mutual 
relation will be found fully and separately described in the alphabetical arrangement. 


The revenue of Scotland, as to both its absolute amount and its relative proportion to 
that of England, has to the full kept pace w r ith the increasing prosperity of the country. 
It amounted, at the period of the Union, to £110,694 ; in 1788, to £1,099,148 ; and in 
1813, to £4,204,097. Its sources, as well as its gross and nett amount, in the years 
ending on the 5th of January 1837, 1838, and 1839, will be seen from the following 



Year ending Jan. 5, 1S37. 

Year ending Jan. 5, 1838. 

Year ending Jan. 5, 1839. 



















1 ,626,291 






























Another table will show the gross receipts in the years 1837 and 1838, on the chief 
articles of the customs, excise, stamps, and taxes. 

Customs and Excise. 1837 

Coffee, £24.890 

Com 73,680 

( Foreign, 41,328 

Spirits,-] Rum,'. 37,719 

(British, 1,452,602 

Malt 591,546 

Wines, 114,277 

Sugar, Molasses 544,039 

Tea 203,74i 

Timber, ,.. 123,502 

Tobacco, 317,329 

Auction-duties, ., 20,661 

Glass 57,023 

Excise licenses, 103,860. 

Paper 92,244 

Soap 77.488 

Post-horse duty 18,718 

Other articles,.", 163,604 




















Totals,.. 4,058,254 4,118,326 

Stamps and Taxes. 

Deeds, , 

Probates, Legacies, 

Bills of Exchange, 

Bankers' Notes 

Receipts,... ... 

Marine Insurances, 

Fire Insurances, 

Licenses and Certificates, 



Stage Carriages, ............... 

Land-tax, ..,,.... ... .. 

Tax on Windows, 


Private Carriages, ........... 

Horses,,. ,..„ 

Dogs,. ., 

Other articles, 

;1 12,813 

Totals,.... 757,145 

95 312 



Scotland was anciently divided and subdivided into so many jurisdictions, and under- 
went such frequent changes in their limits, that any successful attempt to enumerate 
them would be insufferably irksome, and almost wholly uninstructive. The names of 
some of the larger jurisdictions continue to be used, and serve aptly to designate sub- 
divisions of extensive counties ; and other ancient names are,, in several instances, popu- 
larly applied to whole counties in preference to the modern and legal designations. The 
counties — or, more properly, the sheriffdoms or shires — have, for upwards of half-a-cen- 
tury, been 33 in number. But they are excessively, and even ridiculously, various in 
extent ; and, in many instances, are as grotesquely outlined, and even hewn into 
detached pieces, as if sheer merry-andrewism had presided over their distribution. An 
enormous addition, too, is made to the puzzle of their intertracery by quoad civilia 
parishes—which in all parts of Scotland, except in one shire, constitute the only admin- 
istrative subdivision— being, in a large number of instances, made to overleap the 
county boundary-line, and to lie, either compactly or detaehedly, in two, or even three 
shires. Lanarkshire is divided into three wards, — upper, middle, and lower ; and Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, while just as legally and practically a shire as any of the other of the 
32, is nominally a stewartry, — and wins diminishment or aggrandizement from the name, 
exactly as one thinks of the feudal stewart of a limited jurisdiction, or the princely, the 
royal Stewart of broad Scotland. Two of the counties — Bute and Orkney— consist 
entirely of islands ; the former of those in the frith of Clyde, and the latter of the 
Orkney and the Shetland archipelagoes, Three — Argyle, Inverness, and Ross — consist 
chiefly of territory on the mainland, and partly of the islands of the Hebrides. Two 
counties — Clackmannan and Kinross — comprehend each less than 84 square miles ; 
seven — Linlithgow, Bute, Nairn, Renfrew, Dumbarton, Cromarty, and Selkirk,— com- 
prehend less than 266 ; four — Inverness, Argyle, Perth, and Ross, — comprehend more 
than 2,590 ; and four — Aberdeen, Sutherland, Dumfries, and Ayr, — comprehend more 


than 1,040. The following table gives the names of the shires in the order of their size, 
beginning with the largest, and states the ancient names, whether of subdivisional or of 
co-extensive application. 

Shires. Ancient Names. 

Inverness ...Lochaber, Badenoeo, Moidart,. Arisaig, Morer,. Knoydart, Glenelg, Strathglass, aaid 

parts of Moray, Strathspey, and Ross, besides Skye, and other Hebridean islands. 
Argyle, ., Cowal, Kintyre, Knapdale, Lorn, including Appin, Kingarloch, Ardnainurchan, 

Suinart, Lochiel, Glenorehy, Morvern, and Ardgower, besides Mull, Isla, Jura, 

and other Hebridean islands. 
Perth, Perth, Stormont, Strathearn, Gowrie, Athole, Breadalbane, Monteith, Glenshiel, 

Rannoch, Balquidder. 
Ross, East-Ross, Aid-Ross, Kintail, Lochalsh, Kishorn, Toridon, Gairloch, Lochbroom, 

Strathcarron, and Black Isle, besides Lewis, and other Hebridean islands. 

Aberdeen, Mar, Buehan, Garioch, Formartin, Strathbogie. 

Sutherland .....Sutherland, Strathnaver, Assynt,. Edderachylis, and Lord Reay's country. 

Dumfries ...Nithsdale, Annandale, Eskdale, and Ewisdale. 

Ayr .......Cunningham, Kyle, and Carrick. 

Lanark, Clydesdale. 

Forfar Angus, including Glenisla, Glenesk, and Glenprosen. 

Orkney ...Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands. 

Kirkcudbright, East-Galloway.. 

Caithness...... Caithness. 

Roxburgh Teviotdale and Liddesdale. 

Banff,... Strathdeveron, Boyne, Enzie, Balveny, and Strathaven, 

Stirling,... Stirling, and part of Lennox. 

Fife, Fife and Forthryfe. 

Berwick........... Merse, Lammermoor, and Lauderdale. 

Elgin, Central part of Moray, and part of Strathspey. 

V>"igton, West Galloway.. 

Kincardine,... Mearns. 

Edinburgh, Mid-Lothian.. 

Peebles,.. ..Tweeddale. 

Haddington, East-Lothian . 

Selkirk, .... Ettrick Forest.. 

Cromarty, Ross. 

Dumbarton, Lennox. 

Renfrew,.. Strathgryfe, and part of Lennox. 

Nairn, Moray, &c. 

Bute, Bute, Arran, &c. 

Linlithgow, West-Lothian. 

Kinross...... Part of Forthryfe, ? p.^ 

Clackmannan, ...Strathdevon, \ 


Till the reign of James I., all persons who held any portion of ground, however small, 
by military service of the Crown, had seats in the Scottish parliament. The small 
barons were afterwards excused from attendance, and represented by "two or more wise 
men, according to the extent of their courr 1 ^." Parliament appointed the time of its 
own meetings and adjournments ; nominated committees to wield its powers during 
recesses ; possessed not only a legislative but an executive character ; exercised a 
commanding power in all matters of government ; appropriated the public money, and 
appointed the treasurers of the exchequer ; levied armies, and nominated commanders ; 
sent ambassadors to foreign states, and appointed the judges and courts of judicature ; 
and even assumed power to alienate the regal demesne, to restrain grants from the 
Crown, and to issue pardons to criminals. The king, even so late as in the person of 
James IV.., was only the first servant of his people, and had his duty prescribed by par- 
liament ; he had no veto in the parliament's proceedings ; nor could he declare war, 
make peace, or conduct any important business of either diplomacy or government, 
without that assembly's concurrence. The constitution of the country partook much 
more the character of an aristocracy than that of a limited monarchy. The nobility — 
who were dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts, and barons^were hereditary members of 
parliament ; but they formed one house with the knights and burgesses, and occupied 
common ground with them in all deliberations and decisive votes. The nobles and other 
members of parliament were checked in their turn by the common barons, just as they 
checked the king ; and even the common barons, or the landholders, were, to a large, 

I. c 



extent, checked in turn by their vassals. A jury of barons, who were not members of 
parliament, might sit on a lord's case, of even the gravest character, and might decide it 
without being unanimous in their verdict ; and the vassals of a baron so completely in- 
volved or concentrated all his available power in their own fidelity and attachment, as 
to oblige him, in many respects, to act more in the character of the father of his clan 
than in that of a military despot. The king, too, — while denied nearly all strictly royal 
prerogatives by the constitution of the country, — was indemnified for most by the acci- 
dents of its feudal institutions. He acquired considerable interest among the burgesses 
and lower ranks in consequence of the abuse of power by the lords and great landowners ; 
and, when he had sufficient address to retain the affections of the people, he was gene- 
rally able to humble the most powerful and dominant confederacy of the aristocrats ; 
though, when he did not acquire popularity, he might dare to disregard the parliament 
only at the hazard of his crown or his life. The kings, — aided by the clergy, whose 
revenues were vast, and who were strongly jealous of the power of the nobility, — even- 
tually succeeded in greatly diminishing, and, at times, entirely neutralizing-, the aristo- 
cratical power of parliament. A select body of members was established, from among 
the clergy, the nobility, the knights, and the burgesses, and called " the Lords of the 
Articles ;" it was produced by the bishops choosing 8 peers, and the peers 8 bishops, 
by the 16 who were elected choosing 8 barons or knights of the shires, and 8 commis- 
sioners of royal burghs, and by 8 great officers of state being added to the whole, with 
the Lord-chancellor as president ; its business was to prepare all questions, bills, and 
other matters, to be brought before parliament ; and the clerical part of it being in strict 
alliance with the king, while the civilian part was not a little influenced by his great 
powers of patronage, it effectually prevented the introduction to parliament of any affair 
which was unsuited to his views, and gave him very stringently all the powers of a real 
veto. This institution seems to have been introduced by stealth, and never brought to a 
regular plan ; and as to its date and early history, it baffles the research, or at least 
defies the unanimity, of the best informed law writers. Yet " the Lords of the Articles " 
were far from being wholly subservient to the Crown ; for they not only resisted the 
efforts of Charles I. to make them mere tools of his despotism, but went freely down the 
current which swept that infatuated monarch to his melancholy fate ; and, at the Revo- 
lution, they waived all ceremony about getting from the fanatical idiot, James VII., a 
formal deed of abdication, and promptly united in a summary declaration that he had 
forfeited his crown. Before the Union there were four great officers of state, the Lord 
High-chancellor, the High-treasurer, the Privy-seal, and the Secretary, — and four lesser 
officers, the Lord Clerk-register, the Lord-advocate, the Treasurer-depute, and the 
Justice-clerk, — all of whom sat, ex-officio, in parliament. The officers of state and the 
law courts which now exist, will be found noticed in our article on Edinburgh. The 
privy council of Scotland, previous to the Revolution, assumed inquisitorial powers, even 
that of torture ; but it is now swamped in the privy council of Great Britain. Tho 
Scottish nobility return from among their own number 16 peers to represent them in the 
tipper house of the imperial parliament. Between the Union and the date of the Reform 
bill, the freeholders of the counties, who amounted even at the last to only 3,211 in 
number, returned to the House of Commons 30 members ; the city of Edinburgh 
returned 1 ; and the other royal burghs, 6-5 in number, and classified into districts. 
The Parliamentary Reform act in 1832, added, at the first impulse, 29,904 to the 
aggregate constituency of the counties ; but it allowed them only the same number of 
representatives as before, — erecting Kinross, Clackmannan, and some adjoining portions 
of Perth and Stirling, into one electoral district ; conjoining Cromarty with Ross and 
Nairn with Elgin, and assigning one member to each of the other counties. The same 
act enfranchised various towns, or erected them into parliamentary burghs, increased the 
burgh constituency from a pitiful number to upwards of 31,000, and raised the aggregate 
number of representatives from 14 to 23. The total constituencies of the counties and 
the burghs in each year, from the passing of the Reform act till 1839, are stated in the 
following table. 











3 1 ,332 































The constituency of each county and burgh is stated in the article upon it in the alpha- 
betical arrangement. Of the burghs, Edinburgh and Glasgow each return two mem- 
bers ; and Aberdeen, Dundee, Paisley, Greenock, and Perth, each return one ; while 
the remainder are distributed, in the following order, into 14 districts, each of which 
returns one, — Ayr, Campbeltown, Inverary, Irvine, and Oban, — Dumfries, Annan, 
Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben, and Sanquhar, — Elgin, Banff, Cullen, Inverury, Kintore, 
and Peterhead, — Falkirk, Hamilton, Airdrie, Lanark, and Linlithgow, — Haddington, 
North Berwick, Dunbar, Jedburgh, and Lauder, — Inverness, Forres, Fortrose, and 
Nairn, — Kilmarnock, Port-Glasgow, Dumbarton, Kenfrew, and Rutherglen, — Kirk- 
caldv, Burntisland, Dysart, and Kinghorn, — Leith, Musselburgh, and Portobello, — St. 
Andrews, East-Anstruther, West-Anstrutker, Crail, Cupar. Kilrenny, and Pittenweem, 
— Montrose, Arbroath, Brechin, Forfar, and Bervie, — Stirling, Culross, Dunfermline, 
Inverkeithing, and Queensferry, — Wick, Cromarty, Dingwall, Dornoch, Tain, and 
Kirkwall, — and "Wigton, Xew Galloway, Stranraer, and Whithorn. Some of the prin- 
cipal towns, or towns more populous than many which rank as burghs, share in the fran- 
chise only in common with the landward districts, and the villages of the counties in 
which they lie. The chief are Dalkeith, Maybole, Hawick, Girvan, Alloa, Kelso, Crieff, 
Dunse, Selkirk, Peebles, Bathgate, Tranent, Dunblane, Bothsay, Cupar- Angus, Salt- 
coats, Dairy, and Comrie. 


The number of public offences in Scotland was. in the vear 1834, 2,711 ; in 1836, 
2,922 ; in 1837, 3,126 ; in 1838, 3,418; in 1839, 3,409; and in 1840, 3,872. Of those 
in the year 1838, 787 were offences against the person, 724 by males, and 63 by females ; 
577 were violent offences against property, 432 by males, and 145 by females ; 1,588 were 
against property, but without violence, 1,078 by males, and 510 by females ; 57 were ma- 
licious offences against property, 51 by males, and 6 by females ; 112 were forgeries and 
offences against currency, 81 by males, and 31 by females ; and 297 were miscellaneous 
offences, 243 by males, and 54 by females, — aggregately, 2,609 by males, and 809 by 
females. Fifty-eight of the male offenders were aged 12 years, and under ; 36S aged 
16 or above 12 ; 700 aged 21 or above 16 ; 73S aged 30 or above 21 ; 407 aged 40 or 
above 30 ; 144 aged 50 or above 40 ; 59 aged 60 or above 50 ; 8 aged above 60 ; and 
117 whose ages could not be ascertained. Of the 809 female offenders, there were 16 
aged 12 years and under ; 66 aged 16 and above 12 ; 199 aged 21 and above 16 ; 268 
aged 30 and above 21 ; 140 aged 40 and above 30 ; 67 aged 50 and above 40; 29 
aged 60 and above 50 ; 8 aged above 60 ; and 16 whose ages could not be ascertained. 
Of the 2,609 male offenders, 353 could neither read nor write ; 1,529 could read, or 
read and write imperfectly ; 569 could read and write well ; 91 had received a superior 
education ; and there were 67 whose education could not be ascertained. Of the 809 
female offenders, 198 could neither read nor write ; 541 could read, or read and write 
imperfectly : 61 could read and write well ; 2 had received a superior education ; and 
there were 7 whose education could not be ascertained. Of the 3,418 offenders, 356 
were discharged by the Lord-advocate and his deputies, 177 were discharged from other 
causes, and there were tried 2,885, namely, by the High-court of Justiciary 309 ; by the 
Circuit-court of Justiciary 560 ; by Sheriffs with a jury 733 ; by Sheriffs without a jury 
646 ; by burgh-magistrates 558 ; by justices or other court 79. Of the 2,885 persons 
tried, 56 were outlawed, 6 were found insane, 38 were found not guilty, 162 not proven, 
and there were convicted 2,623, including 578 who were convicted under the aggrava- 
tion of previous convictions, and 54 who were convicted of other offences at the same 
trial. Of the 2,623 persons convicted, 3 received sentence of death, of whom 1 was 
executed, and the punishment of 2 was commuted into transportation for life ; 6 were 
sentenced to transportation for life, S3 for 14 years, 379 for 7 years, and 15 for other 
periods ; 75 were sentenced to imprisonment (with, in some cases, whipping, fine, &c.,) 
for 2 years or above 1 year, 245 for 1 year or above 6 months, 1,607 for 6 months or 
under ; 195 were punished by fine ; 3 were discharged on sureties ; 12 received no 
sentence. — Of the 3,872 persons committed for trial in 1840, 2,945 were convicted or 
outlawed, and of these 4 received sentence of death for murder ; 520 were convicted 
of assaults ; 296 of theft by housebreaking ; and 1,392 of acts of simple theft. The 



following table shows the distribution and sex of the 3,872 persons committed for trial 
in 1840. 






Berwick, ...., 








Edinburgh 405 

Elgin and Moray,. 



Inverness, ... 

























Orkney and Zetland,.... 



Renfrew, 487 

Ross and Cromarty,.. 21 

Roxburgh, 78 

Selkirk 7 

Stirling, 104 

Sutherland 10 

Wigton 37 











Total 2,866 1,006 


The following table shows, for each of the counties, and for the whole kingdom, the 
amount of the population of Scotland in the years 1755, 1791, 1801, 1811, 1821, and 
1831, with the increase per cent, during each ten years succeeding 1801. 


Year 1755. 

Year W01. 

Year 1801. 

Year 1811. 


Year 1821. 


Year 1831. 














1 1 ,200 
























































































74 820 











































Orkney and Shetland,... 


The Totals, 




1,805,688 14 





Another table, and a brief one, gives a summary view of the classes of the population, 
and the number of inhabited houses in 1821 and 1831, and of the value of assessed pro- 
perty in 1815. 






Total of 



employed in 


Families chiefly 
employed in 
trade, manu- 
factures, or 


All other 

families not 

comprised in 

t lie two pre- 

ceding- classes. 



value r)f the 

real property, 

as assessed 

iu 1S15. 











We have just received a copy of the census of 1841, printed bj order of Government. 
The following are the leading results : — 













Elgin (Moray), 


Forfar, - 





Kirkcudbright, Stewartry of,... 




Orkney and Shetland,..- 

Peebles „ 



Ross and Cromarty 







Persons, 18+1. 




























Total i 1,241,276 I 1,379,334 


















Increase or Decrease 
per cent., 1841. 














































4 : 3 



10 8 








3 ; 4 

Placed in their order, and beginning with those in which there is a decrease, the 
counties stand as follows : — 

Per cent. 

Argyle, 3'9 

Kinross, 3*5 

Perth 34 

Sutherland 3-4 

Nairn, 1-4 

Dumfries 1'8 

Haddington, 1" 

Peebles '5 

Per eeot. 

Berwick, 1-1 

Kirkcudbright 1"2 

Elgin 2 2 

Edinburgh 2-8 

Inverness 3- 

Banff, 3- 

Orkney,.. 4"3 

Caithness, 4-8 

Per cent. 

Kincardine 5-1 

Roxburgh 5-3 

Ross & Cromarty,. 5*5 

Wigtoi 8- 

Aberdeei 8 - 2 

Fife 8-9 

Bute 10-9 

Stirling, 13-1 

Per cent. 

Ayr 134 

Linlithgow 15 2 

Renfrew, 15-9 

Selkirk 16-9 

Forfar 22- 

Clackmannan 29-7 

Dumbarton, 33-3 

Lanark 34-8 

The average increase for all Scotland being 11-1 percent., it appears that the increase 
is above the average in 10 counties, and below it in 22, including those in which there 
is a positive diminution. 

The increase in the population of England and Wales has been greater than in that 
of Scotland, at every decennial period since the first census was taken ; but the differ- 
ence is greater in the last ten years than in any preceding period. The number of 
houses building affords one of the best criterions of a country's progress in wealth and 


industry. At the same time it must be kept in mind, that we get merely the number 
building in one particular year out of the ten, and not the average number building 
yearly. In the first census this element was wanting, in the others it stands thus : — 

Houses Building. 

1811. 1881. 1831. 1841. 

England, 15,189 18,289 23,462 25,882 

Wales, 1,019 985 1,297 1,769 

16,208 19,274 24,759 27,651 

Scotland, 2,341 2,405 2,568 2,760 


The National Established church of Scotland is strictly Presbyterian. Its parochial 
divisions, sanctioned by the civil authority, embracing the whole of Scotland, and fur- 
nished by law with churches and temporalities, are 919. But included in these, which 
bear the distinctive name of quoad civilia parishes, there are territories annexed eccle- 
siastically, or by authority of the General Assembly and of presbyteries, to 40 Govern- 
ment churches, an account of which is given in our article on the Highlands, and to 
chapels built by voluntary subscription, the number of which amounted, in 1S39, to 
180 ; and these territories, except in the case of a very few of the chapelries, are called 
quoad sacra parishes, and — though destitute both of civil sanction and of temporalities — 
are under the same ecclesiastical government, and hold the same relation to the church 
courts, as the ecclesiastico-civil divisions. Each parish, whether quoad civilia or quoad 
sacra, is governed by a kirk-session, consisting of the minister, and one or more lay ' 
elders. Several parishes send each its minister and a ruling elder to form a presbytery, 
and are, on a common footing, under its authority. Several presbyteries contribute or 
amass all their members to form a synod, and are individually subject to its review or 
revision of their proceedings. All the presbyteries, in concert with the royal burghs, 
the four universities, and the Crown, elect representatives, who jointly constitute the 
General Assembly. This is the supreme court ; and will be found noticed in our article 
on Edinburgh. The synods, 16 in number, are exceedingly dissimilar in the extent of 
their territory, and the amount of their population ; and the presbyteries, 82 in number, 
have also a very various extent, and are distributed among the synods in groups of from 
2 to 8. — The synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, the first on the list, comprehends all the 
counties of Linlithgow, Haddington, and Peebles, all the county of Edinburgh, except 
one parish, and small parts of the counties of Stirling and Lanark ; it contained, in 1831, 
a population of 313,733 ; and, in 1839, it had 108 quoad civilia parishes, 27 chapelries, 
and 143 ministers. Its presbyteries are Edinburgh, comprehending the metropolis and 
its vicinity, with 26 quoad civilia, and 17 quoad sacra parishes, and a population, in 1831, 
of 180,392 ; Linlithgow, comprehending Linlithgowshire, and a small part of Stirling- 
shire, with 19 quoad civilia, and 2 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 45,452 ; 
Biggar, comprising parts of Lanarkshire and Peebles-shire, with 11 quoad civilia parishes, 
and a population of 6,862 ; Peebles, comprising most of Peebles-shire, with 12 quoad 
civilia parishes, and a population of 9,373 ; Dalkeith, chiefly in Edinburghshire, and 
partly in Haddingtonshire, with 16 quoad civilia,- and 2 quoad sacra parishes, and a popu- 
lation of 35,133; Haddington, comprising the major part of Haddingtonshire, with 15 
quoad civilia, and 2 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 24,049 ; and Dunbar, com- 
prising the south-east of Haddingtonshire, and a parish in Berwickshire, and distributed 
into 9 quoad civilia parishes, with a population of 12,472. — The synod of Merse and 
Teviotdale comprehends nearly all Berwickshire, and most of Roxburghshire ; contained, 
in 1831, a population of 82,366 ; and, in 1839, had 66 parishes, 5 chapelries, and 71 
ministers. Its presbyteries are Dunse, in the Merse and Lainmermoor, with 10 quoad 
civilia parishes, and a population of 9,391 ; Chirnside, in the Merse, with 12 parishes 
quoad civilia, and 1 quoad sacra, and a population of 14,975 ; Kelso, in the Merse, and 
the east of Roxburghshire, with 10 parishes quoad civilia, and 1 quoad sacra, and a popu- 
lation of 12,264 ; Jedburgh, in Teviotdale, with 14 quoad civilia parishes, 2 subordinate 
chapelries, and a population of 20,978 ; Lauder, in Lauderdale, Lainmermoor, and the 
southern corner of Edinburghshire, with 9 quoad civilia parishes, and a population of 
9,964; and Selkirk, in Selkirkshire, and the northern part of Roxburghshire, with 11 
quoad civilia parishes, and a population of 14,788. — The synod of Dumfries comprehends 


all Dumfries-shire, Liddesdale, and the eastern part of Kirkcudbrightshire ; contained, 
in 1831, a population of 91,287 ; and, in 1839, had 55 parishes, 4 chapelries, and 59 
ministers. Its presbyteries are Lochmaben, in central and northern Annandale, with 13 
quoad civilia parishes, and a population of 16,016 ; Langholm, in Eskdale and Liddes- 
dale, with 7 quoad civilia parishes, and a population of 10,173 ; Annan, in southern 
Annandale, with 8 quoad civilia, and 2 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 15,672 ; 
Dumfries, in southern Nithsdale and eastern Kirkcudbrightshire, with 18 parishes quoad 
civilia, and 2 quoad sacra, and a population of 34,862 ; and Penpont, in central and 
northern Nithsdale, with 9 parishes, and a population of 14,564. — The synod of Gallo- 
way comprehends all Wigtonshire, all the central and the western divisions of Kirkcud- 
brightshire, and southern corner of Ayrshire ; contained, in 1831, a population of 65,276 ; 
and, in 1839, had 37 parishes, all quoad civilia, and 37 ministers. Its presbyteries are 
Stranraer, in the western half of Wigtonshire, and the southern corner of Ayrshire, with 

11 parishes, and a population of 24,164; Wigton, in the eastern half of Wigtonshire, 
and a small part of Kirkcudbrightshire, with 10 parishes, and a population of 19,446 ; 
and Kirkcudbright, all in Kirkcudbrightshire, with 16 parishes, and a population of 
21,666. — The synod of Glasgow and Ayr comprehends all the counties of Renfrew and 
Dumbarton, nearly all those of Lanark and Ayr, and a part of that of Stirling ; con- 
tained, in 1831, a population of 635,011 ; and, in 1839, had 130 parishes, 72 chapelries, 
and 205 ministers. Its presbyteries are Ayr, in Kyle and most part of Carrick, with 28 
quoad civilia, and 3 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 77,884 ; Irvine, in Cun- 
ningham, with 16 quoad civilia, and 4 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 56,226 ; 
Paisley in eastern Renfrewshire, with 12 quoad civilia, and 6 quoad sacra parishes, and 
a population of 90,721 ; Greenock, in western Renfrewshire, and a small part of Cun- 
ningham, and a population of 41,179 ; Hamilton, in central Lanarkshire, with 15 quoad 
civilia, and 8 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 64,745 ; Lanark, in northern 
Lanarkshire, with 11 quoad civilia parishes, and a population of 29,595 ; Dumbarton, in 
the main body of Dumbartonshire, and part of Stirlingshire, with 17 parishes quoad 
civilia, and 1 quoad sacra, and a population of 34,287 ; and Glasgow, in southern Lan- 
arkshire, the detached part of Dumbartonshire, and small parts of Stirlingshire and 
Renfrewshire, with 21 quoad civilia, and 31 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 
240,374. — The synod of Argyle comprehends Buteshire, and continental and insular 
Argyleshire ; contained, in 1831, a population of 109,348 ; and, in 1839, had 39 parishes, 

12 parliament churches, 4 chapelries, and 57 ministers. Its presbyteries are Inverary, 
in continental Argyleshire, with 8 quoad civilia parishes, and a population of 13,335 ; 
Dunoon, the eastern part of Argyleshire, and the northern isles of Buteshire, with 8 
quoad civilia, and 2 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 13,712 ; Kintyre, in Arran, 
Kintyre and Gigha, with 9 quoad civilia parishes, and a population of 26,959 ; Isla and 
Jura, in the southern Hebrides, with 4 quoad civilia parishes, and 3 parliamentary 
churches, and a population of 17,197 ; Lorn, partly in the Hebrides, but chiefly in the 
western part of continental Argyleshire, with 7 quoad civilia parishes, 2 parliamentary 
churches, and 1 chapelry, and a population of 15,348 ; and Mull, chiefly in the Mull 
group of the Hebrides and in Morvern, with 6 parishes and 7 parliamentary churches, 
and a population of 22,797. — The synod of Perth and Stirling comprehends nearly all 
Perthshire and Clackmannanshire, parts of Stirlingshire and Kinross-shire ; contained, 
in 1831, a population of 178,657 ; and, in 1839, had 80 parishes, 3 parliamentary 
churches, 19 chapelries, and 107 ministers. Its presbyteries are Dunkeld, in the north- 
east part of Perthshire, with 12 parishes and 1 chapelry, and a population of 22,130 ; 
Weem, in the north-east part of Perthshire, with 6 parishes, 3 parliamentary churches, 
1 chapelry, and a population of 17,132 ; Perth, in the central part of Perthshire, with 
24 quoad civilia, and 3 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 45,237 ; Auchterarder, 
in the valley and vicinity of Strathearn, and in the western part of Kinross-shire, with 15 
quoad civilia, and 3 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 25,339 ; Stirling, in Clack- 
mannanshire, and part of Stirlingshire, with 13 quoad civilia, and 2 quoad sacra parishes, 
and a population of 44,603 ; and Dunblane, in the junction district of the counties of 
Perth, Stirling, and Clackmannan, with 12 quoad civilia, and 3 quoad sacra parishes, and 
a population of 24,213. — The synod of Fife comprehends all Fifeshire, the greater part 
of Kinross-shire, and a small part of Perthshire ; contained, in 1831, a population of 
138,124 ; and, in 1839, had 67 quoad civilia, and 10 quoad sacra parishes, and 81 minis- 
ters. Its presbyteries are Dunfermline, in the south-west of Fifeshire, and in parts of 


Perthshire and Kinross-shire, with 12 parishes quoad civilia, and 1 quoad sacra, and a 
population of 36,097 ; Kirkcaldy, in the south-east of Fifeshire, and part of Kinross- 
shire, -with 15 quoad civilia, and 4 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 43,314; 
Cupar, in the north-west of Fifeshire, with 20 quoad civilia .parishes, and a population of 
29,832 ; and St. Andrews, in the north-east of Fifeshire, with 20 parishes quoad civilia, 
and 1 quoad sacra, and a population of 28,881." — The synod of Angus and Mearns com- 
prehends all Forfarshire, the greater part of Kincardineshire, and a small part of Perth- 
shire ; contained, in 1831, a population of 1(54,017 ; and, in 1839, had 80 quoad civilia, 
and 17 quoad sacra .parishes, and 99 ministers. Its presbyteries are Meigle, in the west 
of Forfarshire, and part of Perthshire, with 13 parishes, and a population of 1-6,345 ; 
Forfar, in the central district of Forfarshire, with 11 quoad civilia, and 2 quoad sacra 
parishes, and a population of 24,225 ; Dundee-, in the southern district of Forfarshire, 
and a small. part of Perthshire, with 18 quoad civilia, and 6 quoad sacra parishes, and a 
population of 60,510 ; Brechin, in the north of Forfarshire, with 14 quoad civilia, and 2 
quoad sacra parishes, and a. population of 27,057 ; Arbroath, in the east of Forfarshire, 
with 11 quoad civilia, and 5 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 23,270 ; and For- 
doun, in Kincardineshire, with 13 quoad civilia parishes, and a population of 22,601.— 
The synod of Aberdeen comprehends nearly all Aberdeenshire, most part of Banffshire, 
and a considerable part of Kincardineshire ; contained, in 1831, a population of 206,226 ; 
and, in 1839, had 101 quoad civilia, and 17 quoad sacra parishes, and 119 ministers. Its 
presbyteries are Aberdeen, in the south-east of Aberdeenshire, and part of Kincardine- 
shire, with 20 quoad civilia, and 8 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 75,524; 
Kincardine-O'Neil, in the south-west of Aberdeenshire, and part of Kincardineshire, 
with 14 quoad civilia parishes, and a population of 18,420 ; Alford, in the west of Aber- 
deenshire, and part of Banffshire, with 13 parishes, and a population of 11,47-1 ; Garioch, 
in the central district of Aberdeenshire, with 15 parishes, and a population of 15,787 ; 
Ellon, in the east of Aberdeenshire, with 8 parishes, and a population of 12,831 ; Deer, 
in the north-east of Aberdeenshire, with 14 quoad civilia, and 3 quoad sacra parishes, and 
a population of 32,276 ; Turriff, in the north-west of Aberdeenshire, and the north-east 
■of Banffshire, with 11 parishes, and a population of 21,775 ; and Fordyce, in the north 
of Banffshire, with 7 quoad civilia, and 3 quoad sacra parishes, and a population of 
18, 136. >— The synod of Moray comprehends all Elginshire and Nairnshire, considerable 
parts of Inverness-shire and Banffshire, and a small part of Aberdeenshire ; contained, 
in 1831, a population of 105,610 ; and, in 1839, had 51 quoad civilia parishes, 2 parlia- 
mentary churches, 3 chapelries, and 59 ministers. Its presbyteries are Strathbogie, in 
-the counties of Elgin, Banff, and Aberdeen, with 12 parishes, and a population of 
23,814 ; Abernethy, in the counties of Banff, Elgin, and Inverness, with 6 parishes, and 
3 parliamentary churches, and a population of 12,134 ; Aberlour, in Banffshire and 
Elginshire, with-5. parishes, and a population of 8,515 ; Forres, in the west of Elgin- 
shire, with 6 parishes, and a population of 9,899 ; Elgin, in the north-east of Elginshire, 
with 9 parishes, and a. population of 15,790 ; Inverness, in the north-east of Inverness- 
shire, and the adjacent part of Nairnshire, with 9 quoad civilia, and 2 quoad sacra 
parishes, and a population of 25,1.93 ; and Nairn, in the centre and north of Nairnshire, 
and the adjacent part of Inverness-shire, with 6 parishes, and a population of 10,265.— 
The synod of Ross comprehends all Cromartyshire, most part of continental Ross-shire, 
and small : parts of Inverness-shire and Nairnshire ; contained, in 1831, a population of 
45,803 ; and, in 1839, had 23 .parishes, 3 parliamentary churches, 1 chapelry, and 27 
ministers. Its presbyteries are Chanonby, in the peninsula between the Beauly and the 
Cromarty friths, with 6 parishes, 1 chapel, and a population of 11,744 ; Dingwall, in 
southern Ross-shire, and parts of Inverness and Nairn, with 8 parishes, 2 parliamentary 
churches, and a population of 17,762 ; and Tain, in northern Ross-shire, and part of 
Cromarty, with 9 parishes, 1 parliamentary church, and a population of 16,297.— The 
synod of Sutherland and Caithness is commensurate with its cognominal counties ; con- 
tained, in 1831, a population of 60,057 ; and, in 1839, had 23 parishes, 5 parliamentary 
churches, 1 chapelry, and 29 ministers. Its presbyteries are -Dornoch, in southern 
Sutherlandshire, with 9 parishes, 1 parliamentary church, and a population of 17,284 ; 
Tongue, in northern Sutherlandshire, with 4 parishes, 2 parliamentary churches, and a 
population of 7,221 ; and Caithness, in the cognominal county, with 10 parishes, 2 par- 
liamentary churches, 1 chapel, and a population of 35,542. — The synod of Glenelg com- 
prehends the Skye and Long Island groups of the Hebrides, and parts of the mainland 



of Ross-shire and Inverness-shire ; contained, in 1831, a population of 91,584 ; and, in 
1839, had 29 parishes, 11 parliamentary churches, and 40 ministers. Its presbyteries 
are Lochcarron, on the mainland, with 8 parishes, 4 parliamentary churches, and a 
population of 21,350 ; Abertarff, in the west of continental Inverness-shire, with 5 
parishes, 1 parliamentary church, and a population of 14,402 ; Skye, in the Skye islands, 
with 8 parishes, 2 parliamentary churches, and a population of 23,801 ; Uist, in the 
southern district of Long Island, with 4 parishes, 2 parliamentary churches, and a popu- 
lation of 17,490 ; and Lewis, in the northern district of Long Island, with 4 parishes, 2 
parliamentary churches, and a population of 14,541. — The synod of Orkney is commen- 
surate with the Orkney Islands ; contained, in 1831, a population of 26,716 ; and, in 
1839, had 18 parishes, 2 parliamentary churches, and 21 ministers. Its presbyteries are 
Kirkwall, -in the south-eastern district of Orkney, with 6 parishes, 1 parliamentary 
church, and a population of 8,650 ; Cairston, in the south-western district of Orkney, 
with 7 parishes, and a population of 10,149 ; and North Isles, in the northern district 
of Orkney, with 6 parishes, 1 parliamentary church, and a population of 7,917. — The 
synod of Shetland is commensurate with the Shetland Islands ; contained, in 1831, a 
population of 29,392 ; and, in 1839, had 12 parishes, 2 parliamentary churches, and 14 
ministers. Its presbyteries are Lerwick, in the south, with 6 parishes, 2 parliamentary 
churches, and a population of 16,432 ; and JBurravoe, in the north, with 6 parishes, and 
a population of 12,960. 

The religious body next in bulk to the Established Church, is the church of the 
United Secession. Its government is strictly presbyterian ; and its supreme court, 
called the United Associate Synod, consists of the minister or ministers and an elder 
of each congregation. The presbyteries are constituted in the same way as the synod ; 
and, in 1840, they were Aberdeen, with 8 congregations ; Annan and -Carlisle, with 14, 
7 of which are in England ; Coldstream and Berwick, with 21, only 14 of which are in 
Scotland ; Cupar, with 19 ; Dumfries, with 12 ; Dunfermline, with 13 ; Edinburgh, 
with 38 ; Elgin, with 15 ; Forfar, with 20 ; Glasgow, with 47, 1 of which is in Liver- 
pool ; Kilmarnock, with 24 ; Kirkcaldy, with 8 ; Lanark, with 10 ; Lancashire, London, 
and Newcastle, with respectively 6, 5, and 19, all of which are in England; Orkney, 
with 11 ; Perth, with 25 ; Selkirk, with 12 ; Stewartfield, with 11 ; Stirling and Fal- 
kirk, with 22 ; and Wigton, with 8. — The Relief synod is constituted similarly to the 
United Associate. Its presbyteries, in 1840, were Dumfries, with 8 congregations ; 
Dundee, with 6 ; Dysart, with 11 ; Edinburgh, with 13 ; Glasgow, with 20 ; Hamilton, 
with 13 ; Kelso, with 15, 6 of which are out of Scotland ; Newton- Stewart, with 4 ; 
Paisley, with 12 ; Perth, with 7 ; and St. Ninians, with 7. — The Reformed Presbyte- 
rian church is governed, like each of the two former bodies, by a synod. Its presbyte- 
ries, in 1840, were Edinburgh, with 7 congregations ; Glasgow, with -6 ; Kilmarnock, 
with 6 ; Dumfries, with 6 ; Newton- Stewart, with 4; and Paisley, with 6. — The Asso- 
ciate synod of Original Seceders comprehended, in 1840, the presbyteries of Aberdeen, 
with 6 congregations-; Ayr, with 7 ; Edinburgh, with 13 ; and Perth, with 8. — The 
Original Burgher Associate Synod, — a majority of which had just joined the Established 
church, — comprehended, in 1840, the presbyteries of Edinburgh, with 4 congregations ; 
Glasgow, with 5 ; and Perth and Dunfermline, with 2. — The congregations of the Inde- 
pendents, understood to be in connexion with the Congregational Union of Scotland, an 
association of the Independent churches for purposes of missionary effort and mutual 
recognition, amounted, in 1840, to 98 ; of which 7 were in the Orkney and the Shetland 
Islands ; 26 in the counties north of the Aberdeen Dee ; 20 in the counties of Kincar- 
dine, Forfar, Perth, Fife, Kinross, and Clackmannan ; 12 in the Lothians and Stirling- 
shire ; and 33 in the south-western and southern counties. — The Scottish Episcopal 
communion comprehended, in 1840, the dioceses of Edinburgh, with 13 congregations ; 
Glasgow, with 12 ; Aberdeen, with 20 ; Moray, Ross, and Argyle, with 15; Dunkeld, 
Dunblane, and Fife, with 9 ; and Brechin, with 9. The number of the clergy, including 
the bishops, was 88. — The Roman Catholic clergy in Scotland, in 1840, amounted to 5 
bishops and 68 priests, were located in 49 places, and distributed into three districts, — 
the eastern, with 2 bishops and 14 priests for its clergy, and Edinburgh for its centre 
of influence,— the western, with 2 bishops and 29 priests for its clergy, and Glasgow for 
its episcopal seat, — and the northern, with 1 bishop and 25 priests for its clergy, and 
Aberdeen as its ecclesiastical metropolis. 

The Reports of a Commission, who were appointed to inquire into the opportunities of 



religious worship, the means of religious instruction, and the pastoral superintendence 
afforded to the people of Scotland, who made inquiries by correspondence and research 
into various matters affecting every parish in the country, and who made personal and 
minute investigation in all the parishes in which any deficiency of ecclesiastical appli- 
ances was alleged to exist, — the Reports of this Commission, published in 1837 and 1838, 
and extending to 9 folio volumes, have enabled us to intersperse through every part of the 
alphabetical arrangement important information in ecclesiastical statistics, and now fur- 
nish us with materials for a rapid and luminous summary view of the ecclesiastical con- 
dition of the country. The parishes personally visited, and specially reported on by the 
Commissioners, were 552 in number ; and, except in the broad feature of alleged defi- 
ciency in the amount of their moral mechanism, they may be regarded as fairly repre- 
senting the whole country. — The first and the second Reports are so almost exclusively 
occupied with matter respecting Edinburgh, Leith, and Glasgow, that to borrow from 
them here would only be to repeat what is stated in our articles on these towns. — The 
fourth Report is devoted to 74 parishes in the Highlands and Islands, 22 of which are in 
the synod of Argyle, 26 in that of Glenelg, 19 in that of Sutherland and Caithness, and 
7 in that of Ross. Ecclesiastical surveys of these parishes exhibited their population to 
be about 180,538, and classified them into about 159,150 churchmen, 14,680 dissenters, 
and 146 persons not known to belong to any religious denomination. Alleged deficiency 
in their means of pastoral instruction was ascribed in most instances to various causes, — 
in 10, to excess of population ; in 61, to excess of territory ; in 61, to obstructed access ; 
in 10, to inconvenient distribution of territory ; in 12, to a minister having to officiate 
in more than one church ; in 5, to the church's occupying an inconvenient site ; in 28, 
to its being of incompetent size ; in 5, to its being in a ruinous condition ; in 3, to its 
unequal allotment of sittings ; in 4, to the exaction of seat-rents ; and in 3, to the want 
of endowments. Sittings in the parish churches amounted to 40,672, and in dissenting 
churches to 8,078, — in all, 48,750. In some of the parishes, religious instruction, addi- 
tional to that connected with the regular ministry, is afforded by means of missionaries, 
catechists, Sunday schools, and week-day religious schools.- — The fifth Report is devoted 
to 103 parishes in the northern counties ; 5 of which are in the synod of Glenelg, 29 in 
that of Moray, 55 in that of Aberdeen, and 14 in that of Angus and Mearns. Their 
ecclesiastically stated population consisted of about 210,137 churchmen, about 41,959 
dissenters, and about 6,520 nondescripts, — in all, 284,727 persons. Sittings in the 
Establishment, about 86,304 ; in dissenting churches, about 51,300. Alleged deficiency 
was ascribed in 34 instances, to excess of population ; in 44, to excess of territory ; in 
30, to obstructed access ; in 24, to inconvenience in the form of parishes ; in 4, to plu- 
rality in the churches of a minister ; in 9, to a church's inconvenience of site ; in 31, to 
its inadequacy of size ; in 23, to its unequal allotment of sittings ; in 6, to the badness 
of its condition ; in 24, to the exaction of seat-rents ; and in 24, to the want of endow- 
ments. — The sixth Report treats of 99 parishes, in the counties of Forfar, Perth, Stir- 
ling, and Fife ; 27 of which are in the synod of Angus and Mearns, 50 in that of Perth 
and Stirling, and 22 in that of Fife. Population, about 306,563 ; consisting of about 
180,341 churchmen, about 72,297 dissenters, and about 10,936 nondescripts. Sittings 
in the Establishment, about 84,679 ; in dissenting churches, about 72,892. Alleged 
deficiency was ascribed, in 29 instances, to excess of population ; in 30, to excess of 
parochial territory ; in 20, to obstructed access ; in 24, to inconvenience in the form of 
parishes ; in 5, to plurality of a minister's churches ; in 15, to a church's inconvenience 
of site ; in 39, to its inadequacy of accommodation ; in 12, to the unequal allotment of 
its sittings ; in 3, to the badness of its condition ; in 25, to the exaction of seat-rents ; 
and in 26, to the want of endowments. — The seventh Report treats of 99 parishes in the 
Lothians, and the southern counties ; 29 of which are in the synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale, 23 in that of Merse and Teviotdale, 15 in that of Dumfries, 19 in that of 
Galloway, and 13 in that of Glasgow and Ayr. Ecclesiastically stated population, about 
167,363 churchmen, about 64,066 dissenters, and about 6,738 nondescripts, — in all, 
about 255,874. Sittings in the Establishment, about 67,319 ; in dissenting churches, 
about 57,812. Alleged deficiency was ascribed, in 32 instances, to excess of population ; 
in 34, to largeness of territory ; in 9, to obstructed access ; iu 18, to inconvenience in 
the form of parishes ; in 2, to a minister's plurality of churches ; in 11, to a church's 
inconvenience of site ; in 61, to its inadequacy of accommodation ; in 55, to the unequal 
allotment of its sittings ; in 17, to the badness of its condition ; in 3, to the exaction of 


seat-rents ; and in 20, to the want of endowments. — The eighth Report is devoted to 106 
parishes, in the counties of Ayr, Lanark, Renfrew, Dumbarton, Argyle, and Orkney ; 
65 of which are in the synod of Glasgow and Ayr, 18 in that of Argyle, 11 in that of 
Orkney, and 12 in that of Shetland. Population, about 192,864 churchmen, 94,772 
dissenters, and 16,459 nondescripts, — in all, about 376,452. Sittings in the Establish- 
ment, about 98,746 ; in dissenting churches, about 83,549. Alleged deficiency was 
ascribed, in 55 instances, to excess of population ; in 61, to excess of territory ; in 32, to 
obstructed access ; in 17, to inconvenience in the form of parishes ; in 27, to a minister's 
plurality of churches ; in 10, to a church's inconvenience of site ; in 60, to its inadequacy 
of accommodation ; in 19, to the unequal allotment of its sittings ; in 8, to the badness 
of its condition ; in 30, to the exaction of seat-rents ; and in 31, to the want of endow- 
ments. — The third Report relates wholly to teinds. Scottish teinds are all predial, and 
are divided into parsonage or the greater teinds, consisting of the tithe of victual or 
grain, and vicarage or the lesser teinds, consisting of the tithe of grass, flax, hemp, 
butter, cattle, eggs, and some other articles. The tithes of fish are, in a few places, 
exigible ; but, along with all the vicarage teinds, they are so inconsiderable as not to be 
included in the Commissioners' arithmetical calculations. The parsonage teinds are 
held by the Crown, by universities, by pious foundations, by lay titulars, or by the pro- 
prietors of the lands from which they are due ; and, with the limitation that those of one 
parish cannot, to any amount, be transferred to another parish, they are, in all cases, 
exigible as payment of the stipends which have been provided by law, or which may, in 
future, be awarded by the court of teinds. Those now belonging to the Crown are in 
value £38,051 0s. 4d., which formerly belonged to the bishops ; £5,323 3s. lid., which 
formerly belonged to the chapel royal ; and £2,523 5s. 10d., which formerly belonged to 
the abbacy of Dunfermline, — in all, £45,897 10s. Id. Of this sum, £30,155 17s. 
8d., are appropriated to ministers' stipends. Of the unappropriated amount, the free 
yearly surplus, after necessary deductions, is only £10,182 4s. 8d., and the actual 
receipt, in consequence of mismanagement, is a pitiful trifle. Teinds belonging to other 
parties than the Crown, amount to £281,384 14s. Of this sum, £146,942, are appro- 
priated to ministers' stipends, leaving £138,186 17s. 6d. unappropriated. In 872 
parishes, payment of the stipends is made from the teinds ; in each of 196 of these, the 
teinds are less in value than £158 6s. 8d. ; and in each of 206, while amounting to 
£158 6s. 8d. and upwards, they are so low as to have been all appropriated. — The ninth 
and last Report, relates to revenues and endowments. In those parishes whose teinds 
are less in value than £158 6s. 8d., the stipend is raised to that amount or upwards, by 
payment from the exchequer. In quoad civilia burgh parishes, stipend is for the most 
part paid from the burgh funds ; and in Edinburgh, and a few other towns, it is paid 
from funds specially levied under act of parliament. In quoad sacra parliamentary 
parishes, the stipend is a fixed allowance for each of £120 from the exchequer ; and in 
other quoad sacra parishes, it is paid chiefly from seat-rents, and, in some instances, 
partly from the church-door collections. Except in a few peculiar cases, the ministers 
of quoad civilia parishes, either altogether or parti j landward, are entitled to manses and 
glebes ; and, in a few instances, they receive a money allowance in lieu of one or both. 
In parishes which, while the teinds are low, confer no right to either manse or glebe, an 
allowance is made from the exchequer, to raise the stipend to £200 ; and in those which, 
in the circumstances, confer a right only to a manse, or to a glebe, but not to both, an 
allowance from the same source makes the stipend £180. Ministers of the parliamen- 
tary churches are entitled by law each to a house and half-an-acre of garden ground ; 
and, in the majority of instances, they have been provided by the heritors with glebes. 
In numerous parishes, the ministers have rights of grazing, or cutting turf and peats, 
and several other privileges, of aggregately little value. In quoad civilia country parishes, 
the area of the churches belongs to the heritors, and is generally divided by them among 
the tenants and cottagers on their estates ; and when a surplus, or disposable number, 
of the seats is let, the proceeds are, in some instances, appropriated by the heritors for 
their private use, and, in others, given to the poor. In quoad civilia burgh parishes, 
seat-rents are, in general, exacted for all, or nearly all, the pews ; and are either em- 
ployed for stipend, or drawn as common burgh revenue. In the parliamentary churches, 
seat-rents were originally designed to be generally exigible, and to be applied in main- 
taining the repair of the churches and manses ; but they are, in every case, collected 
with difficulty, and, in some instances, have been entirely abandoned. In other quoad 


sacra churches, and in all but a very small number of the churches of the dissenters, 
seat-rents are generally, and, for the most part, easily levied, and are employed in pay- 
ment of stipend, of the interest and principal of debt, and of other necessary congrega- 
tional expenses. Ordinary collections, or those made every Sabbath, at the doors of the 
Establishment's places of ■worship, are, in the case of most of the quoad civilia parishes, 
wholly applied, after the deduction of certain small parochial charges, to the relief of 
the poor ; and, in the case of the quoad sacra parishes, and, by consent of the heritors, 
in the case of a few of the quoad civilia, they are applied in the same manner as the 
seat-rents. Extraordinary collections, or those made only at considerable intervals, and 
on special occasions, are known but partially in the Establishment, and more generally 
among the dissenters ; and are applied, for the most part, to missionary, educational, 
and philanthropic, and, in a majority of instances, to ultra-congregational purposes.— 
The number of ministers of the Establishment, as exhibited in the Commissioners' 
Report, excludes all missionaries, and also, with one exception, all assistants, and 
amounts to 1,072. The aggregate amount of their stipends, on an average of 7 years 
preceding 1836, is, from parson teinds, £170,393 10s. 3d., — from vicarage teinds, so far 
as they are paid in money, or have been valued, £712 19s. 8d., — and from other 
sources, £51,345 5s. 0d., — making a total of £231,451 4s. lid. The aggregate annual 
value of glebes, exclusive of a few not valued by the ministers, is £19,168 15s. 3d. The 
amount of seat-rents in all the Establishment's places of worship, during the year 1835, 
was £38,901 9s. 7d. ; and of the ordinary and the extraordinary collections, so far as 
ascertained for the same year, respectively £44,394 2s. 3d., and £13,726 8s. 9d. 

A satisfactory outline of the ecclesiastical history of Scotland, would occupy twenty or 
fifty times more space than we can spare. Its greatest elements would be critical remark 
on the date of the introduction of Christianity to Scotland ; a view — partly given in 
our article on Icolmkill — of the character, discipline, and history of the Culdees ; an 
examination of the rise and expansion of diocesan episcopacy ; an exhibition of the 
inroads, methods of conquest, early condition, successive development, history, institu- 
tions, and corruptions of Romanism ; a careful tracery of the multitudinous and engross- 
ing events and changes of the Reformation, and of the struggles which presbyterianism 
maintained against popery, and especially against protestant prelacy, till the Revolution ; 
and a rapid sketch of the rise and early history of each of the Scottish dissenting sects. 
Much of the most interesting parts of each of these elements, excepting the first, will be 
found interspersed with the body of our work ; and wherever it occurs, will be clearly 
understood without the aid of connecting links of narrative. Very frequently, however, 
in connexion with the monastic class of the Romish institutions, allusions and names 
occur which, as the institutions were in some instances peculiar to Scotland, will not be 
intelligible except with the aid of some explanatory statements. — The conventual orders, 
or different bodies of the regular clergy of the Romish church in Scotland, were very 
various, and were early introduced. The friars, while they lived in convents, were pro- 
fessed strolling mendicants ; and, in consequence of their astutely watching every oppor- 
tunity of visiting the sick in their clerical character, and sedulously improving it, in their 
mendicant capacity, for drawing largesses and bequests from the wealthy, they amassed 
an incredible amount of property, and eventually made themselves the envy of the nobi- 
lity, who could not cope with them in opulence and influence, — of the secular or paro- 
chial clergy, who were ostensibly provided for, and saw the friars superseding them, — 
and of the monks, or second great class of the conventual orders, who were forbidden, by 
most of their rules, to go out of their monasteries, and could receive only such donations 
as excessive fanatics carried to their cells. Yet all the other great classes — which were 
canons-regular, monks, nuns, and canons-secular, — made acquisitions of property which 
were exceedingly, and even monstrously great, in their circumstances, and which ap- 
peared moderate only when compared with those of the friars. — The canons-regular of 
St. Augustine had 28 monasteries in Scotland, and were first established at Scone, in 
the year 1114, by Atewalpus, prior of St. Oswald of Hostel, in Yorkshire, and introduced 
at the desire of Alexander I. — The canons-regular of St. Anthony, wore neither an 
almuce nor a rochet, both of which were used by the other canons-regular, and they 
called their houses hospitals, and their governors preceptors ; but they had in Scotland 
only one monastery, noticed in our article on Leith. — The red friars pretended to be 
canons-regular, but were denied the title by many of their adversaries ; and they vari- 
ously bore the names of Matharines, from their house at Paris, which was dedicated to 


St. Matharine, of Trinity friars, and of friars ' De Redemptione Captivorum,' from their 
professing to redeem Christian captives from the Turks. Their houses were called hos- 
pitals or ministries, and their superiors ' ministri ; ' their mode of living was similar to 
that of the canons of St. Victor at Paris ; their habit was white, with a red and blue 
cross patee upon their scapular ; and one-third of their revenues was expended in ransom- 
ing captives. They were established by St. John of Malta, and Felix de Valois ; their 
first Scottish foundation was erected in Aberdeen, by William the Lion ; and they had 
in Scotland 6 monasteries in 1209, and 13 at the Reformation. — The Premonstratenses 
had their name from their principal monastery, Premonstratum, in the diocese of Laon 
in France ; and were also called Candidus Ordo, because their garb was entirely white. 
They followed the rule of St. Augustine, a copy of which they fabled to have been 
delivered to them in golden letters by himself ; and were founded by St. Norbert, an 
archbishop of Magdeburg, who procured for himself, and his successors in the see, the 
title of primate of Germany. Their monasteries in Scotland were six. — The Benedic- 
tines, or Black monks, had their names respectively from that of their founder, and from 
the colour of their habit. St. Benedict, or Bennet, was born at Nirsi, a town of Italy, 
about the year 480, and was the first who brought monachism into estimation in the 
west. Five orders who followed his rule had monasteries in Scotland. — The Black 
monks of Fleury had 3 Scottish monasteries ; and took their name and origin from the 
abbacy of Fleury la Riviere, on the river Loire, in France. — The Tyronenses, the second 
order of Benedictines, had 6 Scottish monasteries ; and took their name from their first 
abbey, Tyronium, or Tyron, in the diocese of Chartres in France, where they were set- 
tled in 1109, under the auspices of Betrou, Earl of Perche and Montagne. — The Clu- 
niacences, the third order of Benedictines, had 4 monasteries in Scotland, and originated 
with Berno, who began to reform the Benedictines, or to frame some new constitutions, 
about the year 940, and who built a new abbey near Cluny, or Cluniacum, in Burgundy, 
4 leagues from Macon. — The Cistertians, or Bernardines, the fourth order of Benedic- 
tines, had their names respectively from their first house and chief monastery at Cister- 
tium, in Burgundy, and from St. Bernard, one of their earliest chief abbots, whose zeal 
succeeded in founding upwards of 160 monasteries. They originated in 1098, with 
Robert, abbot of Molesme, in the diocese of Langres in France ; and were called White 
monks, in contradistinction to the other orders of Benedictines, and in consequence of 
retaining only the black cowl and scapular of St. Bennet, and having all the rest of their 
habit white. Of 30 provinces into which they were divided, Scotland was one, and it 
contained 13 of their monasteries. — The monks of Vallis-caulium, Vallis-olerum, or Val- 
des-cheux, were established in 1193, by "V'irard, at the place which gave them name, in 
the diocese of Langres, between Dijon and Autun ; they were a professed reform of the 
Cistertians, and very austere ; and they were introduced to Scotland, in 1230, by Mal- 
voisin, bishop of St. Andrews, and had here 3 monasteries. — The Carthusian monks 
were established, in 1086, by Bruno, a doctor of Paris, and a canon of Rheims, in the 
wild mountains of Grenoble in France ; they originated professedly in miracle, and 
manifestly in excessive superstition, and were characterized by very great austerities ; 
they were introduced to England in 1180, but they had in Scotland only one monastery, 
founded near Perth, in 1429, by James I., after his captivity in England. — The Gilber- 
tines were, in the first instance, all nuns ; but they afterwards had accessions from the 
canons-regular, who were domiciled under the same roofs as the nuns, but in separate 
apartments. Gilbert, their founder, was born in the reign of William the Conqueror, 
and was the son of a gentleman of Normandy, and lord of Sempringham and Tynrington 
in Lincolnshire ; and he is said to have spent all his substance and patrimony in such 
acts of charity as were dictated by his diseased religion, and particularly in converting 
distressed and poor young women into nuns of his order. The nuns were bound to 
observe constant silence in the cloister ; and they were not admitted to their novitiate 
till they were 15 years of age, and could not be professed before having fully on their 
memory the psalms, hymns, and antiphona used in the Romish ritual. Though the 
Gilbertines had 21 houses in England, they had only one in Scotland, situated on the 
river Ayr, founded by Walter III., Lord High-steward of Scotland, and supplied with 
its nuns and canons from Syxle in Yorkshire. — The Templars, or Red friars, were an 
order of religious knights, and followed the rule of St. Augustine, and the constitution 
of the canons-regular of Jerusalem. They were established at Jerusalem in 1118, by 
Hugo de Paganis, and Gaufridus de Sancto Aldemaro ; they professed to defend the 


temple and city of Jerusalem, to entertain Christian strangers and pilgrims, and to pro- 
tect them while in Palestine ; and they received from Baldwin II., king of Jerusalem, 
a residence in the vicinity of the temple, or its site, and thence had their name of Tem- 
plars. To a white hahit which, in every particular, distinguished their exterior, Pope 
Eugenius III. added a red cross of stuff sewed upon their cloaks ; and from this they 
were called Red friars. They had enormous possessions, and numbered, throughout 
Christendom, upwards of 9,000 houses. In Scotland, they had houses, farms, or lands, 
in almost every parish ; and, in particular, they possessed very many buildings in Edin- 
burgh and Leith, and had upwards of 8 capital mansions in the country. They are 
believed to have been introduced to Scotland by David I. ; those in this country and in 
England were under the government of one general prior ; and, in common with all the 
other communities of their order, they were, in the year 1312, condemned for certain 
great crimes, by a general council held at Vienne in France, and were formally sup- 
pressed by Pope Clement V. — The Knights of St. John of Jerusalem closely resembled 
the Templars in professed character, and were a sort of noble military monks. Certain 
merchants of the city of Melphi, in the kingdom of Naples, who traded to Palestine, 
built, under permission of the Caliph of Egypt, a monastery and a church for the recep- 
tion of Christian pilgrims, and paid the Caliph tribute for his protection ; and they sub- 
sequently added two churches, dedicated respectively to the Virgin Mary and Mary 
Magdalene, and used them for the pompously charitable reception, the one of women, 
and the other of men. When Jerusalem was taken by Godfrey of Bouillon, Gerard of 
Martiques, a native of Provence in France, built, in 1104, a still larger church, and an 
hospital for pilgrims and the sick, and dedicated them to St. John. The soldier-monks 
of the original erections were put in possession of these buildings, and took from them 
the names of Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, Knights- Hospitallers, and Johannites. 
After being expelled from Jerusalem by Saladin, they retired to the fortress of Margat 
in Phenicia, and subsequently settled, at successive epochs, at Acre or Ptolemais, and 
in the islands of Cyprus, Rhodes, and Malta ; and in the last of these they continued, 
and from it took the name of the Knights of Malta, till their power was broken, and the 
island captured, during the last European war. They were inveterate and sturdy foemen 
of the Turks, and figure largely in the military history of the Ottoman empire. Their 
members, excepting some illegitimate sons of kings and princes, were all gentlemen, who 
proved by charters, or other authentic documents, their nobility of descent by both 
father and mother, for four generations. They took the three ordinary monastic vows, 
and wore a black habit, with a cross of gold, which had eight points. Their houses 
were called preceptories, and the principal officers in them preceptors. On the suppres- 
sion of the order of Templars, the Knights of St. John got many of their Scottish lands 
and tenements, and, in consequence, are frequently confounded with them in Scottish 
history. Their chief dwelling in Scotland was at Torphichen in Linlithgowshire. When 
buildings belonging to them were feued out to seculars, they used great care that the 
cross of their order should constantly surmount the houses, in evidence that the posses-- 
sors were subject to them, and were amenable only to their courts. The same practice 
was previously observed by the Templars ; and it accounts for the great number of 
crosses which j till a late date, might have been seen, and which, in some instances, still 
exist, on the tops of old buildings in Edinburgh, Leith, and Linlithgow. — The Domini- 
cans, or Black friars, have, for six centuries, been one of the most considerable of the 
Romish orders of regular clergy. They are often called Preaching friars, from the cir- 
cumstance of their having longer attended to preaching than any of the other orders. 
They may preach anywhere without obtaining the permission of the bishops ; they are 
allowed to confess all noblemen and ladies without the consent of their curates ; and 
they everywhere administer the sacraments, and are exempted from all ecclesiastical 
censures. Their habit is a white gown and scapular. Their founder was St. Dominic, 
the infamous projector or institutor of the inquisition. This monster devoted himself 
and his followers to what he and his fellow- Romanists called the conversion of heretics ; 
and he preached and conducted the earliest of the sanguinary crusades against the good 
and amiable Waldenses. The order was divided into 45 provinces ; of which Scotland 
was the 18th, and contained 15 convents. Though they were professedly mendicants, 
they were found, at the breaking up of their Scottish communities, to have amassed in 
this country a shameful amount of property. — The Franciscans, or Grey friars, also pro- 
fessed mendicants, had their two leading names from their founder, and from the colour 


of their habit ; and affected to assume the title of Friars Minors, or Minorites, as if 
deeming themselves the least or meanest of their function. Their founder was St. 
Francis of Assize in Italy, a merchant, and a consummately frantic fanatic, who flour- 
ished at the commencement of the 13th century ; and their superiors were called Custo- 
des or Wardens. They were divided into Conventuals and Observantines ; the latter of 
whom were a reform, in 1419, by Bernardine of Sienna, and had their name from pro- 
fessing to observe St. Francis' rule more strictly than the Conventuals, by always walk- 
ing bare-footed, and not wearing any linen. The Conventuals were introduced to Scot- 
land in 1219, and had 8 convents in the country. The Observantines were introduced 
by James I., in a colony from their vicar-general at Cologne, and had here 9 convents. 
— The Carmelites, or White friars, were the third order of wandering mendicants ; and 
absurdly pretend to trace up their origin to the schools of the prophets in the age of 
Elijah. They have their second name from the colour of their outer garment ; and their 
first from Mount Carinel in Syria, which abounds in dens, caves, and other sorts of 
hiding-holes, and was a favourite retreat both of some of the earliest anchorites under 
the Christian dispensation, and of numerous pilgrims during the period of the crusades. 
St. Louis, king of France, when returning from Palestine, brought some of the Mount 
Carmel ascetics to Europe, and gave them an abode in the outskirts of Paris. The Car- 
melites were divided into 32 provinces, of which Scotland was the 13th ; and they were 
introduced to the country in the reign of Alexander III., and had here 9 convents. — The 
nuns of Scotland were few compared either with the Scottish male regulars, or with their 
own proportionate numbers in other lands. Those who followed the rule of Augustine 
had only two convents in this country, the one of Canonesses, and the other of Domini- 
can nuns. The Benedictine, or Black nuns, followed the rule of Benedict, were founded 
by his sister St. Scholastica, and had in Scotland 5 convents. The Bernardine, or Cis- 
tertian nuns, likewise followed the rule of St. Benedict, and had 13 convents. The nuns 
of St. Francis, or Claresses, were founded by Clara, a lady of Assize in Italy, who 
received from St. Francis himself a particular modification of his rule, full of rigour and 
austerity ; and they had in Scotland only two houses. — The Secular canons, or conven 
tual bodies of the secular clergy, formed communities which were called Prfepositurse, 
or Collegiate churches ; and were governed by a dean or provost. Each collegiate 
church was instituted for performing religious service, and singing masses for the souls 
of the founder and patrons, or their friends ; it was fitted up with several degrees or 
stalls which the officiates occupied for an orderly or systematic singing of the canonical 
hours ; it had for its chapter, the governing dean or provost, and the other canons who 
bore the name of prebendaries ; and, in general, it was erected either by the union and 
concentration in it of several parish churches, or by the union and concentration of 
several chaplainries instituted under one roof. The number of Collegiate churches in 
Scotland was 33. — Hospitals, for receiving strangers and travellers, or maintaining the 
poor and the infirm, were the lowest order of ecclesiastical establishments, and had the 
accompaniment of a church or chapel. Keith gives a list of 28 which existed in Scot- 
land ; but says he is convinced the list might be vastly augmented. 


The Universities of Scotland are, in most particulars, sufficiently noticed in our arti- 
cles on St. Asdkews, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh, the cities in which they are 
situated. All, except that of Edinburgh, existed before the Reformation ; and that of 
St. Andrews is illustriously associated with the name of Melville, and makes an honour- 
able figure in the history of the revival of literature. A Senatus Academicus, consisting 
of the several professors, wields, in each of the Universities, the power of conferring 
degrees, of determining or modifying the academical curriculum, of controlling all mat- 
ters of academical interest, and of enforcing or correcting the disciplinarian proceedings 
of each individual professor. In Edinburgh, the patronage of nearly all the chairs is 
vested in the Town-council of the city ; but in the other Universities, it is possessed by 
the Senatus Academicus. Power, in general exterior matters, is in Edinburgh wielded 
by the Town-council, either in their own name, or in that of a nominal Lord-rector of 
the University, who is always ex-officio the Lord-provost of the city ; and, in St. Andrews, 
Glasgow, and Aberdeen, it is wielded chiefly and substantially by a Lord-rector annually 
chosen by the students, and subordinately or in an honorary way, by a chancellor chosen 


for life by the Senatus. The professors in all the Universities are required by law to be 
members of the Established church, and to subscribe her standards. The students, on 
the contrary, are admitted to the classes,, carried through the curriculum, and held 
eligible for every academical honour, without reference to creeds or sects. Exclu- 
sive of some medical and other lectureships, so constituted as to be rather appendages 
than integral parts, the number of professorships in all Scotland is 71 ;. and, exclusive 
of the attendance on the lectureships,, the entire number of students may be esti- 
mated at about 4,000, — three-sevenths of the whole belonging to Edinburgh, seven- 
eighteenths to Glasgow, and the proportion of 23 in 126 jointly to St. Andrews and 
Aberdeen. — The parochial school system of Scotland theoretically requires that there 
should be at least one school in each parish. When, toward the close of the 17th cen- 
tury, the system was legislated by act of parliament, it became, except in the remote 
Highland parishes, very promptly and generally adopted ; and from its general preva- 
lence, and its apparently high adaptation to bring out results in every part of the king- 
dom, it long earned for Scotland's population the fame of being the best educated people 
in the world. The system, however, was slowly and reluctantly discovered to possess 
many defects, both intrinsic and extrinsic ; it has been eked out in the sequestered dis- 
tricts by many and vigorous ultraneous appliances, and superseded in the large towns by 
burgh-schools and association-academies ; and though continuing to confer important 
advantages, has confessedly allowed other and younger countries silently to overtop 
Scotland in the laurel of her peculiar boast. At present, considerably the majority of the 
quoad civilia parishes have each one parochial school ; some have two ; a few have three ; 
and those in the large towns, or in nearly all towns of more than 3,000 or 4,000 popula- 
tion, either have none, or impose upon burgh or subscription schools the misnomer of 
parochial. The schoolmasters of the bona fide parochial schools are appointed by the 
landholders and clergy ; they require to be members of the Established church, and they 
are under the superintendence of the presbytery of their bounds. Their remuneration 
as a body is shamefully disproportioned to the required amount and value of their quali- 
fications, to the high importance of their profession, or to the laboriousness and deeply 
influential nature of their duties ; and, in consequence of the illiberality or blundering of 
the last act of parliament on the subject, and of the niggard rigidness with which the 
act's provisions are for the most part executed, it, in many instances, fails, even with all 
aids from fees and from the emoluments of attached or superinduced offices, to raise the 
outward condition of a schoolmaster above that of a peasant. Exclusive of assistants, 
and of the teachers of all or most of the third, and a considerable proportion of those of 
the second schools, in parishes which have more schools than one, the schoolmasters have 
each a salary not exceeding £34 4s. 4£d-, and not less than between £25 and £26, a 
free dwelling-house and a school-room, and fees per quarter which may be stated rather 
above than below the average for all Scotland, at from Is. 6d. to 2s. 6d. for English 
reading, from 2s. to 3s. 6d. for English reading and writing, from 2s. 6d. to 4s. for Eng- 
lish reading, writing, and arithmetic, from 3s. to 10s. 6d. for mathematics, from 2s. to 
7s. 6d. for Latin, from 5s. to 10s. 6d. for Latin and Greek, and from 5s. to 10s. 6d. for 
French. The average incomes, from salaries, fees, and additional emoluments, exclu- 
sive of house and garden, or money in lieu of them, of all the parochial teachers, not 
including assistants, was ascertained by a late return to be £52 17s. ; a sum so small as 
to bring down the average for at least one-half of their number to probably not more 
than £30 or £35. Among the augments to the means of education which have been 
made to help out the utter inadequacy of the parochial system, are several classes of 
endowed or extraneously supported schools, noticed in our article on the Highlands, — 
the General Assembly's subscription schools, commenced in 1824, and numbering 20 in 
the Lowlands, — the high-schools and grammar-schools of the larger burghs, generally 
under the patronage of the local magistrates, and, in the majority of instances, well pro- 
vided with a plurality of teachers, and not scurvied over with the leprous touch of the 
niggard, — some proprietary, or public association-academies, erected in a style of literary 
splendour, conducted on expansive, liberal, and reforming principles, and exerting a 
powerful influence for the rapid demolition of antiquated mechanician modes of tuition, 
— a lew schools supported by a munificent bequest of the late Dr. Bell of Madras, — and 
many well-appointed, and somewhat fairly supported, congregational schools, connected 
with individual congregations among the dissenters. A prodigious amount, however, or 
by far the greater part of the non-parochial schools, — an amount considerably greater 



than the aggregate one of even the- parochial schools, themselves,— consists of schools 
begun and conducted wholly by the private, adventure of their teachers. Many of these- 
are of highly creditable character, and bring, from mere fees, a much greater revenue 
than the average income of the parochial schoolmasters ; many, also, are checked by the 
supervision, of a competent,, though altogether voluntary and conventional sanction ; but 
most are altogether pitiful imitations, some of them even hideous or farcical caricatures, 
of elementary schools, in all respects irresponsible, in many respects deleterious ; and 
"while, in. a painful mass of instances,, the schools are presided over only by pedantic 
ignorance, or industrious penury, they yield, often even when merit superintends them, 
so very scanty an income, that one wonders how it should tempt the labours of even the 
pedant or the enfeebled peasant. Non-parochial schools are to the parochial as 41 to, 
12 ; and if probably about one-tenth of their whole number be deducted, they almost 
certainly — though we have no precise data for a calculation — ^yield an average income 
at least one-third less than that of the parochial schoolmasters. When the exceedingly 
motley character, and the disgracefully low revenues of the schools of Scotland are duly 
adverted to, the most superficial fair thinker, while aware that multitudes of excellent 
or superior scholars must be produced, will be at no loss to see that the Scottish people 
as a whole are at the mercy of great blundering and incompetence, and possess in many 
instances few, and in some instances none, of the advantages which would from 
some general, well-constructed, competent and liberal system of education. The propor- 
tions in which the higher departments of tuition are appreciated and patronized in Scot- 
land, may probably be inferred from a return made to the General Assembly of the 
results of presbyterial examination of schools in 1839. The schools examined were in 
237 instances non-parochial ; and, including these, they were aggregately attended by 
152,281 scholars, — of whom 524 were learning Greek, 1,053 French, 3,201 Latin, 2,301 
mathematics, and 13,120 geography. The following table shows, from a parliamentary 
report published in 1837, and founded on returns made by the parochial clergy, the 
number and the county distribution of schools and teachers in Scotland, and the aggre- 
gate amount of the parish schoolmaster^ salaries. 


No. of 

No. of 


Total Incomes, 

including Salaries, 

Fees, and other 


No. of 




No. of 











£2,509 17 

1,347 16 

1,624 12 

761 18 

1,049 16 

181 9 

345 17 

159 6 

412 1 

1.641 16 

1,183 19 

688 17 

1,831 18 

1,717 18 

858 5 

877 U 

670 16 

170 17 

1,163 10 

1,611 18 

426 8 

137 17 

738 6 

494 3 

2,384 15 

463 7 

9S3 7 

1,144 15 

165 10 

956 14 

420 6 

516 18 















£4.873 14 104, 

2,401 6 7 

3,485 9 11^ 

1,304 10 7l 

2,224 14 64. 

320 9 10 J 

639 14 3} 

307 10 6i 

714 8 114. 

2,968 3 1 

2,518 13 84. 

1,044 13 5 

3,576 2 If 

3,353 16 6J 

1,784 3 3£ 

1,335 15 11 

1,168 13 11 

338 7 1 

2,223 14 7f 

3,868 19 2i 

845 16 If 

189 17 64 

928 9 Hi 

853 8 84 

4,011 18 10f 

897 4 lOf 

1.421 5 54 

2,303 3 34 

351 10 ll| 

1,675 9 64 

574 5 lOf 

928 2 9f 















































































£29,642 18 


£55,339 17 IJ 




While these pages are passing through the press, an additional document has reached 
us, in a thick volume, ordered by the House of Commons to be printed, -which contains the 
answers made by schoolmasters in Scotland to returns circulated in 1838, by order of 
the Select Committee on Education. Of parochial schools, the number which returned 
answers is 924 ; and the number which did not return answers is 129 ; being 1,053 in 
all. Of the 924 which returned answers, there are 231 privately endowed, and 693 
unendowed ; and the average number of scholars stood thus : — In 1836, 36,808 males, 
20,524 females ; total, 57,332. In 1837, 39,604 males, 22,317 females ; total, 61,921. 
The number of teachers — of whom a few are only occasional assistants — is 1,054 ; and 
of these 206 have other occupation or employment. Of the 944 schools, there are 445 
in which Greek is taught ; Latin is taught in 664 ; and Mathematics in 689. Of schools 
not parochial, 2,329 returned answers, and 1,025 did not ; making altogether 3,354 
schools not parochial. Of the number which returned answers, 753 are stated to have 
endowments, and 1,318 are supported exclusively by school-fees. The number of 
scholars was : — In 1836, 68,771 males, 50,579 females ; total, 119,350. In 1837, 
78,867 males, 54,451 females ; total, 128,318. Greek is taught in 191 of these schools ; 
Latin in 501 ; and Mathematics in 6S3. The number of teachers is 2,940, of whom 703 
are females. There are only 12 of the parochial schools which returned answers in 
which Gaelic is taught, but it is taught in 239 of the non-parochial. 

The attendance on these schools, exclusive of that on private boarding-schools, and of 
children under the care of domestic tutors, amounts, at the maximum rate, and on the 
average for all Scotland, to one-ninth of the population. The greatest number of 
scholars at the parochial schools, was between the 25th of March and the 29th of Sep- 
tember, and, allowing a proportion for defective returns, was 71,426 ; and the least, at 
any period of the year, was 50,029. The greatest number at non-parochial schools was 
189,427 ; and the least was 139,327. The entire community of parochial and burgh 
schoolmasters, was established, by act of parliament in 1S07, into a sort of corporate 
body, and have a fund for the benefit of their widows and children, compulsorily sup- 
ported by a small annual contribution from each of the members. — Sabbath-schools in 
Scotland are educational only in the highest or the purely religious sense, and are, in 
all instances, voluntary, or conducted without any reference to State influence or sup- 
port. In 1825, they amounted throughout the country to 1,577 in number, and were 
attended by 80,190 scholars; and, though their statistics since that period have been 
imperfect and confused, they seem to have everywhere increased at least proportionately 
with the population, and to have been introduced or greatly multiplied in Highland or 
other sequestered districts. 


The literature of Scotland, as to standard and periodical publication, great or national 
literary institutions, and even minor appliances of production and diffusion, is, with 
unimportant exceptions, concentrated in Edinburgh and Glasgow, particularly the 
former ; and will be found sufficiently noticed in our accounts of these cities. The 
Lowland Scotch are eminently a reading people, and, in proportion to their bulk, have 
probably a very considerably larger number of public libraries than any other in the 
world. Subscription libraries — sometimes two or more in number, and generally large, 
select, and comparatively rich in literature — exist in most of the large towns ; parochial 
and congregational libraries, for the most part pervaded by religiousness of character, 
exist in villages, hamlets, and in rooms attached to the crowded chapel of the city, or 
the solitary rural church or meeting-house ; private circulating libraries, or libraries on 
private adventure, for letting out books to promiscuous readers, are usually of a light 
character, and abound in city, town, watering-place, and every locale or resort of the 
intellectually frivolous ; circumambulating libraries, or such as keep detachments of a 
very large and excellent library in garrison throughout the country, and periodically 
move them from post to post, are in full and benign possession of extensive territories ; 
Sabbath-school, and other juvenile libraries, exist in great numbers, for the use of the 
young ; and a public news-room, for blending literature with commerce, and with mental 
recreation, is to be found even in many a village, and in almost everything which can 
fairly be called a town. — The number of stamped newspapers in Scotland, in the year 
ending September, 1836, was 54 ; the number of stamps issued to them, was 2,654,438 ; 


and the amount of stamp duty received from them was £35,392. In the year ending 
loth September, 1837, the newspapers were 65 ; the stamps 4,123,330 ; and the duty 
£17.180. In the year ending 5th January, 1839, the newspapers were 64 ; the stamps 
4,228,370 ; and the duty £17,386 Is. 4d. In the half-year ending 30th June, 1839, 
the newspapers were 63 ; the stamps 1,908,780 ; and the duty £7,876 5s. 5d. At the 
last of these dates, 3 of the newspapers were published in Aberdeen, 2 in Arbroath, 2 in 
Ayr, 2 in Berwick, 2 in Cupar-Fife, 3 in Dumfries, 3 in Dundee, 12 in Edinburgh, 1 in 
Elgin, 1 in Forres, 12 in Glasgow, 2 in Greenock, 3 in Inverness, 2 in Kelso, 1 in 
Kilmarnock, 1 in Leith, 2 in Montrose, 1 in Paisley, 4 in Perth, 2 in Stirling, 1 in 
Stranraer, and 1 in Wick. Of the whole 63, no fewer than 46 were weekly ; while 5 
were published thrice a-week, and belonged to Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Greenock ; and 
12 were published twice a-week, and belonged to Edinburgh, Glasgow, Greenock, Kelso, 
and Leith. 


Scottish coinage cannot be traced higher than the twelfth century. Silver pennies 
were coined by William the Lion and his immediate successors ; and this and other 
silver coins continued to be the only currency till the reign of David II. During the 
whole of the Scoto- Saxon period, Scottish money was of the same fashion, weight, and 
fineness, as the English, bore the same denominations, and was, in all respects, coequal 
with it in value. David II., amid the feebleness and the wretched circumstances of his 
reign, coined groats, half-groats, pennies, and half-pennies, of silver, but so debased the 
coinage, that it was, for the first time, prohibited in England, or rated at a depreciated 
standard. The amount of deterioration was one-fifth of the whole value ; and was 
estimated nearly at that proportion in the calculations of the English. David's succes- 
sors not only followed his example, but carried out the principle of it with a boldness 
and a rapidity of expansion which excite surprise. Three, two, and one of the English 
pennies successively, and in speediness of change, became equal to four of the Scottish. 
The money of Scotland was at length carried so far along the career of deterioration, as, 
about the year 1600, to become only one-twelfth of the English in value ; and, at this 
miserably depreciated rate, it has ever since stood in abstract or comparative reckoning. 
Robert II., who ascended the throne in 1371, introduced gold pieces, and coined £17 
12s. out of one pound of gold. Mary coined royals of 10, 20, and 30 shillings, generally 
known under the name of Crookston dollars. James VI. coined merks, half merks, 
quarter merks, and half-quarter merks, and nobles and half nobles. Charles II. coined 
pieces of 4 merks and 2 merks, dollars of 56 shillings each in value, half-dollars, quarter 
dollars, half-quarter dollars, and sixteenths of dollars. James VII. coined 40 and 10 
shilling pieces ; and William and Mary pieces of 60, 40, 20, 10, and 5 shillings. At the 
epoch of the Union, nearly £900,000 existed in Scotland in the different coins of various 
nations ; and the whole specie was recoined in uniformity with the English standard, 
and, with very little addition of paper currency, put into circulation, to the permanent 
exclusion of the old and wofully depreciated coins. — Copper money, or billon, generally 
known by the name of black money, was introduced to Scotland a century and a-half 
before it appeared in England. The copper coins of James II., III., IV., and V.,— the 
largest of which is about the size of a modern shilling, but very thin, — were probably 
intended to pass for groats and half-groats. Mary coined placks, or fourpenny pieces ; 
James VI. coined bodies, or twopenny pieces, and hardheads, or threepenny pieces ; and 
Charles II., and William and Mary, besides repeating parts of the former coinage, 
coined bawbees. — The early weights and measures of Scotland were derived chiefly from 
England, during the 12th century ; and, whatever may have been their variety, they 
long continued to serve every practical end among an uncommercial people. The par- 
liament, desirous to maintain fairness and uniformity, appointed standards in the several 
departments ; and, probably with a reference to the respective manufactures of the 
burghs, assigned the keeping of the standard ell to Edinburgh, that of the reel to Perth, 
that of the pound to Lanark, that of the firlot to Linlithgow, and that of the jug to 
Stirling. Yet these standards seem to have been very carelessly kept, — so much so, 
that one of them was, for a long period, actually lost ; and they did not prevent 
the usages of Scotland from becoming discrepant with those of England, or even frorn 
atsuming various and perplexing local peculiarities. An uniformity of weights and 


measures was, from time to time, desiderated and attempted as a great social benefit % 
it was decreed by the act of Union to extend over both divisions of the United Kingdom ; 
and it was pleaded and abstractly exhibited in numerous elaborate pamphlets, which 
were fruitlessly lauded by the learned, and coolly neglected or stolidly gazed at by the 
ignorant. In spite of both laws and logic, the people remained so wedded to their prac- 
tices, that, till the recent introduction of Imperial weights and measures-, dissimilarities 
which arose during the torpidity and ignorance of the feudal times, continued, with 
many of the properties of an intricate puzzle, to perplex our theorists and embarrass our 


The number and variety of Druidical remains in Scotland are Yery great ; and they 
abound most in the recesses of Perthshire among the spurs of the Grampians, indicating 
these deep seclusions to have been the principal Scottish seat of the aboriginal superstition, 
Druidical altars are of two sorts, — flat stones, which are either upright or recumbent, — 
and cromlechs, which consist each of several stones usually placed upon their respective 
edges, and always supporting a large broad stone, so as to possess, jointly with it, a rude 
resemblance to a massive modern table ; and the altars of both sorts are numerous, and, 
for the most part, are connected with Druidical circles, or other Druidical works, — 
though the cromlechs occasionally appear in some deep solitude without any accompani- 
ment. Druidical cairns diifer from the better known sepulchral cairns, and may be 
distinguished from them by their connexion with other Druidical works, by their being 
usually fenced round the base with a circle of stones, by their being' approached along- 
an avenue of upright stones, and by their having each on its summit a large flat stone, 
en which the Druid fires were lighted. Rocking stones, which are huge blocks so poised 
as to be easily moved, or made to oscillate, and which excite the wonder of the vulgar, 
and have provoked controversies among the learned, are, in some instances, supposed to 
be natural curiosities, but on the whole are generally allowed — whether of natural or of 
artificial origin — to have been made the tools of the degenerate Druidical priesthood, 
for imposing on the savage and the superstitious ; and though not numerous, they occur 
with sufficient frequency to occupy a commanding place among the country's earliest 
antiquities. Druidical circles have, to a very great amount, been removed, since the 
epoch of georgical improvement, to make way for the plough ; yet they continue to exist 
in such wondrous plenty, and such great variety, as to render continued notices of them 
in accounts of parishes, monotonous and tiresome. — Sepulchral remains of the earliest 
inhabitants of Scotland, though they have to an enormous amount been swept away by 
the same cause which has thinned the Druidical circles, are still very numerously trace- 
able in almost every part of both the continent and the islands, and may be considered 
under the several distinctions of barrows, cairns, cistvaens, and urns, — the two former 
constituting tumuli, and the two latter their most remarkable contents. The tumuli, in 
most instances, are circular heaps, resembling flat cones ; and, in many instances, are 
oblong ridges, resembling the upturned or inverted hull of a ship. Most of them are 
composed of stones ; many of a mixture of stones and earth ; some wholly of earth ; and 
a few wholly or chiefly of sand. Cairns and barrows are mutually distinguished by the 
former being of stones and the latter of earth ; and both, when they are conical and 
covered with green sward, are vulgarly called hillocks. The tumuli are of uniform 
general character in all parts of Scotland and in England, the cairn prevailing in the 
northern division of the island, and the barrow in the southern, owing simply, as would 
seem, to the respective abundance on the surface of the countries of lapidose and of 
earthy substances ; and, in the very numerous instances in which they have been opened 
and explored, they have been found to contain the ashes, the hair, or the bones, of 
human bodies, either nakedly interred, or carefully shut up in cistvaens and urns. The 
cistvaen, in strict accordance with the meaning of the word in the British language, is a 
stone chest ; it is very various in size, and even in form ; it contains, for the most part, 
ashes and bones, and occasionally an urn ; and it very generally, among both the vulgar 
and the learned, bears the name of a stone-coffin. Urns are found generally in tumuli 
unenclosed in cistvaens, but occur also beneath the surface of level ground ; they are 
composed usually of pottery, and sometimes of stones ; and they are of different shapes 
and sizes, and according to the taste of the times or the ability of the parties concerned 


with tliem, are variously ornamented. — An occasional connexion, dictated apparently by 
policy, exists between the sepulchral tumuli and the Druidical circles ; and a connexion, 
both more frequent and more natural, exists between these tumuli and the British 
strengths.- — Akin to the simple and more common and plenteous sepulchral tumuli, are 
some large sepulchral cairns, which denote the fields of ancient conflicts. Besides being 
of comparatively large bulk, and having a comparative multiplicity of contents, these 
cairns are characterized by the vicinity of fragments of swords, of bows, and of flint- 
pointed arrows ; they have, on the whole, thrown a faint light on the remote martial 
history of Scotland ; and by the plurality of their occurrences among the bases of the 
mountain-rampart of the Highlands, they have contributed, along with some cognate an- 
tiquities, to evoke much controversy on the questio vexata as to the scene of the celebrated 
battle of the Grampians, Some of these cairns, which still remain, are called Cat-stanes ; 
and the same name- — which seems plainly to be derived from the British Cad, or the 
Scoto-Irish Cath, ' a battle' — is applied, in various instances, to single stones. — Numerous 
stones of memorial, or rude pillars, apparently very ancient, and raised by the same 
people as the Cat-stanes, exist in every district, and, in allusion to their upright position, 
are traditionally called standing-stones ; they are in their natural state, without the 
mark of any tool, and, of course, are very various in form ; they frequently appear 
single, and frequently, also, in groups of two, three, four, and even a greater number ; 
and, in general, from their wanting inscriptions and sculpturings, they have failed to 
transmit the events which they were reared to commemorate- Another class of standing- 
stones are of a later date, and are of two species,- — the one triumphal, and set up to 
commemorate some happy national event, such as a victory over the Danes ; the other 
Romishly monumental, and erected with the double design of noting the scene of a 
disaster, and of bespeaking the prayers of passengers for the souls of persons who, in the 
course of the disaster, were slain or otherwise perished : both kinds have sculptured on 
them the figure of a cross, with various knots of grotesque scroll-work, vulgarly deno- 
minated Danish Tangles ; and, in some instances, they are charged with a kind of hiero- 
glyphics.— British strengths, consisting of circular and oval hill-forts, and other safe- 
guards, are surprisingly numerous. Their situation in reference to the districts they 
command, their mutual or relative positions, and the accommodations attached to them, 
all indicate that they were constructed rather for the purpose of protection against the 
attacks of neighbouring and consanguineous tribes, than for that of repelling or checking 
an invading enemy. They occupy eminences in districts which, even in the earliest ages 
of Scottish population, must have been the most habitable and fructiferous ; they fre- 
puently appear in compact or not far dispersed groups of three, four, and even a larger 
number ; and they are so disposed in their groupings, that a view of all is obtained from 
the site of each, and that a larger and stronger one commands the rest from the centre, 
and seems to have been the distinguished post of the chief. The larger strengths were 
in many instances converted, at the Roman invasion, into Roman posts ; and the groups 
have often intruded among them Roman camps, which seem to have been constructed in 
astute perception of the nature of the ground, with the evident purpose of watching and 
overawing them. The forts are exceedingly various in area, strength, and details of 
construction ; but, in general, they consist of an interior central building, one, two, or 
three concentric ramparts, and one or two exterior ditches. Two ranges of small forts, 
each, in general, perched on the summit of a dome-like hill, or conical rising ground, 
extend along the north side of Antoninus' wall, — the one between the friths of Forth and 
Clyde, and the other along the lace of the country on the north bank of the Forth ; 
both, in the case of each of their forts, bear the name of Keir, evidently a corruption of 
the British Caer, 'a fort ;' and they appear, from local and comparative circumstances, a,s 
well as from an intimation by Tacitus, to have been the only Caledonian posts erected 
with the design of opposing the Roman progress. The ramparts of all the British forts 
were composed of dry stones and earth, without any appearance of mortar or cement ; 
and they varied in outline, from the circular or oval, to the wavingly irregular, accord- 
ing to the figure of the hills whose summits they crowned. Connected with some of the 
forts, were outworks on the declivity of the hills below, which were probably designed to 
shelter the cattle belonging to the defenders of the fort. — Subterranean safeguards, or 
hiding-holes, have been discovered in many parts of Scotland, and seem, in most instan- 
ces, to have been constructed, or improved and adopted, by the pristine people during a 
rude age. A few of them are entirely artificial ; consist of one, two, or three apartments 


of yarious dimensions, but generally very small ; constructed entirely underground of 
large rude stones, without any cement ; and containing, in most cases, unequivocal 
relics of having been human abodes. Natural caves, which abound on the rocky coasts, 
and among the cliffy dells and ravines of Scotland, have very numerously been improved 
by artificial means into places of great strength ; and, in some instances, they are of 
large capacity, and retain distinct vestiges of enlargement or modelling within, and 
especially of fortification by various contrivances without. Other caves, chiefly of small 
capacity, and in very sequestered situations, are replete with interest as the known or 
reputed hiding-holes of the patriotic Scots during the Baliol usurpation, and especially 
of the sturdy and noble Covenanters during the Stuart tyranny and persecution. 

Scottish antiquities of Roman origin are so well known and understood, and, in all 
their great instances, are so fully described in the body of our work, that they require 
no particular illustration. Any separate and consecutive notice of them which could 
fling light on their interesting features, would be a sketch — necessarily too expansive for 
our available space — of the history and the scenes of Agricola's campaigns, and of the 
actions of Lucius Urbicus. The chief of them are Antoninus' wall, separately noticed 
in the alphabetical arrangement ; roads or causeways, which intersected the whole terri- 
tory south of Antoninus' wall, and ran up in decreasing ramifications to the Moray 
frith, and are noticed in our articles on counties and districts ; and quadrangular camps, 
fortified stations, bridges, and innumerable minor antiquities, profusely noticed in pro- 
bably two-thirds of all the considerable articles in our work. — Pictish antiquities are 
curious rather for their obscureness and singularity, than for either their number or 
their imposing character. The most magnificent — if, indeed, they be of Pictish origin 
—are vast artificial terraces cut in parallel rows along or around the face of hills, and 
literally, with their base and back-ground, resembling stupendous amphitheatres. They 
occur, in instances singular for either boldness or beauty, in Glenroy, Glen-Spean, Glen- 
Guy, Markinch in Fifeshire, Glammis in Forfarshire, and various places in Peebles- 
shire. In the last of these counties, they are unhesitatingly ascribed to the Picts ; in 
the Highland districts, they are traditionally said to have been cut for the accommoda- 
tion of royal and baronial hunting parties ; and, as a whole, they have been regarded by 
some antiquarians as made by the Romans for itinerary encampments. Whoever 
constructed them must have been a people of singular laboriousness, skill, and persever- 
ance ; and, at the same time, so eccentric in character, or so wasteful in energy, as 
effectually to have left their design an enigma to future observers. Pictish houses, as 
they are vulgarly called, are antiquities peculiar to Scotland, and not infrequently occur 
on the north coast: they are conical towers, all built without cement, open in the centre, 
with two or three rows of galleries for lodgings constructed in the body of the walls, and, 
in some instances, square repositories for warlike arms. Vitrified forts are also peculiar 
to Scotland, and are ascribed to the Picts almost solely for the doubtful reason of their 
having hitherto been discovered chiefly in the north. Vitrification is their distinguishing 
and very remarkable feature ; it has clearly been effected by the action of fire upon 
vitrifiable materials, either accidentally or designedly employed in the construction of 
the walls ; and it exists to such a degree, that the numerous ingredential parts of the 
wall are either run or compacted together, or in some places so divested of their lapidose 
properties, as to appear like vast masses of coarse glass or slugs. Except for their 
vitrification, and that some of their ramparts appear to have had a mixture of earth and 
rubbish with the stones, the vitrified forts are, in all respects, or as to at once peculiarity 
of site, form, mode of construction, and accompaniments, similar to the hill-forts of the 
Britons. They were introduced to public notice only so late as 1777 ; and have been 
the subject of considerable philosophic controversy as to the cause of their vitrification, 
— the discoverer of them and his followers maintaining that they were designedly vitri- 
fied by their builders, and display great astuteness in the practice of a remarkably 
singular, and, at the same time, puissant, mode of architecture ; while two other classes 
— the latter probably with truth — allege respectively that their present form is the effect 
of extinct volcanic agency, and that they were vitrified by the accidental effects of arti- 
ficial fire upon materials selected without design, and naturally of an easily vitrifiable 
character. Another species of building attributed, though doubtfully, to the Picts, is 
very common in Ireland, but exhibits only two specimens in Scotland, respectively at 
Abernethy and at Brechin : it is a tall, slender, cylindrical tower, coned at the top, very 
. curious as a piece of architecture, but the subject of mazy and manifold disputations as 


to its designed use. Inaugural stones are a class of monuments intimately associated 
with the most distinguished archceology of the Scoto-Irish and the Irish, and were used 
in the inauguration of the chieftains of the Irish clans. The chief Scottish antiquity of 
this class is the famous coronation-stone r now in Westminster, but anciently located 
successively at Dunstaffnage and at Scone, and noticed in our article on the former of 
these places. — Earthen works, additional to the barrows of the Britons, are a miscel- 
laneous class of antiquities, and of various date and origin. Small circular intrench- 
ments are not infrequent, and are supposed to be Danish forts. Elongated,- flattened 
mounds, occur in a few instances, bear the name of Bow-butts, and are believed to have 
been constructed and used for the exercise of archery. Moats, or large artificial 
moundish hillocks, platformed on the summit, and ascending at a regular gradient on 
the sides, were places for the administration, over considerable districts, of public justice ; 
and court-hills, not very dissimilar to them in appearance, were the sites of the baronial 
courts previous to the demolition of the feudal system. Both are very common in Scot- 
land ; and sometimes, or even very generally — according to the belief, at least, of local 
antiquaries — the characters and uses of the two are concentrated in one object, — the 
same mound being both moat and court-hill. "These moat and court-hills," says 
Grose, " serve to explain the use of those high mounts still remaining near our ancient 
castles, which were probably judgment-seats, but have been mistaken for military works, 
a sort of ancient cavaliers, raised to command the moveable towers, so commonly used 
for the attacks of fortresses. I, among others, for want of having seen and considered 
these moat and court-hills, was led to adopt that idea." — The ecclesiastical antiquities 
of Scotland consist of monasteries, collegiate churches, and a few chapels, parish- 
churches, and hospitals ; and appear all to be of not higher date than the 12th century. 
The religious buildings of the Culdees seem, for a considerable time, at least, to have 
been plain, fragile, and of very primitive workmanship ; and, even toward the close of 
the Culdee epoch, they probably were, in no instance, of a kind either to resist the 
influences of time by their durability, or to woo the cares of the conservator by their 
architectural attractions. Our ecclesiastical antiquities are, in consequence, all Romish ; 
and, considered as works of art and magnificence, they are by no means inferior in point 
of execution to those of England. The most exquisite specimens are the abbeys of 
Melrose, Kelso, and Jedburgh, and the church of Elgin ; specimens of great beauty are 
the abbeys of Dunfermline and Paisley ; very handsome specimens are the abbeys of 
Duudrennan and Newabbey ; the grandest specimens — those which best combine archi- 
tecture with amplitude — are the abbeys of Holyrood and Arbroath ; and the specimens 
in the highest state of repair are the cathedral of St. Mungo in Glasgow, the church of 
St. Magnus in Kirkwall, and the church of St. Giles and Trinity College church in 
Edinburgh. Each of these, as well as of every other, whether extant or extinct, which 
presents in landscape or in history any feature of interest, our work fully notices and 
describes in its appropriate place. — The ancient border-houses* fortalices, and castles of 
Scotland, though small, seem to have been very numerous. Major says there were two 
in every league. Most of them are remarkably similar to one another;; and, in general, 
each is a high square tower, surmounting a beetling rock or other abrapt eminence, and, 
in the case of many, overhanging some stream, or the sea. The towers are, for the most 
part, extremely strong, often from 13 to 15 feet thick in the walls ; and they rise in 
height to 3 or 4 stories, each story vaulted, and the whole covered with a vaulted roof. 
At every angle, re-entering as well as salient, is a turret, supported like the guerites at 
the salient angles of modern bastions ; at each end of the tower, adjoining the roof, is 
commonly a triangular gable, the sides diminishing by a series of steps called crow 
steps ; and near the top of the tower usually runs a cornice of brackets, like those which 
support machicollations. At the bottom of most of the towers was the prison or pit, a 
deep, dark, noisome dungeon, to which the miserable prisoners were let down by ropes ; 
and an iron door to the chief entrance to the tower was also no infrequent means of 
security. In some instances, a tower was double, — two being built together at right 
angles with each other, constituting a figure somewhat like that of the letter L or T, 
and forming a kind of mutual defence or partial flank. As luxury and security increased, 
both these towers, and the single or more common one, were enlarged with additional 
buildings for lodgings, frequently surrounded by walls, and, in some instances, as in 
those of Linlithgow-palace and Loudoun-castle, eventually made the mere nucleus of 
modern, magnificent, princely mansions. The old towers were often the abodes of an 


almost incredibly large number of inmates ; and as they were sparingly lighted through 
very small windows, they must have been as gloomy as unwholesome. When any of 
them were taken by an enemy, they were usually burned ; but as they were little else 
than mere masses of stone, they suffered no damage except a little besooting or singeing? 
and, immediately afterwards, undergoing repair, and receiving a boastful though rude 
emblazonry of their owners' arms, and the date of their own disaster and renovation, 
they, in some instances, exhibit to the eye a curious tracery and surprising profusion of 
■inscriptions, armorial bearings, and miscellaneous devices. 


The aborigines of Scotland seem, beyond any reasonable doubt, to havebeen clans of 
the same Gaelic origin as those, who, in the most early ages, settled in England. Scot- 
land, at the epoch of Agricola's invasion, may be viewed as a mirror which reflects back 
the condition of England at the earlier era when Julius Csesar introduced the -Roman 
arms to Britain, and also that of Gaul at the still remoter period when Roman ambition 
subdued the common parent of the British nations. Caledonia, in its largest extent, 
■from the Tweed and the Eden on the south, to Dunnet-head in Caithness on the north, 
was distributed among twenty-one tribes' of Britons. Those on the east coast, or Low- 
lands, owing to the greater fertility of the soil, must have been. more numerous and 
potent than those of the western or Highland districts ; and all, accordantly with ancient 
Celtic usage, were mutually independent, and could be brought into union or co-operation 
only by the pressure of danger. The Ottadini — whose name-seems to -have been derived 
from the Tjne or Tina — occupied the whole coast-district between the southern Tyne 
and the frith of Forth, comprehending the half of Northumberland, the whole of Ber- 
wickshire and East- Lothian, and the eastern part of Roxburghshire ; and had their chief 
town at Bremenium, on Reed-water, in Northumberland. The Gadeni — -whose name 
■alludes >to the numerous groves which adorned and fortified their territory — inhabited the 
interior country immediately west of that of the Ottadini, comprehending the western 
part of Northumberland, a small part of Cumberland, the western part of Roxburgh, all 
•Selkirk and Tweeddale, much of Mid- Lothian, and nearly all West-Lothian ; and they 
had Curia, on Gore-water, for their capital. The Selgovse — whose country lay upon 
" a dividing water," and who gave name to the Solway — inhabited the whole of Dum- 
fries-shire, and the eastern part of Galloway, as far as the Dee ; and had, as their chief 
towns, Trimontium at Brunswark-hill in Annandale, Uxellum at Wardlaw-hill in 
Caerlaverock, and Caerbantorigum at Drummore, in the parish of Kirkcudbright. The 
Novantes — who are supposed to have taken their name from the abundance of streams 
in their country— .-possessed all central and western Galloway, between the Dee and the 
Irish sea ; and had, as their principal towns, Lucqpibia on the site- of the present Whit- 
horn, and Rerigoniuni on the north shore of Loch-Ryan. The Damnii inhabited all 
•the expanse of country from the mountain-ridge which divides Galloway and Ayrshire 
•on the south, .to the river Earn on the- north, comprehending all the shires of Ayr, Ren- 
frew, and Stirling, all Strathclyde, and a small part of the shires of Dumbarton and 
Perth ; and had the towns of Vanduaria on the site of Paisley, Colania in the south- 
eastern extremity of Strathclyde, Coria in Carstairs, Alauna on the river Allan, Lindun 
near the present Ardoch, and Victoria on Ruchil-water in Comrie. The Horestii inha- 
bited the country between the Forth and the Tay, comprehending all Fife, Kinross, and 
Clackmannan, the eastern part of Strathearn, and the district west of the upper Tay, as 
far as the river Brand. The Venricones possessed the territory between the Tay and 
the Kincardineshire Carron, comprehending the Gowrie, Stormont, Strathmore, and 
Strathardle, sections of Perthshire, all Forfarshire, and the larger part of Kincardine- 
shire ; and had their chief town, Or, -or Orrea, on the margin of the Tay. The Taixali 
inhabited the northern part of Kincardineshire, and all Aberdeenshire to the Deveron ; 
and had Devana, at the present Normandykes on the Dee, for their capital. The 
Vacomagi possessed the country between the Deveron and the Beauly, comprehending 
Braemar, nearly all Banffshire, the whole of Elginshire and Nairnshire, and the eastern 
part of Inverness-shire ; and had the towns of Ptoroton or Alata Castra at the mouth of 
the Beauly, Tuessis on the east bank of the Spey, and Tamea and Banatia in the 
interior. The Albani — whose name seems to allude to the height and ruggedness of 
their mountains, and who, in consequence of their becoming subjugated by the Damnii, 


were afterwards called Dammi-Albam- — •inhabited the interior districts between the 
southern mountain-screen of the loch and river Tay, and the mountain-chain along the 
southern limit of Inverness-shire, comprehending Breadalbane, Athole, Appin, Glenorchy, 
and a small part of Lochaber. The Attacotti possessed the country between Loch-Fyne 
and the commencement of the Lennox or Kilpatrick hills, comprehending Cowal and 
the greater part of Dumbartonshire. The Caledonii Proper inhabited the interior country 
between the mountain-range along the north of Perthshire, and the range of hills which 
forms the forest of Balnagowan in Ross, comprehending all the middle parts of Ross and 
Inverness. A vast forest, which extended northward of the Forth and the Clyde, and 
which covered all the territory of this tribe, gave to them their name, originally Celyd- 
doni and Celyddoniaid, * the people of the coverts,"" and, owing to the greatness of the 
area which it occupied, occasioned its Bomanized designation of Caledonia to be after- 
wards applied strictly to all the country north of the Forth and the Clyde, and loosely, 
but at a later date, to the whole kingdom. The -Canta? — so named irom the British 
Caint, which signifies an open country — possessed Easter Ross and Cromarty, or the 
district lying between the Beauly and the Bornoch friths. The Logi — who probably 
drew their name from the British Lygi, a word which was naturally applied to the inha- 
bitants of a sea-ooast — possessed the eastern nart of Sutherland, or the country between 
the Dornoch frith and the river Helmsdale. The Camabii, who, like a cognominal tribe 
in Cornwall, derived their .name from their residence on remarkable promontories, occu- 
pied the country north of the Helmsdale, or -a small part of Sutherland, and all Caith- 
ness, except the north-west corner. The Catini, a small but warlike tribe, from whom 
the Gaelic inhabitants of Caithness and Sutherland at the present day are ambitious of 
proving their remote descent, inhabited the narrow territory, partly in Caithness and 
partly in Sutherland, between the Forse and the Naver. The Mertas possessed the 
interior of Sutherland. The Carnonacse possessed the north and west coast of Suther- 
land, and the west coast of Cromarty, from the Navcr round to Loch-Broom. The 
Creones — whose name was expressive of their fierceness — possessed the coast between 
Loch-Broom and Loch-Duich. The Cerones inhabited the whole west coast of Inver- 
ness, .and the Argyleshire districts of Ardnamurchan, Mor-ven, Sunart, and Ardgower, 
or the coast between Loch-Duich and Loch-Linnhe. The Epidii— who derived their 
appellation from the British Ebyd, 'a peninsula,' and from whom the Mull of Kintyre 
anciently had the name of the Epidian promontory — occupied the whole country enclosed 
by Loch-Linnhe, the territory of the Albani, Loch-Fyne, the lower frith of Clyde, the 
Irish sea, and the Atlantic ocean. 

The Caledonian tribes, at the epoch 'when history introduces them to notice, appear 
to have been little raised, in their social connexions, above the condition of rude savages, 
who live on the milk of their flocks, or the produce of the chase. According to the 
doubtful and darkly-tinted intimations of Bio, indeed, they possessed wives -and reared 
their children in common, they lived in the most .miserable hovels, they chose to live in 
a state of almost entire nudity., and they practised, like the heroes of more ancient times, 
a system of mutual plunder and professional robbery. Herodian concurs in exhibiting 
them in these sombre and repulsive hues at even so late a .period as the 3d century. 
Yet, according to all testimony, they *were brave, alert, and acquainted with various 
arts ; they had remarkable capacity for enduring fatigue, cold, and famine : they were 
famous alike for speed in conducting an -onset, and for firmness in sustaining an attack. 
Their vast stone monuments, too, which still remain, their hilLforts of such ingenious 
and elaborate construction as could not even now be taken by storm, and the gallant 
stand which they systematically opposed to the disciplined valour of the Roman armies, 
exhibit them in lights quite incompatible with an alleged state of unmitigated barbarism. 
But though advanced in civilization very little beyond the first stage, they had scarcely 
any political union. They are said by Dio to have been literal democrats, acting as clans, 
and adopting any .public measure only by common consent, .and an universally and 
equally diffused authority ; but they may be allowed, on the one hand, to have rejected 
the coercion -of any chieftainship, or autocracy, or monarchic power, and, on the other, 
to have placed themselves, like the American Indians, under the aristocratic sway of 
their old men. Their armouries were generally furnished with helmets, shields, and 
chariots, and with spears, daggers, swords, battle-axes, and bows. The chiefs in com- 
mand, or in bravery, alone used the helmet and the chariot ; and the common men 
fought always on foot, with shields for defence, and with all sorts of the offensive weapons 


for attack. Their chariots were sometimes aggregated for making a vehicular onslaught, 
and were drawn by horses which are said to have been small, swift, and spirited. Their 
vessels for navigating the inland lakes, and even the seas which surround and so singu- 
larly indent the country, consisted only of canoes and currachs. The canoe seems to 
have belonged to a period preceding the epoch of record ; it was the stock of a single 
tree, hollowed out with fire, and put into motion by a paddle ; and it has frequently 
been found in marches and drained lakes, and occasionally of a construction remarkably 
skilful and polished. The currach was certainly in use among the Britons of the south, 
and very probably was in use also among the Britons of Caledonia, in the days of Julius 
Csesar ; aud is described by him as having it body of wicker-work covered with leather, 
and as accommodated with a keel, and with masts of the lightest wood. The currachs 
are even called little ships ; they were pushed boldly out into the far-spreading sea ; and 
were frequently, or rather currently, employed in invasions from the wooded north or 
' the Emerald Isle' upon the shores which became seized and fortified by the Romans. 
Adamnan, in his Life of St. Columba, describes the currach which that apostle of 
Scotland employed in his voyages, as possessing all the parts of a ship, with sails and 
oars, and with a capacity for passengers ; and he adds, that in this roomy, though 
seemingly fragile vessel, he sailed into the north sea, and, during fourteen days, remained 
there in perfect safety. 

In the year 78, Agricola, at the age of 38, commenced his skilful soldierly career in 
Britain. His first and second campaigns were employed in subduing and Romanizing 
Lancashire, and the territory adjacent to it on the south and the east. His third cam- 
paign, conducted in the year 80, carried the Roman arms to the Tav;, ' an expanded 
water,' ' an estuary,' probably the Solway frith. In his fourth campaign, or that of 81, 
he overran all the eastern and central Lowlands, to the Forth and the Clyde. In his 
fifth, or in 82, he invaded " that part of Britain which is opposite to Ireland," or lower 
Nithsdale and the whole extent of Galloway. In the summer of 83, he crossed the 
Forth at what is now called Queensferry, and almost immediately experienced alarms 
from learning both that the tribes in his rear had dared to act offensively, by attacking 
the strengths he had erected for protecting of his conquests, and that the tribes in his 
front menaced him with confederation and a vigorous resistance ; but he pushed forward 
among the Horestii, found the clans for the first time in mutual co-operation, was assailed 
by them at Loch-Orr in Fife, in the very gates of his camp, repelled and broke them 
after a furious engagement, and, without much further trouble, brought all the Horestii 
under his yoke. In 84, he passed up Glendevon, through the opening of the Ochil-hills, 
and defiling toward " Mous Grampus," or the Grampian-hill, which he saw before him, 
he found the Caledonians, to the number of 30,000, confederated, and under the com- 
mand of Galgacus, already encamped at its base ; and he there fought with them a 
battle so obstinate, that only night forced it to a termination, so discouraging to the 
aborigines that they retired to the most distant recesses of their impervious country, and 
so curious in archeology as to have occasioned a thousand disputes, and no small expen- 
diture of learning and research, in attempts to fix its precise theatre. The Lowlands 
south of the lower Tay, and the Earn, being now all in his possession, and a powerful 
body of the tribes of the conquered district enrolled with him as auxiliaries, a voyage of 
discovery and of intimidation was ordered by him round the island, and was achieved by 
the safe return of the Roman fleet to the Forth. Agricola was now recalled, through 
the envy of the Emperor Domitian ; and the silence of history during the. 35 years which 
followed, at once intimates the absence of any events of interest, and evinces the power 
of Agricola's victories as a general, and the wisdom of his measures as a statesman. 

In 120, the Emperor Adrian built the celebrated wall between the Tyne and the Sol- 
way ; and, though he did not relinquish the conquered territory north of these waters, 
he practically acknowledged himself to hold it by a partial and comparatively insecure 
tenure. The Ottadini, the Gadeni, the Selgovce, and the Novantes, had neither domes- 
tic tumult nor devastation from invaders to engage their attention ; they had learned the 
arts of confederation, and were strong in numbers and in union ; they began to feel 
neither overawed nor restrained by the Roman stations which were continued in their 
territory ; and they broke out into insurrections, and ran southward in ravaging incur- 
sions, which the Romans had not leisure to chastise, or even effectually to check. In 
139, the year after Antoninus Pius assumed the purple, Lollius Urbicus was deputed as 
the Proprcetor of Britain, to quell a general revolt, and reduce the inhabitants to 


obedience ; and, in 140, he marched northward to the friths, tranquillized the tribes 
beyond them, and even began successfully to bring under the power of his arms the 
whole Lowland country northward, as far as the Beauly frith. With the view of over- 
awing the tribes to the south, as well as of repelling the wild clans who ranged among the 
mountain-fastnesses on the north, he constructed the great work from Carriden on the 
Forth, to Dunglass on the Clyde, which is described in our alphabetical arrangement 
under the title Antoninus' Wall. Iters, or highways, were carried in many ramifica- 
tions through the country south of the wall, and in several lines along or athwart the 
conquered country to the north ; and stations were established in multitudinous com- 
manding positions, for garrisoning the Roman forces, and maintaining the natives under 
a continual pressure. Scotland was now divided into three great sections, — the district 
south of Antoninus' wall, which was incorporated with the Roman government of South 
Britain, — the Lowland country, between Antoninus' wall and the Beauly frith, which is 
said to have been now erected into a Roman province, under the name of Vespasiana, — ■ 
and nearly all the Highland district, north of Loch-Fyne, or the most northerly inden- 
tation of the Clyde, which still retained its pristine state of independence, and began to 
wear distinctly the name of Caledonia. The tranquillity of the subjugated tribes till the 
death of Antoninus, in 161, about which time probably Lollius Urbicus ceased to be 
propraetor, sufficiently indicates the vigour of the administration throughout all the 
Roman territory. Disturbances which broke out immediately on the accession of Marcus 
Aurelius to the empire, were speedily quelled by Calphurnius Agricola, the successor of 
Lollius Urbicus ; yet they were followed by the evacuation, on the part of the Romans, 
of the whole province of Vespasiana. The tribes beyond Antoninus' wall, thrown back 
into a state of independence, slowly nursed their energies for invasion, — made, in 183, 
predatory incursions beyond the wall, — regularly, toward the close of the century, over- 
ran the Roman territory, — entered, in 200, into a treaty with the Lieutenant of Severus, 
— and, in 207, renewed their hostilities, and provoked the emperor to attempt a re-con- 
quest of their country. Early in 209, Severus, after making imposing preparations, 
marched at the head of a vast force into North Britain, found no obstruction south of 
Antoninus' wall, and even penetrated into the territories of the Caledonians without 
encountering much resistance. The tribes, unable to oppose him, sued peace from his 
clemency, surrendered some of their arms, and relinquished part of their country. He 
is said to have felled woods, drained marshes, constructed roads, and built bridges, in 
order to seize them in their fastnesses, — to have lost 50,000 men in destroying forests, 
and attempting to subdue the physical difficulties of the country, — to have subjected his 
army to such incredible toils as were sufficient to have brought a still greater number of 
them to the grave without feeling the stroke of an enemy. Caracalla, his son and 
successor, is supposed by some to have faintly, while Severus lived, followed up his 
policy, and to have fought with the Caledonians on the banks of the Carron ; but early 
in 211, after Severus' decease, he relinquished to them the territories which they had 
surrendered to his father, secured to them by treaty independent possession of all the 
country beyond the wall, and took hostages from them for their conservation of the 
international peace. The Caledonians, henceforth for nearly a century, cease to mingle 
in Roman story : they appear not to have interested themselves in the affairs of the 
Romanized Britons ; and they were little affected by the elevation of Ctesars or the fall 
of tyrants, by Carausius' usurpation of Romanic Britain, or by its recovery at his assas- 
sination as a province of the empire. But the five Romanized tribes south of the 
northern wall, though too inconsiderable to figure as a part of the Roman world, and for 
a time too poor and abject to draw the notice of their own quondam brethren, eventually 
became sufficiently Romanized, and carried onward in social improvement, and sur- 
rounded with the results of incipient civilization and industry, to be objects of envy to 
the poorer and more barbarous clans who retained their independence. In 306, the 
earliest date at which the Picts are mentioned, or any native names than those of the 
aboriginal British tribes are introduced, " the Caledonians and other Picts," after 
appearing to have made frequent predatory irruptions, and to have been menacing the 
south with a general invasion, provoked a chastisement from the Roman legionaries, and 
were compelled by Constantius, at the head of an army, to burrow anew behind the vast 
natural rampart of their Highland territory. In 343, the Picts are said, on doubtful 
authority, to have made another inroad, and to have been repelled by a short campaign 
of the Emperor Constans. In 364, the Picts, who in that age were divided into two 


tribes by the names of Dicaledones and Vecturiones, — the Attacotti, who still retained 
their ancient British name and position on the shores of Dumbarton, — and the Scots, 
■who are first noticed in history in 360, who were a transmarine and erratic people from 
Ireland, and who appear to have made frequent predatory invasions of the Roman pro- 
vincials from the sea, and to have formed forced settlements on the coast,' — all three 
simultaneously made an incursion more general and destructive than any which had yet 
defied the Roman arms in Britain. Theodosius was sent, in 367, into Britain, to restore 
tranquillity, and is said, though erroneously, to have found the Picts and the Scots in 
the act of plundering Augusta, the predecessor-city of the modern London. In two 
campaigns of 368 and 369, he drove the invaders, wherever he really found them, back 
to the northern mountains, repaired the wall of Antoninus, and erected the country lying 
between that wall and the southern one into a Roman province, under the name of 
Valentia, additional to four which already existed in South Britain. The Picts and the 
Scots, forgetting, in the effluxion of a quarter of a century the punishment inflicted on 
them, and emboldened by the peril with which the empire was menaced by the conti- 
nental hordes, again, in 398, burst forth like a torrent upon Lowland Britain, but, by the 
energy of Stilicho, the Roman general, were again stemmed, driven back, and flung 
behind another renovation of the great northern wall. But early next century they trod 
down every barrier, and began a system of incessant and harassing incursion, which 
amounted, on each occasion, to little or nothing less than temporary conquest. In 408, 
the British provincials were so awed and alarmed by them, that they assumed a sort of 
independence in self-defence, called earnestly to Rome for help, and were told by their 
masters to rule and defend themselves ; in 422, aided by a legion which was sent in 
compliance with a renewed and wailing cry for assistance, they are said to have repelled 
the invaders, to have repaired, for the last time, the fortifications by which the Picts had 
been overawed, and to have, in consequence, won a respite of some years from the dis- 
asters of invasion ; and, in 446, pressed anew by the Pictish foe, and abjectly acknow- 
ledging themselves for the first time to be Roman citizens, they made a vain appeal to 
their ruined ma.sters for protection, and were despondingly told that Rome could no 
longer claim them as her subjects, or render them assistance as their citizens. 

At the period of the Roman abdication, the sixteen tribes who ranged unsubdued 
beyond the wall of Antoninus, and then bore the denomination of the Picts, were the 
only genuine descendants in North Britain of the Caledonian clans. They acquired, 
from their independence, paramount importance, when the country ceased to be overawed 
by the Roman power ; and during the four succeeding centuries of the North-British 
annals, they figured as the dominating nation. The five Romanized tribes of Valentia, 
who had long enjoyed the privilege of Roman citizenship, speedily assumed independence, 
and organized for themselves a separate and national government. Early after the 
Roman abdication, the Angles, or Anglo-Saxons, on the one hand, settled on the Tweed, 
and began gradually to oblige the Ottadini to relinquish for ever their beautiful domains ; 
and the Scots from Ireland, on the other, colonized Argyle, commenced to spread them- 
selves over all the circumjacent districts, and entered a course of tilting with the Pictish 
government, which, alter the bloody struggles of 340 years, ended m its destruction. 
The history of all these four parties, between the years 446 and 843, belongs to what, 
with reference to the power which predominated, may distinctively and appropriately be 
called the Pictish period, and is briefly sketched in our article Picts. 

The fate of the eastern ones of the five Romanized tribes of the province of Valentia 
after the Roman abdication, differed widely from that of those in the west. The Ottadini 
and the Gadeni, left in possession of the country from the Forth to the Tweed, and 
between the sea and the midland mountains, seem not to have erected themselves into 
an independent and dominant community, but to have resumed the habits and the policy 
of the early British clans, and when they saw their country early invaded by the Anglo- 
Saxons, more as settlers than as plunderers, they, with some bravery, but with little 
skill and less concert, made resistance when attacked, till, through disunion, ebriety, 
and unmilitary conduct, they speedily became subdued and utterly dispersed. The 
Selgovec, the Novantes, and the Damnii, with the fugitive children of the other two 
tribes, erected their paternal territories into a compact and regular dominion, appropri- 
ately called Cumbria, or Regnum Cambrensi, or Cumbrensi. This Cumbrian kingdom 
extended from the Irthing, the Eden, and the Solway, on the south, to the upper Forth 
and Loch-Lomond on the north, and from the Irish sea and the frith of Clyde, eastward 


to the limits of the Merse and Lothian ; and, with the usual inaccuracy of the Middle 
ages, it was frequently and almost currently made to bear the name of the kingdom of 
Strathcluyd or Strathclyde. Its metropolis was Alcluyd, or Aldclyde, ' the rocky 
height on the Clyde,' to which the Scoto-Irish subsequently gave the name of Bun- 
Briton, ' the fortress of the Britons,' a name easily recognisable in the modernized word 
Dumbarton. On the south-east, where the open country of Teviotdale invited easy 
ingress from the Merse, the kingdom suffered speedy encroachments from the Saxons ; 
and, along that quarter, though inland from the original frontier, and screened interiorly 
by a vast natural rampart of mountain-range, an artificial safeguard, called the Catrail, 
'the partition of defence,' was constructed: see article Catrail. From 508 to 542, 
Cumbria, or Strathclyde, acknowledged the authority, and exulted in the fame of some 
extraordinary original, who figures as the redoubtable King Arthur of romance, who 
imposed the name of Castrum Arthuri upon Alcluyd, or Dumbarton, and has bequeathed 
a tenfold greater number of enduring names to Scottish topographical nomenclature 
than any other ancient prince, and who, whatever may have been the real facts of his 
history, seems to have achieved many feats, to have received a treacherous death-wound 
on the field of battle, and to have altogether bewildered by his character and fate the 
rude and romancing age in which he figured. In 577, Rydderech, another noted king 
of Strathclyde, but noted for his munificence, defeated Aidan of Kintyre on the height 
of Arderyth. In years between 584 and G03, the Cumbrians, aided by the confederacy 
of the Scoto-Irish, fought four battles against the intrusive and invading Saxons, and 
were twice victorious, and twice and concludingly the vanquished. On many occasions, 
they had to fight with the Picts attacking them from the north ; on some, with their 
occasional allies, the Scots, attacking them from the west ; and, on a few, with the 
Cruitlme of Ulster, and other Irish tribes, attacking them on the south-west and south. 
In 750, the Northumbrian Eadbert seems to have traversed Mthsdale and seized Kyle ; 
and, in 756, that prince, jointly with the Pictish Ungus, seized the metropolis, though 
not the castle, of Alcluyd. Yet the descendants of the Romanized Britons were not 
conquered. Their reguli, or chiefs, indeed, often ceased from civil broil or foreign con- 
flict, to succeed in unbroken series ; but, when the storm of war had passed away, they 
long ceased not to reappear, and wield anew the seemingly extinct power. The Cum- 
brians, though unable to prevent considerable encroachments on all sides within their 
ancient frontiers, and though slowly diminishing in the bulk and the power of their inde- 
pendence, remained a distinct people within their paternal domains long after the Pictish 
government had for ever fallen. 

A body of Saxons, a people of Gothic origin, the confederates of those Angles who 
first set foot on South Britain in 449, debarked on the Ottadinian shore of the Forth 
immediately after the Roman abdication. Amid the consternation and the disunitedness 
of the Ottadini, the new settlers rather overran the country than subdued it ; and, though 
they seem to have directed neither their attacks nor their views northward of the Forth, 
they are said to have formed settlements along the coast of its frith, almost as far as the 
east end of Antoninus' wall. In 547, Ida, consanguineous with the new settlers, one of 
the most vigorous children of the fictitious Woden, and the founder of the Northumbrian 
monarchy, landed, without opposition, at Flamborough, and, acting on a previous design, 
pointed his keen-edged sword to the north, carried victory with him over ail the paternal 
domains of the Ottadini, and paused not in a career of conquest, and of compelling sub- 
jugation, till he had established a consolidated monarchy from the Dumber to the Forth. 
After the defeat of the Cumbrians in 603, Ethelfrid, the second successor of Ida, took 
possession of the borders of the Selgova?, and compelled the western Romanized Britons 
in general to acknowledge the superior energy and union of the Saxons. Edwin, the 
most potent of the Northumbrian kings, assumed the sceptre in 617 ; he acquired a fame 
of which tradition has spoken with awe ; he struck respect or awe into the hearts of 
Cumbrians, Picts, Scots, and English ; he appears to have, in some points, pushed his 
conquests from sea, and to have made large accessions to his kingdom on the south and 
west ; and he strengthened or occupied in some new form in the north, that notable 
" burgh " or fortification which, as par excellence his, survives in the castle of Edinburgh, 
the magnificent metropolis of all modern Caledonia. Edfrid, who was the third in sub- 
sequent succession, and ascended the throne in 671, was successful in several enterprises, 
particularly in an expedition in 684, against the unoffending Irish ; but at his overthrow 
and death in 685, at Dunnichen, by the Picts, he bequeathed destruction to his govern- 


ment inward from the Solway, and downward to the south of the Tweed, and effectually 
relieved the Scots and the Strathclyde Britons from the terror of the Northumbria- 
Saxon name. The quondam subjects of the diminished kingdom remained in Lothian 
and the Merse, but probably did not distinctly acknowledge any particular sovereign. 
The Northumbrian rulers had, for several successions after Egfrid, little connexion with 
the territory of modern Scotland ; but, though they never reacquired all the ascendency 
which he lost, they began, about the year 725, to be again strong along the Solway and 
in Southern Galloway, and, before the close of 756, they had formed settlements in 
Kyle and Cunningham, and disputed with the Strathclyde Britons the possession of the 
central Clyde. From the moment of the sceptre beginning to possess its ancient bur- 
nished brilliance, it was wielded, for several reigns, by feeble and careless hands, and it 
speedily became lustreless, rusted, and broken. Ethelred, the last of these dowdy 
monarchs, having been slain during an insurrection in 794, Northumbria, during the 33 
following years, became the wasted and distracted victim of anarchy, and was thence- 
forth governed by earls, under the sovereign authority of the English kings. The 
Cruithne of Ulster, who had made frequent incursions on the shores of the lower Clyde, 
took advantage of the Northumbrian weakness to form at length a lasting settlement on 
the coast of Galloway. The Anglo-Saxons, during the Pictish period, left, in the Gothic 
names of some places on the Solway, and of many between the Tweed and the Forth, 
indubitable traces of their conquests, their settlements, and their national origin. 

The history of the Scots, or Scoto-Irish, from the date of their definitive settlement 
in the country of the ancient British Epidii, in 503, to that of their being united to the 
Picts, and becoming the ascendant section in North Britain, is more perplexed and 
obscure than almost any passage of equal interest in the records of nations. They were 
too rude to possess the art of writing, and too restless to endure the repose of study ; and 
when they found a bard able and willing to speak of them to posterity, they were per- 
mitted by their narrow views of social order to show him only the names and the per- 
sonal nobleness of their reguli and chieftains as the elements of their fame. Even 
the genealogy and the series of their kings have been flung into nearly inextricable 
confusion by the contests of the Scottish and of the Irish antiquaries for pre-eminence 
in antiquity. Of their origin, and of their colonizing the ancient Epidia, or the territory 
of the present Kintyre and Lorn, as clear an account as can be furnished will be found 
in our article Daleiads. They probably obtained original footing in Argyle from silent 
sufferance ; and by natural increase, and frequent accessions of new immigrants from the 
Irish Dalriada, they may have become nursed into strength in the strong recesses of the 
west, before the Picts were refined enough to suspect any danger from their vicinity. The 
vast natural power of all their frontiers, the thinness of the hostile population on the 
sides where they were unprotected by the sea, the facility for slow and insensible, but 
steady and secure encroachment among the mountain districts on the east and the north, 
the great distance of the seat of the Pictish power, and the intervention of the stupen- 
dous rampart of the Highland frontier between the operations of that power and the 
aggressions of settlement or slow invasion half-way across the continent,- — these must 
have been the grand causes of the Scots eventually acquiring energy and numbers, and 
a theatre of action, great and ample enough to enable them to cope with the dominant- 
nation of North Britain, and to conduct negociations and achieve enterprises, which 
resulted in their own ascendency. 

Kenneth, who succeeded to the throne of the Scots in 836, was the grandson by his 
mother of the Pictish kings Constantine and Ungus II., who died respectively in 821 and 
833. On the death of Uven, the son and the last male heir of Ungus, in 839, Kenneth 
claimed the Pictish crown as his by right of inheritance. Two successive and successful 
competitors kept it five years from his grasp ; but both wore it amid disturbance and in 
misery ; and the last met a violent death at Forteviot, the seat of his power. Kenneth 
could dexterously take advantage of such confusions as arose from the loss of a battle 
or the death of a king, to achieve an important revolution ; and finding no man bold 
enough again to contest his claim, he easily stepped into the vacant throne. In his 
person a new dynasty, and a consolidation of popular interests among two great people 
who had hitherto been at variance, began. The Scots and the Picts were congenial 
races of a common origin, and of cognate tongues ; and they readily coalesced. Their 
union augmented the power of both, and, by the ascendency of the Scots, gave at length 
their name to all Pictavia and Dalriada, and to the accessions which afterwards were 


made by the two great united territories. The Scottish period, or that of Scottish 
ascendency previous to Saxon intermixture, extended from the union of the Scottish and 
the Pictish crowns in 843, to the demise of Donald Bane, in 1097. During this period, 
the ancient territories of the SelgovEe, the Novantes, and the Damnii, became colonized 
by successive hordes of immigrants from Ireland, who gave their settlements the name 
of Galloway ; and who, by a strange fortune, became known under the appellation of the 
ancient Picts. The kingdom of Cumbria, or Strathclyde, was crushed, distorted, and 
dismembered, the northern part passing completely under the Scottish dominion, and 
the southern part asserting a rude, subordinate independence, and existing as an 
appendage of the Scottish crown by the doubtful ties of an obscure title ; and Caledonian 
Northumbria, or the beautiful district of Lothian and the Merse, after a series of bloody 
struggles for upwards of two centuries and a half, became integrated with Scotland by 
the lasting connection of rightful cession and mutual advantage. 

The next great period is the Scoto-Saxon, extending from 1097 to 1306. In the' 
former period, the Gaelic Scots predominated ; in this, the Saxon- English, or Anglo- 
Saxon. A new people now came in upon the old ; a new dynasty ascended the throne ; 
a new jurisprudence gradually prevailed ; new ecclesiastical establishments were settled ; 
and new manners and a new speech overspread the land. Malcolm Canmore, the last 
but two of the strictly Scottish kings, married an Anglo-Saxon princess, and became 
the father of Edgar, who, by means of an Anglo-Norman army, and after a fierce con- 
test, enforced his title to a disputed crown, and commenced the Scoto-Saxon dynasty. 
Under Malcolm Canmore, the domestics and relations of his queen aided her powerful 
influence round the royal seat in introducing Saxon notions ; some Saxon barons fled, 
with their dependants, into Scotland, from the violence of the Norman conquest ; 
numerous fugitives were afforded an asylum by the king, from insurrections which he 
fomented in the north of England ; vast numbers of young men and women were forcibly 
driven northward by him during his incursions into Northumberland and Durham ; and 
preliminary movements, to a great aggregate amount, and with a great cumulative 
influence, were made toward a moral and social revolution. When Edgar, aided by the 
results of these movements, brought in a force from without altogether foreign in speech 
and character to the Scots, and entirely competent in power to overawe them, and per- 
functorily to settle their disputes by placing their leader on the throne, he rendered the 
revolution virtually complete — introducing in a mass a commanding number of foreign 
followers to mix with the native population, and treat them as inferiors, and throwing 
open a broad ingress for a general Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman, and Anglo-Belgic 
colonization. So great and rapid was the influx of the new people, that, in the reign of 
David I., the second in succession after Edgar, men and women of them are said — ■ 
somewhat hyperbolically, no doubt — to have been found, not only in every village, but in 
every house, of the Scottish, or Scoto-Saxon, dominions. So powerful though peaceful 
an invasion, was necessarily a moral conquest, a social subjugation ; and its speedy 
aggregate result was to suppress the Celtic tongue and customs, or coop them up within 
the fastnesses of the Highlands, — to substitute an Anglo-Norman jurisprudence for the 
Celtic modes of government, — and to erect the pompous and flaunting fabrics and ritual 
of Roman Catholicity upon the ruins of the simple though eventually vitiated Culdeeism 
which had so long been the glory at once of Pict, of DaLriadic Scot, of Romanized 
Briton, and of Galloway Cruithne. 

At the accession of Edgar, or the commencement of the Scoto-Saxon period, Scotland, 
with the exception of its not claiming the western and the northern islands, possessed 
nearly its present limits, — the Solway, the Kershope, the Tweed, and the intervening 
heights forming the boundary-line with England. Northumberland and Cumberland 
were added as conquered territories by David I. ; but they were demanded back, or 
rather forcibly resumed, by Henry II., during the minority of Malcolm IV. All Scot- 
land may be viewed as temporarily belonging to England, when Henry II. made captive 
William I., the successor of Malcolm IV., and obliged him to surrender the independ- 
ence of his kingdom ; but, in 1189, it was restored to its national status by the genero- 
sity of Richard I., and settled within the same limits as previous to William's captivity; 
and throughout the remainder of the Scoto-Saxon period, it retained an undisturbed 
boundary with England, conducive to the general interests of both kingdoms. Lothian 
on the east, and Galloway on the south-west, were, at this epoch, regarded by foreign 
powers as two considerable integral parts of Scotland ; and though so far consolidated 


with the rest of the country as to afford but slight appearance of having been settled by 
dissimilar people and governed by different laws,, yet they were so far considered and 
treated by the kings as separate territories, that they were placed under distinct juris- 
dictions. In 1266, the policy of Alexander III. acquired by treaty the kingdom of Man, 
and the isles of the Hebridean seas, and permanently annexed the latter to the Scottish 
crown. When the great barons were assembled in 1284, dolefully to settle the dubious 
succession to the throne, they declared that the territories belonging to Scotland, and 
lying beyond the boundaries which existed at the accession of Edgar, wer© the Isle of 
Man, the Hebrides, Tynedale, and Penrith.. In 1290, the Isle of Man passed under the 
protection of Edward I. Even essential Scotland, the main territory of the kingdom, 
was so deeply imperilled at the close of the Anglo-Saxon period, that she could be pre- 
served from the usurping and permanent grasp of insidious ambition only by a persever- 
ing and intensely patriotic straggle ; and she was at length re-exhibited and settled down 
in her independence, and reinstamped, but in brighter hues,, with the colourings of 
nationality, by the magnanimity and the indomitableness of her people supporting all 
the fortune and all the valour of Robert Bruce,, the founder of a new dynasty of her 
kings, and the introducer of a new epoch in her history. An outline of her annals from 
the days of Bruce downward, sufficiently full to be in keeping with that which we have 
now sketched of the earlier periods, will be found in the historical section of our article 
on Edinburgh. 

" Little more than a century ago," says an elegant writer, " Scotland was considered 
by her southern neighbours as only partially civilized : the violence of the early reformers 
was still remembered as more allied to savage than to social morality. Latterly, how- 
ever, if it has not received adequate respect from others — which we are far from affirm- 
ing — it has done ample justice to itself, in the number, merit, and universal influence of 
the great characters which it has produced, and is still producing. In this respect — 
considering its very limited population — it may freely challenge comparison with any 
other nation. Scotchmen — whether invidiously designated as adventurers, or, more 
justly, as practical moralists — by their intrepid spirit of adventure — perseverance — 
suavity — and inflexible integrity, have extended the influence of civilization and 
humanity over the vast empire of Russia — have imparted to the Americans much of 
what they possess of moral honesty and civil refinement- — and, in almost every country 
on earth, given examples of probity, industry, and knowledge ; while their poets, histo- 
rians, and philosophers, have amused, instructed, and enlightened the higher ranks in 
every civilized nation of Europe." It is pleasing to add to the above high testimony on 
the score of moral and chivalrous characteristics, the following elegant tribute from an 
English poet : 

" Breathe there a race that from the approving hand 
Of nature more deserve, or less demand ? 
So skilled to wake the lyre or wield the sword — 
To achieve great actions, or, achieved, record? 
Victorious in the conflict as the truce, 
Triumphant in a Burns as in a Bruce ! 
Where'er the bay — where'er the laurel grows, 
Their wild notes warble, and their life-blood flows E 
There truth courts access, and would all engage, 
Lavish as youth, experienced as age ; 
Proud science there, with purest nature twined, 
In firmest thraldom holds the freest mind : 
While Courage rears his limbs of giant form — 
Mocks the rude blast, and strengthens in the storm ! 
Rome felt — and Freedom to their craggy glen 
Transferred that title proud — the Nurse of Men ! 
By deeds of hazard, high and bold emprise, 
Trained, like their native eagle, for the skies ! 

" Long, Scotia stern ! thy bugle note resume — 
Grasp thy claymore — thy plaided bonnet plume ! 
From hill and dale — from hamlet, heath, and wood, 
Peal the wild pibroch — pour the battle flood ! 
' In Egypt, India, Belgium, Gaul, and Spain,' 
Walls in the trenches — whirlwinds on the plain ! — 
This meed accept from Albion's grateful breath — 
Brothers in arms — in victory. — in death 1" 




ABBEY, a name frequently given in Scottish to- 
pography to a village or hamlet which has been 
founded upon or near the site of some ancient mon- 
astic establishment. Thus we have a village called 
The Abbey in the neighbourhood of the abbey of 
Cambuskenneth ; and another of the same name upon 
the banks of the Tyne, about a mile below the town 
of Haddington, marking the site of a once nourishing 
abbey, but of which scarcely a trace now remains. 
The palace of Holyrood is also known throughout 
Scotland, and most significantly in Scottish law, as 
The Abbey, par excellence : having been reared 
within the precincts of a famous monastery, the 
liberty or sanctuary of which, being recognised by 
law, affords a retreat for insolvent debtors within 
which thev cannot be arrested. 

ABBEY PARISH. See Paisley. 

ABBEY ST BATHAN'S, a parish in the north- 
ern part of Berwickshire ; bounded on the north by 
the parish of Innerwick in Haddingtonshire, and 
Cockburnspath in Berwickshire; on the east by 
that detached portion of Oldhamstocks which lies 
in Berwickshire, and by Coldingham; on the south 
by B uncle, a detached portion of Longformacus par- 
ish, and Dunse ; and on the west by Longformacus, 
and another detached portion of the parish of Old- 
hamstocks. It is skirted on the east by the head- 
stream of the Eye, and is intersected by the White- 
adder, and some of its smaller tributaries. It is of a 
very irregular outline ; and measures nearly 6 miles 
in its greatest length from north-west to south-east ; 
and 4 miles in its greatest length from north-east to 
south-west. It contains about 5,000 acres, of which 
nearly 2,000 are arable ; the remainder is covered 
with barren heath or the coarse moorland pasture 
common to the Lammermoor district within which 
this parish lies. The best soil is that of the haugh- 
ground stretching along both sides of the Whiteadder, 
which flows through the southern part of this parish 
horn west to east, passing to the north of the kirk- 
town, which is about 7 miles north by west of Dunse. 
Population, in 1801, 138; in 1831, 122, of whom 
nearly all were employed in agriculture. Houses 23. 
A. P. £1,2.38. — This parish is in the presbytery of 
Dunse. and synod of Merse and Teviotdale. Stipend 
£155 9s. 3d., of which £61 ]2s. lid. from teinds. 
Glebe £13. Patron, the Crown. Schoolmaster's sal- 
ary £36 8s. Fees £12. The church is a very an- 
cient structure. Of the abbey or priory, which stood 
between the church and the river, no vestige now 
exists. It was founded and dedicated to St Bathan 
or Bothan, by one of the countesses of March, in 


1170, tor nuns of the Cistercian order; and soon ac- 
quired large revenues. About two furlongs east 
from the church, and on the same side of the river, 
in a field called the Chapel-field, were the now ob- 
literated remains of a small chapel ; and about a mile 
to the north-west were the remains, now likewise 
obliterated, of the parish-church of Strafontane — 
probably a corruption of Trois Fontaines — united at 
the Reformation to St Bathan's, and originally an 
hospital founded by David I. — A little to the north- 
west of Strafontane, near the banks of the Monynut, 
a tributary of the Whiteadder, is Gadscroft, once 
the demesne of David Hume, the friend of Mel- 
ville, who died in 1620 The Earl of Wemyss has a 

hunting-box about a mile south of the kirk-town. 

ABBEY-CRAIG, a hill in the parish of Logie, in 
the vicinity of Cambuskenneth abbey, on which the 
Scottish army was posted under Wallace, when the 
Earl of Surrey and Hugh Cressingham advanced to 
the battle of Stirling, on 12th September, 1297. 

ABBEY-GREEN. See Lesmahago. 

ABBOTSRULE, formerly a parish in Roxburgh- 
shire, now divided between Hobkirk and Southdean 
parishes. It stretched about 3 miles along the east- 
ern side of the upper part of the Rule, from Black- 
eleugh Mouth to Fultonhaugh. 

ABBOTSFORD, the far-famed country-seat of 
ourgreat national Novelist. It is situated in the south- 
western part of the parish of Melrose, in the county 
of Roxburgh, on the southern bank of the Tweed, 
a little above the junction of the Gala Water; 2 
miles south-east of the town of Galashiels, 34| south 
of Edinburgh. The road from Melrose to Selkirk 
passes close to it. With the exception of the site 
itself, which looks out upon the river flowing imme- 
diately beneath, and a beautiful haugh on the oppo- 
site bank backed with the green hills of Ettrick 
forest, Abbotsford owes its name and all its attrac- 
tions to its late illustrious proprietor. Before his 
genius began to transform the place to what it 
now is — a fairy scene, ' a romance in stone and lime' 
— a mean farm-stead called Cartley-Hole occupied 
this spot. Sir Walter, on becoming proprietor of 
the demesne, changed its name to Abbotsford, rear- 
ed by slow degrees his elegant and picturesque man- 
sion upon it, and laid out and planted the surrounding 
grounds with singular taste and effect: 

" Well might we deem that wizard wand 
Had set us down in fairy land." 

Descriptions of Abbotsford are so rife that we shall 

not add to their number ; but content ourselves with 

referring our readers to the pages of the Anniversary 




for 1829, where they will find a most graphic and 
interesting description of this hallowed spot, from the 
pen of one whose genius enabled him exquisitely to 
sympathize with the taste of the gifted owner. The 
master-spirit has departed ; but his memory will con- 
tinue to cast a consecrating radiance around Abbots- 
lord as long as the visions of our fancy shall be peopled 
with the creatures of his inexhaustible imagination. 

ABBOTSHALL, a parish of Fifeshire, touching 
on its south coast; bounded on the north by Auchter- 
derran; on the east by Kirkcaldy; on the south by 
the frith of Forth, and Kinghorn ; and on the west 
oy Kinghorn, and Auchtertool. Its greatest length, 
.measured from Kirkcaldy links to near Shawsmill 
in Auchterderran parish, in a line from south-east to 
north-west, is nearly 4 miles ; its greatest breadth 
about 2i miles. The area is nearly 3,166 Scotch 
acres, of which about a sixth part is in wood, 
chiefly around the seat of Mr Ferguson of Raith, the 
principal proprietor. The soil is light, but fertile 
and well-cultivated. The face of the country rises 
gradually as we proceed northwards; but dips again 
towards Auchterderran and Auchtertool. The prin- 
cipal stream is the Tiel, which rises a little to the 
north-west of Auchtertool, and flows in a south-east 
direction, forming the boundary between the parishes 
of Abhotshall and Kinghorn. Raith loch is an artifi- 
cial sheet of water formed by damming up the stream- 
let which issues from Camilla loch in Auchtertool ; 
it covers about 20 acres, and discharges itself into the 
Tiel. The kirk-town may he considered as a pro- 
longation to the westwards of the long straggling 
town of Kirkcaldy. It is called Linktown ; is a 
burgh of regality under Ferguson of Raith ; and has 
two annual fairs, viz., on the 3d Friday of April, and 
of October. A more recently "built portion is called 
the Newtown. Population of the parish, in 1801, 
2,501 ; in 1831, 4,206. Houses 494. A. P. £65 
32s. The population of this parish increased by 939 
betwixt the years 1821 and 1831, chiefly in conse- 
quence of the introduction of flax-spinners from Ire- 
land. About 60 hands are employed in fishing, and 
1 00 in agriculture. There were 709 hand-looms with- 
in the parish in 1838 This parish was disjoined from 

Kirkcaldy in 1650. It is in the presbytery of Kirk- 
caldy, and synod of Fife. Stipend .£199 lis. Ild. 
Glebe £36. Patron, the laird of Raith. Church 
built in 1788. Sittings 825. Schoolmaster's salary 
.•£34 4s. 4i-d., with about £35 fees, and .£25 from 
other sources : he has also a house and garden. About 
J 40 children attend the parish-school; and about 
300 attend other schools. A new church and par- 
ish has been recently erected at Invertiel, in the 
parish of Kinghorn ; and a portion of Abbotshall, with 
a population of nearly 900, annexed to the new quoad 
nacra parish. There is a United Secession church at 
Bethelfield, which was established 100 years ago. The 
present place of worship was built in 1836. Sittings 

1 ,096 This parish is said to have derived its name 

from an abbot of Dunfermline having built a country 
house near the site of the present church. A fine yew- 
tree within the gardens of Raith is thought to mark 
the locality of the abbot's hall, which was for some 
time the property of the Scotts of Balwearie, whose 
family, according to Sibbald, had held their paternal 
domain within this parish for a period of at least 500 
years. , This parish has, therefore, the honour of 
being the reputed birth-place of that arch-magician, 
Sir Michael Scott; yet, strange to say, tradition is 
here nearly silent regarding him. The mansion- 
house of Raith is a handsome edifice, surrounded 
by beautifully laid-out grounds. See Balwkabie. 

ABB'S HEAD (St), a bold promontory on the 
coast of Berwickshire, in N. lat. 55° 56';' and W. 
long. 1° 56'; 2 miles north-north-east from Coldirjffr 

ham, and 4 miles north-west from the port of Ey- 
mouth. It consists of a huge isolated mass ot trap 
rock, opposing a perpendicular front of nearly 300 
feet in height to the billows of the German ocean ; 
on two other sides the point of the headland is near 
ly equally precipitous; on the fourth it is divided 
from the mainland by a deep fosse. Tradition re- 
lates that, early in the 9th century, Ebba, daughter 
of Ethelfred, king of Northumberland, fleeing from 
the amorous suit of Pehda, the Pagan king of Mer- 
cia, was shipwrecked on this coast, and built a nunnery 
on this headland in token of gratitude for her preser- 
vation. Of this building no remains are now dis- 
cernible; but within the memory of man there were 
some relics of the chapel and cemetery attached t6 it 
on an eminence about a mile to the east. 

ABDIE, a parish in the north of Fife. It is not 
altogether contiguous ; but the larger portion is 
bounded on the north by part of Newburgh, and the 
estuary of the Tay; on the east" by Flisk, Dunbog, 
and Monimail ; on the south by Collessie ; and on 
the west by Collessie, part of Newburgh, Auchter- 
muchty, and Abernethy. Measured from the Tay, 
near Lindores abbey, to near Pathcondie in Collessie, 
it is 5 miles in length; measured from its extreme 
eastern to its extreme western point, it is about 6 ; 
but its outline is very irregular ; one section of it is 
separated on the west, by the parish of Dunbog, from 
the main portion ; and another portion is cut off, on 
the east, by the intervention of Newburgh parish. 
The area is nearly 7,624 imperial acres, of which 
about 6,000 are under cultivation. The finest land 
lies along the Tay ; here it is a rich alluvial deposit ; 
but the high grounds inland are to a considerable ex- 
tent covered only with furze and heath. The sur- 
face of this parish presents a varied succession of hill 
and dale. The highest elevation is Norman's Law, 
in the eastern isolated portion, which rises to the 
height of 850 feet, with a bold precipitous front, and 
commands a fine view of the frith of Tay, and the 
carse of Gowrie on the opposite shore, and the vale 
of the Eden on the south and east. Clatchard Craig, 
near Newburgh, is also a remarkable basaltic rock, 
presenting a precipitous front towards the east. The 
loch of Lindores, near the centre of the parish, is a 
beautiful sheet of water nearly a mile in length, 
covering about 70 acres, fed by a small stream called 
Priest's Burn, and discharging its waters into the Tay 
at Lindores. It abounds in perch, pike, eels, and 
aquatic fowl. At this latter place are the remains 
of an old castle, which is noticed in Harry the 
Ministrel's History of Wallace, and near to which, 
Balfour relates, a battle was fought in June 1300, 
between the Scots, under that puissant leader, and 
the English, in which the latter was routed with a 
loss of 3,000 slain. This engagement is known as the 
battle of Blackearnside. The finest mansion in the 
parish is that of Inchrye, the seat of David Wilson, 
Esq., a little to the west of the loch of Lindores. 
The old mansion-house of Lindores, near the loch, 
was the seat of the ancient and noble family of Les- 
lie. The most extensive proprietor is D. Maitland 
M'Gill, Esq., of Nether Rankeilour and Lindores; 
but Lord Dundas, now Earl of Zetland, has the 
highest rental. Population, m 1801, 723; in 1831, 
870, of which about one-third were employed in 

agriculture. A. P. £7,904. Houses 169 This 

parish is in the presbytery of Cupar, and synod of 
Fife. Stipend £233 9s. Glebe £23. Patron, the 
Earl of Mansfield. Church built in 1827. _ Sittings 
550. Schoolmaster's salary £34 4s. 4i-d, with about 
£17 fees. Average number of schofavs 35. The 
old church was a narrow ill-lighted building; its 
ruins on the western shore of the loch of Lin- 
dores show some vestiges of antiquity, and several 



monuments of the family of Balfour of Denmiln, now 

represented by Lord Belhaven Among the names 

of eminence connected with this parish is that of Sir 
James Balfour, Lyon-king-at-arnis, under Charles I., 
and a well-known writer on antiquities and heraldry. 
He resided at Kinnaird house; and died in 1657. 


ABERCORN, aparish of Linlithgowshire, stretch- 
ing 4 miles along the south side of the frith of Forth ; 
and bounded on the east by Dalmeny ; on the south 
by Kirkliston, a detached portion of Dalmeny, and 
Ecclesmachan ; and on the west by Linlithgow, and 
Carriden. Its average breadth is 2 miles. The sur- 
face is undulating, and finely wooded ; but the only 
considerable elevations are Binns hill in the western, 
and Priestinch in the south-eastern quarter of the 
parish. The principal stream is the Nethermill or 
Midhope burn which falls into the sea near the kirk. 
The Union canal runs about H mile through the 
south-west corner of this parish. The principal pro- 
prietor is the Earl of Hopetoun, whose seat — a truly 
princely mansion, and the last visited by royalty in 
Scotland — occupies a fine situation on the coast, a 
little to the east of the kirk. Population, in 1801, 
814 ; in 1881, 1,013. Houses 172. A. P. £7,722.— 
This parish is in the presbytery of Linlithgow, and 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. Stipend £188 15s. 
2d. Glebe £16. Patron, the Earl of Hopetoun. 
Schoolmaster's salary £34. School fees £36. There 
are two or three private schools. Bede notices the 
monastery of Abercorn as the residence of a bishop. 
No remains of it now exist ; nor of Abercorn castle, 
which was dismantled in 1455, during the rebellion 
of one of the doughty Douglases. The estate of 
Abercorn, in this parish, which gives title to the 
Marquis of Abercorn, belonged to Sir John Graham, 
the ' fidus Achates' of Wallace, who fell in the bat- 
tle of Falkirk, in 1298. Binns was the family-seat 
of ' the bloody Dalzell," and is still in the possession 
of his descendants. 

ABERCROMBIE, or St Monance, a small pa- 
rish of Fife, on the northern shore of the frith of 
Forth, nearly opposite North Berwick law in East 
Lothian. It is bounded on the north by Carnbee ; 
on the east by Carnbee, and Pittenweem, from which 
it is divided by the Dreel burn; and on the west by 
Elie, and Kilconquhar, from both of which it is divided 
by the In weary rivulet. It is about 1^ mile in length 
from north to south, by 1 in breadth". The area is 
about 800 acres, of which nearly the whole are arable 
and cultivated. The surface is flat. The principal 
proprietors are Sir Ralph Abercromby Anstruther, 
Bart., of Balcaskie, and Sir Wyndham Carmichael 
Anstruther, Bart., of Anstruther. The village of 
St Monance is situated close upon the coast, about 
li mile west of Pittenweem. It is a burgh of bar- 
ony held under the laird of Newark. It has a small 
harbour, now resorted to only by one or two barks 
of small burden and some fishing-boats. Population, 
in 1801,852; in 1831, 1,110. A. P. £2,616. Houses 
161. In 1831, 69 men belonging to this parish were 
employed in fishing, and 21 in coal-mines; and 30 
families in agricultural operations. — This parish is 
in the presbytery of St Andrews, and synod of Fife. 
Stipend £162 0. lid., of which £32 19s. 4d. is re- 
ceived from the Exchequer. Glebe not valued. Pa- 
tron, the Crown. Schoolmasters salary £34 4s. 4^d. 
Fees £44 10s. Average number of scholars 100. 
There is a private school with about an equal atten- 
dance. The old kirk of Abercromby is in ruins, and 
has not been used as a place of worship for two cen- 
turies. It is in the northern part of the parish, and 
is the burying-place of the Balcaskie family. The 
church now in use is situated at the west end of the 
village of St Monance, close upon the beach. It is 

a Gothic edifice, originally founded in the 14th cen- 
tury, and, till recently renovated, presenting a sin- 
gularly antique appearance in its interior furnishings 
as well as externally. It is now a very handsome 
place of worship, seated for 528, and preserving as 
much of its ancient outline as was found consistent 
with modern ideas of comfort. It is related that David 
II. having been grievously wounded by a barbed 
arrow, and miraculously cured at the tomb of St 
Monance at Inverray, dedicated this chapel to him, 
and granted thereto the lands of Easter Birnie. 
Keith says : " This chapel, which was a large and 
stately building of hewn stone, in form of a cross, 
with a steeple in the centre, was given to the Black 
friars, by James III., in 1460-80. The wall of the 
south and north branches of this monastery" — hi 
adds — " are still standing, but want the roof; am. 
the east end and steeple serve for a church to the 
parishioners." This parish was known by the name 
of Abercrombie so far back as 1174. In 1646 the 
lands of Newark constituting the barony of St Mon- 
ance were disjoined from Kilconquhar, and annexed 
quoad sacra to Abercrombie. The parish thus en- 
larged received the designation of Abercrombie with 
St Monance. In the course of years, and with the 
decline of the village of Abercrombie and rise of that 
of Monance, the old title disappeared altogether, and 
the parish came to be known as that of St Monance, 
as it is still pretty generally designated, although the 
old title of Abercrombie has been revived for the 
last thirty years at the wish of the principal heritor. 

ABERDALG1E, a landward parish of Perthshire, 
bounded on the north by Tippermuir ; on the east 
by Perth, and part of Forteviot; on the south by 
Forgandenny and the western detached portion of 
Forteviot ; and on the west by Forteviot and Tipper- 
muir. Its average length from east to west is 2^ miles ; 
its breadth 2 ; area about 2,800 acres. The surface 
rises gradually from the Erne river which runs along 
its southern boundary. The soil is in- general fertile, 
but in some districts very thin. The whole parish 
is the property of the Earl of KinnouJ, whose ances- 
tors acquired it in 1625 from the Earl of Morton. 
Duplin castle, the seat of the Earl, was burnt down 
in 1827 ; but has been rebuilt in a style of great 
magnificence. Population, in 1801, 542; in 1831, 
434. Houses 68. The decrease in population is 
attributable to the enlargement of farms and the 
demolition of cottages. A. P. £4,893. — This parish 
is in the presbytery of Perth, and synod of Perth and 
Stirling. Stipend £157 19s. 4d. Glebe £24. Pa- 
tron, the Earl of Kinnoul. Schoolmaster's salary 
£34 4s. 4id., with about £14 fees. Scholars about 
60. The parish of Duplin was united to this parish 
in 1618. The present church was built in 1773. 
A vault at the east end is the burying-place of the 
Kinnoul family. The battle of Duplin was fought 
in this parish, August 12th, 1332: see Ddplin. 

ABERDEEN, the capital of Aberdeenshire, and 
the third town in importance in Scotland, consists, 
strictly speaking, of two distinct towns, the Old and 
the New, situated at the distance of about a mile 
from each other, in different parishes, and having dis- 
tinct charters and privileges, but included within the 
same parliamentary boundary, and uniting in return- 
ing one member to parliament. The population of 
the united towns, in 1707, was 6,500; in 1801, 27,608; 
in 1831, 58,019; in 1841, 63,262. 

Ou> Aberdeen is a burgh of barony, the seat 
of a university, and formerly of a bishop's see. It is 
situated on the right or south bank of the river Don, 
to the north of New Aberdeen, in the parish of Old 
Machar. The population of the city, as distinct from 
the parish, is about 2,000. It is a place of great an- 
tiquity, and was of considerable importance towards 


the end of the 9th century. David I., in 1154, trans- 
lated the episcopal see from Mortlach to this place, 
and granted " to God and the blessed Mary, St Machar, 
and Nectarius, bishop of Aberdeen, the haill village of 
Old Aberdon." Malcolm IV., William the Lion, and 
James IV., successively confirmed and enlarged the 
original charter, and conferred extensive grants of 
lands and teinds on the bishop of Aberdeen. On the 
abolition of Episcopacy, the right of appointing magis- 
trates fell to the Crown ; and, in 1723, a warrant of 
the Privy council authorized the then magistrates to 
elect their successors in office in future. Previous 
to the late municipal alterations, the council, including 
the provost, four bailies, and a treasurer, consisted of 
19 members. The limits of the burgh are ill-defined. 
In 1834, there were 64 inhabitants of the burgh 
whose rents were £10 and upwards; and 94 whose 
rents were £5 and under £10. The revenue of the 
burgh, in 1832, was £43 5s; the expenditure £14 
16s. 6d. The burgh has no debts, and little pro- 
perty : the latter consisting oidy of a right of com- 
monty in a moss, and a freedom hill lying north of 
the Don, the Town-house, feu-duties, customs, and 
a sum of £310. The magistrates are trustees of 
£2,791 13s. 4d., three per cent, consols, being 
a proportion of a bequest left by Dr. Bell to found 
a school upon the Madras plan ; and also of Mit- 
chell's hospital, endowed in 1801, for maintaining 
five widows and five unmarried daughters of bur- 
gesses. There are seven incorporated crafts, but no 
guildry. Old Aberdeen is a place of little trade. 
The market is on Thursday ; and there are fairs on 
the last Thursday of April, and the third Tuesday of 

The Town-house is a neat building, erected to- 
wards the close of last century. The Trades' hos- 
pital, built on the site of the Mathurine convent, 
was founded in 1533 by Bishop Dunbar. There are 
no remains of the Bishop's palace. The Cathedral 
was originally founded in 1154 ; but having become 
ruinous, it was demolished, and a splendid new one 
founded by Bishop Kinni month in 1357. It is said 
to have been seventy years in progress, but it does not 
appear to have ever been completed. The nave is 
used as the parish-church. It underwent some re- 
pairs in 1832. It is 135 feet in length, by 64 in 
breadth. The western window is a very fine one ; 
and the ceiling is of oak beautifully carved. Grose 
has given a view of this building. It is said to have 
contained a valuable library which was destroyed at 
the Reformation. There are some curious arid splen- 
did monuments in the interior. 

The King's college, the chief ornament of the 
place, is a large and stately fabric, situated at a little 
distance from the town on the east side. It appears 
that there existed, so long ago as the reign of Mal- 
colm IV., a " Studium generate in cvllegio canonico- 
rum Aberdoniensiuni," which subsisted till the founda- 
tion of this college by Bishop Elphinstone. In 1494, 
Pope Alexander VI., by a bull dated February 10th, 
instituted, in the city of Old Aberdon, or Aberdeen, 
an university, or " Studium generate et Universitas 
studii generalis," for theology, canon and civil law, 
medicine, the liberal arts, and every lawful faculty ; 
and privileged to grant degrees. James IV. applied 
for this bull on the supplication of Bishop Elphinstone, 
who is considered as the founder. But though the 
bull was granted in 1494, the college was not founded 
till the year 1505. It was dedicated to St Mary; 
but, being taken under the immediate protection 
of the king, it was denominated King's colltge. 
James IV. and Bishop Elphinstone endowed it with 
large revenues; which were still further increased 
by James VI. who endowed it with the parsonage 
and vicarage of St. Machar, and various other 

possessions ; and Charles I. attempted to unite it 
with Marischal college, and gifted the bishop's house 
to the principal. The income of King's college in 
1836. derived from endowments, was £1,215 ; from 
Crown grants£l, 148. In 1840 this college received the 
munificent bequest of £11,000 from the estate of the 
late Dr. Simpson of Worcester. Upon the abolition 
of Episcopacy, the patronage became vested in the 
Crown. Thebuildingis ancient, and contains achapel, 
in which the body of the founder is deposited, a library, 
museum, common hall, rooms for the lectures, and a 
long uniform range of modern houses for the accom- 
modation of the professors. Considerable additions 
and repairs were made on the buildings in 1827. The 
library contains about 30,000 volumes ; and is entitled 
to a copy of all the books entered at Stationers' hall 
The chapel is open during the session for the accom 
modation of the professors and students. It seats 
from 300 to 350. Behind is the garden of the college, 
and the principal's house and garden. The session lasts 
twenty-one weeks, beginning in November. The 
officers are, a chancellor, who is generally a nobleman, 
a rector, a principal, a sub-principal, and a procurator 
who has charge of the funds. The Senatus Acade- 
micus elect to all the offices of the university, with 
the exception of the professorship of oriental languages 
appointed by the Crown, and that of divinity, which is 
in the patronage of the synod of Aberdeen. The sen- 
ate also assumes the power of expulsion. There are 
nine professorships — humanity, Greek, mathematics, 
natural philosophy, logic and moral philosophy, orien- 
tal languages, civil law, medicine, and divinity. The 
number of students, exclusive of medical students, 
attending King's college annually, on an average of 
the last ten years, has been 365. There are 128 bur- 
saries of from £5 to £50 per annum. The annual 
amount paid under this bead is £1,643. Hector 
Boethius was the first principal of this college, and 
was sent for from Paris for that purpose, on a salary 
of 40 merks Scots, equal about to £2 3s. 4d. In 
the first report of the University commissioners, 
published in 1838, it is recommended that the two 
universities of Aberdeen shall be united into one 
university, to be called ' The United University of 
Aberdeen;' but that King's college and Marischal 
college shall continue separate as colleges for the ad- 
ministration of their respective property and funds. 

The parish of Old Aberdeen, or Old Machar, was 
originally a deanery, called the deanery of St Machar ; 
and comprehended the parishes of Old Machar, New 
Machar, and Newhills. In ancient times, however, 
these districts do not seem to have been so many 
separate parishes, but only chapelries, in each of 
which divine worship was regularly performed, as 
the inhabitants of so extensive a district could not 
conveniently meet in one place for public worship. 
New Machar seems to have been erected into a 
separate parish about the time of the Reformation ; 
and Newhills about the year 1663. The parish o' 
Old Machar, or Old Aberdeen, or the Old Town 
parish, is in the presbytery and synod of Aberdeen. 
It has been recently divided into four other quoad 
sacra parishes : viz., Holburn, Gilcomston, Bon Ac- 
cord, and Woodside. 

1st. Old Machar. The boundaries of this 
parish are somewhat uncertain. It includes an ex- 
tensive landward district, besides the burgh of Old 
Aberdeen, and part of New Aberdeen. The popu- 
lation, in 1836-7, was estimated at 10,716, of whom 
8,064 belonged to the established church, and 2,436 
were dissenters. The cathedral of St Machar — as 
already stated — is the parish church. It has 1,594 
sittings. The charge is collegiate. Stipend of the 
1st minister, £273 Is. 3d, without a rnanse or glebe ; 
of the 2d minister, £282 19s. 9d, with a manse and 


a glebe of tbe yearly value of £31 10s School- 
master's salary .£30, with £32 fees, and about £30 
emoluments. There were 62 private schools through- 
out the old parish, which were attended by 2,160 
children, in 1833. 

2d. Holbckn. The extent of this quoad sacra 
parish is about 2a square miles. It is partly a land- 
ward, partly a town-district. Population estimated, 
in 1836-7, at 3,370, of whom 2,658 were churchmen. 
The church was built by subscription in 1836, at a 
cost of £1,858, and seats 1,332. The sum of £100 
is secured by bond to the incumbent, besides what 
may be derived from seat-rents after paying the in- 
terest on the debt affecting the church. 

3d. Gilcomston. This is a compact town-parish. 
It was formerly a chapel-of-ease to Old Machar, and 
was erected into a quoad sacra parish, in May, 1834. 
Population, in 1836-7, 4,950, of whom about two- 
thirds belonged to the establishment. The church 
was erected by subscription, in 1769-71 ; and enlarged 
in 1796. It has 1,522 sittings. Stipend £230, en- 
tirely derived from seat-rents. There is no manse or 
glebe. The dissenting congregations in this parish 
are: 1st, St John's, Episcopalian. Established in 1812. 
Sittings 386. Average attendance 300. Stipend from 
£120"to £130. 2d, Original Seceders. Established 
in 1810. Sittings 500. Average attendance 200. 
The minister has a house adjoining the chapel. 
Stipend £115. 

4th. Bon Accord. This parish is wholly a town- 
parish. It was created in 1834. Population, in 
1836-7, 4,387, of whom 2,557 belonged to the 
establishment, and 1,206 to other denominations. 
Church built in 1823, by Scotch Baptists ; bought 
for a chapel-of-ease in 1828. Sittings 840. Sti- 
pend £150, wholly derived from seat-rents. There 
is a Baptist congregation in this parish, renting a 
hall with 180 sittings, of which about one-half are 
usually occupied. 

5th. Woodside. This parish was erected in 1835. 
It is without the royalty, but within the parliamen- 
tary boundary, and consists of four villages. Popu- 
lation, in 1835, 4,238, chiefly residing in the three 
contiguous villages of Cotton, Tanfield, and Wood- 
side. The latter, which is the principal village, is 
distant about 1^ mile from Old Aberdeen, and 2 
miles from New Aberdeen. Church built in 1829-30, 
at a cost of £1,890. Sittings 1,420. Stipend £150, 
without manse or glebe. There are four sabbath- 
schools, but no parochial school. There is an In- 
dependent congregation at Cotton. Established in 
1819. Stipend £50, with a house and garden. Sit- 
tings 480. 

The extent of the parish of Old Aberdeen is 16-6 
square miles ; its form irregular. Its south-east cor- 
ner forms the north and west boundaries of New 
Aberdeen, or the parish of St Nicholas. It extends 
about 2i miles up the Dee ; by which river it is 
bounded on the south, and divided from the parish 
of Nigg, in the county of Kincardine. The western 
boundary stretches in a crooked line from a point 100 
yards above the bridge of Dee to the Scatter burn, 
and thence along its course to its junction with the 
Don. By this line it is divided from the parishes 
of Banchory-Davenick and Newhills. Joining the 
Don, the boundary line follows the course of that 
river to a point about 6 miles from its mouth. In 
this quarter, the Don divides it from the parishes of 
Newhills and Dyce; the northern boundary divides 
it from the parishes of New Machar and Belhelvie, 
and meets the sea at the Black Dog, a solitary rock 
of a black colour, in the sands of Belhelvie, within 
high water mark. On the east, the parish is bounded 
by the sea, from the Black Dog to the mouth of the 
Dee : the extent of coast being about 6 miles, and in 

general flat and sandy. The greatest length of the 
parish from north to south may be 7i miles, and its 
greatest breadth 4. It rises in a gentle slope from the 
sea, and though there is no eminence in it that de- 
serves the name of a mountain, yet its surface is 
beautifully diversified by rising grounds. The wind- 
ings of the Dee and the Don, the number of gentle- 
men's seats and villas, together with the varied pros- 
pects of the sea, the rivers, the cities of Old and New 
Aberdeen, and the villages of Gilcomston and Hard- 
gate, give a pleasant variety to the general appear- 
ance of this district. The steep and rugged banks of 
the Don, from the house of Seaton to below the old 
bridge, are truly romantic. On the south side of the 
parish, near to Ferrybills, are many curious little 
sandhills, lying in all directions, and moulded into 
various forms seemingly by the retiring of some im- 
mense quantity of water. The soil is in some places 
naturally fertile, but many parts of it have been forced 
into fertility by labour and expense. Where it has 
not been meliorated by art, it is in general shallow and 
sandv. The population of the entire district was, in 
1821", 18,312; in 1831, 25,017. Assessed property, 

in 1815, £19,125 In 1281, Henry Cheyne (nephew 

of John Comyn, who was killed by Bruce at Dumfries 
in 1305) succeeded to the bishopric of Aberdeen 
After Comyn's death, the bishop openly espoused the 
interest and party of the Comyns ; but was obliged to 
fly into England, and remain there for several years, 
during which time the revenues of his bishopric re- 
mained unapplied. King Robert having been after- 
wards reconciled to Cheyne, allowed him to return, 
and possess the see of Aberdeen as formerly. Where- 
upon the bishop, with the concurrence, or more pro- 
bably by the command of his sovereign, applied the 
accumulated rents of his bishopric towards build- 
ing a bridge over the Don, about 1,200 yards from 
its mouth, upon the great high road leading, north- 
ward from Aberdeen. Cheyne died in 1329; the 
bridge was probably erected about the year 1320. 
This is the well known ' Brig o' Balgownie ;' and 
consists of one large pointed Gothic arch of 72 feet 
span. Sir Alexander Hay bequeathed an annual sum 
of £2 5s. 8d. to the support of this bridge, which 
having accumulated to upwards of £20,000, the town- 
council of New Aberdeen, in 1825, obtained an act 
authorizing them to apply part of the savings in build- 
ing a new bridge in a more convenient situation. The 
new bridge, 500 feet in length, was completed in 1830. 
It is of five arches, and crosses the river at a point 

450 yards lower down than the old bridge Bishop 

William Elphingston left a considerable legacy to 
build a bridge over the river Dee, near Aberdeen, 
but died in 1514, before any thing was done towards 
it. Gavin Dunbar, son of Sir James Dunbar of Cum- 
nock, by Elizabeth daughter of the earl of Suther- 
land, having succeeded to the bishopric of Aberdeen 
in 1518, fulfilled his predecessor's intentions, and 
erected the greatest part of the bridge where it now 
stands, about the year 1530. This bridge having 
gone into decay, was restored out of the funds be- 
longing to itself, between the years 1720 and 1724. 
A new suspension bridge has been thrown across the 
Dee 2,600 yards lower down the river. Both tbe 
bridges of Dee and Don are under the sole manage- 
ment of the magistrates of New Aberdeen ; and it 
appears that a large portion of their funds has been 
directed to other purposes. 

New Aberdeen, the capital of Aberdeenshire, 
and the third Scottish town in importance, is situ- 
ated on a rising ground on the northern bank of 
the river Dee, near the mouth of that river, and 
about li mile to the south of the river Don ; 108 
miles north-north-east of Edinburgh, 115 south-east 
of Inverness, and 425 north bv west of London ; in 



N. lat. 57° 9', and VV. long. 2° 6'. Population, in 
1801,17,597; in 1821, 26,484; in 1831, 32,912. The 
number of bouses, in 1831, was 2,588 ; the number 
of houses of ±"10 and upwards yearly value 1,195. 
exclusive of Old Aberdeen. Assessed rental £55,000, 
The name has assumed various orthographies : thus 
we have Aberdoen, Abyrdeyn, Aberden, and Habyr- 
dine. To the Norsemen this town was known by 
the name Apardion. 

All historical accounts agree that Aberdeen was 
erected into a royal burgh towards the end of the 
9th century. But the original charter of erection, 
and all the more ancient title-deeds and records of 
the burgh, have perished. The oldest municipal 
document extant is a charter by William the Lion 
in favour of his burgesses of Aberdeen, and others, 
" ex aquilonali parte de Munth mauentibus." It is 
supposed this alludes to the Month, a high ridge of 
hills near Fettercairn in Kincardineshire, through 
which the high road, called the Cairn-of-Month road, 
passes from Brechin towards the Dee. This charter 
was granted at Perth, but is without date or year, 
though it must have been towards the end of the 
12th century. By a second charter the same mon- 
arch granted to the burgesses of Aberdeen exemption 
from tolls and customs for their chattels throughout 
the whole kingdom. King William's successors 
frequently resided here, and had a palace which 
stood upon the site of the present Trinity church 
and Trades hospital in the Shiprow. On the 14th 
of July, 1296, Edward I. of England entered Aber- 
deen, where he remained five days and received the 
homage of the bishop and dean, and of the burgesses 
and community. In the 14th year of his reign, 
King Robert Bruce made a gift and conveyance to 
the community of Aberdeen of the royal forest of 
Stocket. Besides this, he granted various other 
privileges and immunities to the citizens and burgh 
of Aberdeen, and in particular the valuable fishings 
in the Dee and Don. In 1333, Edward III. of 
England having sent a fleet of ships to ravage the 
east coast of Scotland, a body of English landed and 
attacked by night the town of Aberdeen, which 
they burnt and destroyed. In 1336, Edward III. 
invaded Scotland, and led his army as far north 
as Inverness, during which time the citizens of 
Aberdeen attacked a party of the English forces 
which had landed at Dunnottar, and killed their 
general. In revenge, Edward, on his return from 
Inverness, made a fierce attack upon Aberdeen, 
put the greater part of the inhabitants to the 
sword, and again burnt and destroyed the town. 
Some years after this, the town was rebuilt, and 
considerably enlarged, particularly towards the rising 
grounds upon which the principal part of it now 
stands, viz., the Woolman-hill, St Catharine's-hill, 
the Port-hill, and the Castle-hill ; the old town hav- 
ing lain more towards the east along the Green and 
Shiprow. In the re-edification of their town, the citi- 
zens were greatly assisted by King David Bruce, in 
acknowledgment of their steady loyalty and attach- 
ment both to himself and to his father. King David 
II. resided for some time at Aberdeen, and erected a 
mint here, as appears from some coins still extant. 
It was after being rebuilt as above, that the town 
was called the New Town, or New Aberdeen, in 
contradistinction to the Old, which had been burnt 
down. In 1411, at the battle of Harlaw, the citi- 
zens of Aberdeen turned the fortunes of the day 
against Donald of the Isles ; and, in 1547, they 
fought with equal gallantry but less success at Pin- 
ky. In the early part of the year 1560, the Refor- 
mation obtained a permanent footing in Aberdeen. 
Adam Heriott was the "first minister of the true 
word of God in Aberdene." He died in 1574. Dur- 

ing the civil wars of the 17th century, Aberdeen 
suffered much between the two contending parties; 
it being common for whatever party happened to be 
in possession of the town to levy heavy subsidies 
from the unfortunate Aberdonians. In September 
1644, the Marquis of Montrose, with an army of 
about 2,000 men, approached the town of Aberdeen, 
and summoned it to surrender; but the magis- 
trates, after advising with Lord Burley — who then 
commanded in the town a force nearly equal in 
number to the assailants — refused to obey the sum- 
mons ; upon which a battle ensued within half-a-mile 
of the town, at a place called the Crabstone, near 
the Justice-mills, in wdiich Montrose prevailed, and 
many of the principal inhabitants were killed. 
" There was little slaughter in the fight," says Spald- 
ing, " but horrible was the slaughter in the flight 
fleeing back to the town." "Here it is to be re- 
marked," adds the worthy Commissary-clerk, " that 
the night before this field was foughten, our people 
saw the moon rise red as blood, two hours before 
her time !" Charles II. landed at Speymouth, July 
4, 1650, and visited Aberdeen a few days after. 
He revisited the city in February 1651, after the de- 
feat of his hopes at Worcester and Dunbar , and in 
September 1651, General Monk's army took posses- 
sion of Aberdeen. On Sept. 20, 1715, the Cheva- 
lier was proclaimed at the cross of Aberdeen ; and 
on Sept. 27, 1745, the chamberlain of the ducal 
family of Gordon proclaimed the Pretender on the 
same spot. Aberdeen has been repeatedly visited 
by the plague. It raged here in 1401, 1498, 1506, 
1514, 1530, 1538, 1546, 1549. 1608, and last in 1647, 
when it carried off 1,760 of the inhabitants out of a 
population of about 9,000. The city of Aberdeen 
has received various grants from different sovereigns 
of Scotland, from William the Lion, downward to 
James VI. inclusive ; and, in Sept. 1638, the whole 
of the former charters and grants were ratified and 
confirmed by charter from Charles I. From 1336, 
when the town was last burnt, to 1398, it does not 
appear that any public records were regularly kept 
here. But from the last-mentioned period to the 
present time, (except for about twelve years in the 
beginning of the 15th century,) there is a regular 
and uninterrupted series of records in the town's 
chartulary. The county records do not reach a more 
remote date than 1503. 

Aberdeen is a large and handsome city, having 
many spacious streets, lined on each side by elegant 
houses, generally four floors in height, which are 
built of a very fine granite from the neighbouring 
quarries. Union street is upwards of a mile in 
length, and of great beauty. It is intersected by a 
ravine through which the Den burn flows, and 
across which a beautiful arch is thrown, of 130 
feet span, and oniy 35 feet of rise. The Market- 
place, in the centre of the city, is a large oblong 
square, called Castle street, or gate, from a fortress 
built by Oliver Cromwell, which formerly occupied 
a rising ground on its eastern side. On the north 
side of it is the Town-house, and adjoining to it the 
Court-houses and Prison, forming a connected range 
of buildings, of two wings, with a central tower sur- 
mounted by a spire 120 feet high. Opposite to the 
Town-house, the Aberdeen Banking company, esta- 
blished in 1766, have a handsome office. On the 
west side is the Athenaeum, or News room, an ele- 
gant structure, erected in 1822. Near the western 
extremity of Castlegate is the Cross, the most com- 
plete structure perhaps of the kind in the kingdom. 
It is an hexagonal stone building, highly ornamented 
with bas-relievos of the kings of Scotland, from 
James I. to James VII. with a Corinthian column 
in the centre, on the top of which is a unicorn bear- 


ing on its breast a scutcheon charged with the Scot- 
tish lion. This building was originally erected in 
1686, on the site of a more ancient cross; it was 
thoroughly repaired in 1821. Leading off to the north 
from Castlegate is King-street, which is little inferior 
in splendour to Union-street. It was formed in 1801. 
It has several handsome public buildings, among which 
are the County Record-office, the Medico -chirurgical 
Society's hall, St Andrew's Episcopal chapel, and 
the North church. Broad-street, in which Marischal 
college — to be afterwards described — is situated, is 
celebrated as having been the residence of Lord 
Byron while under his mother's care. The finest of 
the modern public buildings is the County-rooms, 
erected in 1820, at an expense of .£11,500, which 
was defrayed by the counties of Aberdeen and 
Banff. The Infirmary is a large plain building. It 
"was established in 1742, and is supported by subscrip- 
tions, collections, and donations; the number of 
patients annually relieved is about 900. The Lu- 
natic hospital was built by subscription in 1800. It 
is about half-a-mile to the north-west of the town. 
The Bridewell, a large castellated building, was 
erected at an expense of £10.000. The Jail was 
erected in 1828-31. It is 129 feet in length, by 98 
in breadth, enclosing a court divided into six com- 
partments, and having the turnkey's lodge in the 
centre. — The first buildings of Aberdeen were pro- 
bably a few rude huts near the spot where Trinity 
church now stands. The ground next occupied was 
probably in the neighbourhood of the castle and the 
green; and the town gradually extended in the di- 
rection of the Shiprow, the Exchequer row, and the 
south side of Castlegate. In 1545 a stone edifice 
was considered a mark of great opulence ; and so 
late as 1741 the houses on the west side of the Broad- 
gate were constructed of wood. Westwards of the 
Gallowgate, there was, till the latter end of last 
century, a large fenny marsh, called the Loch, which 
must have occupied a large portion of the north-west 
quarter of the present city. The early site of the 
fishing- village of Footdeeis now covered with streets 
and warehouses, extending along the Waterloo-quay. 
The banks in Aberdeen are: the Aberdeen banking 
company, already mentioned ; the Aberdeen Town 
and County bank, established in 1825; and the 
North of Scotland banking company, established in 
1S36. There are also branches of the Bank of Scot- 
land, the British Linen company, the Commercial 
bank of Scotland, and the National bank of Scot- 
land. A new post-office is about to be built, to- 
wards the erection of which government has granted 

The principal manufacture of Aberdeen, prior to 
the year 1745, was knitted stockings, which were 
mostly exported to Holland, and thence dispersed 
through Germany. The linen manufacture was sub- 
sequently introduced, and now employs about 4,000 
hands. The articles chiefly manufactured are thread, 
sailcloth, Osnaburgs, brown linens, and sacking. The 
manufacture of sailcloth only commenced in 1795. 
In the beginning of last century, the woollen manu- 
factures of Aberdeenshire were chiefly coarse slight 
cloths, called plaidens and fjngroms, which were sold 
from 5(1. to 8d. per ell, and stockings from 8d. to 2s. 
3d. per pair. These were manufactured by the 
farmers and cottagers from the wool of their own 
sheep, and by the citizens from wool brought to the 
market from the higher parts of the country. These 
goods were mostly exported to Hamburgh. Blankets, 
serges, stockings, twisted yarns, and carpets, are 
now manufactured. There" were, in 1838, 1,000 
looms employed on linen, of which four-fifths were in 
factories; 130 on cotton; and 300 on woollen car- 
pets. The number of linen and cotton looms was 

diminishing, the manufacturers having generallv 
turned their attention to power-loom weaving and 
spinning; but the woollen or carpet manufacture was 
on the increase. A first class linen weaver made 
about lis. per week ; one of the second class, 8s. 6d. 
and an old or inferior hand, 4s. 6d. ; working on an 
average about 69 hours a- week. A first class cotton 
weaver made about 6s. 3d. of weekly wages. Be- 
sides small cotton works, three large establishments 
— in one of which the moving power is water from 
the Don, and in the other steam-engines — are in con- 
stant operation, and employ at least 2,000 people. 
Some of these companies import their own .cotton 
from America. There are several breweries; and' 
porter and ales in considerable quantities are annually 
exported to America and the West Indies; there are 
also many distilleries, some of them on a large scale. 
Of late years extensive iron- works have been estab- 
lished, at which steam-engines, anchors, chains, 
cables, and spinning machinery are manufactured: 
and at one of them several steam-vessels of between 
500 and 600 tons per register have been fitted out. 
The rope manufacture and ship-building, the leather 
trade, the making of paper, and manufacturing of qui lis, 
soap and candles, are also carried on : and a large and 
increasing trade in the exportation of corn, butter, 
and eggs, to London, gives employment to a consi- 
derable tonnage. Salmon-fishing is also carried on 
to a great extent, and the fish are principally sent to 
London packed in ice. Aberdeen salmon appear to 
have been exported to England so early as 1281. 
Towards the end of the 17th century Aberdeen an- 
nually exported 360 barrels of 250 lbs. each to the 
continent. From 1S22 to 1828, inclusive, being a 
period of seven years, 42,654 boxes of salmon, chiefly 
the produce of the Dee and the Don risers, but in- 
cluding some Spey salmon, were shipped at Aber- 
deen ; and from 1829 to 1835, inclusive, 65,260 boxes. 
Whitings, or finnocks, are also taken in the Dee, and 
made an article of trade to the London market. See 
articles Dee and Don. In 1819 the feu-duties of 
the whole fishings amounted to £27 7s. sterling, and 
it was stated in the House of Commons committee 
that they were then worth £10,000 per annum. The 
granite quarries near Aberdeen, which have contri- 
buted so much to the decoration of the town, afford 
also a staple commodity for exportation. The freight 
to London is about 8s. per ton ;* and the vessels in 
returning generally bring coals from Sunderland. In 
1656, when Tucker visited Scotland, there were 9 
vessels belonging to Aberdeen, of a total burden ot 
440 tons. The vessels belonging to the port of Aber- 
deen, as distinct from those of Peterhead, Stone- 
haven, and Newburgh, amounted, in 1839, to 254, ot 
30,032 tons. The total tonnage within the limits of 
the port was 43,584. The vessels are employed 
principally in the East India, American, Baltic, 
Mediterranean, and coasting-trades. Some years ago 
14 vessels, averaging 320 tons each, and navigated 
by upwards of 500 men, were employed in the 
whale-fishing ; but in 1837 there were only 2 ves- 
sels employed in this trade. Powerful steam ves- 
sels sail regularly once a-week between Aberdeen 
and London ; and steam-vessels sail every alter- 
nate day to Leith during eight months of the year. 
— The harbour of Aberdeen was originally no- 
thing more than an expanse of water communicating 
with the sea by a narrow and shallow mouth; and 
the earliest artificial erection within the port was a 

* The balk of a ton of granite is about 15 cubic feet. The 
prices of Aberdeen granite delivered in London are as follows: 
A stone of 15 tons weight, 10s. per cubic loot ; of 12 tons, 9s, ; 
of 9 tons, 8s. ; of ti tons, 6s. j of 2 tons, 4s. In 1831, 3S,352 
tons of granite were shipped at Aberdeen. Cubes for paving 
are delivered in Loudon at about 20s. per ton, This branch vi 
export trade, commenced about the year ITtiO. 



bulwark extending from the Shiprow southward. 
In 1607 the erection of a pier on the south side of 
the channel was begun ; and in 1623 the extension 
of the wharf to near the present canal was com- 
menced. In 1775 the New pier was begun under 
the direction of the celebrated Smeaton. It cost 
£18,000; and proved very useful in lowering the 
bar at the mouth of the harbour, and preventing 
future accumulations of sand and gravel. In 1810 
an act was passed authorising the corporation to 
borrow .£140,000 for the further improvement of the 
harbour. At that time the greatest depth of water 
was 19 feet; it is now, at average stream-tides, 21 
feet; the extent of wharfage is 5,000 feet in length ; 
and the harbour must be regarded as one of the most 
commodious in Scotland. This advantage has, how- 
ever, been attained at an expenditure of £270,000 
within the last 26 years. During the year ending 
June 30, 1836, shore-dues were levied on 202,043 
tons of shipping. The customs levied here in 1368 
amounted to £1,960 Scots'; in 1656 to £82; in 1839, 
to £71,892 sterling. The harbour is under the joint 
management of the magistrates and council, and six 
trustees. — A canal has been made from the harbour 
into the interior which joins the river Don, at In- 
verury, at the distance of 18| miles north-west from 
Aberdeen. It was begun in 1795, and finished in 
1807, at an expense of £44.000. It has an ascent 
of 168 feet, and 17 locks. — There is a regular ferry 
from the harbour to the village of Torrie on the 
southern shore of the estuary The Girdleness light- 
house is built on a conspicuous promontory on the 
larboard hand in entering the port, in N. lat. 57° 8', 
and W. long. 2° 3'. It has two lights — a higher and 
lower — the former visible at 19, the latter at 16 miles. 
The following tables exhibit the principal imports 
and exports of the city of Aberdeen, during each of 
the years ending June 30, 1834, and 1836: 




English coals 

844,239 bolls 


Scottish coals 

56,337 bolls 



64,433 bolls 



1,276 tons 



2,679 tons 



S29 tons 



1,154 tons 


American wood 

1,919 loads 


East Country wo 

1,500 loads 



10,516 quarters 



6,596 sacks 



62,654 bushels 



2,521 tons 


Whale blubber 

1,125 tuns 



63 tons 





Manufactured flax 

31,840 li.B. 


Manufactured cotton 

14,222 b n. 


Manufactured wool 

17.115 B u. 


Oats, barley, & bear 

75,512 qrs. 



]J),994 bolls 



2,405 number 



2y number 


Sheep & lambs 

940 number 



1,001 number 



57 number 



9,426 cwts. 



8,691 B B. 



4,597 cwts. 



2,924 B.B. 


Granite stones 

24,158 tous 



10,372 B b. 


Three weekly newspapers are published in Aber- 
deen. The Journal, which is the oldest, was estab- 
lished in 1748. Aberdeen almanacks have long been 
celebrated. It appears that these useful manuals 
were printed here so early as 1626 — and probably 
some years earlier — by Edward Raban, a printer ori- 
ginally from St. Andrews. In 1617 a regular post 
was established between Aberdeen and Edinburgh. 

So early as 1418 a grammar-school existed here ; and 
a school for teaching music, in the 15th century. 
Several very ample mortifications and donations for 
pious and charitable purposes have been made by 
different persons belonging to Aberdeen for the wel- 
fare of the community. Robert Gordon, merchant 
in Aberdeen, by deed of mortification, of date 13th 
December 1729, and 19th September 1730, founded 
an hospital for the maintenance and education of in- 
digent boys, being the sons and grandsons of bur- 
gesses of guild of Aberdeen, or the sons and grand- 
sons of tradesmen of the said burgh, being freemen 
or burgesses thereof; and for the purposes of it he 
assigned his whole estate, personal and real, to the 
magistrates and the four ministers of Aberdeen, 
whom he appointed perpetual patrons and governors 
of the hospital. There are at present 112 boys main- 
tained and educated in this hospital. The branches 
of education taught, are English, grammar, writing, 
arithmetic, book-keeping, the elements of geometry, 
navigation, geography, French, and church-music. 
Boys must not be under 9 years of age when ad- 
mitted; and must leave at 16, when they are put to 
proper trades, under the direction of the governors. 
The funds have been enlarged by a bequest from a 
Mr. Simpson, and amount to about £50,000. A club 
for printing the historical and literary remains of the 
North-east of Scotland, in imitation of the Bannatyne 
and similar clubs, has been very recently formed in 
Aberdeen under the title of ' The Spalding club.' 

The Marischal college of Aberdeen was founded 
by George Keith, fifth Earl-Marischal, in April 1593. 
According to the deed of foundation, it u as to con- 
sist of a principal, three teachers denominated re- 
gents, six alumni, and two inferior persons, viz., an 
economist, and a cook. The principal was required 
to be well-instructed in sacred literature, and to be 
skilled in Hebrew and Syriac; he was also to be 
able to give anatomical and physiological prelections. 
The first regent was specially to teach ethics and 
mathematics; the second, logic; the third, Latin, 
and Greek. The Earl reserved to himself and his 
heirs the nomination to professorships ; the examina- 
tion and admission of the persons so named being 
vested in the chancellor, the rector, the dean of 
faculty, and the principal of King's college, the min- 
ister of New Aberdeen, and the ministers of Deer 
and Fetteresso. The foundation was confirmed by 
the General Assembly which met in the same month 
in which it was framed; and a few months after, a 
confirmation was given by parliament. A charter 
of confirmation was granted by William, Earl-Maris- 
chal, in 1623; and a new confirmation by Charles 
II. in 1661. In all these charters, however, it was 
specially declared that the masters, members, stu- 
dents, and bursars, of the said college, should be 
subject to the jurisdiction of the burgh-magistrates. 
An additional regent was appointed within a few 
years after the institution of the college ; a professor- 
ship of divinity was founded in 1616; and a mathe- 
matical professorship about three years before. In 
1753, the Senatus aeademicus directed that the stu- 
dents, after being instructed in classical learning, 
should be made acquainted with natural and civil 
history, geography, chronology, and the elements 
of mathematics ; that they should then proceed to 
natural philosophy, and terminate their curriculum 
by studying moral philosophy. This plan of study, 
with a few alterations, has since been continued. 
The office-bearers in Marischal college are a chan- 
cellor, rector, and dean-of-faculty. The chancellor 
is chosen for life by the senate. The rector is elect- 
ed annually by ali the students; as are also his as- 
sessors, four in number. The dean is elected by the 
senate and the senior minister of Aberdeen. The 


Senatus academicus consists of the chancellor, rector, 
dean, principal, four professors termed regents, and 
the professors of divinity, oriental languages, mathe- 
matics, medicine, and chemistry. Besides the regu- 
lar professors, there are lecturers on anatomy, 
physiology, surgery, materia medica, and Scotch law 
and conveyancing. These lecturers derive their ap- 
pointment from both universities. The philosophy 
session commences on the Wednesday immediately 
following the last Monday of October, and ends on 
the first Friday of April. The principal was usually, 
though not of necessity, professor of divinity. His 
salary is on an average £345, exclusive of the 
emoluments of the divinity chair, which averages 
£114. In 1833, a chair of church-history was 
founded by the Crown, which is at present held by 
the principal, and the average emoluments of which 
are £102. He is appointed by the Crown, in con- 
sequence of the forfeiture of the Marischal family. 
The professor of divinity is appointed by the magis- 
trates and town-council of the burgh. The average 
salary of each of the four regents is about £179 ; 
that of the professor of natural history, £330 ; of 
natural philosophy, £331 ; of moral philosophy. 
£310; of Greek, £373; of mathematics, £336; of 
oriental languages, £78 ; of medicine, £100; of che- 
mistry, £133. There are 40 foundations for bur- ' 
saries, for the benefit of 106 bursars ; 4 of these are j 
of the annual value of £26; and 10 of £25 ; but 
the greater part are from £10 to £5 ; 36 are in the 
presentation of the council. The average number i 
of students is about 250, exclusive of the divinity | 
and medical students who belong to both King's 
college and Marischal college. None of the students 
reside in college. Honorary degrees, in all the 
faculties, are occasionally conferred by the university. : 
The library of Marischal college, in 1827, contained 
11,000 volumes; and the principal and professors; 
had a right, under a decision of the court of session 
in 1738, to the use of the books transmitted from 
Stationer's hall to the library of King's college. The 
only building belonging to the college is the present 
fabric, on the site of what was the Franciscan con- 
vent. It was rebuilt between 1684-1700, and 1739- 
40 ; and is again rebuilding on an extensive plan, a 
royal grant of £25,000 having been made for the 
purpose. The senate of Marischal college, unlike 
that of King's college, are favourable to the leading 
principle of the plan of union of the two universities 
which has been recommended by the royal commis- 
sion. Among the most eminent alumni of Marischal 
college were Gilbert Burnett, afterwards bishop of 
Salisbury, who took his degree of M. A. here in 
1657; James Gregory, the inventor of the reflecting 
telescope ; George Jamesone, the father of painting 
in Scotland, and who has been called the Scottish 
Vandyke; Dr Arbuthnot, the friend of Pope; Colin 
Maclaurin, the mathematician; and Dr Reid, the 

By act of 3° and 4° William IV., the number of 
the council is fixed at 19, including the dean of guild. 
The chief magistrates are a provost and four bailies. 
Six councillors retire from office annually, and two 
are chosen by the electors of each of the three 
wards to supply their places. The jurisdiction of the 
magistrates extends over the whole city and freedom, 
but they bold no small debt court. The magistrates 
and council appoint the city-assessor, town-clerk and 
depute, city-chamberlain, collector of cess, procu- 
rator-fiscal, superintendent of works, quarter-master, 
gaoler, town-housekeeper, and six town-serjeants. 
There are two classes of old burgesses : viz., guild- 
burgesses, and freemen of the seven incorporated 
trades, consisting of hammermen, bakers, Wrights 
and coopers, tailors, shoemakers, weavers, and flesh- 

ers. All of these incorporations possess considerable 
funds, but the trades are not represented in the 
council. The lighting and watching of the city are 
under the charge of commissioners; and the general 
police is regulated by an act passed in 1829. In 
1817 the corporation of Aberdeen became bank- 
rupt, chiefly in consequence of the enormous expen- 
diture incurred in opening two new streets or ap- 
proaches to the town, under the authority of an act 
of parliament dated April 5, 1800. The engineer 
employed had estimated the whole expense at about 
£42,000, but the total expenditure, up to Whitsun- 
day 1816, amounted to £171,280. The parliamen- 
tary commissioners also reported, that while the total 
average annual revenue of the city for the five years 
preceding Michaelmas 1832, was £15,184, the total 
average annual expenditure was £17,52S; but this 
excess arose upon casual expenditure, chiefly in build- 
ing churches. The town's affairs are now rapidly 
retrieving under the management of a popularly 
elected magistracy. The total property of the city 
was valued in 1832 at £223,979. The taxes levied by 
the magistrates are petty customs on goods brought 
into the city producing about £800 per annum ; 
weighhouse dues producing £200 ; rogue-money, 
officer's dues, and king's cess annuity to £256 10s. 
annually. There is also a large sum of statute-labour 
money levied within the town ; but there is no 
assessment for the support of the poor. Aberdeen 
formerly sent one member to parliament in connexion 
with Montrose, Brechin, Arbroath, and Inverbervie. 
It now returns one for itself and suburbs, including 
Old Aberdeen. It has been represented since 1832 
by Alexander Bannerman, Esq., a gentleman of 
Whig principles. The number of voters, in 1835, 
was 2,166. — Aberdeen gives the title of earl to a 
branch of the ancient family of Gordon. Sir George 
Gordon of Haddo was executed, in 1644, at Edin- 
burgh, for his adherence to the cause of Charles I. 
Sir John, his eldest son, who was restored to the 
baronetage and estates after the Restoration, was 
succeeded by bis brother George, who was created 
chancellor of Scotland, and earl of Aberdeen, in 1682. 
He died in 1720. 

Originally, the town of New Aberdeen constituted 
one parish, called the parish of St Nicholas, which, in 
the time of episcopacy, was a rectory and vicarage. 
It was divided, in 1828, by the authority of the court 
of teinds, into six parishes, viz., East Kirk, West 
Kirk, North Kirk, South Kirk, Greyfriars, and St 
Clement's; all in the presbytery and synod of Aber- 
deen; and under the patronage of the town-council. 
In 1834, a new arrangement of the whole into nine 
quoad sacra parishes was made under the authority of 
the General Assembly. Another quoad sacra parish 
was created in 1836. 

1st, East Kirk. This parish is in the very cen- 
tre of the city. Population, in 1835, 4,512, of whom 
2,623 belonged to the establishment. The old 
church was lately taken down, and a new one open- 
ed in May 1837. Sittings 1,705. Cost £5,000. 

Stipend £300, paid by the corporation The United 

Secession congregation, in St Nicholas Lane, was 
established in 1794. This church was built in 1801 ; 
cost £850; and accommodates 624. Stipend, £150, 

and a house The United Secession congregation in 

George street has been established about 16 years. 
Chapel built in 1821; cost £1,170; sittings 747. 

Stipend £150 St Paul's Episcopal chapel was 

erected in 1722, at an expense of £l,000; number 
of sittings 900. Stipend £213. It is not subject to 
the jurisdiction of any bishop, but is managed by 
eleven managers elected for life by the congrega- 
tion The Original Burgher congregation, in the 

Netherkirkgate, was established in 1757. Church 



built in 1772, and exteriorly repaired in 1827. Sit- 
tings 700. Stipend £100, and .£"20 for a house. — 
A congregation calling itself the Holy Catholic Apos- 
tolic congregation, established in 1836, meets in St 
John street. It is ministered to by an angel or 
chief-minister, and three evangelists — There is a 
Unitarian congregation, which was established in 
1836. — A Wesleyan Methodist congregation was 
established many years ago. This chapel has 900 
sittings. Stipend £115, and£15for a house. The 
minister has two colleagues, with incomes of about 
£50 each. — There is no parish-school ; but there are 
fifteen private schools within this parish. 

2d, West Kirk. This is wholly a town-parish. 
The population of the quoad civilia parish, in 1831, 
was 8,930 ; of the quoad sacra parish — which is ex- 
clusive of the whole of Spring-Gardens, and portions 
of the East and South parishes — in 1836, 2,024, of 
whom 1,277 belonged to the establishment. Church 
built about 1744, and enlarged in 1836. Sittings 

1 ,454. Stipend £300 ; paid by the corporation 

An Independent congregation was established here 
in 1793. Chapel cost £1,000. Sittings 870. Sti- 
pend £150. — A Relief congregation was formed in 

1804. Chapel cost £1,000. Sittings 900 Here 

is a parish-school. Average attendance 80. Salary 
and school fees £142 ; emoluments £60. There are 
eight other schools, attended by about 1,200 pupils. 

3d, North Kirk. This is wholly a town-parish. 
A portion of St Clement's was annexed to it, and a 
portion of it given to East parish, quoad sacra, in 
1834. In 1831 the population of the quoad civilia 
parish was 4,616, of whom 2,864 belonged to the 
establishment. The church was opened in 1831. 
It is in the Grecian style, and cost £10,500. Sittings 
1,486. Minister's stipend £300 ; paid by the corpo- 
ration. — St Andrews Episcopal church has existed 
here since 1688. The total number of communicants 
is 1,200, of whom the greater part reside in Old 
Machar parish. The church is a handsome Gothic 
building erected in 1817 at an expense of £8,000. 
It is 90 feet in length by 65 in breadth ; and contains 
a fine statue of Bishop John Skinner by Flaxman. 
Sittings 1,100. Stipend of senior minister, in 
1836-7, £328; Stipend of junior minister £220. — . 
There is an Independent congregation in Frederick 
street, occupying a chapel built in 1807, at an ex- 
pense of £900. Sittings 580. Stipend £110 St 

Peter's Roman Catholic chapel was built in 1803-4 ; 
cost £2,500. Sittings 650. Stipend about £90. A 
handsome school, erected in 1832, is attached to this 
chapel, and attended by about 120 children. — -The 
school founded by that portion of Dr Bell of Calcutta's 
bequest which was assigned to New Aberdeen, is in 
this parish. It is attended by 400 boys and 200 girls, 
under a male and female teacher ; the branches 
taught are English, writing, arithmetic, grammar, 
and geography. There is also an Infant school. 

4th, South Kirk. In the quoad sacra arrangement 
of 1834, the parish of Trinity was disjoined from 
South parish, and part of West parish annexed to it. 
The population of the parish quoad civilia, in 1831, 
was 4,313, of whom 1,876 belonged to the establish- 
ment. Before this parish was first erected in 1828, 
the church in it was a chapel-of-ease. The heads of 
families in this parish are entitled to recommend 
two candidates, one of whom the council is bound 
to present to the living. The old chapel was 
taken down, and the present church erected in 
1830-1, at an expense of £4,544. Sittings 1,562. 
Stipend £300. — The United Secession church in St 
Nicholas street was built in 1779-80, at a cost of 
about £1,000. Sittings 800. Stipend of senior 
minister £100; of junior £100. — The Independent 
chapel in Blackfria'-s street was erected in 1821, at 

an expense of £1,276. Sittings 950. Stipend £100. 
— In 1834, there were twelve schools in this parish, 
attended by about 1,100 children. 

5th, Greyfriars. In the new arrangement of 
1834, part of West parish was annexed to this parish, 
and the whole of the parish of John Knox disjoined 
from it, quoad sacra. The population of the quoad 
civilia parish, in 1831, was 4,706, of whom 1,661 be- 
longed to the establishment. The parish church is 
what was formerly called the College church. It is 
the oldest parish church now in Aberdeen. Sittings 
1,042. Stipend £250 ; paid by the corporation. — 
The Society of Friends have a Meeting-house in this 
parish, with 350 sittings. The earliest record of 
the Society in Aberdeen is dated 1762 ; it consisted 
of 21 individuals in 1837. This sect was numerous 
in Aberdeen between the year 1664 and 1679, when 
many of them suffered imprisonment here, and 
amongst others the famous Robert Barclay. The 
parish minister reported that, in 1834, there were 
six " adventure schools" in this parish, attended by 
about 200 children ; and that he had established one 
" of the nature of a parochial school" attended by 
240 children. 

6th, St Clement's. In the new arrangement of 
1834, portions of this parish were annexed quoad 
sacra to Union and North parishes. The population 
of the quoad civilia parish, in 1831, was 6,501, of 
whom 3,044 belonged to the establishment. The 
parish church, a neat structure in the Gothic style, 
was erected ic 1 828 on the site of what was once Foot- 
dee church, and where a chapel had stood previous 
to the Reformation. Cost £2,600; sittings 800. 
Stipend, in 1835, £279 Us. 10^d, derived from the 
half-barony of Torrie, the glebe of Footdee, and 

seat-rents There -s no parochial school, but there 

are from eight to ten schools not parochial, attended 
by about 400 children. One of these is patronized 
by the magistrates ; and another is an endowed free- 

7th, Union. This is a quoad sacra parish, disjoined 
from East parish and St Clement's, in 1834. In 
1835-6, the population amounted to 3,693, of whom 
2,407 belonged to the establishment. The church 
was built in 1822, at a cost of about £2,600. Sit- 
tings 1,238. Stipend £150, paid from the seat- 
rents. — A seamen's chapel was erected in this parish 
in 1822, at an expense of £800. Sittings 570. 

8th, Spring Gardens This parish was divided 

from the West parish, and annexed as a parish quoad 
sacra to the Gaelic church in 1834. Its population, 
in 1835, was 1,486, chiefly labourers and operatives. 
The church was built in 1795, at a cost of about 
£800. Sittings 700. The service is conducted in 
Gaelic in the forenoon, and in English in the after- 
noon and evening. Stipend£150; paid by the con- 

9th, Trinity. This parish was divided quoad 
sacra from the South parish in 1834. The popula- 
tion, in 1835, was 2,252, of whom 1,425 belonged to 
the establishment. The church was erected in 1794 
as a chapel-of-ease, at a cost of about £1,700. Sit- 
tings 1,247- Stipend £200 ; paid from seat-rents; 

with a manse The United Christian congregation 

was established in 1779. It assembles in a chapel 
which is private property. Sittings 990. Stipend 
about £115. 

10th, John Knox. This parish was disjoined 
quoad sacra from Greyfriars parish, in 1836. Its 
population in that year was estimated at 2,7'10. The 
church was erected in 1835, at a cost of about 
£1,000, and seats 1,054 persons. Stipend £130, 
derived from seat-rents. 

Before the Reformation, there were several chapels 
within the burgh and royalty annexed to and depen- 


II upon the parish-church, particularly St Mary's 
chapel, under the East church ; St Catharine's chapel, 
founded in 1242, which stood upon the hill of that 
name ; St Ninian's chapel on the Castlehill ; and St 
Clement's chapel at Footdee. There were likewise 
monasteries of several different orders of friars estab- 
lished in Aberdeen. The Black friars had their 
establishment on the School-hill where Gordon's 
hospital and the Grammar-school now stand. The 
Carmelite, or White friars monastery, was on the 
south-side of the Green, near Carmelite street ; and 
the Grey friars in the Broadgate, where the Marischal 
college and church are now situated. The Trinity 
or Maturine friars also had a rich establishment in 

ABERDEENSHIRE, an extensive county on 
the north-east coast of Scotland; bounded on the 
north and east by the German ocean ; on the south 
by the counties of Kincardine, Forfar, and Perth ; 
and on the west by Inverness-shire, and Banffshire. 
Its outline is very irregular. It extends about 86 
miles in length, from Cairneilar, or Scarscoch, the 
south-west point of Braemar, where the counties of 
Inverness, Perth, and Aberdeen meet; to Cairn- 
bulg, a promontory forming the eastern point of 
the bay of Fraserburgh on the north-east ; and about 
47 miles in breadth, from the mouth of the Dee on 
the east, to the head-springs of the Don, on the skirts 
of Banffshire, on the west. Aberdeenshire is the 
fifth Scottish county in point of area. The extent 
of sea-coast is about 70 miles. Its circumference 
is about 280 miles; its extent has been estimated 
at 1,970 square miles, or 1,260,800 square acres. It 
comprehends the districts of Aberdeen, Alford, 
the greater part of Deer or Buchan, Ellon, Ga- 
rioch, Kincardine O'Neil, Strathbogie, and 
Turreff : which see. In ancient times its recog- 
nised divisions were Buchan on the north ; Mar on 
the south-west ; and Fromartin, Garioch, and Strath- 
bogie in the middle. The Farquhars, Forbeses, and 
Gordons, are the principal septs of this district of 
country. The Taixai were the possessors of the 
soil in Roman times. 

The south-western parts of this county are ex- 
tremely rugged and mountainous ; towards the east 
and north-east the country is more level. About 
two-thirds of the entire surface are covered with hills, 
moors, and mosses. The principal mountains are 
Ben-Macdhu, 4,390 feet; Cairntoul, 4,245; Ben- 
Aven, 3.967; Loch-nagarr, 3,777 ; Ben- Uam, 3,589; 
Scarscoch, 3,402. Cairngorm is not in Aberdeen- 
shire, though frequently described as belonging to 

this county The soil is of various qualities. In 

the lower parts of the county towards the coast, 
clay and sand prevail ; but, in the higher districts, 
moor and till are predominant. The finest districts 
lie along the courses of the Don and the Ythan. 
The state of agriculture in the interior parishes is 
still rude, and must long continue so from the rugged 
nature of the country in these districts. The general 
character of this county is bleak and uninviting, but 
there are many marked exceptions from this pre- 
vailing cast of scenery, especially in the neighbour- 
hood of Aberdeen, and the larger towns, and along the 
courses of the large rivers. The shores are generally 
bold and rugged, occasionally rising into lofty pre- 
cipices, and scooped out into extensive caverns ; im- 
mediately to the north of Aberdeen, however, there 
are extensive sand-flats. Large forests of natural 
wood occur in some of the interior districts, especial- 
ly in Braemar, Glentanner, and Mortlach. In these 
regions, " the mountains seem to be divided by a dark 
sea of firs, whose uniformity of hue and appearance 
affords inexpressible solemnity to the scene, and 
carries back the mind to those primeval ages when the 

axe had not yet invaded the ooundless region of the 
forest." The grain chiefly cultivated is oats; about 
200,000 acres are annually sown with oats. There 
is little wheat raised. A prodigious number of cat- 
tle and sheep of different kinds are reared ; and the 
annual export of butter from Aberdeen and Peter- 
head exceeds in value £ 100.000. The average rent 
of land, in 1810, was 3s. 8d. per acre The struc- 
ture and relations of the vast groups of mountains 
scattered over this county have as yet been imper- 
fectly investigated. The climate is mild, considering 
its northern situation ; the winters are not so cold, 
nor the summers so warm or so long, as in the 

southern counties With regard to mineralogy, this 

county is not peculiarly rich. The granite quarries are 
its most valuable mineral treasures. See preceding 
article, New Aberdeen. The ordinary granite of 
Aberdeenshire is a small grained stone of the common 
ternary compound of quartz, felspar, and mica. 
Sometimes it passes into greenstone of the trap fam- 
ily ; and sometimes into basalt. It forms the great 
mass of the Grampian chain. There are several quar- 
ries in the parish of Aberdour which yield excellent 
millstones; a quarry of blue slate is wrought in the 
parish of Culsalmond ; and a vein of grey manganese 
exists in the neighbourhood of Old Aberdeen. In 
the parish of Huntly there are indications of metal- 
lic ores ; and plumbago, or black lead, has been 
discovered here. Aberdeenshire abounds with lime- 
stone ; but, owing to the scarcity of coal, it cannot 
be wrought to much advantage, except near a sea- 
port. Some kelp is made on the coast. Small pieces, 
of amber have been found on the Buchan coast ; 
Camden has an apocryphal story of a piece the size 
of a horse having been found on that coast ! In the 
parish of Leslie, a beautiful green amianthus, with 
white and grey spots, is found in considerable quan- 
tities. It is easily wrought into snuff-boxes and 
other ornaments. Amethysts, beryls, emeralds, and 
other precious stones, particularly that species of 
rock-crystal called Cairngorm stones, are found in 
the Crathie mountains ; and agates of a fine polish 
and beautiful variety, on the shore near Peterhead. 
From Ben-y-bourd, on the estate of Invercauld, 
large specimens of rock-ciystals have been obtained ; 
one of these, in the possession of the proprietor of In- 
vercauld, is nearly two feet in length. Besides these, 
asbestos, talc, cyanite, mica, and schistus, occur. 
Several of the mountains in the district of Marr show 
signs of volcanic origin. The mineral waters of 
Peterhead in the north, and Pannanich in the south, 
are celebrated. — About 6,400 acres of the superficial 
extent of this county are occupied with lakes. The 
rivers of Aberdeenshire are : the Dee, the Don, the 
Ythan, the Bogie, the Urie, the TJgie, and the 
Cruden : the Deveron also rises in Aberdeen- 
shire, though it has its embochure in the county of 
Banff: See separate articles under these heads. 
All these rivers flow into the German ocean ; and 
have long been celebrated — especially the first two 
— for the excellence of the salmon with which they 
abound. Besides the fishings in the rivers, the sea- 
coast of Aberdeenshire abounds with excellent fish, 
and a number of fishing-vessels are fitted out from 
the sea-ports of this county, particularly from Peter- 
head and Fraserburgh There is one canal, extend- 
ing up the valley of the Don from New Aberdeen 
harbour to Inverury. It has been described in the 
preceding article. 

Aberdeenshire has been long noted for its woollen 
manufactures, particularly the knitting of stockings 
and hose, in which numbers of the common people 
are constantly employed. The cotton, linen, and 
sail-cloth manufactures have been successfully intro- 
duced, particularly in Aberdeen, Peterhead, and 




Iluntiy. In 1831, there were about 1,600 hands 
employed in the linen, woollen, and cloth manufac- 
tures, in Old and New Aberdeen, and about 700 in 
other districts of the county. 

Aberdeenshire contains three royal boroughs, viz. 
Aberdeen, Kintore, and Inverury ; and several 
handsome towns, as Peterhead, Fraserburgh, 
Huntly, Turriff, and Old Meldrum : See these 
articles. The chief seats are, Huntly-lodge, the 
seat of the Marquis of Huntly ; Slain's castle, Earl 
of Errol ; Keithhall, Earl of Kintore ; Aboyne cas- 
tle, Earl of Aboyne ; Marr lodge, Earl of Fife ; 
Philorth house, Lord Saltoun ; Putachie, Lord For- 
bes ; Fyvie castle, General Gordon ; and Ellon cas- 
tle, Earl of Aberdeen. Besides these, Monymusk, 
Fintry house, Invercauld, Pitfour, Logie-Elphin- 
stone, Leith-hall, Freefield, Abergeldie, Skene house, 
and Cluny, are elegant residences. — Aberdeenshire 
is divided into 85 quoad civilia parishes, and one 
chapelry. It sends one member to parliament. The 
Hon. William Gordon, a brother of the Earl of Aber- 
deen, and a Conservative, has represented this county 
since 1820. In the last contested election, he polled 
l,175votes; and Sir Thomas Burnett 707 votes. The 
total number of electors, in 1838, was 3,142. The 
valued rent of the whole county in Scottish money, 
is .£241,931 8s. lid. ; the annual value of the real 
property as assessed in 1815, £325,218. In 1811 
there were three estates in this county valued at 
above £10,000 Scotch; six above £4,000; and 
fifty-one from £400 to 800. The population, in 
1800, was 123,082; in 1811, 135,075; in 1821, 
155,387 ; in 1831, 177,657. The population in 1831 
was employed as follows : — Occupiers of land em- 
ploying labourers 3,591 ; occupiers not employing 
labourers 6,012; agricultural labourers 9,018; la- 
bourers not agricultural 5,107 ; manufacturing oper- 
atives 2,294; employed in retail trades and handi- 
crafts 11,642; capitalists, 1,750; male servants 450 ; 
female servants 10,759. The total number of 
families, in 1831, was 39,930; of inhabited houses, 

The three principal lines of road in this county 
are : 1st, from Aberdeen, running west and south- 
west by Midmar, Tarland, and Crathie, to Castleton 
of Braemar, and then turning south and entering 
Perthshire by the Spital. 2d, From Aberdeen 
north- west by Old Meldrum, to Banff. 3d, From 
Aberdeen north-westwards to Alford, and thence 
south, through Strathbogie, to Portsoy. 

Previous to the late act for the equalization of 
weights and measures, the Aberdeenshire boll was 
equal to lij boll of the Linlithgow standard. The 
boll of barley, bear, or oats, was 4 Aberdeen firlots 
of 136 pints of 60J oz. each. The brass standard 
bushel of Queen Anne, 1707, used in Aberdeen, 
contained 13 cubic inches less than the Winchester 
standard ; and a bushel used in the county contained 
40 cubic inches less. The peck of potatoes was 
32 lb. Dutch ; the pound of bvitter or cheese, from 
20 to 26 oz. Dutch ; of malt, meal, or corn, 24 oz. 

ABERDOUR, a parish in the north of Aberdeen- 
shire ; bounded on the north by the German ocean, 
or Moray frith, along which it extends about 6| 
miles ; on the east by the parishes of Pitsligo and 
Tyrie ; on the south by Tyrie, New-Deer, and King- 
Edward parishes ; and on the west by the latter 
parish, and that of Gamrie. This parish takes its 
name from a rivulet, about 3 miles in length, which 
rises in the high grounds near Glenhouse, and dis- 
charges itself into the sea about 200 paces below the 
church. The form of the parish is irregular. Its 
extent from north-east to south-west is about 11 
miles. Its breadth, measuring from the church on 

the north coast southward, is 6i miles ; but, on the 
south-east, a portion of the parish is detached from 
the rest by the parish of Tyrie, which, for about a 
mile of breadth, intervenes, and cuts off three farm 
towns, extending to about 800 acres. This detach- 
ed part of the parish is believed to have been former- 
ly grazing-places attached to the barony of Aberdour. 
The face of the country is rugged, and the soil of 
very different qualities : on the sea-coast it is partlv 
clay, or red loam ; in the moors it is black, cold, anil 
watery. On the west side of the parish are three 
deep hollows, or glens, with a rivulet in each, called 
the den of Aberdour, the den of Auchmedden, and 
the den of Troup. Each of these dens, as they ad- 
vance from the sea-coast, branch out on either side 
into lesser ones, which lose themselves in mosses 
and moors, at a distance of about 3 miles from the 
sea. The eastern side of the parish is more level, 
and presents corn-fields, interspersed with heaths, 
and, near the sea, with large tracts of ground pro- 
ducing a coarse kind of grass called reesk. In the 
southern part of the parish is the den of Glasby, in 
which the northern branch of the Ugie flowing to the 
south-east rises. The greater part of this side of 
the parish consists of mosses and moors, sprinkled 
here and there with corn-fields ; the western border 
of the parish, along its whole breadth, presents con- 
tinued mosses and moors. — The sea-coast, especiallv 
to the west of the church, is bold and precipitous : so 
much so that in the whole length of the parish there 
are only three openings where boats can land, — one in 
the north-east corner ; one immediately below the 
church ; and a third where the burns of Troup and 
Auchmedden discharge themselves into the sea, near 
the small fishing- village of Pennan, and where, about ■ 
a century ago, a small harbour existed, now totally 
destroyed. Along the coast are numerous caves, en- 
tering from the sea. The most remarkable of these, 
near the borders of Pitsligo parish, called Cows-haven, 
runs up into the country, " nobody knows how far." 
About half-a-nule east of the church, are the remains 
of the ancient castle of Dundargue, upon a rock of 
red free-stone which rises to the height of 64 feet from 
the beach immediately below. It is surrounded by the 
sea when the tide flows, save where a narrow neck of 
rock and earth joins the castle to the main-land. 
When Mr Youngson wrote his account of this parish 
for the first Statistical survey of Scotland, the only- 
part ef the castle standing was the entry. The whole 
breadth of the front was only 12 feet, and the height 
of the walls 12 feet 7 inches; there were no other 
remains of the castle-walls, except the inside of the 
foundation, the outside having fallen down owing to 
the mouldering away of the rock on which it was 
built. Henry de Beaumont, the English earl of 
Buchan, was besieged in this castle by Andrew 
Murray, regent of Scotland, during the captivity of 
King David Bruce, in 1336. Mill-stones are quarried 
on the coast. Population, in 1801, 1,304; in 1831, 
1,548. Assessed property, in 1815, £2,839. Houses 
325. In 1831, 28 hands were employed in fishing, 

and 151 as agricultural labourers This parish is in 

the presbytery of Deer, and svnod of Aberdeen. 
Stipend £204 7s. lOd. Glebe £12. Patron, Gor- 
don of Aberdour. Schoolmaster's salary £32 ; 
school-fees £8 5s. 6d. Scholars average 40; about 
an equal number are taught at two private schools. 

ABERDOUR, a parish on the south-coast of 
Fife. The name — signifying ' the mouth of the 
Dour' — is taken from a rivulet which empties itself 
into the Forth, a little below the village of Aberdour. 
It is bounded by Dalgety on the west ; by Auchter- 
toul on the north; by Kinghorn and Burntisland on 
the east ; and by the frith of Forth on the south. It 
is about 3 miles in length from east to west ; and as 




much from north to south. A small part of the parish, 
called Kiirie-Yetts, is detached from the rest, by the 
intervening parish of Burntisland. The number of 
acres is about 5,000. The northern part is cold, being 
considerably above the level of the sea. On the 
south of a ridge, which runs across the parish from 
east to west, the soil and climate are much more 
kindly. The south part is well-cultivated, and in- 
closed. The valued rent is £7,015 10s. Scots. 
The parish abounds with coal, lime, and free stone. 
The limestone on the coast is shipped at a commo- 
dious harbour which the Earl of Morton built for 
the purpose. The parish stretches along the shore 
above two miles. From the eastern boundary at Star- 
lyburn, the coast is rugged and steep. On the west 
of the town of Aberdour, there is a beautiful white 
sandy bay, surrounded with trees. The small harbour 
of Aberdour is well-sheltered from all winds. The 
shipping at present consists of a few small vessels. 
There is a steam-boat to Newhaven. The village 
is a favourite bathing-resort from Edinburgh during 
the summer. It is 2^ miles west of Burntisland ; 
and 8 north by west of Edinburgh. The prospect 
across the frith is very beautiful. On the right lies 
the island of Inchcolm, with the ruins of its monas- 
tery ; on the left appears the town of Burntisland, 
which here seems to be seated on the sea. The 
islands of Inchkeith, Cramond, Mickry, and Carcary, 
are also seen, and the coast of Lothian is just dis- 
tant enough to be seen with advantage. The city 
of Edinburgh rises in view, and the Pentland hills 
terminate the prospect. The village of Aberdour is 
about a quarter of a mile from the sea. It is sur- 
rounded by rising grounds, except towards the south. 
Between the village and the sea are a number of 
tine old spreading trees. The venerable old castle 
of Aberdour stands on the eastern bank of the rivulet, 
which, taking a winding course below it, falls into 
the frith in front. To the north of this ruin stands 
the house of Hillside, surrounded with fine shrub- 
beries. Between this and the village, the rivulet 
runs in the bottom of a little rich strath. Popula- 
tion, in 1801, 1,260; in 1831, 1,751, of whom about 
70 were employed in the freestone quarries and 
coal pits recently opened, and 63 families in 
agriculture. Houses 262. A. P. £3,964. The 
parish of Aberdour belonged to the monastery of 
Inchcolm, founded, about the beginning of the 12th 
century, by Alexander I. Sibbald says, that the 
western part of Aberdour was given by one of the 
Mortimers to this monastery, for the privilege of 
burying in the church. It had come by marriage to 
the Mortimers from the Viponts, who held it in the 
12th century. This western part of Aberdour, to- 
gether with the lands and barony of Beath, is said to 
have been acquired from an abbot of Inchcolm, by 
James, afterwards Sir James Stuart. See Inch- 
colm The parish itself was formed by disjunction 

from the parishes of Beath and Dalgety about the 
year 1640. Itisin the presbytery of Dunfermline, and 
synod of Fife. Church built in 1790; repaired in 
1826 ; sittings 579. The Earl of Morton is patron. 
Stipend £207 14s. 6d. ; with glebe of 4?V acres, valued 
at £13. The schoolmaster's salary is £100 Scots, 
or £34 4s. 4^d ; his other fees amount to above £50. 
The ordinary number of scholars is about 120. There 
is a day-school at the collieries in the northern part 
of the parish, and a female-school in the village of 
Aberdour. There is an hospital in the village for 
four widows, founded by Anne, countess of Moray. 
The earl of Moray presents three of the inmates, and 
the Writers to the signet the fourth. The sisterhood 
of the Poor Clares had a nunnery here. — Not far from 
the village of Aberdour, on the top of a hill, there 
is one of those cairns or tumuli so frequently met 

with in Scotland The old ballad of Sir Patrick 

Spens represents that gallant seaman as having 
perished with his fair charge, Margaret of Norway, — 

" Half ower, half ower, to Aberdour; 1 ' 
that is, we conceive, midway between Norway and 
this little port. Sir Walter Scott, however, prefers 
the reading of some copies, — 

" O forty miles off Aberdeen ;" 
remarking that in a voyage from Norway, a shipwreck 
on the north coast seems as probable as either in the 
frith of Forth or Tay. But as Aberdour was the 
nearest port to Dunfermline, where the royal court 
held seat, and as the commissioners, whom graver 
though by no means well-accredited history relates 
were sent to escort the queen, namely, Wemyss of 
Wemyss, and Scott of Balwearie, belonged to this 
neighbourhood, we think there is a greater weight of 
probability for the common reading : 

" Half ower, half ower, to Aberdour, 
'Tis fifty fathoms deep, 
And there lies gude Sir Patrick Spens 
VVi' the Scotch lords at his feet." 

ABERFELDIE, a considerable village in the 
parish of Dull, Perthshire, on the southern banks of 
the Tay, at the junction of the Glencofield road 
from the south, with the great road up the Tay from 
Taymouth, from which latter place it is distant about 
5 miles. The Tay is crossed by a bridge opposite 
Aberfeldie built by General Wade. The Central 
bank of Scotland has a branch in this village. The 
scenery of this district is among the most interesting 
on the whole course of the Tay. — The lowest and 
finest fall on the burn of Moness is about 1 mile, and 
the upper fall 1A mile to the south of this village. 
The burn of Moness, a little above the village of 
Aberfeldie, is " bounded by high impending rocks, 
from whose chasms and crevices," says a tasteful ob- 
server, " fine trees and matted underwood seem to 
start, deepening the gloom below; while a narrow 
and dangerous path at their base leads you, with the 
effect of gradual initiatory preparation, to the cas- 
cades themselves. These form a retiring succes- 
sion (they are three in number) of brilliant gushing 
torrents, gradually veiled, as they recede from the eye, 
by the thin leafy screen of the over-arching woods, 
which render it one of the completest specimens of 
the secluded waterfall that I have ever seen." 

ABERFOYLE,* a parish in the south-west corner 
of Perthshire ; bounded on the north by Loch 
Katrine and Loch Achray, which separate it from 
Callander parish ; on the east by the parish of Port- 
of-Menteith ; on the south and west by Stirlingshire. 
Its greatest admeasurement is from the east end of 
Loch Arclet, on the north-west, to the bridge across 
the Forth, on the road from Gartmore, in the south 
eastern extremity, a distance of about 1 1 miles ; its 
greatest breadth from north to south is towards the 
centre of the parish, and about 6 miles. The general 
aspect of this district is extremely picturesque. 
It is *a narrow tract of country, bounded on every 
side by lofty hills and mountains. The bottom of the 
valley is occupied by a series of beautiful lakes, skirted 
with woods of oak, ash, and birch ; and their banks 
are occasionally diversified with scanty portions of cul- 
tivated ground, the soil of which has, in the course 
of ages, been washed down from the mountains, 
and deposited by the streams. The mountains 
are in some instances clothed with oak-woods more 
than half-way up ; the lower eminences are, for the 
most part, covered to their summits ; the higher re- 

* This parish derives its name from the term aber, and l\ 
small river, vailed, in Gaelic, the Poll, or * the stagnating 
water,' which falls into the Forth near the kirk-town. " In 
that language," says Mr Graham, "polt is in the genitive case, 
and pronounced foil or foyle; whence Aberfoyle." 




gions are overgrown with heath, and sometimes pre- 
sent only the bare rugged rock. None of the moun- 
tains are of the first class in height. ' Huge Ben- 
venue' and Benchochan are tar-overtopped by Ben- 
lomond, in the parish of Buchanan, which, with its 
pyramidal mass, terminates the prospect to the west. 
The rocks are chiefly micaceous granite. Many of 
the rarer Alpine plants are to be found upon the 
mountains. The black eagle builds in some of the 
more inaccessible rocks; but it is now very rare. 
The falcon is also found here. The most considerable 
lakes are Loch Katrine, Loch Achray, Loch 
Chon, and Loch Ard : which see. One head- 
branch of the river Foith has its rise in the western 
extremity of the parish, at the eastern foot of Ben- 
Awe. After flowing through Loch Chon, and the 
upper and lower Loch Ard, it bursts forth, at the 
eastern extremity of the latter; and, a few hundred 
yards to the east of it, flings itself over a rock nearly 
30 feet high, alter having formed a junction with 
the other head-branch of the Forth, called the 
Duchray, coming from the south-west. The united 
stream receives the name of the Forth, and enters by 
a narrow opening — the famous pass of Aberfoyle — 
into Strathmore. In winter, the lakes are covered 
with water-foul; among which swans, and some of 
the rarer species of divers, are occasionally met with. 
The soil is light. It is generally remarked, that 
the harvest is earlier in Aberfoyle than any where 
in the vicinity towards the south, where the flat 
country begins. The air is healthy. When Mr 
Graham wrote his excellent account of this parish 
tor the first edition of the Statistical account of 
Scotland, (1796) there were seven or eight persons 
above eighty years of age, alive in the district ; one 
man had recently died at the age of 97; and the 

acting grave-digger was 101 The property of this 

parish was anciently vested in the Grahams, Earls of 
Menteith ; but, on the failure ot heirs-male of that 
family, in 1694, their estate came to the family of Mon- 
trose ; and the Duke of Montrose is now sole heritor 
in this parish, being at the same time patron, pro- 
prietor, and superior of the whole, excepting a single 
farm (Drumlane) which holds blench of the Duke of 
Argyle. Population, in 1801, 711; in 1821, 730; 
in 1831, 660, in 132 families, of whom only 15 were 
employed in agriculture. The decrease in the popu- 
lation is attributed to the enlargement of farms, and 
the consequent demolition of cottages, in this parish 
of late years. — This parish is in the presbytery of 
Dunblane, and synod of Perth and Stirling. Stipend 
£158 6s. 8d., and a glebe and manse. There is a 
parochial school, w hich is well-attended. The church- 
yard of Aberfoyle is the usual burying-place for the 
inhabitants of Port-of- Menteith, Drymen, and Bu- 
chanan. " In ancient times," says Mr Graham, "the 
Gaelic language alone was spoken in this parish ; and, 
even in the memory of man, it extended many miles 
farther down the country than it now does. The limits 
of this ancient tongue, however, are daily narrowed 
here as everywhere else, by the increasing inter- 
course with the low country. At present, every 
body understands English, though the Gaelic is chief- 
1) in use. The service in church is performed in 
English in the forenoon, and in Gaelic in the after- 
noon." — The village of Aberfoyle is 22 miles distant 
from Dumbarton, by Gartmore and Drymen. The 
road is wild but interesting. The principal line of 
road through the parish follows the vale of the Forth, 
or of its fountain-lochs rather, and enters the parish 
of Buchanan, between Lochs Arcletand Katrine, from 
which point it passes through a wild moor to Inver- 
snaid on the eastern side of Loch Lomond. This is 

a road of great beauty and variety of scenery On a 

rising ground, in the neighbourhood of the manse, 

and facing the south, there is a circle of stones, 
which, there is room to believe, may be a relic of 
Druidism. It consists of ten large stones placed cir- 
cularly, with a larger one in the middle The scenery 

of this parish has been immortalized by Sir Walter 
Scott in his poem of The Lady of the Lake, and 
his novel of Rob Roy. Perhaps it owes its chief 
power and beauty to the mighty minstrel's inspiration. 
Nature herself is indeed a poet here, — yet a "some- 
thing more exquisite still," — a nameless charm, flung 
around us by the hand of one whose genius glorifies 
every thing it touches, is everywhere resting on this 
elf and fairy realm. See articles Achray (Loch), 
Benvenue, and Forth. 

ABERLADY, a small parish on the north-west 
coast of the county of Haddington ; bounded on the 
north by the frith of Forth, which here forms Aber- 
lady bay, and by the parish of Dirleton ; on the east 
by Dirleton and Haddington parishes ; and on the 
south by Gladsmuir parish. Its greatest dimension 
is about 4 miles, in a line running north-east and 
south-west from the PefTerburn, near Saltcoats, to 
Coteburn in Gladsmuir; and its greatest extent from 
east to west is nearly the same. The PefTerburn — 
supposed to have been once called the Leddie, 
whence the name of the parish — rises in the parish of 
Athelstaneford, and after a winding course of 5 miles, 
falls into Aberiady bay, at Luffness point. From this 
point the whole bay between the Aberiady and the 
Goolan or Dirleton shore is left dry at low water, 
so that it may be crossed by foot-passengers at a 
point where the sands are above a mile in breadth. 
At spring-tides, vessels of 60 or 70 tons may come 
up the channel of the PefFer to within a few hundred 
yards of the village of Aberiady. This anchorage- 
ground belongs to the town of Haddington, and 
forms its port. The sands covered by the tide 
abound in cockles, and some other kinds of shell- 
fish. Along the shore, from near Gosford house to 
the eastern point of the parish, runs a tract of 
sandy links, of considerable breadth, abounding with 
rabbits, and which is continued and spreads out into 
greater breadth along the Goolan shore. From this 
flat tract, the ground rises gradually as we proceed 
inland, but in no part attains any considerable eleva- 
tion. The village of Gosford no longer exists ; but 
the Earl of Wemyss has built a splendid mansion 
here, close on the links, and commanding a fine view 
of the frith towards Edinburgh. His lordship has 
here a splendid collection of paintings. The village 
of Aberiady, 5 miles north-west of Haddington, con- 
sists of one long street of a mean appearance. It is 
occasionally resorted to by the inhabitants of Had- 
dington as a bathing-place, but the surrounding 
country presents little that is attractive to the 
stranger. Population, in 1801, 875; in 1831,973. 
Houses 200. Assessed property, in 1815, £8,569.— 
This parish is in the presbytery of Haddington, and 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. Patron, the Earl 
of Wemyss. Stipend ±'280 lis. lid. ; with a manse 
and glebe of the value of £27 10s. Gross amount 
of teinds £876 9s. 8d. There is a good parochial 
school, and a private school, with two sewing- 
schools. Salary of parish-schoolmaster £34 4s. 4^-d : 
fees £34 ; scholars about 60. The church was built 
in 1773. Adjoining to it are two aisles, in one of 
which is a monument to the memory of Lady North 
and Grey, wife of Patrick, Lord Elibank, with an 

inscription composed by his lordship A little to 

the west of Luffness-house are the remains of a con- 
ventual building, once belonging to the Carmelites. 
An hospital is said to have been founded at Ballen- 
crief in the 12th century. This parish formerly be- 
longed, in virtue of a grant from David 1., to the 
bishop of Dunkeld, and was a vicarage in that diocese. 




It has been conjectured that the Culdees had a seat 
at or near Aberlady, called Kilspindie. 

ABERLEMNO, an inland parish in Forfarshire ; 
hounded on the north by the parishes of Tannadiee 
and Caraldston ; on the east by Brechin and Guthrie 
parishes ; on the south by Rescobie ; and on the 
west by Oathlaw parish. Its extreme length from 
south-west to north-east, in the line of the road 
from Forfar to Brechin, is 6i miles; its average 
breadth 3±. The surface is gently undulating, with 
a general declination towards the South Esk river, 
which runs along the northern boundary of the 
parish, and along the course of which the land is so 
level as to be occasionally extensively inundated by 
that river. The principal stream is the Lemno, which 
rises on the south-east side of the Finhaven ridge 
of hills in this parish ; passes the kirk-town ; sweeps 
in a circuitous direction around the base of the ridge ; 
and, entering Oathlaw parish, turns north-eastwards, 
and flows into the Esk, in the latter parish, at a 
point within one mile of its original source.* There 
are two curious stone pillars or obelisks in this parish, 
supposed to have been erected in commemoration of a 
victory obtained over the Danes. They are covered 
with unintelligible hieroglyphics. About a mile to 
the north-east of the kirk town are the ruins of 
Melgund castle, which was built by Cardinal Beaton 
for a natural son, who married a lady of the Panmure 
family. Population of the parish in 1801, 945 ; in 
1831, 1,079, of whom 100 were labourers employed 
in agriculture, and 70 employed as quarriers. Houses 

197. Assessed property, £8,407 This parish is in 

the presbytery of Forfar, and synod of Angus and 
Mearns. Stipend £228 6s. 6d. ; with a glebe valued 
at £15, a manse, and fuel and foggage. Unappro- 
priated teinds £469 14s. lid. Salary of school- 
master £34 4s. 4id. ; school-lees and other emolu- 
ments about £20; average number of scholars, 70. 
There is also a private school. This parish was 
formerly a vicarage, with the parish of Auld Barr 
united ; and the patrons are, Smyth of Methven in 
right of Auld Barr, and the Crown, alternately. 

ABERLOUR, a parish on the south-west of 
Banffshire; bounded on the north-west and north 
by the river Spey, by which it is separated from the 
parishes of Knockando and Rothes in Morayshire ; 
on the north-east by the Fiddich, which separates it 
from Boharm parish ; on the east and south-east by 
Mortlach parish, from which it is separated by the 
Conval hills, and the Dullan burn ; and on the south 
and west by Inveraven parish. It extends along the 
southern bank of the Spey, 5 miles in direct distance, 
or about 8 miles including the windings. Its great- 
est admeasurement is from the point of confluence of 
the Fiddich and the Spey, on the north, to the head 
of the Dullan on the south, a distance of 9 miles. 
The general outline of this parish is triangular ; 
about one-half of the surface is under cultivation, 
but the whole is hilly, and towards the south and 
east completely wild and mountainous. The loftiest 
mountain is Benrinnes on the south-west, whose 
enormous base lies partly and chiefly in this parish, 
but extends also into Inveraven parish. It rises to 
the height of 2,747 feet above the sea-level, and 
1,876 feet above the adjoining country. From its 
summit, the mountains of Caithness on the north are 
visible in a clear day ; and the Grampians in the op- 
posite direction. The deep pass of Glackkarnis 
separates this mountain, on the east, from the Con- 

• Dr Jamiesnn instances the name nf this parish as a ease in 
which the word auer cannot signify a continence of waters — as 
Chalmers contends it always does ; but must be regarded as 
equivalent to the German oher, or uber, signifying upper, or a 
higher relative situation : for the name of the parish is un- 
doubtedly derived from the Lemno. 

vals, which are of much less elevation. Three small 
streams intersect this parish in a north-west i'rec- 
tion, and discharge themselves into the Spey. The 
latter river is here deep and rapid, and, in the great 
floods of 1829, rose 19 feet 6 inches above its ordi- 
nary level. The main line of road follows its course, 
and is carried across the Fiddich by a bridge at a 
point near its junction with the Spey. A little 
above this confluence, and 12 miles above Fochabers, 
there is a fine iron bridge, of 160 feet span, thrown 
across the Spey, at a point where, rushing obliquely 
against the lofty rock of Craigellachie, it has cut for 
itself a deep channel of about 50 yards in breadth. 
The scattered birches and firs on the side of the im- 
pending mountain, the meadows stretching along the 
valley of the Spey, and the western road of access 
to the bridge cut deeply into the face of the rock, 
combine with the slender appearance of the arch to 
render this spot highly interesting. The course of 
the river for 4 miles below this bridge is very beau- 
tiful. This bridge, known as that of Craigellachie, 
was erected in 1815, at an expense of £8,200, and 
greatly facilitates communication with Elgin and 
Garmouth. There is good salmon and trout fishing 
in the Spey and the Fiddich ; and the streamlets 
also of this parish afford good sport to the angler. 
The new village of Aberlour was founded in 1812, 
by Grant of Wester Elchies. It now contains 250 
inhabitants. It is about li mile above Craigellachie 
bridge, and 5 miles west-north-west of Mortlach. 
Population of the parish, in 1801, 815; in 1831, 
1,276, of whom 56 were agriculturists employing la- 
bourers. Houses 255. Assessed property, £2,210. 
— This parish is in the presbytery of Aberlour, and 
synod of Moray. Patron, the Earl of Fife, who is 
also the principal land-owner. It was formerly a 
prebend, with the ancient parish of Skirdustan 
united. Stipend £287 8s. 2d., arising from parson- 
age teinds ; with a glebe valued at £5, and a manse 
and peat-cutting. Schoolmaster's salary £34 4s. 
4rd., with a house and garden, and £10 12s. of fees. 
Scholars average 30. Church erected in 1812; 
sittings 700. There is a Missionary station and 
chapel in Glenrinnes. 

ABERLUTHNET. See Marykirk. 

ABERNETHY, a parish partly and chiefly in 
Perthshire, and partly in Fifeshire ; bounded on the 
north by the Earn river, which separates it from the 
parishes of Dunbarn and Rhynd, and by the estuary 
of the Tay ; on the east and south by Fifeshire ; and 
on the west by the parishes of Dron and Dunbarn. 
This parish is of an irregular figure. It extends 
from east to west about 4 miles ; and from north to 
south, in some places, nearly 5. The surface is un- 
even ; a considerable part is hilly, and belongs to 
that ridge of hills called the Ochills. The low- 
ground, betwixt the rivers Tay and Earn on the 
north, and the hills on the south, forms nearly an 
oblong square of about 4 miles in length by H in 
breadth. About 25 feet below the surface of this 
flat, and 4 feet below the highest spring-tide mark 
in the Tay and Earn, there is uniformly found a 
stratum of moss from 1 to 3 feet thick. This moss 
is composed of remains of oak, aller, hazle, birch, &c. 
The soil above this bed is composed of strata of 
clay and sand. The Earn, by breaking down the 
opposing banks in its serpentine turning, has formed 
beautiful links or haughs on each side of its stream, 
which are secured from being overflowed, by embank- 
ments. The Tay, which washes the eastern part of 
the northern boundary, is here navigable, and affords 
salmon and sea-trout. The proprietor of Carpow has 
valuable fishings upon it. In the middle of this ri ver, 
opposite to Mugdrum, in the parish of Newburgh, 
is an island called Mugdrum island, belonging to this 



pavish. It is nearly 1 mile in length ; its greatest 
breadth is 198 yards ; area 31 acres. The Earn, 
which bounds the northern part of the parish till it 
falls into the Tay, a little below the mansion-house 
of Carpow, is navigable for several miles. It also 
produces salmon and trout, which are chiefly sent to 
Perth, and thence to the English market. There 
are two passage-boats on the Earn : one at Cary, 
which is seldom employed; another at Ferryfield, 
upon the estate of Carpow, near the junction of the 
Earn and the Tay. The Farg, a rivulet rising on 
the borders of Kinross-shire and flowing into the Earn 
about H mile west from Abernethy, also abounds 
with small trout. There is another small rivulet, 
the Ballo burn, anciently called the Trent, which 
flows through what is called the glen of Abernethy. 
Population of the entire parish, in 1801, 1,488; in 
1831, 1,776. Houses 324. Assessed property, 
£7,976. — The population of that portion of the 
parish which is in Fifeshire was, in 1801, 133 ; 
and in 1831, 164. Number of houses 28. Assessed 
property £1,496. The valued rent is £884 15s. 
Id. Scots. The real rent about £8,000 sterling. 
The town of Abernethy is nearly in the centre of 
the parish, 3 miles west by south from Newburgh. 
It is a burgh of barony under Lord Douglas, coming 
in place of the eails of Angus. It has a charter 
from Archibald, Earl of Angus, Lord of Abernethy, 
dated August 23, 1476 ; which was confirmed by 
charter of William, Earl of Angus, dated November 
29, 1628. There is a cattle fair here on the 12th of 
February ; also on the fourth Wednesday in May, and 

second Thursday in November. Population, 800 

This place, though "now a mean village," says Dr 
Tamieson, "once boasted high honours, and had very 
considerable extent. It would appear that it was a 
royal residence in the reign of one of the Pictish princes 
who bore the name of Nethan or Nectan. The Pic- 
tish chronicle has ascribed the foundation of Aber- 
nethy to Nethan I., in the third year of his reign, 
corresponding with A.D. 458. The Register of St 
Andrews, with greater probability, gives it to Nethan 
II., about the year 600. Fordun and Wyntoun agree 
in assigning it to Garnat, or Garnard, the predecessor 
of the second Nethan. Abernethy had existed as a 
royal seat perhaps before the building of any con- 
spicuous place of worship. For we learn, that the 
Nethan referred to ' sacrificed to God and St Bridget 
at Aburnethige ;' and that the same Nethan, 'king 
of all the provinces of the Picts, gave as an offering 
to St Bridget, Apurnethige, till the day of judgment.' 
Fordun expressly asserts, that, when this donation 
was made, Abernethy was ' the chief seat, both re- 
gal and pontifical, of the whole kingdom of the 
Picts.' He afterwards relates, that, in the year 
1072, Malcolm Canmore did homage, in the place 
called Abernethy, to William the Bastard, for the 
lands which he held in England. I have elsewhere 
thrown out a conjecture that this place may have 
been denominated from the name of Nethan the 
founder. It has been said, indeed, that ' the name 
which Highlanders give to Abernethy, is Obair or 
Abair Neachtain, that is, the work of Nechtan. 
But it seems preferable to derive it from Nethy, the 
name of the brook on which it stands." 

This parish is in the presbytery of Perth, and 
synod of Perth and Stirling. Stipend £256 5s. 7d. ; 
with a glebe of the value of £l2, and a manse. 
Patron, the Earl of Mansfield. There are about 
£270 unappropriated teinds. The schoolmaster has 
the maximum salary, with the interest of a mortifi- 
cation of £190, and some other small fees. There 
are two private schools. The church is remarkable 
for nothing but its antiquity ; there are no records, 
nor so much as a tradition when it was built. The 

Secession have a church here. Abernethy was in 
ancient times the seat of an episcopal see. When 
Kenneth III. had subdued the Picts, he translated 
the see to St Andrews ; but long before this Aber- 
nethy was known as a principal seat of the Culdees. 
While they held it, there was an university here for 
the education of youth, as appears from the Priory 
book of St Andrews. In the year 1273 — by which 
time the Culdees were much discouraged — it was 
turned into a priory of canons-regular of St Augus- 
tine, who were brought, it is said, from the abbey of 

In the church-yard stands a tower of an extraor- 
dinary construction. South-west from the kirk- 
town there is a hill, called Castle-law. Dr Jamie- 
son says : " Although the round tower of Abernethy 
has attracted the attention of many travellers and 
writers, and been the subject of various hypotheses, 
no one has ever thought of viewing it as connected 
with the royal residence ; as it was undoubtedly 
used for some ecclesiastical purpose. That good- 
humoured old writer, Adamson, assigns a singular 
reason for the erection of this building; while he 
seems not to have known that there was another 
of the same description at Brechin, considerably 
higher than this. He pretends that this was built 
by the Picts to prevent the Scots from trampling on 
the body of their king after his death : — 

Passing the river Earne, on th' other side, — 
Thence to the Pights great Metropolitan, 
Where stands a steeple, the like in all Britaine 
Not to be found againe, a work of wonder, 
.So tall and round in frame, a just cylinder, 
Built by the Pights in honour of their king, 
That of the Scots none should attempt such thing, 
As over his bellie big to walk or ride, 
But this strong hold should make him to abide. 

Musk's Threnodie, p. 172. 

This tower is hollow, but without any staircase. 
At the bottom are two rows of stones, projecting as 
a sort of pedestal. It is 75 feet in height, and con- 
sists of 64 regular courses of hewn stones. At the 
base it measures 48 feet in circumference, but di- 
minishes somewhat towards the top ; the thickness 
of the wall being 3i feet at the bottom, and 3 at the 
top. It has only one door, facing the north ; 8 feet 
in height, 3 wide, and arched. Towards the top 
are four windows ; they are equidistant ; 5 feet 9 
inches in height, and 2 feet 2 inches in breadth ; 
each being supported by two small pillars. Some 
intelligent visitors assert, that, whatever may have 
been the original design of this work, it has at one 
time been used as a cemetery. Where the earth has 
been dug up, to the depth of three feet, a number ot 
human bones have been found in the exact position 
in which they must have been interred ; which, it is 
urged, would not have been the case, had they been 
thrown in from the adjoining ground. It stands at 
the corner of the present churchyard. ' South-west 
from the town,' we are told in the ' Statistical Ac- 
count,' 'there is a hill, called Castle-law. Tradition 
says, that there was a fort upon the top of it.' 
' This,' it is subjoined, ' probably served for one of 
those watch-towers on which the Picts used to kin- 
dle fires, on sudden invasions, insurrections, or the 
approach of the enemy.' But if any place bids fair 
to have been the site of a royal residence, this seems 
to have a principal claim. It follows, however ; 
' About a mile and a half east from Abernethy, a 
little below the mansion-house of Carpow, stood the 
ancient castle which belonged to the lords of Aber- 
1 nethy ; part of its foundation may be still seen.' 
j Now, it might be supposed that here, as in other in- 
stances, the person who obtained the grant of roya) 
domains would prefer the occupation of the ancient 
j residence to the erection of a new one. The dis- 
' tance would be no objection. For 1 have else- 



where proved, from the most ancient authority, that, 
during the Pictish era, Abernethy was far more 
extensive than it now is ; as the king, in his dona- 
tion to St Brigid, extends its limits to a stone near 
Carpow. I acknowledge, however, that the place 
called Castle-law seems to claim the preference. 
For, from the most minute inquiry, I learn that there 
is a tradition, perfectly familar to every one in the 
vicinity, that this was the residence of the ancient 
Pictish kings. In confirmation of this article of 
traditionary belief, an appeal is made, not only to 
the vast quantity of stones still remaining on this 
hill, but to the description of those that have been 
carried off in successive ages. Unlike the materials 
of the cairns, which are so commonly met with in 
our country, these have, in a great measure, been 
hewn stones. A house in the neighbourhood has, 
of late, been entirely built of dressed stones carried 
off from the Law. There seems, therefore, to 
be no reason to doubt that this has been the site 
of very extensive and superb buildings. The re- 
mains of a surrounding moat are yet to be traced 
on the west side. At the bottom of this hill, an 
eminence is called the Quarrel-know, i. e. knoll, 
where, according to tradition, the Picts were wont 
to celebrate their military games. This may have 
been its original appropriation, whence in later 
ages it might continue to be employed for similar 
purposes. But the name itself can hardly claim so 
early an origin ; having most probably been given to 
it, in an age in which the use of the cross-bow was 
common, from the designation of the arrow shot 
from it, which was called a quarrel; unless the 
term should be traced to our old Scottish word 
quarrell, or querell, denoting a quarry. The view 
from this elevation has been deemed worthy of its 
ancient royal honours, as scarcely excelled by any in 
Scotland, — a country so rich in beautiful and pictur- 
esque prospects. While the classic Earn unites with 
the noble Tay at your feet, the eye is delighted 
with the richness of the carse of Gowrie ; and the 
prosperous town of Dundee is seen in the distance, 
with the numerous sails that enliven the expanding 
river in its course to what was anciently denominated 
the Scythic sea.'' — hvthe south-west corner of the 
parish, among the hills, stands Balvaird castle, 
which belonged to the Murrays of Balvaird, in the 
reign of Robert II. It is now the property of the 
Earl of Mansfield, the lineal descendant of that 
ancient house. 

ABERNETHY, a parish partly in the shire of 
Elgin, partly in that of Inverness ; bounded on the 
north by Duthill and Inverallan parishes; on the east 
by Banffshire ; on the south by Braemar ; and on the 
west by the river Spey. The parish of Kincardine, 
or Kinchardine, which belongs exclusively to Inver- 
ness-shire, having been united to this parish about 
the time of the Reformation, it is sometimes known as 
the united parish of Abernethy and Kinchardine. The 
name is descriptive of the situation of the kirk-town 
with respect to the Nethy, being within a mile of the 
fall of that stream into the Spey. The meaning of 
the name Nethy, or Neich, is not known ; that of 
Kinchardine, or Kinie-chairdin, is ' the Clan of 
Friends.' It is 15 miles in length, measured from 
Cromdale on the north to Rothiemurchus on the 
south ; and from 10 to 12 in breadth. The surface 
is highly diversified with haughs, woods, and moun- 
tains. A stretch of about 3 miles of low land and 
meadow, along the bank of the Spey, is often over- 
flowed by that river, which here runs smooth and 
slow. The arable ground bears but a small propor- 
tion to the uncultivated. A great proportion of the 
surface is covered with woods : on the Grant estate 
alone there are 7,000 acres of natural fir-wood The 

only river of any note, besides the Spey, is the 
Nethy, which, rising on the northern side of the hills 
to the east of Cairngorm, known as the Braes of 
Abernethy, flows in a north-west direction through 
the forests, and empties itself into the Spey, 4 
miles above Grantown. It is about 12 miles in 
length, and is a rapid running stream ; after rains, or 
thaws, it swells so as to bring down the timber 
that has been cut in the forests of Grant to the Spey, 
whence it is sent in rafts to Garmouth. There is a 
bridge over the Nethy about a mile above its con- 
fluence with the Spey, having a water-way of 84 
feet. A little to the east of the Nethy is the burn 
of Cultmore. The Dualg burn flows into the Spey 
about 4 miles above the Nethy. There are several 
small lakes in Kincardine, the most considerable of 
which is Loch Morlach, in Glenmore ■„ it is of an oval 
form, and nearly two miles in diameter. It is in the 
bottom of the glen, and surrounded with aged fir. 
woods, which rise gradually towards the mountains. 
It discharges itself into the Spey by the Morlach 
burn, which is about 4 miles in length. In Glenmore 
there is another small loch, in extent about one acre, 
which abounds with small fat green trout. At the 
foot of Cairngorm, about a mile from its base, is 
Loch Avon, whence the river of that name issues. 
At one end of this loch is a large natural cave, called 
Chlachdhian, or 'the Sheltering stone.' Of the 
mountains of this parish, Cairngorm, or ' the Blue 
mountain,' is the most remarkable. It commands 
an extensive view. The shires of Ross, Suther- 
land, and Caithness, are seen from its summit. See 

Cairngorm Besides agreat deal of birch and alder, 

there are two very large fir forests in this parish. 
The fir-wood of Abernethy, now belonging to the 
earl of Seafield, is of great extent, and very thriving. 
" It is not a very long time back," says the writer of 
the old statistical account of this parish, " since the 
laird of Grant got only a merk a-year for what a man 
choosed to cut and manufacture with his axe and 
saw; people now alive remember it at Is. 8d. a-year, 
afterwards it came to 3s. 4d. and then the laird of 
Rothiemurchus, commonly called Maccalpin, brought 
it up to 5s. a-year, and 1 lb. of tobacco. Brigadier 
Alexander Grant — who died in 1719 — attempted to 
bring some masts from his woods of Abernethy to 
London ; but though a man of great enterprize in his 
military profession, did not persevere in this, owing 
to the many difficulties he had to encounter, such as 
the want of roads in the woods, skill in the country- 
people, and all kinds of necessary implements. 
About the year 1730, a branch of the York-building 
company, purchased to the amount of about .£7,000 
of these woods of Abernethy, and continued till 
about the year 1737; the most profuse and profligate 
set that ever were heard of then in this corner. This 
was said to be a stock -jobbing business. Their ex- 
travagancies of every kind ruined themselves, and 
corrupted others. But .yet their coming to the country 
was beneficial in many respects ; for, besides the know- 
ledge and skill which was acquired from them, they 
made many useful and lasting improvements ; they 
cut roads through the woods ; they erected proper 
saw-mills ; they invented the construction of the 
raft, as it is at present, and cut a passage through a 
rock in the Spey, without which, Boating to any extent 
could never be attempted. Before their time, some 
small trifling rafts were sent down Spey in a very 
awkward and hazardous manner: 10 or 12 dozen of 
deals, huddled together, conducted by a man, sitting 
in what was called a currach, made of a hide, in the 
shape and about the size of a small brewing-kettle, 
broader above than below, with ribs or hoops of 
wood in the inside, and a cross-stick for the man to 
sit on ; who, with a paddle in his hand, went before 




the raft, to which his currach was tied with a rope. 
These cnrrachs were so light, that the men carried 
them on their backs home from Speymouth."* The 
duke of Gordon is proprietor of the fir- woods of Glen- 
more, in the baron v of Kincardine. See Glenjiore. 
Population, in 1801, 927; in 1831, 2,092, in 445 fa- 
milies, of whom 204 families were employed in agri- 
culture. Houses 436. The valued rent is .£1553 
16s. Scots; the gross land-rent of the two parishes, 
exclusive of the woods, is about £2500 sterling. 

This parish, formerly a vicarage, is in the presby- 
tery of Abernethy, and synod of Moray. Patron, the 
Earl of Seafield. Stipend £234 2s. Id., with a glebe 
valued at£7, and a manse. Unappropriated teinds£98. 
Schoolmaster's salary £25 13s. 3id., with about £20 
fees; scholars average 75. There is a small private 
school. The church of Kincardine is 8 miles dis- 
tant from the village of Abernethy. The parish- 
minister officiates two successive sabbaths in Aber- 
nethy church, and every third sabbath in that of Kin- 
cardine. The latter church has sittings for 600; the 
former, for 1,000. Both are well-built. — There is a 
large oblong square building near the church, called 
Castle-Roy, or the Red castle, one side measures 30, 
the other 20 yards ; the height is about 10. It never 
was roofed, has no loop-holes, and only one entrance 
to the inside. Neither history nor tradition give any 

account of it The Hon. John Grant, Chief-justice 

of Jamaica, was a native of this parish ; and Francis 
Grant, Lord Cullen, and Patrick Grant, Lord Pres- 
tongrange, both eminent jurisconsults, and lords of 
session, were connected with this parish. At Knock 
of Kincardine was born, in 1700, John Stuart, 
commonly called John Roy Stuart. He was a good 
Gaelic poet. 

The Rev. John Grant in his statistical account 
of this parish, published in 1792, says : — " The 
incumbent remembers when the people of this coun- 
try kept out a watch in the summer-months, for 
protecting their cattle, and these watches kept up 
by a round of duty, and reliefs at certain periods." 
Mr Grant also supplies the following anecdotes of 
some of his clansmen : — " Robert Grant, commonly 
called Bailie More, lived in this parish. It is said, 
he used to hang people for disobliging him. He 
seldom called juries: he hanged two brothers on a 
tree within a thousand yards of this town, and buried 
both in one grave on the roadside. The grave and 
stones above it are still visible. Another, named 
James Grant, commonly called Bailie Roy, who 
lived long in this parish, hanged a man of the name 
of Stuart, and after hanging him, set a jury on him 
and found him guilty ! The bailie had many reasons 
for being in such a hurry. The man was, unluckily 
for him, wealthy, and abounded in cattle, horses, 
sheep and goats, all of which were instantly driven 
to the bailie's home; Stuart's children set a-begging, 
and his wife became deranged in her mind, and was 
afterward drowned in a river: it is not very long 
since. This same Bailie Roy, on another occasion, 
hanged two notorious thieves, parboiled their heads, 
and set them up on spikes afterward. At another 
time, he drowned two men in sacks, at the bridge of 
Billimon, within a few hundred yards of this manse, 
and endeavoured to compel a man from Gleninore, 
in the barony of Kinehardine, to assist him and the 
executioners he had with him in the business; which 
the man refusing to do, the bailie said to him, ' If you 
was within my regality, I would teach you better 
manners than to disobey my commands.' This bailie 
bought a good estate. There was another of them, 
called Bailie Bain, in this country; who became so 

* This description of the Spey currach i9 exactly that piven 
by Herodotus of the vessels used by the natives in navigating 
the Euphrates between Armenia and Babylon. 

odious, that the country-people drowned him in 
Spey, near the church of Inverallan, about. 2 miles 
from hence. They took off his boots and gloves, 
left them on the bank, and drove his horse through 
a rugged place, full of large stones. The tract in 
the sand, boots, &c, discovered what had become of 
him ; and when a search was made for him down the 
river, a man met the party near the church of Crom- 
dale, who asked them what they were searching for? 
they answered, ' For the bailie's body;' upon which 
he said, ' Turn back, turn back, perhaps he is gone 
up against the river, for he was always acting against 
nature.' As their power was great, and generally 
abused, so many of them enriched themselves. They 
had many ways of making money for themselves ; 
such as, 1. The bailie's darah, as it was called, or a 
day's labour in the year from every tenant on the 
estate. 2. Confiscations, as they generally seized 
on all the goods and effects of such as suffered 
capitally. 3. All fines for killing game, black-fish, 
or cutting green wood, were laid on by themselves, 
and went into their own pockets. These fines 
amounted to what they pleased almost. 4. Another 
very lucrative perquisite they had, was, what was 
called the herial horse, which was, the best horse, 
cow, ox, or other article, which any tenant on the 
estate possessed at the time of his death. This was 
taken from the widow and children for the bailie, at 
the time they had most need of assistance. This 
amounted to a great deal on a large estate. This 
practice was abolished by the late Sir Ludovick 
Grant in this country, in the year 1738." 

ABERNYTE, a small parish in Perthshire; 
bounded on the north by the parishes of Cargill and 
Longforgan ; on the east by Longlorgan ; on the 
south by Inchture ; and on the west by Kinnaird 
and Collace parishes. It is nearly 3 miles in length, 
by 2 at its greatest breadth ; area about 2600 acres, 
of which nearly 1700 are under cultivation. The 
kirk-town, near the centre of the parish, is situated 
11 miles north-east of Perth; it stands in a fine 
valley intersected by a stream flowing south-east 
into the estuary of the Tay. The highest point in 
the parish is the King's seat, on the northern ex- 
tremity, which rises to the height of 1155 feet, and 
commands a fine view southwards to the frith of 
Forth. The general declination of the country is 
towards the south-east. Population, in 1801,271; 
in 1831, 254. Houses 46. Assessed property, £2,359. 

Old valuation, £1126 13s. 4d. Scots This parish, 

formerly a vicarage in the deanery of Dunkeld, is in 
the presbytery of Dundee, and svnod of Angus and 
Mearns. Patron, the Crown. Stipend, £159 lis. 3d. 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14. Church 
rebuilt in 1736. There is a Burgher congregation, 

and a parochial school Upon the top of a hill called 

Glenhy-law in this parish, are two cairns supposed 
to cover the remains of the slain in a feud between 
the Grays of Fowlis, and the Bovds of Pitkindie. 


ABERTARFF. See Boleskine. 
ABINGTON, a village in the parish of Craw- 
ford-John, Lanarkshire, 3 miles north of Crawford, 
and at the junction of the road to Leadhills and 
Sanquhar, with the post-road from Dumfries, by 
Elvanfoot, to Glasgow. Gold is said to have been 
obtained from mines wrought in this neighbourhood 
during the reign of James VI. See Crawford. 

ABOYNE, an extensive parish in Aberdeenshire, 
composed of the districts of Aboyne and Glentanar, 
or Glentanner ; and bounded by the parishes of Coull 
and Lumphanan on the north ; by the parish of 
Birse on the east ; by the Braes of Angus on the 
south ; and by Glenmuick on the west. The culti- 




vated part of the parish extends on both sides of the 
Dee, from west to east, about 4 miles in length, and 
3 in breadth ; but the mountains and forest of Glen- 
tanar extend nearly 10 miles farther towards the 
south. The soil is sandy and thin, particularly on 
the banks of the Dee. The woods ot Abo^ne com- 
prehend atiout 9J0 acres of Scotch firs and larches, 
and the forest of Glentauar contains a cousideraule 
extent of Scotch fir of natural growth. The district 
of Glentauar is intersected by the Tanar, and its 
tributaries the Gairtney, and the Aultroy burn, 
and by the Old IXinny burn, both of which flow 
northwards into the Dee. The main line of road 
through this parish pursues the vale of the Dee; 
another line of road on the east side of the parish, 
strikes southward into Angus, by Birse castle. 
The title of Earl of Aboyne merged, in 1836, in that 
of Marquis of Huntly. It was created by Charles II. 
in 1660. Population, in 1801, 916; in 1831, 1,163. 

Houses 24". Assessed property, £2,069 This 

parish is in the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil, 
and synod of Aberdeen. Patron, the Marquis of 
Huntly. Stipend, £ 160 15s. Id., with a manse and 
glebe. Schoolmaster's salary £26, with .£12 school 
fees ; scholars average 50. There is a private school 
with about 40 scholars. See Glentanar. 

ACHAISTAL. See Latheron. 

ACHANDUIM. See Lismore. 

A.CHESON'S HAVEN, a small harbour near 
Prestonpans, in the county of East Lothian. It 
was constructed by the monks of Newbottle, on 
their grange of Preston. It is often named Morrison's 
haven from one of its later proprietors. 

ACHILTY LOCH. See Contin. 

ACHINDAVY, or Auchendavie, a hamlet on 
the Kelvin, in the shire of Dumbarton and parish of 
Kirkintilloch ; 2 miles east of Kirkintilloch. This 
was a Roman station, on Antoninus's wall, vulgarly 
called Gryme's dyke ; and, in May 1771, as the 
workmen were carrying on the great Forth and 
Clyde canal near this place, they discovered four 
altars, a mutilated bust, and two great iron mallets, 
in the tract of the canal, about nine feet below the 
surface of the earth ; in a pit which appeared to be 
about seven feet diameter at the top, and three at 
the bottom. The inscriptions upon the altars inform 
us that they were erected by a centurion of the Se- 
cond legion. General Roy has given a plan of this 
station in plate 35 of his ' Military Antiquities,' and 
engravings of the several antiquities in plate 38 of 
that work. 

ACHNACRAIG, or Auchnacraig, a small har- 
bour on the east coast of the island of Mull, at the 
entrance of Loch-Don, in the parish of Torosay ; 
IS miles south-east from Aros ; and 132 west by- 
north from Edinburgh. A post-office is established 
here. This is the principal ferry of Mull, first to the 
opposite isle of Kerrera, a distance of 7 miles ; and 
thence to the main-land near Oban, a distance of 4 
miles; and from hence vast numbers of horses and 
black cattle are annually transported for the lowland 
markets. There is a good road from hence to Aros. 
See Mull. 

ACHRAY (Loch,) a beautiful sheet of water 
in Perthshire, between Loch-Katrine and Loch- 
Vennachar, and at a nearly equal distance from both. 
With these lakes it is connected by two small 
streams, — one of which flows into its western extre- 
mity from Loch-Katrine, while the other, issuing 
from its eastern end, carries its waters into Loeh- 
Vennachar. The lake receives its name from the 
farm of Achray, situated on its south-western shore ; 
the term in Gaelic signifies ' the level field.' Loch- 
Achray, therefore, means 'the lake of the level 
field.' Compared with either of its sister-lochs, 

Loch- Achray is but of small dimensions ; its utmost 
length being about a mile, and its breadth scarcely 
half-a-mile ; but the epithet ' lovely' has been, with 
peculiar propriety, applied to this lake by Sir Wal- 
ter Scott, as it is hardly possible to conceive any 
natural scenery more lovely than that presented by 
the shores of Loch- Achray. The northern shore is 
bold and rocky, but its harsher features are softened 
by a rich covering of wood and ' bosky tliickets' to 
the water's edge, — 

" the copsewood irrey, 

That waves and weeps on Loch-Achray." 

On the south, the ground rises more gradually liom 
the lake, but it is mostly clad with heath. This 
soft and gentle character, however, can only be ap- 
plied to the lake, its bays and shores, and their 
immediate vicinity; for beyond this we have lofty 
mountains rearing their rugged and often cloud- 
capp'd heads in awful majesty, and deep and silent 
glens and ravines through which the upland streams 
seek their way to the lakes. On the shores of 
Loch-Achray we are still within the power of the 
magician's spell ; and so thoroughly has he peopled 
the visions of our fancy with the creations of his 
own imagination that we look for the localities of 
his poem, as we did at Loch- Katrine, with as perfect 
a faith, and gaze on them when found with as much 
devotion, as we should on the scenes of some of the 
most important transactions in our national annals. 
Along these shores the messenger of Roderic Dhu 
carried the fiery cross, to alarm and call to the ren- 
dezvous the sons of Alpine ; and he who, giving him- 
self up to the magic influence of the minstrel's 
strain, delights to blend together the real truth 
and the ideal in his conceptions, will remember how 

" Fast as the fatal symbol flies. 
In arms the huts and hamlets rise ; 
From winding glen, from upland brown, 
They pour'd each hardy tenant down." 

Near the east end of Loch-Achray, and before the 
traveller from Callander approaches it, he passes 
over ' the Brigg of Turk,' one of the localities of 
the poem. See Glenfinlass. 

ADD (The), a river in Argyleshire, which has 
its source in some marshes in the north-western ex- 
tremity of the parish of Kilmichael ; and in its 
winding course southward, by the junction of several 
tributary rivulets, forms a considerable body of 
water. It flows through the moss of Crinan, and 
falls into the sea at Inner Loch-Crinan, on the west 
coast of Argyleshire, There is a salmon-fishery at 
its mouth ; and the stream itself abounds with trout. 

ADVIE, an ancient vicarage and district, partly 
in Elgin, partly in Inverness-shire, now compre. 
hended in the parish of Cromdale; 8 miles north- 
east from Granton. This district contains the barony 
of Advie on the eastern, and the barony of Tulchen on 
the western side of the Spey: these baronies, anciently 
a part of the estate of the earl of Fife, came to the 
family of Ballendalloch in the 15th century, with 
whom they continued, until sold to Brigadier Alex- 
ander Grant. 

AE (The), or Water of Ae, a small river in 
Dumfries-shire, which has its rise at the southern 
foot of Queensberry-hill, runs south for some miles 
to Glencross in Kirkmahoe, forming the boundary 
between Closeburn and Kirkmichael parishes ; then 
bending its course south-eastward, forms a junction 
at Esby with the Kinnel, a branch of the Annan. Its 
tributaries are the Deer burn, the Branet burn, 
Capple water, and Glenkill burn. Its length of 
course, including windings, is about 16 miles. 

;EBUD^, and JEUODJE. See Hebrides. 

AFTON, a small river in Ayrshire, a tributary to 




the Nith. It rises in the south-eastern extremity of 
New Cumnock parish, and flows north-west through 
Glen-Afton, to New Cumnock, a little below which 
it falls into the Nith, after a course of 6 miles. 

AIGASH, or Ealan-Aigas, a beautiful island, 
5i miles south-west from Beauly, formed by the river 
Beauly, which here divides into two branches. It 
is of an oval figure, about H mile in circumference; 
and contains about 50 acres. It is principally com- 
posed of a mass of pudding-stone rising in an abrupt 
manner about 100 feet above the level of the water, 
but communicating with the mainland by a bridge. 
It is covered with natural wood of birch and oak, 
and is much frequented by roes, and occasionally by- 
red deer. To this island Simon, Lord Lovat, con- 
ducted the dowager Lady Lovat, when letters of fire 
and sword were issued against him in 1697 ; and here, 
in a crow-stepped building in the old Scottish style, 
erected by Lord Lovat, reside the only descendants 
of Prince Charles Edward Stuart. See Kilmorack. 
AILSA CRAIG, sometimes called The Perch 
of Clyde, a stupendous insulated rock, or rather 
mountain, in the mouth of the frith of Clyde, be- 
tween the coasts ot Ayrshire and Kintyre ; in N. lat. 
55° 15' 13" ; W. long. 5° 7', accordingto Galbraith , 
but according to Norie, in N. lat. 55° 17' 0" ; W. long. 
5° 8' 0". From the islet of Pladda it is distant 10' 
20" direct south. It is a mass of columnar syenetic 
trap, shooting up in a conical form, to an altitude of 
1, 1 00 feet according to Macculloch, from an elliptical 
base of 3,300 feet in the major axis, by 2,200 in the 
minor. Its formation is distinctly columnar, espe- 
cially on the western side in which the rock rises 
quite perpendicularly from the sea. Dr Macculloch 
says, that "if a single pillar be examined near at 
band it will be found far less decided in shape than 
those of Staffa or Skye, while the whole mass ap- 
pears as if blended together, not as if each column 
could be separated ; but, when viewed in the mass, 
the general effect of a columnar and regular struc- 
ture is as perfect as on the north coast of Skye," 
while the diameter of the columns far exceed those 
of Skye, ranging from 6 to 9 feet, and, in one place, 
attaining an unbroken altitude of nearly 400 feet.* 
The only landing-place is on the east side, where 
there is a small beach formed by fallen fragments of 
the rock. From this, an easy ascent of 200 feet 
conducts us to the ruins of a square building of which 
nothing is known, though Macculloch conjectures it 
may have been an eremitical establishment depen- 
dent on Lamlash in Arran. Beyond this building 
the ascent is extremely laborious, the visitor having 
to force his way over fragments of rock, and through 
a forest of gigantic nettles. Not far from the sum- 
mit are two copious springs; the summit itself is 
covered with fine herbage, but affords only a scanty 
and somewhat perilous footing. The rock is in- 
habited by a few rabbits and goats, and myriads of 
solan geese, puffins, cormorants, auks, and gulls. It 
is the property of the Earl of Cassillis, who draws an 
annual rent of about ^630 for it, and who takes the 
title of Marquis from it. The aspect of this vast and 
' craggy ocean pyramid' " from any distance, and in 
every direction," says Macculloch, " is very grand, 
and conveys an idea of a mountain of far greater 
magnitude ; since, as its beautiful cone rises sudden- 
ly out of the sea, there is no object with which it can 
be compared. From its solitary and detached posi- 
tion also, it frequently an ests the flight of the clouds, 
hence deriving a misty hue which more than doubles 
its altitude to the imagination ; while the cap of 

* If tliis be correct, they are tile largest specimens of colum- 
nar basalt yet known. of the Fairbead, at the Giant's 
causeway, measure only 317 feet in altitude, according to the 
Ordnance trigonometrical Survey. 

cloud which so often covers its summit, helps to 
produce, by concealing its height, the effect — in- 
variable in such cases — of causing it to appear fai 
higher than it really is ; adding that appearance o( 
mystery to which mountains owe so much of their 
consequence. What Ailsa promises at a distance, it 
far more than performs on an intimate acquaintance. 
If it has not the regularity of Staffa, it exceeds that 
island as much in grandeur and variety as it does in 
absolute bulk. There is indeed nothing, even in the 
columnar scenery of Skye or in the Shiant isles, 
superior as these are to Staffa, which exceeds, if it 
even equals, that of Ailsa. In point of colouring, 
these cliffs have an infinite advantage ; the sobriety 
of their pale grey stone, not only harmonizing with 
the subdued titits of green, and with the colours of 
the sea and the sky, but setting off to advantage all 
the intricacies of the columnar structure ; while, in 
all the Western islands where this kind of scenery 
occurs, the blackness of the rocks is, not only often 
inharmonious and harsh, but a frequent source of ob- 
scurity and confusion. Those who are only de- 
sirous of viewing one example of that romantic and 
wonderful scenery which forms the chief attraction 
of the more distant islands, will be pleased to know 
that, within a day's sail of Greenock, and without 
trouble, they may see what cannot be eclipsed by 
Staffa, or Mull, or Skye, if even it can be equalled by 
any of them." 

AIRD. See Coigach. 

AIRD (Castle of), an extensive ruin, supposed 
to be the remains of a Danish fortification, situated 
on a rocky promontory a little to the north of Cara- 
dell point, on the eastern side of Kintyre, opposite 
Machry bay in the island of Arran. 

AIRD (The), a fertile district of Inverness-shire, 
in the vale of the Beauly, chiefly the property of 
different branches of the clan Fraser. 

AIRD (The), a small peninsula on the east coast 
of the island of Lewis, with which it is connected 
by the isthmus of Stornoway. It measures 5 miles 
in extreme length from Tuimpan-head on the north- 
east, to Chicken-head on the south-west; its aver- 
age breadth is about 2i miles. It is in the parish of 
Stornoway, to which, in ancient times, it formed a 
chapelry called Ui or Uy. The old chapel is in 
ruins, but the inhabitants attend a government chapel 
at Knock. See articles Lewis and Stornoway. 

AIRD or AIRDSf (The), a beautiful district of 
Appin in Argyleshire, lying between the Linnhe loch 
on the west, and Loch Creran on the south and east. 
" I do not know a place," says Macculloch, " where 
all the elements — often incongruous ones — of moun- 
tains, lakes, wood, rocks, castles, sea, shipping, and 
cultivation, are so strangely intermixed, — where 
they are so wildly picturesque, — and where they pro- 
duce a greater variety of the most singular and un- 
expected scenes." The promontory of Ardmuck- 
nish, richly clothed with oak-coppice, is a remarkably 
fine object here. 

AIRDNAMURCHAN. See Ardnamurchan. 
AIRD POINT, the north-east extremity of the 
isle of Skye, nearly opposite the mouth of the Gair- 
loch in Ross-sbire. 

AIRDLE (The), a considerable tributary of the 
Erroch river, in the north-east quarter of Perthshire. 
It is formed by the union of two streams, — one de- 
scending from the Grampians, in the East Forest of 
Athole, through Glen Fernal, — and the other flowing 
from the west through Glen Brerachan. These 

f From the instances above enumerated it may be conjectur- 
ed that the general signification ol this word aird, or ard, in 
Gaelic, is that of a point, or promontory, or rising ground ; and 
in this sense it usually occurs in Gaelic and Irish topography. 
The form ard is, however, the more common of the two. 




streams unite at Tulloch, and assume the name of 
the Airdle, which flows south-east through Strath- 
Airdle in the parish of Kirkmichael, and unites with 
the Shee a little below Nether Claquhair. The two 
united streams form the Ekkoch : which see. The 
total course of the Airdle is about 13 miles. 

AIRDRIE, a market-town, burgh of barony, and 
municipal borough, quoad civilia in the parish of New 
Monkland, and county of Lanark ; on the principal 
line of road between Glasgow and Edinburgh ; 11 
miles east by north from the former, and 32 west by 
south from the latter. It occupies a slightly rising 
ground sloping westwards, but presenting no marked 
or interesting features. A little more than a century 
ago, a solitary farm-hamlet occupied the site of this 
large, well-built, manufacturing town. It now num- 
bers 6,000 inhabitants, 174 of whom, in 1835, rented 
property within borough of an yearly rental of .£10, 
and 171, property of an yearly rent of £5. The 
total rental is about £6,700. Its owes its rapid 
growth chiefly to the extensive and rich beds of 
ironstone and coal which surround it, and the con- 
sequent opening of iron- works and collieries in the 
neighbourhood ; its proximity to Glasgow has also 
given it a large share in the weaving-orders of the 
western manufacturers ; while it enjoys frequent 
daily intercourse by coaches, with Edinburgh, and 
by coaches, canal, and railroad with Glasgow. By the 
Monkland Canal alone (see that article) upwards 
of 50,000 passengers were conveyed between Airdrie 
and Glasgow in the year 1837. See also Glasgow 
and Garnkirk Railway. The streets are lighted 
with gas, and well-paved; a market for grain is 
held in the town every Thursday ; and fairs are held 
on the last Tuesday in May and third Tuesday of 
November. The National bank, the Bank of Scot- 
land, and the Western bank of Scotland, have 
branches here. This town was erected into a free 
burgh of barony in 1821, by act of 1° and 2° Geo. 
IV. c. 60. Under the late Municipal act the magis- 
tracy consists of a provost, three baillies, a treasurer, 
and seven councillors. The property of the town, 
in 1834, amounted to £1,670; its revenue, in 1833, 
was £324, of which £18S consisted of road-money 
levied in 1832 and 1833. The magistrates are pa- 
trons of the town's school, at which about 120 pupils 
in summer, and 80 in winter, attend. A neat town- 
house has been recently built. Airdrie unites with 
Lanark, Hamilton, Falkirk, and Linlithgow, in re- 
turning a member to parliament. There is a mineral 
well of a sulphurous quality, called Monkland well, 

near Airdrie Chalmers is of opinion that Airdrie is 

the Arderyth of the British Triads, on the heights 
of which Rydderech the Bountiful, king of Strath- 
cluyd, in 577, defeated Aidan the Perfidious, king of 
Kintyre, and slew Givenddolan the patron of Mer- 
lin, who was also engaged in the battle. [See Welsh 
Archaeol. vol. I. p. 151.] This town has recently 
been divided into two quoad sacra parishes, viz. : 

East Airdrie This parish was divided quoad 

sacra from the parish of New Monkland, by the 
General Assembly, in 1834. — Its population was es- 
timated in 1836 at 3,389, of whom 1,496 belonged 
to the establishment. Its parish-church is the old 
chapel-of-ease which was built in 1797 ; sittings 588. 
Stipend £120, derived solely from seat-rents. The 
Reformed Presbyterian church was built in 1795 ; 
sittings 450. Stipend £80, with a manse and garden. 

West Airdrie This parish was divided quoad 

sacra, by the presbytery of Hamilton, from the 
parish of New Monkland, in 1835. Population, 
in 1836, 3,685, of whom 1,479 belonged to the 
established church. Church opened in 1835 ; sit- 
tings 1,200; cost £2,370. Stipend £105.— The 
United Secession congregation church was built in 

1790; sittings 650. Stipend £120, with manse and 
garden. — The Original Burgher congregation was 
established in 1804. Church cost £500 ; sittings 504. 
Stipend £80, with manse and garden. — An Indepen- 
dent chapel was opened here in August 1839. 

AIRDS MOSS, a large tract of elevated muir- 
land in the district of Kyle, Ayrshire ; lying between 
the water of Ayr on the north, and Lugar water on 
the south. The road from Cumnock to Muirkirk 
may be regarded as its extreme eastern boundary, and 
that from Cumnock to Catrine as its extreme west- 
ern. It is chiefly in the parish of Auchinleck ; but 
the uncultivated tract of moss does not exceed 5 
miles in length, by 2 in breadth ; the declination is 
towards the south-west. At its head, or eastern 
extremity, about half-a-mih to the west of the road 
from Cumnock to Muirkirk, is a monument to the 
memory of Richard Cameron of famous memory in 
the annals of Scottish martyrology, who, with eight 
of his adherents, fell here in a skirmish with a de- 
tachment of dragoons under Earlshall. The original 
monument was a large flat stone simply inscribed 
with the name of Cameron and his fellow-martyrs, 
and familiarly known as Cameron's stone ; but by 
the pious care of a few individuals the present monu- 
ment was erected a few years ago. The skirmish in 
which these worthies perished took place about 3 
or 4 o'clock in the afternoon, on the 20th of July, 
1680. Cameron's party — who had been on the moors 
all the preceding nights — amounted to 23 horsemen, 
and 40 foot, all very ill-armed. The king's party 
amounted to about 1 12, all well-armed and mounted. 

AIRLIE, a parish in Forfarshire ; bounded on the 
north by Kingoldrum parish ; on the east by Kirrie- 
muir and Glammis ; on the south by Essey parish 
and Perthshire ; and on the west by Perthshire, 
Ruthven parish, and Lintrathen. Its greatest 
length is 6 miles ; greatest breadth 4. The super- 
ficial area is about 6,000 acres, of which nearly five- 
sixths are in a state of high cultivation. The gen- 
eral declination is towards the Isla river, which 
skirts the parish on the western side, and receives 
two small tributary streams rising in the parish. 
The Dean river, a sluggish stream flowing from the 
loch of Forfar, forms its southern boundary. There 
are extensive plantations on the northern side ; and 
on the western side was an extensive moss, called 
Baikie moss, covering 128 acres, now drained and 
under cultivation. Of Baikie castle, the property 
of the last Viscount Fenton, few traces now exist. 
In the north-west point of the parish, where the 
river Melgam, flowing south-west through a deep 
ravine, joins the Isla river, 5 miles north of Meigle, 
stood the ancient castle of Airlie, — ■' the bonnie 
house of Airlie,' of Scottish song, — once the resi- 
dence of the Ogilvies, earls of that name, but de- 
stroyed, along with Furtour house, another seat of 
the earl's, by the Marquis of Argyle, by order of the 
Committee of Estates, in 1640. The place had been 
regarded as an almost impregnable strength by na- 
ture, and had already, under Lord Ogilvie, who had 
been left in command by his father the earl, resisted 
a party under Montrose and Kinghorn ; but on 
Argyle 's approach with 5,000 men, the garrison fled. 
The modern house of Airlie is a beautiful mansion, 
most picturesquely situated. Population of the 
parish in 1801, 1,041 ; in 1831, 1,860. Houses 160. 
Assessed property, £5,772. This parish is in the 
presbytery of Meigle, and synod of Angus and 
Mearns. Patron, the Earl of Strathmore. Church 
built in 1791 ; sittings 411. Stipend £219 Is. 5d„ 
with a glebe valued at £12, and a manse. School- 
master's salary £34 4s. 4^d., with £13 fees; aver- 
age number of pupils 30. There is a private school 
with about the same attendance. 




AIRTfl, a parish in Stirlingshire ; bounded on 
the north and east by the frith of Forth, along 
which it extends about 6 miles ; on the south by 
Bothkenner and Larbert parishes ; and on the west 
by St Ninians. Its greatest breadth is about 3 miles. 
The general declination is towards the Forth. A 
small stream, which rises near the centre of St 
Ninians parish, flows eastwards with a meandering 
course through this parish, and discharges itself into 
the Forth at Higgin's Neuck. Stream-tides flow 
above a mile up this rivulet, which is liable to sud- 
den and extensive floods. On the western side of 
the parish were formerly two extensive mosses, — one 
of nearly 500 acres, called the Moss of Dunmore ; 
and the other, to the south of it, called the Moss of 
Letham. These — which might be remains of the 
great Caledonian forest: — have almost disappeared be- 
fore the progress of cultivation ; and on the side of 
the frith also a considerable quantity of rich land has 
been reclaimed from the sea, which in ancient times 
certainly covered a great portion of the lowlands in 
this parish. The hills of Dunmore and Airth are 
very beautiful wooded eminences, towards the centre 
of the parish, both commanding a tine view of the 
frith. Coal is extensively wrought in their neigh- 
bourhood. There are three small harbours on the 
coast : viz., Airth, Dunmore, and Newmiln; and two 
ferries across the frith ; one at Kersie, where the 
frith is about half-a-mile in breadth ; and the other 
at Higgin's Neuck, where the breadth is nearly a 
mile. The town of Airth is near the coast, about 5 
miles direct north of Falkirk ; on the coast-road to 
and from Stirling and the East country. The writer 
of the first Statistical account of the parish, says : 
" The trade in Airth, prior to the year 1745, was 
very considerable, but has since been on the decline, 
owing to a number of vessels being burnt at that 
period. The occasion of this was, that the rebels, 
having seized a small vessel at a narrow part of the 
river called Fallin, by means of it transported a num- 
ber of small brass cannon to the harbours of Airth 
and Dunmore, near each of which they erected bat- 
teries and placed their cannon. Upon the king's 
vessels coming from Leith to dislodge them, a reci- 
procal tiring took place. The commanders of the 
king's vessels, finding their efforts ineffectual, sailed 
down the river with the tide, and gave orders to 
burn all the vessels lying on the river-side, to pre- 
vent them falling into the bands of the rebels, who 
might have used them as transports, and harassed 
the people on both sides of the river. The loss of 
these vessels was severely felt by the trading-people 
in Airth, and tiade has since removed to Carronshore 
and Grangemouth.'' Population, in 1801, 1,855; in 
1831, 1,825, of whom 152 families were chiefly em- 
ployed in agriculture, and 110 in trades. Houses 
232. Assessed property, £11,159. Valued Scots 
rent, £8,638 This parish, formerly a vicarage be- 
longing to the bishop of Edinburgh, is in the pres- 
bytery of Stirling, and synod of Perth and Stirling. 
The church is a very handsome Gothic building of 
recent erection. Patron, Graham of Airth. Stipend 
.£281 12s., with a glebe valued at £27, and a manse. 
Unappropriated teinds £1,489 3s. 2d. School- 
master's stipend £34, with i'40 fees ; average num- 
ber of scholars 90. There are two private schools. 
. — There are three ancient castles or towers in this 
parish : viz., that of Airth, known as Wallace's cas- 
tle, from that hero having surprised and cut off an 
English garrison in it, and now forming a part of the 
modern building called by the same name ; that of 
Dunmore ; and that of Powfouls. The principal 
seats are Airth castle, Dunmore house, and Higgin's 
Neuck, or according to more modern orthography, 

AIRTHRIE, a small hamlet of Stirlingshire, 
which may now be regarded as forming part of the 
picturesque vdlage called the Bkidge op Allan : 
see that article. It is here that the wells resorted 
to by the visitors at Bridge of Allan are situated. 
The Airthrie mineral spring holds upwards of one- 
third more of the mineral salts in solution than the 
waters of Dunblane, and one-half more than those 
of Pitcaithley. The following is Dr Thomson's 
analysis of this spring : — 

Common salt. 
Muriate of lime, 
Sulphate of lime, 

In 1,000 grains. 

in one pint. 





73 r'>8 

Pitcaithley water, according to Dr Murray's analysis,' 
contains 34 '3 grains salts in one pint ; and Dun- 
blane water 45'9. The specific gravity of Airthrie 
water is 1 '00714. 

AITHSTING, a parish in the Mainland of Shet- 
land, united with that of Sandsting about the time 
of the Reformation. It is a hilly moorland district. 
The minister of the united parishes preaches every 
third Sunday at the old parish church of Aithsting, 
which is still upheld by the people for that purpose. 
It is about 2i miles distant from the parish-church 
of Sandsting, with a sound intervening. See Sand- 
sting. The bay of Aith affords good anchorage. 

ALBANY, Albion, or Albinn, the ancient 
Gaelic name of Scotland, and, until Caesar's time, 
the original appellation of the whole island. The 
Scottish Celts denominate themselves Gael Albinn 
or Albinnich, in distinction from those of Ireland 
whom they call Gael Eirinnich ; and the Irish them- 
selves call the Scottish Gaels Albannaich ; while 
their writers, so late as the 12th century, call the 
country of the Scottish Gael Alban. With respect 
to the etymology of the name Albinn or Albion, it is 
to be observed, in the first place, that it is com- 
pounded of two syllables, the last of which, inn, 
signifies in Celtic a large island. Thus far the ety- 
mology is clear, but the meaning of the adjective 
part, alb, is not so apparent. Dr John Macpherson 
thinks it folly to search for a Hebrew or Phoenician 
etymon of Albion, and he considers the prefix alb as 
denoting a high country, the word being, in his 
opinion, synonymous with the Celtic vocable alp or 
alba, which signifies high. " Of the Alpes Grajae, 
Alpes Paeninae or Penninse, and the Alpes Bastar- 
nicie, every man of letters has read. In the ancient 
language of Scotland, alp signifies invariably an emi- 
nence. The Albani, near the Caspian sea, the Al- 
bani of Macedon, the Albani of Italy, and the Al- 
banich of Britain, had all the same right to a name 
founded on the same characteristical reason, the 
height or roughness of their respective countries. 
The same thing may be said of the Gaulish Albici, 
near Massilia." Deriving alb from the Latin word 
albus, the appellation of Albinn would denote an 
island distinguished by some peculiarity either in the 
whiteness of its appearance or in the productions of 
its soil, and hence Pliny derives the etymon of Al- 
bion from its white rocks washed by the sea, or from 
the abundance of white roses which the island pro- 
duced. His words are, " Albion insula sic dicta ab 
albis rupibus, quas mare alluit, vel ob rosas albas 
quibus abundat." But although the whitish appear- 
ance of the English cliffs, as seen from the channel 
and the opposite coast of Gaul, certainly appears to 
support the supposition of Pliny, yet it is evidently 
contrary to philological analogy to seek for the ety- 
mon of Albion in the Latin. Amongst the various 
opinions given on this subject, that of Dr Macpherson 
seems to be the most rational. The term Albani/, 




or Alban, became ultimately the peculiar appellation 
of an extensive Highland district comprehending 
Breadalbane, Athole, part of Lochaber, Appin, and 
Olenorchy. The title Duke of Albany was first 
created for a younger son of Robert II. It became 
extinct in his son Murdoch, who was beheaded by 
James I. James II. renewed it for his second son 
Alexander ; in whose sou it again became extinct. 
Since the Union it has always been borne by the 
king's second son. 

ALBION parish. See Glasgow. 

ALDCLUYD. See Dumbarton. 

ALD CAMUS, or Old Cahbus, an ancient 
vicarage in Berwickshire, annexed at an unknown 
but early date to the parish of Cockburnspath. The 
church has long been in ruins; but its remains, 
known by the name of St Helen's chapel, are still 
visible on the summit of a lofty precipice overhang- 
ing the sea, li mile south-east of Dunglass. It is 
stated in the last Statistical account of Cockburns- 
path parish, published in 1835, that a number of 
silver coins of Athelstan the Great were recently 
found here. See Cockburnspath. 

ALDCATHIE, or Alcatht, an ancient parish 
in Linlithgowshire, now annexed to Dalmeny : 
which see. 

ALDHAM, an ancient parish on the north-east 
coast of the shire of Haddington, now annexed to 
the parish of Whitekirk : which see. The ruins of 
the chapel may still be traced, on the summit of the 
lofty sea-beach a little to the eastwards of Tantallon 

ALDIE, an ancient barony in the parish of Fos- 
saway, Perthshire, originally belonging to the earls 
of Tullibardine, but which came by marriage into the 
family of Mercer of Meiklour, and is now the pro- 
perty of Lady Keith, Countess Flahault. The ham- 
let of Aldie is about 2 miles south by east of the 
Crook of Devon. Aldie castle, once the family-seat 
of the Mercers, is now in ruins. 

ALE (The), a small stream of Berwickshire, 
which rises in the north-east of the parish of Cold- 
ingham, and runs south-east, skirting the East coast 
post-road, till its junction with the Eye, after a 
course of about 7 miles, at a point about 1 mile 
above Eyemouth. 

ALEMOOR LOCH, a small sheet of water in 
^the parish of Roberton, Selkirkshire, fed by a num- 
ber of streamlets descending from the high grounds 
towards the west and south, and discharging its 
waters by the Ale, which, emerging from the north- 
east point of the loch, flows south-eastwards, and 
falls into the Teviot, a little below Ancruji : which 
see. This lake, Leyden informs us, is regarded with 
superstitious horror by the common people, as being 
the residence of the water-cow, an imaginary amphi- 
bious monster. A tradition also prevails in the dis- 
trict that an infant was once seized, while disporting 
on the ' willowy shore' of this loch, by an erne, a 
species of eagle, which, on being pursued, dropped 
its ' hapless prey' into the waters. Leyden has 
introduced this incident with thrilling effect in his 
Scenes of Infancy,' in the lines commencing 

" Sad is the wail that floats o'er Alemoor's lake, 
And nightly bids her «ulfs unbottomed quake, 
While moonbeams, sailing o'er the waters blue, 
Reveal the frequent tinge of blood-red hue." 

ALEXANDRIA, a pleasantly situated village in 
the parish of Bonhill, Dumbartonshire ; on the west- 
em bank of the Leven, on the road from Dumbar- 
ton to the Balloch ferry ; 3i miles north from Dum- 
barton, and a little more than 1 south of the ferry. 
The population is considerable, and chiefly engaged 
in the neighbouring cotton-printing works. There 

are a handsome extension church, with about 1,000 
sittings; and a neat Independent chapel here. 

ALFORD, a district in the south-west of Aber. 
deenshire, comprehending the parishes of Alford, 
Auchindoir, Clatt, Glenbucket, Keig, Kildrummy, 
Kinnethmont, Lochell-cushnie, Rhynie and Essie, 
Strathdon, Tullynessle with Forbes, Tough, Towir, 
and part of Cabrach, which is mostly in the shire ol 
Banff. The entire population of this district, in 1831. 
was 11,923, of whom 1,291 families were engaged in 
agriculture. The number of inhabited houses was 
2,321. This district is nearly surrounded on everv 
side by hills and mountains, and there is no entran ce 
to the greater part of it but by ascending consider- 
able heights to gain the passes between them. The 
climate is good. Its distance from the ocean occa- 
sions more intense frosts and longer lying snows ; but, 
on the other hand, the surrounding mountains pro 
tect and cover the country from the north-east fogs 
and winds which are so unfavourable to vegetation 
in less-sheltered situations and places upon the coast. 
Besides several inferior streams, Alford is watered 
by the Don, which, rushing through a narrow gullet 
amongst the mountains on the west, winds its course, 
in a direction from west to east, through the whole 
length of the district ; and flows out through a 
narrow valley encompassed on the north by Benno- 
chie, which here rises into high and magnificent Al- 
pine tops. See Bennochie. 

Alford Parish is in length, from south-west 
to north-east, about 7 or 8 miles ; and is from 3 to 5 
in breadth. It contains nearly 8,000 Scotch acres ; 
of which there were, in 1796, nearly 3,600 arable, 
3,700 of hill, muir, moss, and pasture-grounds, and 
about 700 of wood. Population, in 1801, 644; in 
1831, 894. Assessed property, .£2,616. The soil 
on the banks of the Don is generally a good light 
loam. In the eastern part of the parish, the soil is 
in some places a deep loam ; in others, a strong clay ; 
and sometimes a mixture of both. In this quarter, 
and the adjoining parish of Tough, there was former- 
ly a large marsh, now called the Strath of Tough or 
Kincraigie, which was partially drained in the end of 
the 17th century. There were anciently weekly 
markets held at Meiklendovie in this parish, and 
great yearly fairs at that place, and the kirk-town ot 
Alford. Those at Meiklendovie have been discon- 
tinued for many years ; but there are still monthly 
fairs at the kirk-town, for the sale of cattle, horses, 
sheep, and small wares. Two roads cross each other, 
in this parish, a little to the north-east of the kirk- 
town: viz. the Great Northern road, which leads from 
Fettercairn, over the Cairn of Month, to Htintly ; and 
the road which goes from Aberdeen to Corgarff, a 
military station on the sources of Don. On the former 
of these lines is the bridge of Alford over the Don, 
a little below its junction with the Lochel, built in 
1811. It is of 3 arches, having a water-way of 128 
feet, and cost £2,000. It is 14 miles distant from the 
bridge of Potarch over the Dee, on the same line of 
road — There are twoold fortalices in this parish ; one 
of them, Astoune, seems to have been a place of some 
strength. The river Don here abounds with trout, 
and, after high floods, with salmon. Besides the Don, 
there are several inferior streams well-stocked with 
trout, &c. Upon one of them, the Lochel, a bridge 
was built by Mr Melvine, then clergyman of the 
parish, in the end of the 17th century; and it is still 
kept in good repair, by a mortification of 100 merks, 
which he left in the charge of the minister and kirk- 
session for that purpose This parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Alford, and synod of Aberdeen. Patron, 
the Crown. Stipend £206 17s. 4d., with a manse, 
glebe, and fuel. Schoolmaster's salary £34 4s. 4^d., 
with about £10 fees. Average number of scholars 




54. The church is old, and bears date 1603. The ' 
manse was built in 1718.— In this parish, the Marquis 
of Montrose, upon the 2d July 1645, signally defeated 
Baillie, one of the generals of the Covenant ; but his 
cause sustained an irreparable loss in the death of 
Lord Gordon, eldest son of the Marquis of Huntly, 
who fell by a random shot, in the pursuit, near a large 
stone which is still pointed out by the country peo- 
ple. About 90 years ago, some men, while casting 
peats, dug up the body of a man on horseback and 
in complete armour, who had probably perished 
either in the pursuit or flight from this engagement. 
Upon the top of a hill in this parish, there is an im- 
mense cairn, 120 yards in circumference, and of a pro- 
portionable height. Of this monument, there is no 
very distinct tradition, though some legends represent 
it as marking the burial-place of a brother of one of 
the kings of Scotland. Nor can any more certain ac- 
count be given of a large cairn which stood at a place 
called Caimballoch. 

ALINE (Loch) a beautiful little arm of the 
sound of Mull, connected with the sound by a very 
narrow channel, and penetrating about 2 miles into 
the most interesting district of Morven. The sides 
are steep and woody, and towards the head assume 
a rugged and picturesque appearance. Two streams 
flow into it at the head, at opposite angles ; the one 
descends from Loch- na-Cuirn, through LochTernate, 
and falls into the north-east corner of the loch; the 
other, and larger stream, flows through Glen-Dow, 
skirting the western base of Ben-Mean, receives at 
Claggan a tributary from Glen-Gell, on the eastern 
side of Ben-Mean, and discharges itself into Loch 
Aline on the north-west point. Loch Arienas flows 
into the latter stream, by a small rivulet. At the bead 
of Loch Aline is a tine old square fortaliee, picturesque- 
ly situated on a bold rock overhanging the loch. 

ALLAN (The), a tributary of the Teviot, rising 
on the southern skirts of Cavers parish, and flowing 
in a north-east direction, through a lovely pastoral 
vale, till its junction with the Teviot at Allanmouth 
peel, a mile above Branxholm. 

ALLAN (The), a river of Perthshire, and tribu- 
tary of the Forth, famed for its picturesque scenery, 
and giving name to the fertile district of Strathallan. 
Its head-springs descend in a south-eastern direction 
from the Braes of Ogilvie ; the united stream first 
runs west ; and then turns south-west, and enters 
the parish of Dunblane. At Stockbrigs it bends 
suddenly towards the south-west, till it reaches 
Dunblane, whence it assumes a direction nearly 
south, till its junction with the Forth, about 2 miles 
above Stirling. Its entire course is about 18 miles. 
It is a fine trouting-stream, and is a familiar name to 
the lovers of Scottish song. It is the opinion of 
Chalmers, that the Alauna of Ptolemy, and of 
Richard, was situated on the Allan, about a mile 
above its confluence with the Forth. 

ALLAN (Bridge of), a beautiful village, on the 
banks of the above stream, at the point where the 
post-road from Stirling to Callander crosses it ; 3 
miles north of Stirling. The beauty and salubrity 
of the place, and its proximity to the celebrated 
mineral well of Airthrie (which see) have rendered 
it a favourite watering-place. Nature assumes a 
mild and cheerful aspect here. The banks of the 
Allan are clothed with soft green verdure; the cot- 
tages are irregularly scattered, as in some villages of 
the South, 'amid 

Gardens stored with pens and mint and thyme, 
And rose and lily for the sabbath-morn," 

bespeaking a high degree of comfort and even of 
rural luxury. To the native of England, or of the 
Scottish lowlands, returning from the classic regions 

of Highland chivalry, fatigued and overpowered with 
their monotonous immensity, — their unutterable lone- 
liness, — their ferocious precipices, — their sun-scorch- 
ed rocks, and roads with never a tree to shade them, 
the rich and agreeable diversity of sylvan scenery of 
the Bridge-of-Allan and its neighbourhood is inex- 
pressibly delightful. He here finds himself trans- 
ported to a district of fertile and cultivated beauty, — 
a country rich in verdant pastures, sprinkled with 
the comfortable habitations of men, and awakening 
more of a home-feeling in his bosom than nature in 
her free, wild, unadorned loveliness. 

ALLANTON, a village in the parish of Edrom, 
Berwickshire, situated at the point of confluence of 
the Blackadder and Whitadder, on the road from 
Ladvkirk to Chirnside, H mile south of Chirnside. 
There is a private school in this village ; and a new 
bridge is now erecting over the Whitadder. 

ALLEN (The), a small stream in Roxburghshire. 
It rises on the north-western boundary of the parish 
of Melrose, near Allenshaws ; flows southward, 
skirting the western base of Colmslie hill, and pass- 
ing the ruins of Hillslap, Colmslie, and Langskaw ; 
and falls into the Tweed, about a quarter of a mile 
above the bridge near Lord Somerville's hunting- 
seat called the Pavilion, alter traversing a romantic 
ravine called the Fairy dean, or the Nameless dean. 
The vale of the Allen is the prototype of the ima- 
ginary Glendearg in ' The Monastery;' although, as 
Sir Walter himself informs us, the resemblance of 
the real and fanciful scene " is far from being minute, 
nor did the author aim at identifying them." 

ALLOA, a parish in the shire of Clackmannan, 
anciently a chapelry to the vicarage of Tullibody. 
Its average length, from east to west, is about 4 
miles, and its breadth 2. On the south it is bound- 
ed by the Forth, whose course is here so winding 
that its banks measure above 5^ miles within the 
boundaries of the parish. On the north it is bound- 
ed by the Devon, which separates it from the parishes 
of Alva on the north, and Logie on the west. On 
the east it is conterminous with the parishes of 
Tillycoultry and Clackmannan. The soil is rich and 
fertile along the Devon and the Forth ; betwixt 
these rivers, the country rises considerably and is 
much less fertile. The parish is intersected by the 
road from Clackmannan to Tullibody, and thence 
riorthward to Menstrie. On the coast, after passing 
the ferry of Craigward, the river becomes narrower ; 
and here presents some beautiful islands, or inches, 
which, though covered at spring-tides, furnish ex- 
cellent pasture for cattle during summer, and are 
frequented by quantities of water-fowl. The stormy 
petterels, or what the sailors usually call Mother 
Cary's chickens, have been occasionally seen here. 
Proceeding up the links of the river, we come to the 
mansion-house and barony of Tullibody. Behind it, 
on the north, there is a wooded bank ; and on either 
side, almost at equal distances from the house, are two 
prominences, jutting out into the carse, which protect 
and shelter the lower grounds. In the front of the 
house is the river, with two of the inches formerly 
mentioned. Within a mile to the west of the house of 
Tullibody, the Devon discharges itself into the Forth ; 
and vessels of tolerable burden can load and unload at 
a pier built at the mouth of that river ; while sloops 
and large boats loaded with grain come up near to the 
village of Cambus. On the other side of the Devon 
there is a rich flat piece of ground, called West Cam- 
bus, formerly belonging to Lord Alva. In the north- 
east extremity of the parish is Shaw Park, formerly 
the seat of Lord Cathcart, now of Lord Mansfield. 
From the drawing-room windows, there is in view a 
fine reach of the river, with the towers of Alloa and 
Clackmannan, and the castle of Stirling, in the dis~ 



tance ; even the hill of Tinto, in Clydesdale, and 
Ben-Lomond, are distinctly seen. Upon the eastern 
extremity of the parish, there is a large artificial piece 
of water, made about the beginning: of the 17th cen- 
tury for the use of the Alloa coal-works. It is 
called Gartmorn dam. When the dam is full, it 
covers 160 English acres of ground. There are two 
collieries in the barony of Alloa, the oldest of them, 
called the Alloa pits, is about H mile distant from 
the shore ; the other is the Coll viand, and is about 
double that distance. There are various seams in 
each colliery ; some of 3, 4, 5, and 9 feet in thickness. 
The pits are free of all noxious damps, and have in 
general a good roof and pavement, although there 
is iron stone over some of the seams. While the 
coals of the barony of Alloa were brought to the 
shore in small carts by the tenants, the quantity was 
uncertain, and often not very considerable. In 1768, 
a waggon-way was made to the Alloa pits, which 
proved to be so great an advantage that it induced 
the proprietor to extend it to the Collyland, in 1771. 
Formerly this parish was famous for manufacturing 
tobacco ; the merchants of Glasgow having ware- 
houses here for that article and other colonial pro- 
duce, which they re-exported to the continent ; 
but it is long since it lost its reputation for this 
manufacture. For a time the camblet branch took 
the lead in the manufactures of this parish. " It is 
in the neighbourhood of the wool of the Ochils," 
says the Statistical reporter in 1793; "and the 
young people were bred to the employment. Early 
education in this branch gave them superiority; and 
this pre-eminence opened up a variety of markets 
both at home and abroad. Great quantities were 
sent to England ; which, after being dressed and 
finished-off with a peculiar neatness, were returned 
and sold in our markets at a very advanced price.'' 
Till near that period, about 100 looms had been em- 
ployed in this manufacture, but it no longer exists. 
A good deal of cotton and linen, however, is woven. 
The principal heritor of the parish is the earl of 
Mar. Next to him, in valuation, is Abercromby of 
Tullibody. The valued rent is £7,492 19s. "2d. 
Scotch. The real rent is probably about £4,000 
Sterling. There are no families of any consequence 
now existing, which were originally of this parish. 
The branch of the Abercrombies which settled at 
Tullibody towards the end of the 16th century, were 
descended from the family of Birkenboig in Banff- 
shire. The Cathcart family only made Shaw Park 
the seat of their residence, on parting with the estate 
of Auchincruive which they had possessed for ages in 
Ayrshire. Their possessions in this, and the adjoin- 
ing parishes, descended to the late Lord Cathcart from 
his grandmother Lady Shaw; whose husband had 
purchased them, in the beginning of the 18th century, 
at a judicial sale, from the Bruces of Clackmannan. 
Neither can even the Erskines be said to be original- 
ly of this parish, although they got the lands which 
they now possess here, in the reign of King Robert 
Bruce. They were originally settled in Renfrew- 
shire. They succeeded by a female, in 1457, to 
the earldom of Mar ; but it was not until the year 
1561 that they got possession of it. It was at that 
time declared in parliament, that the earldom of Mar 
belonged to John, Lord Erskine, who, in the year 
1571, was elected regent of Scotland, on the death 
of the Earl of Lennox. The title was forfeited by 
John, the tenth earl, taking part in the rebellion of 
1715 ; but was restored in 1826, in the person of 
John Francis, Earl of Mar. 

The parish of Alloa is in the presbytery of Stirling, 
and synod of Perth and Stirling. Patron, the Crown. 
Stipend £299 3s. 2d., with a manse, and a glebe of 
the annual value of £63. Unappropriated tcinds 

£101 9s. 7d. Church built in 1819, in the Gothic 
style, at a cost of £8,000. It stands on a rising 
ground, and has a steeple, 200 feet high. Sittings 
1,561. The old church at Tullibody is still in good 
repair, and there is sermon here on Sunday evenings 
during summer. The minister has an assistant who 
is nominated by the earl of Mar, and paid partly from 
the interest of £800 mortified by Lady Charlotte, 
widow of Thomas, Lord Erskine. Population, in 
1801,5,214; in 1831, 6,377; beingan increase of 800, 
since 1821, which was attributed to the flourishing 
state of the trade. Of these 111, labourers were em- 
ployed in agriculture, 194 in the collieries, 110 in 
distilleries, 55 in breweries, and 25 in brick and tile 
works. Houses 976, of which 561, inhabited by 
1,128 families, belonged to the town of Alloa. 
Assessed property, including that of the town of 
Alloa, £11,245. The population of the parish, in 
1836, amounted to 6,867, of whom 3,548 belonged 
to the establishment, and about 1,800 were inhabi- 
tants of the landward part of the parish There are 

two United Secession congregations : the first of 
these was established in 1 746. Church built in 1792 ; 
sittings 722. Stipend £160, with manse and garden. 
The second was established in 1765, at which time 
the church was built, but it was reseated in 1811. 
Sittings 640. Stipend £125, besides taxes, manse, 
and garden. — There is an Original Burgher congre- 
gation, the minister of which has a stipend of £110; 
and an Independent congregation. The other re- 
ligious bodies in this parish are an Episcopalian 
congregation revived in 1837, and for which a new 
chapel was consecrated in May, 1840, by Bishop 
Russell ; a New Jerusalem congregation established 
in 1831 ; and a Methodist Mission congregation 
established in 1S37 — The parochial schoolmaster 
has a salary of £34 4s. 4-i-d., with £16 in lieu of 
a house and garden, £18 10s. school fees, and 
about £20 of other annual emoluments. Average 
number of scholars 50. The parochial school is that 
of the town of Alloa. There are 11 private schools, 

attended by about 600 children Of the old parish 

and church of Tullibody, we have the following no- 
tice in the first Statistical account of the parish of 
Alloa : " There are the remains of an old church in 
Tullibody ; the lands of which, with the inches and 
fishings, are narrated in a charter by David I., who 
founded the abbey of Cambuskenneth, in the year 
1147; and are made over to that abbacy, together 
with the church of Tullibody, and its chapel of 
Alloa. There are no records of the union of these 
two churches of Alloa and Tullibody. It seems 
probable, that it was about the beginning of the Re- 
formation. It appears from John Knox, that, in 
the year 1559, when Monsieur d'Oysel commanded 
the French troops on the coast of Fife, they were 
alarmed with the arrival of the English fleet, and 
thought of nothing but a hasty retreat. It was in 
the month of January, and at the breaking up of a 
great storm. William Kirkcaldy of Grange, atten- 
tive to the circumstances in which the French were 
caught, took advantage of their situation, march- 
ed with great expedition towards Stirling, and cut 
the bridge of Tullibody, which is over the Devon, to 
prevent their retreat. The French, finding no other 
means of escape, took the roof off the church, and 
laid it along the bridge where it was cut, and got 
safe to Stirling. It is generally believed, that this 
church remained in the same dismantled state till 
some years ago, that George Abercromby, Esq. of 
Tullibody, covered it with a new roof, and erected 
within it a tomb for his family. There is still a 
large burying-ground around this church ; and on 
the north side of it, where there had been formerly 
an entry, there is a stone coffin, with a niche for ths 



head, and two for the arms, covered with a thick 
hollowed lid, like a tureen. The lid is a good deal 
broken ; but a curious tradition is preserved of the 
coffin, viz. : That a certain young lady of the neigh- 
bourhood had declared her affection for the minister, 
who, either from his station, or want of inclination, 
made no return ; that the lady sickened and died, 
but gave orders not to bury her in the ground, but 
to put her body in the stone coffin, and place it at 
the entry to the church. Thus was the poor vicar 
punished ; and the stone retains the name of the 
Maiden stone." 

Alloa, a burgh of barony, in the above parish, 
and a port on the frith of Forth, is about 27^ miles 
higher up the frith than Leith, and 1" below Stir- 
ling ; in W. long. 3° 46', N. lat. 56° 7'. The name 
has been variously written. In the charter granted by 
King Robert, in 1315, to Thomas de Erskyne, it is 
spelled Alway ; and, in some subsequent ones, Aul- 
way, Auleway, and sometimes Alloway. Camden, in 
his * Britannia,' seems to think it the Alauna of the 
Romans. He says, " Ptolemy places Alauna some- 
where about Stirling; and it was either upon Alon, 
a little river, that runs here into the Forth, [See 
Allan,] or at Alway, a seat of the Erskines." The 
windings of the Forth between Stirling and Alloa 
are very remarkable ; the distance, from the quay of 
Alloa to the quay of Stirling, measured in the cen- 
tre of the river, is 17 miles, and to the bridge of 
Stirling 19i miles; whereas the distance, by land, 
from Alloa to the bridge of Stirling, does not exceed 
7 miles, though the turnings in the road are numerous. 
The situation of the town is pleasant. Some strata 
of rock run a considerable way between the carse 
and the high grounds, and break off about the ferry, 
a little above the harbour. On part of this rock is 
built the tower and the ancient part of the town of 
Alloa. The tower marks the ancient residence of 
the family of Mar. It was built prior to the year 
1315 ; but the entire building, with the exception of 
the square tower still standing, was accidentally 
burnt to the ground in the year 1800.* The highest 
turret is 89 feet ; and the thickness of the walls is 1 1 
feet. There is a fine rich prospect from the summit: 
no fewer than nine counties can be discerned from 
it. The gardens were laid out by John, Earl of 
Mar, in 1706, in the old French taste of long aven- 
ues and dipt hedges, with statues and ornaments. 
The town formerly almost surrounded the tower, 
and in rude ages they afforded mutual benefits to 
each other. Most of the streets are narrow and irre- 
gular ; there is one, however, on a regular plan, in 
a line parallel to the gardens of the tower, called 
John's street, which is between 76 and 80 feet broad. 
A row of lime-trees, on each side, affords an agree- 
able shade in summer, and a comfortable shelter in 
winter. At the end of this walk is the harbour of 
Alloa, where, at neap-tides, the water rises from 14 
to 16 feet, and at spring-tides from 22 to 24 ; yet 
it has been ascertained that the bottom of Alloa 
harbour is nearly on a level with the top of the pier 
of Leith. There is a double tide at each flowing 
and ebbing. The quay is built of rough hewn stone, 

* Among the valuable relics of antiquity which perished in 
this unfortunate conflagration was tile only indubitably authen- 
tic portrait of Queen Mary, who herself bequeathed it to one of 
her personal attendants shortly before her execution. '* The 
painter," says Dr Stoddart, who saw this picture a few months 
before its destruction, "was no mean artist; and the piece, 
though hard, was highly finished. The features were probably 
drawn with accuracy ; but what little character they possessed 
was unpleasant, and might better have suited the cold and art- 
ful Elizabeth, than the tender, animated Mary. It appeared, 
however, to have been painted at an age when she had been 
long written ' in sour Misfortune's book ;' and bad perhaps 
lost that warmth of feeling which was at once the bane of 
her happiness, aud the charm of her manners." 

and forms a pow, or small creek, where the rivulet 
that runs through the north-east end of the town 
falls into the river. A little above the harbour there 
is a dry dock. Above the dry dock there is a ferry, 
sometimes called the Craigward, and sometimes 
the King's ferry. The breadth of the river here, 
at high tide, is above half-a-mile ; and there are 
good piers carried down to low water-mark on each 
side, and two large steamers are employed ; but 
the rapidity of the tide sometimes renders the pas- 
sage tedious. The scheme of building a bridge 
across the Forth here has often been talked of. To 
the west of the ferry stands a glass-house, for making 
bottles, which is thought to be the most conveniently 
situated of any in Britain. The extent to which 
the manufactory of glass has been carried here, is 
amazing. " It is not half-a-century," says the writer 
of the first Statistical account of Alloa, " since one 
glass-house at Leith, and one at Glasgow, supplied all 
Scotland, while the company wrought the one half- 
year at the one place, and the next at the other." 
In 1825 a joint-stock company was formed for carry- 
ing on these works, but it has not proved a very pros- 
perous concern. The Glasgow Union bank, and the 
Western bank of Scotland, have branches here. 
Fairs are held here on the second Wednesday in 
February, May, August, and November ; those in 
May and November are for cattle. The public 
revenue, and matters of trade, are managed by a cus- 
tom-house, which was established here a short time 
alter the Union. The ships and vessels belonging to 
this port, in the end of last century, amounted to 
115 ; of a tonnage of 7,241 tons ; and employing 500 
men ; the present tonnage belonging to this port is 
about 8,000 tons. The greater number of the vessels 
are employedin the coast-trade. About 50,000 tons 
of coal are annually sent from this port to places with- 
in the frith of Forth, and to the east and north of 
Scotland ; the foreign trade is also considerable with 
the ports of Denmark, Norway, Germany, and Hol- 
land. Coals are the great article of exportation : 
65,000 tons are annually exported. The importations 
generally consist of flax, lintseed, and other articles 
from Holland ; and grain, wood of all kinds, and iron. 
There are several breweries in the town of Alloa, 
which is famed for its excellent strong ale ; and three 
extensive distilleries. There are also two woollen 
manufactories; and a large iron foundery. The good 
of the place, and the administration of justice, are in 
the hands of his majesty's justices of the peace, and 
the sheriff-depute. There is only one sheriff-depute 
for this and the neighbouring county of Stirling. He 
appoints substitutes ; one of whom constantly resides 
here, and holds the sheriff-court for Clackmannan- 
shire. There is a baron-bailie named by Lord Mar. 
He regulates the stents and cesses ; he has also juris- 
diction in debts not exceeding 40s., but few or no 
actions of debt are ever brought before him. The 
town obtained a police act in 1803, which was amend- 
ed and enlarged in 1822. An admiralty court was 
formerly held here, in virtue of a commission from the 
Lord vice-admiral of Scotland. The jurisdiction of 
this court extended from the bridge of Stirling to 
Petty-cur near Kinghorn, on the north side of the 
Forth ; and from Stirling bridge to Higgin's Neuck 
on the south. The town, as such, has no property or 
revenue, and no debts ; but under the police-acts there 
is a debt of £5,000. The burgh pays county-burdens, 
and rates corresponding to a valuation of £601 Is. 
lOd. Scotch ; and, for the privilege of participating 
with the royal burghs in foreign trade, £11 6s. ster- 
ling as its share of royal burgh cess. Until the 
passing of the police act of 1822, Alloa was ill 
supplied with water, but it has since been brought 
from the river at a considerable expense, and is 




filtered through an artificial bed of sand. Alloa has 
frequent communication in the course of each day 
with Stirling and Edinburgh by means of the steam- 
ers plying betwixt these places. It is 7 miles from 
Dollar, 20 from Kinross, and 37 from Perth. Popu- 
lation, in 1831, 4,417. Assessed property, £4,662. 

ALLOWAY, an ancient parish in the district of 
Kyle, in Ayrshire, which was united, towards the 
end of the 17th century, with the parish of Ayr, 
from which it is divided by Glengaw burn. ' Allo- 
way's auld haunted kirk,' — a little roofless ruin, — 
long known only as marking the obscure resting-place 
of the rustic dead, is now an object of veneration, 
and many an enthusiastic pilgrimage, on account of 
its having been chosen by Burns as the scene of the 
grotesque demon revelry, at once ludicrous and hor- 
rible, described with such graphic and tremendous 
power in his tale of Tarn o' Shanter; for it would seem 
that imagination is not restricted in her flight here by 
the actual and real. It is situated on the east bank 
of the Doon, a little below the point where the road 
from Ayr to Maybole is carried across that river by 
the new bridge, and a quarter of a mile from the 
cottage on Doon side in which the peasant-bard was 
born on the 25th of January, 1759. The poet's 
father was interred here at his'own request ; and the 
bard himself expressed a wish to be laid in the same 
grave, which would have been complied with had not 
the citizens of Dumfries claimed the honour of the 
guardianship of his ashes. It is now — such is the 
interest which the genius of the bard has thrown 
over the spot — a crowded and fashionable place of 
sepulture. Betwixt the kirk and the ' Auld brig o' 
Doune,' by which a road now disused is carried over 
' Doon's classic stream,' about 100 yards south-east of 
the kirk, and on the summit of the eastern bank, which 
here rises boldly from the river, stands a splendid 
monument to the poet, designed by Hamilton of 
Edinburgh, and consisting of a triangular base, sup- 
porting nine Corinthian columns, which are surround- 
ed by a cupola terminating in a gilt tripod. It is 
upwards of 60 feet in height ; and cost above £2,000. 
The whole is enclosed, and ornamented with shrub- 
bery ; and the clever figures of Tarn o' Shanter and 
Souter Johnny, executed by the ingenious self-taught 
sculptor, Tom, are placed in a small building within 

the enclosure Alloway kirk is 36i miles distant from 

Glasgow; of from Hay bole ; and 2J from Ayr. Mr. 
Catbcart of Blairston, one of the lords of session, on his 
promotion to the bench, took the title of Lord Alloway 
from this place. He died in 1829, and was interred 
within the ruins of the kirk. See article, The Doon. 

ALMOND (The), a river chiefly belonging to 
Edinburghshire. It rises in the muir of Shotts, about 
a mile south-east of the kirk of Shotts, near the 
Cant hills ; and flows eastward in a line nearly paral- 
lel with the post-road from Glasgow to Edinburgh, 
by Whitburn, which crosses it at Blackburn, and re- 
crosses it again near to Mid-Calder. From a little 
bevond Mid-Calder, it flows in a north-easterly di- 
rection and forms the boundary betwixt the shires 
of Linlithgow and Edinburgh, passing Ammondell, 
Bliston, Kirkliston, Carlourie, and Craigiehall, and 
falling into the sea at Cramond, where it forms a 
small estuary navigable by boats for a few hundred 
yards. The Edinburgh and Glasgow Union canal is 
carried across this river near Clifton hall, in the 
paiish of Kirkliston, by a noble aqueduct. The Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow railroad will also be carried across 
it by an immense viaduct lower down the river near 
Kirkliston, of 48 arches of 50 feet span each, and 

about 60 feet high Its principal tributary is the 

Broxburn, which is wholly a Linlithgowshire stream, 
and flows into it from the west a little above the 
town of Kirkliston. 

ALMOND (The), or Almon, a river of Perth- 
shire, rising in the south-east corner of Killin parish, 
on the north side of the range of hills at the head of 
Glen Lednock, and flowing eastwards to Newtown 
in the parish of Monzie, where it turns south-east, 
and skirts the road from Amulrie to Buchandy; at 
Dallick it again turns eastwards, and flows in that 
direction to Logie- Almond ; beyond which it bends 
towards the south-east, and finally discharges itself 
into the Tay, a little above the town of Perth, and 
nearly opposite to Scone, after a course of about 20 
miles. There are numerous remains of Roman and 
Caledonian antiquity in Glen Almond, particularly 
in the neighbourhood of the bridge of Buchandy, 10 
miles from Perth. The glen itself is dreary, desolate, 
and wild. In one part of it, where lofty and impend- 
ing cfiffs on either hand make a solemn and perpetual 
gloom, in the line of the military road from Stirling 
to Inverness, is the Clach-na-Ossian, or Stone of 
Ossian, supposed to mark the burial-place of the 
gifted son of Fingal. About 3 miles from this, in 
the Corriviarlich or Glen of Thieves, is a large cave 
known by the name of Fian's or Fingal's cave. Sel- 
ma in Morven, which is said to have been Fingal's 
chief residence, is about 60 miles distant from Glen 
Almond. Newte, who travelled through this district 
in 1791, says: " I have learned that when Ossian 's 
stone was moved, and the coffin containing his sup- 
posed remains discovered, it was intended by the 
officer commanding the party of soldiers employed on 
the military road, to let the bones remain within the 
stone sepulchre, in the same position in which they 
were found, until General Wade should come and 
see them, or his mind be known on the subject. 
But the people of the country, for several miles 
around, to the number of three or four score of men, 
venerating the memory of the bard, rose with one 
consent, and carried away the bones, with bagpipes 
playing, and other funereal rites, and deposited them 
with much solemnity within a circle of large stones, 
on the lofty summit of a rock, sequestered, and of 
difficult access, where they might never more be dis- 
turbed by mortal feet or hands, in the wild recesses 
of the western Glen Almon. One Christie, who is 
considered as the Cicerone and antiquarian of Glen 
Almon, and many other persons yet alive, attest the 
truth of this fact, and point out the second sepulchre 
of the son of Fingal." Macculloch, ever at war 
with ' old poetic feeling,' discredits the whole story 
of Ossian's supposed connexion With this place. With 
a better faith has Wordsworth thus expressed himself 
on this dim tradition : — 

" Does then the Bard sleep here indeed ? 
Or is it but a groundless creed ? 
What matters it ? — I blame them not 
Whose fancy in this lonely spot 
Was moved ; and in such way expressed 
Their notion ut its perfect rest. 
A convent, even a hermit's cell, 
Would break the silence of this dell : 
It is not quiet, is not ease, — 
But something deeper far than these : 
The separation that is here 
Is of the grave, — and of austere 
Yet happy feelings of the dead : 
And, therefore, was it rightly said 
That Ossian, last of all Ins race ! 
Lies buried in this lonely place." 

A secluded spot called the Dronach-haugh, on the 
banks of this river, and about half-a-mile west of 
Lynedoch, is said to be the burying-place of Bessie 
Bell and Mary Gray, famed in pathetic ballad storv. 
The road through Glen Almond communicates be- 
tween Stirling and Dalnacardoch, by Tay bridge, 
passing through Amulrie. 

ALNESS, a parish, formerly a vicarage, in ths 
shire and synod of Ross, and presbytery of Dingwall 
It is bounded on the south by the frith of Cromarty, 



and on the east by the parish of Rosskeen ; and 
stretches 12 miles inland, in a north-west direction, 
along the course of the water of Ness and the Alt. 
The kirk-town is situated near the coast, at the 
junction of the road running along the north side of 
the frith of Cromarty — whose undulating waters al- 
most bathe the road — with that running north, by 
Altdarg, to the frith of Tain. In the higher part of 
the parish, surrounded by wild and uncultivated hills, 
are two fine fresh water lochs, Loch Moir, and Loch 
Glass, both of which are fed by tributaries descend- 
ing from Rama-Cruinach, and the former of which 
discharges itself by the water of Ness, and the other 
by the Alt burn, both running south-east into the 
frith of Cromarty. The former stream is crossed by 
the bridge of Alness, and the ferry of Alness is near 
its mouth. Navar, the seat of Sir Hector Munro, is 
a fine building, 2 miles south-west from the bridge 
of Alness. Patron of the parish, the Hon. Wm. 
Mackenzie. Stipend £230 19s. lid., with a manse, 
and a glebe valued at £10. Schoolmaster's salary 
£28, with £20 fees, and some other small emoluments. 
Scholars 60. There are three private schools at- 
tended by about 90 scholars. In July 1834, there 
were 200 persons in the parish «ho could not read. 
The language generally spoken is an unclassical 
dialect of the Gaelic. Population, in 1801, 1,072; 
in 1831, 1,437. Houses 309. Assessed property 
£4,277. Iron and silver ores have been found in 
this parish. Miss Spence, while residing at the 
manse of Alness, in the month of July, thus describes 
the effect of twilight : " You can imagine nothing- 
half so beautiful as the summer-evenings in Scot- 
land. The dark curtain of night is scarcely spread in 
this northern hemisphere, before 

. l Jocund day 

Stands tiptoe on the misty mountain's top.' 

The firmament retains a glow of light, often bril- 
liantly heightened by the aurora borealis — here called 
the merry dancers — which has a grand effect ; and, 
when the softer shades of evening prevail, and throw 
into partial gloom the sleeping landscape, it is even 
at midnight, during the months of May, June, and 
July, only like our evening-twilight, when every ob- 
ject is indistinctly visible. The grandeur of the 
mountains, the pellucid tranquillity of the rivers, 
and the deep gloom of the dark fir woods, altogether 
form a scene no person who has not beheld it can 

ALSH (Loch), a narrow and irregularly-shaped 
arm of the sea, stretching between the south-east 
point of Skye and the mainland ; and penetrating in- 
land into the district of Kintail in Ross-shire by two 
arms, — the one running 4 miles north-north-east under 
the name of Loch Loung ; and the other one, called 
Loch Duich, stretching about 6 miles south-east. 
The entrance to Loch Alsh, from the west, is by the 
Kyle Haken, or Kyle Akin ; that from the south, by 
the Kyle Rhee, or Kyle Rich. The latter strait is 
considerably narrower than the former, and its scenery 
is very beautiful. Macculloch thus describes it : 
" Profound and shadowy ravines, rude, broken, and 
diversified by rocks, mark the passage of waters that 
are scarcely seen till they have reached the shore ; 
their banks being sprinkled with wood, which, dense 
below, gradually diminishes in ascending, till a single 
tree is at last seen perched high aloft, the last out- 
post of the rude forest. These declivities often ter- 
minate in the sea by precipices, in which the oak and 
the birch are seen starting from every crevice ; 
sometimes nearly trailing their leaves and branches 
in the water which they overhang, and almost de- 
ceiving us into the feeling that we are navigating a 
fresh-water lake, — a deception maintained by the 

manner in which the land closes in on all sides." 
As the strait narrows, the sides become more rockv 
and precipitous, seeming to oppose an impenetrable 
barrier to the navigator, while the tide rushes through 
it with great rapidity. But, the kyle once cleared, all 
tide is at an end for a time, and we instantaneously 
find ourselves in the calm wide basin of Loch Alsh. 
The Kyle Haken is remarkable for its irregular tides. 
At its mouth there is an excellent ferry. A good 
road leads to this point from Broadford in the isle of 
Skye ; and there is a road leading from the other 
side of the ferry, northwards, to the ferry of Strome 
on Loch Carron, a distance of 14 miles ; and another 
branching off from it, and running eastwards to the 
Dornie ferry on Loch Loung. Kyle Haken or Moil 
castle is a small ruined fortalice on the shore ot 
Skye, at the eastern end of the kyle. Balmacarra, 
the seat of the late Sir Hugh Innes, is a tine man- 
sion on the northern shore of Loch Alsh. On the 
small rocky islet of Donan, at the point of confluence 
of Loch Loung and Loch Duich, stands Ellandonan 
castle, once the manor-place of the ' high chiefs of 
Kintail.' It is a magnificent ivy-clad ruin, backed 
by a noble range of hills. This castle was originally 
conferred on Colin Fitzgerald, son to the earl of 
Desmond, in 1266, by Alexander III. In 1331 it 
was the scene of a severe act of retributive justice 
by Randolph, Earl of Murray, then warden of Scot- 
land, who executed fifty delinquents here, and placed 
their heads on the walls of the castle. In 1537, 
Donald, fifth baron-of Slate, lost his life in an attack 
on Ellandonan castle, then belonging to John Mac- 
kenzie, ninth baron of Kintail, and was buried by 
his followers on the lands of Ardelve, on the western 
side of Loch Loung. William, fifth earl of Seaforth, 
having joined the Stuart cause in 1715, his estate 
and honours were forfeited to the Crown, and his 
castle burnt. The attack on Ellandonan castle, by 
the baron of Slate, is the subject of a ballad by Sir 
Walter Scott's friend, Colin Mackenzie, Esq. of 
Portmore, published in the ' Scottish Minstrelsy,' 
[Vol. IV. pp. 351—361, last edition.] In the intro- 
duction to this ballad it is erroneously stated that 
Haco, king of Norway, after his defeat at Largs in 
1263, was overtaken in the narrow passage which 
divides the island of Skye from the coasts of Inver- 
ness and Ross, and slain, along with many of his 
followers, in attempting his escape through the west- 
ern kyle ; and that these straits bear to this day 
appellations commemorating these events; the one 
being called Kyle Rhee, or the King's Kyle, and 
the other Kyle Haken. It is matter of familiar 
history, that Haco's fleet, in its flight from the 
Clyde, succeeded in douiiling Cape Wrath, and 
reached Orkney on the 29th of October ; and that 
here, Haco, overcome by the feeling of his disgrace, 
and the incessant fatigues of his unfortunate campaign, 
fell sick, and died on the 15th of December.* 

ALTAVIG, or Altbheig, the southernmost of a 
group of flat islets — to which it usually gives name — 
on the north-east coast of Skye, between the point 
of Aird and Ru-na-braddan. Martin says there is a 
little old chapel on it dedicated to St Turos ; and 
that herrings are sometimes so plentiful around a 
small rock at the north end of the isle, that " the 
fisher-boats are sometimes as it were entangled 
among the shoals of them 1" 

* Macculloch, who notices this historical error, asserts that 
the proper name of the Bouthern kyle is Kyle Rich, that is, 
'the swift strait;' while the name of the western kyle is fre- 
quently written Kyle Akin. The orthography, however, of 
names throughout this district appears very uncertain. There 
we have Loch Long, Lock Loung, and Loch Ling; Ellan- 
donan, and Ellandonnan, and in the journal of a recent tra- 
veller, Lord Teigumouth, Ennan-dowan ; GienShiel,and Glen 
Shetil i Stent, and Slate. Native authorities afford us little aid 
here, each Gaelic writer having an urthogniphy of his own- 




ALTMORE (The), a small stream of Banffshire, 
rising betwixt the parishes of Ruthven and Desk- 
ford, receiving several small tributaries from Altmore 
ridge in the former parish, flowing southwards be- 
twixt the parishes of Keith and Grange, and falling 
into the Isla, about li mile east of the town of Keith, 
alter a rapid course of 6 miles. 

ALTYRE, formerly a distinct parish belonging to 
the parsonage of Dallas, but annexed to the parish 
of Rafford, in the shire of Elgin, by act of parliament 
in 1661. The walls of the old church remain. The 
Cummings of Logie, and most of the ancient resi- 
denters, still continue to bury here. The soil is 
generally thin, but sharp and productive ; the extent 
of hill and pasturage is very great ; and the peat- 
mosses are inexhaustible. See Rafford. 

ALVA, anciently Alvath, or Alveth, a parish 
and barony, politically in the county of Stirling, al- 
though disjoined from it: being surrounded by the 
shire of Clackmannan on the east, south, and west ; 
while on the north, it is bounded by Blackford parish 
in the county of Perth. It is in length, from east to 
west, somewhat more than 2:V miles ; and from south 
to north, 4 miles. The river Devon gently glides 
along the southern boundary of the parish, dividing it 
from the parishes of Alloa and Clackmannan. See 
article, The Devon. The parish of Logie bounds 
it on the west ; that of Tillicoultry on the east. 
This parish extends over a considerable portion of 
the Ochills ; and over part of the valley — here com- 
monly called ' the hill-foot' — between these hills and 
the Devon. The mean breadth, from the banks of 
the river to the rise of the Ochills, is about two- 
thirds of a mile. That portion of the Ochills which 
belongs to this parish, when seen from the south, 
at the distance of a mile or two, appears to be 
one continued range, presenting little variation in. 
height ; but the range slopes towards the south, 
and is intersected by deep and narrow glens, through 
most of which flow streams which discharge them- 
selves into the Devon, and by these, the fore- 
ground of this part of the Ochills is divided into 
three separate hills, distinguished by the names of 
Wood-hill, Middle-hill, and West-hill of Alva. On 
the brow of this last hill is a very high perpendicular 
rock, called Craig-Leith, long remarkable as the resi- 
dence of that species of hawk which is used in hunt- 
ing. The house of Alva stands on an eminence pro- 
jecting from the base of Wood-hill, near the east end 
of the parish. The height of this part of the hill is 
about 220 feet above the Devon, which runs in the 
valley belo\y ; but immediately behind the bouse, the 
hill rises to the height of 1, 400 feet, makingthe whole 
height 1,620 feet. The range continues to rise gra- 
dually for about 2 miles farther north, until it reaches 
in Ben-Cloch, the highest point of the Alva range, and 
the summit of the Ochills; being, according to Mr 
Udney, about 2,420 feet above the level of the Devon. 
The view from the top of Ben-Cloch is extensive 
and beautiful. The village of Alva is situated near 
the foot of the West-hill. A small rivulet, issuing 
irom the glen which separates the West from the 
Middle hill, runs along the east side of the village. 
In the first Statistical report on this parish, it is 
stated that woollen manufactures had been carried 
on in the village of Alva for more than a century. 
They consisted chiefly of Scots blankets and serges. 
The former were made from 9d.tols. the Scots yard ; 
and the latter from lOd. to 15d., and a few from 16d. 
to 18d. per yard. " It is more than probable," the re- 
porter adds, " that this species of manufacture flourish- 
ed a great many years ago in the neighbouring village 
of Tillicoultry ; as an evidence of this, it is at this day 
known among the shopkeepers of the Lawn-market 
of Edinburgh, by the name of Tillicoultry serges. 

The number of looms constantly employed at present 
in this village is 67. The length of each web may 
be reckoned at SO yards, and taking the average 
value at lOd. or lid. per yard, the gross produce will 
amount to from £7,000 to ,£8,000 sterling, annually. 
The manufacturers make use chiefly of English wool 
in their serges and blankets, and this partly short, 
and partly combed wool. That which is produced 
from the sheep that pasture on the Ochills is com- 
monly manufactured by the people of the country 
for their own private use. These serges are sold 
not only in Edinburgh, but likewise in Stirling, 
Glasgow, Greenock, Perth, and Dundee. The finest 
kinds of serges are sometimes dressed and dyed by 
the traders in Stirling, and sold as coarse shalloons. 
A considerable quantity of the coarser sizes has of 
late years been purchased by saddlers as a necessary 
article in their business." We have inserted the 
notice of this manufacture, though it no longer exists 
here, as helping the reader to trace the progress of 
Scottish manufactures. A rich vein of silver ore is 
said to have been wrought in this parish early in the 
beginning of the 17th century. An unsuccessful 
attempt was made to renew the workings in the year 
1759. Population, in 1801, 787; in 1831, 1,300. 
Assessed property £2,445. Inhabited houses 218. 
— The parish of Alva was, before the Reformation, 
in the diocese of Dunkeld. From the chartulary of 
Cambuskennetb it appears that the church of Alva 
was a mensal church, as it is called, belonging to 
that abbacy ; and that the monks of Cambuskennetb. 
performed duty here, from the want of a sufficient 
fund for the maintenance of a regular clergyman. 
By the same chartulary, it appears that Alexander, 
styled Dominus de Striveling, Miles, in 1276, made 
a grant of one acre of land to the church of St Ser- 
vanus de Alveth, describing it particularly as lying 
near the well of St Servanus, " et inter ipsum fon- 
tem et ecclesiam." This well is still within the 
limits of the minister's glebe ; and although its con- 
secrated name has been long forgotten, it continues 
to send forth a copious stream of the purest and 
sweetest water. Until the year 1632, the parish of 
Alva appears to have been united with the neigh- 
bouring one of Tillicoultry ; the minister of Alva 
officiating in both. The fabric of the present church 
was built in the year 1631, by Alexander Bruce of 
Alva, who procured a disjunction from the parish of 
Tillicoultry. It is in the presbytery of Stirling, and 
synod of Perth and Stirling. Patron, Johnstone of 
Alva. Stipend £157 5s. 4d., with a manse, and a glebe 
of the annual value of £27. Schoolmaster's salary 
£29 18s. 10d., with £28 school-fees. Average num- 
ber of scholars 55. There are two private schools 
in the parish, attended by about 120 pupils. 

ALVAH, a parish in the county of Banff, extend- 
ing in length about 6 miles, and at its greatest breadth 
to nearly the same measurement, but in other places 
to only 2 miles. On the north-west and north it is 
bounded by the parish of Banff; on the north-east 
and east by the parishes of King-Edward and Gamery ; 
on the south-east by Turriff; on the south by For- 
glen; and on the south-west by Marnoch. The 
Doveron enters the parish about a mile below For- 
glen house, which is on its northern bank, and, after 
winding through a fertile valley, leaves it at a point 
about 2 miles from the sea. It here abounds with sal- 
mon, trout, and eel ; and is frequented by wild ducks, 
widgeons, teals, and herons. About half-a-mile be- 
low the church, the river is contracted by two steep 
and rugged precipices, commonly denominated the 
Craigs of Ah ah, between which it is about 50 feet 
in depth. The scenery, naturally bold and pictur- 
esque, has been greatly embellished here by its noble 
proprietor, the Earl of Fife, who has thrown a mag- 




tiifieent arch over the river, which forms an easy 
communication between the opposite parts of his 
lordship's extensive park. The haughs along the 
banks of the river are subject to inundations, es- 
pecially in the neighbourhood of the Craigs of Alvah, 
which check the rapidity of the stream, and throw 
the water backward. As we recede from the Doveron 
towards the west, the country becomes more hilly 
and barren. In this quarter one of the most con- 
spicuous hills is the Hill of Alvah, which rises from 
the bed of the river to a great height, and serves as a 
landmark to mariners on their approaching the coast. 
At the Bog of Mountblairie are the remains of an 
old castle, situated in a swamp now overgrown with 
alder, and said to have been built by an earl of 
liuchan ; and on an eminence above it, are the ruins 
of a chapel, adjoining to which is a well, famed of 
old for its sovereign charms, but now fallen into dis- 
repute. " Within these few years," says the Statis- 
tical reporter in 1792, "there was an iron laddie; and 
many still alive remember to have seen the impend- 
ing boughs adorned with rags of linen and woollen 
garments, and the cistern enriched with farthings and 
boddles, the offerings and testimonies of grateful 
votaries who came from afar to this fountain of 
health. At the foot of the hill of Alvah, towards 
the north, is another spring, which passes by the 
name of Corn's or Colm's well, in honour, probably, 
of the renowned saint of Icolmkil." Population, in 
1801, 1,057; in 1831, 1,278. Assessed property 
.£3,695. Houses 246. — This parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Turriff, and synod of Aberdeen. Patron, 
the Earl of Fife. Minister's stipend £178 15s. 5d., 
with a manse, and a glebe of the yearly value of 
£25. Unappropriated teinds £221 16s. 6d. School- 
master's salary £30, with about £10 school-fees. 
Average number of scholars 40. 

ALVES, a parish in the shire of Elgin ; bounded 
on the north by the Moray frith, along which it ex- 
tends about one mile ; on the east by the parishes of 
Duffus and New Spynie ; on the south by Elgin, 
from which it is separated by Pluseardine hill ; and 
on the west by Kinloss and Rafford parishes. Its 
outline is very irregular ; and its surface varied with 
hill and dale. The soil is in general a deep tat loam 
incumbent on clay. There are six land-owners; the 
total rental is about £6,000. At the south-eastern 
extremity of the parish is a conical hill called the 
Knock of Alves, which yields a good free-stone for 
building. The only relic of feudal times is the 
castle of Asleisk, on the Earl of File's property. 
There is no river, or even considerable stream, in 
this parish ; but it is conjectured by some that the 
river Findhorn may, in remote ages, have winded 
among the dales of Alves, and flowed through the lake 
of Spynie into the sea. Population, in 1801, 1,049; 
in 1831, 945. Houses 196 — This parish is in the 
presbytery of Elgin, and synod of Moray. Patron, the 
Earl of Moray. Minister's stipend £215 Is. 8d., with 
a manse and glebe. Unappropriated teinds £130 13s. 
Id. The church was built in 1769 ; sittings 590. 
Schoolmaster's salary £34 4s. 4id., with about £25 
of various fees. The parish-school has a small en- 
dowment. Average number of scholars 45. There 
were three small private schools in this parish in 
1835. The turnpike road between Elgin and Forres 
passes through the parish. 

ALV1E,* in some old charters called Alloway, a 

* The writer of the first Statistical account of this parish 
conjectures that the name Alvie is probably derived from tile 
Gaelic Alleibh, i. e. ' Cold island,' the place being formed into 
a peninsula by a lake; and, though a delightful situation in 
summer, extremely cold in winter. " All the names of places 
here," the same writer adds, "are Gaelic, and descriptive of 
their local situation." This etymology is, however, pronounced 
not in the least prububle by the writer of the second Statistical 

parish in the district of Inverness-shire called Bade- 
noch. Its form is very irregular. The principal in- 
habited division lies along the northern side of the 
river Spey, here running from south-west to north- 
east ; and is from north-east to south-west about 10 
miles long, and from 1 to 2 broad. It is bounded 
by the parish of Kingussie on the south-west: Moy 
on the north-west ; and Duthel on the north-east. 
On the southern side of the river, Alvie parish ex- 
tends, along the course of the Feshie, about 10 miles 
by 3 ; and is bounded on the east by Rothiemurchus ; 
on the south by Blair ; and on the west by Kin- 
gussie. Its total extent from north to south is up- 
wards of 20 miles ; and it has an area of above 90 
square miles. The mountains are in general extreme- 
ly barren, covered with heath, and frequently rocky ; 
those to the south of the Spey, belonging to the 
Grampian chain, are much higher than those to the 
north ; some points here rising to 4,500 feet above 
the sea-level. The interjacent valleys afford a plen- 
tiful and rich pasture in summer, but are for the 
most part inaccessible in winter. The lower or 
arable part of the parish, intersected by the Spey 
for the space of 2 miles, consists of a light, stony 
soil, lying on sandy gravel, and producing heavy 
crops of corn in a wet season, but exceedingly parch- 
ed in dry weather. There are some extensive planta- 
tions of firs and larches; and natural coppices of birch, 
alder, and mountain-ash. The first Statistical report- 
er represented that the inferior tenants in this district 
were very poor, owing to their small holdings. " They 
pay," he says, " from £2 to £6 rent, which may 
be from 5s. to 10s. the acre arable, affording a scanty 
subsistence to a family. They have no idea of trade 
or manufactures, and consequently no desire to leave 
their native land ; they prefer living on the smallest 
pendicle of land, as tenants, to the best service, and 
are extremely averse to the military. They procure 
their little necessaries from the market-to ivns, by 
the sale of small parcels of wood." This state of 
things, with regard to the holders of small pendicles, 
seems little changed to the better; but the larger 
tenants have adopted a vigorous and judicious system 
of farming with the appropriate results. The aver- 
age rent is from 15s. to 20s. per Scotch acre. The 
nearest market is Inverness, which is 35 miles dis- 
tant from the northern extremity of the parish. 
The last Statistical reporter states that a village 
has been founded, called Lynchat, on the Belleville 
property, near the south-west extremity of the parish. 
The valued rent of the parish is £1,394 Scots ; the 
real rent is above £2,000 sterling. The river Spey 
here abounds with salmon, trout, and pike. The 
Feshie affords trout and salmon. It rises on the 
northern side of the Grampian range, in the southern 
extremity of the parish, and flows at first north-east, 
till it approaches the road from Castleton of Brae- 
mar, where it bends north-west, and then north, 
pursuing the course of the narrow valley through 
which also the only road intersecting the parish is 
led, and falling into the Spey, a little above that en- 
largement of the river called Loch Insch, and near 
Invereshie. The only detached loch in the parish is 
that of Alvie. It is a beautiful sheet of water, about 
a mile long, and half-a-mile broad. It has a com- 
munication with the Spey, but it is not supposed 
that its trout visit the Spey ; pike are also found in it 
of from 1 16. to 7 lt>. weight. An elegant mansion was 
built here, named Belleville, by the late James Mac 
pherson, Esq., translator of the poems attributed to 
Ossian, who was a native of Badenoch, and died here 

account, published in 183G, who says, that "the name is in Gaelic 
pronounced EttlaOhi, sounding bh like v in English; a word 
compounded of ealabh, swans, and i, an island, which :t>rrectly 
translated signifies ' the Island of Swans.' 




on the 17th of February, 1796, but was buried, at his 
own desire, in Westminster abbey. At no great 
distance from Loch Alvie is the burial-place of the 
chief of the Macphersons. The finest mansion in 
the parish is Kinrara house, long celebrated in 
fashionable and literary circles as being the favourite 
seat of the accomplished duchess of Gordon. The 
Spey, flowing under a long wall of mountain-crags and 
fir-plantations, embraces in its sweep a verdant plain 
which is close shut in on the opposite side by the hill 
of Tor-Alvie; in this spot, on a knoll commanding the 
small plain, and itself sheltered by the loftier Tor, is 
the far-famed cottage of the duchess. Dr Macculloeh 
thus describes the scenery of Kinrara: "A succession 
of continuous birch-forest, covering its rocky hill and 
its lower grounds, intermixed with open glades, 
irregular clumps, and scattered trees, produces a 
scene at once alpine and dressed, — combining the dis- 
cordant characters of wild mountain-landscape and 
of ornamental park-scenery. To this it adds an air 
of perpetual spring, and a feeling of comfort and of 
seclusion, which can no where be seen in such per- 
fection : while the range of scenery is, at the same 
time, such as is only found in the most extended do- 
mains. If the home-grounds are thus full of beau- 
ties, not less varied and beautiful is the prospect 
around : the Spey, here a quick and clear stream, 
being ornamented by trees in every possible com- 
bination, and the banks beyond, rising into irregular, 
rocky, and wooded hills, every where rich with an 
endless profusion of objects, and, as they gradually 
ascend, displaying the dark sweeping forests of fir 
that skirt the bases of the farther mountains, which 
terminate the view by their bold outlines on the 
sky." The swan, a variety of fishing-ducks or duck- 
ers, and the woodcock, live here in winter, but retire 
in summer. Population, in 1801, 1,05S; in 1831, 
1,092, of whom about two-thirds were engaged in 
agriculture. — This parish is in the presbytery of 
Abernethy, and synod of Moray. Patron, the duke 
of Richmond. Minister's stipend .£158 4s. 6d., with 
manse and glebe. Church built in 1798, and repair- 
ed in 1831 ; sittings 500. There is a government- 
church at Insch, which is within 4 miles of the parish- 
church, and with which a small quoad sacra parish, 
originally part of the old parish of Insch, was connect- 
ed in 1828. See Insch. Schoolmaster's salary £29 
18s. 9d. ; with £18 school-fees, and £4 10s. emolu- 
ments. Average number of pupils 70. There are 
two private schools in the parish attended by about 
70 children. 

ALYTH, a parish on the northern side of Strath- 
more, in the counties of Perth and Forfar; but 
chiefly in the former. It is about 15 miles long, and 
3 broad, at an average ; and stretches from south to 
north towards the Grampian mountains. It is bound- 
ed by Kirkmichael and Glen-Isla parishes on the 
north ; by Glen-Isla, Lentrathen, Airly, and a de- 
tached portion of Rutbven on the east ; by the Isla 
on the south, which separates it from the parishes of 
Meigle and Cupar-Angus ; and by detached portions 
of the parishes of Bendochy, Blairgowrie, Kepet, 
and Rattray, on the west. It is divided into two 
districts, Loyal and Barry, by the hills of Alyth. 
The southern district, which lies in the strath, is 
about 4 miles long, and 3 broad. The lower part 
along the Isla is extremely fertile, producing ex- 
cellent crops of barley, oats, and wheat ; but the 
frequent inundations of the Isla — which sometimes 
rises suddenly in harvest, to a great height — is often 
attended with great disappointment and loss to the 
husbandman. The village of Alyth is situated in 
this district. It is 15 miles north of Dundee; and 
12 west of Forfar. Population, in 1774, 555 ; in 
1836, 1,700. Its name is of Gaelic extraction, and 

is expressive of its situation, being built on a fiat 
near the foot of a hill. It was made a burgh of 
barony by charter from James III. The situation of 
the village is healthy it is well -supplied with water ; 
a small stream, wlncu rises near Drumdevich in 
the northern part of the parish, runs through the 
lower part of the town, and thence north-east to the 
Isla. There is a weekly market in the village on 
Tuesdays ; and several for black cattle and sheep are 
annually held here. The chief articles manufactured 
in this district, towards the end of last century, were 
yarn and brown linens, of which a great quantity was 
spun and wove in the town of Alyth, and the district 
around it. The quantity of cloth stamped from the 
first November 1787, to the 1st November 1791, at 
an average, was 258,639 yards yearly, and the me- 
dium price £6,939 10s. 3^Vd. This branch of manu- 
facture still exists, but has not thriven so much as 
might have been anticipated. On the northern side 
of the hill of Alyth there is an open country of con- 
siderable extent, and capable of great improvement. 
Beyond the hill of Banff — which is 2 miles north- 
west of the village of Alyth — is the forest of Alyth, 
a large tract of heathy ground, of more than 6,000 
acres, which formerly belonged to four proprietors 
who possessed it in common, but it is now divided 
among them. The forest, which is skirted on the 
west with arable ground, affords pasture for a con- 
siderable number of sheep and black cattle ; it 
abounds in game, especially muirfowl, and is much 
frequented in the shooting-season. At the north- 
western extremity of the parish there is a beautiful 
little district surrounded with hills, and intersected 
by the Ericht, which in summer has a delightful ap- 
pearance. That part of it connected with this 
parish, called the Blacklunnans, lies in the county of 
Angus. Mount Blair, the most considerable hill in 
this parish, is a very conspicuous point of land. The 
base is not less than five miles in circumference ; but 
its exact altitude is not ascertained. It affords good 
pasture for a great number of sheep, and abounds in 
lime-stone. About 3 miles south-west of Mount 
Blair, on the west side of the forest of Alyth, is the 
King's-seat, rising to the height of 1,179 feet above 
the level of the sea. The situation is romantic ; the 
water of Ericht runs at its foot on the west, and the 
side of the hill for a considerable way up is covered 
with a beautiful natural wood. Barry-hill, to the 
north-east of Alyth, is about a mile in circumference 
at the base, and 676 feet high. On the summit there 
is an area about 60 yards long and 24 broad, sur- 
rounded with a mound of earth, 7 feet high, and 10 
broad at the top. On the west and north borders of 
this area are seen the marks of something like huts 
built of dry stones, which may have served to shelter 
the besieged from the weapons of the assailants, and 
the inclemency of the air. The northern and western 
sides of the hill are steep and almost inaccessible ; 
on the south and east, where the declivity is more 
gentle, there is a broad and deep fosse, over which, 
at the southern extremity, is a narrow bridge built 
of unpolished stones and vitrified. It evidently ap- 
pears to have been designed for a temporary retreat 
in time of war, and is well-adapted for that purpose. 
The traditional account is that Barry-hill was the 
place where Queen Guinevra, the wife of the British 
king, Arthur, who was taken prisoner in a battle be- 
tween the forces of that monarch and those of the 
Scots and Picts, was confined by her captors. The 
area of the parish is 34,160 acres ; valued rent £8,233 
17s. 4d. Scotch. Population, in 1801,2,536; in 1831, 
2,888, chiefly agricultural labourers and weavers ; and 
of whom about 2,383 belong to the establishment — 
This parish is in the presbytery of Meigle, and synod 
of Angus and Mearns. The church is an old Gothic 




structure ; it has been frequently repaired, and is in 
tolerable good order. In times of Episcopacy it was 
a prebendary belonging to the Bishop of Dunkeld. 
Minister's stipend £229 19s. 6d., with a manse, and 
a glebe of the annual value of £14. Unappropriated 
Crown teinds £134 Is. lid. Patron, the Crown. 
Schoolmaster's salary £34, with about £20 of fees 
and £24 of emoluments. Pupils about 100. There 
are seven private schools, with an average attendance 
at each of 45 scholars. The schoolmaster has like- 
wise the interest of £40 sterling, bequeathed by the 
late Rev. Mr Robertson for the education of a few 
children of his name. The north-western district of 
the parish is connected with Persie chapel in the 

parish of Bendochy An Episcopalian congregation 

has existed here since the Revolution. — A United 
Secession congregation was established in 1781 ; and 
an Original Seceder congregation in 180S. 

AMISFIELD, a seat of the Earl of Wemyss, in 
the parish and shire of Haddington, on the banks of 
the Tyne, about 1 mile east of Haddington. It is a 
handsome edifice of red-coloured sandstone, situated 
in the midst of an extensive park, and fronting to- 
wards the river and the great post-road from Dun- 
bar to Haddington. It contains some fine paintings. 
It was built by the famous Colonel Charteris, who 
named it from the ancient seat of his family in Niths- 
dale, the subject of the next article. His only 
daughter conveyed it by marriage to the noble family 
of Wemvss. 

AMISFIELD CASTLE, anciently Emsfield, an 
old, tall, square, stubborn-looking fortalice, 5 miles 
north-east of Dumfries, a little to the left of the 
post-road to Edinburgh, between the two head- 
streams of the Lochar. This was long the family- 
seat of the Anglo-Norman family of Charteris, or 
Chartres, who migrated northwards during the reign 
of David I., but seem to have first settled at 
Kinfauns in Perthshire. The apartments are placed 
one above another, and communicate by a narrow 
stair. There is a curiously carved door on one of 
them, of which Mr Chambers, in his ' Picture of 
Scotland,' [Vol. I. 228, edition 1824,] has given an 
amusing account; and which door alone, he avers, 
" makes Amisfield castle worth going twenty miles 
to see." 

AMULRIE, or Amulree, a small village of 
Perthshire, on the road from Crieff to Inverness, 
Hi miles distant from the former town, and 10^ 
fro'm Aberfeldy, the next stage. The district of 
Amulrie is in the parish of Dull, but is annexed 
quoad sacra to the mission of Amulrie. There are 
a church and manse here. 

ANCRUM, a parish situated nearly in the centre 
of the county of Roxburgh ; bounded on the north 
by the parishes of St Boswell and Maxtown ; on the 
east by those of Maxtown, Roxburgh, Crailing, and 
Jedburgh; on the south by Jedburgh, Bedrule, and 
Minto ; and on the west by Minto, Lilliesleaf, and 
Bowden. The river Teviot, along which it stretches 
5 miles, divides it from the parishes of Jedburgh and 
Bedrule. The extreme length of this district is not 
less than 6 miles; its breadth does not exceed 4. 
Its area is about 8,400 acres. The name of the 
village — Alncromb, or Alnecrumb, as it was anciently 
written — signifies the crook of the Aln ; and is exact- 
ly descriptive of its situation on a rising ground on 
the south side of the Ale, where that stream fetches 
a cvurve before falling into the Teviot. The parish of 
Long Newton, forming the north-west and north part 
of the parish, was annexed to that of Ancrum in 
1684. The Ale rises on the western skirts of Ro- 
berton parish, and flowing north-east, passes through 
the loch of that name in the county of Selkirk, to 
Drydean, where it bends east to Sinton mill ; it 

then intersects Lilliesleaf parish from south-west to 
north- east, and after fetching ' many a loop and link' 
on the borders of Ancrum parish, flows through it to 
the village of Ancrum, where — as already noticed— 
it fetches another circuit, and falls into the Teviot, 
at the distance of half-a-mile below the village, and 
a quarter of a mile above Ancrum bridge on the 
great road to Jedburgh. This river abounds with 
excellent trout ; and its banks are in many places 
finely wooded with tall trees, — in others ' o'erhung 
with birk or odorous broom,' or frowning with pre- 
cipitous cliffs, — presenting a varied succession of ro- 
mantic scenery. The soil, in the lower grounds of 
the parish on Teviot side, is rich, consisting of a 
mixture of sand and clay, and, in some places, of a 
loam. On the higher ground, or ridge which per- 
vades the parish from east to west, and, on the de- 
clivities exposed to the north, the surface is heath on 
a bottom of cold clay ; but the flat ground, on both 
the Ancrum and Long Newton side of the Ale, is a 
naturally rich though stiff clay. The Statistical 
report on this parish, published in 1837, states that 
7,496 acres are under cultivation, and above 800 in 
wood. There was formerly a greater extent of 
wood in this parish ; but none of long-standing re- 
mains, except upon the banks of the Ale, near the 
village of Ancrum, and in the environs of Ancrum- 
house. The Duke of Roxburgh, the Earl of Minto, 
Sir William Scott, Bart., Sir George Douglas, Mr 
Ogilvie of Chesters, and Mr Richardson of Kirk- 
lands, are considerable heritors. The valued rent of 
the united parishes of Ancrum and Long Newton 
amounts to £ 12,332 2s. Scotch ; the real rent was 
stated, in 1796, to exceed £4,000 sterling ; and is 
now nearly £9,000. Population, in 1801, 1,222; in 
1831, 1,454; of whom about 530 belonged to the 
village of Ancrum. Houses 245. Assessed property 
£9,707. There are several freestone quarries in this 
parish. The stone is of two colours, red and white; 
it is easily wrought and of a durable quality. The 
situation of Ancrum-house, where the village of 
Over- Ancrum formerly stood, is picturesque and at- 
tractive. Spots of verdant lawn, craggy knolls, 
scattered trees, and, on the verge of the river, steep 
banks, in some places naked and of broken surface, 
and in others clothed with wood, here exhibit a fine 
assemblage of romantic objects. The trees surround- 
ing Ancrum-house are the oldest and most beautiful 
in the district: they consist of oaks, beech, elms, 
planes, and limes. The prospect from the house 
down the vale of Teviot, of the junction of the Ale 
and Teviot, and towards the lofty mountains of 
Cheviot, is extensive and striking. Chesters house 
is a fine building, picturesquely situated farther up the 
Teviot ; and Kirkiands, on the Ale, is deservedly ad- 
mired both for its architecture and situation. — The 
parish of Ancrum is in the presbytery of Jedburgh, and 
synod of Merse and Teviotdale. Sir William Scott 
is patron of the united parishes, and titular of An- 
crum. Minister's stipend £223 16s. 6d., with a 
manse, and a glebe of the annual value of £30. Un- 
appropriated teinds £738 16s. 6d. Church built in 
1762 ; sittings 520. Schoolmaster's salary £34 4s. 
4-id., with £29 fees. Average number of pupils 85. 
There are three private schools attended by about 
130 children. One of these is endowed with £11 2s. 
2id. annually, having been the parish-school of Long 

The Roman road from York to the frith of Forth, 
after passing through the north-east part of the parish 
of Jedburgh, cuts a small part of the north corner of 
Ancrum ; and upon the top and declivity of the hill 
to the eastward, on the border of Maxtown parish, 
vestiges of a Roman camp may still be traced — 
There is a ridge in this parish, over which the road 




to Edinburgh passes, about a quarter or balf-a-mile 
west of the line of the Roman road, called Lylliard's, 
or Lilyard's edge, from a lady of that name, who, 
on an invasion of the English under Sir Ralph Evre, 
Sir Brian Latoun, in 1544, during the distracted re- 
gency of the Earl of Arran, fought with masculine 
bravery, and fell here under many wounds. The old 
people point out her monument, now broken and de- 
faced. It is said to have borne an inscription — re- 
cast from the well-known lines on a Chevy-Chase 
hero — running thus : 

" Fair maiden Lylliard lies under this stane ; 
Little was her stature, but great was her fame ; 
Upon the English louns she laid mony thumps, Qstumps." 
And, when her legs were cutted ofl, 6he fuught upon her 

Sir Walter Scott, in a note on the ballad of ' The Eve 
of St John,' gives the following account of the battle 
of Ancrummoor. "In 1545, [1544?] Lord E vers and 
Latoun again entered Scotland, with an army con- 
sisting of 3,000 mercenaries, 1,500 English borderers, 
and 700 assured Scottish-men, chiefly Armstrongs, 
Turnbulls, and other broken clans. In this second 
incursion, the English generals even exceeded their 
former cruelty. Evers burned the tower of Broom- 
house, with its lady, (a noble and aged woman, says 
Lesley,) and her whole family. The English pene- 
trated as far as Melrose, which they had destroye'd 
last year, and which they now again pillaged. As 
they returned towards Jedburgh, they were followed 
by Angus, at the head of 1,000 horse, who was 
shortly after joined by the famous Norman Lesley, 
with a body of Fife-men. The English, being pro- 
bably unwilling to cross the Teviot, while the Scots 
hung upon their rear, halted upon Ancrum moor, 
above the village of that name ; and the Scottish 
general was deliberating whether to advance or re- 
tire, when Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch came up 
at full speed, with a small but chosen body of his 
retainers, the rest of whom were near at hand. By 
the advice of this experienced warrior — to whose 
conduct Pitscottie and Buchanan ascribe the success 
of the engagement — Angus withdrew from the height 
which he occupied, and drew up his forces behind it, 
upon a piece of low flat ground, called Panier-heugh, 
or Paniel-heugh. The spare horses being sent to an 
eminence in their rear, appeared to the English to be 
the main body of the Scots, in the act of flight. 
Under this persuasion, Evers and Latoun hurried 
precipitately forward, and, having ascended the hill, 
which their foes had abandoned, were no less dis- 
mayed than astonished, to find the phalanx of Scot- 
tish spearmen drawn up, in firm array, upon the flat 
ground below. The Scots in their turn became the 
assailants. A heron, roused from the marshes by the 
tumult, soared away betwixt the encountering ar- 
mies: ' O !' exclaimed Angus, 'that I had here my 
white goss-hawk, that we might all yoke at once !' 
[Godscroft."] — The English, breathless and fatigued, 
having the setting sun and wind full in their faces, 
were unable to withstand the resolute and desperate 
charge of the Scottish lances. No sooner had they 
begun to waver, than their own allies, the assured 
Borderers, who had been waiting the event, threw 
aside their red crosses, and, joining their countrymen, 
made a most merciless slaughter among the English 
fugitives, the pursuers calling upon each other to 
'remember Broomhouse!' — [Lesley, p. 478.]" The 
English had 800 men slain, and 1,000 made prisoners, 
in this battle. Their leaders, Evre and Latoun, 
were also left on the field, 

" where Ancrum moor 
Ran red with English blood ; 
Where the Douglas true, and the bold Buccleuch, 
'Gainst keen Lord Evers stood." 

The most venerable fragment of antiquity in the 

parish is the JVIaltan walls, on a rising ground at the 
bottom of the village of Ancrum, close to the side of 
the Ale, where it turns its course towards the south- 
east. " These walls," says the Statistical reporter 
in 1796, " were strongly built of stone and lime, in 
the figure of a parallelogram ; and, ascending on one 
side from the plain adjacent to the river, were con- 
siderably higher than the summit of the hill which 
they inclose ; but are now levelled with its surface, 
andj small part of them remains. Vaults or sub- 
terraneous arches have been discovered in the neigh- 
bouring ground, and underneath the area inclosed by 
the building. Human bones are still found by per- 
sons ploughing or digging in the plain at the side of 
the river, which is an evidence of its having been 
formerly occupied as burying-ground. The name, 
which these walls still retain, gives the colour of 
authenticity to a tradition generally received in this 
part of the country, that the building, and surround- 
ing fields had been vested in the knights of Malta, 
or Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem, 
who, upon account of their splendid achievements 
and meritorious services in the holy wars, acquired 
property even in the most remote kingdoms of 
Christendom. — On the banks of the Ale, below the 
house of Ancrum, there were several caves or re- 
cesses, and not less than fifteen may be still pointed 
out. In some of them there are also vestiges of 
chimneys or fire-places, and holes for the passage of 
smoke from the back part of the cave to the outside 
of the bank. From these appearances, it is natural 
to conclude, that, though these caves — so frequently 
found on the banks of rivers in border-counties — -were 
originally intended for places of concealment and 
shelter, yet, after the happy event which put an end 
to interior violence and depredation, they were pro- 
bably assumed by the poorer classes for places of 
habitation, and improved by such farther accommo- 
dations as the rude or simple taste of the times re- 
quired." — In the centre of the is an 
ancient cross. 

ANDERSTON. See Glasgow. 

ST ANDREWS, a parish on the east coast ot 
Fifeshire ; bounded on the north by the Eden river, 
and its estuary, which separates it from Leuchars 
parish ; on the north-east by the German ocean ; on 
the south-east by the Kenly burn, which separates 
it from Kingsbarn and Denino parishes ; and on the 
south and west by the parishes of Denino, Cameron, 
Ceres, and Kembuck. Its greatest length is about 
10^ miles from north-west to south-east; its average 
breadth does not exceed 1J mile;' though in the 
north-western part it exceeds 4 miles, measuring 
from St Andrews links to the western boundary of 
the parish at Chalderhills. Its area somewhat ex- 
ceeds 17 square miles, and may be stated at 11,000 
acres. The ascent of the surface is from the north 
to the south and east. From the Eden to the city 
of St Andrews, the coast presents a flat firm sandy 
beach, skirted by the links so famous in the annais 
of golfing. From the city to the south-eastern ex- 
tremity of the parish, the shore outwards from high 
water-mark is lined with rough and ragged shelving 
rocks covered with sea-weed, while the coast in- 
wards is very rocky and bold, in some places pre- 
senting perpendicular rocks of the height of 30 or 40 
feet, yet the plough here comes to the very brink, 
having a sufficiency of soil. The boundaries of the 
parish to the south and west terminate in moors 
covered with short heath and furze. In common 
with all the eastern part of the island, this district is 
well-acquainted with the cold damp easterly winds, 
or haars of April and May; the south-west wind, 
however, is the prevailing wind. There are no con- 
siderable lakes or rivers within the parish. In the 



embouchure of the Eden — up which the tide flows 4 
miles — is a flat sandy bay abounding with large floun- 
ders, cockles, and mussels. In the course of the river, 
for about a mile from its mouth, salmon are caught, 
but in no great quantity. Towards the east end 
of the parish are some small creeks among the rocks, 
where vessels of inferior size occasionally deliver lime 
and coals. St Andrews bay is proverbially dangerous 
to navigators. Vessels driven into it by an easterly 
wind, being unable to weather the opposite points 
of Fifeness and the Redhead, are compelled to run 
into the mouth of the Tay, which presents an intri- 
cate navigation amid its sand-banks. On the lands of 
Brownhills and Kinkell — which form the first rising 
ground eastward from St Andrews harbour — there 
are a few insulated rocks, from 20 to 40 feet high, 
and of nearly equal breadth ; one about halS-a-mile 
from the harbour, is called the Maiden stone ; and 
about half-a-mile farther, is the Rock and Spindle. 
The chief land-marks in this parish are the steeples 
of St Andrews, and a small obelisk of stones on the 
highest part of the farm of Bahymont, about 2 miles 
south-east of the town. The principal hills are the 
East and West Bahymonts, which rise to the alti- 
tude of about 360 feet above sea-level ; and the hill 
of Clatto which has an elevation of 548 feet. On 
Strathkinness moor, about 3 miles west from the 
town, and on Nydie hill— which is a more elevated 
and westerly portion of the same moor — are quarries 
of excellent freestone, of which most of the houses 
in St Andrews are built. In Denhead moor, in the 
south-west corner of the parish, coal exists, but it is 
not wrought. About a mile east from the harbour, 
there is a natural cave, called Kinkell cave. The 
mouth is to the north; the direction of the cave is 
southwards, and it penetrates about 80 feet; the 
shelving of the freestone roof presents a triangular 
cross section, and there is a continual dropping from 
the roof and sides which are covered with hanging 
plants. There are no very old or extensive plantations 
of wood in this parish. The number of acres under 
cultivation is about 10,000; the average rent per 
acre did not exceed 2os. in 1794, and does not ex- 
ceed 30s. now. The highways through this parish 
are such only as diverge from St Andrews as a centre, 
viz. to Crail south-east; south to Anstruther; south- 
west to Ely; west to Cupar; and north-west to 
Dundee. On the road to Dundee, over the Eden, is a 
bridge of six arches, called the Gair or Guard-bridge, 
originally built at the expense of Bishop Wardlaw, 
who died in 1444, and who established a family of 
the name of Wan as hereditary keepers of this bridge, 
for which they have a perpetual fee of about 10 acres 
of land adjoining to it. The language of the parish 
of St Andrews is the common dialect of the Scotch 
Lowlands. The Fifans, it has been alleged, use a 
drawling pronunciation, but they have very few pro- 
vincial w ords ; and if they are at all worthy of so 
high a character as the first Statistical reporter on 
St Andrews bestows on the people of his charge, they 
must be such a very amiable set of people that one 
can easily overlook in them so trivial a fault as 
that of a drawling speech. " The people of this 
parish,'' says the reporter, "are sober, temperate, 
and industrious ; more addicted to the arts of tran- 
quil life than to military service; kind and hospi- 
table to strangers; benevolent and friendly to one 
another ; very ready to all the offices and duties 
of society; not very forward in making new dis- 
coveries, but willing to improve by the experi- 
ments elsewhere made; peaceable in their demea- 
nour; candid and liberal in their judgments; respect- 
ful to their superiors, without servility; compas- 
sionate to the distressed, and charitable to the poor; 
contented and thankful in their situation ; attached 

to their religion, without bigotry or enthusiasm ; 
regular in their attendance on Christian institutions, 
and pious without ostentation; loyal to the king; 
obedient to the laws ; enemies to sedition, faction, 
or tumult, and deeply sensible of the blessings they 
enjoy as British subjects. In no corner of the king- 
dom," adds the worthy reporter — and who will gain- 
say him if such be the character of one's neighbours 
here — " is it more comfortable to live, as neighbours, 
magistrates, or ministers." Population, in 1801, 
4,203; in 1831, 5,621; of whom 3,767 were inhabit- 
ants of the city of St Andrews. Houses 863. As- 
sessed property £21,723. The population consists 
chiefly of shopkeepers, handicraftsmen, and labourers. 
The parish of St Andrews is in the presbytery of 
St Andrews and synod of Fife. It is a collegiate 
charge ; the Crown appointing the first minister ; 
and the magistrates of St Andrews the second. 
Stipend of the first minister £439 9s. 4d., with a 
glebe of the annual value of £23; of the second 
£161 18s. 2d., with a glebe of the value of £16 5s. 
2d. ; both ministers have an additional allowance for 
a manse. Unappropriated teinds £791 9s. lOd. The 
parish-church, within the city of St Andrews, was 
erected in the 12th century, and thoroughly repaired 
in 1798. Sittings 2,128— There is a chapel at 
Strathkinness where public worship is performed 
every Sabbath — An Episcopalian congregation has 
existed here since Episcopacy was the established 
religion of Scotland. The chapel was erected in 
1825; cost £1,400; sittings 170. Minister's stipend 
£90.— The United Secession congregation was estab- 
lished in 1748; chapel built in 1826; cost £940; 
sittings 440. Stipend £100, with manse and gar- 
den. — An Original Burgher congregation was estab- 
lished at Strathkinness in 1823. Stipend £96, with 
manse and garden — The Independent chapel was 
built in 1807 ; cost £700 ; sittings 336. Stipend £70. 

The parish of St Leonard consists of a few 
districts in different quarters of the town and sub- 
urbs of St Andrews, and three farms in the coun- 
try, about 3 miles distant from the town, all origi- 
nally belonging to the priory, afterwards to the college 
of St Leonard, and now to the United college of 
St Salvator and St Leonard. Its total extent is 
820 acres ; and population 482, of whom 62 reside in 
the country. It is probable that the erection of the 
parish is of the same date with the foundation of 
the college whose name it bears. Although the 
principal of St Leonards did not always officiate as 
minister of the parish — and in the instance of Mr 
George Buchanan, was not even a clergyman — it is 
certain, that for some time before the Revolution, 
the two offices were held by the same person ; and 
ever since that period the principal of the college 
has been a clergyman, andithe minister of this parish. 
The chapel of St Salvator's college is used as the 
parish-church; the old parish-church having been 
long in ruins; sittings 312. Minister's stipend £152 
Is. 9d. ; with a glebe of the annual value of £25. 
There is no parochial school. Population of this 
parish, as distinct from that of St Andrews, in 1801, 
363 ; in 1831, 482. Houses 77. 

The city of St Andrews is situated in N. lat. 
56° 19' 33", and W. long. 2° 50' ; 39 miles north- 
north-east of Edinburgh, upon a rocky ridge pro- 
jecting into the sea, at the bottom of the bay to 
which it gives name. This ridge, washed by the 
waves on the west and north, and terminating 
towards the sea in an abrupt and high precipice, 
gives the city, to a traveller approaching from the 
west, an appearance of elevation and grandeur. Ap- 
proaching along the road from Cupar and Dundee, 
by the Gair-bridge, we have a fine prospect of the 
city at the distance of some miles. On the left the 



eye ranges over the vast sweep of the bay of St 
Andrews, and the coast of Angus as far as the Red- 
head ; on the right rises the richly wooded bank of 
Strathtyrum ; while the venerably majestic towers 
and numerous spires of St Andrews, shooting into 
the air, over the horizon line, directly before us, 
combine to form a finely varied and imposing scene, 
especially at that fair hour 

" When morning runs along the sea 
In a gold path." 

The city commands a fine and open prospect of the 
German ocean towards the north-east; and the view 
on the opposite quarter is bounded by a curvilineal 
range of hills running from north to south-east, and 
cultivated to their summits. The road from Crail 
. — or the coast-road, as it is called — conducts us to 
a view greatly admired by some, and indeed per- 
haps preferable to any other of St Andrews, for the 
scenery is here softened and improved by gardens 
and fruit-trees, amid which the houses lie half-con- 
cealed, seeming to retire as it were into the shade : 
we have, at the same time, a fine prospect of the 
harbour, and of the ruins of the monastery and the 
cathedral. Some, however, prefer the view of St 
Andrews from the side of Mount-Melvil, or the 
south-west prospect of it, on the road from Anstru- 
ther, to either of the two we have just described. 
From this point the city appears still more closely 
embosomed in gardens and plantations, above which 
numerous spires and pinnacles shoot up, conferring 
on it "a kind of metropolitan look." The city is 
a mile in circuit, and contains three principal streets, 
. — South-street, Market-street, and North-street, — 
which are lighted with gas, and intersected by 
others of less dimensions. These principal streets 
do not lie exactly parallel to one another, but 
diverge in a westerly direction from the cathedral, 
like spokes from the centre of a wheel. There was 
formerly another street, called Swallow-street, which 
lay farther to the north, now converted into a pub- 
lic walk, and known by the name of the Scores. 
The castle stood on the north of Swallow-street, 
300 yards distant from the cathedral. St Salvator's, 
called also the Old or the United college, is on the 
northern side of the town, between North-street and 
the Scores; St Mary's, or the New college, directly 
opposite to it, on the south side of South-street. 
The buildings belonging formerly to the third 
college, or St Leonard's, are towards the east 
near the ruins of the monastery. On the site of 
the Blackfriars monastery a splendid range of build- 
ings has been erected for the Madras college, to be 
afterwards noticed. The population of the city, in 
1801, was 3,263; in 1831, 4,462. St Andrews" was 
created a royal borough in 1140; and a city or arch- 
bishop's see in 1471. As a royal borough, it is now 
classed with Cupar, Easter and Wester Anstruther, 
Crail, Kilrenny, and Pittenweem, in returning one 
member. The parliamentary constituency, in 1837, 
was 250; the municipal, 180. The total parliament- 
ary constituency of the St Andrews district of burghs, 
in 1837, was 707- The first member elected under 
the Reform act was Andrew Johnston, Esq. of Renny- 
hill, who continued to represent the burghs till 1837, 
when Edward Ellice, Esq., a well-known reformer, 
was elected by 290 votes ; his opponent, T. Macgill, 
Esq., polling 261 votes. The city of St Andrews 
is governed by a provost, dean of guild, four bailies, 
and 23 councillors. The revenue of the borough, in 
1832, was £1,030, of which £384 arose from rents, 
and £210 from feu-duties. The expenditure, in the 
same year, was £1,021. The amount of debt then 
due by the town was £4,662. In 1837-8, the re- 
venue was £1,466. The magistrates and council 
have the patronage of the second charge in St An- 

drews parish-church ; they were also patrons of the 
town-schools, but have transferred this right to Bell's 
trustees. The number of burgesses, in 1832, was 
213, of whom 25 were non-resident. In 1832, there 
were 313 houses of £10 and upwards rental in the 
burgh. Assessed taxes £824. St Andrews has no 
manufactures worth notice with the exception of that 
of golf-balls. The bank of Scotland has a branch 
here. There is a fair for lintseed and general busi- 
ness held here on the 2d Thursday in April ; and 
for cattle and hiring on the 1st of August, and 30th 
of November; all O. S. 

St Andrews was in the meridian of its glory in 
the 15th and beginning of the 16th centuries. Mer- 
chant-vessels were then accustomed to resort to it, 
not only from the opposite ports of Holland, Flan- 
ders, and of France, but from all the other trading- 
kingdoms of Europe. At the great annual fair, 
called the Senzie market — which was* held with- 
in the priory in the month of April — no fewer than 
from 200 to 300 vessels were generally in the port. In 
1656, Tucker describes this town as "a pretty neat 
thing, which hath formerly been bigger, and, although 
sufficiently humbled in the time of the intestine 
troubles, continues still proud in the ruines of her 
former magnificence, and in being yett a seate for 
the muses." At this period only one vessel of 20 
tons burden belonged to the port ; and at present it 
possesses only two small vessels. It appears by 
the tax-roll of the royal burghs, that in 1556 the 
land-tax of St Andrews amounted to £410; but in 
1695 only to £72. In 1805, it was fixed at £27 6s., 
at which it still remains. After the Reformation, 
this city fell gradually into decay ; and the descrip- 
tion given of it by Dr Johnson — in 1773, at the 
period perhaps of its greatest depression — is still, we 
are sorry to say, but too applicable, although of late 
years a considerable number of new and elegant houses 
have been erected. " The city of St Andrews," says 
the learned doctor, " when it had lost its archiepis- 
copal pre-eminence, gradually decayed : one of its 
streets is now lost, and in those that remain, there is 
the silence and solitude of inactive indigence and 
gloomy depopulation." A recent learned and noble 
traveller, however, assures us that "no one can pre- 
tend to have seen Scotland, in the sense in which 
the expression is commonly used by travellers, who 
has not visited St Andrews. Yet few, of the my- 
riads of tourists who flock to that country, have 
enjoyed this gratification. The picturesque situa- 
tion of the city; the extent, diversity, and grandeur 
of the remains of its ancient secular and ecclesiasti- 
cal establishments; the importance of the events 
which they attest; the celebrity which it has de- 
rived from the records of historians, and the descrip- 
tions of topographical writers, in vain allure them 
from the more beaten tracks. So rarely are they 
seen within the deserted streets of St Andrews, that 
no coach runs directly to it; and the only public 
accommodation provided for them on their arrival, 
is a miserable little inn, or rather pot-house. [This 
was written, be it remembered, in 1829.] This 
want of curiosity or of good taste is easily explained, 
— St Andrews affords no thoroughfare: its inhabi- 
tants do not attract strangers by their industry, 
wealth, or gaiety : and the monuments of its former 
greatness, from which it derives its importance, have 
not borrowed adventitious and imaginary interest 
from the illusions of genius. Whilst a tale of gra- 
mary, or love, will draw thousands to Melrose or 
Loch Katrine, few are willing to read the history of 
Popish ascendency, or Protestant reformation, amidst 
the ruins of St Andrews. Yet what expectation 
can be more unfounded, than that of realizing more 
completely a fictitious transaction, by repairing to 



the supposed scene of its occurrence? A visit, even 
by moonlight, to Melrose, instead of bringing more 
fully before us the vision which the very mention 
of this storied pile suggests to the fancy, dissolves 
it at once, by subjecting it to the touchstone of 
truth ; while the scene of real events, whether do- 
mestic, heroic, or sacred, awakens all the emotions 
which belong to it. ' That man is little to be en- 
vied whose patriotism would not gain force on the 
plain of Marathon, or whose piety would not grow 
warmer amid the ruins of Iona."'* — [See Lord Teign- 
mouth's Sketches, Vol. II. pp. 130, 131.] 

The original name of this city was Mucross, i. e. 
' the Promontory of boars ;' from mvc, a sow or boar, 
and ross, a point, promontory, or peninsula. ■(• But 
St Regulus, or St Rule, a monk of Patras, a city in 
Achaia, where the bones of St Andrew were kept, 
having been warned in a vision to take some of these 
precious relics, and carry them with him to a distant 
region in the west, obeyed the command, and about the 
year 365 landed in this neighbourhood, and having 
been successful in converting the Picts, Hengustus, 
or Hungus, the king of the country, changed the 
name of Mucross into that of Kilrymont, i. e. 
Cella regis in monte, or ' the Chapel of the King 
on the Mount ;' having given to Regulus and his 
companions a piece of ground adjoining the harbour, 
on which he also erected a chapel and tower in hon- 
our of the monk, and bearing his name. The exem- 
plary virtues of Regulus and his companions — legen- 
dary history goes on to say — drew a great resort of 
people to his chapel ; and the name of the city was 
soon changed from Kilrymont to Kilrule, i. e. 'the 
Cell or Church of Regulus,' which name is still re- 
tained in Gaelic. Dr Jamieson thinks it highly pro- 
bable that such a gift was made by Hungus. " For," 
says he, "it appears indisputable, that, about the 
year 825, he founded a church at Kilrymont ; which 
henceforth received the name of the apostle to whom 
it was dedicated. Sibbald views this gift of the 
Pictish king as meant for the benefit of the Culdees. 
But we have more direct evidence. For, as Mar- 
tine speaks of ' Baronia Caledaiorum infra Cursum 
Apri,' or ' the Barony of the Culdees below the 
Boar's raik,' the extracts bear, that this was given 
by King Hungus to St Rule. Yet we learn, from 
the same source of information, that this tract was 
afterwards taken from the Culdees ; and given, first 
to the bishop, and then to the prior and canons re- 
gular of St Andrews : ' so that,' as Sir James Dal- 
rymple observes, ' this place appeareth to have been 
one of the ancient seats of the Culdees.' In the 
tenth century, such was their celebrity at St An- 
drews, that King Constantine III. took up his resi- 

* His lordship seems here labouring a point to little purpose. 
No one will feel disposed to deny that St Andrews is a most 
interesting and venerable locality, or envy the man who can 
find little pleasure in musing on its past glories and magnifi- 
cence, — the story of centuries dead and gone, — though there 
may be little in its external scenery, with the exception of its 
crumbling ruins, to take a strong hold of the imagination or 
the feelings. But why attempt to decry the charms of other 
Bcenery, founded as well on poetical associations as on the fine 
features of Nature,— scenes redolent not merely of grandeur 
and beauty, but — thanks to our unmatched minstrel — of deep 
tliought and rich imagination ? It seems but an ungrateful re- 
turn to one who has, in so many instances, rendered every 
portion of a glorious landscape doubly glorious and eloquent, — 
who has added to the highest poetry of the material world, a 
something higher still, in 

11 the gleam, 
The light that never dies on sea or land," 

to insinuate that with respect to the scenery of his matchless 
poems and romances the real truth and the ideal do not easily 
blend together in our conceptions. 

t The village of Boarhills, in what was originally called the 
Boarchasc, a tract of country stretching from b'ifeness to the 
neighbourhood of St Andrews, retains the original name of the 
district, as translated into the dialect of later inhabitants; and 
the arniB of the city are a boar leaning against a tree. 

dence among them, and A. 943, died a member of 
their society ; or, as Wyntown says, abbot of their 
monastery : 

Nyne hundyr wyntyr and audit yhere, 
Quhen gayne all Donaldis dayis were, 
Heddis sowne cald Constantine 
Kyng wes thretty yhere : and syne 
Kyng he sessyd for to be, 
And in Sanct Andrewys a Kylde. 
And there he lyvyd yheris fyve, 
And Abbot mad, endyd his lyve. 

Cronykti, B. vi. c. x. 

It is also believed that an Irish king attached him- 
self to this religious body. For we learn from the 
Ulster Annals, that A. 1033, Hugh Mac Flavertai 
O'Nell, king of Ailech, and heir of Ireland, ' post 
penitentiam mort. in St Andrewes eccl.' " [History of 
the Culdees, p. 148.] The walls of St Rule's chapel, 
and a tower, still remain : though these are not pro- 
bably the relics of the original building. The tower 
is a square of 20 feet on the side, and about 108 feet 
high, without any spire ; the outside, from top to bot- 
tom, is of thin ashler work ; the arches of the doors 
and windows are semicircular. The tower was cover- 
ed with a flat roof and parapet, at the expense of the 
Exchequer, towards the end of last century ; and a 
turnpike stair reared within leading to the top, from 
which there is a fine prospect. The name, Kilrule, 
continued in use till the 9th century, when the Picts 
were finally vanquished by the Scots, who changed 
the name to St Andrews. 

The cathedral of St Andrews is supposed to have 
been founded in the year 1159; but a period of 160 
years elapsed before its completion, in 1318. It was 
demolished in June, 1559, by a mob, inflamed by a 
sermon of John Knox's, wherein " he did intreet 
(treat of) theejectioune of the byers and the sellers 
furthe of the temple of Jerusalem, as it is written in 
the evangelists Matthew and Johne; and so applied 
the corruptioune that was then to the con uptioune in 
the papistrie; and Christ's fact to the devote (duty) ot 
thoisto quhomeGodgiveth the power and zeill there- 
to, that as weill the magistrates, the proveist and 
baillies, as the commonalty, did agree to remove all 
monuments of idolatry : quhilk also they did with ex- 
peditioune." Such indeed was their expedition, that 
this noble edifice, the labour of ages, was demolished 
in a single day. % " While entire, the cathedral church," 
says Mr Grierson, " had five pinnacles or towers, and 
a great steeple. Of the towers, two stood on the 
west gable, two on the east, and one on the south 
end of the transept or cross-church. Two of these 
towers, with the great steeple over the centre of the 
church, have long since disappeared. Three of the 
towers yet remain, the two on the east gable, which 
is still entire, and one of those on the west. The 
other, it is said, fell about two hundred years ago, 
immediately after a crowd of people had passed from 
under it in returning from an interment. Large 
fragments of it still remain, which show the goodness 
of the cement with which the stones have been 
joined together. The towers are each 100 feet 
high from the ground to the summit, and they rose 
considerably above the roof of the church. The 
two eastern ones are joined by an arch or pend, 

$ Tennant, the author of ' Anster Fair,' in a clever though 
less-pleasing and less-successful poem, entitled 'Papistry 
Storm 'd, 1 [lidin. 1827, 12mo.,] has sung in quaintest dialect, and 
with all the facetious strength, fluency, and vivacity, which he 
attributes to the vernacular idiom of Scotland: 
" the steir, etrabush, and strife, 
Whan, bickerin' frae the towns o' Fife, 
Great bangs of bodies, thick aud rife, 

Gaed to Sanct Androis town, 
And, wi' John Calvin i' their heads, 
And hammers i' their hands and spades, 
Enrag'd at idols, ma-s, and beads, 
Dang the Cathedral down. 



forming the great east light of the church, till they 
rise above the height of the roof; and it is evident 
that the western ones have been in the same state 
when entire. From each of these towers, to within 
the church, opened three several doors into so many 
galleries along the walls ; which galleries were sup- 
ported by pillars, 16 in number on each side, and at 
the distance of 16 feet from the wall. All that now 
remains of this once magnificent pile, is the eastern 
jable entire, as has been said, half of the western, 
the south side-wall from the western gable till it 
join the transept, a length of 200 feet, and the west 
wall of the transept itself on the south side of the 
church. The rest is entirely gone, ' every man,' as 
Dr Johnson expresses it, ' ha\ing carried aWay the 
stones who imagined he had need of them.' From 
the length of time which elapsed during its erection, 
and the varying tastes of the ages in which it was 
built, we might be led to conclude beforehand that 
there would be found in it different styles of archi- 
tecture, and the conjecture is confirmed by the ap- 
pearance of what remains. For on the east gable 
there is to be seen the Gothic mixed \\ ith the Saxon ; 
and in the part of the south side-wall which still 
subsists, we have ten windows, six of which, name- 
ly, those toward the west, are Gothic, and the other 
four Saxon. The Barons of exchequer, in 1826, 
caused the interior of the cathedral to be cleared 
out, and various repairs to lie executed with the view 
of preserving this venerable relic of long-past cen- 
turies, which 

" But for that care, ere this had past away." 

The Crown lands are now the property of the uni- 
versity, having been very recently purchased by that 
body from the Crown for .£2,600, with the view of 
forming a botanical garden and observatory, and pre- 
serving the venerable ruins from further dilapidation. 
In the vicinity of the cathedral stood the priory, or 
Augustine monastery, founded by Bishop Robert 
in 1144. John Hepburn, prior of St Andrews, about 
the year 1516, surrounded the monastery on the 
north, east, and south sides with a magnificent wall, 
which is still pretty entire, and is nearly half-a-mile 
Jn extent. It is about 22 feet high, and 4 feet thick ; 
and incloses a space of about 18 acres. But of all 
the various buildings which once occupied this sacred 
inclosure, only a Jew vestiges now remain. Near 
the present grammar-school stood a monastery, 
which Grose, in his Antiquities, assigns to the Do- 
minicans ; but Keith informs us that it was a con- 
vent of Observantines. A Dominican convent, we 
know, was founded in St Andrews by Bishop Wishart 
in 1274, and an Observantine estaolishment by Bi- 
shop Kennedy, 150 years later. " The only part 
which now remains of the buildings of the convent 
beside the grammar-school," says Mr Grierson, writ- 
ing in 1807, "is a fragment, with an arched roof in 
the Gothic style, extremely elegant in appearance, 
and supposed to have been the chapel. It strikes 
one as decidedly the most beautiful specimen of Go- 
thic architecture now to be seen at St Andrews." 
This fragment is now enclosed within the grounds of 
Madras college, and its preservation will, we doubt 
not, be an object of solicitude to the trustees of that 
noble institution. Besides St Rule's, and the cathe- 
dral, Martine, in his ' Reliquae Divi Andrea?,' written 
in 1685, mentions, as having been in some sort dis- 
cernible in his time, fourteen different buildings : 
among which were the prior's house, commonly called 
the Old inn, which stood to the south-east of the 
cathedral ; the cloisters, which lay west from the 
prior's house, separated from it only by the dormitory. 
In this quadrangle was held the great fair called the 
Senzie market, which began in the 2d week after 

Easter, and continued for 15 days. The refectory 
or dining-room, was in length 108 feet, and in breadth 
28. It is now a garden ; in Martine's time it was 
a bowling-green. Fordun relates, that Edward I., 
in 1304, stripped all the lead off this building to sup- 
ply his battering-machines in a projected siege of 
Stirling. The New inn, the latest built of all the 
edifices in the monastery before the Reformation, is 
said to have been erected on the following occasion. 
James V. having married the Princess Magdalene, 
the only and lovely daughter of Francis I. of France, 
in 1537, the young queen, being of a delicate constitu- 
tion, was advised by her physicians to reside here for 
the benefit of her health. The New inn was, in con- 
sequence, built for the purpose of accommodating her 
majesty; and was erected, we are told, with such 
rapidity, that it was begun and finished in a single 
month! The queen, however, never enjoyed it, for 
she died at Holyroodhouse, on the 7th of July, six 
weeks after her arrival in Scotland. The New inn 
was the residence of the archbishops after the annexa- 
tion of the priory to the archbishopric in 1635. — The 
Kirkheugh, or St Mary's church, no longer exists. 
Martine says, that in his time the manse of the pro- 
vost of Kirkheugh was still standing, "on a little 
height above the shore of St Andrews, now in no 
good repair ;" and that " a little north from it were 
to be seen the ruins of old buildings, which were the 
chapel itself." Upon this his editor, in the year 1797, 
has the following note : " Very little now remains of 
these buildings, viz., a single gable with a door in it. 
But whether these are the ruins of the manse or of 
other houses cannot now be known." 

The castle of St Andrews was founded towards 
the conclusion of the 12th century, by Roger, bishop 
of the diocese, and son of Robert, third earl of 
Leicester. It stood upon a point of land projecting 
towards the sea, on the north side of the town, about 
250 yards to the north-west of the cathedral. It 
was enlarged and repaired betwixt the years 1318 
and 1328. In 1336, Edward III. placed a garrison 
in it to command the town and neighbouring country. 
On his return into England, however, a few months 
after, the regent, Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell, in 
conjunction with the earls of March and Fife, besieg- 
ed this stronghold, reduced it in the space of three 
weeks, and entirely demolished it a short time after. 
Bishop Trail repaired the castle towards the end of 
the 14th century, and died in it in 1401. James III. 
was born in the castle, as appears by the golden char- 
ter of the see granted to Bishop Kennedy; and it 
continued to be the episcopal palace till the murder 
of Beaton in 1545. Detached from the town, and 
bounded on two sides by the sea, the ruins of the 
castle now serve as a useful land-mark to mariners. 
The sea washes the rock on which it is built on the 
north and east sides, and has in some places under- 
mined its walls, a considerable part of which fell in 
consequence of this in December 1801. Martine says, 
that in his time there were people living in St An- 
drews who remembered to have seen bowls played 
on the flat ground to the east and north of the castle ; 
the ocean, therefore, must have made great encroach- 
ments on this part of the coast. It has recently 
swept away the curious cave known as Lady Buch- 
an's cave, on the shore between the harbour and the 
castle. Every winter huge masses of the promon 
tory are broken down and carried away by the tide. 

The University of St. Andrews is the oldest in 
Scotland, having been founded in 1411 by Henry 
Wardlaw, bishop of the diocese, who obtained the 
sanction of papal coulirmation from Benedict XIII., 
in 1413. The success of the original institution led 
to the foundation of St. Salvator's college, about the 
year 1455, by James Kennedy, Bishop of St- An- 



drews ; St Leonard's college, founded by Prior Hep- 
burn, 1512 ; and St Mary's, founded by Archbishop 
Beaton, in 1537. In each of these colleges were 
lecturers in theology, as well as in philosophy, lan- 
guages, &c. In the reign of James VI. 1579, under 
the direction of George Buchanan, these establish- 
ments were new modelled, and St Mary's college 
appropriated to the exclusive study of theology; it 
is therefore distinguished by the name of the Divinity 
college, or the New college. In 1621, an act was 
passed re-establishing, in all their articles, the first 
foundations of the colleges, but still assigning to St 
Mary's the department of theology. In 1747, on a 
petition from the masters of St Salvator's and St 
Leonard's, these two colleges were united into one 
society, under the designation of the United college. 
" The statute ordained, among other things less wor- 
thy special notice, that the United college shall consist 
of one principal, one professor of Greek ; three pro- 
fessors of philosophy ; whereof one is to be professor 
of logic, rhetoric, and metaphysics, another to be 
professor of ethics and pneumatics, and the third to 
be professor of natural and experimental philosophy; 
one professor of humanity ; one professor of civil 
history, in place of the suppressed humanity pro- 
fessorship of St Salvator's college; one professor of 
mathematics, and a professor of medicine ; 16 bur- 
sars on the original foundations ; together with such 
as have been since or may hereafter be added, and 
the necessary servants : that the whole funds already 
or to be appropriated for the payment of he salaries 
of the principal and professors (all specially fixed by 
the act), shall be joined into one common stock, and 
be levied and received for their use, by such factor 
or steward as they shall from time to time appoint: 
that the patronage of the principalship and of the 
professorship of mathematics shall belong to the 
Crown ; of the professorship of civil history to the 
Earl of Cassillis ; of the professorship of humanity 
to Scott of Scotstarvet; of the professorship of 
medicine to the university, to be exercised as 
formerly ; of the remanent professorships to the 
principal and professors of the United college, to 
be determined by comparative trial, in such form 
and manner as was usually observed in former times ; 
of the bursaries to the same body, to be bestowed as 
before the Union ; the whole being a well-timed and 
judicious piece of legislation, which by raising the 
condition of the collegiate body, secured to it in some 
degree superior qualifications, and which, though be- 
stowing, after all, only a very moderate endowment 
on the chairs of the seminary, has in fact filled them, 
since the date of it, with talents and attainments of 
the most respectable order, and the highest useful- 
ness." The university commissioners, whose report 
we are now quoting, add : " It is pleasant to be en- 
abled to state, that the members of the Senatus Aca- 
demicus themselves have, on every occasion on which 
they could act with effect, manifested the utmost 
zeal in the cause of literature and science, and for 
the efficency and fame of their university. In 1811, 
their medical chair, which it would appear had never 
become effective, engaged their attention ; and in 
consequence of authority vested in them by its 
munificent founder, "the Duke of Chandos, to form 
such regulations and statutes as might tend to the 
promotion of its object, they resolved that it should 
be a chair for instruction in the principles of medi- 
cine, anatomy, and chemistry, and that the holder of 
it should be an efficient professor, teaching two very 
important branches of medical science, chemistry and 
chemical pharmacy. They made at the same time 
certain arrangements for creating a fund, to meet the 
expense of a chemical apparatus and class experi- 
ments-; and ever since that time, the prescribed 

branches have been taught every session with great 
ability, and to a respectable class. About 1818--19, 
a class for political economy was opened by the pro- 
fessor of moral philosophy, and the lectures on the 
subject have been so attended of late, as to show 
that the science is growing at St Andrews, as else- 
where, into estimation and request. In the session 
of 1825-6, the United college originated a lecture- 
ship for natural history, and to promote the perma- 
nency and success of the measure, they voted 25 
guineas from their revenue, as an annual salary to 
the lecturer. Some bequests of specimens have 
given a beginning to a museum, and the subjects of 
the science, having excited great interest among the 
students, there is a fair prospect that the lectureship 
will, in the hands of able and zealous lecturers, be- 
come a popular and useful institution, and thus exalt 
the reputation, and augment the attendance of the 
seminary to which it belongs." The revenue of the 
university, as distinct from the two colleges, does not 
exceed £300, and is chiefly appropriated to the support 
of the university library. The income of the United 
college, in 1774, was £1,727 ; in 1823, £3,020. The 
salary of the principal, in 1824, was £342 ; of each 
of the four foundation-professors, £254 ; of each of 
the professors of humanity, civil history, and medi- 
cine, £140; of mathematics £245. The number of 
bursaries belonging to the United college is 55. of 
which 7 are between £20 and £25 each, being the 
highest in value. The annual amount of grants from 
the Crown is £297. The United college holds the 
patronage of Denino, Kemback, Kilmeny, and Cults, 
and alternately with another patron, Forte viot. 
The number of students attending the United col- 
lege averages about 200. The buildings of St Sal- 
vator's college form a magnificent square, ornament- 
ed by a handsome spire 156 feet high. Through 
a portal directly under this spire we enter a quad- 
rangular court, 230 feet long, and 180 broad, de- 
corated by piazzas on the opposite side. On the 
right, as we enter, stands the chapel, a handsome 
edifice, with a Gothic front. In the chapel is an 
elegant tomb, erected by Bishop Kennedy, the 
founder, for himself. " It is a piece of exquisite 
Gothic workmanship ; and though much injured by 
time and accidents, is still sufficiently entire to show 
the fine taste of the designer. It stands on the north 
side of the church, opposite to where the altar for- 
merly stood, and where the pulpit now stands. An 
epitaph is easily discernible upon it, consisting of two 
lines, but so much defaced as to be altogether illegi- 
ble. The top was ornamented by a representation 
of our Saviour, with angels around, and the instru- 
ments of the passion. The bishop died in 1466, and 
was embalmed with spices and buried in this tomb. 
Within it, and according to tradition about the year 
1683, were discovered six magnificent maces, which 
had been concealed there in troublesome times. 
Three of these maces are kept in this college, and 
shown as curiosities to strangers ; and one was pre- 
sented to each of the other three Scottish universi- 
ties, Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. One of 
the maces is very superior in elegance and value to 
the rest, and is the original, of which the others are 
only copies. It is of beautiful Gothic workmanship. 
The bishop seems to have copied it in the architec- 
ture of his tomb." The roof of the church, which 
was of beautiful Gothic architecture, having become 
apparently insufficient, it was judged necessary to 
pull it down, and to substitute another in its place. 
In doing this, the architect unfortunately suffered 
the beautiful tomb of Kennedy to be greatly injured 
and defaced. 

St Leonard's college obtained its name from its 
vicinity to St Leonard's church. " It appears " 



Bays a modern author, " from the foundation-charter, 
that there had been an hospital in the same place for 
the reception and entertainment of pilgrims of differ- 
ent nations, who crowded to St Andrews to pay 
their devotions to the arm of St Andrew which 
wrought a great many miracles. At length, how- 
ever, the saint's arm being tired with such laborious 
<ort of work, or thinking he had done enough, the 
m'racles and the conflux of pilgrims ceased, and the 
lospital was deserted. The prior and convent, who 
lad been the founders and were the patrons of the 
hospital, then filled it with old women ; but these 
old women produced little or no fruit of devotion, 
and were turned out. The prior and convent, having 
•epaired the church and hospital of St Leonard, next 
•esolved to convert them into a college, to consist of 
i master or principal, four chaplains, two of whom 
,vere to be regents, and twenty scholars, who were 
first to be taught the languages and then the liberal 
arts and sciences ; six of them, who were thought 
most fit, were also to apply, with great ardour and 
vehement reading, — * continuo studio et lectura, 
vehementi opera,' — to the study of theology under 
the principal. Such of these scholars as were found 
fittest for it, were also to be taught music, both plain 
song and descant. The foundation-charter to this 
purpose, was executed by the archbishop, the prior, 
and chapter, at St Andrews, August 20, 1512. By 
another charter, the prior and chapter endowed this 
college with all the houses, lands, and revenues 
which had belonged to St Leonard's hospital." Both 
these charters received the royal confirmation in the 
year On the union of this college with St Salvator's, 
the buildings of it were sold and converted into dwell- 
ing-houses, to which purpose such of them as now 
remain are still applied. It stood on the south-east 
side of the town, adjoining to the monastery. The 
ruins of the church of St Leonard are accounted a 
fine specimen of Gothic architecture. Into this 
church, it seems, Dr Johnson could obtain no ad- 
mission. He was always, he says, prevented by some 
civil excuse or other ; and he loudly complains of 
its having been applied to the profane purpose of a 
green-house. It is now entirely unroofed. A little 
way to the east of it, and on the right, as we proceed 
from the principal gate of the abbey to the shore, 
stands an aged sycamore, which, the same traveller 
informs us, was the only tree he had been able to 
discover in the county "older than himself." It 
is now commonly known by the name of Dr John- 
son's Tree. 

St Mary's college was originally projected by 
Archbishop James Beaton, uncle and immediate 
predecessor to the famous cardinal of that name. 
We are informed, that in the year 1537, " he 
augmented the seminary called the Pedagogy, by a 
variety of endowments, and afterwards converted it 
into St Mary's college : that he had determined to 
pull down the buildings of the above-mentioned 
seminary, which were become old and infirm, and in- 
convenient for the studies of the youth, and to erect 
from the foundation others in a more magnificent 
style, but was prevented by death. He built, how- 
ever," says our authority, " several parts, and com- 
pleted some that had been begun by others. His 
successor and nephew, the cardinal, proposed to fol- 
low out his uncle's plans, and had made some pro- 
gress in the undertaking when he was assassinated 
in the castle. Having demolished a set of old build- 
ings, he laid the foundation of what was intended to 
be a handsome church, within the college, but this 
was never finished." In 1553, Archbishop Hamilton 
gave a new establishment to this college, according 
to which it was to consist of 36 persons : viz., a pre- 
fect, a licentiate, a bachelor, a canonist, 8 students 

of theology, 3 professors of philosophy, 2 of rhetoric 
and grammar, 16 philosophy students, a provisor, a. 
janitor, and a cook. The income of this college on 
an average of 7 years preceding 1826, was ,£1,076. 
The principal has a salary of ±"238; the professor of 
divinity, of .£231; the church-history professor, 
.£286; and the Hebrew professor, .£211. By the 
charters of foundation, the right of patronage of the 
parishes of Tynningham, Tannadice, Inehbroyack or 
Craig, Pert and Laurencekirk, was vested in St 
Mary's college. Pert is now united to Logie, and 
the crown and college present to that united parish 
alternately. The patronage of Tynningham was 
sold by the college to the Earl of Haddington, in the 
year 1760, but the college is still in possession of the 
other patronages. In the year 1S03, the college ob- 
tained the right of patronage to the church of 
Tweedsmuir ; and it would appear from the evidence, 
that it was granted to the college by the late Mr 
Scott, of Dunninaid. There are 17 bursaries, the 
total annual income of which averages jE199. The 
average number of students is about 80. The build- 
ings of this college stand on the south side of South- 
street, forming two sides of a quadrangle. On the 
west are the teaching and dining-halls, both upon the 
first floor; and immediately below is the prayer halL 
in which the students used to assemble twice every 
day, viz., at nine in the morning, and at eight at 
night, for public prayers. The evening-service was 
abolished some years ago. The north side of the 
quadrangle is formed by the principal's house, and 
other buildings formerly laid out in lodging-rooms 
for students, with the porter's house over the gate- 
way. Contiguous, towards the east, is the Univer- 
sity library, containing 35,000 volumes, and forming 
in continuation with these buildings, part of the south 
side of South-street. 

The Madras college was founded by the Rev. Dr 
Andrew Bell, one of the prebendaries of Westmin- 
ster, and the founder of the Madras system of tuition, 
who died at Cheltenham, in January, 1832. Dr Bell 
was a native of St Andrews, and, among other 
splendid bequests for the purposes of education in 
Scotland, lett a sum of £50,000 in trust, for the pur- 
pose of founding a seminary within the city of St 
Andrews, with which the English and grammar- 
schools are now incorporated. The buildings are in 
the Elizabethan style, and form a handsome quad- 
rangle, with a court within. In May, 1836, the 
number of pupils attending the Madras college was 
798. The branches taught are English, Greek, and 
Latin, arithmetic, mathematics, geography, writing, 
drawing, French, German, and Italian, and church- 
music. The trustees are the provost of the city, 
the two parish-ministers, and the sheriff-depute of 
Fife. The lord-lieutenant of Fife, the lord-justice- 
clerk of Scotland, and the epis opal bishop of Edin- 
burgh, are patrons and visitors of the college. 

St Andrews is a place of great antiquity, and has 
been the scene of some of the most memorable events 
recorded in Scottish history. We have already no- 
ticed several of the most memorable facts in its early 
annals; and will now supply a few additional his- 
torical notices to complete our sketch of the civil 
and the ecclesiastical history of this city. In 1298, 
Edward I., after defeating Wallace at Falkirk, sent a 
division of his army across the Forth to punish the 
men of Fife for the aid they had given Wallace. 
They found St Andrews deserted of its inhabitants, 
and " wasted it full plaine." In March 1309, Robert 
Bruce convened his first parliament here, who re- 
cognised his title to the crown, by a solemn declara- 
tion. In the 15th and 16th centuries the sanguinary 
temper of its ecclesiastics was often tearfully dis- 
played. In 1407, John Resby, an Englishman, war 



burnt alive in this "town of monks and bones," 
for disseminating the doctrines of Wickliffe ; and 
about twenty-four years afterwards, Paul Craw, a 
Bohemian, suffered the same fate, for propagating 
the tenets of Jerome and Huss. On March 1st, 
1527, Patrick Hamilton, abbot of Feme in Ross- 
shire, a young man of great accomplishments, and re- 
lated to some powerful families, being the son of 
Sir 'Patrick Hamilton of Kincavil, and Catherine, 
daughter of the Duke of Albany, and a nephew of the 
Earl of Arran, was burnt before the gate of St Sal- 
vator's college. Not many months after, a man of 
the name of Forrest was led to the stake for asserting 
that Hamilton died amartyr. On the 28th of March, 
1545, the sainted Wishart was burnt before the castle, 
then the archiepiscopal palace of the ferocious Cardi- 
nal Beaton, under circumstances of peculiar barbarity. 
The front of the great tower was hung, as for a festi- 
val, with rich tapestry ; and cushions of velvet were 
laid in the windows for the cardinal and prelates to 
repose on, while they feasted their eyes and glutted 
their fury with this most inhuman spectacle. The 
cardinal was so infuriated against the noble confessor 
that he forbade, by proclamation, the inhabitants of 
St Andrews to pray for him, under pain of the severest 
ecclesiastical censures ; and, in his haste to get his 
victim put out of the way, the civil power was not 
consulted at the trial. But the avenger of blood was 
nigh at hand. By his unbounded ambition, relentless 
cruelty, and insupportable arrogance, Beaton had 
raised up against himself a host of enemies, who had 
even before Wishart 's arrest and execution determin- 
ed on his destruction. A conspiracy was formed 
against his life, at the head of which was Norman 
Lesley, Master of Rothes, his uncle John Lesley, 
and Khkaldy of Grange. With fourteen associates, 
they assembled in the church-yard, on Saturday the 
29th of May 1545, at 3 o'clock in the morning; and 
having gained admittance into the castle — which was 
then repairing — by small parties at a time, they turn- 
ed the servants out, to the number of 150 ; and then 
proceeding to the cardinal's room, forced open the 
door, which their wretched victim had barricaded 
from the inside, and rushing upon him, stabbed him 
repeatedly with their daggers. But ■ Melville, a 
milder fanatic, who professed to murder, not from 
passion, but religious duty, reproved their violence : 
" This judgment of God," said he, "ought to be exe- 
cuted with gravity, although in secret ;" and present- 
ing the point of his sword to the bleeding prelate, 
he called on him to repent of his wicked courses, 
and especially of the death of the holy Wishart, to 
avenge whose innocent blood they were now sent 
by God. " Remember," said he, " that the mortal 
stroke I am now about to deal, is not the mercenary 
blow of a hired assassin, but the just vengeance 
which hath fallen on an obstinate and cruel enemy 
of Christ and the Holy Gospel." On his saying this, 
he repeatedly passed his sword through the body of 
his unresisting victim, who sunk down from the chair 
to which he had retreated, and instantly expired. The 
conspirators then brought the body to the very win- 
jow in which Beaion had a little ago sat with so much 
unfeeling pride to witness the burning of Wishart, 
and exposed it to tie view of the people with every 
mark of contempt and ignominy. Balfour says, that 
the cardinal's corpse, " after he had lyne salted in the 
bottom of the sea-tower within the castell, was some 
9 months thereafter taken from thence, and obscure- 
ly interred in the convent of the Black friars of St 
Andrews, in anno 1547." John Knox, after having, 
as he expresses himself, " written merrily" upon the 
subject, informs us, that "as his funeral could not 
be suddenly prepared, it was thought best to keep 
him from spoiling, to give him great salt enough, a 

cope of lead, and a corner in the sea-tower, (a place 
where many of God's children had been imprisoned 
before) to wait what exequies his brethren the 
bishops would prepare for him." Language such as 
this can hardly fail to inspire disgust ; but the follow- 
ing lines of Sir David Lindsay of the Mount, express, 
perhaps with tolerable accuracy, the sentiments with 
which the most judicious individuals amongst there- 
formers at that time regarded the cardinal's murder: 

' A9 for the cardinal, I grant, 
He was the man we well might want ; 

God will forgive it soon. 
Etit of a truth, the sooth to say. 
Although the hum be well away, 

The deed was foully done." 

The conspirators were shortly after joined by 120 
of their friends, and held out the castle for more 
than a year ; but at last capitulated to Leo Strozzi, 
prior of Capua, a knight of Rhodes, who entered the 
bay with a squadron of 16 galleons, and speedily 
effected a breach in the walls. In April, 1558, Wal- 
ter Mylne, priest of Lunan, near Montrose, an infirm 
old man, above 80 years of age, was burnt at St An- 
drews for the crime of heresy. So strongly was the 
resentment of the populace expressed on this occasion, 
that he was the last victim of popish cruelty in Scot- 
land. It was at St Andrews, in June 1583, that James 
VI. found means to make his escape from the state of 
captivity into which he had been brought at Ruthven, 
and detained for nearly a twelvemonth by the Earls of 
Mar, Gowrie, Glencairn, andothers. The king having 
got permission from these noblemen, who then attend 
ed him at Falkland, to pay a visit to his uncle the Earl 
of March, who resided in the monastery of St An- 
drews, went to view the works of the castle a short 
time after bis arrival. He entered the fortress ac- 
companied by the governor, to whom he had con- 
fided his intentions ; but was no sooner in than he 
commanded the gates to be shut, and admission re- 
fused to the party who had attended him from Falk- 
land. Having thus recovered his liberty, he was 
soon joined by the well-affected part of his nobility; 
and a proclamation was forthwith issued by him, 
" commanding all the lieges to remain quiet, and dis- 
charging any nobleman or gentleman from coming to 
court accompanied by more than the following num- 
ber of attendants : viz. fifteen for an earl, fifteen for 
a bishop, ten for. a lord, ten for an abbot or prior, 
and six for a baron, and these to come peaceably un- 
der the highest penalties." In 1609, St Andrews 
was the scene of a state-trial : that of Lord Balmeri- 
noch, secretary of state to James VI. His crime 
was the having surreptitiously procured the king's 
signature to a letter addressed to the pope ; and being 
found guilty by a jury of fifteen of his peers, he was 
sentenced to have his hands and feet cut off, and his 
lands and titles forfeited. The first part of the sen- 
tence was remitted by the intercession of the queen ; 
but he died a short time after, in his own house, of 
a broken heart. In 1617, James VI. having, from 
what he himself calls " a salmon-like instinct to see 
the place of his breeding," paid a visit to Scotland, 
and convened an assembly of the clergy, both minis - 
ters and bishops, at St Andrews. He addressed 
them in a speech of considerable length, in which he 
proposed the introduction of episcopacy, and up- 
braided them with what he called " having mutinous- 
ly assembled themselves, and formed a protestation 
to cross his just desires." James was the last mon- 
arch who ever honoured St Andrews with his pre- 
sence. During the troublesome times which follow- 
ed his death in 1625, while his son and grandsons 
successively filled the throne, and endeavoured to 
follow out his plans in the establishment of the epis- 
copal religion in Scotland, this city, as being the seat 



of the chief ecclesiastical power, was frequently in- 
volved in trouble. The murder of Archbishop Sharp, 
in the neighbourhood of St Andrews in 1679, will 
be found detailed in our article, Magus Moor. The 
history of the city of St Andrews since that period 
presents nothing sufficiently remarkable for notice 
in this brief chronicle. We shall now sketch the 
history of the see. 

Kenneth III. translated the metropolitan episcopal 
see of Scotland from Abernethy to St Andrews. 
Malcolm III. styled the bishop of St Andrews ' Epis- 
copus Maximus,' or Chief Bishop, and assigned to him 
the oversight of Fife, Lothian, Stirlingshire, the 
Merse, Angus, and the Mearns. He also conferred 
upon him the lordship of Monymusk. Alexander I. 
bestowed upon the see of St Andrews the famous 
track of land called the Cursus Apri, or Boar's chace, 
of which it is not now possible for us to assign the 
exact limits; but "so called," says Boece, "from a 
boar of uncommon size, which, after having made 
prodigious havoc of men and cattle, and having been 
frequently attacked by the huntsmen unsuccessfully, 
and to the imminent peril of their lives, was at last 
set upon by the whole country up in arms against 
him, and killed while endeavouring to make his 
escape across this track of ground." The historian 
farther adds, that there were extant in his time 
manifest proofs of the existence of this huge beast ; 
its two tusks, each sixteen inches long and four thick, 
being fixed with iron chains to the great altar of St 
Andrews. According to the best authorities, there 
were thirty-three successive prelates in St Andrews 
before the see was elevated to the dignity of an 
archbishopric, in 1471- Nevill, archbishop of York, 
having revived a claim of superiority over the Scot- 
tish clergy, which had already been productive of 
much ill-will betwixt the two countries, the pope, 
to silence the pretensions of York for ever, granted 
a bull erecting the bishopric of St Andrews into an 
archbishopric, and subjecting to it the other dioceses 
of the church of Scotland. The prelate, in whose 
favour this bull was obtained, was Patrick Graham, 
formerly bishop of Brechin, and brother, by the mo- 
ther's side, to the celebrated James Kennedy his 
immediate predecessor. Graham, along with the 
primacy, obtained the power of a legate from the 
pope, for the reformation of abuses, and correcting 
the vices of the clergy. But he does not appear to 
have been aware of the difficulties he had to encoun- 
ter here, for the clergy, with one consent, set them- 
selves in opposition to him, and had influence enough 
to destroy his credit even with the pope himself. 
They accused him to his holiness of schism, and 
other enormous crimes, and prevailed so completely 
as to get him degraded from his office. " The no- 
bility and courtiers also," says Spottiswood, " became 
his most violent opponents, insomuch that he was 
suspended by the king, excommunicated by the 
pope, expelled from his see, and, at the end of thir- 
teen years from the date of his election, died in a 
state of imprisonment in the castle of Lochleven." 
The dioceses subject to the archbishop of St An- 
drews, after the pJdvancement of the see of Glasgow 
to the same dignity, were the following nine : Dun- 
keld, Dumblane, Brechin, Aberdeen, Moray, Ross, 
Caithness, Orkney, and, after its erection in the 
reign of Charles I., Edinburgh. The province of 
the see of Glasgow included the three dioceses of 
Galloway, Argyle, and the Isles. The following is 
a list of the successive bishops and archbishops of 
St Andrews : 

Fergustus 721. 

Hadrianus, or Adrian, elected 
840, killed by the Danes 872. 
Kellach I. 

Malisius, or Malvesius I., 

in 970. 
Kellach II. died 996. 

Malisius II. died 1031. 

Alwinus, from 1031—1034. 

Maldwin, 1034— 1061. 

Tuthaldus, 1061—1065. 

Fothaldus, 1065—1077. 

Gregorius, bishop-elect. 




Turcot, died 1115. 

Eadmerus, elected in 1120. 

Robert, founder of the priorv, 
elected in 1122, died in 1159. 

Arnold, founder of the Cathe- 
dral, died in 1162. 

Richard, chaplain to Malcolm 
IV., died in 1177. 

John and H'jgh, a doable elec- 

Roger, who built the castle, 
died in 1202. 

William Malvoisine, chancel- 
lor of the kingdom, died 1233. 

David Bernham. 


Garaeline, chancellor. 

William Wishart, died 1279. 

William Fraser, chancellor. 

William Lamberton, died 1S2S. 

James Bene, died 1332. 

Vacancy of nine years. 

William Landal, died in 13S5. 

Stephen de Pay. 

Walter Trail, repaired the 
castle, died 1401. 

Thomas Stewart. 

Henry Wardlaw, founder of 

the university, consecrated 

in 1403. died 1440. 
James Kennedy, founder of 

St Salvator's college, died 

Patrick Graham, the first arch- 
bishop, died 1478. 
William Schives, died 1496. 
James Stuart, chancellor, died 

in 1503. 
Alexander Stuart, chancellor, 

killed at Flodden 1513. 
Andrew Foreman, died 1522. 
James Beaton, chancellor, died 

in 1539. 
David Beaton, cardinal and 

chancellor, assassinated in 

John Hamilton, hanged at 

Stirling in 1570. 
John Douglas, the first Pro- 
testant bishop, consecrated in 

1571, died 1576. 
Patrick Adamson, died 1591. 
Vacancy of fifteen years, 
George Gladstanes, died 1615. 
John Spottiswood, chancellor, 

the historian, died 1639. 
James Sharp, assassinated in 

Magus-rouir in 1679. 
Alexander Burnet, died in 

Arthur Ross, deprived of his 

office at the Revolution in 

1683, died in 1704. 

It appears that the bishops of St Andrews had 
the power of coining money. But "the tradition 
goes," says Martine, " that they could not coin above 
a groat-piece; but this," continues he, "may be 
allowed to be a mere conjecture, for the German 
bishops, who coin, are not so restricted and limited. 
For proof that sometimes this privilege has been in 
use, I have seen copper coins bearing the same mond, 
chapleted about and adorned with a cross on the 
top, just in all things like the mond set by Bishop 
Kennedy in sundry places of St Salvator's college, 
both in stone and timber, and the same way adorned, 
with a common St George's cross on the reverse. 
The circumscriptions are not legible. And some 
think that the magistrates of St Andrews, keeping 
in their charter-chest some of these pennies, have 
done it in honour of their Overlord, and for an in- 
stance and remembrance of his royal privilege, which 
no subject in Britain has beside." As the city of 
St Andrews lay wholly within the archbishop's re- 
gality, he was superior of all its property in land. 
He was ' Conservator privilegiorum Ecclesiee Scoti- 
canEe,' guardian of the privileges of the church of 
Scotland, and constant chancellor of the university 
ex officio ; but he was in many cases also promoted 
to the dignity of lord-high-chancellor of Scotland i 
and it was his privilege, in general, to officiate at the 
coronation of the kings. Godricus, bishop of this 
place, crowned King Edgar, son of Malcolm Can- 
more ; and Charles I. was crowned by Spottiswood 
in 1633. The archbishop was, by act of parliament, 
in the time of Charles II. constituted perpetual pre- 
sident of the general assembly of the church of Scot- 
land ; and he sat in parliament as a temporal lord in 
all the following capacities: "As Lord- Archbishop 
of St Andrews; Primate of the Kingdom; first of 
both states, Spiritual and Temporal; Lord of the 
Lordship and Priory of St Andrews ; Lord Keig 
and Monymusk; Lord Byrehills and Polduff; Lord 
Kirkliston, Lord Bishopshire, Lord Muckhartshire, 
Lord Scotscraig, Lord Stow, Lord Monymail, Lord 
Dairsie, Lord Angus, Lord Tyningham, and Lord 
Little Preston;" he also took precedency of all 
noblemen whatever in the kingdom. When the 
privy council, in 1561, passed the famous act enjoin- 
ing all beneficed persons to give in an exact account 
of the rental of their benefices, Hamilton, archbishop 
of St Andrews, gave in the following account of his : 










In money . . . £2,901 7 2 

Chald. Boll. 

Mf Grierson estimates this revenue at £4,784 pre- 
sent currency. "And if," he says, "we add to 
this sura the value of the priory, and other aliena- 
tions which had before this time taken place, we 
shall be led to think that the income of the pre- 
lates of St Andrews, when in their most flourish- 
ing condition, could not be much less in value than 
£10,000, that is, than that sum would have been 
in 1805. The first great alienation of the revenues 
of this see was the foundation of the priory in 
1120; the second, the erection of the hospital of 
Lochleven, or Scotland Well, in 1230; the third, 
the foundation and endowment of St Salvator's col- 
lege by Bishop Kennedy in 1455; the fourth, the 
disponing of Muckartshire by Schives to the Earl of 
Argyll, to engage that earl to assist him in his dis- 
pute with the bishop of Glasgow ; the fifth, the 
erection of St Mary's college by the archbishops 
Stuart and the two Beatons ; and the sixth, the act 
of annexation in 1587, by which this see, with all the 
other church-benefices in the kingdom, was an- 
nexed to the Crown, and the rents and revenues of 
it disponed to the Duke of Lennox by James VI., 
excepting only a small pittance, reserved as barely 
sufficient for the subsistence of Archbishop Adamson. 
It is true, this act of annexation was repealed in 
1606; but in the act repealing it, and restoring the 
revenues ot the see, there were a number of impor- 
tant reservations made which prevented it from at- 
taining its former riches. The erection of the 
bishopric of Edinburgh, in 1633, was another great 
loss; for all the lands and churches, south of the 
Forth, belonging to the archbishopric, were now dis- 
united from it, and conferred upon the new see. 
Yet the loss of these was in some measure compen- 
sated by the bounty of Charles I., who having, two 
years after, purchased the priory from the Duke of 
Lennox, to whom it had been gifted by James VI., 
disponed this benefice to the archbishopric in lieu of 
the loss it had sustained. Such were the most im- 
portant changes, losses, and revolutions, which this 
see, in the course of five centuries, from time to time 
underwent." The number of monks in the priory 
at the Reformation was, according to Martine, thirty- 
four, besides inferior servants ; and of these thirty- 
four, "fourteen," says he, "turned preachers, at 
certain kirks of the priory, and some continued about 
the monastery till their death." The priories of May, 
Pittenweem, Lochleven, and Monymusk — of all 
which monasteries the monks were also Augustini- 
nians — were dependent on the priory of St Andrews. 
The revenues of it in Martine's time, consisted, he 
tells us, in " silver, feu-duties, rentalled teind-bolls, 
tack teind-duties, capons, poultry, and small sums 
in the name of kain ; the houses and yards within 
the precincts of the monastery ; the teinds of the 480 
acres of land on the south side of the town, now 
called the Prior acres, formerly the convent's glebe ; 
and the privilege of having the teind sheaves led into 
the priory barn by the heritors and tenants them- 
selves. The yearly rent," he continues, " of the 
priory is at present as good as that of the archbishop- 
ric, if not better ; and within a few years, at the 
falling of some tacks, it will be much better." When 
the act of council, in 1561, passed for the assumption 
of the revenues of all the church-benefices, that a 
third part of their value might be applied to the 
maintenance of the ministers of religion, and the re- 
maining two-thirds to defray the expenses of the 

£2,237 18 1 













king's household, the rental of the priory of St An- 
drews was found to be as follows : 

In money 



Meal • . 


Beans and pease , 

The following parish churches belonged to the priory 
and paid tithes to it : viz., the Trinity church of St 
Andrews, now the town-church, Leuchars, Forgan, 
Cupar, Dairsie, Lathrisk, Kilgour, Scoonie, Kenno- 
way, Markinch, Eglesgreig, Fordun in the Mearns, 
Bourthie, Nigvie and Tarlane, Dull in Athole, Long- 
forgan, Rossie in Gowrie, Inchture, Fowlis, Port 
moak, Abercrombie, Linlithgow, Haddington, Bin- 
ning, and Preston. The vicarage was annexed to the 
archbishopric in 1606; but was assigned afterwards 
by the archbishop to the newly erected parish of Cam- 
eron, that parish having been detached from the too 
extensive parish of St Andrews, and having no legal 

maintenance belonging to it The provostry of 

Kirkheugh was a convent of seculars, governed by a 
prafectus, or provost, and unquestionably the most 
ancient religious establishment of any in this place. 
It is believed by some to have been founded by St 
Regulus himself, and to be the same with the insti- 
tution which went by the name of ' Ecclesia Sanctae 
Mariae de rupe,' or St Mary's church on the rock, 
and of which the chapel stood on a rock now covered 
by the sea at high water, and which still goes by the 
name ot the Lady-craig, situated near the extremity 
of the present pier. There was also a chapel, called 
' Ecclesia Sancta; Maria;,' on the hill above the har- 
bour — In June, 1841, her Majesty's Attorney-gene- 
ral, Sir John Campbell, Knt., on succeeding Lord 
Plunkett as Lord-chancellor of Ireland, was elevated 
to the dignity of a Baron of the United Kingdom, 
by the title of Baron Campbell of St. Andrews 

ST ANDREWS. See Deerness, Dundee, 
Dunfermline, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Greenock, 

ANGUS, the ancient name of Forfarshire: 
which see. At a very early period the name Angus was 
given to the district of country lying between the 
North Esk on the north, and the Tay and Isla on 
the south. It is thought by some antiquaries to have 
been so called from Angus, a brother of Kenneth 
II., on whom this district was bestowed by Kenneth 
after his conquest of the Picts. Others think that 
the hill of Angus, a little to the eastward of Aber- 
lemno church, was, in ancient times, a noted place 
of rendezvous on occasions of great public gatherings; 
and that the name was ultimately extended to the 
surrounding country. It seems more probable that 
the hill itself derived its name from the district. — 
The How or Hollow of Angus is a finely diversified 
valley in the northern part of Forfarshire, extending 
above 30 miles in length, from the western boundary 
of the parish of Kettins to the mouth of the North 
Esk ; its breadth varies from 4 to 6 miles. — The 
earldom of Angus now belongs in title to the Duke 
of Hamilton. It was in the line of Douglas previous 
to 1329 ; and it has been ascertained by Mr Riddell 
that it again came into the old line of Douglas by a 
natural son of William, first Earl of Douglas. — The 
synod of Angus and Mearns comprehends the pres- 
byteries of Meigle, Forfar, Dundee, Brechin, Ar- 
broath, and Fordoun. 

ANN'S (ST). See Glasgow. 

ANNAN, a parish in the district of Annandale, 
Dumfries-shire, on the northern shore of the Solway 
frith, along which it extends above 3 miles. It is 
about 8 miles in length, and from 1 to 4$ in breadth, 




containing 11,100 imperial acres; bounded on the 
north by Hoddam and Middlebie parishes ; on the 
east by Kirkpatrick-Fleming, and Dornock ; on the 
south by the frith of Solway ; and on the west by 
Cummertrees. The surface is comparatively level", 
■with a declination towards the south. Woodcock- 
air is the highest elevation. It is a conical shaped 
hill, clothed with wood, and rising to an altitude of 
320 feet above sea-level. The shores are flat and 
sandy. The soil is generally a rich clay. There are 
extensive tracts of heath-covered moorland towards 
the east of the town of Annan. The banks of the 
Annan, and the elevated parts of the parish, are or- 
namented with belts of planting. There is a salmon 
fishery at the mouth of the river. The turnpike 
roads from Dumfries to Carlisle, and from Annan to 
Edinburgh, intersect the parish. Population of the 
parish and town, in 1S01, 3,341 ; in 1831, 5,033. 
By a survey of the parish-minister in 1S35, the po- 
pulation was then estimated at 5,613, of whom 3,951 
belonged to the established church. Houses S08. 
Assessed property .£12,800. In 1836, a portion of 
this parish, comprehending the village of Bridekirk, 
and a population of 765 souls, was annexed to the 
new quoad sacra parish of Bridekirk : which see. 
Minister's stipend £279 2s. 4d., with a manse, and a 
glebe of the annual value of £30. Unappropriated 
teinds £191 15s. Church built in 1790, and re- 
cently repaired ; sittings 1,200. Patron, Mr Hope 
Johnstone. — An United Secession congregation was 
established in Annan in 1805. Church built in 1834— 
5; sittings 746. Minister's stipend £110, with manse 

and garden A Relief congregation was established 

in 1833. Church built in 1834-5; sittings 639. 

Stipend £100 A Roman Catholic chapel was 

opened in 1S39 There are 3 parochial schools ; 

and 19 schools not parochial. The master of the 
burgh parish-school has a salary of £32 10s. ; with 
about £40 school-fees, and £12 other emoluments : 
the salaries of the other two parish schoolmasters are 
£10 each, with about £20 of fees. Annan parish is 
in the presbytery of Annan and synod of Dumfries. 
It was formerly a rectory. 

AXNAX, a royal burgh in the above parish, and 
the capital of Annandale, is 15^ miles east by south of 
Dumfries; 84 west of Gretna-green ; 12 south of 
Lockerby ; and 79 from Edinburgh. It is situated on 
the left bank of the river Annan, near its discharge 
into the frith of Sol way. It is one of the most ancient 
towns in Scotland, ha vingreceiveditsfirst charterfrom 
Robert Bruce. The subsisting charter was granted by 
James VI., in 1612; but it had previously been erected 
into a burgh by James V., in 1538. The houses are 
neat and well-built of good freestone, and the town 
has been considerably improved of late years ; several 
new streets having been opened, and a number of new 
houses built. At the east end of the town is the 
parish-church ; and at the other extremity are the 
town-house and markets. There is a bridge of 3 
arches over the river at the west end of the High- 
street ; from this bridge, a street conducts to the ]Sew 
quay, about 1,000 yards lower down the river. The 
academy, erected in 1S20, in Ednam-street, is a large 
building, with apartments for the rector. Annan 
formerly carried on a considerable trade in wine, and 
exported nearly 15,000 bolls of corn ; ship-building 
is carried on to a considerable extent; and there is a 
small cotton-mill and rope-works. A considerable 
quantity of coarse ginghams are manufactured for 
Carlisle. Hand-loom weavers make about 6s. per 
week ; 35 years ago they might make 35s. Bacon 
and hams are extensively cured here and exported 
to Newcastle and London ; and fat cattle are export- 
ed to Liverpool. The Commercial bank, the British 
Linen company, and the Southern bank of Scotland, 

have branches in Annan. Hiring-markets are held 
on the 1st Thursday in May, and 3d Thursday in 
October. The weekly market-day is Thursday. 
The mouth of the river forms a good natural har- 
bour, having from 12 to 13 feet water in the 
lowest tides, and from IS to 20 in the low- 
est spring-tides. In 1833, there were 33 vessels, 
measuring 2,264 tons, belonging to this port. An- 
nan is governed by a provost, 3 bailies, a treasurer, 
a dean-of-guild, and 15 councillors. It possesses 
extensive burgh-roods and commonties, the latter 
of which have been divided, and are in a state 
of improvement. Its revenue, arising from rents, 
fisheries, tolls, and feu-duties, amounted, in 1833, to 
£670 ; its debts to £4,500 ; its expenditure in or- 
dinary to £437. In 1837, the corporation revenue 
was £644. The real rent of the old royalty was, 
in 1833, about £11,861; and of that part of the 
burgal property within the parliamentary bounds 
£8,000. The ancient royalty comprehends a dis- 
trict of above 5 miles in length ; the parliamentary 
line has greatly limited the burgh. The magistrates 
hold no patronage ; and there is no guild or incorpo- 
ration. The parliamentary constituency, in 1832, 
consisted of 170. The amount of assessed taxes 
payable from the burgh is £381 9s. 6d. Annan 
joins with Dumfries, Lochmaben, Sanquhar, and 
Kirkcudbright, in sending a member to parliament. 
The municipal anil the parliamentary constituency, 
in 1837-S. was 176. The population of the town is 
about 4,500. Annan was the birth-place of the late 
Rev. Edward Irving. 

ANNAN (The), a river of Dumfries-shire, flow- 
ing through the centre of the county from north to 
south. It rises among the high mountains and 
fells in which the shires of Dumfries, Lanark, and 
Peebles, touch each other; but its chief feeders flow 
from the southern and western base of the mountain 
which gives name to the Hartfell group, which is in 
the parish of Moffat, on the borders of Peebles-shire, 
and has an elevation of 2,635 feet. These feeders 
flow south-west, and successively discharge them- 
selves into a stream holding a course nearly direct 
south from Corehead to Bridgend. At the latter 
place, the stream, now of considerable volume, in- 
clines a little towards the east, and forming the 
boundary betwixt the parishes of Kirkpatrick-Juxta 
and Moffat, passes the village of Moffat, below which 
it receives in succession, a stream descending from 
SnawfelL and the Frenchland burn, both coming 
from the north-east ; and about 2A miles below, is 
joined bv Moffat water coming from the north- 
eastern, and Evan water descending from the north- 
western, extremity of the parish. These two tribu- 
taries unite with the Annan on opposite sides, at one 
point, at an elevation of about 350 feet above sea-level. 
Its next important tributary is "YVamphray water, com- 
ing from the north-east, soon after receiving which, 
its course becomes very meandering, though still bear- 
ing southwards. A little below Applegirth kirk it 
receives an important tributary from the north-west, 
in funnel water ; at the southern extremity of Dryfes- 
dale parish, of which it forms the western boundary, 
it bends eastwards to St Mungo kirk. At the 
south-eastern extremity of St Mungo parish, it re 
ceives the Milke water, from its junction with which 
its course is south-east, to its junction with the Mein 
water, in the parish of Hoddam. From this latter 
point its course is nearly south to the town of Annan, 
whence its estuary sweeps in a south-west and then 
south-east direction into the upper part of the Sol- 
wav frith. Its total length of course is about 30 
miles. Its general character, in the lower part ot 
its course, is that of a gently flowing pastoral stream, 
which is perhaps indicated in its name Amhana in 




Gaelic, signifying the slow-running water. Allan 
Cunningham styles it 'the silver Annan.' In the 
ballad of ' Annan Water,' [Minstrelsy of the Scottish 
Border, Vol. III. p. 284, Cadell's edn.] it is styled 
'a drumlie river ;' but this was during a spate, the 
tragical consequences of which are commemorated in 
the ballad ; and the editor informs us that when 
■ Aunan water's wading deep,' 

that river and the frith into which it falls are the 
frequent scenes of tragical accidents. 

ANNANDALE, the vale or basin of the above 
river, and a stewartry or district of Dumfries-shire. 
Professor Jamieson is of opinion that Annandale 
must have been, in ancient times, the bed of an inland 
lake. It is a fertile tract of country, about 30 miles 
long, and from 15 to 18 broad. It is bounded on the 
west by Nithsdale ; and on the east by Eskdale, and 
includes 20 parishes. From its vicinity to the borders, 
and the continual predatory excursions to which it 
was exposed, the greater part was long uncultivated 
and common ; but it has assumed a very different 
appearance since the beginning of last century. 
There are several lakes in this district. Coal and 
lime are wrought in it. Annandale was anciently a 
part of the Roman province of Valentia ; it after- 
wards, by a grant from David I., soon after his ac- 
cession to the throne, in 1124, to Robert de Brus, 
son of one of William the Conqueror's Norman barons, 
with whom David had formed a friendship while at 
the court of Henry I. of England, became a lordship 
under the Bruces, who took their title from it.* 
About the year 1371, upon the demise of David II., it 
fell into the hands of Randolph, Earl of Moray, re- 
gent during the minority of David; and, with the 
hand of his sister Agnes, it went to the Dunbars, 
Earls of March. After their forfeiture, it fell to the 
Douglasses, who lost it by the same fate. It now 
belongs chiefly to the Earl of Hopetoun. It former- 
ly gave the title of Marquis to the gallant border- 
family of Johnstone. The lineal heirship of this title 
became extinct, on the death of George, 3d marquis, 
in 1792. There are now several claimants for the 
title. Lochmaben castle was the principal fort in this 
district; and was deemed almost impregnable. From 
having been a Roman province it abounds with Ro- 
man stations and antiquities. Part of Severus's wall, 

* Much confusion prevailed among our historical writers as 
to the genealogical relations of the family of Bruce, uutil Chal- 
mers, in his ' Caledonia, 1 and Kerr, in his ( History of Scotland 
during the reign of Robert I.' pointed out the existing discre- 
pancies, and traced the descent of this illustrious line. Robert 
de Brus entered England with William, duke of Normandy, in 
1066 ; his son, of the same name, who is frequently confounded 
with him, received a grant of the lordship of Annandale as 
above mentioned ; but immediately before the battle of the 
Standard, in 1133, he renounced his allegiance to David I., on 
finding himself unable to persuade the Scottish king to enter 
into terms of peace with Enpland. He died on his paternal 
English estate of Gysburn in Yorkshire, in 1141, and was suc- 
ceeded in his English estates by his elder son, the ancestor of 
the English Bruces of Skeltou. Robert Brus, his younger son, 
is said to have received the transfer of Annandale from his 
father immediately before the battle of the Standard, and to 
have borne arms against the English in that engagement. 
This 3d Robert lived in the reigns of David I., Malcolm IV., 
and William the Lion. His son, the 4th Robert, married 
Isabel, a natural daughter of William the Lion. He died in 
1191, and was succeeded in the lordship of Annandale by his 
Bon William, who died in 1215. Robert the 5th of the name, 
married Isabel, second daughter of David, Earl of Huntington, 
who was the younger broUier of William the Lion, thus in- 
troducing the legitimate royal blood of Scotland into the family 
of Bruce. The 5th Robert Bruce died in 1215, and was succeed- 
ed by the 6th of the name, who married a daughter of Gilbert 
de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. He opposed the Cumyn influence 
in the affairs of Scotland ; and at the age of 81 engaged in the 
competition for the Crown of Scotland ; but ultimately resigned 
his rights in favour of his sou Robert, Earl of Carrick. He 
died in 1295. His Bon accompanied Edward of England to Pa- 
lestine in 1269, and soon after his return, married Margaret, 
Countess of Carrick in her own right, by whom he had five 
sous and seven daughters. The eldest Bon of this marriage was 
The Bkice. 

the camps of Birrens and Brunswark, and the remalni 
of a great military road, are still visible in this dis- 
trict. The ruins of the large quadrangular fortress of 
Auchincass, on Evan water, once the seat of the re- 
gent, Randolph, cover an acre of ground, and still 
convey an idea of the strength and extent of the 
building. The castles of Hoddam and of Comlon- 
gan are also in tolerable preservation. See Dum- 
fries-shire, and Lochmaben. 

ANNAT (The), or Cambus, a rivulet in the 
parish of Kilmadock, Perthshire, which rises in a 
hill in the north-west corner of the parish, and runs 
into the Teith about a mile above Doune. It is re- 
markable for numerous cascades. 

ANNOCK (The), a small river in Ayrshire, 
which rises in the parish of Stewarton, and falls into 
the Irvine, a little above that town, after a course 
of about 12 miles. 

ANSTRUTHER-EASTER, a parish and royal 
burgh, in the county and synod of Fife, and presby- 
tery of St Andrews, on the coast of the frith of 
Forth, between Kilrenny on the east, and Anstru- 
ther- Wester — from which it is divided by a small 
rivulet, called the Drill or Dreel burn, descending 
from the high lands of Carnbee — on the west. The 
three burghs form as it were one narrow town 
stretching along the shore of the frith. Previous to 
the year 1634, the town and barony of Anstruther 
was in the parish of Kilrenny ; but though the church 
was at Kilrenny, the minister resided at Anstruther, 
and was styled the minister of that town. In the 
above-mentioned year, the town of Easter Anstru- 
ther was erected into a separate charge, and a church 
built, which was thoroughly repaired in 1834. Sti- 
pend ^£131 15s., from the tithes of fish, a grant of 
part of the bishop's rents, and some money mortified 
for that purpose, with a manse, and a glebe of the 
value of £25. The manse is a singular old building. 
Sir W. C. Anstruther, Bart., is the patron. There are 
a Burgher, an Independent, and a Baptist congregation 

in the parish The parish-school is attended by 

about 120 children. Master's salary £5 6s. 8d., with 
from £40 to £50 fees. In 1744, the population was 
1,000; in 1801,969; in 1831, 1,007. .Houses 179. 
Assessed property, £2,410. Anstruther-Easter was 
erected into a royal burgh by James VI., in 1583 ; 
but holds feu of the family of Anstruther. It is 
governed by a council of 19, including 3 bailies, and 
a treasurer. The revenue, in 1833, was £78; ex- 
penditure £93 ; debt £485. The only taxes levied 
are the government cess, and the customs and shore- 
dues. There is a good harbour here, which, by an 
outlay of £2,000, might be made capable of admitting 
vessels drawing 16 feet water. In 1710, Anstruther, 
which formerly was a creek of Kirkcaldy, was made 
a port, and a custom-house established here. In 
1753, a new quay was built; and, to defray the ex- 
pense, an act of parliament was procured laying a tax 
of two pennies Scots upon every pint of ale brewed 
or sold in the burgh. In 1768, the tonnage belong- 
ing to Anstruther-Easter was 80 tons ; in 1793, it 
was 1,400 ; in 1837, it was only 964 tons. There is 
some coasting-trade. The principal articles of ex- 
port are grain and potatoes, and salted cod. A week- 
ly corn-market is held on Saturday. The National 
bank has a branch here. Anstruther-Easter and 
Wester join with Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny, Pitten- 
weem, and St Andrews, in returning a member to 
parliament. The parliamentary and the municipal 
constituency, in 1837-8, was 48. Anstruther-Easter 
is the birth-place of the Rev. Dr Chalmers, and of 
Professor Tennant of St Andrews, who has sung the 
humours of ' Anster Fair' with excellent jocularity, 
and a genius worthy of a higher subject. 

ANSTRUTHER- WESTER, a small parish and 




royal burgh in the county and synod of Fife, and 
presbytery of St Andrews. The parish is of a very 
irregular form. It contains about 600 acres of arable 
land, and about 9 or 10 acres of common, on which 
the burgesses have the privileges of pasturage and of 
casting turf. It is bounded on the south by the frith of 
Forth, along which it extends for about half-a-mile ; 
on the east by Anstruther-Easter ; on the north by 
Carnbee and Kilrenny ; and on the west by Pitten- 
weem. In the rivulet which divides the two An- 
struthers, it is said there was once a considerable 
salmon-fishery, whence the arms of the town, bear- 
ing three salmon crossed, are supposed to be derived. 
The parish-church appears to be a very ancient build- 
ing, from the remains of a large choir, and the Gothic 
structure of the steeple. Sir W. C. Anstruther of 
Anstruther, Bart., is patron of the parish, which was 
formerly a vicarage belonging to the priory of Pitten- 
weem. Stipend .£142 5s. 6d., with a manse, and a 
glebe of the value of £22 10s. The valued rent of 
the parish is .£1,185 Scots. The rent of land towards 
the end of last century was from 21s. to 30s. per 
acre ; in the Statistical report of 1838, it is stated that 
the average rent per acre is 70s. Population in 1801, 
296; inl831,430. Houses65; numberrentedat£10 
and upwards, 24. Anstruther- Wester was created a 
royal burgh by James VI., in 1587. The affairs of the 
burgh are managed by a council of 15, including 3 bai- 
lies, and a treasurer. The burgh-property consists of 
the town's common, customs, and shore-dues, teinds of 
the white-fish and herrings brought into the harbour, 
and the iron-stone and sea- ware found on the shore. 
Revenue, in 1832, £69. Expenditure £79. There 
is no debt due by the burgh. The magistrates and 
minister have the presentation of a bursar to the 
United college of St Andrews. There is no burgh- 
school, but the parish-school is situated within the 
burgh, and is attended by about 130 children. 
Schoolmaster's salary £34 4s. 4id., with about £75 
of fees. " The town of Anstruther, and many others 
on this coast," says the Rev. James Forrester, in the 
first Statistical account of the parish, in 1793, 
" suffered much in the civil wars, in the reign of 
Charles I., both by sea and land. They were zealous 
covenanters, and there are few old inhabitants of the 
parish who do not talk of some relations that went 
to the battle of Kilsyth, in 1645, and were never 
afterwards heard of. Anstruther shared the fate 
of its neighbours, about the year 1670, by an 
inundation of the sea, which destroyed or choked 
up the harbour, washed away the bulwarks, and 
rendered many of the houses unsafe to dwell in. 
An inundation of a similar kind happened about the 
end of last century, when about a third of the town 
seems to have been destroyed. A long street, called 
the Fore-street, was totally destroyed ; scarce a ves- 
tige of it now remains. The rock on which the 
town-house once stood, is covered by the sea every 
spring-tide, and every tide the sea washes the street, 
where the principal houses of the borough were 
situated. The old people date the decay of the 
towns on this coast to the Union with England. It is 
evident that that event did undoubtedly give a great 
shock to the trade of these towns. Their staple 
commodities were malt, herrings, and cod. Before 
the Union, there were 24 ships belonging to Easter 
and Wester Anstruther, and 30 boats employed in 
the fishery ; in 1764, there were only two ships, each 
40 tons burden, and three fishing-boats belonging to 
Anstruther-Easter, and one of 20 tons, and two 
fishing-boats to Anstruther- Wester." Anstruther- 
Wester is united to Anstruther-Easter by a good 
bridge over the Dreel burn. At the west end of the 
town, there is a large mound, called the Cbesterhill, 
in the middle of which is a fine well South-east 

from Anstruther- Wester, and 6 miles distant from * 
it, in the mouth of the frith of Forth, is the isle of 
May ; which, after the desolation of the abbey of 
Pittenweem, was generally supposed to belong to 
the parish of Anstruther- Wester, and in consequence 
was annually visited by the minister of Anstruther- 
Wester, while it was inhabited by 14 or 15 families. 
But it is also claimed as belonging to Crail parish. 
See Isle of May. 

ANTONINUS'S WALL. In the year 78 of the 
Christian era, Agricola took the command in Britain, 
but he did not enter North Britain till the year 81. 
The years 79 and 80 were spent in subduing the 
tribes to the south of the Solway frith hitherto un- 
conquered, and in the year 81 Agricola entered on 
his fourth campaign by marching into North Britain 
along the shores of the Solway frith, and overrunning 
the mountainous region which extends from that 
estuary to the friths of Clyde and Forth, the Glotta 
and Bodotria of Tacitus. He finished this campaign 
by raising a line of forts on the narrow isthmus be- 
tween these friths, so that, as Tacitus observes, "the 
enemies being removed as into another island" the 
country to the south might be regarded as a quiet 
province. The future operations of this general will 
be found detailed in the articles Galloway, Car- 
nock, Loch Ore, and Akdoch. Little is known 
of the history of North Britain from the time of 
Agricola's recal till the year 138, when Antoninus 
Pius assumed the imperial purple. That good and 
sagacious emperor was distinguished by the care 
which he took in selecting the fittest officers for the 
government of the Roman provinces ; and his choice, 
for that of Britain, fell on Lollius Urbieus, a man 
who united talents for peace with a genius in war. 
After putting down a revolt of the Brigantes in 
South Britain in the year 139, this able general 
marched northward the following year to the friths, 
between which he built a wall of earth on the line 
of Agricola's forts. Capitulinus, who flourished 
during the third century, is the first writer who no- 
tices this wall, and states that it was built in the 
reign of Antoninus Pius, but he gives no exact 
description of it. The wall or rampart extended 
from Caeridden on the frith of Forth to Uunglass 
on the Clyde. Taking the length of this wall from 
Old-Kilpatriek, on the Clyde, to Caeridden on the 
Forth, its extent would be 39,726 Roman paces, 
which agree exactly with the modern measure- 
ment of 36 English miles, and 620 yards. This 
rampart, which was of eartb, and rested on a stone 
foundation, was upwards of 20 feet high, and 24 feet 
thick. Along the whole extent of the wall there 
was a vast ditch or pratentura on the outward or 
north side, which was generally 20 feet deep, and 
40 feet wide, and which, there is reason to believe, 
might be filled with water when occasion required. 
This ditch and rampart were strengthened at both 
ends, and throughout its whole extent, by one and 
twenty forts, three being at each extremity, and the 
remainder placed between, at the distance of 3,554^- 
yards, or something more than 2 English miles from 
one another ; and it has been clearly ascertained that 
these stations were designedly placed on the previous 
fortifications of Agricola. Its necessary appendage, 
a military road, ran behind the rampart from end to 
end, for the use of the troops and for keeping up the 
usual communication between the stations or forts. 
From inscriptions on some of the foundation-stones, 
which have been dug up, it appears that the second 
legion, with detachments from the sixth and the twen- 
tieth legions, and some auxiliaries, executed these 
vast military works, equally creditable to their skill 
and perseverance. Dungkiss near the western ex- 
tremity, and Blackness near the eastern extremity of 




the rampart, afforded the Romans commodious har- 
bours for their shipping, such as they enjoyed, while 
they remained in North Britain, at Cramond. This 
wall is called in the popular language of the country 
Grime's Dyke, the etymology of which has confound- 
ed antiquarians and puzzled philologists. In British 
speech and in the Welsh language of the present day 
the word grym signifies strength ; but whether the 
appellation which the wall now receives is derived 
from such a root seems doubtful. Certain it is, that 
the absurd fiction of Fordun, Boyce, and Buchanan, 
who derive the name from a supposititious person of 
the name of Grime and his Scots having broke 
through this wall, has long been exploded, with many 
other fictions of the same authors. 

ANWOTH, a parish in the county and presby- 
tery of Kirkcudbright, and synod of Galloway. It 
is about 6^ miles long, from north-east to south- 
west; and 3^ broad. It is bounded on the north 
and east by the parish of Girthon, from which it is 
divided by the river Fleet; and on the west by the 
parish of Kirkmabreck. The sea-shore, which 
bounds the parish on the south, for about 2£ miles 
from the mouth of the Fleet to the eonfines"of the 
parish of Kirkmabreck, is generally flat and rocky, 
though in one place it is bold and elevated. To- 
wards the northern part of the parish, the surface 
becomes broken and barren, rising into numerous 
hills of small elevation. Along the banks of the 
Fleet, and to some distance from it, there is a con- 
siderable quantity of natural and planted wood. 
The total area is about 9,000 acres, of which one- 
third is arable. One head-stream of the river Fleet 
issues from a small loch of the same name, in the 
parish of Girthon; the other and more westerly 
branch has its source in the parish of Kirkmabreck, be- 
tween a very high hill, called Cairnsmuir, and another 
to the north of it called Craig-Ronal. The Fleet is 
navigable for small vessels as far as Gatehouse, which 
is situated on its eastern bank, about 3 miles from 
the mouth of its estuary. The most remarkable hill 
in this parish is Cairnharrah, which is situated partly 
in this parish, and partly in Kirkmabreck, It is 
ilevated above the sea about 1,100 feet; and is the 
highest ground in this part of the country, Cairns- 
muir excepted. It commands an extensive view of 
the adjacent country, the shire of Wigton, the Isle 
of Man, a part of Cumberland, and even of the high 
land on the coast of Ireland. Population, in 1801, 
637 ; in 1831, 830, of whom about 40 were dissenters. 
Houses 120. Assessed property .£4,748. About 
450 of the inhabitants live in the country part of the 
parish, and the rest in the village of Anwoth, which 
is built on the Fleet, opposite to Gatehouse, and 
being connected with it by a bridge is considered as 
part of the same village. Minister's stipend £247 
10s. 7d., with a manse, and a glebe of the value of 
£10. Unappropriated teinds £41 18s. Id. Church 
built in 1826; sittings 400. Patron, Sir David 
Maxwell, Bart. Schoolmaster's salary £34 4s. 4id., 
with £20 fees. Average number of scholars "80. 
There are two small private schools. There are two 
old buildings in the parish, the tower of Rusco, and 
castle of Cardoness. Both these fortalices stand on 
the banks of the Fleet; the former about 2A miles 
above where the river ceases to be navigable, and 
the latter 1 mile below that point, on atongue ofland, 
looking towards the bay at the mouth of the river. 
On the top of a hill, about half-a-mile south-east of 
the church, is one of those vitrified forts which have 
so much excited the curiosity of modern antiquaries. 

APPIN, an extensive district of Argyleshire, above 
50 miles in length, and from 10 to 15 broad ; com- 
prehending the Airds, the straith of Appin, Glen 
Duror, Glen Creran, Kingerloch, and Glencoe ; ex- 

tending along the eastern side of Loch Linnhe, and 
belonging ecclesiastically to the parish of Lismore 
and Appin. See Lismore. Appin is one of the 
most interesting districts in the Highlands ; present- 
ing a deeply indented and finely diversified coast 
sprinkled with islands ; while the interior is inter- 
sected with deep glens and rushing streams, and rich 
in the most magnificent varieties of mountain and 
lake scenery. Appin was the country of the Stuarts, 
"the unconquered foes of the Campbell," in feudal 
times. A fine ballad entitled ' The Stuarts o' Ap- 
pin' appeared some years ago in Blackwood's Maga- 
zine, of which we quote the opening stanza : 

" I sing of a land that was famous of yore, 

The land of Green Appin, the ward of the flood; 

Where every grey cairn that broods over the shore, 

Marks grave of the royal, the valiant, or good ; 

The land where the strains of grey Ossiau were framed, 

The land of fair Selma, and reign of Fingal,— 
And late of a race, that with tears must be named, 
The Noble Clan Stuart, the bravest of all. 
Oh-hon, an Kei ! and the Stuarts of Appin! 
The gallant, devoted, old Stuarts of Appin I 
Their glory is o'er, 
For the elan is no more, 
Aud tile Sassenach sings ou the hills of green Appin." 

APPLECROSS,* a very extensive parish in the 
county of Ross, lying between Loch Torriden and 
Loch Carron. Its outline is irregular, being fre- 
quently intersected by arms of the sea, the principal 
of which, besides the two lochs already mentioned, 
are Loch Achrakin, Applecross bay, Loch Toskig, 
and Loch Kishorn. In the centre of one of its most 
populous districts are a few farms belonging eccle- 
siastically to the palish of Loch Carron. The extent 
of sea-coast, in a direct line, is upwards of 20 miles ; 
but following the shore in all its curves and windings, 
it cannot be under 90 miles. Though the coast is in 
some places high and rocky, yet, in many parts, it is 
flat and sandy ; and the general character of the 
whole — as of most districts of old red sandstone for- 
mation, which is the prevalent geological character of 
the parish — is monotonous and dreary. The course 
of the tides is all along from the north. The general 
appearance of the parish is rocky and mountainous: 
yet amidst these hills, covered only with wiid coarse 
grasses and heath, and indescribably dreary to the 
sight, occur valleys, both beautiful and fertile, but 
in many instances almost inaccessible. When the 
first Statistical account of this parish was written 
towards the close of last century, it was stated that 
there was neither public road nor bridge from one 
extremity of it to the other ; and that the traveller 
was guided by the season of the year, in determining 
what course to take over the rugged hills, rapid 
waters, and deep and marshy moors of this district. 
This state of things is now greatly amended. A 
good and direct road runs between Applecross and 
Shieldag on Loch Torriden, a distance of 13 miles ; 
and there are also good roads from the village of 
Loch Carron, at the head of Loch Carron both to 
Applecross, a distance of 20 miles, and to Shieldag, 
a distance of 15. G razing-farms are numerous but 
small. The number of acres under cultivation does 
not exceed 2,000, while nearly 300 square miles are 
unfit for cultivation. Black cattle is the great article 
from which the farmer principally derives his emolu- 
ment and the landlord his rent. Herring shoals occa- 

* Applecross is a fanciful designation given to this parish by 
the proprietor of the Comaraich estate, at the time of its erec- 
tion into a separate charge. In commemoration of this event 
five apple trees were planted cross ways in the proprietor's gar- 
den ; and they have since been perpetuated by his successors. 
The ancient and only name by which this parish is kuown in 
the language of the country is Comrick, or Comaraich, a Gaelic 
word signifying 'a place of protection ;' a designation implying 
the immunity of the place in ancient times, this having been 
the seat of a cloister, and, as such, an asylum for all who fled 
to it for protection. 




sionally frequent the hays, creeks, and harhours, of 
this district. The rivers, though small, are very 
rapid, and abound with trout ; the stream of Firdon, 
and the river of Applecross, contain salmon ; there are 
salmon-fishings at Torriden and Balgie ; and fishing 
is much pursued on the coasts of this parish. Kelp, 
prior to the American war, was extensively manu- 
factured here, and sold at £3 10s. the ton ; the price 
afterwards fluctuated between £5 5s. and £4 15s., 
and there were about 50 tons annually brought to 
market. This manufacture, however, no longer 
exists. In the district of Kishorn there is a copper- 
mine, which Williams, in his 'Mineral Kingdom,' 
considered as equally rich with any in Great Britain. 
On the south side of the bay of Applecross, close by 
the shore, there is a lime-stone quarry of an excellent 
quality. There are some natural woods of fir, birch, 
and hazel, in different parts of the parish. The 
ordinary fuel is peat. There are three proprietors : 
viz. Mackenzie of Applecross, the principal heritor; 
Mackenzie of Seaforth, and Sir F. Mackenzie of 
Gairloch, Bart. " Every man," says the Statistical 
reporter in 1 792, " is the architect of his own house ; 
and though there be a few nominal shoemakers, 
scarcely a boy of fifteen but makes his own brogues. 
There are several boat-wrights and weavers; the 
former are generally maintained by their employers, 
and paid by the piece ; the latter make their demand 
in money, but are paid in meal, at the conversion of 
half-a-merk Scotch the peck. There are three 
smiths — when no private stipulation takes place — for 
the farm-work ; they are paid in meal, by an imme- 
morial assessment on the different farms. Anciently 
they had the head of every cow that was slaughtered 
in the parish, — a privilege they still claim, but it is 
rarely complied with." We should suppose this 
claim is never even advanced now ; but it is a curious 
relic of days less-acquainted with the marvellous pro- 
perties of a circulating medium than our own. The 
wages of domestic servants, for the year, at the last 
mentioned period, were from £2 to £3 sterling, for 
men ; and from 10s. to £1 sterling for women ; the 
Statistical reporter of 1836 states, that they are 
usually £8 for ploughmen, and from £2 10s. to £3 
for female servants. The population of the parish, 
in 1801, was 1,896; in 1831, 2,892. Houses 5*2. 

Assessed property £3,050 The parish is in the 

presbytery of Loch Carron, and synod of Glenelg. It 
is divided into three districts, each of which is 
separated from the others by a ridge of hills. In the 
districts of Lochs and Tirdon, the minister officiates 
once a quarter; and the minister of Shieldag offi- 
ciates in the district of Kishorn once a month. The 
parish-church stands in the district of Applecross ; it 
was built in 1817; sittings 600. Stipend £158 6s. 5d., 
with a manse, and a small glebe. The patronage is in 
the Crown. A government-church was erected at 
Shieldag in 1827 : the parochial school is fixed at 
Applecross. The schoolmaster's salary is £25, with 
£4 10s. fees. There are also schools at Shieldag, 
Torriden, Kishorn, and Badanvougie, each attended 
by about 50 scholars. " There are trunks of trees 
found at a considerable depth under ground, where 
there is no vestige of any kind of wood remaining ; 
many of them have visibly suffered by fire, which the 
traditional history of the country reports to have been 
occasioned by the Danes burning the forests. Close by 
the parish-church, are the remains of an old religious 
house, where the standard and soles of crucifixes are 
still to be seen. It was richly endowed with landed 
property, which tradition relates to have been con- 
veyed, by the last popish missionary in the place — 
known by the designation of the Red Priest of Apple, 
cross — to his daughter." [Statistical Report, 1792.] 
APPLEGARTH, or Applegirth, a parish in 

the stewartry of Annandale, Dumfriesshire. The An- 
nan divides it, on the west, from the parishes of Loch- 
maben and Johnston ; on the north it is bounded by 
Wamphray ; on the north-east and east by Hutton ; 
and on the south by Dryfesdale parish. Its greatest 
length, from south to north, is about 6 miles ; its 
greatest breadth, from west to east, in the southern 
part of the parish, is about 5 miles. The distance 
of the kirk-town from Dumfries is about 11, and 
from Annan about 12 miles. The great turnpike 
road from Carlisle to Glasgow and Edinburgh passes 
through the parish, from south to north. Dr. Singer 
estimates the superficial area of this parish at 17i 
square miles, or 11,500 acres ; of which about 400 are 
under wood, and 7,400 are cultivated. The soil in 
this parisfi, in general, is good, especially upon the 
banks of the Annan and the Dryfe. The highest ele- 
vation in the parish is Dinwoodie hill, 736 teet above 
sea-level. The manse of Applegarth, in the south- 
west extremity of the parish, on the east bank of the 
Annan, is 180 feet above sea-level. [Statistical re- 
port, 1834. ] There are six heritors in the parish. 
The valued rent is 6,725 merks ; the real rent was 
estimated, at the end of last century, at between 
£2,800 and £3,000 sterling. Population, in 1801, 
795 ; in 1831, 999. Houses 151. Assessed property 
£8,595. — This parish is in the synod of Dumfries, 
and presbytery of Lochmaben. Stipend £250 5s., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 10s. Un- 
appropriated teinds £244. The manse is an old 
house, built upwards of 60 years ago. The church 
was built in 1761. It is generally supposed that 
there have been two old parishes successively annex- 
ed to Applegarth, viz. Sibbaldbie and Dinwoodie, or 
Dinwiddie. It is not certain, however, whether 
Dinwoodie was ever a distinct parish or not ; it rather 
appears to have been a chapelry to Applegarth. 
Sibbaldbie was a distinct parish, and was annexed in 
1609. There are still some remains of its church. 
Sir William Jardine, Bart., and Johnstone of Annan- 
dale, are the patrons. There are two parochial 
schools, attended by abou 1 100 children. Chalmers, 
in his Caledonia, informs us that on the 7th July, 
1300, Edward I., who was then at Applegarth, on 
his way to the siege of Caerlaverock, made an obla- 
tion at the altars of St. Nicholas and Thomas h 
Becket, in Applegarth church. There are no au- 
thentic traces of this church now visible. There is 
a noble ash-tree in the church-yard of Applegarth, 
upwards of 14 feet in circumference near the root. 

ARASAIG, or Arisaig, a district in the parish 
of Ardnamurchan, on the western coast of Inverness- 
shire, and the name especially of a promontory in the 
district, lying between the two inlets of the sea, 
Lochnanuagh on the south, and Lochnagaul on the 
north, immediately opposite the southern extremity 
of the isle of Eig, from which it is distant 6i miles. 
There is an excellent and beautiful road from the 
village of Arasaig, on the northern shore of Lochna- 
gaul, to Fort William, passing the head of Loch 
Aylort, and Loch Shiel, and running along the nor- 
thern shore of Loch Eil, a total distance of 40 miles. 
There is a ferry from Arasaig to Skye, which how- 
ever is now little used, that of Kyle Rhea being 
generally preferred. There is a Roman Catholic 
chapel at the village of Arasaig. 

ARAY (The), or Ary, in Gaelic Aoreidh, a 
small but beautiful stream flowing into Loch Fyne, 
between the town of Inverary and the neighbour 
ing hill of Dunyqueaich. It rises near Loch Awe, 
and flows south. Its course is about 9 miles in 
length, over a rocky bed, and frequently under 
rugged cliffs, or between banks finely wooded with 
oak and birch. The road from Inverary to Oban 
skirts its course, throughout its whole length; and 




the road around the head of Loch Fyne to Cairn- 
dow is carried over the stream, at its confluence with 
the loch, by a bridge. The first striking scene upon 
this stream, tracing its course upwards, is the ro- 
mantic fall of Carlonan linn, which occurs at a point 
where the river is shut in by thick woods and rocky 
banks. About 2^ miles from Inverary is another 
considerable fall ;"and half-a-mile farther is the fine- 
est cascade in the river, the fall of Lenach-Gluthin, 
where the stream rushes, " with many a shock," 
over a broken and precipitous rock. It is supposed 
that the Aray takes its name from these falls, Aoreidh, 
in Gaelic, signifying ' unsmooth.' Skrine calls it ' the 
furious Aray.' As we ascend the glen of the Aray, 
the stream " changes temper" and dwindles into a 
burn flowing between bare mountain-ridges. Gilpin, 
who passed through Glen Aray in 1776, was greatly 
delighted with the forest-scenery here. 

ARBIRLOT, in old writings, Aberelliot, a 
parish in the county of Forfar, presbytery of Ar- 
broath, and synod of Angus and Mearns. It is about 
4 miles in length, and 3 in breadth ; and is bounded 
on the north by the parishes of St Vigeans and Car- 
mylie ; on the east by Arbroath ; on the south by 
the sea ; and on the west by Panbride parish. 
The extent of sea-coast is about 3 miles, for the 
most part flat and sandy. The greater part of 
this parish is gently undulated ; yet the hills are 
neither very high nor rocky, but are in general 
green, and capable of cultivation. Estimating the 
superficial area of the parish at 5,000 acres, about 
one-fifth is uncultivated, and the average rent of 
the cultivated land is 18s. per acre. The principal 
crops raised in this parish are oats and barley ; but a 
considerable quantity of wheat is also grown. In 
the year 1790, there were 97 acres of ground within 
the bounds of this parish sown with lintseed, which 
in general succeeded well. This branch of farming 
does not now attract much attention. The yearly 
wages of men-servants, in the different branches of 
husbandry, in the year 1793, were from £7 to £8; 
and of women-servants, from £3 to £4 ; the wages 
of a day-labourer were 6d. when the employer fur- 
nished him with provisions; and when he victualled 
himself, from Is. to 15d. Farm-servants now obtain 
about -£'20 per annum ; day-labourers Is. 6d. per 
day ; and female-labourers 8d. The return to the 
inquiry made by Dr. Webster, in 1755, respecting the 
population of this parish, was 865. In 1801, the 
population was returned at 945 ; and in 1831, at 
1,026. Houses 215. Assessed property £1,092. 
The water of Elliot, which runs through this parish, 
from north to south, has its source in the parish of 
Carmylie, about 3 miles from the town of Arbirlot. It 
was once noted for trouts of a peculiar relish. Kelly 
castle, which is built upon a rock on the side of this 
Etream, is seen to great advantage on the road be- 
twixt Arbroath and Arbirlot. Neither the period 
when the castle of Kelly was built, nor its pro- 
prietors, through a long series of ages, can now be 
traced; tradition, however, relates that one Ouch- 
terlony, laird of Kelley, was active in demolishing 
the abbey at Aberbrothock. The modern house of 
Kelley, in the vicinity of the castle, was razed about 
seven years ago. The whole parish is the property 
of Earl Panmure. The valued rent is £4,266 13s. 
4d. Scotch : the real rent is about £15,000 — The 
stipend of the parish-minister is £184 4s. 5d., with 
the addition of a manse, a garden, and a glebe of 4 
acres. The Crown is patron. The kirk was rebuilt 
in 1832 ; sittings 639. There are only a few Se- 
ceders in the parish. The parochial schoolmaster 
has a salary of £34 4s., with £14 fees. In 1628, 8 
bolls of meal were mortified by Alexander Irvine of 
Drum, then proprietor of Kelly, in favour of the , 

schoolmaster of Arbirlot. There are two private 
schools. — About half-a-mile from Arbirlot is a mineral 
spring, called Wormy-hills well. " It is deservedly 
esteemed," says the Statistical reporter of 1791, "on 
account of its medicinal virtue ; and being within 
200 yards of the sea, persons attending it have the 
benefit of sea-bathing, which, of late years, has been 
much recommended by our best physicians." It is 
reported that a road was made through part of this 
parish by Hector Boethius, the Scottish historian, 
which still bears his name, though somewhat cor- 
rupted, in the name Heckenbois-path. The turnpike 
road from Arbroath to Dundee runs 4 miles through 
this parish. 

ARBROATH, or Aberbrothwick, a partly land- 
ward, partly town-parish, in the county of Angus, 
being an erection out of the parish of St. Vigeans, 
of the town and royalty of Arbroath into a separate 
parish about the year 1560. In 1836, the Abbey 
parish of Arbroath was disjoined quoad sacra from 
that of Arbroath. This new parish is almost wholly 
urban. The old parish is bounded on the north by St. 
Vigeans parish ; on the east by the German ocean ; on 
the south and west by Arbirlot parish. The extent 
of sea-coast is about 1^ mile ; the superficial area is 
1,820 English acres. Average rent of land 50s. per 
acre. A peculiar species of grey micaceous sandstone, 
commonly known by the name of the Arbroath flag, 
is quarried here. Around the town the soil is rich 
and fertile; but towards the north-west there is a 
considerable extent of moor ground, the property of 
the community, which is now, however, covered with 
thriving fir-plantations. The Brothock, or Broth- 
wick, a small stream rising on the north-west boundary 
of St. Vigeans parish, flo wing south-east through that 
parish, and the town of Arbroath, and falling into the 
German ocean after a course of about 6 miles, gives 
name to the parish. The water-power furnished by 
this stream has led to the establishment of numerous 
manufactures for weaving, spinning, flax-dressing, 
and bleaching. About half-a-mile westward of the 
town is a strong chalybeate spring. Population, in 
1801, 4,943 ; in 1831, 6,943.— The parish of Arbroath 
is in the presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus 
and Mearns. Patron, since 1715, the Crown. Min- 
ister's stipend £219 12s. 6d., with an allowance of £4 
8s. lid. for manse and glebe. Unappropriated teinds 
£125 12s. lid. Church enlarged in 1764 ; sittings 
1,390. The minister has an assistant who receives 
a salary of £75 — The United Secession congregation 
was established in 1782. Church built in 1791, and 
enlarged in 1824; sittings 714. Minister's stipend 

£105, with manse and garden The Independent 

congregation was established about the vear 1,800 

church built in 1816 ; sittings 500 The Baptist 

congregation was established in 1808; meets in the 
Mechanics reading-room. — An Episcopalian congre- 
gation has long existed here; chapel built in 1791 ; 
sittings 390; minister's stipend £122, with a garden 
and £11 for a house. 

The parish of Abbey, erected under the authority 
of the General Assembly in February, 1836, has a 
population of about 1,960. The church was built in 
1796-7, and originally formed a chapel-of-ease with- 
in the town of Arbroath; sittings 1,281; minister's 
stipend £100. — The Relief congregation in this 
parish, formerly connected with the Relief Metho- 
dists, has a place of worship, built in 1826 ; sittings 
572; stipend £120. — The United Secession congre- 
gation in this district of the town of Arbroath was 
formed in 1815; church erected in 1812; sittings 
630. — There is a Scottish Independent congregation, 
established about 50 years ago ; and a Berean con- 
gregation, originally formed in 1780. 

The royal borough of Arbroath is chiefly situated 



in the above parish, hut a part extends into that of 
St. Vigeans. It is 18 miles east by north of Dundee, 
12 west bv south of Montrose, 15 south-east of For 

lordship, in favour of James, Marquis of Hamilton, 
son to the former, upon the 5th May, 1608. It after- 
wards belonged to the Earl of Dysart, from whom 

far, 13J south of Brechin, and 56 north-north-east of Patrick Maule of Panmure, gentleman of the bed- 
Edinburgh. It is on the estuary of the Brothock, in a ! chamber to King James the Sixth, purchased it with 
small plain surrounded on the west, north, and east j the right of patronage of all the parishes thereto 
sides by eminences in the form of an amphitheatre, j belonging, thirty-four in number. The abbots of 
which command an extensive prospect of the friths j this place had several special privileges. They were 
of Tay and Forth, the Lothian hills, and the elevated | exempted from assisting at the yearly synods ; and 
parts of Fifeshire. The town consists of one street, 

nearly half-a-mile in length, running north and south 
from the sea, and another on the west side of smaller 
extent. Both these are intersected by other cross 
streets, and are in general well-built, though without 
regularity. To the eastward of the town, and locally 
in the parish of St. Vigeans, there are two handsome 
streets; on the west side of the Brothock there are 
also several neat streets, forming a suburb of con- 
siderable size. The town was lighted with gas in 
1826. The town-house, containing a town-hall, 
town-clerk's office, register-rooms, &c, is a hand- 
some edifice, erected in 1806. The academy was 
built in 1821 at a cost of £1.600. In 1797 a public 
library was established, which now contains a col- 
lection amounting to above 7,000 volumes. The har- 
bour is small, but can be taken by vessels in a storm, 
when they cannot enter any ofthe neighbouring ports. 
It is entirely artificial, but well-sheltered from the 
sea by a long pier erected in 1788; the inner harbour 
is secured by wooden gates. It admits vessels of 
2C0 tons at spring-tides ; but, at ordinary tides, only- 
vessels of 100 tons can enter. It is defended by a 
battery erected in 17S3. There is a signal tower 
here which communicates with the Bell-rock light- 
house, at the distance of 12 miles. [See article 
Beli^Rock.] The port of Arbroath is of great 
antiquity ; but its situation was, in ancient times, 
more to the eastward than at present. The site of 
the ancient harbour is still named the Old Shore- 
head ; and an agreement is extant between the abbot 
and burghers, in 1194, concerning the making of the 
harbour. Both parties were bound to contribute 
their proportion ; but the largest fell to the share of 
the abbot, for which he was to receive an annual tax 
payable out of the borough-roods. 

The glory of the place was its abbey, the venerable 
ruins of which are still much admired by travellers. 
It was founded about 1178 by William I., and dedi- 
cated to the memory of Thomas-a-Becket. Its 
founder was interred within it; but there are now no 
authentic remains of his tomb. It is highly probable, 
however, that it must have been near the great altar, 
in a spot now walled in as a private burial-place. 
The monastery of Arbroath was one of the richest 
in the whole island, and its abbots were frequently 
the first churchmen of the kingdom. Cardinal 
Beaton was the last abbot of this establishment, at 
the same time that he was archbishop of St. Andrews. 
The monks were of the Tyronensian order, and 
were first brought from Kelso. This monastery 
formerly enjoyed great privileges. A charter is still 
extant from John of England, under the great seal of 
that kingdom, by which the monastery and citizens 
of Aberbrothock are exempted " a teloniis et con- 
suetudine," in every part of England, except London 
and Oxford. It has also been of considerable note 
in the Scottish history, particularly as the seat of 
that parliament, during the reign of King Robert 
Bruce, in which the celebrated manifesto was ad- 
dressed to the pope. After the death of Beaton, 
the abbey felt the destructive rage of the reformers. 
The last commendatory abbot of Aberbrothock was 
John Hamilton, second son to the duke of Chatel- 
herault, who was afterwards created Marquis of 
Hamilton. This abbey was erected into a temporal 


Pope Pius II. declared his resolution, in 1461, to 
excommunicate all those who would trouble them 
upon that head. Pope Bennet, by his bull, dated at 
Avignon, grants to John, Abbot of Arbroath, the 
privilege of wearing a mitre and other pontifical or- 
naments. The ruins of the abbey are " most deli- 
riously situated," and strikingly picturesque. The 
church was a most magnificent fabric, nearly of the 
same dimensions as the cathedral of St. Andrews, and 
of the most exquisite workmanship. Pennant, who 
visited Arbroath in 1772, thus describes the ruins: 
"The abbey was once inclosed with a strong and lofty 
wall which surrounded a very considerable tract: 
on the south-west corner is a tower, at present the 
steeple of the parish-church; at the south-east corner 
was another tower, with a gate beneath, called the 
Darn-gate, which, from the word darn, or private, 
appears to have been the retired way to the abbey. 
■ The magnificent church stands on the north side of the 
square, and was built in the form of a cross : on the 
side are three rows of false arches, one above the 
other, which have a fine effect, and above them are 
very high windows, with a circular one above. In 
April last a part adjoining to the west end fell sudden- 
ly down, and destroyed much of the beauty of the 
place. The length of the whole church is about 275 
feet; the breadth of the body and side-aisles, from 
wall to wall, 67 ; the length of the transept 165 feet, 
the breadth 27. It seems as if there had been three 
towers ; one in the centre, and two others on each 
side of the west end, part of which still remains. 
On the south side, adjoining the church, are the ruins 
of the chapter-house; the lower part, which is vaulted, 
is a spacious room well lighted with Gothic windows. 
Above is another good apartment. The great gate 
to the abbey fronts the north : above the arch had 
been a large gallery, with a window at each end. 
At the north-west corner of the monastery stand 
the walls of the regality prison, of great strength 
and thickness : within are two vaults, and over them 
some light apartments. The prison did belong to the 
convent, which resigned this part of its jurisdiction 
to a layman, whom the religious elected to judge in 
criminal affairs. The family of Airly had this office 
before the Reformation, and continued possessed of 
it till the year 1747, when it was sold and vested in 
the Crown with the other heritable jurisdictions. In 
the year 1445, the election of this officer proved 
fatal to the chieftains of two noble families." The 
convent had that year chosen Alexander Lindsay, 
eldest son of the Earl of Crawford, and commonly 
known by the appellation of The Tiger, or Earl 
Beardy., to be the baillie, or cbief-justiciar of their 
regality ; but he proved so expensive by his number 
of followers and high way of living, that they were 
obliged to remove him, and appoint in his place 
Alexander Ogilvie of Innerquharity, nephew to John 
Ogilvie of Airly, who had an hereditary claim to the 
place. This occasioned a cruel feud between the 
families ; each assembled their vassals ; and " there 
can be little doubt," says Mr Fraser Tytler, " that 
the Ogilvies must have sunk under this threatened 
attack, but accident gave them a powerful ally in 
Sir Alexander Seton of Gordon, afterwards Earl of 
Huntly, who, as he returned from court, happened 
to lodge for the night at the castle of Ogilvy, at the 



very moment when this baron was mustering his 
forces against the meditated assault of Crawford. 
Seton, although in no way personally interested in 
the quarrel, found himself, it is said, compelled to 
assist the Ogilvies, by a rude but ancient custom, 
which bound the guest to take common part with 
his host in all dangers which might occur so long as 
the food eaten under his roof remained in his stomach. 
With the small train of attendants and friends who 
accompanied him, he instantly joined the forces of 
Innerquharity, and proceeding to the town of Ar- 
broath, found the opposite party drawn up in great 
strength on the outside of the gates. The families 
thus opposed in mortal defiance to each other, could 
number amongst tbeir adherents many of the bravest 
and most opulent gentlemen in the country ; and 
the two armies thus composed exhibited a splendid 
appearance of armed knights, barbed horses, and em- 
broidered banners. As the two lines, however, ap- 
proached each other, and spears were placing in the 
rest, the Earl of Crawford, who had received infor- 
mation of the intended combat, being anxious to 
avert it, suddenly appeared on the field, and galloping 
up between the two armies, was accidentally slain 
by a soldier, who was enraged at his interference, 
and ignorant of his rank. The event naturally in- 
creased the bitterness of hostility, and the Crawfords, 
who were assisted by a large party of the vassals of 
Douglas, infuriated at the loss of their chief, at- 
tacked the Ogilvies with a desperation which soon 
broke their ranks, and reduced them to irreclaimable 
disorder. Such, however, was the gallantry of their 
resistance, that they were almost entirely cut to 
pieces; and five hundred men, including many noble 
barons in Forfar and Angus, were left dead upon the 
field. Seton himself had nearly paid with his life 
the penalty of his adherence to a barbarous custom ; 
and John Forbes of Pitsligo, one of his followers, 
was slain ; nor was the loss which the Ogilvies sus- 
tained in the field their worst misfortune ; for Lind- 
say, with his characteristic ferocity, and protected by 
the authority of Douglas, let loose his army upon 
their estates, and the flames of their castles, the 
slaughter of their vassals, the plunder of their pro- 
perty, and the captivity of their wives and children, 
instructed the remotest adherents of the justiciar 
of Arbroath, how terrible was the vengeance which 
they had provoked." The revenues of this abbey 
at the Reformation were as follow : money £2,553 
14s. ; wheat 30 ch. 3 bolls, 3 fir. 2 pecks ; bear 
143 ch. 9 bolls, 2 pecks; meal 196 ch. 9 bolls, 2 
fir.; oats 27 ch. 11 bolls; salmon 37 bar. and 2 
bar. grilses : omitted capons, poultry, grassums, 
dawikis, and all other services and duties: to this 
is also to be added the teinds of the kirks of Aber- 
nethy, Tannadice, and Monifieth. While some work- 
men were employed in 1835, in clearing out the rub- 
bish from the ruins of the abbey, they came upon a 
stone coffin containing the skeleton of a female which 
had been carefully enveloped in a covering of leather. 
This must have been some lady of rank in her day, 
and the good folks set it down as the remains of the 
Queen of William the Lion, who, as well as her hus- 
band, the founder of the abbey, was interred here. 

The town shared the fate of the abbey, till about 
1736, when its commerce began to revive. At that 
time a few gentlemen of property engaged in the 
manufacture here of osnaburghs and brown linens, 
which succeeded well, and is still the principal branch 
of manufacture. There are about 2,000 hand-looms 
employed on linen. Canvass weavers earn from8s. 6d. 
tolls, per week. The principal market for thesegoods 
ieEngland. In 1806, there were stamped 1,484,425J 
yards of cloth, valued at £83,454 15s. 9d. sterling. 
There are now 16 mills for spinning yarn in the town 

and suburbs. There were in 1791 about 50 vessels 
belonging to the place, each from 60 to 160 tons 
burden, employed in the Baltic and coasting-trade, 
making 4,000 tons register ; in 1837 there were 77 
vessels registering 6,700 tons. The principal im- 
ports are bones, hides, flax, and timber There is a 

railway from this port to the town of Forfar. Its 
length is 15 : |- miles, with a rise of about 220 feet. 
Expense £70.000. The total number of passengers 
who had travelled on the Arbroath and Forfar rail- 
way since its opening, to the 10th August, 1839, was 
60,763, — the weekly average being 1,929. The total 
amount of money received for passengers, goods, 
and parcels, in the same period, was £4,563 6s. 2^d, 
— making a weekly average of £144 17s. 4d. The 
population of the eight parishes through which the 
railway passes, including the towns of Arbroath and 
Forfar, is 26,833 ; so that the number of passengers 
in thirty-one and a-balf weeks is more than double 
the number of inhabitants in these eight parishes. 
There is also a railway betwixt Arbroath and Dun- 
dee, 16J miles in length Arbroath is undoubtedly 

a royalty of very ancient erection. It was probably 
erected into a royal borough by William the Lion, 
about the year 1186; but this cannot exactly be as- 
certained owing to the loss of the original charter, 
which was taken by force out of the abbey — where 
it was lodged in the time of the civil wars, during 

the minority of James VI by George, Bishop of 

Moray. It was, however, confirmed in its privileges 
by a charter of novodamus from James VI. in 1599. 
It was formerly governed by a provost, 2 bailies, a 
treasurer, and 15 counsellors, and has 7 incorporated 
trades. The magistrates and council are now elected 
according to the provisions of 3° and 4° William IV. 
The council consists of 17 members. The boundary 
of the royalty is somewhat intricate. In 1834 about 
6,660 of the population were within the royalty, 
and 4,587 inhabited houses in streets without the 
royalty. The property of the town, consisting o( 
common lands, houses, mills, harbour, feu-duties, 
entries, customs, and imposts, was recently valued at 
£35,874 ; but the parliamentary commissioners were 
of opinion that this was too high. The revenue in 
1788 was £864; in 18.32, £2,922 ; the average an- 
nual expenditure for 20 years preceding 1832, had 
been £2,940; and the debt was £17,967. The 
revenue in 1837-8, was £3,859. It unites with the 
boroughs of Forfar, Montrose, Inverbervie, and Bre- 
chin, in sending a representative to parliament. The 
parliamentary constituency, in 1837, was 452; the 
municipal, 245. In 1811, the population, including 
that part of the town situated in the parish ot Si. 
Vigeans, \vas9,000; in 1831, 13,795; in 1841, 14,576. 
In 1821, the number of houses within burgh was 
1,739; in 1831, 2,360. Assessed property, in 1815, 
£22,858. The government cess, levied in 1832, was 
£105 2s. 6d. Its fairs are on the 31st January, 3d 
Wednesday of June, and 18th July. 

During the war, in 1781, this coast was annoyed 
by a French privateer, named the Fearnought of 
Dunkirk, commanded by one Fall. On the evening 
of the 23d of May, he came to anchor in the bay of 
Arbroath, and fired a few shot into the town; after 
which he sent a flag of truce on shore, with the 
following letter : 

" At sea, Map twenty-third. 

*' Gentlemen, I send these two words to inform you, that I 
will have you to faring to the French colour, in less than a 
quarter of an hour, or I set the town on tire directly ; such is 
the order of my master the king of France 1 am sent hy. Send 
directly the mair and chiefs of the town to make some agree- 
ment with roe, or I'll make my duty. It is the will of yours. 

" To Monsieurs Mair of the town called y 
Arbrought, or in his absence, to the > 
chief man after him, in Scotland." J 

The worthy magistrates, with a view to gain time 




to arm the inhabitants, and send expresses for mili- 
tary aid in the true spirit of subtle diplomacy, gave 
an evasive answer to Monsieur Fall's letter, remind- 
ing him that he had mentioned no terms of ransom, 
and begging he would do no injury to the town till he 
should hear from them again. Upon this Fall wrote 
a second letter to them in the following terms : 

** At sea, eight o'clock in the afternoon. 

" Gentlemen, I received just nowyoux answer, by which you 
say I ask no terms. I thought it was useless, since I asked 
you to come aboard for agreement. But here are my terms ; I 
will have £;i0,0nU sterling at least, and 6 of the chiefs men of 
the town for otage. Be speedy, or I shoot your town away 
directly, and I set fire to it. I am, gentlemen, your servant. I 
sent some of my crew to you ; but if some harm happens to 
them, you'll be sure will hang up the main-yard all the preseri- 
ers we have aboard. 

"To Moosieurs the chiefs men of 7 
Arbrought in Scotland." J 

The magistrates having now got some of the in- 
habitants armed, and their courage further supported 
by the arrival of some military from Montrose, set 
Fall at defiance, and " ordered him to do his worst, 
for they would not give him a farthing." Where- 
upon, says the worthy historian of this memorable 
transaction in the annals of Arbroath, terribly en- 
raged, and no doubt greatly disappointed, he began 
a heavy fire upon the town, and continued it for a 
long time ; but happily it (lid no harm, except knock- 
ing down some chimney-tops, and burning the fingers 
of those who took up his balls, which were heated. 
On the 24th he sent a third letter on shore, by some 
of our own people, whom he had captured at sea. 
It run thus : 

" At sea, May ZUh. 
" Gentlemen, See whether you will come to some terms with 
me, or I come in presently with my cutter into the arbour, 
and I will cast dowu the town all over. Make haste, because 
I have no time to spare. I give you a quarter of an hour for 
your decision, and alter I'll make my duty. I think it would 
be better for you, Gentlemen, to come some you aboard present- 
ly, to settle the affairs of your town. You'll sure no to be 
hurt. I give you my parole of honor. I am your," &c. 

To this letter the magistrates sent a verbal reply 
informing Monsieur Fall that they would be glad to 
see him on shore, and, at the same time, they hoisted 
a flag of defiance on the Ballast-hill. Finding all his 
threats in vain, alter firing a few ineffectual shot, the 
Frenchman weighed anchor, sailed in pursuit of some 
sloops which had appeared in the offing, and did not 
return. To prevent the recurrence of insults of this 
kind, a battery was soon after erected by subscrip- 
tion, between the harbour and the sea, on the Ballast- 
hill, mounting 6 twelve-pounders, and having a com- 
plete command of the bay, " so that," adds our an- 
nalist with most excusable triumph, " now no Fall, 
with his Fearnought, dare insult Arbroath with 

ARBUTHNOT,* a parish in the south-east part 
of the county of Kincardine. It is nearly of a trian- 
gular form, with the exception of a small district 
on the south-west side, which forms a projection 
southward of the water of Bervie, which, except at 
this point, divides it from the parishes of Bervie and 

* The name was anciently written Aberbuthenoth, or Aber- 
boiheunthe, as appears from old writings still extant; but 
whence it could be derived, says the writer of the first Statis- 
tical report, is " uncertain, as there is no river or rivulet whose 
influx within its bounds d.uld have occasioned it, if we except 
the Folhy or Forthy which (alls into the Bervy, on the western 
boundary of the parish ; but that rivulet has borne iis present 
name above 6IJ0 years in the bounding charters of some neigh- 
bouring estates. Perhaps the river Bervy, of old, may have 
borne anotner name, which occasioned the name of Aberbmhe- 
lioth, by its influx into the sea. which is about a quarter of a 
mile below the extremity of ibis parish." 'Hie Statistical re- 
porter, in I83S, suggests that the name may signify 'The con. 
fluence of the water below the Baron's hnu-e ;' polk, or hothe. 
nu, signifying a dwelling, a baronial residence; and nttfi, a 
stream that descends or is lower than some other relative ob- 
ject : a description answering to the site of the ancient family 
seat of Arbuthnot in this parish. 

Garvock. Upon the west it is bounded by the 
parishes of Fordoun and Glenbervie, or the great 
hollow of the Mearns, the Bervie and the Forthy 
forming the dividing line on this side; and on the 
north-east and east it is bounded by the parishes of 
Dunottar and Kinneff. The surface presents two 
rising grounds or ridges, with hollows or valleys be- 
twixt them and the boundaries of the parish on each 
side, where the ground again rises to still greater 
height, but in no quarter does the rise much exceed 
600 feet. The narrow valley in which the Bervie runs 
is highly picturesque and beautiful, containing the 
mansions of Arbuthnot and Allardyce, with the 
church situated between them. Within this parish 
there are several freestone quarries of excellent 
quality. In one spot there is a trap-rock full of 
pebbles, with some green jasper of considerable 
beauty ; on the south side of the Bervie, nearly 
opposite the church, a vein of manganese occurs. 
No coal nor lime-stone have been discovered; but 
some chalybeate springs indicate the presence of 
iron. The proprietors are five in number. By a 
map of the county, executed in 1774, it appears that 
there are in this parish 7,785 Scotch, or 9,893 Eng- 
lish acres, of which about two- thirds are cultivated ; 
and about 300 acres are under wood. The Statis- 
tical reporter, in 1838, states that the average rent 
of the arable lands is only 18s. per acre; and that 
the real rental is about £6, "200. The ordinary wages 
of a farm-servant, or ploughman, was, in 1796, from 
.£8 to £10 per annum ; they now receive from £11 
to £13. The wages of female farm-servants was, 
in 1796, from £3 10s. to £4; they are now from 
£4 to £5 10s. Tradesmen's wages, such as masons 
and carpenters, was, at the former date, Is. 6d. or 
Is. 8(1. per day; they now receive 2s. Population, 
in 1801, 942; in 1831, 944. Houses 187. Assessed 
property, in 1815, £5,772. — This parish is in the 
presbytery of Fordoun, and synod of Angus and 
Mearns. Viscount Arbuthnot is patron. Minister's 
stipend £225 0s. 9d. ; with a manse, and a glebe of 
the annual value of £9. The church, which is on 
the northern bank of the Bervie, about 2 miles 
north-east of the town of Bervie, is a very ancient 
fabric, but in good repair; sittings 440. Adjoining 
to the church is an aisle of beautiful workmanship, 
which was built by Alexander Arbuthnot, designed, 
in the appendix to Spottiswood's History, brother 
to the baron of Arbuthnot, and parson of Arbuthnot 
and Logie-Buchan. He was elected the first Prc- 
testant principal of King's college, Aberdeen, in 1569. 
The lower part of this aisle was intended and has 
been used as a burial-place for the family of Arbuth- 
not. In the upper part was a well-finished apart, 
ment filled with books chiefly in divinity, bequeathed 
by the Rev. John Sibbald, one of the ministers of 
Arbuthnot, for the use of his successors, but which 

have all disappeared The schoolmaster's salary is 

£34 4s. 4id., with about £10 fees; pupils average 
40. There are three small private schools in the 

parish The family of Sibbalds of Kair, one of the 

most ancient in the county, possessed very extensive 
property here. Among the last of this family was 
Dr. David Sibbald, who having been preceptor to 
the duke of Gloucester, son to Charles I., suffered 
much on account of his loyalty in the civil wars, 
was imprisoned in London, and had his estate for- 
feited. He lived, however, to witness the restora- 
tion of Charles II., and died in his o«n house of 
Kair, in 1661. The celebrated Dr. Arbuthnot, phy- 
sician to Queen Anne, had his birth and early educa- 
tion in this parish. He was son to Alexander 
Arbuthnot minister here, who was deprived for 
nonconformity in the year 16S9. Dr. Arbuthnot 
received the first part of his education at the parish- 




school of Arbuthnot, whence he and his elder bro- 
ther Robert, afterwards a banker at Paris, removed 
to Marischal college of Aberdeen, about the year 
1680. This parish gives the title of viscount to the 
ancient family of Arbuthnot. The principal mansions 
in the parish are the modern house of Kair in the 
south-west corner of the parish ; Arbuthnot house 
about 2 miles further down the course of the Bervie ; 
and Allardyce house, near the church. 

ARCHAIG (Loch), a beautiful sheet of water 
in the parish of Kilmallie, Inverness-shire, about 16 
or 17 miles in length, and from 1 to \& in breadth. 
It is only about 2 miles distant from the south-west 
extremity of Loch-Lochy, and about 10 miles from 
the Neptune inn at the western end of the Caledo- 
nian canal. This loch presents one of those many 
spots of surpassing beauty which are so numerous 
in Scotland, and yet so little known : hundreds of 
tourists pass within a very short distance of this 
loch every season without one paying it a visit ; and if 
the masters of the steam-boats which ply on the canal 
are aware of its existence at all, they are utterly 
ignorant of its picturesque and romantic beauty. 
Even Macculloch, indefatigable as he was in his re- 
searches, omitted visiting this enchanting spot. " It 
is said," he tells us, " that Loch-Arkeg is a pictur- 
esque lake, though unknown ; which seems probable 
from the forms of the hills, and the nature of the 
country. But on this I must confess ignorance, and 
plead misfortune, not guilt ; the flight of what never 
ceases any where to fly — time ; and the fall of what 
seldom ceases here to fall — rain." The opening of 
the glen of Archaig is divided by a ridge of hills into 
two valleys of unequal breadth. This ridge com- 
mences near the farm of Clunes, rising in little round 
knolls crowned with wood, which gradually increase 
in height as they penetrate the glen, till tbey termi- 
nate abruptly in a lofty wooded precipice, the base 
of which is washed by the waters of the lake. In 
the southern — which is the broadest of these divi- 
sions — are situated the pleasure-grounds and house 
of Achnacary, the family-mansion of Cameron of 
Lochiel. Through the other, which is called Mil- 
dubh, or ' the dark mile,' there is a road to the shores 
of the lake. The lake may be approached by either 
of these openings, but the scenery of the latter is the 
most picturesque and romantic. Indeed, we know 
of hardly any place which can be put in competition 
with the Mil-dubh. It is a narrow, wooded pass, 
bounded on the one hand by the ridge already men- 
tioned, which separates it from Achnacary ; and on 
the other by a lofty barrier of almost perpendicular 
rocks. Great masses of these immense rocks have 
fallen down in various places, and now form small 
hills at the base of the precipices from which they 
have been detached. The whole pass is covered 
with trees — chiefly pine and birch — from its very 
bottom to the top of the mountains on both sides. 
Even the perpendicular barrier of rock on the north 
is covered with wood to the summit. Every inter- 
stice or opening in the rock seems to give root to a 
tree ; and so much is this the case, that in many 
places the rocks are completely hid by the leaty 
screen which covers and ornaments them ; yet a 

freat deal of the wood which once occupied this pass 
as been cut down, and it has consequently lost 
something of the dark look which it formerly had, 
and which gave rise to its name. Indeed, it may be 
questioned whether the effect has not been increased 
by removing part of the wood. The numerous par- 
tial and varied lights which have thus been let in 
upon the scene, the exposure of the rocks which has 
been made in various places, and the shadowy gloom 
preserved on others, give a life and character to the 
pass of the Mil-dubh which is inexpressibly enchant- 

ing. The glen of Achnacary is also fine, though of 
a different style of beauty. The scenery is here of 
a more open character, — but still beautifully wooded, 
and more cultivated. The tourist will do well to 
visit both places, but he should most certainly ap- 
proach Loch-Archaig by the pass of the Mil-dubh. 
By this road the lake is entirely hid till the traveller 
is close upon it. After penetrating through the 
pass, and just before entering on the lake, a small 
stream, falling over the rocks to the north, forms a 
pleasing cascade finely fringed with trees and under- 
wood which overhang and almost dip into its waters. 
Immediately afterwards the lake begins to appear, 
small apparently at first, but gradually enlarging as 
we advance. Ascending a small hill a short way up 
its northern shore, its whole extent is opened" up, 
stretching far to the west, and surrounded with dark 
and lofty mountains, — its shores richly wooded, and 
indented by winding bays and jutting promontories. 
Two or three small islands speck its bosom, and im- 
mediately opposite, on the southern shore, a dark 
forest of natural pine trees of great size frowns over 
it. Looking to the east, across the lower portion of 
the lake, we have the opening of Achnacary, with its 
house and pleasure-grounds ; and in the distance, the 
waters of Loch-Lochy, with the mountain-barrier on 
its opposite shore. Altogether, Loch-Archaig affords 
scenery of the finest description, and it is question- 
able if it is excelled, or even equalled, by any of our 
Scottish lakes. The shores of this romantic lake 
more than once gave shelter to Prince Charles after 
his discomfiture at Culloden. A few days after that 
fatal encounter, he lodged at the house of Donald 
Cameron of Glenpean, on this lake. After -his re- 
turn from the islands, he and Donald Cameron slept 
for some hours on the top of a mountain called Mam- 
nan-Callum, on the shores of this lake, within sight 
of the encampment of his pursuers, which was not 
above a mile distant. Here they arrived in the 
morning, and remained till evening watching the mo- 
tions of their enemies; at night-fall they betook 
themselves to Corrie-nan-gaul, in Knoidart, in which 
latter district he wandered for some time. Again, 
however, he was hunted by his ruthless pursuers 
towards Lochaber ; and again the shores of Loch- 
Archaig afforded him shelter. Cameron of Clunes, 
the ancestor of the present possessor of that farm, 
being himself in peril, bad erected a hut on a hill, 
called Tor-a-muilt, or ' the Wedder's hill,' at the 
bottom of Loch-Archaig. To this place the prince 
was taken by Clunes, and here he lurked securely, 
though in the immediate neighbourhood of his foes, 
for several days. At this period Charles is described 
as wearing a shirt extremely soiled, an old tartan 
coat, a plaid, and a philabeg. He was bare-footed, 
and had a long beard. In his hand he usually carried 
a musket, and he had a dirk and pistol by his side. 
A few years ago, an ancient claymore, much injured 
with rust, was found near the site of this hut, which, 
in all probability, had belonged to Charles, or some 
of his friends. It was on the shores of Loch-Archaig 
that Munro of Culcairn was shot by an exasperated 
Highlander, shortly after the suppression of the Re- 
bellion ; and it reflects infinite credit on this people, 
that notwithstanding all the calamities they suffered, 
this is the only instance of assassination which can 
be brought against them. Mr. Chambers [History 
of the Rebellion in 1745, vol. ii. p. 139.] has erred in 
several particulars in his account of this affair. The 
perpetrator was not a servant of Glengarry, but one 
of the clan Cameron, who resided on Loch-Archaig; 
his name was Dugald Roy Cameron, or, as he is still 
styled in tradition, Du Rhu. It is well-known that an 
order was issued to the Highlanders to deliver up their 
arms after the Rebellion. Dugald willing to make 




his peace with the government, sent his son to Fort- 
William with his arms, to be delivered up. The 
young man when coming down Loch-Archaig was met 
by an officer of the name of Grant, who was conduct- 
ing a party of military into Knoidart. This monster 
immediately seized the young man, and notwith- 
standing his statement as to the object of his going 
to Fort- William, ordered him to be shot on the spot. 
His father, fired at this savage deed, swore to be 
revenged, and learning that the officer rode a white 
horse, watched his return behind a rock, on a height 
above Loch-Archaig. Major Munro had unfortunate- 
ly borrowed the white horse on which Grant rode, 
and he met the fate which was intended for another. 
Dugald Roy escaped at the time, and afterwards be- 
came a soldier in the British service. 

ARCLET (Loch), a small gloomy-looking sheet 
of water in the north-west corner of the parish of 
Buchanan in Stirlingshire, and bordering on Aberfoyle 
parish. A stream flows out of its western side into 
Loch Lomond at Inversnaid; while the sources of 
the Forth are within half-a-mile of it on the south ; 
so that it appears to lie on the dividing ridge betwixt 
the waters of the two friths. The road from Inver- 
snaid to Loch Katerine passes on the southern side 
of the loch, which is wholly destitute of picturesque 

ARD (Loch), a beautiful sheet of water in the 
parish of Aberfoyle, at the eastern base of Ben- 
Lomond. By a mountain-road, which is often tra- 
velled, it is about 7 miles distant from the Trosachs. 
The distance from Glasgow to Aberfoyle is about 30 
miles, and from the parish-church to the entrance of 
the lake, a mile. There are in fact two lakes, which 
are separated from each other by a stream about 200 
yards in length ; but the lower lake is of small ex- 
tent, its length being scarcely a mile, and its breadth 
about half-a-mile. The upper lake is 5 miles in 
length, and 2 miles broad. The valley of Aberfoyle, 
with its varied rocks and precipices, and its river 
winding amid pleasant meadows and richly wooded 
hills, is very beautiful ; but Loch-Ard, with its ad- 
joining scenery, is the object of greatest interest in 
the district, and yields to none of the Scottish lakes 
in picturesque beauty and effect. The traveller, 
leaving Aberfoyle, after a walk of about a mile, 
arrives at the opening of the lower lake, the view of 
which is uncommonly grand. Far in the west Ben- 
Lomond raises his huge and lofty form amid the 
clouds ; while in nearer prospect are beheld gentle 
rising grounds covered to their summits with oak 
trees and waving birch. In front, are the smooth 
« aters of the lower lake ; its right banks skirted 
with extensive woods which cover the adjoining 
mountains up to half their height. This, with the 
nearly inaccessible tract which lies to the westward, 
is what is called the Pass of Aberfoyle, and ancient- 
ly formed one of the barriers between the Highlands 
and the Lowlands. This pass has been the scene of 
many tierce encounters in former times ; in particu- 
lar, one took place here between the Highlanders and 
the troops of Cromwell, in which the English sol- 
diers were defeated. Advancing up the pass, the 
traveller arrives at the upper portion of the lake. 
A fine view of it is obtained from a rising ground 
near its lower end, where a footpath strikes off the 
road into the wood that overhangs the stream, con- 
necting the upper with the lower lake; or a still 
finer, perhaps, from a height about 2 miles up the 
eastern side of the lake, a little way below what 
is called the Priest's point, or craig. Here the 
lake is seen almost in its whole expanse, — its 
shores beautifully skirted with woods, and its 
northern and western extremities finely diversified 
with meadows, corn fields, and farm-houses. On 

the opposite shore, Ben-Lomond towers aloft in 
form like a cone, its sides presenting gentle slopes 
towards the north-west and south-east. A cluster 
of rocky islets, near the opposite shore, lend their aid 
in ornamenting the surface of the waters of the lake : 
and numerous rocky promontories and sheltered bays 
with their waving woods increase the effect of the 
scene. A small wooded island, seen near the oppo- 
site shore, on the right side, is Duke Murdoch's isle. 
On this islet Murdoch, Duke of Albany, Regent of 
Scotland during the captivity of James I. in England, 
erected a tower or castle, the ruins of which still re- 
main; and tradition reports, that it was from hence 
he was taken previous to his execution at Stirling. 
On the shores of Loch-Ard, near a ledge, or rather 
wall of rock, about 30 feet in height, there is a sin- 
gular echo which repeats a few words twice over. 

ARDARGIE, a small village in the shire ot Perth, 
and parish of Forgandenny, situate upon an eminence 
above the river May, among the Ochilis. 


ARDBLAIR, an ancient mansion in the parish of 
Blair-Gowrie. It is one of those ancient massive- 
looking structures which partake, in a nearly equal 
degree, of the gloomy, Irowning, suspicious-looking 
style of the olden time, and the more open and com- 
modious fashion of our own da\s. The castle 
is one of the family-seats of Mr. Blair Oliphant of 
Gask and Ardblair, but it is now occupied by the 
tenant of the adjoining farm. On the south side of 
the house lies the moss of Ardblair, a tract of some 
20 or 30 acres, covered with reeds and pools. 

ARDCHATTAN, a district of Argyle, consisting 
quoad civilia of the two united parishes of Ardchattan 
and Muckairn, anciently called Ballebhodan and 
Kilespickarrol,— the latter denoting the burial-place 
of Bishop Cerylus or Cerullus, and the former sig- 
nifying St. Bede's town or place of residence. The 
walls of a small church, supposed to have been built 
by St. Bede, still remain entire, having withstood 
the storms and tempests "of several centuries. The 
united parish is an immense district extending aboce 
30 miles in length, and being from 15 to 20 in 
breadth at an average. It stretches along the southern 
shore of Loch Creran, and on both sides of Loch 
Etive ; but the parish of Muckairn, on the southern 
side of Loch Etive, was again disjoined from it quoad 
sacra in 1829. See Muckairn. The surface is for 
the most part mountainous, intersected with streams 
of water, and highly diversified with heights and 
hollows. There are several rivers abounding with 
excellent trout in the district ; the most considerable 
are the Awe, the Kinloss, and the Etive. Near the 
mouth of the former is a valuable salmon-fishing. 
The most remarkable hill is Ben-Cruachan, which 
is in the centre of the parish, and 13 or 14 miles in 
circuit at the base. See article Ben-Cruachan. The 
district abounds with natural wood ; and there are a 
few plantations of pines and Scotch firs. Every 
cutting of the woods is supposed to yield the pro. 
prietors no less than £15,000 or £16,000 sterling. 
They consist of ash, birch, hazel, and alder, but 
chiefly oak. Roes and fallow-deer run wild in the 
woods ; and there is a forest in Glenetive pretty 
well-stocked with red deer. Foxes, hares, wild-cats, 
pole-cats, martins, weazels, otters, badgers, black- 
cocks, moorfoul, ptarmigans, partridges, plovers, 
eagles, and hawks, are found here. The soil is 
generally light and dry, and when properly culti- 
vated, and allowed time to rest, produces excellent 
crops of oats, barley, and potatoes. About 1753, a 
companv from Lancashire erected a furnace for cast- 
ing pig-iron at Lorn-Quarnan in Muckairn, and ob- 
tained a long lease of several farms for rearing wood 
and grazing their \\ oik-horses. In 1831, thij cors- 




puny employed 68 men in cutting and charring wood 
for their works. The number of horses, including 
breeding-mares, in the district, in 1792, amounted, at 
the lowest computation, to 450. Their price, it was 
then stated, had advanced considerably within these 
few years, as they then cost from £10 to .£12. The 
number of black cattle in the parish, at the same 
date, was from 2,600 to 2,800 ; and they generally 
brought from £4 to £6 per head. The sheep 
amounted to between 28,000 and 30,000, and sold 
from 10s. to 40s. per head. " All kinds of pro- 
visions," says the Statistical reporter in 1792, " are 
considerably increased in price. As there is no pub- 
lic market, every family must provide their own 
necessaries. A fat cow for slaughter, which 30 
years ago could be bought at £2 10s., now costs £6; 
wethers, butter, cheese, geese, and hens, in proportion. 
Meal, at an average, is 16s., bailey 21s per boll, at 
least. The day- wages of men-labourers are Is. with- 
out victuals; of masons Is- 6d., and of wrights Is. 
6d. Men-servants get from £6 to £8 per annum ; 
and female ditto, from £3 to £3 10s." The valued 
rent is £587 7s. 4d. Scots. The real rent was sup- 
posed, in 1792, to be between £4,000 and £5,000 
sterling, exclusive of the cutting of the woods and 
the kelp-shores. The largest estate, that of Bar- 
caldine, is about 12 miles north-east from Oban, 28 
miles south-west from Fort- William, and the like 
distance north-west from Inverary. It is situated on 
Loch Creran, and comprehends the whole of the 
southern banks of Loch Creran, a stretch of about 
12 miles of coast, while at one point on the south it 
nearly reaches Loch Etive. This estate contains 
10,741 acres Scots, or 13,546 imperial; but a large ad- 
dition may be made on account of the great inequality 
of surface throughout, particularly on the hills and 
woods, so that the true extent of surface-measure 
may fairly be taken at upwards of 15,000 imperial 
acres. The rental, including the value of the sheep- 
farms and the wood-cuttings, was estimated, in 1835, 
at nearly £2,700. According to Dr. Webster, the 
number of inhabitants in the united parishes amount- 
ed, in 1755, to 2,195 ; in 1801, it was 2,371 ; and in 
1831, 2,420, of whom 1,650 belonged to Ardchattan, 
and 770 to the district of Muckairn. Houses 442. 
of which 155 were in Muckairn. Assessed property 
£12,593. — The parish of Ardchattan is in the pres- 
bytery of Lorn, and synod of Argyle. By decreet of 
locality, in 1817, the whole valued teinds of Ard- 
chattan and Muckairn were granted to the minister 
of Ardchattan. Stipend £283 3s. 2d., with a rnanse, 
and glebe of the annual value of £8. There are 
three places of worship, Ardchattan, Muckairn, and 
Inverguesechan in Glenetive : at the last place there 
is a missionary, who preaches alternately with the 
missionary of Glenco and Glencreran. Campbell of 
Lochnell is patron. A new and more centrically 
situated church was opened in Ardchattan parish, in 
July 1836 ; sittings 450 ; both the old and new- 
churches are situated close upon the northern shore 
of Loch Etive, the former 10 miles, and the latter 8 
from the western boundary, and 30 and 32 miles 
respectively from the north-eastern boundary. There 
are two parochial schools, one in Ardchattan and the 
other in Muckairn. The salary of the schoolmaster 
of Ardchattan is £29 16s. 7jd., with about £11 
school-fees. Number of pupils average 40. There 
are also two schools in this district supported by the 
General Assembly, and attended by about 180 chil- 
dren. There are a parish-library, and two itinerating 
libraries. A school is established in the lower part 
of Ardchattan parish by the society for propagating 
Christian knowledge, with a salary of £13 sterling; 
and the schoolmaster's wife has from the society £3 
sterling, for teaching young girls to spin, and knit 

stockings. There are, besides, 3 or 4 private schools 
in remote parts of this district, supported by the 
neighbouring tenants whose children have not access 
to the public schools. The number of scholars at 
all these, at the lowest calculation, amounts to 200 in 
winter. On the north side of Loch Etive, 10 miles 
distant from Dunstaffnage, was a priory of the monks 
of Valliscaulium, founded in the year 1230, by Dun- 
can Mackoul — ancestor to the Macdougals of Lorn. 
Some of the walls of the old priory are still standing. 
" The proprietor's dwelling-house," we are told, 
" was formerly a part of the monastery, and his offices 
occupy great part of the ground on which it stood. 
What now remains of the priory is converted into 
burying-ground." In the walls are two stone coffins 
in niches, one of which is ornamented " with a font, 
and an inscription in the Runic character." [Statis- 
tical account, 1792.] We are informed by some of 
our writers, that Robert Bruce held a parliament 
here, when he retired into this district after his de- 
feat in the battle of Methven. But, as Pennant has 
remarked, it was " more probably a council," as " he 
remained long master of this country, before he got 
entire possession of Scotland." The common lan- 
guage is the Celtic : the names of all the farms are 
derived from it, and are in general descriptive of their 
situations. Loch Etive, which divides Ardchattan 
from Muckairn and two other parishes, is a navigable 
inlet of the sea, 15 miles in length, but of unequal 
breadth. See article Etive (Loch). The valley 
of Eta is famous as having been the residence of Us- 
nath, father of Nathos, Althos, and Ardan ; the first 
of whom carried off Darthula, wife of Conquhan, 
King of Ulster, which is the subject of a beautiful 
poem of Ossian. There is a small island, with some 
vestiges of a house upon it in Loch Etive, which 
goes by the name of Elain Usnich, or ' the island of 
Usnath ;' and on the farm of Dulness, in Glenetive, 
is a rock rising in the form of a cone, and command- 
ing a romantic prospect, which to this day retains 
the name of Grianan Dearduil, ' the basking-place 
of Darthula.' See, in addition to articles above re- 
ferred to, articles Beregonium, and Connal. 

ARDCLACH, a parish in the county of Nairn, 
bounded by Auldearn, Nairn, Cawdor, Mov, Duthil, 
and Edinkelly parishes; about 10 or 12 miles long, 
and between 7 and 8 broad. It is intersected by the 
Findhorn river, which is here rapid, and frequently 
impassable, excepting at the bridges. In 1809 the 
parliamentary commissioners authorized the execu- 
tion of a road from Belugas, along the eastern side 
of the Findhorn, to join the old military road from 
Fort George to Edinburgh, through Strathspey and 
Braemar, near Dulsie bridge, and thus connect For- 
res with the Aviemore road and the south of Scot- 
land. A. branch-road falls into this at Tominarroch, 
half-way between the bridge at Relugas and Dulsie 
bridge, connecting it with Nairn. The distance of 
the kirk of Ardclach from Nairn by this branch-road 
is about 9 miles. The valley of the Findhorn here 
presents very beautiful scenery. " The whole coun- 
try for several miles eastward is composed of a high- 
ly crystalline porpbyritic granite, displaying, in some 
instances, faces of a hard columnar rock, which confine 
the waters of the Findhorn to a deep, narrow, and ir- 
regular channel ; and in other places giving rise — from 
a tendency in their masses to exfoliate and decom- 
pose — to open holms and smooth grassy banks. All 
the varieties of hardwood characteristic of the course 
of Scottish rivers are seen in rich profusion on both 
sides of the stream ; while the adjoining hills also 
exhibit a few scattered remnants of the ancient pine 
forests which formerly covered the country. To- 
wards the east, the eye is attracted by the bright 
light green masses of the oak and birchen copses of 



Tarnaway and Relugas, which form the outer fringes 
of the more sombre pine woods. About a mile below 
Dulsie, a beautiful sequestered holm greets the tra- 
veller, encircled with terraced banks and birchen 
bowers; and in the centre of which rises a small 
cairn, with an ancient sculptured tablet, about eight 
feet high, and half as broad, standing at one end of 
t, and having a rude cross and many Runic knots 
still discernible on its surface. Tradition calls it the 
stone of memorial of a Celtic princess, who perished 
in the adjoining river, while attempting to ford it on 
horseback with her lover, a Dane. Immediately 
behind this spot, the high promontory of Farness 
rises nearly 200 feet above the river, the direct 
course of which it has shifted, and confined to a deep 
winding chasm of at least 3 miles' circuit." [Ander- 
sons' Guide, pp. 132, 133 : edn. 1834.] See article 
Dulsie. This parish is a mountainous district, 
covered with heath, and furnishes little of any other 
kind of pasture. There is a considerable quantity of 
wood in it, chiefly consisting of firs, birch, alder, hazel, 
ash, and some oaks. The woods and hills abound 
with moor-fowl, wood-cocks, partridges, hares, and 
foxes, and some deer are found. The otter and 
wild cat are sometimes seen. The Statistical re- 
porter of 1792, stated that the method of labouring 
pursued here seemed to have undergone "little al- 
teration for centuries back. The farmers use the 
small Scotch plough drawn by four or six black cat- 
tle and two small horses, or by four horses and four 
black cattle." This mode of ploughing is now dis- 
used, and the agriculture of the district greatly im- 
proved. The rental produced before the court of 
teinds, in 1786, was 283 bolls victual, and £543 8s. 
5d. in money. Since that period, there has been a 
great increase of rent in the parish. There are about 
2,000 acres of arable land, and 4,000 acres of moss 
and moor, a very small part of which seems to be 
improvable for corn-lands, in this parish. Popula- 
tion, in 1801, 1,256; in 1831, 1,270. Houses 295. 

Assessed property £2,566 This parish is in the 

presbvterv of Nairn, and svnod of Morav. Patron, 
Brodie of Letham. Stipend £248 Is' Id. The 
church is said to have been built in 1626, and was re- 
builtabout 1760. Schoolmaster's salary £36 7s. 2d., 
with £i 10s. fees. Average number of scholars 20. 
There are two private schools in the parish attended 
by about 30 children each. 

ARDEONAIG, or Loch Tayslde, a mission un- 
der the Society for propagating Christian knowledge, 
which was divided as a separate charge from the 
parishes of Killin and Kenmore, in Perthshire, by 
authority of the presbytery of Dunkeld, about 1786, 
and consists of portions of these two parishes. Its 
greatest length is 7 miles ; greatest breadth, 4. 
Population, in 1831, 650. Church built by the 
Marquis of Breadalbane, in 1822; sittings 650. 
Minister's stipend .£60, with a manse, and a glebe of 
the value of £12. 

ARDERSIER, written Ardnaseer in some char- 
ters, a parish of Inverness-shire. According to tra- 
dition, it obtained its name from a number of car- 
penters having been drowned in the ferry opposite 
Ardersier point, in the year in which the cathedral 
at Elgin, and that at Fortrose, were built* The 
parish is 2i miles in length, and its breadth is nearly 
the same. " It is bounded by the parish of Petty on 
the west and south ; by the parish of Nairn on the 

* In the Gaelic language, saor signifies * a carpenter,' and 
ard, ' high.' That part or the parish approaching the coast is 
high, rising id some places to 300 feet ; and it may therefore have 
received its name from such an accident; "but it is fully as 
natural to conclude," says the first Statistical reporter, "that 
it obtained its name from its hitih situation, and that Ard-na- 
njor is a corruption ol ard'n Fliaobhair, which signifies ' the 
high edge,' or ' height of the edge,' i. e. of the hill." 

east, and by the Moray frith on the north. Popula- 
tion, in 1801, 1,041 ; 'in 1831, 1,268. Houses 271 
Assessed property £1,275. The district in general is 
very fertile. The shore is sandy and flat, which is 
the character of the whole of this side of the Moray 
frith from Inverness to Nairn. The rental of the 
parish, including the farm sold to government when 
the garrison of Fort-George was built, was £365 in 
1792 ; the rent of the garrison-farm was £50. At that 
period nearly the whole parish was in the possession 
of one farmer, but the greater part was subset by him 
in small farms of from 20 to 30 acres. There were 
scarcely any enclosing- walls known except a few rude- 
ly constructed of feal or earth This parish is in the 

presbytery of Nairn, and synod of Moray. Patron, 
the Earl of Cawdor. The church and manse were 
represented, in the first Statistical report, as having 
been built with clay in 1769. The stipend is £158 
6s. 7d. Schoolmaster's salary £36, with £20 fees. 
There are two private schools. The Gaelic and 
English languages are spoken here equally well. 
The roads are exceedingly good. Where this parish 
is divided from that of Nairn, there is a stone about 
6 feet high, and 3 broad, called the Cabbac stone, 
which, tradition says, was erected over a chieftain 
who fell in an affray about a cheese, in the town of 
Inverness. The whole parish is the property of the 
Earl of Cawdor, and was a part of the lands of the 
Bishop of Ross, with some temple-lands formerly 
belonging to the knights of St. John of Jerusalem. 
The territory which constitutes the precinct of the 
Fort, was purchased by government about the year 
1746. See article Fort-George. Near to Arder- 
sier — which is situate on the southern shore of the 
Varar — a very curious Roman sword and the head 
of a spear were discovered. 

ARDGOUR, or Ardgower, a district in the 
shires of Argyle and Inverness ; bounded on the 
north-west by Loch Shiel, and on the north and 
east by Loch Eil. There is an excellent road from 
Loch Moidart to the Corran of Ardgour ; and from 
the latter place there is a ferry across Loch Eil to 
the military road from Fort- William to the Lo w coun- 
try. See articles Loch Shiel and Loch Eil. In 
1829 a church was erected here by the parliamentary 
commissioners. See article Ballachulish 

ARDINTENNY, a pleasant little hamlet, in the 
parish of Strachur, Argyleshire, on the west side of 
Loch Long, 4 miles from Strone ferry, and about 3 
from Loch Eck, to which there is a road by Cuills 
and Tavnforlin. 

ARDLAMONT, a headland of Argyleshire, be- 
tween the kyles of Bute and the mouth of Loch 
Fyne. It is 6 miles north-east from Skipnish, the 
opposite point on the western side of the loch. 

ARDMADDY, in Nether Lorn, at the southern 
entrance of the singularly intricate and narrow chan- 
nel, or kyle, between the island of Seil and the 
mainland of Argyleshire. There is a small bay here, 
the shores of which are bold, and finely wooded. 
Pennant was hospitably received at Ardmaddy house, 
and has thrown his reflections on the condition ot 
the Highland peasantry into the form of a vision with 
which he represents himself as having been favoured 
here. [See Second Tour, in Kerr's Collection of 
Voyages and Travels, vol. iii. pp. 357 — 360.] A 
quarrv of white marble veined with red exists here. 

ARDMEANACH, or The Black Isle, a pen- 
insular district of Cromartyshire, bounded on the 
north-west and north by the Cromarty frith ; on the 
east by the Moray frith; on the south by Loch 
Beauly ; and on the west by the vale of the Conan. 
It comprises 8 parishes ; and receives its English 
name from its bleak, moorland character. It is now. 
however, well-intersected by roads. 




ARDMHERIGIE. See Laggan (Loch). 

ARDNAMURCHAN, a bold promontory in the 
district of Morvern, Argyleshice; the most western 
point of the mainland of Scotland, in N. lat. 56° 
45', W. long. 6° 8' 30". It forms the northern point 
of the mouth of Loch Sunart ; and is 10 miles dis- 
tant from the north-eastern extremity of the island 
of Coll, and 7 from the island of Muck. The shores 
here are rugged and uninteresting; and the interior 
from the Point to Strontian, a distance of about 25 
miles, mountainous, bare, and wild. 

ARDNAMURCHAN, or Aird-na-mor-Chuan, 
i. e. ' The Point of the Great Seas,' a parish partly 
in the shire of Argyle, and partly in that of Inver- 
ness. It is in the presbytery of Mull, and synod 
of Argyle. Patron, the Duke of Argyle. The po- 
pulation of this parish, chiefly composed of small 
tenants and poor crofters, was as follows : 

1801. 1811. 1831. 
That part, which is in the shire of Argyle 2664 2827 3311 
That part, which is in the shire of Inverness 2165 2324 2358 

4829 5151 5669 

The labourers not agricultural are employed in 
making kelp, fishing, and in driving black cattle to 
the South country markets. Houses in Argyleshire 
589; in Inverness-shire 397. The headland above 
described gives name to the parish. It appears, 
that, in the year 1630, the western or peninsular 
portion of the district formed a separate parish called 
Kill-Choan, from a church of that name dedicated 
to St. Coan ; the remaining districts of the present 
parish of Ardnamurchan formed a second parish, 
under the name of Eileinfirman or Island Finan, from 
a beautiful little island in Loch Sheil, then the resi- 
dence of the minister, and site of the principal church. 
In still more ancient times, the two most northern 
districts probably formed a third parish, named Kill- 
Maria, or Kilmarie, after a church — some vestiges of 
which still remain at Kcppoch in Arisaig — dedicated to 
the Virgin Mary. It has again been divided into three 
parishes by the erection of the Government-church 
districts of Acharacle and Strontian into quoad sacra 
parishes. Within the limits of this extensive parish 
are comprehended five several districts, or countries, 
as they are here called, viz. : 1st, Ardnamurchan 
Proper, or the parish of Kill-Choan, which is 16 
miles in length, and 4i miles in its mean breadth ; — 
2d, Sunart, which is 12 miles by 6; — 3d, Mot- 
dart, which is 18 miles by 7; — 4th, Arisaig; — 
and, 5th, South Mor'ar. The two first of these 
districts are in the shire of Argyle ; they join at 
Tarbert in an isthmus of about 2 miles in breadth, 
extending from Salen, a creek on the north side of 
Loch Sunart, to Kinira bay ; and extend in one range 
from east to west. The others are. in the shire of In- 
verness, and lie parallel to each other and to Sunart, 
from which Moidart is separated by Loch Sheil ; 
the river Sheil being the boundary between the 
north-east corner of Ardnamurchan Proper, and the 
south-west of Moidart, for about 3 miles, to its fall 
into the sea at Castle Tioram. The greatest length 
of the entire parish, calculating by the nearest road, 
is not less than 70 miles ; its greatest breadth 40. 
It is calculated to contain 273,280 acres of land 
and water ; of which, it is believed, about 200,000 
acres are land. It consists, principally, of moors, 
and mountains, and hills, in general more rugged 
and precipitous than of great elevation, the high- 
est not exceeding 3,000 feet. There is a con- 
siderable extent of oak-coppice on the shores 
of Loch Sunart. Ardnamurchan and Sunart be- 
long to Sir James Milles Riddell, Bart. : — great 
part of Moidart, and all Arisaig,, belong to Mac- 
tlonald of Clanianald. Mingary castle, now Castle 

Riddell, is ruinous. Castle Tioram was burned in 
1715, since which time it has been in ruins. The 
houses of Kinloch-Moidart (since rebuilt in an 
elegant style by Colonel Donald Macdonald), and 
Mor'ar, together with every hut which they could 
discover, were burned by the king's troops in 1746, 
who also destroyed all the stock of cattle. The 
annual produce of the fisheries on the coast was com- 
puted, in 1800, at £240. This huge parish is 
now separated into two divisions, — northern and 
southern, — by quoad sacra parishes, which interpose 
between each division a space of fully 20 miles. 
The southern division contains the parish-church, 
and is 12 miles long by 6 broad ; the northern, or 
Arisaig, is 24 miles by 15, and -is chiefly inhabited by 
Roman Catholics. See Arisaig. The present 
parish-church was built in 1830 ; sittings 600. Sti- 
pend £228 4s. 4d., with a manse and glebe, and 
fuel. The salary of the parochial schoolmaster in 
Ardnamurchan is £16 13s. 4d. The Society for 
propagating Christian knowledge allow to a school- 
master in Sunart £12 10s., and to a sewing- 
mistress there £2 ; and also to a schoolmaster in 
Arisaig, and South Mor'ar £16: the perquisites 
of the masters are inconsiderable. The lead mines 
at Strontian are carried on by an English com- 
pany, and annually produce about £4,000 : a new 
mineral was discovered here, which is distinguished 
by the title of Strontites; its chemical qualities are 
ably described by Mr. Kinvan, in the 5th volume of 
the Transactions of The Royal Irish Academy. An 
excellent road has been made through this extensive 
district, from Loch Moidart to the Corran of Ard- 
gour, under the auspices of The Parliamentary com- 
missioners and the several great landed proprietors; 
but communication is still much impeded by bridge- 
less rivers, marshy ground, and want of roads. Fairs 
are bolden on the 19th of May, and 15th of October. 
ARDOCH, a village in the parish of Muthill, 
Perthshire ; 4i miles south-west of Muthill ; now 
more commonly called Braco, from the estate oil* 
which it is feued. Population about 400. Achapel- 
of-ease was erected here in 1780; and the district, 
including some portions of the parishes of Dunblane 
and Blackford, has been erected into a quoad sacra 
parish, with a population of 1,535. There are also 
a United Secession church, situated about li mile 

south of Ardoch, and two schools, in this district 

Ardoeh is celebrated for its Roman camp, which is 
regarded by antiquaries as the most perfect specimen 
of the kind now extant in Britain. It is situated 
on an eminence close on the north side of — or rather 
intersected by — the high road from Crieff or Muthill, 
to Stirling ; and is thus described in the first Statis- 
tical report : " The situation of the camp at Ardoch 
gave it many advantages ; being on the north-west 
side of a deep moss that runs a long way eastward. 
On the west side, it is partly defended by the steep 
banks of the water of Knaick ; which bank rises 
perpendicularly between forty and fifty feet. The 
north and east sides were most exposed ; and there 
we find very particular care was taken to secure 
them. The ground on the east is pretty regular, 
and descends by a gentle slope from the lines of for- 
tification, which, on that side, consist of five rows 
of ditches, perfectly entire, and running parallel to 
one another. These altogether are about fifty-five 
yards in breadth. On the north side, there is an 
equal number of lines and ditches, but twenty yards 
broader than the former. On the west, besides the 
steep precipices above mentioned, it was defended 
by at least two ditches. One is still visible ; the 
others have probably been rilled up, in making the 
great military road from Stirling to the North. The 
side of the camp, lung to the southward, exhibits to 




the antiquary a less pleasing prospect. Here the 
peasant's rugged hand has laid in ruins a great part 
of the lines ; so that it may be with propriety said, 
in the words of a Latin poet, ' Jam seges est, ubi 
Troja fuit.' However, from the remains yet to be 
traced, it appears there were also three or four 
ditches, which, with its natural advantages, rendered 
this side as strong and as secure as any of the others. 
The four entries, crossing the lines at right angles, 
are still distinctly to be seen. The area of the camp 
is an oblong of 140 yards, by 125 within the lines. 
The general's quarter rises above the level of the 
camp, but is not in the centre. It is a regular square, 
each side being exactly twenty yards. At present 
it exhibits evident marks of having been enclosed 
with a stone wall, and contains the foundation of a 
house, ten yards by seven. That a place of worship 
has been erected here, is not improbable, as it has 
obtained the name of Chapel hill from time imme- 
morial. Besides the camp above mentioned, so com- 
pletely fortified both by nature and art, (and which 
is supposed to have been formed by Agricola, for the 
Roman legions under his command,) there are other 
two encampments adjoining to it, and having a com- 
munication with one another, containing above 130 
acres of ground. These seem to have been defend- 
ed by only a single ditch and rampart, and probably 
were intended for the cavalry and auxiliaries. Here 
was room for all the forces that fought under Agri- 
cola near the Grampian mountains, notwithstanding 
what has been said by Mr. Gordon, in his ' Itiner- 
arium Septentrionale,' to the contrary; who proba- 
bly imagined, as others have done since, that the 
whole ground at Ardoch, fortified by the Romans, 
lay within the small camp above mentioned. It has 
already been observed, that the two large encamp- 
ments had a communication with one another; and, 
that there was a subterraneous passage from the 
small one under the bed of the river, is more than 
probable, from a circumstance now to be mentioned. 
There was a hole near the side of the proetorium, 
that went in a sloping direction for many fathoms ; 
in which, it was generally believed, treasures, as 
well as Roman antiquities, might be found. In or- 
der to ascertain this fact, a man, who had been con- 
demned by the baron-court of a neighbouring lord, 
upon obtaining a pardon, agreed to be let down by 
a rope into this hole. He at first brought up with 
him, from a great depth, Roman spears, helmets, 
fragments of bridles, and several other articles : but 
upou being let down a second time, was killed by 
foul air. No attempt has been made since that time. 
The articles, above mentioned, lay at the house of 
Ardocb for many years, but were all earned off, by 
some soldiers in the Duke of Argyle's army, in 1715, 
after the battle of Sheriffmuir, and could never after- 
wards be recovered. The mouth of the hole was 
covered up with a millstone, by an old gentleman 
who lived at the house of Ardoch, while the family- 
were in Russia, about ihe year 1720, to prevent 
hares from running into it when pursued by his dogs ; 
and as earth, to a considerable depth, was laid over 
the millstone, the place cannot now be found, al- 
though diligent search has been made for it.." 

ARDROSSAN, a parish in the district of Cun- 
ningham, on the coast of Ayrshire ; bounded on the 
north-west by West Kilbride parish; on the north- 
east by Dairy; on the east and south-east by Kil- 
winning and Stevenston ; and on the south-west by 
the frith of Clyde. Its greatest length is 6 miles; 
and greatest breadth, 3{. Population, in 1755, 1/297; 
in 1801, 1,846; in 1831, 3,494. Houses 401. The 
extent of sea-coast is about 4 miles. The north- 
west quarter of the parish, between Ardrossan and 
Kilbride, is hilly ; the highest hill in this quarter is 

Knockgeorgan, or Knockgargon, which rises to about 
700 feet above sea-level. The principal streams; are 
the Munnock or Caddel burn, which rises in Kil- 
bride, and flows eastwards into the Gaaf ; and the 
Stanley and Monfode burns which flow southwards 
into the sea near Ardrossan. The soil is in general 
light and fertile. Aiton estimates the area of the 
parish at 9,000 Scots acres, and the real rent, in 
1809, at £6,098. The Statistical reporter, in 18.37, 
estimates the area at only 5,520 Scots acres ; and 
the real rent at £7,800, being an average of 30s 
per acre. The parish is intersected by three main 
lines of road ; two of which run between Dairy and 
Ardrossan, and Dairy and Saltcoats, while the third, 
or coast-line, connects Saltcoats and Ardrossan. A 
railway from Ardrossan to Kilwinning was opened 
in 1832. The Glasgow and Ayr railway now joins 
this railway at Kilwinning, by a branch leading off 

at Dairy. Saltcoats is the post-town The parish 

of Ardrossan is in the presbytery of Irvine, and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr. Patron, the Earl of Eglinton. 
It is a landward parish, comprising part of the towns 
of Saltcoats and Ardrossan, and including quoad sacra 
the estate of Boydstone in Kilbride. By a census, 
taken in 1836, the population was returned at 3,834, 
of whom 2,170 belonged to the established church ; 
2,330 resided in the town of Saltcoats, and 8S5 in 
that of Ardrossan. The parish-church was formerly 
at Ardrossan, but is now at Saltcoats. It was built 
in 1773 ; sittings 840. Minister's stipend £261 Is. 
3d.; with a manse and glebe. Unappropriated teinds 
£676 lis. lid. A Gaelic church has been erected 
at Saltcoats for the benefit of the Gaelic population 
of Ardrossan and Stevenston, whose number, in 
1835, amounted to 748, most of whom were natives 
of Arran. This church cost £946, and has 720 
sittings. — There are two Secession churches in the 
town of Saltcoats, of which the 2d is in the parish of 
Ardrossan. There are 9 schools in the parish, 6 of 
which are in Saltcoats, 2 in Ardrossan, and one in the 
country. The salary of the parish-schoolmaster is 
£34 4s. 4^d., with school-fees to the amount of £25, 
and a house and garden. Average number of pupils 
60 ; at the other eight schools, about 450. 

The town of Saltcoats will be described in a 
separate article. The sea-port of Ardrossan was 
founded by the late Earl of Eglinton, but a fishing- 
village had existed here from time immemorial. A 
circular pier, 900 yards in length, covers the harbour 
on the south and west, while the Horse isle — a rock 
presenting about 12 acres of good pasture — shelters 
it on the north-west ; and the isthmus of Kintyre, 
and the island of Arran, protect the channel from the 
violence of the Atlantic storms. According to the 
original plan, the basin or wet dock was to be of 
dimensions sufficient to contain from 70 to 100 large 
vessels, and the pier was to be extended to the 
Grinan rock. On the death of the late Earl of Eglin- 
ton, the works were suspended, after the earl had 
expended above £100,000 on them; and, in 1815, 
Messrs. Telford and Rennie reported that it would 
require a further expenditure of £300, 0U0 to com- 
plete them. " The position which this harbour oc- 
cupies is very favourable, being situated at the 
mouth of the Clyde, and within thirty miles by rail- 
way of Glasgow. Parties requiring to travel Irom 
Glasgow or Edinburgh, and the north of Ireland or 
Liverpool, when this railway is executed, will be 
able to accomplish the journey in at least eight hours 
and a-half from Edinburgh, and five hours from Glas- 
gow, less time than what is required in sailing at 
present from Ardrossan to Belfast. In most in- 
stances a night passage will be avoided. The time 
required to proceed at present from Glasgow to Bel- 
fast by water conveyance, is from fourteen to fifteen 




hours, while from Edinburgh at least twenty hours 
are required. The passage from Ardrossan to Bel- 
fast is from six to six and a-half hours, so that the 
whole time required to travel from Edinburgh and 
Glasgow to Belfast would not exceed seven and a- 
half hours from Glasgow, and nine and a-hnlf from 
Edinburgh. Ardrossan is one of the most fashion- 
able watering-places on the west coast of Scotland, 
and would be rendered by a railway the nearest and 
most accessible" [Mining Gazette, Dec. 31, 1836.] 
It may be doubted, however, whether Ardrossan is 
fitted to become the post-office packet-station be- 
tween Scotland and Ireland. The limited improve- 
ments suggested by Mr. James Walker will incur an 
outlay of .£40,000, while the total revenue of the har- 
bour during the year ending July 1, 1838, was only 
£880 ; and the expenses, since 1820, have exceeded 
the income by £14,000. The length, too, of the pas- 
sage from Belfast to Ardrossan, is sufficient for itself 
to unfit it for a packet-station ; but there is another 
insuperable objection, viz. were it to be adopted, and 
even the north of England supplied via Liverpool, 
the whole line of road from Ardrossan by Ayr, Gir- 
van, Stranraer, and Port Patrick, and from Port 
Patrick to Dumfries, including a portion of Wigton- 
shire, would be excluded from mail-accommodation. 
There is little doubt, however, that a great impulse 
will be given to this port by the completion of the 
line of railway between it and Glasgow, as above 
noticed. On the 20th of August, 1840, a steamer 
began to ply between Ardrossan and Liverpool, in 
connexion with the Glasgow and Ayr railway. By 
this line of conveyance passengers may leave London 
at 10 o'clock in the morning, and find themselves in 
Glasgow about the same hour of next day. The at- 
tractions of Ardrossan as a bathing-place are very con- 
siderable. An elegant crescent has been partially exe- 
cuted, and several very handsome villas have been 
erected in front of the bay. The hotel is a handsome 
building. The distance of Ardrossan from Glasgow 
by land, is 28 miles ; and there are daily steamers to 
Glasgow and the intervening coast-towns, and also to 
Arran. Fairs are held here on the Tuesday before Ayr 
July fair, and on the fourth Thursday in November. 
ARDSHIEL, the seat of a chief cadet of the 
Stewarts of Appin, on the southern shore of the 
Linnhe loch, near Kentalen bay, and about 3 miles 
from Ballahulish ferry at the mouth of Loch Leven. 
" Stewart of Ardshiel was among the foremost who 
espoused the cause of Prince Charles in 1745; and, 
like many of his brother-outlaws, had to consult his 
safety by retiring to a remarkable cave in this neigh- 
bourhood. The mouth of the cavern is singularly 
protected by a waterfall which descends like a crys- 
tal curtain in front of it, but through which no traces 
of such an excavation are perceptible. After the 
defeat of the Highland army at Culloden, the vigi- 
lance of the conquering party was a constant source 
of terror and distress to the inhabitants. By some 
unknown means, one of the Duke's officers stationed 
at Castle Stalker — the subject of many curious tra- 
ditions — got notice that a cave existed in this quar- 
ter, and started with the resolution to subject the 
locality to a minute investigation. It happened that 
a poor idiot boy, a hanger-on about the family, had 
observed them approaching ; but, not being in suffi- 
cient time to give the alarm, he ran after the party, 
expressing by his words and gestures a degree of 
ridiculous astonishment that was highly diverting to 
the soldiers. The drum, in particular, was viewed 
by him as an object of the greatest curiosity ; and 
to gratify this, he kept close to the drummer, whom 
he affected to regard as a person of the highest con- 
sequence. ' After using much importunity in order 
to get the drum to carry, he took out all the wealth 

he possessed, amounting to sixpence, and offered it 
to the drummer, provided he would let him hear a 
sample of the music' For the sake of diversion his 
request was complied with ; but, at the first ' tuck 
on the parchment, the cunning youth, affecting the 
greatest terror, pretended to run off, while the 
drummer, in order to increase the speed of the 
fugitive and the laughter of his comrades, thunder- 
ed away with all his force. The poor idiot was 
soon out of sight ; but, on looking towards the 
cave, the soldiers beheld Ardshiel and a few of his 
companions, who had been roused by the ominous 
drum, making their escape in different directions 
among the rocks." [Beattie's Scotland, vol. II. pp. 
88, 89.] The idiot-boy of Ardshiel will remind the 
reader of Davie Gellatley, and the good service that 
poor witling and his mother contrived between them 
to render the Baron of Bradwardine while under 
hiding. " When the lands of Ardshiel," adds the 
same writer in a note, " were confiscated, Campbell 
of Glenure was appointed steward on the forfeited 
estate, and under him was James Stewart of Acharn, 
brother of the unfortunate proprietor. Much dis- 
satisfaction, however, arose among the tenants, who 
could not regard Campbell but as a government-spy 
and interloper. Piqued at this, and willing to re- 
taliate, the latter set about removing the old tenants, 
and introducing those of his own party in their 
stead. To accomplish this impolitic measure, he 
had recourse to legal ejectments, which greatly ex- 
asperated the people, and he was finally waylaid and 
shot by an outlaw named Donald Breck. The 
assassin immediately absconded ; but suspicion fall- 
ing upon Stewart as the author or instigator of the 
deed, the unfortunate gentleman was tried, con- 
demned, and hung in chains on the spot where 
Campbell was shot. It was confidently believed, 
however, that he was sacrificed to the violence of 
party-rage, and was innocent of the crime for which 
he suffered." 

ARDSTINCHAR (The), or Stinchar, a river 
of Ayrshire of considerable size, which takes its rise 
in the moorish parts of Carrick, in the parish of 
Barr, about 12 miles above the village of Colmonell. 
It has a very rapid south-west course, through a fine 
glen, or strath rather, for 26 or 27 miles, till it falls 
into the Atlantic, at Ballantrae, near which village 
and close upon the river are the remains of the cas- 
tle of Ard-Stinchar, once the seat of the Kennedies or 
that ilk. From its situation in a narrow pass com- 
manding two entrances into Carrick, — that along the 
shore, and that which leads up the river and across 
the country to Girvan, — this lortalice must have been 
of considerable importance in remoterages. Several 
streams or rivulets fall into the Ardstmchar, particu- 
larly the Ashill, the Dusk, the Muick, the Fioch, 
the Tig, and the burn of Lagan, near Ballantrae. 

ARDVOIRL1CH. See Loch Earn. 

ARGYLE, or Argyll, an extensive shire, on 
the western coast of Scotland. It comprehends 
several large islands, as well as a considerable por- 
tion of the mainland. The latter part is of a very 
irregular figure ; and is bounded on the north by In- 
verness-shire ; on the east by the counties of Perth 
and Dumbarton, and the frith of Clyde ; on the south 
and west by the Irish sea and the Atlantic ocean. Ac- 
cording to Playfair, it lies between 55° 15' and 56° 55' 
N. latitude ; and 4° 32' and 6° 6' W. longitude ; and 
extends 90 miles from north to south ; and, in some 
places, upwards of 40 miles from west to east. Its 
area, according to the same authority, is about 2,400 
square miles, or 1,536,000 English acres, exclusive of 
its islands. But this county is intersected by so 
many inlets of the sea, and has as yet been so im- 
perfectly surveyed, that no correct estimate can be 



formed of its extent. Dr. Smith, in his ' Agricultural 
Survey of Argyleshire,' estimates its utmost length, 
viz., from Loch Eil to the mull of Kintyre, at 115 
miles ; and its breadth from Ardnamurchan to the 
source of the Urchay, or Orchy, at 68 miles. He also 
estimates the superficial area, exclusive of the islands, 
at 2,735 square miles; while Sir John Sinclair has 
calculated it at only 2,260 square miles. The islands 
belonging to this shire have a joint superficial area, 
according to Dr. Smith, of 1,063 square miles; and, 
according to Sir John Sinclair, of 929 square miles ; 
making a total area, according to the former, of 
3,798: and, according to the latter, of 3,189 square 
miles, or 2,002,560 English acres, being one-tenth 
of the whole surface of Scotland. These admeasure- 
ments must be regarded of course as mere approxi- 
mations to the actual area both of mainland and 
islands ; nor until the Trigonometrical Survey of 
Scotland is published is it worth while to attempt 
their rectification from existing materials. 

The surface of this highly romantic region con- 
sists alternately of bleak barren moorlands, rugged 
chains of mountains, deep glens, winding inlets 
of the sea, and extensive sheets of inland water. 
The north-east division is peculiarly bleak, rugged, 
and mountainous, but interspered with narrow and 
sheltered glens; the western section is very irre- 
gular in its outline, and deeply indented by large 
bays or lochs. The greater proportion of what may 
be called arable land is composed of the level tracts 
along the coasts. About one-eighth part of the sur- 
face is under cultivation The soil, according to 

Playfair, consists of the following vaiieties: " 1. 
Gravel mixed with vegetable mould, occurring chiefly 
in the more lofty mountains, and along the banks of 
the rivers which have their sources in these moun- 
tains. 2. Peat-moss, occupying the extensive moors 
and low grounds, from which the water does not flow 
freely. 3. Decayed limestone. 4. Decayed slate mixed 
with coarse limestone. Of the two last, the former is 
alight soil, the latter more stiff; but both are fertile, 
and found in tracts not greatly elevated above the 
level of the sea. They form the great mass of the soil 
in the fertile districts of Mid-Lorn, Nether- Lorn, 
Craignish, &c, 5. A barren sandy soil, originating 
from freestone, or micaceous schistus, prevalent in 
the westerly parts of the mainland, and in some of 
the islands. Besides these, other kind of soil are 
found in this county; and sometimes several species 
graduate insensibly into one another. In general a 
light loam mixed with sand, on a bottom of clay or 
gravel, prevails. On the acclivities of the hills, the 
most common soil is a light gravel on till. In the 
loaer grounds, there is sometimes a mixture of clay 
and moss, and sometimes a coat of black mossy 
earth. The soil appropriated to pasture is partly- 
dry, and partly wet and spongy ; a considerable pro- 
portion of what is either fiat or hilly is covered 
with heath. The summits of the highest hills are 
generally bare and barren rocks." — Lime is found in 
every part of the county. In Lismore, the lime forms 
a durable cement under water. In Easdale and Bala- 
hulish are quarries of excellent blue slate. Marble 
exists in various quarters ; and granite is quarried 
near Inverary. Veins of lead are frequent in the 
limestone and other strata ; mines of this metal are 
wrought at Strontian, at Tyndrum, and in lsla ; in 
the latter island a vein of copper is also wrought, 
and the same mineral has been found at Kilmartin. 
There is abundance of plum-pudding stone at Oban, 
Dunstaffnage, and northwards along the coast. The 
species of earth, called strontites, or strontian, was 
first discovered in the district of Ardnamurchan in 
1791. Coal is wrought near Campbelton, and also 
in the island of Mull. Granite forms the great moun- 

tain-masses in the north-east part of the county ■ 
but mica-slate predominates in the geological fea- 
tures both of the mainland and isles. An extensive 
tract of porphyry occurs on the north side of Loch 
Fyne ; rloetz-trap prevails in a few districts. 

The principal mountains are Ben-Cruachan, 3,669 
feet; Ben-More in Mull, 3,168 feet ; Cruach-Lussa, 
3,000 feet; Beden-na-Bean, near Loch Etive, 2,720 
feet ; the Paps of Jura, 2,580 feet ; Buachaille, 
2,537; Ben-na-hua, 2,515 feet; Ben- Arthur, or the 
Cobbler, 2,389 feet; Ben-More in Rum, 2,310 feet ; 

and Ben-Tarn, 2,306 feet The principal streams are 

the Urchay or Orchy, and the Awe ; the former flow- 
ing into, the latter flowing from, Loch Awe. Besides 
these, there are a multitude of minor streams, more 
distinguished by the romantic beauty of their course, 

than the volume of their water or their length. 

Loch Awe is the principal inland lake. See separate 
articles Awe (Loch), and Orchy. The total area 
of the fresh water lakes in Argyleshire is about 
52,000 square acres. The extent of marshy and 
mossy ground must be very great. Natural woods 
and plantations cover about 50,000 acres. 

The climate of this district is upon the whole 
mild, but excessively humid. In the north-eastern 
quarter, where the general elevation is greatest, it is 
often very cold. The principal branch of rural indus- 
try is that of rearing cattle and sheep. The quantity 
of grain produced bears a small proportion to the 
area. Oats are the principal grain raised, but a large 
import of meal is required for the home-consumption. 
Potatoes are very extensively cultivated, the poorest 
shieling having uniformly attached to it a small 
patch of potatoe-ground. The cattle reared here 
are of a small size, but highly esteemed in the mar- 
kets of the South, to which they are exported in 
immense numbers. The sheep are chiefly of the 
Linton or black- faced breed ; and have on the main- 
land displaced the horned cattle in most larms. Red 
deer are still found in some of the forests ; and grouse 
and ptarmigans are plentiful. 

The principal lines of road in this county are: 
1st, the road from Balahulish to Tyndrum, common- 
ly called the Glencoe road, 31 miles in extent; 2d, 
the road from Tyndrum to Inverary, called the Dal- 
mally road, 27 miles in extent; and, 3d, the road 
from Inverary to Tarbert, or the Glencroe road, 22 

miles The principal canal, within the county, is 

the Crinan canal : which see. 

The manufacturing industry of this county is un- 
important. A large quantity of kelp used formerly 
to be annually manufactured along the shores, but it 
has been driven out of the market by foreign barilla. 
The fisheries, however, on the coast, and particularly 
in the lochs, are productive and improving. The two 
principal fishing-stations are Inverary and Campbel- 
ton ; but considerable quantities of herrings are 
caught, which are cured at various stations along the 
coasts, and on the shores of the different lochs. Some 
leather is manufactured in the count}', and coarse 
woollen yarns, stuffs, and stockings, are slill made to 
a considerable extent. The establishment of st. ain- 
packets between various points on the coast of 
Argyle and along the shores of its lochs, and the lar- 
ger towns on the frith of Clyde up to Glasgow, has 
given a great impulse to industry. On this point we 
have pleasure in quoting the language of a cotem- 
porary : " It is evident, from the peculiar form of 
Argyleshire, that it will always owe as much of the 
benefit arising from a ready communication between 
its near and distant parts, to improvements in water 
carriage, as to any extension of that by land. The 
difficulty, indeed, of forming roads in a district so 
serrated by the sea, and so blocked up by chains of 
hills, is almost insurmountable ; hitherto there have 



been only two or three roads in the county, skirting 
along the banks of the lochs. The very barrier, 
however, which mainly prevented communication in 
the days of our fathers, has turned out to be the 
highway in our own. By the never-to-be-sufficient- 
ly-admired spirit of the city of Glasgow, about 20 
[there are now above 40] steam-vessels are constantly 
employed in conveying passengers and goods to and 
Iro, throughout the country, and in transporting the 
country-produce to market at that city. The effect 
of this grand engine, even after so brief a period, is 
incalculable. It happens that, notwithstanding the 
immense extent of the country, there is not a single 
dwelling-place more than ten miles from the sea, nor 
a gentleman's seat, (excepting those on the banks of 
Loch Awe,) more than ten minutes walk from it. 
Every farmer, therefore, every gentleman, finds oc- 
casion to employ steam-navigation. When this mode 
of conveyance was in its infancy, it was generally 
supposed that the little wealth, bold shores, and 
scattered population of the county, kept it without 
the circle in which its adoption w as to become bene- 
ficial. It came, however, to be attempted; and there 
is not now a loch, bay, or inlet, but holds a daily, or 
at least commands a weekly, communication with the 
lowlands and the several districts of the country. 
By this means, the farmers — even upon the smallest 
scale — are encouraged to fatten stock which they 
would never otherwise think of fattening ; the fatten- 
ing of stock, again, causes them to improve their 
arable land ; the extra-profits enable them to buy 
luxuries which, in their turn, communicate senti- 
ments of taste, and open the mind to liberal ideas. 
The comparative frequency, moreover, of their visits 
to the lowlands causes the speedier introduction of 
modern and improved systems of agriculture. Steam- 
boats are, in short, at once the heralds and the causes 
of every kind of improvement in Argyleshire; it is 
no hyperbole to say, that they have in ten years 
raised the value of land within the county twenty 
per cent. Every thing connected with this inven- 
tion, so far as Argyleshire is concerned, bears a de- 
gree of romantic wonder strangely in contrast with 
its mechanical and common-place character. It ac- 
complishes, in this district, transitions and juxta- 
positions almost as astonishing as those of an Arabian 
tale. The Highlander, for instance, who spends his 
general life amidst the wilds of Cowal, or upon the 
hills of Appin, can descend in the morning from his 
lonely home, and setting his foot about breakfast- 
time on board a steam-boat at some neighbouring 
promontory, suddenly rinds himself in company, it 
may be, with tourists from all parts of the earth ; he 
sits at dinner between a Russian and an American ; 
and, in the evening, he who slept last night amidst 
the blue mists of Lorn, is traversing the gas-lighted 
streets of Glasgow, or may, perhaps, have advanced 
to Edinburgh itself, the polished, the enlightened, 
the temple of modern intelligence. Reversing this 
wonder, he who has all his life trod the beaten ways 
of men, and never but in dreams seen that land of 
hill and cloud whence of yore the blue-bonneted 
Gael wont to descend, to sweep folds or change 
dynasties, can stand in the light of dawn amidst the 
refined objects of a capital, and when the shades of 
night have descended, finds himself in the very coun- 
try of Ossian, with the black lake lying in impertur- 
bable serenity at his feet, and over his head the grey 
hills that have never been touched by human foot. 
Steam-boats, it may be said, bring the most dissimilar 
ideas into conjunction, — make the rude Gael shake 
hands with the most refined Lowlander, — and cause 
the nineteenth and the first centuries to meet to- 
gether. No such lever was ever introduced to raise 
and revolutionize the manners of a people, or the 

resources of a country." [Chambers' Gazetteer of 
Scotland, 1832.] Previous to the abolition of the 
feudal system, in 1745, the obstacles to improvement 
either in agriculture or manufactures were quite in- 
superable in this district of Scotland. The abolition 
of that system, — the conversion of corn rents, or 

rents in kind and services, into money rents, the 

suppression of smuggling, — the execution of the 
Caledonian and Crinan canals, — the formation of ex- 
cellent lines of road throughout the county under 

the auspices of the parliamentary commissioners, 

the more general diffusion of education, — and the in- 
troduction of a system of farming better adapted to 
the character and capabilities of the soil and country, 
— have all contributed to the improvement of this 
interesting district. But the main impulse has un- 
doubtedly been given to industry in this quarter of 
the country by the introduction of steam-navigation, 
and the reciprocal intercourse which has consequent- 
ly taken place between all parts of Argyleshire and 
the manufacturing districts of the west of Scotland 
The average rate of wages is from Is. 6d. to 2s. a-day 
Argyleshire is divided into six districts : viz. 


Population in 1831. 

1. Argyle 





2. Cowal 



3. Isiav 






5. Lorn 



6. Mull 





The above population composed 19,252 families, ot 
whom 9,116 were engaged in agriculture ; 3,241 in 
trade, manufactures, and handicraft; and 6,895 were 
not comprised in either of the preceding classes. 
The total population of the islands amounted to 
35,065; that of the mainland to 66,335. In 1801, 
the total population of this county was 71,859 ; in 
1811,85,585; in 1821,97,316. It would thus ap- 
pear that the rate of increase of popidation has 
been falling off since the commencement of this cen- 
tury ; anu that during the ten years preceding 1831, 
it amounted to only 4 per cent, while the decennial 
ratio of increase on the population of England and 
Wales, since the commencement of the century, has 
been somewhat more than 16 per cent. The slow 
increase of population in this shire may be attributed 
partly to the limited nature of its territorial re- 
sources ; partly to the extensive emigration which has 
taken place from this county chiefly to Canada ; and 
partly to the system so generally pursued by the large 
proprietors of throwing several small farms into the 
hands of one tenant, and discountenancing any at- 
tempt at minute subdivision of the soil. 

The number of parishes, in 1831, was 50, besides 
several mission-stations and chapelries. The synod 
of Argyle comprehends the presbyteries of Argyle, 
Dunoon, Kintyre, Islay, Jura, Lorn, and Mull. The 
number of parochial schools, in 1834, was 70 ; and of 
schools not parochial 194. The total number of 
children at these schools was about 15,000. The 
Gaelic language still predominates here ; but the 
English is almost universally understood by the 

A number of islands are attached to this county, 
of which the chief are Muck, Tyree, Coll, Mull, 


kill, &c, which will be severally described under 
their respective articles. The principal towns are In- 
verary, which is the county-town, Campbelton, and 
Oban : See these articles. These three burghs unite 
with Ayr and Irvine, in Ayrshire, in returning one 
member to parliament ; the county returns another, 
and has been represented by Campbell of Shaw- 
ficld and Islay since 1835. The parliamentary u>n- 




stituency, in 1838, was 1,589. Argyle gives the title 
of Duke and Earl to the chief of the family of Camp- 
bell, one of the most powerful of the Scottish no- 
liility. The county is mostly peopled with this clan ; 
and its principal proprietors are of it. The valued 
rent of the county, in 1674, was £149,595 10s. Scots; 
the real rent, as assessed in 1815, .£"227,493 sterling. 
Previous to the late equalization of weights and 
measures, the Inverary boll of grain contained 4 fir- 
lots 7j per cent, above the standard, or 6 bushels, 1 
peck, 9 pints, 10 cubic inches English ; and the boll 
of meal, at Inverary, 8 stone; at some other parts 9 
stone ; and at Campbelton 10 stone. The Camp- 
belton potatoe peck weighed 56 lbs. avoird., and 
measured 9 English wine gallons ; while the Inver- 
ary peck measured only 6J gallons. The customary 
pint contained 10987 cubic inches ; the pound at 
Campbelton 16 oz., and at Inverary, 24 ; the stone 
of butter, cheese, hay, lint, tallow, and wool, Was 24 
tbs. avoird. ; and the barrel of herrings 32 gallons 

Argyleshire is said to derive its name from Earrd 
Ghaidheal, ' the country of the western Gael.' It 
W3S much infested, in ancient times, by predatory in- 
truders, and has been in consequence the scene of 
numerous battles and heroic achievements. The 
deeds of Fingal and his heroes — if we may repose any 
confidence in the voice of Tradition — were mostly 
performed in this district ; and numerous monuments 
of the remotest antiquity still remain to demonstrate 
the warlike spirit of its former inhabitants. In the 
middle ages the Macdougals of Lorn held sway over 
Argyle and Mull ; while the Macdonalds, Lords of 
the Isles, were supreme in Islay, Kintyre, and the 
southern islands. These two chiefs were almost in- 
dependent thanes, until their power was broken by 
James III., and by the transference of Lorn to the 
Stuart family by marriage. The erection of the 
earldom of Argyle in favour of Campbell of Loch 
Awe, in 1457, also greatly contributed to check the 
discords of the petty chieftains throughout this ter- 
ritory. The dukedom of Argyle was created in 1701. 

ARIENAS (Loch), a small inland sheet of water 
in the district of Morvem, Argyleshire. See Aline 

ARISAIG. See Akasaig. 

ARKEG. See Archaic. 

ARMADALE, a hamlet in the parish of Sleat, 
on the southern shore of the isle of Skye, opposite 
the mouth of Loch Nevis on the mainland. Lord 
Macdonald has an unfinished seat here, in the cas- 
tellated style. It commands a noble view, and is 
surrounded by thriving plantations. There is a road 
from hence to the Point of Sleat. 

ARMADALE, or Arjiidale, a village and her- 
ring fishing-station in the parish of Farr, Sutherland- 
shire. This is one of the safest landing-points on 
the coast. 

ARMADALE, a hamlet in the parish of Bath- 
gate, Linlithgowshire, 2£miles west of Bathgate, on 
the road from Edinburgh to Glasgow. 

ARNGASK, a parish lying in the three counties 
of Perth, Kinross, and Fife. It is nearly of a circu- 
lar form, and about 4 miles in diameter ; and is 
bounded by the parishes of Strathmiglo, Abernethy, 
Dron, Forgandenny, Forteviot, and Orwel. Popu- 
lation, in 1801, 564; in 1831, 712.— This parish is 
in the presbytery of Perth, and synod of Perth and 
Stirling. Patrons, Mrs. Wardlaw, and the laird of 
Fordells. Minister's stipend £178 19s. 10d., with a 
manse and glebe. Schoolmaster's salary £34, with 
about £20 fees. There is a private school in the 
parish. The church was originally a chapel built 
for the accommodation of the family of Balvaird, 
and their dependents. It was granted, in 1282, to 

the abbey of Cambuskenneth by Gilbert de Frisley 
to whom the barony of Arngask, or Forgie, belonged. 
Real value, in 1815. of that part of the parish which 
is in Perthshire, £1,164; in Fifeshire, £895; in 
Kinross-shire, £875. Total, £2,934. 

ARNISDALE. See Glenelg. 

ARNTULLY, or Arntilly, a little irregularly 
built village in the south-western part of the parish 
of Kinclaven, 8 miles north of Perth. 

AROS, a hamlet in the island of Mull, and parish 
of Killninian, at the confluence of the water of Aros 
with the sound of Mull, 18 miles north-west of 
Achnacraig ferry, and 4 miles from the head of Loch- 
na-Keal, to which there is a road from this place. 
The massive remains of Aros castle, an ancient 
stronghold of the Lords of the Isles, crowns the sum- 
mit of a high rocky peninsula here. 

ARRAN,* an island in the frith of Clyde, forming 
part of the shire of Bute. It lies in the mouth of 
the frith, or in the centre of the large bay of the 
Northern channel formed by the peninsula of Kin- 
tyre on the west, and the Ayrshire coast on the east ; 
from the former it is distant about 6 miles, and is 
separated by the sound of Kilbrannan ; from the lat- 
ter, the average distance is about 13 miles, and the 
channel betwixt them is distinguished from the sound 
on the west of the island as being the frith of Clyde. 
From the island of Bute on the north, the least dis- 
tance is 5 miles. Its greatest length, from the Cock 
of Arran, on the north, to the Struey rocks on the 
south, is about 26 miles ; and the greatest breadth, 
from Clachland's point on the east, to Drimodune 
point on the west, is 12 miles, f The general outline 
is that of an irregular ellipse, little indented by bays 
or inlets. The largest indentation is that of Lam- 
lash bay betwixt Clachland's point and King's cross 
point, on the east coast. Loch Ranza, near the 
Cock, or northern extremity of the island, is a very 
small inlet. Brodick bay, a little to the north of 
Lamlash bay, between Corriegill point on the south, 
and Merkland point on the north, affords good an- 
chorage in about 5 fathoms water, but little shelter 
to vessels, especially in a north-east gale. Including 
the islet of Pladda on the south, and Holy isle in the 
mouth of Lamlash bay, the area of Arran is about 
100,000 Scots acres, of which 11,179 are arable, and 
613 are under plantations. There is also a consider- 
able extent of natural coppice-wood on the north- 
west and north-east coast. The south end of the 
island is remarkably destitute of any thing approach- 
ing to plantation, and even of copsewood. 

The island of Arran is divided into five principal 
districts : viz., Brodick, Lamlash, Southend, Shis- 
kin, and Loch Ranza. 

The Brodick district is that portion of the island 
most frequently visited by tourists, and most gen- 
erally resorted to for sea-bathing. It lies around the 
bay of the same name, and extends northwards to 

* Pronounced in Gaelic Artinn. Dr. lUaeleod deduces this 
name from Ar, ' a land 1 or 'country,' and rinn, 'sharp points.' 
Hence Arrinn will signify ' the Island uf snarp pinnacles :' an 
etymology far more satisfactory than that of Ar-f/iiii, 'the 
Laud' or the Field of Finn,' i. e. Fingal ; or from Aran, 
'bread,' as denoting extraordinary fertility, which is by no 
means a characteristic of this island. 

f Headrick estimates the length of this island, measuring 
from N. E. to S. W., at 34 or 35 miles ; and its breadth as vary- 
ing from 15 to 20 miles. Mr. Jardine states its length to be 
only 21 miles, and its breadth 9. Professor Jamieson, in his 
' Outliue of the Mineralogy of Arran,' estimates its length at 
82, and breadth at 12 miles. The writer of the article Arran, 
in the * Penny Cyclopedia,' vagoely estimates its length -from 
near Loch Ranza, in the N. N. W., to Kildonan, in the S. S. E., 
at " somewhat more than 20 miles ; and its greatest breadth at 
12." The Rev. Angns Macmillan, minister of Kilmorie, in his 
evidence before the Commissioners of Religious Instruction, 
[Report VIII. p. 470.,] states the greatest length of his parish 
to be upwards of 3:) miles. The admeasurements in our text 
have been given after a careful examination and comparison of 
the best maps aud reports on the island. 



South Sannox. Its northern part is composed of 
the towering Goatfell, and its brother-mountains ; 
and the beautiful glens or mountain-ravines called 
Glen Rosa or Rossie, Glen Sherrig, Glen Shant, and 
Glen Cloy, occur here. The base of the mountains 
here approaches close to the sea, so that the full 
effect of their altitude — which in Gor.tfell is 2,865 
feet* — imposes itself on the eye of the spectator from 
the sea or beach, while they are constantly varying 
their appearance, as seen from any quarter, under 
the accidents of weather, light, and shade. The lower 
part of Goatfell is composed of red sandstone ; then 
follows mica-slate, which is surmounted by a pyra- 
midal mass of granite. The view from the sum- 
mit embraces the coast of Ireland from Fairhead to 
Belfast loch ; and the mountains of Isla, Jura, and 
Mull. The ascent may be accomplished, with the aid 
of a guide, in about two hours ; and is best achieved 
from the inn at Brodick. The natives call this moun- 
tain Gaodli Bhein, or Ben-Ghaoil, that is 'the 
Mountain of Winds.' To the eye of a spectator on 
the summit of Goatfell — which is the loftiest peak in 
this granitic district — the neighbouring mountains 
present a wild assemblage of bare ridges, yawning 
chasms, abrupt precipices, and every fantastic form of 
outline, while the profound gulfs between them are 

darkened by eternal shadow On the north side 

of Brodick bay, adjoining the village, is the castle 
of Brodick, one of the seats of the duke of Ham- 
ilton. It is an old irregular pile of building, of 
secluded aspect, but in good repair. Mr. Galbraith has 
recently ascertained its position to be in N. lat. 55° 35' 
45" ; W. long. 5° 10' 42". The grounds around it are 
well-wooded ; and the majestic heights of Goatfell, 
and Bennish [2.598 feet], rise in the immediate back- 
ground. This stronghold was surprised by James 
Lord Douglas, Sir Robert Boyd, and other partizans 
of Bruce in 1306, demolished in 1456, rebuilt by 
James V., and garrisoned by Cromwell. Cromwell's 
garrison, to the number of 80 men, it is traditionally 
related, were surprised and cut off by the natives. — 
On the opposite side of the bay, and at about one mile's 
distance from the sea, in Glen Cloy, is Kilmichael, the 
seat of John Fullarton, Esq., whose immediate an- 
cestors received this estate, and a farm on the west 
side of the island, from Robert Bruce, for services 
rendered to him while in concealment in this island. 
Martin says : " If tradition be true, this little family- 
is said to be of seven hundred years standing. The 
present possessor obliged me with the sight of his 
old and new charters, by which he is one of the 
king's coroners within this island, and as such, he 
hath a halbert peculiar to his office ; he has his right 
of late from the family of Hamilton, wherein his 
title and perquisites of coroner are confirmed to him 
and his heirs. He is obliged to have three men to 
attend him upon all public emergencies, and he is 
bound by his office to pursue all malefactors, and to 
deliver them to the steward, or in his absence to the 
next judge. And if any of the inhabitants refuse to 
pay their rents at the usual term, the coroner is 
bound to take him personally, or to seize his goods. 
And if it should happen that the coroner with his 
retinue of three men is not sufficient to put his office 
in execution, then he summons all the inhabitants to 
concur with him ; and immediately they rendezvous 
to the place, where he fixes his coroner's staff. The 
perquisites due to the coroner are a firlot or bushel 
ot oats, and a lamb from every village in the isle ; both 
which are punctually paid him at the ordinary terms." 
[' Description of the Western Islands.'] Fergus Mac- 
Louis, or Fullarton 's, charter is dated Nov. 26, 1307. 

* This in Dr. Maccullncli's admeasurement. Professor Play. 
fair estimates its height at 8,945 j Mr. Galbraith at 2,80a feet. 

A number of cottages and villas are scattered along 
Brodick bay, which is becoming a favourite watering- 
place during the summer. Dr. Macculloch speaks of 
it in. terms of unwonted rapture. "Every variety 
of landscape," be says, " is united in this extraor- 
dinary spot. The rural charms of the ancient English 
village, unrestricted in space and profuse of unoccu- 
pied land, are joined to the richness of cultivation, 
and contrasted with the wildness of moorland and 
rocky pasture. On one hand is the wild mountain 
torrent, and on another, the tranquil river meanders 
through the rich plain. Here the sea curls on the 
smooth beach, and there it foams against a rocky 
shore, or washes the foot of the high and rugged cliffs, 
or the skirts of the wooded hill. The white sails of' 
boats are seen passing and repassing among trees, — 
the battlements of the castle, just visible, thro wan air 
of ancient grandeur over the woods, and, united to 
this variety, is all the sublimity and all the rudeness 
of the Alpine landscape which surrounds and involves 
the whole." [' Highlands and Western Isles,' vol. 
ii. p. 29.] There is regular steam-communication 
between Brodick and the port of Ardrossan in Ayr- 
shire daily during summer ; but this route to Glas- 
gow is circuitous, and there is a want of direct daily 
communication with that city, steamers proceeding 
to Arran twice a week. These latter boats general- 
ly make Brodick bay in about 6 or 7 hours, and, 
after discharging passengers, proceed round to Lain- 
lash bay, where they lie during the night, returning 
to Brodick for passengers at an early hour next 

Lamlash district, to the south of Brodick district, 
has but a small extent of plantation within it, and 
no hills exceeding 1,200 feet in altitude. The vil- 
lage is in the form of a crescent facing the bay and 
the Holy isle, and backed by wooded heights, be- 
yond which the green and rounded summits of the 
hills in this district are seen. The church is at the 
southern extremity of the village, which is 4^- miles 
distant from Brodick, and 4 miles north of Whiting 
bay. See article Kilbride. — " The bay of Lamlash," 
says Headrick, " may be about 3 miles, in a right 
line, from its northern to its southern entrance; and 
at its centre it forms a sort of semicircle of nearly 2 
miles across, having the Holy isle on one side, and 
the vale of Lamlash on the other. The northern 
wing projects nearly towards north-east, while the 
southern projects nearly towards south-east, giving 
to the whole a figure approaching to that of a horse- 
shoe, which prevents the waves of the ocean Irom 
getting into the interior bay. The two inlets may 
be about a quarter of a mile in breadth at their 
mouths, and widen gradually as they approach the 
central bay. The southern inlet is prefeired by 
mariners, because here there is no danger but what 
is seen. The northern inlet is equally safe to those 
who know it: but the tails of rocks we have de- 
scribed as projected from Dun-Fioun, and the gradual 
decrease of altitude of the rocks on the opposite 
point of Holy isle, cause them to extend a consider- 
able way below the sea, before they sink out of the 
reach of vessels drawing a great depth of water. 
But to those who know the channel, there is suffi- 
cient depth, at both entrances, for the largest ships 
of the line. Within, there is good holding-ground ; 
sufficient depth for the largest ships ; and room 
enough for the greatest navy to ride at anchor. In 
fact, this is one of the best harbours in the frith ot 
Clyde, — if not in the world. In front of the village, 
dutchess Ann — who seems to have been a woman of 
superior capacity — caused a harbour to be built of 
large quadrangular blocks of sandstone. We may 
form some idea of the magnitude and solidity of this 
work, when informed that it cost 412,913 10s. S^d 



sterling, at a time when masons' wages are said to 
have been 8d., and labourers' wages 4d. per day. It 
is a great pity this building was allowed to be de- 
molished ; because its ruins render the village of more 
difficult access from the sea, than if it had never been 
constructed.' [' View,' pp. 88 — 91.] This harbour 
has now nearly disappeared ; agreat part of the stones 
have been carried off to build the new quay a few hun- 
dred yards to the north, and the sand has buried a part. 
' The Holy isle is interesting," says Macculloch, " as 
well for the beauty of its conical form, rising to 1,000* 
feet, as for the view from its summit, and the strik- 
ing character of its columnar cliffs. The ascent is 
rendered peculiarly laborious ; no less from the steep- 
ness and irregularity of the ground, than from the 
tangled growth of the Arbutus uva ursi by which it 
is covered. The whole surface scarcely bears any 
other plant than this beautiful trailing shrub ; pe- 
culiarly beautiful when its bright scarlet berries are 
present to contrast with the rich dark green of its 
elegant foliage. The columnar cliffs, which lie on 
the east side, though having no pretensions to the 
regularity of Staffa, are still picturesque, and are 
free from the stiffness too common in this class of 
rock ; consisting of various irregular stages piled on 
each other, broken, and intermixed with ruder masses 
of irregular rocks, and with verdure and shrubs of 
humble growth. Beneath, a smooth and curved re- 
cess in a mass of sandstone, produces that species of 
echo which occurs in the whispering gallery of St. 
Paul's, and in other similar situations. There are 
no ruins now to be traced in Lamlash ; but Dean 
Monro says that it had ' ane monastery of friars,' 
founded by John, Lord of the Isles, ' which is de- 
cayit.' That was in 1594; and what was then de- 
cayed, has now disappeared. He calls the island 
Molass ; and it is pretended that, there was a cave,+ 
or hermitage, inhabited by a Saint Maol Jos, who is 
buried at Shiskin, on the south side of Arran. It is 
further said that there was once a castle here, built 
by Somerlid." — -King's Cross, in this district, which 
forms the dividing headland between Lamlash bay and 
Whiting bay, is said by some to have been the point 
from whence Robert Bruce watched for the lighting- 
Lip of the ' signal-flame ' at Turnberry point, on the 
opposite coast of Ayrshire, which was to intimate to 
him that the way was clear for his making a descent 
on the Carrick coast. Other traditions — which are 
followed by Sir Walter Scott in his ' Lord of the 
Isles.' [See Canto V. st. 7 and 17-] — represent Bruce 
as first hailing the supposed signal, 'so flickering, 
fierce, and bright,' from the battlements of Brodick 
castle. See Turnberry. 

Southend district stretching from Largybeg point, 
the southern extremity of Whiting bay, to Kilpatrick 
on Diimodune bay, is the most valuable district of 
the island in agricultural respects. There is here a 
belt of cultivated land, in some places of considerable 
breadth, between the shore and the secondary hills 
of the interior. The scenery is of a milder character 
thai, that of any other quarter of the island ; but there 
is no accommodation for bathers in this direction, the 
only houses being a few farm.hamlets and scattered 
shielings, and the beach being rocky. This district 
is intersected by two main rivulets, viz. the Torlin 
or Torrylin, towards the east, and the water of.Slid- 
dery towards the west. These streams run nearly 
parallel to each other, from north-east to south-west, 
and receive numerous tributary streams in their pro- 
gress from the secondary mountains towards the sea. 
Most of the other burns which flow into the sea are 

* Mr. Burrcl's barometrical admeasurement gave only 891 

t Headrick affirms the existence of and describes this cave. 
See ' View, 1 p. Bb. 

merely mountain-torrents, the beds of which are 
nearly dry except when they are swelled by exces- 
sive rains. These burns have cut deep chasms or 
ravines in the strata ; and the main streams have 
frequently formed delightful valleys, though some- 
times of small extent. Towards the head of Glen 
Scordel, from which the main branch of the water of 
Sliddery flows, and in several other places, there are 
vast veins of whinstone, interspersed with innumer- 
able particles of pyrites, which retain their full bril- 
liancy, in spite of exposure to air and the astringent 
moss- water to the action of which they are subjected. 
" These," says Headrick, " the people are confident 
in the belief of being gold ; and I confess I was a little 
staggered, until my ingenious friend, Dr. Thomson, 
by analyzing a specimen, assured me that the gold was 
neither more nor less than pyrites of iron!- — The islet 
of Pladda lies opposite Kildonan point in this division. 
See Pladda. The ruins of Kildonan castle, a small 
square fortalice, surmount the sea-bank here', but 
present no historical associations of interest. A large 
portion of the walls fell about 10 years ago. — Auch- 
inhew burn, in this quarter, presents, according to 
Headrick, in the upper part of its wild ravine course, 

a fall or cascade, called Essiemore The Struey 

rocks, further to the west, or Bennan head, are pre- 
cipitous cliffs of black basalt rising to an altitude of 
from 300 to 400 feet above a beach thickly strewn 
with their dissevered fragments. A little to the west 

of these rocks is a vast cave called the Black cave ■ 

The kirk and manse of Kilmorie are situated in this 
district, on the Torrylin, where its mouth forms a 
small harbour for boats. See Kilmorie. 

Shiskin district, so called from the little village or 
hamlet of Shiskin, or Shedog, is chiefly remarkable 
for the extensive natural caves which occur here in 
the sandstone rocks close upon the beach. One of 
these, called the King's cove, is supposed to have 
given shelter to 'the royal Bruce.' It is situated 
opposite Portree in Higher Cardel of Kintyre. It is 
also universally reputed to have been the occasional 
residence of Fioun,:]: or Fingal, when he resorted to 
Arran for the purpose of hunting. " The old peo- 
ple here," says Headrick, "have many ridiculous 
stories about Fioun and his heroes, which have been 
transmitted, from a remote period, by father to son, — 
in their progress becoming more and more extrava- 
gant. They believe Fioun and his heroes to have 
been giants of extraordinary size. They say that 
Fioun made a bridge from Kintyre to this place, 
over which he could pass, by a few steps, from the 
one land to the other. But, what is esteemed ocular 
demonstration of the gigantic size of Fioun, and suffi- 
cient to overwhelm the most obstinate scepticism, 
the hero is said to have had a son born to him in the 
cave; and a straight groove, cut on the side of the 
cave, is shown, which is firmly believed to have been 
the exact length of the child's foot the day after he 
was born. The groove is more than 2 feet in length ; 
and, taking the human foot to be one sixth of a man's 
height, it follows, the child must have been more 
than 12 feet high the day after he was born ! The 
cave is scooped out of fine-giained white sandstone. 
A perpendicular vein of the same sandstone has stood 
in the centre, from which the strata dip rapidly on 
each side, forming the roof into a sort of Gothic 
arch, to which the vein above serves the purpose of 
a key-stone. At the back part of the cave, this ve : n 
comes down to the bottom, and forms a perpendicu- 
lar column with a recess on each side. The northern 

X Fioun means fair-haired ; Gael was added to denote his 
race or nation. Highlanders seldom apply the epithet Gael to 
Fioun, unless you express doubts concerning bis extraction. 
But they often characterize him by the surname of MacCoul, 
the name of his father. — Headrick. 



recess is only a few feet. The southern is of uncer- 
tain extent, being gradually contracted in breadth, 
and nearly closed by rounded stones. The length of 
this recess is about 30 feet. From the pillar in the 
back-ground, to the mouth of the cave, exceeds 100 
feet. The greatest breadth may be about 49 feet ; 
and the greatest height the same. The mouth has 
been defended by a rampart of loose stones ; and 
stones are scattered through the cave which seem to 
have been used as seats. On the column there is a 
figure cut resembling a two-handed sword. Some 
think this was an exact representation of the sword 
of Fioun ; others of that of Robert Bruce. To me 
it appears to be neither one nor other, but a repre- 
sentation of the cross. It stands upon a rude outline 
representing a mountain, probably Mount Calvary. 
On each side there is a figure kneeling and praying 
towards the cross. The sides of the cave exhibit 
innumerable small figures equally rude, representing 
dogs chasing stags, and men shooting arrows at them. 
They also represent goats, sheep, cattle, and various 
other animals, though the figures are so rude, that it 
is seldom possible to ascertain what they represent." 
Mr Jamiesbn, [p. 125,] thinks these scratches were 
" made by idle fishermen, or smugglers." Maecul- 
loch calls them "casual scratches by idle boys." 
North of this cave are several smaller caves, which 
communicate with each other. One of these is call- 
ed the King's kitchen, another his cellar, his larder, 
&c. On the south side there is a cave called the 
King's stable, presenting a larger area than the pal- 
ace, as the cave of residence is called. The scene 
from the mouth of these caves, in a fine summer-day, 
is very beautiful. And sweet it were to sit here — ■ 

" When still and dim 
The beauty-breathing hues of eve expand j 
"When day's last roses fade on Ocean's brim, 
And Nature veils her brow, and chants her vesper-hytnu." 

The Blackwater, a considerable stream, here falls 
into Drimodune bay. A small harbour has been con- 
structed at its mouth, which is the ferrying-place to 
Campbelton, and from which there is a road across 
the island, by Shedog, the western side of Craigvore, 
Corbie's craig, Glen Ture, and Glen Sherrig, to Bro- 
dick. — The Mauchry burn is another considerable 
stream descending from Glen Ture, and falling into 
Mauchry bay to the north of the King's cove. Pen- 
nant tells us that this river flows through a rocky 
channel, which, in one part has worn through a rock, 
and left so contracted a gap at the top as to form a 
very easy step across. " Yet not long ago," he adds, 
" a poor woman in the attempt, after getting one foot 
over, was struck with such horror at the tremendous 
torrent beneath, that she remained for some hours in 
that attitude, not daring to bring her other foot over, 
till some kind passenger luckily came by and assisted 
her out of her distress !" 

The remaining or northern portion of the island 
forms the Loch Ranza district, extending from Auch- 
nagallen, a little to the north of the Mauchry burn, 
round, by the Cock of Arran, to Corrie point on the 
east coast. This is a highly interesting district in 
point of scenery. The road by the shore presents a 
succession of beautiful views; and the village or 
namlet of Loch Ranza itself is one of the most 
picturesque spots any where to be found in the 
western islands. It has a safe harbour formed by a 
natural inlet of (he sea in the mouth of the valley or 
glen. Pennant, who crossed over to this bay from 
the Argyle coast, says: " The approach was magni- 
ficent; a fine bay in front, about a mile deep, having 
a ruined castle near the lower end, on a low far pro- 
jecting neck of land, that forms another harbour, 
with a narrow passage ; but within has three fathom 
of water, even at the lowest ebb. Beyond is a little 

plain watered by a stream, and inhabited by the peo- 
ple of a small village. The whole is environed with 
a theatre of mountains ; and in the back-groud the 

serrated crags of Grianan-Athol soar above." [Tour 

to the Western Isles, p. 191-2.] Lord Teignmouth, 
who saw Loch Ranza under its winter-aspect, says : 
" In point of gloomy grandeur no British bay sur- 
passes Loch Ranza. Dark ridges hem it in."" We 
are quite sure that gloomy grandeur is not the com- 
mon impression left by this scene on the eye and 
mind of the visitor. While residing here in summer 
we have often felt the beauty and truth of the sen- 
timent conveyed in the hard's description of the ap. 
proach of Bruce's little armament to this point of 
' Arran 's isle:' — 

"The sun, ere yet he sunk behind 
Ben-Ghoil, 'the Mountain of the Wind,' 
Gave his grim peaks a greeting kind, 

And hade Loch Ranza smile. 
Thither their destined course they drew ; 
It seein'd tile isle her monarch knew, 
So brilliant was the landward view, 

The ocean so serene ; 
Each puny wave in diamonds roll'd 
O'er the calm deep, where hues of gold 

With azure strove and green. 
The hill, the vale, the tree, the tower, 
Glow'd with the tints of evening's hour ; 

The beach was silver sheen ; 
The wind breathed soft as lover's sigh, 
And, oft renew'd, seein'd oft to die, 
With breathless pause between. 
O who, with speech of war and wnes, 
Would wish to break the soft repose 

Of such enchanting scene !" 

Glen Sannox in this district has been compared to 
the celebrated Glencoe. " It is," says Macculloch, 
"the sublime of magnitude, and simplicity, and ob- 
scurity, and silence. Possessing no water, except 
the mountain torrents, it is far inferior to Coruisk 
in variety ; equally also falling short of it in gran- 
deur and diversity of outline. It is inferior too in 
dimensions, since that part of it which admits 
of a comparison, does not much exceed a mile in 
length. But, to the eye, that difference of dimen- 
sion is scarcely sensible : since here, as in that valley, 
there is no scale by which the magnitude can be de- 
termined. The effect of vacancy united to vastness 
of dimension is the same in both: there is the same 
deception, at first, as to the space ; which is onlv 
rendered sensible by the suddenness with which we 
lose sight of our companions, and by the sight of 
unheard torrents. Perpetual twilight appears to 
reign here, even at mid-day : a gloomy and grey at- 
mosphere uniting, into one visible sort of obscurity, 
the only lights which the objects ever receive, re- 
flected from rock to rock, and from the clouds which 
so often involve the lofty boundaries of this valley." 
No one should visit Arran without attempting to 
make themselves acquainted with the beauty of the 
coast-scenery from Brodick to Glen Sannox ; and, 
if time permits, to travel from Sannox to Loch Ran- 
za, through Glen Halmidel, the excursion will not be 

regretted There is a small chapel at Loch Ranza, 

built about 60 years ago at the expense of the duke 
of Hamilton, on the boundary between Kilmorie and 
Kilbride parishes, but within the former parish. It 
is distant, by the road, about 24 miles from Kilmorie 
church, and about 12 from the boundary of Shiskin 
district. The salary of the minister is £41', secured 
by a deed of mortification executed by Ann, Duchess 
of Hamilton, bearing date, 1st April, 1710. 

The climate of Arran is moist, but is considered 
mild and healthy. Sudden anil heavy falls of rain ir. 
summer and autumn are its greatest disadvantages. 
Many greenhouse-plants stand the winter in the open 
air at Brodick castle, and at different villas along the 

coast There are no foxes, badgers, or weasels, in 

Arran ; but the brown rat is very destructive. Red 




deer exist in the northern part of the island. Black 
and red grouse are abundant ; and there are a few 
pheasants. Eagles are frequently seen here ; we 
have ourselves in the course of a single day seen no 
less than four of these noble birds. Trout are 
numerous ; and fine sea-trout are occasionally taken 
in the Jorsa, and Loch Jorsa. Adders and snakes are 
said by Headrich to be very numerous, but we have 
seldom s£en either species of reptile on this island. | 

The botany of Arran is considered rich The geog- j 

nostic structure of this island has been elaborately 
examined by Professor Jamieson, in his * Outline of 
the Mineralogy of the Shetland islands, and the island j 
of Arran.' The greater portion of the northern part 
of the island consists of primitive rocks; floetz rock 
constitutes the southern half. The Goatfell group 
is of granite. Holy isle consists of a mass of basalt. ! 
Porphvritic rocks are found at Lamlash, Drimodune, 
and some other places; and pitch-stone frequently 
occurs both in beds and veins. 

The ecclesiastical statistics of Arran will be de- 
tailed under the articles Kilbride and Kiljiorie. 
There are six parochial schools in the island. The 
population, in 1801, was 5,179; in 1821, 6,541 ; and 
in 1831, 6,427: the decrease in the last decennial 
period was chiefly occasioned by the emigration of 
above 400 people, principally from Sannox district, 
to Lower Canada. — The proprietors of this island 
are the Duke of Hamilton, the Hon. Mrs. Westenra, 
and Fullarton of Kilmichael and Whitefarlane. The 
duke is by far the greatest proprietor. His grace's 
arable land, in 1813, was 10,228 Scots acres ; and 
his present rental .£10,000, arising from 458 farms 
or possessions. [See a valuable paper, by Mr. John 
Paterson, in the ' Prize-essays of the Highland So- 
ciety,' vol. v. pp. 125 — 154.] 

We have already, in the course of this article, had 
occasion to notice the various traditions which exist 
in Arran respecting Fingal ; and may now suggest 
that some of these may owe their origin to the early 
presence of the Norwegians, called Fiongall, or 
' white foreigners,' by the Irish annalists. Somerled, 
thane of Argyle in the 12th century — whose name 
has also occurred in this article — appears to have been 
of Scoto-Irish descent. His father Gillibrede had 
possessions on the mainland of Argyle, probably in 
the district of Morvern. When yet a youth, Somer- 
led signally defeated a band of Norse pirates ; and, 
having obtained high reputation for his prowess and 
skill in arms, was enabled ultimately to assume the 
title of Lord or Regulus of Argyle, and to compel 
Godred of Norway to cede to him what were then call- 
ed the South isles, namely, Bute, Arran, Islav, Jura, 
Mull, and the peninsula of Kintyre. On the death 
of Somerled, in 1164, Mr. Gregory conjectures that 
Arran was probably divided between his sons Regi- 
nald and Angus, and may have been the cause of the 
deadly feud which existed between them. [' History 
of the Western Highlands and Isles,' Edin. 1836. 
8vo. p. 17.] Angus, with his sons, fell in an engage- 
ment with the men of Skye in 1210; whereupon 
Dugall, another son of Somerled, and the ancestor 
of the house of Argyle and Lorn, patronymically 
called Macdougal, succeeded to his possessions. It 
appears, however, that the kings of Norway con- 
tinued to be acknowledged as the sovereigns of the 
Isles, until their final cession to the Scottish crown 
by Magnus of Norway, in July, 1266. Somerled's 
descendants now became vassals of the king of Scot- 
land for all their possessions ; but the islands of Man, 
Arran, and Bute, were annexed to the Crown. 
After the unfortunate battle of Methven, Kobert 
Bruce lay for some time concealed, it is said, in Ar- 
ran; and afterwards in the little island of Rachrin 
on the northern coast of Ireland, whence he again 

passed over to Arran with a fleet of 33 galleys, and 
300 men, and joined Sir James Douglas, who, with 
a band of Bruce 's devoted adherents, had contrived 
to maintain themselves in Arran, and to seize the 
castle of Brodick, then held by Sir John Hastings, 
an English Unigbt; and here he projected his de- 
scent on the Carrick coast. On the marriage of the 
Princess Mary, eldest sister of James 111., to Sir 
Thomas Boyd, eldest son of Lord Boyd, in 1466, 
the island of Arran was erected into an earldom in 
favour of Boyd; but upon the forfeiture of that 
family, the house of Hamilton rose upon its ruins ; 
and, a divorce having been obtained, the Countess or 
Arran gave her hand to Lord Hamilton — to whom it 
had been promised in 1454 — and conveyed with it 
the earldom of Arran. [Tytler's History of Scot- 
land, vol. iv. p. 227 

ARROQUHAR, more commonly Arrochar, a 
parish in the north-west corner of Dumbartonshire ; 
bounded on the north by Stralhfillan in Perthshire ; 
on the east by Perthshire and Loch Lomond to 
Nether Inveruglass ; on the south by the parish of 
Luss, from which it is separated by the Douglass 
burn ; and on the west by the upper part of Loch 
Long, and Argyleshire. The extent of the parish is 
nearly 15 miles, exclusive of the farms of Ardleish 
and Doune, which lie on the east side of Lochlo- 
mond, at the northern end of it. The mean breadth 
may be computed at 3 miles. Population, in 1801, 
470; in 1831, 559. Assessed propertv, in 1815, 
±'2,838. Houses 73. The Statistical report of 1839 
states the area of the parish at 31,011 acres, of which 
scarcely one-fiftieth are arable. A large portion is 
covered with oak-coppice. This is a very picturesque 
region ; it is mountainous throughout, and presents 
some fine lake-scenery. The principal mountain 
within the parish is Ben-Voirlich which, according 
to Bone, has an altitude of 3,300 feet ; or, accord- 
ing to the writer of the article Dumbartonshire, in 
the Penny Cyclopaedia, of 3,3c0 feet, " that is," the 
writer adds, " above 100 feet higher than the adja- 
cent Ben-Lomond." But, according to the Ordnance 
survey, its altitude is only 3, ISO feet ; while that of 
Ben-Lomond is stated at 3,195 feet. It forms a 
noble object in the landscape to the tourist ascend- 
ing either Loch Lomond or Loch Long. Its position 
is about 6 miles to the north of the head of Loch 
Long, and 3 west of Ardvoirlich on Loch Lomond. 
The principal streams within the parish are the Fal- 
loch, descending from Glen Falloch into the head of 
Loch Lomond; the Inveruglass from Loch-Sloy; 
and the Douglass, which falls into Loch Lomond 
opposite Rowardennan. The streams which fall into 
Loch Long have a comparatively short course. — The 
scenery of the upper part of Loch Lomond, in this 
parish, is neither so extensive nor so magnificent as 
towards the middle and lower end; it is, however, 
of a wilder and more romantic character. The lake 
is here narrow and river-like, as most of the Scottish 
lakes are ; and the adjoining hills, broken and rug- 
ged in their outlines, rise up at once abruptly and 
precipitously from the water. Still, however, the 
scenery is such as must afford high gratification to 
every lover of the picturesque. The romantic and 
varied shores, — the bold projecting headlands and 
retiring bays, — the rugged and serrated hills, — and 

* Arroquh-ir is a Celtic word which signifies a high or hilly 
country. It is generally pronounced, in the Gaelic language, 
Arrtrr, which is a contraction of Ardtliir, aid signifying high, 
ana t'nir a country. The name is very descriptive ot the place, 
which is high and mountainous, very-little flat or arable 
ground in it. £01d Statistical Account- 3 — Arrochar, Chalmers 
says, appears as the name of this district in the rharters of the 
13th century. It was called the Arachor of Luss, or the Upper 
carucate of Land of Luss. " Aruchor," he adds, "seems to 
have been a Gaelic term which was apuiied to a certain division 
of land." ^Caledonia, vol. iii. p. 909, 




the numerous openings of the deep and lonely glens, — 
form together a picture of peculiar and enchanting 
interest ; the effect of which is heightened in a sur- 
prising degree, when all the magic tints of its varied 
surface are awakened by the brightness of a summer's 
sun. Then, and then only, can it be seen in its full 
effect. — In ancient times, the land forming the western 
shore of Loch Lomond, from Tarbet upwards, and 
the greater part of this parish, was inhabited by 
'The wild Macfarlane's plaided clan.' 

From Loch-Sloy, a small lake near the base of Ben- 
Voirlich, which formed the gathering-place of the 
clan, they took their slughorn or war-cry of ' Loch 
Sloy ! Loch Sloy !' Loch Sluai, in Gaelic, signify- 
ing ' the Lake of the Host or Army.' Their badge w as 
a sprig of the Cloudberry hush. The remote ances- 
tor of this clan is said to have been Farlan, a son of 
one of the early Earls of Lennox ; and from him they 
adopted their patronymic of M'Farlane. Though the 
M'Gregors appear to have enjoyed a pre-eminence 
in disturbing the Lowland districts, the M'Farlanes 
were also in the practice of doing so as far as their 
more limited numbers allowed. In 1587, they were 
declared to be one of the clans for whom the chief was 
made responsible. [Acta Pari. iii. 467.] In 1594, 
they were denounced as being in the habit of com- 
mitting theft, robbery, and oppression. [Ibid. iv. 71.] 
And, in July, 1624, many of the clan were tried, and 
convicted of theft and robbery. Some of them were 
punished, some were pardoned, while others were re- 
moved to the highlands of Aberdeenshire, and to 
Strathaven in Banffshire, where they assumed the 
names of Stewart, M'Caudy, Greisock, M'James, and 
M'Innes. The lands have now passed entirely from 
the chiefs of this clan ; and the house which they at one 
time inhabited, was, for a considerable time, an inn 
rented by the Duke of Argyle for the accommodation 
of travellers proceeding from Tarbet, by Glencroe, 
to Inverary. A new inn has, however, been built a 
little further up the loch and the old inn is now, we 
believe, a private residence. The inn commands a 
fine view of the head of Loch Long which Gilpin 
characterises as exhibiting " a simple and very sublime 
piece of lake scenery." Immediately opposite rises 
Ben Arthur, a huge mountain at the opening of 
Glencroe, the naked rocky summit of which being 
thought to bear some resemblance to the figure of a 
shoemaker seated at work on his stool, has procured 
for it the less-dignified appellation of The Cobler. 
See Glencroe. Toward the lower part of the loch, 
as seen from this point, the mountains decline in 
gentle perspective, and, though not much varied in 
form, are pleasing from their verdant covering and 
the coppice which sprinkles their sides. Those por- 
tions of the parish which lie along the western bank 
of Loch Lomond, from Tarbet inn upwards to the 
head, and around the upper part of Loch Long, are 
best known to tourists. Arrochar inn is 17£ miles 
from Helensburgh ; 22 from Dumbarton by way of 
Luss; 14 from Cairndow; and 23J from Inverary. 
Its distance from Tarbet on Loch Lomond is 2 miles. 
The scenery of the road across the isthmus between 
the two lochs is very striking and beautiful. See 
Tarbet. During the summer season there is a 
steamer daily from and to Glasgow, both by way of 
Loch Lomond and Loch Long. The village is rapid- 
ly increasing by the building of bathing- villas, which 
are also rising in various directions around the head 
of Loch Long. — The parish of Arroquhar is in the 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and presbytery of Dum- 
barton. It was originally an appendage of the parish 
of Luss, and was disjoined from it in the year 1658. 
The stipend, including the glebe, is ±'253 19s. 7d. 
The church was built in 1733 ; the manse, in 1837. 

Sir James Colquhoun of Luss, Bart., is patron, and 
almost sole proprietor. There are two schools in 
this parish, one parochial, the other endowed by Mr. 
M'Murrich of Stuckgown, whose beautiful mansion 
graces the banks of Loch Lomond in this parish. — 
See articles Loch Lomond, and Loch Long. 

ARTHUR, a name of frequent occurrence in 
Scottish as well as Welsh and English topography, 
and generally traced by the voice of Tradition to the 
far-famed Arthur of romance. " It is amusing to re- 
mark," savs Chalmers, in his elaborate 'Caledonia,' 
[vol. i. p. 244,] "how many notices the North-British 
topography furnishes, with regard to Arthur, whose 
fame seems to brighten, as inquiry dispels the doubts 
of scepticism, and archaiology establishes the certain- 
ties of truth In Clydesdale, within the parish of 

Crawford, there is Arthur's fountain : in 1239, there 
was a grant of David de Lindsay to the monks of 
Nevvbotle, of the lands of Brotberalwyn, in that dis- 
trict, which were bounded, on the west part, ' a fonte 
Arthuri usque ad summitate montis.' Chart. Nevv- 
botle, N. 148 — The Welsh poets assign a palace to 
Arthur, among the Northern Britons, at Penryn- 
Ryoneth. In Lhuyd's Cornish vocabulary, p. 238, 
Penrvn-rioneth is called, the seat of the Prince of 
Cumbria : and see also Richard's Welsh Dictionary. 
The British Penryn supposes a promontory, with some 
circumstance which reduplicates its height ; and this 
intimation points to Alcluyd, the well-known metro- 
polis of the Romanized Britons, in Strathclyde. Now 
a parliamentary record of the reign of David II., in 
1367, giving a curious detail of the king's rents and 
profits in Dunbartonshire, states the ' redditum as- 
size Castri Arthuri.' MSS. Reg. House ; Paper- 
Office. The castle of Dunbarton, therefore, was the 
Castrum Arthuri, long before the age of David II. 
See the site of Dunbarton, in Ainslie's Map of Ren- 
frewshire. The Point of Cardross was the Rhyn- 
ryonetb ; the castle of Dunbarton was the Pen- 
rhyn-ryoneth. According to the British Triads, Ken- 
tigern, the well-known founder of the church of Glas- 
gow, had his episcopal seat at Pen-rhyn-ryoneth 

The romantic castle of Stirling was equally suppos- 
ed, during the middle ages, to have been the festive 
scene of the round-table of Arthur. ' Rex Arthu- 
rus,' says William of Worcester, in his Itinerary, p. 
311. ' Custodiebat le round-table in castro de Styr- 
lyng, aliter, Snowdon-west-castell.' The name of 
Snowdon castle is nothing more than the Smia-dun 
of the Scoto-Irish people, signifying the fort, or 
fortified hill on the river, as we may learn from 
O'Brien, and Shaw ; and the Snua-dun has been 
converted to Snow-dun, by the Scoto-Saxon people, 
from a retrospection to the Snow-don of Wales, 
which is itself a mere translation from the Welsh. — 
In Neilston parish, in Renfrewshire, there still re- 
main Arthur-lee, Low Arthur-lee, and West Arthur- 
lee Arthur's-oven, on the Carron, was known by 

that name, as early, if not earlier, than the reign of 
Alexander III. In 1293, William Gurlay granted to 
the monks of Newbotle ' firmationem unius stagni 
ad opus molendini sui del Stanhus quod juxta fur- 
mim Arthuri infra baronium de Dunypas est.' Chart. 
Newbotle, No. 239.— The name of Arthur's-Seat, at 
Edinburgh, is said, by a late inquirer, ' to be only a 
name of yesterday.' Yet, that remarkable height 
had that distinguished name before the publication of 
Camden's Britannia, in 1585, as we may see in p. 
478; and before the publication of Major, in 1521, 
as appears in fo. 28 ; and even before the end of the 
15th century, as Kennedy, in his flyting with Dunbar, 
mentions ' Arthur Sate or ony hicher hill.' Ram- 
say's Evergreen, v. ii. p. 65 This is not the only 

hill which bears the celebrated name of Arthur. 
Not far from the top of Loch- Long, which separates 




Argyle and Dunbarton, there is a conical hill that is 
called Arthur's Seat. Guide to Loch Lomond, pi. 
iii. A rock, on the north side of the hill of Dun- 
barrow, in Dunnichen parish, Forfarshire, has long 
tore, in the tradition of the country, the distinguish- 
ed name of Arthur's Seat. Stat. Acco. v. i. p. 419. 

In the parish of Cupar- Angus, in Perthshire, there 

is a standing stone, called the Stone of Arthur; 
near it is a gentleman's seat, called Arthur-stone ; 
and not far from it is a farm, named Arthur's fold — 
But, it is at Meigle, in the same vicinity, that the 
celebrity of Arthur, and the evil fame of his queen 
Venora, are most distinctly remembered. Pennant's 
Tour, v. ii. p. 177-8 ; and Stat. Acco. v. i. p. 506 : 
and above all, see Belleuden's Boece, fo. Ixvii', for 
the origin of the popular fictions at Meigle, about 
Arthur and Venora. — The Scottish chroniclers, Bar- 
bour and Wyntown, were perfectly acquainted with 
the Arthur of romance. We may easily infer, from 
the local facts, that bis story must have been equally 
known to Thomas of Ercildun, a century sooner. 
In 1293, the monks of Newbotle knew how to make 
a mill-dam, with the materials which they found on 
the banks of the Canon. Sir Michael Bruce of 
Stanhus thought it necessary, in 1743, to pull down 
Arthur's Oon, one of the most curious remains of 
antiquity, for the stones which it furnished, for build- 
ing a mill-dam. The enraged antiquaries consigned 
Sir Michael to eternal ridicule. See the Antiquary 
Repertory, v. iii. p. 74-5. Sir David Lindsay, in 
his ' Complaynt' of the Papingo, makes her take leave 
of Stirling castle thus : — 

Adew fair Snawdoun, with thy towris hie. 
Thy chapell ruyall, park, and tabill round.' 

And, in his ' Dreme,' he mentions his having diverted 
James V., when young, with ' antique storeis and 
deidis martial], 

'Ot Hector, Arthur, and pentile Juline, 
Of Alexander, and worthy Poinpeiua.' 

This shows that the stories of Arthur were then 
ranked among those of the most celebrated heroes 
of antiquity." See article Meigle. 

ARTHUR'S SEAT, the most eminent object, 
perhaps, in the above numerous list, is a hill in the 
immediate vicinity of Edinburgh, which rises to the 
height of 822 feet above the level of the sea. It 
commands a beautiful prospect on all sides, and forms 
a principal and imposing object from every point of 
approach to the capital of Scotland. The ascent is 
usually made from the precincts of Holvrood, or, on 
the opposite side, from Duddingstone village. Tak- 
ing the former route, after crossing the boundary 
walls of the lower park, we leave the ruins of St. 
Anthony's chapel a little to the left. " A better 
site for such a building," says Sir Walter Scott, 
" could hardly have been selected ; for the chapel, 
situated among the rude and pathless cliffs, lies in a 
desert, even in the immediate vicinity of a rich, po- 
pulous, and tumultuous capital; and the hum of the 
city might mingle with the orisons of the recluses, 
conveying as little of worldly interest as if it had 
been the roar of the distant ocean. Beneath the 
steep ascent on which these ruins are still visible, 
was, and perhaps is, still pointed out, the place where 
the wretch Nicol Muschat had closed a long scene of 
cruelty towards his unfortunate wife, by murdering 
her with circumstances of uncommon barbarity. The 
execration in which the man's crime was held, ex- 
tended itself to the place where it was perpetrated, 
which was marked by a small cairn or heap of stones, 
composed of those which each passenger had thrown 
there in testimony of abhorrence, and on the prin- 
ciple, it would seem, of the ancient British maledic- 
tion — ' May you have a cairn for your burial-place.' " 

[' Heart of Mid-Lothian.'] In Maitland's ' History 
of Edinburgh,' [1753,] these ruins are described as 
being 43^ feet long, 18 broad, and as many high, 
with a tower 19 feet square. — By striking off to the 
right, and pursuing an easy ascent over the green 
sward, we may gain the summit of the fine bold ba- 
saltic range called Salisbury crags, of which, says 
our immortal novelist, " If I were to choose a spot 
from which the rising or setting sun could be seen 
to the greatest possible advantage, it would be that 
wild path winding around the foot of the high belt 
of semicircular rocks, called Salisbury crags, and 
marking the verge of the steep descent which slopes 
down into the glen on the south-eastern side of the 
city of Edinburgh. The prospect, in its general 
outline, commands a close-built, high-piled city, 
stretching itself out in a form which, to a romantic 
imagination, may be supposed to represent that of a 
dragon; now a noble arm of the sea, with its rocks, 
isles, distant shores, and boundary of mountains; and 
now a fair and fertile champaign country, varied with 
bill, dale, and rock, and skirted by the picturesque 
ridge of the Pentland mountains. But as the path 
gently circles around the base of the cliffs, the pros- 
pect, composed as it is of these enchanting and sub- 
lime objects, changes at every step, and presents 
them blended with, or divided from, each other in 
every possible variety which can gratify the eye and 
the imagination. When a piece of scenery so beau- 
tiful, yet so varied, — so exciting by its intricacy, and 
yet so sublime, — is lighted up by the tints of morn- 
ing or of evening, and displays all that variety of 
shadowy depth, exchanged with partial brilliancy, 
which gives character even to the tamest of land- 
scapes, the effect approaches near to enchantment. 
This path used to be my favourite evening and morn- 
ning resort, when engaged with a favourite author, 
or new subject of study." [' Heart of Mid-Lothian.'] 
— If the visitor's object be to accomplish the ascent 
of the Seat, by pursuing the path formerly mentioned, 
he will gain the summit of the hill with little diffi- 
culty. We have heard of the ascent being accom- 
plished from the turnstile in twenty minutes ; but 
may well presume that few will be disposed to try 
whether they can rival such a feat. To depict the scene 
from the summit, we must employ the same living 
pencil that has traced the landscape from the chapel 
and the crags. " A nobler contrast there can hardly 
exist than that of the huge city, dark with the smoke 
of ages, and groaning with the various sounds of 
active industry or idle revel, and the lofty and craggy 
hill, silent and solitary as the grave; one exhibiting 
the full tide of existence, pressing and precipitating 
itself forward with the force of an inundation; the 
other resembling some time-worn anchorite, whose 
life passes as silent and unobserved as the slender 
rill which escapes unheard, and scarce seen from the 
fountain of bis patron-saint. The city resembles the 
busy temple, where the modern Comus and Mam- 
mon held their court, and thousands sacrifice ease, 
independence, and virtue itself, at their shrine ; the 
misty and lonely mountain seems as a throne to the 
majestic but terrible genius of feudal times, where 
the same divinities dispensed coronets and domains 
to those who had heads to devise, and arms to exe- 
cute bold enterprises." [' Introduction to the Chro- 
nicles of the Canongate.'] — The rocky summit of this 
hill is strongly magnetic. Mr. William Galbraitb 
i first called the attention of scientific men to this 
fact, in 1831, in a paper communicated by him to 
the ' Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal ' [No. 
XXII. p. 285.] He found the needle at some points 
completely reversed. 

ARTORNISH, a castle, and, in ancient times, 
one of the principal strongholds of the Lords of the 




Isles, in the district of Morvern, and nearly opposite 
the bay of Aros in Mull. The ruins are now incon- 
siderable, but the situation is wild and romantic in 
the highest degree. From this castle, John de Yle, 
designing himself Earl of Ross, and Lord of the Isles, 
in 14b' 1, granted, in the style of an independent 
sovereign, a commission to certain parties to enter 
into a treaty with Edward IV. Sir Walter Scott 
bas given the articles of this treaty in his Appendix to 
' The Lord of the Isles,' [Note A.] — the opening scene 
of which poem is laid in " Artornish hall," where 

" tlie noble and the bold 
of Island chivalry" 

were assemhled to do honour to the nuptials of the 
hapless " Maid of Lorn ;" and 

" met from mainland and from isle, 
Ross, Arran, Islay, and Argyle, 
E-u'li minstrel's tributary lay 
Paid homage to the festal day." 

ASHKIRK, a parish in the counties of Roxburgh 
and Selkirk; the greater part of it, however, in that 
of Roxburgh. It is bounded on the north by Sel- 
kirk ; on the east by Minto and Lilliesleaf ; on the 
south by Roberton and Wilton ; and on the west by 
Yarrow. It is about 7 miles long, and 3 broad. The 
district may be called hilly, but most of the hills are 
free from heath. The soil in general is light, and in 
several parts spongy. A good deal has been done 
here of late years in draining and planting. The 
cultivated land amounts to about 2,800 acres; about 
400 acres are under wood. The only river in the 
parish is the Ale, which runs through it, in a narrow 
valley, from west to east. But there are several 
small lochs — none of them exceeding a mile in cir- 
cumference — which discharge their waters into the 
Ale, and contain trout, perch, and pike. See Ale- 
moor (Loch). Population, in 1801, 574; in 1831, 
565, of whom about 100 were dissenters, and 192 
were resident in that portion of the parish which is 
in Selkirkshire. Houses, 97- Assessed property, 
£4,501. The land-rent, in 1796, was about £2,000; 
in 1838, £4,479 7s. — This parish is in the presby- 
tery of Selkirk, and synod of Merse and Teviot- 
dale. It was formerly a vicarage belonging to the 
chapter of Glasgow; and the greater number of the 
present proprietors still hold of the college of 
Glasgow. The bishop of Glasgow had a palace 
here, of which the last relics have disappeared 
within the memory of man. The parish itself was 
in early times wholly divided amongst the family of 
Scot. The church was built in 1791; sittings, 200; 
stipend, £205 12s. 9d., with a manse, and a glebe 
of the value of £27. Unappropriated teinds, £636 
lis. 4d. Patron, the Earl of Minto. The parochial 
schoolmaster has a salary of £30, with about £10 
of school-fees, and some other emoluments, and a 
house and garden. The average attendance on his 
tuition is about 40. 

ASKAIG (Port), a small haven on the north- 
east coast of Islay, 11 miles distant from Bowmore, 
and 35 from East Tarbert. There is a good inn 
here, and the vicinity is well-wooded. Lead-mines 
were at one time wrought a little to the north-west 
of this place. 

ASSYNT, or Assint, a very extensive district 
and parish in the county of Sutherland, including 
the quoad sacra parish of Stoer. The name is a 
contraction of agus-int, literally ' in and out ;' and 
is supposed to have been originally applied to it as 
descriptive of its extraordinarily rugged surface and 
broken outline. Its area is estimated at 1 00,000 acres ; 
and its circumference at 90 miles. On the north it 
is bounded by that arm of the sea called the Minch, 
and by Loch Assynt, the Kylecuigh or Kyle Skou, 
" across which a stone may be slung," and its ex- 

tremities Loch Dow and Loch Coul. From the 
eastern end of Loch Coul, an imaginary line, drawn 
in a south-east direction across the summits of the 
mountains to Glashben, completes the boundary be- 
twixt Assynt and Eddrachillis parish. The boundary 
line then turns south-west, for a distance of about 10 
miles, dividing Assynt from Creech parish, and from 
Ross-shire; it then assumes a north-west direction, 
and passes by Loch Vattie, and Loch Faun or Loch 
Fane, to In verkirkaig, where it meets the sea, dividing 
Assynt, in this direction, from the shire of Cromarty. 
The Kirkaig flows out of Loch Fane, and forms a tine 
cascade at a point in its course about 2 miles from 
the sea. The general course of the coast-line, from 
the mouth of the Kirkaig to Ru-Stoer, — a distance of 
20 miles, — is from south-south-east to north-north- 
west, and presents " islands, bays, and headlands, 
without end, but not a feature to distinguish one 
from another, nor a cliff nor a promontory to tempt 
a moment's stay;" all is dreary, desolate, and moun- 
tainous. Locli Inver is a fishing-station, and pre- 
sents a pretty good harbour. The Inver flows into 
its head from Loch Assynt. The point of Stoer, 
or the Ru-Stoer, is a remarkable detached mass of 
sandstone, rising to the height of about 200 feet. 
A little to the south of the Ru is Soay island, mea- 
suring about 4 furlongs in length, by 3 in breadth. 
It is flat, and covered with heather and coarse grass. 
About a mile to the south of Soay, is the islet of 

Klett The principal island belonging to Assynt is 

that of Oldney or Oldernay, at the mouth of Loch 
Assynt, which is divided from the mainland by a 
channel in some parts not exceeding 20 yards in 
width. It is about a mile in length, by 2 furlongs 
in breadth ; and was inhabited, in 1836, by twelve 

The main line of road through this district enters 
the parish, from the south, at Aultnacealgeich burn, 10 
miles from the bridge of Oykell, at the upper end of 
Loch Boarlan. A little beyond this, a road branches- 
ofT to the west towards Crockan, whence there is a 
road to Ullapool, on Loch Broom, 16 miles distant. 
Pursuing the main line, we arrive at Ledbeg, whence 
a detour may be made by the south side of Suilbhein 
to Inverkirkaig, provided the traveller dare encoun- 
ter a very rugged journey, presenting only one habi- 
table shieling in its whole course, namely Brackloch 
at the western end of Loch Caum, a very fine fresh 
water loch. There is another, and a more dangerous 
route in winter, between the Suilbhein and its moun- 
tain-brother Cannishb or Canisp. After leaving Led- 
beg we enter the glen of Assynt. This glen is very 
narrow, and has various windings, so that one is quite 
near the lake before being aware of it. Immediately 
before arriving at it, a very singular ridge of rock 
bounds the glen and the road on the right. This 
ridge rises to a perpendicular height of 300 feet: it 
is of blue limestone, and its mural surface has been 
worn away in many places in such a manner as to 
present the appearance of the windows, tracery, and 
fret-work of an ancient cathedral. Alpine plants 
and creeping-shrubs ornament with their graceful 
drapery every crevice and opening of these lofty 
rocks, and altogether create a scene of most pictur- 
escme though fantastic beauty. At length on turn- 
ing round the edge of this ridge, the traveller finds 
himself at the village of Inch-na-damph, or Innesin- 
damff, and the head of Loch Assynt. This lake is 
about 16J miles in length, and 1 mile in greatest 
breadth. It receives the waters of many mountain- 
streams, and empties itself into Loch Inver, an arm 
of the sea of which mention has already been made. 
On the shores of Loch Assynt, near the village of 
Inch-na-damph, there are quarries of white marble, 
which were at one time wrought by an EngUshman; 



but since his death they seem to be entirely neglected 
and given up. If one may judge from the blocks 
lying about, the marble seems to be pure and capa- 
ble of receiving a high polish; but, from whatever 
cause, it is now only used for building dry stone-dykes 
and highland-cottages. " At Leadbeg," says Dr. 
Macculloch, " I found the cottages built of bright 
white marble : the walls forming a strange contrast 
with the smoke and dirt inside, the black thatch, the 
dubs, the midden, and the peat-stacks. This marble 
has not succeeded in attaining a higher dignity." We 
may mention having seen marble cottages at other 
places besides Ledbeg, presenting the same strange 
contrast which the Doctor here points out. Loch- 
Assynt lies in a very pleasing green valley, thougli 
it does not — except at its head and bevond the village 
of Inch-na-damph — afford much of the picturesque or 
the romantic. The mountain of Cunaig, however, 
on the north side of the lake, and Bein-mhor or 
Benmore, with the other mountains which terminate 
the glen to the east, present scenes of much gran- 
deur and magnificence. — The ancient castle of Ard- 
vraick, and the ruined house of the Earls of Seaforth, 
with the village and churchyard at the head of the 
lake, give an interest to Loch-Assynt not often to 
be felt among the inland waters of these northern 
regions. Pursuing our route along the northern side 
of the loch, we pass the ruins of Ardvraick castle, 
situated on a rocky peninsula which projects a con- 
siderable way into the lake. This castle was long 
the residence of the Macleods, and in particular that 
of Donald Bane More ; it was built in the year 1597, 
or 1591, and must have been a place of strength in 
ancient times. When the estate came into the Sea- 
forth family, they erected a new mansion near the 
shore of the lake. This mansion is also now in 
ruins. " It was built," says the first Statistical re- 
porter, "in a modern manner, of an elegant figure, 
and great accommodation. It had fourteen bed- 
chambers, with the conveniency of chimneys or fire- 
places." The osprey {Pandinn halicelus) frequents 
Assynt; and a pair have long built on the ruins of 
Ardvraick castle — Adjoining to the present parish- 
church, and within the buning-ground, near the vil- 
lage of Inch-na-damph, are the remains of an ancient 
Popish chapel, said to be the oldest place of worship 
existing in this district. The occasion of its erection 
is alleged to have been as follows. One jEneas or 
Angus Macleod, an early laird of Assynt, had gone to 
Rome, and had had the honour of an interview with 
the Pope from whom he received various favours ; 
on account of which he vowed that on his return he 
would build and endow a chapel. This he did, and 
extended his endowment in its favour to the fifth 
part of his then yearly rental. At one time this 
chapel consisted of two stories ; the ground one being 
used for worship, and having an arched or vault- 
ed roof. Above was a cell or chamber, which tra- 
dition reports was a place set apart for private de- 
votion. This upper cell, however, was removed 
several years ago ; and the lower repaired for a burial 
vault, for which purpose it is still used. It is the 
property of Macleod of Geanies, the lineal descendant 
of the ancient lairds of Assynt. On the farm of 
Clachtoll are the remains of an ancient Druidical 
temple. At Ledbeg a pruning-hook was found un- 
der the moss several years since, the use of which 
puzzled the natives of the place not a little. But 
a late Earl of Bristol, then Bishop of Derry, happen- 
ing to pass a few days here, pronounced it to be a 
pruning-hook used by the Druids, with which they 
yearly cut the sacred misletoe from the oak. This 
relic of ancient superstition was presented by 

Mrs. M'Kenzie of Ardloch to his lordship On 

reaching the northern end of Loch Assynt, one branch 

of the road turns westward to Loch Inver, following 
the northern bank of the river Inver ; while another 
branch runs north to Unapool on the Kylecuigh, 
beyond which there is a ferry to Grinan, in Eddra- 
chillis, whence it proceeds along the coast to Scourie 

In the southern part of Assynt are several detach- 
ed mountains of singular form. Dr. Macculloch has 
written of them so correctly, and described them so 
graphically, that although at some length, we must 
furnish the reader with his remarks. In talking of 
sandstone mountains, in his Geological work, he says : 
" The independence of many of these hills forms 
one of the most remarkable parts of the character of 
this. rock. In many places, they rise suddenly from 
a hilly land of moderate elevation composed of 
gneiss; attaining at once to an height above it of 
1,000 or 2,000 feet. They are often separated by 
miles. In other cases, they are grouped, but still 
distinct at their base. Where insulated, they have 
a very striking effect, of which examples occur in 
Sul-bhein, and Coul-bheg. Similarly powerful effects 
result from the suddenness of their rise, — the summit, 
with the whole declivity, being visible from the 
base." Farther oh, in the same work, he sa\s, " It 
might be expected that the pinnacled summits and 
detached hills had resulted from the waste of the 
erect varieties, but in Coul-bheg, Coul-more, Sul- 
bhein, &c, they are produced by the wearing down 
of strata nearly horizontal ; the harder portions, in 
the former case, remaining like pillars of masonry or 
artificial cairns. The west side of Sutherland and 
Ross consists of a basis of gneiss, forming an irre- 
gular and hilly surface, varying, in extreme cases, 
from 100 to 1,500 feet in height, hut often present- 
ing a considerable extent of table-land. Ou this 
base, are placed various mountains, either far de- 
tached, or collected in groupes ; and all rising to an 
average altitude of about 3,000 feet above the sea. 
The stratification of these is horizontal or* slightly- 
inclined. It follows that the whole of this country 
has been once covered with a body of sandstone, 
equal in thickness — in certain points at least — to 
the present remaining portions." 

In his letters on the Highlands [Vol. ii. p. 345.] 
again, he thus describes Suilbhein, "It loses no 
part of its strangely incongruous character on a near 
approach. It remains as lofty, as independent, and 
as much like a sugar-loaf, (really not metaphorically,) 
when at its foot as when far off at sea. In one re- 
spect it gains, or rather the spectator does, by a more 
intimate acquaintance. It might have been covered 
with grass to the imagination; but the eye sees and 
the hand feels that it is rock above, below, and 
round about. The narrow front, that which possesses 
the conical outline, has the appearance of a preci- 
pice, although not rigidly so; since it consists of a 
series of rocky cliffs piled in terraced succession 
above each other; the grass} surfaces of uhich being 
invisible from beneath, the whole seems one rude 
and broken cliff, rising suddenly and abruptly from 
the irregular table-land below to the height of a 
thousand feet. The effect of a mountain thus seen, 
is always striking; because, towering aloft into the 
sky, it fills the eye and the imagination. Here, it is 
doubly impressive from the wide and open range 
around, in the midst of which this gigantic mass 
stands alone and unrivalled, — a solitary and enormous 
beacon, rising to the clouds from the far-extended 
ocean-like waste of rocks and rudeness. Combining 
in some positions, with the distant and elegant forms 
of Canasp, Coul-bheg, and Ber.-More, it also offers 
more variety than could be expected ; while even 
the general landscape is varied by the multiplicity 
of rocks and small lakes with which the whole countrv 



is interspersed. The total altitude from the sea line 
is probably about 2,500 feet ; the table-land whence 
this and most other of the mountains of this coast 
rise, appearing to have an extreme elevation of 1,500. 
To almost all but the shepherds, Sul-bhein is inac- 
cessible : one of our sailors, well-used to climbing, 
reached the summit with difficulty, and had much 
more in descending. Sheep scramble about it in 
search of the grass that grows in the intervals of the 
rocks : but so perilous is this trade to them, that 
this mountain with its pasture — which, notwithstand- 
ing its rocky aspect, is considerable — is a negative 
possession ; causing a deduction of fifteen or twenty 
pounds a-year from the value of the farm to which 
it belongs, instead of adding to its rent." Notwith- 
standing the difficulty of climbing Suilbhein which 
the Doctor here mentions, we were told, when in 
the country, by a highland gentleman residing near 
Loch-Inver, that a young lady from Glasgow had as- 
cended with him the year previous. We must con- 
fess, however, that we should have had some hesita- 
tion in making even the attempt. — At page 354 of 
the same work, the Doctor gives the following de- 
scription of Coul-bheg: " The whole of this coast, 
from Coycraig in Assynt, as far as Ben-More at 
Loch-Broom, presents a most singular mountain out- 
line; but Coul-bheg is even more remarkable than 
Sul-bhein, while its form is more elegant and ver- 
satile. In every view, it is as graceful and majestic 
as it is singular ; and, like the other mountains of 
this extraordinary shore, it has every advantage that 
can rise from independence of position ; rising a huge 
and solitary cone, from the high land beneath, and 
lifting its dark precipice in unattended majesty to 
the clouds. The ascent from the shore to the base 
of the rocky cone is long and tedious, over a land of 
lakes and rocks ; but beyond that there is no access. 
All around is barrenness and desertion ; except 
where some lake, glittering bright in the sunshine, 
gives life, — a still life, — to the scene : and the eye 
ranges far and wide over the land, seeing nothing 
but the white quartz summits of Canasp, Coycraig, 
and Ben-More, — the long streams of stones that de- 
scend from their sides, — and the brown waste of heath 
around, interspersed with grey protruding rocks 
that would elsewhere be hills, and with numerous 
lakes that seem but pools amid the spacious desert." 
In spite, however, of the many difficulties which must 
attend a close examination of this land of moun- 
tains and floods, the traveller who chooses to under- 
go the fatigue, and to encounter the difficulties of 
attempting to penetrate its recesses, will find much 
to please, and still more to astonish him amidst its 
gigantic and awful mountains and lonely valleys. 
To those 

"who love the pathless solitude 
Where, in wild grandeur, Nature dwells alone 
On the bleak mountain, and the unsculptured stone, 
'Mid torrents, and dark range of forests wide," 

the solemn and sublime scenery of Assynt will afford 
moments of exquisite pleasure. One oft feels in 
wandering through its superb solitudes as if the next 
step would conduct him into the ideal and superna- 
tural. To the geologist, nothing further need be 
said, to incite him to investigate this district most 
minutely, than a reference to the quotations from Dr. 
Macculloch already given. 

The population of Assynt, in 1801, was 2,395 ; in 
1831, 3,101, of whom 1,401 were resident in the 
quoad sacra district of Stoer. Above two-thirds of 
the population are resident on the sea-shore. In the 
district around Loch Inver there was, in 1831, a po- 
pulation of about 659 ; in the Kyleside district 456 ; 
in each of the two hamlets of Knockan and Elphine, 
250; and at Fnapool 8 or 9 families. The number 

of houses, in 1831, was 573 ; of families, 575. As- 
sessed property, in 1815, .£3,859. Real rental, in 
1795, £1,000. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Dornoch, and 
synod of Sutherland and Caithness. Patron, the 
Duke of Sutherland. The parish-church was built 
about 1770, and repaired in 1816 ; sittings 240. 
There are no dissenting places of worship. Stipend 
£158 6s. 7d., with manse, and a glebe of the value 
of £27 10s. There is a preaching-station at Loch 
Inver, and another at Kyleside, which are supplied 
by the parish-minister. — The quoad sacra parish of 
Stoer is about 11 miles in length by 10 in breadth. 
It was divided from Assynt by authority of the 
General Assembly, in 1834. A church was buiit 
here by the Parliamentary commissioners in 1828. 
The minister's stipend is £120, which is paid by the 
Exchequer. A catechist is employed for the whole 
civil parish, besides three teachers, by the Society 
for propagating Christian knowledge. There are 
burial-grounds at the kirktown, at Gedavolich at the 
west end of Loch Nedd. at Ardvare, Oldney island, 
Stoer, and Loch Inver. 

The district of Assynt is said to have been in early 
times a forest belonging to the ancient thanes of 
Sutherland, the ancestors of the present Duchess of 
Sutherland. In the reign of David II., Torquil 
Macleod, chief of the Macleods of Lewis, had a royal 
grant of Assynt. In 1506, on the forfeiture of Mac- 
leod of Lewis, Y Maekay of Strathnaver received a 
life-rent grant of Assynt. About the year 1660, both 
the property and superiority of Assynt passed from 
the Macleods to the Earl of Seaforth. He made it 
over to one of his younger sons, whose heirs held it 
for three or four generations. It was afterwards pur- 
chased by Lady Strathnaver, who presented it to her 
grandson, the late William Earl of Sutherland; and 
it is now the property of his daughter, the present 
Duchess of Sutherland. It was in this district that 
the great Marquis of Montrose was taken prisoner, 
and delivered up to the Covenanters. After his de- 
feat, and the ruin of all his hopes, at Carbisdale, 
" Montrose, accompanied by the earl of Kinnoul, 
who had lately succeeded to the title on the death 
of his brother, and six or seven companions, having 
dismounted from his horse and thrown away his 
cloak and sword, and having, by the advice of his 
friends, to avoid detection, exchanged his clothes for 
the more homely attire of a common highlander, 
wandered all night and the two following days among 
bleak and solitary regions, without knowing where 
to proceed, and ready to perish under the accumu- 
lated distresses of hunger, fatigue, and anxiety of 
mind. The Earl of Kinnoul, unable, from exhaus- 
tion, to follow Montrose any farther, was left among 
the mountains, where it is supposed he perished. 
When upon the point of starvation, Montrose was 
fortunate to light upon a small cottage, where he 
obtained a supply of milk and bread, on receiving 
which he continued his lonely and dangerous course 
among the mountains of Sutherland, at the risk or 
being seized every hour, and dragged as a felon be- 
fore the very man whom, only a few days before, he 
had threatened with his vengeance. In the mean- 
time, active search was made after Montrose. As it 
was conjectured that he might attempt to reach 
Caithness, where his natural brother, Henry Graham, 
still remained with some troops in possession of the 
castle of Dunbeath, and as it appeared probable, from 
the direction Montrose was supposed to have taken, 
that he meant to go through Assynt, Captain An- 
drew Munro sent instructions to Neil Macleod, the 
laird of Assynt, his brother-in-law, to apprehend 
every stranger that might enter his bounds, in the 
hope of catching Montrose, for whose apprehension 




a splendid reward was offered. In consequence of 
these instructions, Macleod sent out various parties 
in quest of Montrose, but they could not fall in with 
him. ' At last (says Bishop Wishart) the laird of 
Assynt being abroad in arms with some of his ten- 
ants in search of him, lighted on him in a place 
where he had continued three or four days without 
meat or drink, and only one man in his company.' 
The bishop then states, that ' Assynt had formerly 
been one of Montrose's own followers ; who imme- 
diately knowing him, and believing to find friendship 
at his hands, willingly discovered himself; but As- 
synt not daring to conceal him, and being greedy of 
the reward which was promised to the person who 
■should apprehend him by the council of the estates, 
immediately seized and disarmed him.' This account 
differs a little from that of the author of the continua- 
tion of Sir Robert Gordon's history, "who says, that 
it was one of Macleod's parties that apprehended 
Montrose, but is altogether silent to Assynf.'s having 
been a follower of Montrose, but both writers inform 
us that Montrose offered Macleod a large sum of 
money for his liberty, which he refused to grant. 
Macleod kept Montrose and his companion, Major 
Sinclair, an Orkney gentleman, prisoners in the cas- 
tle of Ardvraick, his principal residence. By order of 
Leslie, Montrose was thence removed to Skibo castle, 
where he was kept two nights, thereafter to the castle 
of Braan, and thence again to Edinburgh. [Browne's 
' History of the Highlands,' vol. ii. pp. 35, 36.] 
It has been attempted to clear the laird of Assynt 
from any participation in the death of this unfortu- 
nate nobleman. We do not intend to enter into the 
discussion, but have only to add that it is still the cur- 
rent tradition of the country, and superstition has con- 
nected the alleged treachery with the ruin of Mac- 
leod and his family. The loss of his property did 
follow the seizure and execution of Montrose ; and, 
in the eyes of the simple inhabitants of this district, 
the former was the just punishment, of Heaven for 
his connexion with the enemies of a favourite hero. 

ATHELSTANEFORD, a central parish, in the 
shire of Haddington. The parish is denominated 
Irom the village; and the village — according to 
Buchanan and Camden — owes its name to the fol- 
lowing incident. In one of his predatory incursions, 
Athelstane, a Danish chief, who had received a grant 
of Northumberland from King Alured, arrived in 
this part of the country ; and, engaging in battle with 
Hungus, king of the Picts, was pulled with violence 
from his horse and here slain. The rivulet where 
the battle was fought is in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the village, and is still called Lug Down 
burn, supposed to be a corruption of Rug Down. 
Buchanan adds, that Hungus was encouraged to 
hazard this battle by a vision of St. Andrew the 
apostle, who appeared to him the preceding night 
and promised him success; and that the victory was 
facilitated by the miraculous appearance of a cross in 
the air, in the form of the letter X, over a farm- 
hamlet which still retains the name of Martle, a sup- 
posed contraction of miracle. Achaius, king of the 
Scots, by whose assistance Hungus obtained this 
victory, in commemoration of the event is said to 
have instituted the order of St. Andrew.* The lands 
on which the battle was fought were bestowed on 
the Culdee priory of St. Andrews, and are now held 
in perpetual lease by Kiidoch of Gilmerton. Athel- 
staneford is divided from the parish of Haddington 

* Tlius far tradition. Etymology, however, would give a 
Bimpler account of the matter. Ath-ail means, in Gaelic, 'a 
stone ford;' and there is such a ford, — a narrow, deep, stony 
path, — across the Lug Down rivulet. Saxon settlers, finding 
the Ath-ail already in existence, superadded to it, in their own 
language, stoue ford. See Chalmers's ' Caledonia,' Vol. II. p, 

on the south and south-west by the rivulet formerly 
mentioned, the Lug Down burn. This rivulet rises 
in the Garletou hills, and falls into the frith of Forth 
on the north side of Tynningham bay, after a course 
of about 5 miles. On the north this parish is sepa. 
rated from that of Dirleton by another small rivulet 
called the Peffer. This rivulet rises in the north- 
east corner of the parish, and divides into two streams 
at its source. The country is here so level that one 
of these streams runs in an easterly direction, and joins 
the Lug Down burn, while the other runs due west 
into the frith of Forth at Aberlady bay : see article 
Aberladt. The whole strath of the Peffer was in 
early times a wild morass covered with wood, and 
the abode of wild boars, and other rapacious animals. 
The ground rises gradually from this rivulet to the 
southern extremity of the parish, where the village 
of Athelstaneford and the church stand. The parish 
is about 4 miles in length, from west to east; and 
between 2 and 3 in breadth, from south to north. 
Previous to 1658 it did not contain above 800 or 
1,000 acres; and the Earl of Wintoun was the sole 
proprietor of all the lands. At that period it was 
considerably enlarged by annexations from the par- 
ishes of Haddington and Prestonkirk; so that the 
whole extent of the parish is now above 4,000 acres, 
of which 3,750 are arable. Population, in 1801, 
897; in 1831, 971. Houses 200. Assessed property, 
in 1815, .£9,344. The valued rent of the parish is 
£4,154 Is. Scotch. About one-third of this valua- 
tion is the property of Sir David Kinloch of Gilmer- 
ton, Baronet; another third belongs to the Earl of 
Hopetoun and Sir Alexander Hope ; the remaining 
third is divided among the Earl of Wemyss, Sir 
Francis W. Drummond, Baronet, Lord Elibank, and 
Miss Grant of Congleton. In the Statistical report 
of 1794, it is stated that a woollen manufacture of 
striped variegated cloth had been carried on in the 
village of Athelstaneford for some years past, on a 
small scale. The cloth sold from 4s. 6d. to 5s. 6d. 
per yard ; was made of the best materials ; esteemed 
alight, genteel, and comfortable dress; and known 
in Edinburgh by the name of the Gilmerton livery. 
" The demand for it," it is added, " increases, and the 
manufacturer has both spirit and stock to carry it on 
to greater extent, but finds great difficulty in pro- 
curing female hands to prepare the materials. Ac- 
customed from their early years to work in the fields 
in weeding the corn, hoeing, &c. they prefer what 
they call outwork in summer to any domestic em- 
ployment." This manufacture no longer exists here. 
— This parish is in the presbytery of Haddington, 
and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. Patron, Sir 
David Kinloch, Baronet. Minister's stipend, £262 
0s. 7d., with a manse, and a glebe of the value of 
£15. Unappropriated teinds, £372 lGs. lid. The 
church was built in 1780; sittings, 500. The old 
church — of which there are still some remains — was 
built by Ada, wife of Henry of Scotland, who an- 
nexed it to her abbey in the neighbourhood of Had- 
dington. There are three schools in the parish. 
The parish-schoolmaster has a salary of £35 10s., 
with £48 school-fees, and other emoluments. Ave- 
rage number of scholars 70 The only antiquities 

in this parish are the vestiges of a camp, or perhaps 
of a Pictish town, concerning which there is no 
tradition, and history is silent ; and the remains of a 
chapel, in the village of Drem, called St. John's 
chapel, which belonged to the Knights Templars. 
These are both on the property of the Earl of Hope- 
toun. The house of Garleton, too, may be men- 
tioned under this head. It appears to have once 
been a place of magnificence, but is now a complete 
ruin. It is beautifully situated at the foot of the 
Garleton hills Towards the end of the 16th, and. 




beginning of the 17th century, a great part of the 
lower lands of East Lothian was possessed by the 
Hepburns, collateral branches of the Earls of Both- 
well. A gentleman of that name was proprietor of 
the lands of Athelstaneford. A second son of his 
went into the Swedish service, and afterwards into 
the French service, and died a field-marshal of 
France. The Rev. Robert Blair, author of a small 
poem entitled, ' The Grave,' much admired for its 
elegance and poetical merit, was minister of this 
parish; and his son Robert, a native of this parish, 
rose to the high judicial office of Lord-president of 
the court of session. The fine tragedy of Douglas 
■was written by the celebrated John Home, when 
minister of Athelstaneford. Mr. Home was ordained 
here, in 1747, and was ten years minister of this 
parish. Upon demitting his charge, in June 1757, 
he built a villa in the parish, called Kilduff, and laid 
out the grounds around it with considerable taste. 
" Painting, too, the sister-art of poetry," adds the 
Statistical reporter of 1794, " has been cultivated 
here with taste and advantage. The son of a re- 
spectable farmer in this parish, from his earliest 
years, discovered a remarkable genius for drawing 
and painting. As he advanced in life, he applied 
chiefly to miniatures, in which he excelled. For 
these several years past, he has been in Italy ; and 
there is good reason to believe that he ranks among 
the first artists in that country." The individual 
here alluded to was the celebrated Archibald Skir- 
ving, who amply redeemed the expectations of. his 
early friends, and rose to the very first rank as a 
portrait-painter. He died in his 70th year, and is 
buried in the church-yard of Athelstaneford. His 
father was tenant of the farm of Garleton, and the 
author of the celebrated ballad upon the battle of 

The Chevalier, being void of fesr, 

Did march up Birsley brae, man; 
And through Tranent, &e. 

ATHOLE, a mountainous district in the north of 
Perthshire ; bounded on the north by Badenoch in 
Inverness-shire; on the north-east by Mar in Aber- 
deenshire ; on the east by Forfarshire ; on the south 
by the districts of Stormont and Breadalbane in 
Perthshire; and on the west and north-west by 
Lochaber in Inverness-shire. Sir John Sinclair esti- 
mates its superficial area at 450 square miles. The 
face of the country is highly picturesque, everywhere 
presenting lofty mountains, extensive lakes, deep 
glens, solemn forests, and all the finer features of 
Highland scenery: it is, moreover, "a land praised 
in song, richly wooded, yet highly cultivated and 
thickly inhabited." The loftiest mountain is Cairn 
Goner, one of the Ben-y-Gloe ridge, on the east of 
Glen Tilt, which rises to the height of 3,690 feet. 
The Scarscock, at the point of junction with Aber- 
deenshire, is assigned by some topographers to this 
district of Perthshire. Its altitude is stated bv some 
at 3,402 ; by others at 3,390 feet. The Blair, or 
Field of Athole, is an open fertile vale, intersected 
by the Garry, and generally presenting only low and 
rounded eminences. See article Blair-Athole. 
The other streams in tnis district are the Edendon, 
the Bruar, and the Tilt, which are all tributaries of 
the Garry ; the Airdle, a tributary of the Ericht ; 
and the Tumel, into which the Garry flows. All 
these streams belong to the basin of the Tay, and 
are described, in this work, in separate articles. 
The principal lakes are Loch Ericht, Loch Ranuoch, 
Loch Tumel, and Loch Garry, to which separate 
articles are also devoted. The Forest of Athole, 
the property of the Duke of Athole, contains up- 
wards of 100,000 acres, stocked with red deer, moor- 
game, and ptarmigans, which are also preserved in 

the adjoining forests of the Earl of Fife, the Marquis 
of Huntly, and Farquharson of Invercauld. Athole 
gives the title of duke to a branch of the Murray 
family. Sir John Murrav was created a baron in 
1604, and Earl of Tullibardine in 1606. The sixth 
earl was created Marquis of Athole in 1676; and 
the second marquis, Duke of Athole in 1703. The 
Athole-men have always been found, to use the 
language of old Froissart, " good chivalry, strong of 
limb and stout of heart, and in great abundance;" 
and their feuds with the followers of Argyle form 
a bloody chapter in Highland history. Stoddart 
says, that many of the Athole-men are good per- 
formers on the Great Highland bagpipe. He also 
notices the once -famed ' Athole-brose,' a composition 
of whiskey, honey, and eggs, as forming " an indis- 
pensable dainty in the feast, and no unimportant 
addition to the Materia Medica." [Remarks, Vol. 
II. p. 182.] This was written in 1800: probably 
Athole-brose is now banished from the feast, as it 
certainly is from the Materia Medica of all wise 
people in Athole. Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, 
ended his fierce career, in the battle of Killiecrankie, 
a celebrated pass in Athole. See articles Killie- 
crankie and Perthshire. 

AUCHENAIRN, (Old and New,) a village in 
the under ward and shire of Lanark, parish of Cadder ; 
3 miles north by east of Glasgow. In 1745, the 
Rev. James Warden, a native of this village, and 
minister of the parish, . bequeathed 1 ,000 merks to 
the session, the interest of which is allotted to the 
support of a school here. In 1764, William Leech- 
man, D.D., principal of the university of Glasgow, 
disponed to the session of Cadder about half-an-acre 
of ground, for a house and garden for the benefit of 
this school, of which the minister and elders are 
patrons. A new school-house was erected in 1826. 
Population, in 1831,284. 

AUCHENCAIRN, a village in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, and parish of Rerrick ; 7 miles east 
by south of Kirkcudbright. It is situate at the 
north-west extremity of a beautiful bay — to which 
it gives name — about 2 miles long, and 1 broad. At 
low water this bay presents an uninterrupted bed of 
smooth sand, which is so dry and firm that horse- 
races have been holden upon it; small craft may load 
and unload in any part of it ; and on the west side 
is a capacious natural basin, where vessels of bur- 
den mav lie in safety from every storm. 

. AUCHINBLAE", a village in the parish of For- 
doun, Kincardineshire; 16 miles from Montrose. It 
has a flax spinning-mill, erected about 40 years ago, 
and at which about 40 hands are now employed. 
Population, in 1791, 100; in 1831,487. It is a neat 
thriving place, and is governed by a baillie appointed 
by the Earl of Kintore. Two fairs are held here, 
viz., Pasch market in April, and May-day oh 22(1 May. 
There are also hiring-markets held May 26th and 
November 22d. In the month of July, a cattle-fair 
is held at Paldy moor, about 2 miles north from this 

AUCHINDOIR and KEARN, a mountainous 
parish in the western part of Aberdeenshire; bounded 
on the north by the parish of Rhyme; on the east 
by the parish of Tulhnessle ; on the south and west 
by Kildrummy and Cabrach parishes. The etj mo- 
logy of the name, Aucltindoir, is uncertain. It is sup- 
posed to signify ' The Field of the Chase or Pursuit.' 
" Buchanan tells us, that Luthlac, son to the usurper 
Macbeth, having been pursued north ward by Mal- 
colm, was slain 'in the valley of Bogie.' The spot 
where he was slain is thought to be about 2 miles 
to the north of the church of Auchindoir, but in the 
parish of Rhynie, in a place where a large stone 
with some warlike figures on it has been set up. ll 




so, it is not improbable that Luthlac was overtaken 
about a mile to the south of the church, in the place 
where a number of cairns now are ; that being de- 
feated, he has been pursued through the valley of 
.Auchindoir, which lies between the cairns and the 
figured stone ; and that from this pursuit, the parish 
of Auchindoir has taken its name." [Statistical re- 
port of 1792.] Its greatest length is 9 miles; and 
greatest breadth 8. Its outline is very irregular. The 
larger part of the surface consists of hills and moors. 
Some of the mountains attain a great elevation. The 
Buck of Cabrach, over which the western boundary 
line of the parish runs, has, according to Ainslie, an 
altitude of 2,377 feet, or, according to the map of 
the Society for the diffusion of Useful Knowledge, of 
2,286 feet, above sea-level; and though more than 30 
miles distant from the sea, is visible 10 leagues from 
shore. The principal river is the Bogie. It is 
formed by two rivulets, the burn of Craig, and the 
burn of Corchinnan, both of which, flowing from 
the west, meet at the manse. This beautiful little 
river, after having run through a rich strath or valley, 
to which it gives name, and having supplied the 
bleachfields at Huntly with very soft and pure water, 
falls into the Deveron a little below that village, and 
12 miles from the place where it first took its name, 
without reckoning the windings of the river. There 
is plenty of fine trout in it ; but scarcely any salmon, 
except in the spawning-season. The Don touches 
the south-east corner of the parish, and there re- 
ceives the Moffat, which divides Auchindoir from 
Kildrummy. If we include a part of Kearn and 
Kildrummy, the valley of Auchindoir is nearly sur- 
rounded by a range of hills. From these, several 
less hills shoot forward into this valley ; and the hills 
are indented by gullies, and deep narrow hollows, 
some of which run a great way back into the moun- 
tains ; the whole presenting a prospect, which, 
though confined, and in most places bleak, to the 
admirers of wild and romantic scenery is by no 
means unpleasant. Freestone is quarried here in 
great abundance ; and that rare mineral, asbestos, 
has been found in the bed of a streamlet flowing 
from a hill called Towanreef. It is said that one of 
the proprietors of the estate of Craig, on which 
Towanreef is situated, had a hat-band made from the 
asbestos obtained here. Serpentine of a dull dark 
green colour, and chromate of iron, are also found on 
this hill. The valued rent of the parish is £1,322 lis. 
4d. Scots ; the real rent, in 1792, was about £650 ; 
assessed property, in 1815, £1,345. Population, in 

1801,739, in 1831, 1,030. Houses 218 This parish 

is in the presbytery of Alford and synod of Aberdeen. 
In 1791, byadecreet of the court of teinds, the parish 
of Kearn was disjoined from that of Forbes, and an- 
nexed to Auchindoir. Patron, the Earl of Fife. Minis- 
ter's stipend £158 Is., with manse and glebe. Church 
built in 1811 ; sittings 450. A United Secession con- 
gregation was formed at Lumsden, in this parish, in 
1834; chapel built in 1803; sittings 203. The popula- 
tion of the village of Lumsden, in 1836, was 235. The 
parish-schoolmaster's salary is £30, with £21 10s. of 
fees, and other emoluments. There are two small pri- 
vate schools: — " On a little hill close by the church 
there was anciently a castle, said to be mentioned by 
Boetius; but no traces of the walls of it remain. It 
has been defended on three sides by rocks and pre- 
cipices, and on the fourth by a moat or deep excava- 
tion, evidently the work of art. There are several 
other antiquities, such as tumuli, barrows, and some 
little hillocks called ' pest-hillocks,' about which last 
tradition is altogether vague and uncertain. In the 
south-east corner of the parish there is a spring 
called the Nine Maidens' well, near to which, tra- 
dition says, nine young women were slain by a boar 

that infested the neighbouring country. A stone 
with some rude figures on it, marks the spot where 
this tragical event is said to have happened. The 
boar was slain by a young man of the name of Forbes, 
the lover of one of the young women ; and a stone 
with a boar's head cut on it was set up to preserve 
the remembrance of his gallantry and courage. The 
stone was removed by Lord Forbes to his house of 
Putachie ; and it is from this circumstance that a 
boar's head is quartered in the arms of that family." 
[Statistical .report of 1792.] 

AUCHINLECK, a parish of Ayrshire ; bounded 
on the north by the parishes of Mauchline, Sorn, and 
Muirkirk ; on the east by Muirkirk and Crawford- 
johu; on the south by Kirkconnel, New Cumnock, 
and Old Cumnock; and on the west by Ochiltree. 
It is a narrow strip of country, measuring 16 miles in 
length, while it does not exceed 2 in average breadth. 
Its area is estimated, in Aiton's 'View,' at 18,000 
Scots acres, of which not one-third part is under cul- 
tivation. The general appearance of the district is 
wild and bleak ; but the western part of it is more 
generally cultivated and enclosed. There are some 
coal-works in this parish which afford employment 
to about 60 men, and free-stone and limestone 
quarries. The value of coal and lime annually 
obtained in this parish is estimated, in the Statisti- 
cal report of 1838, at £2,990. The rivers Ayr and 
Lugar skirt the boundaries of the parish, — the former 
on the east, the latter on the south and west. The 
principal heritor is Sir James Boswell, Bart., to 
whose ancestor the barony of Auchinleck was grant- 
ed by James IV. Boswell, the biographer of Dr. 
Johnson, was of this family ; and carried his illus- 
trious friend hither, while on their tour in Scotland, 
to visit his father, Lord Auchinleck, One of the lords 
of session. The Doctor appears to have been pleased 
with his visit, and it would appear at one time 
entertained the idea of writing an history of the 
Boswells of Auchinleck. " Lord Auchinleck," he 
writes, " is one of the judges of Scotland, and there- 
fore not wholly at leisure for domestic business or 
pleasure, has yet found time to make improvements 
in his patrimony. He has built a house of hewn 
stone, very stately and durable, and has advanced 
the value of his lands with great tenderness to his 
tenants. I was, however, less delighted with the 
elegance of the modern mansion, than with the sul- 
len dignity of the old castle. I clambered with Mr. 
Boswell among the ruins, which afford striking 
images of ancient life. It is, like other castles, built 
upon a point of rock, and was, I believe, anciently 
surrounded with a moat. There is another rock 
near it, to which the draw-bridge, when it was let 
down, is said to have reached. Here, in the ages of 
tumult and rapine, the laird was surprised and killed 
by the neighbouring chief, who perhaps might have 
extinguished the family, had he not in a few days 
been seized and hanged, together with his sons, by 
Douglas, who came with his forces to the relief of 
Auchinleck." Grose has preserved a view of the 
old castle. Near it is the old house of Auchinleck. 
In the upper part of the parish are the remains of 
another old fortalhe called K\ le castle. Population, 
in 1801, 1,214 ; in 1831, 1,662. Valued rent £3,462 
15s. 4d. Scots. Real rent, in 1799, £2,870. The 
total yearly value of raw produce raised within this 
parish was estimated, in 1837, at £16,035. Houses, 
in 1831, 142. The village of Auchinleck is l| 
mile distant from Old Cumnock, and 15 from Ayr. 
It contains about 600 inhabitants, and is intersected 
by the Glasgow and Dumfries road. Many of the 
families here and throughout the parish are engaged 
in flowering muslin by the needle. A lamb fair is held 
here on the last Tuesday in August This parish is 




in the presbytery of Ayr, and synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr. Patron, Sir James Boswell, Bart. Church 
built in 1S38; sittings 800. Stipend £161 Is. lid., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at .£10. There is a 
small Antiburgher chapel in the village. The paro- 
chial schoolmaster has the maximum salary of £34 
4s. 4.|d. There are three other schools in the parish, 
which are attended by about 130 children. — The 
parish of Auchinleck (generally pronounced Affleck 
by the country-people) was the birth-place of William 
M'Gavin of pious memory, the author of ' The Pro- 
testant ;' and of William Murdoch, whose name is 
associated with that of James Watt, in his splendid 
career of scientific discovery and mechanical appli- 

AUCHINLECK, a hill in Dumfries-shire, in the 
parish of Closeburn, at the head of Nithsdale, rising 
1,500 feet above sea-level. 

AUCHINLOCH, a township in th« under ward 
and shire of Lanark, parish of Cadder ; 2 miles south 
of Kirkintilloch. It derives its name from an exten- 
sive loch now diained, at the lower extremity of 
which it stands. In 1744, Patrick Baird, a na- 
tive of this place, bequeathed £325 for erecting a 
school here: £15 of the interest to be paid annually 
to the master, and £1 5s. to a young man, for 
preaching a sermon at Auchinloch at Christmas 
(the donor's birth-day), and to buy books and buns 
for the scholars. To this donation, John Baird 
added a piece of ground for a house and garden. 
All the heritors possessed of a plough-gate of land 
in the parish are patrons of the school. Population, 
in 1831, 89. 

AUCHLOSSEN (Loch), a lake in Aberdeen, 
shire, in the parish of Lumphanan, about a mile long, 
and nearly half-a-mile broad. It abounds with 
various kinds of fish, and is frequented by flocks of 
aquatic fowls. Pikes have been caught in it mea- 
suring 6 feet in length, and weighing 25 lbs. 

AUCHMEDDEN, a small-fishing village on the 
Moray frith, in the parish of Aberdour, in Aberdeen- 
shire ; 34 miles west-north-west of Aberdour. Here 
was formerly a small and convenient harbour, shel- 
tered by a pier ; but it is now totally destroyed, and 
it is with difficulty that fishing-boats can enter, 
especially if there is any great agitation of the sea. 
Here is a small school, the master of which, besides 
the usual school-fees, has a salary of £2 Is. 8d., 
which is paid out of the interest of money mortified 
for that purpose by one of the lairds of Auchmedden, 
and his lady's sister, Lady Jean Hay, a daughter of 
the Earl of Kinnoul, and of which the church-session 
are trustees. In the face of a tremendous precipice 
overhanging the sea is a mill-stone quarry of ex- 
cellent quality. Auchmedden uas long the resi- 
dence of the very ancient and respectable family of 

AUCHMITHY, a fishing-village in the parish of 
St. Vigean's, upon the German ocean, about 3^ miles 
north-east of Arbroath. It is situate on a high 
rocky bank, which rises about 120 feet above the 
sea, and is irregularly built ; but contains several 
good houses, upon feus granted by the Earl of 
Northesk. The harbour is only a level beach in an 
opening between the high rocks which surround this 
part ot the coast; and, after every voyage, the boats 
are obliged to be drawn up from the sea, to prevent 
their being destroyed by the violence of the waves. 
Near the village is The Gaylet pot, a remarkable 
cavern into which the sea flows. See St. Viceans. 

AUCaNACRAIG. See Achnacraig. 

AUCHTERARDER, a parish in Perthshire. Its 
name, derived from the principal town in it, signifies 
' the Summit of the rising ground;' which describes 
exactly its situation on the ridge of an eminence in 

the middle of Strathern, commanding, on the north 
and east, an extensive prospect of the adjacent coun- 
try. The parish has united with it that of Abruth- 
ven, which signifies ' the Mouth of the Ruthven,' a 
small river on which it lies, and which discharges 
itself into the Earn. The annexation of the two 
parishes seems to have taken place some consider- 
able time before the Revolution. Auchterarder 
parish is of an irregular form : its greatest extent from 
east to west is about 3 miles, and from north to south 
nearly 8 miles. It is bounded on the west by the 
parish of Blackford ; on the north by Trinity-Gask ; 
on the east, by Dunning; and on the south by Glen- 
devon. The greater part of the parish is a flat and 
level country, lying on the south of the river Earn ; 
it also includes in it some part of the Ochil hills, 
particularly Craigrossie, which is one of the highest 
of them, having an altitude of 2,359 feet above sea- 
level. These hills are clothed to their summit with 
grass, and afford good sheep-pasture. The general 
declination is from the base of the Ochils to the 
Earn. Almost the whole of the lower part of the 
parish is arable, and the northern declivity of the 
hills is arable a considerable way upwards. The 
Earn produces salmon, and the large white and 
yellow trout ; it greatly beautifies the parish as well 
as the adjacent country, but is sometimes prejudicial 
to the neighbouring tenantry, by overflowing its 
banks in harvest. The Ruthven, which takes its 
rise in the hills, about 3 miles beyond the western 
boundary of the parish, is a beautiful little river, and 
runs with an uniform and constant stream through 
the whole length of this parish from south-west to 
north-east. It passes about 1,200 yards to the south 
of the village of Auchterarder, and joins the Earn 
about 4 miles from that village. This stream drives 
a number of corn and lint mills. It abounds with a 
species of trout peculiar to itself, of a small size, but 
remarkable for flavour and delicacy. This stream 
also is liable to sudden and extensive floods. .In 
1839, in particular, it did extensive damage in this 
way. The parish, and particularly the neighbour- 
hood of the town of Auchterarder, abounds with a 
hard and durable stone which is very fit both for build- 
ing houses and dry-stone fences ; the quarries in the 
neighbourhood of the town also afford grey slate in 
abundance. No coal has yet been found here. In 
tiie Statistical report of 1838, the a. res under the 
plough in this parish are stated at 7, '76; the waste 
or pasture at 6, 571 acres. There is only a small 
quantity of ground occupied by woods and rivers, 
and none at all by forests, or marshes ; about 300 
acres are under plantation. There are a couple of 
hundred acres in common at the west end of the 
village of Auchterarder, called the moor of Auch- 
terarder, to which the inhabitants of Auchterarder 
send their cows to pasture. In its present state it 
is of no great value ; but were it improved, the value 
of it would be vastly increased. Attempts have 
been repeatedly made to get it enclosed and divided; 
hut hitherto it has been found impossible to settle the 
respective claims of the various parties interested in 
it. The average rent of land, in 1792, was 20s. ; in 
1838, SOs. Population, in 1801, 2,042; in 1831, 
3,315, of whom 1,981 were resident in the town ot 
Auchterarder, and about 400 in the village ot 
Smithyhaugh. Houses 475. Assessed propertv, in 
1815, £6,434. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Auchterarder, 
and synod of Perth and Stirling. Patron, the Earl 
of Kinnoul. Minister's stipend £199 14s. 2d., with 
a manse, and a glebe of the value of £17. Unap- 
propriated teinds £18 15s. lid. Church built in 
1784; sittings 909. The old church of Abruthven 
is still standing; it is roofless, but the walls are 



good; and it has been suggested that it might be 
repaired and erected into a church for the village and 
district of Smithyhaugh. It is 2i miles distant from 
Auchterarder church. A Relief church was built in 
Auchterarder in 1778; sittings 553. Minister's sti- 
pend .£110, with manse and garden. A United 
Secession church was erected in 1813 ; sittings 500. 
Minister's stipend £100, with manse and garden. 
By a census taken by the church-elders, in Decem- 
ber, 1S35, it was ascertained that the population of 
this paiish then amounted to 3,315, of whom 2,196 
belonged to the establishment, arid 1,070 were dis- 
senters. There are seven schools in the parish. 
The parochial schoolmaster has the maximum salary, 
and about £40 of school-fees. Mr. Sheddan of 
Lochie, in 1811, built and endowed a school here 
with £1,000, on condition of 12 poor children being 
taught in it gratuitously. There is a subscription 
school at Smithyhaugh. — This parish will long he 
famous, in the ecclesiastical annals of the country, 
for the singular struggle connected with the Veto 
Act which had its origin here, and of which the 
following is a brief but fair summary. The ex- 
ercise of patronage was at one time very unpopular 
in Scotland. It had been an early principle of 
the Church that clergymen should not be intruded 
on parishes contrary to the consent of the parishion- 
ers. When a patron presents, it is for the pres- 
bytery to say whether the presentee is qualified, 
and to refuse collation if he is not. The Church 
now considers the presentees' acceptability to the 
parishioners a necessary qualification, and in 1834 
passed the 'Veto Act,' instructing all presbyteries 
to reject presentees to whom a majority of male 
heads of families in communion with the Church ob- 
jected. In the case of the Auchterarder presenta- 
tion, when this was acted on, the presentee brought 
an action in the civil courts to declare it an undue 
interference with his civil rights. The Church said 
— This is a matter purely ecclesiastical. The civil 
and the church-courts have their respective jurisdic- 
tions. This is ours entirely, and the civil court must 
not interfere. The Court of Session said — We care 
not what you call it. We are here to protect men's 
property. Patronage has been constituted property 
by Act of Parliament. Whether rightly so or not, 
it is a commodity that may be bought and sold. 
You have attempted to deprive a proprietor of the 
use of it, under a pretence, and we must stop you. 
The Church appealed to the House of Lords. The 
judgment of the court below was confirmed ; but the 
General Assembly declined to implement the decision 
of the civil tribunals, holding itself irresponsible to 
any civil court for its obedience to the laws of Christ. 
The town of Auchterarder was once, perhaps, of 
greater note. It was a royal burgh, and sent a member 
to parliament; and a great number of the houses hold 
burgage to this day. How it came to lose its privi- 
leges is not certainly known. It consists of one street 
above a mile long. Besides six fairs every year, — 
viz. on the last Tuesday of March, the first Thursday 
of May, and in each of the harvest-months, — there has 
been a yearly tryst held here in the beginning of 
October, since the year 1781, at which there has 
heen always a great show of black cattle, previous to 
the tryst at Falkirk. Another fair is held on De- 
cember 6th. About 60 years ago, a considerable 
manufacture of yarn and narrow linen-cloth was car- 
ried on in Auchterarder. The main business now is 
that of cotton weaving. There are about 500 looms, 
all employed by Glasgo \v houses, in weaving pullicates, 
ginghams, and stripes. The average nett weekly earn- 
ings of a cotton- w eaver do not at present exceed 4s. — 
On the 28th January, 1716, the Earl of Marr burnt 
this town on the advance of the royalist troops under 

Argyle upon Perth. Argyle arrived on the 30th, and 
here passed the night upon the snow, " without any 
other covering than the fine canopy of heaven." 
[Annals of Geo. I., vol. ii. p. 222] Auchterarder, 
says Newte — who visited this place in 1782 — " seems 
to have lain under the curse of God ever since it 
was burnt by the army in the year 1715. The dark 
heath of the moors of Oclnll and Tullibardin, — a. 
Gothic castle belonging to the Duke of Athol, — the 

naked summits of the Grampians seen at a distance, 

and the frequent visitations of the presbytery, who 
are eternally recommending fast-days, and destroying 
the peace of society by prying into little slips of life, 
together with the desolation of the place, render 
Auchterarder a melancholy scene, wherever you turn 
your eyes, except towards Perth and the lower 
Strathern, of which it has a partial prospect." [' Tour 
in England and Scotland.' London, 1791. 4to. p. 252.] 
When this superficial tourist penned his coarse and 
unjust remarks on presbyterial visitations, he pro- 
bably knew no more of the matter than he seems to 
have done of what he calls the Antimonian heresies of 

the place At a little distance from Auchterarder, is a 

village called the Borland-Park, built by government 
for the accommodation of the soldiers who were dis- 
banded after the war in 1763. Most of the soldiers 
who were planted in it, left it very soon afterwards — - 
though the terms of their settlement were very ad- 
vantageous — either from dislike to the place, or more 

probably to their new mode of life On the south 

of Auchterarder, and along the side of the Ruthven, 
is Miltown, a small village The village of Smithy- 
haugh is of very recent origin. It is 2i miles east 
of Auchterarder, and chiefly inhabited by cotton- 
weavers — In the neighbourhood of Auchterarder, 
and on the north side of the town, are the remains of 
an old castle said to have been a hunting-seat of 
King Malcolm Kenmore; adjoining to which is a 
small copse wood which commonly goes by the name 

of the King's wood A little to the northward of 

the castle, are the remains of a popish place of wor- 
ship, commonly known by the name of the Old Kirk, 
or St. Mungo's chapel. This was formerly the 
parish-church; the church-yard was the burving- 
ground of the parish, — many of the inhabitants still 

retain burying-places in it There are some traces 

of encampments on the south-east of the village of 
Auchterarder, at the foot of the Ochils. Perhaps 
these were out-posts of the Roman camp at Ardoch. 
About 60 years ago, there was found in a marl. pit, in 
the parish, a pair of large horns, supposed to be those 
of the Elk, or Eurus, which were sent to Edinburgh, 
and are now in the custody of the Antiquarian so- 
ciety. " The alteration in the dress and manner of 
living of the inhabitants, within these 30 or 40 years, 
is not a little remarkable. Every body is now de- 
cently and comfortably clothed, which perhaps was 
not the case then ; and there is now four times the 
quantity of butcher-meat used. About 25 or 30 
years ago, there were but two sixpenny wheaten 
loaves brought from Perth, to two private families, 
in the week. There is now a baker in the village, 
who sells bread to the amount of £200 a-year, and 
about £80 worth is brought every year from Perth." 
[Statistical report of 1792.] We have inserted this 
statement as marking the progress of social comforts 
in this district. We need scarcely say that Auch- 
terarder has been long abundantly supplied with 
white bread as well as brown from its own ovens, and 
that there is not a cottage in the parish within which 
at least a couple of sixpenny wheaten loaves are not 
consumed weekly. 

AUCHTERDERRAN, a parish in the county of 
Fife. It is of an irregular form, about 5 miles long 
from north to south, and 3 broad. It is bounded 




by Auchtertool on the south ; Abbotshall on the 
south-east ; Dysart on the east ; Kinglassie and 
Portmoak on the north; and Ballingray on the west. 
The valley in which this parish lies is surrounded on 
the south, east, and west, by rising grounds, which are 
of sufficient elevation to exclude the view of the frith 
of Forth, although they are cultivated to the top. 
The water of Orr flows through the parish from 
north-west to south-east. It is a slow running 
stream, rising in the north- west corner of the county, 
flowing through Loch Fetty, and falling into the 
Leven about 3 miles from its mouth. On the south- 
ern border of the parish is a sheet of water measur- 
ing nearly 3 miles in circumference, called Loch- 
gellv, which discharges its waters, by a small rivulet, 
into" the Orr. Population, in 1801, 1,045; in 1831, 
1.590, of whom 786 were resident in Lochgelly 
village, and 77 were employed in the coal-mines 
now opened in this parish. Houses, 331. Assessed 
property, £5,669. The land-rent of the parish 

in 1792 was £2,000; it is now nearly £7,000 

This parish is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy, and 
synod of Fife. Patron, Boswell of Balmuto. Sti- 
pend, ±'237 Us. 10d., with manse, and a glebe of 
the annual value of £30. Unappropriated teinds, 
£824 0s. lid. Church built in 1789. There is 
a Secession church at Lochgelly. , The parochial 
schoolmaster has a salary of £34 4s. 4d., with 
£25 school-fees. Average number of pupils, 60. 
There are other two schools in the parish attend- 
ed by about 150 children. — The venerable incum- 
bent of this parish, who has twice drawn up the 
Statistical Account of it, concludes his report of 
1836 with the following interesting comparative 
account of its progress during the last 40 years. 
" Drunkenness, formerly rare, is now lamentably 
frequent — Forty years ago emigration was thought 
of with much reluctance ; now the predilection for 
the native spot has diminished, and emigration is 

more readily embraced Forty years ago we were 

accustomed to regard increase of population as in- 
crease of national prosperity; now such increase 
seems regarded as an obstruction. — Forty years ago 
we had no medical gentlemen in the parish; at pre- 
sent two are resident Since the draining of our soil 

and marshes obtained, the heron has nearly disap- 
peared; and since our district became wooded, phea- 
sants have reached our latitude. — Forty years ago 
servants for husbandry were few in number, at 
present they seem redundant Formerly coal-hew- 
ers were inferior to other classes in morals and re- 
spectability, here they are now nearly on a level. — . 
Forty, nay twenty, years ago, we had not one met- 
alled road, now we have several Forty years ago 

irregularity, multiplicity, and confusion of weights 
and measures, pervaded all transactions, now we 

have one philosophical and just standard Forty 

years ago the ministers of the Established church 
generally delivered all their discourses from the pul- 
pit without reading; now they are generally read 

Forty years ago land was sold in Fife at 35 years' 
purchase of the existing rental; now it sells at 26 

years' purchase of the present rental Forty years 

ago rents were all paid here in money ; now they 
begin to be paid in grain, at the rate of the county 

fiars Forty years ago resurrectionists, as they. are 

called, were unheard of; now even the poor labourer 
is under the hardship of providing safes for the graves 
of his friends. — Forty years ago thrashing-machines 
were unknown to us; now they are become general, 
and so beneficial that it is difficult to believe how 
farming could be carried successfully on without 
them. — Forty years ago the different ranks in society 
were distinguished from each other by their dress; at 
present there is little distinction iu dress. — Forty- 

nine years ago I was the youngest minister of the 
presbytery; now I am the oldest." ['New Statis- 
tical Account of Scotland, Fifeshire, pp. 173, 174.'] 
ATJCHTERGAVEN, a parish in the shire ot 
Perth. It is 10 miles in length from east to west, 
and about 3 in average hreadth from north to south. 
Its general surface measures nearly 20,000 acres ; 
but a great proportion of this consists of hills and 
moors, or waste uncultivated ground. ■ A small 
neighbouring parish, called Logiehride, has been an- 
nexed to Auchtergaven : but no account can be had 
of the time when this annexation took place, either 
from tradition, or from the records of presbytery, in 
which the parish is always named Oughter, or Augh- 
tergaven. The people residing in the district that 
belonged to Logiebride parish, however, still con- 
tinue to bury in the churchyard at Logiebride; and 
a part of the church is yet standing, and is used as 
a burying-ground by the family of Tullybelton. It 
is distant 2 miles from Auchtergaven church. This 
parish is bounded on the north by the parish of Little 
Dunkeld; on the east by Kinclaven parish; on the 
south by the parishes of Redgorton and Moneydie ; . 
and on the west by Redgorton. A lower range of 
the Grampians skirts it on the north, some points in 
which exceed 1,000 feet in elevation. From these 
heights a number of streams descend towards the 
Ordie, a tributary of the Tay, which rising in a small 
lake in the hill of Tullybelton, flows through Strath- 
ern in this parish, and unites with the Shochie at 
Luncarty. At Loak the Ordie receives the Garry 
from Glen Garr. The bed of the Tay, near to 
Stanley, is crossed by a whin-dike, which here 
forms the celebrated Linn of Cam'psie. At the foot 
of Birnam hill [altitude 1,300 feet,] there is a 
small secluded sheet of water which is frequented 
by the heron. The great bittern (Ardea stellaris, 
L.) has been shot in this neighbourhood. In the 
year 1784 Mr. Dempster of Dunnichen, and Mr. 
Graham of Fintray, along with several gentlemen 
in Perth, feued some ground at Staidey from the 
duke of'Atholl, built a mill for spinning cotton, 
and soon after began to erect a village in its 
neighbourhood. At that time only a few families 
dwelt near Stanley; and, except the land within the 
enclosures around Stanley house, most part of the 
district was almost in a state of nature. In 1838 
there were two cotton-mills here, with a moving- 
power by water which was equal to 202 horse-power, 
and employing 887 hands; and the village contained 
a population of 1,500 souls. — This parish is in the 
presbytery of Dunkeld, and synod of Perth and 
Stirling. Patron, the Crown. Minister's stipend, 
£179 6s. 4d., with a manse and glebe. The church 
of Auchtergaven is finely situated upon the slope of 
a rising ground, half-a-mile eastward from the manse, 
and adjoining the public road from Perth to Dunkeld. 
It is distant from Perth 8i miles, and 6^ from Dun- 
keld. The parochial schoolmaster has a salary ot 
£34 4s. 4Ad., with about £12 fees. Pupils, 90. 
There is a private school at the village of Bankfoot, 
within a quarter of a mile of the parish-school ; and 
another at Stanley, which is attended by about 136 
children, and the master of which has a salary of 
£20, and a house, besides his fees, from the Stardey 
cotton-mill company. Besides these, there are other 
three schools in the parish, — one at Staidey, one at 

Glack; and one at Nether-Olney Stanley house is 

beautifully situated upon the Tay, in the eastern part 
of this parish. It was built by the late Lord Nairne. 
The family of Nairne had another elegant house near 
Loak, the ruins of which are yet to be seen. It was 
purchased by the Duke of Atholl after the forfeiture 
of Lord Nairne, and thereafter demolished. The title 
of Nairne was revived in 1824 in the person of Wil- 




liam, Lord Nairne, who was succeeded by his son 
William, 6th Lord Nairne, who died, without issue, 
in 1837. The title is understood to have descended 
to the Baroness Keith. The Nairne family bury in 
the south aisle of Auchtergaven church. 

AUCHTERHOUSE, a parish in the south-west 
of Forfarshire, bounded on the north by Newtyle 
and Glammis parishes; on the east by Tealing and 
Strathmartine ; on the south by the parish of Liff, 
and the shire of Perth ; and on the west by Lundie 
parish. Its greatest length is about 4i miles, and 
greatest breadth 3i. About three-fouiths of the 
surface are arable. The range of the Sidlaw hills 
shelter it on the north-west, and in the north-east 
are the hills of Auchterhouse and Bockello. Two 
streams, both rising in the parish of Lundie, flow 
through the lower part of this parish, and uniting at 
the village of Dronlaw, form the Dighty water, 
which flows into the frith of Tay, about 4 miles east 
of Dundee. The turnpike road from Dundee to 
Meigle passes the kirk-town, which is 7 miles north- 
west of Dundee, and 100 feet above the sea-level. 
The Dundee and Newtyle railway passes through 
the bog of Auchterhouse. Population, in 1S01, 653; 
in 1831, 715. Houses, 125. Assessed property in 
1815, £3,11S. Valued rent, ±'169 14s. 5d. Scots. 

Real rent, in 1792, £2,000 This parish is in the 

presbytery of Dundee, and s_\nod of Angus and 
Mearns. Patron, the Earl of Airlie. Minister's 
stipend, £229 0s. 2d., with a manse, and a glebe 
of the value of £\2. Schoolmaster's salary, £34 
4s. 4Jd. ; school-fees about £20. Church built in 
1775. The old church was a large and handsome 
Gothic structure. — In the old Statistical account of 
this parish there are some curious extracts given 
from the parish-register, of which we select the fol- 
lowing : — 

Sunday, the 1st of June, 1GI5, "there was but anes preach- 
ing, because of the enemie lying so neir hand." — On Sunday, 
the 20th of July, there was no preaching, " because of the ene- 
mie being so neir the towne."— On the 5th of July, 16t6, there 
was intimation made out of the pulpit, of a fast to be kept on 
the llth of July, " because of tile desolate stat and cure of 
several congregations which have been starved by dry-breasted 
ministers this longtime bygone, and now are wandering like 
sheep but sheepherds, and uituesseth no sense of scant; and 
because of the pregnant scandal of witches and charmers within 
this part of the land."— O.i Sunday, the 27th of September, the 
minister read out of the pulpit " tile names of those who were 
exconimunicat bee Mr. Robert Blair in the Kirk of Edinburgh, 
to wit, the Earl of Airly, Sir Alexander Makdonald, the Lord 

of . , and some others." — On the 7th of January, 1C49, 

" the minister and twa of the elders went through the church 
after sermon, desiring the people to subscribe the covenant." 
■ — fith January, IG50, "the minister desired the session to make 
search every ane in their own quarter gave they kDew of any 
witches or charmers in the paroch, and delate them to the next 
session." — Oo Sunday the 18th of July, 1652, "Janet Fife 
made her pulilick repentance before the pulpit, for learning M.- 
Robertson to charm her child ; and whereas M. Robertson 
should have done the like, it pleased the Lord before that time 
to call upon her by death,"— Nov. — , Hi6o, " Mr. William 
Skeiouer, minister and moderator of the presbyterie of Dun- 
dee, having preached, intimatto the congregation, Mr. James 
Campble his suspension from serving the calling of the minis- 
trie, till the synod asselnblie of Dundee, for ane fornication 
committed betwixt him and dam Marjorie Ramsay, Countess 
of Buchaune; for the qlk, by the said presbyterie's order, he 
beganne his repentance on the pillare, and sat both sermons; 
and is exhorted to repentance."— December 24th, " Mr. James 
Campble, for ane fornication forsaid, being thryce in the pil- 
lare ; upon evident signs of his repentance, was absolvit." 

December 21, "That day the Countess of Buchauue, fur ane 
fornication committed with Mr. James Campble her chaplain, 
beganne her repentance." — February 2d, lb'b'2, " All kirk- 
sessiuns are discharged till farder orders." 

AUCHTERLESS, a parish in Aberdeenshire; 
bounded on the north by the parish of Turriff; on 
the east by Fyvie; on the south by Fyvie, Rayne, 
and Culsamond ; and on the west by Forgue and 
Inverkeilhnie. The Ythan river takes its rise near 
the south-western extremity of this parish, and runs 
through it in a north-east direction, passing the kirk- 
town, which is near the centre of the parish. At 
the point where it enters the parish on the south- 

west from Forgue, are some traces of ancient en 
campments supposed to be Roman. There are also 
some Druidical circles within the parish. Population, 
in IS01, 1,129; in 1831, 1,701. Houses. 325. As- 
sessed property, in 1815, £2,930. Valued rent, 

£3,153 7s. Scots. Real rent about £2,000 This 

parish is in the presbytery of Turriff, and synod of 
Aberdeen. Patron, Duff of Hatton. Stipend, 
£191 6s. 5d., with a manse, and a glebe of the 
value of £13 13s. Unappropriated teinds, £171 
5s. Id. Schoolmaster's salary, £34 4s. 4id., with 
about £21 fees. Average number of pupils 45. 
There are other five private schools attended by 
about 150 children. 

AUCHTERMUCHTY, a small parish in the shire 
of Fife, measuring 2J- miles from east to west, and 
about 2 from north to south. It is bounded on the 
north by the Perthshire portion of Abernethy parish ; 
on the east by Collessie ; on the south by the river 
Eden, which separates it from Strathmiglo; and on 
the west by Strathmiglo and Abernethy. From 
its northern limits, where it rises to a considerable 
elevation on the Ochils, the face of the country 
slopes gently to the Eden. The soil is fertile and 
well-cultivated. Average rent £3 per acre ; valued 
rent £5,783 9s. lid. Scots. Assessed property, in 
1815, £6,930. The heritors are numerous. Popu- 
lation, in 1801, 2,060 ; in 1831, 3,225. Houses 670. 
— This parish is in the presbytery of Cupar, and 
synod of Fife. Patron, Bruce of Falkland. Stipend 
£253 lis. 2d., with a manse, and a glebe valued at 
£20. Unappropriated teinds £77 5s. 8d. Church 
built in 1780; sittings 900. Schoolmaster's salary 
£34 4s. 4i-d., with about £15 school fees. Average 
number of pupils 60. There are five private schools, 
attended by about 240 children. Four of these are 
in the town of Auchtermuchty, and one at Dunshelt. 
There are four dissenting congregations in the parish, 
two of which are in connexion with the United As- 
sociate synod ; the third is connected with the Relief 
synod ; and the fourth is a Baptist congregation. 
Mr. John Glass, the founder of the Glassites, was 
born in this parish, October 5, 1691, at which time 
his father was minister of the parish. 

The royal burgh of Auchtermuchty is situated 
near the middle of the parish, about a mile from the 
Eden, on the road from Cupar to Kinross, and from 
Kirkaldy to Newburgh. A small burn flows through 
it from Lochmill in Abdie parish, and joins the Eden 
near Kilwhis. It is an irregularly built town, consist- 
ing of three principal streets, and a number of lanes. 
The East Lomond hill forms the finest object in the 
surrounding landscape. This place was erected into 
a royal burgh by a charter of James V., dated May 
25, 1517, and confirmed by charter of James VI., 
dated October 28, 1595. It had not, however, exer- 
cised its privilege of sending a member to pailianient 
for a considerable time before the Union. Since the 
date of the 1 and 2 William IV., parties qualified in 
terms of it, resident within the borough, have voted 
in the election of the county-members. Population, 
in 1833, 2,400, of whom 76 rented property within 
the burgh amounting to £10 per annum and upwards. 
The burgh having become bankrupt in 1816, the 
whole property of the burgh — except the town-house, 
jail, steeple, bell, and customs, which, on appearance 
for the magistrates and the Crown, were held to be 
extra comntunitatem — was sequestrated in June, 1822, 
and sold under authority of the court of session in a 
process of ranking and sale. The present revenue 
is about £30. The affairs of the burgh were for- 
merly managed by a council of 15, and 3 baillies; 
the magistrates and council are now elected in terms 
of the statute 3 and 4 William IV. There is a 
weekly market held on Monday ; and three public 




fairs during the year, of which the principal one is 
held on the 13th of July. There is a branch of the 
Glasgow Union bank here. There are above SUO 
looms in the burgh, and above 1,000 within the par- 
ish. They are chiefly employed in the manufacture 
of linen for Newburgh, cotton cloth for Glasgow and 
Aberdeen, and woollen shawls for Tillicoultry. The 
average weekly wages of a weaver are at present 
about 4s. 6d. There is also a large bleachfield in the 

vicinity of the town At the south-eastern extremity 

of the parish is a large village called Dunshelt. — Im- 
mediately to the south of the burgh is the fine old 
castle of Myers, the property of Bruce of Falkland, 
who purchased it from the MoncriefTs of Reedie. 

Every one has heard of the humorous Scottish 
poem, ' The Wife of Auchtermuchty,' which has been 
ascribed, but most erroneously, to James V. We 
shall quote a stanza or two : 

In Auchtermuchty dwelt a man, 

An husband, as I heard it tauld, 
Quha weil could tipple out a can, 

And nowttier luvit hungir nor cauld ; 
Till anes it fell upon a day, 

He zokit his pie" ch upon the plain ; 
But sehort the storm waid let him stay, 

Sair blew the day with wind and raiu. 

He lowsd the plewch at the land's end, 

And draile his owsen hame at eue; 
Qulii'ii he came in he blinkit ben, 

And saw bis wyfe baith dry and elene, 
Set beikand by a fyre full bauld, 

Suppand fat sowp, as I heard say : 
The man beint* weary, wet and cauld, 

Betwein thir twa it was nae play. 

Quod he, " Quhair is my horses corn ? 

My owsen has nae hay nor strae ; 
Dame, ye maun to the plewch the morn, 

I sail be hussy gif I may. 
This seid-time it proves cauld and bad, 

And ze sit warm, nae troubles se ; 
The morn ze sail gae with the lad, 

Arid ayue zeil ken what drinkers drie." 

" Gudeman," quod scho, " content am I, 

To tak the plewch my day about, 
Sae ye rule weil the kaves and ky, 

And all the house baith in and out. 
And now sen ze haif made the law, 

Then gyde all richt and do not break : 
They sicker raid that neir did faw, 

Therefore let naething be neglect" 

The bargain proved, as might be anticipated, a 
most unfortunate one for the gudeman, whose succes- 
sive disasters in 'hussyskep' brought him ' meikle 
schame,' fairly sickened him of his new employ- i 
ments before night-fall, and forced him upon the 
sound reflection and wise resolution with which the 
ballad closes : 

Quod be, " When I forstike my plewch, 

I trow I but forsuke my skill I 
Then I will to my plewch again, 

For I and this house will nevir do weil." 

ATTCHTERTOOL, a small parish in Fifeshire, 
about 2 miles in length, anil one in breadth ; bound- 
ed on the north by Auchterderran parish ; on the 
east by Abbotshall ; on the south by Kinghorn and 
Abenlour ; and on the west by Beath. The surface 
is undulating, and rises towards the north. There 
is a small village in the parish, and the church is 
situated about half-a-mile to the west of it. The 
ground about the church and manse is elevated and 
commanding:, and takes in a fine view of the sea to 
the east, as far as the eye can reach, comprehending 
in it the isle of May, the Bass, North- Berwick law, 
anil a point of the Lothian coast which stretches a 
considerable way into the sea. There is one small 
lake in the parish called Camilla Loch, in which are 
some perch. It takes its name from the old house 
of Camilla adjacent to it ; which was so called after 
jne of the countesses of Moray, a Campbell. The 

ancient name of the house was Hallyards, when it 
belonged to the family of the Skenes. It is said to 
have been the rendezvous of the Fife lairds at the 
rebellion in 1715. When James V. was on his road 
to the palace of Falkland, after the defeat of his army 
on the English border, under the command of Oliver 
Sinclair, he lodged all night in the house of Hall- 
yards, where he was courteously received by the 
Lady of Grange, "ane ancient and godlie matrone," 
as Knox calls her. It seems then to have belonged 
to the Kirkcaldies of Grange, a family of consider- 
able note in the history of Scotland. It is now a ruin. 
Population, in 1801, 396; in 1831,527. Houses 113. 
Assessed property, in 1815, £2,044. — This parish is 
in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy, and synod of Fife. 
Patron, the Earl of Moray. Stipend £157 18s. 10d., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20. School- 
master's salary £29 ISs. 10d., with about £30 fees. 
Average number of pupils 40. There are two pri- 
vate schools, attended by about 100 children. 

AUGUSTUS (Fort), is situated on a small 
triangular plain, at the western extremity of Loch 
Ness, in the parish of Boleskine, Inverness-shire ; 13 
miles north of Garvieinore-inn; 32^ south-west of 
Inverness ; 29 north-east of Fort-William ; 5j miles 
from the north-east end of Loch Oich ; and 144 from 
Edinburgh. It was erected on a part of the forfeit- 
ed estate of Lord Lovat in 1729, and is a regular 
fortification, with 4 bastions, defended by a ditch, 
covert-way, and glacis, and barracks capable of ac- 
commodating 300 soldiers. It was until late years 
garrisoned by a company of soldiers, and supplied with 
provisions from Inverness; but the guns have been 
removed to Fort-George, and there are only a few 
soldiers stationed here. The fortifications are in 
good repair ; but as the whole is commanded from the 
neighbouring hills on every side, it is by no means, 
capable of long resistance. It is a neat-looking 
place ; the surrounding plantations, and the rivers 
Tarffe and Oich which run by it, give it very much 
the appearance of an English country-seat. " Look- 
ing down from the glacis," says Miss Spence, "the 
eye commands the whole length of the lake, 24 
miles. On the south side, bordered by lofty and 
precipitous rocks as far as the eye reaches, without 
any interruption except the hanging gardens of Glen- 
doe. On the north, a softer and more varied pros- 
pect forms a happy contrast to the rude grandeur 
of Suidh Chuiman, and the dark heights of Strath- 
erick. Verdant bays retire from the view ; wooded 
heights gently rising, and peopled glens of the most 
pastoral description, intervene, — each divided by its 
blue narrow stream pouring in to augment the 
abundance of the lake. This last, in calm weather, 
holds a most beautiful and clear mirror to its lofty 
and varied borders. In wintry storms its agitations 
' resemble Ocean into tempest wrought.' The ed- 
dying winds, which rush with inconceivable fury 
down the narrow opening in the hills, make naviga- 
tion dangerous from their violence and uncertainty. 
The east wind — which sometimes prevails in winter 
for more than a month — raises tremendous waves, 
yet it is not so dangerous as the impetuous blasts 
which descend from the apertures between the 
mountains." [' Letters.' London, 8vo. 1817, pp. 
178, 179.] Fort Augustus was taken by the rebels 
in 1745, who deserted it after demolishing what they 
could. The Duke of Cumberland established his 
head-quarters here after the battle of Culloden. Im- 
mediately behind the fort is a small village called 
Killiecuming, or Cill Chuiman. The Caledonian 
canal here passes through a series of five locks. 
There is a small church here, and a missionary 
clergyman, who is supported from the Royal bounty. 
See Boleskine. 




AULD-DAVIE, a rivulet in Aberdeenshire, a 
head-tributary to the Ythan, into which it falls near 
Glenmailen. Near the confluence of the two streams, 
in the parish of Auchterless, are some relics of Ro- 
man antiquities, called the Rae or Ri dykes, sup- 
posed by manv to point out the Statio ad Itunam of 
Tacitus. See ' Caledonia,' vol. i. p. 127 ; and Roy's 
' Military Antiquities,' Plate LI. See Auchterless. 

AULDEARN, a parish in the county of Nairn; 
bounded on the north by the Moray frith ; on the east 
by the parish of Dyke ; on the south by Ardlach; 
and on the west by Nairn. It extends 4 miles alongthe 
frith ; being in length about fU miles, and in breadth 
about oh- The ground rises gradually from the 
coast to the inland part of the parish, where it be- 
comes hilly. The soil is generally light and fertile 
in proportion to its vicinity to the sea. Near the 
coast is a small lake, called Loch Loy, about H mile 
in length, and a quarter of a mile broad. A fair for 
cattle and horses is held here on the 20th of June, if 
that clay fall on a Wednesday or Thursday ; if not, 
on the first Wednesday thereafter; and another fail- 
is held on the first Tuesday after Inverness Novem- 
ber fair. Population, in 1801, 1,401 ; in 1831, 1,613, 
of whom 1,300 belonged to the established church. 
Houses 330. Assessed property £3,200. The vil- 
lage of Auldearn, in the above parish, is a burgh 
of barony. It is 20 miles west of Elgin, and about 
2i south-east of Nairn. Population about 400. — 
This parish is in the presbytery of Nairn, and synod 
of Moray. Patron, Brodie of Brodie. Stipend £241 
os. 4d., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 10s. 
Unappropriated teinds £360 5s. 3d. Church built 
in 1751; repaired in 1816 ; sittings 525. There are 
+.wo catechists — A United Secession congregation 
meets at Boghole. Church built about 1780; repaired 
m 1817 ; sittings 353. Salary £80, with a manse and 
garden, and glebe worth £10. — The parochial school- 
master has a salary of £37 6s., with £10 school- 
fees ; average number of pupils 100. There are 
three private schools in the parish, attended by about 
150 scholars. — It is rather remarkable that a very- 
large portion, it is thought a great majority, of the 
inhabitants of the town of Nairn (not of the fishing- 
class) have their burial places in Auldearn, and that 
to these they cling with a romantic feeling, the fune • 
rals of the poorest being well-attended all the way. 
To other causes, the supposed greater sac-redness of 
the soil of Auldearn, on account of its having been 
the ancient seat of the deans of Moray, may perhaps 
be added as a reason for such a resort of funerals 
from Nairn, as well as many other places. 

In May, 1645, Montrose, while pursuing General 
Hurry in his retreat on Inverness, took up a position 
near the village of Auldearn, with 1,500 foot, and 250 
horse, where he was attacked by Hurry, now rein- 
forced by the clan Fraser, and the Earls of Seaforth 
and Sunderland. " The village of Auldearn stands 
upon a height, behind which, or on the east, is a 
valley, which is overlooked by a ridge of little emi- 
nences running in a northerly direction, and which 
almost conceals the valley from view. In this holiow 
Montrose arranged his forces in order of battle. 
Having formed them into two divisions, he posted the 
right wing on the north of the village, at a place where 
there was a considerable number of dikes and ditches. 
This body, which consisted of 400 men, chiefly Irish, 
was placed under the command of Macdonald. On 
taking their stations, Montrose gave them strict in- 
junctions not to leave their position on any account, 
as they were effectually protected by the w-alls 
around them, not only from the attacks of cavalry 
but of foot, and could, without much danger to 
themselves, keep up a galling and destructive fire 
upon their assailants. In order to attract the best 

troops of the enemy to this difficult spot where they 
could not act, and to make them believe that Mon- 
trose commanded this wing, he gave the royal stan- 
dard to Macdonald, intending, when they should get 
entangled among the bushes and dikes with which 
the ground to the right was covered, to attack them 
himself with his left wing. And to enable him to 
do so the more effectually, he placed the whole of 
his horse and the remainder of the foot on the left 
wing to the south of the village. The former he 
committed to the charge of Lord Gordon, reserving 
the command of the latter to himself. After placing 
a few chosen foot with some cannon in front of the 
village, under cover of some dikes, Montrose firmly 
awaited the attack of the enemy The arrange- 
ments of Hurry were these. He divided his foot 
and his horse into two divisions each. On the right 
wing of the main body of the foot, which was com- 
manded by Campbell of Lawers, Hurry placed the 
regular cavalry which he had brought from the south, 
and on the left the horse of Moray and the North 
under the charge of Captain Drummond. The other 
division of foot was placed behind as a reserve and 
commanded by Hurry himself. — When Hurry ob- 
served the singular position which Montrose had 
taken up, he was utterly at a loss to guess his de- 
signs ; and though it appeared to him, skilful as he 
was in the art of war, a most extraordinary and no- 
vel sight, yet, from the well-known character of 
Montrose, he was satisfied that Montrose's arrange- 
ments were the result of a deep-laid scheme. But 
what especially excited the surprise of Hurry, was 
the appearance of the large yellow banner or royal 
standard in the midst of a small body of foot station- 
ed among hedges and dikes and stones, almost isolated 
from the horse and the main body of the foot. To 
attack this party, at the head of which he naturally 
supposed Montrose was, was his first object. This 
was precisely what Montrose had wished by com- 
mitting the royal standard to the charge of Mac- 
donald, and the snare proved successful. With the 
design of overwhelming at once the right wing, 
Hurry despatched towards it the best of his horse 
and all his veteran troops, who made a furious attack 
upon Macdonald's party, who defended themselves 
bravely behind the dikes and bushes. The contest 
continued for sometime on the right with varied suc- 
cess, and Hurry, who had plenty of men to spare, 
relieved those who were engaged by fresh troops. 
Montrose, who kept a steady eye upon the motions 
of the enemy, and watched a favourable opportunity 
for making a grand attack upon them with the left 
wing, was just preparing to carry his design into 
execution, when a confidential person suddenly rode 
up to him and whispered in his ear that the right 
wing had been put to flight. This intelligence was 
not, however, quite correct. It seems that Mac- 
donald — who, says Wishart, ' was a brave enough 
man, but rather a better soldier than a general, ex- 
tremely violent, and daring even to rashness' — had 
been so provoked with the taunts and insults of the 
enemy, that in spite of the express orders he had re- 
ceived from Montrose on no account to leave his 
position, he had unwisely advanced beyond it to at- 
tack the enemy, and though he had been several 
times repulsed he returned to the charge. But he 
was at last borne down by the great numerical su- 
periority of the enemy's horse and foot, consisting of 
veteran troops, and forced to retire in great disorder 
into an adjoining enclosure. Nothing, however, 
could exceed the admirable manner in which he 
managed this retreat, and the courage he displayed 
while leading off his men. Defending his body with 
a large target, he resisted, single-handed, the assaults 
of the enemy, and was the last man to leave the 




field. So closely indeed was he pressed by Hurry's 
spearmen, that some of them actually came so near 
him as to fix their spears in his target, which he cut 
off by threes or fours at a time with his broadsword. 
It was during this retreat that Montrose received 
the intelligence of the flight of the right wing; but 
he preserved his usual presence of mind, and to en- 
courage his men who might get alarmed at hearing 
such news, he thus addressed Lord Gordon, loud 
enough to be heard by his troops, ' What are we 
doing, my lord ? Our friend Macdonald has routed 
the enemy on the right and is carrying all before 
him. Shall we look on, and let him carry off the 
whole honour of the day ?' A crisis had arrived, 
and not a moment was to be lost. Scarcely, there- 
fore, were the words out of Montrose's mouth, when 
he ordered his men to charge the enemy. When his 
men were advancing to the charge, Captain or Ma- 
jor Drummond, who commanded Hurry's horse, made 
an awkward movement by wheeling about his men, 
and his horse coming in contact with the foot, broke 
their ranks and occasioned considerable confusion. 
Lord Gordon seeing this, immediately rushed in 
upon Drummond's horse with his party, and put them 
to flight. Montrose followed hard with the foot, 
and attacked the main body of Hurry's army, which 
he routed after a powerful resistance. The veterans 
in Hurry's army, who had served in Ireland, fought 
manfully, and chose rather to be cut down standing 
in their ranks than retreat ; but the new levies from 
Moray, Ross, Sutherland, and Caithness, fled in great 
consternation. They were pursued for several miles, 
and might have been all killed or captured if Lord 
Aboyne had not, by an unnecessary display of en- 
signs and standards, which he had taken from the 
enemy, attracted the notice of the pursuers, who 
halted for some time under the impression that a fresh 
party of the enemy was coming up to attack them. 
In this way, Hurry and some of his troops, who were 
the last to leave the field of battle, as well as the 
other fugitives, escaped from the impending danger, 
and arrived at Inverness the following morning. As 
the loss of this battle was mainly owing to Captain 
Drummond, he was tried by court-martial at Inver- 
ness and condemned to be shot, a sentence which was 
carried into immediate execution. He was accused 
of having betrayed the army, and it is said that he 
admitted that after the battle had commenced he had 
spoken with the enemy. The number of killed on 
both sides has been variously stated. That on the 
side of the covenanters has been reckoned by one 
writer at 1,000, by another at 2,000, and by a third at 
3,000 men. Montrose, on the other hand, is said 
by Gordon of Sallagh to have lost about 200 men ; 
while Spalding says, that he had only ' some twenty- 
four gentlemen hurt, and some few Irish kill- 
ed ;" and Wishart informs us that Montrose only 
missed one private man on the left, and that the 
right wing, commanded by Macdonald, 'lost only 
fourteen private men.' This trifling loss on the 
part of Montrose will appear almost incredible, and 
makes us inclined to think that it must have been 
greatly underrated ; for it is impossible to conceive 
that the right wing could have maintained the ar- 
duous struggle it did without a large sacrifice of life. 
The clans who had joined Hurry suffered consider- 
ably, particularly the Frazers, who, besides unmar- 
ried men, are said to have left dead on the field no 
less than eighty-seven married men. Among the 
principal covenanting officers who were slain, were 
Celonel Campbell ot Lawers, and Sir John and Mr. 
Giu. on Murray., ami Colonel James Campbell, with 
several other officers of interior note. The laird oi 
Liwers' brother, Archibald Campbell, with several 
other officers were taken prisoners. Captain Mac- 

donald and William Macpherson of Invereschie, were 
the only persons of any note killed on Montrose's 
side. Montrose took several prisoners, whom, with 
the wounded, he treated with great kindness. Such 
of the former as expressad their sorrow for having 

joined the ranks of the covenanters he released 

others who were disposed to join him he received 
into his army, but such as remained obstinate he im- 
prisoned. Besides taking sixteen standards from the 
enemy, Montrose got possession of the whole of their 
baggage, provisions, and ammunition, and a con- 
siderable quantity of money and valuable effects. 
The battle of Auldearn was fought on the 4th of 
May, according to some writers, and on the 9th 
accordingtoothers." [Browne's 'History of the High- 
lands,' vol. i. pp. 382— 385.]— The Rev. Mr. Bar- 
clay, of Auldearn, has shown his good taste in collect- 
ing and replacing, at considerable personal expense 
and trouble, various ancient monuments which had 
long lain scattered about the interesting churchyard 
of his parish. He has also restored the original in- 
scriptions of a tombstone and tablet — the latter in 
the ancient choir attached to the church — which were 
intended to commemorate the heroes of the Cove- 
nant who fell at the battle of Auldearn. The tomb- 
stone is inscribed thus: — " Heir lyeth Captaine Ber- 
nard M'Kenzie, who, in defence of his religion and 
eountrie feighting, died at Aulderne the 8 of May 
an. 1645." The tablet bears — " This monument is 
erected be Sir Robert Innes, younger of that ilk, in 
memorie of Sir Alexander Dromond of Meedhope, 
Sir Johr.e Morray, and Maister Gideo7i Morray, who 
lies heir intered, who, fighting valiantly in defence 
of their religione, king, and native countray, died at 
Auldearn the 8 May, 1645." 

AULDTOWN. See Loudon. 

AULTGRANDE, or Altgrad, a river in Ross- 
shire, in the parish of Kiltearn, which rises in Loch 
Glass, about 6 miles from the sea, and, after a wind- 
ing course, falls into the frith of Cromarty, about a 
mile north of Kiltearn. For a considerable way it 
runs through a vast chasm, occasioned by a slip in 
the sandstone strata, called the Craig-grande or 
Ugly-rock, of which Dr. Robertson, in the first Sta- 
tistical report of Kiltearn, gives the following de- 
scription : — " This is a deep chasm or abyss, formed 
by two opposite precipices that rise perpendicularly 
to a great height, through which the Aulfgrande 
runs for the space of two miles. It begins at the 
distance of 4 miles from the sea, by a bold projection 
into the channel of the river, which diminishes in 
breadth by at least one-half. The river continues 
to run with rapidity for about three quarters of a 
mile, when it is confined by a sudden jutting-out of 
the rock. Here the side-view from the summit is 
very striking. The course of the stream being thus 
impeded, it whirls and foams and beats with violence 
against the opposite rock, till, collecting strength, it 
shoots up perpendicularly with great fury, and, forc- 
ing its way, darts with the swiftness of an arrow 
through the winding passage on the other side. 
After passing this obstruction, it becomes in many 
places invisible, owing partly to the increasing depth 
and narrowness of the chasm, and partly to the view 
being intercepted by the numerous branches of trees 
which grow out on each side of the precipice. About 
a quarter of a mile farther down, the country people 
have thrown a slight bridge, composed of trunks of 
trees covered with turf, over the rock, where the 
chasm is about 16 feet broad. Here the observer, if 
he can look down on the gulf below without any 
uneasy sensations, will he gratified with a view equal- 
ly awful and astonishing. The uilduess of the.steep 
and rugged rocks,— the gloomy horror of the cliffs and 
| caverns, where the genial rays of the sun never jet 




penetrated,— the waterfalls, which are heard pouring 
down in different places of the precipice with sounds 
various in proportion to their distances, — the hoarse 
and hollow murmuring of the river, which runs at 
the depth of near 130" feet below the surface of the 
earth, — the fine groves of pines which majestically 
climb the sides of a beautiful eminence that rises im- 
mediately from the brink of the chasm, — all these ob- 
jects cannot be contemplated without exciting emo- 
tions of wonder and admiration in the mind of every 

AULTMORE, a rivulet in Banffshire, which falls 
into the Isla, near Auchinhove. It rises in the ridge 
of Altmore in Ruthven parish, and has a southernly 
course of about 5 miles. 

AUSDALE, a small village in the parish of La- 
theron, Caithness-shire. It is 4 miles south-west of 

AUSKERRY, one of the Orkneys ; constituting 
part of the parish of Stronsay. It is a small, un- 
inhabited island, lying 2^ miles to the south of 
Stronsay, and is appropriated to the pasturage of 
cattle and sheep. Here are the remains of a chapel ; 
and also the ruins of a house which retains the appel- 
lation of The Monker, or Monk's house. A great 
quantity of kelp used to be manufactured here. 

AUTORSKYLE, or Ach-ta-skailt, a hamlet 
in the shire of Cromarty, though locally situate in 
the shire of Ross : it is in the parish of Loch Broom, 
and is situated on the southern shore of Little Loch 
Broom, at the point where the Little Broom flows 
into the head of the loch. 

AVEN* (The), or Avon, a river which issues 
from a small lake of the same name which lies em- 
bosomed among the vast mountains of Cairngorm, at 
an altitude of about 1,800 feet above sea-level. [See 
article Aven (Loch.)] It flows northwards through 
a narrow valley, and beingjoinedby the Livatand Ter- 
vie at Castle Drummin, falls into the Spey at Ballin- 
dalloch, on the right bank, after a course of nearly 
40 miles through a wild country. It abounds with 
trout. '.' The Aven issues in a large stream from its 
lake, and flows with so great pellucidity through its 
deep and dark glen, that many accidents have oc- 
curred to strangers by its appearing fordable in places 
which proved to be of fatal depth. This quality is 
marked by an old doggerel proverb, 

' The water of Aven runs so clear. 
It would beguile a mau of an hundred year.' 

At Poll-du-ess, a little way above the first inhabited 
place called Inchrory, the river is bounded by per- 
pendicular rocks on each side. There the bed of the 
stream is 44 feet broad, and the flood (in August, 
1829,) was 23 feet above the usual level. Deep as 
the ravine was, the river overflowed the top of it. 
From correct measurements taken, the column of 
water that passed here, with intense velocity, ap- 
pears to have been about 1,200 square feet in its 

* Mr. Thomas Richards, in his * Antiquae Linguae. Britanni- 
cas Thesaurus,' under the article Afon, observes : " Avon is the 
Droper name of several rivers in England; as Avou, the river 
of Bristol; the Avod in Northamptonshire; another in War- 
wickshire, where there is a town called Stratford-upon-Avon, 
&c, for which this reason is to be assigned, viz. that the Eng- 
lish, when they drove the Britons out of that part of Great 
Britain, called from them England, took the appellatives of the 
old inhabitants for proper names; and so, by mistaking Avon, 
which, with us, signifies only a river in general, it came to 
serve with them for the proper name of several of their rivers." 
Mr. Ireland says that the name Avon, or Evon, is common to 
rivers whose course is easy and gentle. There are three rivers 
in Scotland which bear this name, besides several minor streams. 
The term Avon is also prefixed to the names of several Scottish 
streams : such as the Avon-Brouchag, and the Avon-Coll, in 
Ross-shire; the Avon- Adail, and the Avou-Araig, in Argyle- 
shire. Chalmers says that the term Amon, is merely a varia- 
tion of Avon; and, in confirmation of this, we may remark 
that the Almond of Perthshire is sometimes called Almon, and 
sometimes Avon, 


transverse section.'' [Sir T. D. Lauder's Account 
of the Great Floods of August 1829, p. 233.] At 
Ballindalloch the rise of the Aven exceeded that in 
the flood of 1768 by 6 feet. 

AVEN (The), or Avon, a river which takes its 
rise in the parish of Cumbernauld, in Stirlingshire, 
from Loch Fanny-side ; and, receiving considerable 
additions in passing east, and then north-east through 
Slamannan and Linlithgow parishes, falls into the 
Forth, about half-way between Grangemouth and 
Borrowstonness. Its estuary, like that of the 
Canon water, about 2 miles to the west, is a deep 
muddy cut through the wide extent of sands and 
sleeclies which appear here at low water on the side 
of the frith. Its whole course, including windings, is 
about 20 miles, throughout 16 of which it forms the 
boundary betwixt the shires of Stirling and Linlith- 
gow. In the parish of Muiravon the Union canal is 
carried across this river by a splendid aqueduct. See 
Forth and Clyde Union Canal. 

AVEN (The). See Avon. 

AVEN (Loch), a small solitary sheet of water, 
in the south-west extremity of Banffshire. It is 
deeply embosomed amidst huge mountains. On its 
western and northern edges, Cairngorm and Ben- 
Buinac shoot up perpendicularly; while the vast limbs 
of Ben-Macdhu and Ben-Main overhang its southern 
extremity in frightful masses. Professor Wilson 
has thus described this lonely mountain-tarn : " You 
come upon the sight of it at once, a short way down 
from the summit of Cairngorm, and then it is some 
two thousand feet below you, itself being as many 
above the level of the sea. But to come upon it so 
as to feel best its transcendent grandeur, you should 
approach it up Glenaven — and from as far down 
as Inch-Rouran, which is about half-way between 
Loch Aven and Tomantoul. Between Inchrory and 
Tomantoul the glen is wild, but it is inhabited ; 
above that house there is but one other ; and for 
about a dozen miles — we have heard it called far 
more — there is utter solitude. But never was there 
a solitude at once so wild — so solemn — so serene — so 
sweet ! The glen is narrow ; but on one side there 
are openings into several wider glens that show you 
mighty coves as you pass on ; on the other side the 
mountains are without a break, and the only varia- 
tion with them is from smooth to shaggy, from dark 
to bright ; but their prevailing character is that of 
pastoral or of forest peace. The mountains that 
show the coves belong to the bases of Ben- Aven and 
Ben-y-buird. The heads of those giants are not 
seen — but it sublimes the long glen to know that it 
belongs to their dominion, and that it is leading us 
on to an elevation that ere-long will be on a level 
with the roots of their topmost cliffs. The Aven 
is so clear — on account of the nature of its channel- 
that you see the fishes hanging in every pool ; and 
'tis not possible to imagine how beautiful in such 
transparencies are the reflections of its green fernv 
banks. For miles they ate composed of knolls, sel- 
dom interspersed with rocks, and there cease to be 
any trees. But ever and anon we walk for a while 
on a level floor, and the voice of the stream is mute. 
Hitherto sheep have been noticed on the hill, but 
not many, and red and black cattle grazing on the 
lower pastures ; but they disappear, and we find 
ourselves all at once in a desert. So it is felt to be, 
coming so suddenly with its black heather on that 
greenest grass ; but 'tis such a desert as the red-deer 
love. "We are now high up on the breast of the 
mountain, which appears to be Cairngorm; but such 
heights are deceptive, and it is not till we again see 
the bed of the Aven that we are assured we are still 
in the glen. Prodigious precipices, belonging to 
several different mountains — for between mass and 




mass there is blue sky — suddenly arise, forming them- 
selves more and more regularly into circular order, 
as we near ; and now we have sight of the whole 
magnificence ; yet vast as it is, we know not yet 
how vast; it grows as we gaze, till in a while we 
feel that sublimer it may not be ; and then so quiet 
in all its horrid grandeur we feel too that it is beau- 
tiful, and think of the Maker." [' Remarks on the 
Scenery of the Highlands,' pp. 43, 44. J 

AVICH (Loch), a fresh water lake in Nether 
Lorn, Argyleshire, on the west side of Loch Awe, 
from which its north-east extremity is about 2 miles 
distant. Its western extremity is about 4 miles dis- 
tant from the head of Loch Melfort. It is about 8 
.miles in circumference, and its appearance is enriched 
by some beautiful little islands. It is sometimes 
called Loch Luina. 

AVIEMORE, a village in the shire of Moray, 
and parish of Duthil ; on the western bank of the 
Spey ; 13^ miles north-east of Pitmain, and 126 miles 
north-north-west of Edinburgh. There is a good 
inn here at the base of Craigellachie. The scenery 
betwixt Grantoun and Aviemore is somewhat tame 
and uninteresting; but the view becomes sublime 
when, after passing Aviemore inn, we ascend an 
eminence which commands the plain of Alvie and 
the course of the Spey, bounded by the lofty moun- 
tains beyond Pitmain. Near Avielochan, about 2^ 
miles to the eastward of Aviemore, is Loch-na- 
mhoon, a small sheet of water about 90 yards long, 
by 50 across, in which there was, previous to the 
great floods in 1S29, a floating island of about 30 
yards diameter. It was composed chiefly of eriophori, 
junci, and other aquatic plants, the roots of which 
had become matted together to a depth of about 18 
inches, and having about 18 inches of soil attached 
to them. [Sir T. D. Lauder's Account of the Moray 
Floods, pp. 1S9, 190.] — The elegant plant, Andro- 
meda caerulea of Linnseus, has been found on the hills 
near Aviemore. 

AVOCH, in old records, written Avach or 
Auach, and commonly pronounced Audi, a parish in 
Ross-shire, and one of the eight parishes comprehend- 
ed within the ancient district of Ardmeanach or the 
Black Isle. It extends about 2A miles from east to 
west, and 4 from south to north ; and is nearly of a 
rhomboidal form. It is bounded by the parish of 
Rosemarky towards the east ; by the Moray frith 
and Munlochy bay on the south-east, south, and 
south-west ; by the united parishes of Kilmuir- Wes- 
ter and Suddie, on the west ; by Urquhart or Ferrin- 
tosh on the north-west; and by the united parishes 
of Cullicudden and Kirkmichael on the north. It 
marches with these last on the hill of Mulbuy, or 
Maole-buidhe, which attains here an altitude of 800 
feet above sea-level, and extends nearly the whole 
length of the Black Isle, from Cromarty to Beauley. 
This parish consists chiefly of two ridges of hills of 
moderate altitude, runningnearly parallel to each other 
in a direction from east to west, with a gently sloping 
vale on the north side of each, and the Mulbuy rising 
behind all these towards the north. In Munlochy bay 
there is an excellent quarry of hard reddish freestone, 
accessible to boats on the water-edge. Out of this 
quarry almost the whole of the extensive works of 
Fort-George were built. The Moray frith at Avoch 
is about 4 miles broad ; and a finer basin is scarcely 
to be seen in the North. To an observer on this 
shore it has all the appearance of a beautiful lake. 
Chanonry point from the north, and that of Arder- 
sier from the south-east, appear like projected arms 
to clasp each other and break-off its connection with 
the sea; while the point of Inverness, and the hills 
in that neighbourhood, seem to bound it in like man- 
ner in an opposite direction. The town of Inverness, 

at the one end, and Fortrose and Fort-George at the 
other, add much to the landscape. From a boat in 
the middle of the frith, opposite to Culloden-house 
and the bay of Avoch, the view is still grander and 
more embellished. In the southern vale there is 
a fine rivulet, called the burn of Avoch— -perhaps 
the largest stream in Ardmeanach — which empties 
itself into the sea near the church. A small lake, 
called Scaddin's loch, near the eastern boundary of 
this parish, was drained many years ago. Sir James 
W. Mackenzie of Scat well, Bart., is proprietor of two- 
thirds of the parish. His seat of Rosehaugh-house 
stands on a beautiful bank, about H mile from th 
sea, on the north side of the southern vale. The area 
of this palish is about 7,000 acres. The total gross 
rental, in 1790, was somewhat more than 730 bolls of 
victual, and £900 sterling. The valued rent is 
£2,531 6s. 4d. Scots. Assessed property, in 1815 
£4,144. Population, in 1801, 1,476; in 1831, 1,956! 

Houses 389 This parish is in the presbytery of 

Chanonry and synod of Ross. Patron, Sir J. W. 
Mackenzie, Bart. Stipend £249 9s. 6d., with a 
manse, and a glebe of the value of £7 10s. Unap- 
propriated teinds £74 18s. 5d. Church repaired in 
1792. Schoolmaster's salary £30, with about £10 
fees. There are four private schools. Number of 
children at school, in 1834, about 240. 

In 1793, the Statistical reporter stated : — " There 
is not one surgeon, or attorney, or Roman Catholic, 
or Jew, or negro, or gypsey, or foreigner ; nor any na- 
tive of England, Ireland, or the British colonies, re- 
siding at present in this parish. About the end of last 
century, there was only one fishing-boat here, the 
crew of which resided in the country. The village of 
Seatown, which contains at present.93 families, has 
been mostly if not entirely built since that period ; 
and the fishermen there are now equal to any in the 
north of Scotland, for hardiness, skill, and industry, 
though their distance from the main ocean subjects 
them to many inconveniences. From the beginning 
of October to the middle of March, they commonly 
fish for herrings in these upper parts of the frith. 
Towards the end of March and in April they go 
down along the coasts of Moray and Caithness, for 
cod, skate, and haddocks. In May and June, some 
of them are engaged by the Northumberland fishing 
company to catch lobsters for the London market, 
on the shores of Easter Ross about Tarbet-point. 
The others, during those months, work at the had- 
dock-fishing, to supply the towns of Inverness and 
Fortrose, and the western part of the Black Isle. 
About the middle of July, all the able fishermen 
here go off to Caithness and Loch Broom, for six or 
eight weeks, when the herring-fishery at those sta- 
tions is commonly most favourable ; and in good 
years they have been known to bring home from 
thence, £8 or £10 sterling each man of nett gain. 
They generally return in September to prepare for 
the season at home, which, owing to the small depth 
and clearness of this frith, begins only about the 
autumnal equinox, or a fortnight thereafter. The 
same causes oblige the fishermen, for the most part, 
to delay their work here till evening or night, as the 
herrings are then caugbt in much greater numbers 
than during the day. In good seasons, it is not un- 
common for each boat to bring in the quantity or 
from 18 to 25 barrels in one night. When the shoal 
comes up in the end of June or beginning of July, 
the herrings prove generally best and most plentiful. 
In winter 1786-7, besides those used at home, five 
or six thousand barrels were cured here for exporta- 
tion; and several sloops also were despatched with 
full cargoes of unpacked herrings for Dunbar and 
other towns on the east coast. The fishing-boats 
used here are of a small size ; their keel being only 




26 or 27 feet in length ; the mouth from 30 to 32 feet 
long, and 10 feet wide. The depth is so proportion- 
ed to these dimensions as that they may sail well, 
and may carry, besides the crew and their fishing 
tackle, 3 or 4 tons safely. Six of these boats, 
wrought by seven men each for the white fishing, 
and two or three smaller ones or yawls occupied by 
old men and boys, belong to the place. During the 
herring-season they fit out a good many more : as 
four men, with a boy to steer, serve this purpose, 
and they then hire some additional hands from the 
country. When the season here proves successful, 
the fishing-boats of Nairn, Delnies, Campbeltown, 
and Petty, join them ; and some likewise from Easter 
Ross, Cromarty, Rosemarky, Fortrose, and Kessock ; 
so that, even in this upper part of the frith, 60 or 
SO herring-boats, containing above 300 men, may be 
seen at times plying together on the same stream. 
The quantity of canvas carried by the Avoch men, 
and some others in this neighbourhood, is very much 
disproportioned to the small size and burden of their 
boats. The length of the mast is generally above 
30 feet. On this they hoist an immense oblong sail, 
containing nearly 80 square yards, or 700 square feet 
of cloth. And they carry a foresail besides, on a pole 
at the boat stem, of the same oblong form, but only 
a tenth part of the size of the other. Their skill 
and alertness in setting and reefing those sails, ac- 
cording to the wind and weather, and the course 
thev mean to pursue, are wonderful. No less re- 
markable are the inhabitants of this thriving village 
in general for their industry and diligence. They 
manufacture, of the best materials they can procure, 
not only all their own fishing-apparatus, but also a 
great quantity of herring and salmon nets yearly for 
the use of other stations in the North and West 
Highlands. From Monday morning to Saturday 
afternoon, the men seldom loiter at home 24 hours 
at a time, when the weather is at all favourable for 
going to sea; and the women and children, besides 
the care of their houses, and the common operations 
of gathering and affixing bait, and of vending the fish 
over all the neighbouring country, do a great deal of 
those manufactures. Some of their families also 
cultivate from a rood to half-an-acre of potatoes 
yearly for their own supply ; and others, whose chil- 
dren are more advanced, raise and dress for the her- 
ring nets a good quantity of hemp. Even the aged 
and infirm employ themselves as busily as they can 
at making and baiting hooks, and mending nets : so 
that, except for a few days about Christmas, or on 
the occasion of a fisher's wedding, there are none but 
little children idle in the whole Seatown. And this 
their industry turns out to good account ; for they 
bring up and provide for their families decently in 
their sphere ; they pay honestly all the debts they 
contract in the country ; and, considering the number 
of widows, and fatherless, and of infirm and aged 
persons among them, very few of this village, except 
in cases of great emergency, are found to solicit the 
assistance of either public or private charity. The in- 
habitants of Seatown live more comfortably than those 
of the country ; and they begin now to build neat 
commodious nouses which cost above .£20 sterling, 
each. Among the fishers, it is usual for both sexes 
to marry at or under 20 years of age ; and of 
several of their families, there are four generations 
now living in the place. Their women are, in gen- 
eral, hardy and robust, and can bear immense bur- 
dens. Some of them will carry a hundred weight of 
wet fish a good many miles up the country. As the 
bay is flat, and no pier has yet been built, so that the 
boats must often take ground a good way off from 
the shore, these poissardes have a peculiar custom of 
carrying out and in their husbands on their backs, 

' to keep their men's feet dry,' as they say. They 
bring out, in like manner, all the fish and fishing 
tackles ; and at these operations they never repine to 
wade, in all weathers, a considerable distance into 
the water. Hard as this usage must appear, yet 
there are few other women so cleanly, healthy, or so 
long livers in the country." The interesting account 
here given of the habits of the fishing-population of 
Seatown, or Avoch, as it is now generally called, 
may be compared with our notices of the same class 
of people under the articles Fisheerow and New- 
haven. In 1831, the number of families in the 
parish of Avoch engaged in the fisheries on the 
coast was 84. 

AVON (The), or Evan, a small tributary of the 
Annan, falling from the heights on the borders of 
Peebles-shire, and joining the Annan on its west 
bank below Moffat. See article, The Annan. 

AVON (The), or Aven, a beautiful stream in 
Lanarkshire, a tributary of the Clyde. It rises on 
the south of Distinetthorn hill in Ayrshire, at an 
elevation of about 800 feet above sea-level, and 
flows north-east between Carnscoch hill in Ayrshire, 
and Gravstone hill in Avondale parish, to Torfoots, 
a little below which it is joined by the Glengivel or 
Glengeil water, flowing from the south. Two miles 
farther on it is joined by Drumclog burn, coming from 
Moss Malloch on the north. A mile and a half be- 
low this point it receives the Little Cadder from the 
north, and soon after Lockart water from the south. 
Passing about a mile to the south of the town of 
Strathaven, it receives its largest tributary, the Kype, 
which flows from the south, and precipitates itself near 
its mouth over a cascade of about 50 feet in height. 
From this point it pursues a north-east course through 
Avondale and Stonehouse parishes, till it touches the 
western boundary of Dalserf, where it turns nearly 
north, and, after forming the dividing line betwixt 
Dalserf and Stonehouse parishes, enters the parish of 
Hamilton, flows through the Duke of Hamilton's 
ground, passes to the south of the town of Hamilton, 
and falls into the Clyde about a mile to the south- 
east of that town, after a course of about 28 miles 
including windings. The Lanarkshire Avon is a 
beautiful stream, and gives name to the parish ot 
Avondale or Strathaven, which it divides into two 
nearly equal parts. The upper part of its course is 
through a district very destitute of wood ; but in the 
lower part it presents much pastoral beauty. The 
name of this river is uniformly pronounced Aivon by 
the people of the district. 

AVONDALE, or AvENDALE.a parish in Lanark- 
shire ; bounded on the north by the parishes of Kil- 
bride and Glassford ; on the east by Glassford and 
Stonehouse ; on the south by Lesmahagow, and 
Muirkirk in Ayrshire ; and on the west by Loudon, 
Galston, and Sorn parishes in Ayrshire. Its great- 
est length, from Avonhead on the south-west, to 
Righead on the north-east, is about 14 miles ; its 
greatest breadth, from Regal hill on the south, to 
the boundary of Kilbride parish on the north, is 
about 8 miles. The total superficies of this parish 
must be nearly 40,000 acres; and the present rental 
about .£20,000. Valued rent £7,650 Scots. As- 
sessed property, in 1815, .£16,287. Hamilton ot 
Wishaw, in his account of the sheriffdom of Lanark, 
compiled about the beginning of last century, de- 
scribes this " great paroch," as " a plentiful country, 
especially in grain, and no want of corns." Its 
agricultural reputation is still good ; its dairy hus- 
bandry is particularly celebrated ; and in the art of 
fattening calves for the butcher, the farmers of Strath- 
aven are unrivalled in Scotland. [The agricultural 
reader will find the system of calf-rearing as practised 
here described in a paper by Mr. Aiton of Hamilton, 




in the ' Quarterly Journal of Agriculture, 1 vol. x. p. 
249.] The upper part of the parish is wholly moor- 
land, and presents a succession of hills, mosses, and 
moors, on which there is capital grouse-shooting. 
The fertility of the soil", and consequent richness of 
cultivation and beauty of landscape, increases as we 
descend the strath of the Avon, which below Strath- 
aven becomes, as Wordsworth has described it in one 
of his sonnets, ' a fertile region green with wood.' In 
very ancient times the great Caledonian forest extend- 
ed up Avondale, by Strathaven, and, passing over the 
high ground near Loudon hill, entered Ayrshire. 
Trunks of huge oaks, the relics of this forest, have been 
discovered near the head of the Avon, and amongst 
the mosses that still exist here ; and at Chatleherault, 
in the neighbourhood of Hamilton, there still exist 
some noble ashes and oaks, the remnants probably of 
the ancient forest. [See a paper by Thomas Brown, 
Esq., in ' Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal,' 
July, 1834.] — The principal river in this parish has 
been described in the immediately preceding article ; 
and the reader is referred to the separate article 
Strathaven, for an account of the principal village. 
The Duke of Hamilton is the principal heritor in 
Avondale ; but property here is greatly subdivided. 
Hamilton of Wishaw states that " this baronie did 
anciently belong to the Bairds ; and thereafter came 
to Sinclair ; and from them to the Earle of Douglas, 
with whom it continued severall ages ; and after his 
fatall forfaulture, in anno 1455, it was given by King 
James the Third to Andrew Stewart, whom he 
created Lord Avendale ; and it continued with him 
and his heires untill 1538, or thereby, that he ex- 
changed it with Sir James Hamilton for the baronie 
of Ochiltree, in the parliament 1543 [1534 ?]. From 
which tyme, it continued with the successors of Sir 
James Hamilton untill it was acquyred by James, 
iirst of that name, Marquess of Hamilton ; and con- 
tinueth with his successors since. This paroch is 
large, and lyeth betwixt the parishes of Killbryde to 
the west, Hamilton to the north and north-east, and 
Glasfoord, Stonehouse,and some parts of the shire of 
Ayre to the south and south-east. There are many 
small vassals in this parish, besyde three or four 
gentlemen, — Overtoun, Netherfield, Rylandsvde, Le- 
them, and Kype ; but all of them hold of the familie 
of Hamilton." [Maitland club edn., p. 10.] Popu- 
lation, in 1801, 3,623; in 1831, 5,761; of whom 
3,597 belonged to the town of Strathaven. — This 
parish is in the presbytery of Hamilton, and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr. Patron, the Duke of Hamilton. 
Stipend £305 2s. 6d., with a manse, and a glebe of 
the value of £24. Unappropriated tenuis £955 18s. 
8d. Church built in 1772; sittings 803. The 

established minister is assisted by a catechist A 

new chapel, in connection with the Establishment, 
has' been greeted by subscription in the town of 
Strathaven ; sittings 803 A United Secession con- 
gregation was established in Strathaven, in 1764. 
Church built in 1820 ; sittings 630. Stipend £120, 
with manse and garden. There are two congrega- 
tions in connection with the Relief body. Of these 
the first was established in 1777, when the church 
now occupied by them was built; sittings 1,087. 
Stipend £160, with a manse, and glebe of the value 
of £30. The West Relief church was built in 1835 ; 
cost £1,400; sittings 976. Stipend £120, with a 

manse and garden The parish-schoolmaster has a 

salary of £34 4s. 4-id., with about£25 fees. Num- 
ber of pupils 60. There are 11 private schools, 
which, in 1834, were attended by 453 children. — 
According to a census made by the dissenters, in 
January, 1836, out of a total population of 6,155, 
there were in connection with the established church 
2,536; with the Relief, 2,827; with the United 

Secession, 486 ; Roman Catholics, 85 ; and some 

The memorable battle of Drumelog, in which 
'cruel Claver'se' was signally defeated by a small 
body of Covenanters collected together under Ham- 
ilton, Burley, Cleland, and Hackston, was fought 
on the farm of that name in the upper part of this 
parish, about 2 miles to the east of Loudon hill, on 
Sabbath, June 1, 1679. The localities of the spot, 
as well as the engagement itself, are very accurately 
described in ' Old Mortality.' In this affair Claver- 
house lost his cornet and about a score of his troopers; 
on the side of ' the hillmen' only four were killed.'" 
A monument has recently been erected at Drumelog 
in commemoration of this noble struggle. It is in the 
Gothic style, 23 feet high, and does credit to its archi- 
tect and sculptor, Mr. Robert Thorn At Kype, in 

this parish, stood, in ancient times, a chapel dedicated 
to St. Bridget, called St. Bride's chapel. 

AVONDHU. See Forth. 

AWE (Loch), a beautiful lake in that district of 
Argyleshire called Lorn, between Loch-Fyne and 
Loch-Etive. From Inverary, by the road through 

* The victors commemorated their triumph in a rude ballad 
entitled ' The Battle of Loudon hill,' which Scott has preserved 
in his 'Border Minstrelsy,' [Cadell's edn., voi. ii. pp. 206—225,3 
though not without a quantity of industriously gleaned intro- 
ductory matter, well-calculated to throw ridicule on those wor- 
thy men 

" Who fled to woods, caverns, and jutting rocks, 
In deadly scorn of superstitious riles, — 
Or what their scruples construed to be such." 

With better feeling, though perhaps with more of the imagina- 
tiveness of the poet than the veracity of the historian, has Al- 
lan Cunningham indited his Cameronian legends and baliads. In 
the 7th vol. of Blackwood's Magazine, there is a bundle of very 
spirited Cameronian ballads from Allan's pen, from one of 
which, on ' The Discomfiture of the Godless at Drumelog, 1 we 
shall here quote a couple of stanzas : — 

"This morning they came with their brass trumpets braying, 
Their gold pennons flaunting, their war-horses neighing; 
They came and they found us— the brand and the spear 
Soon emptied their saddles and sobered their cheer; 
They came and they sounded — their trumpet and drum 
Now give a mute silence, their shouters are dumb; 
The chariot is smote, and the charioteer slcepiog, 
And Death his dark watch o'er their captains is keeping. 

Oh ! who wrought this wonder ? — men ask me — this work 

Is not of man's hand for the covenant kirk; 

Few — few — were the saints 'neath their banners arraying, 

Weak, hungry, and faint, nor grown mighty in slaying; 

And strong, fierce, and furious, and thirsting and fain 

Of our blood— as the dust of the summer for rain — 

Came our foes ; but the firm ground beneath their feet iurne 

Into moss and quagmire — above their heads burned 

Heaven's hot and swift fires— the sweet wind to-day 

Had the power for to blast, and to smite, and to slay 1" 

If we may believe the Nithsdale bard, however, Cameronian 
meekness has been proof agaiust all the scorn and misrepresen- 
tation which has been heaped upon the party and the cause 
for which they struggled so manfully :— " To the mimicries of 
the graceless and the profane, the poets have added their sar- 
casm and their ridicule ; and William Meston — a man of much 
wit, but of little feeling for the gentle, and pathetic, and lofty 
beauties of poetry— has seized upon some of the common infir 
mities of human nature, and made tltetn the reproach of this 
respectable race. Having little sympathy in the poetical part 
of their character, he has sought to darken the almost cloudless 
day of their history with specks which would not detract much 
from the fixed splendours of the established kirk, but which 
hang black and ominous amid the purity of Cameronian faith 
and practice. Lately, too, the Mightv Warlock of Caledonia, 
has shed a natural and supernatural light round the founders of 
the Cameronian dynasty ; and, as his business was to grapple 
with the ruder and fiercer portion of their character, the gen- 
tler graces of their nature were not called into action, and the 
storm and tempest and thick darkness of John Balfour of Bur- 
ley, have darkened the whole breathing congregation of the 
Cameronians, and turned their sunny-hill-side into a dreary 
desert. All the sufferers of England, and of Scotland too, have 
lifted up their voices against this ancient remnant of the Scot- 
tish covenant, [Is this so ?] and all the backslidings of the nu- 
merous sectaries of the North have been tairly wrought into a 
kind of tapestry picture, and hung over the honoured grave of 
Richard Cameron. All this, which would have provoked the 
patience, and obtained the anathemas of other churches, failed 
to discompose the meekness and the sedate serenity of the 
mountaineers; they read, and they smiled at Meston, and with 
the unrivalled novelist they are charmed and enchanted ; they 
would sooner part with the splendour of the victory of Drum- 
clog, or the name of Alexander Peden, than pass the Torwood 
curse on the legend of Old Mortality." [' Blackwood's Maga- 
zine,' vol. vii. pp. d8!i, 483.3 




Glen-Aray, it is distant about 12 miles; the distance 
from Tyndrum, through Glen-Orchy, is 16 miles. 
The chief beauty of Loch-Awe is comprised be- 
tween its eastern extremity and Port-Sonnachan, 
about 6 miles down its southern shore. Here the 
scenery can hardly be equalled in Great Britain ; but 
the remaining portion of the lake is uninteresting to 
the traveller, possessing little variety, and neither 
beauty nor grandeur. At its eastern end, however, 
the stranger may spend weeks in examining the 
beauty of its wooded and varied shores and islands, 
or the grandeur of its lofty mountains and deeply- 
secluded glens. The water of the lake appears a 
basin enclosed among mountains of rude and savage 
aspect, but lofty and grand, — " filling," says Dr. Mac- 
culloch, "at once the eye and the picture, and li- 
terally towering above the clouds." On the north 
side, the elevated ridge of Cruachan rises simple and 
majestic, throwing its dark shadows on the water, 
which, spacious as we know it to be, seems almost 
lost amid the magnitude of surrounding objects. On 
the opposite side, Ben-Laoidh, Ben-a-Chleidh, and 
Meall-nan-Tighearnan form a striking and magnificent 
termination to the landscape. Among all the moun- 
tains, however, which surround Loch-Awe, Ben- 
Cruachan soars pre-eminent. In approaching Loch- 
Awe through Glen-Aray, the traveller finds little to 
attract his attention after leaving the pleasure 
grounds around Inverary castle, until he has attained 
the head of the glen, and begins to descend towards 
Cladich. There, however, Loch-Awe, with its beau- 
tiful expanse of water, its islands, and the magnifi- 
cent screen of mountains which enclose it, bursts at 
once upon his view. Ben-Cruachan is immediately 
opposite to him, its summit enveloped among clouds ; 
and the dark pass of the river Awe winding along its 
base. To the east is seen the castle of Kilchurn, 
the openings of Glen-Strae and Glen-Orchy, and the 
lofty mountains which enclose them lessening gra- 
dually in the distance ; to the west the long and 
sinuous portion of the lake glitters like a silver 
stream amid the dark heathy hills and moors which 
form its banks. See articles Ben-Cruachan, Kil- 
chukn, and Glenorchy. Loch-Awe is 30 miles 
in length, but in the greater part of its extent not 
above a mile in breadth. Its eastern portion, 
however, is considerably broader ; and at the open- 
ing of the river Awe it is not less than 4 miles 
across. Here its beauty is further increased by a 
number of islands which spot its surface and give 
relief to its expanse. There is one peculiarity in 
Loch-Awe which is not to be found in any other 
Highland lake : instead of its being emptied at either 
end, the river Awe flows from its northern side, 
and pours its waters into Loch-Etive at Bunawe. 
Looking down upon the loch from Cladich, a long 
heathy isle called Innishail, or ' the Fair island,' 
presents itself to the view. In this island, the re- 
mains of a small monastery with its chapel are still 
to be seen ; and its ancient burying-ground is still 
■iometimes used. It was inhabited by nuns of the 
Cistercian order, memorable, says tradition, for the 
sanctity of their lives, and the purity of their man- 
ners. At the Reformation, when the innocent were 
involved equally with the guilty in the sufferings of 
the times, this house was suppressed, and the tem- 
poralities granted to Hay, abbot of Inchaffrey, who, 
abjuring his former tenets of religion, embraced the 
cause of the reformers. Inchaffrey was erected into 
a temporal lordship by King James VI., in favour of 
the abbot. The old church-yard on this island is 
an object of peculiar interest, from its ancient tomb- 
stones, the greater part of which are carved in a 
variety of ways. Some appear, from the figures cut 
upon them, to have covered the graves of religious 

persons ; others, having the long two-hand sword, oi 
the claymore, mark the graves of warriors; on others, 
again, mailed figures point out the resting-place of 
knights and crusaders ; and, one stone in particular, 
from the arms, coronet, and numerous figures it con- 
tains, would lead us to suppose that in this lone 
spot even the noble had been buried. Among other 
families, the M' Arthurs appear to have made this 
their place of interment, as numerous stones bear the 
name of individuals of that ancient race. This sept 
formerly inhabited the shores of Loch- Awe, opposite 
to this island, as the M'Gregors did the lands at the 
upper portion of the lake : both, however, have given 
way before the overpowering influence and good 

fortune of the Campbells Beyond Innishail, and 

farther up the lake, is Innes Fraoch, or ' the Heather 
isle.' Here is an ancient castle, the residence at one 
period, of the chief of the MacNaughtans. It is a 
small but strongly built fortalice. Its solitary walls 
are over-shadowed by chance-planted trees and hush- 
es, and are the haunts of sea-birds and large water- 
fowl. This island is the subject of a very singular 
highland tradition. It was the Hesperides of the 
Highlands, and produced, according to Celtic poetry, 
the most delicious apples, but which were guarded 
by an enormous serpent. Dr. W. Beattie, in his 
' Scotland Illustrated,' [vol. ii. pp. 99 — 101.] has 
given a very absurd and tasteless amplification of the 
simple Gaelic legend connected with this island. It 
is singular, thus to find in a remote district of the 
Highlands of Scotland, a traditionary fable which is 
generally considered as classic. 

The shores of Loch Awe, and the recesses of the 
surrounding mountains and glens, seem anciently to 
have been the retreat of the Campbells in times of 
danger. ' It's a far cry to Lochow !' was the slogan, 
or war-cry of the knights of Lochow and their follow- 
ers : with it they derided their foes, and indicated the 
impossibility of reaching them in their distant fast- 
nesses. At a still earlier period, this district form- 
ed a portion of the extensive tract of country at one 
time possessed by the numerous and powerful Clan- 
Gregor; but so early as the 15th century, the Camp- 
bells had obtained a footing here. Not a stone of 
the MacGregor's dwelling in Glen-Strae is now re- 
maining to mark the spot where his mansioa stood ; 
but in many a corrie, and many a lonely glen, the 
highlander still points out where a fugitive son of 
Alpine stood at bay, and fell beneath the extermin- 
ating rage of his relentless pursuers. In a wild cor- 
rie or hollow of Ben-Cruachan, is poiuted out a huge 
stone from behind which a MacGregor, no longer 
able to continue his flight, shot a blood-hound which 
had been set upon his track, and from which he found 
it impossible otherwise to make his escape. This 
is alleged to have been the last instance in which 
any of the outlawed Clan-Alpine were chased as 
beasts of prey. 

AWE (The), a rapid and powerful mountain- 
stream by which — as noticed in the preceding article 
— Loch Awe discharges its waters into Loch Etive. 
It issues from the western extremity of an offset of 
Loch Awe, projecting in a north-west direction, near 
its head ; and flows in a north-west course through 
Mid Lorn to Bunawe on Loch Etive, where there is 
a ferry across that loch into Upper Lorn. It is about 
7 miles in length, and is skirted on the north side by 
the road from the head of Loch Awe to Bunawe and 
Connel ferries. A considerable portion of the western 
base of Cruachan seems to have been torn asunder to 
form an opening for the waters of the lake ; and the 
river flows through a gulley or hollow of the most 
frightful description. " This pass," says Mr. Allan, 
" is about 3 miles in length ; its east side is bounded 
by the almost inaccessible steeps which form the base 




of the vast and rugged mountain of Cruachan. The 
craigs rise in some places almost perpendicularly from 
the water ; and, for their chief extent, show no space 
nor level at their feet, but a rough and narrow edge 
of stony beach. Upon the whole of these cliffs grew 
a thick and interwoven wood of all kinds of trees, 
both timber, dwarf, and coppice ; no track existed 
through the wilderness, but a winding part which 
sometimes crept along the precipitous height, and 
sometimes descended in a straight pass along- the 
margin of the water. Near the extremity of the de- 
file, a narrow level opened between the water and 
the craig ; but a great part of this, as well as the pre- 
ceding steeps, was formerly enveloped in a thicket, 
which showed little facility to the feet of any but 
the martins and the wild cats. Along the west side 
of the pass, lies a wall of sheer and barren craigs : 
from behind they rise in rough, uneven, and heathy 
declivities, out of the wide muir before mentioned, 
between Loch-Etive and Loch-Awe; but in front 
they terminate abruptly in the most frightful preci- 
pices, which form the whole side of the pass, and de- 
scend at one fall into the water which fills its trough. 
At the north end of this barrier, and at the termina- 
tion of the pass, lies that part of the cliff which is 
called Craiganuni : at its foot the arm of the lake 
gradually contracts its water to a very narrow space, 
and at length terminates at two rocks (called the rocks 
of Brandir), which form a straight channel, something 
resembling the lock of a canal. From this outlet 
there is a continual descent toward Loch-Etive, and 
from hence the river Awe pours out its current in a 
furious stream, foaming over a bed broken with 
holes, and cumbered with masses of granite and 
whinstone. If ever there was a bridge near Craig- 
anuni in ancient times, it must have been at the rocks 
of Brandir. From the days of Wallace to those of 
General Wade, there were never passages of this 
kind ; but in places of great necessity, too narrow 
for a boat, and too wide for a leap, even then they 
were but an unsafe footway, formed of the trunks of 
trees, placed transversely from rock to rock, tin- 
stripped of their bark, and destitute of either plank 
or rail. For such a structure there is no place in the 
neighbourhood of Craiganuni, but at the rocks above- 
mentioned. In the lake, and on the river, the water 
is far too wide ; but, at the strait, the space is not 
greater than might be crossed by a tall mountain 
pine, and the rocks on either side are formed by na- 
ture like a pier. That this point was always a place 
of passage, is rendered probable by its facility, and 
the use of recent times. It is not long since it was 
the common gate of the country on either side the 
river and the pass. The mode of crossing is yet in 
the memory of people living, and was performed by 
a little currach moored on either side the water, and 
a stout cable fixed across the stream from bank to 
bank, by which the passengers drew themselves 
across, in the manner still practised in places of the 
same nature. It is no argument against the existence 
of a bridge in former times, that the above method 
only existed in ours, rather than a passage of that 
kind which might seem the more improved expe- 
dient. The contradiction is sufficiently accounted 
for, by the decay of timber in the neighbourhood. 
Of old, both oaks and firs of an immense size abound- 
ed within a very inconsiderable distance ; but it is 
now many years since the destruction of the forests 
of Glen-Etive and Glen-Urcha has deprived the coun- 
try of all the trees of a sufficient size to cross the 
.strait of Brandir ; and it is probable, that the currach 
was not introduced till the want of timber had dis- 
enabled the inhabitants of the country from main- 
taining a bridge. It only further remains to be 
noticed, that at some distance below the rock of 

Brandir there was formerly a ford, which was used 
for cattle in the memory of people yet living. From 
the narrowness of the passage, the force of the 
stream, and the broken bed of the river, it was, 
however, a dangerous pass, and could only be at- 
tempted with safety at leisure, and by experience." 
Mr. Allan has clearly identified the pass of Brandir 
with the scene of a memorable exploit of Scotland's 
favourite hero, Sir William Wallace. It appears 
that Edward of England had given a grant of Argyle 
and Lorn to a creature of his own, named M'Fadyan, 
who proceeded to take possession of the country at 
the head of 15,000 Anglo-Irish and renegade Scots. 
Before this force Duncan of Lorn retreated towards 
Loch Awe, where he was joined by Sir Niel Camp- 
bell ; but the force of the invader compelled them to 
throw themselves into a castle which crowned a rock 
in this formidable pass, called the Crag-an-aradh, or 
' Rock of the Ladder.' Wallace, on being apprized 
of their danger, hastened to their relief, and man- 
aged to surprise M'Fadyan 's army in a situation 
where flight was impracticable. " The conflict con- 
tinued for two hours, with unexampled fury on both 
sides. Multitudes of the Irish were forced over the 
rocks into the gulf below. Many threw themselves 
into the water to escape the swords of the Scots ; 
while various bands of highlanders, stationed among 
the rocks, sent down showers of stones and arrows 
where the enemy appeared most obstinate in the 
strife. Wallace, armed with a steel mace, at the 
head of his veterans, now made a charge, which de- 
cided the fate of the day. Those Scots who had 
joined the Irish, threw away their arms, and on their 
knees implored mercy. M'Fadyan, with fifteen ot 
his men, having made his way over the rocks, and 
attempted to conceal himself in a cave, ' vvndyr 
cragmdr,' Duncan of Lorn requested permission ot 
Wallace to follow and punish him for the atrocities 
he had committed ; and it was not long before he re- 
turned, bringing his head on a spear, which Sir Niel 
Campbell caused to be fixed on the top of the rock 
in which he had taken shelter. After the defeat of 
M'Fadyan, Wallace held a meeting of the chiefs of 
the West Highlands, in the priory of Ardchattan , 
and having arranged some important matters respect- 
ing the future defence of the district, he returned to 
his duties in the Low Country, having received an ac- 
cession to his numbers, which covered any loss he had 
sustained in the late engagement. The spoil which 
the Scots collected after the battle is-said to have been 
very considerable ; any personal share in which our 
hero, as usual, refused." [Carrick's Life of Wallace, 
edn. 1840, pp. 45. 46.]— Here too, in 1306, after a 
fierce struggle at Dalree. a sharp skirmish took place 
between Bruce and Macdongal of Lorn. This chief 
had throughout opposed the claims of the Bruce, who, 
after gaining the ascendency, determined to punish 
him. A detached party of archers having taken 
a commanding position on the hills, annoyed the Ar- 
gyle men so much that they retreated ; and, having 
attempted in vain to break down the bridge across 
the Awe, they were defeated with great slaughter : 
Lorn himself escaping by means of his boats on the 
lake. This defeat argues little for the military tac- 
tics of John and his followers ; as the pass of the 
river Awe might easily be defended by a handful of 
men against a very superior force ; it is a stronger 
position than even Killicrankie. — The bridge of Awe 
is also the scene of Sir Walter Scott's beautiful tale 
of the Highland Widow and her son, which must 
be in the recollection of all our readers. His de- 
scription of this wild spot is — like all his other de- 
scriptions — not more graphic than correct. 

AYR (The), a river which rises at Glenhuck in 
the eastern extremity of the parish of Muirkirk, in 



Ayrshire ; and, after a course of about 33 miles near- 
ly due west, in which it divides the county at its 
broadest part into two nearly equal portions, falls 
into the sea at the town of Ayr, where its estuary 
forms the harbour. It is for some miles of its course 
only a small rivulet, flowing among holms and haughs 
through an open moorland district ; but, being joined 
by the Greenock, and ' the haunted Garpal,' it be- 
comes a large body of water. It is augmented by 
'the winding Lugar' at Barskimming, and by 'the 
brawling Coil' at Shaws. " Most of its course for 
the last 20 miles is bounded by steep rocky banks, 
generally covered with wood, which in several places 
are highly picturesque. In a few spots the banks 
open, and some enchanting holms are found between 
them ; but in many places the river is seen for some 
miles together, dashing and foaming in a deep and 
narrow chasm, rendered dark and gloomy by the 
bulky foliage of the trees which overhang the stream." 
[Alton's ' View,' p. 59.] The Ayr is subject to 
heavy floods during winter. After continued rains 
in the upland districts through which it flows, in the 
language of Burns, 

" from Glenbnrk down to the Ratton-key, 
Au!d Ayr is just one lengthened tumbling sea." 

Sorn castle, Ballochmyle, Auchencruive, and Auch- 
inleck, may be mentioned as worthy of notice for 
their beautiful situation on the banks of this river. 
The Ayr was anciently named Vidogara. The ety- 
mology of the present name of the river is doubtful. 
In its bed is procured a species of claystone which is 
well-known to artisans by the name of ' Water-of- 
Ayr stone,' and proves a fine whetstone. Salmon are 
caught in the mouth of the river during the summer- 
season ; but the fishing in this river is not nearly so 
productive as that in the Doon. 

AYR, anciently Are, sometimes Air, a parish in 
Ayrshire, about 5 miles in length, and 3 in breadth. 
It is bounded on the north by the river just described, 
which divides it from Newton-upon-Ayr ; on the 
east by Coylstone ; on the south-east by Dalrvmple ; 
on the south-west by the river Doon, which separates 
it from Maybole ; and on the west by the sea. The 
surface is flat and sandy, but here and there inter- 
spersed with beautiful plantations and villas. To- 
wards the east the country rises gradually; in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the sea there is a good 
deal of light shifting sand, especially in the neigh- 
bourhood of Prestwick. Aiton estimates the super- 
ficies at 4,000 Scots acres. Real rent, in 1799, £3,700. 
Present rental about £10,000. Assessed property, 
in 1815, £16,576. There are two small lakes in this 
parish, one toward the south side named Carleny, 
and the other at the eastern extremity called Loch 
Fergus. The latter has a small island in the centre, 
but is not above a mile in circumference. There is 
plenty of muirstone in this district ; but freestone is 
neither abundant nor good ; and coal is not wrought, 
although all the neighbouring parishes possess inex- 
haustible pits of the finest coal. There is a strong 
chalybeate spring on the north side of the river Ayr, 
which is famous in scrofulous and scorbutic com- 
plaints. Tradition reports an engagement to have 
taken place in the valley of Dalrjmple, between 
Fergus I., king of Scots, and Coilus, king of the 
Britons, in which both leaders lost their lives. The 
names of places in the neighbourhood seem derived 
from this circumstance ; and a circular mound, mark- 
ed by two large upright stones, and long the re- 
puted burial-place of 'auld King Coil,' having been 
opened in May, 1837, was found to contain four 
urns. History has recorded two distinguished char- 
acters in literature, natives of this parish : Johannes 
Scotus, surnamed Erigena, and the Chevalier Ram- 

say, author of Cyrus's Travels, and other works. To 
these may be added John L. M'Adam, Esq., of road- 
making celebrity, who was born at Ayr in 1756, and 
Lord Alloway. " Population, in 1801, 5,492 ; in 1831, 
7,606 ; by a census in January 1836, 7,475 ; of whom 
4,958 belonged to the Established church, and 2,424 
to other denominations, chiefly the Relief. Houses 

892 This parish is in the presbytery of Ayr, and 

synod of Glasgow and Ayr. It consists of the united 
parishes of Ayr and Alloway. Patron, the Crown-, and 
the Magistrates of Ayr and Kirk session. It was an- 
ciently a prebendal benefice of Glasgow.* There are 
two parish-churches, both in the town of Ayr. The 
old one was built in 1654, on the site of the Grey 
Friars convent, in place of St. John the Baptist's 
church which Cromwell had converted into an ar- 
mory for his citadel in Ayr. It is a massive 
cruciform structure, and is surrounded with the 
town burying-ground. The new church was built 
in 1810, by the town council of Ayr, at an expense ot 
£5,703. Total sittings in both churches, 1,982. The 
charge is collegiate, and the two ministers officiate in- 
discriminately in both churches. Stipend of the 1st 
charge £178 5s., with a manse and glebe ; of the 2d, 
£283 6s. 9d., with allowance for a manse, and a glebe 
of the valueof £28 6s. 8d. Mr. Ferguson of Doonholm 
left the interest of £1,000 to be divided between the 
two ministers. — The Relief church was built in 1816, 
at an expense of £3,000; sittings 1,182. Stipend 
£180.— TheWesleyan Methodist church was built in 
1813, at an expense of £1,500; sittings 530. Sti- 
pend £86, with a manse There are also Indepen- 
dent, Roman Catholic, and Episcopalian chapels on 

the opposite side of the river The parochial schools 

were formed into an academy in 1797, which is con- 
ducted by 6 teachers and 2 assistants. The salary 
of the rector is £100 per annum ; that of the other 
teachers from £15 to £22. There were 460 pupils 
in the academy in 1833 ; and above 600 children at- 
tended the private schools in the parish, which were 
16 in number. Mr. Ferguson of Doonholm bequeath- 
ed the annual interest of £1,000 to the public school- 
masters of Ayr ; and, in 1825, Captain John Smith 
bequeathed a sum for erecting a school for poor chil- 
dren here which produces £88 yearly. There is also 
a school of industry. 

The royal burgh of Ayr, the county-town of Ayr- 
shire, and the seat of a circuit-court, is of great 
antiquity. It is 75 miles south-west of Edinburgh, 
34 distant from Glasgow, 12 from Kilmarnock, 11 
from Irvine, and 9 from Maybole. It is situated at 
the western end of a fertile and beautiful valley, ■ 
on the southern bank of the Ayr, at its influx into 
the frith of Clyde. The principal or High street 
is broad and spacious, with a row of houses on 
each side presenting a motley groupe of elegant 
structures and mean buildings, in most uncouth 
and amorphous combination, with fronts, gables, 
and corners projecting to the street as chance or 
caprice may have directed; and having, till within 
these few years, the huge mass of the tolbooth and 
town-hall in the centre, with a spire 135 feet high. 
At the end of this street is ' the Auld brig o' Ayr,' 
consisting of four lofty and strongly framed arches, 
said to have been built in the reign of Alexander 
III., and connecting the town with Newton-on-Ayr ; 
and 150 yards below is ' the New brig,' a fine struc- 
ture of five arches, built in 1787-8, from a design by 
Robert Adam. At the junction of the High street and 
Sandgate are the assembly-rooms, with a spire 226 
feet high. The court and record rooms, and county- 
hall, are in Wellington square, near the south end of 

* The ' Rectoria de Ayr' was taxed £26 13s. 4d., the tewtfe. 
of ite estimated value, uj the reign oi James V, 



Sandgate. They were designed by Mr. Wallace, 
and erected at an expense of .£30,000. The streets 
are lighted with gas, and well-paved. Ayr was 
erected into a royal burgh by William the Lion, 
about the year 1202; and the extensive privileges 
granted by that charter are still enjoyed by the 
town. This charter contains a reference to the 
granter's " New castle upon Are" which was built 
about five years before, and probably stood at the east- 
ern corner of Cromwell's fort. Here the heroic exploits 
of Sir William Wallace began ; and here Edward 
I. fixed one of his most powerful garrisons. Oliver 
Cromwell, too, judging it a proper place to build 
a fortress, took possession of the old church of St. 
John the Baptist, and converted it and the neigh- 
bouring ground, to the extent of 10 or 12 acres, 
into a regular citadel. On one of the mounts, with- 
in the walls of this fortress, stood the old castle of 
Ayr, and the old church — the tower of which still 
remains — noted for the meeting of the Scottish 
parliament on the 26th of April, 1315, when the 
succession to the Crown was settled on Edward 
Bruce, Earl of Carrick, the king's gallant brother. 
In 1830 upwards of £700 were expended in rebuilding 
Wallace's tower, in the High street ; the foundation, 
however, having given way it was rebuilt, in 1832, at 
afurther expense of .£1,500. The new tower is a 
Gothic building 113 feet high, ornamented with a 
statue of Sir William Wallace by Thom. In an- 
cient times we find Ayr to have been a place of 
considerable trade. Buchanan characterises it as 
" emporium non ignobile.' And Defoe remarks of 
it : " It is now like an old beauty, and shows the 
ruins of a good face, but is still decaying every 
day ; and from having been the fifth best town in 
Scotland, as the townsmen say, it is now the fifth 
worst; which is owing to the decay of its trade. So 
true it is that commerce is the life of cities, of na- 
tions, and even of kingdoms. What was the reason 
of the decay of trade in this place is not easy to de- 
termine, the people themselves being either unwilling 
or unable to tell." [' Tour through Great Britain,' 
edn. 1745, p. 114.] The merchants used to import a 
great quantity of wine from France, and export corn, 
salmon, and other produce of the country. The rising- 
trade of Glasgow proved very injurious to the trade 
of this town; but of late it has somewhat revived. 
The opening of the railway from Ayr to Irvine, and 
thence to Kilwinning, has already added considerably 
to the trade of the town ; and now that the entire line 
to Glasgow is opened, a large increase of traffic must 
necessarily follow from the increased intercourse 
with the towns of Dairy, Kilbirnie, Beith, Steven- 
ston, Saltcoats, and Ardrossan. During the first 
twelve months after the opening of the line to Irvine, 
the number of passengers who travelled between the 
two towns was 137,1 17- A branch line to Kilmarnock 
and an ultimate connexion with Carlisle by Dumfries, 
is contemplated. With Glasgow, Ayr has repeated 
intercourse daily by steam-boats plying in the frith. 
The sea-shore is flat and shallow, and the entrance 
of the river Ayr, which forms the harbour, is subject 
to the inconvenience of a bar of sand, which is often 
thrown quite across the river, especially by a strong 
north-west wind. The water, even at spring-tides, 
never rises above 14 feet. The piers extend about 
1,100 feet each; and there are two light-houses in 
taking the harbour. The position of Ayr north pier 
light, as determined by Mr. Galbraith in 1827, is N. 
lat. 55° 28' 53" ; W. long. 4° 36' 21".* There are 

» In Norie's Navigation, [edition of 1935,] thin point of the 
Ayrshire coast is stated to he in N. lat. 55° 28' 30"; and \V. 
long. 4° 37' 0". In Maekay's Navigation, [edition of 1801,] N. 
lat. 55»25'u"; W. long. 4„20'0". And in the tables of the Hy- 
Olographic office, Admiralty, N. lat. 55" 27' ; W. long. ■!» 33'. 

three lights, bearing S. E. by E. | E. 850 feet. Two 
of the lights are bright, and one red. The red anil 
one bright light are in the same building, and show 
all night. In 1792 an act was passed for deepening 
and maintaining this harbour, and enlarging and im- 
proving the quays. Another act was passed in 1817, 
with the same objects. The annual receipts of the 
harbour vary from ,£1,200 to £800. The harbour- 
master has a salary of .£107 10s. The principal trade 
now carried on at this port is the exportation of 
coal to Ireland, to the amount of about 50,400 
tons annually. The other exports are pig-iron from 
Muirkirk and Glenbuck, coal-tar, brown paint, 
lamp black, coal-oil, and Water-of-Ayr stone. About 
60 vessels, amounting to 5 or 6,000 tons, and em- 
ploying 500 seamen, belonged to this port in 1812. 
The shipping of Ayr has, however, fallen oif since 
that period, and at present consists of 20 vessels. 
The imports are hides and tallow from South 
America ; beef, butter, barley, yarn, and linen from 
Ireland ; spars and deals from our American colo- 
nies ; hemp and iron from the Baltic ; and general 
cargoes from Glasgow, Greenock, Liverpool, the 
Isle of Man, &c. Shipbuilding is carried on to a con- 
siderable extent; and there is a woollen mill em- 
ploying, in 1838, 55 hands. Between 200 and 300 
families are employed in flowering muslin. Besides the 
salmon-fisheries in the Ayr and the Doon, the sand- 
banks off the coast abound with all kinds of white 
fish, and afford employment to 8 or 9 boats of four 
men each. There is an extensive manufacture of 
leather here, and another of shoes. There are branch- 
es of the Bank of Scotland, Royal Bank, Glasgow 
Union Bank, and Sir William Forbes' Bank here. 
The bank of Hunters and Co., has been long-esta- 
blished, and has six branches throughout the county. 
The Ayrshire banking company, formed in 1831, has 
also six branches. Ayr possesses a good academy, of 
which notice has been taken in the preceding article. 
It was incorporated by royal charter in 1797. All 
the branches of education necessary for a commercial 
life are here taught by able masters; besides the 
Latin, Greek, and modern languages, experimental 
philosophy, chemistry, astronomy, &c. A library 
and museum have recently been formed in connection 
with this institution. The building is plain but chaste, 
and occupies a fine airy situation near the citadel. A 
Mechanics' institution was formed in 1825. Two 
newspapers are published in the town. Ayr is reck- 
oned a gay and fashionable place. It has a theatre, 
and well-attended races, and is sometimes the seat of 
the Caledonian hunt. The race-course consists of 
an enclosure of about 90 acres, about a mile to the 
south of the town. The races are generally held on 
the first week of September. It has markets on 
Tuesday and Friday ; and four annual fairs ; viz. 
on 1st Tuesday of January, O. S., last Tuesday of 
June, O. S., 29th of September, and 3d Tuesday 
of October. It was governed until the late muni- 
cipal act by a provost, 2 bailies, a dean-of-guild, a 
treasurer, and 12 councillors. The jurisdiction of 
the magistrates extended over the conjoined parishes 
of Ayr and Alloway. The water of Ayr forms the 
eastern boundary of the royalty, and separates it 
from the populous communities of Newton-upon- Ayr, 
Wallacetown, and Content, which are, however, 
united with Ayr under the Reform act. The juris- 
diction of the magistrates of Ayr is at present entirely 
confined to their own side of the river, Newton-on- 
Ayr having its own magistracy. The revenue of the 
burgh, from 1832 to 1833, was £2,057 6s. lid. Or- 
dinary expenditure £1,870 12s. 7d. Nett amount of 
debt, in October 1833, £18,823 9s. lid., all of which 
had been contracted since 1792. The only taxation 
is fur cess and poor's money. The amount of the 



duties levied, in 1833, was £991 6s. 3d. About 
£600 is mortified to the poor of the parish. The 
magistrates, in conjunction with the Kirk-session, 
are patrons of the 2d charge. There are nine in- 
corporated trades in Ayr, who all possess funds vary- 
ing respectively from £50 to .£1,500. Ayr unites 
with Irvine, Oban, Inverary, and Campbeltown, in 
sending a member to parliament. The population 
exceeds 6,500, and has increased upwards of a third 
during this century. See articles Alloway, New- 
ton-upon-Ayr, and St. Quivox. 

AYR (Newton-on). See Newton-oh-Ayr. 

AYRSHIRE, a large and important county on 
the south-west coast of Scotland, which derives its 
name from the town just described. It is bounded 
by Renfrewshire on the north and north-east; by the 
counties of Lanark and Dumfries on the east; by the 
stewartry of Kirkcudbright on the south-east; by 
Wigtonshire on the south ; and by Loch Ryan, the 
North channel, and the frith of Clyde on the west. 
The length of Ayrshire, from Galloway burn upon 
the north side of Loch Ryan, to Kelly burn which 
divides it from Renfrewshire, is, by the public road, 
90, and in a direct line 60 miles, the difference 
being occasioned by the curvature of the coast ; its 
breadth from east to west is in some places 30 miles. 
Its average length does not, however, extend to above 
B0 miles, while in average breadth it may be about 
20. It contains, according to Mr. Aiton, whose 
admeasurements we are now following, 1,600 square 
miles ; but, according to Sir John Sinclair's calcula- 
tions founded on Arrowsmith's map, only 1,045 square 
miles; we are inclined to think Mr. Aiton's admea- 
surement over-estimated, while Sir John's is probably 
greatly under-estimated. " Ayrshire is in nearly the 
form of a half-moon, concave towards the sea, and 
convex on the land side. A considerable part of 
Carrick, and some parts of Kyle and Cunningham 
towards the inland verges, are hilly ; and that part 
of Ayrshire which borders with the counties of Dum- 
fries and Galloway justly merits the name of moun- 
tainous. A chain or group of mountains commences 
at Saint Abb's head on the verges of the shires of 
Berwick and East Lothian ; runs westward the 
whole breadth of the island, on the boundaries of 
the Lothians and the county of Roxburgh, and be- 
tween those of Lanark and Ayr on the north, and 
Dumfries and Galloway on the south ; and termi- 
nates at the rock of Ailsa. Richard, who wrote in 
the 12th century, and is the earliest Scots writer 
certainly known, denominates this range of moun- 
tains the Uxelluvi JMontes. Some of the highest of 
the mountains in this chain are situated in the neigh- 
bouring counties; but a considerable range of the 
south and eastern parts of Carrick is mountainous, 
and forms a part of that group of mountains, abound- 
ing with lochs, and very barren. A large range of 
Ayrshire, from the foot of the water of Doon, to the 
north of Ardrossan harbour, is a plain open country, 
neither level nor hilly, but rising from the shore in a 
gradual easy acclivity, till it terminates in mountains 
on the south-east, and moorish hills on the eastern 
boundaries. No part of it can be termed level; for 
the surface abounds with numerous swells or round- 
ish hills which facilitate the escape of moisture, 
promote ventilation, and diversify and ornament 
the face of the country. The prospects from some 
of these eminences are uncommonly rich and varie- 
gated. On ascending any of the little heights, in 
almost any part of the county, you have a delightful 
view of the frith of Clyde, the beautiful