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I- CO 

I-COLM-KILL. See Iona. 

ILANMORE, an islet of the Hebrides, about a 
mile in circuit, and lying half-a-mile north of Coll. 

ILANROAN, and ILANTERACH, two of the 
Hebrides, lying on the south and east of Oransay. 

ILAY. See Islat. 

ILLERAY, one of the Hebrides, about 4 miles 
long, and li broad, lying to the westward of North 
Uist, and insulated only at high water. The soil is 
partly sandy and partly black loam, yielding toler- 
able crops of barley, and pasture for cattle. 

ILK, a word of frequent occurrence in the sur- 
names of Scottish families. The following explana- 
tion of the word is given by the old Earl of Cromarty, 
in his ' Account of Cowrie's Conspiracy.' " The 
word Ilk, in our Scots language, denotes that either 
the person has given his name to the land, or has 
taken his name from the land : and this practice was 
one of King Malcolm Canmore's wise inventions; 
who, finding that oneness in name was a cause of the 
clubs and cabals called clans, in place of these old 
patronymics, the king did encourage all on whom 
he conferred any title of honour, as of earl, lord, or 
baron, to take their denominations from the lands 
erected into the lordship, or barony, so to divide, 
and break the clans, by loosing the ligament of these 
patronymic names ; and so, Divide et impera was 
his project." Whatever, for political reasons as stat- 
ed by his lordship, may have been the wise encour- 
agement given by Malcolm Canmore to landed pro- 
prietors, to induce them to take their surnames from 
their estates, the doing so seems, however, originally 
to have arisen naturally, and of itself, from the ne- 
cessity of distinguishing one person from another. 

IMERSAY, an islet on the south-west coast of 

INCH, an adjunct of frequent occurrence in Scot- 
tish topography.' It signifies 'an island,' and is de- 
rived from the British Ynys, or the Gaelic Inis. It 
is said that the word occurs, with the same signifi- 
cation, in some of the aboriginal languages of North 
America. In Scotland, but more frequently in Ire- 
land, the word is also used to denote level ground 
near a river. 

INCH, a parish in Inverness-shire, united to that 
of Kingussie : which see. 

INCH, a parish in the western division of Wig- 
tonshire ; bounded on the north by Ayrshire ; on the 
east by New Luce and Old Luce ; on the south by 
Old Luce and Stoneykirk; on the south-west by 
Portpatrick ; and on the west by Leswalt, Stranraer, 
and Lochryan. It approximates to the oblong form, 


but has marked irregularities of outline ; and mea- 
sures in extreme length, from north to south, 10A 
miles; in extreme breadth 7| ; and in average breadth 
4J or 4£. The southern division — comprising more 
than one-third of the whole area — has a surface so 
gently undulating, that, when viewed from the neigh- 
bouring hills, it appears to be entirely level. All of 
it forms part — and that the larger one — of an isthmus 
between Lochryan and Luce bay, and is believed to 
have been anciently covered by the sea; and it is 
bored at intervals into curious hollows, called by the 
peasantry " pots," which vary in measurement from 
1,000 feet in circumference and 100 feet in depth, to 
comparatively small dimensions, and are supposed to 
have been scooped out by an eddying motion of the 
retiring billows. North-eastward and northward 
of the plain, the parish rises into ranges of beautiful 
hills. The southern face of these is partly arable 
land and partly green pasture ; their tops, and inte- 
terior sides inland and toward the north, are rugged, 
heathy, and incapable of culture ; and a declivity, 
which they make toward the whole of the eastern 
boundary, again becomes partly verdant and partly 
subject to the plough. The soil, on the west side 
of the plain, is a good loam ; in the rest of the plain, 
and other arable parts, is light and sandy ; and, on 
the hills, is to a great extent mossy. The cultivated 
acres of the parish as compared with the uncultivated, 
are nearly in the proportion of two to three. About 
700 acres are under wood. Toward the end of the 
last century the face of the country underwent an 
entire and renovating change, under the enterprising 
and skilful agricultural improvements and incentives 
of the Earl of Stair. Main water comes down from 
Carrick on the north, traces the eastern boundary for 
5 miles, is joined by Luce water from the east at 
Waterfoot, or opposite New Luce, and thence de- 
putes to the new stream, with the aid of its own tri- 
bute, to trace the eastern boundary-line, over a far- 
ther distance of li mile. The stream is rapid in its 
course, and trots along a rocky path, but yields an 
abundant supply of salmon. The Piltanton comes 
down from the north-west, within the Rinns of Gallo- 
way, and, in a placid, and even sluggish course — during 
part of which it abounds in tiny sinuosities — traces 
the south-western and southern boundary, over a dis- 
tance of 7 miles. No fewer than twelve lakes spread 
out their little expanses of water in the parish, — most 
of them in its level, or southern division. They abound 
in pike, perch, carp, tench, roach, and white and red 
trout ; are frequented by wild ducks, teals, widgeons, 
coots, and cormorants ; and during the winter-months, 


especially if the temperature be below the average, 
Decome the resort of immigrant swans from Ireland. 
Those of Soulseat and Castle-Kennedy are beautiful 
sheets of water, and possess, in a marked degree, the 
gentler features of fine lake scenery. The loch of 
Soulseat, | of a mile long, and a of a mile broad, was 
formerly called the Green loch, and, during part of 
the year, is sheeted over with a green granular sort 
of substance, which gives an appearance of watery 
verdure. " On a calm summer morning," says the 
writer in the New Statistical Account, " the banks 
of the loch of Soulseat present an appearance not a 
little curious. What seem to be pillars of cloud, ap- 
pear here and there, rising to a height of 50 feet or 
more. A stranger, viewing them at a distance, might 
suppose them to consist of vapours of smoke ; but 
on a nearer approach, they are found to consist of 
living creatures, engaged in ceaseless action, perform- 
ing the most graceful evolutions ; and, on listening, 
will be heard the rush of their little wings, and the 
piping of their tiny voices. These flies have, I be- 
lieve, their nativity in the water, from which they 
emerge to an ephemeral existence in the region of air. 
One species of them go through a very singular pro- 
cess — throwing off the skin. They fix themselves 
to a tree or bush, or any resting-place, and literally 
crawl out of their skin ; and, having left behind them 
their exuvice, hie themselves off with freshened agi- 
lity to their aerial dance. On remaining for a short 
time by the water-edge, I have found myself covered 
with the filmy skins of these gay ephemera?." The 
loch is of the form of the arc of a circle, and has its 
concavity or peninsula covered with wood ; and ap- 
pears to have anciently had a deep fosse or trench 
stretching like a chord between its projecting points. 
In its vicinity stood an ancient abbey : See Soul- 
seat Abbey. Castle-Kennedy loch is cut so very 
deeply by injecting peninsulae, and is so slenderly 
continuous by a connecting thread of waters, as some- 
times to be reckoned rather two lakes than one. The 
parts run parallel to each other, the one a mile, and 
the other li mile in length, from north-west to 
south-east, and are each about i a mile in breadth. 
A peninsula J of a mile long, and j of a mile broad, 
runs down between them on the north-west; an- 
other peninsula, of a half-moon form, about j of a 
mile in radius, and J of a mile in length of chord, 
sends up its convexity on the south-east ; and be- 
tween the peninsulse stretches the water-line, which, 
in a sense, makes the two lakes one. In each sec- 
tion of the lake is an islet ; resting on the bosom of 
the waters, or skimming their surface, or playing 
" in the lift" above them, are herons, sea-mews, and 
numerous species of water-fowl ; on their banks are 
two rookeries ; and, above all, in the long north- 
western peninsula, are the romantic edifice and de- 
mesne of Castle- Kennedy, the property of the Earl 
of Stair. Castle- Kennedy, in its original form, was 
a spacious, stately, square edifice, built probably in 
the reign of James VI. It belonged at first to the 
Earls of Cassilis, who had extensive possessions in 
Wigtonshire ; but, in the reign of Charles II., it 
passed, with its adjacent property, into the hands of 
Sir John Dalrymple, younger of Stair. The castle 
was burnt by accident in 1715, and, down to 1839, 
continued, with walls 79 feet in height, to be unin- 
habitable and ruinous. The grounds and plantations 
around it were planned by Marshal Stair ; and, if 
destitute of the graces which adorn more modish de- 
mesnes, possess attractions nearly peculiar to them- 
selves — Along Lochryan, the parish has a coast-line 
of about 8 miles. This includes most of the south- 
ern part, or head of the loch, and the whole of its 
west side, till within 2^ miles of its opening into the 
sea : See Lochryan. In the northern part, the 

shore is bold and rocky, and is perforated with seve- 
ral caves, which run 80 or 100 yards under ground ; 
but elsewhere it is flat, and covered with sand or 
gravel. The loch has an extensive fishery of sal- 
mon, haddock, whiting, cod, flounders, herring, and 
excellent oysters. A slate quarry is wrought on the 
estate of Lochryan, the property of Sir Alexander 
Wallace. Repeated but vain attempts have been 
made to find coal. Granite occurs in detached blocks. 
Sepulchral cairns are very numerous in the uplands 
of the parish ; on the average, about 60 feet in dia- 
meter, and 7 feet in height ; having a considerable 
cavity in the interior, in which — as has been proved 
by the exploration of several — are deposited urns en- 
closing ashes and burnt bones ; and consisting of 
stones which, in the case of many, must have been 
fetched from a distance of several miles. On a moor- 
land farm, called Cairnarran, are 9 of these cairns 
within the range of a Scottish mile. Burrows or 
tumuli occur in the lowlands, of exactly similar cha- 
racter to the cairns, except that they are formed of 
earth instead of stones ; and they have the same in- 
terior cavity and sepulchral contents, and are sup- 
posed, in common with the cairns, to be monuments 
of the British tribes who inhabited Galloway during 
the early centuries of the Christian era. On the 
farm of Innermessan, on Lochryan, 2i miles north- 
west of Stranraer, stood the ancient Rerigonium, a 
town of the Novantes, and in more modern times, the 
town and castle of Innermessan. Symson, in his 
' Description of Galloway,' says " Innermessan was 
the greatest town thereabouts till Stranraer was 
built." Only faint vestiges of it, however, now re- 
main, — such as cannot be detected except with the 
aid of a cicerone. In its vicinity rises a beautiful 
moat, 336 feet in circumference at the base, 60 feet 
in perpendicular elevation, 78 feet in sloping ascent, 
with a fosse encincturing its base, and an esplanade 
shaving off its summit, and commanding a fine view 
of the expanse and shores of Lochryan. " On the 
24th November, 1834," says the Rev. James Fergus- 
son, the minister of the parish, in his report in the 
New Statistical Account, " I caused a hole 3 feet 
deep to be dug in the centre of the plain on the top. 
After passing through a fine rich mould, we came to 
a stratum consisting of ashes, charred wood, and 
fragments of bone. In the days of the ancient No- 
vantes, this was probably the public cemetery of 
the adjacent town, Rerigonium." On the farm of 
Larg, near Main water, are remains of an old cas- 
tle, once the property and seat of the Lyns of Larg. 
The Castle of Craigcaffei, formerly the seat of the 
extinct family of the Nelsons of Craigcaffei, is still 
entire, and has been transmuted into a farm-house. 
The only village is Cairn, or Cairnryan : which see. 
The monthly Stranraer cattle-market, held from 
April to October, has for its arena a spot within the 
western limits of Inch. The parish is traversed along 
the whole of its western border by the mail-road be- 
tween Glasgow and Portpatrick, and across its south- 
ern division, by the mail-road between Dumfries and 
Stranraer ; and, in its lowlands, it has abundant ra- 
mifications of subordinate roads, but, in its uplands, 
offers hardly an ingress to a wheeled vehicle. Sir 
John Ross, the celebrated arctic navigator, is a native 
of the parish, and adopts it, at his residence of North 
West Castle, as the home of his advanced years. 
Population, in 1801, 1,577 ; in 1831, 2,521. Houses 
481. Assessed property, in 1815, £1 1,275.— Inch is 
in the presbytery of Stranraer, and synod of Gallo- 
way. Patron, the Crown. Stipend £263 15s. 7d. ; 
glebe £15 15s. The parish-church was built about 74 
or 84 years ago, and has never been much altered. 
Sittings 400. A preaching-station connected with 
the Establishment was commenced in 1836 at Cairn- 



ryan. According to an ecclesiastical survey in 1836, 
the population then consisted of 96.5 Churchmen, 
302 members of the United Secession, 139 Roman 
Catholics, 132 Cameronians, 87 members of the Re- 
lief, 29 Episcopalians, and 30 persons not known to 
belong to any religious body, — in all, 2,684. The 
dissenters are all, except the Episcopalians, connected 
with congregations in Stranraer. The present parish 
comprehends most of the ancient parish of Inch, and 
all the ancient parish of Soulseat. On the island or 
" inch" in Castle-Kennedy loch, opposite the present 
parish-church, is supposed to have stood the earliest 
place of worship in the district; and from this cir- 
cumstance the parish seems to have derived its name. 
Before the Reformation, the church of Inch belonged 
to the bishops of Galloway, and was served by a cu- 
rate ; by the annexation act of 1587, it was vested in 
the king; in 1588, it was granted for life to Mr. 
William Melville, the commendator of Tongueland ; 
in 1613, it was returned to the bishop of Galloway; 
in 1641, it was transferred to the University of Glas- 
gow; in 1661, it was again restored to the bishop 
of Galloway ; and in 1689, it finally reverted to the 
Crown. In the old parish of Inch there were two 
chapels. St. John's chapel stood at the head of 
Lochryan and the east end of Stranraer ; and, though 
in ruins in 1684, when Symson wrote his ' Large 
Description of Galloway,' it was commemorated in 
the names of various objects in its vicinity. A mo- 
dern castle, or large building near its site, was called 
"the castle of the chapel;" apiece of land which had 
belonged to the chapel, was called St. John's croft ; 
the part of Stranraer lying east of the rivulet which 
intersects the town, was popularly called the chapel; 
and a copious spring of water, which rises within 
flood-mark, is still called St. John's well. All these 
objects were detached from Inch, and included in the 
modern parish and burgh of Stranraer. A second 
chapel, dedicated to St. Patrick, and giving name to 
the modern town of Portpatrick, stood on the west 
coast on the site of that town, and served the south- 
west division of the old parish, which was popularly 
called the Black quarter of Inch. This district was 
detached in 1628, and erected into the separate par- 
ish of Portpatrick. "What the old parish lost by this 
disseverment, was afterwards compensated by the 
annexation to it of the parish of Soulseat. The 
church of Soulseat belonged, before the Reformation, 
to the monks of its abbey. When vested, by the act 
of annexation, in the Crown, a portion of the revenues 
was settled as a stipend on its minister ; and in 1631, 
the remainder was granted by Charles I. to the min- 
ister of Portpatrick. The manse and glebe of the 
modern parish of Inch are in Soulseat, \^ mile distant 
from the present church. 

INCH. See Insch. 

INCH-ABER, a small island of Loch-Lomond, J 
of a mile south-west of the mouth of the river End- 

INCHAFFREY, an ancient abbey on the banks 
of Pow, or Powaffray water, in the parish of Mad- 
derty, Perthshire. The name is said to mean ' the 
Island of masses' — the island where masses were said ; 
and certainly is written in Latin, Insula missarum. 
Its site is a small rising ground, which seems to have 
been insulated by the Pow. The abbey was founded 
in 1200, by Gilbert, Earl of Strathearn, and his Coun- 
tess Matilda, and dedicated to God, the Virgin Mary, 
and John the Apostle ; and it was endowed with 
many privileges and immunities by David and Alex- 
ander, kings of Scotland. The ruins have been nearly 
all carried away, as materials for modern houses and 
roads in the vicinity. A small adjacent territory, 
formerly attached to the abbey, belongs to the Earl 
of Kinnoul, and constitutes him patron of about 12 

parishes, over which the abbots anciently had right. 
Mauritius, one of the abbots, attended Robert Bruce 
at the battle of Bannockburn, and carried with him, 
in the infatuatedly superstitious spirit of the times, 
an arm of St. Fillan. The abbey furnished the first 
of two titles of nobility, which were conferred on its 
commendator. James Drummond, a younger son of 
David, Lord Drummond, was first styled Lord Inch- 
affrey, and afterwards, in 1607, was created Lord 
Madderty. He married Jean, daughter of Sir James 
Chisholme of Cromlicks, and with her got the lands 
of Innerpeffray, she being heiress, through her mo- 
ther, of Sir John Drummond, the owner of that pro- 
perty. From the first lady Madderty sprang two 
sons, John, Lord Madderty, and Sir James, the first 
Laird of Maehony. Innerpeffray lies on the banks 
of the Earn, in the parish of Trinity-Gask, 4 miles 
south-west of the ancient abbey of Inchaffrey. 

INCHARD (Loch), an arm of the sea on the west 
coast of Sutherlandshire, projected into the northern 
part of the parish of Edderachylis. Macculloch says 
that this loch is not absolutely wanting in picturesque 
beauty, but that the head of it is very desolate and 

INCH-BRAYOCK, or Rossie Island, a low flat 
islet of about 34 acres superficial area, in the strait 
or channel of the South Esk, between Montrose 
basin and the German ocean. It belongs to the par- 
ish of Craig, but was included by the boundary-bill 
within the burgh of Montrose, and is rapidly becom- 
ing the site of a suburban appendage to that town. 
At its east end is a dry-dock The currents which 
pass along its sides, owing to the narrowness of their 
channels compared with the expanse of Montrose 
basin, which is filled and emptied at every tide, are 
very rapid, and almost impetuous. Till the latter 
part of the last century, the great North road along 
the east coast of Scotland was continued across the 
South Esk only by the incommodious expedient of a 
ferry below Inch-brayock, at Ferryden ; but now, by 
means of connecting bridges, it is carried across the 
island, and cuts it into two nearly equal parts. The 
bridge on the south side — where the channel has 
greatly less breadth than that on the north side — is a 
work of solid and massive stone masonry. The ori- 
ginal bridge on the north side, was one of timber, — 
a great work of its kind, but constantly needing re- 
pair, and too fragile to resist fully the careering tide ; 
and about 1 1 years ago, it was substituted by a sus- 
pension-bridge, which, if it want the intrinsic magni- 
ficence, and the circumjacent splendour of scenery 
which distinguish the famous Welsh bridge across the 
Menai, is at least one of the most interesting public 
works in the lowlands of Britain. See Montrose. 
The population of the island, in 1835, was about 120. 
— Inch-brayock, comprehending some adjacent terri- 
tory, was anciently a separate parish, and in the year 
1618, was united with that of St. Skeoch or Dunni- 
nald, to form the parish of Craig. The ancient 
church and cemetery were on the island ; and the 
latter continues to be in use for the united parish. 
Inch-brayock, or Inis-Breic, means ' the Church or 
chapel island. ' 

INCH-CAILLIACH, 'the Island of old women,' 
an islet in Loch-Lomond, f of a mile north-west of the 
mouth of the river Endrick, and J- of a mile from the 
eastern shore of the lake, in the parish of Buchanan, 
Stirlingshire. The islet is 7 furlongs in length, from 
north-east to south-west, and nearly 3| furlongs in 
breadth near its north-east end, but contracts at first 
slowly, and afterwards rapidly, to a point at its oppo- 
site extremity. Amidst the green and the golden 
islands of a landscape unsurpassed in its beauties by 
the most fairy districts of Scotland, Inch-cailliach is 
one of the most beautiful. It is the propertv of the 



Duke of Montrose, exquisitely wooded, and turned 
to some account in husbandry. In ancient times it 
was the site of a nunnery, whose inmates are alluded 
to in its name ; and down to a more modern period, 
it gave name to the parish which now wears the 
usurped title of Buchanan, and was the site of the 
parish-church and cemetery. 

INCH-CLAIR, or Glair-Inch, an islet in Loch- 
Lomond, i a mile from the eastern bank, in the parish 
of Buchanan, Stirlingshire. It is i of a mile long 
from north-east to south-west, and runs parallel with 
Inch-Cailliach, about \ of a mile distant from it on 
its south-east side. The islet is finely wooded, and 
resembles in general appearance the larger and very 
beautiful islet in its vicinity. 

INCHCOLM, an island in the frith of Forth, 
forming part of the parish of Dalgetty. It lies about 
2 miles to the south of Aberdour ; 6 miles west of 
Inch-Keith ; and within about 4i miles of Queens- 
ferry. It is scarcely a mile in length, and is of a 
bleak appearance, though partly arable. " A consi- 
derable portion of this island is composed of green- 
stone, exhibiting either the earthy, syenitic, or com- 
mon appearance, and which, by the felspar being re- 
placed by steatite, frequently passes into an imper- 
fect serpentine. On the south side of the island, a 
variety of greenstone occurs containing numerous 
scales of pinchbeck-brown mica ; it is traversed by 
a number of contemporaneous veins of greenstone, 
which frequently passes into steatite ; this mineral 
occurs also in minute strings without exhibiting any 
such transition, and in them sometimes there may be 
observed threads of amianthus. On the south of the 
island, where a junction of the trap and the sand- 
stone is exposed, the latter dips to the north at 52° ; 
while the greenstone, as it approaches the sandstone, 
passes into a compact yellowish-white claystone, a 
vein of which occurs running parallel with the strata. 
With the exception of a body of sandstone, which is 
enveloped in the greenstone, the western half of the 
island is entirely composed of trap, having in some 
places a slightly columnar disposition." [Cunning- 
ham's ' Geology of the Lothians,' p. 76.] — Though 
destitute of beauty, this island is rich in historical 
and antiquarian associations, and exhibits the ruins of 
one of the most extensive monastic establishments in 
this part of Scotland. The ancient name of the 
island was iEmona, which in Celtic means 'the 
Island of Druids,' and from which it would appear 
that before the introduction of Christianity the Druids 
had had a place of worship here. After Christianity 
had been introduced, this island seems to have been 
taken possession of by some of the followers of St. 
Columba, who here erected a small chapel dedicated 
to that saint, and from which circumstance the pre- 
sent name of the island is derived. The origin of the 
religious house of which the ruins still remain, is thus 
related by Fordun : — " About the year 1123, Alex- 
ander I. having some business of state which obliged 
him to cross over at the Queen's ferry, was overtaken 
by a terrible tempest blowing from the south-west, 
which obliged the sailors to make for this island, 
which they reached with the greatest difficulty. 
Here they found a poor hermit, who lived a religious 
life according to the rules of St. Columba, and per- 
formed service in a small chapel, supporting himself 
by the milk of one cow and the shell-fish he could 
pick up on the shore ; nevertheless, on these small 
means he entertained the king and his retinue for 
three days, — the time which they were confined here 
by the wind. During the storm, and whilst at sea 
and in the greatest danger, the king made a vow, that 
if St. Columba would bring him safe to that island, 
he would there found a monastery to his honour 
which should be an asylum and relief to navigators ; 

he was, moreover, farther moved to this foundation, 
by having, from his childhood, entertained a parti- 
cular veneration and honour for that saint, derived 
from his parents, who were long married without 
issue, until, imploring the aid of St. Columba, their 
request was- most graciously granted." The monas- 
tery founded by Alexander in virtue of this vow was 
for canons-regular of St. Augustine, and being dedi- 
cated to St. Colm or Columba, was richly endowed 
by its royal patron. Allan de Mortimer, Lord of 
Aberdour', gave also to God and the monks of this 
abbey, the entire moiety of the lands of his town of 
Aberdour for a burying-place to himself and his pos- 
terity in the church of that monastery. Walter 
Bowmaker, abbot of this place, was one of the con- 
tinuators of John Fordun's ' Scoti-Chronicon.' He 
died in the year 1449. James Stewart of Beith, a 
cadet of Lord Ochiltree, was made commendator of 
Inehcolm, on the surrender of Henry, abbot of that 
monastery, in 1543. His second son, Henry Stewart, 
was, by the special favour of King James II., created 
a peer, by the title of Lord St. Colm, in the year 
1611. Fordun records several miracles done by St. 
Columba, as punishments to the English, who often 
pillaged this monastery. In the Duke of Somerset's 
expedition, 1547, this monastery was, after the battle 
of Pinkie, occupied as a post commanding the Forth. 
The circumstance is recorded by Paton, in the fol- 
lowing words : — " Tuesday, the 13th of September, 
in the afternoon, my Lord's Grace rowed up the 
Fryth, a vi or vii myles westward, as it runneth into 
the land, and took in his way an island thear called 
Sainct Coomes Ins, which standeth a iiii mile beyond 
Lieth, and a good way ner at the north shore than 
the south, yet not within a mile of the nerest. It is 
but half a myle about, and hath in it a pretty abbey, 
(but ye monks were gone,) fresh water enough, and 
also coonyes ; and is so naturally strong, as but one 
way it can be entered. The plot whearof my Lordes 
Grace considering, did quickly cast to have it kept, 
whearby all traffik of merchandise, all commodities 
els comying by the Fryth into their land, and utterly 
ye hole use of the Fryth itself, with all the havens 
uppon it shood quyte be taken from them. - Satur- 
day, 17th of September, Sir John Luttrell, Knight, 
having bene by my Lordes Grace, and the counsel!, 
elect abbot, by God's suffraunce, of the monastery of 
Sainct Coomes Ins, afore remembered, in the after- 
noon of this day departed towardes the island to be 
stalled in his see thear accordingly ; and had with 
him coovent of a C hakbutters and L pioneers, to 
kepe his house and land thear, and ii rowe barkes 
well furnished with amnicion, and lxx mariners, for 
them to kepe his waters, whereby it is thought he 
shall soon becum a prelate of great power. The per- 
fytness of his religion is not alwaies to tarry at home, 
but suintime to rowe out abrode a visitacion, and 
when he goithe, I have heard say he taketh alweyes 
his sumners in barke withhym, which are very open- 
mouthed, and never talk but they are harde a mile 
of, so that either for loove of his blessynges, or fear 
of his cursinges, he is like to be souveraigne over 
most part of his neighbours." Inehcolm was visited by 
Grose in 1789, and in his 'Antiquities of Scotland' 
are given several views of its ecclesiastical ruins. 
" Great part of the monastery," says he, " is still re- 
maining ; the cloisters, with rooms over them, enclos- 
ing a square area, are quite entire ; the pit of the 
prison is a most dismal hole, though lighted by a 
small window ; the refectory is up one pair of stairs ; 
in it, near the window, is a kind of separate closet, 
up a few steps, commanding a view of the monks 
when at table ; this is supposed to have been the 
abbot's seat; adjoining to the refectory is a room, 
from the size of its chimney, probably the kitchen. 



The octagonal chapter-house, with its 6tone roof, is 
also standing ; over it is a room of the same shape, 
in all likelihood the place where the charters were 
kept. Here are the remains of an inscription, in the 
black-letter, which began with stuitus. The inside 
of the whole building seems to have been plastered. 
Near the water there is a range of offices. Near the 
chapter-house are the remains of a very large semi- 
circular arch. In the adjoining grounds lies the old 
carved stone, said to be a Danish monument, en- 
graved by Sir Robert Sibbald, in whose book it is 
delineated as having a human head at each end. At 
present it is so defaced by time or weather, that no- 
thing like a head can be distinguished at either end : 
indeed, it requires the aid of a creative fancy to make 
out any of the sculpture ; something like a man with 
a spear is seen on the north side, and on the south 
the figure of a cross ; it has been removed from its 
original situation." The island, which is fertile in 
some places, and is in repute for its crops of onions, 
was made a station for a battery of ten guns, for the 
protection of this part of the frith, during the last war. 
In more recent times the place has been partly mo- 
dernized, as a residence for a party who farms the 
island from the Earl of Moray. Some years ago an 
attempt was made to plant it, but the trees failed. 

INCH-CONACHAN, or Colquhocn's Island, 
an islet in Loch-Loinond, a mile south-east of the vil- 
lage of Luss, one of a cluster of 3 islets of nearly 
equal size, in the parish of Luss, Dumbartonshire. 
It has Inch-Tavanach immediately on the south- 
west, Ineh-Moree immediately on the south, and 
Inch-Cruin, in Stirlingshire, not far distant on the 
east. The islet is nearly 6 furlongs long, and 3 fur- 
longs broad, and comprehends 94 Scottish acres un- 
der natural oakwood and some fir ; but is unin- 

INCH-CORMAC, an islet near Kiels, at the 
opening of Loch-Swin. There are the remains of 
a chapel upon it. 

INCH-CROIN, an islet in Loch-Lomond, A a mile 
north-east of Inch-Murrin, 3 furlongs south-west of 
Torrinch, and 1-J: mile from the bank of the south 
end of the lake, in the parish of Kilmaronock, Dum- 
bartonshire. It is nearly a square, with the angles 
rounded off, measures about 3 furlongs on each side, 
and is finely wooded. 

INCH-CRUIN, an islet in Loch-Lomond, J of a 
mile north-east of Inch-Mean, J of a mile north-west 
of Inch-Fad, and about mid-distance between the 
western and the eastern banks of the lake, in the 
parish of Buchanan, Stirlingshire. It is more than 
A a mile long, and 3 furlongs broad, has little wood, 
and was formerly the site of an establishment for the 
insane. Its name signifies ' the round island.' 

INCH-FAD, 'the long island,' an islet in Loch- 
Lomond, \ of a mile from the eastern bank of the 
lake, and A a mile north-west of Inch-Cailliach, in 
the parish of Buchanan, Stirlingshire. It is 7 fur- 
longs in length, and nearly 3 in breadth, and stretches 
from north-east to south-west. The islet is but par- 
tially wooded, but has a very fertile soil, and is in- 

INCH-FRIECHLAN, 'the shaggy island,' a 
rock in Loch-Lomond opposite the village of Luss, in 
Luss parish, Dumbartonshire. The name alludes to 
the fern by which the appearance of the little islet is 

INCH-GALBRAITH, an islet of only a few acres 
of area, in Loch-Lomond, 3furlongs from the western 
bank of the lake, and the same distance south of 
luch-Tavanach, in the parish of Luss, Dumbarton- 
shire. It is chiefly noticeable as having been the site 
of an ancient castle, once the residence of the family 
from which the islet derives its name. The ruins of 

the castle still exist amidst a few overshadowing 
trees, and are now the habitation of the osprey. 

INCH-G ARVIE, a rocky islet in the frith of Forth, 
about 5 furlongs in circumference, lying 1 A mile from 
the southern shore of the frith, and 1 mile from 
the northern shore, immediately south of the pas- 
sage at Queensferry. In the reign of James IV. a 
fort was erected upon it by Dundas of Dundas, which 
in later times, was used as a state prison. Ruins 
either of the original fort, or of a castle afterwards 
built on its site, still grace the summit of the islet. 
In 1779, after the alarm occasioned by the appear- 
ance of Paul Jones and his squadron in the frith, the 
fortifications were repaired, and provided with four 
iron 24 pounders, but they have since been dis- 

INCHINNAN,* a parish in Renfrewshire, bounded 
on the north by the Clyde ; on the east and south 
by the Cart and the Gryfe ; and on the west by the 
parish of Erskine, touching at one point on the 
south-west the parish of Houstoun. Its length is 
Sh miles, and its breadth varies from nearly 1 to 2 
miles. It contains 3,060 English acres, which may 
be arranged thus : — arable in cultivation, 2,600 ; 
woodlands, 300; natural pasture, 100; sites of 
houses, roads, and waters, 60. The yearly produce 
is estimated at £14,000. The soil is excellent, con- 
sisting chiefly of strong productive clay ; while on 
the banks of the rivers it is of a rich loamy quality. 
The land is in a high state of cultivation ; all the 
modern improvements with respect to rotation of 
crops, manures, and draining, having been adopted. 
With the exception of a small portion of moorland 
not yet reclaimed, the whole parish is enclosed. The 
surface is diversified by rising grounds, some of them 
arable to the summit, others beautifully wooded, and 
all commanding extensive views of the surrounding 
country. Few parishes afford so many delightful 
situations for small country-seats. In the Clyde, 
adjacent to the farm of Garnaland in this parish, is 
an island, containing about 50 acres, called Newshot 

corruptly Ushet — Isle. In the Cart, before its 

confluence with the Clyde, is a much smaller one, 
called Colin's Isle, which, according to tradition, 
originated in the stranding of a vessel. The former 
is set down in Blaeu's map, dated 1654; the latter 
is not. Limestone and coal abound in this parish. 
Freestone of superior quality is wrought at Park and 
Rashielee ; and at the latter place large quantities of 
whinstone have, since 1760, been procured, forming 
excellent materials for the construction of jetties and 
other improvements on the channel of the Clyde. 
The population is chiefly agricultural; and there are 
no manufactures, although the parish is situated in a 
great manufacturing district. -Of villages it can 
scarcely be said there are any, the largest collection 
of houses, consisting of 6, with the average number 
of two families in each. Towards the end of the 
18th century, there was a distillery at Portnaul, on 

the east side of the parish The lands of Inchinnan 

were granted by King Malcolm IV. to Walter the 
high steward, in 1158; and in the possession of a. 
branch of the Stewart family — that of Lennox — a 
portion of these lands remained till the beginning of 
the 18th century, when it was sold by the Duke of 
Lennox and Richmond to the Duke of Montrose. 
It now belongs to Mr. Campbell of Blythswood, 
whose ancestor purchased it from the Duke of Mon- 
trose in 1737. Mr. Campbell is the principal land- 

* Tlie parish of Inchinnan i3 of a peninsular form, beiog 
bounded by rivers on three sides, which obviously gave rise to 
the first syllable of the name, being the Celtic word for a pen- 
insula, as well as an island. The adjunct is probably the name 
of St. Inan, to whom the church is supposed to have been de- 
dicated. See the New Statistical Account, where an error of 
the author of Caledonia is pointed out, 




owner in the parish. The palace of Inehinnan was 
built by Matthew, Earl of Lennox, in 1506. It stood 
near to the site of the farm-steading of Garnaland, 
looking towards the Clyde. Crawford mentions that 
there were " some considerable remains " of it in 
1710; but before the end of the century it had alto- 
gether disappeared, and the very foundations had 
become arable land. The structure appears to have 
been palatial only in name : had it been of any great 
consequence, it is not likely that it would have fallen 
so early into decay. The materials were partly em- 
ployed in the building of a corn-mill at this place, in 
the gable of which, Semple, in 1782, observed one 
of the stones bearing an inscription. The mill hav- 
ing been lately pulled down, the stone was deposited 
within the tower of the church. The inscription is 
as follows : — 

D . D 


16 . 31 

The greater part of the estate of Northbar was ac- 
quired in 1741 by Lord Sempill, who built a house 
upon it on the bank of the Clyde. In 1798 it was 
sold to Mr. James Buchanan, from whom it was ac- 
quired by Lord Blantyre, about 14 years afterwards. 
Southbar, the property of Mr. Maxwell Alexander, 
was acquired by his uncle in 1 785. The mansion- 
house was, with the exception of one wing, acciden- 
tally destroyed by fire in August, 1836. The other 
estates are Park, Lord Blantyre ; Freeland, Mr. 
Killoch ; Rashielee, Mr. Maxwell of Dargevel : and 
House of Hill, Miss Balfour At the church of Ineh- 
innan the waters of the Gryfe and the White Cart 
unite. Here there was formerly a public ferry, 
which gave name to a property, still called Ferry- 
craft. In 1759 a bridge was built, a few yards be- 
low the point where the rivers join. It consisted 
of 9 large arches, with a communication from the 
middle of the bridge by an arch connecting it with 
the point of land between the rivers. It cost only 
£1,450. The foundations of this structure were so 
insecure, and the work so imperfect, that it gave 
way in consequence of a flood, in the spring of 1809. 
A new bridge was completed in 1812, at an expense 
of £17,000, on a different site. It is composed of 
two divisions, which cross the streams 30 or 40 
yards above their junction ; an end of each divi- 
sion resting on the intermediate peninsula. They 
do not run in a straight line into each other, but 
the road takes a bend in the middle, where they join, 
and forms nearly a right angle, each of them cross- 
ing its own water at a right angle also. Upon 
the whole, this structure is at once substantial and 
elegant, and has a fine effect amidst the surround- 
ing scenery, which is deservedly admired for its 
amenity and tranquil beauty. There is another 
bridge connected with the parish, that of Barns- 
ford, which crosses the Gryfe and Black Cart about 
half-a-mile below their junction. The old high- 
road from Glasgow to Greenock, by Renfrew, in- 
tersects the length of the parish ; and two good 
roads communicate with Paisley. Population of 
the parish, in 1831, 642. Houses 89. Assessed 
property, in 1815, £5,268. Inehinnan is in the 
presbytery of Paisley, and synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr. Patron, Campbell of Blythswood. Stipend 
16 chalders, one-half meal and the other half barley, 
with £8 6s. 8d. for communion elements, and a 
glebe of 7£ acres. Part of the incumbent's emolu- 
ments he, like his predecessors, derives as superior 
of a piece of land, consisting of 2£ acres, called 
Ladyacre, which in Popish times formed an en- 
dowment for an altar dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary, and situated in the parish-church. At the 

Reformation, this land was sold by the chaplain, 
for payment of a small feu-duty. The teind and 
duty annually arising from this source amount to 
£1 5s. 5d. In the charters granted by the ministers 
of Inehinnan in virtue of the superiority referred 
to, they have uniformly styled themselves " un- 
doubted chaplains of the altarage and altar, com- 
monly called Our Lady's Altar, of old founded and 
situated in the parish-church of Inehinnan, and as 
such undoubted superiors of the lands after-men- 
tioned." The present incumbent truly says, in the 
New Statistical Account, — " The attachment of a 
superiority to a living occurs nowhere else in Scot- 
land, in similar circumstances ; and the Popish title 
connected with it is a still more extraordinary ano- 
maly." — Schoolmaster's salary £34 4s. 4£d., with 
about £22 school fees, and £5 of other emolu- 
ments. There is another school with one teacher. 
— According to ancient historians, St. Conval, or 
Connal, taught Christianity at Inehinnan, where he 
died in 612. David I. gave the church of Ineh- 
innan, with all its pertinents, to the Knights Tem- 
plars, to whom it continued to belong till their sup, 
pression in 1312, when all their property in Scot- 
land was transferred to the Knights of St. John, 
who enjoyed the rectorial tithes and revenues, and 
had the cure served by a vicar of their own ap- 
pointment, till the Reformation. The former church 
of Inehinnan — which was pulled down in 1 828 — was 
a very ancient fabric, 50 feet in length, by only 
18 in breadth, with an antique scarcement to throw 
off the rain from the foundation. The walls were 
of great thickness. " In the churchyard all the old 
tomb-stones, of which many remain, have crosses of 
different forms sculptured upon them. The par- 
ishioners point out what tradition has taught them 
to call the Templars' graves. The stones covering 
them, now reduced to 4 in number, are not flat, but 
ridged ; and upon their sloping sides, figures of 
swords may be distinctly traced. If ever there 
were stone coffins under them, it is long since they 
have disappeared, and the graves themselves have 
been appropriated, from time immemorial, to the 
use of the parishioners."* The present church is 
Gothic, with a massive square tower, buttresses, &c, 
and is much admired. It occupies the situation of 
the former one, upon the Gryfe, near its junction 
with the White Cart. Both it and the bridge of 
Inehinnan were built of the freestone from Park 
quarry in this parish. 

INCH-KEITH, an island in the frith of Forth, 
about 3 miles south-east of Pettycur, 22 miles west- 
half-north from the isle of May, and 17 west-north- 
west from the Bass rock. It belongs to the parish 
of Kinghorn, and is rather more than half-a-mile in 
length, and about an eighth of a mile in breadth. 
Throughout, its surface is very irregular and rocky, 
but it is in many places productive of rich herb- 
age well-suited for pasturing horses and cattle. 
Near the middle of the island, but rather towards 
its northern end, it rises gradually to a height of 180 
feet above the level of the sea; and here a light- 
house has been erected. The island possesses abun- 
dant springs of the most excellent water, which is 
collected into a cistern near the harbour, from 
which the shipping in Leith roads are supplied. It 
is supposed to be the Caer Guidi of Bede, and, from 
the name, must have been fortified previous to his 
time. In Maitland's ' History of Edinburgh' there is 
an order from the Privy council to the magistrates 
of Edinburgh, dated September 1497, directing 
" that all manner of persons within the freedom of 
this burgh, who are infected of the contagious plague 

• New Statistical Account, p. 124, 



called the grangore. devoid, rid, and pass furth of 
this town, and compeer on the sands of Leith at ten 
hours hefore noon; and there shall have and find 
boats ready in the harbour, ordered them by the 
officers of this burgh, ready furnished with victuals, 
to have them to the Inch (Inch-Keith), and there 
, to remain till God provide for their health." It early 
belonged to the family of Keith, afterwards Earls 
Marischal, and from them received the name it now 
bears. How long it continued in possession of this 
family does not appear, as it afterwards belonged to 
the Crown, and was included in the grant of King- 
horn to Lord Glammis. With this family it re- 
mained till 1649, when, according to Lamont, it 
was bought, along with the mill of Kinghorn and 
some acres of land, by the well-known Scot of 
Scotstarvet, for 20,000 merks. It afterwards be- 
came the property of the family of Buccleugh, and 
formed part of their barony of Royston, in the parish 
of Cramond, in Mid- Lothian. In 1549, Inchkeith 
was fortified by the English, then in Scotland, under 
the Duke of Somerset. Having been dislodged by 
the French, then in possession of Leith, the works 
erected by the English were thrown down, and a 
more complete fortification was erected. Upon a 
portion of the fort, \vhich remained about the end of 
last century, were the initials M. R. and the date 
1556. In 1567, by an act of the Scottish parlia- 
ment, the fort was demolished to prevent its being 
of use to the English. — The lighthouse on this island 
was erected in 1803; and wasatfirsta stationary light, 
but in 1815, it was changed to a revolving light as at 
present. It is elevated 235 feet above the medium 
level of the sea. On the 1st of October, 1835, the 
reflecting light on this island was discontinued, and a 
dioptric light exhibited in its place. It consists of 
seven annular lenses, which circulate round a lamp 
of three concentric wicks, and produce bright flashes 
once in every minute ; and of five rows of curved 
mirrors, which, being fixed, served to prolong the 
duration of the flashes from the lenses. The ap- 
pearance of the new light does not, therefore, ma- 
terially differ from that of the former one, excepting 
that the flashes — which recur at the same periods — 
are considerably more brilliant and of shorter dura- 
tion. In clear weather, the light is not totally 
eclipsed between the flashes, at a distance of 4 or 5 
miles. The expense of this lighthouse, in 1839, was 
£467 14s. 5d. 
_ INCH-KENNETH, one of the Hebrides, in the 
district of Mull, and constituting part of the parish 
of Kilfinichen. It is at the entrance of Loch-na- 
Kell, off the western coast of Mull, and at the dis- 
tance of 12 miles south-west by west from Aros. 
This island, says Dr. Johnson, in his beautiful and 
emphatic description, is "about a mile long, and 
perhaps half-a-mile broad, remarkable for pleasant- 
ness and fertility. It is verdant and grassy, and fit 
both for pasture and tillage ; but it has no trees. 
Its only inhabitants were Sir Allan Maclean, and 
two young ladies, his daughters, with their servants. 
Romance does not often exhibit a scene that strikes 
the imagination more than this little desert in these 
depths of Western obscurity, occupied not by a gross 
herdsman, or amphibious fisherman, but by a gentle- 
man and two ladies, of high birth, polished manners, 
and elegant conversation, who, in a habitation raised 
not very far above the ground, but furnished with 
unexpected neatness and convenience, practised all 
the kindness of hospitality and refinement of cour- 
tesy. Inch-Kenneth was once a seminary of eccle- 
siastics, subordinate, I suppose, to I-Colm-Kill. Sir 
Allan had a mind to trace the foundation of the col- 
lege, but neither I nor Mr. Boswell — who bends a 
keener eye on vacancy — were able to perceive them. 

Our attention, however, was sufficiently engaged by 
a venerable chapel, which stands yet entire, except 
that the roof is gone. It is about 60 feet in length, 
and 30 in breadth : on one side of the altar is a bas- 
relief of the blessed Virgin, and by it lies a little bell ; 
which, though cracked and without a clapper, has 
remained there for ages, guarded only by the vener- 
ableness of the place. The ground round the chapel 
is covered with grave-stones of chiefs and ladies ; 
and still continues to be a place of sepulture. 
Inch-Kenneth is a proper prelude to I-Colm-Kill. It 
was not without some mournful emotion that we 
contemplated the ruins of religious structures, and 
the monuments of the dead. On the next day, we 
took a more distinct view of the place, and went 
with the boat to see oysters in the bed, out of which 
the boat-men forced up as many as were wanted. 
Even Inch-Kenneth has a subordinate island, named 
Sandiland — I suppose in contempt — where we land- 
ed, and found a rock, with a surface of perhaps four 
acres, of which one is naked stone, another spread 
with sand and shells, some of which I picked up for 
their glossy beauty, and two covered with a little 
earth and grass, on which Sir Allan has a few sheep. 
I doubt not but when there was a college at Inch- 
Kenneth, there was a hermitage upon Sandiland." 

INCH-LONAIG, an islet in Loch-Lomond, J of a 
mile from the village of Luss, and 5 furlongs from 
the eastern bank of the lake, in the parish of Luss, 
Dumbartonshire. It is about a mile long, stretching 
from north-east to south-west, and nearly J a mile 
broad; and contains an area of 145 Scottish acres. 
About one-half of its surface is covered with a natural 
forest of very old yew-trees. This islet has long 
been used as a deer-park by the Colquhouns of Luss, 
and has about 150 deer. Its only human inhabitants 
are the inmates and keepers of a boarding-establish- 
ment, or place of restraint and cure for persons who 
have been addicted to drinking. 

INCHMAHOME, the larger of two islets in 
Monteith-loch, parish of Port-of-Monteith. on the 
southern verge of Perthshire. This islet possesses 
such historical and antiquarian interest as to have 
been the subject of a quarto volume, by the Rev. 
Mr. Macgregor of Stirling. In itself it has an area 
of only about -5 acres, and is an object of simple 
beauty, — an emerald gem on the bosom of the smil- 
ing lake. But it was the site of an extensive and 
noted priory, the ruins of which still sufficiently in- 
dicate its ancient grandeur. One arch of very ele- 
gant Gothic architecture, a considerable extent of 
wall, and the dormitory and vaults, are embosomed 
in a grove of large and somewhat aged trees. The 
vaults have long been used as sepulchres by several 
ancient families ; and in the choir of the church are 
sculptured figures of the last Earl and Countess 
who bore the dormant title of Monteith. Imme- 
diately to the south-west lies the smaller islet of 
Tulla, the site of a ruined castle, anciently the prin- 
cipal residence of the Monteith family. Inchma- 
home united with Tulla to form the castle's insulated 
demesne ; and it still bears memorials, in an inter- 
mixture of aged fruit-trees with its little forest, of 
having been laid out in garden and orchard. Several 
of its forest-trees are chestnuts, planted before the 
Reformation, one of them having a girth near the 
ground of 18 feet. The priory belonged to the 
Canons Regular of the Augustinian order, and was 
founded by Edgar, king of Scotland. It had four 
dependent chapels, and was represented in 1562 to 
Government as having property of the annual value 
of £234, besides tithings in grain. Originally it was 
connected with the abbey of Cambus-Kenneth ; af- 
terwards, it was attached by James IV. to the royal 
chapel of Stirling; and eventually it was bestowed 




by James V. upon John, Lord Erskine, as commenda- 
tory abbot. In 1310 it was visited by King Robert 
Bruce, and was the scene of his exercising some 
royal prerogatives. In 1547, when the English in- 
vaded Scotland with the view of forcing a mar- 
riage-contract between Edward VI. and Mary, the 
infant queen, then 5 years of age, she was carried 
to the priory, and remained there, protected by 
her attendants, till she was sent off to France. The 
priory was visited likewise by James VI., and was 
occasionally honoured with the presence of many 
distinguished subjects. 

INCH-MARNOCH, an islet in the frith of Clyde, 
on the south-west of the isle of Bute, to which it 
is politically annexed. It is about a mile long ; and 
lies 2 miles west of St. Mnian's point. On the west 
side are vast strata of coral and shells. The ruins 
of a chapel dedicated to St. Marnoch are still to be 
seen upon it. This island belonged, in former times, 
to the monastery of Sadell in Kintyre ; it is now in 
the parish of Rothesay. 

INCH-M1CKERY, a rocky islet in the frith of 
Forth, 2 miles and a furlong from the southern 
shore, and 3J miles from the northern shore, lying 
a little south of Cramond island and Inchcolm, and 
at about mid-distance between them. It is only 
about 3 or 4 furlongs in circumference, and is chiefly 
remarkable for an extensive oyster-bed on its shore, 
and for the profusion of sea- weeds, lichens, and mosses 
on its beach and surface. 

INCH-MOAN, or Moss-Island, a low, flat, 
boggy islet in Loch-Lomond, f of a mile from the 
western bank of the lake, and immediately south 
of Inch-Tavanach and Inch-Conachan, in the parish 
of Luss, Dumbartonshire. It stretches from east 
to west ; is 6| furlongs in length, and 3 furlongs in 
breadth ; contains 99 Scottish acres, chiefly moss ; 
and supplies the villagers of Luss with turf-fuel. 

INCH-MURRIN, or Inch-Marrin, an islet in 
Loch-Lomond, the largest, and, with one exception, 
the most southerly of the beautiful earth-gems which 
are sprinkled in the bosom of that brilliant and joy- 
ous sheet of water ; lying J of a mile from the west- 
ern bank, the same distance from the southern bank, 
and upwards of 2^ miles from the efflux of the river 
Leven. It forms, with Inch-Croin, Torrinch, and 
Inch-Failliach, a belt of islets from south-west to 
north-east, on a straight line across the broadest part 
of the lake ; and lying direct in front of the naviga- 
tion from Balloch, is the first object on which the 
eye of a nautical tourist rests when commencing a 
trip upon the lake from the south. The islet is up- 
wards of li mile in length, and nearly J a mile in 
breadth. It is beautifully wooded, is used, as a deer 
park, and has a hunting-seat and offices on it belong- 
ing to the Duke of Montrose. At its south-west end, 
in a grove of venerable oaks, are the ruins of an an- 
cient castle, once the residence of the Earls, and after- 
wards of the Dukes of Lennox. The islet, as regards 
position, belongs decidedly to Dumbartonshire, and 
might be competed for with nearly equal claims by 
the parishes of Luss, Bonhill, and Kilmaronock ; but 
it seems, singularly enough, not to be included in any 
division either county or parochial. 

INCH-NA-DAMPH. See Assynt. 

INCH-TAVANACH, or Monk's Island, an islet 
in Loch-Lomond, stretching north and south at about 
i of a mile's distance from the western bank of the 
lake, and \ of a mile south-east of the village of 
Luss, in Luss parish, Dumbartonshire. It measures 
nearly a mile in length, 3 furlongs in breadth, and 
135 Scottish acres of superficial area. Its sides are 
steep ; its surface is higher than that of any other islet 
in the lake ; and 127 of its acres are covered with 
natural oakwood. One family resides on it. 

INCH-TORR, or Torr-Inch, an islet, \ a mile 
long, and beautifully covered with oaks and lofty 
beech-trees, in Loch- Lomond ; lying between Inch- 
Cail'liach and Inch-Croin, and forming with these islets 
and Inch-Murrin, a belt across the broadest part of 
the lake. It is situated upwards of a mile respectively 
from the southern and from the eastern bank, and 
within the parish of Buchanan, Stirlingshire. 

INCHTURE,* a parish in the Carse of Gowrie, 
Perthshire; bounded on the north-west by Aber- 
nyte; on the north-east and east by Longforgan ; on 
the south-east by the frith of Tay, which divides it 
from Flisk in Fife ; on the south-west by Errol ; and 
on the west by Kinnaird. It is of an elongated but 
very irregular form ; and measures about 4 miles from 
north to south, and about 3 from east to west. Its 
coast-line, or line of "beach upon the Tay, is only 
about a mile in length, and overlooks, at high wa- 
ter, only about 2i or 2-\ miles breadth of frith. A 
rill rises in the interior, runs 1£ mile down to the 
western limit, traces for 1| mile the boundary 
with Errol, and, aided almost at its mouth by a brook 
of more than twice its own length of course coming 
in from Errol, forms at Powgavie, a small but not 
unimportant harbour. Another brook, coming down 
from the north-west, forms for 3£ miles the north- 
eastern and eastern boundary-line, receives in its 
course a rill flowing 1£ mile through the parish 
from Abernyte, and diverges away into Longforgan. 
The parish, with very trivial exceptions, is a dead 
level, but commands a delightful view of water and 
hill scenery ; and is one of the most fertile and beau- 
tiful in the rich and exulting district in which it lies. 
The soil is opulent carse-land, well-improved by 
lime and other appliances suited to clay ; and, in 
general, produces heavy crops of prime grain. The 
area is embellished with fine enclosures and shelter- 
ing plantations, and, at intervals, is beautifully stud- 
ded with gentlemen's seats, and laid out in pleasure- 
grounds Rossie priory, a superb monastic-looking 

pile, spacious and elegant within, imposing in aspect 
without, and surrounded by an extensive demesne, 
lifts up its fine form near the northern extremity of 
the parish. This mansion belongs to the noble fa- 
mily of Kinnaird, whose ancestor, Sir George Kin- 
naird of Inchture, was raised to the peerage in 1682 
by the title of Baron Kinnaird of Inchture ; and 
was built by Charles, 8th Lord Kinnaird, in 1817. 
Drimmie house, the predecessor of the priory, stood 
within the limits of Longforgan, but spread out most 
of its attendant pleasure-grounds in Inchture — Near 
the south-eastern extremity of the demesne, and 
close on the eastern boundary of the parish, stand 
the ruins of the ancient castle of Moncur, embosomed 

in shrubbery and plantation Ballindean house is 

delightfully situated, near the northern boundary, 
at the foot of the rising ground which bounds the 

Carse of Gowrie on the north Balledgarno house, 

south-east of Ballindean, is another fine mansion, 
surrounded by plantation. —The parish has several 
quarries of excellent freestone, and a complement of 
mills and thrashing-machines. Roads intersect it in 
every direction ; and the mail-road from Edinburgh 
and Glasgow to the north runs through it from east 
to west. On this road stands the cheerful village of 
Inchture, 13 miles from Perth, and 9 from Dundee, 
occupying the summit of a rising ground in the centre 
of the luxuriant expanse of the carse-lands. The 
hamlet of Ballindean stands 1£ mile to the north- 

• Inchture, or Inchtower, in the original application of the 
word, was possibly an inch or island, bearing aloft a tower, on 
the bosom of the sheet of sea.water by which the Carse of 
Gowrie is believed to have been covered ; and the island or 
inch may, after the recession of the sea, have become the ris- 
ing ground which ia now the site of the church and village. 




west. The other villages are Ballerno and Pol- 
gavie or Powgavie : which see. Population of the 
parish, in 1801, 949; in 1831, 878. Houses 157. 
Assessed property, in 1815, £1,731.. — Inchture is in 
the presbytery of Dundee, and synod of Angus and 
Mearns. Patron, the Crown. Stipend £224 10s. 
7d. ; glebe £30. An assistant and successor has 
£30 from the incumbent, and £30 from the heritors. 
The parish-church, a neat Gothic edifice, was built 
in 1834, and is situated at the village of Inchture. 
The present parish comprehends the ancient parishes 
of Inchture and Rossie, which were united in 1670. 
The church of Rossie, half-a-century ago, was a ruin. 
Schoolmaster's salary £34 4s. 4Jd., with £27 fees, 
and about £8 other emoluments. The maximum 
attendance at the parish-school is 83 ; and at 3 non- 
parochial schools, 72. 

INCHYRA, a small district and a village on the 
north bank of the river Tay, between the parishes 
of Kinfauns and St. Madoes, Perthshire. The dis- 
trict measures 1| mile along the course of the river, 
but only 1 mile direct east and west, and J of a mile 
north and south, and is a detached part of the parish 
of Kinnoul. The village is a port, 8 miles distant 
from Perth, and a little south of the post-road be- 
tween that town and Dundee. It has a good har- 
bour, which admits vessels of considerable burden, 
and a ferry which communicates with Fingask in the 
parish of Rhvnd. 

INGANESS-BAY, a bay cf about 3 miles in 
length, nearly 2 miles to the east of Kirkwall bay, 
in Orkney. The headland on its west side is called 
INHALLOW. See Enhallow. 
INIS-CONNEL. See Awe (Loch). 
INIS-FRAOCH. See Awe (Loch). 
INIS-HAIL. See Awe (Loch). 
INNERKIP, the most westerly parish in Ren- 
frewshire, is bounded on the north and west by the 
frith of Clyde ; on the east by Greenock and Kilmal- 
colm; and on the south by Largs, in Ayrshire; ex- 
tending about 6 miles from north to south, and about 
4 from east to west. The coast is indented, but not 
deeply, by the bays of Gourock, Lunderstone, Inner- 
kip, and Wemyss. There are several rivulets, the 
principal of which are Shaw's burn, the water of 
which is turned from its proper course towards the 
sea for the supply of the works at Greenock ; Kelly 
burn, which forms the boundary on the side of Ayr- 
shire ; and the Kip and the Daff, which unite at the 
village of Innerkip, and then fall into the sea. The 
parish has obviously received its name from the Kip, 
and the word Inver, signifying the issue of a river. 
From the shore to the south-east is a gradual ascent, 
beautifully varied with plains, gentle declivities, 
winding streamlets, and heath-covered hills. There 
are fine fertile tracts, embellished with plantations, 
around the bays of Innerkip and Gourock. The 
other arable lands are nearly limited to narrow stripes 
along the shore, or by the sides of the rivulets. The 
greater part of the parish consists of bleak moors and 
pasture ground. It contains 12,540 English acres, 
which may be thus arranged : moss or moors, 5,860; 
arable, 4,500; sound pasture, 1,500; woodlands, 
natural or planted, 540 ; sites of houses, roads, and 
rivulets, 140. The village of Innerkip is a neat and 
pleasant place, inhabited chiefly by fishermen, and 
frequented for sea-bathing, though it has not become 
a place of general resort. It was made a burgh-of- 
barony before the Union, and has the privilege of 
holding 3 fairs annually. Along the shore are some 
elegant marine villas. The principal land-owner is 
Sir Michael Robert Shaw Stewart, Baronet, whose 
ancestor obtained from Robert III., in 1403, a grant 
of the lands of Ardgowan, to which several large ad- 

ditions have since been made by purchase. — Ard- 
gowan house, a stately structure, surrounded by 
beautiful plantations, was built in the beginning of 
this century. Elevated on a terrace overhanging 
the frith, it commands an extensive prospect of the 
shipping, and the surrounding scenery. Near the 
house there is an ancient square tower, probably a 
portion of the castle of Innerkip, which was held by 
the English in the time of Robert Bruce, and to 
which Sir Philip de Moubray escaped, after being 
discomfited by Sir James Douglas. Barbour in his 
poem distinctly indicates the course of the flying 
knight as having been by Kilmarnock and Kilwin- 
ning, to Ardrossan : 

"Syne throw the Largis, him allane. 
Tilt Ennerkyp," 

which (says Barbour) was " stuffyt all with Ingless- 
men," who received him ' in daynte.' — Kelly house, 
the seat of Robert Wallace, Esq., is another beauti- 
ful mansion upon the Clyde. It was erected, in 1793, 
by Mr. Wallace's father, who, in the previous year, 
purchased the estate from the representatives of its 
ancient proprietors, the Bannatynes. Although the 
settlement of this branch of the Wallaces at Kelly is 
but recent, they have for many ages been connected 
with Renfrewshire. The present proprietor has here 
formed extensive plantations, and made great im- 
provements in agriculture. In this neighbourhood 
is the range of braes mentioned in a fantastic old 
song, altered by Burns : 

" There lived a carle on Kelly-burn-braes, 
(Hey and the rue grows bonuie vvi' thyme !) 

And he had a wife was the plague o' his days, 
(And the thyme it is withered and rue is in prime !") &c. 

On an eminence, overlooking the coast, stand the 
ruins of a large square tower, called Laven castle. 
The lands of Laven, of old, belonged to a family 
named Morton, from which they passed, in 1547, to 
the noble house of Sempill. They are now the pro- 
perty of the Shaw Stewarts, to which family also 
belong the lands of Dunrod, an ancient possession of 
the branch of the Lindsays, who, from the time of 
Robert Bruce, made a considerable figure, but came 
to an end, in 1619, in the person of Alexander 
Lindsay, who alienated the estate to Sir Archibald 

Stewart Innerkip was famous for its witches, and 

probably this Alexander Lindsay is the person spoken 
of in the following popular rhyme, one of the very 
few we have observed relating to this county : 

" In Innerkip the witches rid thick, 

And in Dunrod they dwell ; 
The grittest loon amang them a' 

Is auld Dunrod hiiuselV 

These witches are noticed in our account of Gourock. 
See also Mr. C. K. Sharpe's Prefatory Notice to 

Law's Memorials, Edit. 1818, p. 70 On the brow 

of the rock, at Clock-point, stands a lighthouse, 
consisting of a circular tower, 80 feet high, with a 
stationary light, of a star-like appearance. It bears 
north-east 4 miles from the Point of Wemyss ; and 
6 miles north-east by east from Toward-point. The 
jurisdiction of the river-bailie of Glasgow terminates 
at this point. In the immediate neighbourhood there 
is a ferry across the frith, which is here much nar- 
rowed, to the opposite shore at Dunoon. Before the 
introduction of steam-boats this was the principal 
means of communication with the West Highlands. 
It is still used chiefly for the transporting of cattle 
from that district. — In the 12th century the church 
of Innerkip, with all the land between the rivulets 
where it stood, was granted to the monastery of 
Paisley by Baldwin of Biggar, who appears to 
have held these lands under Walter, the first 
Steward ; and to the monastery the church con- 
tinued to belong till the Reformation. At Christ- 



well there stood a chapel, which was founded in the 
reign of Robert III., and was endowed with lands 
in this parish. In 1594 Innerkip was deprived of 
part of its territory by the formation of the parish of 
Greenock, which had previously been comprehended 
in it. A new church having been built at Greenock 
at that time, the old place of worship at Innerkip 
was termed 'the auld kirk,' which, by a natural 
figure of speech, is now the name popularly applied 
to the village of Innerkip itself. In 1832 the quoad 
sacra parish of Gourock [which see] was divided 
from Innerkip. Population of Innerkip, in 1831, 
including Gonrock, 2,088. Houses, in 1831, 258. 
Assessed property, in 1815, £5,392. — Innerkip is in 
the presbytery of Greenock, and synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr. Patron, Sir M. R. S. Stewart, Bart. 
Stipend upwards of £230, with a glebe of 4 acres. 
The Independent body has a church here ; stipend 

not known Salary of parochial schoolmaster £30 

15s. lljd., with from £26 to £28 of school-fees. 
There is also a side-school with one instructor. 

INNERLEITHEN, or Inverueithen, a parish 
chiefly in the north-east of Peebles-shire, and partly 
in the north of Selkirkshire ; compact in position, 
and proximately triangular in form, presenting its 
angles to the north-west, to the south-west, and to 
the east. It is bounded on the north-east by Edin- 
burghshire and the Selkirkshire part of Stow; on 
the south by the Tweed, which divides it from 
Yarrow parish in Selkirkshire and Traquair parish 
in Peebles-shire ; and on the west by the parishes of 
Peebles and Eddlestone. Measured as a triangle, 
and not including sinuosities, it extends on the 
north-east side from Dunreich to the angle a little 
below New Thornylee, 11£ miles; on the south 
side, from the angle just mentioned to the conflu- 
ence of Spittlehope-burn with the Tweed, "i miles; 
and on the west side, from the mouth of Spittlehope 
burn to Dunreich, 6 miles. But it has, on all sides, 
especially along the course of the Tweed, some pro- 
jections and considerable recessions of outline ; and 
contains an area, according to Armstrong, of 27,587 
English acres, and, according to the minister of the 
parish in his evidence before the Commissioners of 
Religious Instruction, of 30,100 acres. The part 
which falls within the limits of Selkirkshire is a 
stripe on the south-east side, ascending 5£ miles 
from the Tweed, with a breadth, over most of the 
distance, of less than a mile, and an extreme breadth 
of 2J miles. The surface gradually rises from the 
Tweed to the northern extremity, and has, in gen- 
eral, a broken, rugged, and precipitous appearance. 
Hills, forming part of the broad range which diverges 
at an acute angle from the central chain of the south- 
ern Highlands at the Hartfell group, and runs north- 
eastward to St. Abb's head, and attaining here, in 
many of their summits, the elevation of about 1,000 
feet above sea-level, crowd nearly the whole area, 
and, in some places, leave, in their interstices, scarcely 
sufficient space for the breadth of a road. The highest 
ground is Windlestraw-law, If of a mile from the 
boundary with Edinburghshire, and f from the near- 
est point of the north-east boundary of the parish, 
yet standing on the boundary-line between Peebles- 
shire and Selkirkshire. The hills are cloven asun- 
der from north to south by several deep glens, each 
bringing down the tribute of a crystal stream to the 
Tweed. The largest of the rivulets is the Leithen, 
which, rising within £ of a mile to the north-west 
angle, and running 5^ miles south-eastward, and 3£ 
miles southward, cuts the parish into two not very 
unequal parts, and contributes the main quota of its 
name: see the Leithen. Craighope-burn H mile 
in length of course, Woolandslee-burn 2| miles in 
length, and Blakehopebyre-burn, also 2J miles in 

length, and all rising close on the north-eastern 
boundary, come down in a south-westerly direction 
upon the Leithen in the upper or south-easterly 
part of its course, and, in common with their mimic 
tributaries, find their way along cleughs or glens. 
Spittlehope-burn rises on the side of Carcsman hill, 
and after a course of | of a mile in the parish, forms, 
for 1J mile, the boundary with Peebles, and then 
falls into the Tweed. Another streamlet, parallel 
to this, 1J mile eastward of it, and 2 J miles in 
length of course. Walker's burn, H mile eastward 
of the Leithen, and 3 miles in length ; and Gatehope 
burn, 1J mile farther to the east, and 3f miles in 
length, — all pursue a southerly course to the Tweed, 
and, along with Leithen water and Spittlehope-burn, 
cleave the lower part of the parish into nearly regular 
sections, divided from one another by parallel glens. 
The course of the Tweed, in majestic sweeps 
along the southern boundary, especially for 3J miles 
above the influx of the Leithen, and over some dis- 
tance below it, is exquisitely beautiful, and though 
inferior in effect to its course respectively past 
Peebles and past Kelso, where the competition of 
claims for superiority in brilliance has engaged the 
attention and debates of connoisseurs, may compare 
with almost any other part of the noble and exulting 
and everywhere interesting river. Along its banks, 
and also along those of the Leithen for 3 or 4 miles 
above the confluence of the rivers, are level stripes 
of very rich haugh ; behind these are narrow borders 
of gravelly loam, skirting the foot of the hills ; and 
farther back, gentle ascents, waving with corn or 
covered with plantation, lead the eye gradually up- 
ward to an array of rocky or heath-clad summits, 
chequered and patched on their sides with verdure. 
Though, in passing along the Tweed from Kelso to 
Peebles, a stranger might suppose the interior to be 
a hilly wilderness of rocks and desolation, yet the 
southern exposure of the general surface occasions 
the growth of much succulent herbage, and the car- 
peting of much excellent sheep-pasturage. Estimat- 
ing the whole area at somewhat more than 30,000 
acres, nearly 26,000 are enclosed and constant sheep- 
walk, about 2,500 have been occasionally in tillage, 
nearly 550 are under wood, chiefly plantations of 
oak, larch, and elm, and in a small degree hazel and 
birch and indigenous copsewood, and about 1,500 are 
in a waste condition, or carelessly open for sheep. 
All the farms of the parish, with two exceptions, 
are pastoral, having either limited scope or none for 
the use of the plough; and, for the most part, are of 
large extent. About 16,000 black-faced and Cheviot 
sheep, much improved in the breed, and nearly 400 
black cattle feed upon the pastures. The sheep-walks, 
though elevated, are much valued by the farmer as 
sure spring-ground, and produce a vegetation which, 
both for its earliness and its succulency, gives suste- 
nance to the sheep just at the time when they most 
need to be rallied from the wasting effects of the 
winter, and when the dam needs nourishment for 
her tender brood. In the arable parts of the 
parish the most fertile soil is that part of the 
haughs formed by the subsidence of the Tweed and 
the Leithen ; and, in consequence of this being oc- 
casionally flooded by the rivers, the most manage- 
able is the gravelly loam on the hanging plains be- 
hind, formed, in the course of ages, by the decom- 
posing action of the atmosphere on the rocks and 
the decay of vegetable substances, but obstructed at 
intervals by blocks of stone, and curiously traversed 
by what are called ' blind springs ' bursting from fis- 
sures in the subjacent rocks. A quarry of pavement 
slate, which finely combines with the Arbroath stone 
[see Forfarshire] to form a tesselated stone floor, 
was wrought for some time at Holylee ; and a quarry 



of clay-date for roofing was wrought at the eastern 
angular extremity below New Thornylee. Peat is 
abundant at the north-west angle, and occurs in 
smaller patches on Windlestrae-law ; but is so dif- 
ficult of access as not to prevent a demand on the 
Lothian coal-mines for fuel — At the mouth of al- 
most every defile throughout the parish tower- 
houses are met with in a ruinous condition ; but, 
except in two or three instances, they have intrusted 
neither to record nor to tradition the names of their 
occupants. If similar scenes of iniquity were prac- 
tised in all of them to some which the archives of 
the presbytery of Peebles ascribe to one of their 
number, they have deservedly become the habitation 
of owls. On a rising ground in the immediate vicinity 
of the village of Innerleithen, are vestiges of the fos- 
sum and the circumvallating lines of a strong fortifi- 
cation. The lines appear to have been formed with- 
out cement by a compact masonry of a vast mass of 
stones, fetched from a distance; and the third of 
them encloses a space of rather more than an English 

acre -Horsburgh castle, the property of the Hors- 

burgh family, about the origin of whose possessions 
in the parish a gossipping tradition points to a 
romantic hawking expedition of a king of Scotland, 
is an ancient edifice on the Tweed, near the mouth 
of Spittlehope burn. — -The most noticeable modern 
mansions are Glen-Ormiston and Holylee, both on 
the Tweed, the former near the village of Inner- 
leithen. Three roads of importance traverse the 
parish, — the Glasgow and Kelso turnpike along the 
banks of the Tweed, the new turnpike between 
Edinburgh and Peebles up Blakehopebyre burn, and 
a road along the Leithen from its mouth to its source. 
—Population, in 1801, 591 ; in 1831, 810. Houses 
138. Assessed property, in 1815, £7,012. — Inner- 
leithen is in the presbytery of Peebles, and synod 
of Lothian and Tweeddale. Patron, Livingston 
Booth. Stipend £231 Is. 10d.; glebe £20. Unap- 
propriated teinds £173 18s. lid. The church was 
built in 1786. Sittings 350. According to an eccle- 
siastical survey in 1835, the population then consist- 
ed of 624 churchmen, 155 dissenters, and 19 persons 
not known to belong to any religious denomination, 
— in all, 798. The dissenters are Episcopalians, 
Seceders, and members of the Relief connected with 
congregations in Peehles, and Roman Catholics, who 
attend a chapel at Traquair. Dissenting ministers 
frequently preach in the village ; and the Indepen- 
dents have, for several summers past, supplied it as 
one of their stations. The parish had annexed to it, 
in 1674, about one-third of the old parish of Kailzie, 
the other two-thirds of which were annexed to Tra- 
quair. Kailzie was dismembered and suppressed in 
opposition to the remonstrances of the presbytery, 
and to the protest of the only heritor residing in 
two-thirds of its extent: see Kailzie. The church 
of Innerleithen was given by Malcolm IV. to the 
monks of Kelso, and endowed with a power of giving 
refuge to persons fleeing from justice; but, as the 
village and the circumjacent district continued to 
be a part of the royal demesne during the reign of 
Alexander II., it must have been given to them 
without its appurtenances. A natural son of Malcolm 
IV. was drowned in a pool near the mouth of the 
Leithen ; and his body, during the first night after 
his decease, was deposited in the church. William, 
an ancient parson of the parish, was one of the wit- 
nesses to a charter of William Morville, who was 
instable of Scotland from 1 189 to 1190. 

The village of Innerleithen stands on the haugh- 
ground of Leithen water, about half- a-mile above the 
influx of that stream to the Tweed ; 6 miles from 
Peebles; and about 2S from Edinburgh ; overlooked 
on the east and the west by high and partly wooded 

hills, and commanding, especially towards the south, 
a limited but delightful prospect. Deriving its chief 
importance from the attraction of visiters and sum- 
mer-residents to its medicinal well, it is rich, as to 
the position and the character of its environs, in the 
advantages of a choice retreat for invalids, and a 
place of fashionable retirement. To persons who are 
fond of angling it offers the teeming waters of the 
Leithen and the Tweed, and is within an easy dis- 
tance of the Quair, St. Mary's loch, and various other 
trouting waters. To lovers of ease and quiet, who, 
while they enjoy the luxuries of rustication, depre- 
cate the toils of travelling, and the dulness of far 
removal from the busy scenes of life, it presents, at 
the distance of a comfortable drive from Edinburgh, 
a retirement almost Arcadian, stilly and delightful in 
pastoral repose, where walks at will and solitary 
rambles are liable to hardly an intrusion. To per- 
sons who luxuriate in drives and pedestrian incur- 
sions among the beauties of landscape, it offers in 
profusion the romantic dells and softly highland ex- 
panses of green Tweeddale, — a gorgeous stretch 
westward to Peebles, and eastward to Abbotsford 
and Melrose, of the magnificent Tweed, — the retreats 
of Elibank and Horsburgh wood, the classic scenes 
of ' the bush aboon Traquair,' and, above all, at no 
great distance, those thrilling charms of the braes 
and waters, and ' dowy dells' of Yarrow, which have 
drawn melodious numbers from perhaps a moiety of 
the poetic genius of Britain. To invalids it presents 
a dry and healthy climate, — the medicinal properties 
of its well, in various appliances expressly framed to 
bear salutiferously upon visiters, — and what persons 
who are really or judiciously in quest of health will 
highly prize, comparative freedom from the fashion- 
able dissipation which absurdity has contrived to 
make ascendant in some watering-places of Britain. 
Even to men of intellectual pursuits or of a literary 
taste, it possesses a sufficient character for attracting 
persons of their class, to afford a hope that they will 
not want suitable society ; and it offers, on the spot, 
enough of books and periodical literature to prevent 
habits from becoming rusted ; and everywhere in its 
vicinity, it holds out objects of antiquarian and scien- 
tific research. A writer, some 25 years ago, on the 
district in which it is embosomed, made, therefore, 
more display of his alliterations and pleonasms, than 
of his soundness of judgment, when he mentioned as 
a " defect" incompatible with its prosperity, the 
want of "feature, force, fulness, and novelty, in the 
scenery, by the expressive boldness of striking rocks, 
and the romantic enrichment of their sheltering trees, 
to impress and attract the senses, and, through them, 
rouse, stir up, raise and enliven the spirits, by remov- 
ing that dulness which the tame tranquillity of lone- 
liness, in a pastoral district, in unison with its flocks, 
is apt to produce in its inhabitants, where its surface 
is uniform, insipid, uninteresting, and bald." [.Note 
on p. 238 of the annotated edition of Dr. Penne- 
cuick's Works. Leith, 1815.] — If Innerleithen — 
with the hanging woods on the hill-sides which over- 
look it, and the mansion of Traquair peeping out 
from a rich grove on the further bank of the Tweed, 
and the alternately green and rocky eminences which 
flank the glens coming down through the parish, and 
the near vicinity of the supereminent district of song 
and poesy — is thus to be denounced, where is the 
vocabulary which shall supply terms for the propor- 
tionate denunciation of the most boasted spa-scenes 
of England ? 

Part of Innerleithen stands on the estate of Pirn, 
on the east side of the Leithen ; but by far the greater 
part is built on the property of the Earl of Traquair, 
on the west side of the stream. One reason of the 
balance being so much on the west bank is, that the 



ground lias been feued by the noble proprietor on 
advantageous terms. The village consists chiefly of 
one neatly edified street along the public road, wing- 
ed with detached buildings, and little clusters of 
houses. Most of the structures have been erected 
as accommodation for summer-rusticators and invalid 
visiters to the spa, and are not unworthy to receive 
as inmates the persons to whom mainly the village 
looks for support, — those accustomed to the delight- 
ful city-homes of the metropolis of Scotland. In the 
village are some good shops, — two large and commo- 
dious inns, each of which has a public table or ordi- 
dary during spring and summer, — one inn of second- 
ary spaciousness, — a circulating library, with an at- 
tached reading-room, — and appliances for concerts, 
balls, public recitations, and occasional histrionic 
exhibitions. Over the medicinal well is an elegant 
structure erected by the late Earl of Traquair ; and 
the pump-room combines with its proper character 
that of a public news-room. Across the Leithen is 
a stone-bridge, connecting the two parts of the vil- 
lage, and carrying over the Glasgow and Kelso turn- 
pike. Over the Tweed, in the immediate vicinity, 
is a beautiful wooden bridge, constructed by the skill 
and personal superintendence of Mr. Jardine, civil 
engineer, and opening a delightful communication 
with the grounds of Traquair, and with the attrac- 
tive northern section of Ettrick Forest. In the im- 
mediate vicinity of the village rises the neat small 
form of the parish-church. On the Leithen stands 
a large factory, a building five stories high, present- 
ing an aspect strangely out of keeping with all the 
other features of the village and country landscape. 
A friendly society was instituted in 1808, and is in 
a prosperous condition. A club, formed in 1827 by 
upwards of forty noblemen and landed proprietors, 
managed under the auspices, or with the personal 
care of some of the most distinguished individuals 
connected with Tweeddale and Selkirkshire, and the 
Border districts, and bearing the name of the St. 
Ronan's club, patronizes a fondness which the na- 
tives of the district have during ages displayed for 
athletic sports, holds an annual festival called ' the 
Border games,' for the exhibition of gymnastic exer- 
cises, and promotes an annual competition during one 
day in trout-fishing. Great concourses, on these oc- 
casions, are drawn to the village ; men eminent in 
the exploits of literature are attracted to witness 
peaceful feats of prowess ; and aristocrat, philoso- 
pher, lawyer, yeoman, and artizan — sturdy and skilful 
in muscular effort, or pleased to watch its play and 
emulation — sit down at a common board, and forget, 
for a season, the artificial distinctions of a modern 
age, in admiration of the rough energies which 
formed the prime object of attention to ancient re- 

The mineral spring to which the village mainly 
owes its prosperity, seems to have been unremarked 
for its medicinal properties till about the commence- 
ment of the present century. Till then it was noted 
chiefly or altogether as the resort of pigeons from the 
circumjacent country, and bore the name of the Doo- 
well. Had any saint in the Romish calendar been 
acquainted with it, the priests of the age preceding 
the Reformation would have pictured him to their 
gullible flocks as performing a far different exploit in 
connection with its waters, than that which Meg 
Dods ascribes to the patron saint of 'the Aulton' 
in reference to St. Ronan's Well, and would hardly 
have failed to send down to posterity the fame of 
miracles achieved by the naturally salutiferous pro- 
perties of its waters. Even after it came into late 
notice, the well was a trivial, repulsive-looking foun- 
tain, bubbling up amidst a little marsh ; and had no 
better appliance than a rude bench placed at its side 

for the accommodation of the infirm invalids who 
crept or were carried to it in quest of health. A 
simple pump afterwards rose gauntly from its mouth, 
amidst the wet miry puddle around it. But about 
twenty years ago, or not much earlier, the spa, with re- 
markable suddenness, and in a way nearly unaccount- 
able, became celebrious among valetudinarians of all 
classes in Edinburgh and throughout the south of 
Scotland. The well, in the decorations built over 
and around it, in the character assigned it by popular 
opinion, and in the influence it exerted on the village 
in its vicinity, now rose, as if by magic, from the 
status of a watery hole in a quagmire, to that of an 
infant competitor with the proud spas of England. 
In 1824, the publication of Sir Walter Scott's tale of 
St. Ronan's Well, greatly enhanced its celebrity, and 
poured down upon it some rays of that lustre which 
popular opinion then assigned to 'the Great Un- 
known ;' for nearly all the readers of light literature, 
in spite of the utter difficulty which a topographist 
would have felt to discover resemblances, unhesi- 
tatingly identified the Marchthorn and the St. Ronan's 
of the tale with Peebles and Innerleithen. The well 
springs up at the base of the Lee-pen, about 200 feet 
above the street of the village. In its original state, 
it issued in small quantities, and at only one spring ; 
but, when the ground was dug to its source, in order 
to clear away admixtures near the surface, it became 
emitted in two streams of different strength. On 
analysis, a quart of the less impregnated stream was 
found to contain 53 grains of carbonate of magnesia, 
9-5 grains of muriate of lime, 21 2 grains of muriate 
of soda, — in all, 36 grains ; and a quart of the other 
stream, 10'2 grains of carbonate of magnesia, 19'4 of 
muriate of lime, and 31 of muriate of soda, — in all, 
60"6 grains. The waters, jointly with the salubrious 
influence of the fine climate, are efficacious chiefly in 
cases of ophthalmic complaints, old wounds, and dys- 
peptic and bilious disorders. 

Previous to the enriching discovery of the medi- 
cinal qualities of the well, Innerleithen gave some 
promise of its being about to cast off its pristine 
and ancient condition of a tiny sequestered ham- 
let consisting of a few thatched houses, a mill, 
and a church, by becoming the adopted seat of an 
important manufacture. Toward the close of last 
century, Mr. Alexander Brodie, a native of Tra- 
quair, who had acquired wealth and mercantile 
insight in London, thought the site of the hamlet, 
upon a streamlet of much water-power, and in the 
midst of an extensive pastoral country, peculiarly 
favourable for a woollen manufactory, and expended 
£3,000 in erecting the edifice which now lifts its 
lumpish form beside the village. But though the 
factory enjoyed several years of his personal super- 
intendence, and, in the first instance, occasioned 
colonizing and stir around its site, it never fairly 
prospered; and, after his death, it passed into the 
hands of various and successive lessees, and entailed 
upon some of them pecuniary loss. The fabrics are 
partly tartans, and chiefly broad-cloth. The annual 
consumption of raw material is between 2,500 and 
3,000 stones. A few of the tartan weavers earn the 
same wages as those of Galashiels, — 16s. 6d. a- week; 
but some, glad to break away from cotton-weaving 
at Peebles, have been engaged for lis. 6d. a- week, 
but at the expense of being frowned upon by their 
craft. The condition of the operatives engaged in 
the manufacture is good. The number of hand-looms 
was, in 1828, 10; and in 1838, 24. Population of 
the village, in 1838, irrespective of summer- visiters, 
or persons attracted by the spa, 412. 

INNERPEFFRAY. See Inchchaffery. 

INNERWELL, the name of various localities in 
the parish of Sorbie, Wigtonshire. The chief are 



Innerwell-point, a tiny headland li mile north of 
Eagerness ; and Innerwell-port, a fishing-station | 
of a mile farther north, where there is a salmon fish- 
ery rented at about £200 a-year. 

INNERWICK, or Inverwick, a parish in the 
eastern division of Haddingtonshire; bounded on the 
north-west by Spott and Dunbar ; on the north-east 
by the German ocean ; on the east by Oldhamstocks ; 
on the south by Berwickshire ; on the south-west by 
a detached portion of Spott ; and on the west by de- 
tached portions of Dunbar and Stenton, and by the 
main body of Spott. It is of somewhat a horse-shoe 
form, with the con vex side facing the west, and mea- 
sures about 9J miles in length, by about 2£ in aver- 
age breadth. Two-thirds of the surface stretch 
across the Lammermoor hills. The highest ground 
is about mid-distance between the sea and the south- 
ern boundary. Upward by a slow ascent, from the 
south to this point, and downward by a considerable 
descent from it, till within 3 miles of the sea, the 
surface is in general heathy and wildly pastoral, yet 
contains some patches of arable soil, and is occasion- 
ally relieved by verdure on the hills, by the cheerful 
aspect of the cottage and the farm-stead, and by the 
lively movements and green delly banks of its pas- 
toral streamlets. Along the northern side of the 
Lammermoors, in a belt which connects them with 
the plain, are ravines which break precipitously down 
in dresses of wildness and of hanging woods, to 
brooks which trot noisily along their stony bottoms, 
and dells clothed in verdure and various herbage, 
and disclosing here and there a pleasing prospect 
over a richly cultivated valley to the sea. Inter- 
vening between this chequered belt and the sea is 
a luxuriant and very fertile plain, — rich in all the 
features of scenery which kindle the enthusiasm 
of a keen farmer, variegated in three instances 
with the tracery of plantation, but, in general, 
not sufficiently tufted and frilled with wood to 
awaken a sensation of unqualified pleasure in a per- 
son of taste. The coast — which, followed along its 
indentations, is about 2^ or 2| miles in extent — par- 
takes, in a general way, but tamely, of the rocky 
boldness with which the ocean is confronted from 
Dunbar to St. Abb's Head. About five-ninths of 
the area of the parish are in natural pasture ; nearly 
four-ninths are in tillage ; and about 350 acres are 
under plantation Monynut water rises in a peat- 
moss in Innerwick common, near the centre of the 
highest ground of the parish ; flows southward along- 
side of the hilly ridge called Monynut edge, and as- 
suming now a south-easterly direction, traces for 2J 
miles the eastern boundary, — performing from its 
source to the south-eastern extremity of the parish, 
a course of 4i miles. Philip-burn rises on Peat-law, 
and, not far from its origin, begins to trace for 2 
miles the southern boundary, when it falls into the 
Monynut. Craig-burn rises at the central heights of 
the parish, and forms, from its origin to its junction 
with the Whitadder at St. Agnes, over a distance of 
4$ miles, the western boundary-line ; and, in its pro- 
gress, it is joined generally at right angles, by a sur- 
prising number of brief rills, whose cleugh-oeds or 
glens form with its valley, a sort of rib- work of vales. 
Back-burn rises within 3 furlongs of the former, and 
has about the same length of course, and, like it, 
forms all the way the western boundary-line ; but, of 
course, flows in an opposite direction, and cheerily 
moves along the plain to the sea. Thornton water 
rises within J of a mile of the source of Monynut 
water, flows 2 miles eastward, 1J northward, and 3 
north-eastward, — receiving several indigenous little 
tributaries among the hills, turning a grinding-mill 
about the middle of its course, and curving round the 
village of Innerwick at a brief distance on the plain, 

— and falls into the sea at the village of Thornton- 
loch. Numerous springs, welling up in a plen- 
teousness quite in keeping with the profusion of 
streams, supply the inhabitants with abundance of 

excellent water Limestone abounds on the lands of 

Skateraw, and is there burned in such quantities as 
supply a large part of the circumjacent agricultural 
district. Coal seems to have been anciently worked, 
but has ceased to draw attention. Sandstone is 

abundant, but is quarried only for local use On a 

steep eminence overhanging a rocky glen, near the 
village of Innerwick, stand the venerable ruins of 
Innerwick castle, an ancient strength of considerable 
importance. Grose gives a drawing of it in his An- 
tiquities. Originally, it was the property of the 
Stewarts; but afterwards it passed into the posses- 
sion of the Hamiltons of Innerwick. On an emin- 
ence opposite to it, on the other side of the glen, 
anciently stood Thornton castle, a stronghold of 
Lord Home. Both of the fortresses were attacked 
and beaten into ruins by Protector Somerset, during 

his invasion of Scotland A short way south of their 

site are slender remains of a bridge variously called 
Edirkens, Edinkens, Edincain, and King Edward's, 
— a name which has been connected by antiquarian 
criticism sometimes with Edward of England, and 
more frequently with Edwin of Northumbria, to 
whom the metropolis of Scotland is supposed to owe 
her designation. Near the bridge stood, till a very 
modern date, four grey stones, which were conjec- 
tured to indicate the sepulchre of some ancient per- 
son of great note. In a field near Dryburn bridge, 
two stone coffins, containing a dagger and a ring, 
were not long ago discovered The parish is inter- 
sected along the coast by the mail-road between 
Edinburgh and London, by way of Berwick; and 
along Monynut edge by a road between Dunbar and 
Dunse ; and it has, in its lowlands, a fair provision 
of well-kept subordinate roads. A small harbour on 
the coast of the Skateraw property serves for ex- 
porting lime and importing coal. The villages are 
Thoknton-Loch [which see], and Innerwick. The 
latter is situated at the base of a steep but cultivated 
hill, about a mile west of the Edinburgh and London 
road ; and though clean, and not unpleasing in ap- 
pearance, is planless and straggling. Population of 
the parish, in 1801, 846; in 1831, 987. Houses 191. 

Assessed property, in 1815, £12,182 Innerwick is 

in the presbytery of Dunbar, and synod of Lothian 
and Tweeddale. Patron, Mr. Ferguson of Raith. 
Stipend £277 19s. 2d. ; glebe £15. Unappropriated 
teinds £382 9s. lOd. Walter, son of Alan, the first 
Stewart, received a grant of the extensive manor of 
Innerwick from David I., and he gave to the monks 
of Paisley, at the epoch of their establishment, the 
church of Innerwick, with its pertinents, a mill, and 
a carrucate of land. Various English vassals settled 
within the manor. The second Walter, the Stewart, 
gave to the monks of Kelso some land, and pastures 
within the manor, and liberty to erect a mill. In 
1404 the barony, jointly with all the possessions of 
the Stewarts, was erected into a free regality as a 
principality for the eldest sons of the Scottish kings. 
As part of that regality, it was annexed to Renfrew- 
shire at the erection of that district into a county. 
In 1670, and 1671, Sir Peter Wedderburn of Gos- 
ford obtained grants of the rectory, vicarage, and 
tithes of Innerwick, and the baronies of Innerwick 
and Thornton. Anciently, there was within the 
parish a chapel dedicated to St. Dennis. The ruins 
of the building existed till a recent date on a small 
promontory on the Skateraw coast, but they have 
now entirely disappeared Parochial schoolmas- 
ter's salary £31, with £40 fees, and other emolu- 




INSCH, a parish in the district of Garioch, Aber- 
deenshire ; bounded on the north by the water of 
TJrie, which divides it from Drumblade andForgue; 
on the east by Culsalmond ; on the south by Kem- 
nay; and on the west by Kinnethmont and Gartly. 
Its figure approaches to a square ; length 5 miles ; 
breadth 3 ; square area 7,500 acres. Houses 270. 
Assessed property, in 1815, £2,360. Population, in 
1801, 798 ; in 1831, 1,338 ; in 1836, 1,365. The soil 
in the southern part of the parish is fertile; but a 
small part only is arable. The higher lands afford 
excellent pasturage, especially Dun-o-deer hill, a 
conical eminence about 3,000 yards in circumference 
at the base, and rising, insulated from the level plain 
of the Garioch, to the height of 300 feet. According 
to that veracious historian, Hector Boethius, the 
pasturage of this hill was wont to turn the teeth of 
sheep, in cropping it, to the semblance of gold. We 
need scarcely say that though the sheep themselves 
are turned into gold, the pasturage has now no such 
effect on the teeth in particular. On the summit 
of this hill are the vitrified ruins of a castle said to 
have been erected by Gregory the Great. Dun-o- 
deer has much the appearance of an extinct volcano. 
Part of Foudland hill, rising 300 feet above sea-level, 
is within this parish : in its higher parts are exten- 
sive quarries of fine blue slate. The kirk-town of 
Insch is a small burgh -of-barony with a weekly mar- 
ket : it is situated at the southern extremity of the 
parish, 26 miles north-west from Aberdeen, with 
which this district principally communicates by the 

Inverury canal This parish is in the presbytery of 

Garioch, and synod of Aberdeen. Patron, Sir John 
Forbes, Bart. Stipend £204 7s. 9d. ; glebe £15. 
Unappropriated teinds £47 0s. 9d. Church built, 
according to date on belfry, in 1613; repaired in 
1794; sittings 413. Here is a Baptist congregation 
who assemble in a thrashing-mill provided with forms 
for 160 sitters. Schoolmaster's salary £27, with 
£17 fees, and other emoluments. There are three 
private schools in the parish. 

INSCH, a quoad sacra parish in the presbytery of 
Abernethy, and synod of Moray. It was at one 
time partly united to the parish of Alvie, and partly 
to Kingussie ; but, in 1828, was disjoined from these 
parishes, and erected into a parish, quoad sacra, un- 
der the act 5° Geo. IV. c. 90. Population 644. The 
church is an ancient building; sittings 300. Stipend 
£120, paid by Government, with a manse and glebe. 

INVER (Loch), a small arm of the sea, on the 
north-west coast of Sutherlandshire, near the pro- 
montory of Ru-Stoer. It gives name to the only 
village in the parish, Inver or Lochinver, which is 
a post-station, 245 miles north-north-west of Edin- 
burgh : see Assynt. 

INVER, or Invar, a hamlet on the great road 
from Perth to Inverness, at the confluence of the 
Braan and the Tay, on the eastern verge of the 
parish of Little Dunkeld, Perthshire. It stands 
immediately opposite the town of Dunkeld, and, pre- 
vious to the erection of the bridge, it was the ferry- 
station of the town. 

INVERALLEN, partly in the shire of Inver- 
ness, and partly in the shire of Elgin, an ancient 
vicarage now comprehended in the parish of Crom- 
dale. The church is on the western bank of the 
Spey, and, together with the surrounding burying- 
place, is still in use. It is If mile south-west of 

INVERARITY, a parish in the centre of the 
southern division of Forfarshire ; bounded on the 
north-west by Kinnettles ; on the north by Forfar ; 
on the north-east by Dunnichen ; on the east by one 
of the parts of Guthrie ; on the south-east by 
Monikie ; on the south by Muirhouse ; on the south- 

west by Tealing ; and on the west by Glammis. In 
outline, it approaches the figure of a circle ; and, in 
measurement, it is about 4^ or 4| miles in diameter. 
Arity water, a large tributary of Dean water — so 
large, and so greatly longer in course than that slug- 
gish drain of Loch- Forfar, as to be really the parent 
stream — comes in upon the parish from the east, and 
intersects it right through the middle ; and about 
halfway across it is joined on its left bank by Corbi- 
burn, which rises in several head- waters at and be- 
yond the south-western boundary, and comes bend- 
ingly round, first eastward, and next northward, to 
the point of confluence. Where the streams unite, 
or a little eastward, a valley or little strath com- 
mences, and stretching thence to the western boun- 
dary, forms a sequestered level, overlooked and en- 
cinctured by an amphitheatre of hills. Ascending 
gently on almost all sides from this valley, the sur- 
face rolls upward to the boundaries in soft hills, 
variegated, and, in some instances, covered with 
plantation. But though the parish seems not na- 
turally favourable to the plough, two-thirds of it are 
cultivated, and one-sixth under plantation, only an- 
other sixth being left in a waste or uncultivated 
condition. The soil, in the valley, is chiefly allu- 
vial ; on the high grounds, is, extensively, a hard 
loam ; but, in numerous districts, is clayey or vari- 
ous. Sandstone and grey slate abound, and are 
plentifully worked. Dotterels visit the parish ; rails 
and woodcocks also abound. Roe-deer are numerous. 
The mansions are Fotheringham and Kincaldrum, 

both in the central valley. There is no village On 

the eastern boundary, and partly in the parish of 
Guthrie, are traces of the outer ditch and rampart of 
a Roman camp, called ' Haer Faads.' The parish 
is traversed northward and southward by the great 
western road between Dundee and Aberdeen, and is 
otherwise well provided with roads. It is also inter- 
sected in its northern part by the Dundee and Forfar 
railway. Population, in 1801, 820; in 1831,904. 

Houses 173. Assessed property, in 1815, £6,093 

Inverarity is in the presbytery of Forfar, and synod 
of Angus and Mearns. Patron, Fotheringham of 
Powrie. Stipend £226 2s. 5d. ; glebe 10 acres of 
land and a manse. Unappropriated teinds £65 13s. 
— Parochial schoolmaster's salary £34 4s. 44d., 
with about £25 fees, and about £7 other emolu- 
ments. The present parish comprehends the ancient 
and united parishes of Inverarity and Meathie. 

INVERARY,* a parish in Argyleshire, extending 
about 18 miles in length, and on an average 3 in 
breadth, somewhat in the form of a crescent, and 
lying chiefly betwixt Loch- Awe and Loch-Fyne : 
see these articles. Its appearance is hilly and even 

* " Inveraray, — in Gaelic, Ion-ar-ao-reidh, — is the modern 
name of the parish. The appellations by which it was formerly 
distinguished, viz., Kilmilieu and Gleneray, were either given 
in consequence of its being the cell of some monk, or from a 
glen which forms a considerable part of the district. The river 
which runs by Inveraray, — in Gaelic, Ao-reidh, — is a contrac- 
tion of ao, a privative, ' not,' and reidh, * smooth.' This etymo- 
logy suits with the appearance of some parts of the river at this 
day, and was very applicable to the whole of it before its chan- 
nel was cleared. Ao-reidh, is evidently contrasted with Sio- 
reidh, 'always smooth,' — the name of another river near the 
town, remarkable for its smoothness. From Ao-reidh, is de- 
rived Glenao-reidh, the valley through which the river passes, 
and Ion-ar-ao-reidh, the flat ground on both sides the mouth of 
the river. It is probable, that agriculture was first attempted 
on such fertile Bpots as were thus situated. The name univer- 
sally given in Gaelic to such pieces of ground, favours this idea. 
lon-ar, or Inver, means, 'worthy of tillage,' from ion, 'de- 
serving of,' and ar, ( to till.' Ion-ar-ao-reidh, may therefore 
signify * a piece of flat fertile ground at the mouth of a rapid 
rough river;' or, aorath, may signify unlucky, from the fre- 
quent accidental drownings which may be supposed to have 
happened in a rapid rough river, before bridges were built on 
it, and which, from the contiguity of the hills, is apt to be 
overflowed in a very short space of time, an instance of which 
happened on the 3d of August, 1792, when, in consequence of a 
high flood, salmon and trout were caught on the very roads 
and meadows."— Old Statistical Account. 



mountainous, though interspersed with several tracts 
of flat, ground, particularly ahout the town, and the 
vale of Glenshira. The whole of the flat ground is 
arable, with a rich deep soil; but the rest is shallow, 
and not naturally fertile, though much improved by 
the use of lime as a manure. The parish lies along 
the coast of Loch-Fyne, and is watered by the Aray 
[which see] and the Shira, both of which fall into 
the loch near the town. The latter stream, in its 
i-ourse through Glenshira, forms an expanse of water 
vailed Loch-Dow, — ' the Black loch,' — from the 
darkness of its bottom, or the depth of its water. 
In high tides, the sea flows as high as this lake; and 
it is no uncommon circumstance for herrings and 
other salt-water fish to be caught here in the same net 

with trout and salmon Not far from the town, 

on a level space on the south bank of the Aray, is 
the castle of Inverary, the principal seat of the 
Duke of Argyle. It is a large quadrangular build- 
ing, with a round tower at each corner, and a high 
glazed pavilion, by which the staircase and saloon 
are lighted, shooting up above the towers in the 
centre. It was founded in 1745, and is built of a 
variety of micaceous slate, brought from the other 
side of the lake, which is extremely soft, but will, 
in all probability, long stand the effects of the wea- 
ther. This stone is of a blue grey colour ; a single 
shower of rain turns it almost black, but a gleam of 
the sun restores its original colour. The hall is hung 
round with arms very neatly arranged, and other orna- 
ments suited to the grandeur of a Highland castle ; 
but the rest of the house is fitted up in a modern 
style, and some of the rooms are hung with fine 
tapestry. From the lawn the scenery is very fine. 
The Aray, with its beautiful cascades, — the expanded 
bay of Loch-Fyne, which here forms an irregular 
circle of about 12 or 14 miles in circumference, — the 
hill of Dunyqueaich, or Duniquoich, rising in the 
form of a pyramid to the height of 700 feet, clothed 
to near its summit with a thick wood of trees, and 
surmounted with a rude watch-tower, — the richly 
wooded banks towards Essachossan, and the distant 
screen of mountains, — form a noble assemblage of 
grand and beautiful objects. A manuscript journal now 
before us, thus narrates the ascent of Duniquoich : — 
" Immediately after breakfast we set out with the 
view of ascending the abrupt cone-shaped hill which 
had attracted so much of our attention last night. C. 
led the way ; and as we had acquired a sheep-like 
habit of implicitly following our leader, we moved in a 
line behind him, and a pretty bit of a dance he led us! 
In fact, we were soon convinced that he knew no 
more than ourselves about the road by which we might 
best achieve the enterprise on which we were bent, 
and that we had acted more discreetly in this — as in 
other instances — had we taken counsel of the natives 
before we began to climb the sugar-loaf shaped 
Duniquoich. At first we got on pretty well for a 
few yards, — the soil being firm, and the trees kindly 
lending us their aid ; but the path ' grew faint and 
fainter still,' and at last disappeared entirely, leaving 
us to fight our desperate way over large stones and 
deep fosses, and through strong tufts of underwood, 
and long rank grass, and huge ferns, all linked toge- 
ther by intricate brambles, and forming a kind of 
jungle which it required both address and strength to 
penetrate. Here and there appeared a few most 
deceptive patches of bright green moss, on which, 
as soon as you had placed your foot, you found your- 
self immersed over the ancles in water. Still we 
worked our way upwards, * thorough brake, thorough 
briar,' though often compelled to pause in our ascent; 
and at last, after about an hour's hard labour, we 
stood upon the summit of Duniquoich, — not a naked 
spiry pinnacle — as we had somehow premised but 

green as a meadow, and of considerable breadth. 
A scene of ample extent, and mingled barrenness and 
beauty, stretched around us. On three sides was an 
amphitheatre of mountains and moorlands. Beneath 
us lay the richly grouped woods and verdant meadows 
of Glenaray; and the noble loch, on which a few 
little sails flitted to and fro, stretched away in calm 
beauty into the distant horizon, between the long 
and waving outline of its mountain-bank. We de- 
scended at hap-hazard from our cloud-kissing eleva- 
tion, and as each took paths and ways of their own 
in the descent, wc had each our peculiar mishaps and 
grievances. My boots perished in the service, and 
it was unanimously agreed in recounting our adven- 
tures, that the ascent of Duniquoich is a feat which 
none should attempt unless in woodland trim." — The 
plantations are extensive, and finely laid out; every 
unimprovable crevice, glen, and mountain is covered 
with trees, of which the present value is still im- 
mense, although the late Duke sold upwards of 
£100,000 worth of timber from the estate. Popu- 
lation of the town and parish, in 1801, 2,051; in 1831, 
2,133. Assessed property £6,261 . The valued rent, 
in 1751, was £274 lis. lid., which was then con- 
sidered to be about half the real rental. Houses 289. 
— The parish of Inverary, formerly a vicarage, is in 
the synod of Argyle, and is the seat of a presbytery. 
It was originally under the charge of one minister, but 
by the commission of parliament in 1650-1, it was 
placed under two, with separate kirk-sessions, and 
presiding respectively over what are called the 
Highland and the Lowland congregations, or the 
English and the Gaelic churches. Both churches 
were built under one roof, in 1794, at the expense of 
the Duke of Argyle, the only heritor in the parish. 
Stipend of English minister £168 15s. 6d. ; glebe 
£45: of the 2d or Gaelic minister £157 15s. 7d. ; 
glebe £30. — A United Secession church was opened 
in 1836, at an expense of about £500 ; sittings 205. 
It is built on a feu of 42 years from Whitsunday 
1836, and is vested in trustees appointed by the 
United Secession congregation of Regent-place, 
Glasgow. — There are two parochial schools ; one in 
the burgh, and another about 4^ miles distant. The 
united salaries of the masters are £51 6s. 8d. per 
annum, with about £60 fees. There were also five 
private schools in 1834. 

Inverary, — in Gaelic Ion-ar-aoreidh, — a royal 
burgh in the above parish, and the county-town of 
Argyleshire; 60 miles north-west of Glasgow, by 
Luss and Arroquhar; 39 north by west of Rothesay, 
in Bute; 73J north by east of Campbelltown; and 
32 south-east of Oban. It is situated on a small bay 
on the north-east side, and within 5 miles of the head 
of Loch-Fyne, where the Aray falls into that arm of 
the sea. It is a small town, consisting chiefly of one 
street, running nearly east and west, in the centre 
of which stands the church, and another row of 
houses which face the bay. The population, in 1831, 
was 1,117; in 1821, 1,137. The houses are well- 
built, and covered with slate. There are two very 
good inns. The old town — which was a dirty ill- 
built village, situated on the north side of the bay, 
on the lawn immediately before the castle — was re- 
moved to its present situation, about half-a-mile from 
the castle, and the greater part rebuilt by Archibald, 
Duke of Argyle. It seems probable, that, prior to 
the beginning of the 14th century, Inverary was little 
more than a place for fishermen, who lived by their 
occupation, and erected their huts here. About 
that period, the family of Argyle fixed upon it as 
their place of residence ; and, as the hereditary juris- 
dictions of sheriff and justiciary were vested in that 
family, it became of consequence the seat of the 
courts and the county-town. It was erected into a 




royal burgli by charter from Charles I., dated at 
Carisbrook castle, in the isle tef Wight, 28th Jan- 
uary, 1648. The territory of the burgh lies within 
the following boundaries, viz. : " The burn called 
the Cromalt, at the south; the green and yard-dykes 
of the Duke of Argyle's house of Inverary, the lands 
of Kilmahew, and the burn of Auchareoch, respec- 
tively, on the north ; Loch-Fyne, on the east ; and 
the Duke's park-dyke, and the common muir, re- 
spectively, on the west part." The whole territory, 
with the exception of one small feu, belongs in pro- 
perty to the Duke of Argyle. The inhabitants hold 
the houses and ground within burgh under leases 
from his Grace, or as tenants at will. His Grace, 
from the terms of the entail of his estate, cannot 
give leases for a longer period than 19 years. The 
burgh-territory, as described in the charter, extends 
beyond the parliamentary boundaries. By the char- 
ter, the council is declared to consist of a provost, 4 
bailies, a dean-of-guild, treasurer, and 12 councillors. 
It has, however, been the invariable usage, for the 
last forty years, to elect only 2 bailies. It has also 
been the custom to elect one or more honorary coun- 
cillors, but this was considered a mere compliment to 
the persons elected, who seldom or never attended a 
meeting of council. The right of election was vest- 
ed by the charter in the inhabitants, and they were 
to elect the provost from a leet of 3, and the 
bailies from a leet of 12 persons. These leets were 
to be furnished by the Duke; and if he failed to 
do so, the burgh was entitled to elect its own magis- 
trates for that year. The practice, previous to 3° and 
4° William IV. c. 76, had always been for the old 
council annually to choose the succeeding or new coun- 
cil. The only revenues of the burgh arise from the 
right of ferrying passengers and cattle to the opposite 
side of the loch, which is now leased at £40 per an- 
num, certain petty customs, and the rent of a common, 
called the muir of Auchenbreck; both these last pro- 
duce about £120 sterling annually. In 1750 Duke 
Archibald, seeing how inadequate this revenue was 
for the occasions of the burgh, added to it a perpet- 
ual annuity of £20, secured on his estate of Stron- 
shira. The total revenue, in 1839-40, was £157. 
Inverary unites with Ayr, Irvine, Campbelltovvn, 
and Oban, in returning a member to parliament. 
The parliamentary and municipal constituency, in 

1840, was 55 The chief support of the place is the 

herring-fishery, which appears to have subsisted here 
from time immemorial. Its harbour was anciently 
called Slochk Inhopper, 'the Gullet where vessels 
barter fish;' and the arms of the town represent a 
net with a herring, with the motto, ' Semper tibi 
pendeat halec' It appears also, that the merchants 
of France were in use to come here and barter their 
wines for herrings ; and a point of land, called the 
Frenchman's point, is stated by tradition to have 
been the place where the merchants transacted their 

affairs Near the centre of the town is a monument 

erected to the memory of several gentlemen of the 
name of Campbell, who were put to death during 
Montrose's inroad into Argyle, on a spot near the 
present castle, marked by a rude pillar of unhewn 

INVERAVEN, a parish partly in Morayshire, 
stretching from the river Spey to the borders of 
Aberdeenshire, but chiefly in Banffshire; bounded 
on the north by Mortlach and Aberlour; on the east 
by Cabrach; and on the south and west by Crom- 
dale and Kirkmichael. Its form is irregular, taper- 
ing towards the north- west. Length about 20 miles ; 
breadth from 4 to 9. Houses 537. Assessed property, 
in 1815, £5,470. Population, in 1801, 2,107 ; in 1831, 
2,648. The river Livet intersects this parish, rising 
from numerous sources within its limits, and flowing 

north- west wardly through the celebrated Glenlivet 

which occupies a considerable portion of this parish 

to the Aven, whence the name Inveraven is derived. 
The Aven, however, only skirts the parish on the 
west, in its course to the Spey, which runs across 
the north-western boundary: See article The Aven. 
Most part of this parish consists of moor and moun- 
tain, giving the district a bleak aspect, except along 
the banks of the rivers where the land is arable, and 
occasionally adorned with attractive and picturesque 
scenery. Much waste land, however, has been re- 
deemed, particularly in Glenlivet, where the Gordon 
estate is being rapidly brought into a good state of 
cultivation. On the banks of the Spey here, there is 
a considerable extent of oak wood, and copses of 
birch and alder abound on the banks of the rivers in 
general. Inveraven-Proper is studded with planta- 
tions. The woods of Ballindalloch are extensive, 
and contain some noble trees, particularly two spruce 
firs near the mansion-house, and a number of splen- 
did trees adorning the lawn. Roe deer are numerous 
on this estate, and game is abundant throughout the 
parish. Benrinnes [see article Aberlour] is partly 
in this parish. On its top is a small basin usually filled 
with water, and a cave in which Grant of Carrion — 
' James of the Hill'. — is said to have made his hiding- 
place. The chief mineral production of this parish is 
the peculiar limestone of Glenlivet, imbedded in 
gneiss. It is extensively burnt with peat by the far- 
mers. Many of the houses here — two storied and 
slated — are of a highly respectable order. The house 
of Ballindalloch is an excellent specimen of the an- 
cient Scottish stronghold. It consists of a square 
building flanked by three circular towers, the central 
and largest of which, containing the gateway, is sur- 
mounted by a square watch-tower, called the Cape 
house, built in 1602. Two extensive wings were 
added in the beginning of the 18th century. Kil- 
marchlie is a venerable mansion, very appropriately 
adorned with ancient firs, the trunk of one of which 
measures no less than 11 feet in circumference at the 
base. At Blairfeldy are the ruins of a hunting-seat 
of the Earls of Huntly, and at the confluence of the 
Livet with the Aven are the ruins of the ancient 
castle of Drumin. There are traces of three Druid- 
ical temples in the parish. The old bridge over the 
Livet at Upper Downan was destroyed by the great 
floods of 1829 ; but in 1835 an elegant one was built 
a little further up the river. Three miles higher up 
is Tomnavoulen bridge. Over the Aven at Crag- 
Achrochan, and over the rapid burn of Tommore there 
are also bridges.. — This parish is in the presbytery of 
Aberlour, and synod of Moray. Patron, the Earl of 
Seafield. Stipend £238 17s. lid. ; glebe £7. Un- 
appropriated tiends £138 16s. 7d. Church built in 
1806 ; sittings 550. It is situated on the brink of 

the river Spey The inhabitants of Glenlivet are 

superintended by a missionary employed by the Gen- 
eral Assembly. Church rebuilt in 1825 ; sittings 300. 
This mission has been in operation since 1727. The 
population of the mission-district, in 1836, consisted 
of 839 individuals belonging to the Established 
church, and 1,118 Roman Catholics. — A Roman 
Catholic congregation has existed in the parish 
time immemorial, — in 1829 it was subdivided into 
two. Chapel at Tombae built in 1829; sittings 567. 
The other congregation is at Chapeltown of Glen- 
livet Schoolmaster's salary £29, with £21 fees, 

and other emoluments, besides a share of the Dick 
bequest. There are 5 private schools in the parish. 


INVERBROTHOCK, a quoad sacra parish, 
comprehending the suburbs of the town of Arbroath, 
and surrounding Arbroath parish on the east, north, 
and north-west, on the coast of Forfarshire. It is 




in the presbytery of Arbroath, and synod of Angus 
and Mearns, and was disjoined by the presbytery, in 
1834, from the parish of St. Vigeans. According to 
an ecclesiastical census, taken partly in 1835 and 
partly in 1836, the population then was 4,759; of 
whom 3,435 belonged to the establishment, 967 
were dissenters, and 357 were not known to be con- 
nected with any religious body. The whole popula- 
tion, except a very few families, are of the labouring 
classes. The church was built in 1828, at a cost of 
about £2,200; sitting 1,224. Stipend £175 — There 
are in the parish two dissenting places of worship. 
The Wesleyan Methodist congregation was estab- 
lished in 1770; and their chapel was built in 1772. 
Sittings 405. Stipend £113 4s.; but variable ac- 
cording to the domestic circumstances of the minis- 
ter. The Original Seceder congregation was formed 

in 1805. Their place of worship was built in 1821, 
and cost about £500. Sittings 450. Stipend £70, 
with £10 for house-rent. 

INVERCAULD. See Braemar. 

INVERCHAOLAIN, a parish in the district of 
Cowal, in Argyleshire; about 15 miles in greatest 
length, and 8 in greatest breadth. It is bounded on 
the north-west by Kilmorlan ; on the north-east by 
Kilmun ; on the south-east by Dunoon; and on the 
south-west by the East Kyle of Bute. It is inter- 
sected for 8 miles by Loch-Striven, an arm of the 
sea, and watered by a small rivulet which flows into 
the head of the loch. The surface is for the most 
part rugged. A ridge of mountains rises with a steep 
ascent all along the coast. In some places there are 
small flat fields nigh the shore ; but, for the most 
part, the ascent from the sea is immediate. About 
half-a-mile inland, the soil is thin and sandy, only 
adapted for pasturage. All the mountains formerly 
were covered with heath, but many of them are now 
clothed with a rich sward of grass, since the intro- 
duction of sheep. There is a considerable extent of 
natural wood, which forms an article of importance 
to the proprietors. The only plantations are around 
the seats of South-hall and Knockdow. Tradition 
mentions a battle which took place in this parish, 
during the reign of Robert III., and many graves 
and cairns are said to point out the places where the 
bodies of the fallen were interred. The small island 
of Eallangheirrig [which see] is in this parish. 
Population, in 1801, 626; in 1831, 596. Assessed 

property, in 1815, £4,137. Houses, in 1831, 105 

This parish, formerly a vicarage, is in the presbytery 
of Dunoon, and synod of Argyle. Patron, the Mar- 
quess of Bute. Stipend £169 19s. 5d. ; glebe £13 
10s. Church built in 1812; sittings 250. The min- 
ister officiates at least once in the six weeks at Strone, 

and occasionally at Loch-Strivenhead There are 

two parochial, and two private schools within the 
parish. The principal schoolmaster has 400 merks 
per annum, the other 200 merks. Their school-fees 
amount to about £10. 

INVERESK, a parish in the extreme north-east 
of Edinburghshire ; bounded on the north by the 
frith of Forth ; on the east by Haddingtonshire ; on 
the south-east by Cranston ; on the south by Dal- 
keith ; on the south-west by Newtown ; and on the 
west by Libberton and Duddingston. But for a con- 
siderable projection on the south-east, its form would 
be nearly that of a half-moon, the straight side or 
chord being on the north. Its extreme measurement, 
from West Pans on the north to the limestone quarry 
south of Chalkyside on the south, is 3.i miles ; and, 
from St. Clement's wells' distillery on the east to an 
angle west of Whitehill mines on the west, is 3j 
miles ; but, north and south on the parallel of Mus- 
selburgh, it is only 2| miles, and east and west along 
the coast only 2 miles and 3 furlongs. The situa- 

tion of this parish is one of the most delightful in 
Scotland ; and its surface one of the most beautiful. 
Along the shore strt.*ches a broad belt of pleasant 
and fertile downs, formed by the subsidence of the 
sea, and only a few feet above the level of high- 
water, furnishing a charming field for the favourite 
exercises of golf and walking. Behind this plain — 
which is about half-a-mile in breadth — the surface 
rises in a very slow ascent of verdant fields and highly 
cultivated soil, variegated with soft and irregular 
undulations, and sending up across the south-western 
projection or extremity the hills of Fallside and Car- 
berry, 540 feet above sea-level. Beginning at the 
eastern extremity, the ascent immediately behind the 
plain, extends westward in a swelling curve to the 
beautiful rising ground, called the Hill of Inveresk, 
on which has stood, from time immemorial, the par- 
ish-church, commanding a most brilliant prospect, 
and forming itself, in its present form, with its tall 
and elegant spire, an attractive object from many 
points of view, in a limited but opulent part of the 
exulting landscape of the Lothians. This rising 
ground — which is about § of a mile from the sea, and 
a little westward of mid-distance between the eastern 
and the western boundaries — has the form of a cres- 
cent, with the concave side toward the south, and 
the rich vale of the river Esk ploughed curvingly 
round its southern and its western base; and, though 
of very inconsiderable elevation above the level of 
the sea, it has so free an exposure on all sides, ex- 
cept the east, as both to seem conspicuous from a 
little distance, and to command, for the town which 
hangs on its sides, delightful prospects and healthful 
ventilation. On the concave side, in particular, the 
clustering town, with its adjacent ornamental woods 
and sloping gardens and elegant villas, gives to the 
view from its south side one of the finest village- 
landscapes in Britain ; and, in its turn, commands 
such* a prospect of the luxuriant haugh and beautiful 
water-course of the Esk, and the splendid demesne 
of Dalkeith-house, and an expanse of richly clothed 
country stretching away to the Moorfoot hills, as 
affords an almost perennial feast to the taste. The 
situation of the village, and of places adjacent, is 
as healthy as it is agreeable, and long ago obtained 
for the locality the name of the MontpeGer of Scot- 
land. — The river Esk, combining just at the point 
of entering the parish the waters of the North 
Esk and the South Esk, [see these articles], 
comes in on the demesne of Dalkeith-house from 
the south, and bisects the parish into consider- 
ably unequal parts, in a beautifully winding course 
northward to the sea between Musselburgh and 
Fisherrow. An unimportant rill begins to touch 
the parish a few yards from its source in Had- 
dingtonshire, and forms the eastern boundary over 
a distance of 2| miles to the sea. The celebrated 
Pinkie burn rises a little south-east of Inveresk 
hill, and flows first northward and then north-west- 
ward to the Esk, between Musselburgh and the 
sea ; but being little more than a mile in length of 
course, it derives all its interest from historical asso- 
ciation with the disastrous battle to which it gave 
name. Pinkerton burn comes in upon the parish 
from the south-west, and flows 1| mile north-east- 
ward to the Esk near Monkton hall. Springs, 
though none of a medicinal kind, are abundant, and 

supply the parish with excellent water The soil, 

on the flat grounds round Musselburgh and Fisher- 
row, is sandy, but having been for ages in a high 
state of cultivation for gardens and small fields, 
is abundantly fertile; on the fields above Inveresk, 
on both sides of the river, it is of a better quality ; 
and toward the highest ground on the south-eastern 
district it is clayey, and, when properly managed, 



-carries heavy crops of grain, especially of wheat. 
Almost the whole surface of the parish exhibits a 
highly cultivated appearance, and is well-enclosed 
with stone fences or thriving hedges ; and, though 
probably less planted than comports with fulness of 
beauty and shelter, it is adorned on the south-west 
by the extensive woods of Buccleuch-park, and on 
the west by the fine plantations of New Hailes, and 
the rising woods of Drummore. Freestone abounds, 
and is worked in several quarries. Limestone also 
abounds, but is not much worked. Coal, of remark- 
able aggregate thickness of seam, of comparatively 
easy access, and of good quality, stretches beneath 
the whole parish. It is, at present, mined chiefly 
at Monkton-hall, New Craighall, and Edmonstone, 
and produces, with the labour of upwards of 550 
persons, nearly 55,000 tons a-year. Under Esk- 
grove-house, and terminating in the circumjacent 
plantation, is a subterranean aqueduct or tunnel, 
which was cut with enormous labour a little be- 
fore the middle of last century, as a channel for 
a stream drawn from the Esk to drive a wheel 
for draining the coal-mines at Pinkie. The manu- 
factures, fisheries, garden-produce, and commerce of 
the parish, are of considerable importance, and will 
be seen by reference to the articles on its towns and 
villages. The parish is signalized by some remark- 
able moral characteristics in those of its population 
who are connected with the fisheries of Fisherrow, 
and by fond attachment, on the part of its politer in- 
habitants, to the amusements of archery and golf. 
An ancient silver arrow is annually an object of 
competition on the links of Musselburgh to the 
Company of Royal Archers. The victor receives 
£1 10s. and a dozen of claret from the magistrates 
of Musselburgh, and is bound to append a medal of 
gold or silver to the arrow before the next year's 
competition. The arrow remains for a year in the 
victor's custody, and is regarded, even on its own 
account, as an object of no little interest, as it has 
attached to it an almost unbroken series of annual 
medals, back to the year 1603. The golf — so long a 
favourite and peculiar exercise of the Scotch — con- 
tinues to excite to the full as much interest in In- 
veresk as in any other of the few localities where it 
still continues in favour. Children are trained to it 
from their early years, incited by the attractive fit- 
ness for it of the links, and by the encouragement 
of their parents. To preserve the taste for it, a 
club of gentlemen was formed in 1760, and purchas- 
ed a handsome silver cup, which continues to be the 
object of an annual competition, and is disposed of 
nearly in the manner of the silver arrow of the arch- 
ers. But healthful and harmless as golfing is in 
itself, and cheeringly used by multitudes of exem- 
plary persons, it has unhappily become considerably 
associated with some vices which have much wither- 
ed its attractions Pinkie, Pinkie-House, and 

Carberry Hill, are objects of deep historical in- 
terest : see these articles. Carberry-house, on the 
northern slope of Carberry hill, in the south-eastern 
part of the parish, is a modernized mansion of un- 
known antiquity, and curiously combines, both in 
its exterior and in its interior, the massive and gloomy 
character of a baronial strength, with the spright- 
liness and comfort of a modern gentleman's seat. 
Monkton house, situated at the south-western verge 
of the parish, a mile west of the river Esk, is a mo- 
dern mansion, the seat of Sir John Hope of Pinkie ; 
but it has attached to it as farm-offices an ancient 
structure, reported to have been the erection and the 
favourite residence of the celebrated General Monk. 
Stonyhill-house, the property of the Earl of Wemyss, 
situated half-a-mile south-west of Fisherrow, seems, 
in its present form, to be the offices of an ancient 

mansion, which, in former times, was the property 
and the residence successively of Sir William Sharpe, 
the son of Archbishop Sharpe, and of the inglorious 
Colonel Charteris ; and it has remnants in its vicinity, 
especially a huge buttressed garden-wall, of fit ac- 
companiments of a very ancient mansion. New Hailes, 
formerly the seat of Sir David Dalrymple Lord 
Hailes, the distinguished historiographer and anti- 
quarian, situated near the western boundary, about 
half-a-mile from the sea, is attractive on account of 
its containing his lordship's very valuable library, of 
its being surrounded with a beautifully disposed de- 
mesne, and of its having in its immediate vicinity a 
columnar monument to the great Earl of Stair. — 
Besides the eminent persons incidentally mentioned, 
the parish claims either as natives or as domesticated 
inhabitants, Logan the poet, Professor Stuart and 
his son Gilbert, and David Macbeth Moir, Esq., the 
well-known 'Delta' of Blackwood, in the walks 
of literature; Walker, Burnet, and the Ritchies, 
in the fine arts ; and Sir Ralph Abercrombie, Lord 
Clive, Major- General Stirling, and Admiral Sir 
David Milne, in the walks of warlike enterprise. 
— Antiquities of an interesting kind occur ; but they 
chiefly fall to be noticed in the article Musselburgh. 
The beautiful hill of Inveresk, so exquisitely adapted 
to their object, did not escape the notice of the Ro- 
mans as a fit place for fortifying their hold of the 
circumjacent part of their province of Valentia. 
Repeated exposure of ruins, the finding of coins, and 
some hints in history, indicate their having covered 
the whole northern face of the rising ground with 
fortifications. Even the site of the pretorium has 
been conclusively traced to the summit or apex of 

the hill now occupied by the parish-church . 

Besides the village of Inveresk, the parish contains 
the towns of Musselburgh and Fisherrow, and 
the villages of Newbigging, Westpans, Wall- 
ford, and Craighall : which see. Craighall pro- 
perly is two villages, Old and New, containing jointly 
a population of nearly 1,000, almost all of whom are 
colliers and their families. Newbigging is strictly a 
suburb of Musselburgh ; and extending lengthways, 
or in the form of a street between it and Inveresk, it 
entails even upon the latter a suburban character. 
Inveresk consists chiefly of cottages, ornees, villas, 
and neat houses, all of modern structure, concatena- 
ted on both sides of a round along Inveresk hill, com- 
mencing with the parish-church and Inveresk-house, 
the property of Sir D. Milne, at the west end, sweep- 
ing gracefully round the concavity of the rising 

ground a curve corresponding to a beautiful bend in 

the Esk — and extending altogether to a length of 900 
yards, or about half-a-mile. The tout-ensemble, 
however, presents the aspect rather of a pleasing and 
rapidly occurring series of rural and gardened dwell- 
ings, than of compact or continuous ranges of build- 
ings. — Both here and in Newbigging are houses — 
highly recommended by the salubriousness of the cli- 
mate, and the sweet beauty of the scenery — for the 
reception and restorative treatment of lunatics — The 
church is a lumpish edifice, built about the beginning 
of the present century, and originally looking more 
like a huge barn than an ecclesiastical edifice. To 
relieve the ungainliness of its appearance, a spire was 
afterwards added, so beautiful as to have been pro- 
posed though not eventually followed — as a model 

in the erection of the exquisitely fine spire of St. 
Andrew's church in Edinburgh. What the present 
church of Inveresk — for it is not a little spacious — 
has gained in the truly useful and paramountly im- 
portant property of extensiveness of accommodation, 
it has irretrievably lost in the properties which most 
deeply interest the antiquarian. Its predecessor was 
an edifice of which its last and enlightened incum- 




lient, the Rev. Dr. Oarlyle, speaks with enthusiasm. 
The church was dedicated to St. Michael, and was 
built, as Dr. Carlyle supposes, soon alter the intro- 
duction of Christianity, out of the ruins of the Roman 
fort, the site of whose pretorium it usurped. In its 
main part, it was 102 feet long, and only 23 feet wide 
within the walls ; but it had four aisles, two on each 
side, built at different periods ; and, in its ends, it 
had double rows of galleries. So antique a structure, 
though ill suited to the legitimate objects of a mo- 
dern place of worship, would now be a feast to the 
eye which loves to look upon the venerable monu- 
ments of a far-away age. In minds of the best and 
most hallowed cast, too, it would excite a thrill of 
emotion, from the associated idea of its having 
been ministered in by the reformer Wishart on 
the eve of his martyrdom. In 1745, the army of 
the Chevalier erected a battery in the churchyard, 
but abandoned it on their commencing their march 
toward England. — The parish is cut from west to 
east near the shore, through Fisherrow and Mussel- 
burgh, by the great mail-road from Edinburgh to 
London ; it is traversed by a part of the Edinburgh 
and Dalkeith railway, and contains the inclined plane 
of the railway passing New Hailes, Fisherrow, and 
Craighall ; and is, in other respects, as to both sea 
and land, abundantly provided with means of com- 
munication Population of the parish, in 1801, 

6,600; in 1831, 8,961. Houses 1,154. Assessedpro- 
perty, in 1815, £24,519. — Inveresk is in the presby- 
tery of Dalkeith, and synod of Lothian and Tweed- 
dale. Patron, the Duke of Buccleuch. Stipend 
£324 lis. 3d.; glebe £22. Unappropriated teinds 
£2,034 lls.8d. An assistantand successor has £150 
salary, paid by the minister. An assistant, addi- 
tional to the assistant and successor, receives £26 
18s. from an endowment and seat-rents, and holds 
the office of session-clerk at an emolument of from 

£35 to £40. Sittings in the parish-church 2,400 

A quoad sacra parish called North Esk, comprehend- 
ing all the portion of the parliamentary burgh of 
Musselburgh which lies west of the river Esk, and 
containing, in 1838, a population of 3,466, was re- 
cently erected. The parish-church, situated in 
Fisherrow, was built in 1838. Sittings 1,000 In- 
veresk, quoad civilia, had, according to ecclesiastical 
survey in 1838, 8,542 inhabitants, of whom 5,876 
were churchmen, and 2,666 were dissenters. The 
dissenters are of six classes, and have their places of 

worship in Musselburgh The Relief congregation 

was established in 1783. Sittings in their chapel 
800. Stipend £120 The United Secession con- 
gregation was established in 1765. Their church 
was rebuilt in 1820, at a cost of £1,200. Sittings 
600. In 1838 there were two ministers. Salary of 
the senior £52, with house and garden, and £10 for 
sacramental expenses ; of the junior £100, with £15 
for house rent — The Independent congregation was 
established in 1799. The church was built in 1800, 
and cost, including subsequent alterations, not less 
than £1,200. Sittings 320 The Scottish Episco- 
palian congregation dates back to 1688. The chapel 
was built about 42 years ago, at a cost of £600. 
Sittings about 200. Stipend about £80, but vari- 
able — The Wesleyan Methodist congregation was 
established in 1828. The chapel was built about the 
year 1833, at a cost of about £500. Sittings 250. 
The pulpit is served by local preachers from Edin- 
burgh, who officiate gratuitously A congregation 

of local character, and no extraneous connection, was 
formed in 1839, by a disruption of the United Seces- 
sion congregation Since the summer of 1835, a 

missionary has been employed to visit the parishion- 
ers who are most destitute of religious instruction. 
The committee of management consists of members 

of the Relief, United Secession, and Independent 
congregations. The funds are raised principally by 
subscriptions from persons of all denominations. 

Missionary's salary £50 There are in the parish 21 

schools, conducted by 34 teachers, and attended by 
a maximum of 1,114 scholars, and a minimum of 
1 ,048. None of them are parochial ; but the rector 
of a grammar-school, and the teachers of two Eng- 
lish schools, receive from the town-council of Mus- 
selburgh salaries respectively of £27 5s. 4d., £20, 
and £10. At the grammar-school, two boarding- 
schools, and an academy, all the branches of a clas- 
sical and commercial education are taught. 

At the epoch to which record goes back, there were 
two manors of Inveresk, — Great Inveresk and Little 
Inveresk. Malcolm Canmore and his queen Mar- 
garet granted Little Inveresk to the monks of Dun- 
fermline. David I. gave to the same monks Great 
Inveresk, which included the burgh and port of Mus- 
selburgh, and he gave them also the church of Inver- 
esk, with its tithes and other pertinents. The 
monks got " a free warren" established within the 
manors by Alexander II. ; and they had, in virtue of 
David I.'s grants, a baronial jurisdiction over them, 
which they afterwards got enlarged into a regality. 
The church was in early times of great value ; and 
even the vicars who served it, while the monks en- 
joyed the revenues of the parsonage, appear, among 
men of consequence, as witnesses to many charters. 
In the church were several endowed altars, with their 
respective chaplains. In Musselburgh were anciently 
three chapels, one of them of great note for the pilgri- 
mages made to it, and its historical associations, and 
dedicated to " Our Lady of Loretto:" See Mussel- 
burgh. Within the grounds of New Hailes was an- 
other chapel, dedicated to Mary Magdalene. From 
this chapel, Magdalene-bridge, and the hamlet of 
Magdalene-Pans, corruptly called Maitland-bridge, 
and Maitland-Pans, at the north-western angle of 
the parish, have their name. The patronage of the 
church, and of its various subordinate chaplainries, 
and the lordship and regality of Musselburgh, or of 
the whole of the ancient Great Inveresk and Little 
Inveresk, were granted by James VI. to his Chan- 
cellor, Lord Thirlestane, the progenitor of the Earls 
of Lauderdale. Much of this vast estate, notwith- 
standing the profusion of the noted Duke of Lauder- 
dale and the dangers of forfeiture, came down to Earl 
John, who died in 1710. From him Anne, Duchess 
of Buccleuch and Monmouth, purchased, in 1709, the 
whole property, with some inconsiderable exceptions. 

INVEREY (The), a branch of the Aberdeenshire 
Dee descending from the mountains on the southern 
skirts of Braemar, and flowing into the Dee a little 
above Mar bridge. The ruins of Inverey castle are 
still visible, a little to the right of the mouth of the 

INVERFARRAKAIG (Pass of), a beautiful 
defile leading from Loch-Ness, across Stratherrick, 
into Strathnairn. 

INVERGARRY-CASTLE, an ancient strong- 
hold of the Macdonalds on the banks of Loch-Oich, 
near the mouth of the Garry, 7^ miles from Fort- 
Augustus. It consists of an oblong square of five 
stories, of which the walls only are now standing, the 
whole having been sacked and burnt after the rebel- 
lion in 1745. Near to it is the modern mansion-house 
of Glengarry, a plain, narrow, high-roofed building. 

INVERGORDON, a village in Ross-shire, in the 
parish of Rosskeen, on the north side of the frith of 
Cromarty, over which there is a regular ferry to In- 
verbreckie. It has a good harbour, having 16 feet 
water at spring- tides, and 13 at neap, and a fine 
sandy shore, where vessels may safely deliver their 
cargoes. It is 12 miles from Dingwall. 




INVERGOWRIE, a village pleasantly situated at 
the head of a little bay, formed by the influx of hi- 
vergowrie burn to the frith of Tay, in the parish of 
Liff, Forfarshire ; 2| miles west of Dundee ; and 19J 
miles east of Perth. Besides offering facilities for the 
landing of lime and coals from the opposite coast of 
Fife, this little port is of some historical note as a place 
of royal embarkation. Alexander I. having had a 
donation made to him at his baptism of the adjacent 
lands of Invergowrie and Liff, by his godfather, the 
Earl of Gowrie, began, as soon as he succeeded to 
the throne, to build a palace in the vicinity ; but 
some of his people from Mearns and Morayshire 
having formed a conspiracy, and attacked him in his 
newly-finished residence, he took shipping at the vil- 
lage, and sailed away to the southern parts of his 
kingdom to gather forces for quieting and punishing 
the north. In expression of his gratitude for having 
escaped the conspirators, he made over to the monks 
of Scoon, in dotem et glebam, the lands of Invergow- 
rie and Liff. These lands, in the usual style of an- 
cient manors, had their respective churches. The 
church of Invergowrie is remarkable for being tradi- 
tionally reported to have been the earliest Christian 
structure north of the Tay. The original edifice is 
said to have been built at the village in the 7th cen- 
tury, by Boniface, a legate or missionary, who landed 
there with some attendants from Rome, and who 
afterwards penetrated the interior of Forfarshire, and 
founded various other churches. Apparently a much 
later erection than the original one survives in the 
form of a common-place mouldering ruin, half-covered 
with ivy, near the brink of the water. The church- 
yard is on an eminence, a mound of singular shape, 
washed on one side by the Tay. From the variety 
of mould which is turned up in digging, all or great 
part of the mound is supposed to be forced earth. 

INVERGOWRIE BURN, a rivulet on the south- 
western extremity of Forfarshire. What strictly 
wears the name is a stream of only half-a-mile in 
length, forming, in the carse of Gowrie, the boun- 
dary-line between the parishes of Liff and Longfor- 
gan, in the counties respectively of Forfar and Perth ; 
but it consists of the united waters of two streams, 
both of which possess some local importance. One 
of them rises immediately north of Dundee-law, and 
flows 3 miles due west, and then nearly a mile south, 
passing through Locheye, and tracing for some dis- 
tance the boundary between the parishes of Dundee 
and Liff. The other stream rises in the parish of 
Fowlis Easter, in Perthshire, flows 2f miles south- 
eastward to Forfarshire, traces for half-a-mile south- 
ward the division-line of the counties, receives from 
the west a stream of 2| miles length of course, run- 
ning most of the distance also on the division-line, 
and then flows 1J mile south-eastward, to a junction 
with the branch stream from the east. Invergowrie 
burn, in the months of March and April, contains 
excellent sea-trout. 

INVERKEILOR, a parish nearly in the centre of 
the maritime district of Forfarshire. It is bounded 
on the north by Kinnell and Lunan ; on the east by 
the German ocean; on the south by St. Vigean's; and 
on the west by Carmylie and Kirkden. It measures 
in extreme length from east to west 7 J miles ; in 
extreme breadth i\ miles ; and in superficial area 
6,100 Scottish acres. From its east end, where it is 
4^ miles broad, it suddenly contracts to 1| ; and, 
having re-expanded, nearly at its middle, to 4| miles, 
it again suddenly contracts, and maintains to its west 
end an average breadth of 2 miles. Keilor burn, 
from which the parish has its name, rises on the 
southern boundary, and for 1£ mile flows along it 
eastward; and then runs along it If mile, still east- 
ward, through the expanded coast-district of the par- 

ish, to Lunan bay. Lunan water comes in from the 
west; forms for 12 mile the boundary-line with Kin- 
nell ; flows 3 miles across the expanded northern 
wing of the parish ; traces for 2 miles the boundary 
with Lunan ; and falls into the sea at Redcastle. 
In its progress it turns the wheels of numerous mills ; 
it flows with a clear current, and as it approaches the 
sea, frolics in many beautiful sinuosities ; formerly 
it abounded with fine trouts, and had some pike, but 
is now more scanty in its fishy treasures. Gighty 
burn comes down from the north-east, forms for 2£ 
miles the boundary-line with Kinnell, and, falling 
into the Lunan, has its waters carried away in a 
direction not far from being opposite to that of its 
former course. The coast, including sinuosities, is 
between 5 and 6 miles in extent, and makes a consi- 
derable recession, orer a distance of 2J miles from 
the northern limit, to admit the waters of Lunan 
bay. Along this bay — which, except in easterly 
winds, affords a safe anchorage for ships — the coast 
is flat, sandy, and overgrown with bent; but thence 
southward, it is high and rocky, and, in its progress, 
sends out the remarkable headland called Redhead : 
which see. Northward of Lunan water, the surface 
of the parish rises in a beautiful gently ascending 
bank of good arable land ; between the Lunan and 
the Keilor, it recedes from the coast away westward, 
in a level expanse of fertile ground; and south of the 
Keilor, it gradually rises into heights which slightly 
partake the character of the southern part of the 
coast. The soil varies, but is, in geneVal, dry and 
fertile ; and the air — though liable in April and May 
to be laden with fogs — is, on the whole, pure and 
salubrious. About 270 imperial acres are under 
plantation ; about 1 26 are scarcely, if at all, fit for 
cultivation; and all the rest of the surface is arable 
ground. At Leys mill, in the extreme west, is a 
quarry for what are called Arbroath-stones [see For- 
farshire], which are here dressed by machinery 
propelled by steam. At Redhead is an inexhaustible 
quarry of fine freestone ; and below the rocks, Scots 
pebbles, some possessing the colour and density of an 
amethyst, have been numerously gathered. On the 
coast, at the south end of Lunan-bay, is a fishing 
hamlet called Ethie- Haven ; but it is a desolate 
place, and threatens soon to be totally abandoned. 
On the sands of Lunan bay, and on the estate of 
Ethie to the south, are considerable salmon-fisheries. 
In various localities are five flax spinning-mills — 
Anniston, Kinblythmont, and Lawton, are agreeable 
country-mansions. The village of Inverkeilor, situ- 
ated near Lunan water contains a population of 
about 150. The parish is traversed from south to 
north, at nearly its narrowest part, by the mail-road 
from Edinburgh by way of Dundee to Aberdeen; and 
has, in its west end, 2 miles of the turnpike between 
Arbroath and Forfar ; and is minutely intersected in 
every direction with cross roads. — On an eminence, 
at the mouth of Lunan water, stands a venerable 
ruin, called Redcastle. Chalmers, in his Caledonia, 
ascribes the erection of it to Walter de Berkeley, 
called the Lord of Redcastle, in the reign of William 
the Lion. But tradition asserts it to have been built 
by King William himself, and to have been used as a 
royal hunting-seat ; and it seems to be aided in its 
verdict by the names of some localities in the neigh- 
bourhood, — Kinblythmont, being a contraction of 
Kings-blythe-mount, and Court-hill and Hawk-hill 
being names still in use. In the coast wing of the 
parish, south of Keilor burn, stands Ethie-house, 
the seat of the Earl of Northesk, built and inha- 
bited by Cardinal Beaton. About a mile north- 
east of it on the coast, are the ruins of a religious 
house called St. Murdoch's chapel, in which the 
monks of Arbroath officiated. At a place called 




Chapeltown, nearly 3 miles west of the village of 
Inverkeilor, are remains of the chapelry of Quyte- 
field, now the burying-place of the family of Boysack. 
On the lands of the Earl of Northesk, and on those 
of Sir. Carnegie, are vestiges of Danish camps ; and 
those of the latter lands are near a farm-house which 
seems to have borrowed from them its remarkable 
name of Denmark. — Population of the parish, in 
1801, 1,704; in 1831, 1,655. Houses 357. Assess. 

ed property, in 1815, £8,101 Inverkeilor is in 

the presbytery of Arbroath, and synod of Angus and 
Mearns. Patron, the Crown. Stipend £246 14s. 
5d. ; glebe £8 15s. Unappropriated teinds £182 
2s. 5d. The parish-church was built in 1 735, en- 
larged in 1799, and, a few years ago, repaired. Sit- 
tings 703. The parish has a savings bank, and a 
library, — the latter chiefly religious. There are two 
schools. Parish-schoolmaster's salary £2.5 7s. lid., 
with fees, a house and garden, and £10 other emolu- 
ments. A portion of the parish, at its west end, con- 
taining a population of 249, was disjoined in 1835, 
and along with a large portion from the conterminous 
parish of Kirkden, erected into the quoad sacra par- 
ish of Friockbeim. 

INVERKEITHING, a parish in Fifeshire, con- 
sisting of the ancient parish of that name, and of the 
parish of Rosyth, which were conjoined in 1636. 
The form of the parish is somewhat like that of the 
letter L reversed,— the base of the letter being form- 
ed by that portion of the parish which lies along the 
shore of the Forth. This part of the parish is about 
4 miles in length from east to west ; and varies, ex- 
cept at the east end, from about a quarter of a mile 
to about a mile-and-a-half in breadth. At the east 
end, a peninsula runs toward the south into the frith, 
at the extremity of which is North- Queensferry; the 
parish here extends for upwards of 4 miles towards 
the north, between the parishes of Dunfermline and 
Dalgetty, but scarcely exceeding in any place half-a- 
mile in breadth. It is bounded on the south by the 
Forth ; on the east by Dalgetty and Aberdour ; on 
the north by Beath and Dunfermline ; and on the 
west by Dunfermline. The island of Inchgarvie, 
about half-way across the frith, is in the parish. 
Population, in 1801, 2,228; in 1831, 3,189.— The 
whole parish has been brought into a state of high 
cultivation, with the exception of the small portion 
which is under wood, and the higher acclivities of 
the hills, which are in pasture. The rent of land 
varies from £1 5s. to £4 per acre : the average rent 
being nearer the higher than the lower of these rates. 
The annual value of real property for which the par- 
ish was assessed in 1815, exclusive of the burgh, was 
£3,966 sterling. That for which the burgh was 
assessed, was £1,649 sterling. The valued rent is 
£6,866 Scots. Number of houses in the burgh 
and parish in 1831, 450. There are considerable 
quantities of green stone quarried in different places 
in the parish, for building, paving, and road-making. 
Sandstone is also quarried in two places ; there are 
also several limestone quarries. There is an exten- 
sive distillery in the parish, which employs about 80 
men. There are two foundries, in which large arti- 
cles are cast, and steam-engines and other machinery 
made ; a tan- work, a ship-building-yard, a salt- work, 
a magnesia manufactory, a fire-brick work, a bone- 
mill, two meal and flour-mills, and a barley-mill. A 
number of individuals are also employed in weaving 
for the Dunfermline manufacturers. The only vil- 
lages in the parish are North-Queensferry and 
Hillend : which see. — About a mile west of the 
burgh of Inverkeithing are the castle and lands of 
Rosyth, the property of the Earl of Hopetoun. 
Rosyth anciently belonged to a branch of the great 
family of Stuart, descended from James Stuart of 

Durrisdeer, brother-german to Walter the great 
steward of Scotland, father to Robert II., the first 
of the family who ascended the Scottish throne. The 
family of Stuart of Rosyth continued to flourish till 
about the beginning of last century, when, according 
to Sibbald, the last laird dying without issue and un- 
married, disponed the estate to a stranger, by whom 
it was sold to the Earl of Roseberry. The old cas- 
tle is situated on a rock on the shore, connected with 
the mainland by a causeway. All that now remains 
is a ruined square tower, which formed the north- 
eastern angle of what must have been a pretty large 
square building. Over the gateway is a defaced ar- 
morial bearing surmounted by a crown and M.R. 
1561. On the mullions of the great windows of the 
hall — which are obviously alterations on the original 
building — are the initials F. S. and M. N., and the 
date 1639. Upon the south side of the castle, near 
the door, is this inscription : — 


This ancient castle is alluded to by Sir Walter Scott 
in his novel of the Abbot; and the tradition is — 
though we know not on what authority — that the 

wife of Oliver Cromwell was born here The parish 

is in the presbytery of Dunfermline, and synod of 
Fife. Patroness, Lady Baird Preston. Stipend 
£263 8s. 2d.; glebe £40. The parish-church is 
situated in the centre of the burgh. It was built 
in 1826, in the pointed style, and accommodates 
about 1,000 sitters. The old church was burnt in 
October 1825. There is a chapel in connection with 
the United Associate Synod. — In the parish-school 
all the usual branches of education are taught. The 
teacher has the maximum salary, with a good dwell- 
ing-house, and an elegant school-house. There is 
a school for the higher and ornamental branches of 
education ; and there are 5 other schools which are 

The town of Inverkeithing is situated at the east 
end of the parish, on an eminence overlooking the 
bay which bears its name; and consists of a main 
street of considerable length, running north-east and 
south-west, and several lanes diverging from it, with 
a number of houses fronting the harbour, and a row 
called Preston-crescent, running between the East 
Ness and the harbour. A lazaretto is built on the 
point of the bay opposite the town, knowTi as the 
West Ness. The country round is open and agri- 
cultural. As a royal burgh it is of great antiquity ; 
the oldest existing charter being granted by William 
the Lion, confirming one of a previous date. This 
charter was confirmed by James VI. in 1598. The 
burgh is governed by a provost, 2 bailies, a dean-of- 
guild, a treasurer, 9 other councillors, and a town- 
clerk. This charter of James VI. contains a grant 
of customs from the great stone near Milnathort on 
the north, to the middle of the Forth on the south, 
and from the Water of Devon on the west, to the 
Water of Leven on the east ; and under this grant 
the town were in the habit of levying custom within 
the included territory. About 70 years ago the town 
sold the right of levying custom at Dysart to the 
town of Dysart; but they still levy customs both at 
Kinross and North- Queensferry. The charters to 
the town of Inverkeithing contain very considerable 
grants of land ; and their property at one time ex- 
tended to near the Crossgates, which is about 4 miles. 
They had also property at Ferryhill. These proper- 
ties may now be worth from £500 to £1,000 a-year, 
but they were feued for very small feu-duties, when 
in a state of nature, about or previous to the begin- 
ning of the last century. Besides the right of cus- 
toms above-mentioned, the present property of Inver- 




keitbing consists of the East and West loans and 
Bois acre, the Town-lane, one-third of the school 
and school-house, the stock-market, one- third of the 
parish-church, the town's mill and kiln, the Inner 
and Outer harbours, and certain debts due to the 
burgh. The revenue arising from these different 
sources, according to the accounts made up to the 
25th September, 1832, was as follows : — 

Rents, including royalty on coal, 1832, . £219 8 S 

Feu-duties, . ■ . . 86 6 4f 

Customs and market-dues, . . . 86 5 

Harbour and shore-dues, .... 156 9 6 
Casual income, . . £3 7 

Street manure, . £4t 12 

Off expense of collecting 
and cleaning, . 31 11 1£ 

£13 10i 

£16 7 10J 

£564 17 51 

The corporative-revenue in 1839-40, was £500 8s. 
8d. The property of the burgh was valued a few 
years ago at £7,437 10s. 5d. sterling, exclusive of the 
town-house and jail ; and the debts at £2,029 ster- 
ling. The burgh joins with Dunfermline, Stirling, 
Cnlross, and South-Queensferry, in sending a mem- 
ber to parliament. The parliamentary and municipal 
constituency in 1839-40 was 56. The town-house 
was built in 1770; and besides the town-hall, con- 
tains the jail, which is small and not very secure, but 
fortunately it is very little used except for locking 
up drunken people for a night. The church, the 
school-house, the stock grain-market, and a dissent- 
ing chapel, are all handsome buildings, which add to 
the appearance of the town. Five fairs are appoint- 
ed to be held yearly in the burgh, but they have long 
been merely nominal, no business being transacted at 
any of them. A weekly stock-market for the sale 
of grain, however, has been established, which is 
well-attended ; and a branch of the eastern bank of 
Scotland has been opened in the burgh. The har- 
bour is pretty good, though it might be deepened and 
greatly improved ; vessels of 200 tons burden can 
load and sail from it at spring-tides, but it is usually 
frequented by smaller vessels. There are at present 
20 vessels belonging to it, varying in burden from 20 
to 100 tons, which are chiefly employed in the coast- 
ing trade. A considerable number of foreign and 
English vessels load coal here, which is brought from 
the coal-work at Halbeath, by a railroad between 
that coal-work and the harbour. Various other coal- 
works ship their coal at this port; and when the 
proposed railroad from Lochgelly has been construct- 
ed, the coal-trade here will be greatly increased. 
In the town there are salt-pans, a distillery, and a 
brewery ; and in the immediate neighbourhood a 
magnesia work and a pottery. The number of in- 
habitants in the burgh, in 1831, was 2,020 The 

widowed queen of Robert III., the beautiful Arabella 
Drummond, resided for some time in Inverkeithing. 
She is said to have wished for a dwelling, from which 
she could behold the castle of Edinburgh, and made 
choice of a spot called Rottmell's Inns ; but how 
long she resided there, there is neither record nor 
tradition to tell. There is a tradition, however, that 
the queen had a private chapel in the Inns, for her- 
'self and her domestics. 

INVERKEITHNIE, a parish in the shire of Banff, 
bounded on the north by Marnoch, from which it is 
divided by the river Deveron, and in every other 
quarter by the shire of Aberdeen. It extends along 
the southern bank of the Deveron, about 6 miles in 
length, and measures from 1 to 4 miles in breadth. 
Houses 503. Assessed property, in 1815, £1,772. 
Population, in 1801, 503; in 1831, 589. This par- 
ish derives its name from the rivulet Keithnie, which 
intersects it from south to north, entering the De- 

veron near the parish-church and hamlet. At Boat ■ 
of-Inverkeithnie the Deveron is crossed by a bridge. 
This district is chiefly hilly. The soil is generally 
fertile and well-cultivated : much of it is in pasture. 
The Deveron's banks are beautifully wooded, but the 

parish possesses no object of particular interest It 

is in the presbytery of Turriff, and synod of Aber- 
deen. Patron, T. G. Bremner, Esq. Stipend £214 
18s. 3d. ; glebe £10. Schoolmaster's salary £30, 
with £21 18s. fees, and other emoluments. 


INVERLEITHEN. See Innerleithen. 

INVERLOCHY, a hamlet and castle on the east- 
ern shore of Loch-Eil, 2 miles from Fort- William. 
The estate of Inverlochy was purchased a few 
years back by the Marquis of Huntly from the trus- 
tees of the Duke of Gordon; and was recently sold 
for £75,150. Near the present hamlet, according to 
Boethius, was in former times an opulent city, re- 
markable for the vast resort of French and Spaniards, 
and also the seat of royalty. Here, as is reported, 
King Achaius signed, in 790, the league offensive 
and defensive betwixt himself and Charlemagne. In 
after times it was destroyed by the Danes, and never 
again restored. Nigh to where this fabulous city is 
represented to have stood is the ancient castle of 
Inverlochy. It stands alone, in solitary magnificence, 
after having seen the river Lochy, that formerly filled 
its ditches, run in another course, and outlived all his- 
tory and all tradition of its own builder and age. It 
is a quadrangular building, with round towers of three 
stories each at the angles; measuring 30 yards every 
way within the walls. The towers and ramparts are 
solidly built of stone and lime, 9 feet thick at the 
bottom, and 8 above. The towers are not entire, 
nor are they all equally high; the western is the 
highest and largest, and does not seem to have been 
less than 50 feet when entire ; the rampart or screen 
between them is from 25 to 30 feet in height. About 
12 yards from the exterior walls are the traces of a 
ditch, which has been from 30 to 40 feet broad. The 
whole building covers about 1,600 yards, and within 
the ditch there are 7,000 yards, or nearly an English 
acre and a half. From the name of the western tower, 
and other circumstances, it is probable this castle 
was occupied by the Cummings, in the time of Ed- 
ward I. of England, when that clan was at its zenith 
of power ; and, previous to that period, by the thanes 
of Lochaber, particularly by Bancho, or Banquo, the 
predecessor of the royal family of Stuart. A little 
below the castle is a pleasant walk still called Ban- 
cho's walk. 

Near this place the celebrated Marquis of Mon- 
trose signally defeated the Campbells under the 
Marquis of Argyle, in February, 1645. Montrose, 
after having retaliated upon Argyle and his people 
in a tenfold degree the miseries which he had oc- 
casioned in Lochaber and the adjoining coun- 
tries, left Argyle and Lorn, passing through Glencoe 
and Lochaber on his way to Loch-Ness. On his 
march eastwards he was joined by the laird of Aber- 
geldie, the Farquharsons of the Braes of Mar, and 
by a party of the Gordons. The object of Montrose, 
by this movement, was to seize Inverness — which was 
then only protected by two regiments — in the expec- 
tation that its capture would operate as a stimulus 
to the northern clans, who had not yet declared them- 
selves. While proceeding through Abertarf, a per- 
son arrived in great haste at Kilcummin — the present 
Fort-Augustus — who brought him the surprising in- 
telligence that Argyle had entered Lochaber with an 
army of 3,000 men ; that he was burning and laying 
waste the country, and that his head-quarters were 
at the old castle of Inverlochy. After Argyle had 
effected his escape from Inverary, he had gone to 



Dumbarton, where he remained till Montrose's de- 
parture from his territory. While there, a body of 
covenanting troops, who had served in England, ar- 
rived under the command of Major-General Baillie, 
for the purpose of assisting Argyle in expelling Mon- 
trose from his bounds ; but on learning that Montrose 
had left Argyle, and was marching through Glencoe 
and Lochaber, General Baillie, instead of proceeding 
into Argyle for the purpose of following Montrose, 
determined to lead his army in an easterly direction 
through the Lowlands, with the intention of inter- 
cepting Montrose, should he attempt a descent. At 
the same time it was arranged between Baillie and 
Argyle, that the latter, who had now recovered from 
his panic, in consequence of Montrose's departure, 
should return to Argyle and collect his men from 
their hiding-places and retreats ; but as it was not 
improbable that Montrose might renew his visit, the 
Committee of Estates allowed Baillie to place 1,100 
of his men at the disposal of Argyle, who, as soon as 
he was able to muster his men, was to follow Mon- 
trose's rear, yet so as to avoid an engagement, till 
Baillie, who, on hearing of Argyle's advance into 
Lochaber, was to march suddenly across the Gram- 
pians, should attack Montrose in front. To assist 
him in levying and organizing his clan, Argyle called 
over Campbell of Auchinbreck, his kinsman, from 
Ireland, who had considerable reputation as a mili- 
tary commander. In terms of his instructions, there- 
fore, Argyle had entered Lochaber, and had advanced 
as far as Inverlochy, when, as we have seen, the 
news of his arrival was brought to Montrose. The 
distance between the place where Montrose received 
the news of Argyle's arrival, and Inverlochy, is about 
30 miles ; but this distance was considerably increased 
by the devious track which Montrose followed. 
Marching along the small river Tarf in a southerly 
direction, he crossed the hills of Lairie-Thierard, 
passed through Glenroy, and after traversing the 
range of mountains between the glen and Bennevis, 
he arrived in Glennevis before Argyle had the least 
notice of his approach. Before setting out on his 
march, Montrose had taken the wise precaution of 
placing guards upon the common road leading to In- 
verlochy, to prevent intelligence of his movements 
being carried to Argyle, and he had killed such of 
Argyle's scouts as he had fallen in with in the course 
of his march. This fatiguing and unexampled jour- 
ney had been performed in little more than a night 
and a day, and when, in the course of the evening 
Montrose's men arrived in Glennevis, they found 
themselves so weary and exhausted that they could 
not venture to attack the enemy. They therefore 
lay under arms all night, and refreshed themselves, 
as they best could, till next morning. As the night 
was uncommonly clear and enlightened by the moon, 
the advanced posts of both armies kept up a small 
fire of musketry during the night, which led to no 
result. In the meantime Argyle, after committing 
his army to the charge of his cousin Campbell of 
Auchinbreck, had the dastardliness to abandon his 
men, by going, during the night, on board a boat in 
the loch, accompanied by Sir John Wauchope of 
Niddry, Sir James Rollock of Duncruib, Archibald 
Sydserf, one of the bailies of Edinburgh, and Mungo 
Law, a minister of the same city. Argyle excused 
himself for this pusillanimous act, by alleging his 
incapacity to enter the field of battle, in consequence 
of some contusions he had received by a fall two or 
three weeks before ; but his enemies averred that 
cowardice was the real motive which induced him to 
take refuge in his galley, from which he witnessed 
the defeat and destruction of his army. 

It would appear, that it was not until the morning 
of the battle, that Argyle's men were aware that it 

was the army of Montrose that was present, as they 
considered it quite impossible that he should have 
been able to bring his forces across the mountains, 
and they imagined, that the body before them con- 
sisted of some of the inhabitants of the country, who 
had collected to defend their propel ties. But they 
were undeceived, when, in the dawn of the morning, 
the warlike sound of Montrose's trumpets, resound- 
ing through the glen where they lay, and reverberat- 
ing from the adjoining hills, broke upon their ears. 
This served as the signal to both armies to prepare 
for battle. Montrose drew out his army in an ex- 
tended line. The right wing consisted of a regiment 
of Irish, under the command of Macdonald, his major- 
general; the centre was composed of the Athole-men, 
the Stuarts of Appin, and the Macdonalds of Glen- 
coe, and other Highlanders, severally under the com- 
mand of Clanranald, M'Lean, and Glengarry ; and 
the left wing consisted of some Irish, at the head of 
whom was the brave Colonel O'Kean'. A body of 
Irish was placed behind the main body as a reserve, 
under the command of Colonel James M'Donald, 
alias O'Neill. The general of Argyle's army formed 
it in a similar manner. The Lowland forces were 
equally divided, and formed the wings, between 
which the Highlanders were placed. Upon a rising 
ground, behind this line, General Campbell drew up 
a reserve of Highlanders, and placed a field-piece. 
Within the house of Inverlochy — which was only 
about a pistol-shot from the place where the army 
was formed — he planted a body of forty or fifty men 
to protect the place, and to annoy Montrose's men 
with discharges of musquetry. The account given 
by Gordon of Sallagh, that Argyle had transported 
the half of his army over the water at Inverlochy, 
under the command of Auchinbreck, and that Mon- 
trose defeated this division, while Argyle was pre- 
vented from relieving it with the other division, from 
the intervention of " an arm of the sea, that was in- 
terjected betwixt them and him,"* is certainly erro- 
neous, for the circumstance is not mentioned by any 
other writer of the period, and it is well known that 
Argyle abandoned his army, and witnessed its de- 
struction from his galley, — circumstances which 
Gordon altogether overlooks. It was at sunrise, on 
Sunday, the 2d day of February, in the year 1645, 
that Montrose, after having formed his army in battle 
array, gave orders to his men to advance upon the 
enemy. The left wing of Montrose's army, under 
the command of O'Kean, was the first to commence 
the attack, by charging the enemy's right. This was 
immediately followed by a furious assault upon the 
centre and left wing of Argyle's army, by Montrose's 
right wing and centre. Argyle's right wing not be- 
ing able to resist the attack of Montrose's left, turned 
about and fled, which circumstance had such a dis- 
couraging effect on the remainder of Argyle's troops, 
that after discharging their muskets, the whole of 
them, including the reserve, took to their heels. 
The route now became general. An attempt was 
made by a body of about 200 of the dismayed fugi- 
tives, to throw themselves into the castle of Inver- 
lochy, but a party of Montrose's horse prevented 
them. Some of the flying enemy directed their 
course along the side of Loch-Eil, but all these were 
either killed or drowned in the pursuit. The greater 
part, however, fled towards the hills in the direction 
of Argyle, and were pursued by Montrose's men, to 
the distance of about 8 miles. As little resistance 
was made by the defeated party in their flight, the 
carnage was very great, being reckoned at nearly 1 ,500 
men, or about the half of Argyle's army ; and many 
more would have been cut off had it not been for the 

* Continuation, p. 5?2. 




humanity of Montrose, who did every thing in his 
power to save the unresisting enemy from the fury 
of his men, who were not disposed to give quarter 
to the unfortunate Campbells. Having taken the 
castle, Montrose not only treated the officers, who 
were from the Lowlands, with kindness, but gave 
them their liberty on parole. Among the principal 
persons who fell on Argyle's side, were the comman- 
der, Campbell of Auchinbreck, Campbell of Lochnell, 
the eldest son of Lochnell, and his brother, Colin ; 
M'Dougall of Rara and his eldest son ; Major Menzies, 
brother to the laird (or Prior as he was called) of 
Achattens Parbreck ; and the provost of the church 
of Kilmun. The chief prisoners were the lairds of 
Parbreck, Silvercraig, Innerea, Lamont, St. M'Don- 
ald in Kintyre, the young laird of Glensaddel, the 
goodman of Pynmoir, the son of the captain of Dun- 
staffnage, Lieutenant-Colonels Roche and Cockburn, 
Captains Stewart, Murray, Hume, and Stirling, 
Robert Cleland alias Clydson, and MacDougall, a 
preacher. The loss on the side of Montrose was ex- 
tremely trifling. The number of wounded is indeed 
not stated, but he had only three privates killed. 
He sustained, however, a severe loss in Sir Thomas 
Ogilvie, son of the Earl of Airly, who died a few 
days after the battle of a wound he received in the 
thigh. Montrose regretted the death of this stedfast 
friend and worthy man with feelings of real sorrow, 
and caused his body to be interred in Athole with 
due solemnity. Montrose immediately after the 
battle sent a messenger to the king with a letter, 
giving an account of it, at the conclusion of which 
he exultingly says to Charles, " Give me leave, after 
I have reduced this country, and conquered from Dan 
to Beersheba, to say to your Majesty, as David's 
general to his master, come thou thyself, lest this 
country be called by my name." When the king 
received this letter, the royal and parliamentary com- 
missioners were sitting at Uxbridge negotiating the 
terms of a peace ; but Charles was induced by it to 
break off the negotiation, — a circumstance which led 
to his ruin. 

INVERMAY, the 'Birks' of which are cele- 
brated in Scottish song, a beautiful locality on the 
banks of the Mat, in the parish of Forteviot. See 

INVERNESS,* a parish in the shire of Inver- 
ness ; bounded on the north-east by the Beauly and 
the Moray friths ; on the east by Petty ; on the 
south-east and south by Croy and Daviot ; on the 
south-west by Loch-Ness and the parish of Dores ; 
and on the west by Urquhart, Kiltarlity, and Kirk- 
hill. Its length from north-east to south-west is 14 

* " Inverness was anciently written Inverness. The town 
of Inverness, from which the parish has its name, is situated at 
the mouth of the river Ness. Inner is Gaelic, and expressive 
of that situation. The river derives its name from Loch-Ness, 
which is its source. Some promontories and headlands in our 
own and in other northern countries, are called Ness, — as 
Buchanness, the Naes of Norway, — Ness quasi nose, from its 
prominency. But no promontory is in Lochness. This led 
some curious persona (Lowthorp's Abridg. of the Phil. Trans. 
II. 222.) to seek for the origin of the name in the traditions of 
old bards. By these traditions they were informed that NysuB, 
an Irish hero, had settled a colony of his countrymen in Strath- 
errick. The era of this event iB passed over in silence. Ves- 
tiges, however, of his castle and fortress are still to he6een on 
the summit of Dun-Deardill, — a rock of high elevation at a 
short distance from the lake. The rock had its name from 
Dornadilla, the Lady of Nysus. This hero built a barce, and 
was the first who sailed the lake : hence Loch-Ness. "We re- 
lish Dot the derivation from Nysus, and will hazard a conjec- 
ture of our own. The two rivers which have their course 
through the country of Stratherrick, and discharge themselves 
into Loch-Ness, are Carrigack and Fechloin. Tiiese rivers are 
remarkable for high cataracts, particularly Fechloin. In this 
river and near the mouth of it, is the Fall of Foyers, a tre- 
mendous cataract. Ess, in the Gaelic language, signifies ' a 
waterfall' or ' cataract. 1 The lake which is supplied with the 
water of this fall, might not unaptly be called Loch-Ness, 
[Loch-an-Ess,~i that is, ' the lake of the cataract.' "—Old Sta- 
tistical Account. 

miles ; and its average breadth 2^. It may be con- 
sidered as the nortB-eastern portion of the Great 
glen of Caledonia. The appearance of the country is 
diversified, — partly flat, and partly mountainous : see 
succeeding article. On the south the surface rises to 
an elevation of about 400 feet ; on the north the ac- 
clivity is higher and more precipitous. The eleva- 
tion of Loch-Ness above sea-level is only 46 feet. 
The coast-line is flat, and well-cultivated. The soil 
is fertile ; the general character of it is — with some 
exceptions — a black loam, rather light and on a gra- 
velly bottom. Loch-Ness is partly in this parish : 
see that article. The river Ness, which intersects 
the parish for 8 miles, will also form the subject of 
a separate article. Among the minor streams are 
Inches burn, and the burns of Holm, Dochfour, and 
Aberiaehan. The most remarkable hill is Tomna- 
hurich, near the town, on the west side of the river. 
It is a beautiful isolated mount, nearly resembling 
a ship with her keel uppermost. It stands on a 
base, whose length is 1,984 feet, and breadth 176 ; 
its elevation, from the channel of the river, is 250 
feet. A little to the west of this hill is another 
gravel mount called Tor-a'-Bhean, which rises to the 
height of about 300 feet. The elevation of Craig- 
Phadric from the sea-level is 435 feet. The number 
of arable acres in this parish, when the Old Statistical 
Account was written, was supposed to be about 
5,000 ; in the New Statistical Account they are 
calculated at from 8,000 to 9,000, with about 1,000 
improvable. The land-rent of the whole parish was, 
in the year 1754, 3,268 bolls and 3 firlots victual, 
and £575 7s. ILJd. sterling. The boll at that period 
was valued to the tenant at 9 merks Scots, or 10s. 
sterling, with customs and services, which were of 
little value to the proprietor, but often of distressing 
consequences to the tenant. Its present rental is 
about £20,000. At the close of last century, lands 
let at from 13s. to £2 an acre ; the present rent is 
from £1 to £2 10s. per acre. Ground near the town 
lets at from £5 to £7.f Population, in 1801, 8,732; 
in 1831, 14,324; in 1841, 15,308. Assessed pro- 
perty of the parish, in 1815, £14,980 ; of the burgh, 
£13,161. Houses, in 1831, 2,125. 

Two military roads pass through the parish ; and 
are kept in repair by Government. There are two 
bridges over the Ness in this parish. The princi- 
pal of them is a beautiful structure of seven ribbed 
arches, built in the year 1685. It is a toll-bridge, by 
act of parliament, and makes a good addition to the 
revenue of the town. The other was built in 1808, 
at an expense of £4,000. A pontage is also levied 
at it. About a mile above the town an island in the 
Ness has been connected with the opposite banks by 
suspension bridges. There were in ancient times 
several unimportant rencounters and skirmishes in 
this parish. The only memorable battle was that of 

t When the Old Statistical Account of this parish was writ, 
ten, a ploughman had from £5 to £7 a-year, with 6 bolls, half 
oat and half bear meal ; a house, kail-yard, and land for pota- 
toes ; hi9 peats carried home, and, in some instances, grass for 
a cow. " These servants," it was added, "live comfortably; 
their wives are employed in little manufactures fur clothing 
their own families and for sale, and sometimes in spinning for 
the manufactures at Inverness, and earn about 2s. a- week." 
At present their wages are from £8 to £10 with board. A wo- 
man farm-servant's fee was £1 12s. with maintenance in the 
house; and a herd's wages much the same. At present female- 
servants receive from £3 to £4 The wages of house-maids 
average £2 per half-year. A mason's wages were from h. 6d. 
to Is. 8d. ; a Wright's from Is. to Is. 4d. ; a tailor's 6d. with 
maintenance. Weavers and shoemakers worked by the piece. 
The wages of these artisans are now from 2s. to 3s. a-day. 
Day-labourers at ditching, digging, and other out-work, had 
from 8d. to Is. ; they have now Is. 6d. Beef, mutton, and pork, 
cost from 2^d, to 4d. the pound; the price is now from 3d. to 
5d. per imperial lb. Hens and ducks were sold at6d., 8d., or 
9d. each ; chickens and ducklings, at 3d. ; a goose, Is. 4rt. or Is. 
6d. ; a turkey, 2s. 6d. or 3s. Fowls are now from Is. 6d. to 2s. 
a pair ; chickens, half-price; ducks, Is. 4d. to 2s.; geese and 
turkeys from 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. 



the 16th of April, 1746, — the important and decisive 

battle of Culloden : which see There were several 

years ago, near the town, and due east from it, on 
the upper plain of the parish, several Druidical 
temples. These have been blasted for the purpose of 
building farm-houses and offices. At some distance 
from the mouth of the river Ness, a considerable 
way within flood-mark, there is a large cairn of 
stones, the origin of which is of very remote anti- 
quity. It is called Cairn aire, that is, ' the Cairn of 
the sea.' There is a beacon erected on Cairn aire, 
to apprize vessels coming into the river of danger 
from it. — In the Beauly frith, due west from this 
cairn, there are three cairns at considerable dis- 
tances, one from the other. The largest is in the 
middle of the frith, and accessible at low water. It 
appears to have been a burying-place, by the urns 

which were discovered in it Oliver Cromwell's 

fort, and other ancient buildings, will be noticed in 
our description of the town of Inverness The vit- 
rified fort, on the summit of Craig- Phadric, is a 
very remarkable structure : see that article. 

This parish, formerly a rectory with the ancient 
rectory of Bona united, is in the presbytery of In- 
verness, and synod of Moray. There are three liv- 
ings in the parish, and two portions of the parish 
have recently been erected into quoad sacra parishes 
by authority of the church-courts. The 1st and 3d 
livings are in the gift of the Crown. Fraser of Lovat 
is patron of the 2d. The High church was built in 
1772; sittings 1,260. The Gaelic church was built 
in 1794 ; sittings 1,220. The three ministers officiate 
alternately in these two churches, and in a new 
church recently built at an expense of £2,000, and 
seating 1,800. The annual stipend of the two senior 
ministers is £276 10s. 2d. ; glebe £50. They had 
formerly manses ; but they became ruinous and were 
sold; and the one minister receives £3 10s., and the 
other £1 13s., beingthe interest of the money got 
for them. The unappropriated teinds are valued at 
£1,073 lis. 6d. The junior or 3d minister has 
£150, with £25 for a glebe. — .The eastern portion 
of the parish was erected, in 1834, into the quoad 
sacra East parish. It embraces a distance of 
above 5 miles in length, by 2 in breadth, with a 
population of 1,980 in 1836. The church was built 
in 1798, and altered in 1822; sittings 1,158; cost 
£1,400. Minister's stipend £80, but is at present 
about £200. — The North church was built, in 
1837, at an expense of £1,400; sittings 1,040. 

Stipend £160, secured by bond of the managers 

An Episcopalian congregation has existed in the 
parish since the Revolution. The former chapel was 
built in 1S01 ; sittings 280; cost £1,000; but anew 
chapel containing 600 sittings has recently been 
erected for this congregation. Stipend £180, with 
the rent of a small piece of ground within the town, 
yielding about £5 per annum. The minister usually 
officiates every Sunday at Fort-George. — A congre- 
gation in connexion with the Secession church was 
formed in this parish in the latter quarter of last 
century, but was afterwards given up. It was re- 
vived in 1817, and a church built in 1S21 ; sittings 
650. Stipend £100, with manse and sacramental 

expenses An Independent church was established 

a considerable number of years ago ; and a chapel 
built for its use about 1826; sittings 630; cost £800. 
— A Roman Catholic congregation was established 
in 1800 ; chapel built in 1836 ; sittings 450 ; cost 
£2,000. Stipend £50, with a manse. There is a 
small Wesleyan Methodist congregation The ec- 
clesiastical edifices are described in the succeeding 

INVERNESS, a sea- port, an important town, 
a royal burgh, the seat of a presbytery, the capital of 

the Northern Highlands, and the supposed original 
metropolis of Pictavia, stands 19i miles south- south- 
west of Cromarty, 38| west-south-west of Elgin, 
6U north-east of Fort-William, 1 184 west-north- 
west of Aberdeen, and 156J north-north-west of 
Edinburgh. Its site is on both banks — chiefly the 
right one — of the river Ness, from i a mile to 1 J 
mile above its entrance into that long and beautiful 
demi-semi-circular sweep of marine waters which, 
inward from this point, is called the Beauly frith or 
loch, and outward, is assigned a community of name 
with the great gulf of the Moray frith. Three large 
openings, — the basin of the Beauly frith from the 
west, — that of the Moray frith from the north-east, — 
and the divergent termination of the Glenmore- 
nan-Albin from the south, — meet at the town and 
pour around it a rich confluence of the beauties of 
landscape, and the advantages of communication. 
A plain, marked with few inequalities, lying at but 
a slight elevation above sea-level, and luxurious in 
its soil and its embellishments, stretches inward 
from the friths, and bears on its bosom the whole of 
the town except the southern outskirts. A bank 
about 90 feet high, part of a great terrace which 
sweeps along from the vicinity of Loch-Ness to the 
river Spey, rises behind the town, and gives a charm- 
ing site to a sprinkling of villas and the newest sub- 
urban erections. Stretching into the interior from 
this bank, and forming a table-land equal to it 
in elevation, lies a plain from one to three miles 
broad, worked into high cultivation, feathered at 
intervals with trees, and numerously gemmed with 
country-seats. The mountain-ridges which screen 
the Glenmore-nan-Albin, seem to do homage to this 
plain ; they subside from their sternness into pic- 
turesque hill-beauty ; they lose, as they approach it, 
both their loftiness and their asperity; and they file 
off, on the east side, into a smooth and gently-de- 
clining ridge about 400 feet high, and, on the west 
side, into a gorgeous range of many-shaped and many- 
tinted hills, rocky, scaured, or wooded on their sides, 
tabular or rounded in their summits, and terminating 
about two miles west of the town in the magnificent 
Craig-Phadric, which lifts a mimic forest into mid- 
air, and is " distinguished by its beautiful tabular 
summit, and a succession of bold rocky escarpments 
along its acclivities :" see Craig-Phadric. The 
highest adorning of husbandry and gardening and 
arboriculture along the plain, and hanging woods, 
verdant slopes, frontlets of rock, and a variety of 
outline in the hills, fling enchantment over the 
scenery immediately landward of Inverness ; and 
yet they act but as a foil to the splendid combina- 
tions of lowland and marine and mountainous land- 
scape which hang in a profusion of splendour around 
the town. The mountain-barriers which rise up on 
the comparatively near horizon, and form, along their 
summits, a bold well-defined sky-line, exquisitely 
contrast as a back-ground with the amenities and 
the lusciousness of the vales and the waters which 
they enclose. A serrated range on the south-west 
and south lifts up at its termination in the far dis- 
tance the fine cupola of Mealfourvounie, well- 
known to the navigators of the friths as a land-mark, 
and to the natives as a barometer : see Mealfour- 
vounie. Peaks, which in mid-summer are capped 
with clouds, and over a large part of the year are 
snow-clad, tower aloft in clusters toward the west, 
round the head of Loch-Beauly. A hilly range, very 
picturesque in its features, flanks the opposite shore 
of the friths, and runs off toward Fortrose to ter- 
minate in the rugged heights called the Sutors of 
Cromarty ; but, beyond this, though at no great 
distance, rises the huge form of Benwyvis, upwards 
of 3,500 feet in height, seldom snowless even in 


mid-summer, and sending off elongated heath-clad 
spurs, which look, in their relation to the landscapes 
below them, like the rough and ruthless guardians 
of blushing and unjustly suspected beauty : see Ben- 
wyvis. The Moray frith, or that fine indentation 
of it which is here made to monopolize its name, 
carries the eye north-eastward between shores which, 
while they rival each other, jointly rival Scotland in 
attraction, to the far-away mountain-ranges of Elgin, 
Banff, Sutherland, and Caithness, appearing in the 
dim blue distance like things of sight vanishing into 
the filmy but assured objects of faith. While we 
smile, then, at the enthusiasm of the not very en- 
thusiastic Dr. M'Cullocb, we can hardly refrain from 
quietly sympathizing with it when, comparing In- 
verness with the superb metropolis of Scotland, he 
says: " When I have stood in Queen-street of Edin- 
burgh, and looked towards Fife, I have sometimes 
wondered whether Scotland contained a finer view 
of its class. But I have forgotten this on my arrival 
at Inverness. Surely if a comparison is to be made 
with Edinburgh, always excepting its own romantic 
disposition, the frith of Forth must yield the palm 
to the Moray frith, the surrounding country must 
yield altogether, and Inverness must take the highest 
rank. * * Each outlet is different from the others, 
and each is beautiful ; whether we proceed towards 
Fort-George, or towards Moy, or enter the valley of 
the Ness, or skirt the shores of the Beauly frith, 
while a short and commodious ferry wafts us to 
the lovely country opposite, rich with wood, and 
country-seats, and cultivation. It is the boast, also, 
of Inverness to unite two opposite qualities, and 
each in the greatest perfection, — the characters of a 
rich open lowland country with those of the wildest 
alpine scenery, both also being close at hand, and in 
many places intermixed; while to all this is added a 
series of maritime landscape not often equalled." 

Approaching the town by the old military road 
from Fort- Augustus along the right bank of the Ness, 
we pass the parliamentary boundary at Altnaskiah 
burn, and travel 5 furlongs due north, with the 
river immediately on our left, and a rich studding 
of mansions and villas on our right. At the end of 
3| furlongs we pass through the little manufactur- 
ing suburb of Haugh ; and immediately beyond it, 
at a point whence the Culduthil and the Old Edin- 
burgh roads sharply diverge, we enter the main body 
of the burgh. A few yards before us, close on the 
margin of the river, is the Castle-hill, a mere projec- 
tion of the bank or terrace which flanks the lower 
plain of the Ness. A stripe, or slightly winged single 
street, round the east and south-east sides of the 
Castle-hill, and a cross-street winged with alleys on 
the south, are the oldest existing parts of Inverness: 
occupying the site of its humble tenements when a 
mere village, and exhibiting not a few antiquarian 
remnants of its condition during the later ages of 
feudalism. Eighty or a hundred yards below the 
Castle-hill, the river is spanned by the old bridge : 
and thence, or rather from the Castle-hill, it runs for 
half-a-mile north-north-westward, and, over that dis- 
tance, carries down in the same direction, and on its 
right bank, the chief district of the town. The 
High-street, at first narrow, and bearing the name of 
Bridge-street, but afterwards spacious and airy, ex- 
tends 320 yards north-eastward, on a line with the 
old bridge, cutting nearly at right angles the thorough- 
fares which run parallel with the river. Petty-street 
continues the High-street for about 100 yards, and 
then forks into two lines, both of which speedily 
subside into unedificed highways, the one leading 
on to the great road along the Moray frith to Aber- 
deen, and the other to the great Highland road 
through Badenoch and Glengarry to Perth. A 

moundish rising ground, called the Crown, and 
situated a little east of the forking of Petty-street, 
was anciently surmounted by the original castle of 
Inverness, and overlooked the earliest houses of the 
pristine town, and the alleged site of the ancient 
cross. Church-street, at about 130 yards' distance 
from the river, extends 500 yards north-north-west- 
ward, and, is continued about 170 yards by Chapel- 
street. From the upper end of Chapel-street, and 
going off from it at a very acute angle, Academy- 
street extends 450 yards south-eastward and north- 
westward ; forming the hypothenuse of a short- 
based, right-angled triangle, while the greater part 
of Church-street forms the perpendicular, and a 
street which connects them on a line parallel with 
High-street forms the base. Most of the area within 
the triangle is unedificed ; hut all the space lying 
between it and High-street, is a dense phalanx of 
alleys, brief streets, and interior courts, — the most 
crowded district in the burgh. Six or seven streets, 
wholly or partially edificed, run down from Church- 
street and the end of Chapel-street to the river ; and 
on the last of these touching it, it makes a rapid 
bend from the north-north-west to the north-north- 
east, so as to be spanned 360 yards lower down by the 
new bridge, carrying across a thoroughfare which 
approaches nearly on a straight line from Chapel- 
street. A few yards below the new bridge is the 
old pier, and 300 yards farther down is the new 
harbour, both flanked by Shore-street, extending 
due north, now on the margin of the river, and now 
at a considerable distance.. — The part of the town 
which lies on the left bank of the Ness, though all 
modern, and gracefully laid out, is not strictly con- 
tinuous or compact, and presents such diversity of 
street arrangement as cannot in sufficiently few 
words be properly described. Its streets propor- 
tionately to its aggregate bulk, are surprisingly 
numerous, and charmingly interlaced. In a general 
view, it is a belt of edifices between 5 and 6 fur- 
longs in length, and from 100 to 420 yards wide, 
folded along the margin, and following the curva- 
ture of the river, from the old bridge to a point 
opposite the new harbour. Tomnahurich-street, 
running upwards of 400 yards off nearly on a line 
with the old bridge, leads out to the road along the 
north side of Loch-Ness by Urquhart to Glenmoris- 
ton, Glenshiel, and Skye. King-street, running 
parallel with the river, and Telford-street, continuing 
King-street, but curving away to the east-north- 
east, point the way across the commencement of the 
Caledonian canal, and past the canal-basin at little 
more than £ of a mile's distance to the great north 
road by Beauly to Dingwall and Tain. On this 
road, immediately above the sea-lock of the canal, 
and just within the parliamentary boundary of the 
burgh, lies the fishing-village of Clachnaharky : 
which see. In the extreme north, and in the vicinity 
of the new bridge, the western division of the town, 
after having become narrowed, opens in a half fan- 
like form into Grant, North King, Nelson, Brown, 
and other streets, and sends off a brief road to Kes- 
sock ferry, which, from a pier at the mouth of the 
Ness, maintains easy and frequent communication 
with the beautiful coast along the Ross-shire side of 

the frith All the western town, and nearly all the 

outskirts, as well as some of the interior of the 
eastern town, may at present compare, in general 
neatness and taste of masonry, and in the aggregate 
properties which produce a pleasing impression, with 
any modern town of its size in the United Kingdom. 
Even the older streets fully compensate for their 
want of regularity and beauty, by interesting re- 
mains of a picturesqueness which, at a very recent 
date, arrayed them in gable-end constructions, arched 



gateways, hanging balconies, projecting towers, and 
round turnpike stairs. Though a crowded winter- 
seat of aristocracy, and packed with mansions, in the 
Flemish style, belonging to the landed proprietors of 
an extensive circumjacent country, the town — even 
so late as the middle of last century — had few houses 
which were not thatched with heath or straw, or 
which contained ceiled or plastered rooms ; while, at 
a still later date, it knew nothing of the luxuries 
of municipal police. About 60 or 70 years ago, 
the magistrates, in order to induce parties to edifice 
the airy and modern thoroughfares, granted per- 
petual feu-rights for very trifling sums, and urged 
forward the erections by the most condescending 
encouragements. As the last century closed, Provost 
William Inglis, a patriotic and energetic citizen, who 
died in 1801, achieved great improvements in mo- 
dernizing and polishing the burgh, and strongly im- 
pelled it toward its present position. In 1831, a pro- 
cess was commenced, and soon afterwards was com- 
pleted, of causewaying the carriage-ways with 
granite, laying the side-paths with Caithness flag, 
and ramifying the whole town with common sewers. 
The cost of this great and beautifying improvement 
exceeded £6,000, and was defrayed by an assessment 
of 2£ per cent, on house-rents. A suit of gas-works, 
erected at the expense of £8,757, lights the town 
with gas, — said to be the best in the kingdom ; and 
water- works, which, along with the conveying pipes, 
cost £4,872, afford an ample supply of water. 

The public buildings of Inverness, though possess- 
ing no remarkable features of elegance or beauty, are 
both creditable and interesting. A suite of county 
buildings, which crowns the Castle-hill, and was 
erected, in 1835, at a cost of about £7,000, and after 
a design by Mr. Burn of Edinburgh, strongly arrest 
the eye of a stranger. The commanding site of the 
edifices, the neatness of their architecture, their re- 
semblance to a spacious English castle, and their 
interior commodiousness and beauty, unite to render 
them superior to most Scottish buildings of their 
class At the corner of Church-street and High- 
street stands the jail, surmounted by a remarkably 
handsome spire 150 feet high. They were built in 
1791, at the cost of about £3,400, only £1,800 of 
which was expended on the jail. The spire resem- 
bles that of St. Andrew's church in Edinburgh, and 
was built by the same architect, but excels it in 
symmetry, and is remarkably handsome. Its top, 
however, was severely twisted by the earthquake of 
1816, and is ragged and ruinous. The jail — though 
a vast improvement when it was built, and pro- 
nounced by the Old Statistical Account, " such as 
would give pleasure to the benevolent Howard," 
has for many years been too small, admits of little or 
no classification, is situated in a principal thorough- 
fare, and has no open courts or facilities of any sort 
for airing and exercise, or for classification. But for 
6 or 7 years past measures have been in progress to 
erect a new jail — which is here wanted, not merely 
for the burgh or for Inverness-shire, but for the 
northern counties — on a site on the Castle- hill, con- 
tiguous to the County-buildings, and accordant with 
them in greatness and tastefulness of design. — In 
High-street, nearly opposite the head of Church- 
street, stand, clustered in one edifice, the Town- 
hall and the Exchange, an unornamented building, 
erected in 1708. In front of it stands the ancient 
cross of the town ; and at the base of this is a cu- 
rious, blue, lozenge-shaped stone, reckoned the pal- 
ladium of the burgh, and called Clach-na-cudden, 
' the Stone of the tubs,' from its having been a noted 
resting-place for the water-pitchers or deep tubs of 
bygone generations of women when passing from the 
river. In the front wall of the Exchange and Town- 

house, the armorial bearings of the town — a shield 
representing the Crucifixion, and supported by an 
elephant and a camel, with the motto ' Concordia et 
Fidelitas ' — together with the royal arms, are beauti- 
fully carved. In the town-hall are good portraits of 
Sir John Barnard and Sir Hector Slunro, benefac- 
tors to the town, the former painted by Ramsay ; a 
full-length portrait, by Syme of Edinburgh, of Pro- 
vost Robertson of Aultnaskiach, hung up as a testi- 
monial of respect by his fellow-citizens ; and a copy 
of the original portrait, by Ramsay, of the celebrated 
Flora Macdonald, presented by Mr. Frazer of Madras, 
a native of the town Near the head of Church- 
street stands a high and spacious but clumsy and 
heavy edifice, called the Northern Meeting-rooms, 
built by subscription, and elegantly fitted up into a 
ball-room and a dining-room, each 60 feet long and 

30 wide, and respectively 20 and 18 feet high On 

the north-east side of Academy-street stands the 
Inverness Academy, an extensive erection, handsome 
but not showy, opened, in 1792, for the education, 
on a liberal scale, of the families of the upper classes 
throughout the Northern Highlands. It has a large 
pleasure-ground behind for the recreation of the 
scholars ; and is distributed in the interior into class- 
rooms for five masters, and a public hall embellished 
with a bust, by Westmacott, of Hector Fraser, an 
eminent teacher of Inverness, and with a masterly 
painting of the Holy Family variously ascribed to Sasso 
Ferrato and to Perino de Vaga. The Academy was 
erected by numerous and munificent subscriptions, is 
upheld by a fund of upwards of £6,000, besides an 
annual grant of £70 from the town ; has a body of 
directors who are incorporated by royal charter ; 
and affords liberal training in all departments of a 
commercial and a classical education, with the ele- 
ments of mathematics and philosophy. The North- 
ern institution for the promotion of science and 
literature, established in 1825, have provided the 
Academy with a valuable museum, and promise to 

append to it lectureships in the physical sciences 

The Old academy, or hospital, situated near the 
lower end of Church-street, was bequeathed, in 
1668, to the community by Provost Alexander 
Dunbar ; and, since the transference of its funds, in 
the form of the annual grant, to the New Academy, 
it has been fitted up for a public library, a lady's 
school, a soup-kitchen, and some other kindred pur- 
poses On a tumulated part or swell of the bank 

immediately south of the Castle-hill, and constitut- 
ing the highest ground within the limits or the en- 
virons of the boundaries, stands a neat and com- 
manding edifice, very recently erected for the accom- 
modation of various public charities of the burgh, 
and surmounted by an octagonal tower, which ter- 
minates in a dome, and is fitted up as an observatory. 
The institutions which it accommodates are a school 
for females, a female work-society, an infant-school 
on the plan of Mr. Wilderspin, and a society for 
giving clothes and blankets to the poor. — The cen- 
tral or model-school of ' the Society for Educating 
the poor in the Highlands,' instituted in 1818, — 
Raining's school, endowed by a bequest, in 1747, 
of £1,000, — a large subscription-school for the poor 
in the suburb of Merkinch, — and the retreats of some 
of the more subordinate but useful schools of the 
town, — are edifices which refresh the mind unspeak- 
ably more by the associations which they suggest, 
than if, with lower aims, or as the gathering-places 
of fashionable dissipation, they were arrayed in the 

most ornamental dresses of architecture On the 

left bank of the Ness, 3 furlongs above the old 
bridge, stands the Infirmary of the northern counties, 
built in 1804, and including a Lunatic asylum. It 
consists of a large central front and two wings, the 



front decorated with four elegant pilasters ; and it 
is surrounded at some distance with iron pali- 
sades, enclosing a spacious area. It is commo- 
diously and salubriously fitted up in the interior, 
has a suite of hot and cold baths, is maintained chiefly 
by subscription and benignly conducted, and may, in 
most points of view, compare with any institution of 

its class in Scotland The High church, situated 

near the foot of Church-street, and devoted to Eng- 
lish preaching, is a large plain edifice, standing com- 
pactly with an old square tower, which is said to 
have been built by Oliver Cromwell, and whose soft 
clear-toned bell is believed to have been brought by 

him from the ancient cathedral of Fortrose The 

Gaelic church, situated beside the High church, and 
appropriated exclusively to Gaelic, has no exterior 
attraction, but possesses within an old and elegantly 
carved oaken pulpit. — The North kirk, situated in 

Chapel-street, is a large and handsome building 

The Episcopalian chapel, standing opposite the High 
church, is a neat structure, surmounted by a cupola. 
The other places of worship in the town are all 
pleasant and creditable ecclesiastical fabrics. 

A wooden bridge, which existed in the time of 
Cromwell, and is characterized by one of his officers 
as ' the weakest, in his opinion, that ever straddled 
over so strong a stream,' stood a few yards below 
the present old bridge, and communicated with the 
town on the right bank of the river by an arched 
way which perforated, or was surmounted by a 
house. Upwards of 100 persons formed a crowd 
upon this fragile structure, and caused its fall, yet 

all escaped destruction The old bridge was built 

in 1685, at a cost of £1,300, defrayed by voluntary 
contribution throughout the kingdom. Between 
the second and third arches is a dismal vault, used 
first as a jail and afterwards as a madhouse, the air- 
hole or grating of which is still visible. This appal- 
ling place of durance, whose inmate was perched 
between the constant hoarse sound of the stream 
beneath, and the occasional trampling of feet and 
rattle of wheels overhead, was in use so late as 30 
years ago, and is said not to have been abandoned 
till its last miserable inmate, a maniac, had been de- 
voured by rats The new bridge is a wooden erec- 
tion, built in 1808, by public and private subscrip- 
tion At two beautiful islets in the Ness, very nearly 

united, measuring respectively 1J and l| furlong in 
length, and lying about a mile above the town, two 
airy and handsome suspension-bridges have been flung 
across to connect them, the one with the right bank 
and the other with the left. These islands — once 
noted as the scene of rural feasts and semi-bacchana- 
lian orgies given by the magistrates to the judges at 
the assize-courts — have been tastefully cut into plea- 
sure-walks, profusely planted and variously beauti- 
fied as public promenades ; and, easily approached by 
the ornamental bridges, and lying in the bosom of an 
almost luscious landscape, they probably excel all 
public grounds of their class in Scotland. 

The extinct and ancient public structures of the 
town present various associations of stirring interest. 
The oldest or original castle of Inverness, that 
which stood on 'the Crown,' has for centuries been 
untraceable, except by traditional identification of 
its site. This edifice was very probably, as Shak- 
speare assumes, the property of Macbeth, who, being 
by birth the maormor, or 'great man of Ross,' and 
becoming by marriage that also of Moray, could 
hardly fail to have the mastery of a stronghold at 
the mouth of the Ness; and, true to the description 
of the prince of dramatic poets, ' this castle had a 
pleasant seat,' the air around which 

" Nimbly aod sweetly recommends itself 
UDto our gentle senses ;" 

but, according to the concurrent opinion of modern 
antiquarians, it was not, as Shakspeare represents, 
and as Boetbius and Buchanan relate, the scene of 
King Duncan's murder by Macbeth, — that deed hav- 
ing been perpetrated at a spot called, in the Chro- 
nicon Elegaicum, Bothgofuane, ' a smithy,' and placed 
by some near Inverness, but by most near Elgin. 
When Malcolm Canmore vanquished his father's 
murderer, he naturally seized his strongholds, and 
dealt with them at will ; and he then razed his castle 
of Inverness, and built instead of it, and as a royal 
residence, a fortress on the summit of the Castle-hill, 
the site of the present county-buildings. This new 
castle figured for several centuries as unitedly a seat 
of royalty and a place of military strength ; receiving 
at intervals within its precincts the persons of the 
kings and princes of Scotland, and regularly serving 
as a vantage-ground, whence they or their servants 
overawed the insubordinate and turbulent north. 
Shaw Macduff, son of the 6th Earl of Fife, the 
assumer of the name of Mackintosh, the assistant of 
Malcolm in crushing an insurrection in Moray, and 
the acquirer of great property in the north, was made 
hereditary governor of the castle. In 1245, it be- 
came the prison of Sir John Bisset of Lovat, for the 
imputed crimes of connection with the murder of the 
Earl of Athole, and of fealtyship to the Lord of the 
Isles. Soon afterwards, it was captured, during the 
minority of one of its hereditary keepers, by the 
Cummings of Badenoch ; and thence till the begin- 
ning of next century, it remained in their possession. 
In 1303, it was seized by the partisans of Edward I. 
of England ; and, in turn, it was captured by the 
friends of Robert Bruce. The patriot founder of a 
new dynasty of Scottish kings was a wanderer in the 
Western islands when this key-fortress of the North 
became his ; and he is said to have been inspirited 
by the news of the acquisition, to that course of dar- 
ing enterprise which conducted him to triumph and 
the throne. From Bruce's time till that of James 
I., the castle was retained in the immediate power 
of the Crown ; and at the accession of the latter 
monarch, it was repaired and refortified, and again 
put into the hereditary keeping of the captain of the 
clan Chattan, the chief of the Macintoshes. In 1427, 
James I., when in a progress through the north, to 
castigate some turbulent chiefs, held a parliament in 
the castle, summoning to it all his northern barons. 
Alexander, Lord of the Isles, was, on this occasion, 
made prisoner for a year ; and, when freed from du- 
rance, he returned with an army at his heels to wreak 
vengeance on his prison ; and, imposing on the autho- 
rities by pretence of friendship, and consigning the 
town to burning and pillage, he made a bold attempt 
to seize the castle, but was repelled by its governor. 
In 1455, John, his successor, quite as turbulent as 
he, or more probably Donald Balloch of Isla, acting 
as John's lieutenant, rushed down upon the town, 
and, while abandoning it like Alexander to the flames 
and plunder, made a more successful effort against 
the castle, and took it by surprise. In 1464, the 
castle was visited and temporarily occupied by James 
III.; and in 1499, by James IV. In 1508, the 
keepership of the castle was conferred hereditarily 
on the Earl of Huntly ; and though eventually be- 
coming the most merely ideal of offices, it went regu- 
larly down to his descendants, and was held by the 
late Duke of Gordon at his death. In 1555, the 
castle received the queen-regent, Mary of Guise, and 
was the scene of a convention of estates and extraor- 
dinary courts summoned by her to quiet the High- 
lands, and punish caterans and political offenders ; 
and, at the same time, it endungeoned the Earl of 
Caithness, for breach of her laws and defiance of her 
authority, in affording his protection to freebooters. 



In 1562, Queen Mary, having entered the town at- 
tended by the Earl of Moray, was driven from the 
eastle-gates by the governor of the fortress, a crea- 
ture of the Earl of Huntly, and was obliged to take 
up her residence and to hold her court in a private 
house, still in part standing, near the old bridge ; 
but strengthened by the accession to her troops of 
the Mackintoshes, the Frasers, and the Munroes, she 
reduced the castle, and put the governor to death. 
In 1644, on intelligence of the descent of a party of 
Irish on the west coast to join the Marquis of Mon- 
trose, the castle was put into full trim, and fully 
garrisoned ; and next year, it successfully held out, 
under Urry, the parliamentary general, aided by all 
the parliamentarians of the town, against a regular 
siege by Montrose's troops. In 1649, Mackenzie of 
Pluscardine, Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty, and 
other royalists, took the castle, nearly demolished 
its fortifications, and devoted its tapestries and deco- 
rated chambers to decay and desolation. Soon after 
the Revolution the dilapidated pile — now scarce half 
a fortress — was patched up into a stronghold of the 
Jacobites, by the magistrates, who were warmly 
attached to the cause of the dethroned dynasty ; but 
it was soon wrested from their possession, and con- 
verted into a means of keeping them in check. In 
1718, the reigning authorities repaired it, converted 
the ancient part into barracks for Hanoverian troops, 
added a new part to serve as a governor's house, and 
gave the whole structure the name of Fort-George. 
In 1745, it was occupied successively by Sir John 
Cope and the Earl of Loudoun, on behalf of the 
Government ; and next year it was taken by Prince 
Charles Edward, and by his command was destroyed 
by explosion. The French officer of engineers who 
lighted the train which was to explode it, is reported 
to have been blown into the air and killed. Though 
the castle was now rendered uninhabitable and use- 
less, a large part of its walls, till a very recent pe- 
riod, remained entire. 

A street, which leads from the east end of the 
Exchange and Town-house to the terrace, along the 
southern outskirts, still commemorates the fortress 
in its name of Castle-street, and has on its west side 
some remaining parts of the old castle wall. This 
street: — which is narrow, dingy, and a dark relic of 
bygone times — has some very old houses, and was 
anciently called Doomesdale-street, on account of 
its conducting to the Gallows-moor. — The houses 
of Petty-street, in the vicinity of the site of Mac- 
beth's castle on "the Crown," are memorials of the 
period of meanness and thatch; and are such low 
slateless tenements as convey to strangers entering 
from the south a foully unfavourable first impression 

of Inverness A house in Church-street, the third 

below the Mason lodge, was the domicile occupied 
successively by Prince Charles Edward and the 
Duke of Cumberland, amid the closing scenes of the 
civil war of 1745-6. The apartment in which they 
slept is on the first floor, and looks into the garden. 
The house is said to have been the only one then in 
the town which had a parlour or sitting-room with- 
out a bed ; and it belonged to Catherine Duff, Lady 
Drummuir, and is now the property of her descend- 
ant, the proprietor of the splendid suburban mansion 
and demesne of Muirtown. — Remains of a vast fort 
which Oliver Cromwell built in 1652-7 — one of the 
four which he constructed for checking and over- 
awing Scotland — may be seen at the harbour, two 
or three furlongs above the mouth of the Ness. It 
cost £80,000 sterling, occupied nearly seven years in 
building, and was constructed with fir from Strath- 
glass, oak-planks and beams from England, and 
stones from the religious houses of Inverness, the 
priory of Beauly, the abbey of Kinloss, and the 

cathedral and bishop's castle of Fortrose. It was a 
regular pentagon, surrounded with ramparts, having 
the Ness on one side, and a fosse on all the others 
so deep and broad as at full tide to float a small 
bark. This great ditch still exists, retains its capa- 
cities, and is widened on the south side into a regu- 
lar harbour. The breastwork of the fort was three 
stories high, constructed of hewn stone, and lined 
on the inside with brick. The principal gateway 
looked to the north ; and was approached, first 
through a vaulted passage 70 feet long, and seated 
on each side, — and next over a strong oaken draw- 
bridge, overhung by a stately structure, inscribed 
with the motto, " Togam tuentur arma." The 
sally-port looked toward the town. At opposite 
sides of the area within the ramparts stood two 
long buildings, each four stories high, — the one 
called the English building, because built by Eng- 
lishmen, and the other called the Scottish build- 
ing, because built by Scotchmen. In the centre of 
the area stood a large square edifice, three stories 
high, the lower part occupied as magazine and pro- 
vision-store, and the highest part fitted up as a 
church, covered over with a pavilion-roof, and sur- 
mounted by a tower with a clock and four bells. 
The fort had accommodations for 1,000 men; but it 
so annoyed and chafed the Highland chiefs under the 
keen administration of Cromwell, that, at their re- 
quest, and in acknowledgment of their loyalty to the 
Stuarts, it was destroyed immediately after the Re- 
storation. Its ramparts and houses — though a con- 
siderable part of the former still remains — became a 
quarry to the burghers; and were freely carried off 
for the construction, as is believed, of many of the 
existing older houses of the town. The area of the 
fort is now peacefully occupied by some weavers' 

shops, and by a large hemp factory, built in 1765 

At least two suites of ecclesiastical buildings, and 
probably three, which anciently belonged to Inver- 
ness, were swept away as building materials for the 
fort. One was a chapel, dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary. Another, the probable one, was a convent 
and church of Franciscans or Grey friars. The third 
was the monastery and church of a community of 
Dominicans or Black friars, who were established in 
the town during the reign of Alexander II. The 
cemetery of the Dominicans survives, and is the 
large burying-ground still in use, called the Chapel- 
yard, and situated in Chapel- street; and, before the 
present entrance to it was formed, it had a neat and 
richly-sculptured gateway, inscribed with the words, 
" Concordia parvae res crescunt." 

Inverness, though possessing many advantages for 
productive industry, has but inconsiderable manu- 
factures. A white and coloured linen thread manu- 
facture, which, at the end of last century, had its 
seat in the burgh, and was ramified over the northern 
counties, and employed about 10,000 persons, has 
almost wholly disappeared before the energetic com- 
petition of the towns of Forfarshire. A bleachfield 
on the Ness has also proved a failure. A hemp 
manufacture — principally of coal and cotton bagging 
— was for a time not a little prosperous, but has al- 
ready greatly declined. The factory within the area 
of Cromwell's fort employed fifty years ago about 
1,000 persons, but now employs at most 300. A 
second factory, established while this one prospered, 
was ten or eleven years ago discontinued. The 
bagging produced yields earnings to the workmen of 
from 4s. to 10s. per week; and is sent chiefly to 
London and the Indies. A woollen factory in the 
suburb of Haugh produces coarse clothing, tartan 
and plaids for the Highland market, has attached to 
it apparatus for the carding and spinning of wool, 
and employs about 25 persons. There are three 



tanneries. Ship-building was a few years ago com- 
menced in a spirit of enterprise Malting was for 

generations a chief employment in the town, and 
enriched the members of by far the largest ancient 
corporation in the burgh. Dissipation was unhap- 
pily very general throughout the Highlands; and, 
having as yet neither yielded to the seduction of 
ardent spirits, nor becoming acquainted with the 
weaning influence of tea, it expatiated in its orgies 
upon the produce of the brewery. Inverness en- 
joyed almost a monopoly in the art and practice of 
malting, and supplied all the Northern counties, the 
Hebrides, and the Orkneys with malt. One-half of 
the aggregate architecture of the town was a huge 
and unsightly agglomeration of malting-houses, kilns, 
and granaries. But from the date of the Revolution 
onward, this trade has suffered a gradual decline; 
and, at one time, it threatened to involve the whole 
interests of the community in its fall. So low had 
the town sunk even at the date of the civil war of 
1 745-6, that it looked almost like a field of ruins ; 
the very centre of it containing many forsaken and 
dilapidated houses, and all the other parts of it ex- 
hibiting in every alternate space, and that the larger 
one, the ruin of a kiln, a granary, or some homoge- 
neous building. Had not succedanea for the nearly 
defunct and once general occupation opportunely 
sprung up to revive the town, and to occasion the 
ruined parts of it, some years before the close of the 
century, to be almost wholly new built, it might 
already have been on the brink of extinction. A 
few of the old large malt-kilns and granaries still 
exist, and there are some breweries and distilleries. 
Inverness had anciently a large share in the limited 
commerce of Scotland. During several centuries 
previous to the Union, it was the adopted home of 
foreign traders, or was annually visited by German 
merchants; and it conducted, with the ports of Hol- 
land and other parts of northern continental Europe, 
an extensive trade in skins and other Highland pro- 
duce, in exchange for foreign manufactures. The 
Northern counties, and even the Highlands generally, 
as well as the Western and the Northern islands, 
looked to it as the only mart for their commodities, 
and the only depot whence they could obtain the 
produce of other lands. But during the effluxion of 
the former half of last century, the Highlanders of 
the western and southern districts found their way 
by agents to Glasgow, and, adopting it as a superior 
market, abandoned Inverness to the incompetent 
support of the infertile north. Trade, which syn- 
chronized in its decline with the falling away of the 
malt-manufacture, began to revive with the era of 
renovation which succeeded 1746. The money cir- 
culation by the Hanoverian army after the suppres- 
sion of the Rebellion, the great influx of money from 
the East and the West Indies, the opening up of 
the vast circumjacent country by easily traversable 
roads, the establishment of manufactures, the im- 
proving of agriculture, the rise in the value of lands, 
and the causes as well as the immediate results of 
the great social and meliorative revolution which 
took place in the Highlands, all conspired to educe 
before the close of the century, a considerable, a 
various, and a not insecure trade. About the year 
1803, its merchants had their attention turned, by 
convenience, and a view of the cheapness of British 
manufactures, to London in preference to foreign 
ports; and they commenced with it, as their great 
mart of commerce, an intercourse which has been 
generally prosperous, and has steadily increased. So 
late as twenty years ago, the town annually imported 
about 8,000 to 10,000 bolls of oatmeal; but since 
then it has gradually reversed the process, and, for a 
number of years past it has annually exported from 

4,000 to 5,000 bolls of oats. In its custom-housp 
district, which extends from the mouth of the Spey 
to the Dornoch frith, there were, in 1831, 142 ves- 
sels of aggregately 7,104 tons, and, in 1835, 160 
vessels of aggregately 7,597 tons. About one-third 
of the vessels, and about one- half of the tonnage, 
belong to the town. In 1834, 6 vessels, each of 
about 130 tons, traded regularly with London, 5 
traded with Leith, and 2 traded with Aberdeen. In 
1840, steam-vessels sailed from it every ten days to 
London, every Friday morning to Aberdeen and 
Leith, and every Monday and Friday morning to 
Glasgow and places intermediate along the route of 
the Caledonian and the Crinan canals. From Inver- 
ness and its vicinity, including Beauly and Easter 
Ross, between 30,000 and 40,000 quarters of wheat 
are annually shipped for London and Leith; and 
within its custom-house district about 100 cargoes 
of mixed goods from these ports and Aberdeen are 
annually debarked. A great trade is conducted also 
along the Caledonian canal, and disgorges most of 
its proceeds at the basin near the town. See article 

Caledonian Canal Three harbours, all small, 

but good and easily accessible, have at different periods 
been constructed in the Ness; the lowest admitting 
vessels of 250 tons burden, and the others vessels of 
200 tons. At the Caledonian canal wharfs, within 
a mile of the town, large ships may receive and 
deliver cargoes, and in Kessock roads they have 
safe and excellent anchorage. The piers, inn, and 
offices at Kessock ferry-station, midway between 
the mouth of the Ness and the sea-lock of the Cale- 
donian canal, were erected by Sir William Fettes, 
the proprietor, at an expense of about £10,000. 
The accumulation of commerce round the peninsula 
enclosed by the Ness and the canal, terminating in 
Kessock-point, and bearing the name of Merkinch, 
has, within the last thirty-five years, carried up its 
rental value from between £70 and £80 to upwards 
of £600. 

Inverness is well-provided with the appliances oi 
trade, of landward communication, and of social 
comfort. Its inns have long been noted for their 
good properties ; and the chief of them, the Caledo- 
nian hotel, is equal to almost any in Scotland. Its 
banking-offices are branches of the Bank of Scot- 
land, the British Linen company's bank, the Com- 
mercial bank of Scotland, the National bank of Scot- 
land, and the head-office of the Caledonian banking 
company. A four-horse mail-coach communicates 
daily with Dingwall, Tain, and Thurso on the north, 
and with Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and with places in 
general on the south; two stage-coaches communi- 
cate daily with Aberdeen along the coast-road by 
way of Elgin ; a stage-coach communicates twice a- 
week, and during part of the year daily, with Perth, 
by the great Highland road through Badenoch; and 
public vehicles communicate, during part of the 
summer, with the district of Ross-shire called the 
Black isle. Some curious facts respecting the late- 
ness of the introduction of wheeled-carriages to In- 
verness, the very modern acquaintance of the town 
with public vehicles, and the slow and progressive 
accession of the luxuries of a mail, are stated in our 
article on the Highlands : which see. The Medi- 
cal society of the North, the Inverness-shire Farming 
society, and the Association of the Northern coun- 
ties, hold their meetings in the town. The last of 
these is a body of noblemen and gentlemen, to whom 
belongs the building which we noticed for the Nor- 
thern meetings, and who are associated to patronize 
horse-racing and fashionable amusements, and to 
fling, by means of these, what they conceive to be 
attributes of refinement over the Northern capital. 
The institutions of the town, literary, social, bene- 



volent, and religious, additional to the goodly num- 
ber we have already had occasion to notice, are a 
mechanics' institution, established in 1831 ; two pub- 
lic reading-rooms, to both of which strangers are 
politely allowed access; several subscription and 
circulating libraries; a large parochial library, under 
the management of the kirk-session ; a select reli- 
gious school-library ; a dispensary, established by sub- 
scription in 1832; nine friendly societies; two mason- 
lodges; a Sabbath school society; and a Bible society. 
Funds for purposes of education and charity are no- 
ticed in a succeeding paragraph of this article. In- 
verness has several printing-presses, and stands in 
such literary pre-eminence among Scottish towns of 
its class as to possess three weekly newspapers, the 
Courier, published on Wednesday, and the Herald 
and the Journal, both published on Friday. Weekly 
markets for poultry-yard, farm and garden produce, 
are held every Tuesday and Friday. Hiring-fairs 
for farm-servants are held on the last Friday of 
April and of October. Annual fairs for cattle, for 
general produce, and for coarse household stuffs 
manufactured by the Highland women, are held on 
the first Wednesday after the 11th day of February, 
O. S., or on Wednesday of the 11th; for sheep and 
wool on the 2d Thursday of July, and for general 
produce on the first Wednesday after the 18th of 
the same month; for dairy produce, on the first 
Wednesday after the 15th of August, O. S., or, if 
that date be a Wednesday, on the 26th, N. S. ; and 
for general produce, on the first Wednesday after 
the 11th of November, O. S. These fairs, except- 
ing that of July, are only vestiges of the great com- 
mercial gatherings, the vast provincial trysts, for 
the exchange of all sorts of commodities with the 
produce of the whole North Highlands, which often 
drew together a prodigious and most motley popula- 
tion, and were sometimes continued during succes- 
sive weeks. The establishment of shops through, 
out the interior of the country, and of cattle-trysts 
in various competing localities, together with the 
enormous increase which has been made to the faci- 
lities of communication, have reduced the fairs to 
the mere skeleton of their former bulk ; and the pre- 
valence of dissipation and the frequent occurrence 
of rioting have occasioned them to be restricted as 
to time of continuance between the forenoon of 
Wednesday and the afternoon of the following Fri- 
day, or between the forenoon of Thursday and the 
afternoon of the following Saturday. But at the 
July wool and sheep fair the principal sheep-farmers 
throughout the north of Scotland are met by the 
sheep-dealers of Dumfries-shire and other southern 
counties, and by wool-staplers and agents from 
England, and sell to them annually sheep and wool 
to the value of between £150,000 and £200,000. I 
The qualities of the different flocks in the Highlands, 
both fleece and carcase, are so well-known to the 
southern purchasers that no samples of wool and 
sheep are exhibited. The attendance at the fair of 
1840 was greater than usual; the streets and inns j 
were crowded; many gentlemen from the Border 
districts were present for the first time; and the 
rates of sale assumed even a higher tone than on 
former occasions in fixing the market-prices through- 
out Scotland. 

Inverness, such as we have described it, exhibits, 
in almost every feature, marks of recent and entirely 
renovating transition. Only about forty years have 
elapsed since its streets were a continuous nuisance, 
altogether unwitting of a single appliance or process 
of cleanliness. During the former half of last century, 
municipal matters were so strangely managed, that, 
on the 29th of September, 1709, the town-clerk "paid 
an officer 4s. 6d. Scots, to buy a cart of peats to 

be burnt in the tolbooth to remove the bad scent ;" 
and, in December, 1737, the magistrates ordered the 
town-clerk to purchase " an iron spade, to be given 
to the hangman for cleaning the tolbooth." In the 
year 1740, harness and saddlery of all sorts continued 
to be so little in requisition, but were beginning to 
be just so much appreciated, that the magistrates 
advertised for a saddler to settle in the town. Prior 
to about the year 1775, when the first bookseller's 
shop was opened in the burgh, the few persons in the 
town, and throughout the great extent of country, 
dependent on its market, who were able and had oc- 
casion to make use of writing materials, were sup- 
plied with stationery by the post-master. About the 
middle of last century, a hat had not graced any head 
in the north except that of a landed proprietor or a 
minister ; and when it was first assumed by a bur- 
gher, in the person of the deacon of the weavers, the 
father of the late Bailie Young, it excited the highest 
ridicule of the blue-bonneted multitude, and drew 
from them such constant twitting and raillery, as 
only the stoutest pertinacity, and the sturdiest inde- 
pendence, could have enabled the worthy deacon to 
resist. At a comparatively late date, intemperate 
drinking is understood to have been practised, even 
among the most polished classes, with such horrific 
defiance of all moral obligation and all social decency, 
that a guest would be thought discourteous, or per- 
haps insulting to his entertainer, who did not drink 
till he became insensible and actionless, and had to 
be carried away like a mass of carrion from the pre- 
sence of the living. About ninety years ago, a leg of 
mutton, a neck of veal, and a gallon of ale, are said, 
by tradition, to have been purchaseable for a shilling; 
and even yet, butcher-meat, poultry, fish, and ale, 
sell at much lower prices than in the southern towns.* 
At the middle of last century, the universal costume 
was Celtic and primitive; and, to this hour, it varies 
in a sufficient number of instances and particulars 
from that of the inhabitants of the southern towns, 
to impress upon a Lowland visiter an instant con- 
viction that he is among a peculiar race, whose habits 
and notions still differ considerably from his own. 
The young women of the lower classes appear at 
market or church without any head-dress, and the 
married women without bonnets ; and, in the rest of 
their attire, they exhibit rather a passion for simple 
and gaudy finery, than a taste indicative of much ad- 
vance from the rude notions of bygone times. Men 
of the lower classes, in some instances, and the land- 
ward peasantry in general, wear coarse home-spun 
blue short coats, small blue bonnets, stockings of the 
kind called " rig-and-fur," and very often some relic 
or pendicle of the old Highland costume. Yet the po- 
pulation as a whole is, as to social manners and charac- 
ter, certainly the most rapidly, and perhaps the most 
materially, improved of any in Scotland. Games of 
foot-ball, shintie, bowls, and throwing the stone and 
hammer, which formerly were common among adults 
of the lower orders, are now entirely abandoned, or 
practised only by school-boys and apprentices on gala 
days. Appliances of fashionable folly, the theatre, 
the ball-room, the turf, and kindred means of killing 
the time and squandering the moral energies of the 
upper classes, have not half the prominence or attrac- 
tion in Inverness as in several Scottish towns which 
are very far behind it in the resources of wealth and 
aristocracy. Knowledge and general intellectual 
attainment distinguish the higher orders, and are 
swelling upward with steady tidal flow in every re- 
cess and crevice of society. Gaelic, though not long 
ago the prevailing language, is wholly unknown to 
many of the rising generation, even among the poorer 

* See a preceding Note. 



classes ; and though still spoken by some, and under- 
stood by most, is rapidly becoming extinct. The 
Inverness dialect, or pronunciation of English, has 
long been, and is still, justly noted for its intrinsic 
purity, and for its being but little, if at all, affected 
by such broad Doric provincialisms as are everywhere 
impressed on the varieties of the Lowland dialect. 
This comparatively correct and elegant English — 
purer by far than that of most parts of England itself 
— is generally ascribed to the modelling influence of 
the soldiers of the Commonwealth during the years 
of their occupying Cromwell's fort ; but it seems 
rather to have arisen, and to be even yet occasionally 
arising, from the circumstance of English being ac- 
quired, not by the lessons of imitation, but by the 
process of translating from the Erse, — a circumstance 
which conducts, not to a corrupted spoken language, 
but directly to the pure English of literature. Ire- 
land exhibits along the debateable ground in the far 
west between the strictly aboriginal or Erse district, 
and the Anglo-Irish territories, just such a pheno- 
menon as Scotland has in Inverness, and there pours 
forth, from the lips of her peasantry, an English so 
untainted by brogue and provincialism as would de- 
light the ears of a master of orthoepy. 

Inverness, viewed in connection with its environs, 
is perhaps the most delightful town-retreat in Scot- 
land ; and were it situated farther to the south, or 
not so remote and difficult of access, would speedily 
become the adopted home of numerous classes of an- 
nuitants. Its gorgeous encircling natural pano- 
rama, — its pure and salubrious air, — its rich resources 
of school and library, — its charming promenade of the 
Ness islands, — and its vicinity to a profusion of objects 
which demolish ennui and delight the taste, — render 
it almost the paragon of provincial towns. The 
grounds of Muirtown, embosoming in wood J of a 
mile north-west of the town a handsome and taste- 
ful mansion, and stretching away in the embellish- 
ments of lawn, and glade, and forest, to the base of 
the romantic Craig-Phadric, form a constant haven, 
a nook of repose to the eye, after its bold and far- 
away rovings athwart the general landscape. Other 
mansions and their grounds, particularly the houses 
of Culloden, Raigmore, Darrochville, and Leys, 
adorn the immediate neighbourhood. Associations 
connected with the curious little hill of Tomnahu- 
rich, rising abruptly from the plain, J of a mile south- 
west of the town, like the inverted hull of an enor- 
mous ship, feathered all over with trees, peopled by 
the dreams of ancient superstition with colonies of 
fairies, regarded by many as the sepulchral mound, 
the stupendous grave, of Thomas the Rhymer, and 
used in the olden time as a ward hill for noting the 
approach of unfriendly clans, — associations connected 
with this picturesque object may allure a saunterer 
into many a pleasing reverie ; and walks all around 
its base, and along the banks of the tree-fringed 
Ness — that river which isalike " noble, broad, clear, 
and strong,". — may both minister to health, and daily 
draw a well-toned mind into holy meditation. Other 
objects and places, which interest the feelings, and 
are accessible by short walks or easy drives, are the 
rocky eminences and the columnar monument above 
Clachnaharry, 1^ mile north-west; the high gravelly 
ridge called Tor-a'-Bhean, and partly encircled with 
ditches and ramparts, a little west of Tomnahurich ; 
the Ord Hill of Kessock, the site of a vitrified fort, 
2 miles north ; the Druidical temple of Leys, 2£ miles 
south ; the famous battle-field of Culloden moor, 5| 
miles south-east; Castle- Stewart, 6 miles east ; the 
stone monuments at Clava, 7 miles south-east ; 
Loch-Ness, and the Roman station at Bona, 7 miles 
south-west ; the Aird or vale of the Beauly, from 3 
to 1 6 miles west ; Castle-Dai cross, Fort-George, and 

Cawdor-castle, respectively 8, 12A, and 15 miles 
east ; Glen IJrquhart and Castle, from 15 to 20 miles 
south-west; the Falls of Kilmorack, from 12 to 15 
miles west; and the Fall of Foyers, 18 miles south- 

Inverness is a burgh of great antiquity. There 
are on record four charters granted in its favour by 
King William the Lion. By the first of these, the 
king granted " burgensibus de Moravia" the usual 
burgal privilege " ut nullus eorum namum capiat pro 
alicujus debito nisi pro eorum debito propris." By 
the second, the burgesses of Inverness were declared 
free " a tolneo et omni consuetudine per totam ter- 
rain regis:" it prohibited "ne quis emat aut vendat 
in burgo illo aut in vicecomitatu illo extra burgum 
aliquam mercaturam exerceat nisi fuerit burgensis 
aut stallarius ;" and it granted to the burgesses " ad 
sustentamentum burgi, terram illam quae est extra 
burgum qua? vocatur Burghalew." In consideration 
of these grants, the burgesses undertook to erect and 
maintain a good palisade over a fosse to be con- 
structed by the king. The third charter of William 
granted to the burgesses of Inverness "perpetuam 
libertatum quod nunquam inter eosbellum habebunt, 
nee aliquis alius burgensis aut aliquis alius homo de 
toto regno super eosdem burgenses de Moravia nee 
super heredes eorum bellum habebunt nisi tantum 
juramen'cum ;" and further, " ut dimidiam juramen- 
tum et dimidiam forisfacturam faciant quod ceteri 
burgenses faciunt in toto regno." The fourth char- 
ter of the same king — which is still preserved in the 
archives of the burgh — granted to the burgh the pri- 
vilege of a weekly market, and ratified in its favour 
some of the remarkable privileges conferred on burghs 
by the statutes of David, the king's grandfather. A 
charter of Alexander II. granted to the burgesses the 
land of Markynch. Alexander III. confirmed the 
privilege contained in the first charter of William, 
and enjoined all sheriffs north of the Munth to dis- 
train for payment those " qui debita burgensibus 
debuerint quod rationabiliter probare potuerint, ad 
eadem debita eis juste et sine dilatione reddenda." 
Robert I., in the 19th year of his reign, directed a 
precept to the sheriff of Inverness to do full and 
speedy justice, at the suit of the burgesses of Inver- 
ness, against all invading their privileges by buying 
or selling in prejudice of them and of the liberties of 
the burgb. David II. conferred the privilege, or 
declared the right of the burgesses that no justiciar 
nor other officer of the crown — except the chamber- 
lain, whose office it is — sit or take cognizance upon 
the correction or punishment of the weights and mea- 
sures of the burgesses ; and the same king granted to 
the burgesses and community the burgh, with the 
land of Drekes, and with toll and petty custom of 
the burgh. James II., in ratifying certain grants of 
his ancestors to the church of St. Duthac and to the 
inhabitants of Tayne, in 1457, declared that they 
should not prejudice the right of the burgh and bur- 
gesses of Inverness to the great and small customs 
granted to them by his ancestors ; and further con- 
firmed the rights, privileges, liberties, and infeft- 
ments of the burgh and burgesses of Inverness ; from 
which it would appear that the exclusive privilege of 
merchandise within the sheriffdom, conferred by the 
second charter of William the Lion, actually extend- 
ed over the earldom of Ross, then part of the sheriff- 
dom of Inverness. Queen Mary, on the 3d of May, 
1546, granted under the great seal a ratification of an 
act and ordinance of the provost, bailies, council, and 
community of Inverness, dated the 19th March, 1545. 
In the narrative there is set forth " the great hurt 
and skaith lang time by-gane used through indrawing 
of outlandish men of great clans not able nor quali- 
fied to use merchandize, nor make daily residence nor 



policy, nor no manner of bigging within tlie burgh, 
but allenarly to bruick the profit of the common 
tacks and steadings of the burgh to be spended and 
used outwith the said burgh, — which has happened 
from the widows within the burgh bruiking the | 
tacks and steadings of their husbands after their de- 
cease, and by reason of the interest of the outlandish 
men of great clans with the said widows." In con- 
sequence, it is " ordained that no widow should bruik 
any tack or steading within burgh by reason of the 
decease of her husband, after the old manner, but 
the same to be bruiked by the heirs male of the bo- 
dies of the possessors ; providing alway that they be 
thought qualified by the provost and bailies and their 
council to scot, lot, walk and ward, with the laif of 
the neighbours of the said burgh, and make continual 
and daily residence for the most part of the year 
within the same ; failing of which heirs, the provost, 
&c, to dispone to other neighbours worthy and qua- 
lified." There are, in the reign of James VI., two ! 
charters, — the one granting new, and the other con- ' 
firming the ancient rights. The first is dated the 6th 
March, 1588, by which the king approved of the de- 
struction of a mill built on the water of Ness, to the 
south of the castle ; and granted to the burgesses 
the astricted and dry multures belonging to that mill 
for payment of six merks yearly. The second rati- 
fies the ancient charters in favour of the burgh 
granted by William, Alexander, David, James I., 
James IV., and Mary. This charter contains a de- 
tail of the lands and other rights of property then 
appertaining to the burgh, of which the following 
may be deemed the most important : — " The lands 
of Drakes, and forest of the same ; Markhinch, with 
the common pasturage anciently called the Burgh- 
haugh, Wood Park, Burnhills, Claypots, Milnfield, 
the Carse, Cam Laws, as particularly bounded, the 
common muir of the burgh, the water of Ness, and 
both sides of the same between the stone called 
Clachnahagyag and the sea, with the fishings ; the 
fishing of the Red Pool, on the east of the ferry of 
Kcssock, with the privilege of three kists within the 
water wrak, as use is ; the ferry of Kessock, the 
King's mills, the astricted and dry multures of the 
Castle lands, and of the other lands which of old 
pertained to the mills built on the Ness to the south 
of the Castle, called Kannak-hill mills, destroyed." 

A large part of the landed property of the burgh 
has been alienated at different times, so that this 
portion of its funds is now comparatively small. The 
property* of the burgh of Inverness was returned, in 
1832, as consisting of: — 

Arrears of revenue due, . , 506 19 5 

Thomas Ross, burgh chamberlain, . . 26 18 5 

6,255 11 U 
Estimated value of heritable property brought 

down, ..... 14,555 19 2 

E-timated amount of property, £20,811 13 11 


The annual revenue of the burgh, for the 
ending at Michaelmas, 1832, was as follows : — 


. Estimated value, £2,583 14 2 

Casualties of superiority, 

River Ness fishings, .... 

Burgh lands, ..... 

houses and shops, . . 

Town-hall, and subjects not yielding a pecuniary 
annual return, ..... 

Estimated value of heritable property, but 
not taking into account gaol, court-house, 
church, and bleaching-greens, . 

Inverness gas and water company, 
New bridge of Inverness, 
New harbour of Inveruess, 

1,117 15 


7,681. 6 


870 4 


14,555 19 2 


1,856 15 10 

3,305 1 1 

* This enumeration and estimate, it was stated, included only 
such property aB was deemed capable of being sold, transferred, 
or made over in security. Iu consequence, the principal church 
in Inverness is not included, although built at the expense of 
the burgh, and yielding from seat-rents an annual revenue of 
£146 13s. 3d. Nor, in making the estimate, have the proceeds 
of the old anchorage and shore-dues, customs, old bridge-toll, 
burgess and apprentice-dues, beeu taken into calculation. But 
the town-hall, the bridge, and harbour, and the other subjects 
of a similar nature, must iikewise be excluded, which, by occa- 
sioning a deduction of £7.221 16s. 1 Id., will reduce the amount 
of available propertv to £13.589 17s. — Municipal Corporations 
Report. j 


Feu-duties, ..... 

Casualties of superiority, ... 
River Ness fishings, .... 

Land rents, ..... 

House, shop, &zc, rents, .... 

Dividends from gas and water company, 

New bridge, interest on debt. 

New harbour do. . . . . 

Church-seat rents, ...... 

Stent or burgh-cess, .... 

Lamp-money, ..... 

Anchorage and shore-dues, . . 

Petty customs, toll of old bridge, &c, . 
Burgess and apprentice dues, . . . 

Streets cleaning, sales of manure, 
Miscellanies, ..... 

Total revenue for 1S31-2, 
But, supposing that the stent or burgh-cess and 
lamp-money, being destined for specific pur- 
poses, should not be included as items of gene- 
ral revenue, — if so, deduct 

















13 11 
4 in 
13 2 
12 2 
11 8 

Revenue 1331-2, so restricted, 

398 3 10 

£1,838 12 6 

The abstract of the annual expenditure of the 
burgh for the year 1831-2, was, — 

Interest and annuities on debt, . 

Education and schools, . 

Church establishment, . . 

Stent or burgh-cess, . . 

Other public burdens and taxes, 


Street-sweeping, . 

Gaol, . . . . 

'ieneral police, 

Improvements, repairs, furnishings, 

General management and miscellanies, 

Total expenditure, 1831-2, 

But, supposing that the stent or burgh-cess and 

the street-lighting should not, for the reasons 

stated under the head of revenue, be included 

as items of general expenditure, — if so, deduct 

Expenditure 1831-2, so restricted, 

The abstract of the debts of the burgh 
lows, at Michaelmas, 1833: — 

1. To the guildry corporation of Inverness, 

2. To the Northern Infirmary of Inverness, 

3. To Jonathan Anderson's fund, 

4. To Inverness lesser charitable mortifications, 

5. To Mrs. Low and Miss Grant, value of an- 

nuities, ..... 

6. To Campbell Mackintosh, town-clerk, 

7. To receiver-general of land-tax, 

8. To Roderick Reach, solicitor and accountant, 

9. To road and street-trustees of Inverness, 

10. To D. F. Mackenzie, procurator-fiscal, . 

11. To Robert Smith, solicitor, 

12. To Inverness Journal, 

£387 17 3 


64 10 


36 9 11 

223 4 3 

268 11 3 

222 11 6 

216 5 
117 14 6 
215 14 




717 5 


Amount of debts. 
Thus classified : — 

Moveable, . £9,567 6 

On annuity, 85 7 10 

Disputed claim, 679 8 a 
Open accounts, lb6 15 O' 

32 12 8 

5 10 10 

6 10 o 

10,684 16 


10,634 16 
Which being deducted from the amount of avail- 
able property, as before slated, 

Leaves a balance, in favour of the 1 

rji, of 

£2,905 1 

The corporation-revenue in 1838-9, was £] 985 
13s. ljd. 

The affairs of the burgh are, finder the superintend- 
ence of the magistrates and council — 21 in number 

managed by the town-clerk, chamberlain, and ac- 
countant. The first of these officers performs the 
ordinary duty of legal adviser and law-agent. The 
. luties of the second are to receive the revenues of 



the burgh, and to make all payments. The duties 
of the accountant are those of the ordinary profes- 
sional nature There is nothing peculiar in the 

jurisdiction of the magistrates of Inverness. The 
jurisdiction of the magistrates includes the ancient 
royalty, and the royalty as extended by the statute 
of 1808. There are no subordinate or dependent 
territories; but it is important to remark that, on 
one side, tbe royalty extends beyond the parliamen- 
tary boundaries a considerable way into the country ; 
and that, on the other side, it is much within the 
parliamentary boundaries, and does not include a 
considerable portion of the town. The jurisdiction 
is exercised by the magistrates directly. The courts 
held practically are, first, a burgh-court, by one or 
more of the magistrates; and, secondly, a dean-of- 
guild court, by the dean-of-guild and his council. 
That council is composed of certain members of the 
town-council, annually chosen by the dean-of-guild, 
and subject to the approval of the magistrates and 
town-council. Both civil and criminal causes are 
tried by the burgh-court. The jurisdiction is of the 
same extent as, and cumulative with, that of the 
sheriff. The dean-of-guild's jurisdiction is of the 
ordinary nature and extent. The magistrates have 
no regular assessor, but the town-clerk acts in that 
capacity without any additional fees or salary. The 
election of magistrates and council at Michaelmas 
1817 was set aside by the court-of-session in December 
1818, and the burgh consequently disfranchised. In 
virtue of a warrant by the Privy council, dated the 
9th of August, 1822, a new election of the magis- 
trates and council took place by the persons who 
composed the magistracy and town-council for the 
year ending Michaelmas 1817, and that in terms of 
the usual constitution, sett, and custom of the burgh, 
which was thus restored. The mode of election 
was: — The provost, bailies, dean-of-guild, and trea- 
surer, continued councillors for the year after they 
went out of office, and could not be any of the five 
merchant councillors turned off. The town-council 
chose five new merchant councillors, and removed 
five of the old; so that 13 merchant councillors con- 
tinued without election. The six incorporated trades 
chose each one deacon, and those deacons elected a 
convener, who was, ex officio, a councillor; out of 
the remaining deacons the town-council elected 2 
trades councillors, in all 21. The five old mer- 
chant councillors having been removed, the council, 
out of their own number, chose the magistrates. The 
burgh has no church-patronage; this article is there- 
fore limited to the patronage of civil offices. But 
along with the ministers of Inverness, and with the 
concurrence of the moderator of the presbytery, they 
have the patronage of the following bursaries. By 
bequest, dated the 30th of September, 1730, of 
James Fraser, LL.D., treasurer of Chelsea hospital, 
a sum of £220 was left to King's college, Aberdeen, 
for two bursaries or exhibitions towards the mainte- 
nance in that college of two students from Inverness, 
both to be of the sirname of Fraser; one to be a 
student of divinity, the other of philosophy. After 
some temporary arrangements, it was recently agreed 
upon, between the patrons and the Senatus Acade- 
micus of King's college, that out of the said fund 
there should be two philosophy bursaries of £15 
each, and two divinity ones of £11 each. 

The sums mortified for the purposes of education, 
and placed under the management of the magistrates 
and council, are large, amounting to nearly £34,000. 
Of these, the Mackintosh endowment is the most 
important. This institution was endowed conform- 
ably to the testament of Captain William Mackin- 
tosh, of the Hindostan East Indiaman, who died on 
the 12th of May, 1803. The object is for educating;, ; t 

in the Inverness academy, boys of the name of 
Mackintosh, and of the families of Farr, Holm, Dal- 
migavie, and Kyllachy. The amount of the original 
bequest was £10,000, but it is now nearly three 
times that amount. The subsequent accumulation 
appears to have been created by the excess of in- 
come above expenditure, arising from the limited 
number who could be benefited by the institution. 
— The mortification next in importance is " Bell's 
endowment." The testator was the Rev. Dr. An- 
drew Bell, of Westminster. The purpose was the 
maintenance of a school, at Inverness, for the in- 
struction of children on the Madras system. The 
donation was one-twelfth share of £60,000, 3 per 
cent, consolidated annuities; and one-twelfth of 
£60,000, 3 per cent, reduced annuities, under de- 
duction of one-twelfth of £2,500, set apart for costs. 
— Jonathan Anderson, merchant in Glasgow, by 
bequest of 29th August, 1804, left a sum for the 
distribution of the annual proceeds, according to the 
discretion of the magistrates of Inverness, to de- 
cayed members of the guildry and poor householders 
of Inverness, in sums not exceeding £5. The 
amount of this fund, in 1832, was £3,836 lis. 5d. 
Frederick Klien of Chisvvick, in the county of Mid- 
dlesex, by bequest dated September 1823, left a sum 
amounting, in 1832, to £897 ; the proceeds of which 
are to be distributed in money, clothing, or fuel, in 
sums or value not less than 5s., nor more than 20s. 
to each person, under the direction of the provost, 
bailies, dean-of-guild, and council of Inverness. 
There are several smaller charity funds. 

The town is the seat of the courts of assize for 
the Northern counties ; of the courts of the sheriff 
of Inverness-shire; and of monthly justiee-of-peace 
small debt courts. Inverness unites with Forres, 
Fortrose, and Nairn, in sending a member to parlia- 
ment. Parliamentary constituency, in 1839, 475. 
Population, in 1831, 9,663; in 1841, 11,575. 

The history of Inverness has so freely mixed with 
various sections of our description, that but little of 
it remains to be told. The town is invested with 
a fictitious interest, and assigned an origin at least 
60 years before the Christian era, by Boethius and 
Buchanan connecting it with one of their apocryphal 
kings. Yet it probably was a seat of population, and, 
at all events, it occupies a site in the centre of what 
certainly was a closely peopled district in the remote 
age of British hill-strengths and vitrified forts. 
Scottish antiquaries, however, have raised so many 
and such conflicting speculations respecting it, while 
they have no documents, and but few monuments to 
guide them, that they may be allowed a monopoly 
of dealing out a history of it in ages for which no 
history exists. Columba, the apostle of Scotland, 
as stated by his biographer and successor Adamnan, 
went, " ad ostiam Nessiae," to the residence at that 
locality of Bridei or Brudeus, king of the Picts; 
and remained there sufficiently long to be the instru- 
ment of converting the monarch, and to hold several 
conferences, and make some missionary arrangements 
with the Scandinavian chief of the Orkney Islands. 
" Ostia Nessiae" means very nearly in Latin what 
"Inverness" does in Gaelic; or, understood even 
rigidly, it designates the mouth of the river on 
which the town stands, and points either to the 
town's precise site, or to some spot in its immediate 
vicinity. Inverness is hence believed to have been 
the original seat of the Pictish monarchs; and is 
supposed, even after Abernethy and Forteviot be- 
came a sort of Pictish capitals, to have retained its 
pre-eminence, and not altogether lost it till the union 
of the Scottish and the Pictish crowns. Malcolm 
Canmore, in the face of the fact that royal burghs 
did not exist till several ages later, is fabled to have 



granted it its first charter, erecting it into a royal 
burgh. In the reign of David I., it figures as a 
king's burgh, was made the seat of a sheriff whose 
authority extended over all the north of Scotland, 
and is designated in a legislative enactment, one of 
the chief places of the whole kingdom, — "Loca 
oapitalia per totum regnum." It was thus one of 
the earliest free towns of the kingdom, and inferior 
to none in the dignity with which it greets the view 
atthe epoch of record. William the Lion — as we have 
seen — granted it four charters, appointing it a regular 
magistracy, exemptingit from many burdens, and con- 
ferring upon it various privileges as to manufactures. 
In 1217, and 1237, additional charters and grants of 
land were given to it by Alexander II. During the 
whole period on which history throws light previous 
to the invasion of Scotland by Edward I., the Scot- 
tish kings occasionally visited or resided in Inver- 
ness, and were at rapid intervals required to repel 
from it the incursions of the Danes, and the northern 
Vikingr, or to quell the insurrections of the reckless 
inhabitants and the turbulent chiefs of the adjacent 
country. In 1229, a powerful Highland savage, 
named Gillespick M'Scourlane, attempted an usurpa- 
tion, levied a war of rebellion, burnt the town, 
spoiled the adjacent Crown-lands, and put to the 
sword all persons who would not acknowledge him 
as their sovereign ; but he was defeated, captured, 
and ignominiously beheaded. After the accession of 
Bruce, and during the successive reigns of the Stuarts 
till near the Union, Inverness was frequently oppres- 
sed by the constables of its own castle, and constantly 
exposed to the predatory visits of the Islesmen and 
the Highland clans ; so that its annals abound with 
accounts of burnings, pillagings, ransackings, skir- 
mishes between assailants and its inhabitants, strata- 
gems of skill and prowess against foes, and pecuniary 
levies, and other expedients for purchasing the for- 
bearance or averting the menaces of truculent and 
rapacious neighbours. An incident which occurred 
in 1400, will exemplify the prominent events and 
illustrate the social condition of the period : Donald, 
Lord of the Isles, having approached at the head of a 
small army to the north side of Kessock-ferry, and 
sent a message menacing the town with destruction 
if a large ransom were not paid for its safety, the 
provost affected to agree to the terms dictated, and 
sent a large quantity of whiskey as a present to the 
Chief and his followers ; and, when the Islesmen, de- 
lighted with their fiery beverage, and emulating one 
another in dissipation, and generally actionless with 
intoxication, the- provost, followed and zealously 
aided by his burgesses, pounced upon them like the 
eagle on his quarry, and devoted them, with the 
exception of one man, to indiscriminate destruction. 
Attacks upon the town were more frequent and un- 
relenting, that few of the wealthy burgesses were 
Highlandmen, and most were a community of foreign 
merchants, or merchants of foreign extraction, con- 
nected with Holland, and with the continental sea- 
board northward thence to the Baltic. In 1280, the 
town was visited by a French Count as a suitable 
place for building a ship to replace one which he had 
lost in the Orkneys ; and from that time — as is indi- 
cated by the Flemish and Saxon names of its ancient 
inhabitants — it became increasingly the resort and the 

adopted home of the children of commerce, persons 

differing more in habits than even in extraction from 
the wild native septs who restlessly scoured the 
heathy recesses of the north. The nurturing of such 
a commercial community was unvaryingly and happily 
regarded by the Scottish kings as a wise policy for 
at once promoting the general interests of the coun- 
try, rearing a class of peaceful and loyal subjects, 
checking the exorbitant power of the barons, and ex- 

hibiting a convincing example of the prosperous 
tendencies of arts which were despised or held in 
small esteem by the clans ; but, by provoking the 
envy, and tempting the cupidity of the marauding 
chiefs and their followers, and occasionally giving 
body to the filmy and nearly impalpable pretexts 
which were urged for the rancorous quarrels and con- 
flicts almost constantly existing among the clans, it 
obliged the sovereigns to be often on the spot, dis- 
charging the offices of chief magistrates of justiciary 
and police. To tell of the extraordinary as well as 
ordinary interferences of the Crown to punish sedi- 
tion and pillage, of citation to chieftain-culprits by 
the king's summons to attend at the market-cross of 
the burgh, and of executions of the convicted on the 
Gallow's-hill, as well as of military executions in the 
melee of mimic civil war, would only be a disgusting 
repetition of the most revolting and least instructive 
elements of history. One of the last royal visits to 
the town was that — already glanced at in our notice 
of the castle — of Queen Mary to quell an insurrec- 
tion of the Earl of Huntly. Mary is said to have 
formed during her visit a strong attachment to In- 
verness ; she kept, while there, a small squadron in 
the harbour to insure her safety ; she was sedulously 
attended by the greater part of the Highland chiefs ; 
and she had soon the satisfaction — or the appropriate 
feeling, be it what it might, which such an event 
could impart — of hunting down the Earl of Huntly, 
and putting him to death in a fair field fight. James 
VI., who laboured much to quiet the turbulence of 
the northern Highlands, was particularly friendly to 
the burgh. The Invernessians distinguished them- 
selves after the Revolution by enthusiastic and 
bold attachment to both Prelacy and Jacobit- 
ism. In 1691, when a presbyterian minister was 
for the first time after the abolition of Episcopacy- 
appointed to the vacant parish-church, armed men 
were, by the magistrates, stationed at the doors to 
prevent his admission ; they repulsed Duncan Forbes 
of Culloden, father of the famous Lord-President 
Forbes, in an attempt to force him into the interior; 
and they did not eventually give way till a regiment 
inarched up by order of Government, and lifted the 
presentee into the pulpit on a couch of bayonets. 
At the same period, and for years afterwards, the 
magistrates used every means to support or forward 
the Jacobitical cause ; and, at the accession of 
George I. to the throne, they openly opposed and 
endeavoured to prevent his proclamation, and roused 
the populace to a riot. During the rebellion of 
1745-6, and especially amid the stir which preceded 
and followed its closing-scene in the neighbouring 
field of Culloden, the town had the harassing dis- 
tinction, and reaped the bitter awards of being the 
virtual capital of the losing party in that trial of the 
dreadful game of war; and, among other characters 
of lugubriousness and horror which it was obliged to 
wear, it was the scene of the public execution of 36 of 
Prince Charles Edward's men. Up to the period of 
the disarming act, its inhabitants stood constantly 
accoutred, or at least prepared for war ; but, since 
1746, they have witnessed an uninterrupted peace, 
and have learned to regard the stirring and sanguinary 
history of their town as belonging to a state of 
things which has entirely and for ever passed away, 
and have moved silently and fleetly along the de- 
lightful path of social amelioration and intellectual 
and moral improvement. No modern event of note 
has occurred except the earthquake on the night of 
the 16th of August, 1816, when the ground was 
sensibly and alarmingly tremulous, the chimney-tops 
of many houses were projected into the streets, the 
bells were set-a-ringing, and many animals were 
strongly affected with terror. 



INVERNESS-SHIRE, one of the most extensive 
counties, and by far the most mountainous, in Scot- 
land. It is bounded on the north by Ross-shire, and 
part of the Moray frith ; on the east by the shires of 
Elgin, Moray, and Aberdeen ; on the south by Perth 
and Argyle; and on the west by the Atlantic ocean. 
A small insulated district, between the shires of Banff 
and Moray, containing Cromdale and Inverallen, is 
annexed to it ; and several of the Hebrides are poli- 
tically attached to this county. The mainland ex- 
tends in length from the point of Arasaig on the 
west, to the point of Ardersier on the east, where 
Fort-George is built, about 92 miles ; and its greatest 
breadth, from the ferry of Ballachulish to the boun- 
dary of Strathglass, is nearly 80 miles. 

Playfair estimates the superficies of the continen- 
tal part of this county at 2,904 square miles, or 
1,858,560 acres ; while Robertson estimates the su- 
perficies of this part at 7,200 square miles, or 
4,608,000 acres ; and that of the islands at one-half 
more. The former admeasurement — though an ap- 
proximation only — is doubtless nearest the truth ; 
but to it must be added 132 square miles, or 84,480 
acres for the lakes. The surface of the islands at- 
tached to this county is equal to 1,150 square miles, 
to which we may add 59 square miles of lakes, — 
making in all 1,209 square miles, or 773,760 acres. 
Inverness-shire contained, in 1801, including its 
islands, 74,292; in 1811, 78,336 inhabitants. In 
1821, the population was 90,157 ; in 1831, it amount- 
ed to 94,797 : whereof 44,510 were males, and 50,287 
females. The number of families employed in agri- 
culture, in 1831, was 9,892; in trade and manufac- 
tures, 2,753. The number of inhabited houses 1 7,312 ; 
the total number of families 19,046. The valued 
rent, as stated in the county-books, is £3,188 9s. 
Scots ; and the real land-rent was estimated, in 181 1, 
at £70,530 sterling. The value of assessed property, 
in 1815, was £185,565, of which the proportion under 
entail was nearly one-half. — The shire comprises 37 
parishes. The number of parochial schools, in 1834, 
was 34, attended by 2,639 children ; and the total 
salaries and emoluments of the teachers amounted to 
£1,335 15s. lid. The number of schools not par- 
ochial was 122, attended by 6,667 children. 

The divisions of this county are chiefly determined 
by natural boundaries. Lochaber comprehends that 
tract of country whose waters are discharged into the 
Western ocean at Fort- William. Moydart, Arasaig, 
South and North Morar, and Knoydart, seem to 
belong, in an extensive acceptation, to Lochaber, 
because these districts are amenable to the sheriff- 
court established in that country. Glengarry is ac- 
counted a division ; and Glenelg, Glenmoriston, Ur- 
quhart, Strathglass, and Aird, the vicinity of Inver- 
ness, the lordship of Petty, Ardersier, Stratherrick, 
the braes of Strathnairn and of Strathdearn, and the 
lordship of Badenoch, are all accounted separate di- 
visions of the county of Inverness. These divisions 
are generally marked by the different valleys watered 
by a river peculiar to each, and comprehended with- 
in parallel ranges of opposite hills. The divisions of 
high land and low land can scarcely be applied in 
this county ; unless the Aird, the vicinity of Inver- 
ness, Ardersier, and the lordship of Petty, be ac- 
counted the low-land division ; which indeed it is in 
relation to the rest, being all bounded on one side 
by the sea-shore, and by mountains on the other. 
The reader will find separate articles on most of 
these divisions inserted in their respective alpha- 
betical order in our pages : at the same time we shall 
here insert a general sketch of the topography of 
Inverhess-shire from Dr. Robertson's ' Agricultural 
Survey.' London: 1808, 8 vo. 

Unless one were to enter Inverness-shire by 

the coast of the German ocean, its aspect from 
any other line of approach is rudely grand and 
forbidding. The dark blue mountains piled upon 
one another, — and stretching away in immense 
chains, with hardly a pass or an opening to afford 
access from t,he south or west, — form a barrier which 
requires a certain degree of fortitude to attempt, 
and of enterprise to surmount. The frequent sight 
of poles set up by the side of the public road in 
these defiles, as beacons to guide the weary tra- 
veller in exploring his way, when the fog is so thick 
that he cannot see, or the snow so deep that the 
proper path is concealed from view, is a proof of the 
danger which is sometimes to be encountered in 
entering this part of the kingdom. These moun- 
tains stretch across the island, and lie parallel to 
every valley, — rising like immense walls on both its 
sides, while the inhabited country sinks deep be- 
tween them, with a lake or rapid river flowing in 
the centre ; and no sooner is one defile passed over, 
than another range of hills comes into view, which 
conceal in their bosom another defile, and another 
strath of inhabited country. Over the whole county 
the same appearance of lofty mountains, in constant 
succession, seems to intercept the traveller's pro- 
gress, — except when he descends along the tract of 
a valley, and follows the course of a river, or the 
windings of a lake, between two ranges of heath-clad 
hills, or of towering rocks whose base is generally 
covered with wood. 

There are two Highland roads into Inverness- 
shire. Going from the county of Perth to Fort- 
William, a part of Argyleshife must be passed 
through, between Tyndrum and Ballachulish. In 
this ride — which is an ordinary day's journey — the 
Black-mount, the inn called the King's house, and 
the valley of Glencoe, are objects which arrest a 
traveller's attention. The Black-mount has been 
covered — at least all round the base — with a forest 
of natural firs. The remains of this wood are still 
growing at Inveroran. The soil is a crust of moss, 
formed by the deciduous parts or the leaves of fir 
and heath, upon a subsoil of gravel or deep peat 
earth. The stocks of the old trees are so weather- 
beaten by the storms that their bleached tops re- 
semble human skulls strewed on the ground. On 
the south are high hills affording good pasture for 
sheep. On the north is a boundless flat of deep 
moss, reaching from Glenlyon and Rannoch on the 
east, to the braes of Badenoch on the north, and 
westward to the confines of Lochaber at Lochtreig. 
There is little doubt of this being the most exten- 
sive field of moss in Britain. Numberless little 
lakes are interspersed throughout its entire extent, 
and in some of these are islands with tufts of trees. 
On approaching King's house inn, that steep as- 
cent, with its manifold traverses, called the Devil's 
Staircase, appears in full view in the west. This 
path is now deserted ; and the public road is turned 
towards the left, down the valley of Glencoe, which 
forms a long circuitous line to Fort- William : See 
Glencoe. After travelling some miles down the 
glen, the eye is refreshed by the beauties of Inver- 
coe, and the glen — which had hitherto been dreary 
and frowning — all of a sudden assumes a pleasant 
aspect, in its winding limpid stream, — the variety of 
wood which covers its verdant banks, — the appear- 
ance of cultivation in the fields, — and the snugness 
of the laird's house, situated at the extremity of a 
bay of the sea which opens to the meridian sun. A 
few miles below Invercoe, and on the left side of 
Loch-Leven, that arm of the sea narrows into a 
strait, named Calas ic Phatric, — ' the Strait of the 
Son of Patrick,' — which is the ferry at this place 
from the county of Argyle into that of Inverness. 



At a short distance on the road to Fort- William, 
there is another narrow ferry on the left, into Ard- 
govver, called Corran: which see. Beyond Corran 
the country is little else than lofty mountains, rising 
from this branch of the sea, whose base in several 
places hardly affords room for the public road, — an 
appearance which is frequently presented to a tra- 
veller in the West Highlands of Scotland. At Fort- 
William, however, the eye is gratified by the view 
of a town in which the houses are covered with slate, 
and form a regular street. 

To catch the leading features, and form some con- 
ception of this western part of the county of Inver- 
ness, one must suppose a deep valley beginning at 
Fort- William, and stretching across the whole county, 
nearly in the middle, from south-west to north-east. 
This valley [see articles Caledonian Canal and 
Glenmore-nan-Albin] has a range of lofty moun- 
tains on both sides, which, at the north-east extre- 
mity, sink down into the sandstone strata of Nairn- 
shire. The rivers, flowing between the openings of 
these parallel mountains, meet one another, and dis- 
charge their streams into the bottom of the valley, 
as a common reservoir, and feed Loch-Lochy, which 
falls westward, and Loch-Oich and Loch-Ness, 
which fall north-east: See these articles. But after 
we penetrate back through these parallel ranges of 
mountains for several miles, either to the right or to 
the left hand, we find other rivers, which flow in 
a direction opposite to the former, and take their 
course away from the great valley of the canal. 
This range of mountainous ground between the 
Great valley and the Atlantic, is the highest and 
wildest throughout all the forbidding surface of this 
county, and has got the name of ' the rough bounds.' 
It extends from the head of Moydart, which joins 
the county of Argyle, to Glensheil in Ross-shire, — 
a distance of 70 miles or more. There descend 
from this general range of elevated land, five or six 
lines of lower but very rugged ground, which pene- 
trate into the Atlantic, and form so many bold pro- 
montories on that shore. Loch-Eil, on whose nor. 
thern shore Fort- William and its village are set 
down, penetrates 12 miles west, in addition to the 
distance of 10 miles more from Corran to that vil- 
lage. From the head of Loch-Eil, the waters flow 
3 miles eastward into that arm of the sea. Going 
down the valley of Arasaig, you pass the end of 
Loeh-Sheil, which falls southward into Morven, is 
12 miles long, and divides Ardgower from Moydart. 
Into Moydart there runs an arm of the sea, called 
Loch-Moydart : which see. On the north of 
Moydart a narrow lake of fresh water stretches 6 
miles along the public road, which is called Loch- 
Ailt ; and the river flowing from it, after a course 
of 6 miles, is lost in Loch-Aynort, an arm of the 
sea. Then succeeds Loch-Nanua, — a beautiful bay; 
and turning northward to the ferry of Arasaig on the 
sea-coast, the branch of salt water is called Loch- 
na-gaul. This line of communication from Loch- 
aber to Arasaig is all black with gloomy heath, ex- 
cept on the margin of the waters, until the road 
descend towards Arasaig, where the hills are gen- 
erally green on the north, but studded with rock in 
such constant succession, from the bottom of the 
valley to their summit, that their aspect puts one in 
mind of the fine freckled sky which generally covers 
the aerial vault of heaven, in the evening of a serene 
day. The mountains of Moydart, on the south, 
are more heathy and barren, but less rocky: See 

The next valley to Arasaig, northward, which 
penetrates into the rough bounds from the moun- 
tains bordering on the tract of the canal, commences 
at Achnacarry, and stretches westward by Loch- 

Arkaig : See that article. Between the mouth 
of this lake and Loch-Lochy, into which its con- 
tents are discharged, the distance is hardly 2 miles. 
From the west end of Loch-Arkaig there is a glen of 
6 miles more, stretching forward to the highest sum- 
mit of the rising ground, which is called Glenpean, — 
a beautiful green grazing. It is a singular feature 
in the complexion of this country, that the lower 
grounds are in many places covered with barren 
heath growing on a poor soil ; while the tops of the 
mountains, to their summit, are clad with a rich 
carpet of green grass, springing from a fertile mellow 
earth. From this station, at the head of Glenpean, 
a noble landscape is presented to view. In front is 
a wide expanse of sea sprinkled with islands, at 
different distances and of different magnitude. Skye, 
the chief of these, appears on the right, with Rum, 
Egg, and Canna ; and in the distant horizon the long 
train of the Hebrides appears like a dark cloud rest- 
ing on the bosom of the ocean. Turning to objects 
more at hand, Loch-Morar, a fresh- water lake, whose 
length is 14 miles, is beheld at the foot of the table- 
land on which we suppose our spectator placed ; 
while on the north, Glendessary stretches away in a 
direct line 4 miles. At the head of this glen is the 
pass named Maam-Chlach-Ard,* which leads down 
to Loch- Nevis, an arm of the sea 12 miles in length, 
having North-Morar on the left and Knoydart on the 
right. Both sides of Loch- Nevis are very rocky ; 
but the side next Knoydart has more green ground 
than the other : See Loch-Neyis. 

The next valley of consequence, whose waters fall 
at right angles into the line of the Great canal, is 
Glengarry, which is distinguished by the rude mag- 
nificence of its old castle in ruins, situated on a rock 
on the west side of Loch-Oich, and surrounded with 
venerable old trees. The present family-mansion is 
a modern house, built at a small distance northward. 
Four miles up this glen you meet Loch-Garry, which 
is 4 miles long, closely wooded with natural firs on 
the south side, and birch and alder on the north. 
The river flowing into the head of Loch-Garry, 
reaches to the south end of Glenqueich, which 
stretches northward, and to Glenkingie, which runs 
southward. In the former is a fresh-water lake 7 
miles long. The ascent from the head of these glens 
is 3 miles, immediately above Loch-Hourn, — a 
deep gloomy branch of the sea, with high rocky 
banks. In all this stretch, from Invergarry, the 
house of Glengarry, on the east, to Loch-Hourn on 
the west, the lower ground is generally clad with 
heath, but the higher mountains are covered with 
green rich pasture : See articles Glenqueich, Loch- 
Garry, and Loch-Hourn. 

Glenmoriston is the succeeding entrance into the 
rugged country which leads from the great valley to 
the Atlantic. This glen may be entered by a Maam, 
— or pass between the shoulders of two hills, — in 
an oblique direction from Fort- Augustus, which 
points north-west, and is 7 miles long ; or by another 
road, from Invermoriston, in the direct line of the 
river. The latter is the easiest ascent; but the 
former is the military road, and forms a much shorter 
communication between Fort-Augustus and the mili- 
tary post at Bernera in Glenelg. These two roads 
meet a little below a place called Anoch. About 
8 miles from Anoch is a small lake called Loch- 
Cluany : which see. To the east end of Glenshiel, 
— where the waters separate, some running east into 
Loch-Ness, and some into the Western ocean, — is b' 
miles more. This point also forms the boundary 
betwixt the counties of Inverness and Ross, and is 
the northern extremity of that mountainous and elc- 

* ' The Pass of the high btones.* 



vated ridge of country which stretches from Morvan 
to this place. From Glenshiel, which is 12 miles 
long, the road returns to Inverness-shire, by a pass 
called Maam-Raitachan, into Glenelg, which is 8 
miles long, and is the richest spot, both in grass and 
corn, hitherto mentioned in the Highlands of this 
county : See Glenelg, and Glenmoriston. 

Fokt-Augcstus [which see], one of the most 
pleasant spots in the Highlands, is situated on a 
smooth green hill at the west end of Loch-Ness, 
having a river on each side, which washes the base 
of that hill, and flows gently into the lake. Tra- 
velling down the north side of Loch-Ness, a person 
of any taste must be struck with the beauty of the 
noble sheet of water, nearly 2 miles broad, which 
stretches away before him for a distance of nearly 
24 miles. The sides present a continued line of 
bold rocky ground, rising immediately from the lake 
to the height of mountains, without any opening on 
either hand, except at Invermoriston, at Urquhart, 
and at Foyers. These lofty banks consist of shelves 
of earth incumbent upon rock, and afford nourishment 
for copse of various kinds. Where the rock is covered 
with soil, — hazel, oak, and alder abound, and there is 
also a number of aged weeping birches. The thick- 
ness of their fretted indented bark indicates their 
age ; and the pendulous ringlets of these venerable 
birches frequently overhang the face of rocks, and 
reach down to the ground. Rocks, rivulets, trees, 
and mountains are reflected in the smooth mirror 
below, with an effect which neither description in 
words can accomplish, nor delineation by the pencil 
produce : See Loch-Ness. Passing over a ridge of 
high bleak moor, and descending by a northerly direc- 
tion into Urquhart, the scene is reversed. In place 
of the lofty barriers of Loch-Ness, — which present 
nothing but barrenness and the rude grandeur of 
Nature,— in Urquhart, a bottom of about 2 miles in 
diameter, and flat as a bowling-green, is beautifully 
diversified with wood and water and enclosed fields. 
Urquhart narrows into a glen, in a westerly direc- 
tion, going up to Corrimony, which is more or less 
confined in different places, but very much beautified 
by neat houses, well-dressed fields, and plenty of 
wood, chiefly ash, beech, and birch. Here cultiva- 
tion reaches an altitude of 800 or 900 feet above 

Crossing westwards over a small barren moor into 
Strathglass, which is the most northerly valley of 
the county of Inverness, the face of the country pre- 
sents a very singular appearance. In the bottom of 
this strath the land is almost a dead narrow flat, in 
which some meadow and arable land, and several 
small lagoons and marshes are interspersed. The 
sides of the strath are precipitous, and in most places 
are strewed with fragments of broken rock. The 
river Glas has in many places the appearance of a 
narrow lake, by reason of the slowness of its motion, 
which in most places is scarcely perceptible, occa- 
sioned by the difficulty it meets with in discharging 
its waters at its confluence with the Farra. In the 
head of Strathglass there is much green pasture, and 
an extensive fir-wood ; and the lower parts of the 
valley, in the approach to the castle of Chisholm of 
Chisholm, abound with alder on both banks of the 
river. The scenery is uncommonly engaging from 
the castle of Erchless to the Aird : a majestic river 
winding its course through a bottom of considerable 
breadth abounding with wood, and the mountains 
retiring on either side as you advance, and indicating 
approach to the low country : See articles Ard- 
meanach, the Beauly, and Kilmorack. Between 
the Aird and Urquhart, in the mountains towards 
the east end of Loch-Ness, whose summit is toler- 
ably level, the vestiges of ridges are very distinctly 

seen in the heath, — that in the furrow being uni- 
formly shortest for want of soil. Culloden stands 
conspicuous a few miles east from the county- 
town. The moor, so fatal to the Jacobites in 1746, 
extends from near Nairn to the foot of Strath- 
errick, and from the river of Strathnairn to the 
Murray frith: see Culloden. Fort-George is a 
beautiful place, situated on the extremity of a low 
promontory or tongue of land, which penetrates far 
into the Murray frith, and opposite to a similar 
head-land in the county of Ross : see article Fort- 
George. In the division of the county of Inver- 
ness which lies east from the Great canal, there are 
six valleys of various degrees of sinuosity, which 
send all their waters to the German ocean. Strath- 
glass has been already taken notice of. The tract 
of Loch-Ness has also been mentioned. Stratherrick 
is situated on the south side of Loch-Ness, and is 
supposed to be 400 feet above the surface of the 
lake. The river Errick, which flows through this 
strath, and gives its name to the country, is singu- 
larly romantic, both in its origin and termination. 
The small lake which is its source is surrounded 
with a circle of rocks through which there is hardly 
a possibility of descending into a plat of land called 
Killin, — the most beautiful, rich, and verdant, that 
can be conceived. This fairy-ground is a mile long, 
and half as broad, and lies in the centre of moun- 
tains the wildest perhaps in the kingdom : See 

Leaving Strathnairn, and the Murray frith, on 
coming southward, we emerge into the heart of the 
Grampians, — bleak, bare, black, and barren. At 
length the valley of Moy makes its appearance, 
where the eye is refreshed by the view of a rich 
extensive plain of arable and meadow land. At a 
little distance southward, the traveller arrives at 
Freeburn-inn ; from which place all the waters of 
this mountainous region are seen flowing from the 
north, the west, and south, in their several glens, to 
meet below in a point, from which the united stream of 
Strathdearn holds its course through a narrow chasm 
eastward to Findhorn, where it is lost in the German 
ocean. The next place worthy of notice is Sloch- 
mhuic-dhu, — 'the Black boar's den,' — which forms 
the entrance, in this direction, from the north into 
Strathspey. The road over this defile has under- 
gone great repairs. From hence there is little 
variety all the way to Grantown. Extensive fields 
of dark-brown heath, studded by stocks of fir-trees, 
with some spots of corn and green ground on the 
sides of rivulets, form the prospect for several miles. 
On the opposite side of Strathspey, the dark-blue 
mountain of' Tullochgorm, and his associates in the 
distant horizon beyond the Spey, studded with per- 
ennial patches of snow, rear their heads to the clouds. 
From the church of Duthil, the country lays aside 
much of its gloomy appearance. The Dulnain, a 
branch of the Spey, has some good land on its banks, 
which increases in fertility and extent as it approaches 
the bottom of the strath. By and by the Spey, the 
monarch of this vale, comes in full view, winding 
his majestic course within green banks to which the 
heath dares not approach. The farms are now more 
frequent ; patches of turnips and fields of potatoes 
appear on either hand ; and lime is wrought for sale. 
From Castle-Grant to Aviemore, along the side of 
the Spey, the face of the country is very much di- 
versified. The natural fir-woods of Rothiemurchus 
are the most extensive in the county, or probably in 
the island. At a short distance above this place, 
and on the opposite side of the Spey, Kinrara is 
happily set down. The vale, in which the river 
flows, is narrowed considerably at Kinrara. The 
banks on both sides are richly wooded by a variety 



of trees, whose green foliage far up the acclivity of 
the hills gratifies the eye, while the sweet fragrance 
of the birch embalms the air. Between Kinrara 
and Kingussie the aspect of the country is consi- 
derably changed from what it had been below the 
former place. There are fewer black moors of low 
ground contiguous to the river; the plains are all 
green, of considerable extent, and elevated but a 
few feet above the tract of the Spey. Wherever 
there are hollow basins in this flat land, water 
stagnates when the river has subsided after an in- 
undation. This occasions marshes and lagoons of 
greater or less extent in proportion to these in- 
equalities of the surface. The alders and willows, 
and other useless shrubs which grow upon this 
swampy ground, disfigure the country of Badenoch. 
The ravages of the Spey in the whole of Bade- 
noch, especially in this upper part of the district, 
are a great hinderance, or rather an entire obstruc- 
tion, to the success of agriculture within the reach 
of its inundations. Where the mountains on both 
sides of the country are so high, and reach so far 
back, every brook occasionally becomes a torrent ; 
and where there is no reservoir in any part of this 
long strath, to receive the water from these nu- 
merous torrents, the river must swell suddenly, be- 
come furious, and in a mighty stream, both broad 
and deep, sweep all before it that comes within its 
reach. To the north of Loch-Laggan [which see] 
we arrive at high ground, where the waters sepa- 
rate in the same manner as at Laggan-achdrom on 
the side of the Caledonian canal, partly holding their 
course to the Atlantic, and partly to the German 
ocean. The rivers Pattack and Massie run almost 
parallel to each other for the space of 2 miles ; and 
yet the former, after joining the Spean, is discharged 
into the Western sea ; while the latter, uniting its 
waters with the Spey, flows eastward into the Ger- 
man ocean. The inn of Garviemore in this neigh- 
bourhood, announces the extremity of the long vale 
of Strathspey and Badenoch, and the head of the 
Spey which derives its source from a small lake of 
the same name in the northern mountains. Seven 
miles beyond Garviemore, the military road which 
leads from Perth to Fort-Augustus, by Corryarrick, 
being confined between a deep ravine on the one 
hand, and a chain of rock on the other, ascends by 
no fewer than seventeen traverses, mounting zig- 
zag, to the summit of Mona-Ua — or ' the Gray moun- 
tain,' — so called because the surface is mostly grey 
rock and moss, the soil having been worn off by the 
storms : see Corryarrick. The descent on the 
north side of this bold and tremendous pass, is by 
the western bank of the Tarf, which holds a wind- 
ing course, through thick groves of large trees to the 
head of Loch-Ness. The county of Inverness is 
everywhere intersected by numerous rapid currents, 
which uniting form several large rivers. The most 
noted of these are the Spey, the Ness, the Lochy, 
the Garry, the Glass, &c, [see these articles,] 
which, with the lakes — of most of which mention 
has already been made — abound with trout and sal- 
mon. The western shores, particularly of the dis- 
tricts of Moydart, Arasaig, Morar, and Knoydart, 
are indented with numerous bays, creeks, and arms 
of the sea — called lochs — which might be rendered 
excellent fishing-stations. On the confines of the 
county there are extensive tracts of natural wood, 
— evident remains of much larger forests. The fir 
woods of Glenmore and Strathspey [see these 
articles] are supposed to be far more extensive than 
all the other natural woods in Scotland together. 

The climate of the county of Inverness is, in one 
respect, similar to that of all the rest of Scotland. 
On the west coast, the rains are heavy, and of long 

continuance; but the winters are mild; and when 
snow falls, it soon disappears, owing to the genial 
influence of the sea-breeze, unless the wind be nor- 
therly. On the east coast the heaviest rains are 
from the German ocean ; but the climate, upon the 
whole, is not so rainy as in those districts which are 
adjacent to the Atlantic. In the notes taken by 
Dr. Robertson from one gentlemen's communica- 
tions, it is stated, that Fort- William, Inverary, and 
Greenock, are the most subject to rain of any towns 
in Scotland; and Dr. Robertson thinks "there is little 
doubt of the truth of this remark, as applicable to 
that coast in general, when the wind is westerly." 
In the New Statistical Account it is stated that the 
annual number of rainy days at the Inverness end of 
the Great glen is about 60 less than at Fort- William 
at the other extremity of the glen. At Inverness, 
and along the sea-coast, the harvest is said to be 
early. A variety of causes concur to produce this 
effect. The soil, in general, is of a light texture, 
and therefore easily stimulated to bring forth its 
fruits, — skilful management is applied in this district, 
which is aided by the quickening energy of lime, — 
more dry weather than any other district of Inver- 
ness-shire is favoured with, — and the strong reflec- 
tion of the sunbeams from the surrounding moun- 
tains, — all concur to produce a rapid vegetation. 
In the county of Inverness, a very great propor- 
tion of the surface is covered with heath. When 
Dr. Robertson wrote, some persons were of opi- 
nion, that 39 parts out of 40 of the surface of 
this county were clad with its russet hues. The 
dominion of the heath is, however, daily losing 
ground before the progress of agriculture and the 
industry of the inhabitants. A considerable tract 
of the surface is under wood; much of it is rock; 
and nearly as much is covered with water. Clay, 
in a pure state, is but a small proportion of the soil 
in the county of Inverness. Along the river Beauly, 
near its confluence with the sea, and on the side ot 
the frith of that name, there is a certain extent of a 
rich blue clay, producing the different crops peculiar 
to such soil in the southern counties. About Inver- 
ness, and down the border of the Murray frith, 
where creeks and bays abound in which the tide 
ebbs and flows very gently, some small fields of a 
clay soil present themselves : nevertheless the pro- 
portion which this species of soil bears to the gen- 
eral extent of the county is very inconsiderable. 
Haugh is more frequently to be met with, and the 
fields of it are far more extensive, than any other 
valuable soil in the county. In the whole lordship 
of Badenoch, from Kinrara on the east, to the place 
where the Spey descends from the hill of Corry- 
arrick, — a tract of more than 20 miles, — haugh 
abounds almost without interruption, on both sides 
of the river. The whole district consists of a par- 
allel range of lofty mountains, whose skirts have :\ 
great declination; and a dead flat spreads out below 
in the bottom of the valley, reaching in general to 
the bases of the opposite mountains. This flat, in 
which the river flows, is a deep, rich, water-formed 
soil, except where the current is strong, and beds of 
gravel are accumulated. The bead of every loch or 
arm of the sea, on the west coast, where they re- 
ceive their respective brooks from the valleys be- 
hind, have less or more of this kind of soil, all the 
way from Moydart to Glenelg. Along the course 
of the river Moriston are various spots of this soil. 
In the bottom of Urquhart, by the sides of the river, 
but more especially on the south side, soil of this 
description is frequent, and abundantly productive ; 
that next to Loch-Ness is the richest. Strathglass 
is similar to Badenoch in various respects, besides 
being all either hill or a dead flat of land formed by 



water. Its valley, however, is much narrower, and 
the hills more abrupt and barren. The Glass has a 
slower current than the Spey, which prevents its 
devastating the banks, and the formation of beds of 
gravel. In the Aird there are few haughs. On the 
banks of the Ness there is some soil of this com- 
plexion; but that river issuing pure from Loch- 
Ness, carries down stones, gravel, and sand, rather 
than fine earth ; the weight, however, of its water, 
which flows with a magnificent and powerful stream, 
under a bridge of no fewer than seven arches, has 
forced such a quantity of these materials into the 
Murray frith, in a transverse direction, that a bar 
has been formed nearly three-fourths across this 
arm of the sea at the ferry of Kessock. The tide- 
way above the strait, is called the frith of Beauly; 
that below, the Murray frith. Dr. Robertson pre- 
dicts that "this growing headland will, in future 
ages, approach so near the opposite shore as to allow 
no more water to escape than what is brought into 
the frith of Beauly from the higher grounds around 
it, and the frith itself will become a lake, first of 
brackish, and afterwards of fresh water." Strather- 
rick has little of this soil, except some patches on 
the sides of the lakes of that district. Along the 
Nairn there are small haughs in different places, all 
the way from the head of that strath to Cantray, 
where it joins the county of Nairn. Loam, pro- 
perly so called, is very rare in the county of Inver- 
ness Sand and gravel form a part of the soil of 

Inverness-shire in a great variety of places. Strath- 
nairn, and particularly Strathdearn — so far as they 
are within this county — abound with this light free 
soil : a great proportion also of Strathspey and of 
Badenoch is of this complexion. — Till, next to a 
sandy or gravelly soil, is the most common in this 
county; and, if the mountains are taken into ac- 
count, the proportion of till exceeds all the other 

kinds taken together Moss, moor, and heathy 

ground, in the opinion of some intelligent persons — 
as already noticed — covers two-thirds of the shire 
of Inverness. If one-fortieth only be arable land, 
there are probably twenty-six of the remaining parts 
covered with heath incumbent on moss or a till bot- 
tom. Heath generally produces a crust of moss on 
the surface, whatever be the soil below. The land 
occupied now or formerly by natural firs assumes 
the same appearance, because they seldom grow so 
closely, or shade the ground so completely, as to 
destroy the heath. The higher mountains are not 
covered with heath to the summit; nor are the 
mountains in all the districts of this county equally 
gloomy and forbidding. The hills of Lochaber pre- 
sent a good mixed pasture of grass and heath inter- 
spersed. Glennevis is of this description, though it 
forms the skirts of the highest mountain in Britain; 
the hills of Arasaig, freckled as they are with rocks, 
— those of Glendessary, — of Glenpean, — of Glen- 
queich, — those on the north of Glenpean, — those 
of Glenroy, — those on both sides of Loch-Lochy, 
particularly at Lowbridge, where the hills in gen- 
eral are as green as a meadow, — those on the 
sides of Loch-Oich, to its northern extremity, 
where the dark brown heath begins on the west, 
— those in both Glenelgs, — those at the head 
of Strathglass, and on the braes of Badenoch, — 
all are more or less of the same hue, and yield 
most plentiful pasture. But on the confines of 
Strathspey the aspect of the mountains is very dif- 
ferent. At the head of Strathdearn and of Strath- 
nairn, — in Stratherrick on both sides of Loch-Ness, 
— from behind the head of Urquhart, and across 
Glenmoriston to the source of the Oich, — and in 
several other districts, — the mountains are gloomy, 
black, and sterile to such a degree, that in a dis- 

tance of 12 or 14 miles, hardly any verdure is to be 
seen, except where a solitary rivulet, by its occa- 
sional flooding, produces some green ground in part 
of its course, to relieve the eye. In all the mosses, 
the roots of fir-trees stick up, which are dug out 
and dried for fuel: so plenteous are they, and so 
singular in their appearance, that there have been 
seen in Strathspey three tier of fir-stocks in the moss ; 
indicating no doubt that wood had there thrice come 
to maturity, after every former growth had, by its 
destruction, formed a soil capable of nourishing the 
succeeding forest. Almost all the deep mosses of 
this country are situated on land which is more or 
less elevated above the general level of the valleys, 
and lie on gravel, or stones, or till. None of these 
fields of moss — except a patch at Corpach, and a 
very few more — are in the bottom of a valley, like 
the famous Flanders moss of the county of Perth ; 
nor, like it, have they in any case a bottom of rich 
clay. Limestone is found in every district of the 
county, and in many places approaches to the nature 
of marble. Near the ferry of Ballaehulish, in Loch- 
aber, there is a fine rock of an ash-coloured marble, 
beautifully speckled with veins of copper pyrites, 
and intersected with small thready veins of lead ore 
which is rich in silver. In the parish of Kilmalie. 
near Fort- William, in the bed of the Nev's, is a 
singular vein of marble, of a black ground, with a 
beautiful white flowering like needle- work, or rather 
resembling the frosting upon a window, penetrating 
the whole vein. Most of the mountains are com- 
posed of a reddish granite, which, according to Wil- 
liams, the mineralogist, is the most beautiful of any 
in the world. In the parish of Kingussie a rich 
vein of silver was discovered, and attempted to be 
wrought, but without success ; in other places veins 
of lead, containing silver, have been observed. Iron- 
ore has also been found, but not in sufficient quan- 
tity to render it an object of manufacture. In the 
isle of Skye there are several valuable minerals : see 
Skye. The mountains and forests are inhabited by 
herds of red and roe deer, which here roam in safety, 
in recesses impenetrable to man ; the alpine and 
common hare, and other game, are also abundant. 

Inverness-shire contains one royal burgh, viz. In- 
verness, and several small villages. The Gaelic is 
the language of the people on the northern, western, 
and southern borders; but, in the neighbourhood of 
Inverness, the better sort use the English language, 
which, it is said, is here pronounced with as great 
propriety as in any part of Scotland. We have ad- 
verted to this subject in the preceding article. While 
the feudal system yet existed in the Highlands, and 
any factious chief had it in his power to embroil the 
neighbourhood in war — as had been proved in 1715 
and 1743 — it became necessary to erect military sta- 
tions to keep the Highlanders in subjection. Ac- 
cordingly, in the tract of the great vale or Glenmore, 
Fort-George, Fort-Augustus, and Fort- William, 
were erected, as a chain of forts across the island. 
By means of Fort-George on the east all entrance 
up the Moray frith to Inverness was prevented; 
Fort- Augustus curbed the inhabitants midway; and 
Fort- William was a check to any attempts on the 
west. Detachments were sent from these garrisons 
to Inverness, to Bernera, opposite to the isle of 
Skye, and to Castle-Douart in the isle of Mull. 
The English garrisons which necessarily occupied 
the forts, and the number of travellers to whom the 
military roads gave access, undoubtedly induced 
gentler and more polished manners, and assisted in 
banishing those exclusive privileges and partialities 
which had acquired such a withering strength under 
the system of clanship. The military roads in this 
county, made by the soldiers under General Wade, 



never fail to excite the astonishment and gratitude 
of travellers. They are executed with the utmost 
industry and lahour, and lead over mountains and 
through mosses and morasses which before were 
impassable to the lightest vehicle. The military 
roads maintained in repair in the extensive county 
of Inverness are: 1st, the Badenoch road, from In- 
verness through Badenoch to Dalwhinnie, and fur- 
ther to the borders of Perthshire, reckoned at 52 
miles;* 2d, the Boleskine road, from Inverness to 
Fort- Augustus, 38 miles; where a road, 30 miles in 
extent, turning to the left over Corryarrick, reaches 
Dalwhinnie, and joining the Badenoch road enters 
Perthshire by a road originally military, at present 
under repair as a turnpike road; 3d, the road from 
Fort-Augustus to Fort- William, and farther to Bal- 
lachulish ferry, reckoned at 45 miles ; 4th, from 
Inverness another military road passes along the 
shore to the entrance of the Beauly frith at Fort- 
George, and with its offset-roads to the eastward is 

reckoned at 16 miles The magistrates of Inverness 

have recently memorialized the Lords of the Trea- 
sury for a survey and investigation of the most prac- 
ticable lines of railway to Inverness. They say : 
" Your memorialists, from their general knowledge 
of the features of the country, are led to believe 
that such an extension is not only practicable, but 
admits of being carried into effect, with immediate 
benefit, as far as Inverness, the capital of the High- 
lands. They are of opinion that a line of railway 
communicating with the Glasgow and Edinburgh 
railway at Falkirk, midway between these cities; 
extending, by Stirling, through the valley of the 
Allan, and down the valley of the Earn, towards 
Perth; thence through Strathmore, by Forfar and 
Brechin, to Aberdeen; from that city, through the 
centre of the agricultural district of Buchan, perhaps 
by the valley of the Ythan, to Banff; and thence 
along the coast, by Fochabers, Elgin, and Forres, to 
Inverness, — would form the main trunk of commu- 
nication between the Northern and Southern coun- 
ties; there being already lines of railway from Strath- 
more to Dundee and Arbroath, and one contemplated 
to Montrose, which, with those now projected through 
Fifeshire, and other subsidiary branches and offsets, 
would form a series of collateral accessories, each 
contributing its quota of traffic, and securing, to 
every available point, the general advantages of a 
most direct and speedy intercourse with the best 
markets. That your memorialists have reason to 
believe that some such line, as here sketched out, 
passing as it does, for so great an extent, through a 
comparatively level country, and nowhere presenting 
acclivities that cannot be surmounted by gradients 
of sufficient ease for every practical purpose of com- 
munication, could be carried into effect at a much 
more moderate expense, both as regards the execu- 
tion of the work, and the value of the land to be 
required, than has hitherto attended the construction 
of similar undertakings in the southern parts of the 
kingdom. That such a line, independently of its 
bringing the northern and central part of Scotland 
into immediate connection with the southern part of 
Scotland, and with England, would, moreover, while 
it avoided the inconvenient interruption of ferries, 
effectually unite and connect together the breeding 
districts of the North, the feeding counties of Moray, 
Banff, Aberdeen, and Forfar, and the great commer- 
cial and manufacturing cities of Edinburgh, Glasgow, 
Perth, Dundee, Arbroath, Montrose, and Aberdeen ; 

* Strictly speaking, part of the Badenoch road (13 miles) be- 
tween Freeburn and Aviemore, is in Morayshire; but this is 
compensated by the same extent of road, (north and south of 
Grantown,) which though really in Inverness-shire, is usually 
ascribed to Morayshire, 

while it would cut through the centre of the most 
fertile agricultural portions of Scotland, from north 
to south ; thus facilitating, in so extraordinary a de- 
gree, that mutual relation and interchange between 
each prominent class of interests, upon which so 
much of the internal prosperity and wealth of the 
country essentially depends." By the spirited exer- 
tions of the gentlemen of this populous county, the 
commerce and industry of the inhabitants have also 
of late been greatly increased ; and to facilitate the 
communication with the more remote parts, roads 
and bridges have been formed, under the direction 
of the Parliamentary commissioners, through every 
district of this extensive shire . See our general 
article The Highlands. The principal inhabitants 
of Inverness-shire are the clans of Forbes, Mac- 
intosh, Maepherscti, Fraser, Grant, and Macdonald. 
Many of the proprietors possess elegant seats on the 
Moray frith, the banks of the lakes, and near the 
western coasts. 

The weights and measures of this shire, previous 
to the act of equalization, were very inaccurate and 
discrepant. Dutch weight was used for meal, reck- 
oning 9 lb to the stone. Tron weight was used for 
wool, butter, cheese, and butcher-meat; — the stone 
being 21 lb. Dutch, and 24 lb. Avoirdupois; and 
the lb. equal to 21 oz. Dutch. Avoirdupois was 
used for groceries and flour. A pewter pint jug, 
marked 1652, kept at Inverness, was the standard of 
measures of capacity, both for things liquid and dry. 
It has on the inside a plouk, and a little above the 
plouk a hole drilled through, which was stopped up 
when they wanted to fill the jug to the brim. The 
jug filled to the plouk regulated the firlot for wheat, 
&c, and contained 104.7903 cubic inches; 24 of these 
pints made the firlot for wheat, pease, beans, rye, 
rye -grass seed ; and contained 2514.967 cubic inches. 
The jug filled to the hole regulated the firlot for 
barley and oats, which contained 3519.225 cubic 
inches, being 37.232 per cent, above standard. A 
boll of oats in this county was reckoned what would 
yield a boll of meal, and might sometimes contain 6 
or more firlots, but generally 5. The jug filled to 
the brim contained 115.1613 cubic inches, and was 
the standard for liquid measures, fish oil, Scots spi- 
rits, ale, &c, with the common subdivisions. An ell 
of 38 inches was in use for coarse linen and woollen. 
The stone of hay was 16 lbs. of 21 oz. each. 

The following extract from the article Inverness, 
in Nicholas Carlisle's ' Topographical Gazetteer of 
Scotland,' is curious and valuable, and may interest 
many readers, though we demur to some of the views 
and doctrines propounded in it : — " In the earlier 
periods of the history of Scotland, its monarchs ap- 
pear to have had a very slight and doubtful authority 
over the northern and western parts of the realm. 
The isles of Orkney and Shetland, and even the pro- 
vince of Caithness, were possessed by Norwegian 
princes, while the Hebrides, and even the adjacent 
shores of the Mainland, were entirely under the sway 
of the Lords of the Isles. The neighbouring moun- 
tainous country was inhabited by rude and barbarous 
tribes, who had never been reduced under regular 
authority or government. The divisions of the 
North, therefore, or sheriffdoms, we ought only to 
consider as comprehending the low country, and that 
part, in particular, in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the county-town. Indeed, unless taken in this 
point of view, the limits anciently assigned to the 
shire of Inverness entitle it to be considered rather 
as a sort of vice-royalty, than as one of the secondary 
divisions of the kingdom. The earliest notice of the 
existence of the office of sheriff is in the acts of David 
I., about the middle of the 12th century. It appears 
that the sheriffdom of Inverness comprehended, at 



that time, the whole of the kingdom to the north of 
the Grampians. An act which allows any man ac- 
cused of theft a certain period to produce the person 
from whom he might allege that the goods had been 
bought, runs in this style : — ' Aif ane dwellis bezond 
Drum-Albin, in Moray, Ross, Caithness, Argyle, or 
in Kintyre, he sail have fyfteen daies and eke ane 
month, to produce his warrand before the schiref ; 
and gif he goes for his warrand dwelland in Moray, 
Ross, or in any of the steids or places pertaining to 
Moray, and can nocht find nor apprehend his war- 
rand, he shall pass to the schiref of Innerness, wha 

sall,'&c ['Reg. Majes. 1. 16.'] The names Moray, 

Ross, &c, are indeed sufficiently ancient, as applied 
to certain districts of the country, but their signifi- 
cation is vague and indefinite. We may suppose, 
however, that the ' steids ' appertaining to Moray, 
refer to the limits of the bishopric, Moray being the 
only existing see north of Spey, previous to the reign 
of David I. The shire of Moray appears to have 
been disjoined from Inverness as early as the year 
1263, when Gilbert de Rule, knight, is mentioned in 
a deed in the chartulary of Moray, as sheriff of Elgin. 
It may, indeed, be reasonably doubted whether his 
jurisdiction extended over the whole county of Moray 
in the modern acceptation of the term : in fact, the 
title of sheriff of Moray does not occur till near a 
century after this ; the office being first created in 
the person of Alexander Dunbar, son to the last 
James Dunbar, Earl of Moray. Even about this 
time, however, we find the sheriff of Inverness con- 
tinued to exercise some jurisdiction within the county 
of Moray or Elgin : for, in a question respecting the 
multures of the lands of Quarrywood, near Elgin, 
Robert Hay, sheriff of Inverness, gave judgment 
along with ' the honourable and potent Lord Archi- 
bald Douglas, knight,' who must have been the Earl 
Archibald, and not merely the sheriff, as the author 
of the History of Moray supposes. The shires of 
Forres, and Nairn, and of Crombath or Cromarty, 
appear to have been erected as early as that of Elgin : 
we find them mentioned in the regulations adopted 
for the government of Scotland by Edward I., in 
1304. The regulations being little known, an ex- 
tract — from Rymer's ' Foedera' — is here made of a 
part of them, which throws much light on the divi- 
sion of Scotland at that period : — 

Likewise it is agreed, that the viscounts [heriffsj' who 
shall dwell in the land, tie people born <if the cnuutry oi Scot. 
land, or English, and be appointed and removed by the king's 
lieutenant and by the chamberlain, according to their discre- 
tion. These sheriffs perform every thing relating to escheats, 
as the sheriffs were wont to do; and that they who shall be 
appointed sheriffs be the most sufficient, the fittest, and most 
profitable that can be found, for the king, for the people, and 
for keeping and maintaining the peace ; and for the present, 
the roll of sheriffs to be as follows: — 

1. That the chamberlain, who shall have the keeping of the 

castle of Berwick, appoint under him such a one as lie 
can answer for, to be sheriff of Berwick. 

2. Of Edinburgh, Haddington, 

and Linlithgow, . . Ive de Adeburgb, sheriff. 

3. OI Peebles, . . Robert Hastings 'valett,' 


4. Of Selkirk, . . . • He who has it in Fief,' viz. 

The heritable sheriff. 

5. Of Dumfries, . . Richard Siward. 

fi. Of Wigton, . . . Thomas MacCulloch. 

7. Of Ayr, . . . Godefroi de Ros. 

H. Of Lanark, . . . Heuri de St. Clair, 

y. Of Ounbartou, . . Jolinde Montieth, sheriff and 

constable, i. c. of the castle. 

10. Of Stirling, . . . William Hissett, sheriff and 


11. Of Clackmannan, . Malcolm de InnerpehVr. 

12. Of Auchterarderand Kinross, ' He who has it in Fief,' viz. 

The heritable sheriff. 
13 Of Fife, , . Constant.ine de Lochore. 

14. Of Perth, . . John de lnchmartyu. 

15. Of Forfar, . . . William de Airth. 
111. Of Kincardine, . . Richard de Dunmore. 

17. Of Aberdeen, . Norman de Leslie. 

18. Of Banff', . . Walter de Barclay. 

\% Of Elgin, . . , William Wiseman. . 

20. Of Forres and lunernairn, Alexander Wiseman. 

SI. Of Inverness, . . John de Stirling. 

22. Of Cromarty, . . William de Urquhart, of Ur- 

quhart, who is heritable 

sheriff. 1 

In this list, we may observe Elgin is distinct from 
Forres and Nairn ; no notice is taken of Renfrew, 
which was probably included in Lanark, nor of Kirk- 
cudbright ; Argyle, Caithness, and Sutherland, could 
hardly be subdued, or with Ross may have been in- 
cluded in Inverness. It does not appear that Edward 
removed any of those persons who held their offices 
by charter, since we find the heritable sheriffs ot 
Kinross, Selkirk, and Cromarty, are mentioned : the 
name of the last is much disfigured by successive 
transcribers, but we are still able to discover that the 
Urquharts of Cromarty had a separate jurisdiction in 
this small tract, while most of the north of Scotland 
was comprehended in the shire of Inverness. This 
system of hereditary jurisdiction, — which we see had 
already begun, — extended by degrees over the greater 
part, if not the whole, of Scotland. It was in many 
instances of the most pernicious effect, in obstruct- 
ing or defeating the purposes of justice and national 
polity, while, to accommodate the prejudices of feu- 
dal times, some singular annexations and subdivisions 
were made in the different counties. The abolition 
of this system, in 1748, is therefore considered, with 
justice, as one of the greatest national benefits that 
Scotland ever received, — of greater importance to 
her prosperity and welfare than even the Union of 
the kingdom. But the act of 1748, though well- 
intended, did not do enough ; for, although these 
annexed lands were by that act made subject to the 
sheriff-courts of that shire in which they are locally 
situate, or to which they are more immediately adja- 
cent, yet in all other cases, whether of police, taxa- 
tion, military service, or elective franchise, they re- 
main in the same circumstances as before. Whether 
the ancient sheriff is to be considered as a civil or a 
military officer, is not determined. Besides his office 
as a judge, he had the power of calling out the mili- 
tia and presiding at ' Weapon-sha wings,' though this 
probably only extended to the freeholders or tenants 
in capite. It would appear, however, that there was 
no sheriff but in the stations where royal fortresses 
existed. This was, at least, the case at Elgin, For- 
res, Nairn, and Inverness, to the north of which last 
mentioned place there does not appear that any royal 
fortress ever existed. The sheriff also appears to 
have been ex officio keeper or constable of the castle. 
We see that this is particularly mentioned with 
respect to the important fortresses of Stirling and 
Dumbarton under Edward ; and we shall find it the 
case likewise in Nairn. Justice was at that time 
more frequently administered in the halls of the 
baron, or by the decision of the church, than in the 
court of the sheriff, and hence we may account for 
the influence which the clergy had in regulating the 
bounds of counties. The erection of the sheriffdom 
of Moray, properly so called, took place in the reign 
of James II., and was, perhaps, the first material 
dismemberment of the shire of Inverness. In tracing 
its history, it appears that Thomas Randolph had 
been created Earl of Moray with very extensive 
powers by Robert Bruce. His jurisdiction compre- 
hended the whole country from Spey to the Western 
ocean ; and was bounded on the north by the river 
Forna or Beauly. This earldom, after two genera- 
tions, reverted, by the failure of male heirs, to the 
Crown. John Dunbar, descended from the Randolphs 
by the female line, having married a daughter of 
Robert II., was created Earl of Moray, with the ex- 
ception of Badenoch, Lochaber, and some other dis- 
tricts. His descendant Alexander being accounted 
illegitimate, was deprived of the earldom in the mi- 



nority of James II., but was however knighted, and 
made heritable sheriff of Moray ; he is the first of 
whom mention is made, and the office remained with 
his heirs until after the Union, in 1707. It is, there- 
fore, probable that the sheriffdom comprehended only 
the lands annexed to the earldom after its restoration 
to the Dunbars, while Badenoch, Lochaber, and the 
other districts, upon reverting to the Crown, fell 
again under the jurisdiction of the sheriffs of Inver- 
ness. In 1405, Donald, thane of Calder, was seized 
sheriff and constable of Nairn : his grandson William 
procured, in 1476, those parts of his estate which 
were situate in Inverness or Forres, to be annexed 
to the shire of Nairn. Hence the estate of Ferintosh 
in the present shire of Ross, that of Dunmaglas in 
Stratherrick, and that of Easter Moy near Forres, 
form a part of the shire of Nairn ; as does also a 
small field on the east side of Academy-street in the 
town and burgh- lands of Inverness. With respect 
to roads, &c, the district of Dunmaglas is usually 
exchanged for that of Budzeat, a part of Inverness, 
which is nearly as much insulated in the shire of 
Nairn. The next idea of dismembering Inverness 
occurs in the beginning of the 15th century, it being 
proposed by an act of the 6th parliament of James 
IV., dated the 11th of March, 1503, to make a sheriff 
of Ross, and one of Caithness, including Sutherland, 
'because there has been great lacke and fault of jus- 
tice in the north parts, as Caithness and Rosse, for 
fault of division of the schirefedome of Innernes, 
quhilk is over greate, and thay parts are sa far distant 

fra the said burgh of Innerness,' &c The defeat of 

Haco, King of Norway, at the battle of Largs, in the 
middle of the 13th century, had destroyed the power 
of the Norwegian monarchs over the Western isles. 
Yet, under the Lords of the Isles, they continued 
independent, even in name of the Crown of Scotland, 
till after the battle of Harlaw, in 1411. Donald of 
the Isles having a right to the earldom of Ross, raised 
an army of his countrymen, in order to take posses- 
sion of it. Not contented with that, he also march- 
ed forward and laid waste the country as far as the 
shire of Aberdeen : being met at length by the Earl 
ot Marr, at Harlaw, he was defeated with great 
slaughter, and thereupon immediately retreated to 
the Isles. He was, however, by no means subdued, 
but continued a very powerful and dangerous neigh- 
bour during the greater part of that century : See 
article Hebrides. His influence seems also to have 
been considerable even on the mainland ; for many 
families in the shire of Inverness held their lands by 
charter from the Lords of the Isles. In the begin- 
ning of 1476, John of the Isles was proscribed by act 
of parliament ; and a powerful fleet and army being 
collected with a view to reduce him, he was per- 
suaded to make his submission, surrendering the 
earldom of Ross, which was then declared to be una- 
lienable from the Crown, and consenting to hold his 
insular possessions of the King in future. Although 
the independence of this chieftain was thus destroyed, 
it does not appear that Argyle, Lochaber, or the 
Isles, were included in any sheriffdom until the be- 
ginning of the 16th century. For, at the same time 
with the act concerning Ross and Caithness, we have 
another, stating the great want of justice in the North 
and South isles, ' wherethrow the people are almost 
gane wilde;' accordingly the act provides, that jus- 
tices shall be appointed : ' Those of the North isles 
to have their seat and place of justice in Inverness 
or Dingwall, as the matter occurris to be decerned 
by the said justices. In like manner, another justice 
and schireffe to be made for the South isles, to have 
his place in the Tarbat of Loch Kinkerrane,' i. e. 
Campbelltown, in Kintyre. Again, in the acts of 
James IV., it is stated, that there are part* between 

Badenoch and Lochaber, ' which have been out of 
use to cum to justice-aires' (assizes), wherefore it is 
provided, that ' the lands called Dowart and Glen- 
Dowart, and also the lordship of Lome, cum and 
answer and underly the law at the justice-aires of 
Perth, Mawmore Lochaber aforesaid to cum to the 
aire of Inverness, Ergyle, when it pleases the King, 

sail cum to Perth,' &c Yet, notwithstanding these 

statutes, the proposed regulations seem either to 
have been forgotten or very imperfectly executed, — 
a thing by no means wonderful in a wild and inac- 
cessible country. James V. undertook an expedition 
to the Isles, in 1539. Setting sail from Leith, he 
visited the Orkneys, Lewis, Skye, and the Western 
coasts of the mainland, obliging the several chieftains 
to submit to his authority. A particular account of 
this expedition is still extant, and affords a tolerable 
idea of the progress of the Scots in navigation.* The 
bearings and distances of most of the remarkable ob- 
jects on the voyage are noticed. It is the first time 
that we are accurately informed of the names of the 
several clans by our historians, and it may be consi- 
dered as the first time that the Western parts of the 
kingdom were reduced into subjection. James seems 
to have been aware of the importance of this part of his 
dominions in a commercial point of view, and took 
considerable pains in endeavouring to introduce the 
arts of civilization into the Isles. For this purpose, a 
company having been formed, a colony of settlers — 
drawn chiefly from the coast of Fife — was established 
at Stornoway in the Lewis, and various others were 
projected. They had, however, to maintain their 
ground in Lewis by force of arms, and suffered so 
much annoyance from the jealous and hostile dispo- 
sition of the natives, that at last they were forced 
to come into terms with them, and entirely abandon 
the establishment. The task of reducing the island 
of Lewis was at length accomplished by the Mac- 
kenzies, Lords of Kintail ; they succeeded partly by 
force, and partly by fomenting the divisions of the 
petty chieftains, until the descendants of the princi- 
pal family were completely extirpated. The manu- 
script histories of the family of Mackenzie describe 
the inhabitants, as a race of ' pirates worse than 
those of Algiers,' prone to commit the most atro- 
cious crimes. But, with mingled pride and satisfac- 
tion, we now draw the singular contrast to the man- 
ners of the inhabitants of this part of the empire, 
among whom, from Shetland to the Mull of Cantyre, 
a capital crime has not been known for many years. 
Nothing had been done towards the division of the 
shire of Inverness, so late as the year 1633. In the 
1st parliament of Charles I. we find an act against 
the Clan Gregor, at that time under proscription, 
wherein ' the sheriffs of Perth, Dumbartane, Angus, 
Mearns, Sterling, and the Stewarts of the stewartries 
of Stratherne, Menteithe, Banffe, Invernessa, Elgyn, 
and Forres, and their deputes, the sheriff of Cro- 
marty and his deputes, with the provost and baillies 
of the burghs there, the Earls of Errol, Moray, &c, 
are nominated justices for trying the said rebels,' 
&c. No notice is taken of Ross, Sutherland, Caith- 
ness, Nairn, nor Argyle. The shire of Sutherland 
was first erected during this Parliament, by an act 
in favour of the Earl of Sutherland ; it comprehend- 
ed the districts of Sutherland Proper, Assynt, Strath- 
Naver, and Fairmatoftan alias Cleipholes. It does 
not appear, whether Caithness Proper, or the pre- 
sent shire, was at that time a separate jurisdiction 
or not ; but, at any rate, the erection of Sutherland 
necessarily disjoined it from Inverness. At the 
Restoration, in 1660, the counties of Argyle, Ross, 

* It lias been reprinted in the 3d volume of the Miscellanea 
Scotica.' Glasgow, 1820. 




Sutherland, Caithness, and Nairn, were all distinct 
from Inverness, as appears by an act of assessment, 
in which commissioners of supply are appointed for 
the several counties in order. The boundaries of 
Boss, however, were not finally settled until the 
year 1661 ; since which time, excepting the abolition 
of heritable jurisdictions in 1748, there is no mate- 
rial alteration in the limits of the shire of Inverness." 

INVERNETTIE, a small harbour, and an estate 
situated about a mile south of the town of Peter- 
head. The harbour is in the immediate vicinity of 
an extensive and excellent brick and tile work estab- 
lished about 40 years ago. The bed of clay is worked 
to a depth of between 30 and 40 feet. This place is 
now within the parliamentary boundary of the burgh 
of Peterhead. 

INVERSNAID, a small hamlet, a mile east of 
Loch-Lomond, and 3£ miles geographically north of 
the summit of Ben-Lomond ; in the parish of Bu- 
chanan, Stirlingshire. It stands on the road from 
Stirling, by Aberfoil, to the ferry near the head of 
Loch-Lomond, and at the confluence of Inversnaid 
burn, coming down in a brief course of 2 miles from 
the north, with a stream bringing westward the su- 
perfluent waters of Loch-Arclet : which see. A 
barrack-station was formed here early in the 18th 
century, to repress the depredations of certain tur- 
bulent Highlanders in the vicinity, especially the 
Macgregors ; and it continued to be garrisoned during 
the reign of George II., but has long been utterly 
disused. Some interest attaches to it from its hav- 
ing been for some time the quarters of General "W olfe 
when a subaltern. From the fort south-westward 
to Loch-Lomond, Inversnaid burn pursues a roman- 
tic course, and, near its fall into the loch, makes a 
fine cascade. At its mouth a ferry communicates 
across the lake — here reduced to a stripe of | of a 
mile wide — with the Dumbartonshire shore. 

INVERUGIE, a small village in the parish of St. 
Fergus, Aberdeenshire, at the mouth of the Ugie. 
Near it are the ruins of Inverugie castle, where the 
celebrated Field- marshal Keith was born. See 
Fergus (St.). 

INVERUGLAS, a hamlet in the parish of Luss, 
Dumbartonshire. It is 4 miles north-west of Luss ; 
at the confluence of the river Douglas with Loch- 
Lomond, over which there is a ferry here. 

INVERURY, a parish in Aberdeenshire, bounded 
by Chapel-Garioch on the north and west ; Keithhall 
on the east ; and Kemnay and Kintore on the south ; 
but surrounded by the river Urie on the north and 
east ; and by the Don and another of its tributaries 
on the west and south; the parish thus forming a 
peninsula by the junction of the Urie with the Don, 
across which rivers, near their junction, there are two 
substantial modern bridges. The parish is upwards 
of 4 miles in length from east to west, by 2 in 
breadth : square area about 4,000 acres. Houses 
260. Assessed property, in 1815, £2,052. Popula- 
tion, in 1801,783; in 1831, 1,419. On the banks 
of the rivers the soil is fertile, yielding abundant 
crops ; but the western hilly part is chiefly pastoral. 
The land rises gradually to the skirts of Benochie, 
a mountain situated about a mile westward from the 
boundary in the parish of Oyne. Lime and coals are 
conveyed from Aberdeen by the Inverury canal 
which terminates here, and slates, timber, grain, 
&c, are returned through the same channel, which 
has thus been of much advantage to the agriculturists 
and others in this quarter, though it has yielded 
no profit to the capitalists at whose expense it 
was made. The principal crops are oats, barley, 
potatoes, and turnips : numerous sheep and black 
cattle are also pastured. Half the parish belongs 
to the Earl of Kintore. — In the south-western part 

of the parish, on the northern bank of the Don, 
stands the building, occupied from 1799 till 1829, as 
the Roman Catholic college of Aquhorties, in which 
27 young gentlemen were educated according to 
the doctrines of their church : the building is hand- 
some, and beautifully situated ; but the college has 
been removed to Blairs in the county of Kincardine. 
The mansion of Braco is in this parish ; and the 
Bass of Inverury: — see that article ; see also the 

Don The parish is in the presbytery of Garioch 

and svnod of Aberdeen. Patron, the Earl of Kin- 
tore. " Stipend £257 lis. 6d. ; glebe £15. Church 

built in 1775; sittings 400 Here are an Independent 

congregation, with a chapel, built in 1822 ; sittings 
360 : a Wesleyan Methodist, with a chapel built in 
1819 ; sittings 200 : and a Roman Catholic, with a 
small chapel, a portion of the old seminary now be- 
longing to the college of Blairs Schoolmaster's 

salary £30, with £35 fees, and other emoluments. 
There are six private schools in the parish. 

The royal burgh of Inverury, in the above par- 
ish, is a straggling village, with none of the charac- 
teristics of a town. It is situated in the angle formed 
by the confluence of the Don and the Urie, about 
15 miles north-west of Aberdeen, — the road from 
which is carried across the Don by one of the bridges 
above noticed, which was erected in 1791. The 
Inverury canal terminates close to this bridge. The 
oldest existing charter of Inverury is one granted by 
Queen Mary, of date 22d June, 1558 ; but it is tra- 
ditionally said to have been erected into a royal burgh 
by Robert Bruce, on occasion of a great victory ob- 
tained by him here over Cumming of Badenoch. Pre- 
vious to the date of the 3° and 4° William IV., c. 76, 
the old council of the burgh, consisting of 9 persons, 
including the magistrates, chose the new magistrates 
for the ensuing year. The newly elected magistrates, 
with the old council, then chose the new council. 
The council now consists of a provost, three bailies, 
a dean-of-guild, a treasurer, and three common coun- 
cillors. The jurisdiction of the magistrates extends 
over the whole royalty ; but it has been very little 
exercised. Petty delinquencies are tried, and dili- 
gence granted on bills of exchange against debtors 
within the territory. Courts are also held for grant- 
ing warrant of removing before Whitsunday. The 
burgh is bounded by the natural line of the Urie on 
the east of the town with a like space on the west : 
the Urie also bounds it on the north, and a straight 
line across the Don from the Urie bridge constitutes 
the southern boundary. The revenue of the burgh, 
in 1832, amounted to £143 3s. 7f d., of which £96 
9s. 7|d. arose from rent for customs and feu-duties: 
expenditure £84 17s. lOJd. ; debt, in 1833, £659 
16s. 4d. The revenue, in 1838-9, was £185.* The 
municipal constituency, in 1839, was 89. The burgh 
joins with the Elgin district of burghs in returning a 
member to parliament. Constituency, in 1839, 94. 

Inverury does not appear ever to have been a 

place of great trade : its prosperity was long re- 
tarded by its peninsular situation, which rendered 
it inaccessible on all sides but one, except by boats, 
until its bridges were built ; and when the Don was 
in flood, even that form of conveyance was imprac- 
ticable. Its cattle-markets are large, and well-fre- 

* "The funds of the burgh," observes the municipal com- 
missioner, " if well managed, are sufficient to keep it in excel- 
lent order :" but the management is saia to have been very 
objectiunable. Amongst various curious statements in the 
commissioner's report, it is said, that one of the resident chief 
magistrates "was in the practice of marrying persons coming 
before him by fining them on their confession of an irregular 
marriage, on which occasions he received a fee to himself! On 
this account he was indicted by the Lord- Advocate of Scotland, 
and incurred an expense of £84 in preparing for his trial before 
the court of justiciary, which was paid, by order of the council, 
from the fuiids of the burgh ! " 



quented : they are held once a-month in summer, 
and every fortnight in winter. Inverury gives the 
title of Baron to the Earl of Kintore. 

IONA, Icolmkill, or I-columb-kill, or I,* a 
small but celebrated Hebridean island, — a gem in the 
ocean, ' the Star of the Western sea,' ' the luminary 
of the Caledonian regions, whence savage clans and 
roving barbarians derived the benefits of knowledge, 
and the blessings of religion,' 

" Isle of Columba's cell. 
Where Christian piety's soul-cheering spark 
(Kindled from Heaven between the light and dark 
Of time) shone like the morning-star," — 

situated off the south-west extremity of Mull, in the 
parish of Kilfinichen, Argyleshire. It is 9 miles south- 
west of Staffa, and about 36 miles west of the nearest 
part of the district of Morven, or of the mainland of 
Scotland. A strait, called the sound of I, or of 
Icolmkill, about J of a mile broad, and 3 miles long, 
deep enough for the passage of the largest ships, but 
dangerous from sunken rocks, separates it from Mull. 
Islets and rocks — the most conspicuous of which is 
Soa on the south-west — are numerously sprinkled 
round one- half of its coast. A heavy swell of the 
sea, but not such as to imperil navigation, usually 
rolls toward it from the north. The scenery around 
it is, in general, desolate in its aspect and cold in its 
tints, requiring the aids of the burnished or tempest- 
uated sea, the fleecy or careering clouds, and above 
all, the tranquil or the stirring associations of history, 
to render it interesting or grand. Icolmkill has the 
attractions neither of pastoral beauty and simplicity, 
nor of highland wildness and sublimity ; it utterly 
wants both the fertile and cultivated loveliness of 
Lismore, and the dark and savage magnificence of 
Mull ; and, though relieved by some green panor- 
amic views of Coll, Tiree, and other islands, it 
would seem to a person ignorant of its history and 
antiquities, an altogether tame and frigid expanse of 
treeless sward and low-browed rock. Its length is 
about 3 miles, stretching from north-east to south- 
west; its breadth is about a mile ; and its superficial 
area is conjectured to be about 1,300 Scottish acres. 
All round, it has a waving outline, approaching on 
the whole to the form of an oval, but exhibiting an 
almost constant alternation of projection of land and 
indentation of sea. Its recesses, however, though 
termed bays by a topographist, would, in general, be 
refused the name by navigators, and afford no har- 
bour, nor, in boisterous weather, even a tolerable 
landing-place. The bay of Martyrs, on the north- 
east side, is merely a little creek ; yet it both forms 
the chief modern succedaneum for a harbour, and 
was anciently, as tradition reports, the place of de- 
barkation for funeral parties coming hither to inter 
the illustrious dead. Port-na-Currach, ' the Bay of 
the boat,' on the south-west side, is a still more in- 
considerable creek, lined with perpendicular rocks of 
serpentine marble ; and derives both its name and 
all its importance from a tradition of its having been 
the landing-place of the currach, the hide and tim- 
ber boat of St. Columba. On the shore of this 
creek are some irregular heaps of pebbles, thrown 
up apparently by the sea, but represented by legen- 

* I, pronounced Ee, and sometimes written Hi, Hii, or Hy, 
means ' the Island,' and is the name commonly in use by the 
natives and other Hebrideans, the place being, among the Ebu- 
dean archipelago, the island par excellence. But when neceB. 
sity is felt to speak distinctively, the name used is I-columb- 
kill, or abbreviated! y, I-colmkill, 'the Island of the cell of 
Columba,' the saint to whom the place owes all its importance, 
the patron-saint of the Hebrides, and long the patron-saint of 
all Scotland. The name Iona is either I-thonna, * the Island of 
the waves ;' or, I-shonna, ■ the Holy or Blessed island ;' most 
probably the former, and, in that sense, quite descriptive of its 
appearance in a storm. This name is sometimes written Hy- 
ouaj and is used by historians, poets, and strangers,— com- 
mending itself to them by its eupboniousness. 

dary gossip to be — in the case of one heap which is 
about 50 feet long — a memorial and an exact model 
of St. Columba's boat, and, in the case of the other 
heaps, results and monuments of acts of penance per- 
formed by the monks. The surface of the island 
consists of small, pleasant, fertile plains, in most 
places along the shore, and of rocky hillocks and 
patches of green pasture, and an intermixture of dry 
and of boggy moorland in the interior. At the 
southern extremity, excepting a low sandy tract near 
a creek called Bloody bay, it is merely a vexed and 
broken expanse of rocks. The highest ground is 
near the northern extremity, and rises only about 
400 feet above sea-level. Numerous though small 
springs afford an ample supply of pure water; and 
several of them combine their treasures to send a 
pleasant rill past the ruins of the ancient nunnery. 
Adjoining the gardens of the abbey, and surrounded 
by little hillocks, extends a morass, the remnant of 
an artificial lake of several acres, anciently traversed 
through the middle by a broad green terrace, and 
fringed round the edge with agreeable walks. At 
one side of it are traces of a sluice, and ruins of a 
corn mill. The pasture of the uplands or little hills 
consists, during three-fourths of the year, of a fine 
verdure, and is celebrated among the surrounding 
islands for its excellence. About 500 Scottish acres, 
or five-thirteenths of the whole area, are arable. A 
light sandy soil prevails along the shore, excepting 
where cultivation and abundance of manures have 
converted it into a dark loam. The land was for- 
merly held in run-rig, but is now disposed into regu- 
lar lots, and many places produces good crops of 
barley and oats. Fuel can be obtained only from 
Mull, and in the form of peat, and is procured at 
great hazard and expense. Minerals are various, and 
cumulatively rich. The Port-na-Currach stone has 
its name from the bay or creek in the vicinity of 
which it is found, and possesses fame both as a gem 
much coveted by modern virtuosi, and an amulet 
superstitiously invested with miraculous virtues by 
the addle-headed mob of the Middle ages. The stone 
is a fluor or crystallized homogeneous substance, 
somewhat resembling quartz, formed in the veins ot 
serpentine rock, and dislodged from them by the 
waves, and found in nodules from the size of a pea to 
that of a large apple, along the shore. It is semi- 
pellucid and green, sometimes clouded with white 
and yellow opaque spots, and diminishes in bright- 
ness as it increases in size. Specimens free from 
blemish, and of good colour and transparency, are 
extremely beautiful when polished, and are highly 
valued by jewellers and lapidaries ; but, in conse- 
quence of the great demand for them, they are 
annually increasing in scarcity. The marble ot 
Icolmkill is white and semi-pellucid, composed of 
small irregular, laminous masses, the laminae being 
plain, parallel, and resplendent. It breaks with a 
shining plain surface, strikes fire with steel, cuts 
freely, receives a fine polish, exhibits, by its mica- 
ceous particles and laminous masses, a glittering ex- 
terior, and, in its finest specimens, will remain for 
centuries exposed in the open air without exhibiting 
other change than a mellowing of its whiteness. 
Icolmkill hieracites, or hawkstone, resembles in its 
hues the plumage of a Hebridean hawk, but is known 
only as having formed the thick slates with which 
the monastery was roofed, and possibly occurs no- 
where on the island except among the ruins. Ser- 
pentine — probably the most beautiful stone which is 
found in large quantities in Scotland — may be quar- 
ried to any extent in Icolmkill. Sienite or red 
granite, nearly as hard as the granite of Mull, oc- 
curs in extensive rocks in the south-west, and may 
be cut in any form, and of all dimensions. Spotted 



sehistus, difficult to be worked, and too coarse for 
slates, is the chief stone on the north-east. The 
whole island is the property of the Duke of Argyle, 
and yields a rental of only about £300. 

On the bay of Martyrs, near the ruins which con- 
stitute the grand attraction and the glory of the 
place, stands the village of Threld, — a collection of 
miserable huts, and the scene of general squalidness, 
poverty, and filth. In common with the rest of the 
island, it was long left to thrive or starve for the 
future world upon its dim and malodorous traditions 
of the moral influences which once bathed all its 
neighbourhood in beauty; for though it received a 
visit some four times a-year from the minister of 
Kilfinichen, it was utterly destitute of every sub- 
stantial means of either education or religious in- 
struction. Now, however, it is the seat both of a 
neat quoad sacra parish-church, and of a school- 
house. Both the minister and the schoolmaster 
are maintained by the Society, in Scotland, for 
Propagating Christian Knowledge. The inhabi- 
tants of the village constitute very nearly the 
whole population of the island, and are in a rude 
semibarbarous condition. Besides conducting a poor 
trade in fish and kelp, they live, to some extent, 
on the gullibility and vanity of visiters. Aware 
how much the gems of the island are in request, 
young and old run in a mass to the beach on the 
arrival of a vessel, and obstreperously vie with one 
another in palming upon strangers, for twopence, 
for fourpence, for sixpence, or for whatever they can 
obtain, anything that is likely to be received by a 
self- conceited starer at the world's lions as a precious 
stone. Wordsworth, alluding to the part taken in 
this traffic by children, and fixing the warm gaze of 
a Christian upon the means of religious instruction 
which they now enjoy, says, 

" How sad a welcome I To each voyager 
Some ragged child holds up for sale a store 
Of wave-worn pehbleB, pleading on the shore 
Where once came monk and nun with gentle stir, 
Blessings to give, news ask, or suit prefer. 
Yet is yon neat trim church a grateful speck 
Of novelty amid the sacred wreck 
Strewn far and wide. Think, proud philosopher! 
Fallen though she be, this Glory of the West, 
Still on her son* the beams of mercy shiue; 
And * hopes, perhaps more heavenly bright than thine, 
A grace, by thee unsought and unpossessM, 
A faith more fixed, a rapture more divine, 
Shall gild their passage to eternal rest.' " 

The inhabitants — though credulous to excess in 
whatever legendary lore or romancing tradition has 
said about Columba, and though enthusiastic enough 
to join chorus in corroborating the money-moving 
stories of the cicerones of the ruins, and other notice- 
able objects around them — are a simple and hardy 
race, not more remarkable for their poverty, than for 
the thrift and the content with which their large 
numbers secure a sustenance on so narrow and nig- 
gard an arena. By the rearing of cattle on their 
little crofts, and selling them in Mull, and by their 
unimportant tiny trade in other matters, they pro- 
cure a small importation of oatmeal, and then, for 
every other necessary of life, depend on their own 
little island and its encincturing sea. 

Icolmkill was probably uninhabited, or at best but 
occasionally visited by the people of Mull, previous 
to the time of Columba, and, at all events, comes 
first into notice as a quiet retreat gifted over to the 
saint for the uses of his missionary establishment. 
His having been accosted upon his landing by some 
Druids in the habits of monks, who, pretending to 
have also come to preach the gospel, requested him 
and his followers to seek out some other asylum, 
and who, on his detection of their imposture, made 
a speedy and complete departure, is either one of the 
idle legends with which his biographers barbarously 

embellished their accounts of his life, or points to 
some conspiracy formed among the heathen eccle- 
siastics on their getting bruit of his purpose to at- 
tempt an inroad on their territory. Columba was a 
native of Ireland, descended by his father from the 
king of that country, and by his mother from the 
king of Scotland ; and, after having travelled in 
many countries, and acquired great reputation for 
learning and piety, he concocted a scheme of mis- 
sionary enterprise, with Scotland and Ireland for its 
field, which, at once in the Christian heroism of its 
spirit, and the far-sightedness of its views, and the 
brilliance of its immediate success, has had no paral- 
lel or even distant imitation in the missionary move- 
ments of any subsequent age. He wished to apply 
to Scotland and to Ireland a moral lever which 
should lift them up in the altitude of excellence, and 
bring them acquainted with the moral glories of hea- 
ven; and he sought a spot on which he might rest 
the fulcrum of the simple but mighty instrument he 
designed to wield. What he wanted was, not an 
arena crowded with population, or a vantage-ground 
of political influence over the rude tribes whom he 
wished to he the instrument of converting, — for, in 
that case, he would have remained in his father- 
land, or taken a place in the kingly courts to which 
his birth gave him access ; but it was a secluded 
nook where he could lubricate his own energies for 
the agile yet herculean labours which he had pro- 
posed to himself as his task, and where he could 
train and habituate a numerous body of youths to 
the hardy moral gymnastics which should fit them 
for acting with equal nimbleness and strength against 
the battle-array of the idolatries and barbarity of 
united nations. In 563, or, according to Bede, in 
565, when he was 42 years of age, he left Ireland, 
accompanied by a chosen band who were akin to him 
in character and the companions of his councils, 
whom a grateful but incipiently-papisticated pos- 
terity canonized, as they did himself, and asserted to 
be more than mortal, and whom the usages of Co- 
lumba's successors pronounced to be 12 in number, 
after the example of the 12 apostles of the Redeemer, 
though the recorded list of their names shows them 
to have been 13, and, the beautiful simplicity of 
Columba's character might have demonstrated them 
to amount to just as many as could be made to ap- 
preciate and reciprocate the motives of moral gran- 
deur which impelled his movement, — accompanied 
by this band, the ^aint, since we must call him so, 
or rather the energetic missionary, ran in among the 
Hebrides as a territory common, in a sense, to Ire- 
land and Scotland, and offering fair promise of the 
retreat which he sought. Oronsay, lying only 60 
or 65 miles from the mouth of Loch-Foyle, the 
grand outlet of Ireland on the north, and both nearly 
of the same size as Icolmkill, and similarly situated 
with relation to Colonsay as Icolmkill is with rela- 
tion to Mull, was first tried, and became, as is said, 
the seat of such commencing operations as afforded 
some promise of stability. But I — the island par 
excellence — was destined speedily and permanently 
to receive the bold and apostolic missionary. Either 
while his tent was fixed at Oronsay, or after having 
made a passing visit to Icolmkill, he went into the 
eastern parts of Scotland, or the territories of the 
Picts, and was the instrument — with the aid of mir- 
acles, say his romancing biographers — of converting 
Brude or Bridei, the Pictish king, whose reign ter- 
minated in 587. From either this monarch, or more 
probably from Conal, king of the Scots — or, as Dr. 
Jamieson conjectures, from both, the frontiers of 
their respective kingdoms not being well-ascertained 

he received a grant of either whole or part of the 

island which was henceforth to be rendered illus- 



trious by the association of his name. He now 
erected on Icohnkill a mission-establishment, whence 
emanated for centuries such streams of illumination 
over Scotland, Ireland, the north of England, and 
even places more distant, as shone brilliantly in con- 
trast to the midnight darkness which had settled 
down on the rest of Europe, corruscating through 
the sky and beautifully tinting the whole range of 
upward vision, like the play of the Northern lights 
when a long night has set in upon the world. But 
the establishment was very far from being monastic, 
and cannot, as to its external appliances, be traced 
in any of the existing ruins which possess so strong 
attractions for antiquaries and the curious. Columba 
and his companions were strangers to all the three 
vows which unite to constitute monkery ; and made 
a brilliant exhibition of the social spirit, the far- 
stretching activity, the travelling and untiring re- 
gard for the diffusion of the gospel, the enlightened 
respect for every art which could improve and em- 
bellish human society, and the freedom from mum- 
mery and religious mountebankism, which monks 
are as little acquainted with as the red Indians who 
scour the American prairies are with polite litera- 
ture or the refinements of a king's drawing-room. 
Columba, for some time, took up his residence with 
king Brude at Inverness, and, while there, met with 
a petty prince of the Orkneys, and found an oppor- 
tunity, by bis means, of settling Cormac, one of his 
disciples, in the extreme north, and introducing 
Christianity to the Ultima Thule of the known world. 
He also made a voyage in his currach to the north 
seas, and spent twelve days in adopting such pre- 
paratory measures as gave his companions and suc- 
cessors an inlet to the northern parts of continental 
Europe. Constantine, a quondam king of Cornwall, 
who had renounced his throne that he might co- 
operate as a missionary with the saint, founded a 
religious establishment in imitation of Columba's at 
Govan on the Clyde, and, after diffusing a know- 
ledge of the gospel in the peninsula of Kintyre, pas- 
sed away from the world through the golden gate 
of martyrdom. Other members of the Icolmkill fra- 
ternity — their leader guiding the way in every move- 
ment—traversed the dominions of the Picts, the Scots, 
and the Irish, and speedily numbered most of the 
first, and many of the second and third of these na- 
tions among their followers. The Irish annalists 
state, in round numbers, that Columba had 300 
churches under bis inspection ; and, adopting the 
language and ideas of a later and corrupted age, 
they add that he also superintended 1 00 monasteries. 
Their figures, as well as their words, are probably 
in fault. Yet, even making large allowances, the 
number of missionary stations modelled after the 
parent one of Iona, and mistakenly called ' monas- 
teries,' and the number of fully organized and self- 
sustained congregations, which seem to be indicated 
by the word 'churches,' must have been surprisingly 
great to be, in any sense, estimated at respectively 
100 and 300. Columba's personal influence, too, 
and the bright and far-seen star of fame which, from 
very nearly the commencement of his enterprise, 
stood over Icolmkill, are evidence of the striking 
greatness of his missionary success. Aidan, the 
most renowned of the Scottish kings, having to con- 
test the crown with his cousin Duncha, did not, even 
after the complete discomfiture of his opponents, 
think his title to royalty secure till inaugurated by 
Columba according to the ceremonial of the Liber 
Vitreus ; and, in all his great enterprises, he was 
prayed for in a special meeting of the brotherhood of 
Iona. So numerous were the missionaries, both in 
Columba's own day and afterwards, who went out 
from the island, — so wide was the range of their 

movements, and so eminent was their success, in- 
dicated in their being popularly canonized, — that, 
throughout France, Italy, and other parts of Europe, 
all the saints of unknown origin were, at a later 
period, reputed to be Scottish or Irish. 

The Culdees, ' servants of God,' as the fraternity 
of Iona and the communities connected with them 
were called, seem to have had no connexion what- 
ever with the corrupt, pompous, usurping, and mul- 
titudinous sect which, from an early period in the 
4th century, claimed the alliance of the state, arro- 
gated to itself the title of ' the Catholic church,' 
and was already far advanced, all indeed but com- 
pletely matured, in the foul innovations of Roman- 
ism. Columba acted, to all appearance, in the same 
independent manner as the founders of some eight 
or ten considerable sects in Africa, Italy, and the 
East, who, in various degrees of purity, maintained 
soundness of doctrine and approximations to aposto- 
lic simplicity of church-order long after these were 
utterly lost in what are usually called the Latin and 
the Greek churches, and who — but for the two cir- 
cumstances of their records having been destroyed 
during the inquisitorial persecutions of the dark ages, 
and of the fountain-heads and all the main streams 
of ecclesiastical history lying within the territories 
of parties who regarded dissenter and heretic as sy- 
nonymous terms — would figure illustriously in the 
religious annals of the Christian dispensation. From 
causes which are not explained, but probably from 
acquaintance on his travels with the obscure, because 
persecuted, dissenting bodies on the continent, and 
from devout and unjaundiced study of the divine word, 
aided by the advantages of his position beyond the 
territories of 'the Catholics,' and by an acquaintance 
with the recorded usages of primitive times, Co- 
lumba set up a species of church-order, which had a 
a close resemblance to what Campbell, Mosheim, 
Lord King, and other impartial writers, agree to have 
prevailed early in the 2d century, — a species which 
was removed by but one degree of innovation or 
corruption from the beautifully simple frame-work 
set up for the churches by the apostles. An Epis- 
copalian, a Presbyterian, and an Independent, if 
keener to gather laurels for his party than to ob- 
tain an impartial view of facts, will each, and 
not without plausibility, but under decided mis- 
take, claim the Culdees, as brethren in creed. 
Columba is represented as 'the arch-abbot of all 
Ireland,' and is known to have wielded supreme 
ecclesiastical influence over Scotland ; yet he seems 
to have acted rather on principles of advice than 
on those of authority, and in the character, not of 
an office-bearer of any description, much less of a 
prelate, but simply of the founder and guide of a 
great Christian mission. He never renounced the 
humble office of a presbyter ; nor ever held higher 
office than the abbotcy, as it was termed, or first and 
governing function, of the college or ecclesiastical 
community of Iona. Mission - establishments, or 
' monasteries' as history improperly designates them, 
formed by colonization from the parent one, or under 
its sanction, usually had each 12 presbyters, and a 
superior or ' abbot;' the conceit becoming generally 
adopted that Columba modelled his college with re- 
ference to the 12 apostles presided over by the Sa- 
viour. But the presbyters who continued in the 
colleges, and are called ' monks,' and also the presby- 
ters who went abroad in charge of congregations and 
wore the name of ' bishops,' were all on a footing of 
equality among themselves, and all acknowledged 
the authority of the superior or 'abbot.' Nor does 
the college of Iona seem to have differed from its 
offshoots in authority, or in any particular whatever 
except in its being the prolific hive whence sucees- 



sive swarms of industrious and honeyed missionaries 
went off to raise accumulations of sweets in the 
various nooks of the moral wilderness. Even ' the 
abbot ' does not appear to have been, in all respects, 
the superior of the other members of a college; for 
he ranked only as a presbyter or 'a monk;' and, in 
particular, he acted strictly in common with the 
others in cases of ordination. The fraternity of 
Iona stood so high in general esteem that they en- 
joyed, by their advice and influence, a pre-eminence 
in the civil government of the people. Though they 
lived under a somewhat strict rule drawn up by Co- 
lumba, and still extant ; yet they were altogether 
free from asceticism, and exerted their main strength 
for the training of ministers and missionaries, in a 
style of cheerful temperance, and liberal regard to 
the useful and the fine arts, which exhibited a happy 
medium between the leaden dulness of a popish May- 
nooth, and the pompous glitter of an aristocratic 
Oxford. While, like the primitive Christians, they 
enjoyed many things in common, they divided their 
property, according to the allodial notions of the 
period, among their wives and children, and even 
made partitions of the voluntary offerings or contri- 
butions of the people. They knew nothing either 
of tithes or of first-fruits ; and exalted matrimony to 
the place assigned it in the divine word. At first 
they had their families around them ; but, after- 
wards, they so far pandered to the prevailing cry on 
behalf of clerical celibacy, as to assign to their wives 
separate abodes. They were sober, charitable, and 
contemptuous of worldly grandeur, — "modest and 
unassuming," says Bede, " distinguished for the sim- 
plicity of their manners, diligent observers of the 
works of piety and chastity, which they had learned 
from the prophetic and apostolic writings." They 
despised the ceremonies of a costly ritual, the page- 
antry of the choir, and the tricks and gambollings of 
priestcraft. They guarded, to a degree, against the 
innovations attempted by the wily emissaries of 
Rome; and, considering the circumstances of the 
period, made a comparatively long resistance to the 
influences of degeneracy which had already preci- 
pitated the most of Europe into gilded barbarism 
and antichristian superstition. They occasionally 
occupied many successive days, and even spent inter- 
vening nights, in studying the sacred volume; and, 
sedulously searching out its meaning, and bowing to 
its supreme authority; and regarding it as the sole 
final appeal for every point of faith or morals, they 
were strangers to the foolery of searching for their 
creed in the writings of the fathers, or enslaving 
their consciences to the dictation of those tools of 
the Christian emperors and the popes of Rome, 
called General councils. Their doctrines probably 
were tinged, or even highly coloured, with Pelagi- 
anism ; yet, when compared with those of the great 
body of contemporary Christians, and when seen in 
the rich fruits of moral worth which they produced, 
they may be suspected to have leaned toward error 
more in words than in reality. 

Iona was the retreat of science and literature, and 
of the fine and useful arts, almost as conspicuously as 
of religion. Columba himself excelled in all secular 
learning, was a proficient in the knowledge of medi- 
cine and the practice of eloquence, and laboriously 
instructed the barbarians in agriculture, gardening, 
and other arts of civilized life. Not a few of the 
members of his community, in successive generations, 
were eminently skilled in rhetoric, poetry, music, 
astronomy, mathematics, and general philosophy and 
science. About the beginning of the 8th century, 
learning of every sort, in fact — with the exception of 
some poor remains of philosophy and the arts in Italy 
— wss hunted out of every part of Continental Eu- 

rope, and concentrated its energies and its glories on 
the little arena of Icolmkill. Even Ireland, which 
was at the time brilliant in distinct literary estab- 
lishments, concurred with the general voice of the 
civilized world, in pronouncing Iona the pre-eminent 
seat of learning, in acknowledging the paramount in- 
fluence of its college, and in awarding to its abbot 
the designation of Principatus. The arts and sciences 
which formed the curriculum were writing, arith- 
metic, the computation of time, geometry, astronomy, 
jurisprudence, and music. So much was the last of 
these valued at the period, that heaven was believed 
to have bestowed musical powers only on its favour- 
ites. At first, it allured the barbarians to the Chris- 
tian modes of worship ; and was attended to simply 
in a degree proportioned to its subordinate import- 
ance ; but eventually it acquired a predominating in- 
fluence, far too largely engaged the attention, re- 
tarded the progress of deeper studies, and contributed 
not a little to produce a general deterioration which 
at length became submerged by the influx of popery. 
Only a rapid and interrupted outline of the history 
of Iona can be here attempted. A continuous list 
of abbots is preserved from Buithan, who succeeded 
Columba, and died in 600, to Caoin Chomrach, who 
died in 945. Another and succeeding list has per- 
plexed antiquaries, but distinctly exhibits four more 
abbots, beginning in 1004, and terminating with 
Duncan, in 1099. Under Buithan, St. Giles, a gra- 
duate of Iona, introduced Culdeeism to Switzerland, 
was the instrument of converting several thousands 
"f the inhabitants, rejected the bishopric of Constance, 
neld out as a bribe to lure him from his simple creed, 
and planted an establishment whose superiors, in 
after ages, were less proof than he to the blandish- 
ments of civil greatness, and came to be ranked as 
considerable princes of the empire. Under Ferguan, 
who died in 622, and who was considerable in piety 
and learning, the scientific and literary interests of 
Iona had to struggle with difficulties, but went 
through unscathed. Under Cumin, who died in 658, 
and who was distinguished for his scholarship, the se- 
minary, though sending out fewer missionaries than 
formerly to Switzerland, Germany, and other conti- 
nental countries, continued its assiduity in training 
men in the arts and sciences. About this time, Aidan 
and some other alumni, in compliance with an invi- 
tation of Oswald, king of Northumbria, who had 
been discipled to Christianity when in exile among 
the Scots and Picts, introduced a knowledge of 
Christianity among the Northumbrian Saxons, and 
planted the scions of Christian excellence and liter- 
ary renown among that people, from the northern 
limits of their territory along the Forth, to their 
southern limits in the centre of England. Aidan is 
said to have in seven days baptized 15,000 converts ; ' 
he commended his cause by great moderation, meek- 
ness, and piety; but in common with many others 
who went from Iona to England, he cared little to 
retain the simple ecclesiastical discipline of Culdee- 
ism ; and he was appointed the first bishop of Lin- 
disfarne or Holy Island. Eata, one of those who 
accompanied Aidan from Iona, after labouring for a 
season in Northumbria, became the apostle of the 
tribes who inhabited the basin of the upper Tweed, 
and laid the foundation, and was the first superior of 
the Culdee establishment of Melrose, which for cen- 
turies occupied the place of the greatly more cele- 
brated, but comparatively the utterly worthless po- 
pish abbey. During nearly the same period as that 
of Aidan and Eata's activity, all the other principa- 
lities or kingdoms of England, excepting Kent and 
Wessex, and the little state of Sussex, were traversed 
by missionaries from Iona, and received from them 
their chief initial instruction, or their revival from 



total declension, not only in Christianity, but also in 
the arts and sciences. No institution, either of its 
own age or of any which intervened till after the 
Reformation, did so much as that of Iona, at this 
time, to diffuse over a benighted world the lights of 
literature, science, and the Christian faith. But as 
the 7th century drew toward a close, its glory be- 
came visibly on the wane, and began to assume sickly 
tints of remote assimilation to Romanism, or more 
properly, of substituting frivolous external obser- 
vances for the spirit and energy of simple truth. A 
celebrated, but very stupid dispute, at Whitby, in 
Yorkshire, between Colman, one of its alumni, and 
Wilifred, a Romanist, on the precious questions as 
to when Easter or the passover should be celebrated, 
and with what kind of tonsure the hair of a professed 
religieuse should be cut, conducted on the one side by 
an appeal to the traditional authority of John the 
apostle, and on the other to the interpolated dictum 
of Peter, the alleged janitor of heaven, and supported 
on the part of Colman with all the zeal and influence 
of his Culdee brethren, ended, as it deserved to do, 
in the total discomfiture of the people of Iona, who 
totally forgot the moral dignity of their creed both 
by the jejuneness of the questions debated, and by 
the monstrous folly of appealing to the verdict of the 
Northumbrian prince Oswi, a diademed ninny, who 
"determined on no account to disregard the institu- 
tions of Peter who kept the keys of the kingdom of 
heaven," — this dispute gave a virtual death-blow to 
Culdeeism, and the influence of Icolmkill in England, 
and even paved the way for the march of the van- 
guard of popery upon the delightful institutions both 
of the island itself, and of the far-extending territory 
over which its moral influence presided. Colman, 
with a whole regiment of his clerical brethren, re- 
treated upon Scotland, and left the sunnier clime of 
the south in possession of the corrupted and corrupt- 
ing Romanists. Under Adamnan, who died in 703, 
Iona proclaimed to the world its having commenced 
a career of apostacy, and invited the multitudinous 
communities who looked to it as the standard-bearer 
of their creed, to follow in its steps. The ecclesias- 
tics of the island put some trappings of finery upon 
their originally simple form of church government ; 
they fraternized with the Romanists on the subject 
of keeping Easter ; they preached the celibacy of 
superior clerks and professed monks, — prohibited the 
celebration of marriage on any day except Sabbath, 
— prayed for the dead, — enjoined immoderate fast- 
ings, — and distinguished sin into various classes ; and 
they, in general, yielded themselves, with a surpris- 
ing degree of freedom, to the power of fanatical zeal 
and superstitious credulity. Though still far from 
being as corrupt as the Romanists, and though con- 
tinuing to maintain the island's literary fame, they 
very seriously defiled the essential purity of Chris- 
tian faith and devotion. 

Icolmkill underwent, in the course of divine provi- 
dence, frequent scourgings for its spiritual declension, 
and henceforth was conspicuous, not more for the 
loss of its purity, than for the destruction of its peace. 
In 714, the ecclesiastics, or the monks — as they may 
now, with some show of reason, be called — were 
temporarily expelled by Neetan, king of the Picts. 
In 797, and again in 801, the establishment was 
burnt by the northern pirates. In 805, the pirates 
a third time made a descent upon it, and put no 
fewer than 68 of its monks to the sword. Next year 
the inhabitants of the island built a new town ; in 
814, they went in a body to Tarach to curse the 
king of Scotland, who had incensed them by his 
vices ; and in 818, their abbot, Diarmid, alarmed by 
new menaces from the pirates, bundled up some 
saintly relics to aid in averting perils, and ploughed 

the seas for two years in making a retreat to Ireland. 
In 985, the abbot of the period, and 15 monks, or 
'doctors,' were killed, and the whole establishment 
dispersed. In 1069, the buildings, after having been 
re-edified, were once more destroyed by fire. The 
place had long before bidden farewell to its pristine 
glory, and now loomed dimly in the increasing gloom 
of its evening twilight; and, at last, in 1203, it was 
formally mantled in the sable dress of night, and be- 
came the seat of a new and regular monastery, ten- 
anted by the cowled and mass-saying priests of Rome. 
— The Culdee monks, with the decline of their reli- 
gious excellence, grew in earthliness of spirit, and 
though they originally held little communication with 
powerful barons except to aid their spiritual well- 
being, and would not accept from them any donation 
of land, yet they eventually made no scruple to send 
their fame to the money-market, and to accumulate 
whatever possessions were ceded by popular and 
opulent credulity or admiration. They received nu- 
merous and large donations of churches and their 
pertinents, and of landed property, from the lords o. 
Galloway, and are said to have obtained 13 islands 
from the Scottish kings. No tolerable estimate can 
now be made of the amount of their wealth, nor even 
a certain catalogue exhibited of their islands. Raa- 
say, Canna, Inchkenneth, Soa, and Eorsa, seem cer- 
tainly to have belonged to them ; Tiree, Colonsay, 
Staffa, and the Treshinish isles, were probably theirs ; 
and the three Shiant isles, the three Garveloch isles, 
and the isle of St. Cormack, Dr. M'Culloch thinks, 
are awarded them by the evidence of the ruined cells 
and other antiquities. In 1180, all the revenues de- 
rived from Galloway, and other quarters, were taken 
away, and granted to the abbey of Holyrood. The 
Romish monks who succeeded the Culdees, inherited 
from them little or no property, except the island of 
Iona, and were left to make what accumulations they 
could from the fame of the place, and the trickeries 
of their own craft. 

Iona thus concentrates most of the teeming inter- 
est of its renowned name within the period of about 
150 years succeeding the landing of Columba ; and 
is seen in its real moral sublimity when the doubtful 
or positively fabulous story of its having been origi- 
nally an island of the Druids, and the associations of 
its monkery and its existing ruins of popish edifices, 
either are entirely forgotten, or are employed only in 
the limnings of poetry as foils to the grand features 
of the scene. Regarded as the source of Christian 
enlightenment to the whole British isles, and as the 
fountain-head of civilization, and literature, and 
science, to all Europe, at a period when the vast ter- 
ritory of the Roman empire, and nearly all the scenes 
which had been lit up by primeval Christianity were 
turned into wilderness by barbarism and superstition, 
it excites holier and more thrilling thoughts by far 
than the most magnificent of the thousand rich land- 
scapes of Scotland, than even the warmest in the 
colourings of its objects, and the most stirring in its 
antiquarian or historical associations. " We were 
now treading that illustrious island," says Dr. John- 
son, in a passage familiar to almost every Scotchman, 
" which was once the luminary of the Caledonian re- 
gions, whence savage clans and roving barbarians 
derived the benefits of knowledge, and the blessings 
of religion. To abstract the mind from all local 
emotion would be impossible, if it were endeavoured, 
and would be foolish, if it were possible. Whatever 
withdraws us from the power of our senses, — what- 
ever makes the past, the distant, or the future, pre- 
dominate over the present, advances us in the dignity 
of thinking beings. Far from me and from my friends 
be such frigid philosophy, as may conduct us indiffeiv 
ent and unmoved over anv ground which has been 



dignified by wisdom, bravery, or virtue ! That man 
is little to be envied, whose patriotism would not 
gain force upon the plain of Marathon, or whose piety 
would not grow warmer among the ruins of Iona." 
" We approached Iona," says a lively tourist, who 
contributes his sketch to a modern periodical, " "We 
approached it on a lovely afternoon in summer. The 
steam-boat had left Oban crowded with tourists — 
some from America, two Germans, and a whole le- 
gion of 'the Sassenach.' The quiet beauty of the 
scene subdued the whole into silence — even the Ame- 
ricans, who had bored us about their magnificent 
rivers, and steam-boats sailing twenty-five miles an 
hour. The sea was literally like a sheet of molten 
gold or silver. Not a breath agitated its surface, as 
we surveyed it from beneath a temporary awning, 
thrown up on the quarter-deck. The only live ob- 
jects that caught the eye were an occasional wild 
fowl or porpoise. As the vessel moved on among 
the silent rocky islands, the scene constantly shifting, 
yet always bearing a stern, solemn, and primitive 
aspect, it was impossible not to feel that we could 
not have approached Iona under more favourable cir- 
cumstances. * * * Iona! There is something 
magical in the name. Whether its etymology be 
I-thonna, the Island of the Waves, or I-shonna, the 
Blessed or Holy Isle, we care not. The combina- 
tion of letters is most musical, and harmonizes com- 
pletely with the associations called up by the vener- 
able spot. Some places we admire for their rural or 
pastoral beauty and simplicity — others for their naked 
grandeur and sublimity. Iona belongs to neither of 
these classes ; * * * yet undoubtedly in interest 
it surpasses them all. As the seat of learning and 
religion when all around was dark and barbarous — 
as the burial-place of kings, saints, and heroes — soli- 
tary and in ruins — inhabited by a few poor and pri- 
mitive people — and washed by the ever-murmuring 
Atlantic, Iona possesses most of the elements of ro- 
mance and moral beauty. Its natural disadvantages 
would have been counted as attractions by Columba 
and his pious votaries, when, some twelve centuries 
ago, they first steered their skiff across the oeean to 
plant the tree of life and sow the seeds of knowledge 
on its desert and barbarous shores. The greater the 
sacrifice, the higher the virtue ; and from this soli- 
tary spot Columba sent forth disciples to civilize and 
enlighten other regions, till the fame of Iona and its 
saints extended over the kingdom, subdued savage 
ferocity, and made princes bow down before its in- 
fluence and authority. Here kings and chiefs were 
proud to send votive altars, crosses, and offerings, 
and to mingle their dust with its canonized earth — 
here Christian temples rose in the midst of Pagan 
gloom — knowledge was disseminated — and Iona 
shone like the morning star after a long night of 
darkness ! The whole seems like a wild confused 
dream of romance, as we look on that low, rugged 
island, with its straggling patches of corn-lands, its 
miserable huts, and poor inhabitants." Words- 
worth has dedicated three memorial sonnets to 
Iona; and Blackwood's Delta has penned the fol- 
lowing lines on this far-famed islet, and its surround- 
ing scenery : — 

" How beautiful, beneath the morning-sky, 
The level sea outstretches like a lake 
Serene, when not a zephyr is awake 

To cnrl the gilded pendant gliding by ! 

Within a bow-shot, Druid Icolmkill 

Presents its tirae-worn ruins, hoar and grey, 

A monument of eld remaining 6till 

Lonely, when all its brethren are away. 

Dumb things may be our teachers ; iB it strange 
That aught of dt-ath is perishing ! Come forth 

Like rainbows, show diversity of change, 
And fade away — Aurora of the North! 

Where altars rose, and choral virgins song, 

And victims bled, the sea-bird rears her young. ' 

Mr. Heneage Jesse thus expresses the emotions he 
experienced on visiting Iona : — 

" Ye who have sail'd among the thousand isles, 
Where proud Iona rears its giant piles, 
Perchance have linger'd at that sacred spot, 
To muse on men and ages half-forgot : 
Though spoil'd by time, their mnuld'ring walls avow 
A calm that e'en the sceptic might allow ; 
Here, where the waves these time-worn caverns beat, 
The early Christian fix'd his rude retreat; 
Here first the symbol of his creed uofurl'd, 
And spread religion o'er a darken'd world. 
Here, as I kneel beside this moss-grown fane, 
The moou sublimely holds her noiseless reign ; 
Through roofless piles the stars serenely gleam, 
And light these arches with their yellow beam ; 
While the lone heart, amid the cloister'd gloom, 
Indulges thoughts that soar beyond the tomb. 

All-beauteous night! how lovely is each ray, 
That e'en can add a splendour to decay ! 
For lo ! where saints have heaved the pious sigh, 
The dusky owl sends forth his fearful cry! 
Here, too, we mark, where yon pale beam is shed, 
The scatter'd relics of the mighty dead ; 
The great of old — the meteors of an age — 
The sceptred monarch, and the mitred sage : 
What are they now ? — the victims of decay — 
The very worm hath left its noisome prey ; 
And yet, blest shades ! if such a night as this 
Can tempt your spirits from yon isles of bliss, 
Perchance ye now are floating through the air, 
And breathe the stillness which I seem to share." 

If any relics of the Culdees exist on the island, 
they must, to all appearance, be sought only among 
the oldest of the tomb-stones, defaced, without in- 
scriptions, mere blocks of stone, which cannot now 
be identified with any age, or twisted into connec- 
tion with any individuals or events. The ruins of 
buildings are extensive, but all posterior in date to 
the invasion of popery. Whatever structures were 
erected by Columba or his successors, are contended, 
successfully, we think, by Dr. M'Culloch, to have 
been comparatively rude, and probably composed of 
wicker-work or timber ;* and even had they been 
elegant and of solid masonry, must have been de- 
stroyed by the frequent devastations of the northern 
pirates. When Ceallach, the leader of the Romish 
invaders, took possession in 1203, he could scarcely 
have failed to appropriate an ecclesiastical edifice, 
had one existed, or even to have renovated or re-edi- 
fied any ruins which could have been made available 
for housing his monks, yet he built a monastery of his 
own. Even Ceallach's edifice, soon after its erection, 
was pulled down by a body of Irish, sanctioned by 
an act of formal condemnation on the part of a synod 
of their clergy, who still sided with the Culdees, and 
resisted Romanism. St. Oran's chapel, the oldest 
existing ruin, is probably the work of the Norwe- 
gians, and, were it not confronted with historical 
proofs which raise very strong doubts of its dating 
higher than near or toward the year 1300, it might 
have been esteemed as prior to the 11th century. 
The building is in the Norman style, rude, only 60 
feet by 22, and now unroofed, but otherwise entire. 
Excepting that the chevron moulding is, in the usual 
manner, repeated many times on the soffit of the 
arch, it is quite without ornament ; and, even in the 
poor decorations which it possesses, it displays mean- 
ness of style and clumsiness of execution. In the 
interior, and along the pavement, are some tombs, 
and many carved stones, — one of the latter orna- 
mented in a very unusual manner, with balls. A 
tomb pointed out as St. Oran's, but more probably 

* Dr. M'Culloch's reasons may be seen in his ' Highlands and 
Western Isles.' We add to them, in reference to England, the 
following from Somner's ' Antiquities of Canterbury :'--" Indeed 
it is to be observed, that before the Roman advent, most of our 
monasteries and church buildings were all of wood, — ' All the 
monasteries of my realm,' saith King Edgar, in his charter to 
the abbey of Malmsbury, dated in the year of Christ 971, ' to 
the sight are nothing but worm-eaten, and rotten timber and 
boards,' — and that upon the Norman conquest, such timber 
fabrics grew out of use, aud gave place to stoue buildings raised 
upon arches." 



belonging to a sea-warrior, and very evidently of a 
more modern date than the chapel, lies under a 
canopy of three pointed arches, and possesses more 
elegance than most of the relies of the island. On 
the south side of the chapel, and adjacent to it, is an 
enclosure called Relig Oran, ' the burying-place of 
Oran.' This was the grand cemetery of Iona, the 
cherished and far-famed spot whither, for ages, fune- 
ral parties voyaged from a distance to inter the illus- 
trious dead. According to Donald Munro, Dean of 
the Isles, who visited the place in the 16th century, 
and to the historian Buchanan, and a thousand other 
writers who copied the Dean, or copied one another, 
there stood within this area three tombs, formed like 
little chapels, bearing on their ends or gables the in- 
scriptions " Tumulus Eegum Scotia?," " Tumulus 
Regum Hyberniffi," and " Tumulus Regum Norwe- 
gian," and enclosing the ashes respectively of 48 kings 
of Scotland, 4 kings of Ireland, and 8 kings of Nor- 
way. The tombs, if ever they existed, — and they 
almost to a certainty never did — have utterly disap- 
peared. King Duncan, says Shakspeare, was 

" Carried to Colm's kill, 
The sacred store-house of his predecessors, 
And guardian of their bones." 

But though Duncan of Scotland, and also Neill 
Frassach, the son of Fergal of Ireland, who died in 
778, actually were buried here, some of the other 
kings pleaded for were fabulous, some died prior to 
the date of Columba's landing on the island, some 
are known to have been interred at Dunfermline or 
Arbroath, and the small remainder may or may not, 
for anything either documents or monuments say on 
the subject, have been, as Munro says, "eirded in 
this very fair kirkzaird, weil biggit about with staine 
and lyme." A lump of red granite is pointed out as 
the tomb of a French king; but may have been the 
monumental stone of a person nearly as nameless as 
itself. Yet the grave-stones of the place are so very 
numerous, and have collectively so imposing an ap- 
pearance as to impress a visiter with a much stronger 
conviction of the former grandeur and reputed sanc- 
tity of the island, than is conveyed by the contem- 
plation of its ruined structures. They seem to lie 
in rows in a north and south direction, but, on the 
whole, are huddled together in a manner rather con- 
fused than orderly or tasteful. While the greater 
proportion are plain, the rest are, in many instances, 
finely carved with knots and sculptured imitations 
of vegetables with figures of recumbent warriors, 
and with other emblems and devices, and seem to 
be monumental of the chiefs of the isles, Norwegian 
sea-kings, influential ecclesiastics, and other persons 
of considerable station or note. None of the entire 
collection exhibit certain or intrinsic evidence of 
high antiquity. Some with Runic sculptures may 
be as old as the 9th century, the date of the com- 
mencement of the Danish invasion, but may, on the 
other hand, be just as probably more modern. 

Two, with mutilated Erse or Irish inscriptions one 

of them commemorative of a certain Donald Long- 
shanks — appear to be among the most ancient. One 
commemorates a Macdonald, and another the Angus 
Og who was with Bruce at Bannockburn. Many 
statues- and monuments, additional to the profuse 
mass which previously lay exposed, were, in 1830, 
discovered and laid bare in a search conducted by 
Mr. Rae Wilson; and they possibly, though not very 
probably, suggest the concealed existence of a suffi- 
cient number of others to verify the assertion of 
Sacheverel, that, about the year 1600, copies were 
taken of the inscriptions of 300, and deposited with 
the family of Argyle. 

The chapel of the nunnery— usually the first of the 

ruins shown to visiters — seems next in antiquity to 
the chapel of St. Oran. The nuns to whom it he- 
longed were canonesses of St. Augustine, and were 
not displaced at the Reformation. Nor, while pop- 
ish themselves, had they any Culdee predecessors; 
no monastic establishment for females having existed 
during the period of Columba's discipline. The. 
building is in good preservation, about 60 feet by 
20, its roof anciently vaulted and partly remaining, 
and its arches round, with plain fluted soffits. As 
the architecture is purely Norman, without a vestige 
or a concomitant ornament of the pointed style, it 
might, if judged simply by its own merits, or apart 
from the evidence of circumstances, be assigned a 
higher date than the period of the Romish influence. 
Though a court is shown, and also some vestiges of 
what is pronounced to have been a church, the other 
buildings belonging to the nunnery have so far dis- 
appeared that they cannot be intelligibly traced. In 
the interior of the chapel is the tombstone of the 
last prioress, with the inscription, in old British 
characters, round the ledge, " Hie jacet Domina 
Anna Donaldi Ferleti filia, quondam prioressa de 
Iona, quae obiit anno M. D. Xlmo, cujus animam 
Altissimo commendamus." A figure of the lady, in 
bas relief, in barbarous style, and in the attitude of 
praying to the Virgin Mary, is supported on each 
side by the figure of an angel, and has under its feet 
the address, " Sancta Maria, ora pro me." The 
Virgin Mary holds the Infant in her arms, and has 
on her head a mitre, surmounted by a sun and moon. 
Within the building are many other tombs, one said 
to be inscribed to Beatrice, daughter of Somerset, 
and a prioress, but none really known to have in- 
scriptions or carvings. 

The chief ruin on the island is that of the Abbey 
church or cathedral. Originally it seems to have 
sustained only the former character; but afterwards 
it became cathedral as well as Abbey church, the 
bishops of the Isles occasionally adopting Iona as 
the seat of their residence and the centre of their 
influence. The building is manifestly of two dis- 
tinct periods, both difficult or impossible of fixation. 
That which stretches eastward of the tower is pro- 
bably of the same date as the chapel of the nunnery; 
and the other part belongs probably to the 14th 
century. " At present," says Dr. M'Culloch, " its 
form is that of a cross; the length being about 160 
feet, the breadth 24, and the length of the transept 
70. That of the choir is about 60 feet. The tower 
is about 70 feet high, divided into three stories. It 
is lighted on one side, above, by a plain slab, per- 
forated by quatre-foils, and on the other by a Cathe- 
rine- wheel, or marigold window, with spiral mullions. 
The tower stands on four cylindrical pillars of a 
clumsy Norman design, about 10 feet high and 3 in 
diameter. Similar proportions pervade the other 
pillars in the church ; their capitals being short, and, 
in some part, sculptured with ill-designed and gro- 
tesque figures, still very sharp and well-preserved ; 
among which that of an angel weighing souls (as it 
is called by Pennant), while the devil depresses one 
scale with his claw, is always pointed out with great 
glee. This sculpture, however, represents an angel 
weighing the good deeds of a man against his evil 
ones. It is not an uncommon feature in similar 
buildings, and occurs, among other places, at Mont- 
villiers ; where also the devil, who is at the opposite 
scale, tries to depress it with his fork, as is done 
elsewhere with his claw. The same allegory is 
found in detail in the legends ; and it may also be 
seen in some of the works of the Dutch and Flemish 
painters. The arches are pointed, with a curvature 
intermediate between those of the first and second 
styles, or the sharp and the ornamented, the two 



most beautiful periods of Gothic architecture ; their 
soffits being fluted with plain and rude moulding. 
The corded moulding separates the shaft from the 
capital of the pillars, and is often prolonged through 
the walls at the same level. The larger windows 
vary in form, but are everywhere inelegant. There 
is a second, which is here the clerestory tier ; the 
windows sometimes terminating in a circular arch, 
at others in trefoil bends; the whole being sur- 
mounted by a corbel table." [' Highlands and Wes- 
tern Isles,' vol. iv. p. 155. London: 1824.] This 
church or cathedral was dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary. The altar-piece, situated at the upper end 
of the chancel, formed of Iona marble, exhibiting 
one of the richest specimens of that fossil, 6 feet 
long and 4 broad, had the doubtful and mischievous 
fame of affording, by a splinter from it, preservation 
from shipwreck, fire, murder, and other evils, and, 
though seen in its last fragments by Pennant, has 
by piece-meal demolition utterly disappeared. The 
font and pavement are still entire. On the north 
side of the site of the altar, is the monument of the 
abbot Macfingon, or Mackinnon, formed of mica- 
slate, containing hornblende, standing on four feet, 
exhibiting a fine recumbent figure of the priest in a 
high relief with his vestments and crosier, having 
four lions at the angles, and bearing the inscription : 
"Hie jacet Johannes Macfingone, Abbas de Ii, qui 
obiit anno M. D. cujus animo propicietur Altissimus. 
Amen." " Here lies John Mackinnon, abbot of 
Iona, who died a.d. 1500, to whose soul may the 
Most High be merciful." Opposite this monument, 
on the south side of the choir, is another, apparently 
of an older date, executed in a similar manner with 
episcopal ornaments, but consisting of freestone, and 
almost obliterated in its sculpture, commemorative 
of the abbot Kenneth, who was a Mackenzie or a 
Seaforth. In front of the site of the altar, and in 
the middle of the choir, lies a fine monumental stone 
of basaltes, cut in relievo into the figure of a man in 
armour, representative, as is said, of one of the Mac- 
leans of Dowart, who were for many ages the lords 
of Mull, and having a sculptured shell by its side to 
denote his maritime claims. Adjoining the south 
wall of the choir, but on the outside, is the tomb- 
stone of Lochlan Macfingon, the father of the abbot 
whose sumptuous monument we have just noticed: 
it is a plain slab, with the inscription : " Haec est 
crux Lacolani M'Fingone et ejus filii Johannis Ab- 
batis de t facta anno Domini mccccxxxxix." " This 
is the cross of Lachlan M'Kinnon, and of his son 
John, abbot of Iona, erected in the year of the Lord 

Other ruins and relics are either very much dilapi- 
dated, or of inconsiderable importance. Various 
parts of the abbey may be traced ; but they are un- 
interesting and without ornament. Four arches of 
the cloister are distinct; three walls exist of what 
was probably the refectory. The remains of the 
bishop's house, also, are clearly traceable, but do 
not deserve notice. Various little clusters of stone 
and fragments of wall are supposed to have been 
chapels. Buchanan says that there were on the 
island several chapels founded by kings of Scotland 
and chiefs of the Isles; but, as he joins the roman- 
cers respecting the tombs of the kings and other 
subjects, he fails to command unhesitating belief. 
A causeway called Main-street, ran between the 
cathedral and the nunnery, and was joined by two 
others, called Martyr-street and Royal-street, which 
are said to have communicated with the beach. 
The remains of the causeway are, in some places, 
sufficiently perfect; but, in others, they have, like 
the removeable stones of the buildings, been carried 
off by the inhabitants for the erection of cottages 

and enclosures. A current story says that there 
were, at one time, 360 crosses on the island, and 
that, after the Reformation, the synod of Argyle 
ordered 60 of them to be thrown into the sea. 
Whatever may have been the real number, traces 
now exist of only 4. Pennant says that the cross 
of Campbelltown was one of the Iona crosses ; but 
he is believed to have been mistaken. As to the 
296 which remain to be accounted for, and even as 
to the 60 which are alleged to have been submerged, 
they very probably had never an existence. Had 
the synod of Argyle been such zealous exterminators 
of the relics of exterior Romanism as is pretended, 
they would most likely have ordered the destruction 
of all the crosses, and might likewise have tried to 
beat down the cruciform cathedral, and would almost 
certainly have stripped its interior of some of its 
unequivocally popish garniture. Of the crosses 
which remain, one is beautifully carved, this and 
another are very perfect, a third has been broken off 
at the height of about 10 feet, and a fourth exhibits 
only its stump in a little earthen mound. Various 
fragments, converted into grave-stones, appear, from 
the devices and inscriptions which they bear, to have 
certainly been votive. Among the ruins of the abbey 
were certain black stones, no longer to be found, 
and fondly believed by many persons to lie concealed 
somewhere on the island, which are proverbial for 
the solemnity of oaths sworn upon them, and are 
spoken of as if they possessed a talismanic power of 
giving a conscience to an assassin or a traitor. 
Those who ascribe all knowledge to the Druids, 
and so regard it as no romance that Iona was once 
of nearly as great fame with them as afterwards with 
the Culdees, make small scruple to put foul insult 
upon both the followers of Columba and those of 
the Pope, and suppose the stones to have been a 
relic of Druidical superstition, and the original oath 
with which they were associated to have been taken 
on the sacred stone of a temple. If asked authority 
for their conjecture, they will perhaps find it quite 
as easily as they can find the stones themselves. 
Another stone in Iona is romanced to have had such 
properties, that whatever helmsman stretched his 
arm three times over it, in the name of the Blessed 
Trinity, would never err in his steerage. Could 
this also have been Druidical ? Numerous spots on 
the island, slightly marked in some cases by natural 
and in others by artificial features, are identified in 
various ways with Columba, and, for the most part, 
pointed out, as scenes of prodigies and saintly ex- 
ploits. Even Columba's own successors, Cumin and 
Adamnan, men who wrote within about a century 
after his death, and were at the head of the Iona 
establishment at the period of its greatest glory, be- 
trayed, to a very surprising degree, the weakness of 
magnifying the remarkable events of his life, and 
even such an ordinary matter as his sowing grain on 
the island, and seeing it in due season become a crop 
of barley, into occurrences superhuman, and miracu- 
lous. The cowled dotards of Rome who succeeded 
them belonged to a fraternity who are noted for 
their covering nearly all the parchment, and even 
many rescripts of the Middle ages, with dreaming 
legends of saints, quite as wild as the most absurd 
romances; and, set down amid such gorgeous mate- 
rials as those of Iona, with the example before them 
of the well-meaning but mistaking Culdee biogra- 
phers of Columba, they could scarcely fail to be 
carried round in such a whirl of creativeness, as 
would prevent their getting a steady or correct view 
of any one matter which they related to visiters or 
sent down the current of tradition. The destruc- 
tion or irrecoverable dispersion of an alleged great 
library of Iona, ascribed to the execution of an act 




of the Convention of Estates in 1561, and usually 
spoken of with mingled lugubriousness and indig- 
nation, as if it occasioned the irretrievable loss of 
valuable books, and was an act more Gothic than 
any ever perpetrated by Goths, has probably done 
little else than relieve sober inquirers into facts from 
a thousand perplexities additional to those of the 
traditions current on the island, and almost certainly 
made away with no book worth possessing which 
was not elsewhere preserved. Population of the 
island, in 1808, 386; in 1831, 350. 

1RONGRAY. See Kirkpatrick-Irongray. 

IRVINE (The), a river in Ayrshire, forming, 
from a short distance beneath its source, to its en- 
trance into the frith of Clyde, the boundary-line 
between the districts of Cunningham and Kyle. 
What, in the region earliest drained, bears the name 
of the Irvine, rises in two head- waters, the one in a 
moss at Meadow-head, on the eastern boundary of 
the parish of Loudon or of Ayrshire, and the other 
a mile eastward in the parish of Avondale in Lan- 
arkshire, near the battle-field of Drumclog. The 
rills making a junction a mile below their respective 
sources, the united stream traces the boundary of 
Ayrshire a mile southward, and then turns west- 
ward, enters the interior of the county, and thence, 
till very near its embouchure, pursues a course 
which — with the exception of very numerous but 
brief and beautiful sinuosities — is uniformly due 
west. About 2f miles from the point of its entering 
the county, it is joined from the north by Glen 
water. This, in strict propriety, is the parent- 
stream, on account both of its length of course and 
its volume of water ; for the stream of the Glen rises 
at Crossbill in Renfrewshire, a mile north of the 
Ayrshire frontier, and runs 6 miles southward, drink- 
ing up five rills in its progress, to the point of con- 
fluence with the Irvine. Swollen by this large tri- 
butary, the Irvine immediately passes the village of 
Derval on the right, — 1| mile onward, the village 
of Newmills,. — at 2| miles farther on, the village of 
Galston, on the left. A mile and a quarter below 
Galston it receives from the north Polbaith burn ; 
§ of a mile lower down, it is joined from the south 
by Cessnock water ; and 3 miles westward in a 
straight line — though probably double the distance 
along its channel, the course here being almost emu- 
lative of the lesser windings of the Forth — it passes 
Kilmarnock and Riccarton on opposite sides, and 
receives on its right bank the tributary of Kilmar- 
nock water. Nearly 23 miles onward, measured 
in a straight line, but 4 miles or upwards along its 
bed, it is joined on the same bank by Carmel water; 
and 2^ miles farther on, it receives still on the same 
bank, the tribute of the Annack. The river now 
runs 1^ mile in a direction west of north, passing 
through the town of Irvine at about mid-distance ; 
it then suddenly bends round in a fine sweep till it 
assumes a southerly direction ; and opposite the town 
of Irvine— at 3 furlongs' distance from its channel — 
when running northward, abruptly expands into a 
basin J of a mile broad, which receives Garnock 
river at its north-west extremity, and communicates 
by a narrow mouth or strait with the frith of Clyde. 
The parishes which come down on the river's south 
bank are Galston, Riccarton, and Dundonald; and 
those which it washes on its north side are Loudon, 
Kilmarnock, Kilmaurs, Dreghorn, and Irvine. If 
the beauty of the stream, gliding slowly on its pebbled 
bed, the richness and verdure of its haughs, the open- 
ness of its course, the quality of the adjacent soil, 
the progress of agriculture along its banks, the array 
of noblemen's and gentlemen's seats looking down 
upon its meanderings, the crowded population and the 
displays of industry and wealth which salute it in its 

progress, are taken into view, the Irvine will be pro- 
nounced, if not one of the thrillingly attractive rivers 
of Scotland, at least one of the most pleasing, and 
one on whose scenery combined patriotism and taste 
will fix a more satisfied eye than on that of streams 
which have drawn music from an hundred harps, and 
poesy from clusters of men gifted with the powers 
of description and literary painting. The mansions 
of note situated near the river demand notice in 
crowds, and must be disposed of in simple enumera- 
tion. Loudon-castle and Cessnock-house, both the 
residence of noble owners, Lanfine, Holms, Kilmar- 
nock-house, Peel-house, Caprington, Fairly-house, 
Craig-house, Newfield, Auchens, Shewalton, some 
of them the homes of men distinguished by title or 
important influence in their country, — these mansions 
and others, besides many handsome villages, over- 
look the river. On the banks of its tributaries, too, 
are similar adornings, — such as Crawfordland and 
Dean-castle on the Kilmarnock, Rowallan, Kilmaurs, 
and Busby castles on the Carmel, and Lainshaw, 
Annack, Lodge, and Bourtreehill on the Annack. 

IRVINE, a parish in the south part of the dis- 
trict of Cunningham, Ayrshire. It is bounded on 
the north-west and north by Kilwinning; on the 
north-east by Stewarton ; on the east and south-east 
by Dreghorn; on the south by Dundonald; and on 
the west by Stevenston. On all sides, except the 
north-east, its boundary is traced by rivers, — on the 
east and south-east by the Annack, — on the south 
by the Irvine, — on the south-west by the Garnock, 
— and on the north-west and north by the Lugton. 
Its greatest length, from the Garnock on the south- 
west, to the boundary with Stewarton on the north- 
east, is about 4j miles ; and its greatest breadth, 
between a bend in the Annack on the east and the 
confluence of the Garnock and the Lugton on the 
west, is 3J miles; but its average breadth is only 
about 2 miles. A small district on the left bank of 
the river Irvine, on which stands the large suburb 
of the burgh called Halfway, was formerly viewed 
as belonging to the parish; but in 1824 it was de- 
cided by the court-of-session to be comprehended in 
Dundonald. The south-western division of the 
parish is low and sandy; but in some parts it con- 
sists of a light loam ; and — with the exception of a 
sandy common of about 300 acres north-west of the 
town — it all produces heavy crops of all sorts of 
corn and grass. The north-eastern division, espe- 
cially toward the extremity, is more elevated, though 
not strictly hilly, and has a soil of stiffish clay. In 
this district, the burgh possesses a considerable tract 
of land which, half-a-century ago, yielded a revenue 
of about £500 a-year. The face of the country is 
greatly beautified by circular clumps of plantation 
on most of the eminences. Most of the farm-houses 
are large, neat, and indicative, both in their own 
aspect and in that of the offices and the extensive 
farms which surround them, of prosperity and opu- 
lence. Bourtreehill, on the Annack, about \\ mile 
from the town, is the only gentleman's seat. But 
the beautiful and finely-wooded policy of Eglinton 
castle [which see] stretches far into the interior, and 
comes down into conterminousness with the town- 
lands of the burgh. From some of the rising grounds 
toward the north-east, fascinating views are obtained 
of the rich carpeting of the lower part of the parish 
and of adjacent districts on the foreground, and of 
the brilliant scenery of the frith of Clyde and the 
far-expanding bay of Ayr in the distance. — Near 
Bourtreehill, on the Annack, is an old castellated 
structure, called Stone-castle, belonging to the Earl 
of Eglinton, which is said to be the remains of an 
ancient nunnery, where there were a chapel, a ceme- 
tery, and a small village. The parish is traversed 



for about a mile between the Garnock and the Ir- 
vine south-west the parallel of the town by the 
Glasgow and Ayr railway; and it is cut northward, 
north-eastward, and eastward, by great lines of road 
from the town respectively to Kilwinning, Glasgow, 
and Kilmarnock. Population, in 1801, 4,584; in 
1831, 5,200. Houses 673. Assessed property, in 
1815, £8,690. — .Irvine is the seat of a presbytery 
in the synod of Glasgow and Ayr. Patron, the 
Earl of Eglinton. Stipend £280 9s. 3d. ; glebe 
£25. Unappropriated teinds £137 5s. 8d. The 
parish-church and other places of worship are all 
situated in the town. The dissenting chapels are 
United Secession, Relief, and Baptist, one each. 
There was formerly one belonging to the United 
Brethren ; but though still called ' the Moravian 
kirk,' it was converted some years ago into a wea- 
ver's workshop. There are 9 schools, conducted by 
13 teachers, and attended by a maximum of 695 
scholars. One of the schools is a classical and Eng- 
lish academy, conducted by three teachers, each of 
whom has £30 salary, besides fees ; two are boarding 

schools, and one is a private classical academy The 

church of Irvine anciently belonged to the monks of 
Kilwinning, and was served by a vicar. In 1516, 
the produce, or value of its property, was annually 
39 bolls of meal, 9 bolls and 2 firlots of bear, " 4 
huggates of wine," and £17 6s. 8d. for a leased por- 
tion of its tithes. Before the Reformation the church 
had several altars, one of which appears to have been 

dedicated to St. Peter On the bank of the river, 

near the church, stood a chapel, dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary; and in 1451, Alicia Campbell, Lady 
Loudon, granted four tenements in the town, and 
an annual rent of 5 merks from another tenement, 
to maintain a chaplain for its altar. To a chapel in 
the town — but whether this or another does not 
appear — the provost of the collegiate church of Cor- 
storphine granted, in 1540, extensive possessions 
within the burgh, such as yield a considerable rev- 
enue At the south corner of the present church- 
yard stood a convent of Carmelite or White friars, 
founded in the 14th century by Fullarton of Fullar- 
ton. In 1399, Reynald Fullarton of Crosby and 
Dreghorn, granted to the friars an annual rent of 6 
merks and 10 shillings from his lands. In 1572, the 
houses and revenues of the friars, with the property 
of all chapels, altarages, prebends or colleges within 
the royalty, were granted by James VI. to the burgh, 
to be applied to a foundation bearing the name of 
" The king's foundation of the school of Irvine." — 
The parish was the birth-place of the extinct but 
remarkable fanatical sect called Buchanites. Its 
principal tenets were, that there should be a com- 
munity of goods and bodies, and that true believers 
had no occasion to die, but might all pass into hea- 
ven, as Elijah did, in an embodied state. Its foun- 
der was a woman of the name of Simpson, or Mrs. 
Buchan, who, having been captivated by the preach- 
ing of Mr. Wbyte, the Relief minister of Irvine, at 
a sacrament in the vicinity of Glasgow, insinuated 
herself into favour with himself and some influential 
members of his congregation, and soon began to draw 
rivetted and wondering attention in the burgh. She 
possessed a most persuasive eloquence, and, among 
her converts, or enthusiastic adherents, numbered a 
lieutenant of marines, an old lawyer, and Mr. Whyte 
the minister. But her ravings became so wild as to 
arouse popular indignation, and draw down upon the 
place of her nocturnal assemblies, mobbings and as- 
saults which only magisterial interference was able 
to quell. In May 1784, the magistrates thought it 
prudent to dismiss her from the town, and, in order 
to protect her from insult, accompanied her about a 
mile beyond the royalty; yet they could not prevent 

the mob from pushing her into ditches, and other- 
wise inflicting upon her contempt and maltreatment. 
She lodged for the night with some of her followers 
at Kilmaurs; and being joined in the morning by 
Mr. Whyte and others from Irvine, the whole com- 
pany, about forty in number, marched onward to 
Mauchline and Cumnock, and thence to Closeburn 
in Dumfries-shire, singing as they went, and saying 
that they were going to the New Jerusalem. But 
though the bubble soon burst, it occasioned a great 
sensation for several years, and even yet is talked of 
by elderly persons in the districts whence it arose, 
and on which it fell as a display of human folly, in 
mixing its own vagaries with the solemn religious 
truths, surpassingly strange in the airiness of its 
flight and the insubstantiality of its character — The 
Rev. George Hutchison, the author of an Exposition 
of Job and some of the minor prophets,. — the Rev. 
Mr. Dickson, the author of several well-known 
works, — and the Rev. Mr. Nisbet, the author of 
Expositions on Ecclesiastes and the Epistles of 
Peter, — were all ministers of Irvine. " There were 
many learned, grave, and pious ministers," says Mr. 
Warner, in his preface to one of Nishet's Exposi- 
tions, " who, in suffering times, being put from their 
own charges, came and resided in this place, espe- 
cially during the times of Messrs. Hutchison's and 
Stirling's ministry here." 

IRVINE, a royal burgh and a sea-port, is plea- 
santly situated on the right bank of the river Irvine, 

2 of a mile east from the basin, but 2 miles from it 
along the channel of the river, and a mile in a direct 
line north-east of the nearest point of the frith of 
Clyde. The town is 11 miles north of Ayr; 25 
south-south-west of Glasgow; 34 south of Greenock; 

3 south of Kilwinning; 7 south-east of Saltcoats; 
6J west of Kilmarnock ; and 67 distant from Edin- 
burgh. The site of the main body of the town is 
a rising ground, of a sandy soil, stretching parallel 
with the river. At a point | of a mile north of 
Annack water, and the same distance east of Irvine 
water, is the Townhead or commencement of the 
Main-street. This thoroughfare stretches from end 
to end of the town, running about 600 yards in a 
direction north of west, and then over a further dis- 
tance of about 500 yards, assuming a more northerly 
direction. Over its whole length, excepting a small 
part in the centre mid-distance, it is spacious and 
airy, and wears an appearance superior to that of the 
principal street of most Scottish towns of its size 
Expanding southward of it, and partly lying between 
the first 450 yards of it and Irvine river, are the 
Golf-fields, traced or studded northward on the 
western side, or the river's bank, by the minister's 
glebe, the washing-house, the powder-house, chapel 
wall, or the site of the quondam chapel of St. Mary, 
and finally, on a swell of the ground, the parish- 
church. The last of these objects is an oblong edi- 
fice 80 feet by 60, built in 1774, surmounted at the 
north-west end by a very beautiful spire, commo- 
diously fitted up in the interior, and, in all respects, 
highly creditable to the town. Three hundred yards 
from the commencement of the Main-street one 
thoroughfare of very brief length leads off into the 
Golf-fields, and another 400 yards long, called Cot- 
ton-street, leads off in the opposite direction. At 
the further extremity of the latter street stand the 
Gas works, and one of the dissenting meeting-houses 
Nearly 200 yards down from the debouch of Cotton- 
street, the Main-street, having already sent off a 
briefer thoroughfare to the church, sends off one of 
220 yards in length to the river; and immediately 
after it is itself bisected into two thoroughfares by 
the town-hall and the jail. These buildings are 
plain and substantial, bearing a marked resemblance 



to the town-hall of Annan; and, owing to the spa- 
ciousness of the street, do not offer by any means 
such an obstruction to the carriage-way as their very 
obtrusive position would seem to threaten. About 
80 yards below them, the Main-street reaches what 
may be esteemed the centre of the town. From 
this point a street of great burghal importance goes 
off, over a distance of 200 yards, to a bridge com- 
municating across Irvine river with the suburbs and 
the harbour; and another little built upon, yet hav- 
ing on its north side near its exit the office of Ayr 
bank, goes off in an opposite direction, pointing the 
way to Glasgow, and at a distance of 530 yards pass- 
ing the Gas works, and receiving at an acute angle 
the termination of Cotton-street. Three other 
streets complete the grouping of the burgh, — one 
nearly parallel with Main-street on its east side, but 
very partially edificed,— another parallel to it on its 
west side, but compactly edificed over only a brief 
distance, — and a third, going off from it at a point 
200 yards below the centre of the town, diverging 
at an angle of about 45 degrees, and going down 
over a distance of 220 yards to the Slaughter-house. 
All the three dissenting places of worship are neat 
edifices. A little west of the northern termination 
of Main-street stands the Academy, built in 1814, 
at a cost of £2,250, both an honour and an orna- 
ment to the town. The town has an excellent 
news-room and subscription library; branch-offices 
of the Ayr bank, the Ayrshire bank, and the British 
Linen company's bank; and several mills whose ap- 
pearance and machinery surpass those of any others 
in the county. The bridge which connects the town 
with its suburbs was built in 1826, and is the most 
spacious and handsome in Ayrshire. These suburbs 
consist chiefly of two streets, straight and uniformly 
edificed, — the one, called Halfway, leading right 
across the isthmus, formed by the elongated horse- 
shoe bend of the river, to the harbour of the town, 
. — and the other, called Fullarton, running up at a 
right angle from the' bridge, or parallel with the 
river, and pointing the way to Ayr. These sub- 
urbs, though not within the royalty, are compre- 
hended within the parliamentary boundaries; and 
they were recently erected into a quoad sacra par- 
ish, and have a neat new church, with between 800 
and 1,000 sittings. On a line with the west end 
of Halfway, where the river, just before expand- 
ing into its basin or estuary, suddenly bends from 
a southerly to a westerly course, is the pier or 
harbour, — lined, for about 220 yards, with buildings, 
and sending out a pierhead upwards of 500 yards into 
the basin. North of the west end of Halfway is a 
building-yard, where ship-architecture is conducted 
to a noticeable extent. 

The burgh commissioners report very laconically 
respecting Irvine : — " It has no trade excepting that 
of coal, which is not increasing. There are many 
respectable inhabitants in the town, and some villas 
round it." Yet, so far back as the year 1790, the 
port had, in strict connection with the town, 51 ves- 
sels, aggregately of 3,682 tons, and navigated by 305 
sailors, besides other vessels nominally belonging to 
it, but properly connected with Saltcoats and Largs. 
In 1837, the vessels had increased in number to 106, 
aggregately of 1 1,535 tons. So prosperous, too, have 
recently been the affairs of the harbour, that though 
the trustees were empowered to levy additional rates 
from vessels, and a pontage from vehicles to com- 
pensate the costs of repairing the harbour and re- 
building the bridge, they had no need to use their 
new powers as regarded the harbour, but found the 
old lates sufficient to defray all expenses. Irvine 
being the nearest port to Kilmarnock, has shared the 
results of that town's increase in manufacturing pro- 

ductiveness and importance. Besides shipping vast 
quantities of coals both coastwise and for Ireland, 
the town, with its dependencies, exports very largely 
carpeting, tanned leather, rye-grass seed, and tree 
plants, and also, on a smaller scale, cotton yarn, cot- 
ton cloth, herrings, sheep-skins tawed, and other 
articles ; and it imports from Ireland oats, butter, 
orchard produce, feathers, untanned hides, linen 
cloth, quilts, limestone, and other articles, and from 
America timber, staves, and spars, as well as exports 
to the latter market carpeting, woollen cloth, and 
articles of leather manufacture. The harbour has a 
regular custom-house establishment. Across the 
mouth of the basin — as at the mouth of the river Ayr 
— is a bar which long very seriously impeded naviga- 
tion, and which even yet prevents the entrance of 
vessels of any considerable burden. The depth of 
water from the quay to the bar is generally from 9 
to 11 feet at spring tides; and in high storms, with 
the wind from the south or south-west, it is some- 
times 16 feet. Vessels of larger size than 80 or 100 
tons are obliged to take in or deliver part of their 
cargoes on the outer side of the' bar. The dues 
levied at the port during the 5 years preceding 1832, 
averaged about £450 a-year. The want of a sepa- 
rate police for the harbour is frequently felt as a great 

The manufactures of the town are far from being 
either on the decline or unworthy of notice. About 
the year 1790, hand-sewing was introduced by a 
Glasgow manufacturing house, and, at the end of 3 
years, employed only about 70 young women ; but it 
has so greatly increased, that of late years one agent 
alone has repeatedly paid away £8,000 in wages. 
The weaving of book-muslins, jaconets, and checks, 
employs many individuals. In 1838, the number of 
hand-looms alone was 580. The earnings by hand- 
sewing vary with the fashion of the goods, from 6d. 
to Is. 3d. per day. The average clear wages for 
weaving is 7s. per week. The best paid work in 
Irvine is book-muslins ; 4 ells of a certain fineness of 
which, paid at 6M. per ell, may be worked per day 
of 14 hours. The weavers of the town, as to their 
average condition, are on a par with shoemakers and 
labourers. Many persons are employed in carting 
coals from the collieries to the harbour ; and most of 
the population of Halfway and P\illarton — amount- 
ing, in 1836, to 2,571 — are connected with the port 
either as seamen, as ship-carpenters, or in other ca- 
pacities. In consequence of a fall in the prices pro- 
cured for coals in Ireland, a reduction of about 7s. 
6d. per month was made, not long ago, on the wages 
of the seamen. The town has manufactories in rope- 
making, tanning and dressing leather, constructing 
anchors and cables, distilling whisky, making mag- 
nesia, and fabricating various articles of artisanship. 

The affairs of the burgh are managed by a provost, 
2 bailies, a dean-of-guild, a treasurer, and 12 coun- 
cillors. Municipal constituency in 1S40, 17S. Thecor- 
poration-property is considerable — including among 
other items, 422 acres of arable land, the town's 
mills, the town-house, with its shops, the public 
meal-market, shambles and washing-houses — and 
yielded, in 1832, with town's customs and market- 
dues, a revenue of £1,497 19s. 7d. The ordinary 
expenditure is, in general, so much less than the 
amount of revenue, as to admit of extensive repairs 
upon the burgh-property, and occasionally of the 
purchase of additions to the common good. The 
jurisdiction of the magistrates does not extend to 
the suburbs ; and their patronage is limited to the 
election of their officers, who draw salaries to the 
aggregate amount of £115 14s. a-year. The burgh 
court is the only one in which they preside ; but, no 
sheriff court being hold in the town, it has very im- 




portant j urisdiction. Affairs of police are managed 
by the magistrates, and maintained at the cost of 
the burgh fund. The jail is in use, not only for 
Irvine itself, and for the populous towns of Salt- 
coats, Ardrossan, Largs, and the adjacent country, 
but for the large manufacturing town of Kilmar- 
nock, — in fact, for nearly all the district of Cun- 
ningham ; and it is extremely incommodious and 
inconvenient. Though Irvine has both burgesses 
and guild-brethren, the magistrates are not rigid 
in compelling strangers to enter, and usually allow 
them to become domesticated before they demand 
entry dues. In 1832, there were 225 guild-breth- 
ren, and 72 burgesses. There are 6 incorporated 
trades, — shoemakers, coopers, tailors, weavers, 
hammermen, and squaremen ; but they have ac- 
knowledged the inutility of their privileges, or de- 
monstrated their impolicy and injurious consequences, 
more than kindred bodies in most of the towns of 

Scotland Fullarton, or about one-third of the 

suburban appendage of Irvine, is a hurgh-of-barony, 
and claims a separate jurisdiction of its own, but 
has no resident magistrate. As the burghal autho- 
rities have no power to impose any police-assessment, 
it is neither lighted, watched, nor cleaned like the 
rest of the town ; and lying in a direct line be- 
tween the burgh and the harbour, it becomes an 
easy retreat to delinquents for evading the pursuit 
or awards of justice Irvine unites with Ayr, Roth- 
say, Inverary, and Campbellto wn in returning a mem- 
ber to parliament. Constituency, in 1840, 244. 
The town has weekly markets on Tuesday and 
Friday, and annual fairs in January, May, and Au- 
gust. Population, in 1831, 7,034. Of these, 4,518 
were within the old royalty, and 2,516 were in 
Fullarton and Halfway. 

Irvine is a very ancient royal burgh. A charter 
of the supposed date of 1308 is still extant, granted 
by King Robert Bruce in consequence of the ser- 
vices of the inhabitants in the wars of the succes- 
sion. Twelve renewals and confirmations of their 
rights by successive monarchs, evince the impor- 
tance which the burgh continued to maintain down 
to 1641, when all their immunities were formally 
ratified by parliament. From a charter granted by 
Robert II., it appears to have once had jurisdiction 
over the whole of Cunningham ; but it could not 
long maintain its ascendency against encroachments 
on the part of neighbouring barons. Its armorial 
bearings are a lion rampant-guardant, having a sword 
in one of his forepaws, and a sceptre in the other, 
with the motto, " Tandem bona causa triumphat;" 
and these are sculptured over the entry to the 
council-chamber in the town-hall. — In August, 1839, 
Irvine became temporarily crowded with an influx of 
strangers, pouring in from sea and highway to wit- 
ness the fooleries of the Eglinton tournament The 

town is distinguished as the birth-place of James 
Montgomery, the poet, and Gait, the novelist. 
Montgomery's father long officiated as minister in 
the little chapel, still known as ' the Moravian 
kirk ;' and the poet was born in a house near it, on 
the north side of the entrance to an alley, called 
Braid close. Gait's natal spot was a neat two-story 
house, on the south side of the Main-street, near its 
northern termination. Burns' name, too — how dif- 
ferent in its moral associations from the odoriferous 
one of Montgomery ! — is connected in a degree with 
the town ; for here — though in what precise locality 
is disputed — the bard tried to establish himself as a 
flax-dresser, and suffered a severe reverse in the 

burning of his shop Irvine, at one time, gave the 

title of Viscount, in the Scottish peerage, to an 
English family who had no property in its vicinity. 
The first Viscount Irvine, was Henry, the eldest 

surviving son of Sir Arthur Ingram of Temple 
Newsom, near Leeds, and received the title in 1661. 
Charles, the 9th and last Viscount, died in 1778. 

IRVING, an ancient parish, now comprehended 
in the parish of Kirkpatrick- Fleming, in Dumfries- 
shire. It takes its name from a very ancient and 
respectable family which, in former times, enjoyed 
large possessions in this part of the country. See 
Kirkpatrick- Fleming. 

IS AY, a small island of the Hebrides, in West 
Loch Tarbert. 

ISHOL, a small island of Argyle-shire, in Loch 

ISHOL, an island on the south-west coast of Islay. 
ISLA (The), a river of Forfarshire and Perth- 
shire, giving the name of Glenisla to a district and 
parish in the former. It rises among the highest 
summit-range of the Forfarshire Grampians, near 
the point where that county and the shires of Perth 
and Aberdeen meet. Combining, 2| miles due east 
from that point, two head- waters, each of which had 
flowed 2 miles, it flows due south to the base of 
Mount Blair, over a distance of 7A miles, receiving 

numerous mountain-torrents in its progress, the 

chief of which are the Brighty, the Cally, and the 
Fergus, giving their names to the glens which they 
traverse. Driven off the straight line by Mount 
Blair, the stream runs first 2J miles south-eastward, 
and next 1 mile eastward to the church of Glenisla, 
and then 2^ miles south-eastward to Nied, on the 
boundary between Glenisla and Lintrathen. It now, 
for 3 miles southward, and westward traces that 
boundary, receives on its right bank a tributary of 
4 miles length of course, and, for 3A miles eastward 
divides Lintrathen on the north from Alyth on the 
south. At this point it is joined by a small tributary 
which had run nearly parallel to it from the west, 
and, on the opposite bank by the large tributary of 
Back water, — for a notice of which see Lintra- 
then. Flowing li mile due south between the 
parishes of Airly and Alyth respectively in Forfar- 
shire and Perthshire, it touches the parish of Ruth- 
ven, flows round it 1J mile south-westward and 
south-eastward, dividing it from Alyth, and receiv- 
ing from the west the tribute of Alyth burn, and 
then bisects Ruthven 1| mile south-eastward, and, 
after a farther course of 1| mile south-westward be- 
tween Airly and Alyth, takes leave of Forfarshire. 
At the point of entering Perthshire it is swelled by 
the confluence with it from the east of Dean water, 
and 3 miles lower down in a straight line, though 
about double that distance along its channel, it is 
greatly increased in volume by Ericht river coming 
in upon it from the north-west. Its course in Perth- 
shire abounds in sinuosities, but uniformly maintains 
a general south-westerly direction, and extends 8| 
miles geographically, and about 16 or 17 miles along 
its windings. The parishes here upon its left hank, 
are Meigle, Cupar- Angus, and Cargill; and those 
upon its right bank are Alyth, Bendochy, Blair- 
gowrie, and Caputh. The Isla disembogues itself 
into the Tay nearly opposite Kinclavin, and greatly 
increases the body of its water. In the upper part 
of its course it flows along a rocky bed, between 
bold and steep banks, covered in many places with 
natural woods, and affording some very romantic 
scenery. Below the narrow vale of Glenisla, it 
forms a cascade, called the Reeky linn, a fall of 70 
or 80 feet in depth, over several ridges of broken 
rock. After passing the linn, it forms a pool called 
the Corral, probably a corruption of Quarry-hole, 
there appearing to have been at some remote period 
a quarry on its east side. This pool is deep and 
broad, but becomes more shallow toward the south, 
and ends in a broad ford which is famous in the an- 




nals of " black fishing." On leaving the ford, the 
river forks into two branches, forming an islet, called 
Stanner Island, containing about 6 acres ; and after- 
wards—now careering in rapid currents, and now 
gently moving in slow meanderings — it Hows gener- 
ally through level and fertile fields till its confluence 
with the Tay. In winter, the low grounds and rich 
haughs on its banks, are greatly injured by its shift- 
ing its course, carrying away alluvial soil, and mak- 
ing deposits of barren sand and gravel. The river 
is well-stocked with trout and salmon, and in the 
months of October and November, when the salmon 
are "black," or foul, is the scene of many exploits 
of "black fishing." The black fishers wielding 
spears composed of 5 barbed prongs, fixed upon a 
strong shaft, sally forth under night, and wade up 
and down the shallows, preceded by a flambeau, 
consisting of dried broom, or fir-tops fastened round 
a pole. By this light, the fish are soon discovered, 
and, being at the time semi-torpid, are easily trans- 
fixed. Both from the unwholesomeness of the con- 
dition of the food obtained, and from extreme ex- 
posure to cold and damp in procuring it, the practice 
of black fishing is highly injurious to health; and 
it often entails upon its perpetrators, in the diseases 
which it originates, and in the drunkenness and 
debauch with which it is frequently associated, very 
ample punishment for their poaching delinquencies. 
The Isla's whole length of course is about 41 miles. 

ISLA (The), is also the name of a river in Banff- 
shire. See Geange. 

ISLAY, or Ilay, one of the Hebrides, lying to 
the west of the peninsula of Kintyre, and belong- 
ing to the county of Argyle. It is 25 miles long 
from north to south ; and 20 broad from east to 
west ; and contains about 154,000 acres, of which 
22,000 are arable. On the east side the surface is 
hilly, and in some places wooded to the water's edge ; 
the mountains here attain an elevation of 1 ,500 feet ; 
but the greater part of the island is flat, and, where 
uncultivated, covered with a fine green sward. The 
coast is, in general, bounded by low rocks, or by 
flat shores and sandy bays. There are some re- 
markable caves on the north-west side, about Saneg ; 
and at the Mull of Oe, the eastern horn of Lochin- 
daal, the cliffs rise to a great height. At Lochindaal 
is a harbour for ships of considerable burden, with a 
quay at the village of Bowmore : see articles Bow- 
more and Lochindaal. Portnahaven [which see] 
is a good fishing-village, on the point of Islay nearest 
to Ireland, — the distance being about 7 leagues: see 
that article. Port-Charlotte [which see] is a 
thriving village of 400 inhabitants. At the north-east 
extremityis Port-Askaig [which see] whence there 
is a good road to the village of Bridge-end, at the 
head of Lochindaal on the south-west. From Bridge- 
end a good road of 14J miles in length, conducts to 
Portnahaven. Loch Gruinart [which see], a 
prolonged but shallow indenture on the north-west, 
appears to have been formerly connected with Loch- 
indaal. The land is still encroaching on this loch, 
and a considerable extent of ground has been re- 
claimed here by an embankment. There are several 
small lakes in the island, which is also well- watered by 
numerous small streams, the principal of which are 
the Sorn and the Laggan, abounding with trout and 
salmon. Near the centre of the island is Loch- 
Finlaggan, about 3 miles in circuit, with an islet of 
the same name in the middle. Here the Macdonalds, 
Lords of the Isles, resided in all the pomp of royalty, 
and the picturesque ruins of their castle still exist 
here. Near the island of Finlaggan is another little 
isle, called Eila/i-na-corl/e, or ' the Island of council,' 
where a body of judges constantly sat to decide 
diiferences between the subjects of the Macdonalds, 

and received for their trouble the eleventh part of 
the value of the contested affair. In the first island 
were buried the wives and children of the lords of 
the isles, but their own persons were deposited in 
the more sacred ground of Iona. Besides the castle 
on this island, these powerful lords had a castle on 
an island in Loch-Guirm to the west of Lochindaal ; 
and another on Freuch isle in the sound. There 
are also numerous vestiges of duns or Danish forts, 
and the ruins of several- chapels, scattered over the 
island. After their expulsion from the isle of Man, 
in 1304, the Lords of the Isles made this island 
their chief place of residence. There is a tradition, 
that even while the isle of Man was part of their 
domain, the rents and feus were paid to the Lords of 
the Isles in Islay; and this tradition is rendered pro- 
bable from the names of two rocks which lie oppo- 
site to each other, at the bottom of a harbour on the 
south side of the island : one rock is still called 
Craig-a-neune, or 'the Rock of the silver rent;' 
the other, Craig-a-nairgid, ' the Rock of the rent in 
kind.' The names of Macdonald and Maclean are 
still the most common in this island. 

The island of Islay is divided into the parishes 


meny, and Kildalton : see these articles. In 
Islay agricultural improvements have proceeded with 
astonishing rapidity ; the land has been enclosed 
and drained, a great many roads made and bridges 
built, and a new system of husbandry adopted. It 
now produces good crops of barley, oats, peas, flax, 
some wheat, and excellent crops of potatoes. The 
shores afford abundance of wreck- ware and shell-sand 
for manure. Formerly, during winter, the cattle 
were almost starved ; now hay is produced in great 
abundance, and turnips and other green crops culti- 
vated to a considerable extent, sufficient to support 
the stock in winter : see article Hebrides. A few 
years ago there were no fewer than fourteen distil- 
leries on this island. The whisky is considered of 
very superior quality, and is mostly sent to Glasgow. 
The spinning of yarn was at one period extensively 
conducted here, and formed a staple of Islay, no less 
than £10,000 worth has been exported in a year; 
but this trade has been annihilated by the Glasgow 
manufactories, and spinning is now limited in Islay to 
domestic consumption. But the great staple article 
of exportation is black cattle, of which nearly 3,000 
head are sold yearly. The climate is moist ; but, 
upon the whole, it is tolerably healthy, and there 
are many instances of longevity. The quadrupeds 
enumerated by Mr. Pennant, besides the domestic 
animals, are weasels, otters, and hares, — the latter 
dark-coloured, small, and bad runners. The birds 
are eagles, peregrine-falcons, moor-fowl, ptarmigans, 
red-breasted gooseanders, wild geese and ducks, 
herons, &c. The fish are cod, herrings, plaise, 
smeardab, large dabs, mullets, ballens, lumpfish, &c. 
Islay abounds with mines of lead and copper, which 
are very rich and have been long wrought. There 
are also vast quantities of that ore of iron called bog- 
ore, of the concrete kind ; and below it, large strata 
of vitriolic mundic. Near the veins of lead are found 
specimens of barytes and excellent emery. A small 
quantity of quicksilver has been obtained in the 
moors, and it is probable that a careful search would 
discover more of that valuable mineral. Limestone 

and marl are abundant The inhabitants of Islay arc 

remarkable for their honesty and humanity. Gaelic 
is the general language of the common people ; yet 
English is well-understood, and taught in all the 

History affords few records of the ancient state 
and of the revolutions of Islay. Before it became 
the seat of government for the Lords of the Isles, it 




appears to have been under the dominion of the 
Danes and Norwegians, as there are many duns and 
castles, evidently of Danish origin, besides, many 
places which have Danish names ; as Rennibus, 
Assibus, Torrisdale, Torribolse, and the like. It 
continued under the Lords of the Isles till the 
reign of James III. ; and, when their powers were 
abolished, their descendants, the Macdonalds, were 
proprietors holding directly of the Crown : see 
article Hebrides. James VI. resumed the grant to 
the Macdonalds made by his predecessors, and trans- 
ferred the lands of Islay, Jura, Scarba, and Muckairn, 
in Argyleshire, to Sir John Campbell of Calder — 
then a great favourite at court — for an annual feu- 
duty, of which the proportion was £500 sterling for 
Islay. Calder sold all these lands again to Campbell 
of Shawfield for £12,000, which is now little more 
than the income from them. The islands of Jura 
and Scarba were afterwards sold for a larger sum 
than that paid originally for the whole. Islay still 
continues in the same family. Islay contained, in 
1801, 6,821 ; in 1821, 11,008; and in 1831, 14,982. 
There is a post four times, and steam-conveyance 
twice a-week to Islay. The passage from Tarbert 
to Port-Askaig is usually made in four hours. 

ISLAY SOUND, the narrow channel betwixt 
Islay and Jura. It is little more than a mile in 
width, but its navigation is very dangerous from 
the rapidity of its tides and the cross and short seas 
which occur here. The shores are abrupt but not 
high, rarely exceeding 100 feet. 

ISLE-MARTIN, a fishing-station in Loch-Broom, 
on the west coast of Ross-shire, 5 miles north of 

ISLE-TANERA, a fishing-station and village in 
Ross-shire, 3 miles north of Isle-Martin. 

ISLE of WHITHORN, a village and small sea- 
port in the parish of Whithorn, on the east coast 
of Wigtonshire ; 2 miles north of the promontory of 
Burgh-head, and 3 miles south-east of the burgh of 
Whithorn. It stands at the head of a small bay, 
which is almost land-locked by an islet ^ a mile 
long, and A of a mile broad, lying across its mouth. 
The harbour is, in consequence, well-sheltered and 
safe, and possesses internal capaciousness and exter- 
nal advantages of position which might apparently 
be turned to patriotic and lucrative account. A 
pier, erected about half-a-century ago by the aid 
of the Convention of Royal Burghs, offers accom- 
modation to the few vessels which the unimportant 
commerce of the district keeps employed. The 
Galloway steamer occasionally touches here on her 
way to and from Liverpool ; and small vessels sail 
weekly hence to Whitehaven, and other English 
ports, engaged principally in the importation of 
coals. The little port communicates by good public 
roads with Whithorn, Wigton, and Garlieston. On 
the shore at the village are vestiges of an ancient 
chapel or church of small size, which the learned 
author of Caledonia says is traditionally reported 
to have been the earliest place of Christian wor- 
ship in Scotland. Near the village is a weak 
chalybeate spring, whose waters are sufficiently 
celebrious to draw to the place invalid visiters. 
Population, in 1840, about 420. 

ISSURT, a small island of the Hebrides, near 

ITHAN. See Ythan. 




JAMES'S (St.), an ancient parish now included 
in the parish of Kelso. It lies between the rivers 
Teviot and Tweed. The church was situate near 
to Roxburgh castle, and on the very spot where the 
greatest fair in this country, as well as one of the 
most ancient, called St. James's fair, is now holden 
on the 5th of August. This church was dedicated 
in the year 1134. No part of it now remains above 
ground," but the place where it stood is perfectly 
visible. The Duke of Roxburgh employed labourers 
to trace the foundation. While prosecuting their re- 
searches they dug up a tomb-stone which, besides 
some elegant sculpture, had the following inscription 
in Saxon characters: " Hie jacet Johanna Bullock, 
quoa obiit anno 1371. Orate pro anima ejus." His- 
torians mention a William Bullock, a favourite with 
Edward Baliol, and generally styled ' the King's be- 
loved Clerk.' As this name is seldom found in 
Scotland, it is probable that Johanna Bullock was 
his daughter, or a near relation, especially as he 
frequently resided at Roxburgh castle. There was 
also discovered a considerable quantity of wheat and 
barley in a charred state, scattered on a tiled pave- 
ment, as also several pieces of glass and brick, which 
showed obvious marks of fire. All these circum- 
stances render it probable that this church was burnt 
down in some of the Border wars. At a short dis- 
tance stood a convent of mendicants of the order of 
St. Francis, on the north bank of the Teviot, a 
little above its confluence with the Tweed. Within 
these fifty years a fine arch of their church remained, 
and other parts of the building, which are now wholly 
obliterated. This monastery was consecrated by 
William, Bishop of Glasgow, in 1235. Adam Blunt 
was superior in 1296 : See Kelso. 

JAMESTOWN, a small village pleasantly situ- 
ated on Meggot water, in the northern part of the 
parish of Westerkirk, about 9 miles north-west of 
the town of Langholm, in Dumfries-shire. It was 
built about the year 1790, to accommodate 40 miners 
and their families, in consequence of the discovery of 
a mine of antimony a little to the eastward of its site. 
This mine, the only one of its class in Britain, pro- 
duced, from 1793 to 1798, 100 tons of regulus of anti- 
mony, valued aggregately at £8,400 sterling, besides 
a proportionate quantity of sulphurated antimony of 
less value. A company, one-half of whose shares 
was retained by Sir James Johnstone of Glendinning, 
the proprietor of the soil, made very spirited exer- 
tions at the commencement of their enterprise. The 
village was provided with grazing-grounds, a store, 
and other appliances of convenience and comfort; 
the miners were expected to work only 6 hours a- 
day, and were provided with a library for their own 
use, and a school house for their children; a smelt - 
ing-house and all requisite apparatus was furnished 
at the mine ; and an excellent road, with 4 bridges 
in its course, was constructed down the vale of the 
Meggot to connect the village with the main lines 
of communication through the country. Yet, from 
some cause which seems not well-explained, mining 
operations were suspended about the close of the 
century, and have not since been resumed. The 
village, half-abandoned to solitude, still has a school- 
master during winter to attend to the children of its 
sequestered population. 

JANETOWN, a thriving village in the parish of 

Lochcarron in Ross-shire, containing a population 
of about 500. The great parliamentary road from 
Dingwall to the western coast passes through this 
village, from which a district road extends about 15 
miles to the village and loch of Shildaig. 

JED (The), a beautiful and picturesque river of 
Roxburghshire. It rises on the south-west side of 
Curlin-Tooth, one of the Cheviot mountains, in the 
upper part of the parish of Southdean, at a spot 1 J 
mile south of the summit of Peel-fell or the boun- 
dary-line with England ; and to Chester-church, or 
the parish-church of Southdean, a distance of 5 miles, 
it pursues a southerly direction, and receives in its 
progress the waters of Black-burn and Carter-burn. 
Debouching at Chester-church, it flows 2J miles 
eastward, and then resumes its southward course. 
Over the last mile, and likewise over 14 mile fur- 
ther, it divides Southdean on its left bank from the 
upper part of Jedburgh on its right. It now runs 
across a small wing of the latter, and then flowing 24^ 
miles south-westward to Groundiesnook, it washes 
Upper Jedburgh and Southdean on its left bank, 
and Oxnam and Lower Jedburgh on its right. At 
Groundiesnook it enters the lower division of Jed- 
burgh, and thence to the Teviot a little below Boon- 
jedward, bisects it lengthwise from south to north 
through the middle, cutting it into two not very un- 
equal parts, and flowing joyously past the town of 
Jedburgh. Its entire length of course, exclusive of 
its numerous little sinuosities, is about 17 miles. 
Its tributaries, though numerous, are all tiny. The 
beauties of the Jed fired the poetic musings of 
Thomson and Burns, and fix the attention of every 
person of taste who travels up its romantic vale, on 
the road from Edinburgh to Newcastle, over Carter- 
fell. To a tourist approaching from the south, who, 
after being chilled with narrow and pent-up views of 
heathy and rocky desolation, over a weary and slow 
ascent of 23 miles, attains the summit of the Fell, 
and suddenly discries Scotland, the landscape which 
stretches away from beneath his eye is gorgeous in 
the tints of beauty beyond the power of a literary 
painter to depict ; and contributions to its detailed 
attractions and its general effect are made in no nig- 
gard style by the mazy and tufted vale of the Jed. 
When the vale is entered and followed in its wind- 
ings, it is too narrow, indeed, to exhibit anywhere 
the brilliance of the Teviot or the magnificence of 
the Tweed, but it surprises and delights by its con- 
stantly changeful and very various displays of at- 
tractiveness. At almost every one of its continual 
turnings, a tourist sees novelty of feature, or new 
and thrilling combinations of features already ex- 
hibited ; and within the brief distance of 2 or 3 
miles — especially in the parts immediately above the 
town of Jedburgh — he will survey, though on a 
small scale, more of the elements of landscape than 
during a whole day's ride even in the Highlands. 
The rocky character of the river's bed, the trotting 
briskness of its current, the crystal pureness of its 
waters, and, above all, the endless combinations of 
slope and precipice, of scaur and grassy knoll and 
mimic haugh, with shrubs and tuftings of oak and 
beech and weeping birch on its richly sylvan banks, 
produce many a scene of picturesqueness and ro- 
mance. To its other attractions it adds that of being 
an excellent trouting-stream. 



JEDBURGH, a parish in the southern division of 
Roxburghshire. It consists of two detached parts, 
lying a mile asunder, and both stretching lengthwise 
from south to north. The southern division, though 
the smaller, is the original Jedburgh ; and it is 
bounded on the north-east and east by Oxnam ; on 
the south by Northumberland ; and on the west by 
Southdean. Its form is nearly a circle of 3| miles in 
diameter, with a projection northward of irregular 
outline, 2J miles long, and about | of a mile in aver- 
age breadth. Its surface rapidly descends from the 
summit range or water-shedding line of the Cheviots 
on its southern boundary to an undulating plain, 
shooting up occasionally in beautiful, and in some 
instances high, green conical hills, and ploughed to- 
ward the north by the narrow vale of the Jed. The 
northern and larger division has the outline of an 
irregular pentagon, with a small oblong figure pro- 
jecting at a wide angle and from a brief line of at- 
tachment on the east ; and it is bounded on the 
north by Ancrum and Crailing ; on the north-east 
by Eckford ; on the east by Hounam and Oxnam ; 
on the south by Southdean ; and on the west by 
Bedrule. In extreme length, from north to south, 
it measures 6$ miles, and, in average length, about 
5J- ; and, in extreme breadth, exclusive of the east- 
ward projection, it measures 5} miles, and in average 
breadth 4^. The projecting part stretches north- 
west and south-east, and measures 2| miles by 1^. 
From the deep, and, in some places, furrow-like vale 
of the Jed, the surface rises undulating on both sides, 
in an enchanting variety of form, to the height of 
about 300 feet above the level of the stream, cut by 
numerous ravines, and exceedingly varied in the out- 
line of its knolls and hillocks. But on its west side, 
first along the boundary from the southern end on- 
ward, and next in the interior, it rises into the regu- 
larly ascending and elongated Dunian, and at the site 
and in the vicinity of the town sends off the roots 
of that lofty hill almost from the very edge of the 
Jed, leaving hardly sufficient space for a convenient 
street arrangement of the burgh : See the article 
Dunian. Behind the northern part of the hill, or 
along the southern frontier, the surface is a level and 
luxuriant haugh, watered by the Teviot, which here 
forms, for 3J miles, the boundary-line, and spreads 
freely around it the wealth and the mirthfulness of 
soil and landscape which distinguish the lower and 
longer part of its course. On the east Oxnam- water, 
flowing northward to the Teviot, forms for a mile 
the boundary-line, and, for another mile, runs across 
the connecting part or neck of the projecting district. 
— The whole extent of the parish, in both of its sec- 
tions, and also a large portion of the conterminous 
country, was anciently wooded with what is known 
in history as Jed forest. About 100 years ago a 
large expanse of the forest continued to spread its 
umbrageous carpeting upon the soil ; but during the 
course of last century it was almost all peddlingly 
and remorselessly cut down. A few patches of it, 
consisting principally of birch trees, still exist at 
Fernihirst, in the vale of the Jed, near the southern 
extremity of the northern division ; and two vener- 
able representatives of it, called ' the King of the 
wood,' and, 'the Capon-tree,' arrest attention lower 
down the vale, about a mile from the burgh. One 
of the trees — the monarch one — has a retinue of 
younger and less noble trees, and rises to the height 
of about 100 feet, with a girth near the ground of 
14 feet; and the other stands solitarily in a haugh, 
abounds in the number, fantastic twistings, and far- 
stretching length of its boughs, and has a girth near 
the ground of 21 feet. But though the old forest 
has so generally fallen before the axe, trees which 
have sprung up from its old stocks, and others which 

have been raised by planting, are sufficiently numer- 
ous to give the parish a sheltered and ornate appear- 
ance Iron ore, 3 feet thick in stratum, occurs near 

the town. "White and red sandstone, of excellent 
quality, abounds, and is wrought in several quarries. 
Limestone of excellent quaUty is abundant at Carter- 
fell, on the boundary with England, and occurs at 
Hunthill 2 miles south-east of the burgh; but, owing 
to the dearth of fuel, it has not, for some time, been 
worked. Coal seems in one or two localities to be 
indicated, and even appears to have been at one time 
found on the Hunthill property ; but it has more 
than once, in recent times, eluded expensive and 
laborious search. Two chalybeate springs well up 
near Jedburgh, and others seem to exist in other 
localities. One of the former, called Tudhope well, 
has been successfully tried for scorbutic and rheu- 
matic disorders. Cultivation has been rapidly and 
remarkably extended, and has achieved results which 
everywhere impose on the district a rich and smiling 
aspect. Fifty years ago not more than a fifth or a 
sixth part of the area was arable ground, while all 
the rest was pastoral; but now the proportion of 
lands in tillage, in pasture, and under wood, is nearly 
in the proportion respectively of 29, 15, and 5. The 
farm buildings are neat, and, in some instances, al- 
most elegant; the enclosures are tasteful and shelter- 
ing ; the sides of the Dunian and of other lofty hills 
are frilled and beautified with enclosure and culture 
a considerable way up their ascent; and almost all 
the land which modern methods of improvement 
could reclaim have been subjected to the plough. 
The soil, over so extensive and diversified a district, 
is necessarily various ; it is, in some places, a tough- 
ish clay, — in others, a mixture of clay with sand or 
gravel, — and in the lower parts of the vale of the 
Jed, as well as in the valley of the Teviot, a rich 
and fertile loam. The prevailing husbandry is a 
course of two white and three green crops. The 
higher parts of the Dunian, and especially the up- 
lands along the boundary with England, are the 
sheep-walk of the famed Cheviot breed, — browsing 
here, as in coterminous districts, on their proper or 
original grounds. The climate of some parts of the 
parish, especially in the vale of the Jed, at the part 
where the town stands, is famed for its salubrious- 
ness. Environed with the high banks of the Jed 
on the south and east, and with the gigantic bul- 
wark of the Dunian on the west, the town has often 
a mildness of temperature when the air, at a mile or 
two's distance, is sharp and cold ; and it suffers little 
from epidemics compared with the neighbouring 
towns of Kelso and Hawick, and was a stranger to 
cholera at the period of their bleeding beneath its 
scourge. Instances of longevity are so frequent that 
the minister who lived at the date of Sir John Sin- 
clair's Statistical Account, reported "many" to have 
lived to upwards of 90 years of age during the period 
of his incumbency. The mansions of the parish are, 
in the vale of the Jed, Edgerston, Mossburnford, 
Langlee, Hundalee, Stewarttield, and Boonjedward, 
and, in other localities, Hunthill, Lintalee, and Glen- 
burnhall. There are six corn-mills on the Jed water, 
two of them at the burgh. Besides the town of Jed- 
burgh and the village of Lanton [which see], there 
are two hamlets, — Bonjedward, at the intersection 
of the Newcastle and Edinburgh, and the Berwick 
and Carlisle roads, 2 miles below Jedburgh, — and 
Ulsten, l,-l mile south-east of the former, and H mile 
north-east of Jedburgh. The Berwick and Carlisle 
road runs along the southern part of the parish, in 
the vale of the Teviot, at a brief distance from the 
river. The Edinburgh and Newcastle road, for a 
mile after entering on the north, is identical with 
the former, as it has to debouch round the north 



end of the Dunian ; anil afterwards, from Bonjed- 
ward onward, it runs up the vale of the Jed till with- 
in 2$ miles of England, where the vale diverges west- 
ward, and leaves the road to climb its unassisted 
way up the acclivity of the Cheviots. On account 
of the height of the ascent here, this line of road has 
hitherto been greatly less frequented than the Cold- 
stream and Berwick lines ; but being the shortest, 
and having recently been much improved, it must 
soon draw more favour. Nothing but the height 
and the broad base of the obstructing Cheviots could 
have permitted a doubt as to the line of this road 
being incomparably the best for a railway between 
Edinburgh and Newcastle. Jedburgh claims, either 
as natives or as residents, a considerable number of 
eminent men. Various distinguished persons were 
connected, in ancient times, with its ecclesiastical 
establishments. Dr. Maeknight, the well-known 
critical commentator, and Dr. Somerville, the his- 
torian of Queen Anne, were incumbents in modern 
times, — the former during 3 years, and the latter 
during a period of 57 years, from 1773, furnishing, 
in his own person, an example of the longevity in- 
stances of which he had reported in the Statistical 
Account. John Rutherford, principal of St. Salva- 
tor's college, St. Andrews, — Andrew Young, regent 
of philosophy in the University of Edinburgh, — John 
Ainslie, the eminent land-surveyor, — and Sir David 
Brewster, the distinguished living philosopher, are 
all claimed by the parish as natives. Samuel Ruther- 
ford, the pious and eminent principal of St. Mary's 
college, St. Andrews, and Thomson the poet, whose 
father was minister of the conterminous parish of 
Southdean, are believed to have been educated at 
the grammar-school of the town. 

The civil history and the antiquities of this parish 
are interesting. The name of the river whence the 
district has its designation, having been anciently 
written God and Gad, a conjecture is generally en- 
tertained that the ancient town, if one existed, was 
the capital, or that at least the district was the prin- 
cipal seat of the Gadeni, a British tribe who inhabited 
the whole tract of country lying between Northum- 
berland and the Teviot. Its position on the Borders, 
its forming often a debateable territory between con- 
flicting powers, its facilities of fortification and in- 
trenchment, the shelter of its forest and the seclu- 
sion of its glens, occasioned it to be the rendezvous 
of armies, the arena of baronial gatherings and feuds, 
and the scene of conflicts both national and predatory, 
from the earliest period of authentic Scottish history 
down to an epoch immediately succeeding the Re- 
formation The last onslaughter on its soil, though 

little else than the hasty squabble of irascible men at 
a Border tryst, was followed by consequences of paci- 
fication which invest it with interest and importance. 
On the 7th of July, 1575, some Scotsmen, resent- 
ing the unprovoked or unjustifiable slaughter of one 
of their countrymen, made a vengeful attack on the 
offenders, and were repulsed. But meeting in their 
flight a body of the men of Jedburgh who joined them, 
they wheeled round on their pursuers, completely 
routed them, killed Sir George Heron, an eminent 
Northumbrian, and carried prisoners to Dalkeith, Sir 
John Forster, the warden, and some considerable 
persons, his attendants. Elizabeth of England being 
enraged at the event, the Earl of Huntington as her 
envoy, and the Regent Morton on the part of Scot- 
land, met at Foulden in Berwickshire, and arranged 
a general pacification. The scene of the conflict was 
the Reid Swire, one of the Cheviot hills on the 
boundary with England, — the word 'swire' meaning 
' a neck,' and being used in the nomenclature of 
Scottish topography to denote the neck of a hill. 
The skirmish has supplied the Border minstrels with 

a subject for song, entitled ' the Raid of the Red 
Swire.' — Besides antiquities which occur to be no- 
ticed in the description of the town, others, of 
various classes, challenge attention throughout the 
parish. At Fernihurst, on the east bank of the Jed, 
about 2 miles above the burgh, the gray turrets 
of Fernihurst castle, look out from the surface of 
a grove of tall and aged trees which embosom it. 
The present pile was built in 1598, on the site of a 
predecessor, the stronghold of the ancestors of the 
Marquis of Lothian. In 1523 the original castle was 
captured by Surrey; in 1549 it was, after a severe 
struggle, retaken by the Scots, with the aid of 
French auxiliaries then stationed at the burgh ; in 
1569 it sheltered the Earl of Westmoreland from the 
vengeance of Elizabeth ; and, in 1570, in revenge of 
an incursion which its chief and other Border leaders 
made into Northumberland, it was captured and de- 
molished by the Earl of Sussex and Sir John Foster 

The parish appears to have been at one time thickly 
dotted with peels, and towers, and minor strengths, 
— several of which were massive and formidable ; 
but all, except a tower at the village of Lanton, and 
the ruins of a stronghold at Timpan, in the vicinity 
of Lanton, have disappeared. Vestiges of artificial 
caves exist on the banks of the Jed, particularly of 
two large ones excavated in rock at Hundalee and 
Lintalee. They recede in such a manner from the 
face of precipices as to be now inaccessible ; but 
they were described to Dr. Somerville by aged per- 
sons who had entered them when a degree of access 
existed, as consisting of three apartments, one on 
each side of the entrance, and another of larger di- 
mensions behind ; and they seem, without a doubt, 
to have been used as hiding-places or strongholds in 

cases of emergency from invasion On the summit 

of the bank above the Lintalee cave, are the remains 
of a famous camp, which Douglas formed for the 
defence of the Borders during Bruce's absence in 
Ireland, and which is described in Barbour's Bruce. 
Richmond, the English warden, having crossed the 
Border at the head of 10,000 men provided with 
hatchets to destroy Jed forest, fell, in a personal 
rencounter with Douglas, in the vicinity of the camp. 
Near Monklaw is a Roman camp, which seems to 
have been about 160 yards square. At Scarsburgh 
is a well-defined circular camp, about 180 feet in 
diameter, with ramparts nearly 20 feet in height. 
At Fernihirst, Howdean, Camptown, and Swinnie, 
are vestiges of other camps which have been greatly 
defaced. An ancient military road passes over the 
Dunian from Ancrum bridge toward the town. The 
Roman causeway passes along the north-eastern dis- 
trict at the distance of 2 miles from the burgh, 
and is here paved with whinstone, and almost entire. 
— At Old Jedworth, on the Jed, 4 miles above the 
town, and at the northern extremity of the southern 
section of the parish, are situated, amidst a little 
grove, the ruins, or rather vestiges, of a chapel 
founded by Ecgred, bishop of Lindisfarn, who died 
in the year 845. Verdant mounds and carpetings of 
rank grass respectively indicate the position of the 
chapel walls, and almost conceal from view the 
tomb-stones of the cemetery. Flint arrow-heads 
are sometimes found in various localities. Ancient 
coins and medals— particularly the former — have 
been found in almost incredible numbers. At 
Stewartfield, at Bongate, at Swinnie, and in other 
localities, but especially at a place on the side of 
the Jed near the burgh, where deposits were made 
of rubbish from the town and its Abbey, coins have 
been picked up of the reigns of Canute, Edred, 
Edwy, Ethelred, Edward I., Edward III., and of 
later monarchs both Scottish and English. — Po- 
pulation of the parish, in 1801, 3,834; in 1831, 



5,647. Houses 752. Assessed property, in 1815, 

Jedburgh gives name to a presbytery in the synod 
of Merse and Teviotdale. Patron, the Crown. 
Stipend £296 17s. 4d. ; glebe £48 13s. Unappro- 
priated teinds £2,100 5s. Id. The present parish 
comprehends the ancient parishes of Jedburgh, Old 
Jedburgh, and Upper Crailing. Old Jedburgh is 
the southern section of the parish, and Upper Crail- 
ing is what we have described as the eastern wing 
of the northern section. Old Jedburgh, containing, 
in 1836, a population of 283, was recently, with dis- 
tricts in the adjacent parishes of Southdean and Ox- 
nam, erected into a parish quoad sacra. The church 
of the new parish is situated at Rink, and was built 
in 1838. The incumbent of the quoad civilia parish 
has an assistant, and, with his aid, maintains a preach- 
ing-station at Lanton, and extra services in the 
burgh. The quoad civilia parish-church is in the 
old Abbey of the burgh, and was fitted about the 
year 1793, and repaired and enlarged in 1834. Sit- 
tings 910. From a calculation of the minister in 
1836, founded by a survey of the examinable parish- 
ioners, the population was distributed into 2,451 
churchmen and 3,196 dissenters. There are in the 
parish 4 dissenting congregations, — all whose places 

of worship are situated in the burgh The First 

United Secession congregation was established in 
1738, and their present meeting-house built in 1818. 
Sittings 1,200. Outlay on building and repairing 
church, manse, offices, and garden wall, from 1790 to 
1836, £4,281. Stipend £190 with manse, offices, 
and garden worth from £25 to £30, and £10 sacra- 
mental expenses. The congregation has a library 

of upwards of 1,000 volumes The Second United 

Secession congregation was established in 1765. 
Sittings in their meeting-house, 400. Stipend £92, 
with a manse and garden. — The Relief congregation 
was established in 1757. Their present place of 
worship was built, in 1818, at a cost of £2,700. 

Sittings 1,100. Stipend £190 The Independent 

congregation was established in 1840, and assembles 

in a hall. Sittings about 200 There are in the 

parish three parochial schools, conducted by five 
teachers, and attended by a maximum of 332 scho- 
lars and a minimum of 272; and twelve non-paro- 
chial schools, conducted by thirteen teachers, and 
attended by 618 scholars. One of the parochial 
schools is situated in the burgh, and united to a 
grammar school. Aggregate salary £42 3s., with 
about £150 school-fees, and a house and garden 
worth £15. The other parochial schools are so 
far private that, while salaried by the heritors, they 
are kept in repair and otherwise provided for by 
voluntary subscription; and they are situated re- 
spectively at Lanton and at Rink The two Jed- 
worths* are the earliest parishes in Scotland of 
which there is distinct historical notice. So early 
as the record of the year 882, they are mentioned 
by Hoveden; and two centuries later, Eadulfus, a 
younger son of one of the Earls of Northumberland, 
is recorded by both Simeon and Hoveden to have 
been buried in the church of Jedworth, — a fact 
which shows how early these powerful Earls had 
connection with the manor of Jedburgh. As appears 
from the charters of David I., one of the Earls, amid 
the darkness which preceded the dawn of record, 
laid out on and around the site of the present burgh, 
a manor on which were built a castle, a church, and 

* Jedworth, or Gedworth, is the ancient name, and is formed 
by affixing to the name of the river the Saxon weortk, the term 
for a hamlet, which occurs in the termination of so many names 
of places in England. Not the plebeian and popular "Jed- 
dart" of local usage, therefore, but the polite and now autho- 
rized "Jedburgh," is the corruption of the original and real 

a mill. When David I. founded the monastery of 
Jedburgh, he gave its monks the churches of the 
two parishes, and also a chapel which then existed 
at Searsburgh, in a recess of the forest east of the 
Jed. In 1147, Gospatrick, the " vicecomes," granted 
to the same monks the tithes of the church of Upper 
Crailing In 1754, the Relief denomination of dis- 
senters originated in Jedburgh under Mr. Boston. 
A curious manuscript prepared by the kirk-session 
of the epoch, and narrating the rise of the new sect, 
is in the possession of a bookseller in the burgh. 

JEDBURGH, a royal burgh, and the county- 
town of Roxburghshire, occupies a romantic and 
very beautiful site on the river Jed ; 10 miles west 
of Kelso; 10 east of Hawick ; 46 by way of Lauder, 
south of Edinburgh; and 12 north of the English 
border. A correct idea of the town cannot be con- 
veyed but through the medium of a previous idea 
of its site. The Jed, in approaching it, has a due 
north direction; and after running alongside of it for 
230 yards, it bends round, flows 250 yards due east, 
again bends and flows 800 yards due north and 
about 660 yards north-east, and, now resuming its 
northerly course, takes leave of the town and its 
suburbs. The east or right bank of the river, while 
traversing this aggregate distance, is remarkably 
varied and picturesque in appearance ; but, in gen- 
eral, may be described as a glen or narrow vale, with 
a scaured and richly-wooded back-ground of rising 
bank or undulating hill. The west or left bank 
may be compared to a stupendous wedge, with its 
hither edge rounded off, laid close along the margin 
of the early part of the river, the head or thick end 
being on the south, and the point, or end which 
subsides into a level, lying about two-third's way 
down the river's long northerly stretch of 800 yards. 
What the figure of the wedge illustrates is a spur 
or projection of the Dunian: but the main body of 
this vast though beautiful hill swells up at an aver- 
age distance of about ^ of a mile from the river, 
along the whole extent of the town, and over a con- 
siderable distance both above and below it, and 
forms a gigantic natural screen in its rear, adorned as 
it recedes with hanging gardens and orchards. A 
quarter of a mile east of the southern termination of 
the town or of its suburb, stands the elegant man- 
sion of Stewartfield in the midst of a little grove ; 
and leading up to it north-eastward from a bridge 
opposite the middle of the town, is a wooded ave- 
nue, whose trees, as well as those around the man- 
sion, are of great age and dimensions, and might 
almost vie with the sylvan constituents of the vast 
American forest. The disclosures northward and 
southward of the superb scenery of the winding vale 
of the Jed, though not extensive, are singularly pic- 
turesque. Altogether, the site and the environs of 
the burgh are as exquisitely attractive as they are 
singularly peculiar. 

At the south end or highest ground of the town, 
at the distance of only about 110 yards from the 
river, stands the castle, afterwards to be described, 
appearing, from its size and its position, like the 
head of the scorpion-formed streets and back lanes 
which stretch away from it down the hill to the 
plain, and, owing to the elevation of its site, pre- 
senting a conspicuous appearance from every point 
of view whence the burgh is visible. Close to the 
castle, on the north-west side, comes down the 
turnpike, from Hawick, after surmounting the Du- 
nian at a point 2 miles distant, and making a rapid 
slanting descent on its hither side. Immediately in 
front of the castle commences the town, in the 
street called Townhead. This street runs almost 
due north-east down the hill, over a distance of 370 
yards to the cross; and has, in general, especially 



in its uppei' part, a dingy, antiquate , and plebeian 
appearance. On its south-east side, or side next 
the river, stands the meeting-house of the Second 
United Secession congregation, an edifice differing 
little in aspect from a barn, except for being bored, 
on the side fronting the street, with two ungainly 
goggle-eyed looking windows. At the cross is an 
open area, extensive enough to give the core of the 
town an airy and pleasant appearance, and edificed 
both in itself, and in the parts of concentric tho- 
roughfares adjacent to it, with many good houses, 
some of which have neat shops on the ground story, 
while others exhibit over their whole form that dowdy 
tastelessness in architecture for which the older towns 
of Scotland, and the old parts of modern towns, are 
remarkable. From the south-east corner of the 
area at the cross a thoroughfare goes off, running 
120 yards south-eastward, and about the same dis- 
tance southward to a bridge across the Jed, where 
the river has an easterly direction, and there it 
points the way up the vale of the parish toward 
Newcastle. This thoroughfare, over most of the 
way before reaching the bridge, is only partially 
edificed ; but it has on the west side the superb ruin 
of Jedburgh abbey, and commands in the finest per- 
spective the views along the Jed; and, both in it- 
self and in the walks it offers round the Abbey and 
down to the river side, it is exquisite lounging- 
ground for enjoying the mingled delights of land- 
scape, and venerable architecture, and antiquarian 
reminiscence. From the north-east corner of the 
area at the cross, a street called Canongate runs 
down 260 yards eastward to a very ancient and 
curious bridge of three semicircular ribbed arches, 
across the Jed. Spanning the roadway of the bridge 
at its centre, was formerly a gateway which some 
modern Goths who happened to have authority in 
the burgh caused to be destroyed. On the north- 
west side of the area at the cross, at a point directly 
opposite the commencement of Canongate, a street 
110 yards in length files off north-westward leading 
up to an acclivitous roadway over the Dunian to 
the village of Lanton. Bisecting this short street 
nearly at its middle, is a streamlet, called Larkhall 
burn, which, though only about a mile in length of 
course, comes down through a wooded vista, and, 
flowing parallel to the main street line of the town 
over its whole length, greatly enriches the orchard 
scenery with which it is flanked. Continuous of 
Townhead, and nearly on a line with it, the High- 
street runs down the hill north-eastward over a 
distance of 360 yards, and, having gained the plain, 
leads over a few additional yards eastward to the 
Townfoot-bridge, a new and neat erection pointing 
the way to Kelso and Edinburgh. A street of 250 
yards in length, only partially edificed, goes off at 
right angles from the north side of Canongate, and, 
running parallel with the Jed, joins the High-street 
at a very acute angle about 100 yards above its ter- 
mination. A little above their point of junction, 
the Relief meeting-house, a handsome and tasteful 
edifice, stretches between them, presenting its front 
to the High-street. Nearly opposite, but a little 
lower down in High-street, stands in a recess the 
meeting-house of the First United Secession con- 
gregation, with its attendant manse and garden, pre- 
senting an aspect highly ornamental to the burgh. 
The entire length of the town, along Townhead and 
High-street, is almost exactly half-a-mile; and its 
greatest breadth from Canongate bridge upward is 
about 380 yards, or something less than A of a mile. 
The general or aggregate aspect of its streets com- 
bines cleanness and spaciousness with a struggle be- 
tween dinginess and antiquated loutishness on the 
one hand, and incipient smartness and modern neat- 

ness on the other. Two inconsiderable suburbs 
stand on the right bank of the Jed ; one diverging 
in three brief lines from near the end of Canongate 
bridge; and the other called Bongate, straggling up- 
wards of 500 yards alongside of the turnpike to 
Edinburgh and Kelso, from near the east end of 
Townfoot-bridge to a point where, by another bridge, 
the turnpike passes to the left bank of the river. 
At one end of this suburb is a large stone, sculptured 
with figures of animals and some indistinct charac- 
ters, which seems to be part of an ancient obelisk, 
probably the cross of the suburb. 

An air of modernization, and of fraternizing with 
the British tastes of the 19th century, may be seen 
even more in the moral than in the physical aspect 
of Jedburgh. We noticed the Townhead in parti- 
lar, as antiquated in its architecture; and we quote 
as a foil to the redeeming features of improvement 
and neatness which it now at intervals presents, a 
whimsical and no doubt somewhat caricatured de- 
scription which the author of the ' Picture of Scot- 
land' gives of its condition at a comparatively very 
recent appearance. " The same appearance of entire 
antiquity," says he, " which so strongly marks the 
Abbey-wynd or close, prevails in a larger district of 
the town in a situation resembling the castle-hill of 
Edinburgh, and denominated 'the Town-heid.' The 
Town-heid is composed solely of very old houses, 
which seem to have never either needed or received 
any of that species of mutilation, called by antiqua- 
ries ruin, and by tradesmen repair. The secret is, 
that the inhabitants of the Town-heid all possess 
their own houses, and being a quiet unambitious 
kind of people, not overmuch given to tormenting 
themselves for the sake of comfort, or killing them- 
selves with cleaning and trimming, just suffer their 
tenements to descend peaceably from father to son, 
as they are, have been, and will be. The houses, 
therefore, are venerable enough in all conscience; 
but it, is impossible for them to be more old-fashioned 
than the people who live in them. The ' Town- 
heid folk,' for such is their common appellation, are 
in fact a sort of problem even to the other people of 
Jedburgh. They are a kind of ' knitters in the sun ;' 
a race who exercise, from the morning to the even- 
ing of life, a set of humble trades which do not ob- 
tain in other parts of the town. For instance, one 
would not be surprised to find that the Town-heid 
boasts of possessing an ingenious artisan, who can 
make cuckoo clocks, and mend broken china. And 
the trades of the Town-heid, not less than the houses 
thereof, are hereditary, even unto the rule of primo- 
geniture. A Town-heid tailor, for example, would 
as soon expect his eldest son to become chancellor 
of Great Britain, as he would form the ambitious 
wish of making him a haberdasher in the lower part 
of the town. There was once a barber in the Town- 
heid, who lived seventy-one years without ever being 
more than two miles from Jedburgh on any occasion 
except one, and that was a call to Oxnam, (three 
miles,) which he was only induced to attend to be- 
cause it was a case, not of life and death, but of 
death itself; being to shave a dead man. There 
have not been more instances of Town-heid folk 
descending to the lower part of Jedburgh, than of 
Town-fit folk ascending to the Town-heid. The 
cause is plain. There is never such a thing in the 
Town-heid as a house to be let. The Town-heid 
is a place completely built, and completely peopled; 
no change can ever take place in it; fire alone could 
diminish the number of its houses, and the gates of 
life and death are the only avenues by which people 
can enter or go out of it." 

On the site of the present castle stood a very 
ancient and famous castellated edifice. Jedburgh 



castle, built no one knows by whom, and figuring in 
the earliest records of the country, was occasionally 
a royal residence, and for centuries a place of great 
strength, and an object of sharp contest between 
antagonist kingdoms. In 1165, Malcolm IV., who 
had adopted it as his favourite home, died within its 
walls. During the reigns of William the Lion and 
Alexander II., it was frequently honoured with the 
royal presence. In 1263, it was the birth-place of 
a son of Alexander III., and, several years later, the 
scene of that bereaved monarch's festive rejoicings 
on occasion of his marriage to Jolande, the daughter 
of the Count de Dreux. After the battle of Dur- 
ham, it passed into the possession of the English ; 
and in 1409 it was captured and laboriously demol- 
ished by the Scots. Of so great importance did 
the Scottish court esteem the demolition of a strength 
which was liable to be seized by the enemy, and 
powerfully used by them in purposes of mischief, 
that it proposed, for the complete accomplishment 
of the object, the imposition of a tax of two pennies 
upon every hearth in Scotland. Such few and slight 
vestiges of it as remained till modern times, were all 
removed, a few years ago, at the erection of the pre- 
sent jail and bridewell. What is now called the 
castle, owes its name partly to its occupying the site 
of the ancient stronghold, and partly to its possess- 
ing that castellated architectural character which 
lately has so much prevailed in public buildings. 
The jail and the bridewell themselves are capacious 
and neat erections; but they have attached to them 
spacious courts for ventilation and exercise, and are 
surrounded by high walls surmounted by chevaux 
de frise. The massiveness of the encompassing wall, 
and the air of comfort and of something resembling 
baronial splendour which, as seen from vantage- 
ground higher up the Dunian, is possessed by the 
enclosed area and erections, suggest ideas widely 
different from the real moral associations of the 
place; and the contrast is singularly heightened by 
the magnificence, and the hundred shadings of mi- 
nute beauty, which emblazon the landscape beheld 
from the great gateway or place of public execution. 
The apartments of both jail and bridewell are kept 
in a superior style of cleanliness and comfort. 
Though the system of day-rooms, where a number 
of prisoners are allowed to congregate during the 
day, and also the arrangement or position of the 
cells, are not such as, at any period, to insure silence 
and non-communication among the prisoners; yet 
the prison appears undoubtedly to be maintained in 
the best order of which its construction, and the 
views of discipline which guided the details of its 
erection, will admit. — The county-hall, a neat mo- 
dern edifice, occupies a site between the Abbey and 
the lower end of Townhead, very near the area at 
the cross. 

After the demolition of the ancient castle, the 
town was defended by six bastel-houses or towers. 
The Earl of Surrey, writing to his master, Henry 
VIII., says respecting it : "There was two times 
more houses therein than Berwick, and well-builded 
with many honest and fair houses in garrison, and 
six good towers therein." The towers, however, 
have all disappeared. Both the ruins of the Abbots' 
tower, on the site of which now stands the dispen- 
sary, and a tower which was used as the jail, and 
which stood in the middle of the street near the 
cross, were destroyed in the' course of the last cen- 
tury. The other towers probably were demolished, 
or at least much injured when, just before writing 
his account of it to Henry, the Earl of Surrey set 
fire to the town. A house, however, in which 
Queen Mary lodged and spent a period of sickness 
after her visit to Bothwell at Hermitage castle [see 

article Castletown] still stands entire. It is a 
large building, situated in a back street, has small 
windows and very thick walls, with a sort of turret 
behind, and resembles a mansion-house of the reign 
of Charles II. The apartment occupied by the 
Queen is a small two-windowed room on the third 
story, reached from the second floor by a narrow 
winding stair, and thither from the ground by abroad 
stone stair. The house is called, in the record of 
the privy council, " the house of the Lord Compo- 
sitor," and, till recently, was in the possession of the 
family of Scott of Ancrum. Some of the tapestry 
which anciently adorned its rooms is still preserved. 
" With its screen of dull trees in front," says the 
author of the Picture of Scotland, " the house has 
a somewhat lugubrious appearance, as if conscious 
of connexion with the most melancholy tale that 
ever occupied the page of history." In an adjoining 
orchard is a group of pear trees, sprung up from the 
inhumed branches of a tree which is traditionally 
reported to have been blown down on the night of 
James VI.'s entering England to assume the crown. 

A Maison Dieu anciently existed in the town, but 
has left no vestiges. A convent of Carmelites was, 
in 1513, founded in the town by the inhabitants; 
but it also has utterly disappeared. In this convent, 
lived and died the writer of a History of Scotland 
from remote antiquity to the year 1535, — Adam 
Bell, the author of ' Rota Temporum.' The ex- 
istence of other ecclesiastical institutions, and the 
entire ascendency of ecclesiastical influence, are in- 
dicated by the names of various localities in the town. 
In a garden behind the north-west side of High- 
street, which is designated in some old documents 
' Temple Garden,' the lower works of ancient 
buildings have been found at a considerable depth 
beneath the surface ; and here, about 25 years ago, 
was dug up a stone sarcophagus, containing a large 
urn, three small urns, and fragments of human skulls 
and bones. 

But the grand antiquity of Jedburgh, and, to the 
present hour, its prime architectural ornament, is 
the ruin of its ancient abbey. The description given 
of this magnificent pile by the Rev. John Purves, 
the amiable and excellent minister of the parish, in 
his report in the New Statistical Account of Scot- 
land, [No. V. p. 9., Blackwood and Sons, Edin- 
burgh, 1835,] is singularly complete and happy. 
" This venerable structure," says he, " stands on 
the south side of the town on the declining bank ot 
the river, which winds past it in front, washing some 
remnants of its outworks. The chapter-house, 
cloisters, and other appendages have perished ; and 
nothing remains but the church, which, in the form 
of a cross, extends from east to west 230 feet. 
The choir is much dilapidated, bearing marks of 
great antiquity. The two lower stories consist of 
massive pillars and semicircular arches, with the 
diagonal or zigzag mouldings of Saxon architecture, 
whilst the upper windows and some other parts are 
Gothic, evidently added at a more recent period. 
The north transept is entire, presenting traceried 
Gothic windows, especially one of great size and 
beauty. The south transept has disappeared. Above 
the intersection of the transepts, with the nave and 
choir, a large square tower rises on four pillars to the 
height of 100 feet, surmounted by a projecting 
battlement, and crowned with turrets and pinnacles. 
The nave, measuring 130 feet long, presents on each 
side three tiers of arches ; the first opening into the aisle 
consists of pointed arches, deeply recessed, and richly 
moulded ; supported by clustered columns, with 
sculptured capitals ; the second, which opened into 
the galleries, consists of beautifully moulded semi- 
circular arches, with two pointed arches inserted in 



each ; and the third, of elegant pointed windows. 
The lofty western gable possesses a Norman door of 
uncommon beauty, the archway exhibiting a pro- 
fusion of ornamented mouldings, supported by slen- 
der pillars to the depth of Ti feet. Above it is a 
large window, with a semicircular arch flanked by 
small blank pointed arches, in long slender shafts, 
and this is surmounted by a beautiful St. Catherine's 
wheel. On the south side of the choir, there is a 
chapel which was once appropriated to the use of the 
grammar-school * * But the chief object of archi- 
tectural interest in this abbey is the Norman door, 
which formed the southern entrance to the church 
from the cloisters. This, for the elegance of its 
workmanship, and the symmetry of its proportions, 
is unrivalled in Scotland. Its sculptured mouldings 
springing from slender shafts, with capitals richly 
wreathed, exhibit the representations of flowers, 
men, and various animals, executed with surprising 
minuteness and delicacy. ' This venerable pile,' 
says the late Archibald Elliot, architect, in his re- 
port to the heritors respecting some of its projected 
repairs, 'in my opinion, is the most perfect and 
beautiful example of the Saxon and early Gothic in 
Scotland.' Its grand appearance is imposing, and 
admirably accords with the scenery of the romantic 
valley in which it is situated." — St. Kennoch is re- 
ported to have been Abbot of Jedburgh in the year 
1000, and to have laboriously but effectually exerted 
his influence, during a considerable period, for the 
conservation of the international peace. The tra- 
ditional history respecting him, and the apparently 
high antiquity of the remains of the choir, would 
seem to dictate that the abbey had a very early ex- 
istence. But the Melrose Chronicle, under the year 
1174, has the entry, " Obiit Osbertus primus abbas 
de Jeddewrtha;" and, on this and other grounds, the 
abbey is perhaps regarded correctly, by the author of 
Caledonia, and other writers, as having been, not re- 
edified or extended, but originally founded in the 
year 1147, by David I. Its monks were canons- 
regular, brought, in the first instance, from Beauvais. 
The abbey was endowed, by its royal founder, with 
the tithes of the two Jedworths of Langton, of 
Nisbet, and of Crailing, and with other important 
property ; by Malcolm IV. , with the churches of 
Brandon and Grendon in Northamptonshire, and 
with some lands and a fishery on the Tweed ; by 
Ranulph de Soulis, with the church of Dodington, 
near Brandon, and the church in the vale of the Lid- 
del ; and by William the Lion, and various barons, 
with many other churches and lands. During 20 
years from the commencement of the 13th century, 
the abbot was embroiled with the bishop of Glas- 
gow, fighting a stiffly contested battle for the pre- 
rogatives of the mitre and the crosier ; and he was 
eventually compelled to acknowledge more of the 
bishop's authority than comported with the loftiness 
of his own pretensions. During the early wars of 
the succession, the abbot and his canons were in- 
volved in ruin, — their house becoming so unsafe 
that they could not inhabit it, and their possessions 
so wasted that they could not enjoy them ; and, 
at the end of the year 1300, they threw themselves 
on the bounty of Edward I., and were billeted by 
him on some religious houses in England. Robert 
I. tried to restore by his generosity what the hos- 
tility of his antagonist had destroyed, and granted 
to the canons the hospital of St. Mary Magdalene 
at Rutherford, and apparently also the priories of 
Restenet in Forfarshire and Canobie in Dumfries- 
shire. The canons, at all events, possessed these 
priories during the best days of their prosperity, 
sent off some of their number to occupy their cells, 
and used that of Restenet as a place of custody 

for their rccorns and other valuable documents 
against the depredations of the Border marauders. 
During the long succession of international conflicts 
which followed the peace of Northampton in 1328, 
the abbey rocked under the violent rush of inva- 
sion and repulse, and underwent many a desolating 
change. In 1523, it was pillaged and partly burnt 
by the Earl of Surrey; and, in 1545, it was exten- 
sively dilapidated and converted into ruin by the 
Earl of Hertford. Even in very recent times, por- 
tions of it have been demolished by worthies such 
as those who destroyed the surpassingly fine cross 
of Edinburgh, or the gateway on the ancient bridge 
of Jedburgh, — wiseacres who sagaciously calculate 
the worth and beauty of an old ornate building by 
the number of shillings which they can procure 
for its stones. But now » better taste prevails, 
and, not contended with averting further dilapida- 
tions, has busied itself in making such repairs as 
promise to extend the duration of what remains of 
the pile. After the Reformation, the abbey be. 
came vested in the Crown by annexation. As the 
Kers of Fernihurst had long been the bailies of Jed 
Forest, they, after a while, became bailies of the 
canons of Jedburgh. In March, 1587, Sir Andrew 
Ker obtained from James VI. a grant of the bailiai / 
of the lands and baronies of the abbey ; and — the 
transition being easy in those times from connexion 
of any sort with ecclesiastic il property to entire 
possession of it — he afterwards obtained a charter 
converting the whole into a lordship, by the title oi 
Lord Jedburgh. 

The town, proportionately to its size, makes a 
conspicuous figure in manufacture. Its staple pro- 
duce is in woollens, akin to that of Hawick and Gala- 
shiels, with a trifling addition in linens. The prin- 
cipal fabrics are checked woollens for trowsers and 
for shepherds' plaids, — woollen shawls with fringe, 
coarse and large check pattern, — a fine tirtan„ — 
coarse Scotch blankets, — coarse white plaiding for 
drawers, — carpets, — druggets, and hosiery. There 
are three large factories, all worked by waU:r-pow=r. 
and belonging respectively to Messrs. Hillson, Mi 
Rutherford, and Mr. Ewing. The number of hand- 
looms, in 1828, was 20; and, in 1838, had in- 
creased to 75. The looms are kept in full trim at 
the expense of the masters. The average nett wet'ily 
wages earned by good workmen when fully employed 
are, for linen, 8s. 7d., — for blankets, 10s. 6d., — for 
plaidingandfortrowser-checks, 12s., — for shepherds' 
plaids, 13s., — and for shawls, 16s. Mr. Hope, the in- 
ventor and patentee of a particular description of 
printing-presses, employs about 20 persons in an 
establishment for producing his useful article. An iron 
and brass foundery, some business in the dressing of 
leather, and various artisanships which minister to the 
e very-day wants of society, contribute, with the great- 
er manufactures, to swell the aggregate number of 
in-door workmen in the burgh to about 550. But 
bread, which is sent hence in considerable quantities 
to the north of England, and is in much request for 
the excellence of its quality, may be viewed as an 
additional manufacture ; and the produce of the 
orchard, which is raised and sold in greater quanti- 
ties here than in any district of Scotland except 
Clydesdale, must be regarded as an important article 
of commerce. The ecclesiastics of the abbey appear 
to have been fully aware of the peculiar adaptation 
of the soil and site of Jedburgh to the growth and 
luxuriancy of fruit-trees, and to have introduced at 
various periods such species as their deep practical 
insight into the pleasures of the palate pointed out 
as most grateful.. A peculiarly fine species of apple, 
and not a few kinds of luscious pears, are plentifully 
grown in the very numerous private orchards and 



gardens of the inhabitants. Many of the existing 
pear-trees are supposed to be three centuries old ; 
and individuals of them have occasionally produced, 
in one year, from 50 to 60 imperial bushels. 

Connected with literature, Jedburgh has 2 public 
reading-rooms, — a large and valuable public collec- 
tion of books, called ' the Company's library,' — 2 
smaller libraries, — a circulating library, — 5 itinerat- 
ing libraries, of 50 volumes each, — 3 congregational 
libraries, — and a reading-society for the purchase of 
new publications. Among its religious, charitable, 
and patriotic institutions, it numbers a society for 
the promotion of education, — a dispensary, estab- 
lished in 1807, principally by aid from the Mar- 
quis of Lothian, and provided, in 1822, by that noble- 
man with a commodious house and baths for the re- 
ception and use of patients, — a savings' bank, — 
a farmers' club for promoting improvement in agri- 
culture and in the breed of stock, — and the Rox- 
burghshire Horticultural Society, for promoting 
the cultivation of the orchard and the garden. In 
mercantile and kindred matters it has branch-offices 
of the British Linen company's bank, and the Na- 
tional bank of Scotland, — a weekly market on Tues- 
day, when much grain is sold, and another on Friday, 
— 4 annual fairs for horses and cattle, on the first 
Tuesday after Whitsunday, on the second Tuesday 
of August, O. S., on the 25th of September, if not a 
Saturday, a Sabbath, or a Monday, and, if otherwise, 
on the first Tuesday after, and, finally, on the first 
Tuesday of November, O. S., — monthly markets for 
sheep and cattle on the third Saturday of every 
month from January till May, — and hiring-markets 
for servants at Whitsunday and Martinmas. In mat- 
ters of civil authority it has, in addition to its own 
burgh-courts, afterwards to be noticed, justice-of- 
peace courts, held at regular intervals, — the sheriff- 
courts for Roxburghshire, — and twice a-year, in 
spring and autumn, the circuit courts of justiciary. 
The jurisdiction of the last of these, extends over the 
four counties of Roxburgh, Berwick, Selkirk, and 
Peebles, and occasions an influx of witnesses, juries, 
and legal gentlemen from the whole basin of the 
Tweed and its tributaries; yet — so peaceful and 
pastoral is the district, and so contrasted in charac- 
ter to the utter lawlessness which once distinguished 
it — that the judges have sometimes hardly a case to 
try. The opening of the circuit-court is always an 
occasion of puff and pomp in the burgh. Certain 
antiquated observances are maintained in the getting 
up and conducting of a procession in honour of the 
judges, which are so quaintly comical as to seem like 
a tax upon all the acquired self-restraint of these 
grave gentlemen. 

Jedburgh is governed by a provost, 4 bailies, a dean- 
of-guild, a treasurer, and 18 councillors. Municipal 
constituency, in 1839, 168. The property of the 
burgh consists of lands, houses, and principally mills, 
yielding aggregately £498 18s. a-year. The rev- 
enue from other sources arises chiefly from custom 
and market-dues, and from casualties, and, together 
with the rental of property, amounted, in 1833, to 
£650 14s. 9d. The expenditure in the same year 
was £599 4s. 2Jd. ; and there was then a debt 
of £5,223 18s. 4d. The revenue in 1838-9 was 
£644 Is. 4d. The magistrates have no power to 
make local assessments. During 30 years preceding 
1832, they assessed the inhabitants, by sworn stent- 
masters, for water and lighting ; but resistance being 
made to the exaction of money for lighting, the 
assessment was then discontinued. The taxation 
for poor's-money is comparatively heavy, having, 
in 1832, amounted to £433 upon a real rental of 
£3,106, or 14 per cent. The incorporated trades 
consist of smiths, weavers, shoemakers, masons, 

tailors, wrights, fleshers, and glovers. All the 
corporations are rigid in exacting entrance-dues, 
— which, in some instances, amount to £10; and 
they possess, and wield what are called their privi- 
leges, with no advantage to themselves, and with 
much injury to the community. The magistrates, 
besides exercising the ordinary jurisdiction within 
burgh, claim the right of exercising it over a tract of 
ground adjoining their mills. By a singular custom, 
also, they exercise jurisdiction over the great fair of 
St. James, held close to Kelso. How this right 
arose, cannot be ascertained ; but it has subsisted - 
from time immemorial, and is said to be tenaciously 
regarded by the inhabitants, as giving them some in- 
fluence and respectability. Yet, like many a ques- 
tionable honour, it occasions cost. While the magis- 
trates hold a court at the fair to take cognizance of 
petty irregularities, and are accompanied by a full 
inquest of burgesses, draining usually from £10 to 
£15 from the funds, the burgh-tacksman draws only 
£2 of customs. Both bailie and dean-of-guild courts 
are occasionally held in the burgh. Since the small 
debt, justice-of-peace, and sheriff-courts, were estab- 
lished, the cases in the burgh- courts have gradually 
decreased. The magistrates possess no other patron- 
age than the appointing of their officers, and a joint 
voice with the landward heritors in making appoint- 
ments to the grammar school. Jedburgh unites with 
Haddington, Dunbar, North Berwick, and Lauder, in 
sending a member to parliament. Parliamentary 
constituency, in 1840, 226. The parliamentary 
boundaries exclude some uninhabited fields within 
the royalty, but include the suburbs on the right 
bank of the Jed. Population within these bounda- 
ries, in 1831, 3,709. 

The council -records of Jedburgh, extending back 
to only 1619, and all the ancient charters having been 
destroyed during the wars with England, neither the 
date of the origin of the town, nor that of its erection 
into a burgh, can be ascertained. All earlier char- 
ters were renewed and confirmed by Queen Mary, in 
1556. A fac-simile of a charter granted by William 
the Lion, in 1 165, to the abbot and monks of the 
town, was published at Edinburgh in 1771. The 
town— in connection with its castle and its abbey, 
the courts of the kings of Scotland, and the influence 
of a very wealthy fraternity of priests — must, so 
early as the 12th century, have become a place of 
very great consequence. During the festal scenes 
which occurred in its castle, in 1285, on occasion of 
Alexander III.'s second marriage, a masker dressed 
so as to resemble the skeleton figure of Death, glided 
among the dancers at the ball, and struck such terror 
into the queen and the other revellers, that they fled 
to their retirements. Though this monstrous piece 
of masquerading foolery was intended by the block- 
head who practised it to be a joke, it excited a sen- 
sation throughout the kingdom, and was afterwards 

with a wisdom quite akin to that which suggested 

the getting of it up — gravely regarded as an omen of 
the king's childlessness and early death, and of the 
consequent disasters which accrued to the country. 
After the close of the 15th century, Jedburgh figures 
prominently in the history of the international wars ; 
and partly after, partly before that date, is said to 
have been seven times burnt, and to have as often 
risen like a phoenix from the flames. In J 523, the 
Earl of Surrey, at the head of 6,000 men, marched 
against the town, and was so obstinately resisted by 
the inhabitants in his attempts to take it, that, in 
hostile guerdon of their bravery, he no sooner got it 
under his power than he gave it up to plunder and 
the faggot. In the civil contentions which followed 
the expulsion of Mary from the throne, the people 
of Jedburgh espoused the cause of the infant James, 




in opposition to their powerful neighbour, Ker of 
Fairnihirst, the ancestor of the Marquis of Lothian, 
who declared for the captive queen ; and when a 
pursuivant was sent to them to proclaim the nullity 
of all proceedings against her while she was in Loch- 
Leven castle, they publicly inflicted on him some 
acts of contempt scarcely more ignominious and in- 
sulting to his person, than outrageously offensive to 
private modesty and public decency. Ker of Fairni- 
hirst, in revenge, captured and hanged ten of the 
burghers, and destroyed by fire the whole stock of 
provisions laid up by the inhabitants for a winter's 
consumption. During the rebellion of 1745, the Pre- 
tender and his arrnv of Highlanders created an alarm 
in the town, which, was remembered and feelingly 
depicted by some aged inhabitants very recently de- 
ceased. Though the town is now eminently pros- 
perous — or prosperous beyond most towns of its 
class — in the achievements and wealth bearing re- 
sults of peaceful industry, it threatened, within the 
recollection of the present generation, to pine away 
to ruin. After the age of marauding, and of cattle- 
lifting and forays passed away, the inhabitants 
availed themselves of the unequal taxation of Eng- 
land and Scotland, to drive a quiet and very ad- 
vantageous contraband trade. Into England, they 
carried salts, skins, and malt, which, till the Union, 
paid no duties in Scotland; and from England they 
imported wool, to be shipped, at a great profit, from 
the frith of Forth to France. But the commingling 
of the legislatures of the two kingdoms drove the 
ladder from the feet of the contraband Border trader, 
and left him dangling perilously in the air. " The 
vestiges of 40 malt barns and kilns," says Dr. Somer- 
ville, in the Old Statistical Account, "are now to 
be seen in the town of Jedburgh, while at present 
there are only 3 in actual occupation ; and the cor- 
poration of skinners and glovers, formerly the most 
wealthy in the town, have, since the Union, greatly 
diminished, both in regard to opulence and number." 
In 1833, the corporation of glovers had become re- 
duced to two members. 

Such renown as expertness in the art of destroy- 
ing human life, and foiling the efforts of pretended 
adepts in that art, is fitted to give, belongs in no 
stinted degree to the inhabitants of Jedburgh during 
Scotland's fighting period. The proud war-cry of 
the burghers, " Jeddart's here !" and their recorded 
dexterity in wielding a dangerous tool of strife which 
earned the designation of "the Jeddart staff," are 
no mean evidences of their general prowess. Their ! 
bravery is believed to have decided in favour of Scot- ' 
land the last, though comparatively unimportant feat 
of arms which she tried with England, — the skirmish 
mentioned in our notice of the parish as bearing the 
name of 'the Raid of the Reid Swire.' "I assure 
your grace," says the Earl of Surrey, in his letter to 
Henry VIII. respecting his attack on Jedburgh, 
" that I found the Scots at this time the boldest men 
and the hottest that ever I saw in any nation, and all 
the journey. Upon all parts of the army, they kept 
up with such continued skirmishes, that I never be- 
held the like. If they could assemble 40,000 as good 
men as the 1,500, or 2,000 I saw, it would be hard 
to encounter them." The " Jeddart staff, " still pro- 
verbial in Teviotdale, is thus described by Mair :■ — 
" Ferrum chalybeum quatuor pedes longum in robusti 
ligni extremo Jeduardiensis." The corporation of 
shoemakers still possess a trophy taken from the 
English at the battle of Newburn ; while the weav- 
ers, loftier afike in the fame of their own achieve- 
ments in quiet and useful manufacture, and in the 
fame of their predecessors in the showy but substan- 
tially inglorious achievements of war, possess two 
trophies, carried off from the celebrated fields of 

Bannockburn and Killiecrankie. "Jeddart justice," 
a phrase familiar throughout the Lowlands of Scot- 
land, means the summary execution of a criminal 
previous to his trial, and is supposed to have been 
originally and solely practised by the reckless and 
tyrannical Dunbar, in his lording it over the Jed- 
burgh courts of justice. [See 'Border Minstrelsy,' 
vol. i. p. 50.] But the phrase, even legitimately 
rendered, and seen in the light of equitable modern 
administration, appears rapidly to be losing all mean- 
ing. Scarcely a town in quiet and loyal Scotland is 
so exemplarily peaceful as Jedburgh, or environed 
far and wide with so well-toned and tranquilly indus- 
trious a country. 

JOCK'S LODGE, or Piershiix, a beautiful and 
interesting locality on the southern boundary-line of 
the parish of South Leith, on the mail-road between 
Edinburgh and London, li mile east of the Edin- 
burgh post-office, and 1 mile west of the town of 
Portobello, Edinburghshire. The locality is on the 
plain immediately beneath the north-east base of 
Arthur's Seat, scarcely a mile from the shore of the 
frith of Forth, and, independently of its buildings, is 
rich in such attractions of scenery as comport well 
with the near vicinity of the magnificent metropolis 
of Scotland. The principal architecture of the spot 
is a neat and spacious military barracks, occupying 
three sides of a large quadrangle, and presenting a 
wall, perforated with a high gateway, to the line of 
the turnpike. This barracks was built in 1793, and 
called Piershill in honour of Colonel Piers, who oc- 
cupied a villa on the spot in the reign of George II., 
and at the same time commanded a regiment of 
cavalry stationed in Edinburgh, The name Jock's 
Lodge — which is the popular one — occurs as early as 
the time of Cromwell, and is of uncertain and de- 
bated origin. On the south side of the road toward 
Portobello are several neat villas. But the whole 
face of the district lying immediately round the bar- 
racks, is studded and dotted with buildings, and has 
only so far subsided from the urban character of the 
outskirts of Edinburgh, as to acquire to its edifices, 
whether villa or cottage, the graceful accompani- 
ments of garden or of hedged enclosure. A stroll 
from the beautiful city to Piershill, when the musi- 
cal bands of the barracks are striving to drown the 
soft and carolling melodies of the little songsters on 
the hedges and trees at the subsession of Arthur's 
Seat, and when the frith with its many-tinted canopy 
of clouds, and its picturesque display of islets and 
steamers, and little sailing boats, on the bosom of its 
waters, vies with the exulting and luxuriant land- 
scape on its hither shore to win the award due to 
beauty, is indescribably delightful. 

JOHN O'GROAT'S HOUSE, a small cottage 
which existed several ages ago, upon one of the most 
northerly points of the mainland of Scotland. The 
accredited site of this famed domicile is still pointed 
out, on the flat downy shore of the Pentland frith, 
in the parish of Canisbay, about 1^ mile to the west 
of Duncansbay-head ; but not a fragment of the 
building remains, except a few of the lower stones of 
the foundation, or, if Dr. Macculloch is to be cre- 
dited, not even that, unless " a piece of green turf, 
as flat and as bare as the back of one's hand, was 
John O'Groat's house." John O'Groat's house is 
said to have been founded under the following cir- 
cumstances : — During the reign of James IV., a Low- 
lander of the name of Groat — or, according to some 
versions of the legend, a Dutchman of the name of 
John de Groot — along with his brother, arrived in 
Caithness, bearing a letter from the king, which re- 
commended them to the gentlemen of the county. 
They procured land at this remote spot, settled, and 
became the founders of families. When the race of 




Groat had increased to the amount of eight different 
branches, the amity which had hitherto characterized 
them was unfortunately interrupted. One night, in 
the course of some festivity, a quarrel arose as to 
who had the best right to sit at the head of the table 
next the door ; high words ensued, and the ruin of 
the whole family, by their injudicious dissension, 
seemed at hand. In this emergency, however, one 
of them, named John, rose, and having stilled their 
wrath by soft language, assured them that at their 
riert meeting he would settle the point at issue to 
the satisfaction of all. Accordingly, he erected upon 
the extreme point of their territory an octagonal 
building, having a door and window at every side, 
and furnished with a table of exactly the same shape; 
and when the next family festival was held, he de- 
sired each of his kin to enter at his own door, and 
take the corresponding seat at the table. The per- 
fect equality of this arrangement satisfied all, and the 
former good humour of the fraternity was restored. 
There are many different versions of the above story, 
but all bearing a resemblance to the well-known 
fable of the knights of the round table. One version 
of the story represents John, the ingenious deviser 
of the octagonal house, to have been the ferryman 
from Canisbay to Orkney. Perhaps, as Dr. Maccul- 
loch suggests, the others were ferrymen also, and 
Rabelais may have had the story in view when he 
says, " Tous les chevaliers de la table ronde estoient 
pauvres gaigne-derniers, tirans la rame pour passer 
les rivieres de Oocyte, Phlegeton, Styx, Acheron, 
et Lethe, quand messieurs les diables se veulent 
ebattre sur l'eau." John O'Groat's name has been 
bequeathed to certain small shells which are here 
found on the beautiful beach, and are called Johnny 
Groat's buckies. 

JOHN'S CLACHAN (St.), the original name, 
now entirely disused, of the village of Dairy, in the 
cognominal parish, Kirkcudbrightshire : See Dalry. 

JOHN'S-HAVEN, a sea-port village in the parish 
ofBenholme, Kincardineshire; 4 miles south by west 
of Bervie ; 9 north by east of Montrose ; and 29 
south-west of Aberdeen. This was formerly of 
more importance as a fishing-station than it now is ; 
the fish caught are principally haddocks, cod, ling, 
and turbot. A few small vessels, averaging 50 tons 
burthen, belong to the port ; but the harbour is a 
very small one, but capable of being considerably 
improved to the advantage of John's-haven. The 
manufacture of linen for the Dundee merchants is 
now superseding the fishing trade. There is a Se- 
cession meeting-house in the village. The coast in 
this vicinity is rocky and desolate. The population 
of John's-haven appears to have been long station- 
ary ; in 1793, it was estimated at 1,019; in 1821, at 
1,020; and in 1831, at 1,027. 

JOHNSTONE, a parish in the upper part of the 
district of Annandale, Dumfries-shire. It is bounded 
on the north by Kirkpatrick-Juxta ; on the east by 
Wamphray and Applegarth ; on the south by Loch- 
maben ; and on the south-west and west by Kirk- 
michael. The parish approaches in outline the isos- 
celes triangle, the short side being presented to the 
north and the apex to the south ; but it has the for- 
mer indented to the depth of nearly 2 miles by Kirk- 
patrick-Juxta, and the latter so cut away as to 
exhibit a southern termination of fully 1£ mile in 
breadth. It is 7£ miles in extreme length from north 
to south, and averages 3 in breadth, and contains an 
area of 20 square miles, or nearly 13,000 imperial 
acres. Along the whole of its eastern boundary 
flows the river Annan, rich in yellow and sea trout, 
common and spotted eels, roehes, pars, and salmon 
of from 30 to 40 pounds' weight, and sometimes 
coming down in a prodigal wealth and expenditure 

of waters which menace the low lands adjoining its 
banks with the invasions and inflictions of an irresis- 
tible tyrant. On the north the two sides of the in- 
dentation upon it of Kirkpatrick-Juxta, are traced 
respectively by the Kinnel on the east, and the Duff- 
Kinnel on the west; and, the former swallowing up 
the latter, runs 2J miles through the interior, and 
then, for 1 J mile, traces the south-western boundary. 
Along the Annan stretches a belt of level land, car- 
peted with loam and gravel. Thence the surface 
gradually rises till it attains a height of 700 or 800 
feet, and then it slowly subsides toward the Kinnel, 
forming a broad-based hilly ridge between the rivers. 
"Westward of the Kinnel are between 2,000 and 
3,000 acres, which ascend from its banks till, at 
Mallin's hill and Deer-edge, on the extremity of the 
parish, they attain the height of probably 1,300 or 
1,400 feet. Across the Kinnel, about a mile after it 
enters the interior, stretches St. Ann's bridge, com- 
manding nearly as delightful a view of glen and syl- 
van scenery as any which is exhibited by the pro- 
fusely rich and endlessly varied landscapes of Scotland. 
Three quarters of a mile north of this bridge, a little 
west of the river, stands the magnificent mansion of 
Raehills, one of the most princely in the kingdom, 
the seat of J. J. Hope, Esq. of Annandale, the pre- 
sent representative of Dumfries-shire in parliament, 
exulting in the opulence of the garden-grounds and 
scenic displays which immediately surround it, and 
sending off a wide expanse of richly wooded and di 
versified demesne. Mr. Johnstone counts ancestors 
who were proprietors of his own estates and of others 
in Dumfries-shire up to the epoch of record, and 
who, as the leaders of a border-clan, waged constant 
warfare, during the 15th and 16th centuries, with 
the Douglasses and the Maxwells. The whole par- 
ish, with the exception of a small patch, is his pro- 
perty, and partakes kindred results of culture to 
those which are so conspicuous on the grounds im- 
mediately adjoining his seat. Only the general po- 
verty of the soil, or the difficulty of keeping up its 
fertility when reclaimed, seems to have prevented the 
district from affording an eminent instance of agri- 
cultural improvement. About 1,500 acres are under 
natural and planted wood; about 700 or 800 are 
waste lands, chiefly mosses ; and the remaining 
10,700 or 10,800 acres are very nearly distributed 
in moieties of arable land and tillage. Much of the 
wood is oak and ash, very ancient, and exhibiting 
specimens of great girth and height. The mosses 
have all a substratum or ramified under-bed of tim- 
ber, principally oak, and seem to have grownup, 
like some more notable mosses in the country, from 
the wreck of the Caledonian forest. The arable 
grounds, except in a few instances, are not powerful 
enough to yield a remunerating produce in wheat, 
and are laid out chiefly for oats and barley. The 
pastures — with a small exception in favour of the 
Cheviot breed of sheep — are browsed by probably 
the finest imported specimen of the Galloway breed 
of black cattle in Scotland. Considerable and suc- 
cessful attention is paid to the department of bacon, 
— that article of produce for which, in its best qua- 
lity, England now looks so interestedly to Dumfries- 
shire. Sandstone abounds at the southern verge of 
the parish, but is very scantily worked. A vein of 
lead ore has been expensively but vainly sought for 
at the cost of Mr. Johnstone. — Three-quarters of a 
mile from the northern boundary, and mid-way be- 
tween the Annan and the Kinnel, at a mile's dis- 
tance from each, stand the ruins of Lochwood's 
' lofty towers, where dwelt the lords of Annandale.' 
Lochwood castle is said to have been built in the 
14th century. It commands a very extensive pros- 
pect, especially toward the south, and has a retinue 




of ancient forest trees, one of which, an oak, mea- 
sures 17;', feet in circumference. The castle is im- 
mediately environed with almost impassable bogs 
and marshes ; and, both from the nature of its posi- 
tion and the enormous thickness of its walls, must 
have been a place of great strength. James VI., 
alluding to its inaccessibility and capacities of resis- 
tance, said that " the man who built Loehwood, 
though outwardly honest, must have been a knave 
in his heart." About the year 1593 Robert, the na- 
tural brother of Lord John Maxwell, fired the castle, 
exclaiming, when it began to belch aloft the flames, 
" I'll give Dame Johnstone light enough to show her 
to set her silken hood." In revenge of the deed the 
Johnstones inflicted the fearfully sanguinary castiga- 
tion on the Maxwells at Dryfe- sands, which is no- 
ticed in our article Dkyfesdale. The castle, hav- 
ing been fully repaired, continued to be inhabited 
till 1724, — three years after the death of the first 
Marquis of Annaudale. The Glasgow and London 
mail-road, the Edinburgh and Dumfries turnpike by 
way of Moffat, and a turnpike between Moffat and 
Lochmaben, all traverse the parish south and north, 
— the first and second each 5 miles, and the third 6 
miles. These roads, and their bridges, are kept in 
prime repair. One of the bridges spans the Annan 
at Johnstone mills, a little above the parish-church, 
in a single arch 80 feet in width. Dr. Rogerson and 
Dr. Matthew Halliday, successively first physicians to 
the Empress Catherine of Russia, were both natives 
of Johnstone. A large proportion of the inhabitants 
of the parish are Johnstones by name, and a con- 
siderable number are Hallidays. " In this very po- 
pulous, rural parish," says the minister in the New 
Statistical Account, " we have neither public house, 
nor meeting-house, nor resident surgeon, nor village, 
nor post-office, nor prison, nor lawyer, nor beggar, — 
specialities, we humbly conceive not to be found 
united in any parish of similar dimensions in Britain, — 
and of which, though some may be occasionally felt 
as parish privations, others are daily prized by us as 
distinguished blessings." Population, in 1801, 740; 
in 1831, 1,234. Houses, 196. Assessed property, 

in 1815, £5,514 Johnstone is in the presbytery 

of Lochmaben, and synod of Dumfries. Patron, 
Johnstone of Annandale. Stipend £165 13s. 2d.; 
glebe £10. There are 3 schools, attended by a 
maximum of 170 scholars. Parochial schoolmaster's 
salary £26, with £21 10s. fees and £5 10s. other 
emoluments. The ancient parish was a rectory in the 
deanery of Annandale. The present parish compre- 
hends the whole of the old parish, a large part of the 
suppressed parish of Dungree, and a small part of the 
ancient Garvald : which see. The ruin of the old 
church of Dungree — anciently Dun-grio, signifying 
' a sunny hill'. — stands, with its accompanying ceme- 
tery, on the southern declivity or sunny side of a 
round hill or ' dun,' on the west bank of the Kinnel. 
This church, with its pertinents, anciently belonged 
to the monks of Eelso, — having been gifted to them 
in the 12th century by Walter de Carnock, the pro- 
prietor of the manor. 

JOHNSTONE, a quoad sacra parish in Renfrew- 
shire, disjoined from the Abbey parish of Paisley in 
July, 1835. Its greatest length is about 1 mile, and 
its greatest breadth less than a quarter of a mile, 
being chiefly confined to the village of Johnstone, 
which is situated on the right bank of the river 
Black Cart, 3j miles from Paisley, 1 1 from Glasgow, 
and 14 from Greenock. The rapid increase of this 
place is not exceeded, if equalled, in Scottish statis- 
tics. Till 1781 it consisted of a small hamlet, with 
a population of 10 persons, near the bridge over the 
river, called ' the Brig o' Johnstone,' which is still 
the popular appellation of the town itself. In that 

year a large mill for the spinning of cotton was 
erected here, and the formation of a town was com- 
menced, and proceeded so rapidly, that in 1792 the 
inhabitants amounted to 1,434; in 1811, to 3,647 ; 
and in 1831, to 5,617. The population is now 
(1841) upwards of 7,000. The mill was built, and 
the town planned and feued out by George Hous- 
toun, Esq., the superior of the ground on which it 
stands, who died in 1815, after having held the estate 
of Johnstone for the long period of 58 years. The 
town is regularly built, consisting of one main street 
from east to west, with several other streets branch- 
ing at right angles from both its sides. There are 
also two squares, namely, Houstoun- square in the 
centre of the town, which is now built up on every 
side, and another to the southward, partially enclosed 
with houses, and intended for a market-place. The 
houses are, for the most part, built of stone, two 
stories high, with garden ground attached to each. 
From an eminence on the Paisley road, a quarter of 
mile eastward, the place has a picturesque appear- 
ance. In 1839 there were in Johnstone 15 cotton- 
mills, employing in all 1,456 persons, exclusive of 
mills at other places in the immediate vicinity. 
With two slight exceptions the mills are all pro- 
pelled by water. There are, besides, 2 brass and 2 
iron foundries, on an extensive scale, with 5 machine 
manufactories, a public gas work, and various minor 
branches of industry. In the neighbourhood coal is 
wrought to a great extent. The place has a branch 
bank, several branches of insurance offices, a town 
school, 2 news-rooms, a subscription library, and a 
mechanics' institution and library, with several re- 
ligious and benevolent societies. Its civil polity is 
managed by a committee elected annually by the 
feuers. A justice-of-peace court is held on the 
first Friday of every month. A fair for cattle is 
held in July, and another in October ; and there is 
one for horses in December. The canal from Glas- 
gow, intended to have been carried to Ardrossan, 
terminates at Johnstone ; and the railway from 

Glasgow to Ayr passes the place About a mile to 

the south stands Johnstone castle, the seat of Mr. 
Houstoun, an elegant modern mansion surrounded 

by thriving plantations and pleasure-grounds This 

parish is in the presbytery of Paisley, and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr. The right of electing the min- 
ister is vested in the congregation. The church was 
built in 1793, and cost about £1,400. Sittings 995. 
Stipend £200, without manse or glebe. To this 
church a light and elegant spire was added in 1823. 
— The United Secession congregation was establish- 
ed in 1791, when their church was built at the cost 
of about £900. Sittings 616. Stipend £150, with 
£8 8s. for sacramental expenses, and £4 4s. for at- 
tendance on church courts 1'he Relief congregation 

was established, and built a church, in 1829, which, 
with a session-house, afterwards erected, cost about 
£1,500. Sittings 810. Stipend £120, with £8 in 
name of sacramental expenses The United Metho- 
dist congregation, established in 1824, assembles in 
a building erected in that year, at the cost of £150. 
Sittings 260. 

JOPPA, a modern village, on the mail-road be- 
tween Edinburgh and Berwick, and on the shore of 
the frith of Forth, within the boundaries of the 
parliamentary burgh of Portobello, situated a little 
eastward of that town, and almost compact with it, 
in the quoad civilia parish of Duddingston, Edin- 
burghshire. It runs about 300 yards along the high- 
way, but has buildings on the west both close on 
the shore and northward of the road. Part of the 
village consists of very neat villas. A mineral we41 
gives it importance with invalids, and attracts to it 
a share of the patronage so profusely heaped on 




Portobello. Between it and the sea is a freestone 
quarry. About J of a mile to the east are some 
salt-works, called Joppa-Pans. 

JURA,* one of the Hebrides, lying opposite to 
the district of Knapdale, in Argyleshire, to which 
county it is politically annexed. It is 20 miles in 
length, from south-west to north-east ; its breadth at 
the southern end is about8 miles, but tapers gradually 
to about 2 miles at the northern extremity. Its su- 
perficies has been estimated at 58,500 Scots acres, of 
which only 3,000 are arable. It is the most rugged 
of the Western isles, being composed chiefly of huge 
rocks, piled on one another in the utmost disorder, 
— naked and incapable of cultivation, and presenting 
" one continued tract of brown and rocky mountain- 
pasture." These mountains extend in the form of 
a ridge from south to north, nearly in the middle of 
the island. Three of them rising near the south end, 
of an irregular conoidal form, and termed the Paps 
of Jura, are conspicuous at a great distance. The 
southern one is termed Benachaolais, ' the Moun- 
tain of the Sound.'as beingnearto the sound of Islay; 
the next and highest, Benanoir, ' the Mountain of 
Gold;' the third, JBenshianta, 'the Consecrated 
mountain.' There are five of these conical peaks, 
but only three of them are distinguished as the Paps. 
Corrabhain, or ' the Steep peak,' is the most preci- 
pitous but lowest of the cluster. See Benanoir. 
Loch-Tarbet, a long narrow arm of the sea, opening 
on the west coast, nearly divides the island into two. 
There are some small lakes in the vicinity of the 
Paps ; and a few streams, descending from these 
mountains, flow into the sound of Jura. The west 
side of the island is wild and rugged, and intersected 
by numerous torrents which come rushing down from 
the mountains. It presents only rocky and abrupt 
shores ; and has been deemed so inhospitable that 
no person chooses to fix his habitation in it. All the 
inhabitants live on the east side. Here, along the 
margin of the sea, the coast is level ; but, at a little 
distance from the shore, there is a gradual ascent. 
The whole of this side forms a pleasant scene : the 
coast, in several places, is indented with bays and 
harbours, and the arable and pasture grounds spread 
out on the declivity, and terminate at the base of the 
huge rocky mountains which form a romantic andaw- 
ful back-ground. The soil along the shore is thin and 
stony; higher up it becomes moory, with patches of 
improvable moss ; along the foot of the mountains 
there are numerous springs which render the ground 
spouty and unfit for cultivation. ' The crops are oats, 
barley, potatoes, and flax ; the chief manure is sea- 
weed ; the use of lime has not been introduced, nor 
the practice of sowing artificial grasses, or laying 
out the lands in fallow or regular rotation. There 
are two fine harbours on the east coast of the 
island ; that to the south is called the harbour of 
Small- Isles from the number of islets which shelter 
it ; the other, a few miles to the north, is named 

* This name is said tobe, correctly, Diura, that is, ' a Deer.' 

the Lowlandman's bay ; there are also some an- 
choring places on the west coast. At the north 
end of Jura are the three inhabited islands of Scarba, 
Lunga, and Baln'ahuaigh : see these articles 
Between Scarba and Jura is the famous gulf called 
Corrievrekin : which see. Several kinds of red 
deer exist on the mountains, and there is plenty of 
grouse and black game. When Pennant visited this 
island, the number of cattle was much greater than 
at present ; the inhabitants having banished these to 
make way for the numerous herds of sheep and goats 
which have been introduced. There is only one 
small village, called Jura, on the east coast of the 
island, inhabited by a few fishers. There are several 
barrows and duns in the island ; and on the coast, 
near the harbour of Small-Isles, are the remains of a 
very considerable encampment. It has a triple line 
of defence, with regular bastions towards the land; 
and near the east end is a pretty large mound, seem- 
ingly formed of the earth thrown out in forming the 
ditches. The mountains are of white or red quartz, 
some of which is brecciated, or filled with crystalline 
kernels of an amethystine colour. The other rocks 
of the island are a bluish coloured slate, veined with 
red, and so fine as to be used as a whetstone ; a mi- 
caceous sandstone ; and, at the northern extremity, a 
quarry of micaceous granite. There is great abundance 
of iron ore, and a vein of the black oxide of manganese. 
On the west coast there is a fine kind of sand, which 
is used in the manufacture of glass. The climate of 
Jura is very healthy, owing to its high situation, and 
its exposure to the winds. There is a ferry from 
Kenuachtrach, or Kinuachrach, at the northern point 
of the island, to Craignish-point on the mainland, a 
distance of 4 miles, whence a good carriage-road leads 
to the Kintraw and Kellmelfort roads. Gaelic is 
spoken in the island. Population, in 1811, 1,157; 
in 1831, 1,312. Houses, in 1831, 251. 

JURA and COLONSAY, a parish of Argyle- 
shire, composed of nine islands, of which that of Jura 
is the largest. The islands of Colonsay and Oransay, 
of Scarba, Lunga, Balnahuaigh, and the three small 
uninhabited isles called the Gravellach or Marg 
islands on the north of Jura, form the rest of 
the district. It was originally called the united par- 
ish of Killearnadale and Kilchattan : Jura forming 
the former, and Colonsay the latter. The islands of 
Gigha and Cara were disjoined from it about the 
year 1729. The district of Colonsay and Oransay is 
under charge of an assistant- minister : see Colon- 
say. Population, in 1801,2,007; in 1831, 2,205. 
Houses 404. Assessed property, in 1815, £3,598. 
— This parish is in the presbytery of Islay and Jura, 
and synod of Argyle. Patron, the Duke of Argyle. 
Stipend £158 6s. 8d. ; glebe £12. Church built 
about 1776; enlarged about 1824; sittings 249.— 
There are two parochial schools in Jura, the masters 
of which share a salary of £33 6s. 8d., with a third 
schoolmaster stationed in Colonsay. Besides this 
there were, in 1834, five private schools in Jura. 











KAIL. See Kale. 

KAILZIE, a suppressed parish lying on both sides 
of the Tweed in Peebles-shire. Two-thirds of it 
lying on the south bank are annexed to Traquair, 
and one-third lying on the north bank, is annexed to 
Innerleithen. The parish was suppressed in 1674. 
The ruins of Kailzie church stand on a streamlet 
which is called from it Kirkburn, and which falls 
into the Tweed from the south. 

KAIM. See Duffus. 

KAIMES (The). See Greenlaw. 

KALE, Kail, or Cayle (The), a rivulet in 
Roxburghshire. It rises on the south side of Fair- 
wood-fell, a few yards from the boundary with Eng- 
land, in the south-west extremity of the parish of 
Oxnam, arid, cradled among the most alpine heights 
of the Cheviots, continues over most of its course to 
be a brawling but beautiful mountain-stream. It 
runs first 2 miles north-eastward ; and next 11 miles 
northward, bisecting the parishes of Oxnam, Hou- 
nam, and Morebattle ; and then it flows 5 miles 
westward, tracing the southern boundary of More- 
battle'parish, sweeping past Morebattle village, bi- 
secting the parish of Eckford, and falling into the 
Teviot about a mile below Eckford village. From 
near its source till a short way after it takes a wes- 
terly direction, it flows through "ferny howms," 
along a narrow, generally a pleasing, and frequently 
a romantic, vale, whither come laterally down 
among the Cheviots delightful dells and picturesque 
ravines, ploughed by tributary rills. It is an excel- 
lent trouting-stream, and long gave the name of 
' Kail- Water Sheep ' to the peculiarly tine breed of 
Cheviots pastured within view of its banks. Miss 
Baillie, in supplementing a fine fragment of the Scot- 
tish Doric muse, which opens thus, — 
" O the ewe-bughting's bonny, baith e'ening and morn," — 
in the true spirit of the original sings : — 

O the sheep-herding's lightsome amang the green braes 
Where Cayle wimples clear 'neath the white-blossomed slaes, — 
Where the wild-thyme and meadow-queen scent the 6aft gale, — 
And the cushat croods leesomely down in the dale! 
There the lintwhite and mavis sing sweet frae the thorn, 
And blithe lilts the laverock aboon the green corn, 
And a' things rejoice in the simmer's glad prime — 
But my heart's wi' my love in the far foreign clime ! 

KALLIGRAY. See Calligray. 

KAMES, or Kaimes Castle, an ancient seat of 
the Bannatynes — but no longer in possession of that 
family — in the island of Bute, near the mouth of a 
low and fertile glen which stretches across the island 
from Kames bay, on which Port-Bannatyne is 
situated, on the east to Etterick bay on the west 
side of the island. In the neighbourhood may still 
be traced the ruins of Wester Kames castle, formerly 
belonging to the Spences. From an eminence in the 
middle of this glen, a fine view of the sea on both 

sides of Bute is obtained An extension church, 

called North Bute church, was erected in this valley 
in 1836; sittings 700; at the expense of the Marquis 
of Bute. A quoad sacra district has been attached 
to it. Stipend £150 ; glebe £10. 

KANNOR. See Casnor. 

KATRINE* (Loch), a well-known and often- 

* It is usually called Loch-Katrine by the inhabitant? of the 
I.uwlands, who have adopted this spelling on the authority of 
Sir Walter Scott, the Minstrel of the lake; but it is pro- 
nounced Ketturn or Ketturrin by the natives of the district. 
The latter portion of the name, when thus pronounced, bears 
a near resemblance to that of many other places on the High- 

visited lake, in the Highland district of the county 
of Perth, beyond the great mountain- chain or barrier 
which separates the Highlands from the Lowlands. 
It is distant about 10 miles from Callander, 21 from 
Dumblane, and 48 from Glasgow. It is about 10 
miles in length, and 2 in breadth. In its whole ex- 
tent it is surrounded by lofty mountains ; and it 
forms a receptacle for the hundreds of streams 
which, after rain, foam down their rugged sides, 
" white as the snowy charger's tail." It discharges 
its waters by a stream at its eastern extremity, 
which runs into Loch-Achray, afterwards into Loch- 
Vennachoir, and ultimately into the Forth, about 
3 miles above the bridge of Stirling. The scenery 
of Loch- Katrine was, comparatively speaking, but 
little known, notwithstanding its magnificence, till 
the publication of ' The Lady of the Lake;' but 
the splendid descriptions of that fine poem soon 
spread its fame as far as the English language is un- 
derstood, and it is now visited by almost every stran- 
ger who makes the tour of Scotland. It may be ap- 
proached in different directions ; but the principal 
road, and that by which it is oftenest visited, is from 
the east, by the way of Callander. There is here a 
carriage-road which enters upon the eastern extremity 
of the lake, where its finest scenery is situated, and 
where we find the principal localities of Sir Walter's 
poem. As has been the case with every poem or tale 
from the graphic pen of this gifted man, the world has 
given almost a reality to the characters and incidents 
of ' The Lady of the Lake ;' and the Highlanders 
now point out the scenery of this poem to strangers, 
as if it had formed one of the ancient traditions of 
their romantic father-land. 

" Oh ! who would think, in cheerless solitude, 
Who o'er these twilight waters glided slow, 
That genius, with a time-surviving glow, 

These wild lone scenes so proudly hath embued ! 

Or that from ' hum of men ' so far remote, 
Where blue waves gleam, and mountains darken round, 
And trees with broad boughs shed a gloom profound, 

A poet here should from his tractless thought 

Elysian prospects conjure up, and sing 
Of bright achievements in the olden days, 
When chieftain valour sued for Beauty's praise, 

And magic virtues charmed St. Fillan's spring; 
Until in worlds, where Chilian mountains raise 

Their cloud-capt heads, admiring souls should wing 
Hither their flight to wilds, whereon I gaze." 

The Trosachs — [which see] — form a main 
point of attraction with strangers visiting Loch- 
Katrine. The road from Callander passes through 
the Trosachs ; and they are first entered upon 
by the traveller, about half-a-mile west of Loch- 
Achray : which see. The access to the lake is 
through a narrow pass of half-a-mile in length, 
where the rocks are of a stupendous height, in 
some places seeming to close above the traveller's 
head, in others, ready to fall down and bury him in 
their ruins. The sides of the heights are in many 
places covered with aged weeping birches, which 
hang down their venerable locks in waving ringlets, 
as if to cover the bare and naked rocks out of which 
they seem to grow. Before the present road was 
formed, the lake could only be approached in this 
direction by what was generally termed ' the Lad- 
lands, the appearance of which is wild and savage. Thus in 
Inverness-shire, we have Locli-Urn, or Loch-Urrin, which 
signifies * the Lake of Hell;' and in Cowal, Gtenwrin, or 
' Hell's glen.' In the map by Sir Robert Gordon of Straloeh, 
published in Bleau's Atlas, 1653, the name is spelt Kenneria ; 
and in the map prefixed to the ' Itinerariuiu' of Alexander 
Gordon, published in 1727, it is Bpelt in the same manner. 


ders.' These consisted of steps very imperfectly 
cut out of a precipitous rocky bank, by means of 
which, and with the aid of ropes suspended from 
trees to be grasped by the hand, the adventurous and 
intrepid natives of this romantic land were accus- 
tomed to pass — often laden with considerable bur- 
dens from the lower district of the Trosachs to its 

more elevated parts. The road has now been formed 
with incredible labour, partly by encroaching on the 
eastern end of the lake, and partly by blasting the 
solid rock, which rises to a great height, particularly 
in one place, where it shoots up perpendicularly from 
the water to a height of scarcely less than 150 feet. 
The traveller approaching from Callander, passes 
through the narrow defile of the Trosachs, where 

" Gallant horse exhausted fell ;" 

and will mark the "narrow and broken plain" 
where Sir Walter represents the Scottish troops 
under the Earls of Mar and Moray to have paused 
ere they entered 

" The dangerous glen ;" 

nor will the vivid description of the scene which took 
place when the archers entered the defile be forgot- 
ten. No trace of a foe could at first be seen ; but 

•' At once there rose so wild a yell 
Within that dark and narrow dell, 
As all the fiends, from heaven that fell, 
Had peal'd the banner-cry of hell I 
Forth from the pass in tumult driven, 
Like chaff before the wind of heaven, 

The archery appear ; 
For life! for life ! their flight they ply— 
And shriek, and shout, and bottle-cry, 
And plaids and bonnets waving high, 
And broadswords flashing in the sky, 

Are maddening in the rear. 
Onwards they drive in dreadful race, 

Pursuers and pursued." 

Although this is merely the description of an ima- 
ginary fight between the Scottish troops and the men 
of Clan- Alpine, yet it has become so familiar to every 
reading mind as almost to be considered the account 
of a real transaction ; and we believe few now pass 
through the Trosachs without thinking of Roderic 
Dhu and his Macgregors, and those days when their 
cliffs oft-echoed to " dying moan and dirge's wail." 
The first appearance of the lake at this extremity 
gives little promise of the wide and varied expanse to 
which it stretches out as the traveller proceeds. 
Sir Walter has indeed well-described it here as 

" A narrow inlet still and deep. 
Affording scarce such breadth of brim, 
As served the wild duck's brood to swim." 

In advancing onwards, the lake is lost for a few 
minutes, but it again opens with increasing grandeur, 
and presents new and picturesque views at almost 
every step as we advance. Helen's isle will imme- 
diately arrest attention. It was from this "islet 
rock" that, at the blast of the Knight of Snowden's 
bugle, started forth the little skiff which brought 
Helen Douglas to the "beach of pebbles bright as 
snow;" and on the island was the rustic retreat 
where Fitz-James spent the night. It was to the 
same island that the women and children of the Clan- 
Alpine are represented to have fled for refuge : — 

Moray pointed with his lance. 

And cried — ' Behold yon isle ! — 
See I none are left to guard its strand 
But women weak that wring the hand, 
'Tia there of yore the robber-band 

Their booty wont to pile ;— 
My purse, with bonnet-pieces store, 
To him will swim a bow-shot o'er 
And loose a shallop from the shore. 
Lightly we'll tame the war-wolf then. 
Lords of his mate, and brood and den !' 

Forth from the ranks a spearman sprung, 
On earth his casque and corslet rung, 
He plunged into the wnve. 


He nears the isle — and lo ! 
His hand is on a shallop's bow. 
I marked Duncraggan's widowed dame 
Behind an oak I saw her stand 
A naked dirk gleamed in her hand : 
It darkened ; but amid the moan 
Of waves I heard a dying groan." 

In the graphic narrative which we have here quoted 
from the poem of Sir Walter, we have indeed but 
the fictions of the poet ; yet when we recollect who 
were the ancient inhabitants of this district, we can 
feel little doubt that such scenes were formerly not 
unfrequent during that period, 

" When tooming faulds, or sweeping of a glen, 
Had still been held the deeds ot gallant men." 

When the Clan-Gregor, or, as they were called, the 
Clan-Alpine, held this district, there can be no 
question that on this island their wives and children 
often sought shelter from the numerous enemies of 
their name ; and it is said that during Cromwell's 
usurpation, one of his soldiers who had swam to the 
island, and was about to seize one of the boats, 
met his doom from the hand of a woman in the 
manner described in the poem. But, whatever be 
the truth of the legends connected with it, "the 
mighty minstrel" has " waved his visioned wand," 
and they have now obtained an absolute and perma- 
nent existence in the imagination ; the island is 
visited by almost every stranger who makes Loch- 
Katrine a part of his tour ; and the wild den of Coir- 
nan-Uriskin is usually taken in the same water- 
excursion. A rustic hut has been erected on the 
island by the proprietor, in imitation of that described 
in the poem. 

Having now fairly opened up the lake, we have 
more than 6 miles of water in length under the eye ; 
Benvenue rises high over head to the left ; and the 
mountains of Aroquhar terminate the prospect to 
the west. Gazing from some of the heights or pro- 
montories which here surround him, the stranger 
must, like Fitz-James, feel " raptured and amazed," 
and with him, may well exclaim, — 

" What a scene were here 
For princely pomp or churchman's pride! 
On this bold brow a lordly tower, 
In that soft vale a lady's bower, 
On yonder meadow far away, 
The turrets of a cloister grey. 
How blithely might the bugle-horn 
Chide, on the lake, the lingering morn ! 
How sweet at eve, the lover's lute 
Chime, when the groves were still and mute ! 
And when the midnight-moon should lave 
Her forehead on the silver wave. 
How solemn on the ear would come 
The holy matin's distant hum ; 
While the deep peal's commanding tone 
Should wake in yonder islet lone, 
A sainted hermit from his cell, 
To drop a bead with every knell, — 
And bugle, lute, and bell, and all, 
Should the bewildered stranger call 
To friendly feast, and lighted hall !" 

Whether the stranger pursues his route by the road 
along the northern shore of the loch, or, hiring a boat, 
embarks upon its placid bosom, he will continue to 
be delighted. Now he will behold bluff headlands, 
where the black rocks dip down into unfathomable 
water ; and now deep retiring bays, their beaches 
covered with white sand and gravel which has been 
bleached for ages by the waters ; rugged and stu- 
pendous cliffs rise on every hand, waving with wood 
which seems to grow from the solid rock, — every 
crevice or cavern returns its echo, — every grove is 
filled with the melody of birds, — and from the far 
heights or distant valleys is heard the melancholy 
bleating of the sheep, the cry of the careful shepherd, 



or the barking of his dog. The eagle at one time 
might be seen sitting in lonely majesty on some lofty 
rock, or sailing slowly high in the air, but he is now 
banished from the district ; the heron, however, still 
stalks among the reeds in search of his prey, and the 
wild duck may be frequently seen gamboling on the 

water, or diving beneath its surface Benvenue, the 

highest mountain which rises from the lake, is situ- 
ated on the southern shore near the east end. Its 
name signifies ' the Small mountain ;' but this could 
only be applied in comparison with the loftier Ben- 
lomond and Benledi. Its height is said to be 3,009 
feet. This is probably one of the most picturesque 
mountains in Great Britain. On its northern side it 
presents those immense masses of rocks which ap- 
pear, on this as well as on all other mountains, to 
have been torn by some convulsion of nature from its 
summit, and hurled below. At one time it was finely 
covered for about two-thirds of its height, with 
alders, birches, and mountain-ashes of ancient 
growth, but much of these and of the wooding of the 
Trosachs was cut down about 26 years ago, — a most 
lamentable outrage on the scenery of this fairy and 

classic region The celebrated Coir-nan-Uriskin, or 

' Cave of the Goblins,' which has been rendered 
venerable from Highland tradition and superstition, 
is situated at the base of Benvenue, where it over- 
hangs the lake in solemn grandeur. It is a deep 
circular amphitheatre or hollow in the mountain, 
about 600 yards in diameter at the top, but narrow- 
ing towards the bottom, surrounded on all sides with 
stupendous rocks, and overshadowed with birch 
trees, which render it impenetrable to the rays of 
the sun. On the south and west, it is bounded by 
the precipitous shoulder of the mountain, to the 
height of 500 feet ; and towards the east the rock 
appears to have tumbled down, strewing the whole 
slope with immense fragments, which now give 
shelter to foxes, wild cats, and badgers. The Urisks, 
from whom this cave derives its name, were sup- 
posed to be dispersed over the Highlands, each in 
his own wild recess ; but the solemn stated meetings 
of the order were regularly held in this cave or den. 
These beings were, according to Dr. Graham, " a 
sort of lubberly supernaturals, who, like the Brownies, 
could be gained over, by kind attention, to perform 
the drudgery of the farm, and it was believed that 
many of the families in the Highlands had one of the 
order attached to it." The name literally means 
' the Den of the wild or shaggy men ;' and Mr. 
Alexander Campbell conjectures that it may have 
originally only implied its being the haunt of feroci- 
ous banditti, at one time too common in the High- 
lands. "But," says Sir Walter Scott, "tradition 
has ascribed to the Urisks a figure between a goat 
and a man ; in short, however much the classical 
reader may be startled, precisely that of the Grecian 
satyr." Farther up the mountain than Coir-nan- 
Uriskin is Bealoch-nam-bo : which see. 

As already mentioned, the only carriage-road to 
Loch-Katrine is by Callander, and through the 
Trosachs, to the east end of the lake. Pedestrians, 
however, often visit it by a different route. Leaving 
Loch-Lomond at Inversnaid, and passing the old 
fort of that name, they approach Loch- Katrine near 
its western extremity ; they then cross the loch, 
and walk down its northern shore or take a boat, 
till they arrive at the east end, where they enter the 
Trosachs. The first sight of the lake is obtained 
by the traveller, who comes by this road from Loch- 
Lomond, at a place called Colbarn, and sometimes 
the Garrow of Stronalachar, 2 or 3 miles from the 
head of the lake. From this point of view, Loch- 
Katrine does not present the picturesque or romantic 

interest which attaches to the scenery towards its 
eastern end ; — but there is a rude grandeur, — a lonely 
sublimity about it, — which at least inspires awe, and 
fills the mind with pleasing melancholy, though it 
may fail to realize the images associated with its 
name in our fancy. When we look upon the utter 
desolateness which spreads around, — the bluff head- 
lands which project their weather-beaten fronts into 
the water, — the noble outline of the lofty moun- 
tains, — the bare and rugged rocks with which they 
are covered, — the deep ravines that form the beds of 
the innumerable streams which flow down their sides, 
— the heath-covered muirs that intervene, — and the 
contrasted stillness and purity of the transparent 
lake, — we feel that it is altogether highly character- 
istic Highland scenery. This upper end of the loch 
is within that extensive district which was anciently 
the country of the Macgregors ; but from the greater 
portion of which they were, from time to time, dis- 
possessed by their more crafty neighbours. In the 
fastnesses at the head of Loch-Katrine they often 
sought refuge from oppression ; and to these they 
usually retired after those predatory excursions into 
the lowlands, to which they were prompted alike by 
necessity and the desire of vengeance. The well- 
known Rob Roy, about the year 1708, confined 
Graham of Killearn for three days on an island near 
the head of Loch- Katrine. The Duke of Montrose 
had, by the forfeiture of a wadset, obtained a right to 
dispossess Rob Roy of his property of Inversnaid 
and Craigrostan. In this it does not appear that there 
was any harshness on the part of his Grace ; but Kil- 
learn, his chamberlain, had recourse to a mode of 
expulsion inconsistent with the rights of humanity, 
and had grossly insulted Macgregor's wife in her 
husband's absence. Rob Roy, on his return, being 
informed of what had occurred, withdrew from the 
scene of the outrage, and vowed revenge. In order 
to make up for the loss of his property, he regularly 
seized a portion of his Grace's rent ; but on Killearn 
he took a personal satisfaction, which certainly shows 
the mildness of his character when we consider the 
habits and mode of thinking of the Highlanders of 
his day. The chamberlain was collecting rents at 
Cappeleroeh, a place in Stirlingshire, when Rob Roy 
came upon him with an armed force, and demanded 
his share of the rents. For this he gave the cham- 
berlain a receipt : and afterwards carried the unwill- 
ing gentleman to Loch-Katrine, where he kept him 
in durance for three days, and then set him at liberty. 
— Glengyle, a lonely tract of country amongthe hills 
at the upper extremity of the loch, belonged to a 
family of Macgregor's, who, during the time when 
the name was prohibited, changed theirs to Graham. 
Rob Roy was of this family. He was the second son 
of Donald Macgregor, brother to the laird of Glen- 
gyle, and a lieutenant-colonel in the king's service, 
— most probably in one of the independent companies 
raised for the internal defence of the Highlands. The 
family of Glengyle were descended from a fifth son 
of the laird of Macgregor about the year 1430. He 
was named Dagald Ciar, or ' Dugald of the mouse 
colour.' Dugald had two sons, of whom the youngest, 
Gregor Dbu, or Black Gregor, was the founder of the 
family of Glengyle. Rob Roy originally possessed no 
patrimonial estate. His father lived on Glengyle as a 
tenant, and latterly was tutor to his nephew, Gre- 
gor Macgregor of Glengyle, styled, in the language 
of the Highlands, Gregor-Gluine-dhu, or ' the 
Black knee'd Gregor,' from a black spot on his knee. 
The lands of Craigrostan and Inversnaid were after- 
wards acquired by Rob Roy ; and we find him some- 
times styled Robert Macgregor of Craigrostan, and 
sometimes Baron of Inversnaid. The name of Mac- 




grcgor being proscribed, Rob Roy assumed that of 
Campbell, from respect to the Duke of Argyle who 
had often protected him. 

KATRINE. See Catherine. 

KATTERLINE, or Catterline, a suppressed 
parish in Kincardineshire, now united to Kinneff : 
which see. 

KEACLOCH, a magnificent mountain in Ross- 
shire, separating Loch-Gruinard from Little Loch- 
Broom. Macculloch says: "From this mountain 
there descends a torrent of great size, with a length 
of almost continuous cascades which I am afraid to 
name, lest you should think that I am saying the 
thing which is not. I will only call it two miles; 
for fear that if I said it was more, you would not 
believe me. This stream may indeed be considered 
an epitome of cascade landscape : if I were to call it 
a dictionary, it would be a more apt term. If it 
does not contain every species of waterfall, it at 
least possesses a type of every genus — to use the 
language of naturalists ; and to describe it all, would 
be to write a general history of cascades. The 
forms of the rocks which accompany its course are 
bold, broad, and various ; while the wild trees, the 
fantastical fir, with the aspen, alder, birch, oak, and 
ash, add variety to ornament ; sometimes closing 
over to conceal it, at others springing solitary from 
the crevices of the rocks, or, hanging over the deep 
ravine, or else, broken by the winter storms, ex- 
tending their aged trunks to form fearful bridges 
across the fathomless abyss. So deep is its course 
in some places, in the ravine which it has cut for 
itself, that the water is invisible ; and it is only by 
a distant and sullen roaring that we can conjecture 
its presence. Pursuing the channel, a glimpse of 
light is sometimes seen amid the blackness of the 
abyss, where some unusual obstruction impedes its 
career ; till, struggling at length towards the light, 
it is seen foaming and boiling among the huge frag- 
ments below, whence once more emerging into day, 
it resumes the more common characters of a cascade 
or a broken torrent. • * * In continuing the 
ascent, the river was soon found running along its 
channel, shaded with birch and alder, the sweetest 
of pastoral streams ; and I almost forgot that I was 
three thousand feet above the sea, so tranquil and 
rural did every thing appear. But the change of 
scene was sudden indeed, when, taking a new course 
through a lateral valley, we found ourselves in the 
region of snow, on a brilliant frozen plain. As this 
snow could not have dissolved before the winter, it 
is probably here permanent from year to year. The 
summit of the mountain, extending to five or six 
hundred perpendicular feet above this point, is a 
rocky and narrow ridge, serrated into peaks, and of 
a very marked and picturesque character. Though 
formed of sandstone, as is the whole mountain from 
the very base, it has the general aspect of granite; 
resembling the summits of the Arran hills. Over- 
topping all the neighbouring land, it commands a 
wide extent of the interior country, displaying all 
the details of Loch-Broom and Loch-Greinord, and 
losing itself eastward, in a series of deep valleys, 
ridges, and ravines, of bare white rock, characterized 
by an aspect of desolation not easily exceeded. The 
great but desert lake, Loch-Fannich, was also hence 
visible ; bright glittering among the rocky mountains 
and moors of this terrible country. Seaward, it 
commands the extensive group of the Summer islands ; 
but all beyond is the boundless ocean. The effect 
of the valley on the west side, which separates it 
from Loch-Greinord, is more striking from its vacu- 
ity than if it had displayed the utmost intricacy of 
form. On each side it rises in one dead and flat 
surface; its bottom invisible from above, and pro- 

longed without apparent beginning or termination. 
The sense of emptiness which was produced on 
looking down into it, was absolutely painful : it 
seemed like standing on the brink of eternity. I 
proceeded for some distance along the giddy ridge, 
in hopes of seeing its termination ; but all continued 
vacant, desolate, silent, dazzling, and boundless. 
Of the height of Kea Cloch I cannot speak with 
precision, having forgotten to bring up the barome- 
ter. But though it seems to have been completely 
overlooked by mapmakers and travellers, it must be 
among the highest mountains of the west coast, if 
not of Scotland; while, as it rises immediately from 
the sea by as steep an acclivity as is well possible, 
and without competitors, its apparent altitude is 
greater than that of any single mountain in Scot- 
land, excepting perhaps Ben Nevis." — ['Highlands 
and Western Isles,' vol. ii. pp. 312, 315—317.] 

KEARN. See Forbes. 

KEARN. See Auchindoir. 

KEIG, or Keigh, a small parish in the district 
of Alford, county of Aberdeen ; bounded on the 
north by Leslie and Premney ; on the east by Oyne 
and Monymusk; on the south by Tough and Al- 
ford; and on the west by Tullynessle and Forbes. 
It is skirted on the south and south-east by the river 
Don ; on the west by a tributary to that river ; and 
on the east by an elevated range of hills. It is 
nearly circular in form, and of 3 to 4 miles in dia- 
meter, consisting chiefly of hilly ground, partly pas- 
toral and heathy, but containing a large proportion 
of arable and well-cultivated land, with a consider- 
able extent of natural wood, and some thriving plan- 
tations, surrounding Castle- Forbes, the seat of Lord 
Forbes, which commands a beautiful view of the 
valley of Alford, the windings of the Don for nearly 
20 miles, and the neighbouring seats and plantations. 
Population, in 1801, 379; in 1831, 592. Houses 126. 
Assessed property, in 1815, £1,262. — This parish 
is in the presbytery of Alford, and synod of Aber- 
deen. Patron, the Crown. Stipend £158 13s. 6d. ; 
glebe £12. Schoolmaster's salary £36; fees £8, 
besides a share of the Dick bequest. There is a 
private school in the parish. 

KEILLESAY, one of the Hebrides, in the shire 
of Inverness, and parish of Barra. 

KEILLS, a fishing-village in the parish of North 
Knapdale, Argyleshire, upon the eastern shore of 
the sound of Jura. It is joined to the Argyle county 
road from Crinan, that terminates near it, by a road 
rather more than a mile in length. This is the 
landing-place from the Island-roads through Jura 
and Islay. The breadth of the ferry from Lagg, the 
northern extremity of Jura road, to Keills, is about 
6 miles. 

KEIR, a parish in the centre of the district of 
Nithsdale, Dumfries-shire. It forms a slender oblong 
terminating in an angle, and stretches from north- 
west to south-west. On the north it is bounded by 
Penpont ; on the north-east by Closeburn and Kirk- 
mahoe ; on the south by Dunscore ; on the south- 
west by Glencairn ; and on the north-west by Tyn- 
ron. Its greatest length, from the boundary opposite 
Penpont village on the north-west to the confluence 
of the Nith and Allanton burn on the south-east, is 
6£ miles ; its greatest breadth, from the Nith at its 
own church on the north-east to an angle a mile dis- 
tant from Glencairn church on the south-west, is 
2£ miles. But, as it dwindles to a point at the 
south-eastern extremity, and has not an average 
breadth of quite 2 miles, its superficial area is only 
about 11 square miles. Shinnel water, coming in from 
Tynron, forms for lj mile the north-western boun- 
dary. Scaur water, drinking up the Shinnel, and 
flowing between picturesque banks, forms for 2i 




miles the boundary on the north and north-east. 
The river Nith, devouring the Scaur, and strong in 
the attractions of river-beauty, traces the north- 
eastern boundary over 4J miles to the south-eastern 
extremity. Allanton burn rises in the interior, flows 
a mile southward, traces over 2£ miles the southern 
boundary, and then loses itself in the Nith. Six rills, 
each about li mile in length, rise in the interior, and 
flow almost in parallel lines, and nearly at regular 
intervals, eastward or north-eastward, to the Nith 
and the Scaur. All the rills beautify the face of the 
country, and fling verdure and herbage on their 
banks ; and one of them traverses a romantic and 
exquisitely wooded ravine, and forms, during its 
frolicsome course, a remarkably beautiful cascade. 
Springs are everywhere abundant ; and two small 
lakes, both nearly drained, and converted into luxu- 
riant meadow, spread out their treasures on the 
opposite side of the parish to that watered by the 
Nith. Along the south-western verge of the parish 
stretches, for 4 miles, a height called Keir hill, ris- 
ing probably 800 or 900 feet above sea-level. A 
continuation of it, called Capenoch hill, trends a little 
into the interior on the north. South-east of the 
southern extremity of Keir hill rise the short parallel 
ridges of Kilbride and Blackwood hills. Along the 
banks of the Scaur and the Nith the surface is a rich 
fertile holm, and thence it ascends in a steep wooded- 
bank, in a table land, and in a somewhat rapid ac- 
clivity to the summit of Capenoch and Keir hills. 
The table-land over most of the distance is of con- 
siderable breadth ; and, being all of alluvial soil, 
appears to have been anciently the bed of a large 
lake, formed by the Nith before the river ploughed 
its way through a hilly obstruction on the south ; 
and afterwards it glides up into the gentle slope of 
Kilbride hill, and finally — along with the holm and 
the intervening bank — becomes lost in Blackwood 
hill, which presses close upon the Nith. Most of 
the parish is thus a variegated and regular descent 
from a hilly summit over a base of 2£ miles to the 
Nith ; and seen from the highway between Glasgow 
and Dumfries, as the road leaves the village of 
Thornhill, and runs down the parish of Closeburn, 
it presents a picture of no common beauty ; and 
when the road closes in upon the river, and at last 
crosses into the parish at its southern extremity along 
the famed Auldgirth bridge, the scenes of pictur- 
esqueness and profuse attraction presented by Black- 
wood hill, and the narrowed vale of the river, and 
the adornings of wood and water, are singularly 
varied and delightful. But fine as the landscapes 
are which the parish exhibits, they are very second- 
rate both in power and in expansiveness to those 
which higher grounds command. Blackwood hill, 
in particular, lifts the eye along all the brilliant and 
exulting valley of the Nith from Drumlanrig castle 
to the Solway, giving to the view all the richest 
part of both upper and lower Nithsdale, screened 
at one extremity by the central mountain-chain of 
the lowlands of Scotland, and, at the other by the 
mountains of Cumberland. The lower grounds of 
the parish are abundantly tufted both with natural 
wood and with plantation. Sandstone and limestone 
are abundant ; and the latter is worked in two lo- 
calities. Leeches are found in a lochlet near Keir- 
mill, and are sometimes sold to the apothecary. 
One-half of the parish is arable ; and the other 
half is distributed into pasture, meadow, and wood- 
lands. The mansions are Capenoch on the north ; 
Blackwood on the Nith, at the base of Blackwood 
hill ; and Barjary, 2^ miles above the latter, and half- 
a-mile from the Nith. On the demesne of Bar- 
iary are two remarkable trees, — one an oak, sup- 
posed to contain upwards of 800 feet of timber, — 

and the other a silver fir, 10 feet in ginth, upwards 
of 90 feet in height, and sending off pendulous 
branches, which form a natural arbour around its 
stem. Two hamlets, Keirmilland Barjary, stand in 
the vicinity respectively of the parish-church, and 
Barjary house. The road from Dumfries to Pen- 
pont runs over the whole length of the parish near 
the Nith and the Scaur; the Glasgow and Dum- 
fries turnpike runs for half-a-mile through its south- 
ern extremity ; and the road from Penpontto Min- 
nihive runs a mile closely within its western boun- 
dary. Population, in 1801, 771; in 1831, 1,804. 
Houses 183. Assessed property, in 1815, £3,675. 
— Keir is in the presbytery of Penpont, and synod ot 
Dumfries. Patron, the Duke of Buccleuch. Sti- 
pend £233 Is. 7d. ; glebe £18. Unappropriated 
teinds £87 18s. 5d. The parish-church, a neat 
edifice, built in 1814, is situated on the Scaur, a 
mile from the northern boundary. Sittings, about 
450. There are two parochial schools, attended by 
an average of 135 scholars. Salary of each school- 
master £25 13s. 4d., with, in one case, £21 fees, 
and £3 15s. other emoluments ; and, in the other 
case, £22 fees, and £2 other emoluments. A non- 
parochial school, attended by 22 scholars, is taught 
in the summer months by a female. Keir church 
appears anciently to have belonged to some monastery. 
On Kilbride hill once stood a chapel, every vestige 
of which has disappeared. A rankly luxuriant spot, 
very distinguishable from the circumjacent ground, 
is believed to have been the site of the cemetery. 

KEISS, a quoad sacra parish in Caithness, com- 
posed of parts of the parishes of Wick and Canisbay, 
and constituted in 1833 by the General Assembly. 

It is above 5i miles in length, by 5 in breadth . 

Population, 1,047. Church built by the Parliamen- 
tary commissioners in 1827; sittings 338; cost 
£1,500; stipend £120, paid by Government. There 
is a small Baptist congregation in the parish. 

KEITH,* a parish in the county of Banff, bounded 
on the north by Rathven and Deskford ; on the east 
by Grange and Cairney ; on the south by Cairney ; 
and on the west by Botriphine and Boharm. The 
river Isla enters the parish on the south, and runs 
northwards, between the town of Keith and Fife- 
Keith, to an artificial cut, through which, partly, it 
is continued, in a more easterly direction, to its junc- 
tion with the Altmore burn, which skirts the parish 
on the east. This parish stands in the fertile district 
of Strathisla, the greater part of which it compre- 
hends ; and, though situated nearly in the centre of 
the county, it stretches from the eastern to the west- 
ern boundary, this being one of the narrowest parts 
of the latter. The form of the parish is elliptical, 
and its average diameter about 6 miles. It anciently 
extended from Fordyce to Malloch, comprehending 
all the fertile lands watered by the Isla. No parish 
in the north of Scotland contains a more extensive 
or fertile tract of arable land than is still comprised 
in Keith. This choice district anciently belonged 
to the abbots of Kinloss, to whom it was granted by 
William the Lion ; and it yielded them a heavy ren- 
tal, even in the 16th century, when it was very ill 
cultivated. The soil is chiefly loam and clay, with 
some of a lighter quality. It is almost all in a high 
state of cultivation, chiefly effected since the period 
of the revolutionary wars. There are fine planta- 
tions on the estates of some of the principal pro- 

* The name of this parish is said to be derived from the 
Gaelic word gkaith, ' the wind,' pronounced somewhat simi- 
larly to Keith. The locality of the old village and kirk is pecu- 
liarly exposed to grists of wind, and is called Arkeitli, " an 
evident corruption of the Gaelic words Ard Ghaitk, pronounced 
Ard Gui, and signifying 'high wind.' This etymology is also 
supported by the ancient manner of spelling the name, — in 
some old charters it is written Gith, which still more resem- 
bles the word ghaith." 



prietors : these were principally laid out by the Earls 
of Fife and Seafield. Near the old village of Keith 
the Isla forms a fine cascade, called the ' Linn of 
Keith.' In this vicinity are the ruins of a castle once 
the seat of the family of Oliphant. Several Druid- 
ical circles have been found within the parish. Near 
two of these are fountains of excellent water, for- 
merly supposed to be possessed of sanative pro 
perties, and to one of which, in the memory of 
individuals living at the date of the Old Statis- 
tical Account, the superstitious resorted, and made 
offerings, for the restoration of health. " At a place 
called Killiesmont, in this parish," says Cham- 
bers, " there is one of those pieces of ground some- 
times found in Scotland, variously known by the 
name of 'the Guidman's craft,' or 'the Gi'en rig,' 
that is, given or appropriated [on a principle remind- 
ing one forcibly of the ' Taboo ' among the New Zea- 
land savages] " to the sole use of the Devil, in order 
to propitiate the good services of that malign being. 
This piece of land is on the southern declivity of a 
lofty eminence. At the upper end of the ridge there 
is a flat circular stone of about 8 feet in diameter, in 
which there are a number of holes, but for what pur- 
pose tradition is silent. Like other crofts of this 
description in Scotland, the present remained long 
uncultivated, in spite of the spread of intelligence. 
The first attempt to reclaim it was made not more 
than 50 years since, when a farmer endeavoured to 
improve it ; but, by an accidental circumstance, it 
happened that no sooner had the plough entered the 
ground than one of the oxen dropped down dead. 
Taking this as an irrefragable proof of the indigna- 
tion of its supernatural proprietor, the peasant de- 
sisted, and it remained untitled till it came into the 
possession of the present occupant, who has had the 
good taste to allow the large flat stone to remain, a 
memorial of the idle fancies of preceding genera- 
tions." — There are five distinct villages or towns in 
this parish, namely, Old Keith, New Keith, and 
Fife-Keith, described under the following article, 
and the old and new town of Newmill. In these 
towns flax-dressing, weaving, bleaching, tanning, 
distilling, and other manufacturing operations, are 
carried on. There are several lime-works in the 
parish, and a grey variety of fluor spar, one of the 
rarest of our Scottish minerals, has been found as- 
sociated with green antimony in calcareous spars. 
Population of the parish, in 1801, 3,284; in 1831, 
4,464. Houses 890. Assessed property, in 1815, 
£6,641 — Keith is in the presbytery of Strathbogie, 
and synod of Moray. Patron, the Earl of Fife. Stipend 
£221 17s. lid.; glebe £20. Unappropriated teinds 
£574 5s. lid. Church built in 1819; sittings 1,650. 
There are also in the parish an Episcopalian congre- 
gation; chapel built in 1807; sittings 150; and two 
congregations of the United Secession ; chapels built 
respectively in 1780 and 1801 ; sittings 450 and 480 : 
the stipend of the first is £80, and of the last £90 
per annum. There is also a Roman Catholic con- 
gregation Schoolmaster's salary £34; fees and 

other emoluments £90 ; besides £16 lis. derived 
from a school-endowment founded in 1648, and now 
conjoined with the parochial school ; and the interest 
of a sum of £500, recently bequeathed by the late 
Dr. Simpson of Worcester. There are 21 schools 
not parochial. The celebrated natural philosopher 
James Ferguson was a native of this parish. 

KEITH, a town in the above parish, divided into 
the three distinct villages of Old Keith, New Keith, 
and Fife- Keith, all situated on the banks of the Isla, 
surrounded by hills, and 8 miles east by south of 
Fochabers, 12 south of Cullen, 17 east-south-east of 
Elgin, and 20 south-west of Banff. Keith is one of 
the principal towns in the county. Old Keith is at 

least 500 years old; but its origin is unknown. By 
its trade and jurisdiction of regality, it was, at one 
period, superior in consequence to Banff, Cullen, and 
Fordyce, then the only other towns in the county. 
The court-of-regality sat in the church, and judged 
of pleas in general, civil or criminal, even including 
the four Crown pleas. Some of the regaUty barons 
generally assisted the bailie, as his assessors. The 
panels were put for trial into a window still called 
'the Boss window;' and were committed, on con- 
viction, to the steeple, as a jail. In capital convic- 
tions they were executed on the hill where New 
Keith has since been built. The old town appears 
to have corresponded in magnitude to the extent of 
its judicial authority, stretching along the Isla to a 
considerable length. Early in last century it was 
celebrated for 'the Summer-eve fair,' still held, but 
then one of the greatest fairs in Scotland, lasting a 
week in the middle of September, and resorted to 
by multitudes so great, " that the place was by no 
means fit to contain them, and they lay by dozens, 
male and female together, for miles round the whole 
country." Being built in a very irregular and incon- 
venient manner, the old town was gradually aban- 
doned ; dwindling, latterly, into a mean hamlet. 
During the civil wars of 1645 and 1745, Old Keith 
was the scene of events meriting some notice. On 
the 30th June, 1645, the army of Baillie occupied an 
advantageous position near the old church, which 
then stood at the south-western extremity of the 
town. Montrose endeavoured to draw him from 
this position by offering to fight ' on fair ground,' 
but the Covenanter declined the proposal. In 1745 
Captain Glasgow, an Irishman in the French service, 
encountered a Government party stationed here, de- 
feated them, and carried off 150 prisoners. The only 
other skirmish recorded by tradition to have occurred 
in this vicinity, was about a century before this 
period, when Peter Roy Maegregor, a Highland free- 
booter who infested this part of the country with an 
organized gang of robbers, was taken by Gordon of 
Glengerack, after a desperate resistance, and exe- 
cuted at Edinburgh. 

New Keith was begun to be built about the year 
1750, on the eastern declivity of a gentle eminence 
south-east of Old Keith, on the same side of the 
Isla, and then forming part of a barren moor. It 
is built on a regular plan, consisting of five prin- 
cipal streets, intersected by lanes, with the mar- 
ket-place, a spacious square near the centre of the 
town. Houses, with Old Keith, 371. The court- 
house, situated in the market-place, was out of re- 
pair at the period of the municipal inquiry, — it is a 
plain building. In 1823 the Earl of Seafield, superior 
of the barony of Keith, erected a commodious inn, 
containing a large hall for the courts. The parish- 
church is an elegant edifice, with a tower 100 feet 
and upwards in height, and a clock and bell. The 
Episcopal chapel, the two Secession meeting-houses, 
and the Roman Catholic chapel, noticed above, are 
all in the town of New Keith, — there is also a Metho- 
dist chapel, but no minister. The Roman Catholic 
chapel is an elegant and much admired edifice, in the 
Roman Doric style of architecture, after the beauti- 
ful model of St. Maria-de-Vittoria, at Rome, — the 
interior is tastefully ornamented, and contains a 
splendid altar-piece, — subject, The Incredulity of St. 
Thomas, — presented, in 1828, by Charles X. of 
France, by whose principal artist it was painted on 
purpose. A subscription-library, containing an ex- 
cellent and extensive collection of miscellaneous 
works, was established in 1810. The parochial 
school, situated in New Keith, is of considerable 
repute, having long been celebrated as an initiative 
seminary for youths intended for the university. 



Though not a burgh, Keith was visited by the muni- 
cipal commissioners, who reported that "the inha- 
bitants are generally extremely desirous to have a 
constitution, and a regular system of magistracy and 
police, which they state is the more necessary from 
the distance and little intercourse between Keith 
and the county town of Banff." The streets were 
not lighted, nor was water conveyed into them, and 
the side-streets and bye-lanes were neglected. The 
feuars of that part of the town situated within the 
barony of Keith, or Ogilvie, property of the Earl of 
Seafield, were bound, by their feu charters, to assist 
the Earl's bailie, or chamberlain, in maintaining a 
few simple police regulations, and to obey all the 
bailie-court decrees, and " keep their houses and 
gardens in decent repair, conform to the regulations 
of the royal burghs of Scotland," &c. Besides some 
manufactories of woollen, and others above noticed, 
there are also two establishments, in New Keith, for 
the manufacture of tobacco, and a snuff-mill, — the 
only one north of Aberdeen, except one at Inverness. 
A considerable trade in yarn and linen manufactures 
was carried on here, till the general introduction of 
the cotton manufacture. There are three branch- 
banks in the town, viz., the Aberdeen Commercial, 
the Aberdeen town and county, and the National. 
There is also a Savings' bank. A weekly market is 
held on Friday for grain and other agricultural pro- 
duce ; and there are four annual fairs, two of which 
are important cattle- markets. Summer-eve fair is 
still by far the greatest fair in the North for cattle 
and horses.* 

Fife- Keith has risen since 1816. It is situated 
on the northern bank of the Isla, opposite Old Keith, 
and consists of a principal street, on the high road 
from Aberdeen to Inverness ; three other streets 
running parallel, north and south ; a neat square in 
the centre of the town ; and a handsome crescent 

* Keith ia the point whence cattle-dealers calculate the com- 
mencement of the journey of their cattle Irom the North to Bar- 
nett fair, the great metropolitan market, on the Great North 
road, in the vicinity of London, this point being in a manner 
a key to the Highlands of the north of Scotland and the fertile 
plaius of Morayshire. The journey from Keith to Barnett oc- 
cupies 34 days, — the average number of miles travelled each day 
being 16. The cattle and horses are collected in the north of 
England and in Scotland, in the early part of the season. Up- 
wards of 45 000 head of cattle, and 10,000 horses change owners 
at this fair. Since the introduction of steam-vessels to the 
northern parts of Scotland, especially the Moray frith, the tran- 
sit of cattle to the metropolis has become a matter of easy ac- 
complishment, but it will be a long period before journeys by 
land be superseded. It is a question if the old system be ever 
totally done away with, as the following description of the 
route and method of accomplishing it will show: besides, 
many of the cattle are purchased at markets in the interior of 
the country, and the easy progress of the animals in their jour- 
ney southward improves their condition previous to their being 
submitted at the London market. The majority of the dealers 
who attend Barnett fair reside in some of the rich aud fertile 
counties on the borders of England and Scotland, and when the 
opening spring and genial April showers supply a store of pro- 
vision. These enterprising men proceed northwards, in some 
instances as far as the Kyle of Sutherland, before they com- 
mence operations. In their progress southward they vi&it the 
Muir of Ord, and collect as they proceed through the eastern 
parts of Inverness and Nairn, ftloray, Banff, and Aberdeen 
shires, the small but beautiful Highland breed of cattle pur 
chased during the previous season by the agriculturists of these 
districts. The markets are so excellently arranged throughout 
Scotland, that by the time the dealers meet at Falkirk tryst 
they have generally collected a very large stock. The cattle are 
theu formed into lots of about 1,000 each, and intrusted to a 
number of Scottish drovers, and the dealer sees no more of 
them until he meets the whole at Barnett. The pay of a drover 
is 2s. per day, and the expense of his bed. When he crosses the 
Tweed he is allowed what is termed night-wages, to the amount 
of Is. extra from the owner, and Is. from the grazier who sup- 
plies food for the cattle. The amount realized by a drover, for 
the whole journey, is about £8, and from 10s. to 15s. for return 
money. The majority of the drovers return by land, in parties 
of 20, and accomplish the distance in 13 days, at an average ex- 
pense of Is. per day, including food and lodging. And yet one 
of these men, whose whole wardrobe would not fetch 4d. in 
Rosemary-lane, is intrusted with from £700 to £800 to pay 
the expenses of the food required by the cattle, and the tolls to 
be passed during the journey. The number of Scottish drovers 
visiting Barnett fair annually is about 1,500. 

facing the Isla, over which there are here two 
bridges connecting Fife-Keith with Old Keith. The 
number of houses in Fife-Keith, in 1831, was 110. 
The number contained in the united villages of Keith 
and Fife-Keith was 481, — at the period of the muni- 
cipal inquiry about 509; the number of inhabitants 
about 2,500. The number of persons then registered 
as voters in the county, in respect of feu tenements, 
was about 40, and nearly 20 more were qualified. 
There were about 30 tenants of houses at £10 and 
upwards of rent. 

KEITH-HALL and KINKELL, two united 
parishes in the district of Garioch, county of Aber- 
deen, on the north-eastern banks of the Don, and its 
tributary the Urie, at their junction, and hounded 
on the north by Bourtie and Udny ; on the east by 
New Machar and Fintray ; on the south by Fintray ; 
and on the west by Kintore and Inverury. The 
parish is of an oblong form, about 6 miles in length 
irom north to south, by 5 in breadth. f The dis- 
trict is hilly, though not mountainous, and the soil 
is various ; being generally fertile on the western 
side, towards the rivers, but inferior towards the 
east. There are several extensive mosses ; but 
some parts otherwise unfruitful are now under 
thriving plantations, and agriculture is in an im- 
proved state, — good crops of oats, barley, pease, 
turnips, and potatoes, being raised. The district has 
been much benefited by its vicinity to the canal be- 
tween Inverury and Aberdeen. Keith-hall, the seat 
of the Earl of Kintore, and Balbithan, are adorned 
with plantations of considerable extent and contain- 
ing some fine old trees. There are remains of Dru- 
idical temples at Balbithan, and elsewhere in the 
parish. Numerous cairns have been found scattered 
over Kinmuck-moor, and localities are still pointed 
out where warlike operations have occurred between 
the Scots and Danes, the field of battle, on one 
occasion, having extended over the whole parish. 
" The famous Johnston, next to Buchanan the best 
Latin poet of modern times," says the author of the 
Old Statistical Account, " was horn at Caskiebean, 
which he celebrates. He mentions a curious fact, 
viz., that the shadow of the high mountain of Ben- 
ochie, distant about 6 English miles, extends to the 
house of Caskiebean, at the equinox. The High 
Constable of Dundee, Scrimgeour, who fell at Har- 
law, was buried at Kinkell, and has a Latin inscrip- 
tion on his monument, ill preserved. Many others, 
who fell in this battle, are said to have been buried 
at Kinkell, which was the principal church in that 
part of the county. Tradition also speaks of an 
eminent woman, ' The Lass of Patie's mill.' Her 
maiden name was Anderson. A great-grandson of 
hers, aged 89, and a number of her descendants, re- 
side in this district, and in the parishes of Kinnellar 
and Dyce. Her father was proprietor of Patie's 
mill in Keith-hall; of Tullikearie in Fintray; and 
Standing-stones in the parish of Dyce. From her 
beauty, or fortune, or from both causes, she had 
many admirers ; and she was an only child. One 
Sangster, laird of Boddom, in New Machar parish, 
wished to carry her off, but was discovered by his 
dog, and very roughly handled by her father, who 
was called ' black John Anderson.' In revenge he 

f The ancient name of one of the parishes was Montkeggie, 

origin and etymology unknown. Kinkell retains its old name, 
derived from the Gaelic, aud signifying ' the head or principal 
church,' a name appropriated from the circumstance of six in- 
ferior parishes having originally belonged to the parsonage of 
Kinkell. The authority for the modern name was derived 
from the Lords Commissioners for the plantation of kirks, who, 
in 1754, disjoined about one-third of the parish of Kinkell, and 
annexed it to Kintore. The other two-thirds they annexed to 
Keith-hall or Montkeggie ; and they appointed that these par- 
ishes should henceforth be called the united parishes of Keith- 
hall and Kinkell. 




wrote an ill-natured song, of which her great-grand- 
son remembers these words : 

Ye'U tell the gowk that gets her, 

He gets but my auld sheen. 

She was twice married; first, to a namesake of her 
own, who came from the south country, and is said 
to have composed the song, to her praise, that is so 
generally admired, and partakes much of the music 
which, at that time, abounded between the Tay and 
the Tweed. Her second husband was one James 
George, — and she had children by both. Like most 
other beauties, she was unfortunate. Her father 
killed a man in the burgh of Inverury; and was 
obliged to fly to Caithness, or Orkney, where his 
uncle was bishop. His flight, and the expense of 
procuring a pardon, ruined his estate." This is the 
tradition.. — "But, perhaps," adds the same writer, 
" the Lass of Patie's mill may be claimed by as many- 
parishes of Scotland as Homer's birth-place was by 
the cities of Greece.' It is only certain that, in this 
district, there was a young woman, heiress of Patie's 
mill, who was lampooned by a disappointed lover, 
and praised by a successful one." The parish of 
Galston in Ayrshire also claims the Lass of Patie's 
mill. — This parish is in the synod of Aberdeen, and 
presbytery of Garioch. Patron, the Earl of Kintore. 
Minister's stipend £216 17s. lid. ; glebe £30. Un- 
appropriated teinds £42 14s. lid Schoolmaster's 

salary £30 ; fees and other emoluments £40. There 
is a private school in the parish. Population, in 
1801, 853; in 1831, 877. Houses 172. Assessed 
property, in 1815, £2,019. 


KEITH-INCH, a promontory in the parish of 
Peterhead, county of Aberdeen, constituting the 
most eastern point of land in Scotland, and bounding 
the bay of Peterhead on the north. The name is 
given to the whole of the small island which divides 
the town of Peterhead from the sea ; and the town 
itself, in the cbarter-of-erection by George Earl 
Marischall, in 1593, is named Keith-Inch, alias 

r^ pt p v li Pin 


KELLO WATER, a rivulet of Dumfries-shire. 
It rises on the north side of Torryburnrig on the 
boundary with Ayrshire, traces that boundary 1| 
mile northward, and then runs 4J miles eastward, 
and 1^ north-eastward, between the parishes of 
Kirkconnel and Sanquhar, and falls into the Nith 1| 
mile below the village of Kirkconnel. Over its 
whole course it is strictly a mountain-stream. 

KELLS, a parish — the south-western one in the 
district of Glenkens — in the northern division of 
Kirkcudbrightshire. Its form is not dissimilar to that 
of a flying kite, the triangular part elongated and 
pointing its terminating angle to the south-east. 
Its greatest length, from the boundary a little above 
Craig- Nilder on the north-west, to the confluence of 
the Dee and the Ken on the south-east, is 16^ miles ; 
and its greatest breadth, from the confluence of the 
Ken and the Carsphairn on the north-east, to the 
confluence of the Dee and Cooran-Lane on the south- 
west, is 9i miles. Five miles before its confluence 
with the Dee the Ken begins to expand to a width 
of from i to | of a mile, which it maintains till it 
leaves the parish, and is continued southward under 
the name of the Dee. The expanded part of the 
river is called Loch- Ken: which see. In the north- 
ern division of the parish are three lakes — Loch-Har- 
row, Loch-Minnick, and Loch-Dungeon, the last and 
largest J of a mile in length — which greatly abound 
in trout. In the south are Stroan-loch, formed by 
the expansion of the Dee on the boundary and Black- 
loch, midway between this and Loch-Ken, which, 
besides being stored with trout, perch, eel, and sal- 

mon, produce pike of very large size. The head of 
a pike caught with the rod, and weighing 57 pounds, 
was long preserved at Kenmuir castle; and fre- 
quently some are taken of from 20 to 30 pounds 
weight. " There is a fishing in this parish," says the 
Old Statistical Account, " claimed as no man's pro- 
perty, that cannot be easily estimated. I mean a 
pearl fishery. In dry summers great numbers of pearls 
are fished here ; some of great size and fine water, 
and are sold from Is. to £1 Is. according to their 
size and beauty." The flat expanse of land at the 
head of Loch-Ken, enriched by the overflowings of 
the river — which here diffuses its alluvial wealth in 
the manner of a mimic Nile — is probably unsurpassed 
in its fertility by any ' perpetual soil ' in Scotland. 
So late as 50 years ago, when it owed comparatively 
little to the dressings of modern improvements in 
agriculture, some of it had been cropped 25 years 
successively without other manure than the Ken's 
deposits. The whole vale of the Ken, in its screen 
or back-ground of flanking hills, in the undulations 
and ravines of its slopes, in the verdant carpeting 
and sylvan adorning of its plain, and in the sumptu- 
ousness of its mansions and demesnes and the beau- 
teous meanderings of its river, affords a series of 
scenic views abundantly rich enough to vindicate the 
fame which the district of Glenkens has acquired for 
its landscapes. Over 5 miles from the southern ex- 
tremity is the fine scenery which overhangs Loch- 
Ken; and over another mile northward are the 
attractive groupings around Kenmore-Castle, and 
the burgh of New Galloway : See these articles. 
Two miles to the north a richly cultivated tract 
opens to the view, enclosed in the form of an amphi- 
theatre by the circumjacent hills. On the east side 
of the river, in the conterminous parish, the widely 
expanded village of Dairy, with its verdant crofts, 
and its tracery of hedges and rows of trees, looking 
in the perspective like a town of villas sprinkled 
among gardens, looks down from the brow of a ris- 
ing ground ; and on the west side, or within Kells, 
are the house of Waterside, the wooded vale of 
Combe burn coming down to the Ken, the neat 
farm-stead of Glenlee seated amidst a fantastic 
sprinkling of trees, the picturesquely situated mill 
of Glenlee, and, at a small distance below, the house 
and ornamented grounds of Glenlee-park. Even be- 
fore Sir Thomas Miller of Glenlee, lord-president 
of the court-of-session in the latter part of last cen- 
tury, improved and decorated his grounds, they pos- 
sessed many delightful dashes of natural wild beauty ; 
and, after passing beneath the tasteful touches of his 
hand, and acquiring additional feature from the en- 
largement of his mansion, they became one of the 
finest spots in the south of Scotland. These grounds 
rise with a very gentle slope from the Ken, waving 
in varied inequalities of surface, and bearing aloft 
crowns and wreathings of plantation on the summits 
or round the brows of their knolly heights. Their 
northern boundary is a burn of two headwaters, each 
3 or 4 miles in length of course, which, in two places 
within the grounds, falls in fine cascades over ledges 
of rock. When the stream is swollen by rains the 
appearance of the cascades so amazes the eye, and 
the noise of their fall so stuns the ear, as to raise 
emotions of sublimity and terror. A pool which re- 
ceives one of them is fancifully called by the neigh- 
bouring peasants Hell's hole, and, on account of its 
great depth, is fabled by them to be bottomless. 
The banks of the stream abruptly rise, in some 
places, to a considerable height, and hang out um- 
brageous coverings of trees and underwood over the 
current. Three miles north of Glenlee another 
range of interesting scenery opens before the tour- 
ist up the Ken. The houses of Barskeech, Stran- 




fasket, Knoeknalling, and Earlston, with their green 
parks and beltings of wood, lie under the eye, all 
very nearly from one point ; Pollharrow burn, the 
largest of the minor streams of the parish, comes 
down with wooded banks between two of these 
seats ; the Ken, rippling along its narrow plain, has 
put on the attractions which draw favour upon it as 
it advances ; and the back-ground of upland scenery 
recedes in the north-west into the cloud-cleaving 
Rhinns of Kells, the highest mountains in Galloway. 
North-west of this spot, but south of the Rhinns, 
and in the interior of the parish, are stinted remains 
of an ancient and very large forest, supposed to 
have been originally a hunting-ground of the lords 
of Galloway, and adopted as a royal forest by the 
dynasty of Bruce. Two large farms on the locality 
have the names of the Upper and the Nether Forest ; 
and remaining patches of wood, and a large expanse 
of meadow, are still called respectively the King's 
forest and the King's holm. Deer anciently abound- 
ed in the forest, and were remembered to have been 
seen scouring the moors in flocks by persons alive 
toward the close of last century, but were exter- 
minated about the year 1786. — All the surface of this 
extensive parish, except in the parts we have noticed, 
is wildly upland, and at intervals repulsively dreary 
in aspect, — presenting none but tameless prospects 
to the eye, morasses, wide tracts of heath, pervading 
congeries of craggy hills, here and there a rivulet, 
and, few and far between, chilled and desolate- 
looking farm-houses. On the south-west side, from 
the old bridge of Dee, 5 miles south-eastward to a 
point opposite the head of Loch-Ken, stretches a 
range of high hills, which press close upon the 
Dee, and have a breadth or base of 3 miles inland. 
These hills are one solid mass of granite, almost 
naked, but occasionally patched with heath ; and on 
their slopes, as well as on the flat grounds at their 
base, for about a mile on the south-west, are de- 
tached blocks of granite, many of them 1 tons in 
weight, and all lying so thickly that a pedestrian 
might almost make his way along the surface by 
stepping from stone to stone. On the north-west 
and north sides of the parish extend for about 9 miles 
the Rhinns of Kells, visible at 40 miles' distance, 
capped with snow during eight and sometimes nine 
months in the year, carpeted on their lower acclivi- 
ties with coarse grass, and stretching at mid-distance 
between the western and eastern seas of Scotland. 
On the side of one of these hills is a rocking-stone 8 
or IQ tons in weight, so poised that the pressure of 
a finger may move it, and so positioned that the 
united force of a considerable number of men could 
not hurl it from its place. The stone resembles the 
famous one at Stonehenge, and others of less cele- 
brity in Perthshire. Whether it is a natural curi- 
osity formed by the scooping away of a soft stratum 
beneath through the attritions of the elements, or 
an instrument of priestcraft laboriously chiselled and 
elevated on its position in an age of darkness for 
overawing devotees, is a question which men have 
keenly debated To effect the agricultural improve- 
ment of various districts, but chiefly of Kells, in the 
latter part of last century, Mr. Gordon of Greenlaw, 
the sheriff of the county, not only encouraged the 
draining of Castledouglas-loch, which lies 7£ miles 
distant from the confluence of the Ken and the Dee, 
and was surpassingly rich in its store of shell marl, 
but at his own expense cut a canal of 3 miles in 
length to the Dee, and constructed a number of flat- 
bottomed boats for the portation of the valuable 
manure. Nearly the whole improveable part of the 
parish began suddenly to wear a totally renovated 
aspect ; and when marl could no longer be obtained, 
so aroused were the population from the slothful prac- 

tices of a former age to the enterprising habits of 
keen improvers, that they found means, in the form 
of lime and other aids, to maintain a luxuriance in 
the arable stripes among their wild hills, which may 
almost compare with the fertility of the most favoured 
and best cultivated districts of Scotland. The great 
body of the parish, however, necessarily either lies 
waste, or affords pasture to large flocks of sheep, and 
to numerous herds of the celebrated Galloway breed 

of black cattle In a rocky hill near the southern 

extremity is abundance of iron ore ; but, owing to 
the dearth of fuel, it is not worked. Near the 
northern extremity, in the hill-screen of the Ken, 
was formerly a quarry of excellent slate. On the 
Glenlee and Kenmore estates is lead ore ; and near 
a mine which was commenced on the former, but 
never extensively wrought, are appearances of cop- 
per The turnpike from Kirkcudbright to Ayrshire 

traverses the whole length of the parish up the vale 
of the Ken, and that from Dumfries to Newton- 
Stewart traverses 6^ miles from east to west, — the 
roads intersecting each other at the burgh of New 
Galloway. Population of the parish, in 1801, 778; 
in 1831, 1,728. Houses 190. Assessed property, in 
1815, £4,496. — Kells is in the presbytery of Kirk- 
cudbright, and synod of Galloway. Patron, the 
Crown. Stipend £299 9s. 8d. ; glebe £12. School- 
master's salary £34, with £30 fees. The ancient 
church or rectory of Kells, situated in the arch- 
deaconry of Galloway, was given in free alms by 
Robert Bruce to Gilbert of Galloway, the arch- 
deacon, and appended to the archdeaconry ; but, 
early in the 16th century, it was transferred by 
James IV. to the chapel-royal of Stirling ; and it 
continued to be one of its prebends till the Reforma- 
tion. In 1640 a large section of the ancient parish 
on the north was detached, and, along with a section 
from Dairy, erected into the parish of Carsphairn. 
New Galloway in Kells was the birth-place of 
Robert Heron, the editor of Sir John Sinclair's Sta- 
tistical Account of Scotland, and the author of num- 
erous works, carelessly written but indicative of 
high genius, who makes an unenviable figure in 
DTsraeli's Calamities of Authors. Heron was for 
some time a parochial schoolmaster of the neigh- 
bouring parish of Kelton. 

KELLY-BURN, a small rivulet on the north- 
east extremity of Ayrshire, the boundary, in that 
quarter, betwixt it and Renfrewshire. 

KELSO, a parish in the north-east division of 
Roxburghshire; bounded on the north by Nenthorn 
in Berwickshire; on the north-east by Ednam; on the 
east by Sprouston ; on the south-east by Eckford ; 
on the south-west by Roxburgh ; and on the west 
by Makerston and Smailholm. Its extreme length, 
from a point where it is touched by Eden water on 
the north, to an angle a little south of West Softlaw 
on the south, is 4J miles; and its extreme breadth, 
from an angle on the Tweed below Sharpitlaw on 
the east, to an angle beyond Wester Moordean on 
the west, is A\ miles. But it is extremely irregular 
in outline, contracts to a point on the south, has an 
average breadth of not more than 2J- miles, and mea- 
sures, in superficial area, only about 4,400 imperial 
acres. The Tweed comes in on the west, forms for 
a mile the boundary with Roxburgh, makes large 
bends for 2 miles till it passes the town, and then 
goes away \\ mile north-eastward to the point of 
its leaving the parish. The Teviot, after tracing for 
J of a mile the western boundary, comes in at a 
point only j of a mile south of the Tweed, and, 
vying with it in the curving beauty of its course, 
and the'sumptuous richness of its scenery, so coyly 
approaches as not to make a confluence till opposite 
the town, a mile below the point of entering. At 



the average distance of 1J or 2 miles from the Tweed, 
and nearly parallel with it, runs the Eden ; but it 
merely touches a projecting angle, and passes on, 
serving chiefly to give the northern division of the 
parish a peninsular character. The Tweed, in its 
transit, averages about 440 or 450 feet in width, and 
the Teviot about 200. The two rivers are sometimes 
simultaneously flooded, and run together in headlong 
and riotous confluence, combining the might of their 
swollen and careering waters to introduce to the 
generally tranquil and smiling scene the elements of 
sublimity and terror. Immediately below their point 
of junction was recently an opulently wooded islet, 
which lay like an emerald gem on their bosom, and 
contributed a feature of striking interest to a sump- 
tuously clothed landscape ; and this, in spite of the 
efforts of the town's people to bulwark it by rude 
masonry, they have at various periods torn up and 
dissevered, till only some tiny fragments remain, 
soon probably to follow the main body of the islet 
as trophies of the rivers' prowess. The Teviot — 
more subject to floods than the Tweed, and nearer 
the mountain-land where its waters are gathered, 
and occasionally liable to rise with a suddenness 
which in 10 or 15 minutes will increase fourfold its 
volume — frequently comes down in red wrath upon 
the quiet Tweed, drives up its pellucid waters 
against the north side of their common channel, and 
for some distance pursues a distinct course along the 
south side before a commingling of waters is effected. 
The point of confluence, with its intervening pen- 
insula, is one of the loveliest in Scotland; but is 
marred in its beauty by a mill-lead carrying off from 
the Teviot a considerable body of its wealth, just 
where all its opulence is most needed, to make a 
suitable approach to the magnificent monarch-river 
to which it pays tribute. Half-a-mile south of the 
town, the Woodens, a rill of about a mile in length 
of course, joins the Tweed from the south, making 
at one point a tiny but very beautiful cascade, and 
flowing along a wooded and romantic ravine. Seen 
from the heights of Stitchel 3 miles to the north, 
the whole parish appears to be part of an extensive 
and picturesque strath, — a plain intersected by two 
rivers, and richly adorned with woods; but seen 
from the low grounds close upon the Tweed, near 
the town, it is a diversified basin, — a gently receding 
amphitheatre, — low where it is cut by the rivers, and 
cinctured in the distance by a boundary of sylvan 
heights. On the north side of the Tweed it slowly 
rises in successive wavy ridges, tier behind tier, till 
an inconsiderable summit-level is attained; and on 
the south side, while it generally makes a gradual 
rise, it is cut down on the west into a diverging 
stripe of lowland by the Teviot, ascends, in some 
places, in an almost acclivitous way from the banks, 
and sends up in the distance hilly and hard-featured 
elevations, which, though subject to the plough, are 
naturally pastoral. The whole district is surpass- 
ingly rich in the features of landscape which strictly 
constitute the beautiful, — unmixed with the grand, 
or, except in rare touches, with the romantic. The 
views presented from the knolly height of Roxburgh 
castle, and from the immediate vicinity of the Ducal 
mansion of Fleurs, are so luscious, so full and mi- 
nute in feature, that they must be seen in order to 
be appreciated. The view from the bridge, a little 
below the confluence of the rivers, though greatly 
too rich to be depicted in words, and demanding 
consummate skill in order to be pencilled in colours, 
admits at least an easy enumeration of its leading 
features. Immediately on the north lies the town, 
with the majestic ruins of its ancient abbey, and the 
handsome fabric of Ednam-house; 1^ mile to the 
north-west, rises the magnificent pile of Fleurs 

castle, amidst a profusion and an expanse coming 
down to the Tweed of wooded decorations; in front 
are two islets in the Tweed, and between that river 
and the Teviot the beautiful peninsula of Friar's or 
St. James' Green, with the fair green in its fore- 
ground, and the venerable and tufted ruins of Rox- 
burgh castle, 1J mile distant;' on the south-west, 
within a fine bend of the Teviot, are the mansion 
and demesne of Springwood, and away behind them, 
in far perspective, looking down the exulting vale of 
the Tweed, the Eildon hills lift up their triple sum- 
mit; a little to the east, close upon the view, rises 
the fine form of Pinnacle-hill; away in the distance 
behind the town, rise the conspicuous ruin of Home 
castle, and the hills of Stitchel and Mellerstain. 
and, in addition, are the curvings and rippling cur- 
rents of the rivers, — beltings and clumps and lines 
of plantation, — the steep precipices of Maxwell and 
Chalkheugh, — exuberant displays of agricultural 
wealth and social comfort, — and reminiscences, sug- 
gestible to even a tyro in history, of events in olden 
times which mingle delightfully in the thoughts with 
a contemplation of the landscape. Sir Walter Scott 
— who often revelled amidst this scenery in the latter 
years of his boyhood, — ascribes to its influence upon 
his mind the awakening within him of that " in- 
satiable love of natural scenery, more especially 
when combined with ancient ruins or remains of our 
fathers' piety or splendour," which at once charac- 
terized and distinguished him as a writer, and im- 
parted such a warmth and munificence of colouring 
to all his literary pictures. Leyden, too — who had 
around bim in the vale of the Teviot, and the 
" dens " of its tributary rills in the immediate vici- 
nity of his home at Denholm, quite enough to exhaust 
the efforts of a lesser poet — sung impassionedly the 
beauties of Kelso : — 

" Bosom'd in woods where mighty rivers run, 
Kelso's fair vale expands before the sun ; 
Its rising downs in vernal beauty swell. 
And, fringed with hazle, winds each flowery dell ; 
Green spangled plains to dimpling lawns succeed, 
And Tempe rises on the banks of Tweed : 
Blue o'er the river Kelso's shadow lies, 
And copse-clad isles amid the water rise." 

Scenes of Infancy. 
About 19 parts in 22 of the parish are arable 
ground; and the rest of the surface is disposed in 
plantation, pasture, and the site of the town. On 
the banks of the rivers is a rich deep loam, on a 
subsoil of gravel; in the north-western division, it 
is a wet clay ; and in the south, it is thin and wet, 
upon a red aluminous subsoil. Before the general 
manurial use of lime and marl, the district was re- 
markably poor, scarcely yielding to the farmer — 
especially on the wet soils — a compensation for his 
labour. So grossly was the land neglected, too, 
and so sluttishly were all the present meadows al- 
lowed to exist as marshes and stagnant pools, luxu- 
riant only in reeds and flags, and the resort of the 
wild duck and the sea-mew, that the very climate 
was rendered pestilential, and laden with the fame 
of insalubriousness. But nowhere in Scotland does 
the practice of agriculture now exist in more skill, or 
achieve higher results proportionately to the capa- 
bilities of the soil. Farms are in general large, — a 
great proportion being upwards of 500 acres in ex- 
tent. The cattle-stock is chiefly the short-horned 
or Teeswater breed. — The only village in the parish 
is Maxwellheugh : which see. Besides the man- 
sions incidentally noticed, are Pinnacle-hill on the 
south bank of the Tweed, seated, opposite the east 
end of Kelso, on the summit of the precipitous emi- 
nence from which it derives its names, and sending 
down its attendant woods to the edge of the river, 
. — Wooden, within whose grounds is the exquisite 
scenery of Wooden-burn, — and Rosebank, on the 



north side of the Tweed, opposite Wooden. Turn- 
pikes radiate in various directions from the town 
toward Edinburgh, Greenlaw, Leitholm, Coldstream, 
Sprouston, Yetholm, and Hawick, — two of these 
lines being part of the great road from Berwick up 
the Tweed and the Teviot leading onward to Car- 
lisle. The bridges are substantial, and, in two in- 
stances, elegant. Twenty- three years ago, an act 
of parliament was obtained for a Kelso and Berwick 
railway; but, for some unexplained reason, it con- 
tinues to this hour a dead letter. Among the vari- 
ous plans for completing a railway communication 
between London and Edinburgh, is Mr. Remington's 
inland line from Newcastle, by Morpeth, Wooler, 
Kelso, and Dalkeith, an actual distance to Dalkeith 
of 104 miles 10 chains; the equivalent being 110 
miles 18 chains. This line would enter Scotland at 
a point 59 miles distant from Newcastle ; and cross 
the Tweed at Kelso between the 65th and 66th 

mile Population, in 1801, 4,196; in 1831, 4,939. 

Houses 618. Assessed property, in 1815, £15,619. 
Kelso is the seat of a presbytery in the synod of 
Merse and Teviotdale. Patron, the Duke of Rox- 
burgh. Stipend £320 13s. 6d.; glebe £54 15s. 
According to an ecclesiastical survey in November, 
1835, the population then consisted of 2,670 church- 
men, 2,042 dissenters, and 376 persons not known 
to belong to any religious denomination, — in all 
5,088. The parish-church was built in 1773, altered 
in 1823, and enlarged in 1833. Sittings 1,314. 
A new church in connexion with the Establishment 
was begun in 1836, and finished in 1838, at a cost of 
upwards of £3,000, defrayed by subscription. Sit- 
tings 800 There are in the parish — their places of 

worship all situated in the town — 5 dissenting con- 
gregations. The United Secession congregation was 
established in 1752. Their meeting-house was built 
in 1787-8, and, with its pertinents, is estimated in 
value at not less than £2,500. Sittings 955. Stipend 

£200, with a manse and garden worth £30 The 

Relief congregation was established in 1 792. Their 
place of worship was built in 1 793, and is supposed to 
be now worth £1,050. Sittings 768. Stipend £160, 
with a manse and garden worth £45. — The Epis- 
copalian congregation was regularly formed in 1757, 
but claims to have been continued from 1688. Their 
former chapel was built in 1763. Sittings 218; but 
a new and handsome chapel has recently been erected. 

Stipend fluctuating with the state of the funds The 

Reformed Presbyterian congregation has existed for 
more than 55 years. Their place of worship was 
built about 55 years ago, and is supposed to have 
cost about £300. Sittings 320. Stipend £84, with 
a house and garden worth £16. — The Original Se- 
ceder congregation was established and their meet- 
ing-house built in 1772. Sittings between 600 and 
700. Stipend variable, with a manse and garden 

worth £10 to £12 There are in the parish 12 

schools, conducted by 15 teachers, and attended by 
a maximum of 765 scholars. One is a classical school, 
whose teacher employs an assistant, and has £34 
4s. 9£d. of salary, with £80 fees, and £10 other 
emoluments; one is an English school, ranked, 
jointly with the former, as parochial, whose teacher 
has £5 lis. 6d. of salary with fees; two are board- 
ing-schools for young ladies; one is the Friendly 
school, whose teacher is guaranteed £40 a-year by 
a voluntary association, and whose scholars, all boys 
and 1 13 in number, pay each Id. per week; and two 
are schools whose teachers are provided with school- 
rooms and dwelling-houses, but have no other emo- 
lument than fees The present parish comprehends 

the ancient parishes of Kelso or St. Mary's, Max- 
well, and St. James. The first of these lay on the 
north side of the Tweed, and was within the diocese 

of St. Andrews, and the second and third lay on the 
south side, and were within that of Glasgow, — the 
river being here the boundary. David I., at his ac- 
cession to the throne, witnessed the existence of 
St. Mary's church of Kelso; and, in 1128, with the 
consent of the bishop of St. Andrews, he transplanted 
to it the monks of Selkirk. The church became 
now identified with the monastery, and was hence- 
forth called the church of St. Mary and St. John, — 
the Tyronensian monks being accustomed to dedicate 
their sacred edifices to the Virgin and the Evangelist. 
In the church were anciently several altars dedicated 
to various saints and endowed for the support of chap- 
lains. When the Scoto- Saxon period began, the an- 
cient parish of St. James, or of Old Roxburgh, was pro- 
vided with two churches, — the one dedicated to St. 
James for the use of the town, and the other dedicated 
to St. John for the use of the castle. Malcolm IV. 
granted both churches and their appurtenances to 
Herbert, bishop of Glasgow. But the monks of 
Kelso — to whom David I. made mention of it in their 
charter — considered that of St. James as part of their 
property, and drew from it a considerable revenue; 
and, being little attentive to it except for its minis- 
trations to their avarice, they, in 1433, received a 
mandate from the abbot of Dryburgh, as delegate of 
the Pope, commanding them to provide it with a 
chaplain. The parish of Maxwell, or according to 
its ancient orthography, Maccuswell, derived its 
name from the proprietor of the manor, Maccus, the 
son of Unwein, who witnessed many charters of 
David I. Herbert de Maccuswell gave the church 
to the monks of Kelso; and he built a chapel at 
Harlaw, about a mile from it, dedicated it to St. 
Thomas the martyr, and gave it also to the monks. 
— On the left bank of the Teviot stood anciently 
a Franciscan convent, consecrated by William, 
bishop of Glasgow, in the year 1235. Till near the 
end of last century, a fine arch of the church of the 
convent, and other parts of the building, were in 
preservation. On the right bank of the Teviot, 
nearly opposite to Roxburgh castle, stood a Maison 
Dieu, an asylum for pilgrims, and for the infirm and 
the aged. On the estate of Wooden were, till 
lately, vestiges of a Roman tumulus, consisting of 
vast layers of stone and moss, both of a different 
species from any now found in the parish; and near 
Wooden-burn stone-coffins were dug up which en- 
closed human skeletons. Roxburgh castle will 
be noticed in a separate article. The Castle of 
Floors or Fleurs has already been separately no- 
ticed. The Abbey occurs to be described in our 
account of the town. 

Kelso, a burgh-of-barony, the largest town in 
the eastern border counties of Scotland, and, both 
in itself and in its environs, one of the most beauti- 
ful of its size in Europe, stands in 55° 36' north 
latitude, and 1° 20' west longitude from Greenwich; 
42 miles south by east of Edinburgh; 23 miles west 
from Berwick-upon-Tweed ; 10 miles north-east 
from Jedburgh ; 9 miles south-west from Cold- 
stream ; and 4J miles west from the boundary- 
line with England. It is delightfully situated at 
the confluence of the Tweed and the Teviot, on 
the left bank of the former; and stretches along a 
plain in the centre of the gently rising and magnifi- 
cent amphitheatre formed by the basin-configuration 
of its parish, commanding from every opening of its 
streets bird's-eye views of exquisitely lovely scenery, 
and constituting in the tracery of its own burghal 
landscape an object of high interest in the midst of 
its beautiful environs. The sumptuous architectural 
character of its venerable abbey, — the air of preten- 
sion worn by its public buildings, — the light-coloured 
stone and the blue slate roofs of its dwelling-houses, — 



the graceful sweep and the tidy cleanliness with 
which it winds along the river, — and the airiness and 
generally pleasing aspect of its streets, — all impress 
upon it, as seen either from without or from within, 
a city-like character, and combine with the teeming 
beauty of its encincturing landscapes to vindicate, 
in a degree, the enthusiasm of tasteful natives who 
exhaust their stock of superlatives in its praise. 
Patten, so far back as the reign of Edward VI., de- 
scribed it as " a pretty market-town," — an eulogium 
of no mean measure in an age when most British 
towns were characterizeable only by their various 
degrees of meanness, lumpishness, and filth. 

The town, in the style of German and Dutch 
towns — though the comparison, but for topographi- 
cal accuracy, does it high discredit — consists of a 
central square or market-place, and divergent streets 
and alleys. The square is spacious and airy, very 
large to exist in a provincial town, presided over on 
the east side by the elegant Townhouse, and edificed 
with neat modern houses of three stories, some of 
which have on the ground-floor good and even ele- 
gant shops. From the square issue four thorough- 
fares — Roxburgh-street, Bridge-street, Mfll-wynd, 
and the Horse and Wood markets. Roxburgh-street 
goes off from the end of the Townhouse, and runs 
sinuously parallel with the river, sending down its 
back-tenements on one side to the edge of the stream. 
Though irregular, and not anywhere elegant in its 
buildings, it has a pleasing appearance, and bears the 
palm of both healthiness and general favour. At 
present, it is upwards of A of a mile in length ; but 
formerly it reached to what is now the middle of the 
Duke of Roxburgh's garden, having been curtailed 
and demolished at the farther end to make way for 
improvements on the pleasure-grounds. Bridge- 
street goes off from the square opposite to the exit 
of Roxburgh-street; and though inferior to it in 
length, is superior in general appearance, and con- 
tains many elegant houses. This street sends off 
Ovan-wynd, leading to Ednam-house, and the Abbey- 
close, anciently the thoroughfare to the old bridge. 
Mill-wynd leaves the square, and pursues a course 
parallel with Bridge-street. The street called the 
Horse and Wood markets goes off in a direction at 
right angles with the other thoroughfares, and points 
the way to Coldstream and Berwick. At one time 
it was, over part of its extent, very narrow and in- 
convenient; but about twenty years ago it was 
widened, and made to assume an appearance in keep- 
ing with the general airiness of the town. 

The Townhouse is a large edifice of two stories ; 
the ground-floor open in piazzas; the front adorned 
with a pediment supported by four Ionic pillars; the 
summit displaying a handsome balustrade, and send- 
ing aloft a conspicuous lanthorn and cupola, sur- 
mounted by a vane. — The bridge, leading off from 
the end of Bridge-street to the small suburb of 
Maxwellheugh, and carrying across the Tweed the 
Berwick and Carlisle highway, was commenced in 
1800, and finished in 1803, at a cost of about 
£18,000. Its length, including the approaches, is 
494- feet ; its wid'th between the parapets is 25 feet ; 
and its height above the bed of the river 42 feet. 
It consists of 5 elliptical arches, each 72 feet in span, 
with intervening piers each 14 feet. The bridge is 
built of beautiful light-coloured polished stone, ex- 
hibits on each side six sets of handsome double 
columns, as well as ornamented parapets, and, for 
general elegance and effect, whether in itself or 
grouped with the rich picture in the core of which 
it stands, is unsurpassed by any structure of its class 
in Scotland. The design was furnished by the late 
Mr. Rennie, and was afterwards repeated or adopted 
by that distinguished artist as the design for Water- 

loo-bridge at London. — The dispensary occupies a 
healthy and airy site near the Tweed at the upper 
end of the town. It was founded in 1789, enlarged 
and provided with baths in 1818, and annually admits 

from 600 to 800 patients The parish-church is a 

large octagonal edifice nearly 90 feet in diameter 
within the walls, and built originally with a concave 
or cupola roof, for the accommodation of about 

3,000 persons The new church in connexion with 

the Establishment stands in an open space on the 
north side of the town, and, surmounted by an ele- 
gant Gothic tower, is a conspicuous and pleasing 
object in the burghal landscape. The ground-floor 
is laid out in large airy school-rooms ; and a circum- 
jacent piece of ground is disposed in shrubberies and 

play-ground The United Secession chapel is a 

piece of architectural patchwork; yet, with the ac 
companiments of its neat large manse, and a fine 

open area, it makes an agreeable impression The 

Episcopalian chapel, though small, is a tasteful 
Gothic building, snugly ensconced on the skirt of 
the pleasure-grounds of Ednam-house, overlooking 
the Tweed. — The Relief and the Reformed Presby- 
terian chapels are simply stone-boxes bored with 
holes, huddled up in near vicinity to keep each 
other in countenance. The Original Seceder chapel 
is of the same class, and, if possible, still more plain. 
The grand architectural attraction of Kelso, and 
one which would be strongly felt and highly prized 
in any city, is the ruinous abbey. Viewed either as 
a single object or as a feature in the general land- 
scape, the simply elegant, unique, tall, massive pile, 
presents an aspect too imposing and too untiringly 
interesting to be adequately depicted in description. 
Though built under the same auspices, and nearly 
about the same period as the abbeys of Melrose and 
Jedburgh, it totally differs from them in form and 
character, being in the shape of a Greek cross. 
" The architecture is Saxon or early Norman, with 
the exception of four magnificent central arches, 
which are decidedly Gothic; and is a beautiful spe- 
cimen of this particular style, being regular and uni- 
form in its structure. * * The nave and choir 
are wholly demolished. The north and south aisles 
remain, and are each nearly 20 paces in length. 
False circular arches intersecting each other, orna- 
ment the walls round about. The ruins of the 
eastern end present part of a fine open gallery : the 
pillars are clustered, and the arches circular. Two 
sides of the central tower are still standing, to the 
height of about 70 feet; but they must have been 
originally much higher. There is an uniformity in 
the north and south ends each bearing two round 
towers, the centres of which sharpen towards the 
roof. The great doorway is formed by a circular 
arch, with several members falling in the rear of 
each other, and supported on fine pilasters. It is 
not certain when this abbey was first used as a par- 
ish-church after the Reformation; but the record 
informs us that it was repaired for the purpose in 
the year 1648, and that it is very little more than 
half-a-century since, on account of its dangerous 
state, public worship was discontinued in it.* The 
buildings of the abbey must at one time have occu- 

* Sir Walter Scott, speaking of Thomas the Rhymer, says : 
" Another memorable prophecy bore thai the old kirk at 
Kelso, constructed out of the ruins of the abbey, should fall 
' when at the fullest.' At a very crowded sermon about thirty 
years ago, a piece of lime fell from the roof of the church. The 
alarm for the fulfilment of the words of the seer became uni- 
versal ; and happy were they who were nearest the door of 
the predestined edifice. The church was in consequence de- 
serted, and has never since had an opportunity of tumbling 
upon a full congregation. I hope, for the sake of a beautiful 
piece of Saxo-Gothic architecture, that the accomplishment of 
this prophecy is far distant. "—Minstrelsy of the Scottish Bor. 
der, vol. ii. p. 275. Edit. 1802. 



pied a very considerable space of ground, as not 
many years ago they extended as far east as the pre- 
sent parish-school; and, from appearance, they must 
originally have reached a considerable way towards 
the banks of the Tweed, near which it is situated. 
In three upper windows were hung the same number 
of bells, which are now removed ; and when the old 
Townhouse was taken down, the clock was put up 
in another window of this building, where it re- 
mained for several years; but is now also removed, 
and placed on the front of the new Townhouse. 
The ruins of the abbey were, till lately, greatly dis- 
figured by several modern additions; but of these, 
part were removed by order of the late Duke Wil- 
liam, in 1805, and the remainder were taken down 
by the last Duke, James, in 1816, by which the 
ruins were restored to their original simplicity. By 
the removal of these excrescences, the noble tran- 
sept, together with several windows and side-arches, 
which were by them hid, are now restored to view." 
[Haig's ' Account of the Town of Kelso.' Edin. 
1825.] — The establishment was originally settled in 
Selkirk for monks of the order of Tyrone; but after 
a few years, was, in 1128, removed by David I. to 
its site at Kelso, in the vicinity of the royal resi- 
dence of Roxburgh-castle. David, and all his suc- 
cessors on the throne till James V., lavished upon it 
royal favours. Whether in wealth, in political in- 
fluence, or in ecclesiastical status, it maintained an 
eminence of grandeur which dazzles and bewilders a 
student of history and of human nature. The con- 
vent of Lesmahago, with its valuable dependencies, 
■ — 33 parish- churches, with their tithes and other 
pertinents, in nearly every district, except Galloway 
and East-Lothian, south of the Clyde and the Forth, 
— the parish-church of Culter in Aberdeenshire, — 
all the forfeitures within the town and county of 
Berwick, — several manors and vast numbers of farms, 
granges, mills, fishings, and miscellaneous property 
athwart the Lowlands, — so swelled the revenue as 
to raise it above that of all the bishops in Scotland. 
The abbots were superiors of the regality of Kelso, 
Bolden, and Reverden, frequent ambassadors and 
special commissioners of the royal court, and the 
first ecclesiastics on the roll of parliament, taking 
precedence of all the other abbots in the kingdom. 
Herbert, the first abbot, was celebrated for his learn- 
ing and talent, filled the office of chamberlain of 
Scotland, and in 1147 was removed to the see of 
Glasgow. Ernold or Arnold succeeded him ; and in 
1160, was made bishop of St. Andrews, and the 
following year the legate of the Pope in Scotland. 
In 1152, Henry, the only son of David, and the 
heir-apparent of the throne, died at Roxburgh- 
castle, and was, with pompous obsequies, interred 
in the abbey. In 1160, John, a canon of the mon- 
astery, was elected abbot, and, arriving in 1165 
mitred from Rome, held the abbacy till his death in 
1178 or 1180. Osbert, who succeeded him, and was 
in repute for his eloquence, was despatched at the 
head of several influential ecclesiastics and other 
parties, to negociate with the Pope in a quarrel be- 
tween him and William the Lion, and succeeded in 
obtaining the removal of an excommunication which 
had been laid on the kingdom, and in procuring for 
the king expressions of papal favour. In 1208, a 
dispute between the abbeys of Kelso and Melrose re- 
specting property, having excited sensations through- 
out the country, and drawn attention to the papal 
court, was by injunction of the Pope formally in- 
vestigated and decided by the king. In 1215, the 
abbot Henry was summoned to Rome, along with 
the Scottish bishops, to attend a council held on 
the affairs of Scotland. In 1236, Herbert, who, a 
short time before, had succeeded to the abbacy, per- 

formed an act of abdication more rare by far among 
the wealthy wearers of mitres than among the harassed 
owners of diadem ; and solemnly placing the insignia 
of his office on the great altar, he passed away into 
retirement. In 1253, the body of David of Bern- 
ham, bishop of St. Andrews, and lord-chancellor o 
Scotland, a man remarkable for his vices, was, ir 
spite of the refusal and resistance of the monks, in 
terred in the abbey. Edward I. of England having 
seized all ecclesiastical property in Scotland, received 
in 1296 the submission of the abbot of Kelso, and 
gave him letters ordering full restitution. In con- 
sequence of a treaty between Robert Bruce and 
Edward III., Kelso abbey shared, in 1328, mutual 
restitutions with the English monasteries of property 
which had changed owners during the international 
wars. In 1420, the abbots, having their right of 
superiority over all the other abbots of Scotland, 
which they had hitherto uniformly possessed, now 
contested by the abbots of St. Andrews, and brought 
to a formal adjudication before the King, were com- 
pelled to resign it, on the ground of the abbey of 
St. Andrews being the first established in the king- 
dom. In 1493, the abbot Robert was appointed by 
parliament one of the auditors of causes and com- 
plaints. On the night after the battle of Flodden, 
in 1513, an emissary of the Lord of Hume expelled 
the abbot, and took possession of the abbey. In 
1517 and 1521, the abbot, Thomas, was a plenipo- 
tentiary to the court of England ; and in 1526, he 
was commissioned to exchange with Henry or his 
commissioners ratifications of the peace of the pre- 
vious year. In 1522, the English demolished the 
vaults of the abbey and its chapel or church of St. 
Mary, fired all the cells and dormitories, and un- 
roofed all the other parts of the edifice. Other in- 
roads of the national foe, preventing immediate re- 
pair or re-edification, the abbey, for a time, crumbled 
toward total decay, and the monks, reduced to com- 
parative poverty, skulked among the neighbouring 
villages. From 1537 till his death in 1558, James 
Stuart, the illegitimate son of James V., nominally 
filled the office of abbot, and was the last who bore 
the title. The abbeys of Melrose, Holyrood, St. 
Andrews, and Coldingham, were at the same date 
as the abbey of Kelso, bestowed on James' illegiti- 
mate offspring, and, jointly with it, they brought 
the royal family an amount of revenue little inferior 
to that yielded by all the possessions and resources 
of the Crown. In 1542, under the Duke of Nor- 
folk, and again in 1545, under the Earl of Hertford, 
the English renewed their spoliations on the abbey, 
and almost entirely destroyed it by fire. On the 
latter occasion, it was resolutely defended by about 
300 men who had posted themselves in its interior, 
and was entered only after the corpses of a large 
proportion of them formed a rampart before its gates. 
In 1560, the monks were expelled in consequence of 
the Reformation; and both then and in 1580, the 
abbey was despoiled of many of its architectural de- 
corations, and carried far down the decline of ruin. 
Its enormous possessions becoming now the pro- 
perty of the Crown, were, in 1594, distributed 
among the King's favourites. 

Kelso is as poor in the aggregate productiveness 
of its manufactures, as it is showily rich in their 
variety and extensiveness of range. The dressing of 
skins, the tanning of hides, the currying of leather, 
the weaving of flannel, woollen cloth, and linen, the 
making of hats and of stockings, the distillation of 
whisky, and the manufacture of candles, shoes, to- 
bacco, and other produce, all have a place in the 
town; but they do not jointly employ 200 work- 
men, and are all, with the exception of currying, 
stationary or declining. The number of looms in 



1S28 was 70, and in 1838, it had become reduced to 
41. Yet the place has a very important trade in 
corn, and cured pork. A weekly market, crowd- 
edly attended from Roxburghshire and parts of 
Berwickshire, and Northumberland, is held on 
Friday for the sale of corn by sample. Twelve 
"high markets" are annually held on the day 
of the weekly market, for the hiring of servants 
and hinds, and for the sale or exchange of horses. 
A monthly market is held for cattle and sheep. 
Fairs are held on the second Friday of May, the 
second Friday in July, the 5th of August, and the 
2d of November. That on the 5th of August is 
called St. James' fair, and is the greatest in the Bor- 
der-counties except that of St. Boswell's. Originally 
it belonged to Roxburgh, but owing to the extinc- 
tion of the burgh, it counts as a fair of Kelso. It is 
held on the site of the old town of Roxburgh, on the 
beautiful tongue of the peninsula below the ruined 
castle, about 2 miles south of Kelso, and, for 
some unascertainable reason, is presided over by 
the magistrates of the county-town : See Jed- 
burgh. A great show is made of cattle and horses, 
for feeding on after-grass and turnips ; large trans- 
actions are effected in woollen and linen manu- 
factures ; and swarms of reapers are engaged for the 
approaching harvest. The town has three principal 
inns, and branch-offices of the Bank of Scotland, the 
Commercial bank of Scotland, the British Linen 
Company's bank, and the National Bank of Scotland. 
Stage coaches run daily to Edinburgh, three times 
a- week to Berwick, and twice a-week to Jedburgh 
and Hawick ; and a transit coach communicates daily 
with Edinburgh and Newcastle. 

Kelso is distinguished much more by properties of 
quiet aristocracy, and snug contented competency, 
and tastes for literature and social refinement, than 
by any of the qualities which could impress upon it 
a commercial character. Proportionately to the bulk 
of its population, it is hence not a little wealthy in 
literary, social, patriotic, philanthropic, and religious 
institutions or societies. Kelso library, instituted in 
1750, and comprising about 5,000 volumes, employs 
a salaried librarian, and occupies a handsome building 
on Chalk-heugh. The New library, and the Modern 
library, instituted respectively in 1778 and 1800, and 
jointly comprising about 3,500 volumes, belongs, as 
does also Kelso library, to limited bodies of subscribers. 
One news-room is enjoyed by a select society, and 
another by all persons who chose to subscribe. A 
school of arts was commenced in 1825, and during 
three years gave rise to interesting courses of lec- 
tures ; but it eventually became inefficient and de- 
funct. The Kelso physical and antiquarian society 
was instituted three or four years ago for the forma- 
tion of a museum, and may probably widen its range 
of action, and exert its very respectable influence in 
some practical direction. The Kelso Mail newspaper, 
which originated in 1797, and the Kelso Chronicle, 
which originated in 1832, are published, the former 
twice a- week, and the latter once. A former Kelso 
Chronicle, started in 1783, was the earliest news- 
paper in the Border counties. From 1808 to 1829, 
existed the Kelso Weekly Journal. Kelso was the 
birth-place of the famous Ballantyne press, and the 
scene on which was printed the first edition of the 
Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border ; and, at various 
periods, it has displayed an energy and an amount of 
literary enterprise altogether beyond the proportion 
either of its population or of the advantageousness of 
its position. Kelso is the meeting-place and exhi- 
bition-scene of several associations for the encourage- 
ment 'of industry, and, in particular, of the Union 
Agricultural society, for the incitement and direction, 
by means of premiums and exhibitions, of improve- 

ments in tillage, cropping, and stock. The Dis- 
pensary — a very valuable philanthropic institution — 
has been already incidentally noticed. A Savings' 
bank was established in 1815. 

Kelso is, for some months in the year, the resort 
of the lovers of field-sports from a wide extent of 
country around it, including a portion of England. 
Races are run in spring and autumn on a course 
about a mile from the town, accommodated with a 
stand similar to that at Doneaster ; and, for a long 
period, they were of great celebrity, and prompted 
much attention to the rearing of the most approved 
breeds of horses ; but, during several years past, 
they have materially lost both their fame and their 
attractions. The country and rivers in the neigh- 
bourhood of the town offer plentiful facilities re- 
spectively for fox-hunting and angling, and are ex- 
citedly plied both by the Kelsonians themselves, and 
by temporary visiters. A pack of fox-hounds is 
maintained by the Duke of Roxburgh ; and a cours- 
ing club devotes its attention to the turf. The 
Royal Caledonian Hunt occasionally excites revelry 
among the upper classes of a week's continuance ; 
and, once a-year the whipmen of the border, gaily 
attired, make sport for the population of youngsters 
and rustics. Games at foot-ball are a favourite 
amusement. A cricket-club meets once a-fortnight 
during summer ; and a skaiting-club and parties of 
curlers avail themselves in winter of the freezing of 
the rivers. The society of the Bowmen of the Bor- 
der, instituted in 1788, by a diploma from the royal 
company of archers of Scotland, bold eight meetings 
in the year. A small theatre was fitted up, at con- 
siderable expense, by the French prisoners during the 
last war, and, while they stayed, was conducted gra- 
tuitously by some of their own number; and, at their 
departure, it was left with all its appliances as an 
expression of delight with the Kelsonians on account 
of the facility with which many of them had imbibed 
the spirit of French levity and dissipation. But, in 
the aggregate, the town has of late assumed a more 
sedate character than belonged to it during years 
when it incurred some hazard of being distinguished 
chiefly by fashionable follies. 

By a charter of James VI., dated 2d July, 1607, 
the abbacy of Kelso was erected into a temporal 
lordship and barony, called ' the lordship and barony 
of Halidean,' comprehending the town and lands of 
Kelso. The governing charter is considered to be 
one dated 8th November, 1634, by which the town 
is specially erected into a free burgh-of-barony, and 
the power of incorporating it is conferred on Robert, 
Earl of Roxburgh, and his heirs. The present gov- 
ernment is in terms of regulations made on 3d De- 
cember, 1757 ; and consists of a bailie named by the 
superior, and 15 stent-masters, popularly called the 
town-council, 8 of whom are nominated by the bailie, 
and 7 by the incorporated trades. The eight were 
formerly for life ; but, according to the present prac- 
tice, the senior one of the number annually retires. 
The bailie holds his office during the pleasure of the 
superior, and receives from him a salary of £50. A 
town-clerk, a procurator-fiscal, and a town-officer, 
are appointed by the bailie during pleasure. The 
office of the first yielding emoluments not exceeding 
£4 a-year, and that of the second no emoluments 
whatever, both are usually filled by one of the bailie's 
own clerks. The jurisdiction is that of an ordinary 
baron-bailie. There is no deputy; and the bailie 
holds a weekly court, before which both civil and 
criminal cases are tried. There has likewise been a 
practice of judging in possessory cases within burgh, 
and, until very lately, in sequestrations for rents 
owing to the vassals of the baron. The number ot 
civil cases is annually about 52, and of criminal cases 



about 26. The stent-masters, under the approving 
warrant of the bailie, assess the inhabitants according 
to the rentals, and the supposed profits of their trades 
and occupations. The amount of stent varies consi- 
derably from year to year, but averages about .£263. 
The property of the burgh consists of tenements, a 
reservoir, a field, and an interest in the stock of the 
Tweed bridge-trustees. The customs and market- 
dues belong to the superior. The revenue of the 
burgh, including stent, was, in 1833, £562 9s. 8d. ; 
and the expenditure, £670 19s. Oid. In 1839-40, 
it was £574 4s. 3d., besides £301 9s. 6d., arising 
from shares of Kelso bridge disposed of, and old debts, 
and a sum of miscellaneous receipts, amounting to 
£14 3s. 5d. ; making in all with arrears £1,015 13s. 
lid. The expenditure for the same year amounted 
to £1,060 2s. 4d., of which £312 was paid in reduc- 
tion of old debts, and £107 9s. consisted of arrears. 
There is no local police statute. The cleaning, 
lighting, paving, and supply of water, are provided 
for by assessment, and managed by the stent-masters. 
No attempt has been made toward the introduction 
of regular watching. During the last few years, the 
town has been watched one night in the week, or on 
particular occasions. A person, to acquire the title 
of acting as either a merchant or a craftsman, must 
pay £1 16s. 8d. for the freedom of the town, and 
certain dues to the corporation of his craft. The 
corporations, with their numbers in 1833, and the 
aggregate amount of the dues levied by them during 
forty years preceding that year, are, merchants 305, 
£182 15s.. 4d. ; shoemakers 85, £104 9s. ; tailors 28, 
£61 14s. 8d. ; hammermen 158, £245 19s. ; skinners 
34, £47 Is. 11 ; weavers 54, £79 16s. Sd. ; fleshers 
19, £22. A justice-of-peace court is held once a- 
month. The number of proprietors and tenants in 
1833, whose rents were £10 or upwards, was 256, — 
44 of the former class being non-resident ; and the 
number whose rents were between £5 and £10 was 
81. The increase of the town in extent and popu- 
lation has been slow. Population, in 1833, 4,700. 

Kelso was originally called, or rather had its mo- 
dernized name originally written, Calchow, — a word 
identical in meaning with Chalkheugh, the existing 
designation of one of the most remarkable natural 
objects in its landscape. In its ancient history it 
figures as a rendezvous of armies, as a place of inter- 
national negociation, as a scene of frequent conflict 
and havoc of war, and as a spot smiled upon by kings 
and other personages of note. Of events not iden- 
tified with the history of its abbey, the earliest no- 
ticeable one on record occurred in 1209, when, on 
account of a Papal interdict being imposed on Eng- 
land, the Bishop of Rochester left his see, and took 
refuge in Kelso. Ten years later, William de Va- 
loines, Lord-chamberlain of Scotland, died in the 
town. In 1255, Henry III. of England and his queen, 
during the visit which they made to their son-in-law 
and (laughter, Alexander III. and his royal consort, 
at Roxburgh-castle, were introduced with great pro- 
cessional pomp to Kelso and its abbey, and enter- 
tained, with the chief nobility of both kingdoms, at 
a sumptuous royal banquet. In 1297, Edward I., at 
the head of his vast army of invasion, having entered 
Scotland, and relieved the siege of Roxburgh, passed 
the Tweed at Kelso, on his way to seize Berwick. 
Truces, in the years 1380 and 1391, were made at 
Kelso between the Scottish and the English kings. 
On the death of James II. by the bursting of a can- 
non at the siege of Roxburgh-castle, his infant son, 
James III., being then with his mother in the camp, 
was carried by the nobles, in presence of the assem- 
bled army, to the abbey, and there pompously 
crowned, and treated with royal honours. In 1487, 
commissioners met at Kelso to prolong a truce for 

the conservation of peace along the unsettled terri- 
tory of the Borders, and to concoct measures preli- 
minary to a treaty of marriage between the eldest son 
of James III. and the eldest daughter of Edward IV. 
The disastrous results of the battle of Flodden, in 
1513, seem — in consequence of James IV. 's death, 
and of the loss of the protection which his authority 
and presence had given — to have, in some way, tem- 
porarily enthralled the town to the Lord of Hume, 
and occasioned, as we have already seen, the expul- 
sion of the abbot from his monastery, — the first of a 
series of events which terminated in the ruin of the 
pile. In 1515, the Duke of Albany, acting as regent, 
visited Kelso in the course of a progress of civil pa- 
cification, and received onerous depositions respect- 
ing the oppressive conduct of Lord Hume, the Earl 
of Angus, and other barons. In 1520, Sir James 
Hamilton, marching with 400 men from the Merse, 
to the assistance of Andrew Kerr, baron of Ferni- 
hirst, in a dispute with the Earl of Angus, was over- 
taken at Kelso by the baron of Cessford, then war- 
den of the marches, and defeated and broken in a 
brief and ill-contested battle. In 1522, Kelso and 
the country between it and the German ocean, re- 
ceived the first lashings of the scourge of war in the 
angry and powerful invasion of Scotland by the army 
of Henry VIII. One portion of the English forces 
having marched into the interior from their fleet in 
the Forth, and having formed a junction with another 
portion which hung on the Border under Lord Dacres, 
the united forces, among other devastations, destroy- 
ed one moiety of Kelso by fire, laid bare the other 
moiety by plundering, and inflicted merciless havoc 
upon not a few parts of the abbey. So nervidly 
arousing were their deeds, that the men of Merse 
and Teviotdale came headlong on them in a mass, 
and showed such inclination, accompanied with not 
a little power, to make reprisals, that the devasta- 
tors prudently retreated within their own frontier. 
After the rupture between James V. and Henry VIII., 
the Earl of Huntley, who had been appointed guar- 
dian of the inarches, garrisoned Kelso and Jedburgh, 
and, in August 1542, set out from these towns in 
search of an invading force of 3,000 men, under Sir 
Robert Bowes, fell in with them at Haldon-Rigg, and, 
after a hard contest, broke down their power and 
captured their chief officers. A more numerous 
army being sent northward by Henry, under the 
Duke of Norfolk, and James stationing himself with 
a main army of defence on Fala-moor, the Earl oi 
Huntley, received detachments which augmented his 
force to 10,000 men, and so checked the invaders 
along the marches, as to preserve the open country 
from devastation. In spite of his strenuous efforts, 
Kelso, and some villages in its vicinity, were en- 
tered, plundered, and given up to the flames ; and 
they were eventually delivered from an exterminat- 
ing rage of spoliation, only by the foe being compelled 
by want of provision, and the inclemency of the sea- 
son, to retreat into their own territory. When 
Henry VIII. 's fury against Scotland became rekin- 
dled about the affair of the proposed marriage of the 
infant Queen Mary and Prince Edward of England, 
an English army, in 1544, entered Scotland by the 
eastern marches, plundered and destroyed Kelso and 
Jedburgh, and ravaged and burned the villages anu 
houses in their neighbourhood. This army having 
been dispersed, another, 12,000 strong, specially se- 
lected for their enterprise, and led on by the Earl of 
Hertford, next year trod the same path as the former 
invaders, and inflicted fearful devastation on Merse 
and Teviotdale. They plundered anew the towns 
of Kelso and Jedburgh, wasted their abbeys, and also 
those of Melrose and Jedburgh, and burnt 100 towns 
and villages. While Kelso was suffering the inflic- 



tion of their rage, 300 men, as was mentioned in our 
notice of the abbey, made bold but vain resistance 
within the precincts of that pile. The Scottish army 
shortly after came up, and took post at Maxwell- 
heugh, the suburb of Kelso, intending to retaliate ; 
but they were spared the horrors of inflicting or en- 
during further bloodshed, by the retreat of the in- 
vaders. In 1553, a resolution was suggested by the 
Queen Regent, adopted by parliament, and backed 
by the appointment of a tax of £20,000, leviable in 
equal parts from the spiritual and the temporal state, 
to build a fort at Kelso for the defence of the Bord- 
ers ; but it appears to have been soon dropped, or 
not even incipiently to have been carried into effect. 
In 1557, the Queen-Regent having wantonly, at the 
instigation of the King of France, provoked a war 
with Elizabeth, collected a numerous army for ag- 
gression and defence on the Border. Under the Earl 
of Arran, the army, joined by an auxiliary force from 
France, marched to Kelso, and encamped at Maxwell- 
heugh; but, having made some vain efforts to act 
efficiently on the offensive, was all withdrawn, ex- 
cept a detachment left in garrison at Kelso and Rox- 
burgh to defend the Borders. Hostilities continuing 
sharp between the kingdoms, Lord James Stuart, the 
illegimate son of James V., built a house of defence 
at Kelso, and threw up some fortifications around 
the town. In 1557, the Lords Eure, Wharton, 
Huntley, Morton, and Argyle, resolving to disperse 
the army, met the Queen Dowager and the French 
general at Kelso ; " and there the Dowager raged, 
and reprievid them of theire promises, whiche was 
to invade and annoye England. Theyre determnay- 
cions to departe, and the consyderacions they tolde 
hir ; and thereupone arguments grew great betwene 
them, wherewith she sorrowed, and wepp openlye ; 
Doyce * in gret hevynes ; and with high words 
emongest them to thes effects, they departed. Doyce 
wished himself in Fraunce. The duke, wyth the 
others, passed to Jedworthe ; and kepithe the chosen 
men on their borders. The others of theire great 
nombre passed to theire countreyes." In 1558, the 
Scottish army stationed at Kelso, marched out to 
chastise an incursion, in the course of which the 
town of Dunse was burnt, came up with the Eng- 
lish at Swinton, and were defeated. In 1561, Lord 
James Stuart was appointed by Queen Mary her 
lieutenant and judge for the suppression of banditti 
on the Borders, and brought upwards of 20 of the 
most daring freebooters to trial and execution ; and, 
about the same time, he held a meeting at Kelso 
with Lord Gray of England, for pacificating the 
affairs of the Borders. In 1566, in the course of 
executing the magnanimous purpose of putting down 
by her personal presence the Border maraudings, from 
which she was wiled by her romantic and nearly fatal 
expedition to the Earl of Bothwell at Hermitage- 
castle, Queen Mary visited Kelso on her way from 
Jedburgh to Berwick, spent two nights in the town, 
and held a council for the settlement of some dispute. 
In 1569, the Earl of Murray spent five or six weeks 
in Kelso, in attempts to pacificate the Borders, and 
in the course of that period, had a meeting with Lord 
Hunsdon and Sir John Foster, on the part of Eng- 
land, and made concurrently with them arrangements 
for the attainment of his object. In 1570 an Eng- 
lish army entered Scotland in revenge of an incursion 
of the Lords of Fairnihirst and Buccleuch into Eng- 
land, divided itself into two co-operating sections, 
scoured the whole of Teviotdale, levelled fifty castles 
and strengths, and upwards of 300 villages, and ren- 
dezvoused at Kelso preparatory to its retreat. The 
Earl of Bothwell, grandson to James V., and com- 

* M. D'Oysel, the French general. 

mendator of Kelso, made the town his home during 
the concocting of his foul and numerous treasons, 
and during 10 years succeeding 1584, deeply em- 
broiled it in the marchings and military manceuvrings 
of the forces with which first his partisans, and next 
himself, personally attempted to damage the king- 
dom ; and he eventually ceased to be a pest and a 
torment to it, only when, in guerdon of his crimes, 
he was denuded of his vast possessions, and driven 
an exile from gifts which only provoked his ingrati- 
tude, and from a fatherland on which he could look 
with only the feelings of a patricide. 

Kelso, in 1639, made a prominent figure in one of 
the most interesting events in Scottish history,. — the 
repulse of the armed attempt of Charles I. to force 
Episcopacy upon Scotland by the army of the Coven- 
anters under General Lesley. This army, amount- 
ing to 17,000 or 18,000 men, rendezvoused at Dunse, 
and marching thence, established their quarters at 
Kelso. The king, personally at the head of his 
army of prelacy, got intelligence at Birks, near Ber- 
wick, of the position of the Covenanters, and de- 
spatched the Earl of Holland, with 1,000 cavalry and 
3,000 infantry, to try their mettle. A letter from 
Sir Henry, who was with the king, to the Marquis 
of Hamilton, who had, as his majesty's high commis- 
sioner for Scotland, made a vain attempt to effect a 
compromise between the Liturgy and the Covenant, 
will show the result : — 

*' My Lord,— By the dispatch Sir James Hamilton brought 
your lordship from his majesty's sacred pen, you were left at 
your liberty to commit any act of hostility upon the rebels when 
your lordship should liiiii it most opportune. Since which, my 
Lord Holland, with 1,000 horse and 3, 000 foot, marched towards 
Kelsey ; himself advanced towards tliem with the horse (leav- 
ing the foot 3 miles behind), to a place called Maxwell-heugh, 
a height above Kelsey i which, when the rebels discovered, they 
instantly marched out with 150 horse, and (as roy Lord Hol- 
land says) eight or ten thousand foot; five or six thousaud 
there might have been. He thereupon sent a trumpet, com- 
manding them to retreat, according to what they had promised 
by the proclamation. They asked, whose trumpet he was. He 
said, my Lord Hollands. Their answer was, He were best be- 
gone. And so my Lord Holland made his retreat, and waited 
on his majesty this night to give him this account. 

" This morning advertisement is brought his majesty, that 
Lesley, with 12,000 men, is at Cockburnspath, that 5,000 men 
will be this night or to-morrow at Dunce, 6,000 at Kelsey ; so 
his majesty's opinion is, with many of his council, to keep him- 
self upon a defensive, and make himself here as fast as he can , 
for his majesty doth now clearly see, and is fully satisfied in hia 
own judgment, that what passed in the gallery betwixt his ma- 
jesty, your lordship, and myself, hath bin but too much verified 
on this occasion ;* and therefore his majesty would not have 
you to begin with them, but to settle things with you in a safe 
and good posture, and yourself to come hither in person to con- 
sult what counsels are fit tp be taken, ;iw the affairs now hold. 
And so, wishing your lordship a speedy passage, I rest, 
"Your lordship's 

" most humble servant, 

" and faithful friend, 

" H. Vane." 
" From the camp at Huntley-field, 
this 4th of June, 1639." 

Discordantly with the intelligence which this letter 
shows the king's scouts to have brought him, Gene- 
ral Lesley concentrated his whole forces, and next 
day, to the surprise of the royal camp, took up his 
station on Dunse-hill, interposing his arms between 
the king and the capital, and exhibiting his strength 
and his menaces in full view of the English forces. 
The king, now fully convinced of the impracticabi- 
lity of his attempt on the public conscience of Scot- 
land, held a consultation two days after with the 
leaders of the Covenanters, made them such con- 
cessions as effected a reconciliation, and procuring 
the dispersion of their army, returned peacefully to 

England The Covenanters of Scotland and the 

Parliamentarians of England having made common 

* " What pasBed in the gallery" was an opinion unfavour- 
able to the invasion of Scotland by English forces, to impose a 
hated form of worship, at the expense of provoking antipathies 
and warfare,. 




cause against Charles I., Kelso was made, in Ki44, 
tbe depot of troops for re-inforcing General Les- 
ley's army in England. Next year the detachment 
under the Marquis of Douglas and Lord Ogilvie, sent 
by Montrose to oppose the operations of Lesley in 
the Merse, marched to Kelso, on their way to the 
battle-field at Selkirk, where they were cut down 
and broken by the Covenanters. Two years later, 
the town was the place of rendezvous to the whole 
Scottish army after their successes in England, and 
witnessed the disbandment of six regiments of cavalry 
after an oath having been exacted of continued fide- 
lity to the covenant. 

In 1645, Kelso was visited and ravaged by the 
plague intermediately between its appearance in 
Newcastle and in Edinburgh. In 1648, an hundred 
English officers arrived at Kelso and Peebles, in the 
expectation — which happily proved a vain one — of 
finding employment by the breaking out of another 
civil war. In 1684, the town was totally consumed 
by an accidental fire ; and sixty years later it suf- 
fered in the same way to nearly the same extent. 
On the former occasion, a proclamation called upon 
the whole kingdom to make contributions to alle- 
viate the sufferings of the unhoused inhabitants, and 
to aid the rebuilding of the town. However severe 
and awful the calamities were at the moment, they 
were the main, perhaps the sole, occasion of Kelso 
wearing that uniformly modern and neat aspect 
which so singularly distinguishes it from all other 
Scottish towns of its class. In 1715, the whole of 
the rebel forces of the Pretender, the Highlanders 
from the north, the Northumbrians from the south, 
and the men of Nithsdale and Galloway under Lord 
Kenmure, rendezvoused in Kelso, took full posses- 
sion of the town, formally proclaimed James VIII., 
and remained several days making idle demonstra- 
tions till the approach of the royal troops under 
General Carpenter incited them to march on to 
Preston. In 1718, a general commission of Oyer 
and Terminer sat at Kelso, as in Perth, Cupar, and 
Dundee, for the trial of persons concerned in the re- 
bellion ; but here they had only one case ; and even 
it they found irrelevant. So attached were the 
Kelsonians to the principles of the Revolution, that, 
though unable to make a show of resistance to the 
rebel occupation of their town, they, previous to that 
event, assembled in their church, unanimously sub- 
scribed a declaration of fidelity to the existing gov- 
ernment, and offered themselves in such numbers, as 
military volunteers, that a sufficient quantity of arms 
could not be found for their equipment. In 1 745, 
the left of the three columns of Charles Edward's 
army, on their march from Edinburgh into England, 
— that column of nearly 4,000 men, which was headed 
by the Chevalier in person, spent two nights in 
Kelso, and, while here, suffered numerous desertions. 
In 1797, a flood, extraordinary both in bulk and 
duration, came down the Tweed and the Teviot, 
rose to so great a height as considerably to ascend 
the trees on the islet at the confluence of the 
rivers, and, in the view of a concourse of spectators 
who were attracted to gaze on its sublime move- 
ments, slowly undermined and then suddenly moved 
down the predecessor of the present bridge. From 
November, 1810, till June, 1814, Kelso was the 
abode of a body, never more than 230 in number, 
of French prisoners on parole, who, to a very 
noticeable degree, inoculated the place with their 
fashionable follies, and even, in some instances, 

tainted it with their laxity of morals Kelso 

counts, either as natives or as residents, very few 
eminent men. One of its monks called James, 
who lived in the 15th century, was one of the most 
celebrated Scottish writers of his very m celeb rious 

age. Its prior Henry, who flourished about 1403, 
was tbe translator into Scottish verse of Palladium 
Rutilius on Rural Affairs, and the author of some 
literary performances. The chief names which have 
graced the town in modern times are those of Dr. 
Andrew Wilson, a distinguished physician, and the 
author of a Treatise on Morbid Sympathy, and the 
Rev. John Pitcairn, the Relief minister, celebrated 
for his eloquence, and for the arousing effects of his 
example in creating a general taste for some better 
modes of pulpit-oratory than the sing-song and mass- 
chaunting methods which, half-a-century ago, were 
so universal in Scotland. 

KELTIE (The), a romantic stream in the par- 
ish of Callander, Perthshire. It rises on the west 
side of the mountain Stuic-a-chroin, and flows first 
6 miles south-eastward through the eastern division 
of the parish ; and then 2 miles southward along the 
boundary with Kilmadock ; and falls into the Teith 
2J miles below the village of Callander. In its pro- 
gress it is swollen by several tributary torrents. 
Flowing for 5 miles among wild hills, it emerges 
through the romantic glen and down the singular 
waterfall of Bracklin, [which see,] and afterwards 
skirts the demesne of Cambusmere, and makes its 
confluence with tbe Teith in front of Cambusmere 

KELTON, a parish nearly in the centre of the 
southern division of Kirkcudbrightshire ; bounded 
on the north by Crossmichael ; on the east by 
Buittle; on the south by Rerwick and Kirkcud- 
bright ; and on the west, or rather north-west, by 
Tongueland and Balmaghie. The Dee, here an im- 
portant stream, and navigable for commercial purposes 
by flat-bottomed boats, divides the parish 5J miles from 
Balmaghie and Tongueland, forms immediately after 
contact two considerable islets, one of which belongs 
to Kelton, and the other to Balmaghie, and offers, 
among other fish, the dark-coloured salmon which 
abound in its waters. Doacb-burn rises on the 
eastern boundary a little north-east of Kelton-hill, 
and traces that boundary over a distance of 3J miles. 
Carlinwark or Castle-Douglas loch, J of a mile in 
length, expands its waters near the northern extre- 
mity ; and has yielded up, at the expense of di- 
minishing its own bulk, an opulently large mass of 
shell marl, the aspersion of which over the face of 
various parishes formed an era in the history of 
Galloway agricultural improvements : See articles 
Castle-Douglas and Kells. North-westward, 
over a distance of li mile to the Dee, extends a 
canal, traced most part of the way along the boun- 
dary with Crossmichael ; and though formed for the 
special, perhaps sole, purpose of offering transit to 
the marl of the lake, it is now of considerable con- 
sequence as a navigable line of communication with 
the not unimportant burgh of Castle-Douglas, 
situated at the lake's northern extremity. Five or 
six rills, all except one of local origin, traverse the 
parish in various directions, and at once drain and 
enrich its soil. Toward the southern and south- 
eastern extremities of the parish, steep and rocky 
hills, chiefly clad in heath, exhibit an aspect of de- 
solation, — the highest of them rising 1,100 feet above 
the level of the sea. Elsewhere the surface displays 
a singularly knobbed or knolly appearance, sending 
up tumours, or abounding in little round hills. But 
over this oddly rolling surface, as well on the rising 
grounds as in the hollows, the parish, though not 
luxuriant, is arable. The soil is generally thin ; in 
some places, is a fine loam ; and in others, especially 
on the little hills, is a deep watery till ; but it has 
everywhere been greatly enriched both by the mail 
from Loch-Carlinwark and by other manorial appli- 
ances. In the parish are the burgh of Castle- 




Douglas, [which see,] and the village of Kelton-hill. 
The latter, situated 2| miles south of Castle-Douglas, 
was, till of late, a place of not a little consequence. 
Here was annually held, on the first Tuesday al'terthe 
17th of June, O.S., probably the largest horse-fair 
in Scotland, frequented by horse-dealers from Eng- 
land, Ireland, and the Lowlands of Scotland, and 
attracting so large a concourse, that tents for the 
sale of provisions and liquors were erected by per- 
sons from Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Gatehouse-of- 
Fleet, and other towns. This fair, however, with 
all its advantages, has been transferred to Castle- 
Douglas. The parish is traversed by the great 
turnpike between Dumfries and Port-Patrick, and 
is otherwise well-provided with roads. Population, 
in 1801, 1,905; in 1831, 2,877. Houses 479. As- 
sessed property, in 1815, £9,627. — Kelton is in the 
presbyterv of Kirkcudbright, and synod of Galloway. 
Patron, the Crown. Stipend £246 18s. 2d. ; glebe 
£20. Unappropriated teinds £211 17s. 4d. There 
are three parochial schools, conducted by four teach- 
ers, and attended by a maximum of 434 scholars ; 
and six non-parochial schools, conducted by six teach- 
ers, and attended by a maximum of 150 scholars. 
One of the teachers of the parochial schools is an 
assistant ; and the other three have each £17 2s. 2d. 
salary, with collectively £130 fees. Five of the 
non-parochial schools are taught by females ; and 
one of these five is a boarding-school. — The present 
parish comprehends the three old parishes of Kelton, 
Gelston, and Kirkcormack. Of the united parish, 
Kelton forms the north corner, Kirkcormack the 
south-west, and Gelston the south-east corner. The 
churches of Kelton and Kirkcormack belonged first 
to the monks of Icolmkill, and next to those of 
Holyrood ; and, at the establishment of Episcopacy 
by Charles I., they were given to the bishop of Edin- 
burgh. The church of Gelston belonged to the prior 
and canons of Whithorn, and, in 1606, was given to 
the bishop of Galloway. Vestiges both of it and of 
the church of Kirkcormack still exist ; and their 
cemeteries continue to be used. 

KELTON, a small village and port on the east 
side of the Nith ; 3£ miles south of Dumfries ; and 
1J north of Glencaple, on the boundary of the par- 
ishes of Dumfries and Caerlaverock, Dumfries-shire. 
As a port, it is strictly identified with Dumfries, be- 
ing visited only by vessels employed in the trade of 
that burgh, and unable to proceed further up the 
Nith. The new quay between it and the town, 
Glencaple to the south, and Kelton in the centre, are 
simply a chain of posts to accommodate the difficult 
navigation of the river. Ship-building is to a small 
extent carried on at Kelton. 

KELTY, a hamlet in Kinross-shire, in the parish 
of Cleish, 5 miles south of Kinross, and 10 north of 

KELVIN (The), a river which takes its rise in 
the parish of Kilsyth, in Stirlingshire, and, after a 
circuitous course, falls into the Clyde, 2 miles below 
Glasgow. Near its source it formerly winded in a 
serpentine manner through a fine valley, which it 
often overflowed ; but it is now confined in a straight 
channel, with high embankments, to the great benefit 
of the adjacent grounds. In passing through the 
parish of East Kilpatrick it flows under the aqueduct- 
bridge of the Great canal, which is 350 feet in length, 
57 feet broad, and 57 feet from the top of the para- 
pet to the surface of the water of the river. It 
stands upon four arches, each 50 feet wide, and 37 
high. This beautiful bridge was planned by Mr. 
Whitworth, and executed by Mr. Gibb, betwixt June 
1787 and June 1790. The Kelvin has numerous 
water-falls, and drives a great deal of machinery, 
besides affording water to several large bleachfields. 

Its banks exhibit a variety of beautiful landscapes ; 
and, in some places, are entirely covered with wood 
on both sides. 

KEMBACK,* a parish in Fifeshire, on the south 
bank of the Eden. It is scarcely 3 miles in length 
from east to west; and in breadth, from north to 
south, it varies from 1 to 2 miles. It is bounded on 
the south by the parish of Ceres ; on the east by 
that parish and St. Andrews ; on the north by Leu- 
chars and Dairsie ; and on the west by Cupar. At 
the west end the surface of the parish is level, with 
a gentle inclination towards the Eden ; but near 
the east end it is varied and picturesque in a high 
degree. Here it is intersected by Dura-den, a ro- 
mantic little glen, through which flows Ceres burn 
to join the Eden. East of this, the surface rises into 
a beautifully formed and now finely wooded hill, 
formerly called Nydie hill, but now more generally 
Kemback hill. This hill runs from north to south, 
or at right angles to the range of hills which bound 
the How of Fife, and thus terminates this valley on 
the east. The parish contains about 1,850 Scots 
acres, of which the greater portion is arable, and the 
rest in wood. The soil exhibits every variety, clay, 
black loam, light sandy soil with a dry bottom, and 
thin gravel ; and is upon the whole very fertile. 
The valued rent of the parish is £2,312 13s. 4d. 
Scots ; the annual value of real property, for which 
it was assessed for the property tax, in 1815, was 
£3,441 sterling. There is, properly speaking, no 
village in the parish ; but there are one or two ham- 
lets, and one has been recently built in Dura-den, 
by David Yool, Esq., in connection with his large 
spinning-mill. The post and nearest market-town 
is Cupar, which is distant about 4 miles from the 
church. Population, in 1801, 626; in 1831, 651. 
In consequence of the erection of Mr. Yool's mill, it 
must have lately received a considerable increase. 
Houses, in 1831, 141. There are two spinning- 
mills in the parish : Yool-field spinning-mill, belong- 
ing to David Yool, Esq., has a water-wheel, impelled 
by Ceres burn, of 39 feet in diameter, 10 feet wide, 
and equal to between 40 and 50 horse power. Blebo 
mill, possessed by Messrs. Walker, is moved by a 
water-wheel of 14 horse power, assisted in summer 
by a steam-engine of 10 horse power. Kemback 
mills consist of a meal mill, a bone mill, and a saw 
mill. On the lands of Myreton, in this parish, a 
quantity of metallic ore, which on analysis was dis- 
covered to be rich lead ore, was discovery in 1722. 
A copartnery was entered into between the pro- 
prietor, John Bethune, Esq. of Blebo, and some 
other gentlemen, for the purpose of working the 
mine if proper veins should be found ; and an over- 
seer and workmen were employed, who after some 
labour came upon a vein which gave rich indications 
of lead ; but, from the hardness of the rock, and ex- 
pense of blasting and working, it was ultimately 
given up. After this a large nest of the purest lead 
ore was accidentally discovered, about half-a-mile to 
the west of that first discovered. It contained large 
lumps of ore, one of 24 stones weight, and several 
others weighing 10 and 12 stones weight ; and below 
this a vein was found, containing a rib of metal 3 
inches thick, which afterwards widened to 7 inches. 
In prosecuting this vein much annoyance was occa- 
sioned by water, and Mr. Bethune's partners getting 
tired of the expense, it was given up. The pro- 

« The name of this parish— which is obviously Celtic— is pro- 
bably derived from Kempach, 'the Field of battle;' although 
there is certainly no tradition to give support tu the conjecture. 
Kemp, an signifying 'a battle,' or 'a warrior,' is found in both 
the ancient Celtic and Teutonic languages. It is the origin ol 
our words camp, champion, and campaign. In some parts of 
Scotland the striving of reapers iu the harvest-held is still called 




prietor, in 1748, let the mine to a Captain Tbyne, 
who began the work, and both he and his workmen 
considered it as exceedingly promising; but he was 
obliged to leave Scotland for the West Indies, and 
the work has never since been resumed This par- 
ish is in the presbytery of St. Andrews, and synod of 
Fife. It was formerly a rectory belonging to the 
archbishopric, and was gifted to the College of St. 
Salvator on its institution by Bishop Kennedy. The 
United College are now the titulars of the teinds, 
and patrons of the church. The church of Kemback, 
which is an old building, is pleasantly situated on the 
western slope of Kemback hill. Stipend £157 7s. ; 
glebe £24. The parish-teacher has the maximum 
salary, with a free house and school-house. 

KEMNAY, a parish in the district of Garioch, 
Aberdeenshire, bounded on the north by Inverury ; 
on the east by Kintore ; on the south by Cluny ; and 
on the west by Monymusk and Chapel-Garioch. It 
is divided from Inverury, Monymusk, and Chapel 
Garioch by the river Don ; and the ridge called the 
Kembs intersects it from south-east to north-west. 
It is between 4 and 5 miles in length from north to 
south, by 3 in breadth. On the banks of the Don 
there are rich, beautiful, and fertile haughs, but the 
soil is elsewhere a very stony light mould on sand. 
The low grounds, in general, are arable. There are 
two mineral springs, the Kemb well and the Spa 
well, at the foot of the Kembs. Kemnay-house is 
beautifully situated amongst plantations, parks, and 
tasteful pleasure-grounds, on the banks of the Don 
near the middle of the parish. Thomas Burnett, 
Esq , ancestor of the Burnetts of Kemnay, relation 
and intimate friend of Dr. Gilbert Burnett, Bishop 
of Sarum, and also friend and correspondent of the 
celebrated Leibnitz and other learned men of his 
time, resided and was buried in this parish Popu- 
lation, in 1801, 583; in 1831, 616. Houses 145. 
Assessed property, in 1815, £1,200.— The parish is 
in the synod of Aberdeen, and presbytery of Garioch. 
Patron, the Earl of Kintore. Stipend £158 19s. 2d. ; 
glebe £l0. Schoolmaster's salary £25 13s. 4d. ; 
fees £40, besides a share of the Dick bequest. The 
parochial school of Kemnay, from an article which 
recently appeared in that extensively diffused and 
powerful engine of instruction, 'Chambers's Jour- 
nal,' appears to be an admirably managed seminary. 
A visiter thus describes it : " Our way was for some 
time alongside the Don. We then left the river, 
and passed for some miles through a country gener- 
ally barren, till at length we descended upon Kem- 
nay, which appeared to me quite as a green spot in 
the wilderness. I could imagine no simple rural 
scene possessed of greater beauty than what was 
presented by the little group of cottages constitut- 
ing the parish-school establishment, planted as they 
are upon somewhat irregular ground, which for 
some distance around has been laid out with good 
taste, and exhibits a variety of fine green shrubs. 
A few years ago, the school and school -house 
were, as usual in Scotland, merely a couple of cot- 
tages in juxtaposition. Mr. Stevenson, the pre- 
sent teacher, has added one new building after 
another, till it is now a considerable place. His 
last addition was a pretty large school-room, which 
is constructed of timber, pitched on the top. One 
must not wonder at the new buildings not being of a 
very lasting kind, for not only has the teacher had 
to do all at his own expense, but he has done it with 
the certainty that all will become public property 
when he dies or leaves his situation. The place, 
nevertheless, seems sufficiently comfortable. The 
new erections have been made as the views of the 
teacher, respecting the duties of his charge, ex- 
panded, and as his boarding pupils became more 

numerous. After all, these are as yet only nineteen. 
Generally, if there is a little garden for common 
vegetables near a Scottish parish-school, it is all that 
is to be expected. Here there is a remarkably neat 
garden, situated on a piece of undulating ground, 
comprising a pretty piece of water in a serpentine 
form ; while the ground immediately round the new 
school-room is laid out in shrubbery and flower-bor- 
ders, with seats and arbours, the whole being in a 
style which might not shame a gentleman's mansion. 
I have never seen finer vegetables, or eaten more de- 
licious fruit, than I did here. Judge my surprise 
when I was told that the whole is the result of the 
labours of the children, who are thus taught an useful 
and tasteful art, and at the same time indulged in a 
physical recreation highly conducive to their health. 
My curiosity was excited to know how their labours 
were conducted. The garden and ground, I under- 
stood, are divided into compartments, and so many 
boys are attached to each. These companies, as they 
are called, have each a separate set of tools, all of 
which are kept in the nicest order and arrangement 
in a small wooden house erected for the purpose. 
It was singular, you will allow, at a time when 
industrial education is only beginning to be thought 
of in England, to find it practised on a large scale, 
and under the best regulations, in a remote and 
barren part of the northern county of Aberdeen. 
I was taken from the garden to a carpentry work- 
shop, where the boys every day exercise them- 
selves in the ingenious trade of the joiner. They 
make part of the school furniture, seats for the gar- 
den and shrubbery, and many other useful articles. 
We were now conducted into the school -room, 
which I found to be a spacious apartment, fitted up 
with all the conveniences of black boards, &c, as in 
the most improved schools in Edinburgh, with the 
addition of something which I had never seen in any 
similar place, namely, a variety of musical instru- 
ments hung upon the walls. I found only the boarders 
present, for the day was the last of the week, and all 
the native pupils had been dismissed, at the usual 
early hour, to their homes. Mr. Stevenson, never- 
theless, gave us a small specimen of a concert. Some 
boys took flutes, other violins, and one or two violas 
or violoncellos. Mr. Stevenson also took his instru- 
ment, and assumed the office of leader. I then heard 
several pieces of music, amongst which were some 
sacred pieces, performed in a manner really astonish- 
ing, when the ages of the musicians were considered. 
I may mention that Mr. Stevenson is himself a good 
musician, and even a composer. The boys are of 
all ages from six to nineteen, and several of them 
are from distant parts of the world. Many have 
made considerable progress in drawing, and in the 
copying of maps." 

KEMPOCH-POINT. See Gourock. 

KEN (The), a river of the district of Glenkens, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. It rises between Blacklarg 
hill and Longrigg hill on the boundary with Ayr- 
shire, and, after a course of 1 J mile south-eastward, 
and of 2 miles south-westward through the northern 
extremity of Dairy, begins to be, over all its extent, 
the boundary-line between Carsphairn and Kells on 
the west ; and Dairy, Balmaclellan. and Parton on 
the east, cutting the district of Glenkens, formed by 
all these parishes except the last, into two not very 
unequal parts. Its length of course, while dividing 
the parishes, is 21 miles ; and over this distance it 
describes the figure of the segment of a circle, run- 
ning, in its upper part, toward the south-west, and, 
in its lower part, toward the south-east. At the 
southern extremity of the parish of Kells, it is 
joined from the west by the Dee, and from that 
point to the sea, passes under the name of that 




usurping tributary : see the Dee. The streams 
which flow into the Ken are very numerous ; but, 
in general, are individually inconsiderable. But one 
of them, Deugb or Carsphairn water, which joins it at 
the point of its first touching the parish of Kells, is 
of longer course than itself, rising in three head- wa- 
ters in Ayrshire, and draining in two main basins 
nearly the whole of the extensive parish of Cars- 
phairn. The Ken, over most of its length, is singu- 
larly rich in the landscape-features, both of its im- 
mediate banks, and of its mountain-basin. See 
articles Carsphairn, Glenkens, and Kells. 

KEN (Loch), an expansion of the river Ken, 
immediately above the point where it is joined by 
the Dee. It is about 5 miles long, and from i to | 
of a mile broad. On its west side a range of hills 
comes down from the interior, terminates abruptly 
at its southern corner in a huge rock called Ben- 
in-hill, and over the central and northern part of 
the lake presses almost close upon its edge. Loch- 
Ken, approached from the south by a road leading 
up from Kirkcudbright along its left bank into the 
interior of the Glenkens, offers delightful scenery 
to the view. Some islets, wholly or partially covered 
with wood, are sprinkled on its surface. Its shores 
are occasionally fringed and tufted with plantation. 
At its head, a little westward of the river, appear 
Kenmure-castle, in a most picturesque situation, — 
and the small burgh of New Galloway, — with an in- 
tervening grove of stately elms, beeches, and pines. 
Between these objects and the river stretches a level 
tract of fine meadow and of fertile arable ground, — 
the holm of Kenmure. Close upon the eastern edge 
of the lake, embowered in wood, and finely seated, 
appears the ruinous house of Shermours. A re-ex- 
pansion of the stream, over a length of 4i miles, after 
the confluence of the Dee, is called Loch-Dee, — a 
name applied also to a lake of H mile by |, in the 
parish of Minigaff, whence issues one of the Dee's 

KENDAR (Loch), a beautiful sequestered sheet 
of water in the parish of Newabbey, Kirkcudbright- 
shire, fed by springs, and the mists and rains that 
ooze through the fissures of the gigantic Criffel. It 
is sometimes visited by wild swans. 

KENEDAR, or Ken-Edgar. See King-Ed- 

KENLOWIE (The), a small river in Fifeshire, 
which, after a course of about 6 miles from near 
Cupar, dividing the parishes of Kingsbarns and St. 
Andrews, falls into St. Andrews bay a little below 
Byrehills. It abounds with excellent trout. 

KENMORE, a parish in the district of Breadal- 
bane, Perthshire. To convey an idea of its topo- 
graphical figure and position, is not easy. In a 
general point of view, its main body may be re- 
garded as forming the frame-work of the beautiful 
mirror of Loch-Tay, and as bounded on the north 
by Fortingall ; on the east by Dull, and by detached 
parts of various parishes ; on the south by Comrie ; 
and on the west by Killin. But this idea of even 
its main body must be modified ; for compact stripes 
of Weem and Killin, all but entirely detach a dis- 
trict of 6| miles by 3 on the west ; a detached part 
of Weem, 3 miles by l-£, lies embosomed in the north ; 
and parts of other parishes, either compactly or in- 
tersectingly, occupy the banks of Loch-Tay over half 
its extent on the south. An entirely detached part 
of Kenmore, 8J miles by 6, lies between Fortingall 
and Killin, on the boundary with Argyleshire. An- 
other entirely detached part, 3J miles by 2J, lies 1 \ 
mile eastward of the nearest point of the main body. 
The greatest length of the whole parish, exclusive 
of intervening territories, is about 20 miles ; its 
greatest length, measured across these territories so 

as to include them, is 30 miles ; its greatest breadth 
is 7 miles ; and its superficial area is 62 square miles. 
The main body of the parish takes its tone and con- 
figuration from the river which intersects it, and 
which here expands into the long and surpassingly 
beautiful stripe of waters forming Loch-Tay. The 
features of its scenery are well known to fame, and 
attract crowds of tasteful visiters during the months 
of warmth and verdure. But nearly all the objects 
which please and delight are either identified or 
scenically grouped with Loch-Tat, the river Tay, 
and the princely mansion and demesne of T a mouth- 
Castle, and properly occur to be noticed under 
these heads,- — which see. The Lochy rises in se- 
veral head-streams in the western detached portion 
of the parish, and afterwards intersects a small part 
of the main body before uniting with the more impetu- 
ous Doehart in the haughs of Killin, at the head of 
Loch-Tay. That lake stretching from south-west to 
north-east, runs through the centre of the main body ; 
but, at the lower end, is subtended by three or four 
times more breadth of surface on its south-east than 
on its north-west side. Tay river, emerging from 
Loch-Tay, a few yards above the pleasant little vil- 
lage of Kenmore, has a course of 2 miles within the 
parish, and at the point of leaving it, is joined by the 
Lyon, after the latter having run \\ mile along the 
north-east boundary. Numerous rills or streamlets 
come down on both sides of the intersecting thread or 
stripe of water — whether lake or river — but they are 
all of brief course, and in no instance come from 
beyond the boundary. The parish is thus, with 
some exceptions, an elongated basin, sending up, 
either at or within its lateral boundaries, a water- 
shedding line of heights, and draining off the pro- 
duce of its own springs by one central and continu- 
ous channel. At the upper end of Loch-Tay, where 
the still flowing waters of the Lochy come down to 
aid those of the Doehart in forming it, is some rich 
meadowland, constituting a patch of verdant holm in 
the centre of the glen. At the lower extremity of 
the lake, from the narrow efflux of Tay river, the 
surface gradually expands into a beautiful plain, about 
a mile wide, occupied by the princely mansion and 
domains of Taymouth-castle. At the points where 
the larger lateral streamlets enter Loch-Tay, are 
deltas or little plains, rich in their soil, and lovely 
in their aspect, but inconsiderable in extent. With 
these exceptions, the surface of the main body of the 
parish rises in a not very gentle ascent from both 
sides of the long, belt of water. In most parts, it 
is all, for nearly a mile, either subjected to the 
plough, or laid out in verdant pasture or covered 
with plantation. Behind this green zone — this fringe- 
work of varied and picturesque cultivation round 
the lake — the surface puts on a russet-dress of heath, 
tartaned and chequered and striped with verdure, 
and undulates away upward in the curving lines of 
beauty, till it assumes an utterly Alpine aspect, and 
in one place on the north sends aloft the sublime and 
far-seeing summit of Benlawers 3,944 or 4,015 feet 
above the level of the sea : see Benlawers. The 
western detached part of the parish, besides being cut 
with the head-streams of the Lochy, is bounded for 
b\ miles by Loch-Lyon and the main stream which 
it receives and disgorges, and is traversed on its 
north-west side by three rills tributary to the Lyon ; 
and, being throughout a mountainous district, it 
exhibits a congeries of heights cloven and dissevered 
in very various directions by ravines and glens. The 
eastern detached part forms the basin of the chief 
and lower part of the Quaich, before its entrance 
into Loch-Freuchie ; and, consisting of the wider 
portion of Glenquaich, with its screen of flanking 
heights, considerably resembles in the configuration of 



its surface, the main body of the parish ; but for up- 
wards of a mile at its lower extremity, it exhibits, 
on the banks of the Quaich, a dull flat face of swamp 
and morass, which seems to offer defiance to the agri- 
culturist's arts of improvement. A wide aggregate 
expanse of the surface of the parish, comprehending 
4,500 or 5,000 acres, is covered with wood, chiefly 
Scotch fir, but composed also of oak, larch, lime, 
beech, sycamore, and perhaps 9 or 10 other species. 
The soil and climate seem peculiarly adapted to ar- 
boriculture ; and, in positions where no invasion could 
b_- made by the plough — as on the precipitous sides, 
for example, of Drummond hill, and some parts of 
' the Braes of Kenmore' — they produce groves 
of trees remarkable for their thrivingness and bulk. 
Agriculture, though zealously plied, is pent up 
within narrow limits, and claims, as the arena 
of its exploits, not more than one-eighth of the 
whole superficies. The valleys and the water- 
carried soils of the glens produce good crops of ex- 
cellent grasses. The belt of arable land along the 
sides of Loch-Tay, consisting of a loamy soil 
washed down by the rains from the higher grounds, 
is well-adapted to cropping, and not a little produc- 
tive of oats, beer, pulse, potatoes, and other esculents. 
The hilly land, carpeted chiefly with a light mossy 
kind of soil, is naturally not unfriendly to vegetation, 
but luxuriates principally in heath, bent, and coarse 
grasses. Agriculture can never apparently make a 
much farther inroad upon the district than it has al- 
ready done ; but must, even with the aid of the sister 
arts of horticulture and arboriculture, leave three- 
fourths of it in undisturbed possession of the cloud- 
piercing birds, or of browsing flocks of sheep and cattle. 
The parish is richly indebted to the Highland society, 
and the spirited efforts of the Marquis of Breadalbane, 
for directing the expansion of its productive capabi- 
lities, and arousing attention to the improvement 
and care of stock. Upwards of 12,000 sheep, chiefly 
the black-faced sort, and about 3,000 black cattle, 
principally the West Highland kind, are maintained 

on its pastures Limestone abounds, and is wrought 

in various quarries. Several building-stones of re- 
markable beauty are worked in quarries, and exhibit 
specimens in some of the most interesting local erec- 
tions. Quartz of a pure and brilliant whiteness may 
be seen in the walls of Taymouth dairy, and strewn 
plentifully, by way of ornament, in front of the nice- 
ly white-washed cottages of Kenmore. A stone 
which combines the characteristics of chlorite and 
of talc slate, and which assumes a smooth surface 
from the arts of the mason, has been used in the 
construction of the modern or principal part of 
Taymouth-castle, and contributes not a little, by its 
texture and tintings, to the magnificence of aspect 
worn by that superb pile. In a quarry not far from 
the village of Kenmore, this stone is worked in a very 
wide variety of ways, from the production of the 
massive rude block, to that of the delicately carved 
architectural ornament. Appearances exist among 
the mountains of lead and iron and other ores. 
With a very unimportant exception, the whole par- 
ish belongs to the Marquis of Breadalbane ; and it 
enjoys the felicity of his personal residence, a great 
part of the year, at Taymouth-castle, and of his 
active personal promptings of its wellbeing. 

The only antiquity worth notice are the ruins of a 
priory, founded in 1122 by Alexander I., and situated 
on a picturesque little fairy-looking, tree-clothed 
islet at the north-east end of Loch-Tay, a few yards 
above the bridge. " The ruins on the isle," says Sir 
Walter Scott, " now almost shapeless, being over- 
grown with wood, rose at one time into the towers 
and pinnacles of a priory, where slumbered the remains 
of Sibilla, daughter of Henry I. of England, and con- 

sort of Alexander I. of Scotland. It was founded 
by Alexander, and the care of it committed to a 
small body of monks." But these monks appear to 
have been expelled, or to have found occasion for 
beating a retreat ; for the last residents of the place, 
according to Sir Walter, were three nuns, distin- 
guished by a very singular species of recluse habits. 
Shutting themselves professionally out from society, 
they periodically rushed into its embrace ; and then 
they "seemed determined to enjoy it in its most 
complicated and noisy state ; for they came out only 
once a-year, and that to a market at Kenmore. 
Hence that fair is still called, Feillnam ban naomha , 
' the Market of the Holy women.' There are no pre- 
cise data by which to determine the time of the ex- 
istence of these nuns. It must have been subsequent 
to the year 1565, for that was the year when a mar- 
ket was for the first time held at Kenmore." [Fair 
Maid of Perth.] In after times this island wore 
another face. When the bravery of Montrose car- 
ried every thing before him in defence of the royal 
cause, which was nearly in its wane in England ; a 
numerous body of Campbells, against whom the 
rigour of Montrose was chiefly directed, took pos- 
session of this island, where they fortified themselves 
among the ruins. Montrose took, and garrisoned it ; 
and it continued in the hands of the loyalists till 
1654, when Monk retook it. 

The villages are three, — Sronfernan, Acharn, and 

Kenmore Sronfernan stands on the north bank of 

Loch-Tay, 2J miles above the efflux of the river 
Tay ; and has a population of about 150. Acharn, 
a neat quiet-looking, tree-shadowed village, stands 
on the south bank of Loch-Tay, 1J mile above the 
efflux of the river ; and has a population of about 90. 
It is celebrated for its falls, which are formed by 
a small burn in its course through the overhanging 
woods above the village, and which are, we think, 
quite equal to those of the Bran in the neighbour- 
hood of Dunkeld.. — Kenmore, though the least 
populous village of the three, possesses an hundred 
times the importance of the other two united. It 
occupies a charming site on a peninsula projecting 
into the north-eastern extremity of Loch-Tay, on 
the south side of the river, at the point of its efflux, 
16 miles east-north-east of Killin, and 23 miles 
west-north-west of Dunkeld. The village, with its 
neat white cottages, its commodious inn, its parish- 
church, its handsome bridge of 5 arches across the 
new-born or at least new-named river Tay, and its 
close proximity to the gorgeousness of Taymouth 
pleasure-grounds, and the finest scenery of Loch- 
Tay, is well-known to tourists as one of the most 
beautiful in Scotland; and as going far — especially 
with the aid of its magnificent adjuncts — to redeem 
the character of our country from the scorn which 
our villages generally and too justly draw down from 
the Southron. Excepting, perhaps, the joyous Amble- 
side, and the gay and elegant Keswick, no village in 
England may be fairly pronounced to surpass Ken- 
more in the aggregate beauties of its aspect, as seen 
in the foils and adornings of lake and valley and 
mountain encincturing landscape ; and even these, 
while, on the whole, they claim decided superiority, 
are marred by defects which have no counterpart in 
Kenmore. Half-way between Taymouth-castle and 
the village, on the north bank of the river, stands an 
elegant monumental erection called the Cross, ex- 
hibiting very nice and rich architectural chiselings 
in the beautiful species of building-stone which is 
quarried in the vicinity. In the neighbourhood of 
the village are a saw-mill driven by water-power, 
and a small woollen manufactory, — the latter em- 
ploying about 12 persons. Kenmore has 6 annual 
fairs ; one on the first Tuesday of March, O.S., for 




horses and merchandise ; one on the 28th of June, 
for general business ; one on the 26th of July, for 
horses and wool ; one on the 17th of September, for 
cattle and agricultural produce ; one on the Friday 
before the last Doune tryst, for cattle and general 
business ; and one on the 22d of December, for agri- 
cultural produce. Population, about 80. From the 
village diverge, either immediately or at a brief dis- 
tance, 6 lines of communication. Three lead out 
from its centre, — one, the west entrance to Tay- 
mouth-castle, — another, the road along the bridge 
northward, — and the third, a thoroughfare of com- 
munication with the south of Scotland. The north 
road branches a little beyond the bridge, into a line 
toward the fords of Lyon, and a well-kept turnpike 
along the north side of Loch-Tay to Killin. The 
south road, soon after leaving the village, forks into 
three branches, — one leading up the south side of 
Loch-Tay to Killin, — another leading over the hills [ 
to Glenquaich, and Glenalmond, — and the third, a 
finely maintained turnpike, pointing the way to I 
Aberfeldy, Logierait, and Dunkeld. Population of 
the parish, in 1801, 3,346; in 1831, 3,126. Houses 
616. Assessed property, in 1815, £21,181. 

Kenmore is in the presbytery of Weem, and synod 
of Perth and Stirling. Patron, the Marquis of 
Breadalbane. Stipend £253 14s. 9d. ; glebe £20. 
According to an ecclesiastical survey in 1836, the 
population then consisted of 3,087 churchmen, 70 
dissenters, and 1 no-religionist, — in all, 3,158. The 
parish-church was built in 1761-2. Sittings 686. 
Certain portions of the parish, though not disjoined 
quoad sacra from the parish-church, have, by autho- 
rity of the presbytery, been put under the superin- 
tendence of missionaries stationed at Lawers for the 
north-western part of the main body of the parish, — 
at Ardeonaig for the south-western part of the main 
body, — and at Amulree for the eastern detached por- 
tion, or Glenquaich district, as well as for portions 
of other parishes. The western detached portion, 
also, or Glenlochy district, is quoad sacra under the 
superintendence of the minister of the parish of Kil- 
lin. The proportion of the population under the 
minister of Kenmore is 1,148; under the missionary 
of Amulree, 149; under the missionary of Ardeonaig, 
279 ; under the missionary of Lawers, 848 ; and 

under the minister of Killin, 734 A small Baptist 

congregation, yielding an average attendance of from 
30 to 40, was established in the parish in 1804. 
Their place of worship is a building rented from the 
tenant of the farm on which it is situated. Sittings 
150. No stipend — There are 10 schools, — one pa- 
rochial, attended by a maximum of 76 scholars, — and 
9 non-parochial, attended by a maximum of 605. 
Parochial schoolmaster's salary £34 4s. 4£d., with 
£19 12s. lOd. fees, and at least £13 10s. other emo- 
luments. Of the non-parochial schools, 3 are en- 
dowed by the society in Scotland for Propagating 
Christian Knowledge, 1 is under the patronage of 
the Dowager-marchioness of Breadalbane, and 5 are 
conducted by young men entirely at their own ad- 

KENMURE-CASTLE, the seat of Viscount Ken- 
mure, occupies a delightful site at the head of Loch- 
Ken, about half-a-mile south of the burgh of New 
Galloway, in the parish of Kells, Kirkcudbrightshire. 
It stands on an insulated circular mount, which, pre- 
vious to observing the rocky texture of one of its 
sides, an observer would suppose to be artificial ; 
and it appears to have been anciently surrounded by 
a fosse, supplied with water from the Ken. The 
castle is approached by a beautiful avenue, and has 
around it a fine plantation, and forms a conspicuous : 
and superb feature in one of the most picturesque \ 
landscapes in the south of Scotland : See articles 

Ken and Kells. The edifice is a conglomeration 
of several buildings of different ages: the older parts 
exhibiting the turreted character which distinguished 
the 15th century, and all of it having a castellated 
form and imposing aspect. In the interior are spa- 
cious and elegant rooms, handsomely furnished ; a 
large and well-selected library ; and a gallery which 
does honour to the taste of the collectors, and con- 
tains, among other remarkable pictures, one of the 
few extant genuine portraits of Queen Mary. When 
or by whom the original portion of the present pile, 
or rather the whole of a previous one which it must 
have supplanted, was built, is a matter not known. 
In early times, and even at a comparatively modern 
date, it suffered much from the ravages of war, hav- 
ing been burnt both in the reign of Mary and during 
the administration of Cromwell. Originally, it is 
said to have been a seat or stronghold of the Lords 
of Galloway. John Baliol, who succeeded to a great 
part of the estates of those feudal princes, is reported 
to have often made it his residence ; and omitting to 
reserve it when he resigned his Scottish possessions 
to the English king, he had it restored to him by a 
special deed. Kenmure, after the triumph of the 
dynasty of Bruce, passed into the possession of the 
Douglasses ; upon their forfeiture, it was granted by 
the Crown to the Maxwells of Caerlaverock ; and in 
the end of the 14th century, or the beginning of the 
16th, it was purchased, along with the lands of 
Lochinvar, by a younger brother of Sir Alexander 
de Gordon of Berwickshire, the ancestor of the Dukes 
of Gordon, and it has ever since remained in his 
family. The Gordons of Lochinvar or of Kenmure 
claim strictly the same stock as the Gordons of the 
north, and were originally from Normandy ; and 
after sitting down at Kenmure, they gradually ac- 
quired, by grant, purchase, or marriage, the greater 
part of the lands in Kirkcudbrightshire. They were 
distinguished by the confidence of their sovereigns, 
and by such extreme hereditary attachment to their 
persons and fortunes, as eventually involved their 
house in prolonged ruin ; and they, at the same time, 
sought to be the friends of the people, and were 
steady professors of the Presbyterian religion. Sir- 
John Gordon of Lochinvar was an unswerving fol- 
lower of Mary, and ran serious hazards in her cause. 
His son and successor was one of the most distin- 
guished Scotsmen in the court of James VI. In 
May 1633, Sir John Gordon, the contemporary of 
Charles I., was raised by that monarch to the dig- 
nity of the peerage, by the title of Viscount Ken- 
mure. This excellent nobleman singularly combined 
attachment to the house of Stuart with unflinching 
fidelity in the profession of religion ; and, much as 
he is known for the honours conferred upon him by 
Charles — among the rest, the curious one of char- 
tering a royal burgh within limits on his estate, 
whereas yet not a human dwelling existed [see New 
Galloway] — he is greatly better known for his in- 
timacy with John Welsh and Samuel Rutherford, for 
the important services he did the latter, and for the 
tone of deep religiousness which flung its melody 
over the closing scenes of his life. His amiable 
lady, too — the third daughter of Archibald, 7th 
Earl of Argyle, and the sister of Lord Lorn — is inti- 
mately known to a numerous class in Scotland as the 
correspondent of the quaint but unctuous Ruther- 
ford. In 1715, William, the 6th Viscount, took 
an active part in the rebellion, and next year was 
beheaded on Towerhill in London, entailing upon 
his family the forfeiture of their title. It is said he 
was urged to engage in the unfortunate enterprise 
by the importunities of his lady ; and the tradition 
of the Glenkens still records, that, on the ominous 
morning when he left Kenmure-castle, his charger — 




one of the finest animals of its kind, and remarkable 
for its docility — thrice refused its master. The mat- 
ter in itself was of no moment, and, but for what 
followed, would have been since forgotten. For 
some days, we believe, he threatened Dumfries; and 
he kept a body of the rebel troops on Amisfield- 
moor, ready for action, to the dismay of the loyal 
burgesses, who expected their town to be sacked, 
and such of their male population as were capable of 
bearing arms to be forthwith draughted into the 
Pretender's army. His descendants, inheriting his 
estates — which by prudent management were pur- 
chased from the Crown — endeavoured by serving in 
the army to make amends for their ancestor's error, 
and distinguished themselves by patriotic concern for 
the interests of their tenants, and for the general 
welfare ; and, in 1824, they were, in the person of 
the forfeited Viscount's grandson, restored, by act of 
parliament, to their ancient honours. He who thus 
became the 7th Viscount, was born in 1750, and 
continued to enjoy his title and estates till his 91st 
year. His lordship is succeeded by his nephew, 
Adam Gordon, Esq., a lieutenant in the royal navy, 
now Viscount Kenmure, a brave officer, who dis- 
played great gallantry in many severe actions on the 
American lakes during the late war. 

KENNETHMONT, or Klnnethmont, a parish 
in Aberdeenshire, bounded on the north by Gartly ; 
on the east by Insch; on the south by Leslie and 
Clatt ; and on the west by Rhynie. It is 6 miles 
long from east to west, and 3 in breadth. The sur- 
face is diversified by planted eminences and hills, and 
the parish is watered by several streamlets. Greater 
part of the land is arable and productive. Annexed 
to this parish is Christ's-kirk, formerly a parish, the 
church of which is in ruins. Here, on the green 
sward encircling the kirk, a fair was at one time held 
in the night, and by the people hence called Sleepy- 
market. It is contended, from these curious circum- 
stances, that this was the scene of ' Christ's-kirk on 
the Green,' ascribed to James I. of Scotland. There 
are some Druidical remains in the parish. Popula- 
tion, in 1801, 784; in 1831, 1,131. Houses 224. 

Assessed property, in 1815, £1,451 Kennethmont 

is in the synod of Aberdeen, and presbytery of Alford. 
Patron, Hay of Rannes and Leith-Hall. Stipend 
£195 2s. Id. ; glebe £15. Schoolmaster's salary 
£25 13s. 4d. ; fees and other emoluments £12 10s. 
2d. There are four private schools in the parish. 

KENNET-PANS, a village 2 miles south of the 
town of Clackmannan, and I J west of the town of 
Kincardine, Clackmannanshire. It stands on the 
shore of the frith of Forth. Kennet, or New Ken- 
net, is a modern village, 1^ mile from Kennet-Pans, 
and half-a-mile from Clackmannan, neatly edificed, 
and situated on the estate and near the mansion of 
Bruce of Kennet. There is a railroad, about a mile 
in length, from this harbour to Kilbagie distillery. 

KENNOWAY, a parish in Fifeshire. It forms 
an irregular parallelogram, 3i miles in length from 
east to west, and rather more than 2 miles in breadth 
from north to south ; ascending gradually from the 
south towards the north. The prospect from almost 
every part of the parish is extensive and beautiful ; 
commanding a distinct view of the island of May, 
the Bass rock, Inchkeith, the shipping on the Forth, 
and the coast south of the Forth, from Dunbar to 
the west of Edinburgh, including the Lammermoor 
hills. From the northern or elevated part of the 
parish, the view embraces not only the prospect to 
the south just described, but almost all Fifeshire, and 
a great part of the counties of Angus, Perth, and 
Stirling, and of the Grampian mountains. The par- 
ish is bounded on the south by the parishes of 
Scoonie, Wemyss, and Markinch ; on the east by 

Scoonie ; on the north by the parish of Kettle ; and 
on the west by Markinch. Of 3,750 imperial acres, 
being the superficies of this parish, 3,470 are arable. 
Coal, freestone, and whinstone, are wrought in the 
parish, and a considerable number of the population 
are employed in linen-weaving. There are three 
villages in the parish : 1st, Kennoway, which has a 
sub-post-office attached to that of Leven, and a po- 
pulation of 862 ; 2d, Star, having a population of 
232; and 3d, Baneton, with a population of 125. 
The population of the parish, in 1801, was 1,466; 
in 1831, 1,721. Houses 378. Assessed property, in 
1815, £5,251. Valued rent £4,131 Scots. Real 
rent £5,000 On the farm of Duniface, in the south- 
ern part of this parish, is a round hill called the 
Maiden-castle, which seems to have been the site in 
ancient times of a British fort. Tradition points it 
out as having been a castle belonging to Macduff, 
Earl of Fife ; but this does not appear to be proba- 
ble, nor is there the slightest evidence of the fact. 
In the village of Kennoway is an old house in which 
it is said Archbishop Sharp passed the night previous 
to his being murdered; and in the first Statistical 
Account the minister says that about fourteen years 
ago — he wrote in 1793— -a woman had died, who 
remembered to have seen the Archbishop on that 

occasion, she having lived to an extreme old age - 

The parish is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy, and 
synod of Fife. Patron, the Crown. Stipend £242 
17s.; glebe £20. Unappropriated teinds £9 13s. 
The parish-church anciently belonged to the priory 
of St. Andrews. It is obviously a building of great 
antiquity, but the period of its erection is not known. 
It was thoroughly repaired in 1832 ; sittings 463. 
There is a chapel in the village of Kennoway con- 
nected with the United Associate Synod ; and an- 
other chapel connected with the Original Burgher 

Synod The parochial teacher has the maximum 

salary, and the legal accommodation. Average 
number of pupils 120. There are besides two unen- 
dowed schools in the parish, one of which is a female 

KERERA, or Kerrera, an island of Argyleshire, 
situated in the sound of Mull, about 5 miles from the 
island of Mull, and 1 mile from the mainland of the 
district of Lorn, where it contributes to form the 
excellent and romantic harbour of Oban. It is 4 
miles in length, and 2 in breadth, and is included in 
the parish of Kilmore. Its surface is very hilly, and 
many of the rocks have a volcanic appearance. 
Kerera possesses two good harbours, called the Ardin- 
traive and Horse-shoe bay. There is a ferry from 
this island to Achnacraig in Mull. " Kerera," says 
an intelligent tourist, " excepting on its shores, has 
no features of any kind to attract attention, unless it 
be the inequality and confusion of the surface, which 
is extreme. Not only is there nothing like level 
ground, but the hilly parts are so steep and frequent, 
the valleys so deep, and the whole so intermixed, 
that the toil of walking over it is incredible. Its 
want of beauty is, however, much recompensed bv 
the noble prospects which it affords of the hay of 
Oban, and of that magnificent range of mountains 
which encloses the Linnhe-loch, with all the islands 
that are scattered about its variegated sea. The 
southern shore of the island affords one very wild 
and picturesque scene, of which Gylen-castle proves 
the chief object. On the margin of a high cliff im- 
pending over the sea, is perched this tall grey tower ; 
the whole bay, rude with rocks and cliffs, presenting 
no traces of land or of verdure, — appearing as if it 
had, for uncounted ages, hraved the fury of the 
waves that break in from over the whole breadth of 
the inlet and far out to sea. A scene more savage 
and desolate, and more in character with the desert- 




ed and melancholy air of this solitary dwelling that 
seems to shun all the haunts of man, is not easily 
conceived. This castle must have belonged to the 
Macdougalls, as it is of a date at least equal to 
Dunolly, and to the times when this family were 
lords of Lorn. It was in Kerera that Alexander II. 
died (July 8, 1249), when preparing to invade the 
Western islands, then under the supreme dominion 
of Norway and of Haco. The tale has something of 
the superstition of the times, when there was a 
solution for every dream in its being a warning from 
the land of shadows. As his majesty lay in his bed, 
there appeared to him three men; one of them 
dressed in royal garments, with a red face, squinting 
eyes, and a terrible aspect, — the second being very 
young and beautiful with a costly dress, — and a third 
of a larger stature than either, and of a still fiercer 
countenance than the first. The last personage de- 
manded of him whether he meant to subdue the 
islands, and on receiving his assent, advised him to 
return home ; which warning he neglected. The 
three persons were supposed to be St. Olave, St. 
Magnus, and St. Columba ; although what interest 
the latter could have in taking part with the two 
Norwegian saints, does not appear ; as the piratical 
invaders of that country had been early and bitter 
enemies to his monastery." 

KERLOACK, one of the Grampian mountains in 
Kincardineshire, near the river Dee, rising 1 ,890 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

KERNIGERG, two small islands of the Hebrides, 
united at low water, lying between the islands of 
Coll and Tiree. 

KERSHOPE (The), a rivulet in the southern 
extremity of Roxburghshire, or on the south-east side 
of the parish of Castletown, or district of Liddesdale, 
and belonging almost equally to Scotland and Eng- 
land. It rises on the east side of Whiteknowe, 
within a few yards of one of the chief head-waters 
of the English Tyne, within the limits of Liddes- 
dale; and, after flowing half-a-mile eastward, it 
forms over its whole remaining course of 8 miles, 
during which it generally runs south-westward, the 
boundary-line between Liddesdale on its right, and 
Northumberland and Cumberland on its left. It 
falls into the Liddel 2J miles below the village of 
Castletown, and the same distance above the point 
where the river leaves Roxburghshire. Like the 
other streams of Liddesdale, it abounds in excellent 

trout On the top of Kershope hill, in the parish 

of Yarrow, about 9 miles west-south-west of Sel- 
kirk, there stood a monumental stone called Tait's 
cross. Chalmers informs us, from a manuscript de- 
scription of the shire of Selkirk by John Hodge, in 
1722, "that there was then to be seen, at Tait's 
cross, boughted* and milked, upwards of 12,000 ewes, 
in the month of June, about eight o'clock at night, 
at one view." 

KESSOCK (Westeb), a ferry over Loch-Beauly 
to Inverness. It is in the parish of Knockbain, and 
is accommodated with a pier and inn. 

KET (The), a streamlet of 5| miles length of 
course, in Wigtonshire. It describes the figure of a 
semicircle, having a point a little north of Burrow- 
head for its centre. Rising near the sea in the par- 
ish of Glasserton, it flows through the burgh of 
Whithorn, and, driving a corn-mill near its mouth, 
enters the sea at the little bay called Port-Yarrock. 

KETTINS, a parish in the south-west extremity 
of Forfarshire ; bounded on the north-east by New- 

* Boughted is a verb, from the substantive bought or blight, 
which iu the speech of Bhepherds means 'a fold for ewes,' while 
they are milked. Every one knows the old song, — 

" Will ye go to the ewe-bnchts, Marion, 
And wear in Hie sheep wi' me?" 

tyle ; on the east by Lundie ; on a small part of the 
west by the Forfarshire portion of Cupar- Angus ; 
and on all other sides by Perthshire. It has 
nearly the figure of a hexagon, its south-east side 
considerably indented, two sides ragged or irregular, 
and each of the six measuring on the average about 
2J miles. But a detached portion, 1 mile long and 
| of a mile broad, lies 6 miles south-west from the 
nearest point of the main body, surrounded by Col- 
lace, Kinnaird, Kilspindie, and St. Martins in Perth- 
shire. The east side of the main body being bound- 
ed by the water-shedding line of the Sidlaw hills, the 
surface first descends the slope of these hills, and 
then glides gently down into the plain of Strathmore. 
The greater or western part is nearly level, and well 
cultivated and thoroughly enclosed. The lesser or 
upland part is partly heathy, partly covered with 
plantation, but chiefly disposed in pasturage. The 
soil, throughout the lowlands, is in general fertile ; 
but in the uplands it is thin and light. Two rivu- 
lets — one of 6 miles length of course, which comes 
in from Perthshire and flows partly on the boundary 
and partly in the interior, and one of 4 miles length 
of course, which issues from a lochlet in the south- 
east extremity of the parish, and cuts it north-west- 
ward into two nearly equal parts — unite a few hun- 
dred yards above Cupar- Angus, or the point of their 
passing into Perthshire, and, in their progress, drive 
a considerable number of mills. A proportion of the 
population are employed in the weaving of linen 
fabrics, subordinately to the manufacturers of Dun- 
dee, and in conducting the operations of some bleach- 
fields. Close on the western verge of the parish, but 
beyond its limits, and half-a-mile east of a bend ot 
the river Isla, stands the Forfarshire portion of the 
town of Cupar- Angus. A mile south-east of that 
town, at mid-distance between the northern and the 
southern extremities of the parish, stands the village 
of Kettins, the site of the church, and the metropo- 
lis of a parish which boasts no fewer than seven vil- 
lages. All the villages except Kettins, however, 
are at present inconsiderable hamlets ; though an- 
ciently they seem to have been of more importance, 
and, with one exception, were the seats of chaplain- 
ries. Half-a-mile east of Kettins stands the modern 
mansion of Haliburton-house, situated in a plain, 
surrounded with stately plantations, and formerly the 
ordinary residence of the family whose name it bears, 
but now the property of the Earl of Aboyne. The 
family of Haliburton are well known in connection 
with the distinguished figure which they made in the 
scenes of the Scottish Reformation ; arra, in the 17th 
century, were owners of extensive lands adjacent to 
their mansion. A quarter of a mile south of the 
hamlet of Pitcur, and near 2 miles south-east of the 
village of Kettins, are the ruins of the castle — that 
of Pitcur — whence the chief branch of the family 
derived their title. A mile south-west of Kettins, 
environed by fine plantations and fertile fields, is 
Lintrose-house, formerly called Todderance, and 
once the seat of a lateral branch of the Haliburton 
family, one of whose offshoots had a seat in the col- 
lege-of-j ustice, under the title of Lord Todderance. 
In the detached part of the parish and county are the 
mansion and manor of Bandirran. At the hamlet of 
Camp-muir, three-quarters ofa mile north of Kettins, 
and close on the boundary with Cupar- Angus, are 
vestiges of a camp supposed to have been Roman. 
On the summit of a hill at the southern extremity of 
the parish stood the castle of Dores, traditionally 
reported to have been the residence of Macbeth. At 
Baldowrie, near the northern extremity, is an erect 
Danish monument, six feet high. The parish is tra- 
versed by the turnpike between Cupar-Angus and 
Dundee, by the road between Perth and Newtyle, 




and by not a few cross-roads j arid recently, it has 

received a rich accession to its facilities of communi- 
cation by the near vicinity to it of the Dundee and 
Newtyle railway. Population, in 1801, 1,207; in 
1831, 1,193. Houses 250. Assessed property, in 
1815, £5,560.— Kettins is in the presbytery of Meigle, 
and synod of Angus and Mearns. Patron, the Crown. 
Stipend £225 13s. 5d. ; glebe £10 Is. 4d. The 
church had anciently six subordinate or dependent 
chapels; situated respectively at Peatie, South Cos- 
ton, Pitcur, Muiryfaulds, Denhead, and Kettins, and 
most ot them surrounded with cemeteries. Parochial 
schoolmaster's salary £30, with £32 fees, from £10 
10s. to £12 12s. other emoluments, and a dwelling- 
house and small piece of ground. Private schools 
are occasionally open. 

KETTLE,* a parish in Fifeshire, occupying a 
portion of the valley of the Eden, on the south side 
of that stream, and ascending partly over the range 
of hills which form the southern boundary of the 
strath. Its extreme length from east to west is 
about 6k miles; its breadth varied; and its form 
irregular. At the east end its breadth is nearly 2 
miles; about the middle it is nearly 3 miles; and at 
the west end for about 2 miles it is little more than 
half-a-mile in breadth. It is bounded on the south 
by the parishes of Markinch and Kennoway; on the 
east by Scoonie or Leven, Ceres, and Cults ; on the 
north by Cults and Collessie ; and on the west by 
the parish of Falkland. — There are rive villages in 
the parish ; the largest of which is Kettle, situated 
on the low ground on the south side of the Eden, 
and north of the turnpike-road from Cupar to Kirk- 
caldy, by New-Inn. Population, 527 in 1831. 
One of the two conflicting lines of projected railway 
through Fifeshire, namely that called the Eastern 
line, crosses in its progress this village on two high 
bridges. The other villages are : Holekettle or 
Burnside, on the public road, a short way to the 
south-west. Population 202. Bankton-park, to 
the north-west, and near the river. Population 
146. Balmalcolm, about half-a mile south-east, also 
on the public road. Population 115; and Coalton- 
of-Burnturk, about a mile south-east of Balmalcolm 
on the high ground. Population 71. Kettle is a 
post-town, and the nearest market-town is Cupar. 
Population, in 1801, 1,889; in 1831, 2,071. Houses, 
in 1831, 431. Assessed property, in 1815, £7,047. 
Valued rent £6,965 3s. 4d. Scots. A considerable 
proportion of the population is employed in linen- 
weaving At the south-eastern extremity of the 

parish, where it borders with Scoonie and Ceres, is 
Clatto, the property of John Balfour, Esq. of Bal- 
birnie. Here there are the remains of an old tower 
which is said to have anciently belonged to a family 
of the name of Seaton, of whom the tradition still is 
that they were very notorious robbers and murder- 
ers. The old road from Cupar to Kinghorn passed 
through Clatto-den, and in the face of the hill, which 
forms its boundary, there is alleged to be a cave, 
which communicated with the tower of Clatto and 
had another opening to the road, from which the 
bandits rushed out upon the unsuspecting passengers, 
and, dragging them into the cave, robbed and mur- 
dered them. The following is the traditional ac- 
count of the discovery and punishment of these 

* The name of this parish was anciently Lathrisk, or, as it 
is sometimes spelt in old charters, Lorresk, from the circum- 
stance of the parish-church being forraerlysituated on the lands 
of that name at the west end of the parish. The church, manse, 
and glebe, having been removed about 1636 to the village of 
Kettle, the parish has from that time received the name of the 
village. In old deeds the name of the village is sometimes 
written Catul, sometimes Katul. From that portion of the 
lands of Kettle on which the village is situated belonging an- 
ciently to the Crown, the village as well as the parish is often 
called King's Kettle. 

assassins. One of the Scottish kings — said to have 
been James IV — happening to pass that way alone, 
was attacked by a son of the laird of Clatto; but 
the king, with one blow of his sword, cut off the 
right hand of the robber, with which he had seized 
hold of the bridle of his horse. The assailant in- 
stantly fled, and the king having taken up the sev- 
ered hand, rode off with it. Next day, attended by 
a proper retinue, his majesty visited the tower of 
Clatto, and demanded to see Seaton and his sons, 
who were noted as hardy, enterprising men. The 
old man, affecting to be gratified by the king's re- 
quest, conducted his family into the presence, but 
it was observed that one of the sons was absent; 
and, on inquiry being made after him, it was alleged 
he had been hurt by an accident, and was at the 
moment confined to bed. The king, however, in- 
sisted on seeing him; and, being led to his apart- 
ment, desired to feel his pulse. Whereupon the 
young man held out his left hand, but his majesty 
requesting to have the right, after many excuses, 
the poor wretch was obliged to confess that he had 
lost his right hand. The king then told him that 
he had a hand which was at his service if it fitted 
him; and the gory hand of the robber being pro- 
duced, the king explained how it came into his pos- 
session, and the whole family were thereupon appre- 
hended, tried, and executed, for the various robberies 
and murders they had committed. Such is the tra- 
dition as to the castle and den of Clatto ; but it is 
necessary to mention that there is now no appear- 
ance of the cave, all trace of it having been obliter- 
ated by the breaking down of the banks of the den 
at this place — West of Clatto, and on the other 
side of Clatto hill, is Dovan, belonging at one time 
to a family of the name of Boswell, cadets of Bos- 
well of Balmuto, and now tc Mr. Balfour of Balbir- 
nie — This parish is in the presbytery of Cupar, and 
synod of Fife. Patron, the Crown. Stipend £223; 
glebe £3. The church, which was a vicarage be- 
longing to the priory of St. Andrews, originally 
stood at Lathrisk; besides which there two chapels 
in the parish, — one at Chapel, and the other at 
Clatto. In 1636, the chapels having been suppressed 
after the Reformation, the church was removed to 
the village of Kettle, as more in the centre of the 
parish than where it had hitherto stood. The pre- 
sent church was built about the year 1830; sittings 
1,200; cost, with the price of the ground, £3,000. 
It is in the pointed style of architecture, with a 
handsome tower, containing a clock, and terminated 
by ornamental pinnacles. It forms a rather fine ob- 
ject in the landscape of this part of the valley of the 
Eden. There is a chapel in the village of Kettle 

connected with the Relief synod An excellent 

school-house, fitted to hold 150 scholars, has been 
erected within the last few years, and a good dwell- 
ing-house and garden for the teacher. His salary is 
the maximum, and with the session and heritors' 
clerkship, and the school-fees, which are low, may 
amount to between £60 and £70 per annum. 

KIL, or Klll, an adjunct of very frequent oc- 
currence in Scottish topography. Some antiquaries 
derive it from the Saxon King ; others, from the 
Latin cella ; others, from the Gaelic till — pronounced 
heel — which means 'a circle,' and in which some 
etymologists have found the radix of the Latin 
caelum. According to the latter, all places in this 
country having the prefix till or kill, originally de- 
rived their names from the proximity of a Druidical 
circle. It is, however, an historical fact, that when 
names of places begin with this adjunct, it is gener- 
ally found that the place was originally the cell or 
hermitage of a saint, whose name usually forms the 
second half of the appellation; and the presumption 



is that the word was borrowed by the Gaels from the 
old Monkish Latin, cella. In the Highland districts, 
Kil often implies 'a Burial-place,' probably from 
there having been originally a cell or chapel, or sta- 
tion of an early Christian missionary, in the neigh- 

KILBARCHAN, a parish in Renfrewshire, 
bounded by Kilmalcolm on the north-west, and in 
all other directions by streams or rivulets, namely, 
the Locter and Bride's burn on the south-west, the 
Black Cart on the south and east,* and the Gryfe 
on the north. Its extent is about 18J square miles, 
taking the medium length from west to east at 7A, 
and the breadth at 2i miles, containing about 9,200 
English acres. It is of a triangular form, narrowing 
to a point at the north-east, where the Gryfe and the 
Cart unite, and where these streams form the only 
separation between this parish and those of Paisley, 
Renfrew, Inchinnan, Erskine, and Houston, all of 
which here closely approximate to each other. The 
lower district of Kilbarchan parish, towards the east, 
is flat, partly fertile land, and partly unreclaimed 
moss. Towards the west the surface becomes diver- 
sified with gentle risings, of which a great portion is 
cultivated. The whole abounds in beautiful scenery, 
and is much embellished with plantations. There are 
several pretty cascades on the rivulet Locher, which, 
after bounding the parish for a short distance, as 
already stated, enters it and runs nearly its whole 
length, finally falling into the Gryfe. Coal and 
limestone are wrought at several places. The low 
part of the parish contains excellent freestone, and 
the north-west osmond stone, which is in great re- 
quest for ovens. The principal freestone quarry is 
one of great depth on the western declivity of an 
eminence called the Bar-hill or brae, adjacent to the 
town of Kilbarchan, on the east, and from it the 
houses in the town were mostly built. The strati- 
fication of the rocks in this quarry has attracted 
much attention, being scarcely in accordance with 
the prevailing theories. Over the freestone there is 
a stratum of coal, and above this, next the surface, 

there is whinstone On the north side of this hill 

there is a precipice of perpendicular trap rocks, 
nearly basaltic, incumbent on coal. 

This parish contains some remains of antiquity, 
the most remarkable of which is a huge fragment of 
rock called ' the Clochodrick stone,' situate on an 
elevated plain about 2 miles west of the town. It 
is supposed to have formed part of a Druidical tem- 
ple, and the supposition is countenanced by the 
name, which is apparently a corruption of the Bri- 
tish words Ctoch-y-Drtjwd, the ' Stone of the Druids,' 
and by the situation, which commands an extensive 
prospect, and is such as they usually selected for 
the performance of their rites. This fragment is of 
the same species of whinstone as the neighbouring 
hills, and appears to have been hewn from a rock a 
little to the east. It is about 22 feet long, 17 broad, 
and 12 high, and of a rude oval figure, extending 
east and west. At some distance around are seen a 
few large grey stones; but as the land is in tillage, 
it cannot be ascertained whether they once made 
part of a sacred enclosure, or are merely accidental. 
On the westward is the rivulet Bride's burn. This 
stone gave its name to the adjacent hamlet and lands, 
which are mentioned by the name of Clochrodric, so 
far back as the year 1202, in a charter by Alan, son 
of Walter, the Steward.* — On the top of Bar-hill 

* In the map of Renfrewshire given in the New Statistical 
Account, the parish of Kilbarchan is, by an error in the colour- 
ing, represented as crossing the Black Cart, and as containing 
the town of Johnstone, which is in the Abbey parish of Pais- 
ley, arid a Btrip of land, about 4 miles in length, which belongs 
to that parish and to those of Neilston and Lochwinnoch, 

f Chartulary of the Monastery of Paisley, p. 14. 

are the remains of an encampment, supposed from 
its form to be Danish, consisting of a semicircular 
parapet of loose stones towards the south, and de- 
fended on the north by the precipice already men- 
tioned In the north-east of the parish are the 

ruins of a narrow castle, called Ranfurly, or Ram- 
phorlie, anciently the residence of the Knoxes. 
About 120 yards south-east of this, on an elevated 
rock, overtopping the castle, is a green mound, all 
of forced earth, named Castle-hill. It is of a quad- 
rangular form, the sides facing the four cardinal 
points. A trench, dug out of the solid rock, sur- 
rounds its base on the east and part of the north and 
south sides; the west side rests on the edge of this 
steep rock. This mound is 330 feet in circumfer- 
ence at the base, 70 feet in diameter at the summit, 
and 20 feet high. The top is hollow. There has 
been an entrance into it on the eastern side. This 
may have been an outpost of the Roman camp at 
Paisley, distant 6 miles, of the site of which it com- 
mands a full view. The church of Kilbarchan was 
dedicated to St. Barchan,^ and was a dependency of 
the monastery of Paisley. Of the ancient structure 
there are not any remains. In 1401, King Robert III. 
conferred an endowment made by Thomas Crawfurd 
of Auchinames for the support of a chaplain to offi- 
ciate at the Virgin Mary's altar in the parish-church 
of Kilbarchan, and also in a chapel dedicated to St. 
Catherine, which had been erected by Crawfurd 
within the churchyard. On a farm, still called 
Prieston, a little to the east of the castle of Ran- 
furly, there was another chapel which was founded 
by the proprietor of the estate. It was dedicated 
to the Virgin, and the property called Kirklands 
was annexed to it. 

Some ancient families have belonged to this par- 
ish. From the Knoxes of Ranfurly were descended 
John Knox, the Reformer, and Andrew Knox, who 
was appointed Bishop of the Isles on the restoration 
of Episcopacy, in 1606, and was transferred to the 
see of Raphoe in Ireland, in 1 622. From them are 
also sprung the Irish family of Knox, Viscounts 
Northland, who, although not possessed of any pro- 
perty here, took from this place their British title 
of Baron Ranfurly, and their Irish one of Earl, con- 
ferred, respectively, in 1826 and 1831. The estate 
of Ranfurly remained in possession of the Knoxes 
till 1665, when it was sold to the Earl of Dundon- 
ald, from whose family it was not long afterwards 
acquired by the Hamiltons of Aitkenhead, now 
Holmhead. — Auchinames belonged to a branch of 
the Crawfurds from the 14th century till the 18th, 
when it was sold in portions to different persons. 
The superiority was, however, retained, in virtue of 
which the family — who are proprietors in Ayrshire — 
continue to style themselves as " of Auchinames." 
The old castle has been completely demolished since 
1762, when it and great part of the estate were sold 
to John Barbour, merchant in Kilbarchan. — .The 
lands of Waterston, anciently the property of a 
family of the same surname, were sold by William 
Waterston " of that ilk " to Sir William Cunning- 
ham of Kilmaurs in 1384. They now form part of 
the Milliken estate. The surname of Waterston, 
though not common, still occurs in Renfrewshire — 
Another small inheritance that gave name to a family 
was Bruntchells (a corruption of Burntshields), 
which was sold by John Bruntchells, the last 
of his race, to Lord Sempill, in 1547.— It is usual 
to represent as belonging to this parish the Sem- 

X The name of the parish is obviously derived from this 
saint, with the Celtic word cil, signifying a church or chapel, 
prefixed. St. Barchan's Feast is mentioned in the poem on 
Habbie Simpson, written about the beginning of the 17th cen- 
tury. Identical with this is a fair, still held here annually, 
called Barchan's day. 



pills of Beltrees, in whom poetical talent was 
hereditary for three successive generations ; but 
Beltrees is in the neighbouring parish of Lochwin- 
noch, and it was not till 1677, towards the end of 
the life of Francis Sempill, the last of these rhy- 
ming lairds, that the family removed from Beltrees 
which he sold, retaining the superiority, to a pro- 
perty in the parish of Kilbarchan, called Thirdpart, 
which be purchased. About 1758, Thirdpart was 
sold by Robert Sempill, grandson of Francis. Ro- 
bert died at Kilbarchan in 1789, aged 102.* He 
was appointed a justiee-of-tbe-peace in 1708, and at 
his death was probably the oldest judicial function- 
ary of that or any other rank in the empire. Another 
mistake fallen into by some writers is to represent 
these Sempills as the " superiors " of the town of Kil- 
barchan ; whereas they never held any such relation 
to the place. The principal proprietor in this parish 
is Sir William Milliken Napier, Baronet, direct male 
representative of the family of Napier. The man- 
sion-house of Milliken, a handsome structure in the 
Grecian style, situate near the left bank of the 
Black Cart, was built in 1829. The chief part of 
this estate formed a barony called Johnstone, be- 
longing to a branch of the family of Houstoun, from 
whom it was purchased in 1733, by the present pro- 
prietor's ancestor, who gave to it his own name of 
Milliken, while the name of Johnstone was trans- 
ferred by the Houstouns to their estate of Easter 

Cochrane, on the opposite side of the river Black- 

ston, with a modern mansion-house, on the left bank 
of the river, belongs to another branch of the family 
of Napier. These lands anciently belonged to the 
monastery of Paisley, and here the abbots had a 

summer-dwelling The estate of Craigends has 

belonged, for nearly four centuries, to a family named 
Cunningham, cadets of the noble House of Glencairn, 
having been granted by Alexander, Lord Kilmaurs, 
afterwards 1st Earl of Glencairn, to William Cun- 
ningham, one of his younger sons, in the year 1477. 
The mansion-house is pleasantly situated in a pen- 
insula formed by the confluence of the Locher with 
the Gryfe — South-east of this is the small estate of 
Clippens, long the property of a family named Coch- 
ran. Peter Cochran of Clippens, who had been head 
of the Hon. East India Company's Medical Board at 
Bengal, died in 1831, leaving an immense fortune. 
— The population of this parish, in 1801, was 3,751 ; 
in 1831, 4,806. Houses, in 1831, 462. Assessed 

property, in 1815, £11,941 The parish is in the 

presbytery of Paisley, and synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr. Patron, Sir William Milliken Napier, Baronet. 
The church was built in 1724, and has not been 
altered since. Sittings 670. Stipend £294 10s. 8d. ; 
glebe £32. Unappropriated teinds £1,414 17s. 8d. 
— At Burntshields, about a mile south-west of the 
town, a church was built by the Original Burghers, 
in 1743, being one of the earliest belonging to the 
seceders from the Establishment. In 1826, the con- 
gregation built and removed to a church at Bridge- 
of-Weir in this parish ; and in 1839 they returned to 
the Establishment : See Weir, Bridge of.| A 

* Sir John Sinclair, in his ' Code of Health and Longevity ' 
makes Robert Sempill's age 105; and in the Old Statistical 
Account of Kilbarchan it is made JOS. We prefer the author- 
ity of William Sernple, the Cuutiouator of Crawfurd's History 
of Renfrewshire, who expressly states (Part II., p. 163.), that 
the old gentleman was " boru January 16S7," adding that, " on 
March gist, 1782, I was in company with him, his daughter, 
Ins grand-daughter, and his great grandson, all in good health.'' 
We may here observe that William Sernple, who in that work 
accumulated much valuable information, though expressed in 
a homely manner, was himself a native of this parish, having 
been the son of a farmer, and born on 10th May. 1747, as he lias 
taken care to leave on record, p. 123, note. In the New Statis- 
tical Account of Paisley, (p. 165,) he is erroneously called "a 
native'' of that town. 

t The Rev. Alexander Brown, minister of the church at 

congregation of the Relief synod was established at 
Kilbarchan in 1786, and a church was finished two 
vears afterwards, at the cost of upwards of £1,000. 
Sittings 906. Stipend, in 1838, £140, with a house 
and garden valued at £15 There is a congrega- 
tion of Scottish Baptists, which was established in 
1810, and which meets in a flat of a house rented 
from year to year. Sittings 136. No stipend or 

emolument is received by the pastors The salary 

of the parochial schoolmaster is £34 4s. 4id., with 
about £l5 10s. school-fees; also £9 Is. 63. arising 
from the office of session-elerk, and £10 for house 
and garden. There are seven other schools, with 
one instructor in each. In regard to the quality of 
the education given at the parochial school, it may 
be observed, that it has enabled several persons to 
bring themselves forward advantageously in after 
life. Of these, we may notice Mr. Cochran of Clip- 
pens, who has been already alluded to ; and Robert 
John Hume, Esq., a distinguished medical officer in 
the service of the Duke of Wellington, both natives 
of this parish. 

The town of Kilbarchan is pleasantly situated 
in the south-east of the parish, upon a declivity 
which terminates on a plain towards the south, 
through which runs a clear brook of the same name. 
It is sheltered on three sides by eminences finely 
wooded, and rising in some parts to the height of 
nearly 200 feet. It is distant 1 mile and 3 furlongs 
from Johnstone, 5i miles from Paisley, and 13 from 
Glasgow. Kilbarchan was made a burgh-of-barony 
shortly/before the year 1710, but it had no trade till 

1739, when a linen-manufactory was established, and 
three years afterwards the manufacture of lawns, 
cambrics, &c, for the Dublin market, was introduced. 
The principal occupation of the inhabitants is now 
the weaving by hand-loom, of silk and cotton goods. 
In March, 1838, the population of the town was 
2,333, of which 800 were hand-loom weavers. In 

1740, the place contained only 40 families, or about 
200 souls. In the centre of the town is a steeple, 
erected in ] 755, with a school-house of later date. 
In a niche of the steeple there was placed, in 1822, 
a statue of Habbie Simpson, piper of Kilbarchan, 
who died about the beginning of the 17th century, 
and on whom Robert Sempill, of Beltrees, wrote a 
well-known poem. The statue was cut by Mr. 
Archibald Robertson, of Greenock. The Piper's 
tombstone, much decayed, is pointed out in Kil- 
barchan churchyard. It bears the initials of his 
name, and a figure resembling, as some say, the 
remains of a bagpipe, or, as others think, a knife for 
chopping meat ; tradition having handed down that 
he was a butcher as well as a musician. The in- 
habitants are imbued with a taste for literature, as 
is shown by their having two public libraries, one 
established in 1808, and another in 1823.} The 
affairs of the town are managed by a committee. In 
Kilbarchan there are several Friendly societies, a 
Masons' lodge, bearing the name of St. Barchan, in- 
stituted 1784, an Agricultural society, and a Curlers' 
society. Two annual fairs are held here ; one on 
Lillia's day, the third Tuesday of July, old style : 
and the other on Barchan's day, the first Tuesday of 
December, old style. At the last, which was for- 
merly a famous fair for lint and tow, there is a con- 

Burntshields, who died some years before 1826, left instructions 
that his body should be buried within that edifice, which was 
accordingly done. The church was afterwards sold, and con- 
verted into a byre and a barn— an act of desecration which the 
good man could not have contemplated. 

X Robert Allan, weaver in Kilbarchan, wrote a number of 
songs, and other poetical pieces of merit, which have been pub- 
lished. After living to an advanced age in this his native 
place, he proceeded to New York, to join a son who had emi. 
grated, but he unhappily died in that city, on nth June, lb4i, 
only tour days alter his arrival. 




siderable horse-market Cotton-spinning is carried 

on at Linwood and Bridge-of-Weir. See our 
accounts of these places. 

KILBERRY. See Kilcalmonell. 

KILBIRNIE, a parish in the north-west part of 
the district of Cunningham, Ayrshire; bounded on 
the north and north-east by Renfrewshire; on the 
east by Beith; on the south and south-west by 
Dairy ; and on the north and north-west by Largs. 
The parish stretches in length from north-west to 
south-east, and is bisected lengthways through the 
middle by Garnock-water. Routen-burn comes in 
from Renfrewshire, traces the north-eastern boun- 
dary over a distance of 3J miles, and falls into Kil- 
birnie-loch. Several rills rise in the western divi- 
sion, and flow eastward or southward to join the 
Garnock. Kilbirnie-loch, a beautiful sheet of water 
]£ mile long and half-a-mile broad, stored with pike, 
perch, trout, and eel ; and offering valuable facilities 
for the transport of coal, stretches from south-west 
to north-east on the boundary with Beith: which 
see. Upwards of 250 acres of excellent land have 
been reclaimed from this ancient lake. More than 
a third of the parish on the north and north-west 
is wildly pastoral, running up to the water-shedding 
line of division with Renfrewshire, coming down 
thence in a congeries of heathy hills, separated from 
one another by moorland and moss, and altogether 
fit only for the purposes of the sportsman and the 
rearer of stock. About a third declines gently from 
the hills with a southern exposure, and presents 
soils of sand, clay, and earth, which are far from 
being infertile, and admit of transmutation into rich 
loam. The remaining part of the surface — consider- 
ably less than one-third — lies low along the Gar- 
nock, and is carpeted with some of the finest and 
most fructiferous deep moulds of earth and clay in 
Scotland. Except near the southern extremity, 
there is little or no plantation. The climate is very 
salubrious, and seems to resist epidemics. Coal is 
worked. — Kilbirnie-castle, situated toward the south, 
about 5 of a mile west of the Garnock, and once 
pleasantly situated among fine gardens and beautiful 
policies, was built by the Crawford family nearly 
350 years ago, and long inhabited by them as Vis- 
counts of Garnock; but, along with a modern ad- 
joining mansion erected about 150 years ago, and 
soon after being repaired and beautified by the Earl 
of Crawford, it was destroyed by fire, and became a 
roofless ruin The parish is traversed by the turn- 
pike between Saltcoats and Glasgow, and enjoys the 
rich accession to facility of communication lately 
furnished by the opening of the Glasgow and Ayr 
railway. Population, in 1801, 959; in 1831, 1,541. 
Houses 207. Assessed property, in 1815, £5,133. 
. — The village of Kilbimie stands on the Garnock, 
J of a mile west from Kilbirnie-loch; 62 miles from 
Edinburgh; 20 from Glasgow; 3 from Beith; and 
3j from Dairy. About 90 years ago it had only 
three houses; but before the close of the century, it 
counted 300 inhabitants, and in 1821 it had 800. 
Its progress since, though prosperous, has not been 
proportionally rapid. A large cotton-mill, a con- 
siderable flax-mill, and a thread-manufactory, attest 
its importance. In 1838 it had 80 looms, employed 
on cotton, silk, and woollen fabrics. In the village 
is a place of worship belonging to the Reformed 
Presbyterians; and half-a-mile south of it stands 

the parish-church Kilbirnie is in the presbytery of 

Irvine, and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. Patron, 
the Earl of Eglinton. Stipend £192 12s. lOd. ; 
glebe £18. Parochial schoolmaster's salary £25 
13s. 4d., with fees. There is a non-parochial school. 
The St. Birinie or Birinar, to whom the church was 
dedicated, and from whom it had its name, is said 

to have been a bishop and confessor, who was the 
instrument of converting the West Saxons, and who 
died in the year 650. Other churches or chapels in 

Scotland seem to have been dedicated to him, 

Kilbirnie having existed in the Boyne district of 
Banffshire, and in the Aird of Inverness-shire. The 
church of Kilbirnie belonged anciently to the monks 
of Kilwinning, and was served by a vicar. Long 
before a village or even a hamlet grew up here, the 
Earls of Eglinton, to whom the manor passed after 
the Reformation, procured for it the privileges of a 
free burgh-of-barony. 

KILBRANDON, a parish in Argyleshire, to 
which that of Kilchattan is united. The united 
parishes consist of five farms on the mainland of 
Lorn, opposite Mull, and bounded by the Atlantic 
ocean on the west, and the sound of Mull on the 
north; and five islands, viz. Luing, Seil, Shuna, 
Forsa, and Easdale : see these articles. The ex- 
tent of the parish, including the narrow sounds which 
intersect the islands, is about 104 miles, and its 
breadth nearly 6; superficial area about 11,500 Scots 
acres. The surface, hilly and mountainous, is best 
adapted for pasture, but there are many arable fields, 
which produce tolerable crops of barley and oats. 
The coast possesses several excellent harbours, and 
abounds with fish. Besides the valuable slate-quar- 
ries of Easdale and Luing, there are veins of silver 
and lead ore, and of iron, zinc, and copper. Popu- 
lation, in 1801, 2,278; in 1831, 2,833. The popu- 
lation of the old parish of Kilchattan, including the 
islands of Luing, Forsa, and Shuna, amounted, in 
1831, to 1,100. A census of the united parishes, in 
1836, gave the total population at 2,738, whereof 
2,528 were churchmen. Houses 593. Assessed 

property, in 1815, £13,251 This parish is in the 

presbytery of Lorn, and synod of Argyle. Patrons, 
the Duke of Argyle, and the Marquis of Breadal- 
bane. Stipend £173 7s. Id.; glebe £14 10s. The 
church is about a century old ; but was repaired 
about 25 years ago ; sittings 585. A catechist offi- 
ciates in the parish, which also enjoys the ministra- 
tions of Independent missionaries. — There are two 
parochial schools. The salary of one master is 
£34, with £26 fees, and a house and garden ; of the 
other, £25, with £25 fees, but no other emolument. 
There were 4 private schools in the parish in 1834; 
and a school in the island of Easdale, supported by 
the Society for propagating Christian knowledge. 

KILBRANDON SOUND, a narrow arm of the 
sea, which runs between Carradale in the peninsula 
of Kintyre and the isle of Arran. This is usually a 
good herring-fishing station. 

KILBRIDE, a parish in Argyleshire, united to 
Kelmore : which see. 

KILBRIDE, a parish in the county of Bute, and 
isle of Arran, extending 14 miles in length, and 7 in 
breadth; and comprehending the east and north-east 
parts of the island, from Drippin on the south to 
the Cock on the north. A ridge of mountains sepa- 
rates it on the west from the parish of Kilmorie. 
It varies in breadth from 2 to 4£ miles; and has a 
superficial area of about 42,000 imperial acres, of 
which about 4,000 are under cultivation. The soil 
is hard and stony, but, upon the whole, tolerably- 
productive. There are two safe harbours in this 
district, viz. Loch-Ranza and Lamlash: see these 
articles, and the general article Arran. In the 
mountain of Goatfield, or Goatfell [see Arran], in 
this parish, are found topazes or cairngorms of a 
dark brown colour, beryls, and other precious stones. 
There are several quarries of freestone and lime- 
stone, and many places strongly indicate coal. Free- 
stone, slate, and blind-coal, are found at the northern 
extremity. Barytes is quarried in Glensannox : 



see that article. The whole parish, with the ex- 
ception of the farm of Kilmichael, belongs to the 
Duke of Hamilton. Population, in 1801, 2,183; in 
1831, 2,656. Houses 408. Assessed property, in 

1815, £3,459 This parish is in the presbytery 

of Kintyre, and synod of Argyle. Patron, the Duke 
of Hamilton. Stipend £259 3s. 4d.; glebe £20. 
The parish-church is in the village of Lamlash. It 

was built in 1773; sittings 560 A neat extension 

church was opened at the village of Brodick in De- 
cember 1839 There is an unordained assistant to 

the two ministers of Arran at Loch-Ranza, salary 
£41, from mortified money, to endure as long as 
there are only two parish-ministers in the island. — 
There is an Independent chapel at Glensannox; sit- 
tings 260 There are 4 parochial schools. The 

schoolmaster at Lamlash receives £19; at Brodick 
£16; at Currie £4; and at Loch-Ranza £6 per 
annum. There is an Assembly's school at Whiting 
bay, the teacher of which has £25 of salary. There 

is also a private school at Lamlash For general 

details relative to this parish see our article Arran. 
KILBRIDE (East), a large parish in the Mid- 
dle ward of Lanarkshire; bounded on the north by 
the parishes of Carmunnock and Cambuslang ; on 
the east by Blantyre, Glassford, and Avondale ; on 
the south by Loudon and Avondale ; and on the 
west by Loudon, Eaglesham, and Carmunnock. The 
parish is termed East Kilbride to distinguish it from 
West Kilbride in Ayrshire; and comprehends the old 
parish of Torrans, or Torrance, which was annexed 
to it as an appendage before the Reformation, and 
afterwards legally incorporated with it in 1589, by 
the presbytery of Glasgow. The outline of the par- 
ish bears a partial resemblance to a sand-glass. In 
length it is nearly 10 miles from north to south ; and 
from east to west it varies from 2 to 5 miles in 
breadth. In general it is a high-lying district. Cross- 
basket, the least elevated ground in the parish, is 
about 200 feet above the level of the sea; and the 
summit of Eldrig, nearly 7 miles south of Cross- 
basket, is computed to be, at least, 1,600 feet in 
height. From Crossbasket to Eldrig there is a gra- 
dual ascent, formed by a regular succession of little 
hills, with very little expanse of level ground be- 
tween them. The moorland part of the parish com- 
mences about 2 miles to the north of Eldrig, and 
continues a considerable way down the south side of 
the ridge, where Kilbride borders with Loudon. From 
the extensive tracts of pasture here, great attention 
has all along been paid to the breed and management 
of milk cows; and this perseverance has been amply 
rewarded, for it is stated in the New Statistical Ac- 
count, " that the dairy-produce, in particular, is at 
least four times as great as it was 40 years ago." 
Vast quantities of buttery butter-milk, and cheese, 
are supplied from it to Rutherglen and Glasgow. Ex- 
cepting upon the estates of Calderwood and Torrance, 
planting has not proceeded to any great extent in 
this parish, probably from the great number of small 
possessions into which it is subdivided. That the 
soil will produce timber is readily evidenced by the 
number of splendid trees, which even on very ex- 
posed situations surround the dwellings of landlord 
and tenant ; but Mr. Ure, in his history of East Kil- 
bride, tells us that considerable attention was paid to 
the rearing of these ornaments of the landscape. 
The preparative process, which was an unusual one, 
and may probably be copied with advantage else- 
where, was as follows : — " The soil was prepared by 
draining off the water. A handful of oats was thrown 
into the bottom of the hole, dug for the young tree ; 
over these about an inch of good earth was laid ; 
upon this the roots of the plant were carefully spread, 
covered up with the best mould that could be got, 

and the plant secured from the cattle. The oats 
having come to a state of vegetation, raised a proper 
degree of heat, and thereby made the plant set forth 
with vigour." — [lire's History of East Kilbride.] 
Notwithstanding the proximity of this parish to the 
great coal-fields of Hamilton, Bothwell, and the 
Monklands, this important mineral exists only to a 
limited extent in East Kilbride, and the quality is 
very indifferent, so much so that a great portion of 
the coal used by the inhabitants is brought from 
other districts. Limestone and freestone, however, 
both of excellent quality, abound in the parish, and 
are carried in large quantities to other places. The 
principal lime- works are at Thornton, Thornton-hall, 
Braehead, and Limekilns; and there are extensive 
freestone quarries at Lawmuir, Bogton, Beuthall, 
and Torrance. There is an ironstone mine at Basket, 
and tile- works at Springbankand Millhouse. Roman 
cement is extensively found and worked in the par- 
ish. The post-office is situated in the village of Kil- 
bride, and there are three turnpike-roads which lead 
through the parish. One of these is the Glasgow 
road to'Strathaven, which passes through the village 
of Kilbride, and traverses the parish for 5 miles ; 
another extends from Kilbride to Eaglesham ; and a 
third leads between Kilbride, Busby, and Carmun- 
nock. The parish-roads are well kept The village 

of Kilbride was erected into a burgh-of-barony in 
the reign of Queen Anne, and the burghers were 
authorized to hold a weekly-market and four fairs 
in the year. The market was discontinued half-a ■ 
century ago ; three of the fairs have fallen into desu- 
etude, and the fourth, which is held in June, is not 
regarded as of much importance to the district. In 
addition to the town or village of Kilbride, the par- 
ish contains six other small villages, viz., Maxwell- 
ton, Aldhouse, including Crosshill, Jackton, Brae- 
head, Kittochside, and Nerston. Population, in 
1801, 2,330; in 1831, 3,789. From an enumera- 
tion taken in 1836, it would appear that of the 
total population nearly 1,000 resided in the town of 
Kilbride, and nearly 300 in Maxwellton. Assessed 
property, in 1815, £16,363. — Kilbride is situated in 
the presbytery of Hamilton, and synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr. Patron, the Crown. Stipend £280 8s. 
5d. ; glebe £18. Unappropriated teinds £1,240 
19s. 9d. Hamilton of Wishaw informs us that "the 
tiends of Kilbryde did anciently belong to the chan- 
tor of Glasgow ; they are now all mortified to the 
colledge of Glasgow, except twelf chalders of victuall 
reserved to the minister for his maintenance, which 
he yet enjoyes, with both the gleebs of Kilbryde and 
Torrence." The parish-church was built in 1744, and 
was extensively repairedin 1838; sittings 900. Atthe 
rebuilding of the church, that part of the old edifice 
which supported the belfry was allowed to remain, 
and now answers the purpose of a steeple. An in- 
scription on the bell records that it was cast in 1590, 
by one of the most celebrated founders in Europe. It 
was rent, however, in 1689, from a violent ringing on 
a day of public rejoicing, caused by the receipt of 
the news of the defeat and death of Lord Dundee, or 
' Clavers,' at the battle of Killicrankie. It is scarcely 
necessary to detail, that Lord Dundee was regarded 
as a most ungodly persecutor by the great mass of 
the people in the west of Scotland, and his fall was 
considered to afford good cause for a national jubilee. 
— A Relief congregation was established in 1791, and, 
in the same year, a church was built, calculated to 
accommodate 913 sitters. The stipend of the min- 
ister is £120 per annum, with a manse, but no glebe. 
A Methodist church has also been recently estab- 
lished The principal parochial school is situated 

at the village of Kilbride, and the salary is £34 per 
annum, besides the ordinary school-fees. There are 



two auxiliary or side-schools, orre at Jackton and the 
other at Aldhouse. Salary of each £8 10s. per an- 
num, besides the school-fees. An excellent school 
is supported in Maxwellton by the liberality of Sir 
William Maxwell of Calderwood, and there is also 
an unendowed school at Kilbride. 

Previous to the reign of Robert the Bruce the greater 
part of this parish belonged to the powerful family of 
the Cummins, and the whole was forfeited at the 
time of the death of John Cummin, who was killed 
by Bruce at Dumfries. Hamilton of Wishaw says, 
that "this baronie and paroeh was given by king 
Robert Bruce as ane part of the manage portion of 
his daughter Marjorie, to Walter, the Great Stewart 
of Scotland ; and heth been alwayes reckoned since 
as a part of the Principalitie ; and the severall fam- 
ilies therein are said to be old, yett I hear not of any 
writts older among them than from John Earle of 
Carrick, grand-child to King Robert, thereafter 
called Robert the third." These lands afterwards 
passed into the possession of Lindsay of Dunrod, 
whose predecessor assisted the king at the killing 
of the Red Cummin at Dumfries. This family, once 
a potent one in the district, has been for long entirely 
extinct, and they have left a very unenviable repu- 
tation behind them. " This family preferring the 
Mains to Dunrod, their ancient family-seat near 
Gourick, took up their residence in Kilbride. They 
flourished in great wealth and splendour till little 
more than a century ago, when the estate was sold 
to pay the debt which the extravagance of its owner 
forced him to contract. It is reported that the last 
proprietor in the Dunrod family greatly exceeded all 
his predecessors in haughtiness, oppression, and vice 
of every kind. He seldom went from home unless 
attended by 12 vassals well-mounted on white steeds. 
Among the instances of his cruelty it is told that, 
when playing on the ice, he ordered a hole to be 
made in it, and one of his vassals, who had inad- 
vertently disobliged him in some trifling circum- 
stance, immediately to be drowned. The place 
hath ever since been called Crawford's hole, from 
the name of the man who perished in it. Tradition 
mentions this cruel action as a cause, in the just 
judgment of God, that gave rise to his downfall. 
It is told that, having worn out the remains of a 
wretched life, he died in one of the tenants' barns. 
Such was the miserable end of one of the greatest 
and most opulent families in this country." fUre's 
History of East Kilbride.] — The ruins of Mains 
castle, once the splendid residence of the Cummins 
and Lindsay, are still seen about a mile distant from 

the church The family of which Sir William A. 

Maxwell of Calderwood is the representative is a 
very ancient one, and has been connected with the 
parish since the reign of Alexander III. The man- 
sion-house of Calderwood, which has recently re- 
ceived extensive additions, is a very splendid erec- 
tion, and in describing it as it appeared in his own 
time, more than 40 years ago, the usually sedate Mr. 
Ure appears to have been beguiled into the regions 
of poetry. He says, " It is surrounded with banks 
through which the Calder, in a variety of beautiful 
meanders, takes its course. A delightful cascade 
formed by nature fronts the house, at the distance 
of about 200 yards. The fall, which is interrupted 
by small breaks, renders the landscape extremely 
agreeable. The scene, in general, being a mixture 
of the grand, the romantic, and the beautiful, would, 
in ancient poetry, have been celebrated as the en- 
chanted abodes of the rural deities." — The family 
represented by Miss Stuart of Torrance, the princi- 
pal proprietor in the parish, is one of the oldest in 
the country, and it has long also possessed the pro- 
perty of Mains. The oldest part of Torrance house 

is 500 years old, and about 100 years ago Colonel 
Stuart placed over the entrance a beautiful stone, 
having the arms of Scotland carved upon it, and 
which for centuries had adorned the arched gate at 

the chief or drawbridge entry to Mains castle The 

celebrated Mrs. Jean Cameron resided for several 
years previous to her death in East Kilbride. She 
was of an ancient and distinguished family, and her 
enthusiastic attachment to the cause of the ex- 
iled royal house of Stuart, with the efforts which 
she made to sustain its fortunes in 1745, made her 
name well known in Britain. She kept the farms of 
Blacklaw and Roddenhead in her possession, and 
died in 1773, and was buried amid a clump of trees, 
near the solitary house of Blacklaw at which she 
resided. The place has since been called Mount 
Cameron. — A peculiar interest also attaches to this 
parish as being the birth-place of the celebrated 
Hunters, — Dr. William Hunter, eminent as a phy- 
sician and a scientific inquirer, and Dr. John Hunter, 
eminent for his medical investigations, and his muni- 
ficent bequests to aid the cause of science. They 
were born at Long-Calderwood, a place about a mile- 

and-a-half north of the village of Kilbride In the 

southern division of this parish is a place called 
Flakefield, which gave rise to a surname which is 
intimately associated with the rise and progress of a 
branch of manufactures which contribute materially 
to the advancement and prosperity of the city of 

* The particulars of the incident alluded to in the text are as 
follow: — Previous to the commencement of the last century 
two young men of the name of Wilson, the one from Flakefield 
and the other from the neighbourhood, proceeded to Glasgow, 
and there commenced business as merchants. The similarity 
of the name having occasioned frequent mistakes in the way of 
business, one of them for the sake of distinguishing him from 
the other was designated by the cognomen of Flakefield, the 
place of his birth, and the real name soon became obsolete, both 
the man and his posterity being known by the surname of 
Flakefield, instead of Wilson. The original bearer of the new 
name put one of his sons to the weaving trade ; but the lad, 
after having learned the business, enlisted about the year 1670, 
in the regiment of the Cameronians, and was afterwards 
draughted into the Scottish guards. During the wars he was 
sent to the Contiueut, where be procured a blue and u hite 
checked hankerchief, that had been woven in Germany; and at 
the time a thought struck Flakefield that should it be his good 
fortune to return to Glasgow, he would make the attempt to 
manufacture cloth of the same kind. He accordingly preserved 
with great care a fragment sufficient for his purpose; and being 
disbanded in 1700, he returned to his native city, with a fixed 
resolution to accomplish his laudable design. A few spindles 
of yarn, fit for his purpose, was all that William Flakefield 
could at that time collect; the white was ill. bleached, and the 
blue not very dark, but they were nevertheless the best that 
could be found in Glasgow. About two dozen of handkerchiefs 
composed the first web t and when the half was woven he cut 
out the cloth, and took it to the merchants, who at that time 
traded in saloion, Scottish plaiding, Hollands, and other thick 
linens. They were pleased with the novelty of the blue and 
white stripes, and especially with the delicate texture of the 
cloth, which was thin set in compari-on of the Hollands. The 
new adventurer asked no more for his web than the nett price 
of the materials used, and the. ordinary wages for his work ; 
and as this was readily paid him he went home rejoicing that 
his attempt had not been unsuccessful. This dozen of hand- 
kerchiefs — the first of the kind ever made in Britain — was dis- 
posed of in a tew hours; and fresh demands poured so rapidly 
in upon the exulting artist that the remaining half of his little 
web was bespoken before it was woven. More yarn was pro- 
cured with all spped ; several looms were immediately filled 
with handkerchiefs of the same pattern ; and the demand in- 
creased in proportion to the quantity of cloth that was manufac- 
tured. The fc-nglish merchants who resorted to Glasgow for 
thick linens were highly pleased with the new manufacture, 
and as they carried a few with them, these rapidly sold, and the 
goods met with universal approbation. The number of looms 
daily increased, and in a few years Glasgow became celebrated 
for this branch of the linen trade. Variety in patterns and 
colours was soon introduced; the weavers in Faisley and the 
adjoining towns engaged in the business, and it soon became 
both lucrative and extensive. Manufactures having once ob- 
tained a footing in Glasgow, others of a more important kind 
were attracted to the spot. Checks were followed by the 
blanks or liueu cloth for printing; to these were added the 
muslin, and finally the cotton trade, &c. which have elevated 
Glasgow to one of the proudest commercial and manufacturing 
positions in the world. It is painful to record, however, that 
neither William Flakefield, nor auy of his descendants, ever 
received any reward or mark of approbation for the good ser 



KILBRIDE (West), a parish on the coast of 
the district of Cunningham, Ayrshire ; bounded on 
the north by Largs ; on the east by Dairy ; on tbe 
south-east by Ardrossan ; and on all other sides by 
the frith of Clyde. It occupies the angle formed by 
the recession of the coast-line on the opening or 
commencement of the expansive bay of Ayr on the 
north ; and presenting one side to that bay, another 
to the strait or sound between the coast and the 
C.umbrays, and a third to the interior, is nearly of a 
triangular figure. Its extreme length from north to 
south is about 6 miles ; and its extreme breadth from 
the promontory of Portincross eastward is about 3k 
miles. The island of Little Cumbray is attached to 
the parish; but, having been separately noticed in 
the article Cumbraes, it needs not here be kept in 
view. A continuation of the rolling surface of hill 
and upland which commences at Greenock, and forms 
a sea-screen down the coast of Renfrewshire, comes 
boldly in upon the parish, especially on its eastern 
verge, and undulates over its whole area, softening 
in character as it approaches the south. Along 
the eastern frontier, the hills run so regularly and 
loftily in a ridge as to form a natural boundary, and 
send up one summit — that of Kame — nearly 1,000 feet 
above sea-level. In the interior, as they deflect to 
the west, they are in some instances concatenated, 
and in others insulated ; and, in general, they de- 
cline in height as they approach the frith. The hills 
are, in many instances, green to their summits ; and, 
regarded as a field of heights, are ploughed by vari- 
ous romantic little vales, bringing down their watery 
tributes to the sea, and are occasionally made the 
screen or protecting framework of luxuriantly tinted 
haughs. From the summits of many of them views 
are obtained, in peculiarly advantageous grouping, of 
that magnificent landscape of far-stretching lowland- 
coast, luscious in the beauties of cultivation, and 
long expanse of bright blue sea, romantic in its 
islands and its land-locking boundaries, and back- 
ground scenery of Highland heights, of soaring and 
pinnacled mountain elevations, which is descried 
from great multitudes of the rising grounds of Ayr- 
shire, and the stirring and arousing appeals of which 
might have been expected to produce more than one 
' Ayrshire bard,' and to have provoked that one to 
the breathing of more warmth of colouring over his 
efforts at description. " At one view," says the 
sufficiently unexcited writer in the Old Statistical 
Account, " the eye takes in the broken land and 
small sounds formed by the islands of Arran, Bute, 
the two Cumbrays, and the coasts of Cowal and 
Cantire ; the extensive coast of Carrick, from Ayr 
to Ballentrae ; a wide expanded frith, with the rock 
of Ailsa rising majestic in its very bosom ; the 
stupendous rocks and peak of Goatfield in Arran ; 
while the distant cliffs of Jura are seen just peeping 
over the whole, in the back ground. Such a land- 
scape is exceedingly rare, and has always been par- 
ticularly pleasing to strangers." Five rills or burns, 
with their tiny tributaries, all begin and end their 
course within the limits of the parish, and are the 
only streams by which it is watered, but, in rainy 
weather, they sometimes come down in a bulk of 
volume and power of current which invest them 
with importance. Kilbride - burn, the largest of 
them, rises on the west side of Glenton-hill, flows 
past the village of West Kilbride, and enters the 
frith at Sea- Mill. South Annan -burn, near the 
northern boundary, pursues its course through a 

vices rendered by him, not only to Glasgow, but to the king- 
dom at large. Flakefield. however, having, during his service 
in the army, learned to heat the drum, was in his old age pio- 
rnoted to the office of towu-uruinmer, in which situation lie 
continued till his death! j 

romantic glen, and forms a series of beautiful ca- 
taracts, diminishing in depth of leap as the brook 
approaches the sea. At the highest and principal 
fall, the burn, emerging with a rapid current from 
between two high hills, leaps right over a rocky 
precipice 50 feet in height, into a deep and awful 
chasm, the bottom of which is a capacious sphere, 
smooth and regular as if hollowed out with the chisel. 
Over the abyss project the beetling and menacing 
rocks of the precipice ; and around it are a zone 
and tuftings of natural wood, in which the oak, the 
hazel, and the birch vie for the pre-eminence of 
shade and verdure. The coast-line of the parish, 
owing to the advantage gained by peninsularity of 
form, is about 7 miles in extent. At the angle, 
or south-west extremity, projects the promontory 
of Portincross, terminating in a perpendicular wall 
of rock 300 feet high, called Ardneil bank, or Gold- 
berry-head, separated from the margin of the sea 
only by a very narrow belt of verdant land, and ex- 
tending in a straight line of about a mile in length. 
Natural wood, consisting of oak, hazel, ash, and 
hawthorn, runs in thick tuftings along the base of 
the precipice, and ivy, with gray and golden coloured 
lichens, impresses a beautiful tracery of tint and of 
aspect athwart its bold front. To approach the ter- 
rific summit makes even a man of firm nerve giddy; 
but to view it from below is to enjoy a rich feasting 
of the taste and the fancy. Everywhere, except at 
this remarkable headland, the coast of the parish 
is low and shelving. From the northern boundary 
to a point about two miles south, stretch the sands 
of South Annan, of half-moon form, sheltered by a 
curving recess in the land, measuring at their centre, 
when the tide is out, about a mile in breadth, rich in 
their beds of mussels, cockles, and other shell-fish, 
and offering a favourite retreat to vast flocks of va- 
rious kinds of wild fowl. Limestone occurs at Ard- 
neil, and in some other localities, but too scantily 
and of too poor a quality to be profitably worked. On 
a conspicuous hill, called the Law, are quarried 
millstones of a coarse sort of granite. The soil over 
nearly four-fifths of the whole area, or up the sides 
and over the summits of its almost incessant heights, 
is poor, mossy, and moorland, on a subsoil of coarse 
till, yet admitting, around the bases and on the lower 
sides of the heights, not a few patches of loamy 
and calcareous land of kindly and fertile character. 
About two-thirds, or a little more, of the entire area 
is regularly or occasionally subjected to the plough ; 
and nearly one-third is naturally and exclusively 
pastoral. The district is characteristically devoted 
to the dairy, the arable pastures being used and 
esteemed for their produce in Dunlop cheese. The 
parish is, in general, sufficiently enclosed ; but, 
with some small exceptions, it is destitute of planta- 
tion, and has a naked and chilled appearance. At 
Portincross is a small quay, offering accommodation 
at high water to vessels of 40 or 50 tons burden, and 
used in making shipments for the Clyde. The road 
from Greenock to Ardrossan runs along the parish, 
and, along with subordinate roads, gives it an aggre- 
gate length of 22 miles broad, — preserved in good re- 
pair, and suitably provided with bridges. Popula- 
tion, in 1801, 795; in 1831, 1,685. Houses 215. 
Assessed property, in 1815, £7,006. 

On a ledge of rock, close upon the sea, under the 
bold promontory of Ardneil bank, stand the ruinous 
yet tolerably complete walls of the very ancient 
castle of Portincross. The promontory being, with 
the exception of the Rhinns of Galloway, the ex- 
treme western point of the Lowlands of Scotland, 
and lying conveniently between Edinburgh and 
Icolmkill, and also between Duudonald and Rothsay, 
the castle was probably a halting-place of the Scot- 

.OF SCO;. 






tish kings on embarking either for Bute or for the 
burying-plaee of their early ancestors. Some char- 
ters of the first and the second Stuarts purport to 
have received the sign-manual at " Arnele," and 
may possibly evince this castle — however small and 
incommodious — to have worn, in a limited degree, 
similar honours to those of the homogeneous castle 
of Dundonald : see Dundonald. A brief distance 
seaward from the promontory, at a spot where the 
depth of water is 10 fathoms, sunk a principal ship of 
the famous Spanish armada. Of several pieces of ord- 
nance which, about a century ago, were brought up 
from her by means of a diving machine, one lies in a 

corroded state on the shore beside the old castle 

The most remarkable of the hills of the parish, espe- 
cially those called Tarbet-hill, the Law, Auld-hill, 
and the Comb, or Caimb, or Kaim, were all used as 
signal-posts, or the arense of beacon-fires, during the 
period of the Danish invasions. On Auld-hill, are 
remains of a circular building, which probably was 
occupied as a watch-tower. On the Law, overlook- 
ing the village, are the ruinous walls of Law-castle, 
a stately and very ancient tower, formerly one of 

the seats of the Earls of Kilmarnock Near the fine 

cascade of South Annan-burn, stand the ruins of a 
very elegant mansion, formerly the residence of the 
family of Semple, and now the property of the Earl 
of Eglinton. The house was built in the reign of 
James VI. by a Lord Semple, who brought the model 
of it from Italy. A beautiful green hill, secondary 
to the Kaim, but attached to it, rises with a bold 
and sudden swell behind the house. Standing on 
its summit, a spectator looks down upon the dis- 
mantled fabric of the once-elegant mansion, hiding, 
as it were, the scathings of its beauty among a 
number of very fine old elms, beeches, and ashes, 
whose venerable boughs now bending to the earth 
indicate their age; and over the tops of the trees 
and the ruin, he looks abroad on an expanded sheet 
of water which, at full sea, seems to come in con- 
tact with them, and on an abundantly charming 
and finely diversified grouping of that vast and 
gorgeous landscape, which is seen from most of the 
heights of the parish, — but nowhere with more ad- 
vantage of fore-ground and of general effect than 
from this eminence. Immediately adjoining the ruin 
of the Semple mansion, stands a neat modern cottage 
ornee. Near the coast, about 1 or 1J mile south of 
Southennan, in a position which originally was a 
narrow and small peninsula running into a morass, 
stands the ancient mansion of Hunterston, now oc- 
cupied as a farm-house, and sending up a square 
tower of apparently high antiquity. The modern 
mansion, a handsome new edifice, is nearer the sea. 

Dr. Robert Simson, the well-known professor of 

mathematics in the university of Glasgow and the 
translator and editor of Euclid, and General Robert 
Boyd, Lieutenant-governor of Gibraltar during the 
notable siege of that great fort in 1782, were na- 
tives of the parish. 

The village of West Kilbride is situated in a 
well-sheltered hollow, § of a mile from the sea ; If 
mile from Portincross-castle ; 4| miles north-west 
from Ardrossan; and 7A miles south from Largs. 
On the streamlet which runs through it are two 
mills for grinding oats, a flax-mill, a mill for grinding 
tanners' bark, and a mill for pulverizing charcoal. 
A tannery employs 8 or 10 persons. The chief em- 
ployments are weaving and hand- sewing in subordi- 
nation to the manufacturers of Glasgow and Paisley. 
In 1838, 85 harness-looms and 5 plain looms were 
employed on fabrics in all the three departments of 
cotton, silk, and woollen. The condition of the 
weavers, as in most other places, is painfully de- 
pressed. Near the centre of the villnge, on a gentle 

rising ground, stands the parish-church, a long nar- 
row mean-looking edifice, low in the walls and deep- 
roofed. A meeting-house belonging to the United 
Secession, is a neat and commodious structure. In 
the village are three schools, one of them parochial, 
and the others private, and unendowed ; a library, 
containing upwards of 400 volumes ; and three 
Friendly societies, — one of them of considerably long 
standing. Population of the village, about 1,020. 
— West Kilbride is in the presbytery of Irvine, and 
svnod of Glasgow and Ayr. Patron, the Earl of 
Eglinton. Stipend £202 12s. 7d. ; glebe £13 12s. 
7d. Unappropriated teinds £383 18s. 2d. Parochial 
schoolmaster's salary £27 ]7s. 8d., with £37 6s. 9d. 

fees The saint from %vhom the parish, like the 

other Kilbrides of Scotland, has its name, is the 
well-known Bridget, familiarly called Bride. The 
church anciently belonged to the monks of Kilwin- 
ning, and was served by a vicar. In the parish there 
were, previous to the Reformation, several chapels. 
One stood on the coast, 1^ mile south of the church, 
at a place to which it gave the name of Chapelton. 
Another stood at Southennan, in the immediate vi- 
cinity of the ancient mansion of the family of Sem- 
pell; and was built by John, Lord Sempil, in the 
reign of James IV., and dedicated to Saint Inan, — 
reported to have been a confessor at Irvine, and to 
have died in the year 839. A third, subordinate like 
the others to the parish-church, was dedicated to 
Saint Bege or Veg, said to have been a Scottish 
virgin and confessor, who died in 896, and situated 
in Little Cumbray. See article Cubibrays. 

KILBUCHO, a parish on the western verge of 
Peebles-shire, now consolidated with Broughton 
and Glenholm: See these articles. It has a tri- 
angular form, with its apex pointing to the south ; 
and is bounded on the north by Lanarkshire, Skir- 
ling, and Broughton ; on the south-east by Glen- 
holm ; and on the south-west by Lanarkshire. Its 
north and north-east sides are each 4J miles, and its 
south-west side 3J miles in extent. Toward its 
north-west angle its boundary runs for 1J mile 
parallel with the course of the river Clyde, here a 
considerable stream at only about a mile's distance. 
Biggar-water, coming in from the north-west, traces 
nearly the whole of the northern boundary. Kilbucho 
rises on the side of Cardon-hill at the southern angle, 
or extremity, runs ]A mile due north, and thence 
flows north-eastward parallel with the south-east 
boundary, till it falls into Biggar-water. Cardon 
hill rises 1,400 feet above the level of the Tweed, at 
3 miles' distance, still on the high ground or moun- 
tain-land of its origin. From this hill a chain runs 
north-eastward till it strikes Biggar-water ; and over 
the whole distance it forms a water-shedding line, 
constitutes the boundary, and consists of heights 
whose sides and summits are covered with heath and 
grass. At the base of this ridge is a narrow and 
pleasant vale watered by the Kilbucho. Screening 
this vale on the north-west side, and parallel with 
the first ridge, is a broader and less strongly featured 
stretch of heights, also clothed in mingled russet and 
green. Beyond this ridge, a beautiful valley, com- 
paratively broader and finely decorated with wood 
on the west, somewhat contracted as it advances 
eastward, and again expanding as it forms an angular 
junction with the former valley, stretches along 

Biggar-water In the north-east angle stands the 

church of the united parishes; and li- mile inward, 
from the southern angle is the site of the ancient 
church of Kilbucho. The saint from whom the 
parish has its name was either a female called Bega, 
of whom nothing is known, or, more probably, by a 
corruption of the orthography, the celebrated Bede. 
Tradition reports that a number of monks of Bede's 




order settled in the parish, and that they raised some 
beautiful banks which still exist. A well of excel- 
lent water, also, bears the name of St. Bede's well. 
The parish was anciently a rectory in the deanery of 
Peebles. The barony of Kilbucho belonged, at the 
accession of Robert I., to the Grahames of Dalkeith 
and Abercom; it passed, in the reign of David II., to 
the Douglasses; it afterwards passed successively to 
Lord Fleming and the Earl of Morton ; and acquired, 
during the reign of Charles I., by John Dickson, it 
continues to be possessed by that gentleman's de- 

KILCALMONELL, a parish in Argyleshire, 
forming the northern extremity of the peninsula of 
Kintyre. It is bounded on the north by the isth- 
mus of Tarbert. For a short distance, it compre- 
hends the whole breadth of the peninsula, from 
Loch-Tarbert on the west to Loch-Fyne on the 
east, till separated from the latter by the narrow but 
long parish of Skipness, whose northern extremity 
once formed a part of Kilcalmonell. The western 
side extends the whole length of West-Tarbert- 
loch, which is about 12 miles, and stretches 4 
miles beyond it, along the coast of the Atlantic 
ocean. The breadth of Kilcalmonell is from 3 to 
5 miles -The district of Kilberry is of a triangu- 
lar form, measuring about 7 miles on each side ; 
bounded on the south by Loch-Tarbert, on the west 
by the Atlantic ocean, and on the north-east by 
South Knapdale. Its population, in 1831, was 993. 
The surface exhibits great variety of hill and vale, 
plains, woods, and lakes; and the soil is no less vari- 
ous in its qualities, consisting of sand, clay, loam, 
moss, and moor, which last occupies at least one- 
half of the parish. The arable soil is fertile, but 
the climate is changeable, and liable to sudden tran- 
sitions. The principal crops are oats, barley, and 
potatoes. The parish abounds with limestone and 
shell marl, and the coast furnishes sea- ware in abun- 
dance. There are several harbours with fishing- 
villages, from which busses are sent out to the her- 
ring fishery. The entrance to Kintyre w<»s formerly 
defended by a chain of forts, one at each side of the 
isthmus of Tarbert, and one in the centre. The 
principal of them, the castle of Tarbert, is a fine 
old ruin, surmounting the rocks at the entrance of 
the harbour. It is said that it was supplied with 
water by a submarine passage, in pipes, across the 
harbour. Tarbert was in the last century the seat 
of a sheriffdom of the same name. There are the 
remains of many other old forts in the parish, par- 
ticularly one with vitrified walls, and another with 
a very thick wall of dry stones, both built on the 
hill of Dunskeig, which commands the opening of 
Loch-Tarbert. There are also numerous cairns in 
the parish. Partly situated in the Kilberry division 
of this parish is Sliabh Gaoil; or, ' the Hill of Love,' 
celebrated in ancient story as the scene of the death 
of Diarmid, the Achilles of the Fingalian heroes, 
and the great progenitor of the family of Campbell, 
who are known to this day by the name of Claim 
Dhiarmaid, ' the Children of Diarmid.' Population, 
in 1801, 2,952; in 1831, 3,488. Houses 456. As- 
sessed property, £9,250 This parish is in the 

presbytery of Kintyre, and synod of Argyle. Patron, 
the Duke of Argyle. Stipend £218 5s. lid.; glebe 
£17 10s. There are two parish-churches, and ser- 
vice is performed in them alternately. Kilcalmonell 
church was enlarged in 1828; sittings 600. Kil- 
berry church was built in 1821; sittings 700 

There is a mission at Tarbert; chapel built in 1775; 
sittings 400. Stipend £60, with £20 for manse and 
glebe. — There is an Independent church in the par- 
ish. — There are two parochial schools, and 7 private 
schools in the parish; but the minister reported, in 

1834, that there were about 300 persons in the par- 
ish, above 15 vears, who could not read. 

KILCHAT'TAN. See Kilbrandon. 

KILCHENZIE. See Killean. 

KILCHOAN. See Ardnamurchan. 

K1LCHOMAN, a parish in Argyleshire, in the 
island of Islay; so named, it is said, from a St. 
Chomanus, who was sent hither by Columba to 
preach the gospel. It is 14 miles long and 6 broad ; 
and is mainly of a peninsular form, extending between 
Loch-Gruinard and Loeh-Indaal. Around the coast 
the land is arable, producing good crops of corn, 
barley, flax, and potatoes. There is one lake which 
covers 100 acres of land. On it is a small island, 
which has been once strongly fortified. Population, 
in 1801, 2,050; in 1831, 4,822. Assessed property, 

in 1815, £1,735. Houses, in 1831, 812 This 

parish is in the presbytery of Islay and Jura, and 
synod of Argyle. Patron, the Crown. Stipend 
£158 6s. 8d. ; glebe £12. Church built in 1825; 
sittings 608. An Independent chapel was built at 

Port-Charlotte in 1830; sittings 200 Parochial 

schoolmaster's salary £25 13s. 4d. There is a 
General Assembly's school at Gruinard, in the north 
part of the parish, and a Gaelic Society's school 
near Port-Charlotte ; besides several private schools. 
See articles Islay, Gruinard, and Port-Char- 

KILCHRENAN and DALAVICH, a parish in 
Argyleshire. It extends 16 miles in length, and 8 
in breadth ; comprehending about 96 square miles, 
or 49,000 Scots acres, lying on both sides of Loch- 
Awe : which see. The surface is diversified, and in- 
tersected by numerous streams descending from the 
hills. Heath is the general covering ; but, since 
the introduction of sheep-farming, the pasture is 
more luxuriant, and the hills have assumed a greener 
hue. On the shores of the lake there is excellent 
arable land, natural pasturage, and much valuable 
wood. That part of the parish which lies on the 
south-east side of Loch-Awe, comprises the estate 
of Sonachan. Population, in 1801, 1,052; in 1831, 
1,466. Assessed property in Dalavich £1,286 ; in 

Kilchrenan £1,114. Houses, in 1831, 189 This 

parish is in the presbytery of Lorn, and synod of 
Argyle. Patron, the Duke of Argyle. Stipend 
£170 15s.; glebe £11. There are two parish- 
churches, about 9 miles distant from each other, 
and service is performed in them on alternate Sab- 
baths — There are parish-schools at Kilchrenan, 
Dalavich, and Ardchonnal. 

KILCHRIST. See Cilliechrist. 

KILCHDRN-CASTLE, a noble relic of feudal 
ages, near the head of Loch-Awe, under the im- 
pending gloom of the majestic Bencruachan, which 
rises in rocky masses abruptly from the opposite shore 
of the lake. Amid the grandeur and variety which 
that fine lake derives from its great expanse, and 
the lofty mountains with which it is surrounded, it 
cannot be denied that Kilchurn-castle forms its lead- 
ing and most picturesque object, — 

" Is paramount, and rules 
Over the pomp and beauty of a scene 
Where mountains, torrents, hikes, aud woods unite 
To pay it homaije." 

There is no other ancient castle in the Western 
Highlands that can compete with it in point of mag- 
nitude ; and none, even throughout Scotland at large, 
can be compared with it for the picturesque arrange- 
ment of its buildings, the beauty and fine effect of 
its varied and broken outline, or its happy appro- 
priateness to its situation. It stands upon a pro- 
jecting rocky elevation at the head of the lake, where 
the water of Orchy flows into it, and which is oc- 
casionally converted into an island when the river 




and loch are flooded by rains. Although now con- 
nected with the shore by an extended plain, obviously 
of alluvial origin, and consequently forming a pen- 
insula, it seems certain that the rocky site of the 
castle must have been at one time an island ; and 
that the change has been produced partly by alluvial 
deposit, and partly by the lowering of the waters of 
the lake. Anciently it must have been a place of 
great strength ; and its unusual size and extent 
attest the feudal splendour and magnificence which 
the knights of Glenorchy were accustomed to gather 
around them. But this fine relic of baronial dignity 
is now a ruin, — " wild yet stately, — not dismantled 
of turrets, nor the walls broken down, though ob- 
viously a ruin," and hastening to decay. The ex- 
terior walls are yet entire, but the mountain-blasts 
sweep through its roofless halls, and the thistle 
waves its head in the now silent court-yard. — Kil- 
churn, or as it ought to be written, Coalchuirn castle, 
is said to have been first erected by the lady of Sir 
Colin Campbell of Glenorchy, the ancestor of the 
Ducal family of Argyle. Sir Colin, who was a 
Knight-Templar, was absent on a crusade at the 
time, and for seven years the principal portion of 
the rents of his lands are said to have been expended 
in its erection by his lady. The great tower was 
five stories in height, the second story being entirely 
occupied by the baronial hall. That necessary ap- 
pendage of a feudal castle, the dungeon, is on the 
ground-floor, and appears to have been sufficiently 
dark, damp, and wretched to render utterly miser- 
able the unfortunate beings who, from time to time, 
were forced to tenant it. The remaining portions of 
the castle, which form a square enclosing the court- 
yard, though of considerable antiquity, are certainly 
not so ancient as the tower, and doubtless have been 
added at some more recent period. The second Sir 
Colin of Glenorchy, surnamed Dubh, or Black, son 
of the Knight-Templar, was proprietor of seven dif- 
ferent castles, — a sufficient evidence of the great 
wealth which must have been possessed, even at that 
early period, by the ancestors of the now powerful 
family of Breadalbane. So late as 1745, Kilchurn- 
castle was garrisoned by the king's troops, and at a 
much more recent period, it was fit to be inhabited. 
One of the factors or overseers of the Breadalbane 
estates, caused the roof to be taken off, merely to 
obtain an easy supply of wood, to the irreparable in- 
jury of the castle, and the unavailing regret of its 
noble proprietor, who was then absent. The greatest 
care is now taken of its preservation ; but open and 
exposed as it now is, time and the winter-storms will 
soon work its decay. There is a legend connected 
with this castle, which has its counterpart in more 
•than one legend of feudal times, as well as in the 
pages of Homer ; and may be worth relating here. 
During the long absence of Sir Colin, the Knight- 
Templar, he is said to have visited Rome, where 
he had a very singular dream. He applied to a 
monk for his advice, who recommended his in- 
stant return home, as a very serious domestic ca- 
lamity, which could only be averted by his pres- 
ence, was portended by his dream. Sir Colin im- 
mediately took his departure for Scotland, and, 
after much difficulty and danger, reached a place 
called Succoth, the residence of an old woman who 
had been his nurse. In the disguise of a mendicant, 
he eraved food and shelter for the night ; and was 
admitted to the poor woman's fireside. From a scar 
on his arm she recognised him as the laird ; and in- 
stantly informed him of what was about to happen 
at the castle. It appeared that for a long period, no 
information had been received with regard to Sir 
Colin, nor had any communication from him reached 
his lady. On the contrary, it had been industriously 

circulated that he had fallen in battle in the Holy 
Land. Sir Colin perceived treachery on the part of 
some one : for he had repeatedly despatched clans- 
men with intelligence to his lady, and surely all of 
them could not have perished before reaching Scot- 
land. His suspicions were well-founded. Baron 
MacCorquadale, a neighbouring laird, who had been 
the most busy in propagating the report of Sir Colin's 
death, had intercep .d and murdered all the messen- 
gers. He had thus succeeded in convincing the lady 
of the death of her husband ; and had finally won 
her affections, and the next day had been fixed for 
the marriage. Incensed at what he had just heard 
from the faithful nurse, Sir Colin set out early next 
morning for his castle of Kilchurn, where he was 
told his lady then resided ; and, as he followed the 
romantic windings of the Orchy, the sound of the 
bagpipe, and the acclamations of his clansmen who 
had assembled to join the approaching festivity, were 
wafted to his ears. He crossed the drawbridge, and 
entered the gates of the castle — at this happy 
season open to all — undiscovered and unregarded. 
While he stood silently gazing on the scene of riot 
which now met his view, he was asked what he 
wanted. " To have my hunger satisfied, and my 
thirst quenched," said he. Food and liquor were 
plentifully put before him ; he eat, but refused to 
drink, except from the hands of the lady herself. 
Informed of the strange request of the apparent 
mendicant, the lady, always charitable and benevo- 
lent, came at once and handed him a cup. Sir Colin 
drank to her health, and dropping a ring into the 
empty cup returned it to her. The lady, observant 
of the action, retired and examined the ring. It 
was her own gift to her husband when he departed 
on his distant expedition ; it had been his talisman 
in the field, and had been kept sacred by him. " My 
husband ! My husband !" she exclaimed, and rushing 
in, threw herself into his arms. A shout of joy from 
the clansmen rent the air ; and the pipers made the 
court-yard resound with the pibroch of the Camp- 
bells. The Baron MacCorquadale was allowed to 
depart in safety ; but Sir Colin Dubh, the son and 
successor of the Templar, after his father's death 
attacked the Baron, and overcoming him in battle, 
took possession of his castle and his lands. 

Wordsworth has addressed some fine lines to 
Kilchurn-castle, concluding thus: — 

" Shade of departed power, 
Skeleton of unfleshed humanity, 
The chronicle were welcome that should call 
Into the compass of distinct regard 
The toils and struggles of thy infancy! 
Yon foaming flood seems motionless as ice j 
Its dizzy turbulence eludes the eye, 
Frozen by distance ; so, majestic pile, 
To the perception of this Age appear 
Thy fierce beginnings, softened and subdued, 
And quieted in character — the strife, 
The pride, the fury uncontrollable 
Lost on the aerial heights of the Crusades ! " 

KILCONQUHAR, a parish in Fifeshire, extend- 
ing from the shores of the frith of Forth, towards the 
north, about 9 miles in length. Its breadth at the 
south is 3 miles ; about the middle 2 ; but towards 
the north only from 1 to i mile. It is bounded on 
the south partly by the frith of Forth, and partly by 
the parish of Elie ; on the east by the parishes of 
St. Monan's and Carnbee ; on the north by Cameron 
and Ceres ; and on the west by the parishes of New- 
burn, Largo, and in part by Largo-bay. The sur- 
face is highly diversified. Immediately from the 
beach at the south-west end of the parish, Kincraig 
hill rises to the height of about 200 feet above the 
level of the sea. Its southern front presents a per- 
pendicular rugged wall of trap rock, of picturesque 



appearance.* From the summit of this hill the 
ground gradually descends towards the north, till it 
becomes nearly level, and then gently ascends to 
Reres and Kilbrackinont, where it is 600 feet above 
the level of the sea. North of this it descends into 
a deep ravine, and from thence it again rises for 
two miles till it reaches its greatest elevation, about 
750 feet, at Dunikeir-law. From thence it again 
declines for two miles, and then again ascends to 
Bruntshields, at the northern extremity of the par- 
ish. Colinsburgh [which see], situated in the 
level portion of the southern part of the parish, is 
a well-built, thriving, little town. It was originally 
built by Colin, 3d Earl of Balcarres, who died in 
1 722, and is named after him. The village of Kil- 
conquhar is situated near the church. Earlsferry 
[which see] on the sea-coast, inhabited principally 
by weavers and colliers, is a very ancient royal burgh. 
The estate of Kincraig, in the south-west extremity 
of the parish, belonging to Miss Gourlay, has for 
nearly 600 years been the property of a family of 
that name, previous to which it belonged to a family 
of the name of Bickerton. Anciently it formed a 
barony, and included many other lands in various 
counties. The original of the family was Ingelra- 
musde Gourlay, who came from England, and settled 
in Scotland, during the reign of William the Lyon. 
Immediately east of the church and village of Kil- 
conquhar, is Kilconqubar house, the property of Sir 
Henry Lindsay Bethune, Bart. It is a handsome 
edifice, surrounded with extensive enclosures finely 
wooded. Kilconquhar formerly belonged toafamily 
of the name of Carstairs, from whom it came to the 
ancestors of the present proprietor. Sir Henry is 
descended from the ancient family of the Lords 
Lindsay of the Byres, he was created a baronet for 
his distinguished services in Persia. Immediately 
north of Colinsburgh is Balcarres : which see. 
Population, ill 1801, 2,005; in 1831, 2,540. Houses 
482. Assessed property £10,357. The average 
amount of raw agricultural produce has been esti- 
mated at £24,632 ; the produce of mines, in coal 
and lime, at £6,0U0. The average rent of land 
is £2 per acre. The valued rent of the parish is 
£9,546 3s. 4d. Scots. About 235 persons residing 
in the villages are employed in weaving linen for the 
manufacturers of Dundee, Kirkcaldy, and Leven ; 
and a few of the men residing on the coast, go in July 
and August to the herring-fishing in the north — 
This parish is in the presbytery of St. Andrews, and 
synod of Fife. Patron, the Earl of Balcarres. Sti- 
pend £255 4s. 6d. ; glebe £27 10s. Unappropriated 
tenuis £396 2s. lOd. The parish-church was built 
in 1821. It is an exceedingly handsome building in 
the pointed style of architecture, with a fine tower 
80 feet high, situated on a small knoll which forms 
the churchyard, in the middle of the village of Kil- 
conquhar. In consequence of the great distance of 
the northern partof the parish from the parish-church, 
a chapel was erected at Largoward in 1835; sittings 
400. Stipend £75. There are three dissenting meet- 
ing-houses in the parish : 1st, One in connection with 
the Relief Synod at Colinsburgh, built about 1800; 
sittings 300. Another at the village of Kilconquhar, 
in connection with the United Associate Synod, built 
in 1795; sittings 270. Stipend £70; and 3d, An In- 
dependent meeting-house on the borders of the par- 
ish, near Elie, built in 1831 ; sittings 196. Stipend 
£63. There are six schools in the parish. The 
parochial teacher has the maximum salary, with 
dwelling-house, school-house, and garden. 

* In these rocks are several caves, called JMacduff's-cave, the 
Hall-cave, the Devil's. cave. Macduff is said to have lain con- 
cealed in the cave which bears his name, when flying from the 
jealous rage of Macbeth, 

KILDA (St.), or IIirta, the most remote of the 
Scottish Western isles, 

" Whose lonely race 
Resign the Betting sun to Indian worlds." 

The nearest land to it is Harris, on which the Butt 
of Lewis bears 82 miles east of it. The Flannen 
islands are 37 miles distant from it. It is about 3 
miles long from east to west; 2 broad from north 
to south ; and 9i in circumference. The whole 
island is fenced about with one continued perpen- 
dicular face of rock, of prodigious height, except 
a part of the bay or landing-place on the south- 
east; and even there the rocks are of great height, 
and the narrow passage to the top is so steep, that 
a few men armed only with stones could prevent 
any hostile multitude from landing on the island. 
The bay is also of difficult access, as the tides and 
waves are so impetuous, that, except in a calm, it 
is extremely dangerous of approach. The surface 
of the island is rocky, rising into four distinct 
summits. The highest of these, called Conachan.j 
was estimated by Dr. Macculloch to be 1,380 feet 
above the sea-level; and presents on one side a pre- 
cipice of nearly this elevation. " It is a dizzy alti- 
tude," says Macculloch, " to the spectator who looks 
from above on the inaudible waves dashing below. 
There are some rocky points near the bottom of this 
precipice, — one of them presenting a magnificent na- 
tural arch, which, in any other situation, would be 
striking, but are here lost in the overpowering vicinity 
of the cliffs that tower above them. In proceeding, 
these soon become low; but at the north-western 
extremity, the island again rises into a hill nearly as 
high as Conachan, terminating all round towards the 
sea by formidable precipices, which are continued 
nearly to the south-eastern point of the bay. Here 
a rock, separated by a fissure from the island, dis- 
plays the remains of an ancient work ; whence it has 
derived the name of Dune." 

The surface of the island is generally covered 
to the depth of six or eight inches with a black- 
ish loam, on which rests a thick verdant turf, 
except on the tops of the hills where it is three 
feet deep of moss. The soil is well-adapted for 
corn ; but the violence of the west winds restricts 
agricultural operations, and the natives prefer the rear- 
ing of sheep and goats, and catching of wild fowl, to 
the more toilsome business of husbandry, and raise 
only a small quantity of corn on the south-east de- 
clivity near the village. The soil, though naturally 
poor, is rendered extremely fertile by the singular 
industry of the inhabitants, who manure their fields 
so as to convert them into a sort of garden. The 
instruments of agriculture which they require are 
merely a spade, a mallet, and a rake or harrow. 
After turning up the ground with the spade, they 
rake it carefully, removing every small stone, noxious 
root, or weed that falls in their way ; and then, 
with the mallet, pound down the stiff clods to dust ; 
they then manure it with a rich compost, prepared 
in the manner afterwards described. The inhabi- 
tants of St. Kilda sow and reap much earlier than 
others in the same latitude. The heat of the sun, 
reflected from the high hills upon the cultivated land 
towards the south-east, is very great ; and the cli- 
mate being rainy, the corn grows fast and ripens 
early. Harvest is commonly over before September; 
and, when it unfortunately happens otherwise, the 
whole crop is liable to be destroyed by the equinoc- 
tial storms, which, in this island, are attended with 
dreadful hurricanes and excessive rains. Barley and 
oats are sown. Of the former, about 50 bolls are 
generally brought every year to Harris, and the grain 

+ The Rev. John L. Buchanan, in his * Travels in the Western 
Hebrides, from 178:2 to 179*,' calls it Congara. 



is said to be of superior quality. Potatoes have 
been introduced, and cabbages and other garden- 

There are several springs, which form a small 
burn that runs close by the village: this is situated 
about a quarter of a mile from the bay on the south- 
east, and all the inhabitants of the island live in it. 
The number of inhabitants, in 1764, was only 88; 
but they were formerly more numerous; and, under 
proper regulations, the island might easily support 
300. Martin, who visited it in 1690, and who gives 
a very interesting account of its inhabitants, found, 
at that time, 180 persons ; but, in 1730, one of the 
St. Kildans coming to Harris, was attacked with the 
small-pox, and died. Unluckily his clothes were 
carried to the island next year, by one of his rela- 
tions, and thus, it is supposed, was the infection 
communicated, which made such havock, that only 
four grown persons were left alive. The houses are 
built in two pretty regular rows, facing one another, 
with a street running in the middle. They are nearly 
flat in the roof, like those of the Oriental nations ; 
for, as the island is subject to hurricanes, if the 
houses were raised in the roof, the first winter- 
storm would infallibly blow them down. The walls 
are built of coarse freestone, without lime or mortar, 
but made solid by alternate layers of turf. In the 
middle of the walls are the beds — formed also of stone, 
and overlaid with large flag-stones— each capable of 
containing three persons, and having a small opening 
towards the house. All their houses are divided 
into two apartments, the interior of which is the 
habitation of the family ; the other, nearest the door, 
receives the cattle during the winter-season. The 
walls are raised to a greater height than is usual in 
the other Western islands. This is done to allow 
them to prepare the manure for their fields, which 
they do in the following manner. After having 
burnt a considerable quantity of dried turf, they 
spread the ashes over the apartment in which they 
eat and sleep ; these ashes they cover with a rich 
vegetable mould or black earth ; and over this bed 
of earth they scatter a quantity of peat- dust : this 
done, they water, tread, and beat the compost into a 
hard flour, on which they immediately kindle large 
fires, which they never extinguish, till they have a 
sufficient stock of new ashes on hand. The same 
operations are punctually repeated till they are ready 
to sow their barley, by which time the walls of their 
houses are sunk down, or rather their floors have 
risen, about four or five feet. The manure thus pro- 
duced is excellent, and, scattered every year over 
their fields, causes the land to yield large crops. 
Though cleanliness is most necessary to health and 
longevity, yet, in spite of the practice now related, 
and some other equally filthy habits, the St. Kil- 
dans are as long-lived as other men. Their total 
want of those articles of luxury which destroy and 
enervate the constitution, and their moderate labours, 
keep the balance of life equal between them and those 
of a more civilized country. And though to most 

", Weary, O weary ! it is to gaze 

For years on the blue main. 
Bound bounded but by the bright heavens 

For which we pine in vain," 

yet none are more attached to their 'natale solum' 
than the primitive inhabitants of this remote islet. 

Besides the habitations we have mentioned, there 
are a number of cells, or storehouses, scattered 
over the whole island. These are composed entirely 
of stones, and are from 12 to 18 feet in length, and 
little more than 7 in breadth and height. Every 
stone hangs above that immediately below it, not 
perpendicularly, but inclining towards the opposite 

side, so that the two upper courses are near enough 
to be covered with a flat stone, giving the whole the 
appearance of an arch. To hinder the rain from 
penetrating this cell, the outward part is covered 
with turf, which continues green and verdant for a 
considerable time. In these the inhabitants secure 
their peats, eggs, and wild fowl, — of which every St. 
Kildan has his share, in proportion to the rent he pays, 
or the extent of land he possesses. In this, as well 
as their ancient customs, they regard with jealousy 

any innovation The St. Kilda method of catching 

wild fowl is curious. The men divide themselves 
into fowling-parties, each of which generally consists 
of four persons distinguished for their agility and 
skill. Each party must have at least one rope about 
30 fathoms long, made out of a strong raw cow-hide, 
salted for the purpose, and cut circularly into three 
thongs of equal length. These thongs, being closely 
twisted together, form a threefold cord, able to sus- 
tain a great weight, and durable enough to last two 
generations. To prevent its receiving injuries from 
the sharp edges of the rocks, it is covered with sheep- 
skins dressed in the same manner. This rope is the 
most valuable piece of furniture a St. Kilda man can 
be possessed of; it makes the first article in the testa- 
ment of a father ; and, if it fall to a daughter's share, 
she is esteemed one of the best matches in the island. 
By the help of these ropes, they examine the fronts 
of the rocks. Linked together in couples, each hav- 
ing the end of the cord fastened about his waist, they 
go down and ascend the most dreadful precipices. 
When one is in motion, the other plants himself on a 
strong shelf, and takes care to have so sure a foot- 
ing that, if his fellow-adventurer should make a false 
step, and tumble over, he may be able to save him. 
When one has arrived at a safe landing-place, he 
seats himself firmly, while the other endeavours to 
follow. Mr. Buchanan says: "A man from St. 
Kilda told in a company where I was present, that 
he was one of the four men that catched four itls, or 
pens, being 300 each, in the whole 1,200 solan-geese, 
in one night. That bird, after the hard toil of the 
day at fishing without intermission, rising high in the 
air to get a full sight of the fish that he marks out 
for his prey before he pounces upon it, and each time 
devouring it before he rises above the surface, be- 
comes so fatigued at night, that he sleeps quite 
sound, in company with some hundreds, who mark 
out some particular spot in the face of the rocks, to 
which they repair at night, and think themselves 
secure under the protection of a sentinel, who stands 
awake to watch their lives, and give the alarm, by 
bir I bir! in time of danger, to awaken those under 
his guard. The St. Kildians watch with great care 
on what part of the island these birds are most likely 
to light at night : and this they know by marking out 
on which side of the island the play of fish are, 
among which the geese are at work the whole day ; 
because in that quarter they are ready to betake 
themselves to sleep at night. And when they are 
fairly alighted, the fowlers repair to the place with 
their panniers, and ropes of thirty fathoms in length, 
to let them down with profound silence in their 
neighbourhood — to try their fortunes among the un- 
wary throng. The fowler, thus let down by one or 
more men, who hold the rope lest he should fall over 
the impending rocks into the sea, with a white towel 
about his breast, calmly slides over the face of the 
rocks till he has a full view of the sentinel ; then he 
gently moves along on his hands and feet, creeping 
very silently to the spot where the sentinel stands 
on guard. If he cries bir ! bir I the sign of an alarm, 
he stands back ; but if he cries grog ! grog t that of 
confidence, he advances without fear of giving an 
alarm, because the goose takes the fowler tor one of 



the straggling geese coming into the camp, and suf- 
fers him to advance. Then the fowler very gently 
tieldes one of his legs, which he lifts and places on 
the palm of his hand; he then as gently tickles the 
other, which in like manner is lifted and placed on 
the hand. He then no less artfully than insensibly 
moves the sentinel near the first sleeping goose, 
which he pushes with his fingers-; on which he 
awakes, and finding the sentinel standing above him, 
he immediately falls a-fighting him for his supposed 
insolence. This alarms the whole camp, and instead 
of flying of! they all begin to light through the whole 
company ; while in the mean time the common enemy, 
unsuspected, begins in good earnest to twist their 
necks, and never gives up till the whole are left dead 
on the spot. This goose is almost as large as a land 
goose, of a white colour, except the tops of the 
wings, which are black, and the top of the head, 
which is yellow. The bill is long and sharp-pointed, 
extremely hard, and pierces an inch deep into wood. 
There is an act of parliament against the cruel man- 
ner of fastening herring on planks far out at sea, to 
catch these darling geese, and a severe penalty against 
transgressors of this inhuman act. A well-supported 
fact concerning the strength of this fowl, is told by 
one of the tacksmen of this island. Once when sail- 
ing towards St. Kilda, and entering upon a field of 
sea where the geese were busy darting among the 
fish, from on high, on each side of the large barge in 
which he sat, and sailing fast before the wind, the 
barge passed over a fish so quickly that a goose who 
had marked it out, and rushing so violently through 
the air, instead of the fish, on account of the unfor- 
seen accident, darted his strong bill quite through 
the barge, and was actually carried back to Harris 
dead, with his bill through the plank, as a testimony 
of the fact." [' Travels in the Western Hebrides,' 
pp. 122 — 126.] — "Swift," says Dr. Macculloch, "in 
his ' Tale of a Tub,' describes a land of feathers, 
and perhaps he drew the hint from St. Kilda. The 
air here is full of feathered animals, the sea is cover- 
ed with them, the houses are ornamented by them, 
the ground is speckled by them like a flowery mea- 
dow in May. The town is paved with feathers, the 
very dunghills are made of feathers, the ploughed 
land seems as if it had been sown with feathers, and 
the inhabitants look as if they had been all tarred 
and feathered, for their hair is full of feathers, and 
their clothes are covered with feathers. The women 
look like feathered Mercuries, for their shoes are 
made of a gannet's skin ; every thing smells of fea- 
thers ; and the smell pursued us over all the islands, 
for the captain had a sackful in the cabin." 

The laird of Macleod is the proprietor of St. 
Kilda; and the island is visited annually by his 
steward, to collect the rents, which are paid in 
sheep, butter, and wild fowl, particularly solan- 
geese. The island is surrounded with several small 
insulated rocks, of which the principal are Soa and 
Borera. Spars and rock-crystals are found on the 
north side of the island. 

" Of St. Kilda, who communicated his name to 
the island," says Dr. Macculloch, " nothing seems 
to be ascertained. At least I have searched the 
Irish hagiology for him in vain. In Martin's time 
(1690) it appears to have been known by the name 
of Hirt or Hirta, — a term derived from the parent of 
Terra, by the same inversion as our own earth. It 
is a remarkable instance of the zeal or influence of 
the early clergy, that in a spot like this three chapels 
should have existed. They were extant in Martin's 
time, and the traces of two still remain." Buchanan, 
the historian, writes, that in his time the inhabitants 
of Hirta were totally ignorant; but that the propri- 
etor sent a priest along with his procurator yearly 

to baptize their children, and in the absence of the 
priest every one baptized his own child. In this state 
they continued for a hundred years after, until an igno- 
rant fanatic impostor grossly imposed on the people, 
by claiming tithes; but a part of them refused to 
pay that tribute, alleging he was unqualified for the 
profession, as he could not repeat the Lord's prayer. 
Fifty years after his time, another dangerous impos- 
tor formed a design of raising a little spiritual empire 
among them ; his name was Rore, and he had pene- 
tration enough to find out that ignorance was the 
mother of devotion. This native of Hirta, though 
ignorant of letters, had great natural parts, and con- 
ceived a design of enslaving the "whole community, 
and making himself lord of their consciences, free- 
dom, and fortunes. He pretended to have had sun- 
dry conferences with John the Baptist, and the Virgin 
Mary. He taught his followers that each of them had 
titular saints in heaven to intercede for them, whose 
anniversary behoved to be kept by a splendid feast, 
of which of course Rore himself was always par- 
ticipant. Private confession was his great engine, 
and the greatest secrecy was enjoined on all novi- 
ciates, under the pain of hell-fire. But he was at 
last enticed on board a vessel, and carried to Skye, 
where he made public confession of his crimes, and 

was never allowed to return to St. Kilda St. 

Kilda is generally understood to be ecclesiastically 
annexed to the parish of South Uist. 

KILDALTON, a parish in Argyleshire, forming 
the south-east end of the island of Islay. It is 14 
miles in length, and about 6 in breadth. There are 
several harbours, particularly Loch-Knock, on which 
is situated the small village of Kildalton, containing 
about 100 inhabitants. The name of Knock is taken 
from a high hill which rises in the figure of a sugar- 
loaf near the head of the bay. About 2 square miles 
are covered with natural wood. There are the re- 
mains of several Banish encampments, and many oi 
the places bear Banish names. Population, in 1801, 
1,990; in 1831, 3,065; in 1836, 2,222 This par- 
ish, formerly a vicarage, is in the presbytery of Kin- 
tyre, and synod of Argyle. Patron, the Crown. 
Stipend £158 6s. 8d. ; glebe £25. The island of 
Texa with one family, and the inhabited islands of 
Ardmore and Ardelister, are attached to it. The 
parish-church was built about 1816; sittings 600. 
There are parliamentary churches at Kilmeny, Oa, 

and Portnahaven Schoolmaster's salary £25, with 

about £20 fees. There are 3 other schools, one of 
which is a General Assembly's school, on the north- 
west boundary of the parish. 

KILDEAN, the spot where the English army 
crossed the Forth to the fatal battle of Stirling ; 
about half-a-mile above the present bridge of Stir- 
ling. Here probably stood one of those numerous 
cells or chapels which existed throughout Scotland 
before the Reformation, but of which the name alone 
has survived to the present day. 

KILBONAN, a parish in the county of Suther- 
land, bounded on the north by Farr and Reay ; on the 
east by Latheron in Caithness ; on the south by 
Loth ; and on the west by Clyne and Farr. It ex- 
tends about 24 miles in length, and is about 5 miles 
broad at the south end, and from 12 to 17 miles at 
the other. It lies on each side of the river Helms- 
dale [which see], and the strath of Helmsdale, or the 
strath of Kildonan, as it is sometimes called, compose 
the principal arable portion of the parish. Into the 
head of this strath a number of minor straths run 
down from the high grounds, giving to the whole 
parish a configuration somewhat resembling the form 
of a tree, of which Strath-Helmsdale forms the trunk, 
and the minor diverging straths the branches. The 
general appearance is mountainous; but on the 



haughs, or low grounds, the soil is light, fertile, and 
productive of tolerable crops. The most elevated 
mountain, Bengriammore, has an altitude of nearly 
2,000 feet. In the upper part of the parish are seve- 
ral small lakes, all abounding with trout, and some of 
them with char. The principal of these are Lochna- 
cuen, Locbleamnaclavan, Lochbadanloch, and Loch- 
inruar. Red deer, grouse, ptarmigan, and black- 
cocks, are plentiful on the moors. The district con- 
tains numerous Pictish castles or towers ; and there 
are said to be three subterranean passages under the 
Helmsdale, from fortifications on one side to fortifi- 
cations on the opposite side of the river. The parish 
is subject to inundations from the sudden risings of 
the river, and has been occasionally inundated by 
water-spouts, one of which carried off a whole sheal- 
ing or grazing, with the family and cattle. Popula- 
tion, in 1801, 1,440; in 1831, 257. The decrease in 
the population has been occasioned by converting the 
whole parish into six large sheep-farms. Houses, in 

1831, 33. Assessed property, in 1815, £1,244 . 

The parish is in the presbytery of Dornoch, and 
synod of Sutherland and Caithness. Patron, the 
Duke of Sutherland. Stipend £158 5s. 2d. ; glebe 
£40. — Schoolmaster's salary £27 13s. 4d. There 
are three private schools. 

KILDR UMMIE,* a parish in the district of Alford, 
Aberdeenshire ; bounded on the north by Cabrach 
and Auchindore ; on the east by Kearn and Cushnie, 
with Leochel; on the south by Towie ; and on the 
west by Cabrach. It is situated on the Don, about 
20 miles from its sources, and is surrounded on all 
sides by hills, but consists, in itself, of a level valley, 
between 2 and 3 miles square, with a narrow strip 
stretching between the north side of Auchindoir and 
the mountains, in an easterly direction, for 3 or 4 
miles, " suggesting by its form, to a fanciful imagi- 
nation," — such as that of the author of the Statisti- 
cal Account of it himself, it would appear, — " the 
idea of the pasteboard kite which Dr. Franklin first 
raised into the thunder-cloud." The soil is for the 
most part a rich deep gravelly loam, supposed to be 
amongst the most fertile in the county, and well 
cultivated. The hills around afford excellent pas- 
turage. There are plantations of forest and fir trees 
at Clova, Brux, &c, and a considerable extent of 
natural birch-wood covers a bank overhanging a 
rivulet winding near Kildrummie-castle This par- 
ish is in the synod of Aberdeen, and presbytery of 
Alford. Patron, the Crown. Stipend £158 19s. 

lid.; glebe £10 Schoolmaster's salary £25 13s. 

4d. ; fees, &c, £11 6s. 4d. There is a private school 

in the parish Population, in 1801, 430; in 1831, 

678. Houses 110. Assessed property, in 1815, £840. 
Kildrummie-castle stands on an eminence rising out 
of a level about 3 miles in length. The venerable 
ruins, — at first hidden by a rising ground, — as you 
approach them, burst at once on the view, so as to 
produce the finest effect. The plain, through which 
the Don seeks its winding course, is here dotted 
with knolls, some of which are covered with wood ; 
while on every side, lofty mountains form such a 
barrier that the eye can discover no passage out of 

* The name Kildrummie, it has been said, is purely Celtic, 
signifying 'the Little Burial mount.' It seems, indeed, to 
correspond with the situation, as the castle stands on a small 
eminence. It may be doubted, however, whether Kildrummie 
has not originally been a vulgar modification of Kyndromy ; 
which might seem to have been its most ancient form, being 
that in which it appears, not only in the Hotuli, but in the 
Chartulary of Aberbrothock. According to this orthography, 
it might be traced to the Gaelic ceann, cinn, ' head,' and druim, 
in genitive droma, ' the ridge of a hill,' and might thus signify 
* the head,' or 'summitof the ridge,' which had been the site of 
the most ancient tower erected here. In the map of the coun- 
ties of Aberdeen and Banff, by Gordon of Straloch, the name 
of the fortress is bv mistake given as Kurdruimnie, which was 
probably written Kindrummie. 

the strath. The ground in the vicinity is moorish 
and barren. There are two small defiles, denomi- 
nated the north and the south glen. The brook, 
which issues from the latter, washes the walls of the 
eminence on which the castle stands. The northern 
side was secured by the steep banks of the brook, 
which had been carried round the hill, on the east 
and south, by artificial moats, the remains of which 
are still to be seen. On the western side, on the 
face of the eminence, the entrance to a subterraneous 
passage, which communicated with the interior of 
the fortress, is still visible, although now obstructed 
by rubbish. Old people in the neighbourhood, how- 
ever, affirm that they have entered it ; and state that 
it leads to apartments under the castle, so large and 
lofty as to admit of a man sitting upright on horse- 
back within them. Although this passage is much 
above the present bed of the rivulet, it is believed 
that its channel was then level with the exterior 
opening. According to local tradition, these vaults 
were used as stables, cellars, and prisons. The cas- 
tle covers about a Scotch acre ; although three acres, 
supplied by a draw-well, appear to have been in- 
cluded within the fortification. It originally con- 
sisted, it is said, but of one great circular tower, of 
five stories or floors, distinguished by the appellation 
of 'the Snow tower,' in the western corner of the 
present fabric. The only tower now standing is 
that to the north-west. Of the Snow tower, which 
was situated on the south-west, the foundation only 
remains. The walls of the building are from 10 to 
12 feet in thickness. "Among bleak hills," says 
Gough, " stand the magnificent ruins of Kildrummy- 
castle, commanding a deep glen." According to his 
intelligence, "the Snow tower is near 50 yards high, 
of seven stones [stories], each 30 feet high. In the 
middle story a stone bench ranges round, with doors 
opening to it from the wall, whence it is called the 
court-house. The walls," he adds, are " 18 [eight?] 
feet thick, now fallen in. On the north side is a 
magnificent hall, 60 paces by 15, called Barnet's hall." 
The chapel stood in the centre of the fortress, 60 
feet in length, and in breadth 24. Three of the win- 
dows are still entire. This, if we may credit the 
tradition of the country, was occupied as a magazine 
of forage during the noted siege by the forces of 
Edward I., in the year 1306. It is said that the be- 
siegers despaired of success until a piece of red-hot 
iron, thrown through one of the windows of the 
chapel into the forage, occasioned such distraction 
by the conflagration, that the castle was won by sur- 
prise and storm. The remains of a burying-ground 
may be yet seen, on the north side of the castle, im- 
mediately under the windows of the chapel. Great 
quantities of bones have at different times been dug 
up in the neighbourhood, but scarcely any more valu- 
able remnant of former ages. This castle at an early 
period was the property of the royal family. David, 
the brother of William the Lion, and grandson of 
David I., was at the same time Earl of Huntington 
in England, and of Garvyach or Garioch in the north 
of Scotland. 

This Dawy Erie was of laucii 
Of Huntyntown, and Garvyauch. 
Til Kyng Williame he wea brodyr. 

Wyntoun's Cron. viii. 6. 235. 

The venerable prior of St. Serfs says, that David 
was " of lauch," or legally, heir of this earldom ; and 
the magnificent castle of Kildrummie, during his 
time, was the capital mansion of the earldom of Ga- 
rioch. With the daughter of David, it went to the 
family of Bruce ; and from them, with the sister of 
Robert I., to the family of Marr, when it became the 
capital of Marr, as well as of Garioch. It must have 
been part of the royal demesnes during the reign of 



Alexander II. For this prince having appointed St. 
Gilbert, Bishop of Caithness, to be his treasurer in 
the north of Scotland, the latter, " dureing the space 
he had this office, built the castle and fortfesse of 
Kildrtime, in Marr, with seaven tours within the 
precinct of the said castle." What is here said can 
only be understood of the great additions made, by 
this bishop, to the original tower. The next men- 
tion we find made of this fortress refers to the period 
of the usurpation of Edward I. In his progress 
through Scotland, a.d. 1303, he was at Kyndromyn,* 
Oct. 8 and 9. Our accurate annalist, Lord Hailes, 
has remarked that, after the unfortunate slaughter 
of Comyn at Dumfries, Bruce " had not a single for- 
tress at his command but the castle of Kildrummie ; 
and that," he justly subjoins. " was at too great a 
distance to be serviceable." From this circumstance 
he infers, with great appearance of truth, that Bruce 
had no premeditated intention to take away the life 
of Comyn ; and that he had formed no plans, and 
concerted no measures, for making his claim to the 
Scottish crown effectual. The writer of the Old 
Statistical Account has fallen into a mistake here, 
in supposing that Bruce himself, as well as his queen, 
escaped from Kildrummie during its siege by the 
English, a.d. 1306 ; for our illustrious prince did not 
himself seek refuge here after his defeat in the battle 
of Methven, but wandered among the mountains of 
Perthshire, with a very few adherents, among whom 
was his brother Edward. As winter was approach- 
ing, he sent a younger brother, Nigel, with the Earl 
of Athole, to conduct the Queen, and ladies in her 
suite, to Kildrummie, as they could neither bear the 
fatigue of travelling nor find sufficient sustenance. 
Our good old Barbour accordingly gives us the fol- 
lowing account : — 

Thai war ay in sa hard trawaill, 

Till the ladyis began to fayle, 
That tnyeht the trawaill drey na mar. — 
With that in hy to him callyt he 
Thaim, that till him war mast priue: 
Then aniang thaim thai thncht it best, — 
That the qneyne, and the erle alsua, 
And the ladyis, in hy suld ga, 
With Nele the Bruce, till Kildromy. 
Fur thaim thoclit thai mycbt sekyrly 
Duell thar, quhill thai war wietaillit weile : 
For swa stalwart wes the castell, 
That it with strenth war hard to get, 
Quhill that thar in war men and mete. 
As thai ordanyt thai did in hy. 

The Bauce, B. ii. v. 697, &c. Edit. 1820. 

The Queen, and Lady Marjory, the daughter of 
Bruce by a former marriage, afterwards dreading to 
be besieged here, fled to the sanctuary of St. Duthac, 
at Tain, in Ross-shire ; but the Earl of Ross violated 
the sanctuary, and delivered them to the English. 
The castle was afterwards besieged by the Earls of 
Lancaster and Hereford. The magazine being 
treacherously burnt, the garrison, deprived of provi- 
sions, surrendered at discretion. The young and 
handsome Nigel was condemned and executed at 
Berwick by the English ; Christopher Seton, who 
had married Bruce's sister, and his brother Alexan- 
der, met with the same fate at Newcastle. The 
Earl of Athole received the death of a traitor at 
London. The King did not learn the mournful tid- 
ings till he had resided for some time in Carrick. He 
had his information from a lady, who was a near re- 
lation of his own. 

Scho him tauld, siehand full ear, 

How that his brothyr takyn war 
In the castell off Kyldromy, 
And destroyit sa welanusly; 

* There can be no doubt that Kildrummie is here meant, as 
lie proceeded to Kytilos, in Moray, on the 10th, and to Elgin 
on the 1 1th of the same month. This, in the 'Scala Chronicon,' 
is denominated Kyndionn. 

And the Erie of Athall alsua: 
And how the qneyne, and uthyr ma. 
That till his party war heldand, 
War tane, and led in Ingland, 
And put in feloun preHouoe, &c. 

The Bruce, B. iv. p. 93. 

As Perth had been taken by Edward Baliol, after 
the fatal battle of Dupplin, he intrusted the keeping 
of it to the Earl of Fife. Being retaken, a few 
months after by the loyalists, Fife, with his lady and 
children, was sent to Kildrummie, to be imprisoned 
there. David Comyn, Earl of Athol, having, a. i>. 
1335, renounced his allegiance to David Bruce, and 
joined himself to Edward Baliol, was, by the English 
faction, made governor of Scotland. He acted very 
insolently and tyrannically towards all the ad- 
herents of the family of Bruce; in consequence 
of which William, Earl of Sutherland, with the 
rest of the loyal nobility, appeared in arms against 
him. He, " understanding that the lords were 
assembled against him, left the siege of Kildrum- 
mie, in Mar, which then he had in hand, and with 
thrie thousand men he gave them battell in 
the forest of Kilblane. After a sharp and cruell 
fight, Earle David wes overthrowne " and slain. 
The castle of Kildrummy was at this time under the 
charge of Lady Christian Bruce, who was married, 
first, to Gratney, Earl of Marr; secondly, to Sir 
Christopher Seton; and thirdly, to Sir Andrew Mo- 
ray of Bothwell. Boethius mentions her as prafect 
of the castle of Kildrumme. Abercromby designs 
her "an heroick lady;" and Lord Hailes, in refer- 
ence to the time of this siege, says that " the castle 
ofKildrummy" had been "hitherto the asylum of the 
loyalists." We find it in possession of the family of 
Marr, A. D. 1403. During the next year, Alexander 
Stewart, a natural son of the Earl of Buchan, having 
cast his eyes on the Countess, stormed her castle of 
Kildrummie, and either by violence, or by persua- 
sion, obtained her in marriage. On the 12th of 
August, 1304, she made over her earldom of Marr 
and Garioch, with all her other lands, to the said 
Alexander Stewart, " and the heirs to be procreated 
between him and her, whom failing, to his heirs and 
assignees whatever." In succeeding times this castle 
was still considered as royal property. For, in the 
reign of James II., a.d. 1437, an act of Parliament 
having been passed, that no lands nor possessions 
belonging to the king be given to any man without 
consent of the three estates, till the king should be 
twenty-one years of age, it was agreed, in the year 
1440, " for the good and quiet of the land, that the 
king should deliver up to Robert, Lord Erskine, 
calling himself Earl of Marr, the castle of Kildrum- 
mie, to be kept by him till the king's majority, when 
the said lord should come before the king, and the 
three estates, and show his rights and claims as far 
as law will. A.D. 1442, Earl Robert took a protest 
at Stirling, in presence of the king and council, com- 
plaining against the chancellor for refusing to retour 
him to the lordship of Garioch, and put him in pos- 
session of the castle of Kildrummie. He afterwards 
besieged and took this castle. In 1448, in conse- 
quence of a new indenture, Lord Erskine obliged 
himself to deliver it up." A. D. 1485-6, Alexander, 
3d son of James III., had a charter, granting to him 
all the lands and earldoms of Marr and Garvioch, 
with the castle of Kildrummie. The earldom of 
Marr was restored to John, Lord Erskine, a. d. 
1565, after the family had been deprived of it for 
130 years. Kildrummie castle, we learn, "was 
burnt in Cromwell's wars; and the new house, built 
by the lords of Elphinston on the south side, by the 
Highlanders at the Revolution. It continued the 
seat of the Marr family." 

Before leaving this interesting ground, it may be 




proper to observe, that it exhibits some remains of 
antiquity, obviously far more ancient than those of 
the castle. About a mile to the north-east of it, in 
a level moor of considerable extent, a number of 
subterraneous habitations have from time to time 
been discovered, of the same kind with those, in the 
Orkney islands, denominated Picts' Houses. They 
are spread over the space of a mile or two in dia- 
meter. Between forty and fifty have already been 
opened. They are on a perfect level with the sur- 
rounding ground, so as to be most frequently dis- 
covered by the plough striking against some of the 
large stones which form the roof. The only open- 
ing to them seems to have been between two large 
stones, placed in a sloping direction at one end, and 
about 18 inches asunder, rising perhaps only a few 
inches above the plain, so as to be scarcely percep- 
tible. By sliding down obliquely through this nar- 
row opening, to the depth of 5 or 6 feet, one reaches 
a large vault, generally about the same height, up- 
wards of 30 feet long, and from 8 to 9 feet wide. 
The walls are built of rude uncut stones, without 
any cement, but so closely wedged together, that 
the smallest of them cannot be moved from its place 
by the strength of the hand. They form a curve, 
bending inwards, so as to approach very nearly to a 
complete arch; large stones, .5 or 6 feet in length, 
being laid over the opposite walls, by way of roof. 
They are covered by a thin layer of earth; and are 
so level with the ground, that one passes over them 
without any suspicion that he is walking over the 
habitations of his ancestors. What affords a strong 
indication that these were inhabited only during 
winter, is, that, in many instances, adjoining to each 
of these caverns, there is a small square enclosure, of 
10 or 15 paces each way, dug a foot or two deep, 
with the earth thrown outwards.* 

KILFINAN, a parish in Argyleshire, in the dis- 
trict of Cowal, about l 7 miles north of the island of 
Arran. It is nearly 17 miles in greatest length, and 
from 6 to 7 in greatest breadth. The surface and 
coast are very rugged, and the soil thin and poorly 
cultivated. Loch-Fyne bounds the parish on the 
west and north-west ; on the north and north-east 
it is bounded by Strachur and Kilmodan parishes. 
The southern division is called Kerriff or Kerry, 
which is from a Gaelic word which signifies a quar- 
ter or fourth-part of any thing. As it is by far the 
most extensive division, and the parish-church is 
within it, the whole parish often goes by the name 
of Kerry. The northern division is called Otter, 
which is also a Gaelic word, descriptive of a shal- 
low place over which runs a gentle current. This 
division of the parish is so called from a beautiful 
sand bank, which juts out into Loch-Fyne, in a ser- 
pentine form, near the seat of Campbell of Otter. 
This bank is 1,800 yards long, from water-mark to 
its remotest extremity at low water ; and forms, 
with the land on the south side, an oblique, and on 
the north an obtuse angle. In time of spring-tides, 
it is entirely covered at high-water ; but about three 
hours after the turn of the tide, the whole appears 
to within a few yards of its extremity. On the 
north side of the bank the water is very deep ; on 
the south side. — where, according to conjecture, the 
surface has been peeled off by the united force of 
storms and a strong current — it is very shallow, and 
ebbs a great way out in spring-tides. There are 
several small lakes, which abound with trout ; and 
the district is beautified by a considerable extent of 

* See Stat. Ace. xviii. 419, 420; also a very particular and 
accurate a?count of subterraneous dwellings, communi- 
cated to the Society of the Antiquaries of Scotland, by John 
Stuart, Esq., Professor of Greek, Marischal college, Aberdeen ; 
and published, in the Society's Transactions, vol. ii. Part. i. 
p. 53 — 55. 

natural wood, particularly ash, of which last there is 
a thriving plantation around the mansion-house of 
Otter. Cairns and duns, or rude circular ranges of 
stones on the tops of eminences, are of frequent oc- 
currence in the parish Population, in 1801, 1,432; 

in 1831, 2,004. Houses, in 1831, 342. Assessed 

property, in 1815, £5,013 This parish is in the 

presbytery of Dunoon, and synod of Argyle. Patron, 
Lamont of Lamont. Stipend £182 3s. 4(1. ; glebe 
£8. The church is old, and was repaired in 1 759 ; 
sittings 450. A missionary alternates between this 
parish and Toward in Dunoon parish ; and a small 

chapel has been erected near Ascog bay There are 

two parochial, and five private schools in the parish. 
in Argyleshire, in the island of Mull, of which it 
forms the south-west part. It is bounded on the 
east and north-east by a ridge of mountains which 
separates it from the parish of Torosay ; on the south 
an arm of the Atlantic, which runs up to Lochaber, 
separates it from the islands of Colonsay, Jura, and 
Islay, and the mainland of Argyleshire ; on the west, 
it is washed by the Atlantic ; on the north, an arm 
of the sea called Lochrankeall, separates it from the 
parish of Kilninian. In Lochrankeall lie the islands 
of Innis, Inchkenneth and Eorsa, belonging to this 
parish, and the islands of Ulva and Staffa, belonging 
to the parish of Kilninian. From the parish of To- 
rosay to the sound of Icolmkill — which is its greatest 
length — it will measure about 22 miles in a straight 
line, exclusive of the island of Iona, or Icolmkill. 
Its greatest breadth, when it meets the parish of 
Torosay, is about 15 measured miles. The parish 
is divided into four districts, viz., the island of Iona, 
Ross, Brolass, and Ardmeanach. The first three 
lie to the south of Loch-Scridain — an arm of the sea 
which runs 12 miles, from west to east, into this 
parish ; the fourth district, Ardmeanach, lies north 
of Loch-Scridain, and parallel to Ross and Brolass. 
The island of Iona lies in the Atlantic, and is sepa- 
rated from the west point of Ross by a narrower 
channel called the sound of I : See article Iona. 
The districts of Ross and Brolass are nearly of equal 
extent, and separated from one another by a ridge of 
hills of no great height. They stretch in a line from 
the sound of I to the parish of Torosay, 22 miles, 
which, as already mentioned, is the greatest length 
of the parish. Their breadth is from 3 to 6 miles. 
Ardmeanach joins Brolass at the head of Loch- 
Scridain, and is about 12 miles in length, and from 3 
to 6 miles in breadth. The parish, in general, pre- 
sents a very barren aspect. Part of it is flat, but the 
greater part of it is hilly, and only calculated for graz- 
ing. Ross is flat, except where it marches with 
Brolass ; and the greater part of the surface is moss 
and heath. Brolass has a northern exposure, rising in 
a gentle ascent from Loch-Scridain. The soil is light 
and dry, and the greater part of the surface consists 
of heath and rocks. Ardmeanach faces the south, 
rising to a considerable height from Loch-Scridain. 
Its soil and surface are similar to Brolass. A part 
of this district, called Gribun, presents some good 

f Pronounced Kilvickeen — The several parishes into which 
the island of Mull was divided in the times of Popery, were all 
united at the Reformation, and called the parish ot Mull, it 
was then a part of the presbytery of Lorn. About the tnne of 
the Revolution, all that part of Mull north of the Tarbert or 
isthmus at Aros, was erected into a parish, called the parish of 
Kilninian. The rest of the island ot Mull continued to be one 
parish for upwards of forty years after this period, and whs 
called the parish of Ross. But being too extensive a charge, a 
new parish was erected, called the parish of Torosay. What 
remained was in writings called the parish of Kilfinichen and 
Kilviceuen, from two places of worship, the one in Ardmean- 
ach, called Kiltinicheti ; and the other in Ross, called Kilvi- 
ceuen ; but iu the country it is only known by the name of 
Ross, from a large district of it so called. — Old Statistical 
i Account. 




arable land. Adjacent to Gribun is the fertile little 
island of Inciikenneth : which see. There are 
three inconsiderable lakes in Ross. The largest of 
them is not above a mile and a half in length, and 
about half-a-mile in breadth. There are six streams 
in Brolass and Ardmeanach ; but they are not con- 
siderable except iu time of rain. In times of rain a 
thousand streams fall down the rocks of Burg, and 
the rocks at Inimore and Carsaig. These rocks be- 
ing in some places perpendicular, and in all places 
nearly so, and some hundreds of feet in height, the 
streams rushing adown them form very magnificent 
cascades ; and when a high wind blows against them, 
the water is raised up in columns like smoke to the 
skies. The shores may be called bold and rocky 
throughout almost their whole extent. Upon the 
south side of the parish there is only one creek in 
Ross, called Portuisgen, where a vessel of about 30 
tons may anchor, but not in safety if the weather be 
stormy. Upon the Ross side of the sound of I there 
are two creeks, — one called the Barachan, and the 
other Polltarve, or the Bull-pond, — where vessels 
of considerable burden may anchor in safety, with 
proper pilots. Loch-Lahich lies east of the sound of 
I, at the distance of about 3 miles. This loch runs 
about 2 miles from north to south into Ross, and is 
one of the safest anchorages about the island of 
Mull. A small arm of it running west, and called 
Loch-Coal, is too shallow for any vessel to anchor 
in. The whole of Loch-Scridain may be called a 
road, but the best anchoring-ground is at Kilfinichen, 
and another place at the head of the loch, called the 
Narrows, where vessels may ride in safety from all 
storms. The only mountains are those that divide 
the parish from that of Torosay. The most remark- 
able of these is Benmoee : which see. Population, 
in 1801, not returned; in 1811, 3,205; in 1831, 
3,819. Assessed property, in 1815, £1,381. Houses, 

in 1831, 679 The parish is in the presbytery of 

Mull, and synod of Argyle. Patron, the Duke of 
Argyle. Stipend £180 10s. 3d. ; glebe £15. There 
is a church in each of the united parishes. Both 
were built in 1804, and repaired in 1828. The 
church of Kilviceuen is at Bonessan, and contains 
350 sittings; that of Kilfinichen has 300 sittings. 
There are two catechists employed in the parish. 

There is a small Baptist church in Kilviceuen 

There are 2 parish-schools, and 6 private schools. 
The salary of the 1st parish-schoolmaster is £30 ; of 
the 2d, £21 6s. 8d. Each has about £8 of fees. 

KILGOUR. See Falkland. 

KILL, Coila, or Coyl (The), a rivulet of the 
district of Kyle, Ayrshire. It rises in the parish of 
Dalmellington, flows 2 or 3 miles northward and 
north-westward, till it touches the parish of Coys- 
toun, and thence, over a direct distance of 8 miles, 
first north-westward, and next westward, divides 
that parish on the left from the parishes of Ochiltree 
and Stair on the right, and then falls into the river 
Ayr. It receives hardly a tributary, except in the 
early part of its course, and is in general considerably 
sinuous in its movements. 

KILLACHONAN. See Fortingal. 

KILL ALL AN, a parish in Renfrewshire, united 
with Houston in 1760. See Houston and Kill- 

KILLARROW, a parish in Argyleshire, in the 
island of Islay, frequently termed Bowmore, from the 
name of the village in which the church is situated : 
See Bowmore. It is about 15 miles long, and 8 
broad. Superficial area about 49,920 imperial acres. 
The surface is partly low, partly hilly, and covered 
with heath. The parish is watered by the river 
Luggan, which empties itself into a bay of the same 
name. In this parish is the elegant residence of Mr. 

Campbell, of Shawfield, the proprietor of the island. 
Population, in 1801, 2,781 ; in 1831,4,898. Houses, 
in 1831, 824. Assessed property, including Kil- 
meny, in 1815, £15,935 This parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Isla and Jura. Patron, the Crown. It 
was separated from Kilchoman about 75 years ago, 
by authority of the court-of-teinds. Kilmeny was 
attached to it at the same time, and continued at- 
tached till lately, when it was erected into a separate 
parish by government. Stipend £158 6s. 8d. ; glebe 
£10. Church built in 1767, and gallery erected in 

1828; sittings 831 There is a small Independent 

church, and also a Baptist church, in this parish 

There are two parochial schools, and twelve private 
schools in the parish. 

KILLASAY, one of the small Hebrides, on the 
west coast of Lewis. 

KILLEAN and KILCHENZIE, an united par- 
ish in Argyleshire, in the district of Kintyre, about 
18 miles in length, and 3J in breadth ; containing 
26,250 Scots acres. The soil along the coast of the 
Atlantic ocean is sandy and sharp, but, when well 
manured, produces good crops of barley, oats, and 
potatoes ; higher up, it becomes mossy; in the hills 
there is little green pasture, being mostly covered 
with heath. There are several Danish forts, some 
rude obelisks, and the remains of a vitrified tower in 
this district. One of the obelisks measures 16 feet 

above ground, and is 4 feet broad, and 2J thick 

Population of the united parish, in 1801. 2,520; in 
1831, 2,866. Houses 453. Assessed property, in 

1815, £17,449 The parish is in the presbytery of 

Kintyre, and synod of Argyle. Patron, the Duke 
of Argyle. Stipend £178 9s. ; glebe £10. There 
are two churches, — one in Killean, and the other in 
Kilchenzie, in which service is performed alternately 

once a-fortnight in each There are two parochial 

schools. One of the teachers has a salary of £31 
6s. 6|d. ; the other has £20. There are five private 

KILLEAN, a beautiful secluded vale on the river 
Foyers, in Inverness-shire. It is encompassed on 
all sides by steep mountains ; but at the north end 
there is a small lake about 1| mile in length, and 
half-a-mile in breadth, from which the river sweeps 
to the northward, through richly birch-clad hills. 
The remainder of the glen is a perfectly level tract, 
of the same width with the lake, and about 2J miles 
in length, covered with rich herbage, and traversed 
by a small meandering river which flows into the 
lake. See Foyers. 

KILLEARN, a parish in the western division of 
Stirlingshire, but originally belonging to the Lennox, 
or Dumbartonshire. Were the parish of Strathblane 
incorporated with it, the two would form nearly a 
regular rectangle ; but Strathblane, which is much 
the smaller of the two, and is itself somewhat rect- 
angular, being all indented within the area on the 
south-east, Killearn consists of amain body stretching 
east and west, and of a stripe or projection running 
out southward from the south-west angle. The 
main body measures in extreme length, from east to 
west along the line of Endrick-water, excluding the 
bends and windings of the stream, 6^ miles; and, in 
extreme breadth from the boundary opposite the 
village of Balfron on the north, to the boundary a 
brief distance beyond Easterton on the south, 3| 
miles; and the projection southward measures Si- 
miles in extreme length by l± or 1^ in average 
breadth. The parish is bounded on the north by 
Drymen and Balfron ; on the east by Fintry ; on 
the south by Strathblane and Dumbartonshire; and 
on the west by Drymen. Endrick-water comes in 
from the west, and — not reckoning its numerous 
bends and meanderings — forms, for nearly 5 miles, 



the northern boundary-line, flows 1J mile south- 
westward through the north-west corner of the 
parish, traces for 1| the western boundary, and then, 
being joined by the Blane, looks westward and leaves 
the district. Blane-water comes in from the inner 
angle of Strathblane, and flows 2 miles north-west- 
ward to its point of confluence with the Endrick. 
Both these streams abound in salmon, pike, and eels, 
and, at a certain season of the year, with roaches. 
Several minor streamlets, particularly Carnock-burn, 
which comes northward along the western boundary 
to join the Blane a little above the junction with 
the Endrick, and 5 burns which rise in the interior, 
or near the southern boundary, and flow northward 
to the Endrick, also abound with trout, and combine 
with the two master-streams, supplied as they all 
are with little shoals coming up from Loch-Lomond, 
to render the parish one of the finest trouting dis- 
tricts in Scotland. Along the eastern and southern 
boundaries of the main body of the parish, and flank- 
ing somewhat into the interior, runs a hilly and 
moorland ridge of pastoral, and, in some instances, 
picturesque surface, — the continuation of the upland 
chain which commences near Stirling, and over two- 
thirds of the projecting part of the parish, from the 
southern extremity northwards, stretches a tract of 
similar character. Commencing on the south-west 
between the ends of these ranges, a valley stretches 
along the course of the Blane till it touches the 
Endrick, and thence runs up the course of the latter 
stream to the north-east extremity of the parish, 
thus possessing a semicircular form, and blending 
the vales of the Endrick and the Blane into a con- 
tinuous semi-zone. This valley is broadest on the 
Blane and the lower part of the Endrick, averaging, 
with the gentle slopes at the base of the hills, about 
lj mile, and becomes very considerably contracted 
as it ascends to the eastern boundary. Everywhere 
it is beautiful, and finely cultivated and wooded ; 
and, in not a few places, it is delightfully picturesque. 
Seen from the heights and slopes round which it 
semieircularly bends, it exhibits a foreground of fer- 
tile pastures and luxuriant fields, beautified by the 
meanderings of a limpid stream, and the intersecting 
frill- work of green enclosures, and foiled by a slowly 
receding and very diversified back-ground in the 
districts westward, perpetuating in one direction its 
own soft and luscious character, sending up in an- 
other the bold forms of the Lomond hills, and over 
a various expanse carrying the eye away to where 
the distant mountains of Argyle and Perthshire min- 
gle their azure-coloured summits with the clouds. 
On one hand, within the parish, come into view 
vast masses of basaltic pillars or natural colonnades 
running in numerous directions; and on the other, 
is seen a crystal stream leaping glitteringly down a 
delightful cascade. Here a verdant wood, in varie- 
gated windings, skirts the sides of the hills; and 
there a deep glen, hollowed out by the work of many 
ages, lays open to the view not a small part of the 
bowels of the earth. On Endrick- water, where it 
traces the western boundary, is the Pot of Gartness, 
a deep linn shaped like a pot or caldron, into which 
the river makes a tumbling and very picturesque 
descent over a rock of three or four times alternated 
precipice and ledge. On the estate of Croy, south 
of the Blane, and on the western verge of the par- 
sh, are two attractive objects, Dualt glen, and the 
waterfall of Ashdow.* The sides of the glen are 
very steep, and, for a long course, exhibit a great 
variety of trees and shrubs grouped in almost every 
conceivable form; and they are at last connected 
by a breastwork of freestone rock, which rises per- 

* A corruption probably of Uisk-dfiu, that is, * the Black 

pendicularly up between them to the height of 60 
feet, and closes the glen, and over which the rivulet 
Dualt makes an unbroken leap, and forms a cascade 
finely in keeping with the grand and solemn beauty 
of the scene. Half-a-mile from the glen is Ashdow, 
a high rock over which the water of Carnock makes 
a precipitate fall, and a deep and winding passage 
for the stream among the rocks. The projecting or 
overhanging rocky banks, are wild beyond descrip- 
tion, nearly meeting in some places at the top, wid- 
ening below into beautiful and variform curvatures, 
and everywhere romantically adorned with a profu- 
sion of shrubs and trees overhanging the clefts.. — 
The soil, in the lowlands, or arable grounds of the 
parish, is chiefly a stiff clay, which a drought bakes 
into great hardness, and which, for the most part, is 
superincumbent on a wet cold till ; but, in some dis- 
tricts, it is a good loam, and, in all, it has been much 
ameliorated by georgical operations. The hilly dis- 
trict contains several extensive moors and mosses, 
and is chiefly occupied, the higher grounds in sheep- 
walks, and the lower declivities in the pasturage of 
black cattle. Much attention has been given to 
the improvement of stock; and sheep and black 
cattle of various breeds, the former about 30,000 in 
number, are maintained on the pastures. On the 
various streams are corn-mills, always well-supplied 
with water-power. Limestone of two kinds occurs, 
but not in circumstances to be largely worked. An 
extensive stratum of an excellent millstone grit en- 
riches the estate of Balglass, and supplies the country 
to a great distance with millstones. Sandstone oc- 
curs, but of coarse grain, and not of the best quality 
for building. Several laborious but vain searches 
have been made for coal. On the banks of the 
Endrick have been found very numerous jaspers, 
brown, red, and green, intermixed in the form of 
blotches and ramifications, and susceptible of a fine 
polish and of being used as ornamental gems. Some 
nodules resemble the bloodstone ; and others contain 

a considerable portion of the zoned agate A little 

south of the village stands Killearn house, anciently 
the seat of a cadet of the Montrose family, built in 
1688, surrounded with numerous plantations, dis- 
posed in belts, clumps, and wildernesses. A mile 
south-west on the Blane is Croy, embosomed in 
plantation, and enriched with the picturesque scenery 
already noticed. On the Endrick stands the elegant 
and commodious mansion of Ballikinrain,*on an estate 
which belonged for centuries to the family of Napier. 
Not far from it, and also on the Endrick, are the 
mansions of Boquhan and Carbeth, both embellished 
with encincturing plantations. On the estate of 
Balglass, in the north-east corner of the parish, is 
an antiquated castle, or large dwelling-house, said 
to have anciently been well-fortified, and to have, 
on one occasion, offered Sir William Wallace a safe 
retreat from danger. This place is noted for the vicin- 
ity to it of the Conies or Curries of Balglass, — natu- 
ral semicircular excavations on the western extremity 
of the Campsie and Strathblane fells, some of them 
more than a mile in diameter, and in several places 
beautifully exhibiting the various mineral strata of 
which the mountains are composed — In the imme- 
diate vicinity of the Pot of Gartness, already noticed, 
are the remains of a house in which John Napier of 
Merchiston, the inventor of logarithms, resided dur- 
ing a considerable part of the period of his being 
employed in his calculations. The incessant sound 
of the cascade, it is said, never annoyed him, while 
the clattering noise of a mill in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood so tore and shattered his thoughts that he 
was frequently obliged to request the miller to stop 
its movements. Accustomed frequently to walk 
out in the evening in his night-gown and cap, and 




wearing an aspect of deep abstraction, lie earned the 
reputation among the papisticated hobnails in his 
vicinity of being a warlock. At a small farm-house 
on the banks of the Blane, about a mile south from 
the church of Killearn,. was born, in 1506, the illus- 
trious George Buchanan. The farm, consisting of a 
plough of land, was the property of his father, and 
holds of the family of Drummikill from which his 
ancestors descended, and was sufficient, with the 
aids of industry and economy, to yield a competent 
support. In the village of Killearn, and com- 
manding an extensive prospect, stands a monu- 
ment to his memory, erected by the gentlemen of 
the parish and neighbourhood in 1788. It is a well- 
proportioned obelisk, 19 feet square at the base, 103 
feet high, having a cavity which diminishes from 
6 feet square at the ground to a point at the height 
of 54 feet, whence a Norway pole is continued to 
the top. The material is a white millstone grit 
found in the vicinity. In the foundation-stone was 
deposited a silver medal, enclosed in a hermetically 
sealed bottle, bearing the inscription : 

In memoriain, 

Georch Buciian-ani, 

Poetre ft Historic! ueleherrimi, 

Accnlis hnjus loci, ultra roiifercritibus, 

Hae-c. eolomna posita est. 17SS. 
Jacobus Craiff, architect, Edinburgen. 

At Blairessan Spout-head, a little north of the vil- 
lage, tradition reports a sanguinary battle to have 
been fought between the Romans and the Scots. 
So late as 1743, the parish was subjected to the in- 
cursions of Highland freebooters, and paid exactions 
of black mail. — The village of Killearn stands not 
far from the base of the hilly district, at nearly equal 
distances from the Blane on the south and the En- 
ririck on the west and on the north, 2j miles from 
Balfron, 16J from Glasgow, and 20 from Stirling. 
Its population in 1 769 was 74:; in 1831, 388. At its. 
south end stands the parish-church. A cotton-mill 
and a printtield, both situated on the Endrick, were 
established in 1792; but are no longer in existence; 
there is, however, a small woollen factoiy. But the 
manufactures of the parish are connected less with 
Killearn,. than with the village of Balfron, which stands 
only.j of a mile north of the Endrick,. and in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the factories. See Balfron. 
Population of the parish, in 1801, 1,039; in 1831, 
1,206. Houses 182. Assessed property,, in 1815, 
£6,731 — Killearn the presbytery of Dumbarton, 
and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. Patron, the Duke of 
Montrose. Stipend £152 4s. Od. ;.glebe £12. Church 
built in 1826; sittings 500; cost £1,050. The 
parish-school is attended by a maximum of 66 scho- 
lars. Schoolmaster's salary £31, with fees, and £14 
other emoluments. Three non-parochial schools are 
attended by a maximum of 133 scholars. The church 
was anciently a parsonage,, and was erected, in 1429, | 
into a prebend of the cathedral of Glasgow. Its saint i 
was Alders or Arns, a name corrupted into Earn. 

KILLEARNAN, a parish in Ross^shire, extend- j 
ing 5 miles in length, and 2 in breadth; bounded on 
the north by Urquhart; on the east by Kilmuir- i 
wester and Suddy; on the south by the Beauly J 
frith ; and on the west by Urray. The soil is in ', 
general favourable for cultivation. There are 2,500 
acres under cultivation, and about an equal number 
under wood, and 2,000 in pasture. The value of 
property assessed, in 1815, was £2,520. There are 
numerous cairns and tumuli, some of which are of '■ 
uncommon magnitude, in this district. The man- ! 
sion-house of Redcastle has been recently repaired ; j 
but Kilcoy-castle is now a ruin. Population, in i 

1801, 1,131; in 1831, 1,479. Houses 293 This ] 

parish is in the presbytery of Chanonry, and synod ' 


of Boss. Patron, MacKenzic of Cromarty. Stipend' 
£199 16s. 7d. ; glebe £9. — Schoolmaster's salary 
£27 1 Is. 5id. There is a school supported by the 
Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. 

KILLIECRANKIE,* a celebrated mountain-piss 
on the river Garry; ]£ mile above the point of its 
confluence with the Tummel; 15 miles north of the 
town of Dunkeld; and on the western verge of the 
parish of Moulin, in the district of Athole, Perth- 
shire. The dark lofty, hills which fall abruptly or 
precipitously down on both sides of the narrow vale 
of the Garry, approach here so close that the sha- 
dow of the one range flings.a perpetual night over 
the face of the other. From the present road, which 
is carried along a sloping part of the ridge on the 
left side of the river, the traveller looks up, on the 
one hand, to the bare acclivitous ascent of the hills 
toward their summit, and listens, on the other, to 
the hoarse and tumultuous roar of the Garry storm- 
ing its angry way along the bottom of the deep gorge 
below. But the wildly romantic pass is so tufted 
and overhung with a profusion of birch-trees tena- 
ciously clinging to the clefts of the locks, that the 
river is, in most places, invisible, and makes its pre- 
sence known only, by its deafening noise; and, when 
it does come into view, it appears, rolling headlong 
over a precipice, and lashing the waters, of a deep 
pool into a little sea of foam, and expending its 
gigantic energies in throwing up amid the romance 
around it a scene of awful, magnificence. The pass 
is between two and three miles in length,, and, pre- 
vious to the era of laying open the Highlands by the 
construction of military roads, was the most wild 
and perilous. of all the inlets to that vast fortress of 
mountains, or to any of its interior retreats. A 
footpath, hanging over a. tremendous precipice, and 
threatening destruction to the pedestrian as the re- 
sult of the least false step, was then the only facility 
which it offered;, but now an excellent road is car- 
ried along in such safety as to occasion no uneasy 
emotion to persons acquainted with even the turn- 
pikes of Wales and of the Southern Highlands of 
Scotland, and, at the south end of the defile, 
another road, by a picturesque arch across, the Garry, 
to run up the glen of the Tummel. 

On some rough ground on the left bank of the river, 
at the north-western extremity of this pass, was 
fought, on the 27th July, 1,689, the celebrated battle 
of Killiecrankie. It was on the 26th of July, 1689, 
that Mackay began his fatal march from Perth at the 
head of an army of 4,500 men. Of this force, a fair 
proportion consisted of cavalry. At night he en- 
camped opposite to Dunkeld, so celebrated for the 
romantic grandeur of its scenery. Here,, at mid- 
night, he received an express from Lord Murray 
announcing that Dundee had entered Athole, in con- 
sequence of which event he informed him that he 
had retreated from before the castle of Blair, which 
he had for some time partially blockaded ; and that 
although he had left the strait and difficult pass of 
Killiecrankie between him and Dundee, he had posted 
a guar.d at the further extremity to secure a, tree pas- 
sage to Mackay 's troops through the pass which he 
supposed Dundee had already reached. Mackay seems 
to have doubted the latter part of this statement, and 
his suspicions were in some degree confirmed by the 
fact, that Lieutenant-colonel Lauder, whom he de- 
spatched with a party immediately on receipt of 
Murray's letter, to secure the entrance into the pass 
from the vale of Blair, did not see a single man on 
his arrival there. Discouraging as this intelligence 
was, Mackay still determined to persevere in his 
march, and having despatched orders to Perth to 
hasten the arrival of the six troops of cavalry he had 
* Pcrliaps CoiV.e-croithimich, or ' the Wood of Trembling. ' 



left behind, he put his array in motion next morning 
at day-break, and proceeded in tbe direction of the 
pass, the mouth of which he reached at ten o'clock 
in the morning. Here he halted, and allowed his 
men two hours to rest and refresh themselves before 
they entered upon the bold and hazardous enter- 
prise, of plunging themselves into a frightful chasm, 
.out of which they might probably never return. 
Having received.notice that the pass was clear, and 
that there was no appearance of Dundee, Mackay 
,put his army again in motion, and entered the pass. 
The idea that no opposition would be offered to 
their passage through this terrific defile, which seemed 
to forbid approach, and to warn the unhappy soldier 
of the dangers which awaited him. should he precipi- 
tate himself intp its recesses, -may have afforded some 
consolation to the feelings of Mackay 's troops as they 
entered this den of desolation ; but when they found 
.themselves, fairly within its gorge, their imaginations 
must have been appalled as they gazed, at every suc- 
cessive step, on the wild and terrifie objects which 
.encompassed them on every side. But unlike the 
Hessians who, in 1745, refused even to enter the 
j>ass, from an apprehension that it was the utmost 
.verge of the globe, they proceeded at the command 
of their general, on their devious course, and finally 
.cleared it, with the loss of a single horseman only, 
who, according to an Athole tradition, was shot by 
.an intrepid adventurer, named Ian Ban Beg Mac- 
Ran, who had posted himself. on a hill, whence with 
murderous aim he fired across the rivulet of the 
;Garry and brought down his victim. A well, called 
in Gaelic, Fuaran u trupar, — Anglice, 'the Horse- 
man's well,,' — is shown as the place where he felL 

As soon as the five battalions and the .troop of 
horse which preceded the haggage had debouched 
from the further extremity of the pass, they halted, 
by command of the general, upon a corn-field, along 
the side of the river to the arrival of the bag- 
gage, and of Hastings's regiment and .the other troop 
of horse, Mackay then ordered Lieutenant-colonel 
Lauder to advance with his 200 fusileers and a 
troop of horse in the direction he supposed Dundee 
might be expected to appear. This conjecture was 
too well-founded, for Lauder had not advanced far 
when he discovered some parties of Dundee's forces 
.between him and Blair. Being apprized of this, 
Mackay galloped off to observe the enemy's motions 
before making choice of tbe field of battle; but on 
arriving at the advanced post, he observed several 
small parties of troops, scarcely a mile distant, march- 
ing slowly along the foot of a hill in the direction of 
Blair, and advancing towards him. Mackay, there- 
upon, sent orders to Balfour to advance immediately 
with the foot. But these orders were no sooner 
despatched than he observed some bodies of Dundee s 
forces marching down a high hill within a quarter of 
a mile from the place where he stood, in consequence 
of which movement, he immediately galloped back 
to his men to countermand the order he had just 
issued, and to put his army in order of battle. 

Dundee, who had been duly advertised of Mac- 
kay's motions, had descended from the higher dis- 
trict of Badenoch into Athole on the previous day, 
with a force of about 2,500 men, of whom about 
one-fifth part consisted of the Irish who had lately 
landed atlnverlochy under Brigadier Caiman. Some 
of the clans which were expected had not yet joined, 
as the day appointed for the general rendezvous had 
not then arrived; but as Dundee considered it of 
paramount importance to prevent Mackay from es- 
tablishing himself in Athole, he did not hesitate to 
meet him with such an inferior force, amounting to 
little more than the half of that under Mackay. On 
his arrival at the castle of Blair, intelligence was 

brought Dundee that Mackay had reached flic pnss 
of Killiecrankie, which he was preparing to enter. 
At a council of war which was held in the castle, 
Dundee was strongly advised by the most of his 
officers to dispute the passage of the pass, as they 
did not consider it safe, from the great numerical 
disparity of the two armies, to allow Mackay to 
enter the Blair till the arrival of the reinforcements, 
which might be expected to join in two. or three 
days. Dundee, however, was of quite a different 
opinion, and after appealing to the feelings. of the 
Highlanders, whose ancestors, he said, acting upon 
their national masim never to attack a foe who could 
not defend himself on equal terms, would have dis- 
dained to adopt the course proposed, he proceeded to 
give his reasons for rejecting the advice offered him, 
and which at once convinced themthat he was right. 
One principal reason stated by Dundee for allowing 
Mackay to advance through the pass unmolested, 
was the great advantage they would gain by engag- 
ing him, on open ground before he should be joined 
by his dragoons, who, from their being so formidable 
to the Highlanders, would, if allowed by him to 
come up, more than compensate any accession of 
foree which Dundee might receive. Another reasoR 
not less important was, that in the event of Mackay 
sustaining a defeat, his army would probably be 
ruined, as he could not retreat back through the 
pass without the risk of evident destruction, whereas 
should the Highlanders suffer a defeat, they could 
easily retreat to the mountains. Immediately above 
the ground on which Mackay had halted his troops 
is an eminence, the access to which is steep and diffi- 
cult, and covered with trees and shrubs. Alarmed 
lest Dundee should obtain possession of this emi- 
nence, which being within a carabine-shot from the 
place on which Mackay stood, would give him such 
a command of the ground as would enable him, by 
means of his fire, to force Mackay to cross the liver 
in confusion; he immediately took possession of the 
eminence. Within a musket-shot of this ground is 
another eminence immediately above the house of 
Urrard, which Dundee had reached before Mackay 
had completed his ascent, and on which he halted. 
At this conjuncture, neither Hastings's regiment nor 
Annandale's troop of horse had yet come out of the 
pass, but Mackay, nevertheless, at once proceeded 
to arrange his men in fighting order on a plain be- 
tween the edge of the eminence and the foot or com- 
mencement of the ascent to Dundee's position, which, 
from its extent, enabled him to form his men in one 
line along the eminence. In making his dispositions, 
Mackay divided every battalion into two parts, and, 
as he meant to fight three deep, he left a small dis- 
tance between each of tliese sub-battalions. In the 
centre of his line, however, he left a greater interval 
of space behind which he placed the two troops of 
horse, with the design, when the Highlanders, after 
the fire of the line had been spent, should approach, 
to draw them off by this larger interval, and flank 
the Highlanders on either side, as occasion should 
offer. Mackay assigns as his reason for placing his 
cavalry in his rear till the fire should be exhausted 
on both sides, a dread he entertained of exposing 
them to Dundee's horse, which consisted altogether 
of gentlemen, reformed officers, or such as had de- 
serted, from Dundee's regiment when in England, 
and with whom it could not be supposed that these 
newly-raised levies could cope. Hastings's regiment, 
which arrived after Mackay had taken up his ground, 
was placed, on the right, and to which, for greater 
security, was added a detachment of firelocks from 
each battalion ; and on the extreme left, on a hillock 
covered with trees, Lieutenant-colonel Lauder was 
posted, with his party of 200 men, composed of the 



elite of the army. Mackay having been recognised 
by Dundee's men busily employed riding along his 
Jine, from battalion to battalion, giving orders, was 
selected by some of them for a little ball practice ; 
but although "their popping shot," which wounded 
some of his men, fell around him wherever he moved, 
he escaped unhurt. After his line had been fully 
formed, Mackay rode along the front, from the left 
wing, which he committed to the charge of Brigadier 
Balfour, to the right, and having ascertained that 
every thing was in readiness to receive the enemy, 
he addressed the battalions nearest him in a short 
speech. Whilst Mackay was thus occupied on the 
lower platform, Ins gallant rival was equally busy 
flying about on the eminence above, ranging his men 
in battle array. He was particularly distinguished 
amongst his officers by a favourite dun-coloured 
horse which he rode, and by his plated armour, 
which glittered in the sunbeams. Dundee, who had 
arrived upon the higher platform about the same 
time that Mackay had gained the ground he now 
occupied, ranged his men in one line in the following 
order: — On the right, he placed Sir John Maclean, 
with his regiment divided into two battalions. On 
the left, he posted the regiment of Sir Donald Mac- 
donald, commanded by the young chief and Sir 
George Berkeley, and a battalion under Sir Alexan- 
der Maclean. In the centre were placed four bat- 
talions, consisting of the Camerons, the Macdonells 
of Glengary and Clanranald, and the Irish regiment, 
with a troop of horse under the command of Sir 
William Wallace, who had early that morning pro- 
duced a commission, to the great displeasure of the 
Earl of Dunfermline and other officers, appointing 
him colonel of a horse-regiment. It may be ob- 
served, that neither Mackay nor Dundee placed any 
body of reserve behind their lines. Mackay himself, 
* though an old and experienced officer, and a brave 
man, was not without his misgivings; and as the 
evening advanced without any appearance on the 
part of Dundee of a desire to commence the action, 
his uneasiness increased. Nor were his apprehen- 
sions likely to be allayed by the reply made by the 
second son of Lochiel, who held a commission in his 
own regiment of Scots fusileers, in answer to a ques- 
tion put to him by Mackay. " Here is your father 
with his wild savages," said Mackay to the young 
man, on seeing the standard of the Camerons, put- 
ting on at the same moment an air of confidence, 
"how would you like to be with him?" " It sig- 
nifies little," answered the son of the chief, " what 
I would like, but I recommend to you to be .pre- 
pared ; or perhaps my father and his wild savages 
may be nearer to you before night than you would 
like." The apparent irresolution of the Highlanders 
to begin the battle was considered by Mackay as 
intentional, and he supposed that their design was 
to wait till nightfall, when, by descending suddenly 
from their position, and setting up a loud shout, 
according to their usual custom, they expected to 
frighten his men, unaccustomed to an enemy,, and 
put them in disorder. As Mackay could not, with- 
out the utmost danger, advance up the hill and com- 
mence the action, and as the risk was equally great 
should he attempt to retreat down the hill and cross 
the river, he resolved, at all hazards, to remain in 
his position, " though with impatience," as he ob- 
serves, till Dundee should either attack him or re- 
tire, which he had better opportunities of doing than 
Mackay had. To provoke the Highlanders, and to 
induce them to engage, he ordered three small lea- 
ther field-pieces to be discharged, but they proved 
of little use, and the carriages being much too high, 
for the greater convenience of carriage, broke after 
the third firing. 

Towards the close of the evening, some of Dun- 
dee's sharpshooters, who had kept up, during the 
day, an occasional fire in the direction in which they 
observed Mackay to move, by which they had wound- 
ed some of his men, as already stated, took posses- 
sion of some houses upon the ascent which lay be- 
tween the two armies, for the purpose of directing 
their aim with surer effect. But they were imme- 
diately dislodged by a party of musketeers despatched 
by Mackay 's brother, who commanded the general's 
regiment, and chased back to their main body with 
some loss. This skirmish Mackay supposed would 
soon draw on a general engagement, and his expec- 
tations were accordingly speedily realized. It was 
within half-an-hour of sunset, and the moment was 
at hand, when, at the word of command, the High- 
landers and their allies were to march down the hill, 
and, with sword in hand, fall upon the trembling and 
devoted host below, whom, like the eagle viewing 
his destined prey from his lofty eyry, they had so 
long surveyed. Having determined, as much to 
please his men as to gratify his own inclination, to 
lead the charge in person, at the head of the horse, 
Dundee exchanged his red coat, which he had worn 
during the day, and by which he had been recognised 
by Mackay's troops, for another of a darker colour, 
to conceal his rank, and thereby avoid the risk of 
being singled out by the enemy — a precaution justi- 
fiable by the rules of sound prudence, and quite con- 
sistent with the highest moral courage. That no- 
thing might be wanting on his part to work up the 
feelings of his men to the highest pitch of heroism, 
he harangued them in an enthusiastic strain. A pause 
now ensued, and a death-like silence prevailed along 
the line, when, on a sudden, it appeared in motion, 
marching slowly down the hill. The Highlanders, 
who stript themselves to their shirts and doublets, 
and whose appearance resembled more a body of 
wild savages than a race of men, who, although 
they could not boast of the civilization of the in- 
habitants of the south, were nevertheless superior 
to thern in many of the virtues which adorn human- 
ity ; advanced, according to their usual practice, 
with their bodies bent forward, so as to present as 
small a surface as possible to the fire of the enemy, 
the upper part of their bodies being covered by their 
targets. To discourage the Highlanders in their ad- 
vance by keeping up a continual fire, Mackay had 
given instructions to his officers commanding battal- 
ions, to commence firing, by platoons, at the distance 
of a himdred paces. This order was not attended to, 
as Balfour's regiment, and the half of Ramsay's, did 
not fire a single shot, and the other half fired very 
little. The Highlanders,, however, met with a very 
brisk fire from. Mackay's right, and particularly from 
his oivu battalion, in which no less than sixteen gen- 
tlemen of the Macdonells of Glengarry fell ; but, un- 
dismayed by danger, they kept steadily advancing in 
the face of the enemy's fire, of which they received 
three rounds. Having now come close up to the 
enemy, they halted for a moment, and having level- 
led and discharged their pistols, which did little ex- 
ecution, they set up a loud shout and rushed in upon 
the enemy sword in hand, before they had time to 
screw on their bayonets to the end of their muskets.* 
The shock was too impetuous to be long resisted by 
men who, according to their own general, " behaved, 
with the exception of Hastings's and Leven's regi- 
ments, like the vilest cowards in nature." But even 
had these men been brave, as they were pusillani- 
mous, their courage would not have availed them, as 
their arms were insufficient to parry oif the tremen- 
dous strokes of the axes, and the broad and double- 

* From this circumstance Mackay invented the present plan 
of fixing the bayonet. 



edged swords of the Highlanders, who with a single 
blow, either felled their opponents to the earth or 
struck off a member from their bodies, and at once 
disabled them. While the work of death was thus 
going on towards the right, Dundee, at the head of 
the horse, made a furious charge on Maekay's own 
battalion, and broke through it, on whieh the Eng- 
lish horse, whieh were stationed behind, fled without 
firing a single shot. Dundee, thereupon, rode off to 
attack the enemy's cannon, but the officer who had 
that morning produced his commission as colonel of 
the horse, did not keep pace with Dundee, who, on 
arriving near the enemy's eannon, found himself 
alone. He, therefore, gave the horse a signal to 
advance quickly, on which the Earl of Dunfermline, 
who then seryed only as a volunteer, overlooking 
the affront which had been put upon him, rode out 
of the ranks, followed by sixteen gentlemen, attacked 
the party who guarded the cannon and captured them. 
As soon as Maekay pereeived that Dundee's grand 
point of attack was near the centre of his line, he 
immediately resolved to attack the Highlanders in 
flank with the two troops of horse which he had 
placed in the rear of his line, for which purpose he 
ordered Lord Belhaven to proceed round the left 
wing with his own troop, and attack them on their 
right flank, and he ordered, at the same time, the 
other troop to proeeed in the contrary direction, 
and assail them on their left. Maekay himself led 
round Belhaven's troop, but it had scarcely got in 
front of the line when it got into disorder, and in- 
stead of obeying the orders to wheel for the flank of 
the enemy, after some eonfused firing it turned upon 
the right wing of Lord Kenmure's battalion, which 
it threw into disorder, and which thereupon began to 
give way. At this critical moment Maekay, who 
was instantly surrounded by a crowd of Highlanders, 
anxious to disentangle his cavalry, so as to enable him 
to get them forward, called aloud to them to follow 
him, and putting spurs to his horse galloped through 
the enemy, but, with the exception of one servant, 
whose horse was shot under him, not a single horse- 
man attempted to follow their general. When he 
had gone sufficiently far to be out of the .reach of 
immediate danger, he turned round to observe the 
state of matters, and to his infinite surprise he found 
that both armies had disappeared. To use his own 
expression, " in the twinkling of an eye in a man- 
ner," his own men as well as the enemy were out of 
sight, having gone down pell-mell to the river where 
his baggage stood. The flight of his men must have 
been rapid indeed, for although the left wing, which 
had never been attacked, had begun to flee before he 
rode off, the right wing and centre still kept their 
ground. Maekay now stood in one of the most ex- 
traordinary predicaments in which the commander of 
an army was ever placed. His whole men had, as if 
by some supernatural cause, disappeared almost in an 
instant of time, and he found himself standing a soli- 
tary being on the mountain-side, not knowing what 
to do, or whither to direct his course. Whether, had 
they had the courage to follow him, the timid troop 
would have turned the tide of victory in his favour, 
may indeed be well doubted.; but it is obvious that 
he adopted the only alternative which could render 
success probable. Judging from the ease with which 
he galloped through the Highlanders, who made way 
for him, he thinks that if he had had but fifty reso- 
lute horse such as Colchester's, he "had certainly," 
as he says, "by all human appearance recovered all," 
for although his whole line had begun to give way 
when he ordered the horse to follow him, the right 
of the enemy had not then moved from their ground. 
The plunder which the baggage offered was too 
tempting a lure for the Highlanders, whose destruc- 

tive progress it at once arrested. It was in fact 
solely to this thirst for spoil that Maekay and the 
few of his men who escaped owed their safety, for 
had the Highlanders continued the pursuit, it is very 
probable that not a single individual of Maekay's 
army would have been left alive to relate their sad 
disaster.* Maekay retired across the Garry without 
molestation, and made a ehort halt to ascertain 
whether he was pursued. Seeing no disposition on 
the part of the Highlanders to follow him, he began 
to think of the best way of retiring out of Athole. 
All his officers advised him to return to Perth, 
through the pass of Killiecrankie, but he saw proper 
to reject this advice, and resolved to march several 
miles up Athole and cross over the hills to Stirling. 
It was represented to him, that if pursued by the 
Highlanders, his men could make no effectual resist- 
ance, and he himself admitted that the objection 
was well-founded^ but he still adhered to his resolu- 
tion, because, as he apprehended more danger from 
Dundee's horse than from the Highlanders, who 
would be too busy securing their plunder to think 
of pursuing him, his risk would be less by keeping 
upon ground inaccessible to the operations of cavalry, 
than by exposing himself in the open country beyond 
the pass. Besides, he had no certainty that the pass 
was not already secured, for the purpose of cutting 
off his retreat, and to have entered it, if seized upon, 
would have been throwing himself into the jaws of 
instant destruction. Giving orders, therefore, to his 
men to march, he proceeded to the west along the 
bank of the river, and had the satisfaction, when 
about "2 miles from the field of battle, to come up 
with a party of about 150 fugitives almost without 
arms, under the command of Colonel Ramsay, who 
was quite at a loss what direction to take. Maekay 
then continued his march along the edge of a rivulet 
which falls into the Garry, till he eame to some little 
houses. Here he obtained, from one of the inhabi- 
tants, information as to the route he meant to fol- 
low, and having made himself acquainted, as far as 
he could, by an examination of his map, with the 
situation of the country through which he had to 
pass, he crossed the stream and proceeded across the 
hills towards Weem castle, the seat of the chief of 
the clan Menzies, whose son had been in the action 
with a company of Highlanders be had raised for the 
service of the Government. He reached the castle 
before morning after a most fatiguing journey, where 
he obtained some sleep and refreshment, of which he 
stood greatly in need, having since his departure be- 
fore Dunkeld, on the morning preceding, marched 
about 40 miles through a tract of country, the greater 
part .of which was beBet with quagmires and preci- 

The news of Maekay's defeat had preceded hi3 
retreat; and on his march, during the following day, 
he found the country through which he passed in an 
uproar, and every person arming in favour of Kiiif) 
James. The people of Strathtay alarmed at the ap- 
proach of Maekay's men, whom they took to be 
Highlanders, and considering their houses and cattle 
in danger, set up a dreadful 6hout, which so fright- 
ened Maekay's men that they began to flee back to 
the hills under an apprehension that the Highlanders 
were at hand. Maekay and some of his officers on 
horseback, by presenting their pistols and threaten- 

* In a conversation respecting the battle between General 
Wade and an old Highlander, who had fought at Killiecrankie, 
the latter is reported to have spoken lightly of Maekay as a 
commander, calling him a great fool, because lie did not put his 
baggage in front of his army at Killiecrankie. Wade dissented, 
of course, but the old man insisted that the baggage should have 
been placed before the line, in which case Maekay, he observed, 
would have gained the battle, as the Highlanders would have 
first attacked the baggage, and vvould have thus fallen an eaBy 
prey to Maekay's army. 




ing the fugitives, succeeded iu rallying tliem, but 
owing to the thickness of the morning more than a 
hundred escaped, all of whom were killed, stripped, 
or taken prisoners by the country people. Maekay 
continued bis march with very little halting all that 
day, being Sunday the 28th of July, and arrived late 
at night at Druiinnond castle,, in which he had a gar- 
rison. Next day he reached Stirling with about 400 
men. On the morning after the battle — for night 
had thrown its sable curtain over the horrors of the 
scene, before the extent of the carnage could be as- 
certained — the field of battle and the ground between 
it and the river, extending as far as the pass, present- 
ed an appalling spectacle in the vast numbers of the 
dead which strewed the field, and whose mutilated 
bodies attested the savage and unrelenting ferocity 
with which Mackay's men had been hewn down by 
the Highlanders, Here might be seen a skull which 
had been struck off above the ears by a stroke from 
a broad-sword — there a head lying near the trunk 
from which it had been severed — here an arm or a 
limb — there a corpse laid open from, the head to the 
brisket ; while interspersed among these lifeless 
trunks, dejectaque membra, were to be seen broken 
pikes, small-swords, and muskets, which had been 
snapt asunder by the athletic blows of the Lochaber 
axe and broad-sword.* If the importance of a vic- 
tory is to be reckoned by the comparative numbers 
of the slain, and the brilliant achievements of the 
victors, the battle of Killiecrankie may well stand 
high in the list of military exploits. Considering the 
shortness of the combat, the loss on the part of 
Maekay was prodigious. No less than 2,000 of his 
men fell under the swords and axes of Dundee's 
Highlanders, and about 500. were made prisoners. 
Among the slain were Lieutenant-Colonel Maekay, 
brother of the general, Brigadier Balfour, and several 
other officers. Highland tradition reports that Bal- 
four was cut down by the Reverend Robert Stewart, 
a Catholic clergyman, nephew to Stewart of Balle- 
chen, for having contemptuously refused to. receive 
quarter when offered him by the priest. The same 
tradition relates that Stewart, who was a powerful 
muscular man, followed the enemy in their flight 
down to the river, and towards the pass, wielding a, 
tremendous broad-sword, with which he cut down 
numbers of the fugitives, and so much did he exert 
himself in the use of his fatal weapon, that, at the 
conclusion of the carnage, his hand had swollen to 
such an extent, that it could only be extricated from 
the basket-hilt of his sword, by cutting away the net- 
work. But as the importance of a victory, however 
splendid in itself, or distinguished by acts of indivi- 
dual prowess, can only be appreciated by its results, 
the battle of Killiecrankie, instead of being advan- 
tageous to the cause of King James, was, by the 
death of the brave Dundee, the precursor of its ruin. 
After he had charged at the head of his horse, and 
driven the enemy from their cannon, he was about 
to proceed up the hill to bring down Sir Donald 
Macdonald's regiment, which appeared rather tardy 
in its motions, when he received a musket-shot in his 
right side, immediately below his armour. He at- 
tempted to ride a little, but was unable, and fell 
from his horse mortally wounded, and almost imme- 

* In allusion to this battle, the author of the memoirs of Vis- 
count Dundee, says, " Then the Highlanders tired, threw down 
their lusils, rushed in upon the enemy with sword, target, and 
pistol, who did not maintain their ground tivo minutes alter the 
Highlanders were amongst them ; and I dare he bold to say, 
that were scarce ever such strokes given in Europe as were 
given that day by the Highbinders. Many of General Mackay's 
officers and soldiers were cut down through the skull and neck 
to the very breast; others had skulls cut off above their ears 
like night-caps ; some soldiers had both their bodies and cross- 
belts cut through at one blow; pikes and small swords were cut 
like willows; and whoever doubts of this, may consult the wit- 
nesses of the tragedy. " 

diately expired. In the Viscount Dundee, King 
James lost the only man in Scotland possessed of all 
the qualifications necessary for conducting to a suc- 
cessful issue the great and important charge which 
had been committed to him by his sovereign. Edu- 
cated in the strictest principles of toryism, he could 
never divest his mind of the abstract ideas of passive 
obedience and hereditary right, and to him, there- 
fore, any attempt to resist the authority of the so- 
vereign, no matter how far abused, appeared highly 
treasonable. Hence the unrelenting perseverance 
with which he hunted down the field conventicles, 
which made him the terror of the unfortunate whigs, 
and earned for him the unfortunate designation of the 
'Bloody Clavers.' Though a thorough-paced, and, 
in some degree, a bigotted Protestant Episcopalian, 
the heresy of the successor of Charles II. as the re- 
ligion of James must have appeared to him, in no 
respect altered bis ideas of implicit fidelity to the 
sovereign, nor did his. views undergo any thange 
when the arbitrary and unconstitutional proceedings 
of James seemed, to the leading men of the nation, 
to have solved the great political problem, when re- 
sistance should commence and obedience end. In 
his eyes, therefore, the revolution which drove the 
unfortunate James from his throne, was a great na- 
tional sin, which could only be atoned for by restor- 
ing to him his crown,, an object, in the accomplish- 
ment of which, he conceived all good men were 
bound to lend a helping hand. These ideas ingrafted 
upon a temperament peculiarly sanguine, made him 
an enthusiast in favour of hereditary right, and his 
appointment by the fallen monarch as the chosen one 
by whose instrumentality his restoration was to be 
effected, imparted a charm to his enthusiasm which 
dispelled every difficulty which appeared to obstruct 
the grand object of his ambition and his hopes. 
With an inflexibility of purpose, which no tempta- 
tion could overcome,, he steadily pursued the course 
which the duty he conceived he owed to his sover- 
eign, and the natural inclination of his own mind 
directed him to follow. But Dundee had not merely 
the will, but what was of no less importance, the 
ability, had he lived,, to have executed the commis- 
sion intrusted to hiin. While as a military com- 
mander he had few equals, he stood unrivalled among 
his cotemporaries in the art of gaining the affections 
of his troops, and communicating to them a full mea- 
sure of the spirit which animated himself. His death, 
therefore, was a fatal blow to James's prospects, and 
with him the cause of the Stuarts may be said to 
have perished. Dundee, and his friend Pitcur, who 
also fell in the engagement, were interred in the 
church of Blair-of-Atbole. 

KILLIGRAY. See Calligrat. 

KILLlN,f a large parish in the district of Bread- 
albane, Perthshire. It consists of a large main body 
and two detached portions. One of the latter, 
measuring S.V miles by 4, stretches southward from 
Loch-Tay at the distance of 3± miles from the east- 
ern extremity of the main body ; and is bounded on 
the east and west by portions of Kenmore ; and on 
the south by Comrie. This district partakes uniquely 
and strictly of the beautiful and romantic eharactet 
of the parts of Kenmore which contribute to form 
the basin of Loch-Tay; possessing at the edge of the 
lake a broad belt of gently rising arable ground, 
sheltered and embellished with plantation, and rising 
up as it recedes toward the southern boundary in 

+ The Rev. Patrick Stuart, the minister of the parish at the 
close of last Century, doutitud whether the word CW-F/li?in, 
signifying 'the Burymg-place ot Fingal,' or CiLl-Lmn, mean- 
ing ' the Buryiutj-place of the Pool,' and pointing to the ruins 
of a chapel and cemetery on the banks uf the Lochy, were the 
original of the modern name Killiu ; yet he seemed to give 
his vote in favour of Cilt-linn. 



grand mountainous elevations : 6ee Kenmore. The 
other detached portion, a square of H mile deep, lies 
on the north side of the river Lochy, 2| miles north 
of the nearest point of the main body, has Fortin- 
gall on the north ; Kenmore on the east ; and a part 
of Weem on the south and west, and partakes the 
general character of Glenlochy. The main body of 
the parish extends, in a stripe averaging about 7 miles 
in breadth, from the head or south-western end of 
Loch-Tay to the boundary of the county with Ar- 
gyleshire, — a distance or extreme length of 22 miles. 
It is bounded on the north by detached parts of Ken- 
more and Weem ; on the east by the main body of 
Kenmore, by Loch-Tay, and by a part of Weem ; 
on the south by Comrie and Balquidder ; and on the 
south-west, west, and north-west by Argyleshire. 
The district, strictly Highland in its topographical 
appearances, takes its configuration mainly from the 
course, through its centre of the chief head-water of 
the Tay. This stream — which rises on the extreme 
western boundary, bears for 8 miles the name of the 
Fillan, expands for 3 miles into a series of lochlets 
which assume the general name of Loch-Dochart,* 
and then runs 10J miles farther under the name of 
Dochart river — bisects the district through nearly the 
middle over its whole length, and gives it the aspect 
of a long glen, bearing the designation first of Strath- 
fillan, and next of Glen-Dochart, and flanked by 
lofty hills, covered with grass and heath, and run- 
ning up on both sides to a water-shedding line along 
the boundaries. But from a point li mile south- 
west of the head of Loch-Dochart, a glen 4£ miles 
in length, and watered by the romantic, rock-strewn 
Falloch, descends south-westward toward the head of 
Loch-Lomond; and — with the exception of a brief 
part at its lower end. — this, with its flanking hills, and 
two or three tiny later glens, also lies within the dis- 
trict. See articles Strathfillan, Dochart, and 
Falloch. Over a distance of 3 miles above the con- 
fluence of the Lochy and the Dochart, just before the 
united stream enters Loch-Tay, the district includes 
likewise the glen of the former river ; though here it 
has embosomed within it a small detached part of Ken- 
more, stretching from the side of the Lochy to near 
the Dochart. Numerous rills or mountain-torrents, 
all, from the nature of the ground, brief in length, 
rise near the northern and southern boundaries, and 
run down to swell the bisecting central stream. Sal- 
mon and trout are the kinds of fish that abound most 
in the larger waters, — lake and river. High hills, 
few or none of them rocky, and almost all available 
for pasturage, run in ridges on nearly all the boun- 
daries except the eastern, and roll down in congeries 
or in insulated heights as they approach the central 
glen. The highest is the well-known Benmore — 
not, of course, the Benmore of Mull, with which 
identity of name and similarity of interest are in 
risk of occasioning it to be identified. This noble- 
looking mountain is of a fine conical form, and, 
according to Stobie' s map of the county of Perth, 
rises 3,903 feet above the level of the sea. It 
ascends from the pass between Glendochart and 
Strathfillan, on the south side of Loch-Dochart, 
and was, in former times, a deer-forest, but is now 
occupied as a sheep-walk. A considerable aggre- 
gate extent of wood, both natural and planted, 
decorates the parish, and, in most instances, thrives 
and is luxuriant. Game, of numerous kinds, abounds. 
The soil, at the west end of Loch-Tay, and in the 
bottoms of Glenlochy and Glendochart, where it 
suffers from frequent overflowings of the rivers, is wet 
and marshy; but, in other parts it is in general light 

* A little north of Loch-Dnchart are the lochlets E?san and 
Mnriigan ; and near the western boundary ia Loeh-Yoss, — all 
three of imonriderable extent. 

and dry, and, in favourable seasons, abundantly fertile. 
The bottoms of the valleys are disposed chiefly in 
meadows and arable grounds; the hills rise with a 
gentle slope, and are cultivated and inhabited to a 
considerable height ; and the summits of the hills 
and the heights of the mountains, in places where 
grass gives place to rank heath, have been extensively 
improved into available sheep-walks. More than half 
of the whole territory is the property of the Marquis 
ofBreadalbane. Limestone abounds. Lead is worked 
in the vicinity of the village of Clifton. Repeated 
but vain search has been made for coal. Some in- 
teresting antiquarian and historical recollections are 
connected with Strathfillan : which see. Lead- 
ing lines of road traverse all the great glens of the par- 
ish. The villages are Clifton [which see], and Kil- 
lin. The latter is beautifully and romantically situ- 
ated about half-a-mile from the head of Loch-Tay, 
within the peninsula formed by the confluent rivers 
Dochart and Lochy, 15J miles from Kenmore, 21f 
from Callander, 20£- from Inverarnan inn at the en- 
trance of Glenfalloch, ISf from Tyndrum, 27 from 
Crieff, and 40 from Stirling. The windings of the 
rivers in the plain around it, — the precipitate advance 
of the Dochart, over a ledgy and declivitous bed in 
a profusion of little cascades, — the calm and gliding 
movement of the gentler Lochy, — the aspect of the 
surrounding hills, frilled and gemmed in many places 
with wood, — and the long expanse of the exulting 
Loch-Tay, with its gently ascendingand tufted and ul- 
timately magnificent heights of flanking hills, — serve 
to render the site and neighbourhood of this village 
grandly picturesque. So pleased was Mr. Pennant 
with the majesticjoyousness of the scenery around it, 
that he gave a view of it in bis tour. " Killin,"saysDr. 
M'Culloch, " is the most extraordinary collection of 
extraordinary scenery in Scotland, — unlike every- 
thing else in the country, and perhaps on earth, and a 
perfect picture-gallery in itself, since you cannot move 
three yards without meeting a new landscape. A busy 
artist might here draw a month and not exhaust it. 
* * Fir-trees, rocks, torrents, mills, bridges, houses, 
these produce the great bulk of the middle landscape, 
under endless combinations; while the distances 
more constantly are found in the surrounding hills, 
in their varied woods, in the bright expanse of the 
lake, and the minute ornaments of the distant valley, 
in the rocks and bold summit of Craig-Cailliach, 
and in the lofty vision of Ben-Lawers, which towers 
like a huge giant in the clouds, — the monarch of the 
scene." A bridge which bestrides the Dochart, wilh 
five unequal arches, offers good vantage-ground for 
surveving some of the most striking features and 
groupings of the landscape. Immediately below the 
bridge, is a picturesque island formed by the Dochart, 
covered with a fine verdant sward, and richly clothed 
with pine-trees, in the dim centre of which is the 
burial-place of the Maenabs, once the potent chief- 
tains of this district, but whose lineal representative 
emigrated to Canada, with a number of his clansmen. 
The village, though straggling and small, is a place 
of considerable importance; and has an excellent 
inn, and four annual fairs, and is the seat of the 
baron-bailie-courts of the family of Breadalbane. 
The fairs are held on the 3d Tuesday of January, 
the 12th day of May, the 27th day of October, and 
the first Tuesday, O.S., of November. Most of the 
villagers are tradesmen, who pay rent to the Marquis 
ofBreadalbane for a house, a garden, and an acre of 
ground. In the neighbourhood of the village is a 
small rising ground which tradition points out as 
the grave of Fingal, but which on perforation half- 
a-century ago, afforded no evidence of having been 
a tomb. Population, in 1801, 2,048; in 1831, 
2,002. Houses 3G5. Assessed property, in 1815, 




£3,770. — Killin is in the presbytery of Weem, 
and synod of Perth and Stirling. Patron, the Mar- 
quis of Breadalbane. Stipend £240 19s. 5d. ; glebe 
£13 10s. Unappropriated teinds £566 19s. 6d. The 
church was built in 1744, and repaired and con- 
siderably enlarged in 1832; It is situated at the 
-.Ullage, and has 905 sittings. The district of Strath- 
rillan was disjoined in 1836 by the presbytery, and 
annexed to the new quoad sacra parish of Strath<- 
fillan. Another portion of the parish is included in 
the mission, of Loch-pa y-side. See these articles. 
But on the- other hand, parts of the parishes of 
Weem and Kenmore have, by-private arrangement, 
been placed under the care of the ministers of Killin. 
The quoad sacra population, corresponding with 
these distributions, amounted, in 1836, to 1,982, — 
1,082 of whom were in Killin; and 900, including 55 
dissenters, were in Weem and Kenmore. The po- 
pulation of -Killin, quoad civilia, was stated by the 
minister, in, the same year, to consist of 1,952 
churchmen, and 50 dissenters .A Baptist congre- 
gation in the village was established about the year 
1810, yields an attendance of from 8 to 30, and meets 
in a rented-schoolhouse An Independent congre- 
gation, also in the village, was established upwards 
of 25 years ago, yields an attendance of from 40 to 
80, and assembles in a schoolroom The parish- 
school is attended by a maximum of 80 scholars, and 
9 non-parochial schools by a maximum of 351. Pa- 
rochial schoolmaster's salar-y £34, with £9 fees, and 
£10 other emoluments. Three of the non-parochial 
schools -are supported by the Society for propagating 
Christian knowledge, and two by the Marchionessof 

KILMADAN,* or Kelmodan,. a -parish in Ar- 
gyleshire, 12 miles long, and not balf-a-mile broad, 
being chiefly a long narrow glen surrounded by high 
bills. It is -bounded by Kilfinnan, Inverchaolain, 
Dunoon, and Strachan parishes. . The extent of 
sea-coast is about 3 miles, and the shore is flat and 
sandy, with sunk' rocks. The river Ruel falls into 
the head of Loch-Ridan. The tide ebbs at the head 
of this loch above 2_miles. The soil is deep and fer- 
tile, excellently adapted for the culture of flax ; but 
good crops of oats, barley, potatoes, &c, are also 
raised. The surrounding hills are covered with 
heath, and- their sides are occupied by small copses 
of natural wood. Limestone is abundant. The cele- 
brated mathematician, Colin Maclaurin, professor of 
mathematics in the University of Edinburgh, was 
born in this- parish. — Population, in 1801,502; in 
1831,648. Houses 105. Assessed property £4,512. 
■ — The parish is in the presbytery of Dunoon, and 
synod of Atgyle. Patron, the Duke of Argyle. 
Stipend £173 18s. 5d._ Schoolmaster's salary £23, 
with £12 fees. There are 2 private schools. 

KILMADOCK— frequently named, after its kirk- 
town and principal village, Doune— a '..parish near 
the middle of the southern verge of Perthshire. It. 
is bounded on the north by a detached part of 
Strowan ; on the. east by Dunblane and Lecropt ; on 
the south-east- by Kincardine ; on the south by Stir- 
lingshire ; and on the west by a detached part of 
Kincardine, and by Port-of-Monteith and Callander. 
In extreme length, from the Bridge of Frew on the 

* The most ancient name of this parish is said to- have been 
Glenduisk, signifying 'the Glen of the Black water.* After- 
wards a battle was here fought between Meekan, son of Mag- 
nus, King of Norway, and the Gaels, wherein it'is said the 
Norwegians were defeated and slaughtered on each side-of the 
stream which runs through the middle of the glen ; and their 
bodies being thrown into the river, gave the cuf.ur of blood 
to it. Hence the river got the name of Ruail, and the parish 
that of Glendaruel, or Gtendertre/t, which signifies ' the Gleti 
of Red Blood.' After the introduction of Christianity into the 
country, a place of worship was here consecrated to St. Modan, 
and called Cellatliodanii or Kilmudan. 

south, to the hill Uaktg on the north, it measures 10" 
miles; but it has -an average breadth over J, of a 
mile' of this distance, from the southern extremity, 
of only half-a-mile ; and over 2^ miles further, of 2 
or *2\ miles; it now suddenly expands to an extreme 
breadth of 8 miles, but again rapidly contracts, and, 
over a distance of 4 miles from the northern- extre- 
mity, has an average breadth of only 3i miles. Its- 
entire area is computed to be 64 square miles. The 
Forth runs -in serpentine folds along the southern 
boundary, making a distance of 3 miles in. a straight 
line from the point of touching to that of leaving,, 
but probably 6 miles along its channel. The Teith 
runs diagonally from north-west to south-east, 
through nearly its broadest part, tracing the boun- 
dary J of a mile before entering, and 2.i miles before 
leaving, flowing 5 miles in a direct line within the 
boundaries, and bisecting the parish into nearly, equal 
parts. Goodie water comes in from the west near 
the southern extremity, and runs 2,5 miles eastward 
to the Forth. Keltie water comes down from the 
north, and runs 1^ mile along the western boun- 
dary to the Teith. A stream rises in the northern- 
extremity, flows 4 miles in the parish, makes a de- 
tour of 3j miles into Dunblane, and then flowing 2. 
miles, chiefly westward, falls into the Teith in. the. 
vicinity of Doune. Four other considerable stream- 
lets,- one of them about 6 miles in length of course, 
rise in the north, and disgorge themselves -into the 
Teith. The smaller streams, as well as the larger, 
not only beautify the district, but enrich it, abound- 
ing in trouts, and furnishing valuable water-power 
for the driving of machinery. Springs are numerous 
and good ; and one in the side .of Uaighmor in the>- 
north, leaps out from the solid rock in the manner, 
of a jet or spout. Three lochlets also make their 
contribution to the general wealth of waters, — Doch- 
anaghalg, or ' the Lake of the level field,' in the cen- 
tre of the northern division; Loch of Wats.te.wn, on- 
the boundary, bj mile south-west of Dotane ; and- 
Loch-Daldurn, near the south bank of the. Teith, H. 
mile after it receives the Keltie. Nearly the whole 
of the district, which is immediately, washed by the 
streams, or contributes to form they; bansks,-is beau- 
tiful and picturesque in its .scenpr-y,., Tie Forth in- 
here opulent- in the luscious".ess .of carse-landscape 
through which it sinuously ..vends, and in the views 
of Stirling-castle, and of Lie) rejoicing scenes with 
which it is grouped towan i .She east. The Teith is 
all the way fine, and where it rolls past the ancient 
castle of Doune, near the village, and through the 
beautiful pleasure-grounds of Newton on its left 
bank, and along the picturesque groves of Blair- 
Drummond, pressing in from the -parish of Kincar- 
dine, it wears a delightful and exulting dress. The 
Keltie, too, vies with the larger- fivers, and flows- 
most of its way, where it touchel'the rjkrish, through 
the. fine lawns of Cambusmore' arid' Ballaehallan, 
Both Newton and Cambusmore were' 'the residences 
during some of his earlier years of Sir' Walter Scott,. 
and must have contributed, along with the general 
scenery of the parish, and conterminous districts,, 
especially that of Callander, .to form and sharpen his 
exquisite and impassioned relish for the tints and tra- 
cery of nature's depictings. CambuswaUace, Gar- 
tincaber, Coldoch, Craigh, Argaty, and other man- 
sions, with their pleasure-grounds and their groves, 
add studdings of beauty to the district additional to 
those of the mansions already named., Fjom almost 
every eminence in the parish,. are seen superb views 
of the. rich valley of the Forth, the varied aspect of 
a well-cultivated, well- sheltered, and extensive tract 
of country, Stirling-castle, and the bold grand en- 
cincturing of the Lomond and other hills. The sur- 
face, for a considerable way upward from the Forth,. 




is level. From a point 2 miles west of Donne, and 
2£ north of the Forth, a gentle hilly ridge runs 
parallel with the Teith, 4 miles north-westward to 
the extreme western point of the parish. Parallel 
to this ridge, at a distance from it of 3 miles, runs 
another and similar ridge, quite across the parish, — 
the two ridges forming in their interior sides the 
basin of the Teith. Up the whole north corner of 
the parish rise the Braes of Doune, till at the boun- 
dary they send up considerable elevations. The soil 
exhibits every variety, from the richest carse clay on 
the plains of the Forth, to the poorest heath-clad 
moor on the hills of the north. The whole vale of 
the Teith, the carse-grounds on the south, and much 
of the other sections, are well-enclosed and highly 
cultivated. Various roads,. ramifying and intersect- 
ing one another, traverse the southern division of 
the parish:; two run up the vale of the Teith, one 
on each side of the river, leading the way from Stir- 
ling to the gorgeous scenery of the Trosaehs and 
Loch- Katrine on the one hand, and to that of Loch- 
Earn and Loch-Tay on the other; but no road in- 
vites the access of a wheeled vehicle beyond the 
second ridge of the parish, or toward the Braes of 
Doune. A bridged two arches was thrown across 
the Teith at Doune in 1535, by the patriotic Robert 
Spittal, tailor to James V. The old castle and the 
village of Doune are noticed in a separate article: 
See Doune. Three-fourths of a mile north-west of 
Doune are the continuous hamlets of Buchany and 
Burn-of-Cambus. Still nearer Doune, but on the 
opposite bank of the Teith, and communicating with 
it by a bridge, is Deanston. Here, for a long period, 
have been extensive cotton-works, which, half-a- 
*entury ago, employed between 200 and 300 persons, 
and which now give employment or support to about 
one-third of the large population of the parish. At 
Deanston has been established, also, a large iron- 
foundry Population of the parish, in 1801, 3,044; 

in 1831, 3,752. Houses 426. Assessed property, in 

•1815, £15,465 Kilmadock is in the presbytery of 

Dunblane, and synod of Perth and Stirling. Patron, 
Lady Willoughby de Eresby. Stipend £288 7s. Id. ; 
glebe £7. Unappropriated teinds £625 2s. 9d. The 
parish-church is situated -at . the village of Doune. 
Its predecessor, however, or i that which was in use 
till the year 1756, stood in a different locality, — once 
the residence of St. Madoc, or Madocus, and after- 
wards the site of the monastery of St. Madoc, which 
had six dependent chapels. This Madoc is the saint 
who_gives name to -the parish. In Doune are two 
meeting-houses, one belonging to the United Seces- 
sion, and the other to the Original Burghers. The 
parish has a parochial school, and six unendowed 
schools, aggregately attended by at least 590 scholars, 
and has been, and still is, eminent .for having well- 
qualified and successful teachers. Parish school- 
master's salary not stated. 

KILMAHOG, a hamlet in the parish of Callander, 
Perthshire, situated on the left bank of the northern 
head-stream of the river Teith, immediately above 
its point of confluence with the southern head- 
stream. A mile east of the hamlet is the village of 
Callander; and J of a mile north- west of it, is the 
celebrated pass of Leny. 

KILMALCOLM,* a parish in Renfrewshire, 
bounded on the north by Port-Glasgow and the river 
Clyde ; on the east by Erskine, Houstoun, and Kil- 
barchan ; on the south by Locb winnoch.; and on the 
west by Greenock, Innerkip, and Largs. This is 
the largest parish in Renfrewshire, being about 6 
miles square, and containing 19,800 English acres. 

• This name is derived frum King Malcolm III., who was 
commemorated as a saint, ami to whom the church was dedi- 

A great part, particularly on the south and west 
sides, is moorish land, rising to a considerable height, 
and very bleak and barren. On the south side of 
the parish is the extensive moss of Kilmalcolm. f 
The greatest expanse of country, of a uniform fea- 
ture, is a hollow plain, shelving both from south ana 
north, towards the Gryfe and its tributary streamlets 
in the centre. This is thickly scattered over with 
farm-hamlets,; whilst the soil, which is incumbent 
on rotten rock, is naturally fine pasture-land. Much 
of it, indeed, is in cultivation, and produces good 
crops of grain and potatoes, besides some clover and 
turnips. More than 6,000 acres of this description 
of soil are situated in one unbroken expanse in the 
heart of the valley of the Gryfe. Here and there, 
throughout the parish, are clumps of planting, whieh 
give variety to the scenery. The parish abounds 
with excellent water, the principal streams being the 

Gryfe and the Duchal The extensive barony of 

Duchal, in this parish, was, for many ages, the chief 
property and place of residence of the ancient family 
of Lyle, Lord Lyle, which became extinct about 1556. 
Twelve years before that date, most part of it was 
sold by Lord Lyle to John Portertield of that ilk. 
It now belongs to James CorbettPorterfield, Esq. 
The remains of the strong and romantic castle of this 
barony stand upon the confluence of the Duchal with 
another rivulet. In 1710, a mansion-house was 
built about a mile east from this. The present man- 
sion was built in 1 768. It stands on the right bank 

of the Gryfe, and is well-sheltered with wood The 

barony of Dennistoun originally belonged to a family 
of the same name, from whom it passed, about the 
end of the 14th century, to Sir William Cunningham 
of Kilmaurs, ancestor of the Earls of Glencairn, by 
marriage with Margaret, eldest daughter and co- 
heiress of Sir Robert Dennistoun. Finlayston, sur- 
rounded by extensive woods and plantations, on the 
banks of the Clyde, is the mansion-house of this 
estate, and was long the chief residence of the noble 
family of Glencairn. On the death of John, the 15th 
Earl, in 1796, it and the barony of Dennistoun (long 
better known by the name of Finlayston), devolved 
on Robert Graham, Esq., of Gartmore, who was son 
of Margaret, eldest daughter of William, the 12th 
Earl. In the time of that Earl of Glencairn, who 
was among the first of the nobility that made .pro- 
fession of the Protestant religion, his house of Fin- 
layston was a place of refuge for those of that faith, 
and there John Knox dispensed the sacrament. of the 
Lord's Supper. The cups used upon this .occasion 
were two candlesticks of the finest silver. The 
lower part or sole formed the cup, which was screwed 
into the upper. These cups were used in the parish- 
church at the dispensation of the sacrament so long 
as the family of Glencairn continued to reside here. 
They were then replaced by four copper cups, gilt, 
furnished by the Countess of Glencairn, who, it is 
said, carried along with her the. venerated silver cups, 
which, it is also reported, are still in the possession 

of the relations of that family The. greater part of 

the barony of Newark is in this parish, but the an- 
eient castle is in that of Port-Glasgow. Newark 
also belonged to the Dennistouns. On the death of 
Sir Robert Dennistoun, it devolved on Sir Robert 
Maxwell, of Calderwood, who had married his 2d 
daughter, Elizabeth. It long afterwards. passed to a 
family named Cochran, and then to the Hamiltons. 
It now belongs to Lady Shaw Stewart, whose father, 
the late Robert Farquhar, Esq., purchased it from 
Lord Belhaven. — Cairncurran, which anciently fonn- 

t In this district, when moss wants consistency, if dug in the 
usual way, it is formed into convenient pieces tor fuel, and 
spread abioad to dry. Thus prepared, it is lucally called gi'ute, 
the u having the sound of the French letter. 




ed part of the possessions of the nolile family of 
Lyle, was purchased from John, Lord Lyle, in 1544, 
by Giles Campbell, wife of William Cunningham, of 
Craigends, in Kilbarchan parish, and by her dis- 
poned to their 2d son, William, to whose descendants 
it has since belonged.— North of this, on the right 
bank of the Gryfe, is Craigbet, the property of Mr. 
Graham. — On the side of the parish adjacent to the 

Clyde, are some pleasant villas Kilmalcolm, on the 

east side of the parish, is the only village it contains. 
It is distant about 4 miles from Port-Glasgow, which 
is the nearest market and post-town. — Population 
of the. parish, in 1801, 1.100; in 1831, 1,613, of whom 
3G7 were in the village. Houses, in 1831, 227. 

Assessed property, in 1815, £9,384 Kilmalcolm is 

in the presbytery of Greenock, and synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr. Patrons, the heirs of Dr. Anderson. The 
church wa6 built in 1833, and can accommodate 
about 1,000 persons. Stipend £246 3s. 2d. ; glebe 
£16. Unappropriated tenuis £634 8s. lid. — Salary i 
of parochial schoolmaster £34 2s. 8d. (out of which ' 
£3 is given yearly to the schools not parochial), and 
about £10 arising from school-fees. The schools 
not parochial are six in number, with one instructor 
in each. 

KILMALIE, a very extensive parish in the coun- 
ties of Argyle and Inverness. It is of an irregular 
figure, and intersected by three arms of the sea. The 
extreme points from north-west to south-east are CO 
miles distant from each other ; and its breadth from 
north-east to south-west is not less than 30 miles. 
Its superficies has been estimated at 589 square miles, 
or nearly -376,960 acres, measured in straight lines ; 
but, adding the surface of hills and valleys, the ex- 
tent will be at least one-third more. The greater 
part of the parish consists of high mountains and 
hills, oovered with heath, but affording excellent 
pasture for numerous flocks of sheep. Amongst the 
mountains is Ben"nevis : which see. In the valleys 
upon the banks of the Lochy and Nevis, and in seve- 
ral other places, there is a good deal of arable ground 
of different qualities ; but in general the soil is shal- 
low and sandy. On the coast the soil is fertile and 
early. Tire climate is rainy and moist, but healthy. 
In several of the valleys are extensive lakes, of which 
Loch-Archaig and Loch- Lochy are the chief: 
which see. From these two lakes issue the rivers 
Arehaig and Lochy, which, with the Nevis, are the 
principal streams in the parish. The rivers and 
lakes abound with salmon ; and the creeks of the 
coast afford herring and other fish in the greatest 
abundance. In former times, the greater partof this 
parish was o-vergrown with wood^ at present about 
14,000 acres are covered with plantations. Fokt- 
William, and the adjoining village of Maryburgh, 
are situated in this parish: See these articles. There 
are several extensive caves, particularly one about 8 
miles up the river Nevis, known by the name of 
' Samuel's Cave.' It is of difficult access. In 1746, 
this cave afforded a safe retreat to some Highlanders 
who had been engaged in the Rebellion. Immediately 
opposite to it is a beautiful cascade, formed by a 
small rivulet, which, falling down the side of Ben- 
nevis, forms an uninterrupted torrent for half-a-mile. 
before it joins its waters to the Nevis in the bottom 

of the valley Upon the banks of the Lochy, on the 

top of a dreadful precipice, are the remains of an an- 
cient castle, around which are the distinct traces 

of fortifications On the summit of a green hill, 

1,200 feet in height, are the remains of a vitrified 
castle, long forgotten in the annals of fame, and of 
which even tradition has preserved nothing but its 
name. It is supposed to have been a sort of out- 
work for strengthening Inverlochy-castle, when that 
ancient edifice was a royal seat.- — In the parish are 

several veins of lead ore, very rich in silver; one in 
particular, in the mountain of Bennevis. There are 
also quarries of marble, of beautiful colours ; and 
limestone abounds. Most of the mountains are 
composed of porphyry ; according to Williams the 
mineralogist, the red granite of Bennevis is the 
most beautiful of any in the world. There is an 
excellent slate-quarry on the borders of Lochiel, 
at the village of Ballachulish, partly in this parish, 
and partly in the district of Appin. Population, in 
1801, 4,520; in 1831, 5,566. Assessed property 
£9,707. Houses 457. — This parish is in the presby- 
tery of Abertarff, and synod of Glenelg. Patron, 
Cameron of Lochiel. Stipend £287 15s. 8d. ; glebe 
£68. Kilmalie and Kilmanivaig were anciently 
united, under the name of the parish of Lochaber, 
but were disjoined about two centuries ago. A por- 
tion of the parish was recently erected into the quoad 
sacra parish of Ballachtjlish : which see. The 
districts of Fort-William and Loeharehaig, are under 
the charge of missionaries. Parish-church built in 
1783; sittings 666. 

KILMANIVAIG, a parish in Inverness-shire, 
about 60 miles in length, its greatest breadth being 
25. Superficies 300,000 acres. Its surface is much 
diversified with ranges of lofty mountains, intersect- 
ed by extensive glens and rapid rivers, most of which 
emptythemselves into the Lochy: which see. Owing 
to the dampness of the climate, and the irregular 
surface, very little corn is raised throughout this 
vast extent of country. In this district is the ancient 
castle of Inverlochy, and the famous parallel road 
of Gj.enroy : See these articles. Population, in 
1801, 2,541 ; in 1831, 2,869. Assessed property, in 

1815, £15,465. Houses, in 1831,510 Thisparish 

is in the presbyterv of Abertarff, and synod of Glen- 
elg. Stipend £288 10s. 8d. ; glebe £35. Unap- 
propriated teinds £291 2s. 2d. Church built about 
1812; sittings 300. The parish was formerly united 
to Kilmalie, under the name of Lochaber. It com- 
prises three ancient parishes, — Kilmanivaig Proper, 
Killiecbonile, and Killinan or Glengarry. Brae- 
lochaber and Glengarry are now mission-districts 
Of a population estimated by census in 1-836 at 2,889, 
1,464 were Roman Catholics; a Roman Catholic 
congregation has existed in the Braes of Lochaber 
from a remote .period. Their present chapel was 

built about 1826; sittings 400. Stipend £25 

Schoolmaster's salary £29 18s. 10d., with about £20 
fees. There are eight private schools in the parish. 

KILMANY, a parish in Fifeshire. Its extreme 
length from west to east is about 6 miles ; but from 
the irregularity of its form, its breadth is very varied. 
Towards the west it is about 3 miles broad ; but it 
suddenly contracts towards the east, and for about 
nearly two-thirds of its length it is seldom more than 
a mile, and in some places not above half-a-mile 
broad. It is bounded on the south by the parishes 
of Cupar and Logie ; on the east — where it is scarcely 
a quarter of a mile broad — by that of Forgan ; on the 
north by those of Forgan and Balmerino ; and on the 
■west by Creieh and Mootizie. Few localities pre- 
sent more features of quiet, rural beauty than this 
parish. In the west, where it is broadest, it is a. 
succession of softly swelling hill and pleasant valley ;. 
and towards the east, where it contracts in breadth, 
it -occupies the southern slope of a range of hills, and 
a portion of the bottom of a valley through whicb 
the water of Motray seeks its way to the sea. 

There are two hamlets in the parish. The ene„ 
named Kilmany, is near the parish-church, towards, 
the east of the parish ; the other, Rathillet, is «ar~ 
ther west, and not far from the house of Rathillet, 
Rathillet-house is situated upon the water of Motray, 
the grounds of which are well-enclosed. The lands. 



of Rathillet were the property of the Crown till the 
reign of Malcolm IV., when, on the marriage of 
Duncan, Earl of Fife, sixth in descent from Macduff, 
with Ada, niece of Malcolm, the crown-lands of 
Strathmiglo, Falkland, Kettle, and Rathillet in Fife, 
and of Strathbran in Perthshire, were conferred upon 
him by a charter, which is quoted by Sibbald. The 
lands of Rathillet formed a portion of the lands be- 
longing to the Earldom at the time of the forfeiture, 
when of course they again reverted to the Crown, 
They afterwards became the property of a family of 
the name of Hackston or Halkerston. One of this 
family, David Hackston, proprietor of Rathillet, was 
a leading man among the Covenanters during the lat- 
ter part of the 17th century ; and has, in consequence 
of various transactions in which he was engaged, ob- 
tained a rather questionable notoriety.* 

Immediately to the north of the village of Kil- 
many, there is a romantic den, called Goules-den, 
through which a stream finds its way to the Motray. 
This ravine seems to have been occasioned by a dis- 
ruption of the trap-hills which bound the valley to 
the north, and has been further worn down by the 
stream which flows through it. Its banks have been 
planted with trees, and walks made through it, which 
render it of easy access ; and assuredly, though on a 
small scale, it is eminently picturesque, and its little 
waterfalls and overhanging rocks present a variety 
of scenes of great interest. — North of Rathillet, and 
on the face of a range of hills which form the north 
boundary of the valley, with a tine southern expo- 
sure, is Montquhany,f the residence of David Gil- 

* Little appears to be known concerning him, till he is found 
among- the party who murdered Archbishop Sharp at Magus- 
moor, on the 3d of May, 1679. Hackston did not personally 
assail the Archbishop, but lie certainly approved of the deed; 
and only objected to taking- the command of the assassins on the 
ground of his having- a private quarrel with their unhappy vic- 
tim ; fearing it might be said that private revenge, rather than 
the vindication of public justice, had led them to the commission 
of the deed. Being obliged to conceal himself in consequence 
of this murder, ho "retired for a time to the north, but after- 
wards joined the main body of the Covenanters in Lanarkshire, 
where a declaration was drawn up, which Hackston assisted in 
proclaiming at the market-cross of Rutherglen, on the anniver. 
sary of the restoration of Charles II. He fought at Drumclog, 
and afterwards on the 22d of June at Bothwell-bridge, where 
he commanded a troop of horse, and was the last to leave the 
field of battle ; indeed, had his advice been followed on that 
day, the result micht have been very different from what it was. 
He was now proclaimed a rebel, and a reward of 10,000 merks 
offered for his apprehension. For a time he lurked about in 
concealment with the remains of the party ; but was finally 
taken prisoner at Airdsmoss by Bruce of Earlshall. He was 
subsequently tried at Edinburgh, condemned, and executed, 
with all the horrid circumstances forming the punishment of 
treason. His head was fixed on the Netherbow : and different 
portions of his dismembered hody were fixed up at St. An- 
drews, Magus-moor, Cupar, Burntisland, Leith, and Glasgow. 
"Thus," says John Howie, of Lochgoin, the biographer of the 
* Scots Worthies,' " fell this champion for the cause of Christ, 
a sacrifice to prelatic fury, to gratify the lust and ambition of 
wicked and bloody men. Whether his courage, constancy, or 
faithfulness had the pre-eminence, it is hard to determine." 
Hackston certainly appears to have been a man of determina- 
tion and courage, and much superior to the generality of the 
party with which he had associated himself; but he was obvi- 
ously strongly infected with their erroneous views, or he never 
could have allowed himself to believe that he was doing God's 
work — as it was impiously styled — by sanctioning the commis- 
sion of murder. His heirs continued in possession of the estate 
of Rathillet till towards the close of last century, when it was 
Bold by Mr.Hackston to Mr. Sweet, by whom again it was sold 
to the late Mr. David Caldwell, the father of the present pro- 

f Montquhany anciently formed a part of the estates of the 
Earldom of Fife, and we find Duncan, the last Earl of Fife of 
the line of Macduff, giving the whole lands of Moulhany to 
Michael Balfour, his relation, in exchange for the lands of Pit- 
tencrieff, which grant was eoofirmed by David II. in 1353. Of 
this branch of the family of Balfour, Knox says, it was a house 
in which there was "neither fear ot God nor love of virtue, 
farther than the present commodity persuaded them." David 
Balfour, son of the laird of Montquhany, was one of the mur- 
derers of Cardinal Beaton ; and his elder hrother. Sir James 
Balfour, subsequently of Pittendreich and Montquhany, joined 
the assassins shortly afterwards, and was taken by the French, 
when the castle of St. Andrews was surrerdered to them in 
July 1547, was sent to France, and confined in the same galley 

lespie, Esq. — The population of this parish has been 
for several years decreasing, owing to the enlarge- 
ment of the farms, and the consequent want of em- 
ployment for more than a limited number of the 

with Knox. But they were not steady to their party, which 
is obviously the cause of Knox's dislike to the house of which 
they were descended. Sir James returned to Scotland in 1549, 
and was appointed official of Lothian. Ou the breaking out of 
hostilities between the Queen-regent and the Lords of the con- 
gregation in 1559, lie at first joined the former, but latterly 
came over to the Lords, though only apparently for the purpose 
of betraying them, as a boy of his was taken with a writ, which 
" did open the most secret thing that was devised in the conn- 
cel, yea, those very things which were thought to have been 
known but to verv few." He escaped the search of the re- 
formers of Fife in February 1560, when the Lords of Wemyss, 
Seafield, and others were taken prisoners, and he was about 
the same time appointed to the rectory of Flisk. Shortly after 
the return of Ooeen Marv from France, he was appointed an 
extraordinary Lord of session, under the title of Lord Pilten- 
dreich, and about two years after (15fi.'i) he was made an ordi- 
nary lord. At the constitution of the commissary court of 
Edinburgh in 1561-, he was named to the first place, with a 
salary of 400 marks, and was sworn a privy councillor in July 
1565. These marks of royal favour excited the malice of his 
enemies, and it was intended to have hanged him, on the nigbt 
of Rizzio's mnrder, but be made his escape. He was after- 
wards knighted by the Queen, and appointed Clerk-register in. 
place of Mr. James Macgill, who was supposed to have been 
concerned in that murder. In 1566 he was one of the commis- 
sioners for revising and publishing the old laws, called Regiam. 
Majestatem, &c, and the acts of parliament. But now a black 
page appears in the history of his life, as he is said to have been 
the original deviser of the murder of Darnley. to have framed 
the bond for mutual support entered into by the conspirators, 
and to have prepared the house of the Ktrk-of.field, which be- 
longed to his brother, for the reception of the intended victim, 
although he was not present at the mnrder. He was openly 
accused of having been accessory to it, however; and a paper of 
the following tenor was affixed to the door of the tolbooth of 
Edinburgh on the niyht of the 16th of February, a f^w days 
after the deed had been committed : — " I, according to the pro- 
clamation, have made inquisition for the slaughter of the king, 
and do find the Earl of Bothwell. Mr. James Balfour, parson of 
Flisk, Mr. David Chambers, and black Mr. John Spence, the 
principal devisers thereof, and if this be not true speir at Gil- 
bert Balfour." He now became an active coadjutor for a 
time, with the enemies of the unfortunate Queen who had so 
honoured him ; although professedly he had not joined them. 
Early in 1567, he was appointed deputy-governor of Eriinburgh- 
castie under the Earl of Bothwell ; and, according to the ene- 
mies of Mary, it was to him that Bothwell, after the surrender 
of the Queen at Carberry, sent for the casket said to contain 
the letters which formed the alleged evidence of her guilt. 
Shortly after these transactions, he surrendered the castle of 
Edinburgh to the Regent Murray, while the Queen was a pri- 
soner at Lnchleven ; and he did so under such terms as no 
honest man would have been connected with. These were, 
1st, a pardon for his share in the king's mnrder ; 3d, a gift of 
the priory of Pittenweem, then held by the Regent in commen- 
dtnn ; 3d, an heritahle annuity to his son out of the rents of the 
Priory of St. Andrew* ; 4th, a gift of £500 to himself ; and 5th, 
the delivery of the castle into the hands of his friend, Kirkaldy 
of Grange. These terms being fulfilled, lie resigned his office 
of Clerk-reeister to please the Regent, who re-appointed .Sir 
James Macgill ; and Sir JameR Balfour was farther gratified by 
a pension of .£500. and promoted to be President of the enurt- 
of-session on 6th December, 1567. He was present at the battle 
of Langside, and was instrumental in obtaining that decisive 
victory against his former benefactress In 1568 and 1569, he 
was engaged busily in intrigues for Mary ; and after the death, 
of the Regent he openly joined the party of the Qneen. At the 
time Mattland. and Kirkaldy of Grange maintained Edinhurgh- 
castle for the Queen, he joined them, and was in ennsequenco 
forfeited in August 1571. By the latter end of the following 
year, however, he deserted their partv, made his peace with 
Morton, and was a chief instrument in bringing about the paci- 
fication of Perth, which left Maitland and Kirkaldy to the len- 
der mercies of their ruthless enemy. As if to fill up the mea- 
sure of his treachery to his former friends, he now informed 
the Regent Morton, that Kirkaldy'^ brother was about to land 
at Blackness with a supply of money from France, in conse- 
quence of which measures were taken for intercepting it. In 
1573 he was obliged to make his escape into France to avoid a 
trial for his share in the mnrder of Darnley ; but after James 
VI. had assumed the reigns of government he returned to 
organize a plan for the destruction of Morton, which he effected 
by producing, it is said, the celebrated bond signed by that 
nobleman and others for the support of Bothwell, and other 
written evidence of his guilt. The precise date of his death is- 
not known, but it is supposed to have been about 1583. He 
married Margaret, daughter of Michael Balfour of Burleigh 
and Baigarvie, by whom he acquired these lands, and from him 
the Lords Balfour of Burleigh were descended. He is the 
reputed author of the well-known collection of decisions called 
' Balfour's Praetics,' though this is questionable, as appears 
from the observations of Lord Hailes, Mr. Thomson, and Mr. 
Tytler ; but at any rate they must have been subsequently much 
interpolated and added to after his time. Dr. Rohertson stig- 
matises Sir James as "the roost corrupt man of his age,* 1 — a 




labouring class. In 1801, tlic population was 787 ; 
in 1821, 751 ; anil in 1831, 707. It is now under- 
derstood to have still farther decreased. The culti- 
vated laud in the parish extends to about 3,550 acres, 
of which the soil varies very much in different situa- 
tions. Assessed property, in 1815, £6,805. Total 
yearly value of raw produce raised, in 1835, £20.240. 
The average rental of arable land is about £2 5s. per 
acre ; and the gross amount about £8,500 or £9,000. 
The valued rent of the parish is £5,332 10s. Scots. 
Houses, in 1831, 148.— This parish is in the presby- 
tery of Cupar, and synod of Fife. Patron, the United 
College of St. Andrews. Stipend £225 7s. lid,; 
glebe £30. The church stands on a rising ground 
near the village. The late Rev. Dr. John Cook, who 
was for sixteen years professor of divinity at St. An- 
drews, was for nine years minister of this parish. 
Dr. Cook was succeeded in Kilmany by the Rev. Dr. 
Thomas Chalmers, now professor of divinity in the 
university of Edinburgh ; and in this retired parish 
that singular genius began first to appear, which has 
since shone forth in him with so much brilliance.— 
There is a chapel at the village of Rathil let, con- 
nected with the United Associate Synod — The par- 
ish-school is situated at Rathillet. The teacher has 
the maximum salary. Besides the parish-school, 
there are two female schools, one at Kilmany, the 
other at Hazelton- wells, at the north-western extre- 
mity of the parish. 


KILMARNOCK (The), a considerable rivulet 
of the district of Cunningham, Ayrshire. Over most 
part of its course it is a double stream, or flows in 
two head-waters. Both of these rise in the south- 
east corner of Renfrewshire, H mile beyond the 
limits of Ayrshire, and at points 3i miles asunder; 
and they pursue a course respectively of 9 and 10 
miles, in a direction west of south, gradually ap- 
proaching each other as thev advance, till they unite 
at Dean-castle. The western or shorter branch 
flows past Kingswell inn, and the village of Fen- 
wick, and very generally is called Fenwick-water ; 
and the eastern branch, after having received from 
the east a tributary nearly equal in length and bulk 
to itself, is overlooked by the line mansion and de- 
mesne of Craufurdland. The united stream has a 
course of only 2 miles, flows past the town of Kil- 
marnock, and falls into the Irvine 3 furlongs below 

KILMARNOCK, a parish in the district of Cun- 
ningham, Ayrshire ; bounded on the north by Fen- 
wick ; on the east by Loudoun ; on the south by 
the river Irvine, which divides it from Galston and 
Riccarton in Kyle ; and on the west by Kilrnaurs. 
It measures, in extreme length, about 9 miles; in 
extreme breadth, about 5 miles ; and, in superficial 
area, about 5,900 Scottish acres. The parish is tra- 
versed in its western division by Kilmarnock water. 
The surface is in general flat, with a very gentle 
declivity to the south. The soil is deep, strong, and 
fertile ; but runs a little into a kind of moss toward 
the north-east. All the area, with some trivial ex- 
ceptions, is arable. Nowhere, perhaps, in Scotland, 
has agricultural improvement been conducted with 
more enterprise, or carried out into happier results. 
Oats, wheat, and barley, are raised nearly in the 

sentence which infers no little degree nf guilt in an age wherein 
all were so corrupt. It is confirmed, however, by Bannatyne, 
who says that " whenever he saw t vine he cold wag as the buss 
wagged, and tak the way that myght mak him advancement, 
howbeit that the same were to the destruction of all honest and 
godlie men, and of his native country also." In the 17th cen- 
tury Montquhany \, as acquired hy Mr. James Crawford, a 
cadet of a family of that name in the west country. About the 
beginning; of the present century it was purchased by the late 
David Gillespie, Esq., of Kirktun, father of the present pro- 

proportions to each other of 23, 5 and 1. Five or 
six large corn-mills are worked by the water-power 
of the streams of the parish, and prepare large sup- 
plies of oat-meal, both from local produce and from 
Irish importations for the markets of the west of 
Scotland. But great attention, as in other parts of 
Ayrshire, is paid to the dairy, — the produce in cheese 
alone being about equal in value to that in oats, and 
double the value of produce in wheat. The whole 
district is remarkably rich in its agricultural aspects, 
and has been constantly plied with the skilful assi- 
duities of a local agricultural society, which was 
formed so early as 1792. Plantations occur around 
the mansion of Craufurdland, and in some places in 
the east and north-east ; but, in the other and ag- 
gregately large districts, they are tamely and coldly 
represented by nothing better than the hedge-en- 
closure. The climate is very moist, but is far from 
being unhealthy. Coal is very extensively worked; 
nearly three times more being exported than what is 
consumed in the factories and dwellings of the very 
populous town and parish. A firm and beautiful 
white sandstone has long been wrought, and fur- 
nishes excellent building material. Fire bricks are 
to some extent made The principal land-proprie- 
tors are the Duke of Portland, the Marquis of 
Hastings, Craufurd of Craufurdland, Blane of 
Grougar, Dunlopof Annanhill, and Parker of Assloss. 
Dean-castle, the residence of the noble but unfor- 
tunate family of Kilmarnock, stands about £ a mile 
north-east of the town. It is of great but un- 
ascertained antiquity. In 1735, it was accidentally 
reduced to bare walls and ruin by fire ; and, since 
that period, it has been gradually crumbling toward 
a total fall. The growth of an ash tree on the top 
of an arch, and in the centre of the dining-room, was 
regarded by superstitious credulity as the fulfilment 
of some random or alleged prediction uttered during 
the periotl of the last persecution. The ruin, as 
seen from the south-west, has still a magnificent ap- 
pearance, and suggests the melancholy idea of fallen 
grandeur. — Soulis' cross, which gives name to a 
quarter of the town, is a stone pillar 8 or 9 feet 
high, placed at the south entrance of the High 
church, and erected in memory of Lord Soulis, an 
English nobleman, who is said to have been killed 
on the spot in 1444, by an arrow from one of the 
family of Kilmarnock. As it was mouldering to 
pieces in the latter part of last century, the inhabi- 
tants re-edified it by subscription, and placed a small 
vane upon its top with the inscription " L. Soulis, 
1444." — Rowallan-castle, situated on the north-west 
verge of the parish, about 2^ miles from the town, 
consists of a very ancient tower, in which Elizabeth 
More, the first wife of Robert II., is believed to 
have been born, and of large and ornamental addi- 
tions erected about the middle of the 16th century; 

but, in all its parts, it is hastening to decay Crau- 

furdland-castle, 1} mile north-east of Dean-castle, 
exhibits a tower of high antiquity, and of great 
thickness of wall, and a central structure of quite 
modern erection and of fine Gothic architecture. 
Besides the large town of Kilmarnock, with its 
numerous inhabitants, the parish has several collier 
villages and hamlets, containing aggregately a popu- 
lation of about 1,000. From the town roads, which 
are kept in excellent repair, ratliate in every direc- 
tion, — amongst others the continuation of the great 
line of turnpike between Glasgow and Dumfries. 
The Kilmarnock and Troon railway, which runs off 
westward from the west side of the town, is of great 
value for the exportation of coal, and the importa- 
tion of lime, slates, timber, grain, and other com- 
modities. The railway has a double line, each con- 
structed of flat rails resting on blocks of hard stone, 



and was completed in 1812 at a cost of more than 
£50,000. The difference of elevation between the 
depots at Troon and at Kilmarnock is only 80 feet. 
A discouraging attempt having been made so early 
as 1816 to place upon it the locomotive engine, horse- 
power alone continues to be employed. The annual 
aggregate of portage is about 200,000 tons. Great 
disappointment was felt at the inability of the di- 
rectors of the Glasgow and Ayr railway to rind a 
traversable level for conducting their highly impor- 
tant means of communication through the parish. 
Yet advantage to a considerable degree is obtained 
from it by the establishment of frequent and facile 
conveyance to the transit depot at Irvine. Popula- 
tion, "in 1801, 8,079; in 1831, 18,093. Houses 
1,578. Assessed property in 1815, £20,175. 

Kilmarnock is in the presbytery of Irvine, and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr. Patron of the quoad ci- 
vilia parish, or of the Laigh kirk, the Duchess of Port- 
land. There are three places of worship connected 
with the Establishment, two of them quoad sacra ; 
and there are eight belonging to various bodies of 

dissenters, — all situated in the town The Laigh 

kirk was built in 1802, and altered and enlarged be- 
tween 1827 and 1830. Sittings 1,457. The charge 
is collegiate. Stipend of the first minister, £145 3s. 
7d. ; glebe £20. Stipend of the second minister 

£148 7s. 9d. ; glebe £11 St. Marnoch's church 

was built in 1836, at a cost of about £5,000. Sit- 
tings 1,736. "It is intended," says the Commis- 
sioners' Report, "to apply to the presbytery to 
assign a parochial district to it, when an endowment 
is got for a minister." — The High church was built 
by subscription in 1732, at a cost of £1,000. Sit- 
tings 902. Stipend £150. An assistant minister 
has a salary of £80. This church has attached to it 
a quoad sacra urban parish, ^ of a mile in its greatest 
length, less than J of a mile in its greatest breadth, 
and containing, in 1836, according to ecclesiastical 
survey, a population of 1,677 churchmen, 1,325 dis- 
senters, and 212 no-religionists, — in all 3,214 per- 
sons. Deducting these from the population of the 
entire quoad civilia parish, there remained, in 1836, 
according to a survey of the ecclesiastical authori- 
ties of the Laigh kirk, 8,957 churchmen, 6,119 dis- 
senters, and 174 no-religionists, — in all 15,250 per- 
sons; making a grand total in the parish of 18,464. 
■ — A regular town-missionary preaches on the fore- 
noon of Sabbath in the free-school, which accom- 
modates about 150 persons ; and in the afternoon in 
another school-room, which accommodates about 

200. Salary £5.5 A licentiate, very inadequately 

supported by subscription, preaches in an old chapel 
in the village of Crookedholm, 11 mile from the 

town The first United Secession congregation was 

established in 1771 ; and their place of worship was 
built in 1772. Sittings 725. Stipend £140, with a 
house and garden worth upwards of £20, and £7 
sacramental expenses. — The second United Seces- 
sion congregation was established in 1774. Their 
present place of worship was built in 1807. Sittings 
751. Stipend £120, with a bouse, and at each sa- 
crament and each meeting of synod £5 The Relief 

congregation was established in 1814. Their meet- 
ing-house was built in 1832, at a cost of £4,047 12s. 
7d. Sittings 1,493. Stipend £210, with £21 in 

lieu of a manse The Original Burgher congregation 

was established in 1772, and was connected with the 
Associate Synod till 1814, when it joined the Ori- 
ginal Burgher synod. Place of worship builtin 1818, 
at an expense of upwards of £1,000. Sittings 813. 
Stipend £130, with a house and garden The In- 
dependent congregation was established in 1824. 
Sittings in their chapel, 600. Stipend not stated, 
and a house The Reformed Presbyterian congre- 

gation was established in 1774. Their meeting- 
house was built in 1824, at a cost of £1,150. Sit- 
tings 730. Stipend about £100, with a house and 
small piece of ground, and also £10 as the rent of a 
former manse Respecting the congregation of Ori- 
ginal Seceders, and the Wesleyan congregation, the 
Commissioners of Religious Instruction obtained no 

information The academy of the town is conducted 

by 3 teachers, and attended by a maximum of 303 
scholars. The classical teacher is the parish school- 
master, and has £34 4s. 4d. salary, with £94 15s. 
fees, and a house and garden. The English teacher 
and the teacher of writing and arithmetic have each 
£15 salary, with respectively about £140, and from 
£192 to £200 fees. Twenty-two non-parochial 
schools are conducted by 28 teachers, and attended 
by a maximum of 2,150 scholars. — The saint from 
whom the parish has its name was St. Marnock, said 
to have been a bishop or confessor in Scotland, and 
to have died in 322, and probably been interred in 
this parish. Yet, though he was the patron-saint of 
several other Scottish parishes, he is known only by 
vague tradition, and cannot be referred to either in 
evidence of the very early evangelization of the 
country, or as a waymark in the path of its ecclesi- 
astical history. The church anciently belonged to 
the monks of Kilwinning, and was served by a 
curate. In 1619, the patronage, then held by Arch- 
bishop Spottiswood, was transferred to Robert 
Boyd, the ancestor of the Earls of Kilmarnock; in 
the 18th century, it passed to the Earl of Glencairn ; 
and about the year 1790, it was purchased from him 
by Miss Scott, who afterwards became Duchess of 
Portland. In 1641, the northern division of the 
old parish was detached, and erected into the sepa- 
rate parish of Fenwick : which see. 

Kilmarnock, a parliamentary burgh, and the 
most important town in the west of Scotland south 
of Paisley, occupies a low site, amidst flat and tame 
though agriculturally rich scenery, on both sides of 
Kilmarnock water immediately above its point of 
confluence with the Irvine; 9i miles from Mauch- 
line ; 6i from Irvine ; 12 from Ayr ; 21 from May- 
bole ; 32 from Girvan ; 28 from Largs; 21i from 
Glasgow; and 63£ by way of Glasgow from Edin- 
burgh. In the reign of James VI., it was a mere 
hamlet, dependent upon the neighbouring baronial 
mansion, Dean-castle ; and when, through the wealth 
of the coal-mines in the vicinity and the enterprising 
pursuits which they suggested and facilitated, it rose 
to the stature of a town, it had all the ruggednessof 
aspect and the filthiedness of dress indicative of 
the vocation of a collier. At the close of last cen- 
tury it consisted solely of narrow and irregular 
streets, and was extensively edificed with mean 
thatched houses. But two events concurred with 
the influence of the improvement-spirit of the age, 
to effect a rapid and beautifying change on its ap- 
pearance. In 1800, a desolating fire broke out in 
the lower part of the town called Nethertonholm, 
and, aided by drought and a stiff breeze, ran rapidly 
along both sides of the street, and made short and 
full work of demolishing a long array of thatched 
roofs; and it cleared the way and afforded occasion 
for a spirited effort, by subscription, both in the 
town and among patriotic persons at a distance, to 
replace the old roofs with improved ones ot slate. ; 
About the same period, commissioners appointed by 
an act of parliament which had been obtained by 
the magistrates for improving the town, unspar- 
ingly removed nuisances, planned new streets, and 
speedily flung over the place a renovated, airy, and 
neat aspect. Yet the town is still remarkable for 
the utter disproportion of its breadth to its length, 
for the shortness, numerousness, and irregularity of 



the thoroughfares at its nucleus, and for the strag- 
gling-ami dispersed position of several of its outskirts. 
At the south end of the town, on the left bank of 
the river Irvine, communicating with Kilmarnock 
by a bridge which carries over the Ayr and Glas- 
gow turnpike, stands the small suburb of Riccar- 
ton: which see. From the north end of the bridge, 
700 yards above the confluence of Kilmarnock water 
with the Irvine, a street, bearing the names succes- 
sively of Glencairn-street and King-street, runs due 
north, and in a straight line over a distance of 1,500 
yards, or more than J of a mile, gradually approach- 
ing Kilmarnock water over 1,100 yards, running 
alongside of it for 320 yards, and then, as the river 
makes a sudden bend, passing over it, and opening 
into an open and irregular area, the cross, market- 
place, or centre of the town. Nearly 400 yards from 
its southern end, this street expands into Glencairn- 
square, from the sides of which East Shaw-street 
and West Shaw-street, each about 200 yards in 
length, run off at right angles with Glencairn-street 
respectively to the rivers Irvine and Kilmarnock. 
Two hundred yards north of Glencairn-square, two 
very brief streets go off eastward and westward, the 
former sending off at a short distance unedifieed 
thoroughfares to Richarland brewery, situated on 
the Irvine to Wellbeck-street, 320 yards eastward, 
and to the slaughter-house 120 yards to the north. 
Opposite the last of these objects, Glencairn-street 
sends off Douglas-street 120 yards to Kilmarnock 
water. A little more than 400 yards farther north, 
the same street, or rather the continuation of it 
now bearing the name of King-street, sends off a 
long zigzag but otherwise regular street-line 120 
yards eastward, 120 southward, 320 south-eastward, 
and again 200 southward to Irvine water, bearing as 
it approaches the river the name of Wellbeck-street. 
All the section of the town which consists of these 
streets, with the exception of the north end of 
King-street, is quite modern, and has a neat ap- 
pearance, its houses presenting fronts of polished 
ashler, and a building material of fine freestone ; 
yet it is entirely destitute of the attribute of com- 
pactness which is generally associated with the idea 
of a town, and exhibits mainly an elongated and 
slightly intersected street-line running nakedly down 
the peninsula formed by the two rivers, and a sub- 
tending zigzag street-line drawn across the penin- 
sula. Portland-street, 380 yards long, Wellington- 
street 280, and Dean-street 450, are continuations 
nearly due northward of the Glencairn-street and 
King-street line, and, with these streets, make the 
extreme length of the town about 2,610 yards, or 
very nearly li mile. The line, however, from 
King-street northward is but partially editiced, and, 
for some distance, is bending and rather narrow. 
Nowhere, too, i6 the town broader than 700 yards; 
and over a very considerable part of its length it 
has but a single street From the north side of the 
central area, at a point eastward of the commence- 
ment of Portland street, and slightly radiating from 
that thoroughfare, High-street runs along 600 yards, 
till it is pent up by a small bend of the river. A 
brief street intersects it 150 yards from its south 
end, and sends off northward a thoroughfare parallel 
with Portland-street and High-street, and running 
between them. From the south side of the central 
area go off two brief thoroughfares respectively 
north-eastward and south-eastward, the latter lead- 
ing down to the academy situated within a curve 
of the river. From the north side of the area also 
two streets debouch. The more southerly of these 
runs past the Laigh kirk 220 yards, to a point near 
Kilmarnock house, and the depot of the Kilmarnock 
and Troon railway, and forms the longest side of a 

nearly pentagonal district of buildings which has five 
exterior streets, and two intersecting ones, all brief 
and more or less irregular, .and on whose outskirts 
are the cattle-market and the gas-works. 

The town, as a whole, has a pleasing and airy as- 
pect, abounds in good and even elegant shops, and 
exhibits a fair display of public buildings. At the 
north end of King-street is a very broad bridge over 
Kilmarnock water, which not only carries across a 
spacious roadway, but also bears aloft on its east side 
the town-house and the butcher-market. The town- 
house, built in 1805, is a neat structure of two 
stories, surmounted by a belfry ; and contains a 
court-room and public offices. The Exchange build- 
ings, erected in 1814, are of pleasing architecture, 
and have a large hall, which serves both as a well- 
furnished news-room, and as a place of mercantile 
resort. A very handsome and commodious inn, 
erected by the merchants' society, is not a little 
ornamental to the town. The Ayrshire banking 
company's office, immediately opposite to it, is like- 
wise a very fine edifice. The academy, the work- 
house, the free-school, and five bridges over Kilmar- 
nock water, and one over the Irvine, if not elegant 
structures, are at least agreeable for their utility. 
Kilmarnock-house arrests attention and excites mus- 
ing thoughts, from its having been the mansion 
whence the last Earl of Kilmarnock issued to take 
part in the enterprise which cost him his life and 
the forfeiture of his title and estates. The Laigh 
kirk is remarkable for having spacious square stair- 
cases at the angles leading to the galleries, and still 
more so for the event which occasioned their peculiar 
conformation, as well as the re-edification of the 
entire structure. In 1801, while a crowded con- 
gregation were assembling on a Lord's day for public 
worship, the falling of a piece of plaster from the 
ceiling of the former church, excited a general and 
sudden fear in the masses who were already seated 
in the galleries that the roof was about to come down, 
and prompted a universal pell-mell rush to the stairs. 
A stream of persons who were in the act of ascend- 
ing were met by the headlong torrent of the mass 
moving downward, precipitated to the bottom, and 
made the lowest stratum of a broad high pile of 
human beings vainly struggling to move off from 
the rush in the rear, and too numerous to be 
speedily extricated by the efforts of parties clearing 
the passages below. About 30 persons died from 
suffocation on the spot; and numbers more received 
serious and permanent damage to their health. The 
place of worship being now very wisely and philan- 
thropically condemned by the heritors, its successor, 
the present edifice, was constructed more on the 
principle of securing confidence in its strength and 
facilities, than with a view to contribute an archi- 
tectural decoration to the town. The High church 
aspires to be, in some degree, a counterpart of the 
conspicuous and very elegant church of St. Martin's- 
in-the- Fields, at Charing-cross, London; and, though 
it wants the portico, that very important part of the 
original, and is destitute of many of the ornaments 
of its model, and sends aloft a tower of only 80 feet 
in height, and, in general, is much curtailed in its 
proportions, it will pass as a decidedly fine piece of 
ecclesiastical architecture, and has been regarded as 
the most successful production of the Scottish archi- 
tect, Gibb. Its roof, as to its interior ceiling, dis- 
plays much taste, and is supported by two rows of 
very beautiful composite pillars. St. Marnoch's 
church is a Gothic edifice, with an imposing front 
and a sumptuous tower. The Relief church is pro- 
bably the most pretending and the neatest of the 
numerous places of worship belonging to the religi- 
ous denomination with which it is connected ; and, 



being surmounted by a lofty spire, is a conspicuous 
and arresting object in the scenic groupings of the 
town. The Independent cbapel possesses neatness 
in tbe exterior, and some novelty and pleasing ar- 
rangement in the interior. Other edifices in the 
town, whether civil or ecclesiastical, suggest ideas 
lather of direct adaptation to their respective uses, 
than of accidental or ornate properties. 

Kilmarnock is the well-known seat of very impor- 
tant manufactures, — chiefly in the departments of 
carpets, shawls, boots and shoes, bonnets and leather. 
Its advantages, as to position and facilities, are abun- 
dance of coal, the circumjacency of a rich agricultural 
district to supply it amply and cheaply with provi- 
sions, healthiness of climate, populousness of neigh- 
bourhood, and the current through it, or at its side, 
of two considerable streams; and these are so rich 
as very fully to compensate its only disadvantage, 
the necessity of land-carriage over a distance of 6 or 
7 miles to a port, and were speedily seen in much, 
if not all, of their value by the clear eye of the im- 
provement-spirit which, during last century, pere- 
grinated athwart Scotland. Though the incorpora- 
tions of tbe town are of long standing — the boimet- 
inakers having been incorporated in 1647, and the 
skinners in 1656, and the other bodies possessing 
documents which, while of later date, are ratifica- 
tions of former grants — yet during many years and 
several generations, the manufactures were very 
limited as to both variety and amount. ' Kilmar- 
nock bonnets,' and ' Kilmarnock cowls,' or those 
broad flat bonnets which are extensively worn by 
the peasantry of the Lowlands, and those red and 
blue striped nightcaps which still figure grotesquely 
on venerable or hoary heads, and have often provoked 
the flash of wit and the scathing of satire, were, for 
a long period, the only productions by which the 
town's manufacturing character was known or main- 
tained an existence. About 100 years ago, three or 
four individuals conducted the principal trade, buy- 
ing serges and other woollen articles from private 
manufacturers, and exporting them to Holland. The 
demand for woollen goods afterwards increasing, a 
company was formed, and laid the foundation of the 
modern and hitherto uniformly flourishing produc- 
tiveness of the place, by the erection of a woollen 
factory. About the same time was introduced the 
trade for which Kilmarnock, Ayr, and Irvine, con- 
tinue to be noted, — the making of shoes and boots. 
Some fifteen years before the close of the century, 
spinning-jennies for cotton, and a carding and spin- 
ning machine for coarse wool, were erected. In 
1791, when the Old Statistical Account of the par- 
ish was written, there were annually manufactured, 
as to value, £21,400 carpets, £21,216 shoes and 
boots, £15,500 leather, £6,500 printed calicoes, 
£3,700 snuff and tobacco, £3,500 leather-gloves, 
£2,251 cotton-cloth, £2,000 cabinet-work, £1,200 
milled caps and mitts, and £7,800 bonnets, cover- 
lets, blankets, plaidings, serges, mancoes, saddlers' 
cloth, saddlery, knit stockings, iron, and dyers'- 
■work. Since that date the town has boldly and 
rapidly advanced in all the ancient departments of 
its manufacture, and has made very important addi- 
tions in the articles of printed shawls, gauzes, and 
muslins of the finest texture, and some small addi- 
tion likewise in the department of silk fabrics. 
Almost a characteristic property of the town is bold- 
ness and blitheness of enterprise, issuing uniformly 
in success, or, at worst, in encouragement. In 1824, 
at a time when muslin-weaving was the work of an 
ill-fed drudge, the manufacture of worsted printed 
shawls was introduced to the Greenholm printfield 
of this town, and to Scotland, by an inventive and 
spirited calico-printer, Mr. William Hall, and, not 

only at the moment greatly relieved the muslin- 
weavers, by providing them with remunerating em- 
ployment, but almost instantaneously grew to be 
one of the most important manufactures of Kilmar- 
nock. So early as from 31st May, 1830, to 1st 
June, 1831, only four years after its introduction, it 
employed about 1,200 weavers and 200 printers, and 
produced no fewer than 1,128,814 shawls, aggre- 
gately worth about £200,000. In 1837, tbe an- 
nual aggregate value was estimated at £230,000 

The carpet-manufactory may, amidst conflicting 
claims, be regarded as now the staple of Kilmarnock. 
Even 20 or 25 years ago, it rivalled that of Kidder- 
minster in England, and had no competitor in Scot- 
land ; and about that time, or a little later, it was 
greatly improved by the mechanical inventions of 
Mr. Thomas Morton, a citizen who gives name to a 
locality in the vicinity of the Gas-works, who taught 
his townsmen at once to save time and labour, and 
to achieve accuracy and an extensive variety in their 
patterns, and who, so early as 1826, received public 
demonstrations from the manufacturers of the town 
of the debt of obligation which they felt his genius 
had imposed. During the year 1830-1, upwards of 
1,000 weavers were employed in producing Brussels, 
Venetian, and Scottish carpets and rugs, the quality 
and patterns of which were not surpassed by any in 
the country. Three chief classes of carpets are ma- 
nufactured, all of which are woven with harness, — 
Brussels carpets, of the kinds called "points" and 
" combers," — Wilton carpets, woven exactly like 
the former except that the brass wires* are groved, 
and that the rib is cut open with a sharp knife after 
it has been fastened, — and Scotch carpets of three 
qualities, 9 porters, 10J, and 13i. With the Wilton 
carpets Buckingham palace was furnished. Another 
very beautiful fabric called Persians, is woven in 
the town for fire-screens, the weft being tied into 
perpendicular warps by the hand, after the manner 
of making rugs. The designs are beautifully exe- 
cuted from patterns procured from Berlin, prepared 
there for ladies' \york, and found to be well-adapted 
to this fabric, and better executed than any which 
can be obtained at home. The wages of the carpet 
and rug weavers run from 12s. to 14s. per week 
nett, and occasionally higher. The yearly value ot 
the carpet manufacture was estimated, in 1837, at 
£150,000. The total number of hand-looms in the 
town, in the various departments of woollen, cotton, 
and silk, was, in 1828, 1,150, and, in 1838, 1,892; 
and in the latter year, 1,800 of the number were 
harness-looms. The carpet-factories are six in num- 
ber, and recently have all been either rebuilt or very 
much enlarged. Six mills, five of them on Kilmar- 
nock water, and the 6th and the largest on the Ir- 
vine, are employed principally in spinning woollen 
or worsted yarn for the carpet factories and bonnet- 
makers. The annual manufacture of bonnets now 
exceeds 18,000 dozens in number, and amounts to 
about £12,000 in value. The manufacture of boots 
and shoes was estimated, as to the annual worth of 
the produce, in 1831, about £32,000, and, in 1837, 
about £50,000. The manufacture of leather, in the 
latter of these years, was set down in value at 
£45,000. Mr. Thomas Morton, tbe same ingenious 
mechanist to whom the carpet manufacturers acknow- 
ledge so much obligation, introduced the rather novel 
manufacture of telescopes, constructed at his private 
expense a valuable observatory with suitable appa- 
ratus, and mounted there some telescopes of such 

* The ribbed appearance (in a Brussels carpet is produced by 
the insertion of long brass wires between the shots of the wool- 
len web, so aa to raise the warps, the wires being drawn out 
afterwards in succession. Tbe selling price to the wholesale 
merchant of Scotch carpets, in 1339, was is. lOd. per yard; oi 
Brussels carpets, 4s. 3d. 




power anil superior construction that be was invited 
to furnish copies or duplicates of them to other ob- 
servatories. Of miscellaneous manufactures, includ- 
ing linens, cottons, silks, hose, telescopes, machin- 
ery, saddlery, bats, tobacco and candles, the value 
of annual produce may range between £70,000 and 
£100,000. The gas-works of Kilmarnock were erect- 
ed in 1823, by a joint-stock company holding £10 
shares, and managed by a committee of twelve. The 
town has branch-offices of the Bank of Scotland, the 
Ayr Bank, the Commercial Bank of Scotland, and 
the Ayrshire Banking company- The weekly mar- 
kets are held on Tuesday and Friday ; and the annual 
fairs on Shrove Tuesday, the 2d Tuesday of May, 
the 3d Wednesday of July, and the 3d Wednesday 
of October, O. S. The institutions, additional to 
those already incidentally noticed, are a Reservoir 
company, a Building company, a dispensary, an Agri- 
cultural society, a Merchants' society, a Society of 
procurators, a Male and a Female Benevolent society, 
a Female society for religious purposes, a Parochial 
association in aid of the missions of the General 
Assembly and other bodies, a public library, a paro- 
chial library, some circulating libraries, and a Philo- 
sophical institution. The town has a weekly news- 
paper, the ' Kilmarnock Journal,' and is noted for 
having been the birth-place of the first edition of 
Burns' poems. 

Kilmarnock was made a burgh-of-barony in 1591, 
by a charter of novo damns in favour of Thomas, 
Lord Boyd, holding of the Prince and Steward of 
Scotland. According to this and subsequent char- 
ters, ratified by a charter from the Crown in 1702, 
power was given to the inhabitants to act as in 
other free burghs-of-barony, and to the magistrates 
to present annually a leet of five persons to the su- 
perior, from which he should choose two bailies for 
the succeeding year. In 1700, the magistrates pur- 
chased from the superior the whole customs and 
common good of the burgh. After the passing of 
the act 3 and 4 William IV., cap. 77, on the 9th 
August, 1831, an invitation was given by the magis- 
trates and town-council to the burgesses to elect 
annually eight persons, each rated at £12 rent and 
upwards in the police books for their dwelling- 
houses, from among whom the council should choose 
by ballot four new councillors, and no opposition 
being made by the superior, the invitation was acted 
on, and passed into a law. The governing body are 
a provost, four bailies, a treasurer, and eleven coun- 
cillors. Constituency, both municipal and parlia- 
mentary, in 1839-40, 630. The property of the 
burgh was valued to the Commissioners on Munici- 
pal corporations at £3,675 5s. 9d. ; and the debts 
due to it stated at £9S9 16s. ll^d. The revenue 
during the year preceding their inquiry was £380 
lis. 6}d. ; and the expenditure £256 14s. 9d. In 
1839-40 it amounted to £644 1 8s. lOd. The ma- 
gistrates exercise the jurisdiction reserved by the 
jurisdiction act to burghs-of-barony then indepen- 
dent of the superior; they entertain civil causes to 
any pecuniary amount in the bailie-court, and are 
assisted by the town-clerk as assessor; they exer- 
cise, in the bailie-court, the functions of the dean- 
of-guild's jurisdiction; they exercise a criminal juris- 
diction in cases of assault, but remit other cases to 
the sheriff; they hold in turn what is called the 
convenue court, which exercises a summary jurisdic- 
tion, upon a verbal citation in cases not exceeding 
6s. 8d. sterling, and proceeds by poinding and arrest- 
ment; and they appoint the town-officers, and five 
of the fifteen directors of the academy, with whom 
lies the appointment of the masters. The fee pay- 
able by a stranger entering burgess is £4 4s. The 
incorporated trades, with their respective numbers 

in 1833, and the entry-fee they severally exact from 
a stranger, are the skinners, 25, £3 0s. 8d., — the 
tailors, 33, £6 6s., — the weavers, 49, £1 lis. 6d., 
— the bonnet-makers, 23, £7, — and the shoemakers, 
74, £6 13s. 4d. None of them has more than £300 
of funds, and two of them have less than £100. 
The police of the town is regulated by an act of 
parliament passed in 1810, and is excelled by that of 
no town in Scotland for its vigour and utility. Kil- 
marnock unites with Dumbarton, Port-Glasgow, 
Renfrew, and Rutberglen, in sending a member to 
parliament. Population, in 1831, 16,072; in 1841, 

The noble family of Boyd, the Earls of Kilmar- 
nock, were descendants of Simon, brother of Walter, 
first Lord High Steward of Scotland. In 1661 Wil- 
liam, 9th Lord Boyd, was created Earl of Kilmar- 
nock. In 1745 William, the 4th Earl, took part in 
the rebellion under Prince Charles Edward, and on 
the 18th August, 1746, was beheaded, along with 
Lord Balmerino, on Tower-hill. The eldest of his 
three sons became, in right of his mother, Lady Ann 
Livingstone, Earl of Errol; and in 1831, his grand- 
son, William, Earl of Errol, was created Earl of 
Kilmarnock in the peerage of Great Britain. 

KILMARONOCK, a parish at the foot or south 
end of Loch-Lomond, Dumbartonshire. It is bounded 
on the north-east and east by Stirlingshire; on the 
south by Dumbarton ; on the south-west by Bon- 
hill; and on the north-west by Loch-Lomond. In 
shape, it is a slender oval of 7i miles from east to 
west, by 3 miles from north to south ; with a paral- 
lelogram projecting from the south side 2^ miles 
from north to south, and P-i mile from east to west, 
and a stripe not \ of a mile of average breadth run- 
ning up lj- mile north-westward from the middle of 
its north side. Loch-Lomond forms the boundary 
over a distance of about 7 miles: all its curved south 
end except for | of a mile, and also upwards of a 
mile of its east side, being conterminous with the 
parish. The river Endrick runs along the north- 
east boundary 5 miles in a direct line, and nearly 
double that distance along the sinuosities of its chan- 
nel: it has a sluggish motion, — is navigable for flat- 
bottomed craft, — contains pike, braize, perch, and 
eel, — threads its mazy way along a large tract of 
level and very opulent land, — and occasionally comes 
down in such floods as convert some hundreds ot 
acres into a lake isleted with clumps of trees. Gal- 
langadd burn comes in on the extreme south, Li- mile 
from its source in the parish of Dumbarton, flows 2 
miles northward into the interior, and then runs 3| 
miles eastward to the Endrick, forming, for 23 miles 
of that distance, the boundary-line with Stirlingshire. 
Two rills rise in the parish and run north-eastward, 
the one to Loch-Lomond, and the other to the En- 
drick. The plain on the Endrick is upwards of 
3,000 acres in extent ; and is carpeted with a deep 
rich loam, very favourable for either meadow-ground 
or tillage. The southern projection of the parish 
is moorish upland, sending up summits about 1,000 
feet above sea-level; but it contains some excellent 
limestone, has patches of arable ground, and affords 
considerable pasturage. Where it is ploughed by 
Gallangadd burn, it sinks into a fine glen, and is 
beautified by a rather large and fine waterfall on the 
stream. North of this hilly district, at 1J mile's 
distance, rises slowly, on the south-east, from the 
bosom of an opulent plain, the green and sylvan clad 
hill of Duncruin, to the height of about 450 feet; 
and pinnacling aloft into nearly a pointed summit, it 
breaks abruptly down on the west and north sides 
into the plain. This hill occupies a central position 
in the parish, forms a conspicuous and romantic fea- 
ture in its landscape, and commands from its summit 




fine groupings of the magnificent scenery of the 

county On the extreme west, running from Bal- 

loch in the neighbouring parish of Bonhill, along the 
shore of Locblomond to Ross, is a hilly ridge, called 
Mount-Misery, 2| miles long, and about If broad. 
At the north end, and on its declivity toward the 
lake, it is richly planted. Sending up summits 800 or 
900 feet above sea-level, and standing in the centre 
of scenes which description and song and limning have 
laboured unsuccessfully to depict, it commands — 
notwithstanding its most lugubrious and forbidding 
appellation — prospects of surpassing loveliness and 
power of attraction. Away from its base, on the 
north, flaunting far onward in a contracting stripe of 
waters, stretches Loch-Lomond, gemmed with its 
wooded islands, and screened with a bold and romantic 
and apparently continuous range of mountains, Ben- 
lomond lifting his towering summit in the north, and 
the lofty Benledi breaking the sky-line in the distant 
north-east. On the east, and toward the south, is 
spread the richly tinted carpeting of the parish's own 
luxuriant plains, foiled in the centre by the remark- 
able but interesting form of Duncruin ; and farther 
off is seen the most part of Strathendrick, with a 
varied and rich back-ground of hilly outline, from the 
far-away Ochils on the one hand, to the neighbouring 
Kilpatrick hills on the other. On the south, the vale 
of Leven, with its thickly sprinkled objects of in- 
terest, lies expanded with the distinctness of a vast 
map ; at its further end are seen the town and the 
castle of Dumbarton ; and, in not very distant per- 
spective, some of the delightful beauties of the Clyde, 
and of the soft hills and wooded slopes of Renfrew- 
shire. On the west, the eye is carried in easy and 
pleasing transition from the lusciousness of opulent 
Lowland scenery, to the savage wildnessof the heath- 
clad scenery of the Highlands ; resting for a moment 
on the sylvan slopes which there gird Loch-Lomond, 
and passing over the hills of Cardross and Row, away 
to the bold mountainous distant elevations of Cowal. 
A very large proportion of the parish is arable, and 
well-enclosed, Nearly 670 acres are under wood. 
The moorland districts maintain about 500 sheep, of 
the black-faced breed, and some Highland black 

cattle Between Mount-Misery and Loch-Lomond, 

on a rising ground about half-a-mile from the lake, 
stands Batturrich-castle, built about seven years 
ago, on part of the ruin of an ancient castle of the 
same name, which seemed to have been once a mag- 
nificent edifice. Two miles north of it is Ross- 
house, immediately on the banks of the lake. On a 
rising ground in the vale of the Endrick, 2| miles 
east of the nearest part of the lake, is Catter-house, 
a fine old mansion, commanding a full view of the 
lawn and wooded pleasure-grounds around Buchanan, 
house, the seat of the Duke of Montrose, on the 
Stirlingshire side of the river. The other mansions 
are Ardoch, a little south of Ross, and Caldarvin, a 
little west of Duncruin hill. At Catter is a large 
artificial earthen-mound, anciently the seat of courts- 
of-justice. Near it the Duke of Lennox had a place 
of residence, no vestige of which now remains. Kil- 
maronock-castle, a ruin on the property of Robert 
MaL-goune, Esq. of Mains, seems the remnant of a 
massive and important pile. — The Dumbarton and 
Drymen road traverses the whole length of the par- 
ish, nearly through its centre ; and the Glasgow and 
Drymen turnpike intersects its east wing. An an- 
nual fair for horses is held at Craftammie, on the 
second Tuesday of February ; and another, princi- 
pally for milk-cows, is held at the farm of Ardoch, 
on the last Thursday of April. Population, in 1801, 
897; in 1831, 999. Houses, 151. Assessed pro- 
perty, in 1815, £4,288 Kilmaronock is in the pres- 
bytery of Dumbarton, and synod of Glasgow and -Ayr. 

Patron, the Duke of Montrose. Stipend £137 9s. 
8d.; glebe £11. Unappropriated teinds £45 15s. 2d. 
The majority of the population are dissenters, and 
chiefly attend a meeting-house in the parish belong- 
ing to the Relief. Parochial schoolmaster's salarv 
£31, with £26 fees, and £5 10s. other emoluments'. 
There are two non-parochial schools. The saint 
from whom the parish has its name is the same as he 
who gives name to the parish and town of Kilmar- 
nock. A powerful spring in the vicinity of the 
church still bears the name of St. Marnoch's well. 
The church was given, in 1325, by Robert I. to the 
monks of Cambuskennetn ; and continued to be their 
property, and to be served by a vioar, till the Refor- 
mation. The parish had anciently two chapels, ves- 
tiges of which still exist. 

K1LMARTIN, a parish in Argyleshire, of an ob- 
long figure, 12 miles in length, and about 3 in breadth; 
containing 18,000 acres ; lying on the west coast of 
Argyleshire; bounded on the east for 6 miles by 
Loch-Awe [which see], which separates it from 
the parish of Glassry; and on the west by that arm 
of the sea called Loeh-Craignish. The extent of 
sea-coast is about 8 miles. In the south-west corner 
of this district the surface is rather hilly than moun- 
tainous, with arable and pasture grounds intermixed. 
In the north-east the surface is more rugged, but in 
the valleys there are extensive fields of arable land. 
The valued rent is £3,643 Scots. Assessed pro- 
perty, in 1815, £8,304. The valley in which the 
church and village of Kilmartin are situated is one of 
the most beautiful in the Highlands. Through this 
vale runs the line of road from Kintyre to Fort- 
William. Loch-Crinan is the principal harbour, not 
only in this parish, but also on the western coast of 
Argyleshire. It was this circumstance which in- 
duced it to be preferred for the canal across the 
isthmus, though longer by 3; or 4 miles than the 
isthmus of Tarbert : see article Crinan, Canal. 
Limestone is abundant. Pooulation, in 1801, 1,501 ; 
in 1831, 1,475. Houses, in 1831, 275.— This parish 
is in the presbytery of Inverary, and synod of Argyle. 
Patron, the Duke of Argyle. Stipend £189 3s. 2d. ; 

glebe £15 Schoolmaster's salary £30. There were 

4 private schools in the parish in 1834. 

KILMAURS, a parish in the district of Cunning- 
ham, Ayrshire, stretching north-eastward from Irvine 
water, which divides it from Dundonald in Kyle, in 
a belt or stripe between the parish of .ilraarnock on 
the east, and that of Dreghorn on the west. Its 
greatest length is 6 miles; its greatest breadth 2| 
miles ; and its area about 5,000 acres. The stream- 
let Garrier is its boundary on the west. Carmel 
water — here very generally called Kilmaurs water — 
cuts it lengthways into two nearly equal parts ; but 
makes a debouch to the west, and runs upwards of 
a mile in that direction, receiving the Garrier in its 
wav, before falling into the Irvine. This stream is 
of "much value for its water-power in driving ma- 
chinery ; yet during a drought or a frost, it becomes 
almost dry. The Irvine runs on the boundary for 
nearly 2 miles, contains some salmon, trout, and eel, 
and offers valuable advantages in its water-power. 
The surface of the parish is a plain, undulated at 
various intervals, and in various forms, with knolls 
and rising grounds. Its little heights are generally 
tufted with plantation, and give it a pleasant and 
beautified appearance ; and, in many instances, they 
command delightful prospects of the garden-like ex- 
panse of Kyle and Cunningham, — the gorgeous sea- 
view of the Clyde, — and the fine, and, at intervals, 
magnificent perspective of far-away hills and moun- 
tains on the horizon. About twenty or thirty years 
before the date of the Old Statistical Account, the 
parish was naked and unenclosed, utterly destitute of 



roads, and dotted over with mean, paltry, incon- 
venient, filthified houses. But so early us the pub. 
ligation of that Account, or several years before the 
close of last century, all was completely subdivided 
by ditches and thorn-hedges ;. and new, regular, and 
convenient houses, pleasantly situated, and looking 
snugly out upon a smiling landscape, everyvyhece 
gladdened the eye, and suggested ideas of activity, 
neatness, and wealth. Prime attention — as in most 
other parts of Cunningham — is here given to the dairy. 
Coal abounds, and is extensively worked. Craig- 
house is delightfully situated on the Irvine. Carinel- 
bank stands a mile north-east of the former, on the 
left bank of the Carmel. Near it is one of those 
tumuli called Motes, which are believed to have been 
seats of courts- of-justice. Busby-castle, unroofed 
and ruinous, stands J of a mile north-eastward, on 
the right bank of the Carmel. The parish is tra- 
versed by the Kilmarnock and Irvine turnpike, by 
turnpikes which diverge from the town of Kilmaurs, 
and by some other roads. Population, in 1801, 
1,288; in 1831, 2,130. Houses 319. Assessed pro- 
perty, in 1815, £11,617 Kilmaurs is in the pres- 
bytery of Irvine, and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. 
Patroness, Lady M. Montgomery., Stipend £201 Is. 
3d. ; glebe £10. Unappropriated teinds £699 6s. 
lOd. The parish-church is said to have been built 
in 1404, and was repaired and reseated in 1804. 
Sittings 550. At Gatehead colliery, where there is 
a population of 167, a home missionary, a licentiate 
of the Church of Scotland, attends to the religious 
interests of the parishioners, and preaches in a school- 
room on the border with Dundonald parish. A 
United Secession congregation in the town was 
established in 1738. Their present place of worship 
was built in 1789. Sittings 450. The minister has 
a manse and garden The parochial school is. at- 
tended by a maximum of 85 scholars; and three non- 
parochial schools by a maximum of 140. Parochial 
schoolmaster's salary £25 13s., with £33 fees, and 
£13 other emoluments. The master of one of the 
other schools — which is situated at Crosshouse — has, 
besides his fees, £6 from the heritors, and a house 

and school-house by subscription The saint from 

whom the parish has its name is variously stated to 
have been the Virgin Mary, or Marie, and a Scottish 
saint called Maure, who is said to have died in tire 
year 899. The name of the original kirk-hamlet was 
Cunningham;, and this, too, became, from it, the 
name of the family who held the manor. By the 
forfeitures of the heir of the Morvilles, the Cunning- 
hams became tenants in capite under Robert I. 
About the year 1450, they acquired the dignity of 
Lords Kilmaurs ;. and in 1488 they rose to be Earls 
of Glencairn. Their cemetery occupies a place near 
the church, was erected in 1600 by Earl James, and 
contains a beautiful but defaced piece of monumental 
ancient sculpture, to the memory of the 9th Earl, 
the Lord-high-chancellor of Scotland. The name 
Kilmaurs superseded the ancient one in the 13th 
century. The church was given, during the reign 
of William, by Robert, the son of Wernebald, the 
progenitor of the Glencairn family, to the monks of 
Kelso ; and was held by them till the Reformation, 
and served by a vicar. In 1633, when Charles I. 
erected the bishopric of Edinburgh, he granted to the 
dean of St. Giles the church of Kilmaurs, with all 
its tithes and revenues. In 1403 Sir William Cun- 
ningham founded at Kilmaurs, and endowed with 
lands, revenues, and a mill in the vicinity, a collegiate 
church for a provost, six prebendaries, and two sing- 
ing boys. After the Reformation the Earl of Glen- 
cairn took possession of the property. A chapel, with 
an appropriate endowment for its chaplain, anciently 
steoii at Busby. 

Kilmaurs, the capital of the above parish, a 
burgh-of-barony, and a considerable village, stands 
on the right bank of Carmel water, 2 miles from Kil- 
marnock,, and 6 from Irvine. It is pleasantly situ- 
ated on a gentle ascent, looking towards the south ; 
and consists chiefly of one street,, decorated at its 
middle with a small town-house and a steeple, and 
flanked by some by-lanes and back-houses. Its in- 
habitants are principally shoemakers, colliers, and 
subordinates to the manufacturers of Glasgow and 
Paisley. At one time about thirty cutlers, and a 
good many tinkers, gave the town its character and 
tone.. The work of the cutlers was excellent. The 
breakfast-knives of their manufacture were alleged 
to be superior to the produce of even Sheffield or 
Birmingham i and were of the best metal, neatly 
shaped, finely polished, and set in a. halt of tortoise- 
shell, or stained horn, girt with silver virlets." On 
the left bank of the river stands an old mansion 
called the Place. This was the property of the Earls 
of Glencairn ; but is only a fraction of the edifice 
which was intended to be erected. The 9th Earl, 
the chancellor, laid the foundation of a very exten- 
sive building; but, owing to pecuniary embarrass- 
ments — which he incurred in the service of Govern- 
ment, and from w