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Full text of "The totall discourse of the rare adventures & painefull peregrinations of long nineteen yeares travayles from Scotland to the most famous kingdomes in Europe, Asia and Affrica"

N 



The Rare Adventures 

of 

William Lithgow 



GLASGOW 

PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS BY 

ROBERT MACLEHOSE 6» COMPANY LTD. FOR 

JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS, PUBLISHERS 

TO THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW 

MACMILLAN AND CO. LTD. LONDON 

THE MACMILLAN CO. NEW YORK 

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA TORONTO 

SIMPKIN, HAMILTON AND CO. LONDON 

MACMILLAN AND BOWES CAMBRIDGE 

DOUGLAS AND FOULIS EDINBURGH 

MCMVI 



One thousand copies of this book have been printed 
for sale in Great Britain and Ireland, of which one 
hundred copies are on hand-made paper 




Los here's mine Efifigie, and Turkilh juite ; 
My Scaffe, my Shafts oj 1 did h&zfoote : 
Tlaidin oA/Ihumj P riams Scepter tbralles* 
tie Grecian Qampe defignd $ loft Dardan faUes 
(jirddwith [mall Simois : tdaes tops >d Gate; 
rwo /atoll TombcStM Eagle, fackt Troycs State* 




The Totall Discourse 

of 

The Rare Adventures 
Painefull Peregrinations 

of long Nineteene Yeares Travayles from 

Scotland to the most famous Kingdomes in 

Europe, Asia and Affrica 



By 

WILLIAM LITHGOW 







; 



<; 



Glasgow 
James MacLehose and Sons 

Publishers to the University 



THE TABLE 



Publishers' Note, 

The Epistle Dedicatory, . 

The Prologue to the Reader, . 

Panegyricke Verses upon the Author and his 
Booke, 

The Author to his Bo6ke, 

The First Part, . 

The Second Part, 

The Third Part, 

The Fourth Part, 

The Fifth Part, . 

The Sixth Part, . 

The Seaventh Part, 

The Eight Part, etc., 



PAGE 

ix 



XXI 



XXXI 

I 

4 

70 

Il8 

*53 

212 
265 
299 



THE TABLE 

PAGE 

The Ninth Part, 333 

The Tenth Part, ...... 370 



Index, 



vi 



440 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 



The Author's Portracture, .... Frontispiece 

Facsimile of the Title Page of the Edition of 

1632, ........ xxvii 

The Author's Portracture, . . . . .110 

The Author in his Turkish Dress, . . .128 

From The Pi/grimes Farewell to his Native Countrey of 
Scotland. 

The Armes of Jerusalem, . . . . .252 

King James his foure Crownes, .... 252 

The Model of the Great Seale of the Guardians 

of the Holy Grave, . . . . -254 

The Modell of the Great City of Fez, . .322 

The Author in the Libyan Desart, . . .328 

The Author beset with Six Murderers in Moldavia, 364 

The Author in Irons in the Governour's Palace 

at Malaga, ....... 396 

The Author in the Racke at Malaga, . . . 402 

vii 



PUBLISHERS' NOTE 

William Lithgow was born in Lanark about 1582. 
The actual date of his birth is uncertain, but he states 
(page 377) that he was thirty-three in 1615, and in 'The 
present Surveigh of London ' * past threescore years ' in 
April, 1643. He was the eldest son of James Lithgow, 
Burgess of Lanark, and Alison Grahame, his wife. He 
was educated at Lanark Grammar School, and, according 
to Sir Walter Scott, 1 was ' bred a tailor.' Scott does 
not, however, give his authority for this statement. 
Lithgow seems to have started his travels at a very 
early age, having ' a large infusion of the wandering 
spirit common to his country-men.' 2 He says himself 
that ' neither ambition, too much curiosity, nor any 
reputation I ever sought did expose me to such long 
peregrinations and dangerous adventures past ' — but ' that 
undeserved Dalida wrong.' What this mysterious 
' Dalida wrong ' was is unknown, but family tradition 
has it that the four brothers, 4 foure blood-shedding 
wolves,' of a certain Miss Lockhart, finding their sister 
with Lithgow, set upon him and cut off his ears, and 
from this arose his local nickname of ' a Cutlugged " or 
"Lugless" Will.' Be this as it may, by 1609, Lithgow 
had made * two voyages to the Orcadian and Zetlandian 
Isles, in the stripling age of mine adolescency, and there 

1 Somen Tracts, Vol. IV. p. 535, Ed. 18 10. 2 Ibid. 

* ix 



PUBLISHERS' NOTE 

after surveighing all Germany, Bohemia, Helvetia, and 
the Low-Countreys from end to end ; I visited Paris, 
where 1 remained ten moneths.' 

From Paris, on March 7th, 1609, Lithgow set out 
on the first of the three journeys of which he gives 
an account in his * Totall Discourse,' where he claims 
that his ' paynefull feet traced over (beside my passages 
of Seas and Rivers) thirty-six thousand and odde miles, 
which draweth neare to twice the circumference of the 
whole Earth.' 

It was on the third of these journeys, when passing 
through Spain with the intention of seeing * Great 
Prester Jehan and his Empire,' that he was thrown 
into prison in Malaga as a spy and severely tortured. 
He was released by the intervention of the English 
Consul there and the English Ambassador at Madrid, 
backed by a division of King James' Navy which, under 
the command of Sir Robert Maunsell, happened oppor- 
tunely to be lying in Malaga Roads, on its return from 
the expedition against Algiers. 

On his arrival at Dartford, fifty days after leaving 
Malaga, Lithgow was carried to the Court at Theobalds, 
and exhibited his ' martyrd anatomy ' to the whole Court, 
'even from the King to the Kitchin.' At the King's 
expense he was sent twice to Bath, where he recovered 
his health, although his left arm and crushed bones 
were incurable. Early in 1622 he was sent to the 
Marshalsea prison for a long period 1 for assaulting, 

1 Lithgow himself says nine weeks, but in the ' Supplication of 
Aquila Wykes,' Keeper of the Marshalsea {Calendar of State Papers, 
Domestic, Vol. cliii, No. 26), dated October 9th, 1623, Lithgow is 
mentioned as * committed close prisoner 2 Febr. 1622' and still 
remaining in custody. . 

x 



PUBLISHERS' NOTE 

in the presence chamber, the Spanish Ambassador 
Gondomar, whose empty promises of redress for his 
sufferings at Malaga had exasperated Lithgow beyond 
endurance. 

In 1624 Lithgow preferred a Bill of Grievance to the 
House of Lords, which he daily followed for seventeen 
weeks, but 'the house breaking up abruptly their order 
for my suite could take none effect as then, nor yet 
since, in regard it was no Session Parliament.' In the 
spring of 1627 he left the Court for Scotland; he 
traversed the Western Isles, and was 'kindly inter- 
taynedj in Brodick Castle by James, Marquess of 
Hamilton. 

In 1632 Lithgow published the first collected edition 1 
of his Travels, under the title of * The Totall Discourse 
Of the Rare Aduentures and painefull Peregrinations of 
long nineteene Yeares Trauayles, from Scotland, to the 
most Famous Kingdomes in Europe, Asia, and Affrica. 
. . . Imprinted at London by Nicholas Okes.' The 
publication seems to have got him immediately into 
trouble, probably owing to the Spanish influence at Court, 
as there is a petition extant 2 from him in which he states 
that he * had no satisfaction for his grievous torments 
sustained in Malaga, and having in the description of 
his foreign travels succinctly avouched the woeful 
memory of such disastrous accidents, had been this 
long time committed close prisoner to the Gatehouse, 
when he had contracted great sickness to the danger 

1 He had already published in 161 4 a short account of his travels, 
and of this a second impression was printed in 161 6. Both these 
editions are extremely rare. 

2 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, Vol. ccxxix. No. 42. 

xi 



PUBLISHERS' NOTE 

of his life. The printer in whom only the reprehension 
was, is long ago " decarcerat," but he is retained in severe 
punishment.' He protests that he will never ' meddle 
any more with the Spaniard however his lamentable 
wrongs remain unrepaired.' 

On the 1 6th May, 1637, Lithgow, mounted on a 
c Gallowegian nagge,' left Scotland, where he had been 
the guest of the Earl of Galloway, intending to embark at 
London for Russia, but shipping failing, and summer 
being over, he resolved to go instead to Breda, and 
on his return published ' A True and Experimentall 
Discourse, upon the beginning, proceeding and Victorious 
event of this last Siege of Breda . . . London : Printed 
by J. Okes for J. Rothwel . . 1637/ 

On 24th August, 1643, Lithgow again left Scotland, 
embarking at Prestonpans for London, c In all which 
deserted way, betweene Forth and Gravesend, wee found 
onely three ships, two Scotsmen and a Noruegian, and 
one of the royall whelps lying at anker in Aermouth 
road, which made the sea resemble a wildernesse.' As the 
result of this visit, he published ' The present Surveigh 
of London and England's State . . London, Printed by 
J. O. 1643/ In this book Lithgow gives an interesting 
account of the fortifications raised by the citizens for 
defence against the Royalist army. The last work known 
to have been published by him is ' An Experimental and 
Exact Relation upon that famous and renowned Siege 
of Newcastle . . Edinburgh, printed by Robert Bryson 
1645.' From this date all trace of him is lost; the 
date of his death and the place of his burial are unknown, 
though there is a tradition that he died in Lanark, and 
lies buried in the churchyard of St. Kentigern there. 



PUBLISHERS' NOTE 

Editions of c The Totall Discourse ' were published in 
London in 1640 and 1682, and in Edinburgh in 1770 
and 1 8 14, while a volume of the 'Poetical Remains 
of William Lithgow,' containing valuable ■ Prefatory 
Remarks,' was collected and published by Dr. James 
Maidment in Edinburgh in 1863. 

The text of ' The Totall Discourse ' now published 
is a reprint of the edttio princeps of 1632. References 
to the pages of the original edition are given in the 
margin. The letters i, j, u, and v have been altered 
to conform to modern usage, and obvious printers' errors 
both of spelling and punctuation have been corrected. 
The index of the original text has been replaced by a 
fuller one in this edition. 



Glasgow, 

September, 1906. 



xiu 



THE TOTALL DISCOURSE 

of the 

Rare Adventures and Painefull Peregrinations 

of long Nineteene Yeares Travayles 

from Scotland to the most famous 

Kingdomes in Europe, Asia 

and Affrica 



To the High and mighty Monarch, 
CHARLES, 

By the Grace of GOD, King of Great Britaine. 
France, and Ireland, &c. 




GRACIOUS SIR; 

F Loyall Duty may bee counted pre- 
sumption? then doubtlesse the best of 
my meanest worth must beg pardon, for 
clayming so Royall a Patronage : Yet to 
whom should I prostrate my Pen and 
Pilgrimage? if not unto your Sacred 
Majesty : Nay, none so able to Receive 
it, none so powerfull to Protect it ; and none so justly 
to claime it, as your Soveraigne Selfe. The Subject 
treateth of my tedious and curious Travailes, in the best 
and worst parts of the world ; which being begunne in 
Your hopefull Infancy, are now finally accomplished in 
the fulnesse of Your thrice blessed Majority. 

The generall Discourse it selfe, is most fixed upon the 
Lawes, Religion, Manners, Policies, and Government of 
Kings, Kingdomes, People, Principalities and Powers ; 
and therefore so much the more fit for your Majesty. 
The defect resting onely in me, the worthlesse Author, 
in handling a rare and plentifull Subject, with a homely 

xvii 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY 

and familiar Stile; no wayes fit for Soveraignity to 
peruse. 

Yet (Royall Sir) vouchsafe to remember how thankefully 
Alexander, received a small Cup of Water ; and what a 
high Value was set upon the Widdowes Mite. If I have 
made use of my poore Talent, the profit redoundeth unto 
my Country ; which being shaddowed under your 
auspicuous Favour, shall leave a greater stampe to the 
Worke, and a deeper impression, of future knowledge, 
to the curious Understanders. And how often wont your 
ever blessed Father, graciously to peruse Lines of mine, 
of far lesser note then these be : Yea, and (viva voce) the 
punctuall Discourse of all my three Voyages, which are 
now layd open to the Vulgar World ; and therefore I dare 
humbly expect a greater favour for a larger and more 
serious Taske. 

So likewise your owne Princely adventures beyond 
Seas, in measuring large Kingdomes, & the glassie face 
of the great Ocean : have invited me to lay prostrate my 
painefull peregrinations, at your Sacred feete. Humbly 
beseeching your Regall goodnesse, to remarke the matter 
and manner of this Worke ; howsoever the Gift, & the 
Giver bee deficient. And questionlesse as the Bee, 
gathereth sweetest Hony out of sowrest Flowers, your 
Royall understanding may finde something, to underprope 
the Defects of my nothing ; and my soule to exult in the 
smallest sparke of your Gracious Clemency. And lastly, 
the grievous Sufferings, tortures, and torments, I 
sustayned in Malaga, being taken as a Spye for your 
Late Fathers Fleete, exposed agaynst Algier: and con- 
demned to death by their bloody Inquisition for the 
Gospells sake. These (I prostrate say) doe command me 
to present the perfect passage thereof, unto your Royall 
& Religious consideration. Sufficient Certificates, and 
infallible approbations are annexed to the Tragicall dis- 
course it selfe ; and it also humbly bequeathing all, unto 
your Princely piety and pitty, to Commiserate both my 
case and cause. Wherefore (and as duty bindeth) I shall 

xviii 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY 

ever beseech God to preserve your Royall Raigne from 
wicked Achitophells, to guard your Sacred person with 
Heavenly Angels, and to guide your Monarchicke State, 
with faithful and Religious Counsellours. 

AMEN. 

Your Majesties most humble, 

and most obedient Subject, 

and Servant : 

William Lithgow. 



THE PROLOGUE TO THE READER 







Udicious Lector ; if good Bookes may 
be tearmed wise guides, then certainely 
true Histories, may be tearmed perfite 
Oracles, secret Counsellours, private 
Schoolemasters, familiar friends to cherish 
knowledge, and the best Intelligencers, 
for all intendements ; being duely 
pondered, and rightly used. This laborious worke then 
of mine, depending on this preamble, is onely composed 
of mine owne eye sight, and occular experience ; (pluris 
est occulatus testis unus, quam auriti decern) being the 
perfit mirrour, and lively Portraicture of true under- 
standing, excelling far all inventions whatsoever, 
Poeticque, or Theoricque. And now to shun Ingratitude, 
which I disdaine as Hell, I thought it best to exhibit the 
profit of my paynefull travailes to the desirous world ; 
for two respects, the one a naturall obligation, the other 
a generall request : for as my dangerous adventures, have 
bene wrought out from the infinit variety of variable 
sights, innumerable toyles, pleasures, and inevitable 
sorrowes ; so doth it also best simpathize with reason, 
and most fitting, that I should generally dispose of the 
same, to the temperate judgements of the better sort, the 
sound and absolute opinions of the Judicious ; and to the 
variable censures of calumnious Critticks, who run at 
random, in the fields of other mens labours, but can not 
find the home-bred way in their owne close grounds : 
And therefore the different disposition of the good and 



XXI 



TO THE READER 

bad, doe best concurre with the interchangeable occurrences 
of the matter. 

Neverthelesse, for thy more easier understanding I have 
divided this History, in ten severall parts, and they also 
in three Bookes ; which being seriously perused, doubt- 
lesse thy labour shall receave both profit and pleasure : 
Accept them therefore with the same love, that I offer 
them to thee, since they cost thee nothing but the reading, 
how deare soever they are to mee : But understand me 
better, I scorne to draw my pen to the ignorant foole, 
neither shall it stoop to the proud Knave, for I contemne 
both : To the wise I know it will be welcome, to the 
profound Historian, yeeld knowledge, contemplation, and 
direction, and to the understanding Gentleman, insight, 
instruction, and recreation ; and to the true-bred Poet 
fraternall love, both in meane and manner. Now as 
touching the hissing of snakish Papists ; a tush for that 
snarling Crew ; for as this worke, being fensed with 
experience, and garnished with trueth, is more than able 
to batter downe the stinging venome of their despightfull 
waspishnes : so also they may clearely see therein, as in a 
Mirrour, their owne blindnes, and the damnable errours 
of their blind Guiders, Deceavers, and Idolaters : And 
above all the cruell infliction imposed upon me, by the 
mercilesse Inquisition of their profession in Malaga : 
which for Christs sake I constantly suffered, in tortures, 
tormentes, and hunger : And lastly they may perceave 
Gods miraculous mercy, in discovering and delivering me 
from such a concealed and inhumane murder. And now 
referring the well set Reader to the History it selfe, where 
satisfaction lyeth ready to receave him, and expectation 
desirous of deserved thanks ; I come to talke with the 
scelerate Companion : If thou beest a Villane, a Ruffian, 
a Momus, a Knave, a Carper, a Crittick, a Bubo, a 
Buffon, a stupid Asse, and a gnawing worme with envious 
lips ; I bequeath thee to a Carnificiall reward : where a 
flaxing rope will soone dispatch thy snarling slander, and 
free my toylsome travells, and now paynefull labours, 

xxii 



TO THE READER 

from the deadly poyson of thy sharpe edged calumnies : 
and so go hang thy selfe, for I neither will respect thy 
love, nor regard thy malice : And shall ever and alwayes 
remayne ; 

To the Courteous still observant, and to 

the Critticall Knave as he deserveth, 

William Lithgow. 






XX1U 



PANEGTRICKE VERSES UPON THE AUTHOR 
AND HIS BOOKE 

To his singular Friend Maister Lithgow. 

THe double travell (Lithgow) thou hast tane, 
One of thy Feete, the other of thy Brane, 
Thee, with thy selfe ; doe make for to contend, 
Whether the earth, thou'st better pac'd or pend. 
Would Malagaes sweet liquor had thee crownd, 
And not its trechery made thy joynts unsound, 
For Christ, King, Countrey, what thou there indur'd 
Not them alone, but therein all injur' d : 
Their tort'ring Rack, arresting of thy pace 
Hath barr'd our hope, of the worlds other face : 
Who is it sees this side so well exprest, 
That with desire, doth not long for the rest. 
Thy travell'd Countreyes so described be, 
As Readers thinke, they doe each Region see, 
Thy well compacted matter, ornat stile, 
Doth them oft, in quicke sliding Time beguile, 
Like as a Mayde, wandring in Floraes Boures 
Confind to small time, of few flitting houres, 
Rapt with delight, of her eye-pleasing treasure, 
Now culling this, now that Flower, takes such pleasure ; 
That the strict time, whereto she was confin'd 
Is all expir'd : whiles she thought halfe behind, 
Or more remayn'd : So each attracting line 
Makes them forget the time, they doe not tyne : 
But since sweet future travell, is cut short, 
Yet loose no time, now with the Muses sport ; 
That reading of thee, after times may tell, 
In Travell, Prose, and Verse, thou didst excell. 

Patrick Hannay. 

XXV 



PANEGYRICK VERSES 



To his dearely respected friend 
William Lithgow\ 

SHall Homer sing of stray'd Ulysses toyle? 
From Greece to Memphis, in parch'd ^Egypts soyle 
Flank'd with old Piramides, and melting Nyle, 
Which was the furthest, he attayn'd the while : 
A length of no such course, by ten to one, 
Which thou thy selfe pedestrially hast gone : 
Then may thy latter dayes out-strip old times, 
That now hast seene, Earths circulary Climes : 
And far beyond Ulysses, reach'd without him, 
Both East and West, yea, North and South about him 
Which here exactly, thou hast sweetly sung 
In ornat style, in our quick-flowing tongue ; 
Of Lawes, Religion, customes, manners, rites 
Of Kings and people : life-sublimest sprits 
In policies and government : Earths spaces 
From soyle to soyle, in thy long wandring traces. 
But what my soule applaudes! and must admire 
Which ev'ry zealous Christian, should desire 
To learne and know ; is this, Spaines tortring Racke 
And torments sharpe, which for the Gospells sake 
Thou constantly didst beare : O joyfull payne ! 
Whilst Grace in those sad pangs, did thee sustaine, 
With love and patience : O blest lively faith ! 
That for Christs cause, condemned was to death. 
Live then (O living Martyr!) still renown'd 
Mongst Gods elect ; whose constancy hath crown'd 
Reformd Religion : And let Heavens thy mind 
Blesse with moe joyes, than thou didst torments find. 

Walter Lyndesay. 



XXVI 



The Totall Difcourfe, 

Of the Rare Aduentures, and painefull 

Peregrinations of long ninctecne Yeares Tra- 
uayIes,from Scotland, to the moft Famous 
Kingdomes in Euri$c> v^//?*, and 
AFFRICA. 

Perfited by three deare bought Voyages, 

mSurueigbing of Forty eight Kingdomes ancient 
and Moderne $ twenty one Rei- publickes , ten 
tbfolutt Prwctpalitics , mth two 
hundred Hands. 

The particular Names whereof, arc Dcfcribed 
in each Argument of the ten Diuifionsof this 
History: And it alfodiuided in 
Three Bookes ; two whereof, nc- 
ucr heretofore Published. 

Wherein is Contained , an exafi, Relation, of the 
Lawes^Religion, Policies, and Gouernrjieatof all 
their Princes, Potentates, and People. 

Together with the grieuous Tortures he fuffcrcd,by the 
Inquifitton of LMaUga in S p a i n b , his 
miraculous Difctuery and Dehurrj 
thence : And of his U(t and late 

Rcturnefrom the northerns lies 



Cesium non An'tmum. 

BYWllUAM LlTHGOVV 



IcnjprintedatX^^byi\r/^/4tf 0**/,andarcto be fold by 
Nicholas Fujp/Z 2nd Humfherj Mefiej at their ftops in 
Pauls Church yard^t the BiU 9 aod the white 
„Lyoa. itfji* 



PANEGYRICK VERSES 



R 



To my deare Friend, Countreyman and 
Condisciple, William Lithgow. 

Est Noble Spirits in your Native Soyles, 
Whose high bred thoughts on deare bought sights 



are bent 

Renowned Lithgow by his brave attempt 
Hath eas'd your bodies of a world of toyles. 

Not like to some who wrongfully retayne 
Gods rarest gifts, within themselves ingrost, 
But what thou hast attain'd with care and cost. 
Thou yeelds it gratis, to the world againe. 

Upon the bankes of wonder-breeding Clide, 
To these designes thy heart did first assent 
One way, indeed, to give thy selfe content, 
But more to satisfie a world beside. 

Thy first attempt in excellence of worth, 
Beyond the reach of my conceit's confinde, 
But this thy second Pilgrimage of minde, 
Where all thy paynes are to the world set forth ; 
In Subject, Frame, in Methode, Phrase, and Stile, 
May match the most unmatched in this He : 
But this renownes thee most, t'have still possest, 
A constant Heart, within a wandring Brest. 

Robert Allen. 



XXVll 



PANEGYRICK VERSES 



To his kind friend and Countreyman 
W. Lithgow. 

THy well adventur'd Pilgrimage I prayse, 
Although performed with perrill and with paine, 
Which thou hast pen'd, in more than vulgar phrase 
So curiously, so sweetly, smooth, and plaine, 
Yet whilst I wondring call to minde againe. 
That thou durst goe, like no man else that lives ; 
By Sea and land, alone, in cold and raine, 
Through Bandits, Pirats, and Arabian Theeves, 
I doe admire thee ; yet a good event 
Absolves a rash designe : So hardest things, 
(When humane reason cannot give consent 
T' attempt) attain'd ; the greater glory brings. 

Then Friend, though praise & paines rest both with thee, 
The use redounds unto the world, and mee. 

John Murray. 



xxvm 



PANEGYRICK VERSES 



In commendation of the Author 
William Lithgow. 

COme curious eyes, that pierce the highest scopes 
Of sublime stiles : come satisfie your hopes 
And best desires ; in this prompe Pilgrimes paines 
Whose deepe experience, all this worke sustaines 
With solid substance, of a Subject deare 
And pregnant Method ; laid before you heare 
In open bonds : Come take your hearts delight 
In all the colours, of the worlds great sight. 
Come thanke his travells ; praise his painfull Pen 
That sends this light, to live, mongst living men ; 
To teach your children, when he, and you are laid 
As low as dust ; how scepterd Crownes are swaid ; 
Most Kingdomes government : How ruld with Lawes 
The South world is : their rites, Religious sawes : 
Townes Topographick view, and Rivers courses, 
Fonts, Forts, and Cittadales : scorch'd Asiaes sources : 
All you may see, and much more, than I name 
Seal'd in the Authors, never-dying fame. 

Eleazar Robertson. 



XXIX 



PANEGYRICK VERSES 



In Commendation of this History. 

THou art not hatch'd, forth from anothers braine, 
Nor yet Collect'd, from others toiles thy sight, 
The selfe-same Man, that bred Thee beares the paine 
Of thy long birth : O weary wandring Wight ! 
It's carefull he, by Knowledge gives thee light, 
And deepe experience to adorne thy name ; 
Both Pilgrime, Pen-man, so thy Maister right ; 
Who best can judge, in what concernes the same : 
Then free-borne toile, flee forth with winged Fame 
Thy Countries Virgin, thou the first penn'd Booke 
That in his Soile, did ever Pilgrime frame 
Of curious Travailes ; whereon the Learned looke : 
Then Knit thy Maiden brow, with Garlands greene, 
The first of times, the last this Age hath Seene. 

Alexander Boyde. 



XXX 



THE AUTHOR TO HIS BOOKE 

GO painefull Booke, go plead thy owne Defence, 
Walke with undaunted Courage, stop the Breath 
Of carping tongues ; who count it small offence 
To bulge Thee up, within the jawes of Death : 
Go lively charg'd, with stout Historian Faith, 
And trample downe, base Crittickes in the Dust : 
Make Trueth thy sword, to batter down their wrath 
So shall thy Grave discourse, triumph as just : 
Who yeeld Thee Credite, and deserving trust, 
There prostrate fal, give them their hearts content : 
Point forth the Wise, and Court them as thou must, 
Give them insight, as I give Argument : 

Instruct the Curious, inlarge the Servile Mind, 

Illuminate misunderstandings blinde : 

Sound Knowledge in their eares, deigne to approove me, 

Since Friends and Foes, the World and I, must love 
thee. 



XXXI 







The Rare Adventures [I ' ] 

and 

Painefull Peregrinations 

of 

William Lithgow 

THE FIRST PART 



SEe Rome discover'd, Italy made playne, 
The Roman Library, a golden gaine : 
Hunns old Parthenope, with Venice met, 
And strong Brundusium, in Ottranto set : 
Times rich antiquities displayd abroad 
On circling Cume, Avernus lying odde : 
And Lorets Chappell, foure times beene transported 
On Angells backes, from Nazareth detorted ; 
Where for discourse, on this false forged Lady, 
To tend you with inveiglings, shall be ready : 
Thus piece and piece, from soile to soile, Pie goe, 
And now begin, the end will deeper growe. 

T was a wise saying amongst the Auncients, that 



thrice happy and blest was that Kingdome, when 
old men bore sway and ruled the State, and 
young men travelled abroad : The first by long ex- 
perience prudently to execute judgement ; and the 
latter by sight and knowledge of forraine soyles and 



A.D. 
1609. 

[i. 2.] 



Concerning 

sinistrous 

censures. 



P- 30 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

lawes, growing more judicious ; might when come to 
age and preferment, the more facily, and dexteriously 
exhibit Justice at home. But what shall I say to 
these moderne and dissolute times ? when by the con- 
trary meanes, travell is sleighted, government abused, 
and insinuating Homelings, thrust in high offices, 
incapeable of them, being pratling Parrots, and sounding 
Cymbals : who convert sound Judgement and Justice, to 
their owne greedy respects, and selfe mercinary ends ; 
turning their chiefest felicity to avaritious ambition and 
vaine glory, and their sweetest fortunes, to their belly 
and their backe. O miserable and effeminate age! when 
vertue by most men is despised, and neglected, and 
sensuall vice every where exalted : Nay ; ruffian Pandors, 
by hopefull youth and prodigall gallants, are now clothed, 
Coatched, and richly rewarded ; whilst best merits and 
highest deserts, of rarest spirits, are neither looked to, set 
by, nor regarded. And for approbation, and examples 
sake, of their valerous designes, let them thinke upon 
latter passages, nor worthy to be thought upon, and they 
will finde this future caveat to stand needfull, Haec olim 
meminisse juvabit. So likewise now every Capri-cullion 
from Caesar, to the Pascorell, can crowd and chawe from 
his warbling waspishnes, this stinging censure of absurd 
untrueth, that Travellers and Poets may lye & lye by 
authority, which they themselves performe at home 
without leave. 

By which traditional concession, I being absolute in 
the first, and borne to the Muses, as to the World, a 
mungrell to both ; may have a lawfull (unlawfull) liberty 
assigned. Any marvell? if men in this kind be so 
injuriously censured, when the very Gospell it selfe, by 
perfidious Atheists, Formalists, Sophisters, Romish- 
rabines, Nullifidians, and Schismaticall Sectaries, is 
quartered, mangled, and rejected ; such be the Satanicall 
opinions of this hell-borne age : Whose confused conceits, 
blasphemies, incredulities, and imaginary devisions, have 
shamefully stained the better part of this now best World. 



INTRODUCTORY a.d. 

1609. 

Nay, good and godly Kings, so pricked at, and wounded 
by the viperous murmurings of miscreant villaines, as 
though their royall and just lives were the meere 
inordinate paternes of all impiety, and lewdnesse. Sith 
therefore the Sacred Scriptures, the gods of the earth, 
Ecclesiasticke columes ; yea the name and fame of the 
most righteous alive, be thus diversly taxed, and 
vituperiously calumniated ; can prevention in me, escape 
the lawlesse horrour of this impoysoned fury? No, I 
have had already the assault, and newly prepared, patience 
proofe to receive more, wrought by the piercinghammer, 
of nineteene winters, as many Summers deare bought 
toyler. Let venome-thundring Crittickes, contumeliously 
carpe, infernall firebrand Cerberans barke, and the hell 
prepared off scourings of true religion gnashing grudge 
I have aheart can smile, at their backbiting malice, a judge- 
ment to discerne such wormish waspes, and if present, the 
weight of understanding truth, to confound their blind 
absurdities with reason. As for chamber complementers, 
whose vast insides, like to the vaults of wasting Strom- 
bolo, are become threed-bare, having their outsides onely 
adorned with rich ornaments. 

Such serving Cyphers, cypher childish censures, 
And shallow scal-patch'd pates, have forebald tonsures. 
Yet touch a C. flat in his face he'le start 

As though a Dame, had grac'd him with a 

Whose wringes, winks, whose curious smiles & words, 

And scraping feete, lost blandement affoords : 

Whence pride and lust, become two servile Mineons 

To top his thoughts, with false and fond opinions : 

Then happy they, who least frequent a Court, [I. 4.] 

Nor in the fields of flattery love to sport. 

To such bellowing caves winded with the borrowed rags 
of patch'd-up Commedies, clouted complements, stolne 
Phrases, and lip-licked labours, of lamp-living spirits, to 
such hollow Tombes, I say a tush for their kindnesse, and 
I justly hold it a manifest idolatry to honour, or do 

3 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

homage to any of them : And this much for the mis- 
construous lack-judgment of emulating cloudes, No 
Courtiers. And as concerning the impostrat quagmires 
of this abortive age, wherein so many Simonaicall 
Matchevilians, mercenary parasits, and arch-betraying 
Sicophants live, vindicating themselves excessively, upon 
the advantage of time, I insufficient I, to dive in such 
bottomlesse businesses, bequeath them onely to their 
owne repining consciences, just tryalls, and ignominious 
rewards. To satisfie the World in my behalfe, as touch- 
ing my travells, I sincerely protest, that neither ambition, 
too much curiosity, nor any reputation I ever sought, 
from the bubling breath of breathlesse man (whose 
The reason defective censure, inclineth, as instigation, or partiality, 
why the moveth his weake and variable opinion) did expose me 

Author begun t0 suc ^ \ on g peregrinations and dangerous adventures 
past. But the proceeding whereof, thousands conjecture 
the cause, as many the manner; ten thousand thousands 
the effect : The condition reserved, I partly forbeare to 
penetrate in that undeserved Dalida wrong ; and recon- 
ciled times pleading desistance, moderate discretion 
inserteth silent patience. 

The mansuet cup, the gods consuetly drunke, 
In me involv'd, straight hony-gald it sunke : 
That sweete Ambrosian Nectar, soundly wrapt 
In my lock'd closet, suspitious Envy trapt ; 
[I. 5.] And fierce-eyd Jealousie, wingd with wind 

Pierc'd staring Argos, turn'd his hundred blind : 
Mycene-fancy fraught, Lusts fond alarmes, 
Cros'd eye-stard'd Sparta, rapt with Phrigian charmes : 
And teare-rent Sophyre, Synon-like betrayd 
What votall oathes, loves sterne fort, ne'er bewrayd 
But high-bred drifts, the stormy fates, grim night 
And gloomy Hellespont, rob'd Heroes right : 
As Illions destiny, forc'd Numidias Queene 
To gore a Scepter, a Diadem in teene : 
So haplesse I belov'd, O passion strange! 

4 



INTRODUCTORY a.d. 

1609. 

May as amaz'd, admire, that time, this change. 

I chang'd a Wolfe, once for a tusked Boare, 

And changing Beast for Beast, triumph'd the more : 

Strain'd to assume, in countercambiat breath, 

A dying life, revert in living death : 

Translate it so, my Metaphore is such, 

That Time, nor I, nor Fortune can avouch : 

Thus Passion whirling in a cloudy Vale, 

I trancing flye, I fall, I hovering scale: 

And whilst from Phleg'ran fields, the weirds me 

call, 
I in Elisean plaines, am forc'd to fall ; 
Wherein some flowry faire enamild ground 
Pie place my Tombe, mine Epitaph shall sound, 
Of traine-shut sluces, of the Thespian spring, 
Where chatring birds, Dodonean trees do sing : 
And mild Hydaspes streames do gently flow, 
There shall my Lesbian layes, sad Liricks shew. 
And where the Borean Roses strow the Hall, 
Where flot-glass'd Nymphs, the Circe-fled Greeks 

enstal ; 
There shall shrill Triton sound, Armilla's staind, 
Whom foule affection preyd, and Lucre gaind ; 
Load with the filth of dallying Lust and Sin, 
Where bloody murther, like a Theefe creept in ; [I. 6.] 

Yet shall the spotles Heart, triumph in trueth, 
When worth reapes fame and vertue conquers 

youth : 
And crowne Dorasmos, faith-plight Delphian 

Bayes, 
With more then Lawrell praise, immortall rayes. 
Than brass-brou'd Fiends, accurst by Minos doome, 
Flee Fairy flight, to Pluto whence you come; 
And tast Phlageton, Lethe, court Proserpine, 
Sterne Radamanth attends, such stinking vermine ; 
There Hippolitus, slaine Pirothous stay 
Neere t' Acheron, (all faithles lovers way) 
To welcome Fiendly, fright Eremiall guests 

5 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

With flame-flash'd firebrands, sulphur scorching 

tasts : 
Chaynd fury-brangling, in remorseles paine, 
Where Belzebub, and Lucifer remaine. 
In this umbragious Cell, there lurks a hound 
To beare Sarpedons Scepter ; helpe to sound 
Your Cleopatran clamours ; and I thinke 
The Ferrier Charon, makes such wretches drinke 
Upon the Stigian bankes. Then gnashing Spirits 
That howling waile, Hells inexpugnat merits : 
Where's all your gentry? for I dare conclude, 
That vertue's better borne, then noble blood : 
This Epitomizd Epilogue, I send 
To them who best can censure't, there's an end. 

But by your leave, let me enter into consideration of 
the intractable passage of my malecontents past, and these 
importunate designes thereupon ensuing : And thus, have 
I, in the late dayes of my younger yeeres beene grievously 
afflicted ? Ah ; yea ; and with more then desastrous 
injuries overdo wded, O heavy under-prop'd wrongs. 
But hath not the like accident befallen to man before? 
L 1 - 7-] yea ; but never the like condition of murther : Nay, but 

then preponderate seriously this consequent? may not the 
scelerate hands of foure blood-shedding wolves? facily 
devoure, and shake a peeces, one silly stragling lambe? 
yea, and most certaine, that unawares, the harmelesse 
innocent ; unexpecting evill, may suddenly bee surprised 
by the ambushment of life-betraying foes. All this I 
acknowledge ; but whereupon grew this thy voluntary 
wandring, and unconstrayned exyle ? I answere, that being 
young, and within minority, in that occurrent time, I 
was not onely inveigled, but by seducements inforced, 
even by the greatest powers, then living in my countrey, 
A Dialogue j- submit my selfe to arbitrement, satisfaction and recon- 
Author and c ^ at i° n - But afterward growing in yeeres, and under- 
Himselfe. standing better the nature of such unallowable redresses, 
and the hainousnesse of the offence ; I choosed rather 



INTRODUCTORY a.d. 

1609. 

(voti causa) to seclude my selfe from my soyle, and 
exclude my relenting sorrowes, to be entertained with 
strangers ; then to have a quotidian occular inspection, in 
any obvious object of disastrous misfortune : or perhaps 
any vindicable action, might from an unsetled ranckour 
be conceived. O! a plaine demonstrate cause, and good 
resolution ; for true it is, that the flying from evill, is a 
flying to grace, and a godly patience is a victorious 
freedome, and an undaunted conquerour over all wrongs ; 
Vengeance is mine (saith the Lord) and I will repay it. 
To this I answer ; mine eyes have seene the revenging 
hand of God upon mine adversaries, and these night- 
gaping foes, are trampled under foote, whiles I from 
strength to strength, doe safely goe, through the firy 
triall of calamities. My consolation arising from his 
eternall dictum, quos amo castigo, whom I love I correct : 
And to say my part in my soules experience, 

I never find affliction fall on me [I. 8.] 

Without desert, for God is true and just: 

Nor shall it come, and without profit be, 

For God is good, as mercifull I trust. 

Then welcome all afflictions sent from God, 
He whom he loves, he chastneth with his rod 




nd as one of the Auncients speaketh well, Adversa 
oris, animae remedio sunt, aegritudo, carnem vulnerat, 
sed mentem curat : The affliction of the body is whole- 
some phisicke for the soule, it woundeth the flesh, but 
cureth the spirit. Certaine it is, that the Lord in 
chastising his owne, doth often move the wicked repro- 
bates of his wrath, to be the instruments of his correcting 
hand. I could involume, as large a discourse, upon this 
heart-grieving project, as upon the late intolerable tor- 
tures I sustained by the treacherous Governour, and 
bloody Inquisition of Malaga in Spaine ; being in quality, 
though not in quantitie alike. But constantly containing 
my selfe, within the precinct of patience, referring such 
eminences to the Creator, which in a part belongeth not 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

to the creature ; I may sigh to this world, as sorrowfull 
JEneas to his Dido. 

Infandum Regina, jubes renovare dolorem. 

Thou wouldst, I should renew my former griefe 
To speake of sorrow, helplesse of reliefe : 
He melts in woes, who uttereth griefe with words, 
Whilst deepest streames, the greatest calme affords. 

But now to proceed in my punctuall purpose, the nature 
of man, by an inward inclination, is alwaies inquisitive 
[I. 9.] of forraine newes ; yea, and much more affecteth the sight 
and knowledge of strange, and unfrequented kingdomes, 
such is the instinct of his naturall affection. Navigation 
hath often united the bodies of Realmes together, but 
travell hath done much more ; for first to the Actor it 
giveth the impression of understanding, experience, 
patience, and an infinite treasure, of unexprimable 
vertues : secondly, it unfoldeth to the world, the govern- 
ment of States, the authority and disposition of Kings 
and Princes ; the secrets, manners, customes, and 
Religions of all Nations and People. And lastly, bringeth 
satisfaction to the home-dwelling man, of these things, 
he would have seene, and could not attempt. Travell 
hath beene in more request amongst the Ancients, then 
it is now with us in the latter Age. Philosophers, Poets, 
Historiographers, and learned Divines, how they have 
perigrinated to know the life of States, and the fashions of 
farre Countries, would be an endles taske for me briefly 
to relate. Many (I confesse) long to see the remotest 
Regions of the earth, but dare not undertake the dangers 
of sight, the chargeable expences of a tributary journey, 
the hard indurance of flint stones, for a soft feather bed, 
the extremities of thirst, nor the parching heat of the 
Sun, hunger in the belly, nor the moist distilling dew to 
be a humide coverlet to their tender skinne, with innumer- 
able other insuing miseries. But Ixion-like, mistaking 
Juno, would by a meere imagination, runne out the 

8 



INTRODUCTORY a.d. 

1609. 
sleeping course of an endlesse peregrination. For my 
part, what I have reaped, is by a deare-bought knowledge, 
as it were, a small contentment, in a never contenting 
subject, a bitter pleasant tast, of a sweete-seasoned sowre, 
and all in all, what I found was more then ordinary 
rejoycing, in an extraordinary sorrow of delights. 

But now to leave the contemplation of attempts, I 
come to the reall adventure; After two voyages I made [I. 10.] 
to the Orcadian, and Zetlandian Isles ; in the stripling age 
of mine adolescency, and there after surveighing all 
Germany, Bohemia, Helvetia, and the Low-Countreys 
from end to end ; I visited Paris, where I remained ten 
moneths. Divers contestions have I had, about the 
equality of London, and Paris, in quantity and quality : 
But having a more serious subject in hand than this 
paralell, I conclude thus, the infinite shipping, and com- A comparison 
modious navigation of London (besides their universall betweene Lon- 
commerce) is more of value, then the better halfe of Paris : on ans ' 
compare you the quantity, for there is the quality of the 
argument. Paris I confesse is populous, a masse of poore 
people, for lacques and pages, a nest of rogues, a tumul- 
tuous place, a noctuall den of theeves, and a confused 
multitude : Where contrariwise London is adorned with 
many grave, prudent and provident Senators, civill, well 
taught, and courteous people, and absolutely, the best 
governed City on the whole face of the earth, as well by 
night, as by day, and nothing inferiour in quantity to it. 

FRom Paris in the yeere of God 1609. March 7. I set 
forward, being brought three leagues on my way, 
with a number of my Countrey gallants, young Aiton, 
young Hutonhall, and specially Monsieur Hay of Smith- 
field, now Esquire of his Majesties body, with diverse 
other Gentlemen : where when my kindest thankes had 
over-clouded their courtesies, and farewell bid on both 
sides, I bequeathed my proceedings to God, my body to 
turmoyling paines, my hands to the burdon, and my feete 
to the hard brusing way. And as unwilling to make 

9 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

relation of my passing through France, the Savoyean, & 
Ligurian Alpes, sith it is manifested unto many in this 
Hand, both by sight and report, I would shunne, so farre 

[!• "J as possible I can, all prolixity of knowne, and therefore 

unnecessary discourse. Although I have a large reason, 
having cros'd the Alpes at sixe severall parts, onely, in the 
owne place, I meane to comment upon Italy in generall. 
Upon the 40. day after my departure from Paris, I 
arrived at Rome, of the which I will memorize, some 
rarest things, and so proceed. This City of Rome now 
extant, is not that old Rome, which Romulus founded 
that tempered the morter with the blood of his brother 
Rhemus, who disdainefully leaped over the new wals ; 
and was once the mistresse of the universe, for her 
triumphs and antiquities, but is now only the carkas of 
the other, of which she retaineth nothing but her ruines, 
and the cause of them, her sinnes. 

The Antiquity Rome which Romulus first founded, contayned these 

of Rome. two m0 untaines, Capitolino, and Palatino, with the valley 

lying betweene both hills : having three ports ; the first 
was called Trigonio, because of the triangle it made neere 
to the foote of mount Palatin : The second Pandonio, 
because it was alwayes open, and for the commodity of 
the passage, it was called the free port : The third was 
called Carmentale of Carmenta, the mother of Evander 
who dwelt there : It was also named scelorata, or wicked 
gate in regard of 300. Sabines put cruelly to death 
issuing thereat. 

Now after the Monarchy of the Romanes had attained 
to the full height ; the Gothes, a base and unknowne 
people, displaying their banner, against this glorious and 
imperiall City, in the end razed, and subverted their 
pallaces, equalizing the walles with the ground. After 
the which detriment, the overthrow, the late subdued 
Romans, recovering their ruinous habitation, were 
inforced to withdraw the situation of the Towne, a little 
more downe-ward, in Campus Martius, close by the 

[I. i2.] bankes of Tibris ; and transported the stones of these 

10 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY ad. 

1609. 

ransacked buildings, to reedifie their new dwelling 
places ; 

Hie ubi nunc Roma est, olim fuit ardua silva, 
Tantaque res paucis, pascua bobus erat. 

Where Rome now stands, was sometimes desart woods 
And soyle to feed some few-found bestiall goods. 

And yet Rome was once the famous City of Europe, 
the mother and nurse of worthy Senators, the miracle of 
Nations, the Epitome of the world, the Kingdome of 
Mars, and the seven headed soveraigne of many Pro- 
vinces. The seven hills whereon she stood, and now partly R me$ seven 
somewhere stands : for they are all contained within the Hilt. 
vast bounds of the old walls, which as yet environeth the 
towne, are these, Palatino, Capitolina, Viminale, Aventina, 
Esquiline, Caelio, and Quiraneno. Which certainely do 
demonstrate the whoore of Babylon, sitting on the beast 
with seaven heads, and cannot be understood but of 
Rome, being builded on these seven hils : having a corre- 
spondence to seaven Kings who reigned there ; and also 
acknowledging seven severall Rulers, Kings, Consuls, 
Decemviri, Tribunes, Dictators, Emperours, and now 
Popes. During the felicity of the Romaines, this Citty 
was never taken, but by the Gauls, which being recovered 
they made a Law that Priests (being otherwise exempted) 
should goe to warre, if ever the Gauls came againe, with 
whom they fought not for dominion, but for their owne 
preservation : But since it became pontificiall, it hath bene 
made a prey to all barbarous Nations, and never was 
besieged by any that tooke it not. 

The River Tyber which runneth through her bosome, 
is not unlike to Jordan and Tagus ; yet not so big as either 
of them, being all three of a troubled and muddy colour : 
But it is exceeding outragious, and often Manasseth to 
drowne the whole Mansions, as greeving to grace the wals [I. 13.] 
of such a wicked and imperious place : Who having lost 
her former preheminent glory, and domination over the 
world, would now alledge and ascribe a second prerogative 

11 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

over the soules of men, the heavens, the hels, the silver- 

coyned Purgatory, the deposing and imposing of Kings : 

The former was done by the undaunted courage of the 

invincible sword, the latter by presumption, Avarice, 

insinuation, and absurd lyes. 

Sa * n * , I remember of a pretty observation of Saint Catherine 

at ettnes f gj ena w k Dem g stricken in devotion, went to venerate 
observation. _ ' . o . \ , , 

Rome, accompanied with a goodly traine ; and having 

visited all the Monuments, supposed Holy places, and 
Religious relickes there, for the space of five dayes ; At 
last she came to take a view of the Popes Palace, where 
having spent a whole day, strictly remarkeing the gesture 
and carriage of the Popes servants : She sawe nothing but 
abhomination, prophanation, and irreligious living, and 
worser then in Rome it selfe : Whereuppon suddenly the 
next day shee departed for Siena, being an hundreth Miles 
distant ; pittifully bewayling her journey, and the miser- 
able livers she sawe in Rome. Protesting alwayes after 
for sixteene yeares time till her death, that the Winde 
Meaning of never came from the East blowing Westward to Siena, 
Sodomy. but she thought the filthinesse of the Popes Palace, and 
the beastlinesse of Rome, ever stunke in her nose. 

This River of Tyber especially made muster of his 
extravagant disgorgements, at that time when Pope 
Clement 8. was crowned Duke of Ferrara, anno 1589. 
and that same night he returned to Rome, Tyber waxed 
so proud of his arrivall, that impetuously inunding his 
bankes to make him welcome, he over-whelmed the 
[I. 14.] better halfe of the Towne : And if it had not bene for 
the infinite charges of the Pope, and desperate toile of 
the people, the violent force of his rage swelling courtesie, 
had absolutely subverted and carried away the rest of the 
City. The like inundation was never seene of Tyber, 
as after this Coronation, portending, that as the first 
Gomorah was destroyed by fire, so this second Sodome 
should be sommerssed by water. The beginning of this 
River springeth from the Ombrian and Aquilean hills 
joyning with the Alpes Appenine : whose course is foure- 

12 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY a.d. 

1609. 
score and sixteene miles ; disburdening it selfe in the sea 
Mediterren at Ostia twelve miles From Rome. The 
mouth and haven whereof have beene long dammed up, 
to stoppe the passage of hostile and Moorish incursions, 
least the City should be surprised on a sudden. By 
which slavish Ecclesiasticke feare, Rome is shamefully 
defrauded of shipping and forraine tramcke; and if it 
were not for the Clergy, which are the two parts of the 
inhabitants, (besides the Jewes and Curtezans, which are 
the greatest implements of the other third part) it would 
become the most miserable towne in Italy. 

And notwithstanding that for the space of 12. miles 
round about Rome, there are neither Cornes, nor Wines, 
nor Village, Plantage, or Cultivage, save onely playne 
and pastoragious fields ; intermingled at all quarters with 
auncient watch-Towers being an old policy of the Romans, 
to prevent any sudden surprise of their enimies ; inso- 
much that at my first view of Rome, I imagined the 
people were all famished, or in danger of famishing. 

But by your leave, being once enterd the City, I found 
abundance of all things necessary for life, at so easie and 
gentle a rate, that never towne in Europe hitherto could 
shew me the like. The common wine that is drunke in 
Rome, is Vin Romanisco, the better sort Albano, Mus- [I. 15.] 
catello, Sheranino, but as for Lachrime Christi, the teares 
of Christ, I drew so hard at that same weeping wine, till 
I found my purse begun to weepe also ; and if time had 
not prevented the sweetnes of such teares, I had beene 
left for all the last miserable mourner. As for the place 
where the Pilgrimes find one dinner, called the Popes The Pilgrimes 
table, it is thus : there is a certaine Tow roome at St. Peters dinner at ihe 
Pallace, and without the gate, where every day at our °P es ta 
nine of the clocke, there meete 21. pilgrimes; 14. from 
the Trinity, one having a bullet for all, and seven from 
St Peters Penitentialls : where being received, the seven 
Jesuit Pilgrims get the upper place, and sit alone, yet 
all of them alike served, each of them having foure 
dishes of meat, besides bread & abundance of wine. The 

13 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

dinner done, their fragments are wrapt up in cleane paper, 
which they carry with them, and so departing, they, or 
like company come no more there. They are dayly 
served with a very venerable Prelat, and a few other 
serviceable Preists, but for the Popes presence with them, 
there is no such matter. That liberty being spoyld by 
a drunken Dutch-man about 60. yeeres agoe, who in 
presence of the Pope gave up againe his good cheare and 
strong wines, with a freer good will then perhaps they 
were allowed him, whereat the Pope grewe angry, not- 
withstanding the drunken fellowe cryed through his 
belching throate, Thankes Holy Father, Deere Holy 
Father, God blesse your Holinesse. 

Many have wrote of the singularities of old Rome, 
and I will also recite some decayed monuments thereof, 
which I have seene : The speciall object of Antiquity I 
saw, being never a whit decayed to this day, is the 
Templum omnium Deorum, but now, omnium sanctorum, 
[I. 16.] builded in a rotundo, and open at the top with a large 
round, like to the quire of the holy grave. And a pretty 
way from this, are the remainants of that Auncient Amphi- 
theatre beautified with great Columnes, of a wonderfull 
bignesse and height, and a mile in compasse ; the reason 
why it was first devised, the ghosts of the slaughtered 
Romes Sabines may testifie. To be briefe, I saw the decayed 
Antiquities, house of worthy Cicero, the high Capitoll, the Pallace 
of cruell Nero, the Statues of Marcus Aurelius, Alexander, 
and his horse Bucephalus. The greene hill like unto 
mount Cavallo, that was made of the Potters sheards at 
one time, which brought the tributary gold to this imperiall 
seate : the seven Piramides, some whereof during her 
former glory, were transported from iEgypt : The high 
and small statues of Peter and Paul, the Castell St. 
Angelo, which Adrian first founded, standing now in a 
moderate circumferent height, with incircling battlements, 
and their doubtfull transported Reliques from Jerusalem, 
with many other things I diligently remarked, some where- 
of were frivolous, some ambiguous and some famous. 

14 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY a.d. 

1609. 

Neere to mount Palatin, and the decayed temple of 
Romulus, I saw the Temple of Venus, converted now 
to the Church of Sancta Maria, Liberatrice Dalla piene 
de Inferno, The deliverer from infernall paynes, as Venus 
was the Consolatrix of amorous paynes. 

Besides all these I saw one most sight-worthy spectacle, 
which was the Library of the auncient Romans, being 
licentiated to enter with two Gentlemen, Sir William 
Carre, Mr. James Aughmuty my Countrey men, where 
when I was come, I beheld a world of old Bookes, the 
first whereof, was an infinite number of Greeke Bibles 
subscribed with the hands of these holy Fathers, who (as 
they say) translated them out of the Hebrew tongue. [I. 17.] 

I saw also the Academies of Aristotle, wherein he 
treateth of the soule, health, life, nature and qualities of 
men, with the Medicaments of Galen, for the diseases and 
infirmities of man : The familiar Epistles of Cicero, the Famous 
iEneidot of Virgil, the Saphicke Verses of that Lesbian Author$ - 
Sapho, the workes of Ovid, Pliny, Plutarke, Titus Livius, 
Horatius, Strabo, Seneca, Plato, Homer, Tirentius, Cato, 
Hippocrates, Josepus, Pythagoras, Diodorus Siculus, 
Eusebius, S. Austine, S. Ambrose, S. Cyprian, S. Gregory, 
and likewise the workes of other excellent Phylosophers, 
Divines and Poets : all wrote with their owne hands, and 
sealed with their names, and manuall subscriptions. I 
saw also the forme of the first auncient writing which 
was upon leaves of trees, cakes of lead, with their fingers 
on ashes, barkes of trees, with strange figures, and 
unknowne Letters, that was brought from iEgypt : for 
the ^Egyptians first devised the use thereof, and the sight 
of infinite Obligatory writings of Emperors, Kings and 
Princes, which I omit to relate, referring the same to be 
Registred by the next beholder. 

Still left untold, something there must be seene 
For them, who trace our feete, with Argos eyne : 
Yet let them stay, and take this verball note, 
They who would better write, must larger quote. 

J 5 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

Bidding adew to my company, and this Library, I 
longed to view the gorgeous Mosaicall worke of S. Peters 
Church : The matter was no sooner conceived, but I went 
to the doore, yet afraid to enter, because I was not accus- 
tomed with the carriage, and ceremonies of such a Sanctum 
Sanctorum : but at the last, abandoning all scrupulosities, 
I came in boldly, and on my right hand, as I entred within 
the doore, I espied the portrayed image of S. Peter 
[I. 18.] erected of pure Brasse, and sitting on a brasen Chaire. 

Thebrasen The fa\{\on of the people is this, entring the Church, 
Image of Saint , . , 1 • t 1 11 1 1 • • 1 

P eter% they go straight to this Idoll, and saluting with many 

crosses his senslesse body, kisse his feete, and every one 
of his severall toes : insomuch that those his comfortlesse 
feete are growne firy red, while his body, save his breasts, 
remaineth brazen blew: and yet forsooth some of their 
learned Rabines will not have this superstition, but an 
humble commemoration of their adored Saints, or the 
like, for procuring favour of intercession, whilst the erected 
Idoll (interum) receiveth all their superfluous abhomina- 
tions of diurnall worship. Next, they lay their heads 
under the sole of his right foote, and arising, rub their 
Beades on his hard costed belly : thus adoring that breath- 
lesse masse of mettall, more then though it were a living 
creature. 

O wonderfull and strange spectacle? that these onely 
titular Christians, should become worse of knowledge 
then Ethnicke Pagans, to worship and reverence the 
workemanship of mens hands. Woe and shame be unto 
you all blind Hereticall Papists ; Why should you make 
to your selves Idols and Images of gold, silver, brasse, 
yron, stone, earth and tree ; And notwithstanding would 
excuse the matter with a superstitious reason, alledging, 
you do it onely in remembrance, where otherwise it is 
a damnable signe of wilfull obdurate ignorance : May not 
the prohibition of the 2. Commandement of Gods Law, 
which absolutely you abrogate, dividing the last Com- 
mandement in two ; confound the errour of this Idolatry, 
ingrafted in your hardned hearts, 

16 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY a.d. 

1609. 
What vertue can be in a lumpe of brasse? or what 
comfort in the devices of handy-crafts-men? Alas, 
nothing but eternall sorrow & condemnation. This was 
one of the lamentable errors I saw in the Roman Sea, [I. 19.] 
amongst many other thousands : When the foolish 
Listranes or Licaonians would have sacrificed Buls to 
the honour of Paul and Barnabas, they rent their cloaths, 
and ranne in among the people, crying, and saying ; O 
men, why doe you those things, we are even men subject 
to the like passions that you be : How is it then, That 
the Apostles being alive, would have no acknowledging 
by any homage of man ; yet when they are dead, the 
Romanists will worship their counterfeit similitude, in Superstition 
stone or tree. What unworthy-fained traditions and °f Pa P lsts - 
superstitious Idolatry? What strange new devising 
trickes they use, to plant idle monasteriall Loyterers? 
How many manner of wayes these belly-minded slaves 
Epicure-like leade their lives? And what a Sea of 
abhominable villany they swimme into, practising even 
unnatural vices, I meane of their wrongfuly called 
Religious Bishops, Priests, Friers, Curates, and all the 
hypocriticall crew, of these pervers'd Jebusites, no heart 
can expresse ; nor the most eloquent tongue can sufficiently 
unfold. Whose luxurious lives are vulgarly promulgat 
in this Hispanicall proverbe : 

Unnas tienen de gatto, y el habito de beato, 

El cruz en los Pechos, ye el diabolo en los hechos. 

They have a Cats clawes, and a blest Saints weed, 
The crosse on their breasts, the divels in their deed. 

But for feare of Excommunication from that Anti- 
christian Curtezan. I dare not persevere longer herein : 
Although I can; yea, and so truely bewray their all- 
corrupted estate, that I need no information of any 
Romane Novice Traveller. Of whose sight and experi- 
ence, would God all the Papists in Britaine had the like 
eie-witnessing approbation as I have had, I am certainly 
l 17 B 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

perswaded, with tears & sighes, they would heavily bemone 
[I. 20.] tne terrible fal of that Babylonian whoore, which in a 
prophane estimation) is their holy mother Church. For 
I sincerely sweare to thee, O faithfull Christian (as the 
Italian usually doth in his humours) by the golden tripled 
Crowne of my ghostly Father, Paulo Papa quinto, whatso- 
ever sacriledge, incest, or villany a Papist committeth ; 
let him come here, and fill the bribing hands of the 
Simonaicall Minions, of the thrice crowned Priest, (for 
Roma non captat ovem sine lana.) 
Pardons for ^ n j ne sna }j nave Indulgences, Dispensations, adjoyned 
pennies. p en ances, or absolved Offences, for hundreds, thousands, 
lesse, or more yeeres. The period of Time, after eight 
and twenty dayes abode, wishing my departure, I hardly 
escaped from the hunting of these blood-sucking Inquisi- 
tors, of which the most part were mine owne Country-men, 
the chiefest of whom was Robert Mophet a Jesuit borne 
in St. Andrewes, David Chambers, and of our Colledge 
there, one Gordon, and one Cuningham, borne in the 
Cannon-gate of Edenborough : And to speake trueth, if 
it had not beene for Robert Meggat, borne neere to 
Newbattle, then resident in Burgo di Roma with the old 
My escape Earle of Tirone, who hid me secretly for three dayes in 
from Rome. tne t0 p f n ; s Lords Pallace, when all the streets and 
ports of Rome were layd for me, who conveighing me 
away at the fourth mid-night, and leapt the walles of 
Rome with me, I had doubtlesse dyed as hot a death 
as a Lady Prioresse of Naples did afterward in my second 
Travells : And for better record Patricke Baxstter, now 
dwelling in Dundy, and then followed the Earle of Tyron 
can justifie the same, my custody and mine escape being 
both within his knowledge. Yet I may justly affirme it 
in these parts a man can finde no worser enimie then his 
nationall supposed friend, Religion being the cause of 
[I. 21.] it, and at home none more false nor deceitfull then a 
bosome friend. 

Mens mindes, their praises, best loves, and kind conceits, 
They hurling come and goe, like fish at baits. 

18 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY a.d. 

1609. 

And the Italian saith in his Proverbe ; God keepe me 
from the hurt of my friends, for I know well how to 
keepe me from mine enemies. From thence bound East- 
ward, I visited Naples, the commendation of which, I 
revolve in this verse ; 

Inclyta Parthenope gignit Comitesque Ducesque 

Most noble Naples, breeds but Dukes and Earles, 
And gallant Knights, with Ladies load with Pearles. 

Among many other things neare to this City, (which 
in the conclusion of this Historicall discourse be more 
particularly expressed) were Lacus Avernus, Sibillaes Cave, 
Puteoli, the Sulphurean mountaine Capua and Cuma, 
where banished iEneas from Troy and Carthage arrived. 
I saw the Monument of Virgills buriall standing in the 
fore face of his owne Grotto, that is cut through the 
mountaine of Cataia, being passable for Coatches, and a 
halfe mile long; and affixed these lines thereupon; 

In Mantua from Mothers wombe, 

I first conceived breath ; 
Parthenope reserves the Tombe, 

My Sepulcher of Death. 

Italy was called so of Italus, a King in Sicily, which 
first taught the people agriculture : The more impropri- 
ated names were Hesperia, because it is situate under 
the evening starre Hesperus : Latium, because Saturne 
driven from Creet by his sonne Jupiter, hie latebat abditus ; 
and iEnotria in regard of the abundance of wines it 
produceth. This Countrey was first sayd to be inhabited 
by Janus, Anno Mundi 1925. From whom sprung the [I. 22.] 
tribes of the Samnites, Sabines, Laurentani, and Taren- The first plan- 
tines : The second Plantation was by Evander, and certaine a lon •*' 
other Arcadians, who being banished from their native 
dwellings, seated themselves here : Thirdly, by the 
Trojanes, under conduct of Aeneas, who forsaking the 
delicious lives of the effeminate Affricans arrived here, 
and were kindly entertained by King Latinus, whose 

*9 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

daughter Lavinia, Aeneas married : So thus from the 
Trojans the Italians bragge of their discent ; and so like- 
wise boast divers other nations to have discended from 
that Dardan stocke, as glorying in such a famous pedegree. 
The length of Italy is nine hundreth Italian miles, though 
some allot a thousand, it is false, for I have trod foure 
severall times from end to end of it on the soles of my 
feete, even from Vallese, the first Towne in Piemont, 
discending mount Synais from La Croix Southward, which 
secludeth Savoy ; and to Capo Bianco in Calabria, hemb'd 
in with the gulfe Tarento on the one side, and the Faro 
of Messina on the other, it being the furthest promontore 
of Italy. 

So in a false description, some blind Geographers, 
through base ignorance, make England longer then Scot- 
land in their Mappes, when Scotland, by the best 
judgements, and mine owne better experience, is a hundred 
and twenty miles longer then England : It is a deocular 
errour, which I could wish to be reformed, as in the 
conclusion of this worke I shall more credibly make cleare. 
The breadth of Italy at the roote and beginning thereof, 
bending along the Alpes from the Adriaticke coast, to 
the riviera di Genoa, or Ligurian shore, is but 240. Italian 
miles, growing narrower, and narrower, till it shut out 
it selfe in two homes, Calabria, and Terra di Ottranto. 
The breadth of which, or either, extendeth not above 
[I. 23.] foureteene English miles from sea to sea, the gulfe Tarento 

(which is unnavigable in respect of infinite craggy shelfes) 
deviding the two homes. On the North side of Terra 
di Ottranto, lieth Apulia, bordering with Mare superum, 
a very fruitfull soile for cornes ; & West-ward thence 
boundeth, terra di lavoro, or proprium regnum Napoli- 
tanum. These foure territories make up the intire 
The Khgdome Kingdome of Naples : The chiefe Cities of which, are 
of Naples. Naples, Capua and Salerno, in terra di Lavoro : In 
Calabria, are Cousenza, the chiefe seate of the President, 
or Subvicegerent, Rhegio, Allauria, and Montecilione : 
In terra di Ottranto, are Otranto the which towne being 

20 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY ad. 

1609. 
taken by Mahomet the great, Anno 148 1. involved all 
Italy in such a feare, that for a whole yeare, and till the 
expulsion of the Turks, Rome was quite forsaken, the 
next are Lucia, and Brundusium beautified with a famous 
haven. 

And in Apulia, are Manfredo, Arpino where Tully was 
borne, Venusio, whence Horace had his birth, and Canno 
famous for the victory of Hanniball, against the Romans. 
The Church-land beginnes beyond Rome eighty miles at 
Terracina, being just opposit to Gayetta, the West-most 
confine by the Marine of the Neapolitan Kingdome, neare 
to Mount Circello, and the utmost Marine limit Eastward 
of Campagna di Roma, or the Churches patrimony, 
imbracing both seas, till it runne to Ponto Centino in 
Tuscana : which divideth the precincts of Re di Cornne, 
& Aquacupadente, the last frontiers of the great Duke 
and Popes lands. All which bounds to Terracina, and 
in the way of Venice from Rome to Spaleto is denominated 
Campagna di Roma, or Latium ; and thence it reacheth 
along Northwest, by the Venetian gulfe, to the uttermost 
bounds of the Dutchy of Ferara, being thirty miles from 
Venice : Extending in length to three hundred & fifty 
miles, whose breadth is narrow, and where it joyneth with [I. 24.] 
both seas, it is but sixty miles. The Church-land is 
divided in foure territories, Campagna di Roma, or old Thefiure 
Latium ; Rome, Viterbo, Narni, Tarni, Viletri, Montefias- Papall 
cone, and Civitavecchia, being the chiefe Cities : Next, Tetrtimts. 
the Countrey of Ombria, or Ombrosa, lying betweene 
Rome and Loretta, the chiefe Cities are Spaleto, from 
whence it is reckoned a Dutchy, Perugia, a Sacerdotall 
University, Fulino, and Asisi, where great St. Frances 
with his invisible Stigmata was borne. At the which 
Asisi, I saw the place (as they say) where the Angell 
appeard to his mother, telling her, that she should con- 
ceave and beare a sonne, should be the Champion of 
Jesus, and hard by they shew me the Crub or Stall where 
he was borne, with many other foolish lyes both sinfull 
and abhominable : every way representing his imaginary 

21 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

life, like to the heavenly tract and resemblance of our 
blessed Saviour. The third is Marca di Ancona by the 
sea side, Ancona being principall, the other Cities are 
Asculi, Marcerata, Tolentino, Riginati, Aguby, and Para- 
siticall Loretta. The fourth is Romania, lying along 
toward Ferrara, betweene the sea, and the hills Appenine. 

This Ecclesiasticke dowry of Romania, is disjoyned 
from Marca di Ancona, by the Duke of Urbins lands, 
which division by the sea side is thirty miles in length, 
containing Pesaro, Fanno, and Sinigalia all sea port 
Townes, the other of this Dutchy are Urbino, and Castel- 
durante. The chiefe Towne in Romania, is Ravenna, 
which for antiquity will not bow her top to none in Italy : 
Here the Popes Legate remaineth, the other be Rimini, 
Fereola, Bullogna and Ferrara, and this much for the 
Popes foure Ecclesiasticke territories. 

Tuscana or iEtruria lying South from the middle of 
[I. 25.] this Church-land is 100. miles in length, and as much 

The Duke of i n breadth, I meane of that belonging to the great Duke : 
Which hereditary boundes was but lately enlarged by 
Ferdinando, Father to late Cosmus, and brother to Mary 
of Medicis, the French Queene Mother now living : 
Who annexed thereunto the Reipublicks of Pisa and 
Siena : The other sequestrate Tuscan jurisdiction, is the 
little comonwealth of Luca : The chiefe Citty is Florence, 
whose streetes are divided by the River Arno ; the other 
of this principality, are Pisa, Siena, Pistoia, Empoli, 
Ligorne, and Arretzo. 

From Tuscany to the West, and North-west, lieth 
Lumbardy, intituled the garden of the World, which is 
now divided (besides the Venetian territory, of which 
I will speake in the owne place) in foure principalities, 
Milaine, Mantua, Parma and Modena : The other Cities 
be Cremona, Pavia, Lodi, Pleasance, Rhegio Brisiles, 
Palestra, Navarro and Allessandria di Paglia. This 
Province is mainely watered through the middle with 
stately Po, in which Phaeton was drenched, when he came 
tumbling downe from Heaven. The Rivers Ladishe, 



Florence his 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY ad. 

1609. 
Montanello, Delia Guarda, and other forcible streames 
supporting the shoulders of it. 

West from Lumbardy lieth Piemont, betweene it and Piemont and 
Savoy : The City whereof, and wherein the Savoyan Duke j?*Z* • 
hath his Residence is Torino, situate on Po. The other, 
Aste Verseilles and Cowie. South from Piemont and 
Lumbardy, lieth the Riviera of Genoa, along the Mediter- 
rean sea : the territory of which is narrow, but above one 
hundreth miles in length : All which is exceeding rocky 
and mountainous, yet producing good store of Orenges, 
Lemmons, Figges and Ches-nuts, whereon the Moun- 
taineri onely live, being either rosted, or baked in bread : [I. 26.] 
The chiefe Cities of this Genewesen Liguria, are Genoa, 
and Savona. Italy lying in forme of a legge, is on both Italy lyeth as 
sides environed with the Sea, save onely the North-west the right arme, 

part, and roote thereof, which is devided from France noting firtk 

r 1 ^ , , ; T . n ^ . from the matne 

and Germany, by the .Ligunan, bavoyean, Gnsonean, ^„ f 

Zingalian, and Tirolian alpes, which bend North-east, and Europe. 

South-west, inclosing it from the body of Europe, from 

sea to sea. Italy of all other Regions under the Sunne, 

hath beene most subject to the vicissitude of Fortune, 

yet not a little glorying in these famous Captaines, Fabius 

Maximus the buckler, and Camillus the sword of Rome, 

Scipio, Pompey, and Caesar ; for venerable Poets Virgil, 

Ovid, and renowned Horace, famous also for the Orator 

Cicero, and the Historians Tacitus, and Livius : The soyle 

is generally abundant in all things necessary for humane 

life, and the people for the most part are both grave and 

ingenious, but wondrous deceitfull in their actions, so 

unappeasable in anger, that they cowardly murther their 

enemies rather then seeke an honourable revenge, and so 

inclind to unnaturall vices, that for bestiality they surpasse 

the Infidells : the women of the better sort are slavishly 

infringed from honest and lawfull liberty : They of the 

middle ranke somewhat modest in carriage, witty in speech, ^ 

and bountifull in affection : They of the vulgar kind are 

both ignorant, sluttish and greedy, and lastly the worser 

dregs, their impudent Curtezans, the most lascivious 

23 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

harlots in the world. This much in generall for the briefe 
description of this Region, and so I revert to mine 
itinerary relation. 

In the meane while, having alwayes a regard of my 
hasty dispatching from Christendome, I returned through 
Terra di Lavoro, by the sea side, Campagna di Roma, 
aunciently Latium, and Ombria, now the Dutchy of 
P. 2 7-] Spaleto, even to Loretta, standing in the Marca of Ancona, 
addressing my selfe to Venice for transportation. But 
by your leave, let me lay downe before your eyes some 
notable illusions of Modonna di Loretta, which I found 
in my way- faring journey, to amplifie my former discourse, 
concerning the errours of the Roman Church, and as yet 
was never Englished in our language. 

Before I came neare to Loretta by tenne miles, I over- 
took^ a Caroch, wherein were two Gentlemen of Rome, 
and their two Concubines ; who when they espied me, 
saluted me kindly, enquiring of what Nation I was? 
whither I was bound? and what pleasure I had to travell 
alone? After I had to these demands given satisfaction, 
they intreated me to come up in the Caroch, but I thank- 
fully refused, and would not, replying the way was faire, 
the weather seasonable, and my body unwearied. At last 
they perceiving my absolute refusall, presently dismounted 
on the ground, to recreate themselves in my company : 
and incontinently, the two young unmarried Dames came 
forth also, and would by no perswasion of me, nor their 
familiars mount againe ; saying, they were all Pilgrimes, 
and bound to Loretta (for devotion sake) in pilgrimage, 
and for the pennance enjoyned to them by their Father 
Confessour. Truely so farre as I could judge, their 
pennance was small, being carried with horses, and the 
appearance of their devotion much lesse : for lodging 
at Riginati, after supper, each youth led captive his 
dearest Darling to an unsanctified bed, and left me to my 
accustomed repose. 

When the morning Starre appeared, we imbraced the 
way marching towards Loretta, and these vermillion 

24 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY a.d. 

1609. 

Nymphs, to let me understand they travelled with a 
chearefull stomacke, would oft runne races, skipping like 
wanton Lambes on grassie Mountaines, and quenching [I. 28.] 
their follies in a Sea or unquenchable fantasies. Approach- 
ing neare the gate of the Village, they pulled off their 
shooes and stockings, walking bare-footed through the 
streets, to this tenne thousand times polluted Chappell, 
mumbling Paternosters, and Ave Mariaes on their beads. 
When they entred the Church, wherein the Chappell 
standeth, I stood at the entry beholding many hundreds Ignorant 
of bare-footed blinded bodies, creeping on their knees devotion. 
and hands : Thinking themselves not worthy to goe on 
foote to this idely supposed Nazaretan House, like to 
this saying ; 

Lauretum nudis pedibus, plebs crebra frequentat, 
Quam movet interius religionis amor. 

To Lorett people haunt with naked feete, 
Whome Religion moves with loves fervent sprit. 

Unto this falsely patronized Chappell, they offer yearely 
many rich gifts, amounting to an unspeakable value, as 
Chaines, & Rings of Gold and Silver, Rubies, Diamonds, 
silken Tapestries, Goblets, imbroudries and such like. 
The Jesuiticall and Poenitentiall Fathers receive all, but Rome* 
who so enjoy all, let Camera reverenda Romana, graunt avarice. 
certification to this Loretan avariciousnesse, who fill their 
coffers twice in the yeare therewith. My foure Pilgrimes 
having performed their ceremoniall customes, came backe 
laughing, and asked why I did not enter? But I as 
unwilling to shew them any further reason, demaunded 
what the matter was? O (said the Italians) Jurando per 
il Cieloe Iddio Sacratissimo ; This is the House wherein 
the Virgin Marie dwelt in Galile : and to the confirmation 
of these words shewed me a Booke, out of which I 
extracted these Annotations. 

This Chappell they hold it to be the house, in which 
Mary was annunced by Gabriel, and wherein she conceived [I. 29.] 

25 



A.D. 

1609. 

Damnable 
illusions of 
Loretta. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 



Jesus, by operation of the holy Ghost, & in the meane 
time, that devotion waxed scant amongst the Christians 
of the Primitive Church in the Holy Land : strangers 
tirannizing over the territories of Canaan, as Heraclius, 
Costroes King of Persia, Sarazens, and Harancone King 
of iEgypt ; it came to passe in the yeare of our Lord, 
1 29 1. and in the time of Pope Nicholas the fourth, that 
it being shaken off the foundation, was transported miracu- 
lously by Angels in the night, from Nazareth in Gallilee, 
to Torsalto in Slavonia: the distance being by sea and 
land 17. hundred Italian miles, O! a long lift for so 
scurvie a Cell. And in the morning, Shepheards comming 
to the place of pastorage, found this house, wherewith 
being astonished, they returned in hast, and told Saint 
George Alessandro, the Prior of Torsalto, who in that 
meane while was lying sick. He being stricken in admira- 
tion with these newes, caused himselfe to be borne thither, 
and laid before the Altar, and falling in a marvellous trance, 
A Simonaicall the Virgin Mary by a heavenly Vision appeared to him, 
saying after this manner. 



vision. 



A Papisticall 
Dreamd of 
Oration. 



[I. 30.] 



BEhold, thou hast often pierced the heavens, with 
invocations for thy reliefe, and now I am come, not 
onely to restore thee to thy health, but also to certifie 
thee, that thou doubt nothing of this House; for it is 
holy in respect of mee, the chast immaculate Virgin, 
ordained before all eternity, to be the Mother of the most 
High. It was in this Chamber my Mother Anna con- 
ceived me, nourished me, and brought me up, in singing 
Psalmes, Hymnes, and Praises to the glory of God ; and 
also I kept in this roome the blessed Infant Jesus very 
God, and very Man, without any grievance or paine 
brought him up with all dilgent observation : And when 
cruel! Herod sought the Babes life, by the advertisement 
of the Angell, I, and my husband Joseph, who never 
knew my body, fled with him downe to JEgypt. And 
after his passion, death, and ascension to Heaven, to make 
a reconciliation of humane nature, with the Court 

26 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY ad. 

1609. 

Coelestiall : I stayed in this house with John, and the 
other Disciples : Who considering after my death, what 
high mysteries had beene done into it, consecrated and 
converted the same to a Temple, for a commemoration 
of Christs sufferings, the chiefe of Martyrs. Also that 
resplending Image thou seest, was made by Saint Luke 
(my familiar) for eternizing the memory of my portraiture, 
as I was alive, by the commandement of him, who doth 
all things, and shall reserve this sacred Image to the worlds 
end : That Crosse of Ceder, which standeth at the side 
of the little Westerne window, was made by the Apostles : 
These Cinders in the Chimney touch not, because they 
are the fragments of the last fire I made on earth : And 
that Shelfe whereon my linnen clothes, and prayer Bookes 
lay, Let no person come neere it : For all these places are 
sanctified and holy. Wherefore my Sonne, I tell thee, 
awake, and goe recite the same which I have told thee 
unto others ; and to confirme thy beleefe therein, the 
Queene of Heaven giveth thee freely thy health. 

Frier Alexander being ravished (say they) with the The shamefull 
Vision, went and reported it to Nicholas Frangipano, Lord opinions of the 
of that Countrey. And incontinently he sent this Prior ***** i n 
and other foure Friers to Nazareth, whereby he might Loretta. 
know the trueth thereof, but in that journey they dyed. 
The Virgin Mary perceiving their incredulity, caused 
Angels the second time to transport the house over the 
gulfe of Venice, to a great wood neere by the sea side, 
in the territory of Riginati in Italy, being 300. miles 
distant. Which, when the country-men had found, and 
remarking the splendor of the illuminating Image, dis- [I. 31.] 
persed these newes abroad. And the Citizens of Riginati, 
having seene what great miracles was daily done, by the 
vertue of this Chappell, imposed then to it this name, 
Our Lady of Miracles. A little while after the people 
resorting to it with rich gifts, there haunted in the wood 
many theeves and cut-throates, who robd and murthered 
the Pilgrims. Which innocent spilt bloud, pricking their 
pitifull Lady to the heart, she made the Angels transport 

27 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

it the third time, and set it on the top of a little Moun- 

taine, belonging to two brethren in heritage, being forty 

foure miles distant from the former place. But they upon 

a day quarrelling, and discording about the utility of the 

Foure times Offerings to this House, the Angels did remoove it the 

transported. f ourt h time, and placed it in a high broad way, where it 

standeth unremooved to this day, which place is now called 

the Village of Loretta ; and from the last Station nine 

^confirmation m il es distant. This was confirmed by the Papall authority 

y t e opes. tQ ^ Q £ an unc [oubted trueth, after a hundreth and fifty 

three yeares deliberation. Loe, as briefly as I could, have 

I layd open to thy judicious eyes, the transportations, 

Originall, and Papisticall Opinions of Loretta ; protesting 

I have added nothing to the Authours description, but 

onely collected these speciall Warrants ; omitting other 

infinite foolish toyes, conceived for their blind-folded 

credulity. 

This Chappell, or rather dwelling house, as they would 
have it, stood alwayes alone, till of late, that Pope Clement 
8 . caused build a glorious Church over it : And here by 
accident I encountred with a very courteous and discreet 
Gentleman, James Arthur, whose company was to me most 
acceptable : Our acquaintance being first made at the 
[I. 3 2 -] beginning of the same voiage upon the mountaines of 

Ferrara in Paese du Burbon, and bound to visite Venice, 
in his returning home for Scotland, as well as he had done 
Rome and other Cities of Italy. 

Now I remember here of a pretty jest, for he and I 

going in to see the inravled image with sparrets of iron, 

and musing on the blacknesse of her face, and the richnesse 

of her gowne, all set with precious Stones and Diamonds ; 

and because she is sightlesse, foure lampes of oyle they 

keepe alwayes burning before her face, that the people 

may see her, because she cannot see them. There was, 

I say, a young lusty woman hard by my elbow, busie at 

A fleshh ner Beades, who with the heate of the throng, and for 

false-strung lacke of ayre, fell straight in a sound : the women about 

miracle. her gave a shoute, and cryd that our blessed Lady had 

28 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY a.d. 

1609. 

appeared to her ; whereupon she was carried forth and layd 
upon the steppes, that discend from the Chappell to the 
Church-floore, five hundreth more come to visite her with 
salutations of Saint, Saint, O ever blessed Saint ; Now 
it was Friday in the fore-noone, and the woman having 
travelled all night, and to save charges of fish, had eaten 
a cold bit of her owne meat privately in the Taverne, 
with halfe a Buckale of red Wine: The people more 
admiring this imaginary heavenly trance, than the reliefe 
of the woman ; at last sayd I, brother Arthur, I will goe 
open yonder womans breast, and I did so : and holding 
up her head before all the people, there sprung a flood 
of vin garbo downe the Alabaster stayres, intermingled 
with lumpes of ill-chewd flesh : Whereat the people being 
amazed, from a Saint swore she was a Divell : And if 
my friend and I, had not made hast to carry the sicke 
woman from the Church to a Taverne, doubtlesse, they 
had stoned her to death ; and here was one of their 
miracles. 

Another time, comming backe from my second Travels [I. 33.] 
in AfFricke, it was my lucke to stumble in here againe, 
where I saw an old Capuschin Frier conjuring the Divell 
out of a possessed woman, who had stayed there, and 
two men keeping her above eighteene moneths, being 
twise a day brought before the Chappell. The Frier 
stood up before her, the two men holding both her armes ; 
and sayd, laying his formost finger on her brow ; In nomine a Capuschin 
Patris, &c. Io vi cargo a dirmi, per quale cagione, havete Frier 
posseduto l'anima di questae poveretta ; & vati ne via io ti C0 Ju urt JS the 
adjuro, alia quei luogi, dionde tu sei venuto : I charge 
thee to shew me for what cause thou hast possessed the 
soule of this poore wretch, and I adjure thee to goe backe 
unto these places from whence thou earnest. Meane while 
the woman stood dumbe and silent for the space of a 
quarter of an howre, not being usuall before : the people 
gave a shoute, and cry'd, the Divell had left her, whereat 
he that held her right arme did let it fall downe by her 
side : But by your leave, in the twinckling of an eye, the 

29 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

Divell in the woman gave the Frier such a rattle in the 
face, that he was stroke downe upon his backe among 
the people : And if it had not bene that she was borne 
downe with strength of hands, she had torne the silly old 
conjurer in peeces : crying, O false and dissembling knave, 
pretendest thou to have power to cast out evill Spirits, 
when thou thy selfe is in a worser case than I, and all thy 
profession too ; Hell, hell, is your reward. 

This is another of our Lady of Lorettaes Miracles, 
though many moe I could recite : As for any more vertue 
of this Cymberian image, I have knowne sicke folkes 
loaden with all kinde of diseases, criples, lame, maimed, 
deafe, dumbe, and numbers possessed with evill spirits 
lie here before this Lady, till I returned againe from Asia 
& ArTrick, that same way : imploring, fasting and 
[I. 34-] penitentially weeping for health ; But alas poore soules, 
they lost their labour. When they had both spent all 
their meanes, and perhaps the poorest of them three 
yeares attendance, and forced to my knowledge to returne 
againe to their severall stations with sorrowfull and com- 
fortlesse hearts. 

O strange and wonderfull frailty of men! what 
damnable imperfections domineere over their brain-sicke 
knowledge : Sathan, thou Prince of darkenesse, hast so 
over-sylled the dimmed eies of their wretched soules, 
that notwithstanding of Gods eternall word, ordained to 
call them through the spotlesse bloud of Christ Jesus) to 
be the heires and adopted sonnes of Salvation : yet thou 
all abhominable enemie of mankind, overthrowest both 
their spirituall and naturall understanding in a bottome- 
lesse Ocean of darke ignorance; promising to thy 
obdurate souldiers, to build Castles in the Ayre ; and con- 
trarywise is busie, digging downe dungeons, to welcome 
thy hellish eternized guests, with horrible torments, and 
never-ceasing flames of everlasting fire. What wilfull- 
hearted man can be so apt to believe, that our blessed 
Lady, had such estimation of morter and stones, as to 
have (although she had, had power) caused Angells to 

30 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY a.d. 

1609. 

transport a rotten house so often? No, I say, beleeve 
it who so will ; questionlesse, the Judgements of God in 
the trueth of his all-seeing Justice, shall reward their 
too credulous mindes accordingly ; Then shall they know 
their foolish and superstitious errours. 

But now to leave them with their Idolatry to stones, 
mettall, and Images, I come to their blasphemies against 
the sacred Deity : Looke to the workes of Bernardini de 
Busti, Bonaventure, and Fereolus Lucrius, how shamefully 
they derogate the glory from God, and attribute all 
grace, mercy and omnipotency, to the Virgin Mary. So 
Ludolphus and Chrysostome affirme, that Velocior est [I. 35.] 
non unquam salus invocato nomine Mariae, quam invo- 
cato nomine Domini, vinci filii ejus : Men may often- 
times be sooner saved by calling on the Virgin Mary, 
than on Christ. Omnia quae Dei sunt, Mariae sunt, quia 
mater & sponsa Dei ilia est, all things which are Gods, 
are the Virgin Maries, because she is both the Spouse, 
and the mother of God, saith a Rabbin of theirs : and as 
many creatures honour the Virgin Mary, as honour the 
Trinity, saith another : So, Imperio Virginis, omnia 
famulantur & Deus, all creatures & God himselfe, are 
subject to the Virgin Maries command. And in their 
Bonaventure Ladies Psalter, Monstrate esse matrem, & 
coge ilium peccatoribus misereri, Shew thy selfe a Mother, 
and compel! him (viz. Christ) to have mercy upon sinners. 
Infinit citations could I produce, of such like intolerable 
attributs, besides the dividing of her in a 1000 stiles, The Virgin 
viz. The Lady of the wines, Lady of the oyles, Lady of Maryjhided 
the cornes, Lady of the woods, Lady of the mountains, 
Lady of the meeds, Lady of the sheepe and goats, Lady 
of the springs, Lady of the fire, Lady of the shepheards ; 
from earthquakes, thunder and fire-flashes, Lady of the 
Angels which is at Asisi in Ombria, Lady of miracles 
in divers places, Florence, &c. Lady of life in Bullogna 
newly found, Lady of all noble Ladies, and Nunnes, 
Lady of the galley-slaves, Lady of shipwracking seas, 
Lady of rivers and waters, Lady of young children, and 

31 



in a thousand 
Ladies. 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

orphanes, Lady of all consolation, Lady of pure Virgins, 
Lady of distressed widdows, Lady of the sicke, and 
women with child, &c. Besides the powerfull Lady of 
Mountserrata in Catalogna, the aforesayd miraculous 
Lady of Loretta, and the clementious lie-ruling Lady 
of Trapundy in Sicilia, &c. Thus they make it manifest, 
[*• 3 6-] that Shee, that is Ladye of the one, is not Ladye of the 
other ; each of them having divers gifts, divers graces, 
divers powers, as they alledge, divers Chappells, divers 
offerings, and divers pilgrimages, according to the severall 
seasons, eminent or past-perills, peculiar invocations, and 
the particular neede of each family, man woman and 
living creature. 

Whereby it plainely appeareth, by their dividuall 
acknowledgements, she is neither superior in power, 
universall in power, nor equall in power to God : For 
if she were, one Chappell, one name, one place, one 
pilgrimage, one offering would suffice for all. They 
chatter over on their beads ten Ave Maries to our Lady, 
and but one Pater noster to Christ : They make their 
orations thrice a day in the streets to the Virgin, and none 
to God : they say God divided the Kingdome with the 
Virgin, reserving to himselfe Justice, graunted to his 
mother mercy, wherefore if any man be aggrieved with 
Gods Justice, he may appeale to the court of her mercy. 

But to conclude their blasphemies, & horrible lies, 
blessed is the blessed Virgin Mary (the Mother of Christ 
according to the flesh) above all women for ever and ever. 

Leaving both this and Loretta, and returning to my 
Ancona. purpose, James Arthur and I imbarked at Ancona, (15. 
miles from thence) in a Frigato ; This City of Ancona, 
in the time of Trajanus the Emperour, flourished mightily 
in fame, and reputation, and yet a gallant place to this 
day; 

Contemnunt omnes Ancona moenia Turcas. 

This sea-strong Towne, set on a Promontore, 
Defieth the Turkes with its defensive shoare : 

32 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY a.d. 

1609. 

It glories not a little in giving name to the whole pro- 
vince lying betweene Ombria and Romania, and is situate 
on a hill that shooteth into the sea like a promontore, 
having a faire haven built by Trajanus. It hath but one 
gate, whence arose the proverbe, Un porto riel Ancona, [I. 37.] 
un Petro nel Roma, e un Torre nel Cremona, One gate 
in Ancona, one Peter in Rome, and one Steeple in 
Cremona being exceeding high. 

Along this Adriaticke Coast, I saw no remarkeable 
thing, save the two Cities Rimini and Ravenna: which 
were famous in the dayes of Octavius Caesar, but now 
somewhat impoverished, in regard of divers incursions 
sustained, and shoaring along with them, the Duke of 
Urbines three sea-port Townes Sinigalia, Fanno and 
Pesaro, we sayled by the mouth of Rubicon, called now 
Pissatello (which Julius Caesar passed over, against the 
ordinance of the Senate, and afterwards seazed upon 
Rome, putting Pompey to flight) I saw the place, where 
the bloudy battell was fought betweene the French and 
Spaniards, Anno Domini 1512. but the victory fell to 
the Gaules, with the losse of nineteene thousand men 
on every side, and they have erected singular Monuments 
there, in a perpetuall memory thereof. After three dayes 
sayling (having passed by Malamucko, which is the Haven 
of the great Venetian shippes) we arrived at St. Marks 
place in Venice. 

Mine associate and I, were no sooner landed, and 
perceiving a great throng of people, and in the midst of 
them a great smoake ; but we begun to demaund a 
Venetian what the matter was? who replied, there was 
a gray Frier burning quicke at S. Markes pillar, of the A Gray Frier 
reformed order of S. Francis, for begetting fifteene young turned for 
Noble Nunnes with child, and all within one yeare ; he i™°™ n 
being also their Father confessor. Whereat, I sprung 
forward through the throng, and my friend followed me, 
and came just to the pillar as the halfe of his body and 
right arme fell flatlings in the fire ; The Frier was forty 
sixe yeares old, and had bene Confessor of that Nunnery [I. 38.] 
L 33 c 



A.D. 

1609. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 



of Sancta Lucia five yeares : Most of these young 
Nunnes were Senators daughters ; and two of them were 
onely come in to learne vertue, and yet fell in the midst 
of vice. 

These fifteene with child, were all re-cald home to their 
fathers Pallaces ; the Lady Prioresse, and the rest of her 
voluptuous crew, were banished for ever from the pre- 
cincts of Venice. The Monastery was razed to the 
ground, their rents were allowed to be bestowed upon 
poore families, and distressed age, and their Church to 
be converted to an Hospitall. Most part of all which 
M. Arthur and I saw, before ever we either eate, drunke, 
or tooke our lodging in Venice : And I cannot forget, 
how after all this, we being inhungred, and also over- 
joyed tumbled in by chance, Alia capello Ruosso, the 
greatest ordinary in all Venice, neare to which the Friars 
bones were yet a burning : And calling for a Chamber, 
we were nobly & richly served : After dinner they layd 
up our budgets and our burdons, and abroad went we 
to see the Citie : Night come, we supd, and supd alone : 
Thechjefe The next morne, I begun to remarke the grandeur of the 
Venetian i nne? an j saw jj was time that we were gone : I demanded 
ry ' our dependant, what was to pay? he answered, Un scudo 
all huomo par ciascun ripasto, A Crowne the dyet for 
each of us, being ten Julets or five shillings starling : 
Mr. Arthur lookd upon me, and I laughd upon him : In 
a word our dinner and supper cost us 40. Juletts twenty 
shillings English ; being foure Crownes, whereat my 
companion being discontented, bad the divell be in the 
Friars ballocks, for we had payd soundly for his Leachery : 
many like deaths, for like causes, and worser, have I 
seene in all my three voyages, if time could permit me 
to particularize them ; But from this thou mayst play the 
[*• 39-] learned Geometrician till thou findest more. 

Cingitur urbs Venetum pelago, ditissima nummis. 

This Towne most rich, to dare the Maine is shut, 
In Neptunes bosome, and sea-streeted cut. 

34 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY a.d. 

i 1609. 

Venice is a Garden of riches, and worldly pleasures 
the chiefe flowre of Common-weales, and the perfect, 
mirrour of civill and politicke Governement. This 
sequestrat Citty, is situate in the bosome of Neptune, 
and divided from the world, with a part of his maine 
body, which invironeth the Hand. 

The Common-wealth of Venice, containeth Marcha The territories 
del Trevisa, which lieth in Lombardy, containing these of Venice. 
Cities, Trevisa, Padua, Vincenza, Verona, Briscia, the 
second City for bignesse and beauty in all Lombardy, 
Bergamo, Chiozza, and Rovigno. Friuli, formerly 
called Forum Julii, lieth in the straite betweene the East 
end of the Alpes, and the sea Adriaticke, in length fifty, 
& in bredth forty miles. It hath bene often subject to 
the vicissitude of fortune : The chiefe towne is Treista 
in the bottome of the gulfe, and Palma lately built by 
the Venetians 1583. being the most impregnable, and 
best fortified towne in Italy : Friuli was a Dukedome, 
founded by the Lombards at the beginning of the 
Venetian Common-wealth : Afterward Luitprandus one 
of the Dukes, envying the increase of the dominion of 
Venice, made war against them, which ended in the losse 
of his owne countrey. The rest be Istria, a part of 
Dalmatia, the Hands Candy, Corfu, Zante, Cephalonia, 
Serigo, Tino, Val di Campare, Lesina, and others of 
lesser note. 

The Venetians howsoever of old, they have bene great 
warriours ; they are now more desirous to keepe, then 
inlarge their Dominions, and that by presents and money, 
rather than by the sword or true valour ; so that whatso- [I. 40.] 
ever they loose by battell, it is observed, they recover 
againe by treatise. The Venetians are sayd to have 
discended of the Hennets in Asia lesser, who assisting 
the Trojans, and Troy being lost, their King Pterilimene 
slaine, they fled away with Antenor ; and arriving in this 
part of Italy seated themselves, till the report of the 
Hunnes designe against Italy, made them, (avoyding the 
storme before it fell) to draw into these Hands and 

35 



A.D. 
1609. 

The first 
plantation of 
Venice. 



[I. 41.] 



The Venetians 
are sprung of 
the Romans. 



LITHGOWS HARE ADVENTURES 

Marishes, where now it standeth. It was first founded, 
and begun, Anno. 421. March 25. being distant from 
the maine land five miles, and defended against the fury 
of the sea, by a banke extending to fifty miles in length : 
Through which in eight places, there is passage broken 
for small boates, but no way for vessels of any burthen, 
save at Malamucco, and the castle of Lio : Yea, and so 
dangerous, that there is neither out-going nor in-comming, 
without a Pylot, which maketh the Citty unconquerable. 

This Citty is seven miles in compasse, and from so 
base an abject beginning, it is growne (as it were) to be 
the chiefe bulwarke of Europe : The Duke of this 
Adriatick Queene, espouseth the sea, every Ascension day, 
by casting a golden ring into it. Which Stultitious 
ceremony by Pope Alexander the third was graunted, 
when he fled to Venice for succour, being persecuted by 
Fredericke Barbarossa : And the Venetians vanquishing 
Otho the Emperours sonne, restored the Pope, and for 
a reward, was honoured with this espousall. 

The length of the Territory of Venice in Lombardy, 
lying along the foote and South side of the Alpes, 
amounteth to sixe score five miles : The breadth whereof 
in the planure is narrow, but stripeth larger among the 
hills and lakes, and very populous. 

The applauding Italian sayth, that Europe is the head 
of the World, Italy the face of Europe, and Venice the 
eye of Italy ; and indeed, it is the strongest, and most 
active part of that powerfull body : Whereby it would 
appeare, that in the last subversion of the latter 
Monarchy, the Romane Genius made a Pythagoricall 
transmigration into Venice ; whose peace hath procured 
the plenty, and whose warres the peace of all Christen- 
dome. The lawes of this City permit not the younger 
sonnes of the best Gentry to marrie, least the number 
increasing should deminish the dignity : Yet neverthelesse 
they permit them unlawfull pleasures, and for their sakes 
allow publicke stewes. The Jewes here, and in Rome, 
weare red, and yellow hats for notice sake, to distinguish 

36 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY 

them from others : which necessary custome (would toj 
God) were enjoyned to all the Papists here in England, ■ 
so should we easily discerne them from the true I 
Christians. And finally, to discourse upon the provision 
of their magnificent Arsenall, Artillery, Munition and 
Armor, the division of streetes with channels, the 
innumerable bridges of stone and timber, their accustom- 
able kind of living, apparell, curtesies, and conventions ; 
and finally, the glory of Gallants, Galleries, Gallies, 
Galleasses and Gallouns, were a thing impossible for me 
briefly to relate. Wherefore since the situation thereof, 
and the decorements of their beautifull Palaces, are so 
well knowne, and their generall customes by the better 
sort, I desist, concluding thus ; this incomparable mansion 
is the onely Paragon of all Cities in the World. 

Mine aforesaid Consort and I having spent ten dayes 
in viewing and reviewing this City and circumjacent Isles, 
and my purpose reaching for Greece and Asia, as his was 
to recrosse the snowy Alpes, my muse remembreth our 
sad departure. 



A.D. 

1609. 



Now f reindly Arthur left me, courts the Maine 
Of pleasant Lombardy : By Trent againe 
Beares through the Alpes, in his Tirolian wayes, 
And past Bavaria, where Danubio strayes 
He fell on Rhyne, and downe these curlings came 
Then shipd for Albion, neare to Ratterdame : 
And coasting Isis, viewd that royall court, 
Where once Appollo did in glory sport ; 
Fraught with Ambrosian nectar ; crownd his daies 
On Pindus tops, to have Mecenas praise 
This light ohumbrat, Arthur courts the North 
And servd a noble Earle of auncient worth 
Full eighteene yeares : till death that darts 

woe 
First smote his Lord and then his Countesse so : 
Now they are fled, and he is left alone 
Till heavens provide his hopes some happy one 

37 



[I. 42.] 
Mr. Arthur 
his farewell 
from Venice. 



The Earle of 
our Glencairne. 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

Which if to his desert, such fortune came, 
A Princely service, might his merit clayme. 
Where wishing both his fate, and worth to be 
Pie Venice leave, and visit Lombardie. 

In the time of my staying here, I went forth to Lom- 
bardy, and visited the famous Cities of Padua, Verona, 
and Ferrara. The commendation of which is celebrated 
in these verses : 

Extollit Paduam, juris studium, & medicinse. 
Verona, humanae dat singula commoda vitae. 
Exhaurit loculos ferrarea ferrea plenos. 

/ In Padua I stayed three moneths learning the Italian 
tongue, and found there a Countrey Gentleman of mine, 
Doctor John Wedderburne a learned Mathametician, 
but now dwelling in Moravia, who taught me well in 
the language, and in all other respects exceeding friendly 
[I. 43.] to me. Padua is the most melancholy City of Europe, 
the cause onely arising of the narrow passage of the 
open streets, and of the long galleries and dark-ranges 
of pillars, that goe alwhere on every hand of you, through 
the whole streets of the Towne : The Schollers here in 
the night commit many murthers against their privat 
adversaries, and too often executed upon the stranger and 
innocent, and all with gun-shot or else stilettoes : for 
beastly Sodomy, it is as rife here as in Rome, Naples, 
Florence, Bullogna, Venice, Ferrara, Genoa, Parma not 
being exempted, nor yet the smallest Village of Italy : 
A monstrous filthinesse, and yet to them a pleasant pas- 
time, making songs, and singing Sonets of the beauty 
and pleasure of their Bardassi, or buggerd boyes. 

I commend the devotion of Venice and Genua, beyond 

all the other Cities of Italy ; for the Venetians have 

banished the Jesuites out of their Territories and Hands : 

A comparison ^ n< ^ tne Genueses have abandoned the society of Jewes, 

of Jewes and an d exposed them from their jurisdiction. The Jewes 

Jesuits. and the Jesuites are brethren in blasphemies ; for the 

38 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY a.d. 

1609. 

Jewes are naturally subtill, hatefull, avaritious, and above 
all the greatest calumniators of Christs name : and the 
ambitious Jesuites, are flatterers, bloudy-gospellers, 
treasonable tale-tellers, and the onely railers upon the 
sincere life of good Christians. Wherefore I end with 
this verdict, the Jew and the Jesuite, is a Pultrone and 
a Parasite. 



/ 



[The Second Part 
39 



A.D. 

1609. 



N 



THE SECOND PART 

Ow step I o're the gulfe, to th' Istrian shoare, 
Dalmatia, Slavonia, Ilyria, more, 
[II. 44.] Valona, Albana, Epyre in Greice, 

And Morea fat, where Jason hurt his fleece : 

The Adriatick, and Ionean lies, 

And Lesinaes great monster ; Athens styles ; 

With Lacedemon sackt, and Sparta rent 

From auncient worth : Arcadia poore and shent : 

Our gulfe Lepanto, the iEtolian hight, 

And all these coasts, till Candy come in sight. 

Fter my returne from Padua to Venice & 24. days 
attendance devasted there for passage, I imbarked 
in a Carmoesalo, being bound to Zara Novo in 




Dalmatia : Scarcely had we lost the sight of Venice, but 
we incountred with a deadly storme at Seroco e Lenante 
The Master had no compasse to direct his course, neither 
was he expert in Navigation ; because they use commonly, 
either on the South or North sides of the Gulfe, to hoise 
up sayles at night, and againe breake of day they have 
full sight of land ; taking their directions from the topped 
hills of the maine continent. The tempest increasing, 
and the winds contrary, we were constrained to seeke 
up for the Port of Parenzo in Istria. 

Istria was called Giapidia, according to Pliny ; Cato 
affirmeth it was called Istria of one Isiro, but by the 
moderne writers, Pultima Regione di Italia. By 
Ptolomeus it is sayd to be of length 100. miles, and 

40 



COMMENTS UPON ISTRIA a.d. 

1609. 

forty large, but by mine experience onely 80. long and 

20. large. 

Istria hath on the South Friuli and the sea : on the 
West Stria : on the North Carniola : on the East the gulfe 
Carnaro or Quevero. It is thought the Istrians were The antiquity 
first a people of Colchis in Natolia, who by King iEtas of the Istrians. 
being sent to pursue Jason and the Argonauts (who had 
stolne the golden fleece and his daughter Medea) either 
because of the long journey, or feare of the Kings anger 
durst not returne, and so remained in this Country, where [II. 45-] 
they enjoyed a long freedom, til by many incursions of 
piracy, still molesting the Venetians they lost many of 
their Townes Anno 938. & afterward the whole Country 
made tributary by Duke Henry Gondolo about the yeare 
1200. 

That part which bordereth with the sea, belongeth 
to the Venetians, but the rest within land holds of the 
Emperour, and the Archduke of Austria. The Country 
it selfe aboundeth in cornes, wines and all kinds of 
fruites necessary for humane life. Neare to this haven 
wherein we lay, expecting roome windes, I saw the ruines 
of old Justinopoli, so called of Justinian the Emperour, Justinopoli 
who builded it upon an Hand of a miles length, and decayed. 
three acres broad : And to passe betwixt the City and 
the firme land, there was seven bridges made. It was 
aunciently strong, but now altogether decayed : The 
principall Cities in Istria at this day, are these, Parenzo, 
Humago, Pola, Rovigo. 

The windes favouring us, we weighed Ankors, and 
sayled by the lies Brioni, so much esteemed, for the fine 
stones they produce, called Istriennes : which serve to 
beautifie the Venetian Palaces. About midday I saw 
Mount di Caldaro, on the foote of which, the auncient 
City of Pola is situated, having a harbour wherein small 
shippes may lie. True it is, this Port is not much fre- 
quented, in respect of a contageous Lake neare to it, 
which infecteth the ayre with a filthy exhalation. I saw 
hard by this place, the ruines of the Castell di Oriando, 

41 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

the Arke Triumphant, and the reliques of a great 
Amphitheatre. This Pola was called by Pliny, 
Julia pietas ; and it standeth in the South-east part of 
Istria. Continuing our course, we passed the perillous 
gulfe of Carnaro. 

This gulfe or bay of Carnaro, runneth in North, and 
by East 50. miles within land, at the narrow entry 
[II. 46.] whereof, it hath a part of Istria on the West, and the 
Dalmatia on the East: The Venetians use to keepe 
alwayes certaine Gallies at the mouth of this bay, on the 
Dalmatian side, to intercept the cursary of the Scoks : 
In the bottome of this Carnarian gulfe are placed Senna, 
Gradisca, and Novagard, the chiefe Cities of Croatia : 
the people which inhabit these Townes, and the adjoyning 
Countrey are called Scoks, a kind of Dalmatians, being 
of a robust nature, courageous and desperate : Their 
weapons are broad two handed swords, long Skenes, 
carrying targets at their girdles, and long Gunnes in 
their hands : They are marveilous swift on foote, and 
dayly annoy by land their neighbouring Turkes with 
inrodes, fetching away great spoyles and booties, of 
The Scoks live cornes, cattell and horses : And by Sea with Frigots and 
under the Brigantines did ever and often vexe the Venetian com- 
ouse qf merce, in their owne domesticke waters : The great 

losses which from these incursive people the Venetians 
had from time to time received, and the other dammages 
they inflicted upon the Turkes in their trafficking with 
Venice, for whom the Venetians are bound by former 
articles of peace, to keepe harmelesse within their owne 
gulfe from all Christian invasions, was the onely and 
urgent cause that moved the Venetians to wage warre 
with Ferdinando then Duke of Grasse, and now 
Emperour, Anno Domini, 161 6. And besieged Gradisca 
to their no small disadvantage, both of charges and losse 
of men : For the towne being strongly fortified with 
walles and munition, and 2000. Scoks within to defend 
it, would often at the neare approaching of the enemy 
make a salley forth on horse and foote, giving many 

42 



COMMENTS UPON CROATIA a.d. 

1609. 
miserable overthrowes to the Assailants : To the which 
detriments, for twenty dayes space I was a testator, being 
after my returne from Affricke in my second travels, as 
I was going for Hungary, Moldavia, Valecchia and [II. 47.] 
Transilvania, taking this countrey in my way : And one 
morning at the breake of day, I saw 800. Scoks issuing 
out of towne, make bloudy havocke of 3000. of the 
Venetian army : This part of Croatia is exceeding fertile, Croatia. 
abounding in cornes, wines, bestiall and pastorage, though 
then by lawlesse, and turbulent souldiers, it was miserable 
defaced. 

The whole number of these Scoks that are able to carry 
armes, be not above sixe thousand men : They are wonder- 
full kinde to strangers, which to me in no small measure 
was extended, and that by the better sort their Captaines 
and Commanders, and onely for the affinity of Scoki 
and Scoti, although I dare sweare, there is little or none 
at all betwixt the two Nations. 

Having passed Carnaro, we sayled close by the He 
Sangego, called formerly Illrides : This Isle is of circuit 
foure score, and of length thirty miles. Our fresh water 
waxing scant, and the winds falling out contrary to our 
expectation, we sought into Valdogosto in the Isle of 
Osero, which is a safe haven for ships and Gallies. This 
Osero was first named Asphorus, and then Absirtides, of 
a Captaine AbsertUs, who came from Colchis, accompanied 
with many people, to bring backe Medea to her carefull 
father. Whose purpose being frustrated, stayed still, and 
inhabited this land. A fit oportunity obtained upon the 
eighth day, we arrived in the roade of Zara in Dalmatia ; zara nova. 
for there the Carmoesalo stayed, and I was exposed to 
seeke passage for Ragusa. 

By the way, I recall the great kindnesse of that Dal- 
matian Maister, for offering my condition, I found him 
more then courteous, and would have no more but the 
halfe of that, which was his bargaine at Venice. Besides 
this, he also entertained me three dayes, with a most [II. 48.] 
bountifull, and kind acceptance : My solitary travelling 

43 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

he oft bewailed, wishing me to desist, and never attempt 
such a voyage ; but I giving him absolute, and constant 
answers, appeased his imagined sorrow. 

Ignorance True it is, that ignorance and sloth, make every thing 

and Sloth, terrible unto us, and we will not, because we dare not, 
and dare not, because we will not : This makes us submit 
our selves to any thing, that doth either flatter or threaten 
us : And like some sottish weakelings, that give the reines 
of their governement into the hands of their Wives or 
Servants, thinking then they buy their peace when they 
sell it ; thus doe they grow upon us, I meane ignorance 
and sloth, and by composition, not force, become masters 
of the place, being just so strong, as we are weake. And 
as contrary newes delivered at one time, maketh one to 
heare with joy, and remember with sorrow; even so an 
unresolved man, in high and heroyicke designes, though 
seeming forward is distracted here, set on feare there, and 
rent asunder every where with the flashing frights of 
desperation : But a constant resolution can couragiously 
support all things ; Ubicunque homo est, ibi beneficio locus 
est. And congratulating this Skippers courtesie, I bad 
farewell to his councell. 

Zara is the capitall city of Dalmatia, called of old, Jadara. 
The inhabitants are governed by a Camarlingo, or Cham- 
berlaine, in the behalfe of Venice. The walles whereof 
are strongly rampired with earth ; surpassing the tops of 
the stone- worke : and fortified also with high Bulwarkes, 
and planted Canons on elevated Rampires of earth : which 
are above forty cubites higher then the Walles and Bul- 
warkes ; standing in the foure severall corners of the 
city. 

[II. 49.] There lye continually in it ; a great Garrison of Souldiers 
to defend the towne and Citizens, who are maintained by 
the Duke of Venice: for he is Signior thereof. They 
have indured many invasions of the Turkes, especially in 
the yeare one thousand five hundreth and seventy, when 
for the space of fourteene moneths, they were dayly 
molested and besieged, but the victory fell ever to the 

44 



COMMENTS UPON DALMATIA a.d. 

1609. 
Christians : If the Turkes could win this place, they might 
easily commaund the Adriaticall Seas, in regard of that 
faire Haven which is there, to receive Ships and Gallies ; 
which maketh the Venetians not a little fearefull because 
of their safeguard. 

Yet they licentiate the neighbouring Infidels to traffick 
with them, but when they enter the gates, they must 
deliver their weapons to the Corporall of the Squadron 
company : Neither may they stay within all night under 
the paine of imprisonment. Dalmatia was called so of Dalmatia. 
Mauritius the Emperour. The foure principall Provinces 
whereof are these, Atheos, Senebico, Spalleto and 
Tragurio. A part of which belongeth to Venice, another 
part to the arch Duke of Austria, and a third unto the 
Turkes. Zara is distance from Venice two hundreth 
miles. 

When the wandring night was chased from the inferiour 
Hands, by the recoursing day, and the Sunne had imparted 
his brightnesse to our under neighbours, and our dreames 
ready to possesse the Theater of the fancy, the wearisome 
creatures of the world declining to their rest ; and under 
shaddow of the pale Lady of the night ; even then, from 
Zara I imbarked in a small Frigot, bound for Lesina, with 
five Slavonian Marriners : who sometimes sailed, & som- 
times rowed with Oares : in our way we past by the He 
of Brazza, which is of no great quantity, but fertile enough 
for the Inhabitants, and kept by a Gentleman of Venice. [II. 50.] 
It lieth in the mouth of the gulfe Narento, that divideth 
Dalmatia from Slavonia : Many fondly conceive that these 
two kingdomes are all one, but I hold the contrary opinion, 
both by experience, and by auncient Authors : having 
passed Capo di Costa, which is the beginning of Slavonia, 
I saw upon my right hand, a round Rocke of a great 
height, in forme of a Piramide ; being cognominated by 
Easterne Mariners, Porno, aunciently Salyro, for the good 
Faulcons that are bred therein. It standeth in the 
middest of the Gulfe betweene Slavonia and Italy, and 
not habitable. 

45 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609.' 

A little beyond that Rocke, I saw the three lies Tremiti : 
The chiefest whereof is called Teucria, but they are vul- 
garly called the lies of Diomedes, who was King of Etolia. 
They are right opposite to Mount Gargano, now called 
Mounts. Saint Angelo, and distant from the maine land of Apulia 

Angela. - j^ about n j ne m j| es> 

This Mount Saint Angelo standeth in Apulia, bending 
in the Sea with a large promontore, it is in compasse ninety 
miles? Neare to this Mountaine, was that great battell 
fought, betweene Hanniball and the Romanes : the over- 
throw fell to the Romanes, under the conduct of Paulus 
iEmilius, and other Consuls, of whom were slaine fourty 
two thousand and seven hundred ; And if Hanniball had 
followed this victory, he had easily that day subdued the 
common-wealth of Rome : which made Maharball Cap- 
taine of his horse-men rebuke him thus, Vincere scis 
Hanniball victoria uti nescis. 

Thou canst o'recome thy foes in bloody fight, 
But can not use the victory aright. 

The like said Caesar of Pompey, when he lost the first 
battell they fought at Pharsalia in Greece ; O Pompey, 
Pompey, If thou hadst knowne how to have used the 

[II. 51.] victory, as thou hadst it, thou mightest have beene this 
day Lord of the whole World. 

A wofal So to our lamentable memory, may that last battell 
be recorded fought in Hungary, betweene the Turkes and 
Christians, of whom Maxamilian Duke of Isbrugh this 
present Emperours Uncle was Generall : who having had 
a nocturnall victory, and the Infidels put to the flight, 
they remaining in the Campe more busie about the spoyles 
then their owne safety ; the Turkes returned againe before 
day, the Christians being disordered with booties and the 
ravening of their whores, they put them all to the edge 
of the sword : O miserable confusion ! Little better might 
I speake of the battell of Lepanto being abusd even in 
the using of it, and that glorious victory no waies followed, 
as good fortune had given them an awfull opportunity : 

46 



battell. 



COMMENTS UPON SLAVONIA a.d. 

1609. 
For Don John of Austria their Generall had a greater 
mind to seaze upon the He of Corfu, and to robbe Venice 
of her liberty, then to prosecute with vengeance the brave 
beginning of so notable a victory ; and yet his treachery 
was discoverd, and by the Venetian Generall speedily 
disappointed, to his eternall shame both wayes. 

The poore Slavonians being fatigated in their hunger- 
starving Boat, with extraordinary paines (for we had three 
daies calme, which is not usually seene in these Seas) were 
enforced to repose all night at the barren He of St. 
Andrew : This He is of circuite foure miles, but not 
inhabited : The excessive raine that fell in the evening, 
made us goe on shoare, to seeke the coverture of some 
rocke ; which found, we lay all night on hard stones, and 
with hungry bellies : for our provision was spent. The 
breach of day giving comfort to our distressed bodies, with 
favourable windes at the Garbo e ponente, we set forward, 
and about midday we arrived in the Port of Lesina, of 
which the He taketh the name. [II. 52.] 

This He of Lesina is of circuite, a hundred and fifty 
miles, and is the biggest Hand in the Adriaticke Sea : 
It is exceeding fertile, and yeeldeth all things plentifully, 
that is requisite for the sustenance of man. The City 
is unwalled, and of no great quantity, but they have a 
strong fortresse, which defendeth the Towne, the Haven, 
and the vessels in the Roade. The Governour, who was 
a Venetian, after he had enquired of my intended voyage, 
most courteously invited me three times to his Table, 
in the time of my five dayes staying there : And at the 
last meeting, he reported the story of a marvellous mis- 
shapen creature borne in the Hand, asking if I would goe 
thither to see it : wherewith (when I perfectly understood 
the matter) I was contented : The Gentleman honoured 
me also with his company, and a horse to ride on, where 
when we came, the Captaine called for the father of 
that Monster, to bring him foorth before us. Which A Monster 
unnaturall Childe being brought, I was amazed in that horn f in 
sight, to behold the deformity of Nature ; for below the Lestna ' 

47 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

middle part, there was but one body, and above the middle 
there was two living soules, each one separated from 
another with severall members. Their heads were both 
of one bignesse but different in Phisnomy : The belly 
of the one joyned with the posterior part of the other, 
and their faces looked both one way, as if the one had 
carried the other on his backe, and often before our eyes, 
he that was behind, would lay his hands about the necke 
of the formost. Their eyes were exceeding bigge, and 
their hands greater then an Infant of three times their age. 
The excrements of both creatures issued foorth at one 
place, and their thighes and legges of a great growth, 
not semblable to their age, being but sixe and thirty dayes 

[II. 53.] old; and their feete were proportionably made like to the 
foot of a Cammell, round and cloven in the middest. 
They received their food with an insatiable desire, and 
continually mourned with a pitifull noyse ; that sorrowfull 
man told us, that when the one slept, the other awaked, 
which was a strange disagreement in Nature. The Mother 
of them bought dearely that birth, with the losse of her 
owne life ; as her Husband reported, unspeakeable was 
that torment she indured, in that woefull wrestling paine. 
I was also informed afterwards, that this one, or rather 
twofold wretch lived but a short while after we saw them. 
Leaving this monstrous shapen Monster to the owne 
strange, and almost incredulous Nativity, we returned to 
Lesiva. But by the way of our backe comming, I 
remember that worthy Gentleman who shewed me the 

Demetrius, ruines of an old house, where the noble King Demetrius 
was borne ; and after I had yeelded by bounden and dutifull 
thankes unto his generous minde, I hired a Fisher-boate 
to goe over to Clissa, being twelve miles distant. This 
He of Clissa is of length twenty, and of circuit threescore 
miles : It is beautified with two profitable Sea-ports, and 
under the Signiory of Venice. There are indifferent good 
commodities therein ; upon the South side of this Hand 
lieth the He Pelagusa, a rocky and barren place. 

Departing from thence in a Carmoesalo bound to 

48 



COMMENTS UPON SLAVONIA a.d. 

1609. 
Ragusa, we sailed by the three lies, Brisca, Placa, Igezi ; 
And when we entred in the Gulfe of Cataro, we fetched 
up the sight of the He Melida, called of old Meligna : 
Before we could attaine unto the Haven, wherein our 
purpose was to stay all night, we were assailed on a sudden 
with a deadly storme : Insomuch, that every swallowing 
wave threatned our death, and bred in our breasts, an 
intermingled sorrowe of feare and hope. And yet hard 
by us, and within a mile to the ley-ward, a Barbarian [II. 54.] 
man of war of Tunneis, carrying two tyre of Ordonance, 
and 200. men, seaz'd upon a Carmosale of Venice, at the 
first shot, she being loaden with Malvasie and Muscadine 
and come from Candy, and had us also in chase till night 
divided our contrary designes. The winds becomming 
favourable, and our double desired safety enjoyed, both 
because of the sea storme, and of the stormy Pyrat, we 
set forward in the Gulfe of Cataro, and sayled by the 
He Cursola : in this island I saw a walled towne called Cursola. 
Curzola, which hath two strong Fortresses to guard it. 
It is both commodious for the trafficke of Merchandize 
they have, and also for the fine wood that groweth there, 
whereof the Venetian Ships and Gallies are made : An 
Hand no lesse pleasant then profitable ; and the two Gover- 
nours thereof are changed every eighteene moneths, by 
the State of Venice. 

It was of old called Curcura, Melana, and of some 
Corcira Nigra, but by the Modernes, Curzola. Continu- 
ing our course, we passed by the iles Sabionzello, 
Torquolla, and Catza Augusta, appertaining to the 
Republike of Ragusa. They are all three well inhabited 
and fruitfull, yeelding comes, wines, and certaine rare 
kinds of excellent fruites. It is dangerous for great 
vessels to come neere their coasts, because of the hidden 
shelf s that lie off in the sea, called Augustini, where divers 
ships have beene cast away in fowle weather ; upon the 
second day after our loosing from Clissa, we arrived at 
Ragusa. 

Ragusa is a Common-weale, governed by Senators, and Ragusa. 
l 49 D 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

a Senate Counsell ; it is wonderfull strong, and also well 
guarded, being situate by the sea side, it hath a fine 
Haven, and many goodly ships thereunto belonging : The 
greatest trafficke they have, is with the Genueses : Their 

t 11 - 55-1 territory in the firme land is not much in respect of the 
neighbouring Turkes, but they have certaine commodious 
ilands, which to them are profitable : And notwithstanding, 
of the great strength and riches they possesse, yet for their 
better safeguard and liberty, they pay a yearly tributary 
pension unto the great Turke, amounting to fourteene 
thousand Chickens of Gold : yea, and also they pay yearely 
a tributary pension unto the Venetians, for the lies reserved 
by them in the Adriaticall Gulfe, so that both by sea and 
land they are made tributary citizens. The most part of 
the civill Magistrates, have but the halfe of their heads 
bare, but the vulger sort are all shaven like to the Turkes. 
This Citty is the Metropolitan of the Kingdome of 

Slavonia. Slavonia : Slavonia was first called Liburnia, next, Illiria, 
of Ilirio the sonne of Cadmus : But lastly, named Slavonia, 
of certaine slaves that came from Sarmatia passing the 
river Danubio, in the time of the Emperour Justinian : 
Croatia lying North-west from hence, is the third Province 
of this auntient Ilyria, and was formerly called Valeria, 
or Corvatia : It hath on the West Istria and Carniola : 
on the East and South, Dalmatia : on the North North- 
west a part of Carindia quasi Carinthia, and northerly 
Savus : So much as is called Slavonia, extendeth from 
the River Arsa in the West, the river Drino in the East, 
on the South bordereth with the Gulfe of Venice, and 
on the North with the Mountaines of Croatia : These 
Mountaines divide also Ragusa from Bosna. Bosna is 
bounded on the West with Croatia, and on the South with 
Illiricum, or Slavonia, on the East with Servia : and on 
the North with the River Savus. 

The next two speciall Citties in that Kingdome, are 
Sabenica and Salona. The Slavonians are of a robust 

[II. 56.] nature, martiall, and marvellous valiant fellowes, and a 
great helpe to maintaine the right and liberty of the 

5° 



COMMENTS UPON EPIRUS a.d. 

1609. 

Venetian State, serving them both by sea and land, and 
specially upon their Galleyes and men of Warre. From 
Ragusa I imbarked in a Tartareta, loaden with corne, and 
bound to Corfu, being three hundred miles distant. 

In all this way we found no Hand, but sayled along 
the maine land of the Illirian shoare : having passed the 
Gulfe of Cataro, and Capo di Fortuna, I saw Castello 
novo : which is a strong Fortresse, situate on the top of 
a Rocke : wherein one Barbarisso, the Captaine of Soly- 
man, starved to death foure thousand Spaniards. Having 4°°°- 
left Illiria Albania, and Valona behind us, we sayled by s P aniards 
Capo di Palone, the large promontore of which, extendeth *£* h 
to eight miles in length, being the face of a square and 
maine Rocke. This high land is the furthest part of the 
Gulfe of Venice, and opposite against Capo di Sancta 
Maria in Apulia, each one in sight of another, and four- 
teene leagues distant. Continuing our Navigation, we 
entred into the Sea Ionium, and sayled along the coast of 
Epire, which was the famous Kingdome of the Epirotes, 
and the first beginning of Greece. Epirus is environed 
on the South with the sea Ionian : on the East with 
Macedon ; On the West North west, with Albania ; and 
on the North, with a part of Rascia, and the huge Hill 
Haemus : Of which Mountaine Stratonicus was wont to 
say, that for eight moneths in the yeare, it was exceeding 
cold, and for the other foure, it was Winter: This long 
Mountaine devideth also Greece from Mysia, called vul- 
garly Bulgaria, lying on the North of Haemus, and to the 
South of Danubio, even Eastward to the Euxine sea : 
Which River parteth also Dacia, from Mysia the superiour, 
the which Dacia being an auncient and famous countrey, 
containeth these Provinces, Transilvania, Moldavia, [II. 57.] 
Vallachia, Servia, and Bosna : Here in this Kingdome of 
Epyre, was the noble and valiant Pirhus King, who made 
so great warres upon the Romanes, and at last by a woman 
of Argos was killed with a stone : The most valerous 
Captaine George Castriot surnamed Scanderberg, the great Scanderberg. 
terrour and scourge unto the Turkes was borne here ; of 

5i 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

whom it is recorded, he slew at diverse battels with his 
owne hands, above three thousand Turkes ; obtaining also 
many fortunate victories against Amurath and Mahomet : 
After whose death and buriall, his body was digged up 
by the Turkes, and joyfull was that man could get the 
least bit of his bones to preserve, and carry about with 
him, thinking thereby so long as he kept it, he should 
alwayes be invincible, which the Turkes observe to this 
day, and likely to do it to their last day. And more, 

Renoun'd Epire, that gave Olimpias life, 
Great Alexanders Mother, Phillips Wife. 

In this countrey are these two Rivers, Acheron and 
Cocytus ; who for their minerall colours, and bitter tasts, 
were surnamed the Rivers of Hell ; and the sacred Mount 
Pindus, celebrate to Apollo and the Muses so well 
memorized by Poets, is here. It is now called Mezzona, 
at the foote of which springeth the River of Peneia, 
called Modernely Salepiros, but more properly Azababa, 
and keeping his extreamest course through the fields of 
pleasure, named by the auncients Tempi, being five miles 
long, and as much large, lying betweene the two Hils 
Osso and Olympus, and watering that beautiful plaine, 
the faire Peneian spring, or Azababan River, disburdeneth 
it selfe in the gulfe Thessalonick. This is the first king- 
dom of Greece, and of a great length consisting betweene 

[II. 58.] the West, most part of Albania, as a perpendicular 
Province annexed to it, and the Arcadian Alpes, which 
divide JEtolia and Acarnania, the East-most regions of 
it, from Sparta, Thessaly, and the old Mirmidons Countrey 
of Macedon, amounteth to foure hundred and eight miles, 
lying along by the Sea side, whose breadth extendeth all 
the way along Northward to the hill Haemus, above 68. 
miles. The chiefe Towne of Epyre, where the Kings 
had their residence, was called Ambracia, modernely Laerto 
named of a river running by it : And upon the sixt day 
after our departure from Ragusa, we arrived at Corfu. 

The Ik Corfu. Corfu is an Hand, no lesse beautifull, then invincible: 

52 



COMMENTS UPON CORFU a.d. 

1609. 

It lieth in the Sea Ionean, the Inhabitants are Greekes, 

and the Governours Venetians : This He was much 

honoured by Homer, for the pleasant Gardens of Alcino, 

which were in his time. This Alcino was that Corcyrian 

Poet, who so benignely received Ulysses after his ship- 

wracke, and of whom Ovid said. 

Quid bifera Alcinoi referam pomaria ? vosque, 
Qui nunquam vacui prodistis in aethere rami, 

Why blaze I forth, Alcinoes fertile soyle, 

And trees, from whence, all times they fruit recoyle. 

This He was given to the Venetians by the Corsicans, 
Anno. 1382. because they were exposed to all the injuries 
of the world : It lieth like to a halfe moone, or halfe a 
circle East and North : The Easterne Cape is called 
Leuchino, the other Northward, St. Katerina ; the second 
Towne whereof is called Pagleopoli : It is of circuite one 
hundred and twenty, in length fifty two, and thirty seaven 
in breadth, and foureteene miles distant from Epyre. The 
City Corfu, from which the He hath the name, is situate 
at the foote of a Mountaine, whereupon are builded two 
strong Fortresses, and invironed with a naturall Rocke : [II. 59.] 
The one is called Fortezza Nova and the other Fortezza 
vecchia : They are well governed, and circumspectly kept, 
least by the instigation of the one Captaine, the other 
should commit any treasonable effect : And for the same 
purpose, the Governours of both Castles, at their election 
before the Senatours of Venice are sworne ; neither 
privately, nor openly to have mutuall conference ; nor 
to. write one to another, for the space of two yeares, 
which is the time of their government. These Castles 
are inaccessable, and unconquerable, if that the Keepers 
be loyall, and provided with naturall and martiall furniture. 
They are vulgarly called, The Forts of Christendome, Two strong 
by the Greekes ; but more justly, The strength of Venice : Castles. 
for if these Castles were taken by the Turkes, or by the 
Spanyard who would as gladly have them, the trade of 

53 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

the Venetian Merchants would be of none account ; yea 
the very meane to overthrow Venice it selfe. 

Corfu formerly Corcyra. was by some called Phaeacia, 
so denominate from a Virgin of that name, who was here 
supposed to have beene deflowred by Neptune. This He 
produceth good store of Wines, Oyle, Wax, Honey, and 
delicate fruits. 

From thence after certaine daies abode, I imbarked in 
a Greekish Carmesalo, with a great number of passengers, 
Greekes, Slavonians, Italians, Armenians, and Jewes, that 
were all mindefull to Zante, and I also of the like intent ; 
being in all fourty eight persons : having roome windes, 
and a fresh gale, in 24. houres we discovered the He 
Cephalonia the greater ; and sayled close along Cephalonia 
minor, or the lesser Ithaca, called now Val di Compare, 
being in length twenty, and in circuite fifty sixe miles, 
renowned for the birth of Laertes sonne, Ulysses ; 

[II. 60.] From th'Ithac rockes we fled Laertes shoare, 

ufZ^wa? And CUrS ' d the land > that dirC Ul y sses bore * 

borne! "** ^or Hi° ns sake, with Dardan blood attird, 

Whose wooden horse, the Trojan Temples fird. 

On our left hand toward the maine, we saw an Hand, 
called Saint Maure, formerly Leucas, or Leucada ; which 
is onely inhabited by Jewes, to whome Bajazet the second 
gave it in possession, after their expulsion from Spaine : 
The chiefe City is Saint Maure, which not long agoe 
was subject to Venice. This He Saint Maure was 
aunciently contiguate with the continent, but now rent 
asunder, and invironed with the sea : In this meane while 
of our navigable passage, the Captaine of the vessell espied 
a Saile comming from Sea, he presently being moved there- 
with, sent a Mariner to the toppe, who certified him she 
was a Turkish Galley of Biserta, prosecuting a straight 
course to invade our Barke. Which sudden affrighting 
newes overwhelmed us almost in despare. Resolution 
being by the amazed Maister demaunded, of every man 
what was best to doe, some replyed one way, and some 

54 



COMMENTS UPON CORFU a.d. 

1609. 
another: Insomuch, that the most part of the passengers 
gave counsell, rather to render, then fight ; being confident, 
their friends would pay their ransome, and so relieve them. 
But I the wandring Pilgrime, pondering in my pensive 
breast, my solitary estate, the distance of my Country 
and friends, could conceive no hope of deliverance. Upon 
the which troublesome and fearerull appearance of slavery, 
I absolutely arose, and spoke to the Maister, saying : The A counsel! to 
halfe of the Carmosalo is your owne, and the most part fi&t. 
also of the loading (all which he had told me before : ) 
wherefore my counsell is, that you prepare your selfe to 
fight, and goe encourage your passengers, promise to your 
Mariners double wages, make ready your two peeces of 
Ordonance, your Muskets, Powder, Lead and halfe-Pikes : [II. 61.] 
for who knoweth, but the Lord may deliver us from the 
thraldome of these Infidels, My exhortation ended, he 
was greatly animated therewith, and gave me thankes ; 
whereupon, assembling the passengers and Mariners, he 
gave good comfort, and large promises to them all : So 
that their affrighted hopes were converted to a couragious 
resolution ; seeming rather to give the first assault, then 
to receive the second wrong. 

To performe the plots of our defence, every man was 
busie in the worke, some below in the Gunner-roome, 
others cleansing the Muskets, some preparing the powder 
and balles, some their Swords, and short weapons, some 
dressing the halfe-pikes, & others making fast the doores 
above : for so the Maister resolved to make combate 
below, both to save us from small shot, and besides for 
boording us on a sudden. The dexterous courage of all 
men was so forward to defend their lives and liberty, that 
truely in mine opinion we seemed thrice as many as we 
were. All things below and above being cunningly 
perfected, and every one ranked in order with his Harque- 
buse and pike, to stand on the Centinell of his owne 
defence, we recommended our selves in the hands of the 
Almighty : and in the meane while attended their fiery 
salutations. 

55 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

In a furious spleene, the first Hola of their courtesies, 
was the progresse of a martiall conflict, thundring forth 
a terrible noise of Galley-roaring peeces. And we in a 
sad reply, sent out a backe-sounding eccho of fiery flying 
shots : which made an aequivox to the clouds, rebounding 
backward in our perturbed breasts, the ambiguous sounds 
of feare and hope. After a long and doubtfull fight, both 
with great and small shot (night parting us) the Turkes 

[II. 62.] retired till morning, and then were mindfull to give us 
the new rancounter of a second alarum. But as it pleased 
him, who never faileth his, to send downe an unresistable 
tempest ; about the breake of day we escaped their furious 
designes ; and were enforced to seeke into the bay of 
Largostolo in Cephalonia ; both because of the violent 
weather, and also for that a great lake was stricken into 
our Ship. In this fight there were of us killed three 
Italians, two Greekes, and two Jewes, with eleven others 
deadly wounded, and I also hurt in the right arme with 

A notable a small shot. But what harme was done by us amongst 

deliverance. tne Infidels, we were not assured thereof, save onely this, 
we shot away their middle mast, and the hinder part of 
the puppe ; for the Greekes are not expert Gunners, neither 
could our Harquebusadoes much annoy them, in respect 
they never boorded. But howsoever it was, being all 
disbarked on shoare, we gave thanks to the Lord for our 
unexpected safety, and buried the dead Christians in a 
Greekish Church-yard, and the Jewes were interred by 
the sea side. 

This bay of Largastolo is two miles in length, being 
invironed with two little Mountaines ; upon the one of 
these two, standeth a strong Fortresse, which defendeth 
the passage of the narrow Gulfe. It was here that the 
Christian Gallies assembled, in the yeare 1571. when they 
came to abate the rage of the great Turks Armado ; which 
at that time lay in Peterasso, in the firme land of Greece, 
and right opposite to them ; and had made conquest the 
yeare before, of noble Cyprus from the Venetians. 

The He of Cephalonia was formerly called Ithaca, and 

56 



COMMENTS UPON CEPHALONIA ad. 

1609. 
greatly renowned, because it was the heretable Kingdome 
of the worthy Ulysses, who excelled all other Greekes 
in Eloquence and subtility of wit. Secondly, by Strabo 
it was named Dulichi : And thirdly, by auncient Authors 
Cephalonia, of Cephalo, who was Captaine of the Army [II. 63.] 
of Cleobas Anfrittion. The which Anfrittion, a Theban C #*%j£ oJ 
Captaine having conquered the Hand, and slaine in battell 
Pterelaus King of Teleboas, for so then was the Hand 
called, gave it in a gift of government to Cephalo. This 
Cephalo was a Noble man of Athens, who being one day 
at hunting killed his owne wife Procris, with an arrow in 
steed of his prey, whereupon he flying to Amphitrion, 
and the other pittying his case, resigned this Islle to him, 
of whom it taketh the denomination : Cephalonia lyeth 
in the mouth of the Gulfe Lepanto, opposite to a part 
of iEtolia and Acarnania in the firme land : It is in circuit 
156. and in length 48. miles. 

The land it selfe is full of Mountaines, yet exceeding 
fertile, yeelding Malvasia, Muskadine, vino Leatico, 
Raysins, Olives, Figges, Honey, Sweet-water, Pine, Mol- 
berry, Date, and Cypre-trees, and all other sorts of fruites 
in abundance. The commodity of which redounds yearely 
to the Venetians, for they are Signiors thereof. 

Leaving this weather-beaten Carmoesalo, layd up to a 
full sea, I tooke purpose to travell through the Hand ; 
in the first dayes journey, I past by many fine Villages 
and pleasant fields, especially the vaile Alessandro ; where 
the Greekes told me, their Ancestors were vanquished 
in battell by the Macedonian Conquerour. They also 
shewed me on the top of Mount Gargasso, the ruines of 
that Temple, which had beene of old dedicate to Jupiter : 
and upon the second day I hired two Fisher-men in a 
little Boat, to carry me over to Zante, being twenty five 
miles distant. 

Here in Zante a Greekish Chyrurgion undertooke the 
curing of my arme, & performed condition within time. 

The He of Zante was called Zacinthus, because so was [H- $4-] 
called the sonne of Dardanus, who reigned there. And Zante - 

57 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

by some Hyria. It hath a Citty of a great length, border- 
ing along the sea side, the chiefe seate of the He, & named 
Zante, over the doore of whose Praetorium or Judgement 
Hall, are inscribed these verses, 

Hie locus, odit, amat, punit, conservat, honorat, 
Nequitiam, pacem, crimina, jura, probos. 

This place, hates, loves, chastens, conserves, rewards, 
Vice, peace, fellony, lawes, vertuous regards. 

And on the top of a Hill, above the towne, standeth 
a large, and strong Fortresse (not unlike the Castle of 
Milaine) wherein the Providitore dwelleth, who governeth 
the Hand. This Citty is subject yearely to fearefull Earth- 
quakes, especially in the moneths of October and 
November, which oftentimes subvert their houses, and 
themselves, bringing deadly destruction on all. This He 
produceth good store of Rasini di Corintho, commonly 
called Currants, Olives, Pomgranates, Cytrones, Orenges, 
Lemmons, Grenadiers, and Mellones, and is in compasse 
68. miles, being distant from the fore Promontore of 
Morea some 16. miles. 

The Ilanders are Greekes, a kind of subtile people, and 
great dissemblers ; but the Signiory thereof belongeth to 
Venice. And if it were not for that great provision of 
corne, which are dayly transported from the firme land 
of Peleponesus to them, the Inhabitants in short time 
would famish. 

It was credibly told me here by the better sort, that 
this little He maketh yearely (besides Oyle and Wine) 
onely of Currants 160000. Chickins, paying yearely over 
and above for custome 22000. Piasters, every Chicken 
[II. 65.] of Gold being nine shillings English, and every Piaster 
being white money sixe shillings. A rent or summe of 
mony which these silly Ilanders could never affoord, (they 
being not above 60. yeares agoe, but a base beggarly 
people, and an obscure place) if it were not here in England 
of late for some Liquorous lips, who forsooth can hardly 

58 



COMMENTS UPON ZANTE a.d. 

1609. 
digest Bread, Pasties, Broth ; and (verbi gratia) bag- 
puddings without these curraunts : And as these Rascall 
Greekes becomming proud of late with this levish expence, 
contemne justly this sensuall prodigality ; I have heard 
them often demaund the English in a filthy derision, what 
they did with such Leprous stuffe, and if they carried 
them home to feed their Swine and Hogges withall : A 
question indeed worthy of such a female Traffike, the 
inference of which I suspend : There is no other Nation 
save this, thus addicted to that miserable He. 

Bidding farewell to Zante, I imbarked in a Frigato, 
going to Peterasso in Morea, which of old was called 
Peloponesus : And by the way in the Gulfe Lepanto (which 
divideth Etolia and Morea. The chiefest Citty in Etolia 
is called Lepanto : from thence West- ward by the sea 
side, is Delphos, famous for the Oracle of Apollo) we 
sayled by the lies Echinidi, but by Moderne Writers, 
Curzolari : where the Christians obtained the victory 
against the Turkes, for there did they fight, after this 
manner. 

In the yeare 1571. and the sixth of October, Don John Christian 
of Austria, Generall for the Spanish Gallies, Marco Oemram, 
Antonio Colonna, for Pope Pio Quinto ; and Sebastiano 
Venieco for the Venetian Army, convened altogether in 
Largostolo at Cephalonia : having of all 208. Gallies, sixe 
Galleasses, and 25. Frigotes. 

After a most resolute deliberation, these three Generals 
went with a valiant courage to incounter with the Turkish 
Armado, on the Sunday morning, the seventh of October : [II. 66.] 
who in the end, through the helpe of Christ, obtained a 
glorious victory. In that fight there was taken and The battell of 
drowned 180. of Turkish Gallies ; and there escaped about Lepanto. 
the number of sixe hundred and fifty shippes, Gallies, 
Galeotes, and other vessels : There was fifteene thousand 
Turkes killed and foure thousand taken prisoners, 
besides 4000. peeces of Ordonance, and twelve thousand 
Christians delivered from their slavish bondage. In all, 
the Christians loosed but eleven Gallies, and five thousand 

59 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

slaine. At their returne to Largostolo, after this vic- 
torious battell, the three Generals divided innumerable 
spoyles, to their well-deserving Captaines, and worthy 
Souldiers. 

And notwithstanding Don John led that Armado, yet 
ambition led him, who in the midst of that famous victory, 
conceaved a treacherous designe, to seaze upon the castles 
of Corfu, under shew of the Venetian colors, which being 
discoverd, and he disappointed, died for displeasure in 
his returne to Messina in Sicilia ; where there his Statue 
standeth to this day. 

After my arrivall in Peterasso, the Metropolitan of 
Peloponesus, I left the turmoyling dangers of the indi- 
cated lies, of the Ionean and Adriaticall seas, and advised 
to travell in the firme land of Greece, with a Caravan of 
Greekes that was bound for Athens. 

Peterasso is a large and spacious City, full of Merchan- 
dize, and greatly beautified with all kind of Commercers, 
Their chiefe commodities, are raw Silkes, Cloth of gold 
and silver, Silken-growgranes, Rich-damas, Velvets of 
all kinds, with Sattins and TarTeties, and especially a 
Girnell for grayne : The Venetians, Ragusans, and Mar- 
seillians have great handling with them : Here I remember 
there was an English Factor lying, whom the Subbassa 
[II. 67.] or Governour of the Towne a Turke, caused privately 
afterward upon malice to be poysoned, even when I was 
wintering at Constantinople, for whose death the worthy 
and generous Ambassadour, Sir Thomas Glover my 
Patrone and Protector, was so highly incensed, that he 
went hither himselfe to Peterasso, with two Jannizaries, 
and a warrant sent with him from the Emperour, who 
in the midst of the market-place of Peterasso, caused one 
of these two Janizaries, strike off the head from the 
shoulders of that Sanzack ; and put to death divers others 
also that had beene accessary to the poysoning of the 
English Consul ; and the Ambassadour returning againe 
to Constantinople, was held in singular reputation even 
with the Turkes, for prosecuting so powerfully the course 

60 



COMMENTS UPON GREECE a.d. 

1609. 

of Justice, and would not shrinke for no respect, I being 
domestick with him the selfe same time. 

Peloponnesus now called Morea, a Peninsula, is all Morea in 
invironed with the sea, save onely at a narrow strait, Greece - 
where it is tied to the continent by an Istmus of five miles 
in breadth : which the Venetians then Lord of it, fortified 
with five Castles, and a strong wall from creeke to creeke, 
which easily were subverted by the Turkish batteries, the 
defect onely remaining in the defendants weaknesse, and 
want of men : Corinth and its gulfe, lyeth at the East 
end of this Istmus, and the gulfe Lepanto on the West, 
dividing iEtolia and Epyre : The wall which traversed 
this strait of Morea, was called Hexamite, five miles long : 
Truely it is one of the most famous distroit du terre en 
Europe. Morea it selfe is in length 168. and in compasse 
546. miles, and is at this day, the most fertile, and best 
inhabited Province of all the Empyre of Greece : The 
chiefe Rivers here, are Arbona and Ropheos : Argos here 
also is watered with the River Planizza, neare which 
standeth the Towne of Epidaure, wherein the Temple [II. 68.] 
of Esculapius was so renowned for restoring of health 
to diseased persons. It was anciently cognominate Agalia 
from Agalius the first King, Anno Mundi 1574. and also 
intituled from two Kings Sicionia, and Apia, then Pelopo- 
nesus from Pelops, and now Moreah. It is divided in 
five territories or petty Provinces, Laconia, Arcadia, 
Argolis, Misenia, and Eliso, the proper territory of 
Corinth. Of which City it was sayd, 

Hor. Let men take heed of Lais, Corinths whoore, 
Who earn'd ten thousand Drachmas in an houre. 

It is sayd by iEneas Silvius in his Cosmographicall 
treatise of Europe that divers Kings went about to digge 
through this Istmus to make it an Hand, namely King The strait of 
Demetrius, Julius Caesar, Caius Caligula, and Domitius Morea. 
Nero : Of all whome he doth note that they not onely 
failed of their purpose, but that they came to violent and 
unnaturall deaths. 

6j 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

But before the aforesayd Caravan at Peterasso admitted 
me into his company, he was wonderfull inquisitive, to 
know for what cause I travelled alone ? & of what Nation 
I was? To whom I soberly excused, and discovered my 
selfe with modest answers. Which pacified his curiosity ; 
but not his avaritious minde : for under a pretended 
protection he had of me, he extorted the most part 
of my money from my purse, without any regard of 
conscience. 

In the first, second, and third dayes journeying, we 
had faire way, hard lodging, but good cheere, and kind 
entertainement for our money, which was the Countrey 
Laconia. But on the fourth day, when we entred in the 
hilly and barren Countrey of Arcadia ; where, for a dayes 
journey we had no Village, but saw abundance of Cattell 
[II. 69.] without keepers ; and in that place it is thought the great 
battell of Pharsalia was fought betweene Julius Caesar, 
Arcadia. an d Pompey the great. 

Arcadia is bounded on the East with Eliso, on the 
West with Misenia, on the North with Achaia inferiour, 
and on the South with a part of Laconia and the sea : It 
was formerly termed Pelasgia, and lastly it tooke the 
name from Areas the sonne of Jupiter and Calisto, the 
people whereof, did long imagine they were more auncient 
then the Moone ; 

This soyle of whom Areas great patrone was, 
In age the Moone excell'd, in wit the Asse. 

But because it is a tradition of more antiquity then 
credit, I doe rather note it, then affirme it : And as men 
should dread the thunder-bolt, when they see the lightning, 
so ignorance and idolatry placed amongst us, and round 
about us, may be a warning to the professours of the 
trueth, to take heed of the venome, least by their Arcadian 
antiquitie surpassing the Moone, they become novices to 
some new intended massacre, for as powder faild them, 
but alas, not poison! so now with policy they prevaile in 
all things : how long the holy one of Israeli knoweth, but 

62 



COMMENTS UPON GREECE a.d. 

1609. 
certainely, our sinnes are the causes of their domineering 
and of our carelesse drouping. 

In this Desart way, I beheld many singular Monuments, 
and ruinous Castles, whose names I knew not, because I 
had an ignorant guide : But this I remember, amongst 
these rockes my belly was pinched, and wearied was my 
body, with the climbing of fastidious mountaines, which 
bred no small griefe to my breast. Yet notwithstanding 
of my distresse, the rememberance of these sweet seasoned 
Songs of Arcadian Sheepheards which pregnant Poets 
have so well penned, did recreate my fatigated corps with 
many sugred suppositions. These sterile bounds being [II. 70.] 
past, we entred in the Easterne plaine of Morea, called 
aunciently Sparta, where that sometimes famous Citty 
of Lacedemon flourished, but now sacked, and the lumpes 
of ruines and memory onely remaines. Marching thus, 
we left Modena and Napoli on our right hand, toward 
the sea side, and on the sixt day at night, we pitched our 
tents in the disinhabited villages of Argo and Micene, 
from the which unhappy Helen was ravished. 

This cursed custome of base prostitution, is become Thejapt of 
so frequent, that the greater sort of her mercenary sexe, 
following her footsteps, have out-gone her in their loath- 
som journeies of Libidinous wayes : she being of such 
an infinite and voluptuous crew, the arch mistresse and 
ring-leader to destruction, did invite my Muse to inveigh 
against her lascivious immodesty, as the inordinate patterne 
of all willing and licentious rapts : 

I would thy beauty (fairest of all Dames) 
Had never caus'd the jealous Greekes to move 
Thy eyes from Greece, to Ilion cast flames, 
And burnt that Trojan, with adulterate love : 
He captive like, thy mercy came to prove 
And thou divorc'd, was ravish 5 d with a toy : 
He swore faire Helen was his dearest dove 
And thou a Paris swore for to enjoy : 
Mourne may the ghosts, of sometimes stately Troy. 

(>3 



Hellen. 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

And curse that day, thou saw the Phirigian coast : 
Thy lecherous lust, did Priams pride destroy, 
And many thousands, for thy sake were lost. 
Was't nature, fortune, fancy, beauty, birth, 
That cros'd thee so, to be a crosse on earth. 

Some of thy sexe, baptiz'd with thy curst name, 
Crown'd with thy fate, are partners in thy shame. 
[II. 71.] Helens are snakes, which breeds their lovers paine, 
The maps of malice, murther and disdaine : 
Helens are gulfes, whence streames of blood do flow 
Rapine, deceit, treason, and overthrow : 
Helens are whoores, whiles in a Virgin Maske, 
They sucke from Pluto sterne Proserpines taske : 
Curst be thou Hell, for hellish Helens sakes, 
Still crost and curst, be they, that trust such snakes. 

Here in Argos I had the ground to be a pillow, and 
the world-wide-fields to be a chamber, the whirling windy- 
skies, to be a roofe to my Winter-blasted lodging, and 
the humide vapours of cold Nocturna, to accompany the 
unwished-for-bed of my repose. What shall I say then, 
the solid, and sad man, is not troubled with the floods 
and ebbes of Fortune, the ill imployed power of great- 
nesse, nor the fluctuary motions of the humerous 
multitude ; or at least, if he be sensible of his owne, or 
their irregularities, or confusions, yet his thoughts are not 
written in his face, his countenance is not significant, nor 
his miseries further seene than in his owne private suffer- 
ing ; whereas the face and disposition of the feeble one, 
ever resembleth his last thoughts, and upon every touch, 
or taste of that which is displeasant and followes not the 
streames of his appetite, his countenance deformeth it 
selfe, and like the Moone, is in as many changes as his 
fortune, but the noble resolution must follow iEneas advice 
in all his adventures ; 

Per varios casus, per tot discrimina rerum, 
Tendimus in latium, &c. 
64 



COMMENTS UPON GREECE a.d. 

1609. 

By diverse waves, and dangers great we mind, 
To visit Latium, and Latinus kind. 

In all this countrey of Greece I could finde nothing, 
to answer the famous relations, given by auncient Authors, [II. 72.] 
of the excellency of that land, but the name onely ; the 
barbarousnesse of Turkes and Time, having defaced all 
the Monuments of Antiquity : No shew of honour, no 
habitation of men in an honest fashion, nor possessours 
of the Countrey in a Principality. But rather prisoners 
shut up in prisons, or addicted slaves to cruell and tyranni- 
call Maisters : So deformed is the state of that once worthy 
Realme, and so miserable is the burthen of that afflicted 
people : which, and the apparance of that permanency, 
grieved my heart to behold the sinister working of blind 
Fortune, which alwayes plungeth the most renowned 
Champions, and their memory, in the profoundest pit 
of all extremities and oblivion. 

Let the Ghosts of that Theban Epaminondas, that Greeke 
Mirmidonian Phillip, & these Epirean worthies, Pyrhus Ghamphm. 
and Scanderberg, be witnesses hereto ; but especially, that 
Macedonian Alexander, whose fortunes ever followed him, 
rather than fled him til his last dissolution ; wherein I 
may say his greatnesse rose ; Like to a mighty and huge 
Oke, being cled with the exuvials, and Trophees of 
enemies fenced with an army of boughes garnished with 
a coat of barke as hard as Steele ; despising the force and 
power of the Winds, as being onely able to dally with the 
leaves, and not to weaken the roote : But the Northerne 
wind, that strong Champion of the airy Region, secretly 
lurking in the vault of some hollow cloude, doth first 
murmure at this aspiring Oke, and then striketh his Crest 
with some greater strength ; and lastly, with the deepest 
breath of his Lungs, doth blow up the roote : Even so 
was it with Alexander, who from a stripling came to be 
a Cedar, and from the sorrow of no more worlds, was 
soone cut off from the world he was into : For destiny 
is no mans drudge, and death is every mans conquerour, [II. 73.] 
l 65 E 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

matching the Scepter, with the Spade, and the crowned 
Prince with the praislesse Peasant : And in a word, there 
was never any to whom fortune did sooner approach, nor 
never any from whom she did more suddenly flee, then 
from Alexander, leaving him a cleare mirrour of the worlds 
inconstancy. 

Now as concerning the government of Greece, tearmd 
by the Turkes, Rum Hi, that is, the Romane Country : 

TheBeglerbeg It is ruled by a Beglerbeg, or Bassa, this word Beglerbeg 

of Greece. imports, Lord of Lords, in regard of the Sanzacks, or 
Subbassaes under them, who also are tearmed Lords ; which 
is a barbarous pride in an ambitious style : This Beglerbeg 
of Greece, retaineth his residence at Sophia the Metropole 
of Bulgaria, formerly Dacia, and is the greatest Com- 
maunder of all other Bassaes in the Turkish Provinces 
of Europe. 

All other Beglerbegs are changed every third yeare, 
or continued according to the Imperiall pleasure, neither 
may they returne from their station during this time. 
But this Bassa of Greece, keepeth his government for 
his life-time, and remaineth most at Court : He reserveth 
under his commaund, fourty thousand Timariots or Horse- 
men ; led under the conduct of twenty two Sanzacks, or 
Judges deputies of Jurisdictions ; to wit, two in Albania, 
at the Townes Iscodera, and Ancolina : two in Achaia, 
at Delvina, and Albassan : three in Thessalia, at Priasim, 
Salonica, and Trichola : two in Sparta, at Misietra and 
Paleopatra : three in Macedonia, at Carmona, Selistria, 
and Giastandila : one in Moldavia, at Acheranma : in 
Bulgaria, one at Sophia : in Thracia, one at Viazza : in 

[II. 74.] Epyre, one at Ducagina : in iEtolia, one at Joanina : in 
Peleponesus, one at Peterasso : the rest are Usopia, 
Nycopolis, Corinth, and Bandera towards the black-sea, 
and to the Northward of Danubio, at his kissing the 
Euxine waves : This much for the Beglerbeg ship of 
Greece, and the Provinces thereunto adjoyning. 

Departing from Argos, upon the seventh day we arrived 

Athens. at Athens : Athens is still inhabited, standing in the East 

66 



COMMENTS UPON GREECE a.d. 

1609. 

part of Peloponnesus, neere to the frontiers of Macedon, 
or Thessaly by the Sea side. It was first called Cecropia : 
Of one Cecrops the first King thereof, who first founded 
it, Anno Mundi, 2409. it was after mightily inlarged by 
Theseus, and well provided with good lawes by Solon, 
and lastly Athens of Minerva : In whose honour for a 
long time were celebrate solemne playes, called Panath- 
anaia : Athens is now termed Salenos, and was once the 
shrill sounding Trumpet of Mars, yeelding more valiant 
Captaines and Commanders then any City in the World, 
Rome excepted : It was a custome here, that when any 
man was growne too wealthy or potent, he was banished 
thence for ten yeares : This exile was intituled Ostracisme, 
because his name who was abandoned was written in an 
Oyster-shell : Great combustions and mutinies have hap- 
pened betweene Lacedemon, and Athens ; at last it was 
sacked by Lysander, and her Virgin body prostituted to 
the lust of 30. insulting Tyrants ; not long after whose 
expulsion, it was utterly subdued by the Macedonians. 

And in a word Athens being stayned with intestine 
blood-sheds, and grievously discontented with the death 
of her children ; her babes were brought forth, for the 
sword to glut upon, the bodies of her auncients were 
made as Pavements to walke upon, her matrones became 
a prey and prise to every Ravisher, and her Priests and 
Sacrificers were slaine before the gates of their Temples. [H. 75.] 

This City was the Mother & Well-spring of all liberall 
Arts and Sciences ; and the great Cisterne of Europe, 
whence flowed so many Conduit pipes of learning all 
where, but now altogether decayed : The circuit of old 
Athens hath beene according to the fundamentall walles 
yet extant about sixe Italian miles, but now of no great 
quantity, nor many dwelling houses therein ; being within 
two hundreth fire houses, having a Castle which formerly 
was the Temple of Minerva. They have abundance of 
all things, requisite for the sustenance of humane life, of 
which I had no small proofe : For these Athenians or 
Greekes, exceeding kindly banqueted me foure dayes, and 

67 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609. 

furnish't me with necessary provision for my voyage to 
Creta. And also transported me by sea in a Brigandine 
freely, and on their owne charges to Serigo, being 44. 
miles distant. 

After my redounded thankes, they having returned, 
the contemplation on their courtesies, brought me in 
rememberance, how curious the old Athenians were to 
heare of forraine newes, & with what great regard & 
estimation they honoured travellers, of which as yet, they 
are no wayes defective. 

Serigo. Serigo is an Hand in the sea Cretico : It was aunciently 

called Cytherea, of Cithero the sonne of Phaenise : And of 
Aristotle Porphyris, or Schotera, in respect of the fine 
Marble that is got there : It is of circuit threescore miles 
having but one Castle called Capsallo, which is kept by 
a Venetian Captaine : here it is sayd that Venus did first 
inhabit, and I saw the ruines of her demolished Temple, 
on the side of a mountaine yet extant. 

A little more downeward below this old adored Temple 

[II. 76.] of Venus, are the relickes of that Palace, wherein Menalaus 
did dwell, who was King of Sparta, and Lord of this He. 
The Greekes of the He told me there were wild Asses 
there, who had a stone in their heads, which was a 
soveraigne remedy for the Falling sicknesse, and good 
to make a woman be quickly delivered of her birth. I 
made afterward deeper enquiry for it, to have either seene 
or bought it, but for my life I could never attaine to any 
perfect knowledge thereof. 

In the time of my abode, at the Village of Capsalo 
(being a haven for small barkes, and situate below the 
Castle) the Captaine of that same Fortresse kild a Seminary 

A Priest slaine Priest, whom he had found in the night with his whoore 

m a Bordell. m a Brothel-house : for the which sacrilegious murther, 
the Governour of the He deposed the Captaine, and 
banished him, causing a boate to be prepared to send him 
to Creta. O ! if all the Priests which doe commit incest, 
adultery, and fornication (yea, and worse, II peccato carnale 
contra natura) were thus handled and severely rewarded ; 

68 



COMMENTS UPON GREECE a.d. 

1609. 

what a sea of Sodomiticall irreligious blood would over- 
flow the halfe of Europe, to staine the spotted colour of 
that Romane Beast. Truely, and yet more, these las- 
civious Friars are the very Epicures, or orT-scourings of 
the earth ; for how oft have I heard them say one to 
another? Allegre, allegre, mio caro fratello, chi ben 
mangia, ben beve, &c. That is, Be cheerefull, be cheere- 
full, deare brother, he that eateth well, drinketh well, he 
that drinketh well, sleepeth well, he that sleepeth well, 
sinneth not, and he that sinneth not, goeth straight through 
Purgatory to Paradize. This is all the care of their living, 
making their tongues to utter what their hearts do thus 
prophanely thinke, Ede, bibe, dormi, post mortem nulla 
voluptas, and as it is well observed of this monachall and 
licentious life : 

Non male sunt Monachis, grato indita nomina patrum, [II. 77.] 
Cum numerent natos, hie & ubique suos. 

Injustly, no! Monkes be cal'd Fathers, Why? 
Their bastards swarme, as thicke, as Starres in Sky. 

In the aforesayd boat I also imbarked with the Captaine, 
and sailed by the little Isoletta of Serigota : Leaving Capo 
di Spada on our left hand, we arrived at Carabusa with 
extreme fortune, being fiercely persued by three Turkish 
Galleots. Betweene Serigo and Carabusa we had seven 
score and twelve miles of dangerous and combustious 
seas. 



69 



A.D. 

1609-IO. 



THE THIRD PART 



NOw Creta comes, the Mediterren Queene, 
To my sought view, where golden Ida's seene : 
Cut with the Labrinth of th' old Minatoure, 
Thence tracd I all, the Syclads fifty foure : 
With Nigropont and Thessaly amaine, 
Macedon, Pernassus, the Achaian plaine ; 
Tenedos and Troy, long Phrigia sixt, 
Sestos, Abidos, Adrianopole vext ; 
Colchis, falne Thebes, Hellespont, and more, 
Constantinople, earths best soveraigne glore : 
The Euxine sea, and Pompeys pillar prest, 
In Peru then, He take my Winters rest. 

He He of Candy formerly called Creta, 
hath to the North the iEgean sea, to the 
West the sea Ionian ; to the South the 
Libique sea, and to the East, the Car- 
pathian sea : It lieth midway twixt Achaia 
Mf $fJ S 53e in Greece and Cyrene in Affrick, not being 
distant from the one, nor from the other, 
above two dayes sayling : It is a most famous and auncient 
The antiquity Kingdome : By moderne Writers, it is called Queene of 
of Candy. the lies Mediterrene : It had of olde an hundreth Citties, 
whereof it had the name Hecatompolis, but now onely 
foure, Candia, Canea, Rethimos, and Scythia, the rest are 
but Villages and Bourges. It is of length, to wit, from 
Capo Ermico in the West, called by Pliny, Frons arietis, 
and Capo Salomone in the East, two hundreth and forty 

70 




COMMENTS UPON CRETE a.d. 

1609-10. 

Miles, large threescore, and of circuit sixe hundreth and 
fifty miles. 

This is the chiefe Dominion, belonging to the Venetian 
Reipublique : In every one of these foure Citties, there 
is a Governour, and two Counsellors, sent from Venice 
every two yeares. The Countrey is divided into foure 
parts, under the jurisdiction of the foure Citties, for the 
better administration of Justice : and they have a Generall, 
who commonly remaineth in the Citty of Candy (like to 
a Viceroy) who deposeth, or imposeth Magistrates, Cap- 
taines, Souldiers, Officers, and others whatsoever, in the 
behalfe of Saint Marke or Duke of Venice. The 
Venetians detaine continually a strong guard, divided in 
Companies, Squadrons, and Garrisons, in the Citties and 
Fortresses of the Hand : which do extend to the number 
of 12000. Souldiers, kept, not onely for the incursion of 
Turks, but also for feare of the Creets or Inhabitants, 
who would rather (if they could) render to the Turke, 
then to live under the subjection of Venice, thinking 
thereby to have more liberty, & lesse taxed under the 
Infidell, then now they are under the Christian. 

This He produceth the best Malvasy, Muscadine and 
Leaticke wines, that are in the whole Universe. It 
yeeldeth Orenges, Lemmons, Mellons, Cytrons, Grena- 
diers, Adams Apples, Raisins, Olives, Dates, Hony, [III. 79.] 
Sugar, Vua di tre volte, and all other kindes of fruite in 
abundance. But the most part of the Cornes are brought 
yearely from Archipelago and Greece. The chiefe Rivers The Rivers of 
are Cataracho, Melipotomos, Escasino ; being all of them Candy. 
shallow and discommodious for shipping, in respect of 
their short courses, and rocky passages : And the principall 
Citties of olde, were Gnassus, where Minos kept his 
Court, 2. Cortina, 3. Aphra and Cydonia. This Countrey 
was by Marcellus made subject to the Romanes : It was 
afterward given by Baldwin Earle of Flanders, the first 
Latin Emperor of Constantinople to Boniface of Mont- 
serrat, who sold it, Anno 1 1 94. to the Venetians. 

This much of the He in generall; and now in respect 

71 



A.* LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

of my travelling two times through the bounds of the 
whole Kingdome, which was never before atchieved by 
any Traveller in Christendome ; I will as briefly as I can 
in particular, relate a few of these miseries indured by 
me in this Land, with the nature & quality of the people. 
This aforesaid Carabusa, is the principall Fortresse of 
Creta, being of it selfe invincible, and is not unlike to 
the Castle of Dunbertan, which standeth at the mouth of 
The old and Clyd ; upon which River the auncient City of Lanerke is 
famous City of situated : For this Fort is environed with a Rocke higher 
then the wals, and joyneth close with Capo Ermico : 
having learned of the theevish way I had to Canea, I 
advised to put my mony in exchange, which the Captaine 
of that strength very curteously performed ; and would 
also have diswaded me from my purpose, but I by no 
perswasion of him would stay. From thence departing, 
all alone, scarcely was I advanced twelve miles in my 
way, when I was beset on the skirt of a Rocky Mountaine ; 
with three Greeke murdering Renegadoes, and an Italian 
[III. 80.] Bandido : who laying hands on me, beate me most cruelly, 
robbed me of all my clothes, and stripped me naked, 
threatning me with many grievous speeches. 

At last the respective Italian, perceiving I was a stranger, 
and could not speake the Cretan tongue, began to aske 
me in his owne language, where was my money ? to whom 
I soberly answered, I had no more then he saw, which 
was fourescore Bagantines : which scarcely amounted to 
two groats English : But he not giving credit to these 
words, searched all my clothes and Budgeto, yet found 
nothing except my linnen, and Letters of recommenda- 
tions I had from divers Princes of Christendome, 
especially the Duke of Venice, whose subjects they were, 
if they had beene lawfull subjects : Which when he saw, 
did move him to compassion, and earnestly entreated the 
other three theeves to grant me mercy, and to save my 
A happy Hf e : A long deliberation being ended, they restored backe 
deliverance. a g a i ne mv Pilgrimes clothes, and Letters, but my blew 
gowne and Bagantines they kept : Such also was their 

72 



COMMENTS UPON CRETE a.d. 

1609-10. 

theevish courtesie toward me, that for my better safegard 
in the way, they gave me a stamped piece of clay, as a 
token to shew any of their companions, if I encountred 
with any of them ; for they were about twenty Rascalles 
of a confederate band, that lay in this desart passage. 

Leaving them with many counterfeit thankes, I travelled 
that day seaven and thirty miles, and at night attained 
to the unhappy Village of Pickehorno : where I could 
have neither meate, drinke, lodging, nor any refreshment 
to my wearied body. These desperate Candiots thronged 
about me, gazing (as though astonished) to see me both 
want company, and their Language, and by their cruell 
lookes, they seemed to be a barbarous and uncivill people : [HI. 81.] 
For all these High-landers of Candy, are tyrannicall, blood- Cruell 
thirsty, and deceitfull. The consideration of which and Candiots. 
the appearance of my death, signed to me secretly by a 
pittifull woman, made me to shun their villany in stealing 
forth from them in the darke night, and privately sought 
for a secure place of repose in a umbragious Cave by the 
Sea side, where I lay till morning with a fearefull heart, 
a erased body, a thirstie stomacke, and a hungry belly. 

Upon the appearing of the next Aurora, and when the 
welkin, had put aside the vizard of the night, the Starres 
being coverd, and the earth discoverd by the Sunne ; I 
imbraced my unknowne way, and about midday came 
to Canea : Canea is the second Citie of Creete, called Invinceabk 
aunciently Cydon, being exceeding populous, well walled, Canea - » 
and fortified with Bulwarkes : It hath a large Castle, con- 
taining ninety seaven Pallaces, in which the Rector and 
other Venetian Gentlemen dwell. There lye continually 
in it seaven Companies of Souldiers who keepe Centinell 
on the walles, guarde the gates and Market places of 
the Citie : Neither in this Towne nor Candia, may any 
Countrey Peasant enter with weapons (especially Har- 
quebuzes) for that conceived feare they have of Treason. 
Truely this City may equall in strength, either Zara in 
Dalmatia, or Luka, or Ligorne, both in Tuscana, or 
matchlesse Palma in Friuly : for these five Cities are so 

73 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

strong, that in all my Travells I never saw them matched. 
They are all well provided with abundance of Artilery, 
and all necessary things for their defence, especially Luka, 
which continually reserves in store provision of victuals 
for twelve yeares siege. 

In my first abode in Canea, being a fortnight, there 
came 6. Gallies from Venice, upon one of which there 

[III. 82.] was a young French Gentleman, a Protestant, borne 
neare Monpeillier in Langadocke ; who being by chance 
in company with other foure of his Countrey-men in 
Venice, one of them killed a young Noble Venetian, 
about the quarrell of a Courtezan : Whereupon they flying 
to the French Ambassadours house, the rest escaped, and 
he onely apprehended by a fall in his flight, was after- 
ward condemned by the Senatours to the Galleys induring 
life. Now the Galleys lying here sixe dayes, he got leave 
of the Captaine to come a shoare with a Keeper, when 
he would, carrying an yron bolt on his legge : In which 
time we falling in acquaintance, he complained heavily of 
his hard fortune, and how because he was a Protestant, 
(besides his slavery) he was severely abused in the Galley ; 

A Religious sighing forth these words with teares, Lord have mercy 

comfort. upon me, and graunt me patience, for neither friends, nor 
money can redeeme me : At which expression I was both 
glad and sorrowfull, the one moving my soule to exult 
in joy for his Religion : the other, for his misfortunes, 
working a Christian condolement for intolerable afflic- 
tion : For I was in Venice, at that same time when this 
accident fell out, yet would not tell him so much : But 
pondering seriously his lamentable distresse, I secretly 
advised him the manner how he might escape, and how 
farre I would hazard the liberty of my life for his deliver- 
ance, desiring him to come a shoare earely the next 
morning. Meane while I went to an old Greekish 
woman, with whom I was friendly inward, for she was 
my Landresse; and reciting to her the whole businesse, 
she willingly condiscended to lend me an old gowne, and 
a blacke vaile for his disguisement. The time come, and 

74 



COMMENTS UPON CRETE a.d. 

1609-10. 
we met, the matter was difficult to shake off the Keeper ; 
but such was my plot, I did invite him to the Wine, where 
after tractall discourses, and deepe draughts of Leatick, [III. 83.] 
reason failing, sleepe overcame his sences. Whereupon 
conducting my friend to the appointed place, I dis- 
burdened him of his Irons, clothed him in a female habite, 
and sent him out before me, conducted by the Greekish 
woman : And when securely past both Guards and Gate, 
I followed, carrying with me his clothes : where, when 
accoasting him by a field of Olives, and the other 
returned backe, we speedily crossed the vale of Suda, and 
interchanging his apparrell, I directed him the way over 
the Mountaines to a Greekish convent on the South side A place of 
of the land, a place of safeguard, called commonly the re f u i e - 
Monastery of refuge ; where he would kindly be enter- 
tained, till either the Galleys, or men of Warre of Malta 
arrived : It being a custome at their going, or comming 
from the Levante to touch here, to relieve and carry 
away distressed men : This is a place whereunto Bandits, 
men slayers, and robbers repaire for reliefe. 

And now many joyfull thanks from him redounded, 
I returned keeping the high way, where incontinent I 
encountred two English Souldiers, John Smith, and 
Thomas Hargrave, comming of purpose to informe me 
of an eminent danger, shewing me that all the Officers 
of the Galleys, with a number of Souldiers were in 
searching the City, and hunting all over the fields for me : 
After which relation, consulting with them, what way I 
could come to the Italian Monastery Saint Salvator, for 
there I lay ; (the vulgar Towne affording neither lodging 
nor beds) They answered me, they would venture their 
lives for my liberty, and I should enter at the Easterne 
(the least frequented) gate of the City, where three other 
English men were that day on guard, for so there were 
five of them here in Garison : Where, when we came, 
the other English accompanied with eight French souldiers [III. 84.] 
their familiars, came along with us also : And having 
past the Market place, and neere my lodging, foure 

75 



ad. LlTHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

Officers and sixe Galley souldiers, runne to lay hands on 
me : whereat the English and French unsheathing their 
Swords, valiantly resisted their fury, and deadly wounded 
two of the Officers : Meane while fresh supply comming 
from the Galleys, John Smith runne along with me to the 
Monastery, leaving the rest at pell mell, to intercept their 
following : At last the Captaines of the Garrison approach- 
ing the tumult, relieved their owne Souldiers, and drove 
backe the other to the Galleys. A little thereafter the 
Generall of the Galleys come to the Monastery, and 
examined me concerning the fugitive, but I cleering my 
selfe so, and quenching the least suspition he might con- 
ceive (notwithstanding of mine accusers) hee could lay 
nothing to my charge : howsoever it was, he seemed 
somewhat favourable ; partly, because I had the Duke of 
Venice his Pasport, partly, because of mine intended 
voyage to Jerusalem ; partly, because he was a great 
favourer of the French Nation : and partly because he 
could not mend himselfe, in regard of my shelter, and 
the Governours favour : yet neverthelesse, I detained my 

Cloysters are selfe under safeguard of the Cloyster, untill the Galleys 

safeguards. were gone. 

Being here disappointed of transportation to Archipe- 
lago, I advised to visit Candy : and in my way I past 
by the large Haven of Suda, which hath no Towne or 
Village, save onely a Castle, situated on a Rocke in the 
Sea, at the entry of the Bay : the bounds of that Harbour 
may receive at one time above two thousand Shippes and 
Galleys, and is the onely Key of the Hand : for the which 
place, the King of Spaine hath oft offered an infinite 
deale of money to the Venetians, whereby his Navy 

[III. 85.I which sometimes resort in the Levante, might have accesse 
and reliefe ; but they would never graunt him his request ; 
which policy of his was onely to have surprized the 
Kingdome. 

South-west from this famous harbour, lieth a pleasant 

The pleasant plaine surnamed the Valley of Suda: It is twenty Italian 

valley of Suda. Miles long, and two of breadth : And I remember, or 

76 



COMMENTS UPON CRETE a.d. 

1609-10. 

I discended to crosse the Valley, and passe the haven, 
me thought the whole planure resembled to me a greene 
sea ; and that was onely by reason of infinite Olive trees 
grew there, whose boughes and leaves over-toppe all 
other fructiferous trees in that plaine : The Villages for 
losse of ground are all built on the skirts of Rockes, upon 
the South side of the Valley ; yea, and so difficile to 
climbe them, and so dangerous to dwell in them, that me 
thought their lives were in like perill, as he who was 
adjoyned to sit under the poynt of a two handed sword, 
and it hanging by the haire of a horse tayle. 

Trust me, I told along these Rockes at one time, and 
within my sight, some 67. Villages ; but when I entred 
the valley, I could not find a foote of ground unmanured, 
save a narrow passing way wherein I was : The Olives, 
Pomgranets, Dates, Figges, Orenges, Lemmons, and 
Pomi del Adamo growing all through other : And at the 
rootes of which trees grew Wheate, Malvasie, Muscadine, 
Leaticke Wines, Grenadiers, Carnobiers, Mellones, and 
all other sorts of fruites and hearbes, the earth can yeeld 
to man ; that for beauty, pleasure, and profit it may easily 
be surnamed, the garden of the whole Universe : being 
the goodliest plot, the Diamond sparke, and the Honny 
spot of all Candy : There is no land more temperate for 
ayre, for it hath a double spring-tyde ; no soyle more 
fertile, and therefore it is called the Combat of Bachus [III. 86.] 
and Ceres ; nor region or valley more hospitable, in regard 
of the sea, having such a noble haven cut through its 
bosome, being as it were the very resting place of 
Neptune. 

Upon the third dayes journey from Canea, I came to 
Rethimos ; This City is somewhat ruinous, and unwalled, 
but the Citizens have newly builded a strong Fortresse, 
but rather done by the State of Venice, which defendeth 
them from the invasion of Pyrats : It standeth by the 
sea side, and in the yeare 1597. It was miserably sacked, 
and burned with Turkes. Continuing my voyage, I 
passed along the skirt of Mount Ida, accompanied with Mount Ida. 

77 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

Greekes, who could speake the Italian tongue, on which, 
first they shewed me the cave of King Minos, but some 
hold it to be the Sepulcher of Jupiter. That Groto was 
of length eighty paces, and eight large : This Minos was 
sayd to be the brother of Radamanthus, and Sarpedon ; 
who, after their succession to the Kingdome, established 
such aequitable lawes, that by Poets they are feigned with 
iEacus to be the Judges of Hell. I saw also there, the 
place where Jupiter (as they say) was nourished by 
Amalthes, which by Greekes is recited, as well as Latine 
Poets. 

Thirdly, they shewed me the Temple of Saturne, which 
is a worke to be admired, of such Antiquity, and as yet 
undecayed ; who (say they) was the first King that 
inhabited there, and Father to Jupiter. And neare to 
it is the demolished Temple of Matelia, having this 
superscription above the doore, yet to be seene : Make 
cleane your feete, wash your hands and enter. Fourthly, 
I saw the entry into the Laborinth of Dedalus, which I 

Labortnth. wou i ( j gladly have better viewed, but because we had 
no Candle-light, we durst not enter : for there are many 
hollow places within it : so that if a man stumble, or fall, 

[III. 87.] h e can hardly be rescued : It is cut forth with many 
intricating wayes, on the face of a little hill, joyning with 
Mount Ida, having many doores and pillars. Here it 
was where Theseus by the helpe of Ariadne the daughter 
of King Minos, taking a bottome of threed, and tying 
the one end at the first doore, did enter and slay the 
Minotaurus, who was included there by Dedalus : This 
Minotaure is sayd to have bene begot by the lewd and 
luxurious Pasiphae, who doted on a white Bull. 

Mount Ida is the highest Mountaine in Creta, and by 
the computation of Shepheards feete, amounteth to sixe 
miles of height : It is over-clad even to the toppe with 
Cypre trees, and good store of medicinable hearbes : 
insomuch that the beasts which feede thereupon, have 
their teeth gilded, like to the colour of Gold : Mount 
Ida, of old was called Phelorita, by some Cadussa, but 

78 



Dedalus 



COMMENTS UPON CRETE *.» 

1609-10. 

modernely Madura : It is sayd by some Historians, that 
no venemous animall can live in this He ; but I saw the 
contrary : For I kild on a Sunday morning hard by the Historian 
Sea-side, and within two miles of Rethimos, two Serpents trrours. 
and a Viper : One of which Serpents, was above a yard 
and halfe in length, for they being all three rolling within 
the coverture of the dry sands, my right legge was almost 
in their reverence before I remarked the danger : Where- 
fore many build upon false reports, but experience teacheth 
men the trueth. 

Some others also Historize, that if a Woman here, 
bite a man any thing hard, he will never recover : and 
that there is an hearbe called Allimos in this Hand, which 
if one chaw in his mouth, he shall not feele hunger for 
foure and twenty howres : all which are meere fabulous, 
such is the darkenesse of cloudy inventions. 

Descending from this Mountaine, I entred in a faire 
plaine, beautified with many Villages ; in one of which, [III. 88.] 
I found a Grecian Bishop, who kindly presented me with 
grapes of Malvasie, and other things, for it was in the 
time of their vintage. To carry these things he had given 
me, he caused to make ready an Asse, and a Servant, who 
went with me to Candy, which was more then flfteene 
miles from his house. True it is, that the best sort of 
Greekes, in visiting other, doe not use to come empty 
handed, neither will they suffer a stranger to depart with- 
out both gifts and convoy. 

I remember along this sassinous and marine passage, I 
found three fountaines gushing forth of a Rocke, each 
one within a yard of other, having three sundry tasts : 
the first water was exceeding light, and sweet ; the middle 
or second, marvelous sowre and heavy : the third was 
bitter and extraordinary salt : so that in so short bounds 
so great difference, I never found before, nor after- 
ward. 

Candy is distant from Canea a hundreth miles, Rethimos The City of 
being halfe way betwixt both : so is Candy halfe way in Candy. 
the same measure, twixt Rethimos and Scythia, and 

79 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

Canea the like twixt Rethimos and Carabusa, being in all 
200. miles. 

Candy is a large and famous City, formerly called 
Matium, situated on a plaine by the sea side, having a 
goodly Haven for shippes, and a faire Arsenall wherein 
are 36. Gallies : It is exceeding strong, and dayly guarded 
with 2000. Souldiers, and the walles in compasse are 
about three leagues. 

o 

In this time there was no Viceroy, the former being 
newly dead, and the place vacant, the Souldiers kept a 
bloody quarter among themselves, or against any whom- 
soever their malignity was intended, for in all the time I 
stayed there being ten dayes, it was nothing to see every 
[III. 89.] day foure or five men killed in the streetes : neither could 
the Rector, nor the Captaines helpe it, so tumultuous 
were the disordered Souldiers, and the occasions of 
revenge and quarrellings so influent. This commonly 
they practise in every such like vacation, which otherwise, 
they durst never attempt without death, and severe 
punishment ; and truely me thought it was as barbarous 
a governed place for the time, as ever I saw in the world : 
For hardly could I save my owne life free from their 
dangers, in the which I was twice miserably involved. 
Distances Candy is distant from Venice 1300. miles, from Con- 

from Candy, stantinople 700. from Famagusta in Cyprus, 600. from 
Alexandria in iEgypt, 500. from Tripoli in Siria 700. 
from Naples 900. from Malta 500. from Smyrna, in 
Carmania of Natolia 400. and from the Citty of Jerusalem, 
900. miles. The Candeots through all the Hand, make 
muster every eight day, before the Serj ant-majors, or 
Officers of the Generall, and are well provided with all 
sorts of Armour ; yea, and the most valerous people that 
hight the name of Greekes. It was told me by the Rector 
of Candy, that they may raise in Armes of the Inhabitants 
(not reckoning the Garrisons) above sixty thousand men, 
all able for warres, with 54. Gallies, and 24. Galleots for 
the sea. 

In all my travels through this Realme, I never could 

80 



COMMENTS UPON CRETE ad. 

1609-10. 
see a Greeke come forth of his house unarmed.: and 
after such a martiall manner, that on his head he weareth 
a bare Steele cap, a bow in his hand, a long sword by his 
side, a broad Ponard overthwart his belly, and a round 
Target hanging at his girdle. They are not costly in 
apparell, for they weare but linnen cloathes, and use no 
shooes but bootes of white leather, to keepe their legges 
in the fields from the prickes of a kind of Thistle, where- 
with the Countrey is overcharged like unto little bushes [III. 90.] 
or short shrubs which are marvelous sharpe, and offensive 
unto the inhabitants, whereof, often a day to my great 
harme, I found their bloody smart : The women generally 
weare linnen breaches as men do, and bootes after the 
same manner, and their linnen coates no longer then the 
middle of their thighes, and are insatiably inclined to 
Venery, such is the nature of the soyle and climate. The 
auncient Cretans were such notable lears, that the heathen Greets turnd 
Poet Epimenides, yea, and the Apostle Paul in his Epistle Critticks. 
to Titus, did tearme them to have beene ever liers, evill 
beasts, and slow bellies : whence sprung these proverbs, 
as Cretense mendacium, & cretisandum est cum cre- 
tensibus. 

The Candiots are excellent good Archers, surpassing 
all the Orientall people therein, couragious and valiant 
upon the Sea, as in former times they were ; and they 
are naturally inclined to singing : so that commonly after 
meat, Man, Wife, and Child of each family, will for the 
space of an houre, sing with such a harmony, as is wonder- 
full melodious to the hearer ; yea, and they cannot forgoe 
the custome of it. 

Their Harvest is our Spring : for they manure the 
ground, and sow the seed in October, which is reaped in 
March, and Aprill. Being frustrate of my intention at 
Candy, I was forced to returne to Canea the same way I 
went : when come, I was exceeding merry with my old 
friends the English-men : Meane-while there arrived from 
Tunnis in Barbary, an English Runagate named Wolson, An English 
bound for the Rhodes : where after short acquaintance runagate. 
l 81 F 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

with his natives, and understanding what I was, he 
imparted these words, I have had my elder brother, sayd 
he, the Maister (or Captaine) of a ship, slaine at Burnt- 

[III. 91.] Hand in Scotland by one called Keere ; and notwith- 
standing he was beheaded, I have long since sworne to 
be revenged of my brothers death, on the first Scotsman 
I ever saw or met, and my designe is, to stob him with 
a knife this night, as he goeth late home to his lodging 
desiring their assistance : But Smith, Hargrave, and 
Horsfeild refused, yet Cooke and Rollands yeelded. 
Meane-while Smith knowing where I used sometimes to 
diet, found me at supper in a Sutlers, a souldiers house, 
where acquainting me with this plot, the hoste, he, and 
three Italian souldiers conveighed me to my bed, passing 
by the arch-villaine, and his confederats, where he was 
prepared for the mischiefe : which when he saw his 
treachery was discovered, he fled away, & was seene no 
more here. 

Remarking the fidelity and kindnesse that Smith had 
twice shewen me, first in freeing me from the danger of 
galley-slavery, and now in saving my life, I advised to 
doe him a good deed in some part of acquittance, and 

Smith relieved thus it was : At his first comming to Venice, he was 

from long taken up as a souldier for Candy : where, when trans- 
ondage. ported, within a small time he found the Captaines 

promise and performance different, which enforced him 
at the beginning to borrow a little money of his 
Lieutenant : the five yeares of their abode expired, and 
fresh Companies come from Venice to exhibit the charge, 
Smith not being able to discharge his debt, was turned 
over to the new Captaine for five yeares more, who payed 
the old Captaine his mony ; and his time also worne out, 
the third Captaine came, where likewise he was put in 
his hands serving him five yeares longer. 

Thus having served three Captaines fifteene yeares, and 
never likely able (for a small trifle) to attaine his liberty, 

[III. 92.] I went to the Captaine and payed his debt, obtaining 
also of the Rector his licence to depart ; and the allowance 

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COMMENTS UPON CRETE a.d. 

1609-10. 

of the State for his passage, which was Wine and Biscot- 
bread : Thereafter : I imbarked him for Venice in a 
Flemish ship, the Maister being a Scotsman, John Allen 
borne in Glasgow, and dwelt at Middleborough in Zeland, 
his debt was onely forty eight shillings starling. 

Here I stayed in Canea twenty five dayes before I could 
get passage for the Arch Hands, being purposed for Con- 
stantinople ; but gladly would not have left the Monastary 
of these foure Friars, with whom I was lodged, if it had 
not beene for my designes ; in regard of their great cheere 
and deepe draughts of Malvasey I received hourely, and 
oftentimes against my will : Every night after supper, the 
Friars forced me to dance with them, either one gagliard 
or other : Their Musicke in the end was sound drunken- Drunken 
nesse, and their Syncopa turnd to spew up all, and their Ft l ers - 
bed converted to a boord, or else the hard floore, for 
these beastly swine, were nightly so full, that they had 
never power to goe to their owne chambers, but where 
they fell, there they lay till the morne : the cloyster it 
selfe had two faire Courts, the least of which might have 
lodged any King of Europe : The Church was little, and 
among the foure Friars, there was but one Masse-Priest, 
being a Greeke borne and turn'd to the Roman faction : 
his new name was Pattarras Matecarras, Pater Libenter, 
or Father of free will, indeed a right name for so sottish 
a fellow, for he was so free of his stomacke to receive in 
strong liquor, that for the space of twenty dayes of my 
being there, I never saw him, nor any one of the other 
three truely sober. Many odde merriments and jests 
have I observed of these Friars of Candie, but time will 
not suffer me to relate them, onely remitting the rest to 
my privat discourse, a figge for their folly. 

I travelled on foot in this He more then foure hundred [HI. 93.] 
miles, and upon the fifty eight day after my first comming 
to Carabusa, I imbarked in a Fisher-boat that belonged 
to Milo, being a hundred miles distant, which had beene 
violently driven thither with stormy weather. 

And in our passing thither, we were in danger to be 

83 



a.d. LITHGOWS RAKE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

over-runne two severall times, with two huge broken 
Seas, which twice covered the body of the closse boat : 
yet with extreame fortune we arrived at Milo in a bay 
of the East corner of the He, being about St. Andrewes 
day, where the poore Greeks tooke me up to their Village, 
two miles distant from this Creeke, and I abode with them 
foure dayes. 

Milo. Milo was called by Aristotle, Melada, and by others, 

Mimalida, Melos : And lastly Milo ; because of the fine 
mil-stones that are got there, which are transported to 
Constantinople, Greece, and Natolia. This He is one of 
the lies Cyclades, or Sporades, but more commonly 
Archipelago, or the Arch-Hands, and standeth in the 
beginning of the iEgean sea : The Inhabitants are 
Greekes, but slaves to the Turke, and so are all the fifty 
foure lies of the Cyclades, save onely Tino, which holdeth 
of the Venetians. 

From Milo I came to Zephano in a small boat, an Hand 
of circuit about twenty miles, and ten miles distant from 
Milo : TheTnhabitants are poore, yet kind people : There 
are an infinite number of Partridges within this He, of 
a reddish colour, and bigger then ours in Brittaine : They 
are wilde, and onely killed by small shot ; but I have 
seene in other Hands flockes of them feeding in the fields, 
and usually kept by children : Some others I have seene 

[III. 94.] in the streetes of Villages, without any keeper, even as 
our Hennes doe with us. I saw fountaines here, that 
naturally yeeld fine Oyle, which is the greatest advantage 
the Ilanders have. 

Zephano. Zephano did once produce the Calamita, and was 
renowned for the fine Mines of Gold and Silver, of which 
now it is altogether desolate : There is also fine Sulphur 
here, and exceeding good Marble : from whence Lucullus 
was the first that transported it to Rome : There is a 
certaine ground in this He, where it is sayd, that if any 
take it away, or digge deepe holes, the earth of it selfe 
in a small time will surcrease without any ayde of man. 
East from Milo and Zephano, lye the lies Policandro, 

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COMMENTS UPON ANGUSA a.d. 

1609-10. 

and Christiana, formerly Laguso, Sicandro ; and Sasurnino, 
anciently Calistha, famous for the birth of the Poet 
Calimachus. 

From thence I imbarked, and arrived at Angusa in 
Parir : This He is forty miles long, and sixe miles broad : Parir. 
being plentifull enough in all necessary things for the 
use of man : It was aunciently called Demetriado, whose 
length lieth South-west, and North-East : And hard by 
the high Mountaine of Camphasia, neere to Angusa, on 
a faire Valley standeth the auncient Temple of Venus, 
never a whit decayed to this day : This He was given to 
the Venetians by Henry the Constantinopolitan Emperour, 
and brother to Baldwin Earle of Flanders : and it was 
seazed upon by Mahomet, when Nigropont, and diverse 
other lies were surprised from the Venetians. 

In Angusa I stayed sixteene dayes, storme-sted with 
Northernely winds ; and in all that time, I never came 
in bed : for my lodging was in a little Chappell a mile 
without the Village, on hard stones ; where I also had a 
fire, and dressed my meate. The Greekes visited me 
oftentimes, & intreated me above all things I should not 
enter within the bounds of their Sanctuary ; because I [III. 95.] 
was not of their Religion. But I in regard of the long- 
some and cold nights, was enforced every night to creepe 
in, in the midst of the Sanctuary to keepe my selfe warme, 
which Sanctuary was nothing but an Aultar hembd in 
with a partition wall about my height, dividing the little 
roome from the body of the Chappell. 

These miserable Ilanders, are a kind of silly poore 
people ; which in their behaviour, shewed the necessity 
they had to live, rather then any pleasure in their living. 
From thence I imbarked on a small barke of ten Tunnes 
come from Scithia in Candy, and loaden with Oyle, and 
about midday we arrived in the He of Mecano, where we 
but only dined, and so set forward to Zea. 

This Mecano was formely called Delos, famous for 
the Temple of Apollo, being the chiefe He of the Cyclades, 
the rest of the 54. incircling it : Delos signifieth apparant, 

85 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

because at the request of Juno, when all the earth had 
Latona abjured the receipt of Latona : This Hand then under the 
receaved in water, was by Jupiter erected aloft, and fixt to receive her, 

wherein she was delivered of Apollo, and Diana : 

erratica Delos, &c. 

Ovid. Unsetled Delos, floating on the maine, 
Did wandring Laton kindly entertaine ; 
In spight of Juno, fatned with Joves balme, 
Was brought to bed, under Minerva's palme. 

In this He they retaine a custome, neither permitting 
men to dye, or children to be borne in it : but alwayes 
when men fall sicke, and women grow great bellied, 
they send them to Rhena a small Isoletta, and two miles 
distant. 
[III. 96.] Zea to which we arrived from Mecano, was so called 
of Zeo, the sonne of Phebo ; and of some, Tetrapoli ; 
because of the foure Citties that were there of old. 
Symonides the Poet, and Eristato the excellent Physition, 
were borne in it. The next He of any note we touched 
at, was Tino : This Hand is under the Signory of Venice, 
and was sometime beautified with the Temple of Nep- 
tune. By Aristotle it was called Idrusa ; of Demostenes, 
and Eschines, Erusea : It hath an impregnable Castle, 
builded on the top of a high Rocke, towards the East- 
end or Promontore of the He, and ever provided with 
three yeares provision, and a Garison of two hundreth 
Souldiers : So that the Turkes by no meanes can conquer 
it. The Hand it selfe is twenty miles in length, and a 
great refuge for all Christian Shippes and Galleys that 
haunt in the Levante. 
The lie of From this He I came to Palmosa, sometime Pathmos, 
Pathmos. w hich is a mountainous and barren Hand : It was here 
that Saint John wrote the Revelation after he was banished 
by Domitianus the Emperour. Thence I imbarked to 
Nicaria, and sayled by the He Scyro ; which of old was 
the Signory of Licomedes, and in the habit of a woman, 

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COMMENTS UPON SYRA a.d. 

1609-10. 

was Achilles brought up here, because his mother being 

by an Oracle premonished, that he should be killed in 

the Trojan Warre, sent him to this Hand ; where he was 

maiden-like brought up amongst the Kings daughters : 

who in that time, begot Pyrhus upon Deidamia, the 

daughter of Licomedes, and where the crafty Ulysses 

afterward did discover this fatall Prince to Troy. As we 

fetched up the sight of Nicaria, we espied two Turkish 

Galleots, who gave us the Chace, and pursued us, straight 

to a bay, betwixt two Mountaines, where we left the 

loaden boate, and fled to the Rockes, from whence we 

mightily annoyed with huge tumbling stones, the per- [HI. 97.] 

suing Turkes : But in our flying, the Maister was taken, 

and other two old men ; whom they made captives and 

slaves : and also seized upon the Boate, and all their 

goods : The number of us that escaped were nine persons. 

This He Nicaria, was aunciently called Doliche, and 

Ithiosa, and is somewhat barren : having no Sea-port at 

all : It was here, the Poets feigned, that Icarus the sonne 

of Dedalus fell, when as he tooke flight from Creta, with 

his borrowed wings, of whom it hath the name ; and 

not following directly his father Dedalus, was here OviddeTrhu 

drowned. 

Dum petit infirmis nimium sublimiae pennis 
Icarus, Icariis, nomina fecit aquis. 

Whiles Icarus weake wings, too high did flye, 

He fell, and baptiz'd the Icarian sea. 

So many moe, experience may account, 

That both above their minds, and meanes would mount. 

Expecting certaine dayes here, in a Village called 
Laphantos, for passage to Sio, at last I found a Brigandino 
bound thither, that was come from the fruitful! lie of 
Stalimene, of old Lemnos. This He of Stalimene is in 
circuit 90. miles, where in Hephestia it's Metropolis, 
Vulcan was mightily adored ; who being but a homely Vukam birth. 
brat, was cast downe hither by Juno, whereby it was no 

87 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

marvaile if he became crooked, and went a halting : The 
soveraigne minerall against infections, called Teera 
Lemnia, or Sigillata is digged here : The former name 
proceedeth from the Hand : The latter is in force, because 
the earth being made up in little pellets, is sealed with 
a Turkish Signet, and so sold, and dispersed over 
Christendome. Having imbarked in the aforesaid 
Brigandine, we sayled by the He Samos, which is opposite 
to Caria, in Asia minor, where the Tyrant Policrates lived 

[III. 98.] so fortunate, as he had never any mischance all this time, 
till at last Orientes a Persian brought him to a miserable 
death : Leaving us an example, that fortune is certaine 
in nothing but in incertainties, who like a Bee with a 
sharpe sting, hath alwaies some misery following a long 
concatenation of felicities : It is of circuit 1 60. and of 
length 40. miles : It was of old named Driusa, and 
Melanphilo, in which Pythagoras the Philosopher, and 
Lycaon the excellent Musitioner were borne. 

Upon our left hand, and opposit to Samos lyeth the He 

Nixia. of Nixia, formerly Naxos ; in circuit 68. miles : It was 
also called the He of Venus, and Dionisia, and was taken 
from the Venetians by Selim, the father of Soliman : East 
from Nixia, lieth the He Amurgospolo, in circuit twenty 
leagues, it hath three commodious ports, named St. 
Anna, Calores, and Cataplino : A little from hence, and 
in sight of Natolia, lieth the He Calamo, formerly Claros, 
in circuit thirty miles : and Eastward thence the little He 
of Lerno, five leagues in circuit, all inhabited with Greeks, 
and they, the silly ignorants of nature : South-east from 

The lie of this lieth the He of Coos now Lango : by the Turkes 

Lango. called Stanccow, the Capitall Towne is Arango, where 
Hypocrates and Apelles the Painter were borne : In this 
He, there is a wine named by the Greekes, Hyppocon, 
that excelleth in sweetnesse all other wines except the 
Malvasie, and it aboundeth in Cypre and Turpentine 
trees : There is here a part of the He disinhabited, in 
regard of a contagious Lake, that infecteth the ayre, both 
Summer, and Winter. There is abundance of Alloes 

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COMMENTS UPON SYRA a.d. 

1609-10. 
found here, so much esteemed by our Pothecaries ; the 
rest of this He shall be touched in the owne place. And 
neere to Lango, lyeth the He Giara, now Stopodia, it is 
begirded with Rocks and desartuous, unto which the 
Romans were wont to send in banishment such as deserved [III. 99.] 
death : In generall of these lies Cyclads, because they are 
so neere one to another, and each one in sight of another, 
there are many Cursares and Turkish Galleots, that still 
afflict these Ilanders : Insomuch that the Inhabitants are 
constrained to keepe watch day and night, upon the tops 
of the most commodious Mountaines, to discover these 
Pirats ; which they easily discerne from other vessells, 
both because of their Sayles and Oares : And whensoever The danger of 
discovered, according to the number of cursary Boates, Turkish 
they make as many fires, which giveth warning to all the Pirats - 
Ports to be on guard : And if the Sea voyagers in passing 
see no signe on these lies, of fire or smoake, then they 
perfectly know, these Laborinthing Seas, are free from 
pestilent Raveners. 

As we left the He Venico on our left hand, and entred 
in the gulfe betweene Sio, and Eolida, the firme land is 
called iEolida, there fell downe a deadly storme, at the 
Grecoe Levante, or at the North-east, which split our 
Mast, carrying sayles and all over-boord : Whereupon 
every man looked (as it were) with the stampe of death 
in his pale visage. The tempest continuing (our Boate 
not being able to keepe the Seas) we were constrained 
to seeke into a creeke, betwixt two Rocks, for safety of 
our lives ; where, when we entred, there was no likely- 
hood of reliefe : for we had a shelfie shoare, and giving 
ground to the Ankors, they came both home. 

The sorrowfull Maister seeing nothing but shipwrack, A fear full 
tooke the Helme in hand, directing his course to rush shipwracke. 
upon the face of a low Rocke, whereupon the sea most 
fearefully broke. As we touched the Mariners contending 
who should first leape out, some fell over-boord, and 
those that got land, were pulled backe by the reciprocating 
waves: Neither in all this time durst I once move; for [III. 100.] 

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a.d. EITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

they had formerly sworne, if I pressed to escape, before 
the rest were first forth, they would throw me headlong 
into the sea : So being two wayes in danger of death, 
I patiently offered up my prayers to God. 

At our first encounter with the Rocks, (our fore-decks, 
and Boates gallery being broke, and a great Lake made) 
the recoiling waves brought us backe from the Shelfes 
a great way ; which the poore Master perceiving, and 
that there were seven men drowned, and eleven persons 
alive, cryed with a loud voyce : Be of good courage, take 
up oares, and row hastily ; it may be, before the Barke 
sinke, we shall attaine to yonder Cave, which then 
appeared to our sight : Every man working for his owne 
deliverance (as it pleased God) we got the same with 
good fortune : for no sooner were we disbarked, and I 
also left the last man, but the Boat immediately sunke. 
There was nothing saved but my Cofnno, which I kept 
alwaies in my armes : partly, that it might have brought 
my dead body to some creeke, where being found, might 
have beene by the Greekes buryed ; and partly I held it 
A happy deli- fast also, that saving my life, I might save it too ; it was 
verancefrom m ade of Reeds and would not easily sinke, notwithstand- 
s ipwrac e. -^ Q f m ^ p a p ers anc j l mnen \ carried into it : for the 
which safety of my things, the Greekes were in admiration. 
In this Cave, which was 30. paces long, within the moun- 
taine, we abode three daies without either meate or drinke : 
upon the fourth day at morne, the tempest ceasing, there 
came Fisher-boates to relieve us, who found the ten 
Greekes almost famished for lacke of foode ; but I in 
that hunger-starving feare, fed upon the expectation of 
my doubtfull reliefe. 

True it is, a miserable thing it is for man, to grow 
an example to others in matters of affliction, yet it is 
necessary that some men should be so : For it pleased 
[III. 1 01.] God, having showne a sensible disposition of favour upon 
me, in humbling me to the very pit of extremities, taught 
me also by such an unexpected deliverance, both to put 
my confidence in his eternall goodnesse, and to know the 

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COMMENTS UPON SCIOS a.d. 

1609-10. 

frailty of my owne selfe, and my ambition, which drave 

me often to such disasters. 

The dead men being found on shoare, we buried them ; 

and I learned at that instant time, there were seventeene 

boats cast away on the Coast of this Hand, and never a 

man saved : in this place the Greekes set up a stone crosse 

in the memoriall of such a woefull mischance, and mourned 

heavily, fasting and praying. I rejoycing and thanking 

God for my safety (leaving them sorrowing for their friends 

and goods) tooke journey through the Hand to Sio, for 

so is the City called, being thirty miles distant : In my 

way I past by an old Castle standing on a little hill, named 

Garbos, now Helias ; where (as I was informed by two 

Greekes in my company) the Sepulcher of Homer was 

yet extant : for this Sio is one of the seven lies and 

Townes, that contended for his birth : 

Septem urbes certant de stirpe insignis Homeri. 

These Cities seven (I undername) did strive, 

Who first brought Homer to the world alive. 

Smyrna, Rhodos, Colophon, Salamis, Chios, Argos, 
Athenae : 
The which I willing to see, I entreated my associats 
to accompany me thither ; where, when we came, we 
descended by 16. degrees into a darke Cell; and passing 
that, we entred in another foure squared roome, in which 
I saw an auncient Tombe, whereon were ingraven Greeke Homers 
letters, which we could not understand for their antiquity ; Sepulcher. 
but whether it was this Tombe or not, I doe not know, 
but this they related, and yet very likely to have beene 
his Sepulcher. 

This He of Sio is divided into two parts, to wit, Appano- [III. 102.] 
mera, signifying the higher, or upper parts of it : The Sm- 
other Catomerea, that is, the levell, or lower parts of 
the He : It was first called Ethalia : It aboundeth so in 
Oranges and Lemmons, that they fill Barrels and Pipes 
with the juyce thereof, and carry them to Constantinople, 
which the Turkes use at their meate, as we doe the Verges. 

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a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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And also called Pythiosa; next Cios, Acts 20. 15. And 
by Methrodorus, Chio, of Chione : but at this day Sio. 
Not long agoe it was under the Genueses, but now 
governed by the Turkes : It is of circuite an hundreth 
miles, and famous for the medicinable Masticke that 
groweth there on Trees : I saw many pleasant Gardens 
in it, which yeeld in great plenty, Orenges, Lemmons, 
Apples, Peares, Prunes, Figges, Olives, Apricockes, Dates, 
Adams Apples, excellent hearbes, faire flowers, sweete 
Hony, with store of Cypre and Mulbery-trees, and 
exceeding good silke is made here. 

At last I arrived at the Citty of Sio, where I was 
lodged, and kindly used with an old man, of the Genuesen 
race, for the space of eight dayes : I found here three 
Monasteries of the order of Rome, one of the Jesuits, 
another of Saint Francis, and the third of the Dominican 
Friers, being all come from Genoa ; and because the 
greatest part of the Citty is of that stocke, and of the 
Papall Sea, these Cloysters have a braver life for good 
cheare, fat Wines, and delicate Leachery, than any sort of 
Friers can elsewhere find in the world. 
The faire The Women of the Citty Sio, are the most beautifull 

ames of to. j) ameS) ^ or ra ther Angelicall creatures) of all the Greekes, 
upon the face of the earth, and greatly given to Venery. 

If Venus foe-saw Sio's faire- fac'd Dames, 

His stomacke cold, would burne, in lust-spred flames. 

[III. 103.] They are for the most part exceeding proude, and 

sumptuous in apparell, and commonly go (even Artificers 
wives) in gownes of Sattin and Taffety ; yea, in Cloth 
of Silver and Gold, and are adorned with precious Stones, 
and Gemmes, and Jewels about their neckes, and hands, 
with Rings, Chaines, & Bracelets. Their Husbands are 
their Pandors, and when they see any stranger arrive, they 
will presently demaund of him ; if he would have a 
Mistresse : and so they make Whoores of their owne 
Wives, and are contented for a little gaine, to weare 
homes : such are the base minds of ignominious Cuckolds. 

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COMMENTS UPON SCIOS a.d. 

1609-10. 
If a Straunger be desirous to stay all night with any of 
them, their price is a Chicken of Gold, nine Shillings 
English, out of which this companion receiveth his supper, 
and for his paines, a belly full of sinfull content. This 
Citty of Sio hath a large and strong Fortresse, which was The Fortresse 
built by the Genueses, and now detained by a Garison of Sio. 
of Turkes, containing a thousand fire-houses within it, 
some whereof are Greekes, some Genoueses, some Turkes, 
and Moores : The Citty it selfe is unwalled, yet a populous 
and spacious place, spred along by the Sea-side, having 
a goodly harbour for Galleyes and Ships, the chiefe Inhabi- 
tants there, are descended of the Genoueses, and professe 
the superstition of Rome : The people whereof were once 
Lords of the iEgean Sea, maintaining a Navy of eighty 
Ships : In the ende they became successively subject to 
the Romane and Greeke Princes ; till Andronico Paleolo- 
gus, gave them and their He to the Justinianes, a Noble 
Family of the Genoueses : from whom it was taken by 
Solyman the Magnificent on Easter day 1566. being the 
same yeare that our late gracious, and once Soveraigne 
Lord, King James of blessed memory was borne. This 
Cittadale or Fortresse of Sio, standeth full betweene the 
Sea, and the Harbour, was invaded by 800. Florentines, [III. 104.] 
sent hither by the great Duke Ferdinando, brother to 
Queene Mother of Fraunce, and our owne Queene Maries 
Unkle, Anno 1600. August 7. The manner was thus, 
The Genouesen seede, had sold the Fort unto the Duke 
of Florence, whereupon he sent his Galleys and these 
Gallants thither: Where, when arrived in the night, they 
scaled the walles, slue the watches, and unhappily ram- 
forced all the Canon ; and then entring the Fort put all 
the Turkes to the sword, and among them, too many 
Christians : The Galleys all this time, being doubtfull 
how it went, durst not enter the harbour, but a storme 
falling downe, they bore up to an Isolet for ancorage in 
the iEolid gulfe, and three miles distant : The next morn- 
ing, the Turkish Bashaw, the Citty, and all the Ilanders 
were in armes : The Florentines being dismissed of their 

93 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

Galleys, grew discouraged, and trying the Canon, which 

they had spoyled at their first scallet, it would not be : 

Meane while, the Bashaw entred in parley with them, and 

promised faithfully, to send them safe to the Galleys if 

they would render. Upon the third day they yeeld, and 

as they issued forth, along the draw bridge, and the Bashaw 

set in a Tent to receive them as they came in, one by 

The heads of one, he caused strike off all their heads : And done, there 

Zoo. Floren- wa s a Pinacle reared upon the Walles of the Fort with 

tines cut off. ^^ ^ afe scu j s ^^ stanc [ t0 t fc s fay % 

But by your leave, Ferdinando in person, the yeare 
following, was more than revenged of such a cruell and 
faithlesse proceeding : He over-maisterd a Turkish towne 
and castle, put two thousand Turkes to the sword, sparing 
neither old nor young, and recoyling infinit richesse and 
spoyles of the towne, he brought home their heads with 
him to Ligorne, and set them up there for a mercilesse 
[III. 105.) monument. 

After some certaine dayes attendance, I imbarked in a 
Carmoesal, bound for Nigropont, which was forth of my 
way to Constantinople ; but because I would gladly have 
seene Macedonia, and Thessaly, I followed that determina- 
The He of tion : In our way we touched at Mytelene, an Hand of 
Mpekne. old called Isa : next Lesbos: And lastly Mytelene, of 
Milet the sonne of Phoebus. Pythacus, one of the seaven 
Sages of Greece, the most valiant Antimenides, and his 
brother Alceus the Lyricall Poet, Theophrastus the peri- 
patetike Philosopher, Arion the learned Harper, and the 
she Poet Sapho, were borne in it. 

This He of Lesbos or Mytelene, containeth in compasse, 
one hundreth forty sixe miles : the East parts are levell 
and fruitfull, the West and South parts mountainous and 
barren : The chiefe Citties are Mytelene and Methimnos : 
It was long under subjection of the Romane and Greeke 
Emperours, till Calo Joannes, Anno 1355. g ave ** m 
dowry with his sister, to Catalusio a Nobleman of Genoua ; 
whose posterity enjoyed it till Mahomet (surnamed the 
Greeke) did seaze on it, 1462. 

94 



COMMENTS UPON LESBOS a.d. 

1609-10. 

These lies Sporades, are scattered in the iEgean Sea, A comparison 
like as the lies Orcades are in the North Seas of Scotland ; °f Iles - 
but different in clymate and fertility : for these South- 
eastern lies in Summer are extreame hot, producing 
generally (Nigroponti excepted) but a few wines, fruites, 
and cornes, scarce sufficient to sustaine the Ilanders. But 
these North-westerne Hands in Sommer, are neither hot 
nor cold ; having a most wholesome and temperate ayre : 
and do yeeld abundance of corne, even more then to suffice 
the Inhabitants ; which is yearely transported to the firme 
land, and sold : They have also good store of Cattell, 
and good cheape, and the best fishing that the whole [HI. 106.] 
Ocean yeeldeth, is upon the coasts of Orknay and Zetland. 

In all these seperated parts of the Earth (which of them- 
selves of old, made up a little Kingdome) you shall alwaies 
finde strong March- Ale, surpassing fine Aqua-vitae, The pkntiful- 
abundance of Geese, Hennes, Pigeons, Partridges, Moore- nesse °f 
Fowle, Mutton, Beefe and Termigants, with an infinite ® ? e y , ^ 
number of Connies, which you may kill with a Crosse- 
bow, or Harquebuse, every morning forth of your Chamber 
window, according to your pleasure in that pastime, which 
I have both practised my selfe, and seene practised by 
others ; for they multiply so exceedingly, that they digge 
even under the foundations of dwelling houses. Such 
is the will of God to bestow upon severall places, particular 
blessings ; whereby he demonstrateth to man, the plentiful! 
store-house of his gracious providence, so many manner 
of wayes upon earth distributed ; all glory be to his incom- 
prehensible goodnes therefore. I have seldome seene in 
all my travells, more toward, and tractable people (I meane 
their Gentlemen) and better house-keepers, then be these 
Orcadians, and Zetlanders : whereof in the prime of my 
adolescency (by two voyages amongst these Northerne 
lies) I had the full proofe and experience. 

And now certainely, as it is a signe of little wisedome, 
and greater folly, for a man to answere suddenly to every 
light question ; so it is as great a shame and stupiditie 
in man to keepe silence, when he should, and may 

95 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

deservingly speake ; Wherefore damnifying the one, and 
vilifying the other, I come forth betweene both (Pugno 
pro Patria) to have a single bout with the ignorant malice 
of an imperious and abortive Geographer, brought up 
in the Schooles neere Thames, & Westward Ho at Oxford ; 

[III. 107.] wno blindlings in an absurd description of the world, hath 
produced many errors, & manifest untrueths to the world. 
And these amongst thousands moe, which I justly can 
censure to be false ; namely, he reporteth the Orcadians 
to be a cruell and barbarous peeple, and that the most part 
of Scotland regarded neither King nor Law : tearming 
us also to have monstrous backes, against the execution 
of Justice : and because (saith he) they resemble us some- 
what in visage and speech, the Scots are descended of the 
Saxons ; where when the blacke wings of the Eagle spred 
in the South, they fled thither, thinking rather to enjoy 
penurious liberty, then rich fetters of gold : Moreover, 

False asper- that the scurvy He of Manne, is so abundant in Oates, 
?P ot j Barley, and Wheate, that it supplieth the defects of Scot- 
land ; so venemous also is the Wormewood of his braine, 
that he impugneth Hector Boetius, to have mentioned 
a rabble of Scottish Kings before Kenneth, the first 
Monarch of all Scotland ; but were he fast rabled in a 
rope, I thinke his presumptuous and impertinent phrase 
were well recompensed : Yea, further he dare to write, 
that if the Mountaines, and unaccessable Woods, had not 
beene more true to the Scots, then their owne valour, 
that Kingdome had long since beene subdued. 

Many other introductions flow from his shallow base- 
branded apprehension which I purposely omit : To this 
his perverst malignitie (without partiall or particular 
construction) I generally answere ; that for courteous 
penetrating lenity ; industrious tractability ; prompt and 
exquisite ingeniosity ; nobly taught, vivacious, & vertuous 
Gentility ; humane, and illustrious generosity ; inviolate, 
and uncommixed nationall pedegree ; Learned, Academi- 
call, and Ecclesiasticke Clergy ; for sincere Religion, and 
devoute Piety ; affable and benevolent Hospitality ; civill 

96 



sion 
Scotland. 



COMMENTS UPON LESBOS a.d. 

1609-10. 

& zealous orders in spirituality; so docible a people to [III. 108.] 

supreame regality; and for true valour, courage, and 

magnanimity ; there is no Kingdome or Nation within 

the compasse of the whole universe, can excell, or 

compare with it. 

Now what a selfe Losungeous fellow hath this fustian 

companion proved, when the flat contrary of his abjured 

impositions, is infallibly knowne to be of undoubted 

trueth. And how often hath Europe, the seat of Christen- 

dome, and Mistresse of the world, had the full experience 

in all her distressed corners, of the valiant, faithfull service, 

and unresistable valour of the people, of that never 

conquered Nation : the testimonies are evident, for my 

part I desist, and will not medle to peramble through 

peremptory inferences, on particular Kingdomes, although 

I acquitingly can ; Howsoever a pertinacious Buffon dare, 

and falsely will doe it : 

Each base fantasticke braine, dare forge new stiles, Certain 
And alter Regions, customes, Townes, and lies : replies. 

Strip'd in a bravad, he can joyne (disjoyne 
Contiguat Kingdomes) distant lands in one ; 
First Broaker-like, he scrap's rags, snips and bits, 
Then playes the Ruffian, shifting with his wits : 
Last Serpent-like, he casts a winter skin, . 
And like a strumpet boldly enters in ; 
This charling Ape, with counterfeits and lies, 
And blandements ; would feede the worlds wide eyes : 
Thus like a stupid Asse, this blocke-head Foole, 
Must turne a Coxcombe, studying in the Schoole : 
Would he be wise and exercise his braines 
Goe travell first, experience knowledge gaines : 
Dare he to write of Kingdomes, that ne'er saw 
His fathers Oxe, perhaps the plough to draw ; 
And scarce can tell even of the bread he eates 
How many frames it suffers, toyle, and sweats; [III. 109.] 

Nor ne'er ten miles, was travell'd from his cradle 
Yet faine would sit, the steerd Pegasian sadle : 
l 97 g 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

Whiles loytring in a Colledge, thus he dare 
Sow lyes, reape shame, build Lottries in the ayre ; 
Goe doting Gull? Goe? blot away thy name? 
And let thy labours perish with thy fame. 

This He of Mytelena, is by the Turkes called Sarcam 
lying without the mouth of the gulfe of Smyrna, and 
opposite to the Westerne coast of Phrigia minor; where 
besides excellent Wine and Cornes, there are two sorts 
of dregs made there, which the Turkes use to put in their 
pottage : In Turkish the one is called Trachana, the other 
Bouhort, which the Romanes aunciently named Crimnon 
and Mazza. Whence Loosing from Mitylene in the 
aforesaid Carmosal, we touched at Dalamede, in the lie 
The Ik Androsia, the Northmost He of the Syclades toward 
Androsia. Thessalia : It is indifferent copious of all things necessary 
for humane life, and round sixty miles : The Athenians 
of old (as Plutarch mentioneth) sent hither Themistocles 
to demaund tribute ; Themistocles told them, he came 
to inflict some great imposition upon them, being accom- 
panied with two Goddesses ; the one was (Eloquence) to 
perswade them, and the other was (Violence) to enforce 
them. Whereunto the Androsians replyed, that on their 
side, they had two Goddesses as strong ; the one whereof 
was (Necessity) whereby they had it not ; and the other 
(Impossibility) whereby they could not part with that they 
never enjoyed. 

This iEgean Sea, or mare iEgeum, had its denomination 
from iEgeus the father of Theseus, who misdoubting his 
sonnes returne from the Minotaure of Creet, here leaped 
[III. no.] in, and drowned himselfe : The greatest part of these 
sixty nine Kings, that Agamemnon tooke with him to 
the siege of Troy, were onely Kings of these little Hands : 
By some they are divided into two parts, Cyclades, and 
Sporades ; the former containing fifty foure, and the latter 
twelve lies ; modernely they are all cognominat Archi- 
pylago, or the Arch Hands. 

Hoysing saile from Dalamede, we set over to Nigro- 

98 



COMMENTS UPON LESBOS a.d. 

1609-10. 

ponti, being sixty miles distant, and bearing up Eastward 

to double the South Cape, we straight discovered two Two Turkish 

Turkish Galleots pursuing us: Whereupon with both Galleots - 

sailes and oares, we sought in to the bottome of a long 

creeke, on the West side of the Cape, called Bajo di 

piscatori ; whither also fled nine Fisher-boates for refuge : 

The Galleots fearing to follow us in, went to Ankor, at 

a rocky Isolet in the mouth of the bay, and then within 

night were resolved to assaile us. But night come, and 

every night of sixe (for there sixe dayes they expected 

us) we made such Bonfires, that so affrighted them (being 

two miles from any Village) they durst never adventure 

it : Yet I being a stranger was exposed by the untoward 

Greekes to stand Centinell every night, on the top of a 

high Promontore, it being the dead time of a snowy and 

frosty winter ; which did invite my Muse to bewaile the 

tossing of my toylesome life, my solitary wandring, and 

the long distance of my native soyle : 



Carmina secessum scribentis, & otia quaerunt 
Me Mare, me venti, me fera jactat Hyems. 

I Wander in exile, 
As though my Pilgrimage : 
Were sweete Comedian scaenes or love 

Upon a golden Stage. 
Ah I, poore I, distres'd, 

Oft changing to and fro, [III. m.] 

Am forc'd to sing sad Obsequies 

Of this my Swan-like wo. 
A vagabonding Guest, 

Transported here and there, 
Led with the mercy-wanting winds 

Of feare, griefe, and dispaire. 
Thus ever-moving I, 

To restlesse journeys thrald, 
Obtaines by Times triumphing frownes 

A calling, unrecaPd : 
99 



A.D. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

Was I praeordain'd so 

Like Tholos Ghost to stand. 
Three times foure houres, in twenty foure 

With Musket in my hand. 
Ore-blasted with the stormes 

Of Winter-beating Snow, 
And frosty pointed haile-stones hard 

On me poore wretch to blow. 
No Architecture Lo 

But whirling-windy Skyes. 
Or'e-syld with thundring claps of Clouds, 

Earths center to surprise. 
I, I, it is my fate, 

Allots this fatall crosse, 
And reckons up in Characters, 

The time of my Times losse. 
My destiny is such, 

Which doth predestine me, 
To be a mirrour of mishaps, 

A Mappe of misery. 
Extreamely doe I live, 

Extreames are all my joy, 
[III. 112.] I fi n d i n deepe extreamities, 

Extreames, extreame annoy. 
Now all alone I watch, 

With Argoes eyes and wit. 
A Cypher twixt the Greekes and Turkes 

Upon this Rocke I sit. 
A constraint Captive I, 

Mongst incompassionate Greekes, 
Bare-headed, downeward bowes my head, 

And liberty still seekes. 
But all my sutes are vaine, 

Heaven sees my wofull state : 
Which makes me say, my worlds eye-sight 

Is bought at too high rate. 
Would God I might but live, 

To see my native Soyle : 
100 



COMMENTS UPON LESBOS a.d, 

1609-10. 

Thrice happy in my happy wish, 

To end this endlesse toyle : 
Yet still when I record, 

The pleasant bankes of Clide : 
Where Orchards, Castles, Townes, and Woods, 

Are planted by his side : 
And chiefly Lanerke thou, 

Thy Countries Laureat Lampe : 
In which this bruised body now 

Did first receive the stampe. 
Then doe I sigh and sweare, 

Till death or my returne, 
Still for to weare the Willow wreath, 

In sable weed to mourne. 
Since in this dying life, 

A life in death I take, 
He sacrifice in spight of wrath, 

These solemne vowes I make, [III. 113.] 

To thee sweete Scotland first, 

My birth and breath I leave : 
To Heaven my soule, my heart King James, 

My Corpes to lye in grave. 
My staffe to Pilgrimes I, 

And Pen to Poets send ; 
My haire-cloth roabe, and halfe-spent goods, 

To wandring wights I lend. 
Let them dispose as though 

My treasure were of Gold, 
Which values more in purest prise, 

Then drosse ten thousand fold. 
These Trophees I erect, 

Whiles memory remaines : 
An epitomiz'd Epitaph, 

On Lithgows restlesse paines : 
My will's inclos'd with love, 

My love with earthly blis : 
My blisse in substance doth consist, 

To crave no more but this. 



IOI 



ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

Thou first, is, was, and last, 

Eternall, of thy grace, 

Protect, prolong, great Britaines King, 

His Sonne, and Royall Race. 

AMEN. 

Upon the seaventh day, there came downe to visit us, 
two Gentlemen of Venice, clothed after the Turkish 
manner; who under exile, were banished their Native 
Territories ten yeares for slaughter ; each of them having 
two servants, and all of them carrying Shables, and two 
[III. 114.] Gunnes a peece : which when I understood, they were 
Italians, I addressed my selfe to them, with a heavy com- 
plaint against the Greekes, in detaining my Budgeto, and 
compelling me to endanger my life for their goods : 
whereupon they accusing the Patrone, and finding him 
guilty of this oppression, belaboured him soundly with 
handy blowes, and caused him to deliver my things, 
carrying me with them five miles to a Towne where they 
remained, called Rethenos, formerly Carastia, where I was 
exceeding kindly entertained ten dayes : And most nobly 
(as indeed they were noble) they bestowed on me forty 
Chickens of Gold at my departure, for the better advance- 
ment of my voyage, which was the first gift that ever I 
received in all my travells. For if the darts of death had 
not beene more advantagious to me, then Asiaticke gifts, 
I had never beene able to have undergone this tributary, 
tedious, and sumptuous peregrination : The confluence 
of the divine providence allotting me meanes, from the 
losse of my dearest consorts gave me in the deepnesse 
of sorrow, a thankefull rejoycing. 
The lie ^ Nigroponti was formerly called Euboea, next, Albantes : 
Ntgropontt. an( j - g nQw surname( } t h e Queene of Archipelago : The 
Turkes cognominate this He Egribos : The Towne of 
Nigropont, from which the He taketh the name, was taken 
in by Mahomet the second; Anno. 145 1. and in this He 
is found the Amianten stone, which is said to be drawne 
in threeds, as out of Flaxe, whereof they make napkins, 

102 



COMMENTS UPON NEGROPONT 



A.D. 
1609-IO. 



and other like stuffes ; and to make it white, they use to 

throw it in the fire, being salted : The stone also is found 

here, called by the Greekes Ophites, and by us Serpentine. 

The circuit of this He is three hundred fourty sixe miles. 

It is seperated from the firme land of Thessalia, from the 

which it was once rent by an Earthquake, with a narrow [in. 115.] 

channell, over the which in one place there is a bridge, 

that passeth betweene the He, and the maine continent, 

and under it runneth a marvellous swift current, or 

Euripus, which ebbeth and floweth sixe times night and 

day. Within halfe a mile of the bridge, I saw a Marble 

columne, standing on the toppe of a little Rocke, whence 

(as the Ilanders told me) Aristotle leaped in, and drowned Aristotle* 

himselfe, after that he could not conceive the reason, why death > 

this Channell so ebbed & flowed : using these words, 

Quia ego non capio te, tu capias me. This He bringeth 

forth in abundance, all things requisite for humane life, 

and decored with many goodly Villages. 

The chiefe Cities are Nigropont, and Calcjios : The 
principall rivers Cyro, and Nelos, of whom it is sayd, 
if a sheepe drinke of the former, his wooll becommeth 
white, if of the latter coale blacke. From thence and 
after 22. dayes abode in this He, I arrived at a Towne 
in Macedonia, called Salonica, but of old Thessalonica, 
where I stayed five dayes, and was much made of by the 
Inhabitants, being Jewes. 

Salonica is situate by the sea side, betweene the two Sakntca. 
Rivers Chabris and Ehedora : It is a pleasant, large and 
magnificke City, full of all sorts of merchandize ; and 
it is nothing inferiour in all things (except nobility) unto 
Naples in Italy : It was sometimes for a while under the 
Signiory of Venice, till Amurath the sonne of Mahomet, 
tooke it from this Reipublicke. And is the principall 
place of Thessaly which is a Province of Macedon, 
together with Achaia, and Myrmedon, which are the other 
two Provinces of the same. 

This City of Salonica is now converted in an university 
for the Jewes ; and they are absolute Signiors thereof 

103 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 
[III. 116.] under the great Turke, with a large Territory of land, 
lying without and about them : It hath beene ever in 
their hands since Soliman tooke in Buda in Hungary, 
Anno. 1 51 6. August. 20. to whome they lent two millions 
of money, and for warrandice whereof, they have this 
Towne and Province made fast to them : They speake 
vulgarly and Maternally here the Hebrew tongue, man, 
woman and child, and not else where in all the world. 
All their Sinagogian or Leviticall Priests are bred here, 
and from hence dispersed to their severall stations. 
Thessaly. Thessaly a long the sea side, lieth betweene Pelopon- 

nesus, and Achaia: Wherein standeth the hill Olympus, 
on which Hercules did institute the Olympian games, 
which institution was of long time the Grecian Epoche, 
from whence they reckoned their time. 

Macedon is now called by the Turkes Calethiros, signi- 
fying a mighty & warlike Nation : Macedonia, containing 
Thessaly, Achaia, and Mirmidon, lieth as a center to them ; 
having Achaia to the East : Thessalia to the South : 
Mirmidonia, bordering with iEtolia to the West : And 
a part of Hoemus, whence it was called Hsemonia, and 
some of Misia superior to the North : It was also called 
Amathia, from Amathus once King thereof, and then 
Macedonia from the King Macedo : The chiefe Cities are 
Andorista, Andesso, Sydra, Sederaspen, where the mines 
of gold and silver be, which enrich the Turke so monethly, 
receiving thence somtimes 18000. 24000. & 30000. 
Ducats. And Pellia, where Alexander the great was 
borne. Bajazet the first, wonne this Countrey, from the 
Constantinopolitans. About this City of Salonica is the 
most fertile and populous Countrey in all Greece. 
Th j V fn n ~ Greece of all Kingdomes in Europe, hath bene most 

u eoj ieece. f amous ^ anc [ highly renowned for many noble respects : 
[III. 117.] yet most subject to the vicissitude of Fortune than any 
other : who changing Gold for Brasse, and loathing their 
owne Princes, suffered many tyrants to rule over them, 
scourging their folly with their fall, and curing a festered 
soare with a poysoned playster : whence succeded a dismall 

104 



COMMENTS UPON MACEDONIA a.d. 

1609-10. 

discord, which beginning when the State of Greece was 
at the highest, did not expire till it fell to the lowest 
ebbe ; sticking fast in the hands of a grievous desolation : 
which former times, if a man would retrospectively 
measure, he might easily find, and not without admiration, 
how the mighty power of the divine Majestie doth swey 
the moments of things, and sorteth them in peremptory 
manner to strange and unlooked for effects : making 
reason blind, policy astonished, strength feeble, valour 
dastardly, turning love into hatred, feare into fury, bold- 
nesse into trembling, and in the circuit of one minute, 
making the Conquerour, a conquered person. 

Greece now tearmed by the Turkes Rum-Ili, the 
Romane Countrey, was first called Helles, next Grecia 
of Grecus, who was once King thereof: The Greekes, 
of all other Gentiles, were the first converted Christians, 
and are wonderfull devout in their professed Religion : 
The Priests weare the haire of their heads hanging over 
their shoulders : These that be the most sincere religious 
men ; abstaine alwayes from eating of flesh or fish, con- 
tenting themselves with water, hearbes, and bread : They 
differ much in ceremonies, and principles of Religion from 
the Papists, and the computation of their Kalender is as 
ours. 

They have foure Patriarkes, who governe the affaires Foure Patri- 
ot their Church, and also any civill dissentions, which archs in the 
happen amongst them, viz. one in Constantinople, another 9ff ekl f 
in Antiochia, the third in Alexandria, & the fourth in 
Jerusalem. It is not needfull for me to penetrate further 
in the condition of their estate, because it is no part of [HI. 118.] 
my intent in this Treatise. In a word, they are wholly 
degenerate from their Auncestors in valour, vertue, 
and learning : Universities they have none, and civill 
behaviour is quite lost : formerly in derision they tearmed 
all other Nations Barbarians : A name now most fit for 
themselves, being the greatest dissembling lyers, incon- 
stant, and uncivill people of all other Christians in the 
World. 

105 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

False By tne wa y ? J must g| ve tne Ki n g S Kingdomes a caveat 

vagabonding k ere > concerning vagabonding Greekes, and their counter- 
Greekes. ° feit Testimonials : True it is, there is no such matter, 
as these lying Rascals report unto you, concerning their 
Fathers, their Wives, and Children taken Captives by the 
Turke : O damnable invention ! How can the Turke prey 
upon his owne Subjects, under whom, they have as great 
Liberty, save onely the use of Bels, as we have under 
our Princes : The tyth of their Male children, being 
absolutely abrogated by Achmet, this Amuraths Father; 
and the halfe also of their Female Dowry at Marriages : 
And farre lesse for Religion, can they be banished, or 
deprived of their Benefices, as some false and dissembling 
fellowes, under the Title of Bishops make you beleeve ; 
There being a free Liberty of Conscience, for all kinds 
of Religion, through all his Dominions, as well for us 
free borne Frankes as for them, and much more them, 
the Greekes, Armenians, Syriacks, Amoronits, Coptics, 
Georgians, or any other Orientall sort of Christians : And 
therefore looke to it, that you be no more gulled, golding 
them so fast as you have done, least for your paines, you 
prove greater Asses, than they do Knaves. 

In Salonica I found a Germo, bound for Tenedos, in 

which I imbarked : As we sayled along the Thessa- 

lonian shoare, I saw the two topped hill Pernassus, 

[III. 119.] which is of a wondrous height, whose tops even kisse 

the Clouds. 

Pernassus. Mons hie cervicibus petit arduus astra duobus, 
Nomine Pernassus, superatque cacumine montes. 

Through thickest cloudes, Pernassus bends his height, 
Whose double tops, do kisse the Starres so bright. 

Here it was sayd the nine Muses haunted : but as for 
the Fountaine Helicon, I leave that to be searched, and 
seene by the imagination of Poets ; for if it had bene 
objected to my sight, like an insatiable drunkard, I should 

1 06 



COMMENTS UPON MACEDONIA a.d 

1609-10. 

have drunke up the streames of Poesie, to have enlarged 
my dry poeticall Sun scoarch'd veine. 

The Mountaine it selfe is somewhat steepe, and sterile, 
especially the two toppes, the one whereof is dry, and 
sandy, signifying that Poets are alwayes poore, and 
needy : The other top is barren, and rocky, resembling the 
ingratitude of wretched, and niggardly Patrons : the vale 
betweene the tops is pleasant, and profitable, denoting 
the fruitfull, and delightfull soyle, which painefull Poets, 
the Muses Plow-men, so industriously manure. A little 
more East-ward, as we fetcht up the coast of Achaia, the 
maister of the vessell shewed me a ruinous village, and 
castle, where he sayd the admired Citty of Thebes had Thebes. 
bene. Whose former glory, who can truely write of ; 
for as the earth, when she is disroabed of her budding and 
fructifying trees, and of her amiable verdure, which is 
her onely grace and garment royall, is like a naked table 
wherein nothing is painted : even so is Thebes and her 
past tryumphs defac'd, and bereft of her lusty and young 
Gentlemen, as if the spring-tide had bene taken from the 
yeare : But what shall I say to know the cause of such 
like things, they are so secret and mysticall ; being the 
most remote objects, to which our understanding may 
aspire, that we may easily be deceived, by disguised and 
pretended reasons ; whilst we seeke for the true and [HI. 1 20.] 
essentiall causes : for to report things that are done is 
easie, because the eye and the tongue may dispatch it, 
but to discover and unfold the causes of things, requireth 
braine, soule, and the best progresse of nature. And as 
there is no evill without excuse, nor no pretence without 
some colour of reason, nor wiles wanting to malicious 
and wrangling wits ; Even so, was there occasion sought 
for, what from Athens, and what from Greece, where- 
by the peace and happinesse of Thebes might be 
dissolved, and discord raised to the last ruines of her 
desolation. 

This Achaia is by some ignorant Geographers placed GeographUall 
in the middle betweene Epire, Thessaly, and Peloponesus : ^rnurs. 

107 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

where contrariwise it is the Eastmost Province of Greece 
except Thrace, lying along twixt it and Thessaly by the 
sea side, which part of the Countrey, some late Authors 
have falsly named Migdonia, which is a Province, that 
lieth North from Thracia, East from Macedon, and South 
from Misia, having no affinity with the Sea: The chiefe 
Citties in Achaia, are Neapolis, Appollonia, and Nicalide 
where the famous Philosophers Aristotle was borne : Here 
is a huge and high Hill Athos, containing in circuit 70. 
miles, and as some affirme three dayes journey long, whose 
shaddow was absurdly sayd to have extended to Lemnos, 
an Hand lying neere the Carpathian Sea. 

Achaia was formerly called Aylaide, but now by the 
Turkes Levienda : Athos in Greeke is called Agios aeros, 
to wit, a holy Mountaine ; the top of it is halfe a dayes 
journey broad, and 14. Italian miles high. There are 
twenty Monasteries upon it of Greekish Coleires, a 
laborious kind of silly Friers, and kind to Strangers : The 
chiefest of which Cloisters, are called Victopodos, and 
Agios laura, being all of them strongly walled and fensible. 
[III. 121.] Upon the third day from Salonica, we arrived in the 
Roade of Tenedos, which is an Hand in the Sea Pontus, 
or Propontis : It hath a City called Tenedos, built by 
Tenes, which is a gallant place, having a Castle, and a 
faire Haven for all sorts of vessells : It produceth good 
store of wines, and the best supposed to be in all the 
South east parts of Europe, or yet in Asia. The Hand 
is not bigge, but exceeding fertile, lying three miles 
from the place where Troy stood, as Virgil reported, 
iEneid. 2. 

Tenedos. Est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama insula, 

In sight of Troy, a stately He I fand 
Shut up with Pontus, from the Trojane land ; 
Whose beauteous bounds, made me wish there to stay, 
Or that I might transport the same away ; 
Else like Tritonean rude Proponticke charmes, 
T 5 imbrace sweet Tenes, alwaies in mine armes. 

108 



COMMENTS UPON TENEDOS a.d. 

1609-10. 
And againe : 

Insula dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant. 

An He most rich, in Silkes, delicious Wine, 
When Priams Kingdome did in glory shine. 
Where Ceres now, and Bachus love to dwell 
And Flora too, in Berecinthiaes Cell. 

In Tenedos I met by accident, two French Merchants 
of Marseills, intending for Constantinople, who had lost 
their ship at Sio, when they were busie at venereall tilting, 
with their new elected Mistresses, and for a second remedy, 
were glad to come thither in a Turkish Carmoesalo. The 
like of this I have seene fall out with Seafaring men, 
Merchants, and Passengers, who buy sometimes their too 
much folly, with too deare a repentance. They and I 
resolving to view Troy, did hire a Jenisarie to be our 
conductor and protector, and a Greeke to be our Inter- 
preter. Where when we landed, we saw here and there [ ni - I22> ] 
many relicts of old walles, as we travelled through these 
famous bounds. And as we were advanced toward the 
East part of Troy, our Greeke brought us to many 
Tombes, which were mighty ruinous, and pointed us The Tombes of 
particularly to the Tombes of Hector, Ajax, Achilles, Tro J anes - 
Troylus, and many other valiant Champions, with the 
Tombes also of Hecuba, Cresseid, and other Trojane 
Dames : Well I wot, I saw infinite old Sepulchers, but 
for their particular names, and nomination of them, I 
suspend, neither could I beleeve my Interpreter, sith it 
is more then three thousand and odde yeares agoe, that 
Troy was destroyed. 

Here Tombes I viewd, old monuments of Times, 
And fiery Trophees, fixd for bloody crimes : 
For which Achilles ghost did sigh and say, 
Curst be the hands, that sakelesse Trojanes slay ; 
But more fierce Ajax, more Ulysses Horse, 
That wrought griefes ruine ; Priams last divorce : 
And here inclosd, within these clods of dust, 
All Asiaes honour, and cros'd Paris lust. 

109 



A.D. 
1609-IO. 
Priamus 
pallace. 



[III. i» 3 .] 

A description 
of Troy. 



The Authors 
portracture. 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

He shewed us also the mines of King Priams Palace, 
and where Anchises the father of iEneas dwelt. At the 
North-east corner of Troy, which is in sight of the Castles 
of Hellesponte, there is a gate yet standing, and a peece 
of a reasonable high wall ; upon which I found three peeces 
of rusted money, which afterward I gave two of them 
to the younger brethren of the Duke of Florence, then 
studying in Pretolino : The other being the fairest with 
a large Picture on the one side, I bestowed it at Aise in 
Provance upon a learned Scholler, Master Strachon, my 
Countrey man, then Mathematician to the Duke of Guise, 
who presently did propine his Lord and Prince with it. 

Where the pride of Phrygia stood, it is a most delectable 
plaine, abounding now in Cornes, Fruites, and delicate 
Wines, and may be called the garden of Natolia : yet 
not populous, for there are but onely five scattered 
Villages, in all that bounds : The length of Troy hath 
been, as may be discerned, by the fundamentall walls yet 
extant, about twenty Italian miles, which I reckon to be 
ten Scottish or fifteene English miles ; lying along the 
sea side betweene the three Papes of Ida, and the furthest 
end Eastward of the River Simois : whose breadth all the 
way hath not outstripd the fields above two miles : The 
Inhabitants of these Hv& scatterd Bourges therein, are 
for the most part Greekes, the rest are Jewes, and Turkes. 

And loe here is mine Effigie affixed with my Turkish 
habit, my walking staffe, & my Turban upon my head, 
even as I travelled in the bounds of Troy, and so through 
all Turkey : Before my face on the right hand standeth 
the Easterne and sole gate of that sometimes noble City, 
with a piece of a high wall, as yet undecayed : And without 
this Port runneth the River Simois (inclosing the old 
Grecian Campe) downe to the Marine, where it imbraceth 
the Sea Propontis : A little below, are bunches of grapes, 
denoting the vineyards of this fructiferous place ; adjoyn- 
ing neare to the fragments and ruynes of Priams Pallace, 
surnamed Ilium : And next to it a ravenous Eagle, for 
so this part of Phrigia is full of them : So beneath my 

no 




The Author's Portracture 




y 



COMMENTS UPON TROY a.d. 

1609-10. 

feet ly the two Tombes of Priamus & Hecuba his Queene : 
And under them the incircling hills of Ida, at the West 
South west end of this once Regall Towne ; & at my 
left hand, the delicious and pleasant fields of Olives and 
Figge-trees, wherewith the bowells of this famous soyle 
are interlarded: And here this piece or portracture 
decyphered ; the continuing discourse, inlarging both 
meane & manner. 

Troy was first built by Dardanus sonne to Corinthus [III. 124.] 
King of Corinth, who having slaine his brother Jasius, 
fled to this Countrey, and first erected it, intituling it 
Dardania : Next it was called Troy of Tros, from whom 
the Countrey was also named Troas : It was also termed 
Ilion of Ilus, who built the Regall pallace surnamed Ilium : [III. 125.] 
This City was taken and defaced by Hercules, and the 
Greecians, in the time of Laomedon, himselfe being killed 
the latter time : Lastly, Troy was reedified by Priamus, 
who giving leave to his sonne Paris to ravish Helena, 
Menalaus wife, enforced the Greekes to renew the auncient 
quarrell : Where after 10. yeares siege the Towne was 
utterly subverted, Anno Mundi 1783. 

Whence Princely Homer, and that Mantuan borne, Homer and 

Sad Tragicke tunes, erect'd for Troy forlorne ; *%''&* u P m 

And sad iEneas, fled to the Affricke Coast, roy ' 

Where Carthage groand, to heare how Troy was lost : 

But more kind Dido, when this wandring Prince, 

(Had left Numidia, stole away from thence) 

Did worser groane ; who with his shearing sword, 

Her selfe she gor'd, with many weeping word. 

O deare iEneas! deare Trojane, art thou gone? 

And then she fell, death swallowed up her mone : 

They land at Cuma, where Latinus King 

Did give iEneas, Lavinia, with a Ring. 

Where now in Latium, that old Daidan stocke 

Is extant yet, though in the discent broke. 

On the South-west side of Troy, standeth the Hill Ida, Rash 
having three heads. On which Paris out of a sensuall /*#"«* 

in 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

delight, rejecting Juno, and Pallas, judged the golden ball 
to Venus, fatall in the end to the whole Countrey. The 
ruines of which are come to that Poeticall Proverbe : 

Nunc seges est ubi Troja fuit. 

Now Corne doth grow, where once faire Troy stood, 
And soyle made fat, with streames of Phrygian blood. 

Leaving the fields of noble Ilium, we crossed the River 
of Simois, & dined at a Village named Extetash : I remem- 
ber, in discharging our covenant with the Janisary, who 

L • I26 -J wa s not contented with the former condition, the French 
men making obstacle to pay that which I had given, the 
wrathfull Janisary belaboured them both with a cudgell, 
till the bloud sprung from their heads, and compelled 
them to double his wages. This is one true note to a 
Traveller (whereof I had the full experience afterward) 
that if he cannot make his owne part good, he must 
alwayes at the first motion content these Rascals ; other- 
wise he will be constrained, doubtlesse, with stroakes, to 
pay twice as much : for they make no account of 
conscience, nor ruled by the Law of compassion, neither 
regard they a Christian more than a dogge : but whatso- 
ever extortion or injury they use against him, he must 
be French-like contented, bowing his head, and making 
a counterfeit shew of thankes, and happy too oftentimes, 
if so he escape. 

JMti* Hence we arrived at the Castles, called of olde Sestos, 
* C and Abydos, in a small Frigot, which are two Fortresses 

opposite to other : Sestos in Europe where Thracia 
beginneth ; and Abidos in Asia where Bithinia likewise 
commenceth, being a short mile distant, and both of them 
foure leagues from Troy. They stand at the beginning 
of Hellespont, and were also cognominate the Castles of 
Hiero and Leander, which were erected in a commemora- 
tion of their admirable fidelity in love. 

Which curling tops, Leander cut in two, 

And through proud billowes, made his passage goe ; 

To court his Mistresse : O Hiero the faire ! 



COMMENTS UPON ABYDOS a.d. 

1609-10. 

Whom Hellespont to stop, was forc'd to dare : 

Sweet was their sight to other, short their stay, 

For still Leander, was recald by day. 

At last sterne JEole, puft on Neptunes pride, 

And gloomy Hellespont, their loves divide : 

He swimmes, and sinkes, and in that glutting downe, [III. 127.] 

The angry Fates, did kind Leander drowne : 

Of which when Hiero heard, judge you her part, 

She smote her selfe, and rent in two her heart. 

But now they are commonly called the Castles of 
Gallipoly ; yea, or rather the strength of Constantinople, 
betweene which no Shippes may enter, without knowledge 
of the Captaines, and are by them strictly and warily 
searched, least the Christians should carry in Men, Muni- 
tion, or furniture of Armes, for they stand in feare of 
surprising the Towne : And at their returne they must 
stay three dayes, before they are permitted to go through, 
because of transporting away any Christian slaves, or if 
they have committed any offence in the Citty, the know- 
ledge thereof may come in that time. 

At that same instant of my abode at Abidos, there were 
fourescore Christian slaves, who having cut their Captaines 
throat, with the rest of the Turkes, runne away from Christian 
Constantinople with the Galley. And passing here the slaves fi ed 
second day thereafter at midnight, were discovered by -^L omtan ~ 
the watch of both Castles, where the Cannon never left 
thundring for two houres ; yet they escaped with small 
hurt, and at last arrived in the Road of Zante ; desiring 
landing, & succour, for their victuals were done : victuals 
they sent them, but the Governour would not suffer them 
to come on Land. In end, the Sea growing somewhat 
boysterous, the slaves for an excuse cut their Cables, and 
runne the Galley a shoare : Upon this they were enter- 
tained in service, but the Providitor caused to burne the 
Galley, fearing least the Turkes should thereby forge some 
quarrell. The yeare following, an other Galley attempted 
the same, but the poore slaves having past the Castles, 
l 113 h 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

[III. 128.] j had bene so wounded and killed with the great shot, and 
the Galley ready to sinke, they were enforced to runne 
a shoare, where the next morning being apprehended, they 
were miserably put to death. Betwixt the Castles and 
Constantinople, is about fourty leagues. Over this straite 
Xerxes did make a bridge of boates to passe into Greece, 
which when a sudden tempest had shrewdly battered, he 
caused the sea to be beaten with 300. stripes. 

The sormv of And at that same time Xerxes passing over the Helles- 

Xerxes. pont, and seeing all the sea cled with his Army, his 

Horses, Chariots, and Ships, the teares burst from his 
eyes : and being demanded the cause of his griefe ? 
answered, O, sayd he, I weepe because within a hundreth 
yeares, all this great and glorious sight, shall be dissolved 
to nothing ; and neither man, nor beast shall be alive, nor 
Chariot, nor Engine of Warre, but shall be turn'd to 
dust ; and so I sorrow to see the short mortality of Nature. 
Indeed it was a worthy saying, from such a Heathnish 
Monarch, who saw no further, than the present misery 
of this life. 

Here I left the two French men with a Greeke Barbour, 
and imbarked for Constantinople, in a Turkish Frigato. 
The first place of any note I saw, within these narrow 
Seas, was the auncient Citty of Gallipolis, the second 
seate of Thracia, which was first builded by Caius Caligula, 
and sometimes had beene inhabited by the Gaules : It 
was the first Towne in Europe, that the Turkes conquered ; 
and was taken by Solyman sonne to Orchanes, Anno 
1438. 

North from Thracia lyeth the Province of Bulgaria 
commonly Volgaria, and was called so of certaine people, 
that came from a countrey, neere to the River Volgo in 
Russia, about the yeare 666. It lieth betweene Servia, 
Thracia, and Danubio, and by the Auncients, it was 

[III. 129.] thought to be the lower Mysia (but more justly the Region 
of Dacia.) The chiefe Towne is Sophia, which some hold 
to be that Towne, which Ptolomeus named Tibisca. 
Here in Thracia lived the Tyrant Polymnestor, who 

114 



COMMENTS UPON THRACE a.d. 

1609-10. 

treacherously murthered Polidorus a yonger sonne of 

Priamus : For which fact Hecuba, the young Princes 

mother scratched him to death. Here also reigned the 

worthy King Cotis, whom I propose as a paterne of rare 

temper, in maistering and preventing passion : To whom 

when a neighbour Prince had sent him an exquisite present, 

of accurately wrought glasses ; he (having dispatched the 

messenger with all due complements and gratitude of 

Majestie) broke them all to peeces : Least by mishappe, 

any of his Servants doing the like, might stirre or move 

him to an intemperate choller. 

The Greekes here, and generally through all Greece, Mount Athos. 
beare as much reverence and respect to Mount Athos, 
as the Papists beare to Rome : All of which Religious 
Coliers or Friers, must toyle and labour for their living, 
some in the Vines, some in the Corne-fields, and others 
at home in their Monasteries, or else where abroad, are 
alwayes occupied for the mainteining of their Families : 
They are but poorely cled, yet wonderfull kinde to all 
Viadants ; so that who so have occasion to passe that 
Mountaine, are there lodged, and furnished of all necessary 
provision of food, by these sequestrat or solitary livers, 
whose simple and harmelesse lives, may be tearmed to be 
the very Emblemes of Piety and Devotion ; knowing 
nothing but to serve God, and to live soberly in their 
carriage. 

The chiefest Cities of Thrace, are Constantinople, 
Abdera, where Democritus was borne, who spent his life 
in laughing, Sestos, Gallipoli, Trajanople, Galata, and [III. 13°- J 
Adrianopolis, which was taken by Bajazet, Anno. 1362. 

As we sayled betweene Thracia and Bithinia, a learned 
Grecian brought up in Padua that was in my company, 
shewed me Colchis, whence Jason, with the assistance of 
the Argonautes, and the aide of Medeas skill, did fetch 
the golden fleece. This Sea Hellespont tooke the name The Sea 
of Helle daughter to Athamas King of Thebes, who was Hellespont. 
here drowned ; and of the Countrey Pontus, joyning to 
the same Sea, wherein are these three Countries, Armenia 

115 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1609-10. 

minor, Colchis, and Cappadocia. After we had fetcht up 
the famous City of Calcedon in Bithinia on our right 
hand ; I beheld on our left hand, the Prospect of that 
little World, the great City of Constantinople ; which 
indeed yeeldeth such an outward splendor to the amazed 
beholder, of goodly Churches, stately Towers, gallant 
Steeples, and other such things, whereof now the World 
make so great accompt, that the whole earth cannot equall 
it. Beholding these delectable objects, we entred in the 
channell of Bosphorus, which divideth Perah from Con- 
stantinople. And arriving at Tapanau, where all the 
munition of the great Turke lyeth, I adressed my selfe 
to a Greeke lodging, to refresh my selfe till morning. 

But (by your leave) I had a hard welcome in my landing, 
for bidding farewell to the Turkes, who had kindly used 
me three dayes, in our passage from the Castles, the 
Maister of the boate saying, adio Christiano : There 
were foure French Runnagats standing on the Kaye ; 
A harsh wno hearing these words, fell desperatly upon me, 
arrtvall. blaspheming the name of Jesus, and throwing me to 
the ground, beate me most cruelly : And if it 
had not beene for my friendly Turkes, who leaped out 
of their boate and relieved me, I had doubtlesse there 
[III. 131.] perished. The other Infidells standing by, said to me, 
behold what a Saviour thou hast, when these that were 
Christians, now turned Mahometans, cannot abide, nor 
regard the name of thy God ; having left them, with many 
a shrewd blow, they had left me, I entred a Greeke lodging, 
where I was kindly received ; and much eased of my 
blowes, because they caused to oynt them with divers 
Oyles, and refreshed me also with their best entertaine- 
ment, gratis, because I had suffered so much for Christs 
sake, and would receive no recompense againe. The day 
following, I went to salute, and doe my duety to the 
right Worshipfull Sir Thomas Glover, then Lord Ambas- 
sadour for our late Gratious Soveraigne King James, of 
blessed memory, who most generously & courteously 
entertained me three moneths in his house, to whose 

ji6 



COMMENTS UPON THRACE a.d. 

1609-10. 

kindnesses I was infinitely obliged : as hereafter in my 
following discourse of the fourth part of this History, 
shall be more particularly avouched : for certainely I 
never met with a more compleat Gentleman in all my 
travells ; nor one in whom true worth did more illustrat 
vertue. 



[The fourth Part 
117 



A.D. 

l6io-ii. 



THE FOURTH PART 



[IV. 132.] 



NOw sing I of Bizantium : Bosphors tydes, 
Twixt Europe, and the lesser Asia glydes : 
Their Hyppodrome, adorn'd with triumphes past, 
And blackish Sea ; the Jadilecke more fast : 
The Galata, where Christian merchants stay, 
And five Ambassadours for commerce aye : 
The Turkish customes, and their manners rude, 
And of their discent, from the Scythian blood : 
Their harsh Religion, and their sense of Hell : 
And Paradice : their lawes I shall you tell : 
Then last of Mahomet, their God on earth 
His end, his life, his parentage and birth. 




Onstantinople is the Metropolitan of 
Thracia, so called of Constantine the 
Emperour, who first enlarged the same : 
It was called of old Bizantium, but now 
by the Turkes Stambolda, which signi- 
fieth in their language, a large City : 
It was also called Ethuse, and by the 
Greekes Stymbolis. This City (according to auncient 
Authors) was first founded by the Lacedemonians, who 
were conducted from Lacedemon, by one Pausanias, about 
the yeare of the World 3294. which after their consul- 
tation with Apollo, where they should settle their abode 
and dwelling place, they came to Bithinia, and builded 
a City which was called Calcedon. But the commodity 
of fishing, falling out contrary to their expectation, in 

118 



COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE a.d. 

1610-11. 

respect that the fishes were affraide of the white bankes 

of the City ; the Captaine Pausanias left that place, and 

builded Bizantium in Thracia, which first was by him 

intituled Ligos. By Pliny, Justine, and Strabo, it was 

surnamed Urbs Illustrissima, because it is repleate with 

all the blessings, earth can give to man ; yea and in the 

most fertile soyle of Europe. 

Zonoras reporteth that the Athenians, in an ambitious 
and insatiable desire of Soveraignty, wonne it from the 
Lacedemonians : They thus being vanquished, suborned 
Severus the Romane Emperour, to besiege the same : 
But the City Bizantium being strongly fortified with 
walles, the Romanes could not take it in, untill extreame 
famine constrained them to yeeld, after three yeares siege : 
and Severus to satisfie his cruelty, put all to the sword, 
that were within, and razed the walles, giving it in posses- [IV. 133.] 
sion to the neighbouring Perinthians. This Citie thus 
remained in calamitie, till Constantine (resigning the City Bizantium 
of Rome, and a great part of Italy to the Popish inheri- ^SJ^S 
tance of the Romane Bishops) reedified the same, and 
translated his Imperiall seate in the East, and reduced 
all the Empire of Greece, to a unite tranquilitie, with 
immortall reputation, which the Parthians and Persians 
had so miserably disquieted. 

But these disorders at length reformed by the severe 
administration of Justice, for the which, and other worthy 
respects, the said Constantine sonne of Saint Helen, and 
Emperour of Rome (which afterward the Pope usurped) 
was surnamed the Great. He first in his plantation called 
this Citie new Rome ; but when he beheld the flourishing, 
and multiplying of all things in it, and because of the 
commodious situation thereof, he called it Constantinoplis, 
after his owne name. This Emperour lived there many 
prosperous yeares, in most happy estate : likewise many 
of his successors did, untill such time, that Mahomet the 
second of that name, and Emperour of the Turkes ; living 
in a discontented humour to behold the great and glorious 
dominions of Christians ; especially this famous Citie, that 

119 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1610-11. 

so flourished in his eyes, by momentall circumstances, 
collected his cruell intentions, to the full height of ambi- 
tion ; whereby he might abolish the very name of 
Christianity, and also puft up with a presumptuous desire, 
to inlarge his Empire, went with a marvellous power, 
both by Sea and Land, unto this magnificent Mansion. 

The issue whereof was such, that after divers batteries 
and assaults, the irreligious Infidels broke downe the 
walles, and entred the City, which breach was about forty 
[IV. 134.] paces long, as by the new colour being built up againe, 
is easily knowne from the old walles : where when they 
entered, they made a wonderfull massacre of poore afflicted 
Christians, without sparing any of the Romane kinde, 
either male or female. In the mercilesse fury of these 
Infernall Impes, the Emperour Constantine was killed, 
whose head being cut off, was carried upon the point of 
a Launce through all the City, and Campe of the Turkes, 
to the great disgrace and ignominy of Christianity. His 
Empresse, Daughters, and other Ladies after they were 
abused in their bodyes, were put to death in a most cruell 
and terrible manner. 

By this overthrow of Constantinople, this Mahomet 
tooke twelve Kingdomes, and two hundred Cities from 
the Christians, which is a lamentable losse, of such an 
illustrious Empire. Thus was that imperiall Citie lost, 
in the yeare 1453. May 29. when it had remained under 
the government of Christians, 1198. yeares. It is now 
the chiefe abode of the great Turke Sultan Achmet, the 
fifteene Grand Cham, of the line of Ottoman, who was 
then about twenty three yeares of age ; whose sonne 
Foure ' Osman since, and after his death, was murdered by the 

afy Cr ° nether J an i zar "i es > being 14. yeares of age, after his returne to 
distressed'. Constantinople from Podolia in Polland : And in his place, 
his Unkle Mustaffa made Emperour, whose weaknesse 
and unworthinesse being eft soones discoverd, he was 
displaced, and Amurath Osmans brother made Grand 
Signior, who presently raigneth, and not without great 
feare of his Janizaries and Timariots, who twice in three 



COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE a.d. 

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yeares have lately made insurrection against him. This 
Emperour Achmet, who was alive when I was there, was 
more given to venery, then martialitie, which gave a 
greater advantage to the Persians in their defensive 
Warres. 

Concerning the Empire, we may observe some fatall [IV. 135.] 
contrarieties in one and the same name : For Phillip the 
Father of Alexander, layd the first foundation of the 
Macedonian Monarchy, and Phillip the Father of Perseus 
ruined it. So was this Towne built by a Constantine, Contrarieties 
the Sonne of Helena, a Gregory being Patriarch ; and was of fortune. 
lost by a Constantine, the sonne of a Helena, a Gregory 
being also Patriarch. The Turkes have a Prophecy, that 
as it was wonne by a Mahomet, so it shall be lost by a 
Mahomet. 

The forme, or situation of this Citty, is like unto a 
Triangle, the South part whereof, and the East part, are 
invironed with Hellespontus, and Bosphorus Thraicus; 
and the North part adjoyning to the firme land. It is 
in compasse about the walks, esteemed to be eighteene 
miles : in one of these triangled points, being the South- 
east part, and at the joyning of Bosphore and Hellespont, 
standeth the Pallace of the Great Turke, called Seralia, 
and the Forrest wherein he hunteth ; which is two miles 
in length. 

The speciall object of Antiquity, I saw within this 
Citty, was the incomparable Church of Saint Sophia, whose 
ornaments and hallowed vessels, were innumerable in 
the time of Justinian the Emperour, who first builded 
it ; but now converted to a Moskuee, and consecrate to 
Mahomet, after a diabolicall manner. 

I saw also the famous Hyppodrome, and the Theater Hyppodrome. 
whereon the people stood, when the Emperours used to 
runne their Horses, and make their Princely shewes on 
solemne dayes, which is now altogether decayd : There 
is a great Columne in that same place, in the which all 
these things memorable, that have bene done in this 
Hyppodrome, are superficially carved. 

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a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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Upon the West corner of the Citty, there is a strong 
Fortresse, fortified with seaven great Towers, and well 
[IV. 136.] furnished with Munition, called by Turkes, Jadileke : 
In this Prison, are Bassawes, and Subbassawes imprisoned, 
and also great men of Christians, if any offence be com- 
mitted. Their place of Exchange is called Bezastan, 
wherein all sorts of commodities are to be sold ; as Sattins, 
Silkes, Velvets, Cloth of Silver and Gold, and the most 
exquisitely wrought Hand-kerchiefes, that can be found 
in the world ; with infinite other commodities, the relation 
of which would be tedious. 

I have seene men and women as usually sold here in 
Markets, as Horses and other beasts are with us : The 
most part of which are Hungarians, Transilvanians, 
Carindians, Istrians, and Dalmatian Captives, and of other 
places besides, which they can overcome. Whom, if no 
compassionable Christian will buy, or relieve ; then must 
they either turne Turke, or be addicted to perpetuall 
slavery. Here I remember of a charitable deede, done 
for a sinfull end, and thus it was ; A Ship of Marseilles, 
called the great Dolphin, lying here forty dayes at the 
A French Galata, the Maister Gunner, named Monsieur Nerack, 
pdliard. anc [ j f a U m g m familiar acquaintance, upon a time he told 
me secretly that he would gladly for Conscience and Merits 
sake, redeeme some poore Christian slave from Turkish 
Captivity. To the which, I applauded his advice, and 
told him the next Friday following I would assist him 
to so worthy an action : Friday comes, and he and I went 
for Constantinople, where the Market of the slaves being 
ready, we spent two houres in viewing, and reviewing 
five hundreth Males and Females. At last I pointed him 
to have bought an old man or woman, but his minde 
was contrary set, shewing me that he would buy some 
virgin, or young widdow, to save their bodies undefloured 
with Infidels. The price of a virgin was too deare for 
[IV. 137.] him, being a hundred Duckets, and widdows were farre 
under, and at an easier rate : When we did visite and 
search them that we were mindfull to buy, they were 



COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE a.d. 

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strip'd starke naked before our eyes, where the sweetest 
face, the youngest age, and whitest skin was in greatest 
value and request : The Jewes sold them, for they had 
bought them from the Turkes : At last we fell upon a 
Dalmatian widdow, whose pittifull lookes, and sprinkling 
teares, stroke my soule almost to the death for compassion : 
whereupon I grew earnest for her reliefe, and he yeelding 
to my advice, she is bought and delivered unto him, the 
man being 60. yeares of age, and her price 36. Duckets. 
We leave the market and came over againe to Galata, 
where he and I tooke a Chamber for her, and leaving 
them there, the next morning I returned earely, suspecting 
greatly the dissembling devotion of the Gunner to be 
nought but luxurious lust, and so it proved : I knocked 
at the Chamber doore, that he had newly locked, and 
taken the key with him to the ship, for he had tarried 
with her all that night ; and she answering me with teares, 
told me all the manner of his usage, wishing her selfe 
to be againe in her former captivity : whereupon I went 
a shipboord to him, & in my griefe I swore, that if he 
abused her any more after that manner, and not returned 
to her distresse, her Christian liberty ; I would first make 
it knowne to his Maister the Captaine of the ship, and 
then to the French Ambassadour : for he was mindfull 
also, his lust being satisfied to have sold her over againe 
to some other: At which threatning the old Pallyard 
became so fearefull, that he entred in a reasonable con- 
dition with me, and the ship departing thence sixe dayes 
thereafter, he freely resigned to me her life, her liberty 
and freedome : which being done, and he gone, under 
my hand before divers Greekes, I subscribed her libertie, [ IV - 138-] 
and hyr'd her in the same Taverne for a yeare, taking The Dalma- 
nothing from her, for as little had she to give me, except *"** Widdow 
many blessings and thankefull prayers : This French re teve ' 
Gunner was a Papist, and heare you may behold the dregs 
of his devotion, and what seven nights leachery cost him, 
you may cast up the reckoning of 36. Duckets. 

In Constantinople there have happened many fearefull 

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fires, which often hath consumed to ashes the most part 
of the rarest Monuments there, and the beauty of infinite 
Pallaces ; as Zonoras the Constantinopolitan Historio- 
grapher in his Histories mentioneth. And now lately 
in the yeare 1607. October 14. there were burned above 
3000. houses, of which I saw a number of ruines (as yet) 
Pestilence and unrepaired. It is subject also to divers Earth quakes, 
Earthquakes. which haye often subverted the Towers, Houses, 

Churches, and Walles of the City to the ground. 
Especially in the yeare 1509. in the raigne of Bajazeth, 
the ninth Emperour of the Turkes, in which time, more 
then 13000. persons were all smothered and dead, and 
laid up in heapes unburied. And commonly every third 
yeare, the pestilence is exceeding great in that City, and 
after such an odious manner ; that those who are infected 
(before they die) have the halfe of their one side rot, and 
fall away : so that you may easily discerne the whole 
intrailes of their bowels. It is not licentiated here, nor 
else where in all Turkey, that any Christian should enter 
in their Moskies, or Churches, without the conduct of 
a Janisary ; the tryall whereof I had when I viewed that 
glorious and great Church of Sancta Sophia, once the 
beauty and ornament of all Europe ; and is now the chiefe 
place, to which the Great Turke or Emperour goeth every 
Friday, their Sabboth day to doe his devotion, being 
accompanied with 3000. Janisaries, besides Bashawes, 
[IV. 139.] Chowses and Hagars. Truely I may say of Constanti- 
nople, as I said once of the world, in the Lamentado of 
my second Pilgrimage ; 

A painted Whoore, the maske of deadly sin, 
Sweet faire without, and stinking foule within. 

For indeed outwardly it hath the fairest show, and 
inwardly in the streets being narrow, and most part 
covered, the filthiest & deformed buildings in the world ; 
the reason of its beauty, is, because being situate on 
moderate prospective heights, the universall tectures, a 
farre off, yeeld a delectable show, the covertures being 

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COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE a.d. 

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erected like the backe of a Coach after the Italian fashion 
with gutterd tyle. But being entred within, there is 
nothing but a stinking deformity, and a loathsome con- 
trived place ; without either internall domesticke furniture, 
or externall decorements of fabricks palatiatly extended. 
Notwithstanding that for its situation, the delicious wines, 
& fruits, the temperate climat, the fertile circumjacent 
fields, and for the Sea Hellespont, and pleasant Asia on 
the other side : it may truely be called the Paradice of 
the earth. 

Perah is over against Constantinople, called of old, 
Cornubizantii ; but by the Turkes, Galata, being both 
a quarter of a mile distant, and the Thraick Bosphore 
dividing the two. It is the place at which Christian Ships 
touch, and where the Ambassadours of Christendome lie. The Christian 
The number of the Christian Ambassadours that then lay Ambassadours 
there, and now doe, were these, first the Romane at ' 
Emperours, then the French, thirdly the English, fourthly 
the Venetian, and lastly the Holland Ambassadours, with 
whom often for discourses I was familiar, although with 
'Noble Sir Thomas Glover I was still domestick for 12. 
weekes, whose Secretary for that time was my Countrey 
man, Maister James Rollocke, who now, as I take it, is 
resident in Striveling ; he was the last Scotsman I saw till 
my returne to Malta after my departure from Constanti- 
nople. 

From thence I went to the blacke Sea : but commonly [IV. 140.] 
Mare Euxinum, where I saw Pompeyes Pillar of Marble, Pompeyes 
standing neere the shoare, upon a rocky Hand : and not ^ 
far from thence, is a Lanthorne higher then any Steeple, 
whereon there is a panne full of liquor, that burneth 
every night to give warning unto ships how neare they 
come the shore ; It is not much unlike these Lanthornes 
of Ligorne and Genua. The water of this Sea is never 
a whit blacker then other Seas : but it is called blacke, 
in respect of the dangerous events in darke and tem- 
pestuous nights, which happen there ; and because of the 
Rockes and Sands which lye a great way from the maine 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1610-11. 

shore : upon which many vessels many times are cast 
away. The blacke Sea is not farre from Galata, for I 
both went and returned in one day, being forty miles 
out, and in : For I went by boate, and not by land, through 
the pleasant Euripus, that runneth betweene the Euxine 
Sea and Hellespont : And by the way, I cannot but regrate, 
the great losse Sir Thomas Glover received by the Duke 
of Moldavia, who chargeably entertained him two yeares 
in his house, and furnished him with great moneys, and 
other necessaries fit for his eminency : This Duke or 
Prince of Bugdonia was depraved of his Principalities by 
Achmet, and fled hither to the Christian Ambassadours 
for reliefe : To whom when all the rest had refus'd accept- 
ance, onely Noble Sir Thomas received him, maintained 
him, and seriously wrought with the Grand Signior and 
his Counsell, to have had him restored againe to his Lands, 
but could not prevaile. 

In the end, Sir Thomas Glovers five yeares time of 

Ambassodry being expired, and the Duke hearing privately 

that Sir Paul Pinder was to come in his place, as indeede 

he came too soone : this Moldavian Prince stole earely 

[IV. 141.] away in the morning over to Constantinople ; and long or 

The Duke of midday turnd Turke, and was circumcised, contenting 

tarwlTtirke himself * e onel y for a11 his & reat Dukedome, with a Palace, 
and a yearely pension of twelve thousand Chickens of 
Gold during his life. Which, when we heard, the Ambas- 
sadour, and we were all amazed and discontented : He 
was indebted to the Ambassadour above 15. thousand 
Chickens of Gold, yet or my leaving Galata, I went twice 
over with Sir Thomas, and saw him, and found him 
attended with a number of Turkes, who when he saw 
me, tooke me kindly by the hand, for we had bene two 
moneths familiar in the Ambassadors house before. 

The English Ambassador within halfe a yeare, recovered 
the halfe of his moneys, the other halfe he was forced 
to forgoe for diverse importunate respects. Nay, I must 
say one thing more of this Knight, he releeved more 
slaves from the Galleys, payd their ransomes, and sent 

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COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE a.d. 

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them home freely to their Christian stations, and kept a 
better house, than any Ambassadour did, that ever lay 
at Constantinople, or ever shall to the worlds end. 

His mother was a Pollonian, who comming from 
Dansicke to London, was delivered of him upon the Sea : 
Afterward he was brought up at Constantinople from a 
boy, and spoke, and wrot the Slavonian Tongue perfectly : 
And thence returning for London, he was the first Ambas- 
sador King James, of blessed Memory, sent to Constanti- 
nople, after his comming to the Crowne of England : And 
this much for this worthy and ever renowned Knight, 
whose prayse and fame I cannot too much celebrate. 

The Turkes have no Bels in their Churches, neither 
the use of a clocke, nor numbring of houres, but they 
have high round Steeples, for they contrafact, and contra- 
dict all the formes of Christians : when they goe to pray, 
they are called together by the voyce of crying men, who [IV. 142.] 
goe upon the bartizings of their Steeples, shouting and 
crying with a shrill voyce : La ilia, Eillalla, Mahomet 
Rezul allah, that is : God is a great God, and Mahomet 
is his Prophet, or otherwise there is but one God. 

In Constantinople, and all other places of Turky, I 
ever saw three Sabboths together, in one weeke : The 
Friday for the Turkes, the Saturday for Jewes, and the 
Sunday for Christians : but the Turkes Sabboth is worst 
kept of all : for they will not spare to do any labour on 
their Holy Day. They have meetings at their publicke 
Prayers, every day five severall times : the first is, before Times of 
the rising of the Sunne : The second is, a little before Turktsh 
midday : The third is, at three of the clocke in the after- ^ raye,s 
noone : The fourth is, at the Sunne-setting, Sommer and 
Winter : Fifthly, the last howre of Prayer, is alwayes two 
or three howres within night. Many of them will watch 
till that time, and not sleepe ; and others sleeping, will 
awake at the voyce of the Cryer, and go to Church. 

In signe of reverence, and in a superstitious devotion, 
before they go into their Mosquees, they wash themselves 
in a Lavotoio, beginning at the privy members, next their 

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ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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mouthes faces, feete and hands : And entring, they incline 
their heads downeward to the earth ; and falling on their 
knees, do kisse the ground three times. Then the Tala- 
sumany, which is the chiefe Priest, mounteth upon a high 
stone, where he maketh many Orations to Mahomet : 
and the rest to assist him, continue a long time shaking 
their heads, as though they were out of all their naturall 
understanding, repeating oft this word Haylamo, Hay- 
lamo ; and after that will sigh grievously, saying, Houpek. 
And sometimes will abruptly sing the Psalmes of David 
in the Arabick tongue, but to no sense, nor verity of 
[IV. 143.] the Scriptures. And at their devotion, they will not 
tollerate any women in their company, lest they should 
withdraw their minds and affections from their present 
zeale : But the men observe their turnes and times, and 
the women theirs, going alwayes when they goe, either 
of them alone to their devotion : The like custome, but 
not after the same manner have I seene observed among 
the Protestants in Transilvania, Hungaria, Moravia, 
Bohemia, and Silesia, who when they come to Church 
on the Sabboth day, there is a Taffaty Curtaine drawne 
from the Pulpit to the Church wall over against it : The 
men sitting on the right hand of the Preacher, the women 
on the left ; whose eyes and faces cannot see other during 
divine Service, save only the Minister that over-toppeth 
both sides ; and truly me thought it was a very modest, 
and necessary observation. The Turks are generally 
The Turkes circumcised after the manner of the Jewes, but not after 
arecircum- 8. dayes, but after 8. yeares. The Church men are called 
cised. Hadach Casseis, or Darvises, who weare on their heads 

greene Shashes, to make distinction betweene them and 
' others : for they are accounted to be of Mahomets kindred. 

They hold all mad men in great reverence, as Prophets 
or Saints, & if they intend any far journey, privat purposes, 
or otherwise, before they go to battell, they come to crave 
counsell of these Santones, to know if they shall prosper, 
or not, in their attempts. And whatsoever answer these 
Bedleem Prophets give, it is holden to be so credible, as if 

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COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE a.d. 

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an Oracle had spoken it. The Turkish Priests are for 
the most part Moores, whom they account to be a base 
people in respect of themselves, calling them Totseks: 
Their principall Church governour is called Mufti, Whose 
definitive sentence in Lawe or Religion is penetrable, and 
absolutely valiant : Neither abaseth he himselfe to sit [IV. 144.] 
in the Divano, nor affordeth more reverence to the 
Emperour, than he to him. The other sort of Church- The Turkish 
men are the Naipi or young Doctors, the Caddi, whereof Church-men. 
there is two or three in every Citty to judge the offences ; 
the Calsi or Readers, and the Mudressi which use to 
oversee the Cadeis in their Office : They were all formerly 
Idolatrous Pagans, and were fast initiated in Mahometan- 
isme, when they got the Soveraignty of the Persian 
Scepter; by the great Battell, and fortunate conduct of 
Tangrolipix in overthrowing Mahomet a Saracenicall 
Sultan of Persia ; who inthronized himselfe, in the Persian 
Chayre of Estate, Anno 1030. This prerogative Title 
of Mufti, was first intituled Caliph, whose residence was 
in Babylon, and wholly supreme over the Mahometans : 
But the ^Egyptians after the death of Mot adi Bila, with- 
drew themselves from this Babylonian obedience, and 
choosed one of their owne, to whom the Moores of 
Barbary submitted themselves. 

But now since Bagdat, or Babylon hath beene recovered Babylon 
by the Persians, about foure yeares agoe, their Mahome- recovered by 
tanicall Mufti or Caliph, that then was Resident there, is the Persians > 
now retired to Constantinople, where he sitteth in a more 
securer place, thinking rather to follow the Grandeur of 
the Turke, than the broken Estate of the Persian, whence 
I may truly say, he is Fortunes Page, that favoureth them 
most, who have most favourers. 

This unwealdy body having two heads, began to 
decline ; for Allan a Tartarian Captaine, starved Mus- 
tatzem the last divided Babylonian Caliph to death and 
rooted out all his posterity : And then Sarancon the first 
Turkish King in iEgypt, brained the last ^Egyptian Caliph 
with his Mace, leaving none of the issue, or Kindred 
l 129 1 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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surviving. The Office of the Caliph is now executed in 
[IV. 145.] Turkey, under the name Muphti, or high Priest. All 
Turkes do detest the colour of blacke, and thinke those 
that weare it, shall never enter into Paradise : But the 
colour of greatest request among them is greene ; where- 
with if any Christian be apparrelled, he shall be sure of 
Bastinadoes, and other punishments : Neither may he use 
the name of their Prophet Mahomet in his mouth, (under 
the paine of a cruell censure to be inflicted upon him) 
whom they so much adore, and honour. 
Mahomets This Mahomet was borne, Anno Dom. 591. in Itraripia, 
birth. a beggarly Village in Arabia, whose father was Abdillas, 

an Ismaelite ; and his mother Cadiges, a Jew ; both 
different in Religion, and also of diverse Countries : In 
his youth he was partly taught the Judaicall Law, and 
partly the superstition of the Gentiles. Many alleadge 
his parentage was never knowne (being so base) untill 
his riper yeares bewrayed the same, I also learned that 
his Parents dyed whiles he was a young child, and was 
turned over to his Unckle, who afterward sold him to one 
Abdeminoples, a Merchant in Palestina : And he, after 
a little time, having remarked his ready and prompt wit, 
sent him downe to iEgypt, to be a Factor in his Merchan- 
dise ; where, by his dissimulate behaviour, he crept in 
favour with Christians, Jewes, and Gentiles. He was in 
proportion of a meane stature, lively faced, big-headed, 
eloquent in language, of a sanguinicall complexion, and 
a couragious stomacke, in all attempts exceeding desper- 
ate : he was also deceitfull, variant, and fradulent, as may 
appeare in his Satanicall Fables, expressed in his Alcoran, 
where oft one saying contradicteth another, both in words, 
and effect. 

About this time there was one Sergius, an Italian borne, 
banished from Constantinople, because he allowed of the 
[IV. 146.] Arrian sect ; who afterward came to Palestina, and fre- 
quenting the house of Abdeminoples, fell in acquaintance 
with the young man Mahomet ; and this Frier perceiving 
the aspiring quicknes of his braine, bore a great affection 

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to his naturall perfections. Shortly after this, his Maister 
dying without heires, and his Mistresse enjoying many 
rich possessions ; she, for these his extraordinary qualities, 
from the degree of a Servant, advanced him to be her 
owne Husband. 

That unhappy match was no sooner done but she 
repented it with teares : for he being subject to the falling Mahomet pot- 
sicknesse, would often fall flat on the ground before her, tested with the 
staring, gaping, and foaming at the mouth ; so that his f alltn & m nes - 
company became loathsome and detestable. The which 
begun contempt in his bed-fellow ; being to him mani- 
fested, he strove (under the shaddow of invented lies) 
to mitigate the fury of her hatefull disdaine ; faining, and 
attesting, that when he fell to the ground, it was the great 
God spoke with him, before whose face (sayth he) I am 
not able to stand ; such is the soliciting of me, with words 
of terrour and Majesty, to reforme the wayes of the 
degenerate people with fire, and sword ; sith Moses and 
Christ (notwithstanding of their miracles) have beene 
rejected by the world. The old Trot, believing all these 
flattering speeches, was not onely appeased of her former 
conceit, but also loving him more then a husband, 
reverenced him for a divine Prophet ; imparting the same 
unto her neighbours and gossips. After they had lived 
two yeares together, the bewitched Matron dying, left 
all her possessions to Mahomet ; both because she 
accounted him to be a Prophet, and next for that loving 
regard she had of his tender body, being but 30. yeares 
of age. He being thus left with great riches, was puft 
up in pride, and hauty desires, striving by all inordinary [IV. H7-] 
meanes, to bring his new devised plots to perfection. For 
the better performance whereof, he consulted with this 
Sergius a Nestorian Monk, and Atodala another Thal- 
mudist, a diverted Jew; hereupon these two helhounds, 
and the other perverst Runagate, patched up a most 
monstrous, and divellish Religion to themselves, and to 
their miscreant beleevers ; partly composed of the Judaicall 
law, partly of Arrianisme, partly intermixed with some 

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a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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points of Christianity ; and partly of other fantasticall 

fopperies, which his owne invention suggested unto him. 

The Booke of this Religion is named the Alcoran, the 

whole body of which, is but an exposition, and glosse 

on the eight commandements he affixed ; whereupon 

The Law of dependeth the whole Mahometanicall Law : First, every 

a omet. Qne OU gj lt to b e l eeve that God is a great God, and onely 

God, and Mahomet is his Prophet. Secondly, every man 

must marry to encrease the Sectaries of Mahomet : 

Thirdly, every one must give of his wealth to the poore : 

Fourthly, every one must make his prayers seaven times 

a day : Fiftly, every one must keepe a Lent, one moneth 

in the yeare, this Lent is called Birham, or Ramazan : 

Sixtly, Be obedient to thy Parents ; which Law is so 

neglected, that never any children were, or are more 

unnaturall then the Turkish be : Seaventhly, thou shalt 

not kill, which they inviolable keepe amongst themselves ; 

but the poore Christians feele the smart thereof. Last 

and eightly, Doe unto others, as thou wouldst be done 

unto thy selfe, the performers of which have large Sophisti- 

call promises ascribed them. 

This new coyned doctrine, was no sooner wrapt up in 
his execrable Alcoran, but he began to spit forth his 
abhominable and blasphemous heresies : Affirming, that 
Christ was not the sonne of the most high, nor that 
[IV. 148.] Messias looked for ; denying also the Trinity, with many 
other prophane blasphemies. The worke concluded, for 
the better advancement of his purpose, he married the 
daughter of the chiefe Prince of his owne tribe : By which 
new affinity, he not onely seduced his Father in law, but 
also the whole linage of that family ; by whose acceptance, 
and conversion, he also confederated with other associates, 
and waxed dayly stronger. Contending continually to 
divulgate his name, aye more and more, he assembled 
his new Alcoranists : exhorting them to assist him in the 
besieging of Mecha, which Citizens had in derision 
rebuked his law, and absolutely disdained his Mahometani- 
call illusions : and promised to them, in such a well 

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COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE a.d. 

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deserving attempt, both eternall felicity, and the spoiles 
of these his contradictors ; perswasively assuring them, 
that God would deliver all the gaine-sayers of his Alcoran 
into his hands. By which allurements they being moved, 
rose to the number of 3000. in Armes, and menaced 
Mecha, but the Citizens put him to flight, and so was 
he thrice served ; till in the end he wonne their City : 
wherein after his death he was intombed in an Iron Coffin : Mahomets 
Which betweene two Adamants hangeth to this day (as Tmbe - 
I have been informed of sundry Turkes, who saw it) which 
confirmed in them a solid beliefe of his erronious doctrine. 
But now of late the Turkes growing more circumspect 
then they were, and understanding the derision of 
Christianes concerning their hanging Tombe, and because 
the Turkish Pilgrimes were often suffocate to death, with 
a fabulous desart in going to Mecha ; they have trans- 
ported Mahomets Tombe now to Medina ; which is a 
great deale nearer to Damascus, and at the entry of Arabia 
roelix ; in a glorious Mosquee, where the Tombe being 
close ground set, and richly covered with a golden 
Cannopy ; they have inhibited that any Christian shall [IV. 149.] 
come neare to it by two courses, to wit. twenty foure 
miles, under the payne of death : which indeed they keepe 
more strictly in execution, then Princely Proclamations 
are obeyed, observed, or regarded with us ; either for 
regall statutes, or generall benefits of Common-wealth : 
their continuance being but like the miracle of nine daies 
wonder; returne againe from whence they came frustrat 
of power, and robbed of obedience. From this time that 
he vanquished Mecha, casting out the Greeke Officers, 
(for then all Arabia was under the Constantinopolitan 
Empire) the Saracens began their computation of yeares 
(as we from Christs Nativity) which they call Hegira, 
and begunne about the yeare of our Redemption, 617. 
Concerning which time, that Mahomet compiled his 
divellish Alcoran, beginning his Empire ; nigh about the 
same time it is observed that Boniface the third begun 
his Empire, and Antechristian title, for Phocas having 

133 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1610-11. 

killed the Emperour Mauritius, his Wife and children : 
To secure himselfe of Italy, ready to revolt from such 
a Tyrant, made Boniface universall Bishop and head of 
the Church. 

This Boniface was the threescore and fourth Bishop, & 
The first title first Pope of Rome: Which was immediatly thereafter 
of Popes. confirmed by Puppin the French King, who also had 
murdered his Master and Prince; and lastly was ratified 
by Paleologus, whose sonne Constantine about 14. yeares 
thereafter, had his head stroake off, his wife and daughters 
put to cruell death, his Empire quite subverted, in the 
losse of 12. Kingdomes, and 200. Cities, being the just 
judgements of God upon the sonne, for the fathers sake, 
•» who assigned such an ambitious charge unto that perverse 

Papality : After which predominant titles and falsified 
[IV. 150.] power, what long controversies and disputes were betweene 
the Pope, and the Councels of Carthage, Calcedon, 
Ephesus, Alexandria, and Nyce. This Papall preroga- 
tive begun with bloud, and murther, continueth in bloud, 
and massacres, and (doubtlesse) in the ende shall perish, 
and be confounded with bloud, and abhominable destruc- 
tion. 

And what great debate was of old by the Romane 
Emperours, in abolishing out of their Churches, the 
Images and Idols of Stone, Iron, & Timber, &c. that for 
many hundreth yeares they were not suffered to be seene : 
And at the beginning of the Papality, and a long time 
after, the Emperours prohibite them, and diverse Popes 
have confirmed, and approved the same : Yet succeeding 
Popes, and the Empire being divided in East and West, 
introducted againe, the dregs of their olde Hethnish and 
Romish Romane Idolatry : and yet they will not be content with 

Idolatry. tne Dare nam e of Images, but they impose a surname or 
epithite of sanctity, tearming them holy Images. Truely 
I may say, if it were not for these Images, and super- 
stitious Idolatries, they assigne to them, the Turkes had 
long agoe bene converted to the Christian Faith. 

I have seene sometimes two thousand Turkes travelling 

i34 



COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE a.d. 

1610-11. 

to Media, in Pilgrimage ; which is in Arabia felix : where Turkish 
many in a superstitious devotion, having seene the Tombe P^g rimes - 
of Mahomet, are never desirous to see the vanities of the 
World againe : For in a franticke piety they cause a Smith 
to pull forth their eyes : And these men are called after- 
ward Hoggeis, that is, Holy men, whom the Turkes much 
honour, and regard : and are alwayes led about from towne 
to towne by mens hands, and fed, and regarded like unto 
Princes ; or like the Capushines that scourge themselves 
on good Friday, met, and homaged at every passing 
Streete, with prayers, gifts, and adorations. 

Some write, that Mahomet in his youth was a Souldier, [IV. 151.] 
under the conduct of Heraclius, who imploying certaine 
Arabians in an expedition to Persia, not onely denied 
them their wages, but told them, that, that was not to 
be given for dogges, which was provided for the Romane 
Souldiers. Hence some mutinies arrising in the Army, 
he, with certaine Arabians, his Country-men, by faction, 
separated themselves, and revolted : Whereupon Mahomet, 
encouraging them in their defection, was chosen their 
Captaine ; and so for a certaine time they continued 
rebellious Runnagates, Theeves, and Robbers of all people. 
The subtilty of this dissembler was admirable ; who know- 
ing that he was destitute of heavenly gifts, to worke 
miracles, feignd, that God sent him with the sword : 
He also promised, at the end of a thousand yeares to 
returne, and bring them to Paradice ; but he hath falsified Mahomet hath 
his promise, for the time is expired forty yeares ago. And & ro * e . *** 
they imagining, that he is either diseased, or become lame P imue - 
in his journey, have ascribed to him another thousand 
yeares to come. But long may their wicked and faithlesse 
generation gape, before he come, untill such time, that 
in a generall convocation, they be partakers of his endlesse 
damnation in Hell ; unlesse it please the Lord in his 
mercy to convert them before that time. 

Mahomet, chiefly prohibiteth in his Alcoran, the eating 
of Swines flesh, and drinking of Wine, which indeed 
the best sort do, but the baser kind are dayly drunkards : 

i35 



Turkes. 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1610-11. 

Their common drinke is Sherpet, composed of Watery 
Honey, and Sugar, which is exceeding delectable in the 
taste : And the usuall courtesie, they bestow on their 
friends, who visite them, is a Cup of Coffa, made of a 
kind of seed called Coava, and of a blackish colour ; which 
they drinke so hote as possible they can, and is good to 

[IV. 152.] expell the crudity of raw meates, and hearbes, so much 
by them frequented. And those that cannot attaine to 
this liquor, must be contented with the cooling streames 
of water. 

Oppression of It is incident to Turkes, which have not the generosity 
of mind, to temper felicity, to be glutted with the super- 
fluous fruites of doubtfull prosperity. Neither have they 
a patient resolution to withstand adversity, nor hope to 
expect the better alteration of time. But by an infused 
malice in their wicked spirits, when they are any way 
calamited, will with importunate compulsion, cause the 
poore slavish subjected Christians, surrender all they have, 
the halfe, or so forth, sometimes with strokes, menacings, 
and sometimes death it selfe ; which plainely doth demon- 
strate their excessive cruelty, and the poore Christians 
inevitable misery. And yet being complained upon, they 
are severely punished, or else put to death, for committing 
of such unallowable Ryots, being expresly against the 
Imperiall Law of the Turke, concerning the quietnesse 
and liberty of the Christians. 

I have often heard Turkes brawle one with another,, 
most vilely, but I never saw, or heard, that they either 
in private or publicke quarrels, durst strike one another, 
neither dare they for feare of severe punishment, imposed 
to such quarrellors : But they will injure and strike 
Christians, who dare not say it is amisse, or strike againe. 
It is a common thing with them, to kill their servants 
for a very small offence, and when they have done, throw 
them like dogges in a ditch. And oftentimes (if not so) 
will lay them downe on their backes, hoysing up their 
heeles, bind their feete together, and fasten them to a 
post, and with a cudgell give them three or foure hundreth 

136 



COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE a.d. 

1610-11. 

blowes on the soles of their feete : Whereupon perad- 

venture, some ever go lame after. Their servants are 

bought and sold, like bruite beasts in Markets; neither [IV. 153.] 

can these miserable drudges ever recover liberty, except 

they buy themselves free, either by one meane or other. 

Their wives are not farre from the like servitude, for the 

men by the Alcoran, are admitted to marry as many women 

as they will, or their ability can keepe. And if it shall 

happen, that any one of these women (I meane either 

wife or Concubine) prostituteth her selfe to an other man 

besides her husband; then may he, by authority, bind 

her hands and feete, hang a stone about her necke, and 

cast her into a River, which by them is usually done in 

the night. 

But when these Infidels please to abuse poore Christian 
women against their husbands will, they little regard the 
transgression of the Christian Law ; who as well defloure 
their daughters, as their wives ; yet the devout Mahome- 
tans never meddle with them, accompting themselves 
damned to copulate (as they thinke) with the offspring 
of dogges. The Turkes generally, when they commit 
any copulation with Christians, or their owne sexe, they 
wash themselves in a South running fountaine, before 
the Sun rising, thinking thereby to wash away their sinnes. 

If a Turke should happen to kill another Turke, his The Turkes 
punishment is thus ; after he is adjudged to death, he is Justice - 
brought forth to the market place, and a blocke being 
brought hither of foure foote high ; the malefactor is stripd 
naked ; and then layd thereupon with his belly downeward, 
they drawe in his middle together so small with running 
cords, that they strike his body a two with one blow : 
his hinder parts they cast to be eaten by hungry dogges 
kept for the same purpose ; and the forequarters and 
head they throw into a grievous fire, made there for the 
same end : and this is the punishment for man-slaughter. 

But for murder or treason he is more cruelly used, for [IV. 154.] 
being convicted & condemned, he is brought forth before 
the people, where in the street there is an exceeding high 

i37 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1610-n. 

Stripad erected, much like to a May-pole : which tree 
from the roote, till it almost come to the top, is all set 
about full of long sharpe iron pikes, and their poynts 
upward : The Villaine being strip'd naked, and his hands 
bound backward, they bind a strong rope about his 
shoulders and cleavings : And then hoysing him up to 
the pillow or top of the tree, they let the rope flee loose, 
whence downe he falles, with a rattle, among the iron 
pykes, hanging either by the buttocks, by the breasts, 
by the sides, or shoulders ; and there sticking fast in the 
ayre, he hangeth till his very bones rot and fall downe, 
and his body be devoured being quicke, with ravenous 
Eagles, kept to prey upon his carkas for the same 
purpose. 

Turkish But now I come to their nuptiall rites, their custome 

marriages. an d manner of marriage is thus : If a man affecteth a 
yong mayd, he buyeth her of her parents, and giveth a 
good summe of money for her, and after she is bought, 
he enrolles her name in the Cadies Booke, witnessing she 
is his bound wife, bought of her father. Loe, this is 
all the forme of their marriage : This being done, the 
father of the woman sendeth houshold-stuffe home with 
the Bride ; which is carried through the streets on Mulets 
or Camells backes, the two new married folkes marching 
before, are conveyed with musicke, their owne acquaint- 
ance, and friends unto his house. 

The Turkes in generall, whensoever they loath or 
dislike their wives, use to sell them in markets, or other- 
wise bestow them on their men-slaves : And although 
their affection were never so great towards them, yet they 
never eate together, for commonly the women stand, and 

[IV. 155.] serve their husbands at meate, and after that, they eate 
a part by themselves, secretly ; without admission of any 
mankind in their company, if they be above foureteene 
yeares of age. They goe seldome abroad, unlesse it be 
each Thursday at night, when they goe to the Graves to 
mourne for the dead, alwayes covering their faces, very 
modestly with white or blacke masks, which are never 

138 



COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE a.d. 

1610-11. 

uncovered, till they returne to their houses. Many other 
ceremonies they have, which would be too prolixe for me 
to recite. And notwithstanding of all this externall 
gravity, amongst these hirelings, yet there are in Con- 
stantinople above 40000. brothel-houses, Turqueski as 
Libertines ; in any of which, if a Christian (especially 
Francks) be apprehended, he must either turne Turke, or 
Slave all his life : But the women by policy apply a counter- 
poyson to this severity, for they accustomably come to 
the Chambers of their Benefactors and well-willers, or 
other places appointed secretly, whereso they learne either 
a French Syncopa, or an Italian Bergamasko. 

As for the great Turkes Concubines, they are of number The Emperors 
eight hundred, being the most part Emeeres, Bashawes, Concubines. 
and Timariots daughters : The third and inmost part of 
the Seraglia is allotted for their residence, being well 
attended at all times with numbers of Enuches, and other 
gelded officers : Every morning they are ranked in a great 
Hall, and set on high and open seats : where when he 
commeth, and selecting the youngest and fairest, he 
toucheth her with a rod ; and immediately she followeth 
him into his cabine of leachery, where if any action be 
done, shee receiveth from the Head-Clarke her approba- 
tion thereupon, which ever afterwards serveth her for a 
conditionall dowry to her marriage, with much honour and 
reputation besides: And if any of them conceave, and [IV. 156.] 
the child borne, it is suddenly dispatched from this life : 
The oldest hundreth, every first Friday of the moneth are A hundred 
turned out, and another new hundred come in to make Concubines 
good the number : Their entrie and issue is alwayes at c a ^L every 
one of the posterne gates of the Parke, toward the sea 
side, and joyning nigh to their Pallace : Whence crossing 
Bosphore, in an appointed barge, they both goe and come 
in one day, from and to the Galata, which I my selfe did 
see three several times : The oldest and last hundred that 
are every moneth dismissed, they depart from the Galata, 
home to their Parents and severall Countreys, rejoycing 
that they were counted worthy to be chosen and enter- 

i39 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1610-11. 

tained to be their Emperours Concubines. The custome 
of the great Turke is, every Friday being their Sabboth 
day after divine service and dinner, to run at the Glove 
in a open place before all the people, with some Hagars, 
or yong striplings that accompany him; who have the 
Glove hanging as high on a sticke, as we have the ring 
with us : And truely of all the Turkish Emperours that 
ever were, this Achmet was the most gentle & favourable 
to Christians ; who rather for his bounty and tendernesse 
might have beene intitulated the Christian Emperour, 
then the Pagane King : for he dissanulled all the exactions 
that had beene inflicted by his predecessors upon his 
tributarie Christian subjects ; and cancelled the custome 
or tythe of their Male children, abrogating also that 
imposition on their Female dowries. 

The Lent of the Turkes is called Byrham, which con- 
tinueth the space of a moneth once in the yeare : In all 
which time, from the Sunne rising to his setting, they 
neither eate nor drinke : And at their prayers (especially 
in this fasting) they use often to reiterate these words 

[IV. 157.] Hue, hue, hue, that is; He, he, he, alone is God; or, 
There is but one onely supreme Power ; which they doe 
in derision of Christians, who (as they say) adore three 
Gods. They have also this sinister opinion, that at the 
day of Judgement, when Mahomet shall appeare, there 
shall be three displayed Banners, under the which all good 

The Turkes people shall be conducted to Paradise : The one of Moses, 

Paradise. under the which the children of Israel shall be : The second 
of Jesus, under which Christians shall be : The third of 
Mahomet, under the which shall be the Arabs, Turkes, 
and Musilmans : All which, they thinke, shall be elevated 
to severall honours ; and they in promotion shall be dis- 
cerned from the rest, by Chambers made of resplendant 
light, which God will give them ; wherein they shall have 
banquetings, feastings, dancing, and the best melody can 
be devised ; and that they shall spend their times with 
amorous Virgins, (whose mansion shall be neare by) the 
men never exceeding the age of thirty yeares, and the 

140 



COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE ad. 

1610-n. 

Virgines fifteene, and both shall have their Virginities 
renewed, as fast, as lost. 

They hold also this, as a confident article of their 
Beliefe, there are seven Paradises in heaven, the pave- 
ments whereof are laid with gold, silver, pearles, pretious 
stones, and garnished with stately buildings, and pleasant 
gardens, wherein are all sorts of fruit, and Princely 
Pallaces ; through the which runne Rivers of milke, honey, 
and wine. 

The first Paradise, they call it Genete Alcholde, the 
second Alfirduzy, the third Anthinak, the fourth 
Reduasch, the fift Azelem, the sixt Alcodush, that is 
holy, and the seventh Almega, that is, the greatest. And 
that in the midst of this last Paradise, there is a stately 
tree, called Tubah, the leafe of which is partly of gold, 
and partly of silver: whose boughes extend round about [IV. 158.] 
the wals of this seventh Paradice, whereon the name of 
Mahomet is written, neare to the name of God, in these 
words, Alia, ilia, he, allah, Mahomet Rezul allah. The 
which words are in such reverence amongst the Turkes, 
that if a Christian should happen, unadvisedly to repeate 
them, he is adjudged to a most cruell death, or compulsed 
to renounce his Christian Religion. 

Their Lent lasteth thirty dayes, called Byrham, some The Turkes 
name it also Ramadan ; induring which time, they eate LenL 
nor drinke nothing from Sunne rising to its setting 
downe : but when night commeth they Cormandize at 
their selfe pleasures : Their moneth of Lent is our January, 
where every day after their severall devotions, they goe 
to solemne playes ; and all kind of prophane pastimes : 
counting that best devotion, which is most sutable to 
their dispositions ; allotting fancy to follow their folly, and 
blindnesse, to overtop the ignorance of nature, drawing 
all their drifts within the circle of destruction : But indeed, 
as they are blind, in the true way of sacred worship ; yet 
are they masked with a wonderfull zeale to their devoted 
blindnesse ; surpassing farre in shew, and observations, 
the generall Professours of Christianity, and all the Cere- 
Mi 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1610-11. 

monies can bee annexed thereunto : Theirs running on 
with the flouds of ignorant affection, and ours distracted 
with the inutile novelties of superfluous Schoole ques- 
tions : which indeed do more distemper the truth, than 
render God to be rightly glorified. 
The Turkes As concerning their opinion of Hell, they hold it to 

opinion of hell. be a deepe Gulfej betwixt tw0 Mountaines : from the 

mouth whereof are Dragons, that continually throw fire, 
being large eight leagues, and hath a darke entry, where 
the horrible Fiends meete the perplexed sinners, conveying 
[IV. 159.] them till they come to a bridge, that is so narrow as the 
edge of a Razor : whereupon these who have not com- 
mitted haynous offences, may passe over to Hell, but those 
who have done Buggery (as the most part of them do) 
and homicide, shall fall headlong from it, to the pro- 
foundest pit in Hell, where they shall sometimes burne 
in fire, & sometimes be cast into hot boyling waters to 
be refreshed. And for the greater punishment of the 
wicked (say they) God hath planted a tree in Hell named 
Sajaratash, or Roozo Saytanah, that is, the head of the 
Divell, upon the fruit of which, the damned continually 
feed : Mahomet in one of the Chapters of his Alcoran, 
calleth this tree, the Tree of Malediction. 

They also thinke the tormented soules may one day 

be saved, providing they do indure the scorching flames 

of Hell patiently. Thus, as briefly as I could, have I 

layd open the opinions of the Turkes, concerning their 

Heaven and Hell, before the eyes of these, who perad- 

venture have never bene acquainted with such a ghostly 

Discourse. 

The number of And now I thinke it not amisse to reckon you up in 

all the generall all the Romane and Greeke Emperours, that have 

Emperours in bene f rom tn . e beginning to this present time, both in 

West tne East, and in the West, with the number of the Turkish 

Emperours also : Beginning now at Julius Caesar, the 

first Dictatour of Romane Emperour, to Constantine the 

Great, who transported the seate of the Empire from 

Rome to Constantinople, he was the three score and fourth 

142 



COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE a.d. 

1610-11. 

Emperour : And from Constantine the Great in the East, 
to the first made Emperour in the West, there were thirty 
nine Emperours : of whom Constantine the sixth, sonne 
to Leo the third, with Irena his wife was the last sole 
Emperour, and she Empresse of East and West : After 
whose death and overthrow, Charlemaine was called in to 
Italy to danton the Lombards, who had oppressed that [IV. 160.] 
region, and the peace of the Church for two hundreth 
yeares : He chased them from Rome, Apulia, and from all 
Italy, and was therefore declared by Pope Leo, the Romane 
Emperour of the West : from Charlemaine to this present 
Ferdinando that now raigneth, Charlemaine being the 
hundreth and fourth, there were forty and one Emperors : 
So in all, with this Emperour Ferdinando, lately Duke of 
Grasse, the number amounts to of these Emperours, 
counting from Julius Caesar to Constantine the sixt, the 
last sole Emperour of the East, and after him, from 
Charlemaine the first Emperour of the West, to this time, 
their number have bene a hundreth and forty sixe 
Emperours. 

Some whereof were Greekes, which cannot perfectly 
be set downe, in regard some were Empresses, and others 
suddenly elected, were as suddenly murthered or poy- 
soned. 

Now to reckon the Turkish Emperors, I will first begin 
from the time that the Turkes tooke a Monarchick name, 
under the name of Ottoman, even to Mahomet the second, 
the first Grecian Emperour, beginning, I say at Ottoman, 
the sonne of Orthogule the first Emperour of the Turkes, 
and the first that erected the glory of his Nation ; there 
were nine Emperours to Mahomet the second : And from 
him to this present Amurath, that now raigneth, there 
have bene eleven Emperours : The number of which are 
onely twenty, and or they come to thirty, they and theirs, 
I hope, shall be rooted from the earth. 

The Originall of the Turkes, is sayd to have bene in The beginning 
Scythia, from whence they came to Arabia Petrea, and °f the Turkes. 
giving battell oft to the Sarazens, in the ende subdued 

143 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1610-11. 

them, and so they multiplied, and mightily increased : 
the apparence of their further increasing, is very evident, 
[IV. 161.] except God of his mercy towards us prevent their blood 
sucking threatnings, with the vengeance of his just judge- 
ments. 

The Sarazens are descended of Esau, who after he had 
lost the blessing, went and inhabited in Arabia Petrea ; 
and his Posterity, striving to make a cleere distinction 
betweene them, the Ismaelites, and Jewes, called them- 
selves (as come of Sara) Sarazens ; and not of Hagar, the 
handmaide of Abraham, of whom came the Ismaelites, 
neither of the race of Jacob, of whom came the Jewes. 
But now the Sarazens being joyned with the Turkes, their 
Conquerours, have both lost their name, and the right 
of their discent. 

The Turkes which are borne and bred in the lesser 
The Turkes Asia, and East parts of Europe, are generally well 
complexion, complexioned, proportionably compacted, no idle nor 
superfluous talkers, servile to their grand Signior, exces- 
sively inclined to Venery, and zealous in Religion : Their 
heads are alwayes shaven, reserving onely one tuft in 
the top above, by which they thinke one day to be caught 
to Heaven by Mahomet, and covered on all sides, counting 
it an opprobious thing to see any uncover his head, they 
weare their Beards long, as a signe of gravity, for they 
esteeme them to be wise men, who have long beards : 
The women are of a low stature, thicke and round of 
growth, going seldome abroad (unlesse it be each Thursday 
at night, when they go to mourne upon the graves of 
their dead friends) and then they are modestly masked : 
they are fearefull and shame-fast abroad, but lascivious 
within doores, and pleasing in matters of incontinency ; 
and they are accounted most beatrtifull, who have the 
blackest browes, the widest mouthes, and the greatest 
eyes. 
[IV. 162.] The other Turkes which are borne in Asia major, and 
JEgypt, (I speake not of the Moores of Barbary) are of 
a greater stature, tanny, cruell, a barbarous and uncivill 

144 



COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE 

people. The better sort use the Slavonian tongue, the 
vulgar speake the Turkish language, which being origin- 
ally the Tartarian speech, they borrow from the Persian 
their words of state, from the Arabicke, their words of 
Religion, from the Grecians, their termes of warre, and 
from the Italian their words and titles of navigation. 

The puissance of the great Turke is admirable, yet the 
most part of his Kingdomes in Asia, are not well inhabited, 
neither populous, but these parts which border with 
Christians, are strongly fortified with Castles, people, and 
munition : If Christian Princes could concord, and consult 
together, it were an easie thing in one yeare, to subdue 
the Turkes, and roote out their very names from the 



A.D. 

i6io-ii, 



earth 



yea, 



moreover I am certified, that there are moe 



Christians, even slaves and subjects to the great Turke, 
which do inhabite his dominions, then might overthrow 
and conquer these Infidells, if they had worthy Captaines, 
Governours and furniture of Armes, without the helpe 
of any Christian of Christendome. 

And yet againe, I thinke it not amisse to discourse more 
particularly of the Turkish manners, of their riches, and 
of their forces of warres, and the manner of their con- 
ducements. 

The Turkes being naturally discended of the Scythians The Turkes 
or Tartars, are of the second stature of man, and robust are 
of nature, circumspect and couragious in all their attempts, Tartarian. 
and no way given to industry or labour, but are wonderfull 
avaritious and covetuous of money above all the nations of 
the world. They never observe their promises, unlesse 
it be with advantage, and are naturally prone to deceive 
strangers; changing their conditionall bargaines, as time [IV. 163.] 
giveth occasion to their liking : They are humble one 
to another, but especially to their superiours, before whom 
they doe not onely great homage, but also keepe great 
silence, and are wonderfull coy during the time of their 
presence : They are extreamely inclined to all sorts of 
lascivious luxury ; and generally adicted, besides all their Libidinous 
sensuall and incestuous lusts, unto Sodomy, which they Turkes. 

L 145 K 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1610-11. 

account as a daynty to digest all their other libidinous 
pleasures. They hold that every one hath the houre of 
his death wrot on his fore-brow, and that none can escape^ 
the good or evill houre predestinated for them : This 
rediculous errour makes them so bold and desperate, yea, 
and often, to runne headlong in the most inevitable 
dangers : They are not much given to domesticke pas- 
times, as Chesse, Cards, Dice, and Tables, but abroad 
and in travell, they are exceeding kind disposers of their 
meate and drinke to any stranger without exception : The 
better sort of their women, are sumptuously attyred, and 
adorned with pearles and precious stones, and some of 
them are accustomed to turne their hands and haire into 
a red colour, but especially the nayles of their hands and 
feete ; and are wont to go to bathe themselves in Stoves 
twice a weeke, as well as men. 

The true Turkes weare on their heads white Turbanes, 
save a few that are esteem'd to be of Mahomets kinred, 
and they weare greene Shashes, being most part of them 
Priests : the better part of the Turkes in Asia, care not 
for fish, but these Turkes which remaine in Europe love 
fish better then flesh, especially at Constantinople or 
Stambolda, where the best fishes and most abundance of 
them are taken, that be in the world, and that in the 
blacke Sea : They are ever desirous to seeke advantage 
[IV. 164.] on their neighbours, which if they cannot by force, they 
will under colour of truce, accomplish it with perfidious- 
nesse. And if their interprises, finde no happy event, 
they are never a whit ashamed to take the flight, yet are 
they generally good souldiers, and well taught in martiall 
discipline : Their Armies in marching, or camping (not- 
withstanding infinite multitudes) keepe modestie and 
silence, and are extreamely obedient unto their Captaines 
and Commanders : When the great Signior is abroad with 
his armie at warres, the Turkes at home within Townes, 
use great prayers, and fasting for him and them : They 
ingeniously describe the victories of their Ancestours, and 
joyfully sing them in rimes and songs ; thinking thereby 

146 



COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE ad. 

1610-11. 
that fashion in recalling the valiant deeds of their prede- 
cessours, to be the onely meane to encourage their souldiers 
to be hardy, resolute and desperate in all their interprises : 
They are not given to contemplation, nor studdy of Letters Turkesarenoe 
or Arts ; yet they have divers faire Schooles, where the Schollers. 
publicke lecture of their legall Lawes are professed, and 
Mahometanisme ; to the intent that Children, being elected 
to be brought up there for a nones, may be instructed, to 
be profitable expounders of their Alcoran, and judicious 
Judges for the government of the Common-wealth : It 
is seldome, and rarely seene, that a Turke will speake with 
a woman in the streets ; nay, not so much as in their 
Mosquees one to be in sight of another; and yet they 
are Lords and Masters of their Wives and Concubines, 
from whom they receive as great respect, service and 
honour, as from their bond and bought slaves. 

Now as concerning his riches, the chiefest three parts 
of Commerce of all kind of merchandise, and abounding 
in silver and gold in all the Turkes dominions, as well 
in Asia, and AfFricke, as Europe, are these, Constantinople [iv. 165.] 
in Thracia of Europe : Aleppo in Syria of Asia major ; 
and grand Cayro in Mgypt of AfFricke : for these are 
the three Maggezzines of the whole Empire, that draw 
the whole riches, money, and trafficke to them of all the 
Imperiall Provinces : It is thought that ordinarily and 
annually the rent of the great Turke amounteth to sixteene The great 
millions of gold, notwithstanding that some doe make it Turkes 
lesser : But because it is so hard to judge of any Monarchs y rarely rent. 
rents ; being like the infinite concavities of the earth, 
sending, and receiving so innumerable wayes their streames 
of riches, Pie desist from any other instances : And yet 
the great Turkes revenewes, are no way answerable to 
his great & large dominions : The causes arising hereupon 
are many, of whom I will select three or foure of the 
chiefest reasons : First the Turkes being more given to 
armes, to conquer, to destroy and ruine, and to consume 
the wealth of the people they overcome, leaving them 
destitute, of nuriture ; rather then any way to give course 

147 



A.D. 
l6lO-II 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 



Certaine 
reasons. 



for their encreasing and stablishing of traffique, out of 
which should flow the royall advantages. And the reason 
why they keepe their subjects poore, and frustrate them- 
selves of great profits ; is onely to weaken, and enfeeble 
them, whereby they should not have wherewith to move 
insurrection or rebellion against them. And on the other 
part, the Greekes are as unwilling to be industrious in 
Arts, trafficke or cultivage ; seeing what they possesse 
is not their owne, but is taken from them at all occasions, 
with tyranny & oppression. For what gaines the sower, 
if another reape the profit ; So in the Ottomans estate, 
there be great Forrests, and desartuous Countries ; pro- 
ceeding of the scarcity of people to inhabit there, the 
multitudes being drawne from Asia, to strengthen the 
frontiers of his dominions in Europe. 
[IV. 166.] And besides there is another reason of the dispopulosity 
of these parts ; to wit, when the great Turkes Army, is 
to march to a farre Countrey to make warres, then must 
their vulgar subdued peasants, perhaps twenty or thirty 
thousands go along with them, to carry their victuals, 
and all manner of provision, being taken from the plough, 
and constrained to this servitude, and notwithstanding the 
halfe of them never returne againe : Partly, because of 
the change of food, and aire, and partly because of their 
long travell and insupportable service, both in heate and 
cold: And to these of the first reason, there is another 
perpendicular cause ; to wit, that the whole commerce of 
all commodities in Turkey, is in the hands of Jewes, and 
Christians, to wit, Ragusans, Venetians, English, French, 
and Flemings, who so warily menage their businesse, that 
they enjoy the most profits of any trading there, dissap- 
pointing the Turkes owne subjects of their due, and 
ordinary trafficke. 

The last and most principall reason is, which is a great 
deale of more importance than his Revenues ; to wit, the 
great number of his Timars : for the Turkish Emperours ; 
being immediate Maisters of the lands they overcome, 
they divide the same in Timars or commandements : 

148 



Parsells of 
ground for 
Ty mar lots. 



COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE ad. 

1610-11. 
leaving little or nothing at all to the auncient Inhabitants ; 
they dispose upon these proportions, to valerous Souldiers, 
that have done good service : And with this condition, 
that they mainetaine, and have alwayes in readinesse 
Horses for the warres : which is an excellent good order 
for the preservation of his Empire ; for if these Timariots 
were not rewarded, with such absolute possessions of 
parcell grounds, the state of his power would suddenly 
runne to ruine : for the profit of which lands, maintaining 
themselves, their horses, and their families, maketh them 
the more willing to concurre in the infallible service of [IV. 167.] 
their Emperour : These Timars or grounds, entertaine 
through all his Dominions, about two hundreth and fifty 
thousand horses, that are ever in readinesse to march at 
the first advertisement, without any charges to the great 
Signior, being bound to maintaine themselves in during 
the warres : And yet these Timariots, and their horses, 
cannot yearely be maintained under the value of ten 
Millions of Gold : The consideration whereof, makes me 
astonished, when I recall, the relations of some ragged 
Authors, who dare compare the Great Turkes Revenues 
unto our petty Princes of Christendome. 

This establishment of Timars, and the by-past election 
of Azamglians, or young children to be made Jannisaries 
have bene the two strong Foundations, that supported so 
inviolably the Turkish Empire. The Romane Emperours 
for a long time used the selfe same manner for the assuring 
of their persons, and estate, in election of yong males 
to be their guard. They were called the Pretorian Army, 
and this taxation of children was the first thing that moved 
the Flemings, to revolt against the Romanes. 

As for the Turkish Cavalrie, they sustaine two impor- Policies of 
tant effects, first they keepe under awe and subjection, Turkes. 
the great Turks subjects, who otherwise perhaps wold 
revolt : And next they are ordained for any dependant 
interprise for field Garrisons, yea, and the principall 
sinewes of the warres : and yet the election of the grand 
Signior, lieth most in the hands of the Janizaries, who 

149 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1610-11. 

can not perfectly say he is Emperour before they confirme 
him in his Throne. 

The Turkes have three things in their Armies which 
are very fearefull, to wit, the infinite number of men, 
great discipline, and force of Munition : As for discipline, 
[IV. 168.] they are not onely governed with great silence, and 
obedience, but they are ruled also with signes of the eye, 
and being tractable, they are tied to maine conducements : 
And although their multitudes have often bred confusion 
to them, so that little Armies have broke and overcome 
them ; yet in their flight they are so cautulous, that a small 
number can do them no absolute violence nor finall over- 
throw : for as they assaile, so they flye without feare. 

The first Residence of the Turkish Emperour after his 
comming from JEgypt, was at Priusa in Bithinia : thence 
it was transported to Andreanople, and then to Constanti- 
nople, where it abideth to this day : Besides, all his great 
Beglerbegs or Bassaws in Europe, which are eight, one in Buda in 
Bashaes. Hungary, another in Moldavia, the third in Dacia, the 

fourth at Bagaviliezza in Bosna, &c. He hath also in 
Affrick a Bassaw, in Algeir, another in Tunneis, the third 
in Tripolis, and the fourth in JEgypt, &c. And in Asia 
major and minor, to wit, one in Aleppo, of Syria, one 
in Damascus, another at Balsera, the fourth at Meccha 
in Arabia fselix, the fift in Carmania, the sixt in Cyprus, 
the seventh in the Rhodes, the eighth at Arzeron in 
Armenia major, the ninth and tenth at Testis and Upan, 
on the Frontiers of Gurgestan and Persia, &c. For 
Arsenals he hath foure for sea, to wit, one at Perah or 
Galata, containing a hundred thirty and three Galleys : 
The second at Gallipoli of twenty Galleys : The third 
Arsenall is at Savezza upon the Red Sea, consisting of 
twenty five Galleys : And the fourth is at Belsara in 
Arabia faelix, towards the Persian Gulfe, depending of 
fifteene Galleys, which are kept there to afflict the Portu- 
gals, remaining in the He of Ormus ; and other parts 
adjacent there. 

The Turkes have a custome, when they are maisters 

150 



COMMENTS UPON CONSTANTINOPLE a.d. 

1610-11. 

of any Province, to extermine all the native Nobility, 
chiefely these of the blood-royall of the Countrey : And [IV. 169.] 
neverthelesse they permit to all and every one of theirs 
to live and follow his owne Religion as he pleaseth without 
violence or constraint. 

Amongst the Turkes there is noe Gentility, nor 
Nobility, but are all as ignoble and inferiour members, 
to one maine body the great Turke, lineally descending 
of the house of Ottoman : whose magnificence, puissance, 
and power is such, that the most eloquent tongue cannot 
sufficiently declare : His thousands or Janisaries, Shouses, 
and others dayly attending him : which are the nerves 
and sinewes of the Warlike body of his whole Monarchy 
and imperiall estate : His hundreds (besides his Queene) 
of Concubines, hourely maintained by his meanes, and 
monethly renewed : His Armies, Bashawes, Emeeres, 
Vizier-bashawes, Sanzacks, Garrisons, and Forces here 
and there dispersed amongst his dominions, would be 
impossible for me briefly to relate. The inhumane policy 
of the Turkes, to avoid civill dissention is such, that the 
seede of Ottoman (all except one of them) are strangled 
to death : Wherefore, as Augustus Caesar said of Herod 
in the like case, it is better to be the great Turkes dogge, 
then his Sonne. His Daughters or Sisters are not so 
used, but are given in marriage to any Bassa, whom so 
they affect ; yet with this condition ; the King saith to his 
Daughter, or Sister, I give thee this man to be thy slave ; 
and if he offend thee in any case, or be disobedient to 
thy will, here I give thee a Dagger to cut off his head ; 
which alwaies they weare by their sides for the same 
purpose. 

The Persians differ much from the Turkes, in nobility, Noble 
humanity, and activity, and especially in points of Pe ™ ans > 
Religion : who by contention thinke each other accursed ; 
and notwithstanding both factions are under the Mahome- [IV. 170.] 
tanicall Lawe. Neither are the Sonnes of the Persian 
Kings, so barbarously handled, as theirs; for all the 
brethren (one excepted) are onely made blind, wanting 

151 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1610-n. 

their eyes, and are alwayes afterward gallantly maintained, 
like Princes. And it hath oftentimes fallen out, that some 
of these Kings, dying without procreate Heires ; there 
have of these blind sonnes succeeded to the Empire, who 
have restored againe the seed of that Royall family. 

And now the great advantage, that the Turkes have 

dayly upon the Persians, is onely because of their 

Infantery, which the Persians no wayes are accustomed 

with, fighting alwayes on Horse-backe ; neither are the 

Persians adicted or given to build Forts, or Fortifications, 

neither have they any great use of Munition, but exposing 

themselves ever to the field in the extreame hazard of 

battell, become ever doubtfull in their victories : whose 

Babylon courage and valour cannot be paraleld among all the people 

regained by of the Easterne world, as Babylon in their late and last 

the Persians, fortunes may give sufficient testimony thereof. 



152 



A.D. 
l6ll. 



THE FIFTH PART 

CLose bounded Hellespont, Earths Mother sport 
I leave : longst the ZEolid lists, I Smirna court 
Thence Samothrace, and Rhodos, I accoast, 
Which Lilidamus Viliers, manly lost : 
The Lycian bounds, and steepe Pamphilian shoares 
I strictly view : The sea Carpathian roares, 
I land at Cyprus : Seline is the place, 
Whence I that Kingdome, to Nicosia trace : 
From Famagust, faire Asia, then I courted 
And Libanon ; whence Cedars were transported 
For Sions temple : And my toyles to crowne 
I sight great Aleppe, Syriaes Lady Towne : 
Then passing Mesopotame ; Chelfanes land, 
I stay at Beershack, on Euphrates strand : 
Thence backe by Damas, Arabie Petrea, 
Galilee, Samaria, mountainous Judea 
I toyling came : And at Jerusalem, 
I lodg'd neere Moriah, in a Cloystred frame. 



[V. 171.] 



He Winter expired, & the Spring gone, 
time summoned me after three moneths 
repose, to imbrace the violence of a firy 
fac'd season : where having dutifully 
taken my Counge of many worthy friends, 
who both kindly, and respectively had 
used me ; especially, the aforesayd English 
Ambassadour, Sir Thomas Glover : And the new Ambas- 
sadour, Sir Paul Pinder, who had lately arrived there 

i53 




ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1611. 

before my departure, and had bene formerly Consull in 
Aleppo five yeares. 

I left Constantinople, and imbarked in a Ship belonging 
to London, named the Allathya, whereof one Maister 
Wylds in Ratcliffe was Maister ; where indeed both he 
and his Company kindly and respectively used me, for 
the space of twelve daies ; being bound for Smyrna, and 
so we sayled along the coast of Bithinia in Asia minor. 

Bithinia hath on the North Hellespont : On the West 
Phrigia ; on the East Pontus : and on the South Capadocia 
or Leuco Syria : The chiefe Citties are Calcedon, where, 
by comaund of the Emperour Martianus, the fourth 
Generall Counsell was assembled, to repell the Heresie 
of Nestorius. Nigh unto the side of Hellespont is Mount 
[V. 172.] Stella, famous for that victory which Pompey had over 
Mithridates : And where Tamberlane with 800000. Tar- 
tarians incountred Bajazet, whose Army consisted of 
500000. men ; of which 200000. lost their lives that day : 
Bajazet taken And Bajazet being taken, was carried about in an Iron 
by Tamber- Cage, on whose necke Tamberlane used to set his foote, 
when he mounted on horse-backe ; and at last beate out 
his owne braines against the barres of the Iron Cage : 
the next Cities are Nicomedia ; and Nyce, where the first 
Generall Councell was kept, Anno 314. to which there 
assembled 318. Bishops to beate downe the Arian Heresie. 
The other Townes are Prusa and Labissa ; the former was 
built by Prusias King of Bithinia, who betrayed Hanniball 
when he fled to him for succour ; in the latter Hanniball 
lyeth buried. Prusa was a long time the seate of the 
Ottoman Kings, till Mahomet the first began to keepe 
his Residence at Andrianople : The chiefe Rivers are 
Ascanius, Sangaro, and Granico, nigh unto which Alexan- 
der obtained the first victory against the Persians. 

Having passed Bithinia, and the Phrigian coast, we 
fetched up Cenchrea, where Saint Paul cut his haire, after 
his vow was performed, Acts 18. 18. Being a Towne now 
inhabited by Greekes, with a Turkish Governour, and 
of small importance, in regard of other neighbouring 

i54 



COMMENTS UPON ASIA MINOR a.d. 

1611. 

places, that bereave them of their tramcke ; and because 
the Jewes do not much frequent here : the Inhabitants are 
rather turned spectators to Vertue, than any way inherent 
tc necessary goodnesse : Want of Strangers being one let, 
and vitious otiosity the other stop : This City standeth 
by the sea side in the North part of Ionia, but more truely 
on the West frontiers of Lydia. Lydia hath on the West 
Phrigia minor : on the South Ionia : on the East 
Paphlagonia, on the North-west ^Eolus, & a part of 
Phrygia major. The chiefe Metropole is Sardis, once [V. 173.] 
the Royall seat of Crcesus the richest King in his time, 
who in his full prosperity, was told by Solon, that no man 
could reckon upon felicity so long as he lived, because 
there might be great mutability of Fortune, which after- 
ward he found true : The recitall of which advertisement, 
when he was taken prisoner by Cyrus saved his life : The 
next City is Pergamus, where Parchment was first 
invented, and therefore called Pergamenum : here was 
Galen borne, who lived so healthfully one hundreth and 
forty yeares : the reason whereof, he thus afBxeth ; he 
never eate or drunke his full, & ever carried some sweete 
perfumes with him. The other Townes are Thyatira, 
Laodicea, and Philadelphia. 

Upon the twelfth day after our departure from Constan- 
tinople, we arrived at Smirna, being foure hundreth miles 
distant. 

This City was one of the seven Churches mentioned The City of 
Revelation 2. 8. And standeth in Ionia: of this place Smyrna. 
was the famous Martyr Polycarpus Bishop, who sometimes 
had bene Schollar to John the Evangelist : and living till 
he was of great age, was at last put to death for Christs 
sake. It is a goodly place, having a faire Have^i for 
Ships : They have great trafficke with all Nations ; especi- 
ally for fine Silke, Cotten wooll, and Dimmety, brought 
to it by the Countrey Peasants, which straungers buy from 
them. 

Truely, neare unto this City, I saw a long continuing 
plaine, abounding in Cornes, Wines, all sorts of fruitful! 

i55 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1611. 

herbage, and so infinitely peopled, that methought Nature 
seemed, with the peoples industry to contend, the one 
by propagating creatures, the other by admirable agri- 
culture. 

That for Commodities and pleasure, it is little inferiour 
unto the valley of Suda in Candy, which maketh the 
[V. 174.] inhabitants wondrous insolent: for as mirth is made of 
Wealth is the pleasure, and with pleasures all vices are baited ; even so 
brother of there is not a more incorrigible creature then man in 
vice. prosperity, nor so modest nor reformed an one, as he, 

to whom fortune hath lent but a sparing and crooked 
favour, which indeed I hold best of all : for it is the 
forming of the mind, not the tongue, nor hand, that can 
preferre us to true felicitie : And would to God that these, 
upon whome none but faire windes have ever blowne, in 
the carreire of their supposed happinesse, could but see 
for all their high and overtopping places, their end, and 
resting place : since they are nought but the arrowes of 
the omnipotent arme, that are yet flying not at theirs 
but his marke ; and no more owners of their owne pro- 
posed ends, then they are guilty of their owne beginnings : 
surely they would cover their faces with another kind of 
maske then they do : and make their actions seeme more 
cleare, then the force of policie can obumbrate their wicked 
devices. 

Thiatyra now called Tiria, one also of the seven 
Churches is not from Smirna above eighteene miles. 

From this Citie (having left my kind English men and 
their stately ship that carryed 24. pieces of Ordonance,) 
I imbarked in a Turkish Carmoesalo, that carried nothing 
but her loading, being bound for Rhodes. In our sayling 
along the coast of Ionia, the first place of any note I saw, 
Ephesus was tne rumous Citie of Ephesus ; yet somewhat inhabited 

decayed. with Greekes, Jewes, and a few Turkes ; but no waies 

answerable to its former glory and magnificence, being 
rather a monument for memory, then a continuing Towne 
of any excellency : neverthelesse it is pleasantly adorned 
with Gardens, faire fields, and greene woods of Olive 

156 



COMMENTS UPON EPHESUS a.d. 

1611. 

trees, which on the Sea doe yeeld a delectable prospect : 
It was one of the seaven Churches, Revel. 2. 1. This 
was one of the most renowned Cities in Asia the lesser [V. 175O 
but the same thereof arose from the Temple of Diana : 
which for the spaciousnesse, furniture, and magnificent 
workmanship was accounted one of the seven worlds 
wonders : It was two hundred yeares in building, being 
foure hundred twenty five foote long, and two hundred 
broad : It was seven severall times burnt, whereof the 
most part was with lightning, and lastly the finall destruc- 
tion of it, came by a base fellow Erostratus, who to 
purchase himselfe a name, did set it on fire. Timothy Dianaes 
was Bishop of Ephesus, to the people whereof, Saint Temple burnt. 
Paul directed one of his Epistles, and finally it is famous 
for the buriall of Saint John the Evangelist : It was said 
of this place, in the Acts of the Apostles, that all Asia, 
and the whole world did worship here Diana : Tully 
reporteth, De natura Deorum, that Timaeus being 
demanded the reason why the Temple of Diana was set 
on fire that night, when Alexander the great was borne : 
gave this jest thereof, that the Mistresse of it was from 
home ; because she being the Goddesse of Midwives, did 
that night wait upon Olimpias the mother of Alexander 
the great, who was brought to bed in Macedonia. 

Over against this Citie is the He Lango, aunciently ThelkLango 
called Coos, wherein the great Hippocrates was borne, and or Cuos. 
Appelles, the Painter most excellent. It is both fertile, 
and populous, and of circuite above fourescore miles. 
There is a kind of Serpent said to be in it, so friendly 
unto the Inhabitants, that when the men are sleeping under 
the shadow of trees, they come cralling, and will lincke 
or claspe themselves about their neckes and bodies, with- 
out doing any harme, neither when they awake are the 
beasts affraid. 

And neare to Lango, is the He Nixa, of old Strangoli ; 
and by some called Dronisa and Naxus, an Hand both [V. 176.] 
fruitfull and delightfull. As we sailed by the West part 
of the He, a Greekish passenger shewed me the place, 

157 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1611. 

where (as he sayd) Ariadne was deceived of Theseus, 
which is not farre from the irriguate plaine of Darmille. 

Continuing our Navigation, I saw the little He Ephdosh, 
where the Turkes told me, that all the Ilanders were 

Excellent naturally good swimmers, paying no more tribute to their 

swimmers. great Lord the Turke, save onely once in the yeare there 
are certaine men, and women chosen by a Turkish Cap- 
taine, who must swimme a whole league right out in the 
Sea, and goe downe to the bottome of the waters, to 
fetch thence some token they have got ground : And if 
they shall happen to faile in this, the Iland will be reduced 
againe to pay him yearely rent. This I saw with mine 
eyes, whiles we being calmed, there came a man and two 
women swimming to us, more then a mile of way, carry- 
ing with them (drie above the water) baskets of fruite 
to sell, the which made me not a little to wonder. For 
when they came to the ships side, they would neither 
boord, nor boat with us, but lay leaning, or as it were 
resting them selves on the sea, upon their one side, and 
sold so their fruits : keeping complements and discourses 
with us above an houre. Contenting them for their ware, 
and a fresh gale arising, we set forward, accoasting the 
little lie of Samothracia. 

Samothracia. This He of Samothracia, was called of old Dardania, 
and now by the Turkes Samandracho ; a place of small 
note considering the quantity of the He, and the few 
number of Inhabitants : their lives being answerable to 
their meannes ; ignorance and servitude ; two strong com- 
manders of infirme weaklings, and no lesse powerfull, then 

[V. 177.] they are debile in the debt of worthinesse ; which the 
younglings of understanding, & sucklings of far look'd-to 
knowledge, can never be able to escape, although a true 
profession covereth many naturall imperfections ; and in 
it a hope for blessednes, which indeed moe wish for, then 
rightly understand it. And upon the ninth day after our 
departure from Smyrna, we arrived at the City of Rhodes, 
so called of the Iland wherein it standeth. 

Rhodes lieth in the Carpathian Sea. It was of old called 

158 



COMMENTS UPON RHODES a.d. 

1611. 

Ithrea, Telchino, and Phiula : Plinie saith it was called The lie of 
Rhodes, because there were certaine fields of Roses in it ; «•»« 
for Rhodos in the Greeke tongue signifieth a Flower : 
Not farre from the City, and at the entery of the Haven, 
I saw the relicts of that huge, and admiredly erected Idoll, The Uoll 
named Colossus Rhodius, or the mighty image of the Oolksm. 
Sunne ; which was made in honour thereof : from the 
which Saint Paul termed the Inhabitants Collossians. It 
was builded by the worthy Canete Lindo in the space of 
twelve yeares : others have said, of Callasses the Disciple 
of Lisippus, taking the name Collossus of him, and it 
was thought worthy to be one of the seven earthly 
wonders, and so it might justly have beene : The quantity 
whereof (as yet) may amaze the minde of the beholder: 
It was erected in the Image of a man, being eighty cubits 
high, and so bigge, that the little finger of it was as bigge 
as an ordinary man : between whose legs, (it standing in 
the harbours mouth, with a legge on each side of the 
entery) Shippes were wont to passe under with taunt 
sayles : When Mnavi Generall of Caliph Osmen first 
united this He to the Mahometan Empire, and broke 
downe the greatest part of this statue ; the brasse whereof 
was said to be so much that it loaded nine hundred 
Camells. 

This He belonged once to the Knights of Malta, and 
were then surnamed Knights of the Rhodes, but they [V. 178.] 
came first out of Acre in the Holy Land ; who were called 
Knights of St. John ; who viriliously expulsed the Saracens 
from thence, Anno 1308. who had formerly taken it from 
the devided Grecians : These Knights sorely invested the 
Turkes for the space of two hundred yeares, till Solyman 
the magnificent, at last invaded and subdued it : The 
Rhodians were ever great friends to the Romanes, inso- 
much that when all the other Mediterranean Hands 
revolted to Mithridates of Pontus, this onely adhered to 
the Romanes. 

This He of Rhodes within the space of 25. yeares was 
three times mightily indangered by violent and extreame 

i59 



ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1611. 

Inundation of impetuosities of raine : in such sort that the last flood 
waters. j]^ d r0W ne the greatest part of the Inhabitants : which 

beginning in the Spring-time, did continue to Summer, 
and in all this time, it broke violently downe their houses, 
and in the night killed the people lying in their beds ; 
and in the day time such as were sheltered under safegard 
of their dwellings : which was a miserable destruction, and 
the like of it scarcely heard of since the universall deludge. 
But true it is, as these ominous judgements falling upon 
particular parts & parcells of people, are justly executed ; 
yet they serve for Caveats for all others in generall, (sinne 
being the originall of all) to take heed of offending the 
Creator, in abusing the best use of the Creature. 

The Citie of Rhodes hath two strong Fortresses, in one 
of which these Knights (Lilladamus Villiers being great 
Master, who were about five hundred onely, and five 
thousand Rhodians who asisted them) were besieged by 
an Armie of two hundred thousand Turkes, and three 
hundred Galleys, for the space of sixe months. The chiefe 
[V. 179.] obstacle, and impeaching of so great an Army from taking 
it, was onely the resolute valour of the defendants. But 
in end multitude overmastring valour, and the Cavalieri 
di Rhodo, wanting furniture to their munition, and being 
penurious of victuals, were constrayned to render, upon 
the conditionall safety of their lives, goods, and transporta- 
tion ; and remained a long time without any habitation, 
till the King of Spaine gave them the barren He of Malta 
to inhabite : This He of Rhodes was lost by the Maltezes, 
Rhodes taken Anno Dom. 1522. And on Christmas day Solyman 
by Solyman. en tred the Towne as conquerour, though he might justly 
have said (as Pyrhus once said of his victory over the 
Romanes) that such another victory would utterly have 
undone him ; he lost so many of his bravest Commanders, 
and best Souldiers. It is ever since in the fruition of 
Turkes : The Fortresse of Rhodes, and that Fortresse 
Famogusta, in Cyprus, are the two strongest holds, in all 
the Empire of the great Turke. 

And by the way here I must record, that if the great 

160 



COMMENTS UPON RHODES a.d. 

1611. 
Turke, and his great Counsell, were not good pay-masters 
to their Janizaries, and speedy rewarders of their common 
Souldiers ; it were impossible for him the Emperour, or 
them the Bassawes to menage so great a state, and to 
keepe under obedience so head-strong a multitude, & such 
turbulent forces : for by your leave, if a Souldiers industry Souldiers 
be not quickned and animated with bountifull rewards ; *b*U be 

he hath lesse will to performe any part of Martiall service ; re Z arde f^ 
« ,j 1.1 • r 1 rewarded. 

then a dead coarse hath power to arise out of the 

grave : for what can be more precious to man, then 

his blood, being the fountaine & nurse of his vitall 

spirits, & the ground of his bodily substance ; which 

no free or ingenious nature wil hazard to lose for 

nothing. 

And whosoever shall argument or discourse upon sound [V. 1 80.] 
reason, and infallible experience, may easily prove and 
perceive, that these Commanders have ever best prospered, 
which have most liberally maintayned, and had in singular 
regard, Military Arts and Souldiers ; otherwise the honour- 
able mind, would account it a great deale better to have 
death without life, then life without reward : yea, and the 
noble Commander, desiring rather to want, then to suffer 
worth unrecompensed. 

Rhodes joyneth neare to the continent, over against 
Caria, now called Carmania, under which name the Turkes 
comprehend Pamphilia, Ionia, and Lycia: Caria by the 
Sea side, hath Lycia to the South, and Caria to the North : 
The chiefe Cities are Manissa, and Mindum, which having 
great gates, being but a small Towne, made Diogenes 
the Cynick crie out. Yee Citizens of Mindum, take heed, 
that your City run not out of your gates : The third 
is Hallicarnasso, where Dionisius was borne, who writ 
the History of Rome for the first three hundred yeares : 
Of which Towne also the Province tooke the name ; for 
Artemisia, who ayded Xerxes against the Grecians, was 
by some Authors named Queene of Hallicarnasso. This 
was she, who in honour of her husband Mausolao, built Mausolaos 
that curious Sepulcher, accounted for one of the worlds Tombe. 
l 161 L 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1611. 

wonders ; it being twenty five cubits high, and supported 
with thirty sixe admirable wrought pillars. 

After I had contented the Master for my fraught, and 
victuals (who as he was an Infidell, used me with great 
exaction) I found a Barke of the Arches purposed to 
Cyprus, with the which I imbarked, being foure hundred 
miles distant. 

This Tartareta, or Demi galleyeot, belonged to the 
He of Stagiro, aunciently Thasia, wherein there were 
[V. 181.] mines of gold, in these times that afforded yearely to 
Philip King of Macedon, about fourescore talents of 
gold, but now mightily impoverished and of no conse- 
quence : The chiefe Towne whereof is Palmapreto, where 
diverse Greekes hold the opinion, Homer was interred, 
having a famous Sea-port, which is a common resting 
place for all the Oriental! Pirats or Cursaroes ; which 
maketh the He halfe desolate of people ; and these few 
scarce worthy of their dwellings. 
Pamphilia & Having past the gulfe of Sattelia, and the He Carpathia, 
Lyaa. whence that part of the Sea taketh his name : we boorded 

close along the coast of Lycia, and the firme land of fruit- 
full Pamphilia ; the chiefe Citie of Lycia is Patras, watred 
with the river Zanthus, whence the people were called 
Zanthi, afterward Lycians of Lycus sonne to Pandion : 
It lieth twixt Caria and Pamphilia, as Pamphilia lyeth 
betweene it and Cilicia : The chiefe Towne in Pamphilia 
is Seleucia, built by Seleucus, one of Alexanders succes- 
sors : on the East of Lycia within land bordreth Lycaonia, 
&c. Having left Pamphilia behind us, we fetched up the 
coast of Cylicia, sustaining many great dangers, both of 
tempestuous stormes, and invasions of damnable Pirats, 
who gave us divers assaults to their owne disadvantages ; 
our saylage being swifter, then either their swallowing 
desires could follow, or our weake and inresolute defence 
could resist. 

Here in this Countrey of Cilicia, was Saint Paul borne 
in the now decayed Towne of Tharsus, who for antiquity 
will not succumbe to any City of Natolia, being as yet 

162 



COMMENTS UPON CYPRUS a.d. 

1611. 
the Mistresse of that Province, though neither for worth, 
nor wealth. 

All auncient things by Time revolve in nought 

As if their Founders, had no founding wrought. 

But thou torne Tharsus, brookes a glorious name, [V. 182.] 

For that great Saint, who in Thee had his frame : 

So may Cilicians joy, the Christian sort, 

That from their bounds, rose such a mighty Fort. 

Twelve dayes was I betweene Rhodes and Limisse in 
Cyprus ; where arrived, I received more gracious demon- The desaip- 
strations from the Danders, then I could hope for, or Hon of Cyprus. 
wish, being farre beyond my merit or expectation ; onely 
contenting my curiosity with a quiet mind, I redounded 
thankes for my imbraced courtesies. 

The people are generally strong and nimble, of great 
civility, hospitality to their neighbours, and exceedingly 
affectionated to strangers. The second day after my 
arrival, I tooke with me an Interpreter, and went to see 
Nicosia, which is placed in the midst of the Kingdome. 
But in my journey thither, extreame was the heate and 
thirst I endured ; both in respect of the season, and also 
want of water : And although I had with me sufficiency 
of Wine, yet durst I drinke none thereof, being so strong, 
and withall had a tast of pitch ; and that is, because they 
have no barrels, but great Jarres made of earth, wherein 
their Wine is put. And these Jarres are all inclosed within 
the ground save onely their mouthes, which stand alwayes 
open like to a Source or Cisterne ; whose insides are all 
interlarded with pitch to preserve the earthen vessells 
unbroke a sunder, in regard of the forcible Wine ; yet 
making the taste thereof unpleasant to liquorous lips ; 
and turneth the Wine, too headdy for the braine in diges- 
tion, which for health groweth difficult to strangers ; and 
to themselves a swallowing up of diseases. 

To cherish life and blood, the health of Man, 
Give me a Tost, plung'd in a double Cann, 
163 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1611. 

[V. 183.] And spic'd with Ginger: for the wrestling Grape 

Makes Man, become from Man, a sottish Ape. 

Nicosia is the principall Citie of Cyprus, and is 

invironed with mountaines, like unto Florence in jEtruria ; 

wherein the Beglerbeg remaineth : The second is Fame- 

The sixe gusta, the chiefe strength and Sea-port in it : Selina, 

Cities of L em i SSOj p a phos, and Fontana Morosa, are the other 

foure speciall Townes in the Hand. 

This He of Cyprus was of old called Achametide, 
Amatusa, and by some Marchara, that is happy : It is 
of length extending from East to West, 210. large 60. 
and of circuit 600. miles. It yeeldeth infinite canes of 
Sugar, Cotten-wooll, Oyle, Honney, Cornes, Turpentine, 
Allum, Verdegreece, Grogranes, store of Mettals and 
Salt ; besides all other sorts of fruit and commodities in 
abundance. It was also named Cerastis, because it butted 
toward the East with one home : and lastly Cyprus, from 
the abundance of Cypresse trees there growing. This 
Hand was consecrated to Venus, where in Paphos she was 
greatly honoured, termed hence, Dea Cypri, 

Festa Dies Veneris tota celeberrima Cypro, 
Venerat, ipsa suis aderat Venus aurea festis. 

Venus feast day, through Cyprus hollowed came, 
Whose feasts, her presence, dignified the same. 

Cyprus lyeth in the gulfe betweene Cilicia and Syria, 
having iEgypt to the West : Syria to the South : Cilicia 
to the East : and the Pamphilian Sea to the North : It 
hath foure chiefe Capes or headlands : first, Westward 
the Promontore of Acanias, modernely Capo di Santo 
Epifanio : to the South the Promontore Phaeuria, now 
Capo Bianco : to the East Pedasia, modernely Capo di 
[V. 1 84.] Greco : to the North, the high foreland of Cramineon, 
now Capo di Cormathita : these foure are the chiefest Pro- 
montores of the Hand, and Cape di S. Andrea in the 
furthest poynt Eastward toward Cilicia : Diodore and 
Pliny say that anciently it contained nine Kingdomes, 

164 



COMMENTS UPON CYPRUS a.d. 

1611. 
and fifteene good Townes : Cerania, now Selina, was built 
by Cyrus, who subdued the nine petty Kings of this 
He : Nicosia is situate in the bottome or plaine of Massara, 
and thirty foure miles from Famagusta ; and the Towne 
of Famagusta was formerly named Salamus : I was 
informed by some of sound experience here, that this 
Kingdome containeth about eight hundreth and forty 
Villages, besides the sixe capitall Townes, two whereof 
are nothing inferiour for greatnesse and populosity to the 
best Townes in Candy, Sicily, or Greece. 

The chiefest and highest mountaine in this lie, is by Trohodos a 
the Cypriots called Trohodos, it is of height eight, and huge hill in 
of compasse forty eight miles, whereon there are a number Cyprus. 
of Religious Monasteries, the people whereof are called 
Colieros, and live under the order of Saint Basile. There 
is abundance here of Coriander seede, with medicinable 
Reubarbe, and Turpentine. Here are also mines of gold 
in it, of Chrysocole, of Calthante, of Allome, Iron, and 
exceeding good Copper. And besides these mines, there 
are diverse precious stones found in this He, as Emeraulds, 
Diamonds, Chrystall, Corall, red and white, and the 
admirable stone Amiante, whereof they make Linnen 
cloth, that will not burne being cast into the fire, but 
serveth to make it neate and white. 

The greatest imperfection of this He, is scarcity of 
water, and too much plenty of scorching heate, and 
fabulous grounds. The Inhabitants are very civill, 
courteous, and affable ; and notwithstanding of their 
delicious and delicate fare, they are much subject to [V. 185.] 
Melancholy, of a Robust nature, and good Warriours, 
if they might carry Armes : It is recorded, that in the 
time of Constantine the Great, this He was all uterly 
abandoned of the Inhabitants, and that because it did 
not raine for the space of sixe and thirty yeares. After 
which time, and to replant this Region againe, the chiefest 
Colonies came from iEgypt, Judea, Syria, Cilicia, Pam- 
philia, Thracia, and certaine Territories of Greece : And Comparisons 
it is thought, in the yeares 1163. after that Guy of °f lles - 

165 






a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1611. 

Lusingham, the last Christian King of Jerusalem had 
lost the Holy Land, a number of French men, stayed and 
inhabited here ; of whom sprung the greatest race of the 
Cyprian Gentility ; and so from them are discended the 
greatest Families of the Phenician Sydonians, modernely 
Drusians : though ill divided, and worse declined ; yet 
they are sprung both from one Originall : the distraction 
arising from Conscience of Religion, the one a Christian, 
the other a Turke. 

The three lies of Cyprus, Candy, and Sicily, are the 
onely Monarchicke Queenes of the Mediterranean Seas : 
Cyprus and semblable to other in fertility, length, breadth, and 

replanted, circuit : save onely Candy that is somewhat more narrow 
then the other two, and also more Hilly and sassinous : 
yet for Oyles and Wines, she is the Mother of both the 
other : Sicily being for Graine and Silkes the Empresse 
of all : and Cyprus for Sugar and Cotton-wooll, a darling 
sister to both; onely Sicily being the most civill He, and 
nobly gentilitat, the Cypriots indifferently good, and the 
Candiots the most ruvid of all. 

The chiefe Rivers are Teno, and Pedesco : Cyprus was 
first by Teucer made a Kingdome, who after the Trojane 
Warre came and dwelt here : and afterward being divided 
[V. 186.] betweene nine petty Princes, it was subdued by Cyrus, 
the first Monarch of the Meedes and Persians. After 
the subversion of which Empire, this He was given to 
the Potolomies of iEgypt : from whom Cato conquered it 
The Dukes of to the benefit of the Romans. The Dukes of Savoy 
Savoy were we re once Kings of Cyprus ; but the Inhabitants usurping 
Kings of their authority, elected Kings to themselves, of their owne 
yp ,us - generation : and so it continued, till the last King of 

Cyprus, James the Bastard (marrying with the daughter 
of a noble Venetian, Catherina Cornaro) died without 
children, leaving her his absolute heire. And she per- 
ceiving the factious Nobility, too headstrong to be bridled 
by a female authority, like a good child, resigned her 
Crowne and Scepter to the Venetian Senate, Anno 1473. 
Whereupon the Venetians imbracing the opportunitie of 

166 



COMMENTS UPON CYPRUS a.d. 

1611. 

time, brought her home, and sent Governours thither to 
beare sway in their behalfe ; paying onely as tribute to 
the ^Egyptian Sultans 40000. Crownes, which had been 
due ever since Melecksala, had made John of Cyprus his 
tributary. 

It was under their Jurisdiction 1 20. yeares and more ; 
till that the Turkes, who ever oppose themselves against 
Christians (finding a fit occasion in time of peace, and 
without suspition in the Venetians) tooke it in with a 
great Armado. Anno 1570. and so till this day by them 
is detayned. Oh great pitty! that the usurpers of Gods 
word, and the worlds great enemy, should maintaine 
(without feare) that famous Kingdome, being but one 
thousand & fifty Turkes in all, who are the keepers of 
it : unspeakable is the calamitie of that poore afflicted 
Christian people under the terrour of these Infidels ; who 
would, if they had Armes, or asistance of any Christian 
Potentate, easily subvert and abolish the Turkes, without 
any disturbance ; yea, and would render the whole Signiory ry. 187.] 
thereof to such a noble Actor. I doe not see in that small 
judgement, which by experience I have got, but the 
redemption of that Countrey were most facile; if that 
the generous heart of any Christian Prince, would be 
moved with condigne compassion to relieve the miserable 
aflicted Inhabitants. In which worke, he should reape 
(questionlesse) not onely an infinite treasure of Worldly 
commodities, that followeth upon so great a conquest, 
but also a heavenly and eternall reward of immortall glory. 
The which deliverance Ferdinando Duke of Florence, The 
thought to have accomplished (having purchased the good Florentines 
will of the Danders) with five Gallounes, and 5000. ******** 
Souldiers : Who being mindfull to take first in the For- qA^ 
tresse of Famogusta, directed so their course, that in the 
night, they should have entred the Haven, disbarke their 
men, and scale the walles. 

But in this plot they were farre disappointed by an 
unhappy Pilot of the Vice-admirall, who mistaking the 
Port, went into a wrong bay : which the Florentines con- 

167 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

l6ll. 

sidering, resolved to returne, and keepe the sea, till the 
second night ; but by a dead calme, they were frustrated 
of their aymes, and on the morrow discovered by the 
Castle : Whereupon the Turkes went presently to armes, 
& charged the Inhabitants to come to defend that place : 
But about foure hundred Greekes in the West part, at 
Paphos, rebelled ; thinking that time had altered their hard 
fortunes, by a new change : but alas, they were prevented, 
& every one cut off by the bloody hands of the Turkes. 
This massacre was committed in the yeare 1607. Such 
alwaies are the torturing flames of Fortunes smiles, that 
he who most affecteth her, she most, and altogether 
deceiveth : But they who trust in the Lord, shall be as 

[V. 188.] stable as Mount Syon, which cannot be removed; and 
questionlesse, one day God, in his all-eternall mercie, will 
relieve their miseries, and in his just judgements, recom- 
pence these bloody oppressors with the heavy vengeance 
of his all-seeing Justice. 

In my returne from Nicosia, to Famogusta, with my 
Trench-man, we encountered by the way with foure 
Turkes, who needs would have my Mule to ride upon ; 
which my Interpreter refused : But they in a revenge, 
pulled me by thee heeles from the Mules backe, beating 
me most pittifully, and left me almost for dead. In 
this meanewhile my companion fled, and escaped the 
sceleratnesse of their hands ; and if it had not beene 
for some compassionable Greekes, who by accident 
came by, and relieved me, I had doubtlesse immediately 
perished. 

Here I remember betweene this He and Sydon that same 
Summer, there were five galleouns of the Duke of 

A sea cumbat. Florence, who encountred by chance the Turkes great 
Armado consisting of 100. gallies, 14. galleots, and two 
galleasses : The Admirall of which ships did single out 
her selfe from the rest, and offered to fight with the whole 
Armado alone ; but the Turkes durst not, and in their 
flying backe, the Admirall sunke two of their gallies ; 
and had almost seazed upon one of their galleasses, if it 

168 



COMMENTS UPON CYPRUS a.d. 

1611. 
had not beene for 20. gallies, who desperatly adventured 
to row her away against the wind and so escaped. 

For true it is, the naturall Turkes were never skilfull 
in menaging of Sea battells, neither are they expert 
Mariners, nor experimented Gunners, if it were not for 
our Christian Runnagates, French, English, and Flemings, 
and they too sublime, accurate, and desperate fellowes ; 
who have taught the Turkes the airt of navigation, and 
especially the use of munition ; which they both cast to 
them, & then become their chiefe Cannoniers ; the Turkes [V. 189.] 
would be as weake and ignorant at sea, as the silly 
^Ethiopian, is unexpert in handling of armes on the Land. 
For the private humour of discontented castawayes is Christian* 
alwaies an enemy to publicke good, who from the society Runagates. 
of true beleevers, are driven to the servitude of Infidells, 
and refusing the bridle of Christian correction, they 
receive the double yoake of dispaire and condemnation. 
Whose terrour of a guilty conscience, or rather blazing 
brand of their vexed soules, in forsaking their Faith, and 
denying Christ to be their Saviour, ramverts most of 
them, either over in a torment of melancholy, otherwise 
in the extasie of madnesse : which indeed is a torturing 
horrour, that is sooner felt then knowne ; and cannot be 
avoided by the rudenesse of nature, but by the saving 
grace of true felicity. 

From the Fort and City Famogusta, I imbarked in a 
Germo, and arrived at Tripoly being 88. miles distant, 
where I met with an English ship called the Royall 
Exchange of London, lying there at Anker in the 
dangerous Road of Tripoly, whose loves I cannot easily 
forget, for at my last good night, being after great cheare, 
and greater carrousing, they gave me the thundring fare- 
well of three pieces of Ordonance. 

Tripoly is a City in Syria, standing a mile from the The City of 
marine side, neere to the foot of Mount Libanus : since Tripoly. 
it hath beene first founded, it hath three times beene 
situated, and removed in three sundry places : First it 
was overwhelmed with water: Secondly, it was sacked 

169 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1611. 

with Cursares, and Pirates : Thirdly, it is like now to be 
overthrowne with new made mountaines of sand : There 
is no haven by many miles neere unto it, but a dangerous 
roade, where often when Northerly winds blow, ships are 
cast away. 
[V. 190.] The great Traffique which now is at this place, was 

Scanderona. formerly at Scanderona or Alexandretta, a little more 
Eastward ; but by reason of the infectious ayre, that 
corrupted the bloud of strangers, proceeding of two high 
Mountaines ; who are supposed to be a part of Mount 
Caucasus, which withhold the prospect of the Sunne from 
the In-dwellers, more then three howers in the morning. 
So that in my knowledge, I have knowne dye in one 
ship, and a moneths time, twenty Marriners : for this 
cause the Christian ships were glad to have their com- 
modities brought to Tripoly, which is a more wholesome 
and convenient place. 

The dayly interrogation I had here, for a Carravans 
departure to Aleppo, was not to me a little fastidious, 
being mindfull to visite Babylon : In this my expectation 
I tooke purpose, with three Venetian Merchants, to go 
see the Cedars of Libanon, which was but a dayes journey 
thither. As we ascended upon the mountaine, our 
ignorant guide mistaking the way, brought us in a 
Laborinth of dangers ; Insomuch that wrestling amongst 
intricate paths of Rockes : two of our Asses fell over a 
banke, and broke their neckes : And if it had not bene 
for a Christian Amaronite, who accidently encountred with 
us, in our wilesome wandring, we had bene miserably 
lost : both in regard of Rockes, and heapes of snow we 
passed ; and also of great Torrents, which fell downe with 
force, from the steepy tops : wherein one of these 
Merchants was twice almost drowned. When we arrived 
The Cedars of to the place where the Cedars grew, we saw but twenty 
Ubanus. foure of all, growing after the manner of Oke-trees, but 
a great deale taler, straighter, and greater, and the 
braunches grow so straight, and interlocking as though 
they were kept by Arte. And yet from the Roote to the 

170 



COMMENTS UPON LEBANON a.d. 

1611. 

toppe they beare no boughes, but grow straight upward, [V. 191.] 
like to a Palme-tree ; who as may-poles invelope the ayre, 
so their circle spred tops, do kisse or enhance the lower 
cloudes ; making their grandure over-looke the highest 
bodies of all other aspiring trees : and like Monarchick 
Lyons to wild beasts, they become the chiefe Champions 
of Forrests and Woods. 

Although that in the dayes of Salomon, this mountaine 
was over-clad with Forrests of Cedars, yet now there are 
but onely these, and nine miles Westward thence, seven- 
teene more. The nature of that tree is alwayes greene, 
yeelding an odoriferous smell, and an excellent kind of 
fruite like unto Apples, but of a sweeter taste, and more 
wholesome in digestion. The Rootes of some of these 
Cedars are almost destroyed by Sheepheards, who have 
made fires thereat, and holes wherein they sleepe ; yet 
neverthelesse they flourish greene above in the tops, and 
branches. The length of this mountaine is about forty 
miles, reaching from the West, to the East : and con- 
tinually, Summer and Winter, reserveth Snow on the 
tops. It is also beautified with all the ornaments of 
nature, as Herbage, Tillage, Pastorage, Fructiferous 
Trees, fine Fountaines, good Cornes, and absolutely the 
best Wine that is bred on the earth. The Signior thereof The Prince of 
is a Freeholder, by birth a Turke, and will not acknow- Lthanm - 
ledge any superiour, being the youngest sonne of the 
Emeere or Prince of Sidon, who when his Father revolted 
against Achmet, and not being able to make his owne 
part good, fled into Italy, to the Duke of Florence : And 
notwithstanding that the elder brother yeelded up Sidon, 
and became a pardond subject to the great Turke : yet 
this the other brother would never yeeld nor surrender, 
himselfe, the Fort, nor the Signiory of Libanus : The olde 
Prince his father after two yeares exile, was restored againe [v. 192.] 
to his Emperours favour; with whom in my second 
Travels, both at Lygorne and Messina in Sicilee, I ran- 
countred : whence the Duke of Sona that Kingdomes 
Viceroy, caused transport him on a stately ship for the 

171 



A.D. 
l6ll. 



Nestorians. 



Joshuas 
Tombe. 



[V. 193.] 



The Bishop 
Eden on 
Libanus. 



of 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

Levant to Sidon : The Sidonians or Drusians, were first 
of all French men, who after their expulsion from 
Jerusalem, fled hither to the borders of Zebulon and 
Nephtalim, now called Phenicia, as I shall make more 
cleere afterwards. 

The most part of the inhabited villages are Christians, 
called Amaronites, or Nostranes, quasi Nazaritans, and 
are governed by their owne Patriarke. There are none 
at this day, do speake the Syriack tongue, save onely these 
people of mount Libanus ; and in that language the 
Alcoran of Mahomet is written. The kinde Amaronite 
whom we met, and tooke with us for our best guide, in 
descending from the Cedars shewed us many caves and 
Holes in Rockes, where Coliers, religious Siriens and 
Amaronites abide : Amongst these austere Cottages, I saw 
a faire Tombe all of one stone, being 17. foote of length ; 
which (as he said) was the Sepulcher of the valiant Joshua, 
who conducted the people of Israel to the land of promise. 

The Mahometans esteeme this to be a holy place, and 
many resort to it in Pilgrimage, to offer up their Satanicall 
Prayers to Mahomet. I saw upon this Mountaine, a 
sort of fruite, called Amazza Franchi : that is, The death 
of Christians ; because when Italians, and others of 
Europe, eate any quantity thereof, they presently fall 
into the bloudy fluxe, or else ingender some other pesti- 
lentious fever, whereof they dye. 

The Patriarke did most kindly entertaine us at his 
house ; so did also all the Amaronites of the other Villages, 
who met us in our way before we came to their Townes, 
and brought presents with them of Bread, Wine, Figges, 
Olives, Sallets, Capons, Egges, and such like, as they could 
on a sudden provide. 

This Bishop or Patriarkes house, is joyned with and 
hembd in, within the face of an high Rocke, that serveth 
for three sides thereof, the fore and fourth part being 
onely of Mason-worke : Neare unto which falleth pre- 
cipitatly a great Torrent over the sassinous banke, that 
maketh a greivous noyse night and day : which as I told 

172 



COMMENTS UPON LEBANON a.d. 

1611. 

him, me thought it should turne the Bishop Surdo or 

starke deafe : But the homely and simple man (not puft 

with ambition greed, and glorious apparrell, like to our 

proud Prelats of Christendome) told me, that continuall 

custome brought him to despose upon the day, and sleepe 

better in the night, because of the sounding waters. 

Where reposing with him one night, my Muse the next 

morning saluted Libanus with these lines. 

Long and large Mount, whose rich-spred mantle, see ! 

Affords three colours, to my wandring eye ; 

The first are Cornes, in their expectant view, 

Faire Barley, Rye, and Wheate ; O hopefull hew ! 

That quickneth the prest plough : and for to eat, 

It makes new toyle, begin againe to sweat : 

The second sight are Wines, the best on earth, 

And most delicious in their pleasant birth ; 

They're Phisicall, and good t'expell all sorts 

Of burning Feavers, in their violent torts ; 

Which Senators of Venice, drinke for health, 

There's nought so rare, but is attaind by wealth. 

The third is amiable, O verdure greene! 

For pastorage, the best that can be seene ; 

Drawne nigh the tops, where flre-worne Cedars grow, [V. 194.] 

And here, or there, some cooling spots of snow : 

Whence Rills doe spring and speedy Torrents fall 

To loose scorchd floures, that burning heat would thrall : 

Here heards frequent, whose pjeasant toyles doe rest 

Of mountaines all, on Liban, onely best : 

Where piping Pan, and Silvan doe accord, 

To lurke with Ceres, and make Bacchus Lord ; 

Pitch'd under silent shades ; whence Eden Towne 

These bounds for Paradice, dare firmely crowne : 

And last, to count these colours ; here's delite, 

The fields are greene, wines yellow, cornes as white. 

About the Village of Eden, is the most fruitfull part TheNestorian 
of all Libanus, abounding in all sorts of delicious fruits. P ara ^ ice - 

i73 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1611. 

True it is, the variety of these things, maketh the silly 
people thinke, the Garden of Eden was there : By which 
allegeance, they approve the apprehension of such a 
sinistrous opinion with these arguments, that Mount 
Libanus is sequestrate from the circum-jacent Regions, 
and is invincible for the height, and strengths they have 
in Rocks ; and that Eden was still reedified by the fugitive 
Inhabitants, when their enemies had ransacked it : Also 
they affirme before the deluge it was so nominate, and 
after the flood it was repaired againe by Japhet, the sonne 
of Noah, who builded Joppa, or Japhta in Palestina. Loe 
there are the reasons they shew strangers for such like 
informations. 
The Georgians There are with this one, other two supposed places of 
Paradice. the earthly Paradice : The one is by the Turkes, and some 
ignorant Georgians, holden to be at Damascus, for the 
beauty of faire fields, gardens, and excellent fruits there ; 
[V. 195.] especially for the tree called Mouslee, which they beleeve 
The Tree hath growne there since the beginning of the world. 
Indeed it is a rare and singular tree, for I saw it at 
Damascus, and others also of the same kind, upon Nylus 
in iEgypt : The growth whereof is strange : for every 
yeare in September it is cut downe hard by the roote, 
and in five moneths the tree buddeth up a pace againe, 
bringing forth leaves, flowers, and fruite. The leafe 
thereof is of such a breadth, that three men may 
easily stand under the shadow of it, and the Apple 
is bigger then a foot-ball, which is yearely transported 
for Constantinople to the great Turke ; and there is 
reserved for a relict of the fruit of the forbidden 
tree ; whence he surstyles himselfe keeper of the earthly 
Paradice. 

But if he were not surer a greater commander and 
reserver of a large part of the best bosome of the earth, 
than he is keeper of that Adamian Garden ; his styles 
of the earth, and mine of the world, were both alike, 
and that were just nothing, save onely this, two naked 
creatures living amongst naked people : or otherwise, if 

i74 



Mouslee. 



COMMENTS UPON LEBANON a.d. 

1611. 

it were to be kept or seene, certainely I would wish to be 

a Postillion, to the great Porter, the Turke, but not his 

Pedagog, farre lesse his Pilgrime. 

The third place by the Chelfaines, is thought to be in The Chelfane 
the East part of Mesopotamia, neere to the joyning of Paradice. 
Tygris, and Euphrates ; where, so they inhabite : I have 
oft required of these Chelfaines, what reason they had 
for this conceived opinion : who answered me, they 
received it from time to time, by the tradition of their 
Ancestors : And because of the river Euphrates, and other 
rivers mentioned in the Scriptures, which to this day, 
detayne their names in that Countrey. Some hold, that 
Garden of Eden extended over all the earth. But con- 
trariwise, it manifestly appeareth by the second Chapter [V. 196.] 
of Genesis, 2. 20. that this garden, that we call Paradice, 
wherein Adam was put to dresse it, was a certaine place 
on earth, containing a particular portion of a Countrey, 
called Eden, which boundeth on the river Euphrates. To 
this, and all the rest, I answer, no certainty can be had 
of the place where Eden was, either by reading or travel- 
ling, because this river hath beene oft divided in sundry 
streames : And it is said, that Cyrus, when he wonne 
Babylon, did turne the maine channell of Euphrates to 
another course. But howsoever, or wheresoever it be, 
I resolve my selfe, no man can demonstrate the place, 
which God for the sinnes and fall of man, did not onely 
accurse ; but also the whole face of the earth. 

Many ancient Authors have agreed with the opinion of 
Plato and Aristotle, constantly affirming, that mountaines, 
Hands, and Countries, have received great alteration by 
the inundation of Rivers, and violence of raging Seas, violence of 
Thracia, hath beene divided from Bithinia : Nigroponti, Seas & 
from Thessalia : Corfu, from Epire : Sicilia, from Italy : waters - 
The lies Orcades, from Scotland, and many other Hands, 
and Countries cut through so in divisions after the same 
forme. Wherefore the more a man contemplate to search 
the knowledge of Eden, and such high misteries (apper- 
taining onely to the Creator) the more he shall faile in 

i75 



[V. 1970 



The Turco- 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1611. 

his purpose, offend God, become foolish, and fantasticall 
for his paines. 

But to turne backe to mine itinerary relation, after my 
returne to Tripoly, I departed thence Eastward, with a 
Caravan of Turkes to Aleppo, being ten dayes journey 
distant. In all this way (leaving Scanderon on our left 
hand) I saw nothing worthy remarking ; save onely a 
few scattered Villages, and poore miserable people called 
Turcomani, living in Tents, and following their flockes 
to whom I payed sundry Caffars who remove their women, 
children, and cattell where so they finde fountaines, and 
good pastorage : like unto the custome of the ancient 
Israelites : Which in their vagabonding fashion, did 
plainely demonstrate the necessity they had to live, rather 
then any pleasure they had, or could have in their living. 

They differ also in Religion from all the other Mahome- 
tans in two damnable points : The one is, they acknow- 
mans opinion of ledge, that there is a God, and that he of him selfe is so 
ry 11 t e gracious, that he neither can, being essentially good doe 
harme, nor yet will authorize any ill to be done, and 
therefore more to be loved than feared : The other is, 
they confesse there is a Divell, and that he is a tormentor 
of all evill doers : and of himselfe so terrible and wicked, 
that they are contented even for acquisting his favour and 
kindnesse, to sacrifice in fire their first borne child to him : 
soliciting his divellishnes, not to torment them too sore 
when they shall come into his hands : And yet for all this, 
they thinke afterwards by the mercy of Mahomet, they 
shall got from hell to Paradice. 

In this immediate or aforesayd passage, we coasted 
neare and within sixe miles of the limits of Antiochia, 
one of the ancient Patriarch seas ; so called of Antiochus 
her first founder, and not a little glorying to this day, 
that the Disciples of Jesus and Antiochians were first 
here named Christians. Who (nothwithstanding) of their 
grievous afflictions flourished so that in 40. yeares they 
grew a terrour to their enemies ; who suggested by the 
Divell cruelly afflicted them with ten generall persecutions, 

176 



Antiochians 
the first 
Christians. 



COMMENTS UPON SYRIA a.d. 

1611. 

under the Emperours, Nero anno 67. Domitianus, anno 
96, Trajanus, 100. Maximinius, 137. Marcus Antonius, 
167. Severus, 195. Decius, 250. Valerianus, 259. Aure- [V. 198.] 
lianus, 278. and Dioclesian anno 293. yeares. Notwith- 
standing all which massacres and martyrdome, yet this 
little graine of Mustard seed, planted by Gods owne 
hand, and watered with the blood of so many holy Saints, 
(Nam sanguis Martirum, semen Ecclesiae est) grew so 
great a tree, that the branches thereof were dispersed 
through every City, and Province of the whole world. 

Before my arrivall in Aleppo, the Caravan of Babylon 
was from thence departed, which bred no small griefe in 
my breast : The Venetian Consull, to whom I was highly 
recommended, by the aforesaid Merchants, (having had 
some insight of my intended voyage) informed me, that 
the Caravan stayed at Beershake on Euphrates, for some 
conceived report they had of Arabs, that lay for them in 
the desarts, and willed me to hire a Janisary, and three 
Souldiers to overhye them ; whose counsell I received, 
But was meerely frustrated of my designes. True it was, Frustrate of 
they staied, but were gone three dayes before my comming &**)&*• 
to that unhappy place. 

The distance from whence over land to Babylon, or 
Bagdat, being but sixe small or short dayes journey, the 
losse whereof and the damnable deceit of my Janizary 
made my Muse to expresse, what my sorrowfull Prose 
can not performe. 

The doubts and drifts of the voluble mind 
That here and there doe flee, turne judgement blind : 
Did overwhelme my heart, in grim despare 
Whilst hope and reason fled, stayd timrous care : 
And yet the grounds were just ; my treacherous guide 
Did nought but crosse me ; greed led him aside : 
Still this, still that I would! all I surmise 
Is screwaly stopt : At last my scopes devise 
To make a Boat, to beare me downe alone [V. 199.] 

With drudges two, to ground-chang'd Babylon : 
l 177 M 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1611. 

That could not be, the charges was too great, 

And eke the streame, did nought but dangers threat : 

My conduct still deceavd me, made it square 

Another Caravan, O! would come there 

From Aleppe, or Damascus : till in end 

Most of my moneyes did his knavery spend : 

Thus was I tost long five weekes, and foure dayes 

With strugling doubts : O strange were these delayes ! 

At last a Chelfane came, a Christian kind 

Who by my griefe soone understood my mind ; 

And told me flat, the Janizaries drift 

Was to extort me with a lingring shift. 

Come, come, sayd he, the Sanzacke here is just, 

Let us complaine, for now complayne you must : 

He with me went, and for a Trenchman serv'd 

And told the Ruler, how my Conduct swervd : 

He's calld, and soone convinc'd, and with command 

Forc'd to transport me backe to Syriaes land : 

Pme there arrived, and eftsoones made me bound 

For the Venetian Consul : there to sound 

My great abuses, by this Villane done. 

Which soone were heard, and eke repayrd as soone : 

The Bassaw was upright, and for times sake 

He did me more, then conscience will'd me take. 

My plaint preferd, he was in Prison layd 

And all my gold, to give me backe was mayd 

Which he had falsely tane : where for his paines 

He had the losse, and I receivd the gaines : 

For doubling his wrongs, done, to crosse him more, 

I got my vantage, from his craft before : 

And for his ten weekes fees, no more he had 

[V. 200.] Than he, thats owner of a ditch-falne jade : 
Thus leaving him, I with the Consull bode, 
Full forty dayes, or I went thence abroad. 

In the eleven dayes journey I had betweene Aleppo, 
and Beershack, through a part of Syria, the breadth of 
Mesopotamia, and Chelfania, a Province of the same, 

178 



COMMENTS UPON MESOPOTAMIA ad. 

1611. 
joyning with Tigris and Euphrates, and returning the 
same way againe ; I found nothing worthy of remarkinge 
save the fertility of the soyle : which indeed in Mesopo- Mesopotamia. 
tamia, yeeldeth two crops of wheate in the yeare, and for 
a Bushell sowing, in diverse places, they recoyle a hundreth 
againe. 

The countrey it selfe is overcled with infinit Villages, 
having no eminent Towne of any note or consequence, 
except the City of Carahemen the seat of a Beglerbeg, 
who commandeth under him fourteene Sanzacks, and 
twenty sixe thousand Timariots. The people here are 
for the most part beleevers in Christ, but alas too silly, 
untoward, and ignorant Christians : And yet though with- 
out learning, or great understanding therein, they are 
wonderfull zealous in their profession, and great sufferers 
for it also. 

This barbarous Towne of Beershacke, being situate on Beershack. 
Euphrates standeth in the Chelfaines Countrey, and is 
supposed to have beene Padan-aram, where Laban dwelt, 
and where Jacob kept Labans sheepe, though some 
interpret all Mesopotamia, then to have beene called 
Padanaram : from whence North-east, and not farre hence 
are the demolished fragments of Ninivie on Tigris, whose 
very ruines are now come to ruine : The decayes whereof 
being much semblable to that sacked Lacedemon in Sparta, 
or to the stony heapes of Jerico, the detriments of Thebes, 
the relicts of Tyrus, or to the finall overthrow of desolate [V. 201.] 
Troy. This Countrey of Chelfaine, is the place most 
agreeable with Scripture, where the earthly Paradice was 
once set, though now impossible to be found out. 

Mesopotamia is seldome watered with raine, but by the Mesopotamia. 
nature of the soile is marvellous fruitfull : It is bordred 
with Caldea, on the East : Euphrates on the South : Syria 
on the North : and Arabia Petrea on the West. This 
Aleppo is a City in Syria ; the name of which hath beene 
so oft changed by Turkes, that the true Antiquity of it, 
can hardly be knowne : It is both large and populous, 
and furnished with all sorts of merchandize, especially of 

179 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1611. 

Indigo, and Spices, that are brought over land from Goa, 
& other places in India, which draweth a concurrance of 
all nations to it. 
A notable Here I remember of a notable obedience done to the 

edience. g re at Turke, by the great Bassaw of Aleppo, who was 
also an Emeere, or hereditary Prince : to wit, the yeare 
before my comming hither, he had revolted against his 
Emperour, and fighting the Bassawes of Damascus, and 
Carahemen, overcame them : The yeare following, and 
in my being there, the Grand Signior sent from Constanti- 
nople a Showse, and two Janisaries in Ambassage to him : 
where, when they came to Aleppo, the Bassaw was in his 
owne Countrey at Mesopotamia : The messengers make 
hast after him, but in their journey they met him com- 
ming backe to Aleppo, accompanied with his two sonnes, 
and sixe hundred Horse-men. Upon the high way they 
delivered their message, where he stood still, and heard 
them : The proffer of Achmet was, that if he would 
acknowledge his rebellion, and for that treason committed 
send him his head, his eldest Sonne should both inherit 
[V. 202.] his possessions, and Bassawship of Aleppo, otherwise he 
would come with great forces in all expedition, and in 
his proper person he would utterly raze him and all his, 
from the face of the earth. 

At which expression, the Bassaw knowing that he was 

not able to resist the invincible Armie of his Master, and 

his owne presence, he dismounted from his horse, and 

went to counsell with his sonnes, and nearest friends : 

where he, and they concluded, it was best for him to dye, 

being an old man, to save his race undestroyed, and to 

keepe his sonne in his authority and inheritance : This 

done, the Bassaw went to prayer, and taking his leave 

of them all, sate downe upon his knees, where the Showse 

The Bassa of stroke off his head, putting it in a Boxe, to carry it with 

Aleppo him for Constantinople. The dead corps were carried to 

beheaded. Aleppo and honourably buried, for I was an eye witnesse 

to that funerall feast : And immediatly thereafter, the 

Showse by Proclamation and power from the Emperour, 

j8o 



COMMENTS UPON ALEPPO a.d. 

1611. 

fully possessed the sonne in his Fathers lands, offices, 

Bassawship, and the authority of all the Easterne Syria, 

part of Mesopotamia, and the Assyrian Countrey ; for 

this Bassaw of Aleppo is the greatest in commandement 

and power of all the other Bassawes in the Turkes 

dominions ; except the Bassa, or Beglerbeg of Damascus ; 

and yet the former in hereditary power, farre exceedeth 

the other ; being a free Emeer, and thereupon a Prince 

borne : The force of his commandement reacheth to eigh- 

teene Sanzacks, and thirty thousand Timariots, besides 

Janisaries, and other inferiour souldiers, which would 

make up as many more. 

This City is called in the Scriptures Aram-Sobab, 2. 
Sam. 8. 3. and Aleppo of Alep, which signifieth milke, 
whereof there is a great plenty here : There are Pigeons 
brought up here as after an incredible manner, who will 
flie betweene Aleppo, and Babylon, being thirty dayes [V. 203.] 
journey distant in forty eight houres : carrying letters and Flying Pigeons 
newes, which are tied about their neckes, to Merchants w ' lth letters. 
of both Townes, and from one to another ; who onely 
are imployed in the time of hasty and needfull intende- 
ments ; their education to this tractable expedition is 
admirable, the flights and arrivals of which I have often 
seene in the time of my wintering in Aleppo, which was 
the second Winter after my departure from Christen- 
dome. 

Syria hath on the East Armenia major : On the South Syria. 
Mesopotamia : On the North Cilicia and the sea : On 
the West Gallilee and Phoenicia : In the Bible the Syrians 
are called Aramites, who were an obscure people subject 
to the Persians, and subdued by Alexander : after whose 
death this Countrey, with Persia, and other adjacent 
Provinces fell to the share of Seleucus Nicanor ; who 
also wrested from the successors of Antigonus, the lesser 
Asia. This Kingdome hath suffered many alterations, 
especially by the Persians, Grecians, Armenians, Romanes, 
^Egyptians, lastly, by the Turkes, and dayly molested by 
the incursive Arabs. 

181 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

In my expectation here, and the Spring come, (being 
disappointed of my desired aimes) I pretended to visite 
Jerusalem in my backe-comming ; and for the furtherance 
of my determination, I joyned with a Caravan of 
Armenians, and Turkes, that were well guarded with 
Janisaries, and Souldiers ; of whom some were to stay 
at Damascus by the way, and some mindfull to the furthest 
marke. And for my better safegard (being alwaies alone 
which by all, was ever much admired) the Venetian Consull 
tooke surety of the Captaine, that he should protect me 
safely from theeves, cut-throates, and the exactions of 
[V. 204.] tributes by the way, delivering me freely into the hands 
of the Padre Guardiano at Jerusalem : Which being done, 
I hired a Mule from a Turke, to carry my victuals ; and 
so set forward with them. The number of our company 
A Caravan of were about 900. Armenians, Christian Pilgrimes, men 
Armenians, and women : 600. Turkes trafficking for their owne busi- 
nesse, and 100. souldiers, three Showsses, and sixe 
Janizaries, to keepe them from invasions. 

Betweene Aleppo and Damascus, we had nine dayes 
journey, in five of which, we had pleasant travelling, and 
good Canes to lodge in, that had beene builded for the 
support of Travellers, and are well maintained : But when 
we passed Hamsek, which is a little more then midway, 
we had dangerous travelling, being oft assailed with Arabs, 
fatigated with rocky mountaines, and sometimes in point 
of choaking for lacke of water. The confusion of this 
multitude, was not onely grievous in regard of the 
extreame heate, providing of victuals at poore Villages, 
and scarcity of water, to fill our bottles, made of Boare- 
skinnes ; but also amongst narrow and stony passages, 
thronging, we oft fell one over another, in great heapes ; 
in danger to be smothered : yea ; and oftentimes we that 
were Christians, had our bodies well beaten, by our con- 
ducting Turkes. In this journeying I remember the 
Turke who ought my Mule, was for three dayes exceeding 
favourable unto me, in so much, that I began to doubt 
of his carriage, fearefully suspecting the Italian Proverbe. 

182 



COMMENTS UPON DAMASCUS a.d. 

1612. 

Chi mi famiglior, che non ci suole, 

Ingannato mi ha, o ingannar mi Vuole. 

He that doth better now, to me than he was wont, 

He hath deceiv'd, or wil deceive, me with some sad affront. 

But when I perceived, his extraordinary service and [V. 205.] 
flattery, was onely to have a share of the Tobacco I carried Pagan 
with me, I freely bestowed a pound thereof upon him : fi atter h 
Which he and his fellowes tooke as kindly, as though it 
had beene a pound of gold, for they are excessively 
adictted to smoake, as Dutch men are to the Pot : which 
ever made me to carry Tobacco with me, to acquist their 
favour, over and above their fials, more then ever I did 
for my owne use : for in these dayes I tooke none at all, 
though now as time altereth every thing, I am (Honoris 
Gratia) become a courtly Tobacconist ; more for fashion 
then for liking : The Turkish Tobacco pipes are more 
than a yard long and commonly of Wood or Canes, beeing 
joynd in three parts, with Lead or white Iron ; their 
severall mouths receaving at once, a whole ounce of 
Tobacco ; which lasteth a long space, and because of the 
long pipes, the smoake is exceeding cold in their swallow- 
ing throates. 

At our accustomed dismounting to recreate our selves, 
and refresh the beasts, I would often fetch a walke, to 
stretch my legs, that were stifled with a stumbling beast ; 
wherewith the Turkes were mightily discontented, and 
in derision would laugh, and mocke me : For they cannot 
abide a man to walke in turnes, or stand to eate ; their 
usage being such, that when they come from the horse 
backe, presently sit downe on the ground, folding their 
feete under them, when they repose, dine, and suppe. 
So doe also their Artizans and all the Turkes in the 
World sit allwayes crosse legged, wrongfully abusing the 
commendable consuetude of the industrious Tailors. In 
their houses they have no bed to lye on, nor chaire to 
sit on, nor table to eate on, but a bench made of boords 
along the house side, of a foot high from the floore, spred 

183 



ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 
[V. 206.] over with a Carpet ; whereon they usually sit eating, 
drinking, sleeping, resting, and doing of manuall exer- 
cises, all in one place. Neither will the best sort of 
Mahometans be named Turkes, because it signifieth 
banished in the Hebrew tongue, and therefore they call 
Turkes are themselves Musilmans, to wit, good beleevers : where in 
called deed for good, it is a false Epithite, but certainely for 

Musilmans. fi rme beleevers they are wonderfull constant ; and so are 
all ignorants of whatsoever profession : even like to the 
Spaniard, who in the midst of all his evills, yet he 
remaineth alwaies fidele to all the usurpations, the His- 
panicall Crowne can compasse. 

They never unclothe themselves when they goe to rest, 
neither have they any bed-clothes, save onely a coverlet 
above them : I have seene hundreds of them after this 
manner, lie ranked like durty swine, in a beastly stie, or 
loathsome Jades in a filthy stable. 

Upon the ninth day (leaving Cotafa behind us on the 
mountaines) we entred in a pleasant Plaine of three leagues 
of length, adorned with many Villages, Gardens, and 
Rivers ; and arriving at Damascus, we were all lodged 
(some in Chambers wanting beds, and others without, 
on hard stones) in a great Cane called Heramnen, where 
we stayed three dayes. Having all which time given us 
twice a day provision for our selves and provender for 
our beasts gratis ; being allowed by the Grand Signior to 
all kind of strangers whatsoever ; that come to Damascus 
with any Caravan ; being a singular comfort and advantage 
to weary and extorted Travellers. 
Damascus is Damascus is the Capitall Citie of Syria, called by 
called Turkes, Shamma, and is situated on a faire Plaine, and 

Shamma. beautified with many Rivers on each side, (especially 
Paraphar and Abdenah) excellent Orchards, and all other 
[V. 207.] naturall objects of elegancy : That for situation, Artizens, 
all manner of commodities, and varietie of fruits, in all 
the Asiaticall Provinces it is not paralelled. By Turkes 
it is called, the Garden of Turkie, or rather their earthly 
Paradice, because of a fenced Garden there, where a 

184 



COMMENTS UPON DAMASCUS ad. 

1612. 

Garison of Turkes lie continually keeping that tree 
Mouslee, whereon as they alledge the forbidden Aple 
grew, wherewith the Serpent deceived Eve, and shee 
Adam, and from whence the great Turke is also styled, 
keeper of the terrestriall Paradice. 

Some hold this Citie was built by Eleazer the servant The antiquitie 
of Abraham; and other say it is the place where Caine of Damascus. 
slew Abel, where indeed it is most likely to be so : for 
hard by Damascus I saw a pillar of Brasse erected there 
for a commemoration of that unnaturall murther of Cain 
executed upon his innocent brother. But howsoever I 
perswade thee, it is a pleasant and gallant Citie, well 
walled, and fortified with a strong Castle, wherein the 
Bassaw remaineth : the most part of the streets are 
covered, so that the Citizens are preserved in Summer 
from the heat, and in Winter from the raine. 

The like commoditie (but not after that forme) hath 
Padua in Lombardy : Their Bazar, or Market place is also 
covered, so are commonly all the Bazars or Bezestans in 
Turky : The best Carobiers, Adams Apples, and Grena- 
diers that grow on the earth is here : neare unto the Bazar 
there is a Moskie called Gemmah, wherein my Guide 
shewed me the Sepulcher of Ananias, and the Fountaine 
where he baptized Paul : In another street, I saw the 
house of Ananias, which is but a hollow Celler under the 
ground, and where the Disciples let Paul downe through 
the wall in a basket : In the street where they fell their 
Viaeno, my Interpreter shewed me a great gate of fine 
mettall, which he sayd was one of the doores of the Temple [V. 208.] 
of Salomon, and was transported thence, by the Tar- 
tarians, who conquered Jerusalem about three hundred 
and eighty yeares agoe, who for the heavy weight thereof, 
were enforced to leave it here, being indeede a relicke of 
wonderfull bignesse : And I saw also such aboundance of 
Rose-water here in barrels, to be sold, as beere or wine 
is rife with us. 

This Paradisiat Shamma, is the mother City, and most 
beautiful place of all Asia, resembling every way (the 

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a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

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tectures of her Houses excepted being platforme) that 

matchlesse patterne and mirrour of beauty, the City of 

Antwerp. The onely best Shables, or short crooked 

swords, that be in the world are made here ; and so are 

all other their weapons, as halfe Pikes, Bowes, and 

Arrowes, and Baluckoes of Steele, that Horse-men carry 

in their hands : their shafts being three foot long, their 

heads great and round, and sharply guttered ; wherewith 

they use to braine or knocke downe their enemies in the 

The forces of field. The Beglerbeg or Bassa of Damascus, is the 

the Bassa of greatest of commandement of all other Bassaes in Asia : 

amascus. Having under his authority (as he is under his Emperour) 

twenty two Sanzacks, and they conducting under all the 

aforesayd three, forty thousand Timariots or Horse-men, 

besides two thousand Janizaries, which are the guard of 

the Bassa, and Garrison of the Citty. His Beglerbership 

extendeth over the greater halfe of Syria, a part of the 

two Arabiaes Foelix and Petrea, Phenicia, Galilee, Samaria, 

Palestina, Judea, Jerusalem, Idumea, and al the Northerne 

parts of Arabia Desartuous, even to the frontiers of 

Egipt. 

The meanes of the preservation of so great a state, is 
only by an induced confidence upon the power, and force 
[V. 209.] of those Timariots who as well have their pay and locall 
grounds of compensation in time of tranquillitie, as warres, 
to defend these Countries, from the incursions of the wilde 
Arabs, which evermore annoy the Turkes, and also 
Strangers : and cannot possibly be brought to a quiet, 
and well formed manner of living ; but are continuall 
spoilers of these parts of the Turkes Dominions. That 
mischiefe daily increaseth, rather then any way diminisheth. 
They taking example from the beastly Turkes, adde by 
these patterns more wickednesse, to the badnesse of their 
Savage owne dispositions : So that every one of these Savages, 

Robber according to his power, dealeth with all men uncivilly & 

cruelly, even like a wildernesse full of wilde beasts, living 
all upon rapine and robbery, wanting all sense of humanity, 
more then a shew of appearance : Whereby being combind 

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COMMENTS UPON DAMASCUS a.d. 

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together, doe tyrannize over all, even from the red Sea 
to Babylon. 

Thus they in that violent humour, invading also these 
of AfFricke, hath caused Grand Cayro to be furnished with 
thirty thousand Timariots, which defend the frontiers of 
.ZEgypt and Gozan : Leaving all the Turkes at Damascus 
(save onely our Janizaries and Souldiers) within the space 
of two houres after our departure from thence travelling 
in the way to Jerusalem ; the whole Armenians fell downe 
on the ground, kissing it, and making many sincere 
demonstrations of unwonted devotion. At the which I 
being amazed, stood gazing, asking my Trench man, what 
newes? who replied, saying, it was the place where S. 
Paul was converted, which they had (and all Christianes 
should have) in great regard. The place was covered with 
an old Chappell, and, 

More like some relict, of exstirpd decay, 

Than for a monument, reard for the way. 

To blaze on Pauls conversion: yet it's true [V. 210.] 

The worke was done, even by the Christiane Jew, 

Or Jacobine : a circumcised kind, 

Who beare to franks, a most respective mind : 

Three dayes were we betwixt Damascus, and the East 
part of Galilie, which is the beginning of Canaan : in two 
of which three, we encountred with marishes and quag- 
mires, being a great hinderance to us : This barren, and 
marish Countrey, is a part of Arabia Petrea, comming in 
with a point betweene Galilee, and Syria, running along 
even to the South-west skirt of Libanus, which indeed 
in that place, farre more than Jordan divideth the true 
Syria from Canaan ; this Petrean Countrey it selfe, 
devalling even downe to the limits of Jacobs bridge, 
cutteth away the denomination of Syria, from this parcell 
of ground, till you come Eastward to the more laborious 
Plaines. 

Through this passage, it is most undoubtedly a very A dangerous 
theevish way ; for as we travelled in the night, there were way. 

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a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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many of us forced to carry burning lights in our hands, 
and our souldiers had their Harquebuzes ready to dis- 
charge : all to affray the blood-thirsty Arabians, who in 
holes, caves, and bushes, lie obscured, waiting for the 
advantage upon Travellers : not unlike unto the Lawlesse 
Wood Carnes in Ireland. This part of Arabia is called 
Petrosa, because it is so rockie, and some thinke of Petra 
the chiefe Towne : It was aunciently divided in two 
regions Nabathia, and Agara, possessed first by the 
Hagarens, discended of Abraham and Hagar : It is also 
thought to be the land of the Midianites whether Moses 
fled to, and kept sheepe ; and Mount Horeb is here, 
whereon the Lord did shew him the land of Promise. 

[V. 211.] Divers of these Petrean Arabs, converse, and dwell 
amongst the Turkes ; whom we tearme in respect of the 
other, civill Arabs. South from hence, lieth Arabia Faelix 
bordering with the Indian Sea ; which is the most fruitfull 
and pleasant soyle in all Asia ; abounding with Balsamo, 
Myrrhe, and Frankincense, Gold and Pearles, especially 
about Medina, the second Citie to Meccha : The other 
Townes of note are Horan, the chiefe Port of the South 
Ocean, And Alteroch, the only Towne where Christians 
are in greatest number in that Countrey. 

Truely with much difficulty, and greater danger passed 

Arabia we these Petrean journeys. Here I remarked a singular 
qualitie, and rare perfection, in the carefull conduction 
of our Captaine ; who would, when we came to any 
dangerous place, give the watch-word of St. Johanne, 
meaning as much thereby, that none should speake or 
whisper after that warning under the paine of a Harque- 
busado. And no more we durst, unlesse he had stretcht 
out his hand, making us a signe (when occasion served) 
of liberty, least by our tumultuous noyse in the night, 
our enemies should have the fore-knowledge of our com- 
ming ; and knowing also that the nature of a multitude, 
bred all times confused effects, without some severe 
punishment. Him selfe rod stil in the Vangard, upon a 
lusty Gelding, with two Janizaries, and forty Souldiers, 

188 



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COMMENTS UPON DAMASCUS a.d. 

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and the other foure Janizaries and sixty Souldiers, were 
appointed to be the backe-gard, for feare of sudden 
assaults. Thus, most dexteriously discharged he the 
function of his calling, not with insolencie, but with 
prudent and magnanimous virilitie : for my part, I must 
needs say, the diligent care of that benigne Caravan 
extended over me, was such, that whensoever I remember 
it, I am not able to sacrifice congratulations sufficiently 
to his well-deserving mind: yet in the meane while, my [V. 212.] 
Purse bountifully rewarded his earnest endevours ; and 
notwithstanding, of this high conceived regard, yet in 
some frivolous things, and for a small trifle, he privately 
wronged me, which I misknew, as unwilling (knowing 
his disposition, and that my life hung in his hands) to 
be too forward to seeke a redresse. For oftentimes an 
inconvenience is most convenient ; and as the great cor- a corrupted 
rupter of youth is pleasure, and the violent enemy of Caravan. 
age is griefe ; even so are the inordinate desires of 
inconscionable strangers toward Travellers, who preferring 
avarice above honesty, care onely for that part of a man 
which is his fortune, whose friendship beginning onely 
in an outward show, must end in the midst of a mans 
money ; as who would say, such like were rather imployed, 
as their imployments rewarded, and therefore in unlawfull 
things they must sucke the honey of their owne pre- 
posterous ends : And thus it fared with him, at the paying 
of my tributes, by the way for my head, he caused me 
oft to pay, more then reason, to the Moores, Turkes, and 
civill Arabs, receiving secretly backe from them the over- 
plus ; which my Turkish Servant perceiving, made my 
Trenchman tell me, that I might be fore-seene therein. 

But such is the covetous nature of man, that with his 
covenant he cannot be contented, unlesse he seeke other- 
wise, by all unlawfull meanes to purchase himselfe an 
unjust gaine : But the high respect I had of his other 
perfections, made me oversee and winke at that imperfec- 
tion of avaritiousnesse in him ; and especially remembring 
my selfe to be under his protection, I alwayes endeavoured 

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a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

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my aimes so, that in his sight, I wonne extraordinary 

[V. 213.] favour: insomuch, that in danger, or securitie, he would 
ever have me neere by him, which I also craved, and 
strove to observe the points of his will, and my owne 
safety. 

The obligation of my bounden duety, taught me to 
no other end, then ever to respect the benevolence of 
his affection, and to suppresse my owne weake judgement, 
which could never mount to the true acquittance of his 
condigne merit. 

But to proceed in my Pilgrimage, on the aforesaid 
third day, in the after-noone, we entred in Galilee, passing 
along a faire Bridge, that is over the River Jordan, which 
divideth a part of this stony Arabia from Galilee. This 

Jacobs Bridge. Bridge by the Armenians, is called Jacobs Bridge ; and 
not farre hence, they shewed me the place, where Jacob 
wrestled with the Angell, and where Esau met his brother 
Jacob, to have killed him being upon the East side of 
the River : Jordan is scarcely knowne by the name in 
this place : but afterward I saw his greater growth, ending 
in Sodome, whereof in the owne place, I shall more amply 
discourse : Betweene Jacobs Bridge and Jerusalem, we 
had sixe dayes journey, five whereof were more pleasant 
than profitable, in regard of the great tributs I payd by 
the way for my head, that at sundry places and into one 
day, I have payd for my freedome in passage twelve 
Chickens of gold, amounting to five pounds eight shillings 
of English money : A journall tribute more fit for a 
Prince to pay, than a Pilgrime ; the admiration onely 
resting upon this, how I was furnished with these great 
moneyes I dayly disbursed. 

Aprill the eighteene day, according to the computation 
of the Romane Calender, and by ours, March the eight and 
twenty, I entred in Galilee, a Province of Canaan ; This 

[V. 214.] Countrey was first called Canaan from Canan the sonne of 
Cham : secondly the Land of Promise, because it was pro- 
mised By the Lord to Abraham and his seed to possesse : 
Thirdly, the land of Israel, of the Israelites, so called from 

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COMMENTS UPON CANAAN a.d. 

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Jacob, who was surnamed Israel : Fourthly, Judea, from 
the Jewes, or the people of the tribe of Judah : Fifthly, 
Palestine quasi Philistim, the land of the Philistins. And 
now sixtly, terra sancta, the holy land, because herein was 
wrought many wonderfull miracles, but especially the 
worke of our salvation. It is in length 180. and in 
breadth 60. miles : yet of that salubrity of aire and fertility 
of soyle, flowing with milke and hony, that before the 
comming of the Israelites it maintayned thirty Kings, with 
their people, and afterward the two potent Kingdomes of 
Israel and Judah ; in which David numbred one million 
and 300000. fighting men, besides them of the tribe of 
Benjamin and Levi : It is most certayne, that by the 
goodnesse of the Climate and soile, especially by the 
blessing of God, it was the most fruitfull Land in the Canaan 
World : but by experience, I find now the contrary, and &**fy 
the fruitfulnes thereof to be changed, God cursing the c & ' 
Land together with the Jewes, then the (but now dis- 
persed) inhabitants thereof. Neither are the greatest part 
of these Easterne countries so fertile, as they have beene 
in former ages, the earth as it were growing olde, seemeth 
weary to beare the burthen of any more encrease ; and 
surely the two eyes of Day and Night, with the Planets, 
and Starres, are become neyther so forcible, so bright, nor 
warme as they have beene : Time from olde antiquity, 
running all things to devasted desolation, making the 
strong things weake, and weake things feeble, at last it 
returneth all things to just nothing : and there is the end 
of all beginnings, and an infallible Argument of the disso- 
lution to come by the day of judgement. [V. 215.] 

As things that are, still vanish from our eye, 
So things that were, againe shall never be : 
The Whirlwind of Time, still so speedy posts, 
That like it selfe, all things therein, it tosts. 

The Jewes are also tearmed Hebrai, or Hebrewes from 
Heber one of Abrahams Progenitors, or Hebra? quasi 

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ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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Abrahaei : who at their discent into Egypt, were but 
seventy soules being the issue of Jacob, and his twelve 
Sonnes. The posterity of which Patriarchy, continued in 
bondage two hundred and fifteene yeares, till in the yeare 
of the world, two thousand foure hundred fifty three : 
At which time, the Lord commiserating their heavy 
oppressions under the Egyptians, delivered them with a 
strong hand, and placed them here : which then was 
inhabited by the Hittites, Amorites, Perisits, and Jebusits. 

The Holy Canaan is divided into five Provinces, viz. Judea, Galilee, 
Palestina, Samaria, and Phenicia : Some divide it only in 
three, Palestina, Judea, and Galilee : It hath beene by 
others also nominated in generall, Syria, by which Calcu- 
lation, they gathered all the Countries from Cilicia to 
Egypt under that name. But howsoever they differ in 
Descriptions, it is most certayne, that at this day, it is 
onely, and usually divided into these five particular 
Provinces : Galilee, and Palestina, for the present, are 
the most fertile and largest Provinces thereof, especially 
Galilee, which in some parts, yeeldeth graine twice a yeare, 
and for abundance of Silke, Cotton-woole, delicate 
Wines, Hony, Oyle, and fruites of all kindes ; I hold it 
never a whit more decayed now, than at any time when 
the glory of Israel was at the highest : This province of 
Galilee is forty eight miles long, and twenty five broad, 
having Phenicia to the North : Samaria to the west : 

[V. 216.] Jordan to the South: and to the East and North-East, a 
part or poynt of Arabia-Petrosa, and the South-west end 
of Libanus. 

After we had travailed a great way, along the Lake of 
Genasareth, which is of length eight leagues, and large 
foure : where I saw the decayed Townes of Bethsaida, 
and Tyberias, lying on the North-side of the same Sea, 
we left the Marine, and came to Cana, to stay all night : 
in which wee had no Canes to save us from the Arabs, 
nor coverture above our heads, but the hard ground to 
lye on, which was alwayes my Bed, in the most parts of 
Asia : In the night, when we slept, the Souldiers kept 

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COMMENTS UPON PALESTINE ad. 

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Centinell, and in the day, when we Reposed, they slept, 
and we watched. 

This Cana was the towne wherein our Saviour wrought Cana in 
the first Miracle, converting at the Marriage, Water into Galilee. 
Wine : And is now called by the Turkes Callieros or 
Calinos, being a towne composed of two hundred fire 
Houses : The inhabitants beeing partly Arabs, partly 
Jewes, and partly some Christian Georgians : the circum- 
jacent fieldes, beeing both Fertile, Delectable, and plaine. 

The day following, imbracing our way, wee passed over 
a little pleasant Mountayne, where the Armenian Patriarke 
(for so was there one with them) went into an old Chappell, 
and all the rest of the Pilgrimes thronged about him, using 
many strange Ceremonies, for it was in that place (as they 
sayd) Where Christ fed five thousand people, with five 
Barley loaves, and two fishes. And indeede was very 
likely to have beene the place : the auncient Chappell, 
showing as yet some beautiful decorements, do dignifie 
both the Monument, and the Memory of the Founder 
thereof. 

Continuing our journey, wee saw Mount Tabor on our 
left hand, which is a pretty round Mountaine, beset about [V. 217.] 
with comely trees : I would gladly have seene the Monu- 
ment of that place, where the Transfiguration of Christ 
was : But the Caravan, mindfull to visite Nazareth, left 
the great way of Jerusalem, and would by no perswasion 
go thither. 

That night we lodged in a poore Village, called 
Heerschek, where we could get neither meate for our 
selves, nor provender for the Beasts, but some of our 
Company for their supper, had a hundred stroakes from 
the Moores and Arabs in that place, because the Christian 
Pilgrimes had troden upon the graves of their dead friends, 
which by no meanes they can tollerate : They made no 
small uproare amongst us, desperately throwing stones and 
darts, till we were all glad to remove halfe a mile from 
that place ; and the next morning we passed by Caesarea Casarea 
Philippi which is now so miserably decayed, that the ruined Philippi. 
l 193 n 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

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Towne affordeth not above twenty foure dwelling houses, 
being for mines, a second Towne, to sacked Samaria, or 
another spectacle of time like to the now ragged Towne 
of the Moorish Bethulia : It was built by Philip one of 
the Tetrachs in honour of Tiberius Caesar, and now called 
by the Moores Hedarasco. Here was Herod smitten by 
the Angels, and eaten of wormes, after the Sycophanticall 
people called his Rethoricall oration, the voyce of God, 
and not of man : Here our Saviour healed the woman of 
the bloody fluxe, and raised from death to life the daughter 
of Jairus : Here S. Peter baptized Cornelius, and S. Paul 
disputed against Tertullius in the presence of Felix. 

Aprill the 20. day, about ten of the clocke, (passing 
the River Kyson) we arrived at Nazareth, and there 
reposed till the evening, providing our selves of victuals 
[V. 2 1 8.] and water : In this Towne dwelt Joseph, and the Virgin 
Mary ; and in which also our Saviour was brought up 
under the vigilant care of Joseph and Mary. After wee 
had dined, the Armenians arose, and went to a heape of 
stones, the ruines of an old house, before the which they 
fell downe upon their knees ; praysing God : And that 
ruinous lumpe (say they) was the house where Mary dwelt, 
when Gabriel saluted her, bringing the Annunciation of 
Salvation to the World : I am fully perswaded, they carried 
away above five thousand pounds weight, to keepe in a 
A counter memoriall thereof : then did I remember of the Chappell 
buffet for G f Loretta, and told the Caravan, that I saw that house 
oretta. standing in Italy, which (as the Romanists say) was trans- 
ported by the Angels : O, said he, we Armenians cannot 
beleeve that, neither many other assertions of the Roman 
Church ; for we certainely know by Christians, that have 
from time to time dwelt here ever since, that this is both 
the place, and stones of the house : Let Papists coyne a 
new Law to themselves, we care not, for as they erre in 
this, so doe they erre in all, following meerely the traditions 
of men, they runne galloping post to Hell. The Patriarke 
being informed by the laughing Caravan of these newes, 
asked me in disdaine (thinking it had beene an Article 

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COMMENTS UPON PALESTINE a.d. 

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of my beliefe) if I saw that house, or beleeved that the 
Chappell of Loretta was such a thing : to whom I 
constantly answered, I did not beleeve it, affirming it was 
onely but a divellish invention, to deceive the blind-folded 
people, and to fill the Coffers of the Romane Priests : Now 
thou bottomlesse Gulfe of Papistry, here I forsake thee, 
no Winter-blasting Furies of Satans subtile stormes, can 
make ship-wracke of my Faith, on the stony shelfes of 
thy deceitfull deepes. 

Thus, and after this manner too : are all the illusions 
of their imaginary and false miracles, first invented partly [V. 219.] 
by monasteriall poverty, then confirmed by provincial 
bribery, and lastly they are faith-sold for consistoricall 
lucre. In the time of our staying here ; the Emeere 
or Lord of the Towne sent sixe women, conducted by 
12. of his servants, to an Armenian Prince, that was a 
Pilgrime in our company ; to be used by him and others, 
whom so he would elect to be his fellow labourers : Which Libidinous 
indeed he did kindly accept, & invited me to that feast : leache H- 
but I gave him the refusall, little regarding such a frivolous 
commodity. He, and some of the chiefest Pilgrimes 
entertained them for the space of 3. houres, and sent 
them backe, giving to their conductors fifteene Piasters, 
in a reward. Truely if I would rehearse the impudency 
of these Whoores, and the bruitishnesse of the Armenians, 
as it is most ignominious to the actors ; so no doubt, it 
would be very loathsome to the Reader. 

Such is the villanie of these Orientall slaves under the 
Turkes ; that not onely by conversing with them, learne 
some of their damnable Hethnicke customes, but also 
going beyond them in beastly sensualnesse, become worse 
then bruite beasts : This maketh me remember a worthy 
saying of that Heathnish Romane Emperour Marcus 
Aurelius, who in consideration of fleshly lusts, said ; that 
although he were sure, that the Gods would not punish 
him for the offence ; yet he would forbeare it, in regard 
of the filthinesse of the fact it selfe : Indeed of a Pagane 
a noble and vertuous resolution, when such base and 

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a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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beastly Christianes, these wretched Armenians, committed 
with these Infidelish harlots a twofold kind of voluptuous 
abhomination, which my conscience commands me to con- 
ceale : least I frequent this Northern world, with that 
which their nature never knew, nor their knowledge have 
[V. 220.] heard hearing of the like : but God in his just judgements, 
that same night, threatned both to have punished the 
doers, and the whole company for their sakes : For we 
having resolved to travell all that night, and because the 
way was rocky, and hard to be knowne, and perillous for 
Arabs ; we hired a Christian guide, named Joab, and agreed 
with him to take us to Lidda, which was two dayes 
journey. But before we advanced to our passage, Joab 
had sent a privie messenger before us, to warne about three 
hundred Arabs (who had their abode on the South side 
A vlllanous of Mount Carmell) to meete him at such a place as he 
P loU had appointed ; giving them to know, wee were rich and 

well provided with Chickens and Sultans of gold, and 
Piasters of silver ; and that he should render us into their 
hands for such a recompense and consideration, as their 
savage judgements should thinke fit ; according to the 
spoyles and booties they should obtaine, together with the 
miserable murder and losse of our lives. This being 
done, and unknowne to us, we marched along, travelling 
faster then our ordinary pace, some on horse, and some 
on foote, for my pilgrimage was ever pedestriall : which 
our guide suspecting, that by our celerity wee should goe 
beyond the place appointed for his treacherous plot, began 
to crosse us grievously ; leading us up and downe amongst 
pooles and holes, whither he listed ; where many of our 
Camels & Asses were lost, and could not be recovered, 
because we all began to suspect and feare ; which was the 
cause that the owners durst not stay to relieve their perish- 
ing beasts. 

In the end, the Captaine and Janisaries, intreated him 
earnestly to bring us in the right way ; but the more they 
requested, the more obdurat was his heart, replying, he 
was mistaken, and could not finde it, till day light : upon 

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COMMENTS UPON PALESTINE a.d. 

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the which words, the company was stayed, and in the [V. 221.] 
meanewhile there came a Turke, one of our Souldiers 
unto the Captaine, saying ; he saw the guide, before our 
departure from Nazareth, send a Moore before him, for A treacherous 
what respect he knew not, being long at privat conference. & ui 
Whereupon, they straight bound him with ropes, on a 
horse backe, threatning him with death, to cause him 
confesse the trueth. 

In the midst of this tumult, I having got sight of the 
North-starre, (which seemd exceeding low to me) con- 
sidered thereby, that the villaine had led us more to the 
Southward, then to the Westward, which was our way 
to Jerusalem : Whereupon I intreated the Caravan to 
turne our faces Northward, otherwise we should be cut 
off, and that suddenly : for although (said I) it may 
peradventure be, that we are three or foure miles short 
of the place intended for our massacre, yet they missing 
us, will like ravening Wolves hunt here and there ; where- 
fore, if we incline to the North, (God willing) we shall 
prevent their bloody designes. To the which advice 
(being duely pondered) they yeelded ; and so I became 
their guide, in that darke night, till morning : for none 
of them knew that Starre, neither the nature of it. At 
last this desperate wretch considering that either by our 
vanquishing, or the enemies victory, he could not escape, 
sith his treason was revealed ; began to beg pardon of 
the Caravan, saying that if he could have any surety of 
his life, he would sufficiently informe us, how to eschew 
these eminent dangers, for we were all in extreame perill 
of our lives ; and not so much courage nor comfort left 
us, as the very smallest hope of any reliefe. 

The Captaine being distracted with feare, replied he 
would, and thereupon swore a solemne oath, so did the 
Janisaries sweare by the head of Mahomet, for the like [V. 222.] 
effect : Which being done, he was untied, and confessed, 
that if we had continued in our way, he led us, wee had 
beene all put to the edge of the Sword : and falling down 
on his knees, cried oft with teares, mercy, mercy, mercy. 

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a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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All that night we went with the Starre, and against 
morning wee were in the Westerne confines of Phoenicia, 
and at the beginning of Palestine, close by the marine, 
and within halfe a mile of Tyrus. This sometimes 
Tyrus is called renowned Citty of Tyrus, called now by the Moores Sur, 
Sur - was famous for her Purples, and Collonies dispersed over 

all the World by her Citizens ; and once a kingdome of 
great antiquity and long continuance. The most worthiest 
of her Kings, were Hiram in strict bond of Confederacy, 
with Salomon, and Pigmalion the brother of Dido, who 
built Carthage : This seat, giving way to the Persian 
Monarchy, was about the overthrow of Darius, beleagured 
by Alexander : who had so much adoe with extraordinary 
expence of men, money, and great labour to conquer it, 
being then separated from the maine Continent, by the 
Sea, but now joyned to the firme Land : and before you 
come to the Citty, there lyeth a great banke of sand, 
where it is likely the Sea hath beene in Alexanders time : 
Though now, as time altereth every thing, the Sea be 
fled from that place, which maketh that ruinous Towne 
seeme more desolate. At the breach of day, I, and 
certaine Armenians went to visite this decayed Towne, 
and found the most famous ruines here, that the World 
for memory can affoord, and a Delicious incircling 
Harbour, inclos'd within the middle of the Towne, fit 
to receive smal Barkes, Frigots, and Galleots : the com- 
passing fore-face whereof, beeing all of foure squard 
Marble and Alabaster stones : the most part of all which 
[V. 223.] Houses have stood on pillars of the same stones : the 
The ruines of infinite number whereof, may as yet bee, (above and 
Tyrus. below the Sands) perspectively beheld. There be onely 

some nineteene fire houses heere, which are Moores : and 
is now under the Emeere of the Drusians, who remayneth 
in Sydon. The East part of this Countrey aboundeth in 
Balme, Honny, and Oyle, and was the Seate of Asher 
of whom Moses prophecied, Deut. 33. 24. that hee should 
dippe his feete in Oyle. 

Here these Egyptian Moores, for so they were first 

198 



COMMENTS UPON PALESTINE a.d. 

1612. 
bred there : brought us to a pillar lying upon the ground, 
of nine severall colours of Marble, being one intire stone, 
and the length of it was twenty two foot of my measure, 
and eight in compasse : Which sayd they, was one of the 
pillars that Sampson pulled downe upon the Philistines Sampsons 
at the houre of his Death. To whom I answered, that Pillar, 
Sampson dyed at Azath, the furthest South-west part of 
Palestine, where hee bore downe the House of Dagon, 
upon the Philistines : And I thinke the auncient Tyrians, 
sayd I, could not transport that Pillar so far hither : But 
they the more constantly affirmed it, and so did these 
Armenians that were with mee confirme it also, some of 
whom, had beene twice there before : yet howsoever it 
was, I brought home a pound weight of it, and pre- 
sented the halfe thereof, to King James of blessed 
Memory. 

Here by accident, in returning backe to the Caravan, 
I met with an English Factor, named Maister Brockesse, 
who then remayned at Sydon, eighteene miles from this 
place, and had been downe at Acre, about some negotia- 
tions : Who indeede eftsoones, and kindly tooke mee 
into a Moorish House by the Sea side, and one of his 
acquaintance : where instantly we swallowed downe such 
joviall and deep carrouses of Leaticke wine, that both 
hee and I, were almost fastned in the last plunge of 
understanding : Yet neverthelesse, he conveyed me backe [V. 224.] 
to my company, and put me safe into the hands of the 
Caravan, with whom afterwards I diverse times met with 
here at London ; to whose kindnesse I celebrate the 
memory of these lines. 

But now the Sunne discovering the earth, and the night 
banished to the inferiour world, we were all encouraged, 
for the light of day lends comfort : The Captaine (sending 
backe that false Judas, for so was he sworne to do) sent 
a post to Tyrus for a new guide, who came forthwith, 
and brought us in our way to Mount Carmell, for by it we 
behoved to go ; and in our way we met with the desolate The Towne of 
Towne of Sarepta nigh thereunto adjoyning, where Elias Sarepta. 

199 



ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

was sustained in a great famine by a Widdow, whose sonne 
he raised from death. 

Great are the mercies of God, for as he hath made man 
an excellent creature, so hath he also indued him with two 
great powers in his mind: The one a wise power of 
understanding, by which he penetrateth into the know- 
ledge of things: the other a strong power of dexterous 
resolving ; whereby he executeth things well understood, 
for we having judged the worst, resolved the best : and 
by his Almighty providence were freed from that apparent 
danger, although the former dayes whoredome, and 
unnaturall vices, deserved a just punishment. 

This I intimate to all Travellers in generall, that if 
they would that God should further them in their attempts, 
blesse their voyages, and graunt them a safe returne to 
their native Countries (without the which, what content- 
ment have they for all their paines) that they would 
constantly refraine from whoredome, drunkennesse, and 
too much familiarity with Strangers : For a Traveller 

[V. 225.] that is not temperate, and circumspect in all his actions, 
although he were headed like that Herculean Serpent 
Hydra, yet it is impossible he can returne in safety from 
danger of Turkes, Arabs, Moores, wild beasts, & the 
deadly operative extremities of heat, hunger, thirst, and 
cold. 

Approaching to Mount Carmell, and leaving it upon 
our right hand betweene us and the marine coast, I beheld 
a farre off upon the top of the hill, the place where Elias 
ascended to heaven, when he left his Cloake behind him 
to Elizeus his disciple. This mountaine is foure miles 
of length, lying South and North, the North end bordering 
with the Sea, neare to Acre, called anciently Ptolomaeis, 
and the South end joyning with the borders of Samaria, 
through the which confine we past. 

Samaria. Leaving Samaria on our left hand, we entred into a 
faire Plaine, adorned with fruitfull trees, and all other 
ornaments that pleasant fields affoord, but no Village wee 
saw. Marching thus about the declining of the Sunne 

200 



COMMENTS UPON PALESTINE a.d. 

1612. 

from the Meridian, we came in sight of two hundred 
pavillions, all pitched in rankes ; yeelding the prospect 
of a little Citie, by a brooke side of water : which being 
perceived, the Captaine began to censure what they might 
be ; and immediately there came riding towards us, sixe 
naked fellowes, well mounted on Arabian Geldings, who 
demanded what wee were? and whither we were bound 
with such a multitude ; and if there were any Franks of 
Christendome in our company. To whom the Janisaries 
replied, we were purposed to Jerusalem, and that there 
was but one Franke with them : Upon the which they 
presently sought me, demanding CafFar, CafFar; that was 
tribute for my head, & caused me perforce notwithstanding 
of the resisting Caravan, and Janizaries, to pay them 
presently for my life seven Chickens of gold, seven times 
nine shillings starling : And this is, because sayd they [V. 226.] 
our King is resident in these Tents, and therefore we have 
tripled his tribute : And yet were they discontented, 
because there were no moe franks in our company, for 
from the Armenians, they could not, nor would not seeke 
any tribute, because they were tributary slaves and subjects 
to the great Turke : neither also of any other Christiane 
borne in his dominions, when they shall happen to fall 
into their hands. 

They returning backe to their Prince, with the male- 
diction of my heart, and the sorrow of a Pilgrimes purse, 
we marching on in our way, that day wee travelled above 
thirty foure miles, and pitched at a Village called Adoash, 
being composed of threescore Moorish and Arabian 
houses, standing in a fruitfull and delicate Plaine; and 
garnished with Olive, Date, and Figge-trees, which were 
both pleasant and profitable : where we found also good 
hearbes to eate, and abundance of water to drinke, and 
also to fill our emptied bottles : As wee lay downe to 
sleepe after a hungry supper, on the hard ground, and our 
guard watching us ; that same King of the Arabians came The savage 
a little before mid-night, with twenty foure well horsed Arabian 
Runagats, and naked Courtiers, being armed with bowes Kin S- 

201 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

and arrowes, and halfe-pikes, pointed at both ends with 
hard Steele; and asked for the Caravan, who presently 
awoke, and went to salute him, laying his hand on his 
breast, bowed his head very low; which is the usuall 
courtesie amongst the Infidels and Christians in these 
parts : For they never uncover their heads to any man ; 
and after some short parley, they sate all downe on the 
grasse. The Caravan presented his rude like majesty 
with water, bread, hearbes, figs, garlike, and such things 
as he had. 

As they were thus merry, at this poore banquet, the 
[V. 227.] awfull King tooke the Oath of our Conductor, if there 
were any mo Frankes there then I ; and he having sworne 
the trueth, The King by a malignant informer, inconti- 
nently caused me to be brought before him ; and staring 
me in the face, asked my Interpreter where were my 
companions ? Who replied I had none : then sayd he ; 
tell that dogge, or Elishole, he must acknowledge me with 
five peeces of gold more, otherwise (making a signe to 
his owne throate) I shall cut off his head, because (sayd 
he) I will not loose this nights travell for nothing : The 
which I being informed, and knowing that by no con- 
dition, there was resistance against such a scelerate Prince, 
Exaction of gave it him forth of mine owne hand, having consulted 
tribute. with my Captaine before, and that presently with a halfe 
smiling countenance ; which he remarking, told the rest, 
it seemed I gave it with a good heart & a chearefull 
gesture, and to recompence my outward behaviour, he 
drunke a great draught of water to me : thinking thereby, 
he had done me more honour then all the Chickens of 
gold I gave him now, and in the morning ; would doe 
him profit or pleasure : pleasure they could doe him none, 
for they were unlawfully and dishonestly got, and too 
delivered from the inward sorrow of my sighing soule ; 
and no wonder, having spent two yeares great charges in 
Turky, before this time, but that I should have beene 
exceeding penurious of money, and thereupon desolate 
of reliefe and comfort. 



COMMENTS UPON PALESTINE a.d. 

1612. 

Truely this was one of the greatest tributes I payed 
for one dayes journey, that I had in all my voyage, in 
Asia. There are two Kings in Arabia, the one who liveth Two Arabian 
on Euphrates, the desarts of Mesopotamia, sometimes Ktn i s - 
in Arabia Felix, and in some parts of Syria : And the [V. 228.] 
other was hee to whom I payd this money wandereth with 
his Tribes, Tents, and Bestiall, one while in Arabia Petrea, 
and Deserta, and sometimes in the Holy Land, as hee 
findeth good pastorage, and fresh Fountaynes. These two 
Kings are mortall enemies : and if by accident they meete, 
they fight most cruelly, bringing dammage, rapine, and 
destruction to themselves, and their followers : For it is 
a difficult thing in them to dominate their inordinate 
passions, beeing untamed Savages, and mis-regarders of 
civility, who continually contend to corroborate the 
malignity of their dispositions, with bloody and inhumane 
interprises. And yet all the rest of that night, after his 
returne from us, wee still expected some treacherous sur- 
prise, which made our souldiers stand stoutly on their 
guard, and wee Pilgrimes to our vigilant and naked 
defence : For the Turkes will not suffer Christians to 
carry weapons in al these Dominions, neither any where, 
where they command. And for all this great tribute, and 
nights danger of my life, heere was my present resolution : 

The more I am beset, with dreadfull snares 

Begirded round, in shelfie gulfes of wracke ; 

And shipbroke left, on rockes of deep despaires, 

Where helples care, with tortring thoughts me racke : 
Then stoutly stand I, hoping for the end, 
That time will change, and God will better send. 

And now by the way I recall the aforesayd Turke, the 
maister of the Mule that carried my provision, and on 
whom in the journey I had bestowed the most part of my 
Tobacco : When I had no more to give him, and he 
suspecting the contrary, was councelled by his associats 
to beate me soundly, and dismount my Victuals and Water 
from the Mules backe, till I propined him with the rest, [V. 229.] 

203 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

which intention being by me understood ; I forthwith run 
to the Caravan and complained : whereupon my friend 
was bravely belaboured with a cudgell, and my better 
safety procured : Thus was his former shew of love quickly 
expelled, and an inward grudge suddenly conceived, for 
it was the smoake, and not my selfe he respected. 

Loves whirling fancies, mortals fondly feed 
As marish rootes dissolve, even as they breed : 
An humane creature, inhumanely taught, 
Is worser given to ill, than evill fraught : 
Things in themselves, be not so bad as ill, 
The cause exeemd, corruption hath free will : 
Mans fraile affection, is a cloudy mist, 
Whose vapours fall, and fogge, as passions list : 
Bad counsell's worse, than nature ill applies, 
Weake judgment dulls, when feare in reason flies : 
Thus sad ecclips'd, the darke ecclipsed Moone 
Did change, ere mine ecclipsed light was wonne. 
At last the Sun-shine, of my silver day, 
Came crawling on, as snailes advance the way. 

The next morning, when the hopefull Aurore, had 
fore-showne the burning birth of glassie Thetis, and that 
Orient majesty arising to overcirculate the earth, then 
marcht we along in our way, and before mid-day pitched 

Jacobs Well, our haire-cloth Tents round about Jacobs Well, neare the 
decayed City of Sychar in Samaria : This Province of 
Samaria, is now for the most part quite destroyed and 
overwhelmed with mountaines of sand : we found this 
auncient Well so wondrous deepe, that scarcely all our 
ropes could sinke our bucket in the water : The taste 
whereof was wondrous cold & sweet, & for Jacobs sake the 
whole number of us, drunke more of it, then neede 

[V. 230.] required : The fiery face of Phcebus declining to the West, 
we marched through a part of the fields of Basan, of which 
Og was last King, a man of such a large proportion, that 
his bed being made of iron, was nine Cubits long, and 
foure broad : and all that afternoone, wee had exceeding 

204 



COMMENTS UPON PALESTINE ad. 

1612. 
pleasant travailing; and at night we incamped by Lydda 
on the fields : Lydda is not above ten miles from the 
ruinous Towne of Caesarea by the sea side, and is now 
called by the Turkes and Moores Alferron, being a Village 
only of sixteene Moorish Houses. Heere Peter healed 
the man sicke of the palsie. 

The Townes scituated by the Sea side in Phoenicia, The Sea-port 
Palestine, and Judea, are these: Sydon, which standeth Townes of the 
in the Borders of Zebulon, and Nephtalim, or Phoenicia, Ho b Land ' 
beeing a goodly City, and well peopled ; and is governed 
by the Emeere or Prince of the Drusians : who beeing 
the off spring of the Christians, which under the Conduct 
of Godfrey Duke of Bulloine, discended into these parts, 
do still maintayne their liberty against the Turkes : The 
Signior whereof being threatned by the Great Turke, fled 
to Cosmus Duke of Florence, Anno 1612. leaving his 
two Sonnes behind him, the eldest to keepe Sydon, and 
the younger to remaine in a strong Fortresse, on the west 
end of mount Libanus : The elder brother foorthwith 
yeelded to the great Turke, the signory of his Lands, but 
the younger would never do it, and so retayneth absolutely 
the Countrey of Libanus to this day, making himselfe 
thereupon, a mountainous Monarchicke Prince. Tyrus, 
which is miserably brought to ruine : Acre or Aeon, that 
hath yet some indifferent trade of Merchandize, called 
formerly Ptolomeis : Caipha, called commonly Castello 
Pellegrino, which hath nothing but the remnants of an 
auncient Abbay : Cesarea, who reserveth but onely the 
memory of ruines, for there is no Hospitality in it, except [V. 231.] 
it be to savage Moores : Joppa or Japhta, is a Sea-port of 
small Barkes, but the decaied Towne, contayneth not one 
dwelling House, save onely a high Tower, which defendeth 
the Port from Cursares : Here Jonah tooke ship to flye 
from God : Here Peter raised Tabitha or Dorcas, from 
Death to life : and where he lodging at the House of 
Simon the Tanner, was in a vision taught the conversion 
of the Gentiles. And Baruti famous for so many Christian 
armies that have besieged it, is now composed of eight 

205 



ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

hundred fire houses : Lying North-east of Sydon under 
mount Libanus, formerly called Julia Fcelix, nigh unto 
which (as fabulous stories report) S. George delivered the 
Kings Daughter, by killing the Dragon. It is also 
thought to be within Canaan, standing in the Frontier 
of Phoenicia, and is the best inhabited place of all the 
holy Land, Sydon and Jerusalem excepted. 

Saturday morning before the breach of day, setting 
forward from Lydda, through the curling playnes of 
fat-fac'd Palestine, scarcely were wee well advanced in 
A dreadfull our way, till wee were beset with more then three hundred 
conflict. Arabs, who sent us from shrubby heights an unexpected 

shoure of Arrowes, to the great annoyance of all our Com- 
pany : For if it had not beene, that our Souldiers shot 
off their Gunnes on a sudden, and stood manly also to it, 
with their Bowes and Arrowes for our defence, we had then 
miserably, in the midst of their ravenous fury perished. 
But the nature of the Arabs is not unlike to the Jackals : 
For when any of them heare the shot of a Harquebuse, 
they presently turne backe with such speed, as if the 
fiendes of the infernall Court were broken loose at their 
heeles. 

In that momentary conflict, on our side there were 
[V. 232.] killed nine Women, five men, and about thirty persons 
deadly wounded, which to our worthy Armenian Captayne, 
and to the rest of our Heathnish Conductors bred no 
small griefe : the mourning noyse among the multitude, 
beeing also wondrous pittirull. Till bright day came, we 
stayed still in that same place, (expecting the dangerous 
mutability of our austiere fortune : and at our departure 
thence, wee buried the slayne people in deep graves, 
whereby Jackals should not open up their graves, to eate 
their Corpes : For such is the nature of these cruel beasts, 
that they onely love to live on mans flesh : these ravenous 
beasts (as is thought) are ingendred of a Foxe and a 
Wolfe. ... 

Proceeding in our journey, we entred about two of 
the clocke in the afternoone, in the hilly Countrey of 

206 



COMMENTS UPON PALESTINE a.d. 

1612. 

Judea, having two of their courses to Jerusalem, which 

is about twenty English miles : leaving Rhama on our The Towne of 

right hand, which contayneth some two hundred dwelling R^ama. 

houses of one story high, and ten miles distant from Joppa, 

from which it lyeth in the way to Jerusalem : Here 

remayneth the Dragoman, a Christian, who receiveth and 

conveyeth the Pilgrimes to Jerusalem, which land at Joppa, 

each Pilgrime paying seaven Chickens of gold, is furnished 

with an Asse to ride on, all the way tributes, at going, 

and comming being discharged by their Conductor, to 

whom they resigne this tributary money. 

Rhama is a Towne inhabited by Christians, Arabs, and 
Moores : not blacke Moores, as the Affricans be, but they 
are called Mori, which are a kinde of Egyptians, and 
not naturally blacke, but Sunne-burnt, with the parching 
heate. The whole Territory of Canaan, is inhabited with 
these Moores, some Turkes, civill Arabs, and a few 
Christians and scattered Jewes. The Arabians are for [V. 233.] 
the most part Theeves and Robbers, the Moores cruell, 
and uncivill, hating Christians to the Death : the Turkes 
are the ill best of all the three, yet all sworne enemies 
to Christ. But when they know how to make any gayne 
by strangers : O what a dissimulate ostentation shall 
appeare in these detestable Villaines, whose outsides onely 
they seeme to affect : but intirely the insides of their 
purses : & that is their ayme, and forcible end : wherefore 
they both toyle with all, and Conduct strangers through 
many perils, as eminent to themselves, as accessary unto 
our inevitable destinies : Time discussing all, and mony 
over-mastering time ; for Coyne is the thing they must 
have, though necessity sometimes may not spare it. 

About foure of the clocke before night, wee arrived at 
Berah, called of olde Beersheba, being eleaven miles Beersheba. 
distant from Jerusalem. Having a little reposed there, 
giving our Camels, Mules, and Asses some provender, but 
could get nothing for our selves, from these despightfull 
Moores, (for what wee carried with us, was all spent) 
except a little Water : wee imbraced our Mountaynous 

207 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

way, as cheerefully as wee could, for wee were exceeding 
faint, and travailed that day above forty three miles; 
whereby wee might arrive at Jerusalem before the Gates 
were shut, sustaining great drouth, burning heate, pinch- 
ing hunger, and not a few other the like inconveniences. 
And now about halfe way betweene Berah and 
Jerusalem, I, and two Armenians, advancing our way a 
flight shot before the Company. Wee I say, unhappily 
rancountred with foure Moorish fellowes, driving before 
them sixe Asses loaden with Rootes, and shrubs of Wood 
to burne : who seeing us, as they thought alone, layd 
[V. 234.] hands upon us, robbed us of our pocket monies : whereat 
J grievous I resisting, one of them pulled foorth a broad knife, and 
danger. holding me by the Beard, thought to have cut my throate, 
if it had not beene for one of his fellowes, who swiftly 
stayed him. 

Well, they leave us, and following their Beasts, our 
Souldiers instantly appeared unto us ; whereupon wee 
shouting, the Moores fled to the Rocks, and our foot 
Souldiers following, apprehended two of the chiefest, and 
brought them to the Captaine : One of which had my 
money, which I presently received backe againe, but mine 
associates money, was with them that escaped : the Cap- 
taine and Janisaries, meane while carried the two Moores 
along with them, thinking to execute them at Jerusalem. 
But their friends and neighbours following fast on Horse- 
backe, and on foote, relieved them from the Caravan, 
restoring backe againe the two Armenians money. 
Whereat all the Moores were exceeding glad, and wee 
nowayes discontented : for if they had not bin redeemed, 
certainly their friends and followers, who were thicke 
flocking together, would have cut us all off, before wee 
could have attain'd to Jerusalem. 

At last wee beheld the prospect of Jerusalem, which 

was not onely a contentment to my weary body, but also 

beeing ravished with a kinde of unwonted rejoycing, the 

A Joyful/ teares gushed from my eyes for too much joy. In this 

time the Armenians began to sing in their owne fashion, 

208 



COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

1612. 

Psalmes to praise the Lord: and I also sung the 103 
Psalme all the way, till we arrived neere the wals of the 
Citty, where wee ceased from our singing, for feare of the 
Turkes. 

The Sunne being passed to his nightly Repose, before 
our arrivall, wee found the Gates locked, and the Keyes 
carried up to the Bashaw in the Castle ; which bred a 
common sorrow in the Company, being all both hungry, [V. 235.] 
and weary : yet the Caravan intreated earnestly the Turkes 
within, to give us over the Wals, some victuals for our 
money, shewing heavily the necessity wee had thereof, but 
they would not, neyther durst attempt such a thing. In 
this time the Guardian of the Monastery of Cordeleirs, 
who remayneth there to receive Travailers of Christen- 
dome, who having got newes of our late arrivall, came 
and demanded of the Caravan, if any Frankes of Europe 
were in his Society, and he sayd, onely one. Then the 
Guardian called mee, and asked of what Nation I was 
of, and when I told him, hee seemed to be exceeding glad : 
yet very sorrowfull for our misfortune. 

Hee having knowne my distresse, returned, and sent A deare nights 
two Friers to me with Bread, Wine, and Fishes, which § u PP er - 
they let over the Wall (as they thought in a secret place) 
but they were espied, and on the morrow the Guardiano 
payed to the Subbashaw or Sanzacke a great fine, being a 
hundred Piasters, thirty pounds sterling : otherwise both 
hee and I had beene beheaded : which I confesse, was a 
deare bought supper to the Gray Frier ; and no lesse almost 
to me, being both in danger of my Life for starving, and 
then for receiving of food, therefore suspected for a 
Traytor: For the Turkes alleadged, he had taken in 
munition from me, and the other Christians, to betray 
the Citty : this they doe oft, for a lesser faulte then that 
was, onely to get Bribes and mony from the Grey Friers, 
which daily stand in feare of their lives. 

Anno 1 61 2. upon Palme-Sunday in the morning, wee 
entred into Jerusalem, and at the Gate wee were particu- 
larly searched, to the effect wee carried in no Furniture 
l 209 o 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

[V. 236.] of Armes, nor Powder with us, and the poore Armenians 
(notwithstanding they are slaves to Turkes,) behoved to 
render their weapons to the Keepers, such is the feare they 
have of Christians. And my name was written up in the 
Clarices Booke at the Port, that my tribute for the Gate, 
and my seeing of the Sepulcher, might bee payed at one 
time together, before my finall departure thence. 

The Gates of the City are of iron outwardly, and above 
each Gate are brazen Ordonance planted, for their defence. 

A foolish Having taken my leave of the Caravan, and the Com- 

ceremony. p an y ? w ho went to lodge with their owne Patriarke, I 
was met and received with the Guardian, and twelve Friers 
upon the streetes, each of them carrying in their hands 
a burning waxe Candle, and one for mee also : who 
received mee joyfully, and singing all the way to their 
Monastery Te Deum Laudamus, they mightily rejoyced, 
that a Christian had come from such a far Countrey as 
Scotia, to visite Jerusalem. 

Where being arrived, they forthwith brought me to a 
Roome, and there the Guardian washed my right foote 
with water, and his Viccar my left : and done, they kissed 
my feete, so did also all the twelve Friers that stood by : 
But when they knew afterward that I was no Popish 
Catholicke, it sore repented them of their Labour. I 
found here ten Frankes newly come the neerest way from 
Venice hither, sixe of them were Germanes, noble Gentle- 
men, and they also good Protestants, who were wonderfull 
glad to heare me tell the Guardian flatly in his face, I 
was no Romane Catholicke, nor never thought to be : 
The other foure Frankes were Frenchmen, two of them 
Parisians old men, the other two of Provance, all foure 

[V. 237.] being Papists : with nine other Commercing Frankes, also 
that dwelt in Syria and Cyprus, most of them beeing 
Venetians, who were all glad of me, shewing themselves 
so kinde, so carefull, so loving, and so honourable in all 
respects, that they were as kind Gentle-men, as ever I 
met withall, especially the Germaines : Such is the love 
of strangers, when they meete in Forraine and remote 

210 



COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

1612. 
places. They had also in high respect the adventures 
of my halfe yeares travaile, East, and beyond Jerusalem : 
troubling me all the while wee were together, to show 
them the rare Discourses of my long two yeares survey 
of Turkey, but especially of my furthest sights in the 
East of Asia : And were alwayes in admiration that I had 
no fellow Pilgrime, in my long Peregrination. 



211 



A.D. 

1612. 



THE SIXTH PART 



[VI. 238] 



Jerusalems 
antiquity. 



NOw come my swift pac'd feete, to Syons seate, 
And faire Jerusalem : heere to relate 
Her sacred Monuments, and these sweet places, 
Were fil'd with Prophets, and Apostles faces : 
Christs Crub at Bethleem, and Maries Cave, 
Calvar, and Golgotha, the Holy Grave : 
Deepe Adraes valley, Hebrons Patriarch'd Tombe, 
Sunke Lazars pit, whence hee rose from earths wombe : 
Judeas bounds, and Desarts ; that smoaking Lake 
Which orient folkes do still for Sodome take. 
Thence view'd I Jordan, and his mooddy streames, 
Whence I a Rod, did bring to Royall James. 
The lumpe falne Jerico, and th' Olive Mount, 
With Gethesamaine, where Christ to pray was wont : 
The Arabian desarts, then Egypt land 
I toyling saw, with Nylus swelling strand : 
Where for discourse, the seaventh part shall thee show 
What thou mayst learne, and what by sight I know, 
Of matchlesse Egypt ; and her unmatch'd bounds, 
That twice a yeare, in growth of graine abounds. 




was 



also 



Erusalem, is now called by the Turkes, 
Kuddish, which is in their Language, a 
Holy Citie ; It was first called Moriah, of 
Moria, one of the seaven heads of Syon, 
where Abraham would have sacrificed 
Isaac, Gen. 22. 2. and upon his offering 
it was called Jerusalem, Gen. 14. 18. It 
named Salem, where Sem, or Melchisedech 



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dwelt : and Jerusalem was also called Jebus, 2. Sam. 24. 
16. And it is the place where Salomon was commanded 
to build the Temple, 2. Chron : 3. 1. which afterward was 
termed Hieron Salomonis, whence came by corruption, 
that word Hierosolyma. David, also in his Psalmes gave 
it divers names. And Jerusalem in the Arabick tongue 
is also called Beyt almo kadas : Beyt signifieth the house, 
almo kadas, viz. of Saints. 

Jerusalem standeth in the same place where old 
Jerusalem stood, but not so populous, neither in each 
respect of breadth, or length so spacious : for on the 
South side of Jerusalem, a great part of Mount Syon is 
left without, which was aunciently the heart of the old 
City ; and they have taken on the North side, now both 
Mount Calvary, and the holy grave within the walles, 
which were built by Sultan Selim : So that thereby the 
difference of the situation is not so great, though a part [VI. 239.] 
thereof be removed ; but a man may boldly amrme, that 
the most part of this City is builded on that place, where 
the first Jerusalem was : as may truely appeare, and is 
made manifest by these mountaines, mentioned in the 
Scriptures, whereupon Jerusalem is both situate, and 
environed about, who reserve their names to this day, and 
are still seene, and knowne by the same ; as Mount Syon, Thefoure hills 
Mount Calvary, Mount Moriah, and Mount Olivet, of Jerusalem. 
The forme of the situation of Jerusalem, is now like to 
a Hart, or Triangle, the one point whereof looketh East, 
extending downeward, almost to the valley of Jehosaphat, 
which divideth Jerusalem, and Mount Olivet : The 
second head or point, bendeth out South-west upon Sion, 
bordering neare to the valley of Gehinnon : The third 
corner lieth on Mount Moriah, toward the North, and 
by- West, having its prospect to the buriall place of the 
Kings of Israel. 

The walles are high and strongly builded with Saxo 
quadrato, which adorne Jerusalem more then any thing 
within it, the Holy Grave excepted. It is of circuite about 
three miles, and a halfe of our measure. As touching the 

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a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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former glory of this City, I will not meddle withall, nor 

yet describe, sith the Scriptures so amply manifest the 

same ; concerning the lamentable destruction of it ; I 

refer that to the famous Historiographer Josephus, who 

largely discourseth of many hundred thousands famished, 

and put to the sword within this multipotent City, by 

The triumph Vespasian, and Titus his sonne ; being the messengers 

of Titus. f Gods just judgements ; which by his computation did 

amount beyond the number of eleven hundred thousands. 

But it is to be understood, they were not all at one time in 

Jerusalem ; but came up by turnes and times, from the 

circumjacent Countries about by thousands, and as they 

[VI. 240.] were cut off so their numbers were aye renewed againe 

as necessity required. 
Theoverthrow This City hath beene oft conquered by enemies : First, 
of Jerusalem, by Nabuchodanezzar, the Assirian King : Secondly, by 
the Greekes, and Alexander the Great, and also marvel- 
lously afflicted by Antiochus : Thirdly, it was taken in 
by Pompeius : Fourthly, destroyed of Vespasian and 
Titus : Fifthly, it was reedified by Adrian the Emperour, 
and wonne againe by Gosdroes, the Persian King : Sixtly, 
it was overcome by Homer Califf the successour of 
Mahomet : Seaventhly, by the great Souldan of Egypt, 
and by Godfrey du Bulloine, a Christiane Prince : Eightly, 
by Saladine the Caliph of Egypt, and Damascus : Anno 
1 187. who reserved successively the Signiory thereof for 
a long time : And lastly, it was surprised by Sultan Selim, 
or Solyman the Emperour of the Turkes, Anno 1517. 
joyning the holy Land together with JEgyipt to his 
Empire, who fortified the same, being by Infidels 
detayned to this day : and by likelihood shall keepe it 
to the consummation of the world, unlesse God of his 
mercy deale otherwise, then the hopes of mans weake 
judgement can expect. Whence truely I may say, that 
when fortune would change friendship, she disleagueth 
conditionall amity, with the senselesse litargy of foule 
ingratitude. This City is now governed by a Sanzack 
or Subbassaw, being placed there by the Bassaw of 

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Damascus, whose Deputie he is ; the other being chiefe 
Ruler under the Grand Signior over all the holy Land 
and the halfe of Siria. There is a strong Garrison kept The Garrison 
alwayes in Jerusalem, to withstand the Arabish of Jerusalem. 
invasions, consisting of eight hundred Souldiers, Turkes, 
and Moores, who are vigilant in the night and circum- 
spect in the day time, so that none can enter the Towne 
without their knowledge; nor yet goe forth without [VI. 241.] 
their triall. This is a memorable note, and worthy of 
observation, that at that time, when the Cities of 
Jerusalem and Antiochia were recoverd from the Pagans 
by the meanes of Godfrey of Boulloin ; the Pope of Rome 
that then was, was called Urbanus ; the Patriarke of 
Jerusalem Heraclius, and the Romane Emperour 
Fredericke : And at the same time, and long thereafter, A notable 
when Jerusalem was reinthralled and seazed upon by observation. 
Saladine ; the Popes name was Urbanus ; the Patriarke 
of Jerusalem Heraclius; and the Romane Emperour 
Fredericke : After Herod the Idumean, soone to Anti- 
pater, in whose time Christ was borne : Archelaus, 
Agrippa Herod, who imprisoned Peter and James, and 
was eaten of vermine, in whose time Christ suffered ; and 
Agrippa minor (before whom Paul pleaded) the last King 
of the Jews had raigned, (being strange Kings) in the last 
Kings time Jerusalem was overthrowne, and the King- 
dome made a Province of the Romane Empire, Anno 37. 
After which desolation, the Jewes were over all the world 
dispersed ; but afterward in a zealous consideration, were 
banished from the most part of the Christian Kingdomes : 
Out of France they were rejected by Philip the faire, 
Anno 1307. out of Spaine by Ferdinand the Catholicke, 
1492. out of Portugale by Emanuell, 1497. out of 
England by Edward the fifth, 1290. out of Naples and 
Sicilia by Charles the fifth, 1539. Yet they are found in 
great numbers in divers parts of Germany, Poland, and 
in some Cities of Italy, as Venice and her territories, 
Florence and the jurisdiction thereof, the principalities of 
Parma, Mantua, Modena, Urbino, and their extending 

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ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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limits ; and finally Rome, (besides her Ecclesiasticall 
papacy) wherein there are no lesse than twenty thousand 
[VI. 242.] of them : They are also innumerable over all the Turkish 
dominions, who so misregard and hate them, for the 
crucifying of Christ, that they use to say in detestation 
of any thing, I would I might dye a Jew ; neither will 
they permit a Jew to turne Turke, unlesse he first be 
baptized : And yet live, where they wil, the most part of 
them are the welthiest people in the world, having subtile, 
and sublime spirits. Now for the severall Kings and 
Rulers of Judah and Israel, beginning at Moyses, the 
Judges of the Jewes were 16. of whom Samuel was the 
last, at which time, the people desired to have a King like 
unto other Nations. 
The Jewish The Kings of the Jewes were three ; Saul, David, and 
KitJ g s - Salomon ; And the Kings of Judah were twenty, 

Zedechias being last, in whose time Nabuchodanezzar 
destroyed Jerusalem. Of the Kings of Israel there were 
seaventeene, of whom Oseas was the last, in whose time 
the Israelites were carried captives into Assyria, by King 
Salmanassor. 
Dukes of The Dukes or Governours of Jewry were flfteene, of 
Jewry. which Joannes Hircanius, was the last Governour of 
Judea, which discended from the stocke of David. 
During the government of which Captaines, after the 
Babylonian captivity, the Jewish Kingdome was plagued 
on both sides, by the Kings of Egypt and Syria : who 
slaughtered their people, ransacked their Cities, made 
havocke of their goods, and compelled them to eate for- 
bidden flesh, and sacrifice to Idols. 

To reforme which enormities Matathias and his five 
sonnes valiantly resisted, and overcame the impetuous 
fury of Antiochus Epiphanes and his Syrians : Where- 
upon the Jewes chose Judas surnamed Machabeus for their 
Captaine, one of the worlds nine Worthies ; who though 
not of the line of David, was yet of the tribe of Judah. 
[VI. 243.] The Machabean Princes of Jury were onely foure : 
Joannes Hircanus the last, who was slaine by the 

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Parthianes. Of the Machabean Kings of Judah were The Macha- 
other foure, of whom Hircanus sonne to Alexander the ?> ean Princes. 
tyrant was the last, who being disturbed in his raigne by 
Aristobulus his yonger brother, with his sonnes Alex- 
ander and Antiochus, he was firmely established in his 
throne by Pompey ; & the other carried captives to Rome. 
But afterward Alexander and Antiochus escaping, the one 
by pollicy, the other by favour of Julius Caesar, villan- 
ously abused Hircanus : The former was slaine by Scipio, 
and the latter for his villany was slaine by Marcus 
Antonius, and the Kingdome given to a stranger, Herod 
borne in Ascolon of Idumea, as I formerly recited, of 
which strange Kings there were foure. 

The Christian Kings of Palestine, beginning at Godfrey Christian 
of Bulloine were nine. Guy of Lysingham being the Kings of 
last King of Jerusalem, and was surprised by Saladine of 
Egypt, 1 187. 

And lastly, or at this present time, the Emperours of 
the line and race of Ottoman, are Lords and Kings over 
Jerusalem, and the crost, or rather now curst land of 
Canaan : In whose hands it is faster kept, then the 
seventeene Belgian Provinces, remaine totally subject to 
the Spanish power. 

But to the intent the Reader may the better conceive, 
and plainely understand the Monuments I saw within 
Jerusalem, and the circumjacent places of Judea ; I thought 
best to prefixe the description thereof, by the severall 
dayes as I saw them, not much condemning, neither 
absolutely qualifying them, but shall (as it were) neutrally 
nominate, and recapitulate these places, as I was informed 
by the Padre Guardiano, Gaudentius, Saybantus, a [VI. 244.] 
Veronesen borne ; whence he, and every one of them 
every third yeare are changed and recalled backe to 
Christendome, and other new Friers sent in their places : 
And especially the information of John Baptista, the 
Trenchman, who dwelt and had stayed twenty five yeares 
in Jerusalem, and from whom the Friers themselves have 
their informations : for a stranger that understandeth not 

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LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 



promptly the Italian tongue, which they usually speake, 
when they demonstrate these places unto us, hee shall 
The ignorance conceive ignorantly, dispose his judgement blind-foldedly, 
of Travellers, and knowes not how to distinguish the circumstances, and 
qualities of the things delivered. As I have knowne 
some of these Francks, in my company, simply mistaken, 
even when the exposition of every object was largely 
manifested unto them ; and precisely declared such a thing 
to have beene there, although perhaps the matter it selfe, 
be evanished and transported. 

About two of the clock on Palme-sunday after dinner, 
for all of us eate, drunke, and lay in the Monastery, each 
of us paying a Piaster a day for our dyet, sixe shillings 
starling, besides all other costs and charges : The 
Guardian I say, departed from Jerusalem to Bethphage : 
accompanied with twelve Friers, and many other Orientall 
Christians, which were come thither to that Festivall time, 
but I by no meanes would go, neither would the six 
Germans, but reposing our selves on the top or platforme 
of the Cloyster, we stayed till their returne : And yet from 
this place, we saw their back-comming from Bethphage as 
they crossed the lower and South side of Olivet ; devalling 
downeward, toward the valley of Jehosophat to ascend 
Mount Sion, for the greater performance of their foolery. 
[VI. 245.] The rediculous Ceremony which that day they use, is 

A superstitious thus : In an Apish imitation of Christ, at the foresayd 
Ceremony. Bethphage, there was an Asse brought to the Guardiano, 
whereupon hee mounted (being as it were, the greater 
Asse, riding upon the lesser) and came riding to Jerusalem, 
the people cutting downe Boughs of trees, and also dis- 
poyling themselves almost to the skin, bestrewed the way 
as hee Rode along, crying, Hosanna, Hosanna, the Sonne 
of David, blessed is hee that commeth in the name of the 
Lord : untill they came to the South gate of Syon, where 
the Guardian thought to have entred, Riding through 
Jerusalem to his monastery, with this shouting convoy 
of sixe thousand Orientall Christians, because their 
Patriarkes have not that liberty to do so, as this Italian 

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COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

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Guardian : Notwithstanding, the clamour of the people 
incensed so the Turkish Garrison lying at this Gate, that 
they not onely abused the poore Christians in their 
ignorant devotion, but they pulled the Guardian also from 
the Asses backe, beating him most cruelly, and all the 
rest of the Friers and Francke Pilgrimes that were with 
him : Where at last entring the Convent, most of them 
came in groaning, and loaden with blacke and bloody 
blowes ; whereat I, and the other Protestants, did laugh 
in our sleeves to behold their foolish Procession, so sub- 
stantially rewarded. At night after Supper, the Guardiano 
knowing that I was a Protestant, and also these other 
Germanes, made an Oration, saying : You Pilgrims, who 
refuse to be participant with us in the Sacraments, nor wil 
not adhere to our Masses, processions and Ceremonies 
which we follow of the Roman Church : I would therfore 
intreat you (your liberty being here as much as mine, 
whereby you may do as you please) onely to abstaine from 
scandalling and mocking our Rites and ordinary Customes, 
which at this great feast we must performe : To which [VI. 246.] 
we condescended, and promised to give no occasion of 
offence, seeing our outward carriage in going along with 
them to see their customes, tended no way to hurt the 
inward disposition of our soules. 

In the conclusion of his long Exhortation, hee disclosed 
this admonition, saying : All of you Travailers must in 
general be indued with these three worthy gifts, Faith, J flattering 
Patience, & Mony : Faith, to beleeve these things you beggary. 
shall see here at, and about Jerusalem : Patience, to indure 
the apparent injuries of Infidels ; and Money, to discharge 
all tributes, and costs, which here (meaning in his owne 
Monastery) and about this City must be defrayed. His 
Sermon he concluded like a Grey Frier, as indeede hee 
was: for I am fully perswaded hee little cared for our 
Faith, and Patience, providing, that our purses could 
answere his expectation, as truly we found the condigne 
trial thereof afterward : making our Patience to startle, 
our Faith to over-top his lyes, and our monies to bee a 

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ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

slave to his greed ; and wee left the last tributary spoyles 
of two extortionable flatterers, Avarice, and Ignorance ; 
with the which our Reverend Guardian was fully invested. 
Monday earely, we Pilgrimes went foorth to view the 
monuments within the Citty, being accompanied with the 
Padre Viccario, and a French Predicatore : the places of 
any note wee saw were these : first they shewed us the 
place where Christ appeared to Mary Magdalen, who 
sayd : Touch me not, for I am not yet ascended to my 
Father, John 20. 15. and this place by them is supposed 
to be the Center or middle part of the World. Next, 
where Saint James the first Bishop of the Primitive Church 
was beheaded : then the House of Saint Thomas, but that 
[VI. 247.] is doubtful (say they) because it is not yet confirmed by 
the Papall Authority : From thence they brought us to 
the place where Annas one of the High Priests dwelt, and 
also the Tree to the which our Saviour was bound, whiles 
Annas was making himselfe ready to leade him to Caiphas ; 
but that I wil not beleeve, for that Tree groweth yet, 
being an Olive Tree. They shewed us also the house 
where Saint Peter was imprisoned, when his fetters were 
shaken off his legges, and the Prison doores cast open, 
and hee relieved : And where Zebedeus the Father of 
James and John dwelt, which are nothing but a lumpe of 
Ruines. 
Caiphas Thence wee came to the decayed lodging of Caiphas, 

Lodging. without the Citty, uppon the mount Syon, whereupon there 

is a Chappell builded, and at the entry of that little Domo, 
we saw the stone, on which the Cocke crew, when Peter 
denied Christ. Within the same place is the stone that 
was rolled to the Sepulcher doore of our Saviour, being 
now made an Altar to the Abasines. These Abasines, are 
naturally borne blacke, and of them silly Religious men, 
who stay at Jerusalem, in two places, to wit, heere at 
Caiphas House, on mount Syon, and the other Convent 
on mount Moriah, where Abraham would have sacrificed 
Isaac : They weare on their heads flat round Caps of a 
blackish colour, and on their bodies long gownes of white 

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COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

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Dimmety, or linnen cloath, representing Ephods : the 
condition of themselves being more devoute, than under- 
standing the true grounds of their devotion, blind zeale 
and ignorance overswaying their best light of knowledge. 
They being a kinde of people, which came from Prester 
Jehans dominions. 

And within that Chappel they shewed us a narrow pit, 
wherein (say they) Christ was incarcerat, the night before [VI. 248.] 
he was brought to the Judgement Hall. Upon the same 
side of Syon, we saw the place, where Christ did institute 
the Sacraments : and not far hence, a decayed House, 
where (say they) the Holy-Ghost discended upon the 
Apostles, and also the Sepultures of David, and his sonne 
Salomon : Over the which, there is a Moskie, wherein 
no Christian may enter, to see these monuments. For 
the Turkes doe great Reverence, to most of all the ancient 
Prophets of the old Testament. 

From thence we returned, and entred in via dolorosa, 
the dolorous way, by which our Lord and Savior passed, 
when he went to be crucified, carrying the Crosse upon 
his Backe : And at the end of the same streete (say they) 
the Souldiers met Simon of Cyrene, and compelled him 
to helpe Christ, to beare his Crosse when hee fainted. 
Pilats Judgment Hall, is altogether ruinated, having but Pilots judge- 
onely betweene the two sides of the Lane, an olde Arch men* Hall. 
of stone, under the which I passed, standing ful in the 
high Way : Here they shewed us the place, where Christ 
first tooke up his Crosse, and on the top of that Arche, 
wee saw that place called Gabbatha, where Jesus stood, 
when Pilat sayd to the Jewes, Ecce homo. 

A little below this, they brought us to the Church of 
Saint Anna, where (say they) the Virgin Mary was borne. 
And going downe another narrow Lane, they poynted in 
to a House, and sayd, heere Dives the rich Glutton dwelt, 
who would not give to Lazarus the Crummes of Bread 
that fel from his Table : this I suspend, amongst many 
other things, for all hold it to bee a Parable, and not a 
History : And although it were a History, who can demon- 

221 



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LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 



strate the particular place, Jerusalem having beene so 
often transformed by alterations. 

[VI. 249.] This I must needes say, with such leying wonders, 

these flattering Friers, bring Strangers into a wonderful 
admiration, and although I rehearse all I saw there, yet 
I will not beleeve all, onely publishing them as things 
indifferent, some whereof are frivolous, and others some- 
what more credible: But as I sayd before, I will make 
no (or very small) distinction in the Relation. 

From thence we came without the Easterne gate, 
(standing on a low Banke, called the daughter of Syon, 
that over-toppeth the valley of Jehosophat,) unto an 
immoveable stone, upon the which they sayd St. Stephen 
was stoned to death, the first Martyr of the Christian 
faith; and the faithfull fore-runner of many noble 
followers. As we returned to our owne Convent, they 
brought us to mount Moriah, and shewed us the place 

Abrahams where Abraham offered up Isaac, which is in the custody 

faith. f Nigroes or ^Ethiopians : to whom each of us payed 

ten Madins of Brasse, the common coine of Jerusalem, 
for our in going to that place. And the other monastery 
that these Abasines detaine, is on mount Sinay in the 
Desarts, where the body of S. Katherine lyeth buried, 
which is richly maintained, and strongly kept by the 
^Ethiopian Emperor : There are 200. Religious Abasines 
in it, and 100. souldiers to guard them from the incursions 
of Arabs, who continually molest them, because mount 

Mount Sinay. Sinay standeth in midst of that desolate Arabian wilder- 
nesse, and far from any civill or inhabited place ; being 
distant from Jerusalem about 70. English miles. Next 
they shewed us the place where Jesus sayd, Daughters of 
Jerusalem, mourne not for me, &c. And neere unto this, 
where the virgin Mary fell into an agony, when Jesus 
passed by carrying his Crosse : Also, not farre hence, we 
beheld the place, where (as they say) Jesus said to his 
mother, woman, behold thy Sonne, and to S. John behold 
thy mother. 

[VI. 250.] Ascending more upward, they shewed us the house of 



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Veronica Sancta, and said, that our Saviour going by her 
doore, all in a sweat to Mount Calvary, she brought him 
a napkin to wipe his face ; which he received, and gave 
it to her againe : in which (say they) the print of his face 
remaineth to this day, and is to be seene at Rome. It 
is also sayd to be in a Towne in Spaine, and another of 
them at Palermo in Sicilia : wherefore I beleeve the one, 
as well as the rest. 

So out of one, if Papists can make three 

By it, they would denote heavens Deitie : 

But O! not so, these three revolv'd in one, 

Points forth the Pope, from him his tripled Crowne 

He weav'd these Napkins, leying reard his seat, 

For which this number, makes his number great. 

As concerning the Temple of the most high, built by The Temple of 
Salomon (the description of which edifice yee may read ^hmon thrice 
in the 3 . of Kings) it was destroyed by Nabuchodanezzar, ^ }? 
at the taking of Jerusalem, Anno Mundi, 4450. 
Secondly, it was rebuilded againe by the commandement 
of Cyrus King of Persia, after the Jewes returned from 
the Captivity of Babylon ; but not answerable to the 
state and magnificence of the former : For besides the 
poverty & smalnesse of it, there wanted five things which 
were in the other : First, the Arke of the Covenant : 
Secondly, the pot of Manna : thirdly, the rod of Aaron : 
Fourthly, the two tables of the Law, written by the finger 
of God : And fifthly, the fire of the Sacrifice, which came 
downe from Heaven, which were the Symboles and badges 
of Gods favour and mercy showne to them and their fore- 
fathers in his covenant of Love. 

This Temple afterward growing in decay, Herod the 
great, (that killed the young Infants for Christs sake, who [VI. 251.] 
suffered for him, before he suffered for them) built another 
much inferiour to the first, and superiour to the second. 
And although some Authors would have him but to 
repaire the second Temple, yet it is most certaine, he 
did even from the foundation raise its greatest beauty and 

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glory. For this Herod the Ascolonite, was an Edomit 

stranger, or Idumean, who having gotten the Kingdome 

contrary to the Law of Moses ; and created King of 

Jewry by Octavius Augustus ; and knowing these people 

to be offended therewithall, to procure their favour did 

Herod the build to them a third Temple : This was it, in which our 

ldumeans Saviour, and his Apostles did daily Preach ; and was set 

em ? e > on £ re by Titus the tenth day of August, on which day 

likewise the first Temple, was burnt by Nabuchodanezzar. 

And lastly there is another great Temple builded in the 

Se/im So/imans same place, by Sultan, Selim Soliman, reserved by Turkes, 

Temple. anc j highly regarded, for that respect they carry to 

Salomon ; neare the which, or within whose courts no 

Christian may enter under the paine of loosing his head. 

This present Temple hath two incircling Courts in- 

vironed with high wals, having two enteries : In the inner 

Court standeth the Temple, that is composed of five 

circling and large Rotundoes, rising high and incorporate 

from the ground with round tops : The outward fabrick 

whereof we cannot see, save on Mount Olivet, which is 

over against the Citie, and twice as high as Mount Sion. 

These are all the monuments which in one day, I saw 

within Jerusalem ; but as for Mount Calvary, and the 

Holy Grave, I saw them afterward, which in their owne 

place shall be orderly touched. As we were spending that 

[VI. 252.] day in these sights, the Guardian had prepared one hundred 

souldiers, sixty horse-men, and forty foot-men, to take 

with him the day following, for his conduction to Jordan, 

and the mountaine in the Wildernesse where Christ fasted ; 

which is his usuall custome once every yeare betweene 

Palme-sunday and Easter, returning againe before Good- 

friday. These places cannot be viewed, save onely at 

that time; neither may a Pilgrime goe along with the 

souldiers, unlesse he give the value of seven Crownes 

or Piasters (as a propyne) unto the Lieutenant, being forty 

two shillings starling : and if the Traveller will not goe 

to that charge, he may stay there till their returne, which 

I would not wish him to doe, if possibly he may spare 

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COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

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the money, for the sight of Sodome, and Jordans sake. 
That same night after supper, the Guardian demanded 
of us Travellers, if we would goe with him to see these 
memorable, & singular things, upon the former condition : 
To whom we answered, in a generall consent, we would, 
and so payed our moneyes. 

Earely upon Tuesday morning all the Friers and A voyage to 
Pilgrimes being mounted on Mules save onely pedestriall Jordan - 
I, and two Mules loaden with our provision of victuals ; 
we departed from the City, about our nine of the clocke 
in the forenoone, keeping our faces South-east, and leaving 
Bethphage and Bithania on our left hand, wee had pleasant 
travelling for seaven miles ; but in the afternoone wee 
entred in a barren and desart Countrey till Sun-setting : 
where at last wee arrived at a standing Well, and there 
refreshing our selves and the beasts, wee reposed till two 
houres within night. After that the Captaine had cried 
Catethlanga, that is, march away : we set forward, being 
well guarded round about with our keepers, because we 
entred into a dangerous way, and a most desolate and 
fabulous soile. 

In all this deformed Countrey, wee saw neyther house, [VI. 253.] 
nor Village, for it is altogether desartuous, and inhabited 
onely by wilde Beasts, and naked Arabians. Before wee 
came neere to Sodom and Gomorrah, by seaven miles : 
(for so wee behooved to passe by the East end of it, before 
wee could arrive at that place of Jordan which wee 
intended) we I say incountred with such deep sandy 
ground, that the Mulets were not able to carry our Com- 
pany through : Whereupon they all dismounted, wrestling, 
and wading above the middle part of their bodies, and 
sometimes falling in over their heads, they were in great 
danger of perishing, although the robustnesse of my body 
carried mee through on my feete, relieving also divers 
times some of these Friers and Pilgrimes, that were almost 
choaked and over-whelmed with Sand, but not for lacke 
of Wine. Even in the middest of this turmoyling paine, 
(the night being darke) the unwelcomed Arabs, environed, 
l 225 p 



ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 
A fearefull and invaded us with a storme of Arrowes, which they 
danger. sen t from the tops of little hard hils, whereupon they 

stood, for knowing the advantage of the ground : they 
tooke opportunity to give the more feareful assaults : yet 
they prevailed nothing (although they wounded some of 
our Souldiers) such was the resolute Courage of our 
valourous Defendants. True it is, that in all my 
travailes I was never so sore fatigated, nor more fearefully 
indangered, as I was that night. 

A little after midnight, these Savages leaving us, and 
wee leaving our troublesome way, we accoasted the Lake 
of Sodome, and marched along the marine shoare above 
nine miles before we came to Jordan. This Lake is called 
Lacus Asphaltites, it yeeldeth a kinde of slime, named 
Bitumen Asphaltum ; the which bituminous savour no 
[VI. 254.] living thing can indure. And now Mare mortuum, a sea 
because it is salt, and mortuum or dead, for that no living 
thing breedes therein : and more properly for this cause 
called the dead Sea, because of it selfe it is unmoveable, 
such is the Leprosie and stability of the water. It is also 
called so, because if a Bird flye over it, shee presently 
falleth downe therein dead : And as Salomon reporteth 
of it, Wisdom. 10. 7. it smoaketh continually: from 
whence proceedeth filthy Vapours, which deforme the 
fields, lying about for certaine miles, as it were blasted, 
scorched, and made utterly barren : this smoake I take 
onely to be but the exhalation of Jordan : For this River 
falling into it, and there ending his course, the two 
contrary natures cannot agree ; the one being a filthy 
puddle, and the other a pure water, as I shall more 
approbably Record. 
The length of This Lake is foure score miles in length, and according 
Sodoms Lake, to its intervalling Circuite, sometimes two, three, foure, 
or five miles in breadth : yet the body thereof, bending 
directly South-west ; keepeth a glassie course, till it salute 
the austiere conspicuosity of the sabulous and stony 
Desarts : beeing compassed with the Rockes of Arabia 
Petrea on the South : On the North, with the sandy hils 

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COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

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of the Wildernesse of Judea : on the West, with the steepy 
mountaines of Arabia deserta : and on the East, with the 
plaine of Jericho. How commeth it to passe therefore, 
that the fresh running flood of Jordan, falling evermore 
into this bounded Sea, that the Lake it selfe, never 
diminisheth, nor increaseth, but alwayes standeth at one 
fulnesse : neyther hath it any issuing forth, nor reboundeth 
backewards on the plaine of Jericho, which is one of the 
greatest wonders in the World. Wherefore, as I have 
sayd, it must needes eyther exhale to the Clouds, or [VI. 255.] 
otherwise runne downe to Hell : for if it ranne under 
the Rockes, and so burst in the Desarts, it would soone 
bee knowne ; but in all the bounds of Arabia Deserta, 
which betwixt this Lake and the Red Sea, extend to 300. 
miles ; there is no such matter, as Brooke, or strand, much 
lesse a River, neyther hath it any intercourse with the 
Ocean, unlesse it runne through some secret passage of 
the earth under the Wildernesse, unto the Red sea. And 
that is doubtfull, although it may appeare probable ; in 
regard of Nilus, that runneth a hundred miles under 
the ground in the exterior ^Ethiopia : and divers other 
Rivers also after the same manner, obscuring themselves 
under Rockes, mountaynes, and planures, for many miles : 
which particulars, by my owne experience, I could 
denote. 

But as for this River, the question may arise, whether The doubtful- 
ran it during the time of these five Citties of the plaine, nes of Jordan 
now overwhelmed with Water ; or where was the issue endin &- 
thereof. To this I answere, was not the hand of the 
Almighty, that rained downe from the Heavens fire and 
Brimstone to consume them, able also, to drowne their 
situations and intervalling plaines with water : Yes and 
doubtlesse yes, and the course of the River keeping still 
its former condition : And for moderne examples, how 
many Citties, Mansions, and Stations, have beene som- 
merssed with water : nay innumerable, and so remayning 
to this day, place, beauty, and being, all defaced : As now 
in Scotland neere to Falkirk, rests the last and latest 

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a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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memory of such woefull accidents, and superabounding 
disgorgings. 

It breedeth nor reserveth no kinde of fishes ; and if 
by the swelling of Jordan, any fishes be carried to it, they 
immediatly dye. Although Josephus witnesseth, that in 
[VI. 256.] his time, there was an Apple grew uppon the Bankes 
thereof, like to the colour of gold, and within was rotten, 
and would consume to powder ; yet I affirme now the 
contrary : For there is not such a thing (whatsoever hath 
beene in his dayes) as eyther Trees, or Bushes, grow neere 
to Sodome by three miles : such is the consumation of 
that pestiferous Gulfe. 
Wrong infir- Divers Authors have reported, that nothing will sinke 
mations made into it, of any reasonable weight, as dead men, or Carkasses 
f a " e ' of Beasts : but by experience I approve the contrary : 

For it beareth nothing at all; yea, not the weight of a 
Feather, nor the pile of withered Grasse, but it will sinke 
therein, with the which my hands made sundry trials ; 
and dare approove it to be of trueth, in spight of the 
leying world, and all doting varieties of auncient Rela- 
tions. 

The water it selfe, is of a blackish colour, and at some- 
times in the yeare, there are terrible shapes, and showes 
of terrour in it, as I was informed at Jericho, by the 
Arabian inhabitants there, which is the neerest Towne 
that bordereth thereupon. 

This contagious and pestilentious Lake of Sodome, 
resembleth much (as may be supposed) that infernall gulfe 
of Hell : but in my opinion, I hold it to be the Purgatory 
of Papists : for they say Limbus Patrum, is neere, or 
in the second roome to Hell, which I thinke must needs 
be Sodome : for although it be not Hell it selfe, yet I 
am perswaded, it is a second Hell, having (as some report) 
no bottome. Wherefore I conclude thus, that since 
Papists will have a Purgatory, I absolutely affirme, it 
must be such a Purgatory, as the purging of Sodome and 
Gomorra, which was with fire and Brimstone, to their 
destruction. 

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COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

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About the breach of day on Wednesday morning, we [VI. 257.] 
past by the ruines of an old house ; where (as they say) 
S. John the Baptist remained, when he baptized those 
that came from Jerusalem, and other Regions about, which 
is but the flight of an arrow from Jordan. 

Approaching to the banke-side, we dismounted, and 
uncloathed our selves, going in naked to the River, we The River 
washed us to refresh our bodies ; our Souldiers lying a Jordan. 
little off from us, as pledges of our lives, and their owne 
safegards, stayed as Bulwarks for our potection, & a 
connivall obligation for two repugnant defences : Time 
presenting the awfull opportunity of both occasions. In 
this place, as the Guardian said, was Christ baptized of 
S. John, when the Holy Ghost came downe in a bodily 
shape, like a Dove upon him, and there was a voyce from 
Heaven, saying : Thou art my beloved Sonne, in Thee 
I am well pleased. I saw also an apparant like testimony, 
of a quadrangled stone, lying on the banke side ; wher- 
upon are ingraven letters, of Hebrew, Greeke, Latine, 
testifying the same thing : and may be also conjectured, 
in regard of the auncient Habitacle, of that precursor, 
which is not far from thence. 

This river Jordan beginneth in Mount Libanus, of 
two fountaines, Jore, and Dan, which runne separated, till 
they come to the lake Maronah ; & hence it maketh one 
body, keeping his course through the lake Genasereth, 
endeth in Sodome. The river Tibris at Rome, & Jordan 
are not much different in quantity and colour ; and not 
unlike other in their courses : For Jordan falleth in the 
old Gomorah, and Tibris runneth through the new 
Sodome ; A history of such evidence, as travell taught 
me by experience : For it is the Priests confluence, which 
breeds in the Italians insolence : If I erre, I will beg 
indulgence, of the Popes aureat magnificence. 

The rivers themselves are both of a muddy colour, and [VI. 258.] 
their quantity not far different from other, which Jordan 
for greatnesse retaineth, and the length of their courses 
are much semblable to other. The water of Jordan hath 

229 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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beene transported to Venice in barrels, for that purity it 
hath ; which will reserve unspoiled, both moneths and 
yeares, and the longer it is kept, it is the more fresher ; 
and to drinke it, is an excellent remedy for the fever 
quartan or quotidian, being neare in vertue to the Wine 
of Libanon. 

Considering the auncient reputation of this famous 
river, and the rare sight of such an unfrequented place, 
A Turpentine I climbed up to the top of a Turpentine tree, which grew 
rod brought w i t hin the limited flood, a little above where I left my 
from Jordan 1 j t c • j \. 

and ziven to com P an y even naked, as 1 came from swimming, and cut 

King James, downe a faire hunting rod of the heavy and sad Turpentine 
tree, being three yards long, wondrous straight, full of 
small knots, and of a yellowish colour ; which afterward, 
with great paines, I brought to England, and did present 
it (as the rarest gemme of a Pilgrimes treasure) to his 
Majesty. But I remember in the choosing thereof an 
unexpected accident fell out : For I being sequestrat from 
the sight of the company, upon this solitary tree, with 
broad obscuring leaves, the Friers and Souldiers removed ; 
keeping their course towards Jericho : but within two 
furlongs from Jordan, they were beset with the former 
Nocturnall enemies, who assailed them with a hard con- 
flict : For I hearing the Harquebuse go off, was straight 
in admiration, and looking downe to the place where I 
left my associates, they were gone ; so bending my eyes 
a little further in the Plaine, I saw them at a martiall 
combate : which sight gave me suddenly, the threatning 
of despaire : not knowing whether to stay intrenched, 

[VI. 259.] within the circundating leaves, to approve the events of 
my auspicuous fortunes : Or in prosecuting a reliefe, to 
be participant of their doubtfull deliverance. In the end 
pondering, I could hardly, or never escape their hands, 
either there, or by the way going up to Jerusalem, leapt 
downe from the tree, leaving my Turkish cloathes lying 
upon the ground, tooke onely in my hand the rod & 
Shasse which I wore on my head ; and ranne starke naked 
above a quarter of a mile amongst thistles, and sharpe 

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COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

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pointed grasse, which pittifully be pricked the soles of 
my feete, but the feare of death for the present, expel'd 
the griefe of that unlooked for paine. Approaching on 
the safe side of my company, one of our Souldiers broke 
forth on horsebacke, being determined to kill mee for 
my staying behinde : Yea, and three times stroke at me 
with his halfe-pike ; but his horse being at his speed, I 
prevented his cruelty, first by falling downe, next by 
running in amongst the thickest of the Pilgrimes, recover- 
ing the Guardians face, which when the Guardian espied, 
and saw my naked body, hee presently pulled off his gray 
gowne, and threw it to me, whereby I might hide the 
secrets of nature : By which meanes, (in the space of an 
houre) I was cloathed three manner of wayes : First, like The Pilgrimes 
a Turke : Secondly, like a wild Arabian : And thirdly, like three severaU 
a grey Frier, which was a barbarous, a savage, and a hab ^^halfe 
religious habit. 

The Captaine at last entering in parley with the Arabs, 
by some contributing promises did mitigate their fury, 
for their compounded acknowledgement was to be sent 
them from Jerusalem : Whereupon, wee marching toward 
Jericho, reposed our selves under a cooling shade, and 
dined there on the Wine and provision carryed with us. 

After Dinner wee arose, and went to the House of [VI. 260.] 
Zacheus : (this was hee who sate uppon a Tree to see our 
Saviour as he passed by,) the Wals whereof stand to this 
day, the tecture being onely demolished. This new 
Jericho is now a poore Village onely of nine dwelling 
houses, inhabited by a kinde of Arabs (which are in 
subjection under the Governour of Jerusalem,) but I 
saw many ruinous lumpes of the Wals, and demolishings 
of the old Towne, which is a little from this distant, 
about a short quarter of a mile. Here I saw two most Two sorts of 
dainty kinde or fruites, the one was a little lesser then rare fruit. 
an Apple, but more round : whose colour was like gold 
without, and within it was White as Snow, and sweete 
like Suger. I would gladly have eaten of them ; but the 
Friers forbade me, saying ; they were the onely pest of 

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a.d. L1THGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

Death unto a stranger. The other Apple was like to a 
greene Lemmon, long, and full of knots, of a reddish 
colour, like to a Mellone ; being both delicate and whole- 
some, of which wee did eate to satisfie the naturall appe- 
tite, and so did all our Souldiers eate of them excessively : 
their Trees growing high and greene by a Brooke side 
of delicate Water that runneth from the fountaine of 
Elizeus. From Jericho we set forward, in the way of the 
Wildernesse ; our determination being such, as to view 
the mountaine whereon Christ fasted forty dayes : Where 
arrived, being late, we durst not go up til morning. 
Elizeus Foun- Wherefore we pitched that night by the fountayne of 
tame. Elizeus ; the Water of which, was of old, naturally bitter, 

but by the prayers of that divine Prophet, was restored 
to a sweet tast : It is good in digestion, and harmelesse 
for health : and it is the lightest water the earth yeelds : 
having on the morrow filled a Boares skin of it, to carry 
with me to the mountaine ; I found it so light, that I 
[VI. 261.] had no weight nor paine in the bearing of it on my 
shoulders : notwithstanding, the way of it selfe was 
fastidious. This mountain is called Quarantanam, or 
Quaranto, being of height, by the computation of my 
painefull experience, above sixe miles, and groweth from 
the bottome still smaller and smaller, till that the top is 
covered with a little Chappell, not unlike to the proportion 
of a Pyramede. 

There is no way to ascend upon this Hill, save one, 
which hath beene hewen out of the Rocke, by the industry 
of men, experimented in Masonry ; (which was done at 
the cost of Queene Helen) going up by the Degrees of 
forty five turnes. In all our Company there were onely 
one Frier, foure Germanes, and I, that durst attempt to 
climbe the mountaine. 

Thursday earely at the breach of day, we sixe made us 
for the mountaine, leaving our Souldiers to guard the 
passage below, least some stragling Arabs should have 
stolne after us for our Destruction. Where after diverse 
turnings, traversings, and narrow foot passages having 

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COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

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come with great difficulty to the top, we entred first into 

a umbragious Cave, joyning to, and under the Chappell, 

where the Frier told us ? that in this place Christ did fast where Christ 

forty dayes : and here it was, where he rebuked Sathan. *™ te ^ 0,ty 

The Chappel which covereth the top of this high and 

steepy Rocke is covered, and also beautified, with an old 

Altar : betweene the outward sides whereof, and the 

craggy face of this mountaine, two men may only go 

side to side : Here we dined and refresht our selves with 

water that I carried on my backe hither : From which 

place we saw the most part of all the Holy Land, except 

the North parts of Judea, Palestine, and Phenicia, and 

a great way in the two Arabiaes, Petrea, and Deserta, and 

all the length of Jordan, even from Sodome to Maronah. 

At last in our Returne and fearefull discending, there [ VI - 26z -l 
would none of us goe downe formost : For although the 
Frier led us freely upwards, yet first downeward for his 
life hee durst not goe : and that because at the narrow 
end of every turning, there was aye betweene the upper 
and the lower passage, about my height, and some where 
twice my height, of the flat face of the Rocke, whereon 
there was nothing but dimples and holes to receive our 
feete, which in discending was perillous. Now the 
greatest danger, at every turne, was in the downe going Dreadfull 
of the formost, who was to receive, them all, one by one, ^ n S er J n 
and foote their feet in the shallow dimples : of which if Q^ranuitam 
any of them had missed, his sliding downe had miscarried 
them both over the Rocke. 

Now for the noble Germanes sake, two of whom were 
great Barens, Signior Strowse, and Signior Crushen, and 
borne Vassals to the Marquesse of Hanspauch, I resolved 
to imbrace the danger : Where downe I went, receiving 
every one of them, at every turne, first leading their 
feete by my hands, and then by inveloping them with 
mine armes : Well, having past halfe way downewards, 
wee came to the most scurrile and timorous Discent of 
the whole passage, where with much difficulty, I set safe 
the foure Germanes in our narrow Rode hewen out of 

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a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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the craggy Hill ; and then was to receive the Frier : 
Whence hee comming downe from above, with his Belly 
and face to the Rocke, holding his hands grumbling above, 
the fellow fell on trembling ; and as I was placing his 
feetein the holes, distempred feare brought him downe 
upon me with a rushling hurle : Whereuppon straight 
I mainly closed with my left arme his body fast to the 
Rocke, keeping strongly my Right shoulder to the same 
[VI. 263.] place : For I could not have saved my selfe, and letting 
him fall, but hee would have caught mee headlong with 
him, over the Rocke : And yet the Germanes cryed still 
to me, Lascia ti quel furfanto cascar alia fondo con il 
Diavolo, e salva caro fratello la vita vostra, viz. Let that 
Villaine fall to the ground with the Divell, and save, O 
deare brother, your owne life : But I neyther would nor 
durst : at last his feare, by my incouragement having left 
him, I suffered him to slide softly downe betweene my 
arme and the Rocke, to the solid path : Where by and 
by, hee fell downe uppon his knees, and gave mee a 
thousand Blessings, vowing for this, he would doe me a 
great good deede before I left Jerusalem. 

At last towards the afternoone, wee safely arrived at 
the foote of the Mountayne, and having saluted the 
Guardian, and all the Rest, who then were ready to take 
journey, the Frier told his Reverence how I had saved 
his life : Whereupon the Guardian, and the other Friers, 
did imbrace me kindly in their Armes, giving me many 
earnest and loving thankes. 

And now the Souldiers and wee being advanced in our 
Way, as wee returned to Jerusalem, wee marched by an 
S. Jeromes olde Ruinous Abbey, where (say they) Saint Jerome dwelt, 
Abbey. anc } was f ec [ there by wilde Lyons : Having travailed sore 
and hard that afternoone, wee arrived at Jerusalem an 
houre within night, for the Gate was kept open a purpose 
for us and our Guard : and entring our Monastery, wee 
supped, and rested our selves till midnight ; having 
marched that halfe Day, more as 34. miles. A little 
before midnight, the Guardian and the Friers, were 

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COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

1612. 

making themselves ready to goe with us to the Church 
of the Holy Sepulcher, called Sancto Salvatore ; where 
wee were to stay Good-friday and Satturday, and Easter- 
Sunday till mid-night : They tooke their Cooke with them [VI. 264.] 
also to dresse our Dyet, carrying Wine, Bread, Fishes, and 
Fruites hither in abundance. Meane while, a Jew, the 
Trench-man of the Turkies Sanzacke, came to the 
Monastery, and received from every one of us Pilgrimes, 
first two Chickens of Gold, for our severall heads, and 
entrey at Jerusalem : and then nine Chickens a peece for 
our in going to the Holy Grave ; and a Chicken of golde 
a man, to himselfe the Jew, as beeing due to his place. 

Thus was there twelve Chickens from each of us Our tribute 
dispatched for the Turke : And last one, and all of us, f or the Ho h 
behoved to give to the Guardian two Chickens also for the Gnve - 
Waxe Candles and fooleries hee was to spend, in their 
idle and superstitious Ceremonies, these three aforesayd 
nights, which amounted in all to every one of us, to 
foureteene Chickens of gold, sixe pounds sixe shillings 
starling. So that in the whole from the sixe Germanes, 
foure French men, and nine Commercing Franks in 
Cyprus and Syria, Venetians, and Ragusans, and from my 
selfe, the summe arose for this nights labour to a hundred 
and twenty sixe pounds starling. 

This done, and at full mid-night wee came to the 
Church where wee found twelve Venerable like Turkes, 
ready to receive us, sitting in the Porch without the 
Doore ; who foorthwith opened at randone the two great 
Brazen halfes of the Doore, and received us very respec- 
tively : We being within the doore made fast, and the 
Turkes returned to the Castle, the first place of any note 
we saw, was the place of Unction, which is a foure squared 
stone ; inclosed about with an yron Reuele, on which 
(say they) the dead body of our Saviour lay, and was 
imbalmed ; after hee was taken from the Crosse, whiles 
Joseph of Arimathea, was preparing that new Sepulcher [VI. 265.] 
for him wherein never man lay : from thence we came to 
the holy Grave. Leaving Mount Calvary on our right 

2 35 



A.&. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

hand toward the East end of the Church ; for they are 
both contained within this glorious edifice. 
The Holy The Holy Grave is covered with a little Chappell, 
Grave - standing within a round Quiere, in the west ende of the 
Church : It hath two low and narrow entries : As we 
entred the first doore, three after three, and our shoes 
cast off, for these two roomes are wondrous little, the 
Guardiano fell downe, ingenochiato, and kissed a stone, 
whereupon (he sayd) the Angell stood, when Mary 
Magdalen came to the Sepulchre, to know if Christ was 
risen, on the third day as he promised : And within the 
entry of the second doore, we saw the place where Christ 
our Messias was buried, and prostrating our selves in 
great humility, every man according to his Religion, 
offered up his prayers to God. 

The Sepulchre it selfe, is eight foote and a halfe in 
length, and advanced about three foote in height from the 
ground, and three foote five inches broad, being covered 
with a faire Marble stone of white colour. 

In this Chappell, and about it, I meane without the 
utter sides of it, and the inward incirclings of the com- 
passing Quiere, there are alwayes burning above fifty 
Lampes of oyle, maintained by Christian Princes, who 
stand most of them within incircling bandes of pure Gold, 
which is exceeding sumptuous, having the names of those, 
who sent or gave them, ingraven upon the upper edges of 
the round circles : each of them having three degrees, and 
each degree depending upon another, with supporters of 
pure Gold, rich and glorious. The fairest whereof was 
sent thither by King John of England, whereon I saw his 
[VI. 266.] Name, his Title, and crowne curiously indented, I 
demanded of the Guardiano if any part of the Tombe was 
here yet extant, who replied, there was ; but because (said 
he) Christians resorting thither, being devoutly moved 
with affection to the place, carried away a good part 
thereof, which caused S. Helen inclose it under this stone ; 
whereby some relicts of it should alwaies remaine. I 
make no doubt but that same place is Golgotha, where 

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COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

1612. 
the holy Grave was, as may appeare by the distance, 
betweene Mount Calvary and this sacred Monument ; 
which extendeth to forty of my pases : This Chappell is The glorious 
outwardly decored, with 15. couple of Marble Pillars, and C ^f°^ 
of 22. foote high ; and above the upper coverture of the g raV i. 
same Chappell, there is a little sixe-angled Turret made of 
Cedar wood, covered with Lead, and beautified with sixe 
small Columnes of the same tree. The Chappell it selfe 
standeth in a demicircle or halfe Moone, having the 
little doore or entry looking East : to the great body 
of the Church, and to Mount Calvary, being opposite 
to many other venerable monuments of memorable 
majesties. 

The forme of the Quiere wherein it standeth, is like 
unto that auncient Rotundo in Rome, but a great deale 
higher and larger, having two gorgeous Galleries ; one 
above another, and adorned with magnificent Columnes 
being open at the top, with a large round ; which yeeldeth 
to the heavens the prospect of that most sacred place. 

In which second Gallery we strangers reposed all these 
three nights we remained there : whence we had the full 
prospect of all the spacious Church, and all the Orientall 
people were there at this great feast of Easter day, being 
about 6000. persons : from this curious carved Chappell 
we returned through the Church to Mount Calvary ; To [VI. 267.] 
which we ascended by twenty one steps, eighteene of 
them were of Marble, and three of Cedar-wood : where, 
when we came I saw a most glorious & magnifick roome, The beauty 
whose covert was supported all about with rich columnes of Mount 
of the Porphyre stone, and the oversilings loaden with avar h 
Mosaick worke, & overgilded with gold, the floore being 
curiously indented with intermingled Alabaster and black 
shining Parangone : On my left hand I saw a platformd 
rocke, all covered with thicke and ingraven boords of 
silver ; and in it a hole of a cubits deepe, in which (say 
they) the Crosse stood whereon our Saviour was crucified : 
And on every side thereof a hole for the good & bad 
theeves, were then put to death with him. Discending 

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a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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from Mount Calvarie, we came to the Tombe of Godfrey 
du Bulloine, who was the first proclaimed Christian King 
of Jerusalem, and refused to be crowned there, saying ; 
It was not decent, the Servants head should be crowned 
with gold, where the Maisters head had beene crowned 
with thornes ; having this Inscription ingraven on the 
one side : 
Two famous Hie jacet inclytus Godfridus de Bullion, quitotam hanc 

Sepukhers. terram acquisivit cultui divino, cujus anima requiescat in 
pace. 

And over against it, is the Tombe of King Baldwine 
his brother, which hath these Verses in golden Letters 
curiously indented. 

Rex Baldevinus, Judas alter Machabeus 
Spes patriae, Vigor Ecclesiae, Virtus, utriusque ; 
Quern formidabant, cui dona, tributa ferebant. 
Caesar, .ZEgypti Dan, ac homicida Damascus ; 
Proh dolor! in modico clauditur hoc Tumulo. 

The other things within the Church they shewed us, 
were these, a Marble Pillar, whereunto (say they) our 
[VI. 268.] Saviour was bound, when he was whipped, and scourged 
for our sakes : the place in a low Celler, about fourteene 
stone degrees under the ground, where the Crosse was hid 
Where Christ by the Jewes, and found againe by S. Helen : the place 
was nailed to w here Christ was crowned with thornes, which is reserved 
by the Abasines, and where the Souldiers cast lots for his 
Garment ; the place where he was imprisoned, whiles they 
were making of his Crosse, and where the Crosse, being 
laid along upon the ground, our Saviour was nailed fast to 
it ; the Rocke, which (as they say) rent at his crucifying, 
which is more likely to be done with hammers, and set 
one peece a foote from another, for the slit lookes, as if it 
had beene cleft with wedges and beetles. And yet the 
sacred Scriptures say that it was not a Rocke, but the 
Temple that did rent in two from the bottome to the 
top, wherein these silly soule-sunke Friers are meerely 

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blinded, understanding no more than leying traditions; 

perfiting this their nationall Proverb ; 

Con arte, et con inganno, ci vivono medzo 1' anno 
Con inganno et con arte, ci vivona P altera parte. 

With guile and craft, they live the one halfe yeare 
With craft and guile, the other halfe as cleare. 

And lastly, they take upon them below Calvary to shew 
us where the head of Adam was buried. These and many 
other things, are so doubtfull, that I doe not register them 
for trueth (I meane in demonstrating the particular places) 
but onely relates them as I was informed. 

There are seven sorts of Nations, different in Religion, 
and language, who continually (induring life) remaine 
within this Church, having incloystered lodgings joyning 
to the walls thereof : their victuals are brought dayly to 
them by their familiars, receiving the same at a great hole 
in the Church-doore ; for the Turkes seldome open the [VI. 269.] 
entry unlesse it be when Pilgrimes come, save one houres 
space onely every Saturday in the afternoone, and at some 
extraordinary Festivall daies : and yet it doth not stand 
open then, but onely opened to let strangers in and shut 
againe : For this purpose each family have a Bell fastened Seven 
at their lodging, with a string reaching from thence to the religious 
Church doore, the end whereof hangeth outwardly, By Famhes - 
the which commodity, each furnisher ringing the Bell, 
giveth warning to his friends, to come receive their 
necessars, for through the body of the Church they must 
come to the porch-doore, and returne from it, to the 
cloyster. 

The number of those, who are tied to this austere life, 
are about three hundred and fifty persons, being Italians, 
Greekes, Armenians, ^Ethiopians, Jacobines, a sort of 
circumcised Christians, Nestorians, and Chelfaines of 
Mesopotamia. 

The day before the Resurrection, about the houre of 
mid-night, the whole Sects and sorts of Christians 

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a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

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Orientall (that were come thither in Pilgrimage, and dwelt 
at Jerusalem) convened together, which were about the 
number of sixe thousand men, women, and children : for 
being separated by the Patriarkes in two companies, they 
compassed the Chappell of the Holy Grave nine times; 
holding in their hands burning Candles, made in the 
beginning pittifull, and lamentable regreetings, but in the 
ending, there were touking of kettle-drummes, sounding 
of horne-trumpets, and other instruments, dauncing, leap- 
ing, and running about the Sepulcher, with an intollerable 
tumult, as if they had beene all mad, or distracted of 
their wits. 

Thus is the prograce of their procession performed in 
meere simplicitie, wanting civilitie, and government. 
[VI. 270.] But the Turkes have a care of that ; for in the middest of 
all this hurley burley, they runne amongst them with 
long Rods, correcting their misbehaviour with cruell 
stroakes : and so these slavish people, even at the 
height of their Ceremonious devotion are strangely 
abused. 

But our Procession begun before theirs, and with a 
greater regard, because of our tributes : The Turkes 
meane while guarding us, not suffering the other 
Christians to be participant in the singular dottage of the 
An abhomtn- Romish folly, being after this manner : First the Guardian, 
able Idolatry. anc [ hi s Friers brought forth of a Sacrastia, allotted for the 
same purpose, the wodden Portracture of a dead Corpes, 
representing our Saviour, having the resemblance of five 
bloody Wounds, the whole body of which Image, was 
covered with a Cambricke vale : Where having therewith 
thrice compassed the Chappell of the Holy Grave, it was 
carried to mount Calvary, and there they imbalmed the five 
Timber holes ; with Salt, Oyle, Balme, and Odoriferous 
perfumes. 

Then the Guardian, and the other twelve Friers kneeled 
downe, and kissed each one of the five Suppositive 
Wounds : the Turkes meanewhile laughing them to 
scorne in their faces, with miserable derision. Thence 

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they returned, and layd the senselesse blocke uppon the 
Holy Grave, whence being dismissed, the Papall Cere- 
mony ended. 

Truely hereupon, may I say, if the Romane Jesuites, 
Dominicans and Franciscans, there Resident in certayne 
speciall parts of the Turkes Dominions, had onely behaved 
themselves as their polliticke charge required, and dis- 
missed from the Paganisme eyes, onely their idolatrous 
images, veneration of Pictures, Crosses, and the like 
externall superstitious Rites : These Infidels I say, had 
long agoe (without any insight of Religion) bene con- [VI. 271.] 
verted to the Christian Faith. For besides all this 
blindnesse, what infinite abhominable Idolatries commit 
they in Italy and Spaine ; in clothing the Pictures of dead 
Abbots, Monkes, Priors, Guardians, and the better kind of 
ofriciall Friers and Priests, with robes of Sattin, Velvet, 
Damas, Taffaty, long gownes and coules of cloth, shirts, Damnable and 
stockings, and shoes : And what a number of livelesse intolerable 
portrayed Prioresses, motherlesse Nunnes, yet infinite su P ersMton - 
mothers, be erected (like the Maskerata of Morice- 
dancers) in silver, gold, gilded brasse, yron, stone, tynne, 
lead, copper, clay, and timber shapes, adorned with double 
and triple ornaments : over-wrought with silke, silver, and 
gold-laces, rich bracelets, silke grograine, and cambricke 
vales, chaines, smockes, ruffes, cuffes, gloves, collers, 
stockings, garters, pumpes, nose-gayes, beeds, and costly 
head-geire ; setting them on their Altars, O spectaculous 
Images! adoring them for gods, in kneeling, praying, & 
saying Masses before them : Yet they are none of their 
avowed, allowed, and canonized pontificall Saints : for 
although they be bastards & wooden blocks, yet are they 
better clad, then their lupish legitimate ones, no, I may 
say, as the best Kings daughter alive. Which is a sinfull, 
odious, and damnable idolatry ; and I freely confesse at 
some times, and in some parts I have torne a peeces those 
rich garments from their senselesse images and blockes, 
thinking it a greater sinne not to do it than to stand 
staring on such prodigall prophannesse, with any super- 
l 241 Q 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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stitious respect, or with indifferent forbearance to winke 
at the wickednesse of Idolaters. 

Here the Guardiano offered for ten peeces of gold 
(although my due be thirty Chickens sayd he) to make me 
Knight of the holy Grave, or of the order of Jerusalem, 

[VI. 272.] which I refused, knowing the condition of that detestable 
oath I behooved to have sworne ; but I saw two of these 
other Pilgrimes receive that Order of Knighthood. 

The Knights The manner whereof is thus : First they bind them- 

of the Holy se lves with a solemne vow, to pray (during life) for the 
Pope, King of Spaine, and the Duke of Venice, from 
whom the Friers receive their maintenance ; and also in 
speciall, for the French King, by whose meanes they 
obtaine their liberty of the great Turke, to frequent these 
monumentall places. Secondly, they are sworne enemies 
to Protestants, and others, who will not acknowledge the 
superiority of the Romane Church. Thirdly, they must 
pay yearely some stipend unto the Order of the Francis- 
cans. These attestations ended, the Frier putteth a gilded 
spurre on his right heele, causing the yong made Knight 
stoope downe on his knees, and lay his hands on the holy 
Grave : after this he taketh a broad sword from under his 
gray gowne (being privately carried for feare of the Turkes) 
which is (as he sayd) the Sword, wherewith victorious 
Godfrey conquered Jerusalem, and giveth this new up- 
start Cavaliero, nine blowes upon the right shoulder. 
Loe here the fashion of this Papisticall Knighthood, which 
I forsooke. 

Indeed upon the Knight-hood they have certaine privi- 
ledges among the Papists, of which these are two : If a 
malefactor being condemned and brought to the Gallows, 
any of these Knights may straight cut the rope and releeve 
him : The other is, they may carry and buy silkes through 
all Spaine and Italy, or elsewhere, and pay no Custome, 
neither in comming nor going, nor for any silke ware, 
where the Romish Church hath any commandement. 

[VI. 273.] After our Guardiano had ended his superstitious Rites 
and Ceremonies, upon Easter day, before midnight, we 

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returned to the Monastery, having stayed three dayes 
within that Church : And the next day thereafter, the 
nine Ragusan and Venetian Factors left us, returning backe 
to their severall Stations. 

About sixe of the clocke, on monday morning, the 
Padre Viccario, and the aforesayd John Baptista accom- 
panying us, we travailed abroad in the hilly Countrey of 
Judea. In this dayes journey, the places of any note we 
saw were these : First, where the Daughters of Jerusalem Certain* 
came foorth to meete Saul, crying, Saul hath slaine his reluts °f 
thousand, and David his ten thousand : And for memory Monuments ' 
of this standeth a certayne olde pillar of Marble. Next, 
the valley of Trebin, where David slew the great Goliah. 
And for remembrance of that, there are a great heape 
of stones layd together in the bottome of the valley, like 
to the Relickes of an old monument. Thirdly, Bezura, 
where Absalom' killed his brother Ammon for Thamars 
sake, whereof nothing but the name is onely reserved. 

Fourthly, the Castle of Emaus, now altogether ruinated, Emus. 
except only three fire houses of Moores ; in which our 
Saviour was knowne after his Resurrection, by the two 
Disciples in breaking of bread ; where now the remanents 
of that house being vaulted, is turned over for a shelterage 
to sheepe ; and a soft paved lodging for quivering Goates. 

Fiftly, the Valley of Gibeon, where the ray-beaming 
Sunne stood still, at the voice of Joshua, from his naturall 

k course. Joshua 10. 12. 
Sixtly, the Toombe or buriall place of Samuel, that 
divine Prophet of the Lord : over the which the Moores [VI. 274.] 
have a Moskque erected, wherein we could not enter, but 
hard by and without it, we found one of the finest 
Fountaines in all Judea, and yet not a dwelling house 
neere unto it by three miles, in regard of the sassinous 
and infertile ground about it, the water whereof was 
exceeding light, sweete, and pleasant in digestion. 
Seventhly, the Tombes of the valiant Captaine Judas 
Macchabeus, and his Children, whereupon are now onely 
the ruines of an old Chappell, which is converted in a 

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ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

The buriall hould for Sheepe and Goates : And last of all, the buriall 

place of the place of the noble Family of the Kings and Queenes of 

tngs and i sr2LQ \^ or Jerusalem, being neere unto the Citty, and 

Israel. J within a short halfe mile. The entry whereto was so 

straite, that on our backes we behoved to slide downe, 

above ten paces under the ground, with light candles in 

our hands. 

In that spacious place we saw twenty foure Chambers 
hewen out of a Marble Rocke. Each roome hath a 
hanging stone doore of a great thicknesse, so artificially 
done by the skilfull Art of Masons, that the rarest spirit 
of tenne thousand cannot know how these doores have 
bene made, so to move as they do, being a firme Rocke 
both below and above ; and the doores have neither iron 
nor timber-worke about them : but by cunning are made 
so to turne, and in that same place where they grew they 
are squared ; yea, and so exquisitely done, that the most 
curious Carpenter cannot joyne a peece of boord so neatly, 
as these stone doores joyne with the Rocke. In each of 
these roomes are two Sepulchers, wherein I saw the bones 
of some of these dead Princes. 

Thursday, the tenth day of my being at Jerusalem, not 
reckoning the two dayes we spent in going to Jordan, 
the weeke before : We I say, ishued forth of the Citty 
[VI. 275.] earely, with our aforesayd guides, riding Westward : The 
first remarkeable thing we saw, was the place (as they say) 
where the Crosse grew, whereon Christ suffered : being 
reserved by Greekes, who have a Convent builded over 
it : That Crosse is sayd to have bene of foure sundry 
kinds of wood, and not of one Tree, for they shewed us 
but one hole where it grew, and so they hold it to have 
bene of one peece of Olive Tree, but this I suspend, 
leaving it to be searched, by the pregnancy of riper judge- 
ments then mine, howsoever opinious. 
The kying And here I cannot forget a dissembling knavish Greeke, 
v l lan .\ °f a who came here to London some eight yeares ago, to beg 
Greeke support for the reparation of this decayed Monastery of 
the holy Crosse. Well, Gundamore the Spanish Ambas- 

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COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

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sadour intertained him ; and recommended his cause to 
our politicque power : A contribution is granted, over 
all England for the same purpose, and also recoiled, besides 
the severall acknowledgements of our Noble Courtiers : 
Oportunity come, I rancountred with this counterfeit 
Rascall in White hall : Whereupon diverse Gentlemen 
his Majesties servants, desired me to try him, if he had 
bene at Jerusalem, or dwelt at the Cloister of the holy 
Crosse : presently I demanded him, where the Convent 
stood, he replied within Jerusalem, and upon Mount 
Moriah : which was false, for the Convent is remote from 
the Citty, about three English miles : I posed him further 
about the situation of Jerusalem, &c. The quantity of 
this Cloyster, of its Church, of the number of Friers, 
who lived in it, with many more questions, whose circum- 
stances would be tedious : To any one of which, he could 
not reply, but stood shivering for feare and shame ; neither 
had he never bene in Asia nor these parts : whereupon 
stealing out of the Court, he was no more seene abroad : 
for he had got at Court, and in the Kingdome, above [VI. 276.] 
twelve hundreth pounds starling, besides the advancement 
of the Papists, and Recusants : and here was a tricke, that 
then the Spanish faction put upon us and themselves also 
being deceaved by a deceiver, deceived us with a double 
deceit, policy, and lyes. 

About five, miles further, we arrived at a Village, on 
the Mountaine of Judea, where we saw a disinhabited 
house, in which Elizabeth the mother of Saint John Baptist 
dwelt, when Mary came up from Galilee to salute her ; 
and neare to this, we beheld (as they say) the Sanctuary, 
wherein Zacharias was stricken dumbe till Elizabeth was 
delivered : Two miles further, on a Rocky Mountaine, 
we arrived at a Cave, wherein (say they) S. John did his Saint John 
pen nance till he was nineteene yeare of age, after which **f Baptists 
time, he went downe and dwelt at Jordan : It is a pretty 
fine place hewen out of a Rocke, to the which we mounted 
by twelve steppes, having a window cut through a great 
thicknesse of firme stone, whence we had the faire prospect 

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a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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of a fruitfull valley : and from the mouth of this delectable 
Grotto, gusheth forth a most delicious Fountaine. 

Returning thence, we passed over an exceeding high 
Mountaine, from whence we saw the most part of Judea ; 
and to the Westward, in the way of Egypt, the Castle 
of the Prophet Elisha, and Idumea the Edomits land, 
lying also betweene Egypt and Jerusalem : This cloudy 
height, is called the mountaine of Judea, because it over- 
toppeth all the rest of the mountaines, that circum- 
viron Jerusalem, Palestine, Galilee, Phenicia, or Samaria. 
Descending on the South side of the same Hill, we arrived 
at Phillips Fountaine, in which he baptized the Eunuch 
of ^Ethiopia, standing full in the way of Gaza. Here 
[VI. 277.] we paid some certaine Madins unto the Moores of the 
Village, for accoasting the place, and drinking of the 
water: So did we also for the sight of every speciall 
Monument in Judea. 

At night, we lodged in Bethleem, in a Monasterie of 
the same Fransciscans of Jerusalem, being onely sixe 
Friers : After Supper we went all of us (having Candles) 
to the place, where our Saviour was borne ; over the which, 
there is a magnificent Church builded : yea, the most 
large and royall workmanship that for a Church is in all 
Asia, or Affricke, being decored with a hundred and fifty 
Pillars. But before we came where the Crub had beene, 
we passed certaine difficile wayes ; where, being arrived, 
wee entered in a gorgeous roome, adorned with Marble, 
Saphyre, and Alabaster stones ; and there they shewed us 
Christ* Crub both the place and the resemblance of the Crub : over 
at Bethleem. which were hanging lampes of pure Gold, and within 
their circles oyle continually burning. Not farre from 
that place, and within the body of the admirable Church, 
they shewed us the part, over the which the Starre stayed, 
that conducted the three Wise-men from the East, who 
came out of Chaldea, to worship Christ, and presented 
gifts unto him. From thence they brought us to a Cave 
without the Towne, wherein (say they) the Virgin Mary 
was hid, when Herod persecuted the Babes life, (from 

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COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

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which also being warned by the Angell) She and Joseph 
fled downe into iEgypt with the Child. 

In this time of her feare, say they, the milke left her 
blessed breasts, so that the Babe was almost starved, but 
Shee praying to the Almighty, there came forthwith 
abundance, which overflowing her breasts, and falling to 
the ground, left ever since, as they alledge, this consequent [VI. 278.] 
vertue to this Cave. 

The earth of the Cave is white as Snow, and hath this Admirable 
miraculous operation, that a little of it drunke in any dmt ' 
Liquor, to a Woman, that after her Child-birth is barren 
of Milke, shall forthwith give abundance : which is not 
onely availeable to Christians, but likewise to Turkish, 
Moorish, and Arabianish Women, who will come from 
farre Countries, to fetch of this Earth. I have seene the 
nature of this dust practised, wherefore I may boldly 
aflirme it, to have the force of a strange vertue : Of the 
which earth I brought with me a pound weight, and pre- 
sented the halfe of it to our sometimes Gracious Queene 
Anne of blessed memory, with divers other rare relicts 
also, as a Girdle, and a paire of Garters of the Holy Grave, 
all richly wrought in silke and gold, having this inscription 
at every end of them in golden letters, Sancto Sepulchro, 
and the word Jerusalem, &c. 

Wednesday following, wee hired foure and twenty 
Moores to conduct us unto Salomons Fish-ponds, which Salomons Fish- 
are onely three, being never a whit decayed ; and to Fons ponds. 
Segnatus, whence commeth the water in a stone-Conduit, 
along the Mountaines, that serveth Jerusalem, which 
worke was done by Salomon. The Ponds being hewne 
out, and made square from the devalling face of a precipi- 
tating mountaine ; through which the streame of Fons 
Signatus runneth, filling the Ponds till it come to its owne 
aquadotte. 

Returning thence, and keeping our way Southward, 
we passed through the valley of Hebron, where Jacob 
dwelt, and entered into the fields of Sychem, where Jacobs 
Sonnes kept their fathers Sheepe ; and not far hence, they 

247 



a.u. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

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[VI. 279.] shewed us a dry Pit, which they called Josephs Pit, that 
was at Dothan ; wherein he was put by his Brethren, 
before they sold him to the Ismaelites. 

In our backe comming to Bethleem, we saw a Cave 
in the Desart of Ziph, wherein David hid himselfe, when 
he was persecuted by King Saul ; and the field Adra, where 
the Angels brought the glad tidings of salvation unto the 
Sheepheards. Unto all which parts our Moorish guard 
and John Baptista, brought us and conducted us backe 
againe to Bethleem, where we stayed the second night. 

The Towne of Bethleem is the pleasantest Village in all Judea, situated 

Bethleem. on a p re tty Hill, and five English miles from Jerusalem : 
It produceth commodiously, an infinite number of Olive 
and Figge-trees, some Cornes, and a kinde of white Wine, 
wherewith we were furnished all the time of our abode 
there ; also in, and about Jerusalem. In our way, as we 
came backe to the City, the next day following, the Viccario 
shewed us a little Moskee, kept by Turkes, in which (sayd 
hee) was the Tombe of Rachel, Jacobs wife, who died 
in that place ; as shee was travelling from Padan Aram, 
with her husband Jacob. 

The ruines also of a house, where Habacuk the Prophet 
dwelt ; a Turpentine tree growing yet by the way side, 
under the which (say they) the Virgin Mary was wont 
to repose her selfe in travelling. We saw also a naturall 
rocke in the high way ; whereon (say they) Elias oft slept, 
and is not ashamed to say, that the hollow dimples of the 
stone, was onely made by the impression of his body ; 
as though the tender flesh of man could leave the print 
of his portraiture on a hard stone. And not farre from 
this, they shewed us the place, where the Starre appeared 
to the wise men, after they had left Herod to seeke for 
the Saviour of mankind. 

Approaching Mount Sion, we saw a quadrangled dry 

[VI. 280.] pond ; wherein (say they) Beersheba the Wife of Urias, 
was Washing, when David looked forth from the toppe 
of his Pallace, gazing on the aspect of his lust, gave the 
Bridle of reason, fast tyed in the hands of temptation ; 

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and becomming subject to the subtilty of sinne, was 
bewitched by her beauty ; wherewith corruption triumphed 
in Nature, and godlinesse decreased in voluntary consent ; 
and from a royall Prophet fell in the bloody lists of 
Murther and Adultery. 

Over against this place, on the North side of Gehinnon, 
we saw the ruines of a Palace wherein David dwelt, which King Davids 
hath beene one of the Angles of the ancient Citty ; and P allace - 
standeth at the division of the valley Ennon, which com- 
passed (as a Ditch) the North part of mount Syon, even 
to the valley Jehosophat, and so Eastward, being now 
filled up with fragments of old walles ; and the valley of 
Gehinnon lying West, and East ; bordering along the 
South side of Sion, till it joyne also with the narrow valley 
of Jehosophat, which invironeth the East, and devalling 
parts of Jerusalem. Neere to this demolished Tower, we 
saw the habitation of Simeon, who having seene the blessed 
Messias, sayd : Now Lord let thy Servant depart in peace, 
for mine eyes have scene thy Salvation. 

And now lastly uppon the twelfth day of my abode 
there, early on Thursday morning, the Guardiano, twelve 
Friers, and John Baptista (because that was the last day 
of seeing any more Monuments, or was to be seene there) 
accompanied us : as wee issued at the South-gate of the 
City, we came to a place, on the skirt of Syon, where 
(say they) Peter after his deniall of Christ his maister, 
wept bitterly. 

Descending by the side of that same Hill, we crossed [VI. 281.] 
the valley Gehinnon, and came to Acaldema, the Potters Acddma. 
field, or field of blood ; which is a little foure-squared 
Roome, oppositive to the devalling side of the South- 
falling Syon : three parts whereof are invironed with a 
natural rocke, and the fourth square bordering with the 
valley, is made up of stone worke : The top is covered, 
and hath three holes, where through they let the dead 
Christians fall downe ; for it is a buriall place of Pilgrimes 
to this day. As I looked downe, I beheld a great number 
of dead corpes ; some whereof had white winding sheets, 

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a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

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and newly dead, lying one above another in a lumpe ; 
yeelded a pestilent smell, by reason they were not covered 
with earth, save onely the architecture of a high vault, 
which maketh that in a long time the corpes cannot putrifie 
and rot. 

Neare unto this Campo, we entred into a darke Cave, 
where (say they) the Apostles hid themselves, when Christ 
was taken. At the foote of the same valley, we came 

Ponto to Ponto Nehemia, in which place the Jewes did hide the 

Nehemia. Holy Fire, when they were taken captives to Babylon; 
walking more downeward, toward the valley of Jehoso- 
phat, we saw a darke Celler under the ground without 
windowes ; wherein (said the Guardian) the Idolatrous 
Jewes made a sacrifice of their children unto a brazen 
Image called Moloch, which being made hot, they inclosed 
them in the hollownesse thereof, and so slew them : and 
least their crying should have moved any compassion 
towards them, they made a thundring noise with drums, 
and other instruments, whereupon the place was called 
Tophet, mentioned in Jer. 7. 31. Hence we came to 
the Poole of Siloam, in which wee washed our selves, 
the water whereof falleth downe through a Rocke, from 

[VI. 282.] the City above, running straight to the valley of Jehoso- 
phat ; and there we saw also the remnant of that sacked 
Towre of Siloam. Neare to this we saw a fountaine, 
where (say they) the Virgin Mary used oft to wash the 
Babes clothes and linnen clouts. From thence we crossed 

Brook Cedron. the Brooke Cedron (which guttereth through the valley 
of Jehosophat) and is alwaies dry, unlesse it be in 
December, when the raine falleth there impetuously for 
a month together, which is all the winter they have in 
these parts : during which time none may labour, nor 
travell, but forced to keepe themselves within houses : 
Having past I say this Brooke wee came to the Tombes 
of Absolon and Zacharias, and the Cave wherein S. James 
was wont to hide himselfe from the persecuting Jewes. 
Ascending more upward on the hill, in the way of Bithania, 
wee saw these places, where Judas hanged himselfe, over 

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COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

1612. 

which there is a vault erected, like a halfe Moone, in 
memory of his selfe murther, and hard by they shewed 
us where the withered Figge tree grew, the place being 
inclosed within a high stone dyke ; and halfe a mile thence 
we came to the ruined house of Simon the Lepar. 

Arriving at Bithania, we saw the Castle and Tombe of Lazarus 
Lazarus, on whom Christ shewed a miracle, in raising him 1* ^ tn . 
from the grave, after hee had beene 4. dayes dead. It 
is a singular and rare Alabaster Tombe, and so exquisitely 
done, that it excelleth (Jerusalem excepted) all the monu- 
ments in Judea, erected for the like purpose, being inclosed 
within a delicate Chappell under the ground. Not farre 
thence in the same Village, wee saw the decayed house 
where Martha, and Mary Magdalen inhabited, and the 
stone whereon Christ sate (say they) when he sayd to 
Martha, Mary hath chosen the best part. 

Leaving this moorish Bithania, being now a Village [VI. 283.] 
of no qualitie, we returned by beggerly Bethphage, and 
finding it farre worser, about mid-day wee arrived on 
the top of Mount Olivet, where wee dined on our owne 
provision carried with us, and then proceeded in our 
sights. 

From this place wee had the full prospect of Jerusalem : 
For the City standing upon the edge of a hill, can not 
be seene all at one sight ; save on this Mountaine, which 
is two times higher then Mount Sion. These are the 
Monuments shewne us upon the Mount of Olives : First, Mount Olivet 
the print of the left foote of our Saviour, in an immove- and the places 
able stone, which he made when he ascended to Heaven ; °f n ° te 
the Guardiano told us further, that the right footes print 
was taken away by the Turkes ; and detained by them in 
the Temple of Salomon : But who can thinke our Saviour 
trode so hard at his ascention, as to have left the impression 
of his feete behind him. 

Next the place where hee foretold the judgement to 
come, and the signes, and the wonders, that should be 
seene in the Heavens before that dreadfull day. Thirdly, 
the place where the Symbolum Apostolorum was made, 

251 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

which is a fine chamber under the ground, like a Church, 
having twelve pillars to support it. Fourthly, where 
Christ taught his Disciples the Pater noster, and where 
he fell in an agony, when hee sweat blood and water. 
Fifthly, where Peter, James, and John slept, whiles our 
Saviour prayed, and returned so oft to awake them ; and 
also below that, where the other Disciples were left. 
Sixtly, the Garden of Gethsemane, where Christ used 
commonly to pray ; in the which place he was apprehended 
by the officers of the high Priests, and it was also where 
Judas kissed him, and the Sergeants fell backward on the 

[VI. 284.] ground. Seventhly, they shewed us a stone marked with 
the Head, Feete, and Elbowes of Jesus, in their throwing 
of him downe, when as they bound him, after hee was 
taken, and ever since (say they) have these prints remained 
there. 

And lastly, at the foote of mount Olivet, in the valley 
of Jehosophat, we descended by a paire of staires of 
forty three steppes, and sixe paces large, in a faire Church 
builded under the ground : Where (say they) the Monu- 
ment of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary is, and did 
show it unto us, whom (they thinke) was borne in 
Jerusalem, dwelt at Bethleem, and Nazareth, and dyed 

Sacred and uppon mount Syon. I saw also there, the Sepulchers of 

singular Joseph her husband, Joachim her Father, and of Anna 
om *' her mother. And for which sights paying sixteene Madins 
a man, to certaine Moores : we returned to our Monastery 
againe night to repose us, having seene all the Antiquities 
and places of note, were to be seene, in, and about all 
Judea. 

Loe, I have plainely described all these Monuments, 
by the order of these twelve severall dayes : The like here- 
tofore, was never by a Travailer so punctually, so truly, 
and so curiously set downe, and made manifest to the 
intellective Reader. But as I sayd in the beginning of 
my Description, so say I now also at the Conclusion, some 
of these things are Rediculous, some of manifest untruths, 
some also doubtfull, and others, somewhat more credible, 

252 



► 



* 



* 



* 



* 



i 



IHS 

IERVSALEM. 

The Armes of Jerusalem 




King James his foure Crownes 



COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

1612. 

and of apparent truth. The recapitulation whereof, is 
only by me used, as I was informed, by Gaudentius 
Saybantus the father Guardian, Laurenzo Antonio il 
Viccario, and the Trenchman John Baptista. 

Now in Jerusalem, wee eleaven Frankes stayed three 
dayes longer, preparing our selves for a new Voyage to [VI. 285.] 
go downe to Egypt with a Caravan of Grand Cayro : In 
which time the aforesaid Frier Laurenzo, whose life I had 
saved on the Quarantanam, propined me privatly with 
twelve Crosses made of the Olive Wood of mount Olivet : 
Each Crosse having 24. Relickes indented in them, with 
fourty paire of Chaplets made of that same Wood, two 
Turkish Handkerchiefes, and three paire of Garters and 
Girdles of the Holy Grave : All wrought in silke and 
Gold, with diverse other things, &c. Which were not 
so thankfully received, as they were thankfully given, by 
a gratefull and unforgetfull Frier. Meanewhile, the last 
day of our staying there, we went all of us Friers and 
Pilgrimes in againe to the Holy Grave, where we remained 
al night. Earely on the morrow there came a fellow to 
us, one Elias Areacheros, a Christian inhabitour at Beth- 
leem, and purveier for the Friers ; who did ingrave on 
our several! Armes upon Christs Sepulcher the name of The Armes of 
Jesus, and the Holy Crosse ; beeing our owne option, Jerusalem. 
and desire : and heere is the Modell thereof. But I, 
decyphered, and subjoyned below mine, the four incor- King James 
porate Crowns of King James, with this Inscription, in hisfoure 
the lower circle of the Crowne, Vivat Jacobus Rex : Crozvnes - 
returning to the fellow two Piasters for his reward : I fixt [VI. 286.] 
these lines for King James. 

Long may he live, and long may God above 
Confirme, Reward, Encrease his Christian love : 
That He (blest King of men) may never cease 
To keep this Badge, the sacred Prince of Peace ; 
And there's the Motto, of His Maiden Crowne, 
Haec nobis invicta miserunt, ne're wonne. 

Which when the Guardian understood, what I had done 

*53 



a.d. L1THGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

in memory of my Prince upon that Sacred Tombe, hee 
was greatly offended with me, that I should have polluted 
that Holy place, with the name of such an Arch-enemy 
to the Romane Church. But not knowing how to mend 
himselfe, and hearing me to recite of the Heroick Vertues 
of our matchlesse Monarch : who for Bounty, Wisedome, 
and Learning, was not paragonized among all the Princes 
of the earth : His fury fell ; and begun to intreate me, 
to make it knowne to his Majesty, that hee never allowed 
any support to their afflicted lives, neyther any gratuity 
for maintayning of those Sacred Monuments at Jerusalem, 
his subjects being as free here as they. Which indeed 
I performed, for after my arrivall in England, and having 
propined his Majesty with diverse rare things, and a 
Turpentine rod from Jordan ; in the midst of my Dis- 
courses, I told his Highnesse, in the Privy Garden of 
Greenewich, the Guardians request. Who indeed gave 
me a most gracious answere, saying, They never sought 
any helpe of him, and if they had, he would have 
supported their necessity. Bidding farewell to the Church 
of St. Salvatore, and being re incloystred againe, after 
breakfast, the reckoning of Stridor Dentium came to us, 
Of English for 17. dayes diet, being to each man six shillings a day, 
money. amounting for my part to 5 pounds two shillings. Then 

the Guardians Secretary, presented me my Patent under 
[VI. 287.] their Great Seale ; & that cost me 3. Chickens of Gold. 
The beginning whereof I recall, although the principall, 
The Discourse be lost in the Inquisition of Malaga, was thus : Frater 
of the Seale is Qaudentius Saybantus ordinis minorum regularis obser- 
^oilowiw vantiae Sancti Antonii Dei & Apostolicae sedis gratia, Sacri 
montis Sion Guardianus, Terrae sanctae gubernator & 
custos ; ac in partibus orientis Apostolicus Commissarius, 
[VI. 288.] salutem in Domino sempiternam. Notum vobis facimus, 
&c. The Contents whereof, reciting all the memorable 
things I saw within the Holy Land, there was thereunto 
annexed their Great Seale, sticking fast, or locked in upon 
the lower face of the Parchment, the impression whereof, 
had the Effigies of the twelve Apostles, and Christ in 

254 




The Model of the Great Seale of the Guardians of the Holy Grave 



COMMENTS UPON JERUSALEM a.d. 

1612. 

the midst : having this Circumscription about : Magnum 
sigillum Sacri montis Sion Guardianus. The model 
whereof is affixed in the former page. 

Then had we avaricious Baptista our Guide and Inter- 
preter to reward, every one of us propining him with two 
Chickens of gold: And lastly wee gratified the gaping 
Steward, the Cerberian Porter, the Cymerian Cooke, and 
his iEtnean face, with a Chicken of gold the man, from 
each of us : amounting in all among the foure Catzo- 
cullioni, to twenty foure pounds fifteene shillings sterling. 

Nay this was not all; for even when the ^Egyptian 
Caravan, was staying for us without the City, the Guardian 
made a begging Sermon to us, imploring our bounties Greedy and 
to commiserate and support their great calamities, losses, ff itertn S 
and oppressions inflicted upon them by the Infidels, with 
many other base & flattering speeches : which indeed nine 
of us refused, because of the great Extortion he had 
imposed uppon us before ; but the two Germane Barons 
gave him the value of sixe English pounds, or there 
abouts. 

And now finally, or I leave mount Syon, I thinke it 
not amisse, to give the itching Travailer a frozen stomacke, 
who perhaps soweth Words in the Wind, conceptions in 
the Ayre, and catcheth Salmond swimming on Atlas : I 
will now (I say) justly cast up to him the charges I defrayed 
within the Wals of Jerusalem, not reckoning my journall [ VI - 28 9-] 
expences and tributs else where abroad ; arising to eigh- 
teene pounds sixteene shillings starling : And there a 
cooling card for his Caprizziat, and imaginary inventions : 
And it may serve also, to damnifie the blind conceit of 
many who thinke that Travellers are at no charges, goe 
where they will, but are freely maintained every where ; 
and that is as false, as an hereticall errour. May the 
twelfth, and the eighteene day of my staying there, about 
mid-day, the other ten and I joyned with the Caravan, 
who formerly had conditioned with us to carry us to 
JEgypt, and to furnish the rest Camels or Dromidories 
to ride upon, (for I would never ride any) for nineteene 

255 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

Piasters the man, discharging us also all tributes and 
Caffars were to be imposed upon us by the way ; and so 
we marched through the South-west part of Judea towards 
Idumea, or the Edomits land ; and meane-while I gave 

The Authors Jerusalem this goodnight, &c. 

good night to 

Jerusalem. Thrice sacred Sion, sometimes blazd abrode, 

To be the Mansion, of the living God ; 
For Prophets, Oracles, Apostles deare 
And godly Kings, who raisd great glory here : 
Where Aarons rod, the Arke, and Tables two, 
And Mannaes Pot, fire of sacrifice so 
From Heaven that fell : were all inclos'd in Thee 
Containing neare, what not contaynd could be : 
To thee sweet Sion, and thine eldest daughter, 
Which Titus fiercely sackt with Jewish slaughter : 
And to thy second birth, raisd to my sight 
I prostrate bid, thy blessed bounds goodnight : 
Next for the Holy land, which I have trac'd, 
From end to end ; and all its beauty fac'd ; 
Where Kings were stall'd, disthron'd, defac'd, renown'd, 
Cast downe, erect'd, unscepterd, slayne, and crown'd : 

[VI. 290.] The land of promise, once a Sea of Oyle 

Whence milke and honey flowd ; yea, too a soyle 
Where men, and might, like miracles were raisd 
Sprung from a Garden plot : A wonder praisd 
Above conceit : whose strength did farre excell 
All other lands ; take thou my kind farewell. 
And last Franciscan Friers, O painted Tombes! 
Where vice and lust lurke low, beneath your wombes ; 
Whose hearts, like Hell, doe gape for greed of gold, 
That have Religion, with your conscience sold, 
To you I say a poxe, O flattering Friers! 
And damn'd deceivers, borne & bred for Leyers, 
Whose end my purse implores ; O faithlesse fellowes ! 
And leaves you for your paines, curst Hamans gallowes. 

Having bid farewell to Syon, we marched that after- 
noone in the way of Gaza ; and arrived at night in a 

256 



COMMENTS UPON IDUMAEA ad. 

1612. 
goodly Village, more full of Jewes than Moores, called Kind J ewes it 
Hembaluda, situate on the face of a fruitfull hill, and the us F ™*h' 
last limit of Judea : Here the Germanes and I were well 
intertained gratis, by certaine Jewes that spoke Italian, 
and much rejoyced to see such strangers in these bounds, 
for two of them had beene borne in Venice : The Captaine, 
and our company were all ^Egyptians, all of them being 
Christians, called Copties, viz. beleevers : Their number 
was about eight hundred persons, who had come up from 
iEgypt, to dignify for devotions sake this Easter time, 
being the great feast of Jerusalem ; Of whom by the way 
we received great affability & kind respect without any 
offence. 

That night the whole Caravan lay in the fields, and 
we stayed within the Towne making merry with our 
Hebraick friends, earely the next morning wee imbraced 
our Idumean way, finding this Edomitish land sorely 
distressed by the Arabs, and yet the Inhabitants were [VI. 291.] 
subject to the Turke : In this long dayes journey we 
found abundance of water, and all other necessaries for 
our reliefe, and yet the people were both rude & extreame 
barbarous, having no more show of humanity then the 
foure footed Leopards of Berdoa. 

The Dutch Gentlemen grew affrayed at these savages, 
as being unacquainted before with such an awful sight ; 
and to dispell their feare, tush sayd I, courage Gentlemen, 
no scope, no hope, and flashd over these lines in Italian to 
them ; 

To gallant mindes, all kind of soyles they be, 
Their native land ; as fish imbrace the Sea : 
For they who would traverse earths variant face, 
Must take their hazard, as they finde the place ; 
And that's my soyle, best meanes can me defray, 
But Sirs be glad, wee came not here to stay. 

Againe night we declined towards Gaza, and there The auncient 

stayed in a fine Cane prepared for Travellers ; where the ®9 of Gaza. 
whole Caravan, Souldiers, Camels, Dromodores, Mules, 
l 257 R 



A.D. 

1612. 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 



[VI. 292.] 



Burning 
Sands. 



Wild Arabs 
selling water. 






and Asses were all well satisfied and refreshed : The next 
morning we went to the Bezestan or market place, and 
there furnished our selves with provision of Bread, Hens, 
Egges, Garlicke, and Onions, sufficient enough to carry 
us through the desarts being ten dayes journey. Gaza 
now is called Habalello, and is composed of twelve 
hundred fire-houses, and sensible against the incursions 
of Arabs : The ruvid Cittizens, being Turkes, Moores, 
Jews, domeseticke Arabians, with a few Georgians, & Nos- 
tranes. 

There is a Garrison here of Souldiers, and a Turkish 
Captaine, that commandeth the Towne and Castle : In 
the afternoone, we set our faces forward to that fearefull 
Wildernesse, and travailed or night twelve miles, pitching 
our Tents beside a source or standing Well. Here our 
Guard, kept a strict Watch about us all night ; and I 
kept as well the Germanes from langour, cherishing them 
with joviall merriments, for they were my inward friends, 
yet of a faint and fearefull nature. At the breach of day 
we set forward, passing through diverse Rockey and 
shrubby heights, till afternoone, and then wee declined to 
a sandy valley : Where when come, what with the deep- 
nesse of the Way, and the great heate reflexing upon the 
sand, and from the Sand to our faces, we were miserably 
turmoiled, especially I, who went alwayes on foote. 

Having past this wearisome bottome, and before night 
marching along the skirt of a craggy Hill, two hundred 
Arabs broake out upon us from holes and bushes, and 
shrewdly annoyed our Company with Arrowes, till a 
contribution of sixteene Piasters was sent to them. The 
halfe of that night we pitched our Tents, in a pastorable 
plaine, where some scattering Arabs, sold us Water in 
Wooden Cups, carrying it in Wilde Boare skins upon 
their naked backes. Two of which Savages our Captayne 
hyred, to guide us the next day to the first Castle of the 
three, that were built by the Turkes, and a dayes journey 
distant one from another; beeing each of them strongly 
guarded with Souldiers, and that for the reliefe of Cara- 
ts 



COMMENTS UPON THE DESERT a.d. 

1612. 
vans, being the most dangerous, and most desolate place 
in the Desarts. 

Our Guides the day following, brought us through the 
best and safest places of the Country, where we found 
certayne profitable parts, planted with haire-cloath tents, 
and over-cled heere and there with spots of Sheepe and 
Goates : and yet were we not there without the invasion 
of stragling Arabs, and paying of tributes, which the [VI. 293.] 
Captaine defrayed for us, our condition being formerly 
made so at Jerusalem. Before night with great heat, and 
greater drouth, we approached to the first Castle, where 
the Captayne thereof received us kindly, causing our 
Tents to be pitched round about the Quadrangled Tower. 
Here we had abundance of Water (though I would rather 
have had Wine) to suffice the whole Company, drawne 
out of a Cisterne, and reposing safely uppon the hard 
ground, the Castle Garrison watched us, and our guard 
watched them. 

Thence with a new Guide the sequell morne, we Grievous and 
marched through a fiery faced plaine, scorch'd with burning desertuous 
heate, and deepe rolling Sand, where diverse of our trav "" n & 
smallest Beasts perished, with sixe men and Women also 
in relieving their overwhelmed Asses. Long or midday, 
having got to a hard height, we pitched our Tents, 
reposing under their shaddowes till the evening, for wee 
were not able to indure the intolerable heate of the Sun ; 
and so did wee likewise over-umbrate our selves every 
mid-day. The vigour of the day gone, and the cooling 
night come, we advanced forward to the middle Castle, 
being led by our Guide, and the pale Lady of the night 
leading him : Where when come, wee found neyther that 
Fort answerable to the former in strength, nor the Captaine 
so humane as the other was : Here wee were all offended 
with the scarcity of Water, the Captayne playing the 
Villaine, crossed us, because the Caravanship were 
Christians ; at last about mid-night some 30. Arabs, 
came to us loaden with Water, carried on their backes. 
To whom we payed for every CarafF, beeing an English 

259 



A.D. 

1612. 



[VI. 294.] 



Savage women 
having their 
Child-bed in 
Caves. 



[VI. 295.] 
The death of 
three Germane 
Gentlemen. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

quart, three Aspers of silver, ten Aspers going to a 
shilling : Whereof my kinde Dutch-men drunke too 
much, the Water being thicke and of a brounish colour ; 
and hot like pisse, offended their over-wained stomackes ; 
which as I supposed, was the chiefest cause the next day 
of some of their Deaths. 

After mid-night, the Turkish Captaine, and our Caravan 
fell at variance, about Water to our Beasts, who were 
ready to choake, and if they had not bin prevented with 
Souldiers on both sides, it had drawne us and them, to 
a finall mischiefe. The discord unpacified, before the 
following day, and within night, we imbraced our wilsome 
and fastidious Way, journying through many dens, and 
umbragious Caves, over-shaded with mouldring heights ; 
in some whereof we found Savage Women lying in their 
Barbarous child-bed : having their bodies naked (the fore- 
face of their Wombe excepted) their beds were made of 
soft Sand, and over-spread with leaves a foote thicke ; 
whose new borne Babes lying in their armes, were swadled 
with the same Leaves. And for all their sicknesse, which 
was very small, they had none of our Wives sugred sops, 
burnt Wines, Venison pasties, Delicate fare, and great 
Feasting, nor a moneths lying in, and then Churched, 
putting their husbands to incompatible charges. No, no, 
their food is onely Bread, Garlicke, Hearbes, and Water, 
and on the third or fourth day, in stead of their Churching, 
they goe with Bowes and Arrowes to the fieldes againe, 
hunting for spoiles and booties from passing Caravans. 

Advancing in our course, we fell downe from the hils 
in a long bottome of Sand, above sixe miles in length : 
Wherein with sore Wrestling agaynst the parching Sun, 
and could get no ground to pitch our Tents to over shade 
us ; three of our Germans, the two Barons, Signior 
Strouse, and Signior Crushen, with one Signior Thomasio, 
tumbled downe from their beasts backes starke dead, being 
suffocated with the vigorous Sunne, for it was in May, 
choaked also with extreame drouth, and the reflection of 
the burning sand ; and besides their faire was growne miser- 

260 



COMMENTS UPON THE DESERT a.d. 

1612. 
able, and their Water worse, for they had never beene 
acquainted with the like distresse before, though it was 
alwayes my vade Mecum. Whereupon the Caravan staied 
and caused cast on their Corpes againe, on their owne 
beasts backes, and carrying them to the side of a hard 
Hill, we digged a hollow pit, and disspoyling them of 
their Turkish cloathes, I did with my owne hands cast 
them all three one above another, in that same hole, and 
covering the Corpes with mouldring earth, the Souldiers 
helped me to role heavy stones above their grave, to the 
end, that the bloody Jackals should not devoure their 
corpes ; and to conclude this woefull and sorrowfull 
accident, the other Germanes alive bestowed on me their 
dead friends Turkish garments, because of my love and 
diligent care I ever did show them ; which one of their 
empty Mules carried for me to Grand Cairo. 

Whence with diverse assaults, and greater paines, 
accoasting the third Castle, with as great bewailing the The third 
losse of our friends, as we had contentment in our owne Castle of the 
safety, we found this third Captayne both humane and esarts - 
hospitable : Who indeede himselfe in person with his 
Garrison, watched us all night, and had a speciall care 
in providing Water for us all, propining our Captayne 
and us eight Frankes before supper, with three roasted 
Hens, and two Capons : This Turkish Captayne told us 
there were three inhabited Townes in these Desarts, the 
chiefest whereof was Sehan, situate on the Red Sea, having 
a harbor and shipping, that Trade both to ^Egypt and 
^Ethiopia, whose commodities are silken stuffes and Spices 
which they transport from Meccha, and carrie to Melinda, [VI. 296.] 
and the afore-sayd places in Affricke : But now least I 
sinke in Prolixity, discoursing of sinking Sands, and make 
good the Italian Proverbe, Chi troppo abbracio, nulla 
stringe, viz. That he who would imbrace too much, can 
hold nothing fast. I decist from this Journall proceeding, 
and punctuall Discourse of my laborious Pen, wherein, 
notwithstanding the Reader (I having layd open more than 
halfe of the Wildernesse) may (like that learned Geo- 

261 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

metrician, who finding the length of Hercules foote on 
the Hill Olympus, drew forth the portraicture of his whole 
body thereby) easily conjecture by the former Relation, 
the sequell sight of these Desartuous places ; and therefore 
the rest, I will onely Epitomize in generall till mine arrivall 
at Saleack on the Confines of JEgypt. 
The bounds Arabia is bounded on the West, with the Red Sea, and 
of the three the ^Egyptian Istmus : On the North with Canaan, Meso- 
Arabians. p 0tam i a) anc [ a p ar t Q f Syria : On the East with the Persian 
gulfe, Caldea, and Assiria : On the South with the great 
Ocean, and Indian Sea: This Countrey lyeth from the 
East to the West, in length about 900. and some 3500. 
miles in compasse. The people generally are addicted 
to Theft, Rapine, and Robberies : hating all Sciences 
Mechanicall or Civill, they are commonly all of the second 
Stature, swift on foote, scelerate, and seditious, boysterous 
in speech, of colour Tauny, boasting much of their triball 
Antiquity, and noble Gentry: Notwithstanding their 
garments be borne with them from the bare Belly, their 
food also semblable, to their ruvid condition, and as 
savagiously tame (I protest) as the foure footed Citizens 
of Lybia : They are not valourous, nor desperate in 
[VI. 297.] assaults without great advantage, for a 100. Turkes is 
truely esteemed to be sufficient enough to incounter 300. 
Arabs. Their language extendeth it selfe farre both in 
Asia, and Affricke, in the former, through Palestine, Syria, 
Mesopotamia, Cilicia, even to the Mount Caucasus : In 
the latter, through iEgypt, Libia, and all the Kingdomes 
of Barbary even to Morocco. 

This Arabia deserta, is the place where the people of 
Israel wandred forty yeares long, being fed with Manna 
from Heaven, and with water out of the driest rocks : 
In which is Mount Sinai, where the Law of the two 
The scurrlle Tables was promulgated. The most part of these Desarts 
Jrakan j s ne it ner fit for herbage nor tillage, being covered over 
with a dry, and a thicke Sand, which the wind transporteth 
whither it listeth, in heapes and mountaines, that often 
intercept and indanger fatigated Travellers. The Inhabi- 

262 



COMMENTS UPON THE DESERT a.d. 

1612. 
tants here are few, so are their Cities, their dwellings being 
in sequestrate dennes and haire-cloath Tents : The most 
of their wealth consisteth in Camels Dromidories, and 
Goats. 

Before our arrivall in Saleak, we passed the little Istmus 
of ground which parteth Asia, and Affrica, disjoyning 
the Mediterranean and the red Seas : Divers have 
attempted to digge through this strait to make both Seas 
meete for a nearer passage to India, of whom Sesostris 
King of jfEgypt was the first : Secondly, Darius the great 
Persian Monarch : Thirdly, another ^Egyptian King, who 
drew a ditch 100. foote broad, and 30. and odde miles 
long. But when he intended to finish it, he was forced 
to cease, for feare of overflowing all the lower land, the 
red Sea being found to be higher by three cubits than the 
ordinary plaine of iEgypt : Yet howsoever it was, the 
ditch is hollow in divers parts, and fastidious, because of 
sands to passe over. 

At Saleack we overtooke a great Caravan of two [VI. 298.] 
thousand people, and twelve hundred Camels and Dromi- 
dores, which were loaden with the ware of Aleppo, and 
come from Damascus, intending their voyage for Cayro, 
whose company we subtilly left, & marchd before them, 
for receiving of water by the way for our selves, and beasts 
out of Cisternes, which we left dry behind us. 

A Dromidore, and Camel differ much in quality, but The nature of 
not in quantity, being of one height, bredth, and length ; Camels and 
save only their heads and feete, which are proportionated Dromdores ' 
alike ; and the difference is such, that the Dromidory hath 
a quicke and hard-reaching trot, and will ride above 80. 
miles in the day, if that his rider can indure the paine. 
But the Camell is of a contrary disposition : For he hath 
a most slow and lazy pace, removing the one foote from 
the other, as though he were weighing his feete in a 
ballance ; neither can he goe faster although he would : 
But he is a great deale more tractable then the other : For 
when his maister loadeth him, he falleth downe on his 
knees to the ground, and then riseth againe with his 

263 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

burthen, which will be marvailous great, sometimes 600. 
or 800. weight. 

The red Sea, which we left to the Westward of us, and 
our left hand is not red, as many suppose, but is the very 
colour of other Seas : The reason for which it hath beene 
called Mare rubrum, is only because of the bankes, rushes, 
sands & bushes that grow by the shore side,, which are 
naturally red. Some others have called it so, in respect 
of the Brookes, which Moses turned to red blood, who 
misconstruing the true sense, tooke Seas, for Rivers. 

It is vulgarly tearmed Sinus Arabicus, whose length 
is 1600. miles. This Sea is famous for the miraculous 
passage of the Israelites through it, and the drowning of 

[VI. 299.] Pharaoh and his people : and because of Spices that were 
brought from India and Arabia to Alexandria, from whence 
the Venetians dispersed the same through all Europe and 
the Mediterren coasts of Asia and Affrick : But this Navi- 
gation is now discontinued by the Portugals, English, 
and Dutch ; which bring such Wares to their severall 
homes by the backe side of Affricke : So that the Trafficke 

Indian Spices^ of Alexandria is almost decayed, and the Riches of the 
Venetians much diminished ; so is the vertue of the Spices 
much impayred by too much moisture contracted, with 
the long and tedious carriage thereof. 

This afore-sayd Saleack, is thought to be seated on the 
lower and Eastmost end of Gozan, consisting of eight 
hundred dwelling Houses, being Walled and fensible 
against the Arabs, and defended also with a Castle, and 
ten troupes of Horse-men being Janizaries. Here we 
rested and refreshed our selves two nights, providing us 
fresh victuals for Grand-Cairo, being foure dayes journey 
distant ; and at our leaving of Saleack, I saluted this new 
seene Countrey, with a greedy conceit of more curiosities. 



much weakned. 



264 



A.D. 

1612. 



THE SEAVENTH PART. 

NOw well met Egypt, so our fate allots, 
For we have appetite, for thy Flesh pots; 
But (ah!) the Season, is too hot to eate 
Of any viande, Kid, Mutton, or such meate : 
Yet for thy Coffa made of Coave seede, 
We'le kindly drinke it, feed upon thy bred 
And fat our selves, with thy best hearbes and fruits [VII. 300.] 
For like, to our faint stomackes, best besuites : 
Then mighty Kingdome, once the Royall Land, 
Where Kings were first erect'd, did longest stand ; 
And letters, Hyeroglophicks, Magicke Arte, 
Astrology, had first inventions part. 
For wonders, the Piramedes : Balme more good ! 
The weeping Crocadile, Nyles swelling flood ; 
Deaths funerall Mommeis ; the Sea-horse bred 
At Damieta : the Sphynx with grandure cled : 
And where base Fortune, play'd the errand whoore. 
In making meane men great, and great men poore : 
In thee, Pie dive, though deep is thine old ground, 
And further far, then I can search or sound : 
Yet when men shoot, O all the marke doe eye ; 
But seldome touch't ; enough, if they come nye : 
Even so must I, for neerer He not claime, 
The best director, may mistake his ayme. 
But as the Land is now, I hope I shall 
Cleare hardest doubts, and give content to all. 

265 



A.D. 

1612. 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

Thence sought I Malta, iEtnaes burning flame, 
And stately Sicile, Gibels greatest fame. 
Whence passing Italy, the Alpes I crost, 
And courting France, told Time, how I was tost. 




Eparting from Saleack, and having past one of 
their courses, which is our twelve miles, wee re- 
incountred with infinite Villages on both hands, 
and in our high Way; all builded upon artificiall Channels 
[VII. 301.] drawne from Nylus; and these Fabrickes, onely made up 
of Wood or Bricke, being one or two Stories high. The 
Captaine, in diverse parts at our mid-dayes reposing, was 
constrayned to buy water from the Egyptians, to satisfie 
the Company : yea, and that same night, the first of 
foure, or we came to Cayre, at the Village of Bianstare, 
he payed five Sultans of gold for Watering all us and the 
Beasts, amounting to thirty five shillings sterling. 

The next day journying towards a goodly Towne, 
named Saliabsteck, we travailed through a fruitful planure, 
fraught full of fruite Trees, and abounding in Wheate, 
Two seasons of Rye, and Barley, being new cut downe, May 14. For 
ripinggraine this was their first Harvest, the Land yeelding twice a 
in Egypt. yeare Cornes ; and the latter, is in our December recoiled. 
This Land hath as it were a continuall Summer, and not- 
withstanding of the burning heate, it produceth alwayes 
abundance of Fruites and Hearbes for all the Seasons of 
the yeare : So that the whole Kingdome is but a Garden, 
having ever one Fruite ready to be plucked downe, and 
another comming forwards ; or like to the best sort of 
Lemmon Trees, that as some Reape, some are growing 
greene, others budding forth, and some still in the floorish : 
Even so is the beauty and fertility of all the lower ^Egypt ; 
which although the Country be not often troubled with 
Raine, yet the rank serene or dew of the night, in 
the Summer, refresheth all kindes of growing things : 
betweene Saliabsteck, and Cayre, being two dayes journey : 
We Francks, bad farwell to water, and drunke daily of 
Coffa, made of a seed Coave, which being taken hot, and 

266 



COMMENTS UPON CAIKO a.d. 

1612. 
is ever kept boyling within Fornaces in earthen pots, it 
expelleth the crudity of fruites and hearbes so much there 
frequented. 

Arriving at last in this little World, the great Cairo, 
and bidding farewell to our Caravan, the three Germanes [VII. 302.] 
and I, lodged with one Signior Marco Antonio, a Consul, 
there for Venice ; the other foure French men, going to 
their owne Consul, a Marseilian borne and there stayed. 
Here with this Venetian for three dayes, the Dutch men 
and I had great cheare, but they far greater a dayly 
swallowing downe of strong Cyprus Wine, without mix- 
ture of water; which still I intreated them to forbeare, 
but they would not be requested. The season being cruell 
hot, and their stomacks surfeited with burning wine, upon 
the fourth day long or noone, the three Dutch men were The last three 
all dead ; and yet me thought they had no sicknesse, the Germanes 
red of their faces staying pleasant, their eyes staring alwayes d * ath tn 
on mine, and their tongues were perfit even to the last of 
their breath. 

He who dyed last, and lived longest, was William 
Dierganck, who left me all his owne gold, and what the 
former five had left him : delivering me the keyes of their 
three Clogbags before the Consul, declared by his mouth 
that he left me absolute heire to intromet with all, and 
whatsoever they had there : But eftsoones the treacherous 
Consul, knowing that I was a stranger to them, and by 
accident met together at Jerusalem, and that they were 
Gentlemen, and well provided with gold, forgd a reason 
to himselfe and for his owne benefit, that he would meddle 
with all they left behind them, under this excuse, that he 
would be answerable to their friends for it, at his returne 
to Venice : Well, I am left to bury them, and with great 
difficulty bought one grave for them all three in a Copties 
Chappell, where I interred them : paying to the ^Egyptian 
Christians for that eight foote of ground, ten Sultans of 
gold, besides sixe Piasters for carrying their corps hither, 
being two miles in the City distant from the Consuls [VII. 303.] 
house. Whence, ere I had returned, the Venetian Factor 

267 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

seased upon all, and shuting his gate upon my face, sent 
me out my owne budget : Whereupon I addressed my 
selfe to the French Consul, Monsieur Beauclair, who 
kindly received me, and having told him all the manner, 
how I was greatly wronged & oppressed by the other 
Consul ; he straight sent for a Jewish Phisitian, his familiar 
Oracle : Where having consulted together, the next day 
earely we went all three, and their followers to the 
Beglerbeg, or governour of the City : we soone com- 
plained, and were as soone heard : the Venetian Consul 
is sent for, and he commeth : where facing the Judge and 
A favourable pleading both our best, (for there are no Lawyers in Turky 
Turkish every man speaking for him selfe) the Bassaw with his 

judgement. CoutiseB upon sight of the keyes of their Clogbags in 
my hands, and my narration thereupon (and notwith- 
standing favouring the Factor) immediatly determined 
that I should have the two part of their moneyes, with 
all their Jerusalem relicts, and Turkish cloathes, and the 
Venetian to have the former third part. It is done, and 
irrevocable, upon which the Jewish Doctor, and I, with 
two Janizaries came to mine adversaries house ; where I 
giving the Jew the keyes, the Clogbags were opened, and 
the money being told, it came just to 1424. Chickens of 
gold, besides certaine rings & tablets : The Jew delivered 
me my part, which came to 942. Chickens, the rest went 
to the inconscionable Consul, with the halfe of the rings 
& tablets : And packing up all the relicts, moneyes, clothes, 
and Clogbags, I hired a Mule, and brought them along 
with me to the French Factors house. Where, when 
come, Monsieur Beauclair, and my fellow Pilgrimes, were 
very glad that I had sped so well, none of us all knowing 
what was in the Clogbags till they were sighted ; & giving 
hearty thanks to the Consul, and ten peeces of gold to the 
[VII. 304..] Jew and Janizaries, I sup'd, and reposed till the morrow, 
thanking God of my good fortune : Yet was I exceeding 
sorrowfull for the losse of these gallant Gentle-men, 
Religiously disposed, and so affable, that for familiarity 
and kindnesse, they were the mirrours of noble mindes, 

268 



COMMENTS UPON CAIRO a.d. 

1612. 
and vertuous spectacles of humanity ; whose Deaths were 
to mee a Hell, and whose lives had beene my Paradice 
on earth. To whose memory and prayse, I am not able 
to Congratulate the least Commendation, their Heroicke 
dispositions, deserved at my hands. 

But what shall I say, their time was come, which 
mortality might sorrow, but sorrow might not prevent 
Death, whose power is deafe to all humane lamentations. 
Neyther will I relye so much upon my owne worthinesse, 
as to thinke that benefite of the procrastination of my 
Life, was by any merite of mine deserved, but that God Gods provi- 
so much the more, might show his incomprehensible good- dent mercies - 
nesse in delivering me, from the violence of such 
unexpected accidents, and to tye my soule to be thankfull 
for his mercies. For all the beginnings of man are derived 
from God, whose ends are eyther perfited, or disanulled 
by his Determination : and nothing we possesse is properly 
our owne, or gotten by our owne power, but given us 
onely through his goodnesse and munificence. 

And all the spaces of earth which our feet tread over, 
the Light we enjoy, and the excellent faculties wee are 
indued withall ; or what we can do, say, or thinke, is onely 
raised, guided, and distributed, by Gods impenetrable 
Counsell, Will, and Providence : Which although the 
pride of our wicked nature doth not yeeld the true attribu- 
tion thereunto ; yet the powerfull working of the counsell 
of God is such, that in it selfe, it proveth an eternall [VII. 305.] 
wisdome, and confoundeth the foolishnesse of the world. 

This incorporate World of Grand Cairo, is the most The great 
admirable and greatest City, seene upon the earth, being Ctty of Grand 
thrice as large of bounds as Constantinople, and likewise a ^ te ' 
so populous, but not so well builded, being situate in a 
pleasant Plaine, and in the heart of iEgypt, kissing Nylus 
at some parts. 

The City is divided in five Townes, first and formost, 
Cairo novo, the new Caire, which is the principall & 
chiefest place of all the other, lying in midst of the rest, 
having walles and Ports, the circuit whereof is 22. miles, 

269 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

contayning al the chiefe merchandise and market places 
within it. 

The second is Cairo Vecchio, the old Caire, called 
formerly Cairo de Babylonia or Babylon iEgyptiorum : 
for there were two Babylons, one in Assiria called now 
by the Turkes Bagdat, and the other is this that joyneth 
with the new Caire : It was also aunciently called Memphis, 
and was the furthest place that Ulysses in his travels 
visited, so well memorized by Homer : yet a voyage of 
no such estimation, as that princely Poet accounted it ; 
for his travels were not answerable, to the fifteene part of 
mine : 

The third Towne is Medin, joyning to the backe side 

of the old Caire, toward the Piramides : The fourth is 

Boulak, running a great length downe along and neare 

the River side, having three market places of no small 

account : The fift and last, is the great Towne of Caraffar, 

bending Southward, in the way of the red Sea for many 

miles : All which are but as Suburbs to the new Caire, 

that of many smalles make up a Countrey, rather then a 

[VII. 306.] City : And yet all of them are contiguat one with another, 

either to the left or right hand, or to them both, with 

The length of innumerable streets : The length whereof in all, from the 

great Cayre lowest end of Boulak, to the South-most part of Caraffar 

and the bounds [ s by m y d ee p e experience twenty eight English miles, 

* % and fourteene in breadth ; for tryall whereof I troad it 

one day on foote from Sun to Sunne, being guided and 

guarded with a riding Janizarie, which for my bruised 

feete on the streets, was one of the sorest dayes journey 

that ever I had in my life. 

The principall gates of new Caire are Babell Mamstek 
looking toward the Wildernesse and the Red Sea : 
Bebzavillah toward Nylus, and Babell Eutuch toward the 
fields : The streets are narrow, being all of them almost 
covered to save them from the parching heate with open 
vents for light ; and their buildings commonly are two 
stories high, composed either of mudde or bricke, and 
platforme on the tops ; whereon usually in the night they 

270 



COMMENTS UPON CAIRO ad. 

1612. 

use to sleepe to imbrace the fresh & cooling ayre. Their 
Bazar or exchange, beginneth at the gate of Mamsteck, 
and endeth at a place called Babeso. 

At the corners of chiefe streets or market places, there 
are divers horses standing ready sadled and bridled, that 
for a small matter, or according to the way, a man may 
hire and ride so where he will, either to negotiat, or to 
view this spacious spred City, and change as many horses 
as he listeth, having the Maisters which owe them to 
convoy them for lesse or longer way, which is a great 
ease to weary passengers. 

There is a great commerce here with exceeding many 
nations, for by their concurring hither, it is wonder- 
fully peopled with infinite numbers : for the Countrey 
aboundeth in Silkes, Cornes, Fruits, Waxe, Honey, and [VII. 307.] 
the soveraigne Balsamo good for all sores, besides many 
other commodities of Cotten-wooll, rich Stuffes of cloth 
of gold and silver, and the best Sattins, Damas, Taffaties, 
and Grograines that are made in the world are here. 

The infinite populositie of which place, and the extreame 
heate, is the cause why the pest is evermore in the City : 
insomuch, that at some certaine times, ten thousand persons 
have dyed in one day : Nay, the City is reputed to be in 
good health, if there dye but one, or two thousand in a 
day, or three hundred thousand in a whole yeare, I meane, 
when the soare encroaching pestilence, which every third 
yeare useth to visite them, is rife here. 

In this Towne a Traveller may ever happily finde all Divers nations 
these sorts of Christianes, Italians, French, Greekes, residing in 
Chelfaines, Georgians, ^Ethiopians, Jacobines, Syrians, a ^ re ' 
Armenians, Nicolaitans, Abassines, Cypriots, Slavonians, 
captivat Maltezes, Sicilians, Albaneses, and high Hun- 
garians, Ragusans, and their owne ^Egyptian Copties ; 
the number of which is thought to be beyond two hundred 
thousand people : besides the infinite number of Infidels, 
whose sorts are these, Turkes, tawny Moores, white 
Moores, blacke Moores, or Nigroes, Musilmans, Tartars, 
Persians, Indians, Sabuncks, Berdoanes, Jewes, Arabians, 

271 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

Barbares, and Tingitanian Sarazens. All which are 
Mahometans, and Idolatrous Pagans 

From the great Palatiat Mansion, where the Begler-Beg, 
or Vicegerent hath his residence, being builded on a 
moderate height ; a man may have the full prospect of 
the better part of the Towne, the gardens and Villages 
[VII. 308.] bordering on Nylus, and a great part of the lower plaines 
of JEgypt. Their Lawes heere and Heathnish Religion, 
are Turkish and Mahometanicall, and the Customes and 
Manners of the people, are like unto their birth and 
breeding, beastly and Barbarous ; being great Sodomites, 
and Diabolically given to all sorts of abhominations. 
The better sort of Women here, and all the Kingdom 
The Egyptian over, weare Rings of gold or silver, through the hollow 
decrements. f their noses, both endes of their mouthes, and in their 
under lips ; hanging rich pearles, and precious stones to 
them ; wearing also about their armes faire Bracelets, and 
about their ancles below, broad bonds of gold or silver. 
To which if the baser sort can not attayne unto, then they 
counterfeit their Betters, with Rings, Bracelets, and bonds 
of Brasse, Copper, Lead, and white Iron, and thinke them- 
selves not worthy to live, unlesse they weare these badges. 
They also use here, as commonly they do through all 
Turkey, the Women to pisse standing, and the men to 
coure low on their knees, doing the like. They weare 
here linnen breeches and Leather bootes as the men do, 
and if it were not for their covered faces, and longer 
gownes, wee would hardly know the one from the other. 
The Egyptian As for the Religion of the Copties or ^Egyptian Christians, 
Christians. t fey are Circumcised, after the Judaicall manner, but not 
after the eight day, but the eight yeare. And it is thought, 
they follow the Religion of Eutyches, holding but one 
nature in Christ : which was defended by Dioscorus and 
the Counsell of Ephesus, in regard of Eutyches. But 
the Copties them selves say, they have their Religion from 
Prester Jehan, and so it is most manifest, being no 
difference betweene the one and the other. 
[VII. 309.] They make frequently at all meetings the signe of the 

272 



COMMENTS UPON CAIRO a.d. 

1612. 

Crosse to other, thwarting their two foremost fingers, lay 

them on their brow, and then on their breasts, and kissing 

them, the salutation is done. 

They will not suffer no Images, nor Pictures to be in The Coptles 
their Churches, and yet they have an Altar, and a kinde Rell & on - 
of Masse, sayd in their owne Language, sacrificing the 
Ostia, for the reall Body and Blood of Christ : Yet they 
deny Purgatory, the invocation of Saints, and Prayers for 
the Dead, &c. Neverthelesse auricular Confession is com- 
monly used among them : so do the Greekes in all these 
poynts the like, and all the people Orientall. 

The Inhabitants here, were the first Inventors of the 
Mathematicall Sciences, of Letters, and of the use of 
Writing : Great Magicians and Astrologians, and are yet 
indued with a speciall dexterity of Wit ; but somewhat The nature of 
sloathfull, and given to Ryot and Luxury : Merry also, the Egyptian 
great Singers, and sociable Companions ; and no wonder, Moom - 
the Land being so plentifull, and their nature libidinous, 
it increaseth both their insolence, and inordinate affections. 
Neyther doe they live long, in regard of the great heate 
they indure. iEgypt being placed betweene the two 
Tropickes, under the Torrid Zone, bringeth to passe, that 
seldome will any there attayne to threescore yeares of age. 

In all this Land of iEgypt, which is a great Kingdome, 
there is no running Well or Fountayne, save onely the 
River Nylus : Neyther do the Inhabitants scarcely know 
what Raine is, because they seldome see any, and if by 
rare accident, a Cloud happen to dissolve upon them, it 
bringeth to their bodies innumerable soares and diseases. 
And yet for abundance of Cornes, and all kind of fruites 
the Earth yeeldeth, there is no Country can brag with 
Mgypt; whereupon it was called in the time of the [VII. 310.] 
Romanes, as well as Sicilia, Horreum populi Romani. 
And notwithstanding this Kingdome produceth no Wines, 
neyther is garnished with Vineyards, but that which 
strangers make use of are brought from Candy, Cyprus, 
and Greece. The defect being thus, these Mahometanicall 
Moores observing strictly the Law of their Alcoran, wil 
h 273 s 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

neyther plant wines, nor suffer any to be planted, account 
ing it a deadly sin to drinke Wine, but for Coffa, and 
Sherpet, composed Liquors, they drinke enough of. 
The Garden of As for their Balsamo, the Garden wherein it groweth, 
Balsamo. lyeth neere to the South-side of Cayre, and inclosed with 
a high Wall, being sixe miles in compasse, and daily 
guarded by Turkes. To which when I came, being Con- 
ducted with a Janizary, they would not suffer me to enter, 
neyther any Christian, & far lesse the Jewes : For not 
long ago, they were the cause, that almost this Balme was 
brought to confusion ; they having the custody of it for 
certayne yeares. 

The Tree it selfe is but of three foote height, which 
keepeth evermore the colour greene, having a broad three 
poynted leafe, which being thrice in the yeare incised in 
the body and branches ; it yeeldeth a red Water that 
droppeth downe in earthen Vessels, which is the naturall 
Balsamo. 

And not far from this Garden, in a sandy Desart, is 
the place called Mommeis, which are innumerable Caves 
cut foorth of a Rocke, whereunto the Corpes of the most 
men in Cayro, are carried and interred. Which dead 
bodies remayne alwayes unputrified, neyther yeeld they 
a stinking smell : Whereof experiments are plentiful at 
this day, by the whole Bodies, Hands, or other parts, 
which by Merchants are now brought from thence, and 
[VII. 311.] doth make the Mummia which Apothecaries use: The 
colour being very blacke, and the flesh clung unto the 
bones. 

Now having viewed, and review'd this Microcosmus of 
the greater World, the foure French Pilgrimes and I, did 
Thepyramides hire a Janizary to conduct us to the great Pyramides, 
°f Egypt- surnamed the Worlds wonders ; which are distant from 
Cayre about foure Leagues, standing beside or neare to 
the bankes of Nylus : Where, when come, I beheld their 
proportion to bee Quadrangled, growing smaller and 
smaller to the toppe, and builded with huge and large 
stones, the most part whereof, are five foote broade, or 

274 



COMMENTS UPON EGYPT a.d. 

1612. 
there abouts, and nine in length, beeing of pure 
Marble. 

All the Historians that ever wrot of these Wonders, 
have not so amply Recited their admirable greatnesse, as 
the experience of the Beholder, may testifie their excessive 
greatnesse and height. The first and East-most we 
approached unto, is highest, and by our Dragomans 
skilfull Report, amounted to eleven hundred and twenty 
sixe foote. The Basis, or bottome whereof, being twelve 
hundred paces in Circuite, allowing every square of the 
foure faces three hundred paces, and every pace two foote 
and a halfe. Every Pyramide, having outwardly to ascend 
upon (though now for the most part demolished) three 
hundred foure score and nine steps or degrees ; each degree 
being three foote high, and two foote and a halfe broad. 
By which computation, they amount in height to the 
afore-sayde Relation, allowing to every foote, twelve 
inches. At last having ascended upon the South side of 
this greatest Pyramide to the top, and that with great 
difficulty, because of the broken degrees here and there : 
I was much ravished, to see such a large foure squared [VII. 312.] 
plat-forme, all of one intyre stone, which covered the 
head ; each square extending to seaventeene foote of my 
measure. 

It is yet a great marvaile to me, by what Engine, they 
could bring it up so safe to such a night : But as I conceive 
it, they behoved certaynely still to rayse it, and take it 
with them, as they advanced the Worke, otherwise the 
Wit nor power of man, could never have done it. Truely 
the more I beheld this strange Worke, the more I was 
stricken in admiration : For before wee ascended, or came 
neare to this Pyramide, the toppe of it seemed as sharpe 
as a poynted Dyamond ; but when we were mounted 
thereon, we found it so large, that in my opinion, it would 
have contayned a hundred men. 

In the bottome whereof we found a great Cell, and The greatest 
within that through a straight and narrow passage, a foure piramUe of 
angled Roome ; wherein there was standing the Relickes ihree ° 

2 75 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

of a huge and auncient Toombe, where belike hee that 
was the first Founder of this Pyramide was inclosed. 
From the top of this Pyramide, our Jannizary did shoote 
an Arrow in the ayre with all his force, thinking thereby 
it should have fallen to the ground ; but as we discended 
downe-wards, we found the Arrow lying uppon the steps, 
scarse halfe way to the ground : From this, wee came to 
the middle Pyramide, which a far off looked somewhat 
higher then the other two, but when we came to the roote 
thereof, wee found it not so, for the stone-worke is a 
great deale lower, but the advancement of the height, is 
onely because of a high ground whereon it standeth. 

It is of the same fashion of the first, but hath no degrees 
to ascend upon, neyther hath the third Pyramide any at 

[VII. 313.] all ; being by antiquity of time, all worne and demolished, 
yet an admirable worke, to behold such Masses, and (as 
it were) erected Mountaines all of fine Marble. The 
reason why they were first founded, is by many ancient 
Authors so diversly conjectured, that I will not meddle 
therewith. They were first called Pharaones. 

Yet the first and greatest is said to have beene builded 
by Cheops, who in this worke imployed 1 00000. men, 

The charges of the space of twenty yeares : In which time, the charges 

the greatest f Qarlick, Rootes, and Onions onely, came to 1600. 

pyrami e. talents of silver ; the Basis whereof in circuit, was sixty 
Acres of ground. It is recorded by Josephus, and con- 
jectured by many good witnesses, that the Bricks which 
the Children of Israel were inforced to make, were partly 
imployed about the insides of these Piramides, whose 
outsides were adorned with Marble ; neither can I forget 
the drift of that effeminate Cheops, who in end wanting 
money did prostitute his daughter to all commers, by 
which detestable meanes he finished his building, and shee 
besides the money due unto her unnaturall Father, desired 
for her selfe of every man that had the use of her body 
one stone, of whom she got so many, that with them she 
builded the second Piramide, almost equall to the first. 
Besides these three huge ones, there are a number of 

276 



COMMENTS UPON EGYPT a.d. 

1612. 
smaller, whereof some were transported to Rome in the 
time of her supreame domination. 

Betweene the biggest Pyramide, and Nylus, I saw a 
Colosse, or head of an Idoll, of a wonderfull greatnesse ; 
being all of one Marble stone, erected on a round Rock : 
It is of height (not reckoning the Columne) above 815. 
foote, and of circuite, 68. Pliny gave it the name 
Sphingo, and reported much more of the bignesse, large- 
nesse, and length of it : but howsoever he erred in his 
description, yet I resolve my selfe, it is of so great a 
quantity, that the like thereof (being one intire peece) the [VII. 314.] 
world affoordeth not, and may be reckoned amongst the 
rarest wonders : Some say, that aunciently it was an Oracle, 
the which so soone as the Sunne set, would give an 
answere to the Egyptians, of any thing by them demanded. 

In our way as we returned, our Dragoman shewed us 
(on the banke of Nylus) where a Crocodile was killed the 
yeare before, by the ingenious policy of a Venetian 
Merchant, being licentiated by the Bassaw. The match 
whereof for bignesse and length, was never seene in that 
River, whose body was twenty two foote long, and in 
compasse of the shoulders, eight foote, who thus was 
slaine : This beast for foure yeares together kept alwaies 
about one place of the River, being seven miles above 
Cayre ; where for a mile of ground, there was no tillage 
nor pastorage, being for feare of him layd wast : and 
neverthelesse he had devoured above forty sixe persons : 
his custome was to come forth of the River every morning, 
about our eight houres ; where here and there he would 
lurke waiting for his prey till ten, for longer from water 
he could not stay. 

This Venetian leaving his ship at Alexandria, and A resolute 
comming to Cayre, was informed by the Consul my v ™ ettan 
adversary of the great spoyle done by this beast : and m m ' 
herewith generously he undertooke to kill it, the Vice- 
gerent licentiating him : Whereupon going to his ship, 
fetched thence his Gunner, and a peece of Ordonance to 
Cayre. 

277 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

The next day in the afternoone, hee being well horsed, 
and accompanied with twenty Janizaries, the peece is 
carried to the Crocodiles accustomary place, of forth- 
comming : where straight there was an Asse slaine, and 
[VII. 315.] hung up on two standing and a thwarting tree, with his 
open belly to the flood, and some twelve scorepaces there- 
from : Behinde this carkasse, about other twelve score, 
the piece was planted, and levelld at the Carrion, being 
charged with cut iron ; and a traine of powder about the 
touch-hole, and above it a night-house to keepe the trayne 
dry from the nights serene : having a cock fastned thereto, 
and in it a burning match, to which a string was tyed : 
Then forty paces behinde the piece, was there a pit digged 
to hide the Gunner; wherein he was put, holding the 
strings end in his hand, and his head vayled with a wooden 
covert. 

After this, and about mid-night, the Horse-men retired 

themselves two miles off : The morning come, and the 

convenient time : the Crocodile courts the land : where 

when he saw the carkasse, came grumbling to it, and 

setting his two foremost feet on the Carrions middle, 

begun to make good cheare of the intrales : whereat the 

squink-eyed Gunner perceiving his time, drew the string, 

The killing of and giving fire, off went the piece, and shot the Crocodile 

a great in three parts : well, he is deadly wounded, and making 

Crocodile. a horrible noyse, the Gunner lay denned, and durst not 

stirre : meanewhile the beast striving to recover the water, 

tyred, and lying close on his belly there he dyed. 

After the shot, the Horse-men drew neare, and finding 
the beast slaine, relieved the Gunner, and brought with 
them this monstruous creature to Cayre ; where now his 
skinne hangeth in the Consuls Hall, which I saw during 
my stay in his house. For this piece of service, the 
Merchant was greatly applauded, & scorned to take from 
the City 500. Sultans of gold as a reward for his paines, 
which they freely offered him, and he as freely refused. 
[VII. 316.] Now to discourse of Nylus, this flood irriguateth all 
the low playnes of the Land, once in the yeare, which 

278 



COMMENTS UPON EGYPT a.d. 

1612. 
inundation, beginneth usually in the latter end of July; 
and continueth to the end of August : Which furnisheth 
with Water all the Inhabitants ; being the onely drinke 
of the vulgar ^Egyptians ; and of such vertue, that when 
Pescennius Niger saw his Souldiers grumble for Wine, 
What (sayth hee) doe you grumble for Wine, having the 
Water of Nylus to drinke. And now because many 
schollers, and learned men, are meerely mistaken about 
the flowing of Nylus, I will both show the manner and The true 
quality or cause of its inundation, and thus. There is a knowledge of 
drye pond called Machash digged neare unto the brinke Jjf flowing of 
of the River, in midst whereof standeth a pillar of eigh- y m ' 
teene Cubites height, being equall with the profundity of 
the Ditch, whereby they know his increasing : and in the 
yeare following if they shal have plenty or scarcity of 
things. 

Now betweene the River and this pond, there are sixe 
passages or spouts digged through the Banke ; where when 
the River beginneth to swell, it immediately fals downe 
through the lowest passage into the pond, and being dis- 
covered there comes forth of Cayre, certayne of the Priests 
called Darvishes, accompanied with a hundred Janizaries, 
and pitch their Tents round about this Quadrangled pit. 
In all which time of the Inundation, they make great 
Feastings, rare Solemnities, with Dancing, Singing, touck- 
ing of kettle Drummes, sounding of Trumpets, and other 
ostentations of joy. 

Now as the Water groweth in the River, and so from 
it debording, so it groweth also upon the Pillar standing 
in this pond, which pillar is marked from the roote to 
the top, with Brasses, handfuls, a foote, a span, and an [vil. 317.] 
inch : And so if it shall happen that the water rise but 
to ten Brasses, it presageth the yeare following there shal 
be great Dearth, Pestilence, and famine. And if it 
amounteth to twelve Cubites, then the sequell yeare shal 
be indifferent. And if it swell to fifteene Brasses, then 
the next yeare shal be copious and abundant in all things : 
And if it shall happen to flow to the top, eighteen Brasses, 

279 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

then all the Country of iEgypt, is in danger to be drowned 
and destroyed. 
Many Schol- Now from the body of Nylus, there are above three 
lers mistaken thousand Channels drawne through the playne, on which 
about Nylus. p assm g Ditches, are all the Bourges and Townes builded ; 
and through which Channels the River spreads it selfe 
through all the Kingdome : Which when scoured, of filth 
and Wormes, and the water become cleare, then every 
House openeth their Cisterne window, and receiveth as 
much water, as is able to suffice them till the next Inunda- 
tion : Neyther doth ever the River flow any where above 
the Bankes, for if it should, it would overwhelme the 
whole Kingdome. 

All which Channels here or there, do make intercourse 
for their streames agayne, to the body and branches of 
Nylus. Now Stoicall fooles hold the opinion, that it over- 
flowed the whole face of the Land, then I pray you, what 
would become of their Houses, their Bestiall, their Cornes 
and fruites? for the nature of violent streames, do ever 
deface, transplant, and destroy all that they debord upon, 
leaving slime, mood, and Sand behind their breaches, and 
therefore such inunding can not be called cherishings. 

There are infinite venemous Creatures bred in this river, 

as Crocadiles, Scorpions, Water-Snakes, grievous mis- 

[VII. 318.] shapen Wormes, and other Monstrous things, which oft 

annoy the Inhabitants, and these who Trafficke on the 

Water. This famous flood is in length almost three 

thousand miles, and hath his beginning under the iEqui- 

noctiall Line, from montes Lunae, but more truly from 

the Zembrian Lake in iEthyopia interior, whence it 

bringeth the full growth downe into iEgypt, and in a 

place of the exterior ^Ethiopian Alpes called Catadupa : 

The fall and roaring of Nyle, maketh the people deafe 

that dwell neere to it. 

The reason of The infallible reason, why Nylus increaseth so every 

the flowing of yeare, at such a time and continuance, is onely this ; that 

Nylus. when the Sunne declining Northward to Cancer, and 

warming with his vigorous face, the Septentrion sides 

280 



COMMENTS UPON EGYPT a.d. 

1612. 
of these Cynthian mountaynes, the abundant Snow 
melteth : from whence dissolving in streames, to the Lake 
Zembria, it ingorgeth Nylus so long as the matter 
delabiates : For benefit of which River, the great Turke 
is inforced, to pay yearely the tribute of fifty thousand 
Sultans of gold to Prester Jehan, least he impede and 
withdraw the course of Nylus to the Red Sea, and so 
bring iEgypt to desolation : The ground and policy 
whereof, begunne upon a desperate Warre inflicted upon 
the ^Ethiopians by Amurath, which hee was constrayned 
to give over, under this pact, and for Nylus sake. 

The River Nyle had many names, for Diodore named 
it Actos, to wit, Eagle, because of its swift passing over 
the Catadupian heights : It was called too, iEgyptus, of 
a King so named, that communicated the same to it, and 
to the Countrey. 

Festus, sayth it was called Melos, and Plutarch tearmed 
it Mela : Epiphanio called it Chrysoroas, that is, running, 
or coulant in gold. The Holy Scripture tearmeth it Seor 
or Sihor, to wit, Trouble, because of the great noyse it ryil. 319.] 
bringeth with it to iEgypt ; and the same Holy Letters 
call it Gehou, and Physon. The ^Egyptians wont to name 
it Nospra ; and now presently the Abassines, and Inhabi- 
tants of jEgypt, name it Abanhu, to wit, the River of a 
long course. 

This River maketh the He of Delta in iEgypt ; so like- The lie of 
wise in ^Ethiopia, that He of Meroa so renowned. The Delta - 
ancient Authors, could not agree, touching the mouthes 
of Nylus; for Melo, Strabo, Diodore, and Heredotus 
place seaven ; Ptolomy, and others nine ; and Pliny eleaven. 
And some moderne Authors afnrme it hath onely foure, 
as Tyrre and Behou alleadge, dividing it selfe two leagues 
below Cayre in foure branches, the chiefest two whereof, 
are these of Damiota and Roseta, but that is false, and so 
are the opinions of all the rest, for it hath now eight 
severall mouthes, and as many branches drawne from its 
mayne body. 

The Water of Nyle is marvailous sweete, above all 

281 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

others in the World, and that proceedeth of the extreame 
vigour of the Sunne, beating continually upon, it maketh 
it become more Lighter, Purer, and Simple ; as likewise 
arrousing of so many Soyles, and his long Course. 

And truely it is admirable, to see this River to grow 
great, when all others grow small ; and to see it diminish, 
when others grow great. So alwayes it is no wonder, that 
the nature of this River should so increase, when even 
here, and at home, the river of Rhone, hath the like inter- 
course : and at the same time, through the Towne of 
Geneve, and so to the Mediterranean Sea : Their begin- 
nings being both alike ; from the impetuosity of raynes, 
and dissolvings of Snow. 
[VII. 320.] ^Egypt was fi rst inhabited by Misraim, the Sonne of 
Chus from whom the Arabians name the land Misre, in 
the Hebrew tongue Misroiae. It was also named Oceana, 
from Oceanus the second King hereof. Thirdly, Osiriana 
from Osiris ; and now iEgyptus from iEgyptus the 
surname of Rameses, once a King of great puissance. 
The confines It bordereth with ^Ethiopia, and the Confines of Nubia : 
°f Egypt- on the South. On the North with the sea Mediterrene : 
The chiefest ports whereof, are Damieta, and Alexandria, 
towards the Occident, it joyneth with the great Lake 
Bouchiarah, and a daungerous Wildernesse confining there- 
with, supposed to be a part of Cyrene ; so full of wilde 
and venemous beasts, which maketh the West part unacces- 
sable : And on the East, with the Istmus, and Confine of 
Desartuous Arabia, and a part of the Red Sea, through 
which the people of Israel passed. 

This Country was governed by Kings first, and longest 
of all other Nations : From Orisis (not reckoning his 
Regall Ancestors) in whose time Abraham went downe 
to iEgypt, he and his Successours, were all called 
Pharaoes ; of whom Amasis, is onely worthy mention, 
who instituted such politicke Lawes to the auncient 
Egyptians, that he deserveth to be Catalogized, as founder 
or this Kingdome. 

This Race continued till Cambises the second Persian 

282 



COMMENTS UPON EGYPT ad. 

1612. 
Monarch, made iEgypt a member of his Empire: and 
so remayned till Darius Nothus the sixt Persian King : 
from whom they Revolted, choosing Kings of themselves. 
But in the eighteene yeare of Nectanebos the seventh King 
thereafter, i£gypt was recovered by Ochus, the eight 
Emperour of Persia. 

In end Darius being vanquished, and Alexander King 
hereof, after his Death it fell to the share of Ptolomeus, 
the sonne of Lagi, from whom the Kings of iEgypt were 
for a long time called Ptolomeis : of whom Queene [VII. 321.] 
Cleopatra was the last, after whose selfe murther, it was 
annexed for many yeares to the Romane Empire, and next 
to the Constantinopolitan : from whose insupportable 
burden they revolted, and became tributaries for a small 
time to Haumar the third Caliph of Babylon. 

Afterward being oppressed by Almericus King of 
Jerusalem ; Noradin a Turkish King of Damascus sent 
Saracon a valiant Warriour to aide them, who made him 
selfe absolute King of the whole Countrey ; whose ofspring The altera- 
succeeded (of whom Saladine was one, the glorious tions of Egypt. 
conquerour of the East) till Melechsala, who was slaine 
by his owne souldiers the Mamaluks ; who were the guard 
of the Suldans, as the Jannizaries are to the great Turke, 
who lately, Anno 1622. have almost made the like 
mutation in the Turkish Empire, as the Mamaluks did 
in the ^Egyptian. 

They made of themselves Sultans, whereby the Mama- 
luke race continued from the yeare 1250. till the yeare 
1 51 7. wherein Tonembius, together with his predecessour 
Campson Gaurus, was overcome by Selimus the first ; by 
whom iEgypt was made a Province of the Turkish Empire, 
and so continueth as yet. 

The length of this Kingdome, is foure hundred and fifty 
English miles, and two hundred broad : the principal seat 
whereof is the great Caire, being distant from Jerusalem 
sixteene dayes journey, or Caravans journalls, amounting 
to 240. of our miles. Some hold that the space of earth, 
that lyeth betweene the two branches of Damieta, and 



283 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

Roseta was called the lower iEgypt ; now called Delta 
under the figure of a Greeke letter triangular. 

The head of this great Delta, where Nylus divideth it 
selfe was called Heptapolis, or Hoptanomia ; and Delta 

[VII. 322.] it selfe was called by the Romanes Augustamia : iEgypt 
besides the aforesayd names, it had divers Epithites of 
divers Authors ; for Appollodorus tearmed it the Religion 
of Melampodes, because of the fertility of it : And 
Plutarch gave it the name Chimia, because of the holy 
ceremonies of the ^Egyptians in worshipping their Gods : 
The Etymology whereof Ortelius condignely remarked, 
deriving it from Cham, the sonne of Noah, so that some 
hold the opinion, that the ^Egyptians had their originall 
from Misraim (for so was iEgypt called) the sonne of Chus, 
that proceeded from Cham Noahs sonne : The circuit of 
Delta or the lower iEgypt is thought to be 3000. of their 
stades, which maketh a hundred Spanish leagues. 

The revenews In the time of the Ptolomeis the revenewes of this 

of Egypt. Kingdome were 1 2000. talents ; so also in the time of 
the Mamaluks ; but now through tyranical government, 
and discontinuance of trafricke through the red sea, the 
Turke receiveth no more than three millions yearely ; one 
of the which is free to him selfe, the other two are dis- 
tributed to support the charge of his Vicegerent Bassaw, and 
presidiary souldiers, being 1 2000. Jannizaries, besides their 
thousands of Timariots, which keepe JEgypt from the 
incursions and tyranny of Arabs : In Cayro I stayed twelve 
dayes, and having bid farewell to Monsieur Beauclair the 
Consul who courteously intertained me, the other foure 
French Pilgrimes and I imbarked at Boulacque in a boate : 
And as we went downe the River, the chiefe Townes of 
note we saw were these, Salmona, Pharsone, Fova, & 
Abdan. I remember our boate was double hooked with 
forked pikes of iron round about the sides, for feare of the 
Crocodiles, who usually leape up on boates, and will carry 
the passenger away headlong in the streame : And yet 
these beasts themselves are devoured by a water-Rat, of 

[VII. 323.] whom they taking great pleasure, and play, and gaping 

284 



COMMENTS UPON ALEXANDRIA a.d. 

1612. 

widely, the Rat running into his mouth, the other out 
of joy swalloweth it down, where the Rat for disdaine 
commeth forth at the broad side of his belly leaving the 
Crocodile dead. In these parts there is a stone called 
Aquiline, which hath the vertue to deliver a woman from 
her paine in child-birth. In all this way the greatest 
pleasure I had, was to behold the rare beauty of certaine 
Birds, called by the Turkes, Ellock ; whose feathers being 
beautified with the diversity of rarest colours, yeeld a farre 
off to the beholder a delectable shew : having also this 
propriety, the nearer a man approacheth them, the more 
they loose the beauty of their feathers by reason of the 
feare they conceive when they see a man. Upon the third 
day we landed at Rosetta, and came over land with a 
company of Turkes to Alexandria, being 50. miles distant. 

Alexandria is the second Port in all Turky : It was of The Towne of 
old a most renowned City, and was built by Alexander Alexandria. 
the great, but now is greatly decayed, as may appeare by 
the huge ruines therein : It hath two havens, the one 
whereof is strongly fortified with two Castles, which defend 
both it selfe and also Porto vecchio : The fields about 
the Towne are sandy, which ingender an infectious ayre, 
especially in the moneth of August, and is the reason why 
strangers fall into bloody fluxes and other heavy sicknesses. 
In my staying here, I was advised by a Ragusan Consul, 
to keepe my stomacke hot, to abstaine from eating of 
fruit, and to live soberly, with a temperate diet : The rule 
of which government, I strove diligently to observe, so 
did I also in all my travells prosecute the like course of a 
small diet, and was often too small against my will, by 
the meanes whereof (praised be God) I fell never sicke 
till my returne to France. 

This Citty is mightily impoverished since the Trading [VII. 324.] 
of Spices that were brought through the red Sea, to iEgypt, 
and so over Land to Alexandria & its Sea-port : Whence 
the Venetian dispersed them over all Christendome ; but 
are now brought home by the backe-side of Affricke, by 
the Portugals, English, and Flemings, which maketh both 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

Venice, and Alexandria fare the worse, for want of their 
former Trafficke, and commerce in these Southerne parts : 
whence Venice grew the mother nurse to all Europe for 
these Commodities, but now altogether spoyled thereof, 
and decayed by our Westerne Adventures, in a longer 
course for these Indian soyles. 

This Citty was a place of great Merchandize, and in 
the Nycen Councell was ordayned to be one of the foure 
The four e Patriarchall seas ; the other three are Antiochia, Jerusalem, 
Patriarchall anc [ Constantinople. Heere in Alexandria was that famous 
Library which Ptolomeus Philadelphus filled with 700000. 
volumes : It was he that also caused the 72. Interpreters, 
to translate the Bible : Over against Alexandria, is the 
little He Pharos, in the which for the commodity of Saylers 
the aforesaid King builded a watch-towre of white Marble ; 
being of so marvellous a height, that it was accounted one 
of the seven wonders of the world : the other six, being 
the Pyramides, the Tombe Mausolaea, which Helicar- 
nassus Queene of Caria caused build in honour of her 
Husband : the Temple of Ephesus, the Wals of Babylon, 
the Colossus of Rhodes, and the Statue of Jupiter Olympi- 
cus at Elis in Greece, which was made by Phidias, an 
excellent worke-master in Gold and Ivory, being in height 
60. Cubites. 

Expecting fifteene dayes heere in Alexandria for passage, 
[VII. 325.] great was the heate the French men and I indured, in so 
much that in the day time, we did nought but in a low 
roome, besprinckle the water upon our selves, and all the 
night lye on the top or platforme of the house, to have 
the ayre ; where at last bidding good-night to our Greekish 
Host, we imbarked in a Slavonian shippe, belonging to 
Ragusa ; and so set our faces North for Christendome ; 
in which ship I was kindly used, and Christian-like inter- 
tayned both for victuals and passage. The Windes 
somewhat at the beginning favouring us, wee weighed 
Anckers, and set forward to Sea : leaving the Coast of 
Cyrene Westward from us, which lyeth betweene JEgypt 
by the Sea side, and Numidia, or Kingdome of Tunnis. 

286 



COMMENTS UPON CYRENE ad. 

1612. 

The chiefe Cities therein are Cyrene, Arsinoa, and Barca The fabulous 
whence the whole Cyrenean Country taketh the modern Countrey of 
name Barca Marmorica, anciently Penta Politana. The s J re * f * 
Soyle is barren of Waters and Fruites, the people rude 
and theftuous : yet it hath bred the most ingenious spirits 
of Calimachus the Poet ; Aristippus the Phylosopher ; 
Eratosthenes the Mathematician, and Symon of Cyrene, 
whom the Jewes compelled to carry our Saviours Crosse. 

In this Province, which is now reckoned as a part of 
i^Egypt, stood the Oracle of Jupiter Hammon, in the 
great Wildernesse confining with Lybia : Whither when 
Alexander travailed, he saw for foure dayes space, neither 
man, Beast, Bird, Tree, nor River : Where, when arrived, 
the flattering Priests, professed him to be the sonne of 
Jupiter : which afterward (being hurt with an Arrow) hee 
found false, saying ; Omnes me vocant filium Jovis, sed 
haec sagitta me probat esse mortalem. West from Cyrene 
all the Kingdomes of Tunnis, Tremisen, Algier, Fesse, 
and a part of Morocco even to Gibilterre, or fretum 
Herculeum, under a generall name now called Barbary ; [VII. 326.] 
and hardly can be distinguished by the barbarous Moores. 

In the time of this our Navigation for Christendome, 
there dyed seaventeene of our Mariners, and all our foure 
French Pilgrimes, two of them being gray hayred, and 
60. yeares of age, which bred no small griefe, and feare 
to us all, thinking that they had dyed of the plague, for 
it was exceeding rife in Alexandria from whence wee came. 

The French men had onely left unspent among them 
all, threescore and nine Chickens of gold, which the Master 
of the Ship medled with, and because they were Papists, 
and they and I alwayes adverse to other, I could not clayme 
it. Their dead Corpes were cast over Board, in a bound- Foure Frenc/t 
lesse Grave to feed the fishes, and wee then expecting too PUffi*** 
the like mutation of Life ; So likewise in our passage, we 
were five sundry times assayled by the Cursares and Pyrats 
of Tunnis and Biserta ; yet unprevailing, for we were well 
provided with good Munition, and skilfull, Martiall, and 
resolute Ragusans, and a Gallant ship. 

287 



dead. 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

Our Ships burthen being sixe hundred Tunnes, did 
carry twenty eight peeces of Ordonance, two of them 
brazen ; and foure score strong and strenuous Saylers, 
besides nine Merchants and Passengers. The greatnesse 
of our ship did more terrifie the roguish Runagats, then 
any violent defence we made : for they durst never set 
on us, unlesse they had beene three together ; and yet we 
little regarded them, in respect of our long reaching 
Ordonance, and expert Gunners : In these Circumstances 
of time, I remember, almost every day, wee would see 
Flying fish. flockes of flying Fishes, scudding upon the curling waves, 
[VII. 327.] so long as their finnes be wet, which grow from their backe, 
as feathred wings doe from Fowles : But when they grow 
drye, they are forced to fall downe and wet them agayne, 
and then flye along. Their flight will bee the length of 
a Cables Rope, untouching Water ; and in this their 
scudding, it is thought the Dolphin, is in persuing them, 
who is their onely enemy in devouring and feeding upon 
them ; whose bignesse and length are like to Mackrels, but 
greater headed and shouldered. Meanewhile in these our 
Courses were we seven weekes crossed with Northerly 
Windes, ever Tackling and boarding from the Affricke 
Coast, to the Carminian shoare, in all which time wee saw 
no Land, except the boysterous billowes of glassie Nep- 
tune : And as Ovid sayde, in the like case crossing the 
Ionian seas, Nil nisi pontus et aer, viz. 

Nothing but Waves I view, where ships do floate 
And dangers lye : huge Whales do tumbling play ; 
Above my head, Heavens star-imbroadred coate, 
Whose vault containes, two eyes for night and day, 
Far from the Maine, or any Marine Coast, 
Twixt Borean blasts, and billowes we are tost. 
If Ovid, in that strait Ionean deepe 
Was tost so hard ; much more am I on Seas 
Of larger bounds ; where staffe and Compasse Keepe 
Their strict observance ; yet in this unease 

Of tackling Boards, we so the way make short, 
That still our course, drawes neerer to the Port, 
288 



i 



COMMENTS UPON CYRENE a.d. 

1612. 

Betweene the streame, and silver spangled skye, 

We rolling climbe, then hurling fall beneath ; 

Our way is Serpent like, in Meeds which lye, 

That bowes the Grasse, but never makes no path : 
But fitter like yong maides, and youths together, 
Run here and there, alwhere, and none Know whether. 

Our way we Know, and yet unknowne to other, [VII. 328.] 

And whiles misknowne to us, before we dive ; 

The hand, and compasse, that governe the Ruther 

Doe often erre : although the Pilots strive 

With Cart and plot ; their reckonings sometimes fall, 
Too narrow, short, too high, too wide, too small. 

To dascon this, remarke, when they set land, 
Some this, some that, doe gesse, this Hill, that Cape ; 
For many houres, their skill in suspence stand 
Tearming, this fore, that headland, points the Mape : 

Which when mistooke, this forgd excuse goes cleare, 

O such! and such a land, it first did peere. 

In all which strife, stress'd Saylers have the paine 
By drudging, pulling, hayling, standing to it 
In cold and raine, both dry and wet, they straine 
Themselves to toile, none else but they must doe it : 

We passengers behold, with belching throats 

Onely their taske atchievd in quivering boates. 

Then since but ayre and water I perceive, 

One's hot and moyst, the other moyst and cold ; 

It's earth that's cold and dry, I longing crave 

And fire that's dry and hot, I wishing would ; 

Then thundring JEole, from thy seven rigged Towres, 
Soone waft us o're, forth from these glassy Bowres. 

My wish is come, I see each bulging sayle 

For pride begins to swell, betweene two sheetes ; 

She ticklish grows, as wanton of her tayle, 

And layes her side, close where the weather beats ; 
Both prone and puppe, do answere so the Helme, 
The Steirsman sings, no griefe his joy can whelm. 
l 289 t 



ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

By night our watch we set, by day our sight, 
And thirle our Sailes, if Pirats but appeare ; 
We rest resolv'd, it's force, makes Cowards fight, 
VII. 329.] Though none more dare, then they that have most feare, 
It's courage makes us rash, and wisdome cold, 
Yet wise men, stout, and stung, grow Lyon bold. 

Now we looke out for Land, now we see Malt! 
That little famous lie, though sterrile soile ; 
Where we'le some Bay, or Creeke seeke to assault 
Whence Ancorage, and safety ships recoile : 

Now, now, let Anchor fall we're in the Road 

Savely arriv'd, by providence of God. 

This done, as time avouc'hd, I kindly bad 
My Consorts all adew, then came a shoare, 
Where I such plenty of great favours had, 
That scarse the like, I ever found before. 

These white cross'd Knights, with their eight pointed 

crosses, 
Imbrac'd my sight, with it, my toiles, and tosses : 
So ends my Verse, and so Pie straight disclose 
The He, the Folkes, their Manners, in plaine Prose. 

The greatest cause of our Arrivall here, was in regard 
of our fresh Water that was spent ; and therefore con- 
strayned to beare in to this He : Which was my sole desire, 
wishing rather to Land heere, to see the Order of our 
Knights of Christendome, then to arrive at Ragusa in 
the Adriaticke Gulfe, where I had beene before. Our 
A joy full Anchors being grounded, and our Boate ready to court 
arrivall in the shoare, I bad farwell to all the Company, and in a 
singular respect to my generous Captayne, who would 
have nothing for my victuales and transportation from 
iEgypt ; except a few relicts of Jerusalem : The boat being 
launched, and we landed in the haven, I accoasted a vulgar 
Taverne, and there lodged. 

This City is divided in two, the old and new Malta, 
[VII. 330.] from which the He taketh the name ; it is a large and 

290 



Malta. 



COMMENTS UPON MALTA a.d. 

1612. 

populous place, and strongly fortified with invincible 
walles, and two impregnable Castles St. Hermes, and St. 
Angelo ; St. Michael being distant from both : Here the 
great Master or Prince for that yeare being a Spaniard 
made much of me for Jerusalems sake ; so did also a 
number of these gallant Knights, to whom I was greatly 
obliged. And withall to my great contentment, I ran- 
countred here with a countrey Gentleman of mine, being 
a souldier there, named William Douglas, who afterward 
for his long and good service at sea was solemnely 
Knighted, and made one of their order. Whose fidele 
and manly services have beene since as plausibly regarded 
by the Maltezes, as Monsieur Creichton his worth, in 
learning and excellent memory, rests admired in Italy, but 
especially by the noble Gonzagaes, and dependant friends 
of the house of Mantua ; for whose losse, and accidentall 
death, they still heavily bemone : acknowledging that the 
race of that Princely stock, by Gods judgements was cut 
off, because of his untimely death. 

Malta was called Melita, mentioned Acts 28. 1. 2. The Ik of 
where the Viper leaped on Paules hand ; I saw also the Malta. 
Creeke wherein he was shipwracked : This Hand may 
properly be termed the Fort of Christendome, yet a barren 
place, and of no great bounds, for their Cornes, and Wines 
come daily by Barkes from Sycilia : but it yeeldeth good 
store of Pomegranates, Cittrons, Cottons, Orenges, Lem- 
mons, Figges, Mellons, and other excellent fruits. The 
Knights of Malta had their beginning at Acre in Palestina ; 
from thence to the Rhodes, & now exposed to this rocky 
He. They are pertinacious foes to Infidels, for such is 
the oath of their order, continually making war and 
incursions against them, to their power : being strengthned [VII. 331.] 
also with many souldiers, and their Captaines are surnamed 
Knights of Malta, and so through a great part of Christen- 
dome ; it is a most honourable Order : They are not 
permitted to marry, the most part of whom being younger 
brothers : the reason was, because not being intangled to 
wife and children, they might be the more resolute to 

291 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

adventure their lives in the Christian service ; but therein 
they are mightily decayed, and their valour no way answer- 
able to that it hath been when their auncestors lived in the 
Rhodes and holy Land ; having had these eighteene yeares 
past little or no good fortune at all. 

This He was given in possession to these Knights of 
St. John, by the Emperour Charles the fifth, and King 
of Spaine ; being newly expelled from the Rhodes by 
Solyman the magnificent, Anno 1522. And afterward the 
Turke not contented therewith, and mindfull ail-utterly 
to extermine their power, came with a huge Armado, and 
assayled Malta, Anno 1565. when Valetta was great 
An invincible maister, who so couragiously withstood their fury, that 
victory. ^ e Turkes were defeated, and forced to returne. 

This Hand is ten leagues in length, and three broad : 
the earth whereof being three foote deepe, is the cause, 
why it is not so fertile, as the clymat might afford : It 
containeth besides the City, forty seven Villages and nine 
Cassales ; the peasants or naturall Inhabitants whereof, are 
of the Affrican complexion, tanny, and Sun-burnt ; and 
their language semblable to the Barbarian speech, without 
any great difference, both tongues being a corrupt 
Arabick : And not unlike therein to the Italians from the 
Latine, or the vulgar Greeke from the auncient ; yet the 
moderne Greeke is nearer the auncient, then the Italian 
[VII. 332.] is the Latine : These rurall Maltezes are extreamely bent, 
in all their actions, either to good or evill wanting fortitude 
of minde, and civill discretion, they can not temper the 
violent humours of their passions, but as the headstrong- 
tide, so their dispositions runne, in the superfluous excesse 
of affections. 

They follow the Romane Church, though ignorant 
of the way, and their woemen be lovely faire, going 
head-covered with blacke vayles, and much inclined to 
The nature of licentiousnesse ; their beauties being burrowed from helpe 
the Ma/tezes. m0 re then nature : for now it is a common practice amongst 
decayed beauties, banquerouted by time or accidents, to 
hide it from others eyes with Art, and from their owne 

292 



COMMENTS UPON MALTA ad. 

1612. 
with false glasses. But (alasse) the graces and beauties 
of the soule ought more to be cared for, and to have the 
first place and honour, above these counterfeit or outward 
showes of the body ; and the beauty and lovely proportion 
of the body, should be preferred before the effeminate 
deckings, that the body doth rather carry then enjoy : since 
it often hapneth ; that a foule and deformed carkasse hath 
a faire and rich wardrope. In this Towne of Malta, there 
are many Turkish and Moorish slaves, very rudely treat, 
yet not answerable to that cruelty the slavish Christianes 
indure upon their Gallies in Barbary or Turky : The dis- 
cription of Malta, I postpone to the succeeding relations 
of my second Travells ; and after twelve daies staying here, 
I imbarked in a Frigat with other passengers, and arrived 
at Cicly in the South-east corner of Sicilia, being three 
score miles distant. 

From thence coasting the shoare fifty miles to Siracusa, 
I rancounterd by the way, in a clifty Creeke close by the 
sea side, a Moorish Brigantine, with twelve oares on each 
side, charged with Moores, who had secretly stayed there 
a night and a day stealing the people away labouring on [VII. 333.] 
the fields : At which sudden sight, and being hard by them, 
I stopped my pace. Whereupon, about twenty Moores 
broke out upon me, with shables & slings : But my life 
and liberty being deare to me, my long traced feete became 
more nimble in twelve score paces, than they could follow 
in eighteene ; for I behoved to fly backe the same way I 
came: where, when freed, I hastned to the next Watch- 
tower, marine set, and there told the Centinell, how a 
Moorish Brigantine was lying within two miles at an A Moorish 
obscure clift : and how hardly I escaped their hands : Brigantine. 
whereupon he making a fire on the top of the Tower, and 
from him all the Watch-towers along, gave presently 
warning to the contrey ; so that in a moment, them of 
the Villages came downe on horse and foote, and well 
armed, and demanding me seriously of the trueth, I 
brought them with all possible celerity to the very place : 
where forthwith the Horse-men broke upon them, wound- 

293 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

ing divers, before they were all taken, for some fled to 
the Rocks, and some were in the coverd fields hunting 
their prey : At last they were all seazed upon, and fast 
tyed two, and two in iron chaines, and sixe Sicilians relieved 
whom they had stolne and thralled : Whence they were 
carried to Syracusa, I went also along with them, where, 
by the way the people blessed me, and thanked God for 
mine escape, and me for discovering them : from Syracusa 
(being condemned to the galleyes) upon the third day they 
were sent to Palermo, being 36. in number. 

They gone, and I reposing here, the governour of that 
place, for this piece of service, and my travels sake did 
feast me three dayes, and at my departure would have 
rewarded me with gold, so also the friends of them that 
[ vn - 334-] were relieved, which if I tooke or not judge you, that 
best can judge on discretion. This Citty is situate on 
a Promontore, that butteth in the Sea, having but one 
entery, and was once the Capitall seat of the Kingdom, 
though now by old tyranies, and late alterations of time, 
it is onely become a private place : Yet girded about with 
the most fragrant fields, for dainty fruites, and delicate 
Muscatello that all Europe can produce. 

From this place, over-tracing other fifty miles to 
Catagna, situate at ^Etnaes foote ; I measured the third 
fifty miles to Messina. Where now I cease to discourse 
any further of this Hand, till my returne for Affricke, 
* being my second Voyage : For true it is, double experi- 
ence, deeper Knowledge ; where then punctually in my 
following order, the Reader I hope shall finde his desired 
satisfaction. 
An happy From Messina, I imbarked in a Neapolitan Boat loaden 

amvall w j t j 1 p ass i n g ers • whence shoaring along for foure hundred 
miles, the higher and lower Calabrian Coast, with a part 
of the Lavorean lists, uppon the twelfth day, we landed 
at Naples. Where being disbarked, I gave God thankes 
upon my flexed knees, for my safe arrivall in Christen- 
dome : And meeting there with the Earle of Bothwell, 
and Captayne George Hepburne, I imbraced the way to 

294 






COMMENTS UPON ITALY a.d. 

1612. 

Rome, being sixe score and ten miles distant : where I 
stole one nights lodging privately, and on the morrow 
earely departing thence, and crossing Tyber, I visited 
these Townes in Italy before I courted the Alpes, Siena, 
Florence, Luca, Pisa, Genoa, Bullogna, Parma, Pavia, 
Piacenza, Mantua, Milane, and Torine : the commenda- 
tion of which Cities rest revolv'd in these following verses. 

Illustrat Saenas, patriae facundia Lingua, 

Splendida solertes, nutrit Florentia Cives ; 

Libera luca tremit, ducibus vicina duobus : [VII. 335.] 

Flent Pisa amissum, dum contemplantur honorem: 

Genua habet portum, mercesque domosque superbas : 

Excellit studiis, facunda Bononia cunctis, 

Commendant Parmam, lac, caseus, atque Butirum, 

Italicos versus, prefert Papia Latinis ; 

Non caret Hospitiis, per pulchra Placentia caris : 

Mantua gaudet aquis, ortu decorata Maronis, 

Est Mediolanum jucundum nobile magnum, 

Taurinum exornant virtus, pietasque, fidesque. 

Having passed Torine, and its Princely Court, whose 
present Duke might have beene the mirrour of Nobility, 
I kept my way through Piemont or Pedemontano, the 
sister of Lombardy, and second Garden of Europe ; and 
crossing the steepe and Snowy Mountayne of Mont Cola 
di Tenda, the highest Hill of all the Alpes : I found on The Llgurian 
its top, that it reserveth alwayes a Gradinian mist, for a Alpes. 
mile of way long stakes, set in the Snow, each one a 
Speares length from another, to guide the Passinger his 
dangerous way ; of the which stoopes if hee fayle, hee 
is lost for ever. 

After I had traversed this difficult passage, I had two 
dayes journey in climbing and thwarting the Rockey and 
intricated hils of Liguria, over which Hannibal had so 
much adoe, to conduct his Army to Italy ; making a way 
through the Snow, with Fire, Vineger, and Wine : 
Whence it was sayd of him, Viam aut inveniet Anniball, 
aut faciet : Leaving these Mountaynes behind me, I 

29S 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

arrived at Niece in Provance, situate on the Mediterren 
Sea ; and passing the Townes of Antibo and Cana, to 
night at Furges ; there were three French murderers set 
uppon me in a theevish Wood twelve miles long ; one of 
[VII. 336.] which had dogged me hither from Niece: Where having 
extreamely given me a fearefull chase, for a long League, 
and not mending themselves, they gave me over. Well, 
in the midst of the Wood I found an Hostery, and in it, 
two Women, and three young Children, with whom I 
stayed and lodged all night. 
A happy After I had sup'd and going to bed, in came these 

escape from aforesayd Villaines, accompanied with my Host ; where, 
mur er - when seene, they straight accused me for my flight, and 
threatning me with stroakes, consulted my Death. Then 
I cryed to my Host for helpe, but hee stood dumbe, for 
he was their Companion, and to second their intention 
his wife made fast the lower doore. Whereat being 
mooved with deadly feare, I pulled my Turkish gowne 
from my backe, and opening my Sacket ; sayd, Now 
Christian Gentlemen, I know you are distressed, and so 
am I, come search my cloathes and Budget, and if you 
find what you looke for, let me dye : Alas, I am a poore 
stranger, newly come from Jerusalem, and the Sepulcher 
of Jesus Christ, and after long travailes, and loe there is 
my Patent : And concerning my flight, I sweare, I onely 
fled for the safety of my life, but not for the preservation 
of my money, for come see I have none : my griefe is 
that I have it not for you : Good gentlemen consider the 
dangers that I have past amongst Infidels, and let not 
your Christian hands rob me of my turmoyled life ; having 
nought, wherefore you should, were a lamentable thing 
to do. 

This spoken, and much more, they never searched me, 
nor touched my Wallet, but went to Counsell, where they 
concluded uppon my forwardnesse in opening my body 
and other things to them, that I had no money, and there- 
in. 337.] fore confirmed my life, which for the former respect, and 
the Holy Graves sake was granted. Whereupon packing 

296 



COMMENTS UPON FRANCE ad. 

1612. 
up my Relickes agayne, they called for Wine, and drunke 
diverse times to me ; and after a long spent conference, 
there supper making ready, they dismissed me for my 
bed : Whether, when led by my Hostesse, I privily made 
the doore fast, suspecting still a suddaine death : Well 
they sup'd, and were joviall, and at the first Cocke, went 
foorth to the woode, and the high way for their owne 
ends. 

All which time I stood Centinell, and the morning come, 
my Host confessed, that onely he had saved my life ; for- 
swearing himselfe of their former sight ; but sayd hee 
certainly they are Murderers. Leaving him with dis- 
sembling thankes, I arrived at Furges : where I learned 
that my Host was suspected to bee a Consort with these a guard of 
and many moe Murderers : well afterwards I heard, hee Horsemen for 
was arraigned, hanged, and quartered, the house razed, a &*&"** 
and his wife put to death ; and ever since the French mo ' 
King, keepeth a guard of Horse-men there to keepe that 
filthy and dangerous woode free from Murderers. For 
now may I say, like to a ship that after a long Voyage, 
is eyther in greatest danger, or else cast away, entring the 
Roade and Haven from whence shee came ; even so was 
I cast in the most eminent perill, that I had in all my 
Travayles, being on the Frontiers of France, and as it 
were, (in regard of remoter places) entering the Towne 
wherein I was borne. 

Having given humble thankes, and lofty prayses to 
the Almighty for my deliverance, I traversed Provance, 
and Langadocke, where neare to Montpeillier, I met with 
the French gentlemans Father, whom I relieved from the 
Gallies in Canea of Candy ; who being over-joyed with 
my sight, kindly intreated me for eight dayes, and highly [VII. 338.] 
rewarded mee with Spanish Pistols, lamenting for my 
sake that his sonne was at Paris : whence continuing my 
Voyage to Barselona in Catelogna of Spaine, I gave over 
my purpose in going to Madrile, because of deare bedding 
and scarcity of Victuals : and footing the nearest way 
through Arragon and Navarre, I crossed at the passage 

297 



ad, LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1612. 

of Sancto Johanne, the Pyrhenei mountaines : And falling 
downe by Pau, and the River Ortes, I visited Gascony 
and Bearne; and from them, the Cities of Burdeaux and 
Rochel : and arriving at Paris, whence I first beganne my 
Voyage ; I also there ended my first, my painefull, and 
Pedestriall Pilgrimage. Whence shortly thereafter visit- 
ing Englands Court, I humbly presented to King James, 
and Queene Anne of ever blessed memories ; and to his 
present Majesty King Charles, certayne rare Gifts and 
notable Relickes, brought from Jordan and Jerusalem : 
Where afterward within a yeare, upon some 
distaste, I was exposed to my second 
Peregrination as followeth. 



THE END OF THE FIRST BOOKE, OF MY FIRST 
TRAVAILES. 



298 



A.D. 
1613-15. 



[VIII. 339.] 

THE EIGHT PART, &c. 

Contayning the second Booke of my 
second Travailes. 

Patriam meam transire non possum, omnium una est, 
extra hanc nemo projici potest. Non patria mihi inter- 
dicitur sed locus, in quamcunque terram venio, in meam 
venio, nulla exilium est sed altera patria est. Patria 
est ubicunque bene est. Si enim sapiens est Pere- 
grinatur, si stultus exulat. Senec. de re, for. 

LEt not surmisers thinke, ambition led 
My second toyles, more flash flowne praise to wed ; 
Nay ; there was reason, and the cause is Knowne 
For Courtly crosses, seldome stay unshowne : 
Well, I am sped ; through Belgia then I trace ; 
And footing Rhyne, to Geneve kept my pace, 

Thence cross'd I Sinais, Po, and Lombard bounds, [VIII. 340.] 

The hils Appenine, the ^Etrurian rounds: 
And nighting Rome, Parthenope I past, 
Even to Rhegio, of Townes Calabriaes last : 
Whence Sicily I view'd, and .ZEtna Mount ; 
And Malta too, as I before was wont : 
Then sight I Tunneis, where old Carthage stood, 
And Scipio shed streames of Numidian blood. 
Hence Tremizen I trac'd, the Barbars shoare 
To Algeir, great Fez, the Atlanticke glore ; 

299 




ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1613-15. 

The Berdoans Country, and the Lybian sands, 
The Garolines parch'd bounds, the Sabunck lands ; 
And diverse soiles, of Savage Heathnick bounds, 
Whose names and stiles, this Affricke story sounds. 
Last in the Lybian lists, Pme forc'd to stay, 
Whence I return'd, for Tunneis the next way ; 
And resting there, till iEoles seaven rig'd Towres, 
Prest Tritons backe ; (crost Neptunes Paramours) 
And wish'd me saile ; O then with speedy flight 
I boord the Ship, and bad the Moores good-night. 

Rue it is, that these who make Distinction 
clearely, and the certayne knowledge of 
things, divide all Sciences in Speculative 
and Practicke. And agayne, Speculative 
in Physicke, or Phylosophy naturall, in 
Mathematickes and Metaphysicke ; plac- 
ing Medicine under the first: Arithme- 
ticke, Musicke, Geometry, and Astrology under the 
second : Uniting thirdly, Theology, to the which they 
give also to be adjoyned the right Canon. 
[VIII. 341.] As for the science Practique, it doth first imbrace the 
Morall that some divide in three, to wit, Ethique, that 
doth forme the manners of one man, Secondly in 
Ecoenomick, that doth dispose the actions domesticke : 
The third in Politicque, that comprehend the actions 
Civill ; concerning the government of Common-wealths, 
which containeth under it the whole science of right 
civilitie. And with Practique, is also placed Dialectique, 
the Art of memory, the Grammar, the Rhetorique, to 
which also may be joyned the Art Poetique, and of 
Histories. But for their particular divisions I am not 
prolixious, as inutile to my designe in hand ; divers dedi- 
cate themselves to the knowledge of these sciences, not 
knowing that they forget the most necessary, to wit, the 
science of the world. 

This is it above all things that preferreth men to honors, 
and the charges that make great houses and Reipublicks 



The necessary 
use and honour 
of Travels. 



300 



COMMENTS UPON FRANCE a.d. 

1613-15. 

to flourish ; and render the actions and words of them 
who possesse it, agreeable both to great and small. This 
science is onely acquisted by conversation, and haunting 
the company of the most experimented : by divers dis- 
courses, reports, by writs, or by a lively voyce, in 
communicating with strangers ; and in the judicious 
consideration of the fashion of the living one with another. 
And above all, and principally by Travellers, and Voyagers 
in divers Regions, and remote places, whose experience 
confirmeth the true Science thereof; and can best draw 
the anatomy of humane condition. For which, and other 
respects, it holdeth true that the heart of man is insatiable 
being set upon whatsoever object, his predominant affec- 
tion listeth ; neither may reason find place in the violent 
rapt of such passions, for as judgement is seldome com- 
patible with youth, but reserved to old age ; so to a [VIII. 342.] 
unconstant disposition, every accident is a constellation, 
by which best thoughts are diversified, & driven from 
the center of deepest resolution : whiles contrariwise the 
sound set man, though by opportunity altereth his pace, 
yet still keepeth his way, serveth time for advantage, not 
for feare ; but as the Sun setteth to rise againe, so he 
changeth his course, to continue his purpose. Wherein 
touching my particular, whether discontent or curiosity 
drove me to this second perambulation, it is best reserved 
to my owne knowledge : As for the opinion of others, The Authors 
I little care either for their sweetest temper, or their Apology. 
sowrest censure ; for they that hunt after other mens 
fancies, goe rather to the market to sell than to buy, and 
love better to paint the bare fashion and out-sides of 
themselves, then to rectify or repaire their owne defects 
and errours ; wherewith I leave them. Then it is well, 
if it please me, it is enough ; my paines are mine owne, 
and not others ; and therefore best worthy to judge of my 
owne labours, being best knowne to my selfe who dearest 
bought them : And so to make short this preamble, or 
conducing complement I come to the matter it selfe. 
Now as I began my first voyage from Paris, so from 

301 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1613-15. 

London must I beginne this my second peregrination : 
whence leaving the Court, the Countrey and Dover, I 
courted Caleis, and so to Graveling, Dunkirke, and fatall 
Ostend, whose devasted sight gave my Muse this subject. 

To view the ruines of thy wasted walles, 
Loe! I am come, bewayling thy disgrace, 
Art thou this Bourge, Bellona so enstalles 
To be the mirrour for a Martiall face : 
[VIII. 343.] I, sure its thou, whose bloody bathing bounds, 

Gave death to thousands, and to thousands wounds. 

What Hostile force, besieg'd thee poore Ostend? 
With all Engine, that ever Warre devised : 
What Martiall troupes, did valiantly defend 
Thine earthen strengths, and Sconces unsurpris'd 
By cruell assaults, and desperate defence, 
Thine undeserved name, wonne honour thence. 

Some deepe interr'd, within thy bosome lye, 
Some rot, some rent, some torne in peeces small : 
Some warlike maim'd, some lame, some halting crye : 
Some blowne through Clouds, some brought to deadly 
thral, 

Whose dire defects, renew'd with ghostly mones. 

May match the Thebane, or the Trojan groanes : 

Base fisher towne, that fang'd thy nets before, 
And drencht into the deepe thy food to win : 
Art thou become a Tragicke stage, and more 
Whence bravest wits, brave Stories may begin 

To show the world, more then the world would crave, 
How all thine intrench'd ground, became one grave. 

Thy digged ditches, turn'd a gulfe of blood, 
Thy wals defeat, were rear'd with fatall bones : 
Thine houses equall with the streetes they stood ; 
Thy limits come, a Sepulcher of groanes : 

Whence Cannons ror'd, from fiery cracking smoake 
Twixt two extreames thy desolation broake. 

302 



COMMENTS UPON THE NETHERLANDS a.d. 

1613-15. 

Thou God of War, whose thundring sounds do feare 

This circled space, plac'd here below the rounds, 

Thou in oblivion hast Sepulchrized here, 

Earths dearest life, for now what else redounds 

But sighes and sobs, when treason, sword, and fire, 
Have throwne al down, when al thought to aspire. 

Forth from thy marches, and frontiers about [VIII. 344.] 

In sanguine hew, thou dy'd the fragrant fields ; 

The camped trenches of thy foes without 

Were turn'd to blood, for valour never yeelds 
So bred ambition, honour, courage, hate, 
Long three yeares siege, to overthrow thy state. 

At last from threatning terrour of despaire, 

Thine hembd defendants, with divided walles 

Were forcd to rander, then came mourning care 

Of mutuall foes, for friends untimely falles : 

Thus lost, and got, by wrong, and lawlesse right 
My judgement thinkes thee scarcely worth the sight : 
But there's the question, when my Muse hath done, 
Whether the victor, or the vanquisht wonne. 

To flee hence in a word, I measured all the Netherlands 
with my feete in two moneths space ; the description 
whereof is so amply set downe by moderne Authors, that 
it requireth no more : onely this, for policies, industries, 
strong Townes, and fortifications, it is the mirrour of 
vertue, and the garden of Mars; yea, and the light of 
all Europe, that he who hath exactly trade it, may say 
he hath seene the mappe of the whole Universe : And tVeisk taken 
now ascending to Cleve, I came just to Grave Maurice h s P ineola - 
Campe at Rhiese, as Spineola had taken Weisle ; betweene 
which Armies for five weekes I had free intercourse, being 
kindly respected by both the Generalls : for Spineola set 
me at his owne table, and I lay in his second Tent nine 
nights ; the Duke of Newenberg, and Don Pietro di 
Toledo being there both for the time : So with the Prince 
of Orange, with whom I discoursed divers times, was the 

303 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1613-15. 

Marques of Brandeburg, certaine Nobles, and forraine 
Ambassadours. All which time, O how it grieved me 

[VIII. 345.] to see the tyranny of the Spaniards dayly executed upon 
the distressed Protestants of Weisle, over whom they 
domineered like Divells : for these afflicted Cittizens, 
being heavily oppressed, by their unsupportable usage, 
were beleagured with their friends, when they were held 
captive by their enemies ; and obeying necessity, stayed 
their bodies within the walles, though their mindes were 
without, and intirely with the assailants. 

Bidding adew to these Armies, and accompanied with 
a young Gentleman David Bruce, the L. of Clekmanan 
his Sonne, whom I conducted to Italy : scarcely had we 
out-stripd Rhyneberg (where Collonell Edmond was 
slaine) a Dutch mile, till we were both robbed of our 
cloaks and pocket-moneys, with five souldiers French and 
Vallones ; and that within a Village, women and children 
beholding us, but no man to relieve us, they being with 
Carts serving Spineolaes Campe. 

Whence the next day approaching Culloine, and bills 
of change answered, wee visited the falsly supposed 
Tombes of the three Kings that came to Bethleem, who 
as the Romanists say, lye interred there. O filthy and 
base absurdnesse for their holy Mother Church to confirme 
hellish and erronious leyes ; for these Kings came from 
the East, and from Chaldea, and not from the North : 
Or if they wil have them to die there and so buried, surely 
this is even such another damnable errour, surpassing 
tradition, as their wandring Jew, the Shoomaker of 
Jerusalem is, of whom in Rome, they have wrot ten 
thousand fables and fopperies : from this we visited the 
1 1000. Virgins heads, Martyres, indeed we saw the 
Church-walles all indented about with bare sculles, but 
whose heads they were, the Lord knoweth ; from thence 
a Gentleman brought us to a Chappell, within a Vineyard, 

[VIII. 346.] called the Chappell of miracles ; the originall whereof was 
thus. Upon a festivall day, being Vintage time, there 
came a Peasant to the Towne, and passing by the Vines 

3°4 



The fabulous 
miracles of 
Culloine. 



COMMENTS UPON GERMANY a.d. 

1613-15. 

(as there is a number within the wals) did eate his belly 

full of the grapes ; and thereafter hearing a Masse, was 

confessed, and received the Sacrament : And returning the 

same way he came, and just where he had eaten the Grapes, 

hee fell a vomiting, and casting up with what hee had A forged and 

eaten the Holy Sacrament, it straight turned in the like- f a ^ e Oracle. 

nesse of a new borne Babe, being bright and glorious. 

Well, the amazed fellow, run backe and told his Con- 

fessour, what was done, and his offence who had eaten 

grapes before the Reception of the Eucharist. The 

Confessour told the Bishop, where he, and other Prelates 

comming to the place, and beholding as it were an Angell, 

grew astonished. 

In end they wrapped up their little dead god, in a 
Cambricke vayle, and there buried it ; building this 
Chappel above the place : where ever since there is a 
world of leying miracles done : Loe these are the novelties 
of Culloine. 

Thence ascending the Rhyne, and coasting Heidleberg, 
I saluted the Princesse Palatine, with certayne rare Relickes 
of the Holy Land. And leaving Mounsieur Bruce there 
till my returne, I went for Noorenberg to discover the 
sixe Germanes death, whom I had buried in the Desarts, 
and Grand-Cayre of iEgypt, for the two Barons were 
subject to the Marquesse of Hanspauch : Where having 
met with some of their Brethren, Sisters, and Kinsmen, 
and delated to them their deathes, I was presently carryed 
to their Prince the Marquesse, to whom I related the 
whole Circumstances. Whereupon a brother of the one 
Baron, and a sister of the other, were instantly invested 
in their Lands ; and I likewise, by them all great regarded fVIII. 347.] 
and rewarded. And after ten dayes feasting, reviewing 
Heidleberg, mine associate and I set forward for Helvetia, 
or Switzerland. 

This Countrey is divided in thirteene Cantons, sixe 

whereof are Protestants, and sixe Papists ; the odde 

Canton being likewise halfe and halfe. The most 

puissant whereof is Bierne, whose Territory lying along 

l 3°5 V 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1613-15. 

the lake reacheth within a League of Geneve. The 

people, and their service to most Christian Princes, are 

well knowne, being Manly, Martiall and trusty faithfull. 

Here in the Canton of Bierne neere to Urbs, wee went 

and saw a young Woman, who then had neyther eate, 

A woman fast- nor drunke, nor yet excremented for thirteene yeares, 

ingfourteene being truely qualified by her Parents, Friends, Physitians, 

y eares - and other Visitors. She was alwayes Bed-fast, and so 

extenuated, that her Anatomised body carryed nought 

but Sinew, skin, and bones, yet was she alwayes mindefull 

of God. And the yeare after this time, her body returned 

agayne to the naturall vigour, in appetite and all things : 

and married a husband, bearing two children, dyed in the 

fifth yeare thereafter. 

The day following, we entred Geneve, where sighting 
the Towne, the chiefe Burgo-masters, the seven Ministers, 
and the foure Captaines were all familiarly acquainted 
with me, with whom in diverse places, I daily feasted and 
discoursed. The Ministers one night propining me with 
a Bible, newly Translated in the Italian tongue, by one of 
them selves borne in Milane, told me there was a Masse- 
Priest sixe Leagues off, a Curate, of a Village in Madame 
du longeviles Countrey, who had gotten in his owne 
Parish, three Widdowes, and their three severall 
Daughters with childe, and all about one time : and for 
[VIII. 348.] this his Luxurious Cullions was brought to Dijon to be 
Executed : Desiring me to go see the manner, the next 
day (leaving Master Bruce with them) I went hither, and 
upon the sequell day, I saw him hanged upon a new 
Gallowes, as high as a stripad : The three mothers and 
their three Daughters were set before him, being 
Gravidato, whose sorrowfull hearts, and eye-gushing 
teares for their sinne and shame, were lamentable to 
behold : the incestuous Bugerono, begging still mercy and 
pardon for dividing their legges, and opening their 
wretched Wombes. Lo there is the chastity of the 
Romish Priests, who forsooth may not marry, and yet 
may mis carry themselves in all abhominations, especially 

306 



COMMENTS UPON SWITZERLAND ad. 

1613-15. 

in Sodomy, which is their continuall pleasure and practise. 
Returning to Geneve, and acquainting the Magistrates 
with his Confession, for they are great Intelligencers, I 
wrot this literal Distich : 

Glance, Glorious Geneve, Gospell-Guiding Gem ; 
Great God Governe Good Geneves Ghostly Game. 

The Lake of Geneve is sixteene Leagues in length, and Tit Lake of 
two broad, at the South-west end whereof standeth the JjJ'S? W 
Towne, through whose middle runneth the River of #4^ 
Rhone, whose Head and body beginneth from the Lake 
among the very houses. The nature of which River is 
not unlike to Nylus, for when all other Rivers decrease 
(being in Summer) this increaseth. Two reasons pro- 
ceeding from the excessive Snow that lye upon the 
Sangalian and Grisonean Alpes, which cannot melt, till 
about our longest day, that the force and face of the Sunne 
dissolve it. And so ingorging the Lake, it giveth Rhone 
such a body, that it is the swiftest River in Europe. The 
Towne on both sides the flood, is strongly fortified with 
rampierd walles, and counter-banding Bulwarkes ; the 
Ditch without and about being dry, is mainly pallasaded [VIII. 349.] 
with wooden stakes, for preventing of suddain Scallets. 
Many assaults have this handfull of people suffered by 
Land and Water from the Savoyean Duke ; the recitall 
whereof would plunge me in prolixity ; and therefore 
committing that Light shining Syon, and her Religious 
Israelites, to the tuition of the Almighty, I step over the 
Alpes to Torine. 

Here is the residence of the Dukes of Savoy, whose The first 
beginning sprung first from the house of Saxon : For Berold beginning of 
or Berauld, being a neere Cousen to the Emperour Otton ** e Duke °f 
the third, and brother to the Saxon Duke ; the Emperour az>oy ' 
gratified him with these Lands of Savoy, and parts of 
Piemont ; where he and his Successors continued foure 
hundred yeares under the title of Earles : untill the 
Emperour Sigismond, at the Counsell of Constance, did 
Create Amee, the eight Earle of his name Duke. And so 

307 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1613-15. 

beginning with him to this present Duke now living, 
named Charles Emanuel, there have been only eight 
Dukes, and some of them of short lives. And yet of all 
the Christian Dukes, the most Princely Court is kept 
heere, for Gallants, Gentry, and Knights. 

At the same time, of my being there, this present Duke 
had wars with his owne brother in Law Philip the third, 
about the Marquesade of Montferrat, and Dutchy of 
Mantua, the issue whereof, but retorted to the Duke a 
redoubling disadvantage ; though now it be gone from 
the Gonsagaes to the French Duke of Naviers. This 
Country of Piemont is a marvailous fruitfull and playne 
Countrey, and wonderfull populous, like to the River 
sides of Arno round about Florence : Insomuch that a 
Venetian damaunding a Piemont Cavalier, what Piemont 
was? Replyed, it was a Towne of three hundred miles 
[VIII. 350.] in circuite, meaning of the Habitations and populosity of 
the Soyle. 

The rest of the surnames of the Italian Dukes are these, 
viz. that of Parma is Fernese, signifying Partridges ; that 
of Modena is Astie, that of Florence de Medicis ; that of 
Urbine, Francesco Maria, and the last Duke of Mantua, 
Gonsaga ; the Dutchy of Ferrara, being dissolved, is 
converted to the Popes patrimony. 

Leaving Piemont, and coasting the sassinous shoare of 
Genoaes revieroe, I ported Ligorne, the great Dukes Sea- 
haven ; where I left Mr. Bruce with a Galley Captaine a 
voluntary Souldier ; and inclining alone to Florence by the 
A comfortable way at Pestoia, I found a comfortable crosse ; for I sight- 
crosse. ] n g the market place after supper, and carrying a French 

Ponyard in my pocket, the head of it was espied by a 
Badgello, Captaine of the Sergeants, who straight gripped 
me, bore me to prison, and clapd me in a Dungeon 
robbing me of all my moneyes and Poneyard ; and posting 
that night to Florence on the morrow shew the Justice 
there a Stilleto of his owne : upon which I was condemned 
to row in the Gallies for a yeare, else to pay a hundred 
Duckats : He stayed there three dayes, in this time was I 

308 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY ad. 

1613-15. 
discovered to the governour of Pistoia, a noble Gentleman, 
and being brought before him, and acquainting him with 
the undeserved cruelty of the Badgello : nor that I never 
wore a Stilleto, but under pretext of that had robbed mee 
of three-score and twelve pieces of gold : Whereupon the 
Governour perceiving the knavery of the Villaine, and 
that he had not acquainted him with my apprehending, to 
whose place it belonged, he grew immatulent and forth- 
with sent post to his Highnesse, shewing him the trueth 
of the businesse : Whereupon the Badgello was sent backe 
to the Governour with whom I was domestickly reserved ; [VIII. 351.] 
and being accused before my face of his roguery, could 
not deny it : well, my gold and my Poneyard is restored 
againe, the Badgello banished the territorie of Pistoia for 
ever, with his Wife and Children, and I received in com- 
pensation of my abuses, from his Highnesse Chamber or 
Treasury there, fifty Florentine Crownes of gold, being 
modified by the Duke him selfe ; whereat I extolled the 
knave, that wrought his own wracke in seeking my over- 
throw, and brought me such a noble reward. 

Thanking God for this joyfull crosse and approaching 
Florence, I found one John Browne there, whose company 
I imbraced to Sicilia : Whence having privatly past Rome, 
and publickly Naples, we footed along the marine by 
Salerno, and courting Cousenza, the capitall seate of Cousenza in 
Calabria where a Vicegerent remaineth, we reposed there Calabria. 
certaine dayes. 

The Towne is of no quantity nor quality, in regard of 
the obscurenesse and solitarinesse of the Countrey, the 
better sort of their Gentry living at Naples : Having left 
the lower, and entred the higher Calabria, we arrived at 
the Bourge of Allavria ; and the next morning traversing 
close and covert mountaines, twelve miles along, in the 
midst of our passage we were beset with foure Bandits 
and foure Gunnes : To whom holding up my hand, and 
imploring for our lives, shewing them mine adventures 
and former travells, they unbend their fire-locks, and 
reading my patent of Jerusalem, uncovered their heads, 

309 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1613-15. 

and did me homage, notwithstanding they were absolute 
murderers : Our lives and liberty is granted, and for a 
greater assurance, they tooke us both in to a great thicket 
of wood, where their timberd Cabine stood, and there 
made merry with us in good Wine and the best cheare 
[VIII. 352.] their sequestrate cottage could afford. 

And now because there were forty more Bandits their 

companions among these mountaines, one of themselves 

for our safeguard, came along with us, and as neare 

Castellucia as he durst ; making me sweare that I should 

not shew the Baron of that place of their privat residence, 

neither that I met with them at all ; which I freely did, 

and so gave him many hearty and deserved thanks. 

The liberty of These Bandits or men-slayers, will come into any free 

Bandits in Towne in the night when they please, and recovering 

Calabna. either a Church or Hospitall, they stay there as they list, 

conducing with their friends, their wives, and their 

affaires ; being as safe in these places as though they had 

not committed any criminall fact, neither may the power of 

Justice reach to them, so long as they keepe themselves 

within doores. 

This is an auncient liberty which Calabria hath ever 
retained, and so is through the most part of all the Spanish 
Dominions : Having arrived at Castellucia, the Baron 
thereof made much of me, and wondred that I had safely 
past the mountaines, for said he when I go for Naples, I 
am forced to go by sea, notwithstanding I have forty in 
traine. 

The next day in passing Montecilione, the fairest and 
fruitfullest bounded Bourg in all Calabria superior ; I saw 
a distectured house ; which the people told me had beene 
the Schoole, where Dionisius the third and last Tyrant of 
Sicilia (after his flight from the Kingdome and Crowne) 
taught Children privatly nine yeares, ere hee was knowne 
to be a King, but a poore Schoolemaster. 

This higher Calabria though mountainous, aboundeth 
in delicious Wines, fine pastorage, and exceeding good 
Silke : The Peasants alwayes commonly here are addicted 

310 



COMMENTS UPON ITALY a.d. 

1613-15. 

to eate Onions, whence rose this Proverbe, I Calabrese [VIII. 353.] 

magniano di Cepoli, the Calabrians feed upon Onions. 

Their women weare uncomely habits, being hooded from 

their browes to their backes behind, with sixe or seven 

sundry colours of cloth or stuff e ; whose upper gownes 

come no further downe than their middle thighes : And 

their breaches and stockings being all one, and their legges 

halfe booted, they looke like the ghostly Armenian 

Gargosons. 

I remember in passing this higher Countrey, I found 
divers Cassales or Terraes, (small Villages) of certaine 
Greekes called Albaneses, whose predecessors had fled Grteh 
from Albania, when the Turke seased upon Epyre, and Al banemfied 
this their Province ; and was priviledged here to stay by 
the Spaniard Philip the first : And though exiled from 
their naturall Patrimonies, (Omne solum forti patria est) 
yet are they exceeding kind to strangers, measuring largely 
their owne infranchized fortune, with the voluntary 
exposement of many unnecessary Viadants : Declining 
thence to the marine Bourge of Molino, being by land 
which we footed distant from Naples 400. miles ; we 
crossed the narrow Faro, or Sycilian Euripus, to Messina 
being two miles broad. Where, when landed, and meet- 
ing with a young Scots Edenburgensen William Wylie, 
come from Palermo, and bound for Venice, I fastned 
John Browne with him to accompany his returne ; and 
on the following day imbarked them both backe for 
Calabria. 

And now having followed the Italian saying Si meglior 
a star solo come mala accompaniato ; It is better for a man 
to be alone, then in ill company ; I traversed the Kingdome 
to Trapundie seeking transportation for AfFricke, but could 
get none : And returning thence overthwart the Hand, I 
call to memory being lodged in the Bourge of Saramutza, [VIII. 354.] 
belonging to a young Baron, and being bound the way of 
Castello Francko eight miles distant and appertaining to 
another young Noble youth, I rose and marched by the 
breach of day ; where it was my lucke halfe way from 

3" 



ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1613-15. 

Two young either Towne, to finde both these beardlesse Barons, lying 
Barons killed fezd, and new killed in the fields, and their horses standing 
tyed to a bush beside them ; whereat being greatly moved, 
I approached them, and perceiving the bodies to be richly 
cled with silken Stuffes facily conjectured what they might 
be : My host having told me the former night, that these 
two Barones were at great discord, about the love of a 
young Noble woman ; and so it was, for they had fought 
the combat for her sake, and for their owne pride lay 
slaine here. For as fire is to Gun powder, so is ambition 
to the heart of man, which if it be but touched with selfe- 
love, mounteth aloft, and never bendeth downeward, till it 
be turned into ashes. 

And here it proved for that Ladies sake, that troppo 
amore turnd to Presto dolore : Upon which sight, to 
speake the trueth, I searched both their pockets, and found 
their two silken purses full loaden with Spanish Pistolls, 
whereat my heart sprung for joy, and taking five rings off 
their foure hands, I hid them and the two purses in the 
ground, halfe a mile beyond this place : And returning 
againe, leapt to one of their horses, and came galloping 
backe to Saramutza ; where calling up my host, I told him 
the accident ; who when he saw the horse gave a shout for 
sorrow, and running to the Castle told the Lady the Barons 
Mother : where in a moment, shee, her children, and the 
whole Towne runne all with me to the place, some cled, 
some naked, some on foote, and some on horse : where, 
[VIII. 355.] when come grievous was it to behold their woefull and sad 
lamentations. I thus seeing them all madde and distracted 
of their wits with sorrow, left them without good-night : 
And comming to my Treasure, made speedy way to 
Castello Franco, where bearing them the like newes, 
brought them all to the like distraction and flight of feet. 
Well, in the mutability of time there is aye some 
fortune falleth by accident, whether lawfull or not, I will 
not question, it was now mine that was last theirs, and to 
save the thing that was not lost, I travailed that day thirty 
miles further to Terra nova. Whence the next morning 

312 



1 



COMMENTS UPON TUNIS ad. 

1613-15. 

beeing earely imbarked for Malta, and there safely 

Landed ; I met with a ship of London called the Mathew, A London ship 

bound for Constantinople lying in the Roade where ^^faw! 

indeede with the Company I made merry a shoare for three 

dayes, and especially with one George Clarke their Burser, 

who striving to plant in my braines a Maltezan Vineyard, 

had almost perished his owne life. 

Upon the fourth day, they hoysing sayle, and I staying 
a shoare, it was my good lucke within eight dayes to find 
a French ship of Tolon come from the Levante, and bound 
for Tunneis by the way in going home. With whom 
desirously consorted, within three dayes we touched at 
our intended Port. And now to reckon the gold that I 
found in the aforesayd purses, it amounted to three 
hundred and odde double Pistols ; and their Rings being 
set with Dyamonds, were valued to a hundred Chickens 
of Malta, eight shillings the peece, which I dispatched for 
lesser : But the gold was my best second, which like 
Homers Iliades under Alexanders pillow, was my con- 
tinuall vade Mecum. 

Tunneis is the Capitall seate of its owne Territory, and 
of all the East and lower Barbary, containing ten thousand [VIII. 356.] 
fire-houses : And it is the place where old Carthage stood, 
that was builded by the Tyrians and Phenicians of the 
Holy Land, some three score twelve yeares before Rome, 
and had twenty miles in circuit : Which City in these 
times, was the soveraigne Queene of Affrick, and the 
onely envy, and predominant malice of the Romanes, 
being more then Romes rivall mate, in greatnesse, glory, 
and dominion : Neverthelesse in end, it was taken, sackt, 
and burnt by Scipio the Affrican Romane, some sixe 
hundred and two yeares after Rome was first founded, and 
her ruines and large Territories without, made subject to 
the ambition of Rome. 

After which detriment, desolate Carthage was rebuilded The divers 
by Caesar, and a Collony of Italians transported there, P^ nta ^ lom °f 
flourished for a time, till it was destroyed and overrunne a1 age ' 
by the Gothes and Vandales : And lastly subdued by the 

313 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1613-15. 

Sarazens and Moores, it was by them transmitted to the 
Turkish power, who now is Maister of it, being no way 
answerable to the sixe part of the greatnes it had before. 
This Towne is situate in the bottome of a Creeke, where 
the Sea for a mile having cut the bosome of the Land, 
maketh a large and safe resting place for ships and galley es. 
Which Haven and Towne is secured from Sea invasions, 
by the great and strong Fortresse of Galetto, builded on a 
high Promontore, that imbraceth the Sea, and commandeth 
the mouth of the Bay ; wherein a Turkish Bassaw, and a 
strong Garrison of Souldiers remaine : the Fort it selfe 
being well provided with armes, men, Artillery and 
munition. 

The Kingdome of Tunneis comprehended once the 
whole Countrey that the auncients called properly Affrick 
[VIII. 357.] or little Affrick, being the old Numidia, and was divided 
then in these five Provinces, Bugia, Constantino, that of 
Tunneis, Tripoly, and Ezzebba. In the Towne of Bugia, 
lying halfe way twixt Tunneis and Algeir, and 40. leagues 
from either being now called Arradetz, there was auncient 
beautifull Temples, Colledges, magnifick buildings, 
Hospitals, and Convents after their fashion : but the 
Towne being taken, and razed Anno 1508. by Peter King 
of Navarre, it hath remained ever since without beauty or 
ornament, save a few rusticke Inhabitants. 
The marine The province of Constantine, lyeth twixt Tunneis and 

provinces Bugia; the Towne Constantine, now Abirouh, being 
and Alsier Capitall, an d was surnamed Cortes and Julia: It is 
begirded with Rockes, and auncient walles contayning 
eight hundred fire-houses, wherein are the relicts of an 
Arke triumphant, formerly built by the Romanes ; and 
in this Province sixteene leagues within land, was the 
Towne of Hippo, now Bosen, whereof St. Augustine was 
Bishop. 

The Territory of Tunneis, lyeth betweene the borders 
of Abirouh Westward, and the limits of Tripoly East- 
ward, being of length foure score miles : and on this 
Sea-coast lyeth the Towne Biserta, adorned with a com- 

3M 



COMMENTS UPON TUNIS a.d. 

1613-15. 
modious Haven, and sixe Gallies, the most scelerate of 
condition, and celerious in flying or following of all the 
cursares in Turky : Tripoly in Barbary, (commonly called 
so) was once drowned by the Sea, but now its situation 
was transported safely a little more Southward ; which 
sometimes was beautified with Merchants of Genoa, 
Ragusa, and Venice, but now become a den of theeves, 
and Sea-Pirats, and so are all the marine Townes, twixt 
iEgypt and Morocco. 

The last Province of the kingdom of Numidia, is 
Ezzebba lying East from Tripoly, and confining with [VIII. 358.] 
Cyreno a pendicle of ^Egipt : The chiefest part whereof is 
Messaicke being twenty foure Leagues from Tripoly, 
contayning many Villages, and Townes on the playnes and 
Mountaynes, abounding in Silkes, Cornes, and diverse 
Fruites. 

All these five Maritine Provinces, have but narrow 
Inlands, not advancing South-ward from the Sea coast 
above forty miles. Here in Tunneis I met with our 
English Captayne, generall Waird, once a great Pyrat, and -An English 
Commaunder at Sea ; who in despight of his denied accept- Py - rai £ a ?, 
ance in England, had turned Turke, and built there a faire 
Palace, beautified with rich Marble and Alabaster stones : 
With whom I found Domesticke, some fifteene circum- 
cised English Runagates, whose lives and Countenances 
were both alike, even as desperate as disdainfull. Yet 
old Waird their maister was placable, and joyned me safely 
with a passing Land conduct to Algiere ; yea, and diverse 
times in my ten dayes staying there, I dyned and supped 
with him, but lay aboord in the French shippe. 

At last having obtayned my pasport from the Bassaw 
there, and surety taken for my life and moneyes, I 
imbraced the Land way with this Conduct, consisting of 
forty Moores, and a hundred Camels loaden with Silkes, 
Dimmeteis, and other Commodities, traversing the afore- 
sayd Regions of Abirouh, and Arradetz. In all which 
way (lying nightly in a Tent) I found a pleasant and 
fruitfull Country, abounding in Wines, Rye, Barly, 

315 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1615. 

Wheate, and all kinde of fruites, with innumerable 
villages, and so infinitely peopled, that it made me wish 
there had beene none at all ; otherwise that they had 
beene Christians, and so more civill. 
[VIII. 359.] The greatest enemy this journey designed mee, was 
the Sunne, whose exceeding heate was intollerable to 
indure, being in September Anno 161 5. But for pro- 
vision of Water, Wine, and Victuals wee had abundance. 
Upon the seaventh day of our course, wee entred in the 
Tremizen in Countrey of Tremizen, formerly Mauritanea Caesarea : 
Barbary. This Kingdome hath to the West Mauritanea Tingitana, 
contayning the Empire of Morocco and Fez. On the 
South Gotulia or Desartuous Numidia. On the East with 
the Rivers of Muluia and Amphlaga, the Marches of 
Arradetz. And on the North the Sea Mediterren, 
opposite to Sardinia. The Countrey is in length from 
the East to the West, some twenty five of their courses, 
and of our miles about three hundred ; and of breadth 
betweene the Sea and Gotulia, no more than thirty English 
miles. 

This copious Kingdome in all things, hath beene oft and 
ever molested with the Numidian Sarazens, or bastard 
Arabs, who falling downe from the Mountaines, do runne 
their carriere at random upon the ground-toyled Moores, 
to satisfie their needy and greedy desires. Tremizen or 
Telensim, had of old foure Provinces, but now onely two 
The Towne of its owne Territory, and that of Algier : Whose capitall 
Tremizen Towne being too cognominated Tremizen, contayned once 
decayed with e ighteene thousand fire houses. But in regard of Josephus 
King of Fez, who besieged it seaven yeares, over- 
mastering it and then subdued by Charles the fifth, and 
likewise the Turkes investion of it, and finally because of 
the long warres, twixt the Seriff or King there, and the 
Turke ; it is become a great deale lesser and almost dis- 
inhabited, and the most part of that Countrey subject to 
the authority of the Bassaw of Algier. 
[VIII. 360.] At last upon the twelfth day of our leaving Tunneis, 
having arrived at Algier, and abandoning my Conduct 

316 



COMMENTS UPON ALGIERS a.d. 

1615. 

with a good respect, I stayed in a Spaniards house, turned 
Runagate, who kept a roguish Taverne, and a ground 
planked Hospitality. In all this way of twelve, score 
miles, I payed no Tribute, neyther had I any eminent 
perrill, the Country being peaceable, though the people 
uncivill. 

This Towne of Algier, was formerly under subjection The theevish 
to the Kingdome of Tremizen, but because of insupport- *™? v 
able charges it revolted, and rendered to the King of ® er ' 
Arradetz or Bugia : Afterwards it was under the King of 
Spaine, from whom Barbarossa did take it Anno 151 5. 
being now under the Turke, and is situate upon the 
pendicles of a flat devalling height, and standeth tri- 
angular. The Marine side whereof is strongly fortified, 
with earth-back'd walles, Bulwarkes, and Artillery, but 
the semi-squared land-walles, are of small importance, and 
easily to be surprised ; and three miles in circuite, con- 
tayning some thirty thousand persons. 

There is a Turkish Bashaw here, and a strong Garrison 
of sixe thousand Janizaries, with two hundred Cursary 
ships or Pyrats who ever preying upon Christian Com- 
mercers, by their continuall spoyles and prises, have made 
the divelish Towne wonderfull rich ; and become the 
inveterate enemy of Christendome ; being now a King- 
dome of it selfe, and in length from East to West betweene 
the Townes Terracot and Guargola, some sixe score miles. 
It hath a long reaching mould in the Sea, that maketh a 
safe harbor for their ships agaynst Northerly windes, which 
on that Coast are deadly dangerous. At this time, the 
greatest part of the Towne were fled to the mountaynes to 
shun the parching heate that beateth violently on the [VIII. 361.] 
Plaines, and Sea-shore ; so doe all the maritine Townes of 
Barbary the like every Sommer, for the moneths July, 
August, and September : which then being left halfe naked 
of defence, it were the onely time for Christianes to invade 
or surprise their Townes. 

I found here abundance of slaves, most of them 
Spaniards, whom they dayly constraine within Towne to 

317 



ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1615. 

beare all manner of burdens here and there, and without 
Towne to drudge in the fields, amongst their Vines and 
Cornes, and other toyling labours, abusing them still with 
buffets and bastinadoes as their perverstnesse listeth : 
Neither durst I leave my lodging, unlesse I had three or 
foure Christian slaves to guide me, and guard me too from 
scelerate vulgars : who beare no respect to any stranger 
A naturall nor free Franck. Here I remarked a wonderfull policy 
sublime policy . in the Turkish state, concerning these thiftuous and 
rapinous Townes of Barbary ; who as they are ordained 
ever to plague and prey upon the Spaniard, yet under that 
colour they licentiat them to make havock and seaze upon 
all other Christiane ships, goods, and persons as they 
please, the French Nation excepted : And so they doe 
notwithstanding of our several Ambassadours lying at 
Constantinople, who rather stay there as Mungrells than 
absolute Ambassadours : for why should Christian Princes 
meditate for peace and commerce with the Turke, when 
theirs, with his subjects the Barbarian Moores have no 
safety ; they being obedient to his lawes, and over-ruled 
by Bassawes, as well as these are of Asia and Easterne 
Europe: from which I gather, as from all other like 
examples, that there is a more sublime over-mastering 
policy, subtility, and provident foresight, in meere naturall 
men as Turkes be, then in our best Grandeurs, for all 
their Sciences, & schoole studies can either perceive or 
[VIII. 362.] perform farre less prosecute. To which avowed dangers 
if any small ship, ruled by rash fellowes, should adventure 
within the straites, as too many English doe, beeing unable 
and unprovided for defence ; and so are taken & Capti- 
vated, and afterward redeemed by Contributions over the 
Land : I justly affirme it, they deserve rather to be pun- 
ished, and remayne there in punishment, then any reliefe 
or redemption to be wrought for them, who will nakedly 
hazard themselves in knowne perrils, without Ordonance, 
munition, and a burdenable ship. 

But reverting to my purpose, the marine Provinces 
which lye betweene ^Egypt and Sewty, over agaynst 

318 



COMMENTS UPON ALGIERS a.d. 

1615. 

Gibelterre being the Straits, are these ; Cyrene, Barca The 
Marmorica, Ezzeba, the Trypolian Jurisdiction, the King- Barbarian 
domes of Tunneis, Abirouh, Arradetz, Tremizen, Algier, t ^) n ^ es pt 
and a part of Fez ; extending to two thousand and three ana > 
hundred Maritine miles : All which, by ignorant Sea-men, Gibelterre. 
and ruvide Moores is tearmed Barbary, who can not dis- 
tinguish parts nor provinces, but even as the Orientall 
Turkes doe, that denominate all Asia minor, under the 
name Carmania, and know no further of their ancient nor 
particular titles. 

Now as concerning their Customes, it is the fashion of 
all these Barbarian Moores, in marrying of their wives, 
that after the Bridegroome and the Bride are inrolled by 
their Totsecks or Priests in the Mosque before the Parents 
of each party, and the Bride presently brought home to 
the house of her Husband, accompanied with al their 
Friends, Musicke, and Revelling : He immediatly with- 
draweth her to a private Chamber, having onely one old 
woman standing by them in a corner of the Roome : where 
hee lying with the Bride, and shee being found a Mayde, 
by a certayne cloath layd under her privy place, which [VIII. 363.] 
being by the old Hagge drawne out, and found sprinkled 
with spots of blood shee presenteth it first to him, as a 
token of virginity ; and then forthwith runneth through 
the house, among all the friends of the new married 
couple, crying with a loud voyce, and carrying the bloody 
napkin in her hand, the Virgine-bride is broken up ; 
whereat they all rejoyce, giving rewards and good cheare 
to the Cryer : But if the bride be not found a Mayd, then The tryallof 
he returneth her backe unto her Parents which they Moorish 
accompt as an immortall shame, and the nuptiall feast, and 
all the asistants thereunto, are suddenly dismissed : But 
if a Virgine, the banquet continueth all the first day, with 
great cheare, dancings, revellings, with Musicall Instru- 
ments of divers sorts. 

The second night is onely the feast of women for both 
parties ; and the third banquet is made on the seventh day 
after the nuptiall, the provision of which the father of the 

3 r 9 



Brides. 



A.D. 
1615. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 



Bride sendeth to the house of his new sonne in law : where 
after this banquet, and the seventh day, in the next morn- 
ing the Bridegroeme goeth then abroad from his house 
(which hee doth not till the aforesayd time) unto the 
market place, where he buyeth a number of fish to carry 
with him to his dwelling, as a signe of good lucke, it being 
an auncient custome through the most part of all the 
Notherne Affrick. 

The men and women at such meetings dance a part, 
each of them having their own Musicke and orders of 
merriment. 

They have also a custome when that Infants beginne to 
breed teeth, their Parents will make a solemne feast to 
all the Children of the Towne, with divers ceremonies ; 
which custome they reserve yet, in divers parts of Italy. 
[VIII. 364.] The women through all Barbary, weare abundance of 
Bracelets on their armes, and Rings in their eares, but not 
through the nose and lips as the ^Egyptians doe ; and 
turne also the nayles of their hands and feete to red, 
accounting it a base thing to see a white naile : The men 
here for the most part, are the best Archers, and Horse- 
men that are in ArTrick, and take great pleasure in breeding 
of their Barbes : So are they both active and couragious, 
and very desperate in all their attempts, being all of the 
Mahometanicall Religion, though more ignorant thereof 
than the Turkes : some whereof are subject to the Turke, 
some to the Emperour of Morocco, and some to their 
owne barbarous Princes. 

And now it was my fortune here in Algier, after 12. 
dayes abode, to meete with a French Lapidator, Monsieur 
Chatteline borne in Aise du Provance, who intending to 
visit Fez, joyned company with me, and we with certaine 
Merchants of Algier that were going hither : being in all 
30. passengers, with two Jannizaries and a Dragoman. 

Whence advancing our way, some on Mules, and some 
on foote, with Asses carrying our baggage and provision ; 
we left the marine Townes of Saly and Tituana, far to 
the West on our right hand, and facing the in-land wee 

320 



Monsieur 
Chatteline a 
French 
Lapidator. 



COMMENTS UPON FEZ a.d. 

1615. 

marched for three dayes through a fruitfull and populous 

soyle : And although the peoples barbarous and disdaine- 

full countenances were awfull, yet we two went still free 

of tributs, as not being a thing with them accustomary, 

to execute exaction on Francks as the Turkes and Moores 

do in Asia, neither understood they what wee were, being 

cled with company, and after their fashion : save onely that 

nature had set a fairer stamp on my face, than theirs, 

which oft I wished had beene as blacke as their uglines. 

In this misculat journeying of paine & pleasure we found [VIII. 365.] 

every where strong Wines, abundance of excellent bread, 

and the best, and greatest Hens bred on the earth, with 

plenty of Figges, Fruits, Olives, and delicious oyle, yea, 

and innumerable Villages, the houses whereof are all 

builded with mudde, and platformed on their tops ; and 

so are they in Asia, and all Affrick over. 

Upon the fourth day having past the Plaines, we 
entered in a hilly Countrey, yet pastorable ; where I 
beheld here and there clouds of Tents, filled with maritine 
people, that were fled hither from the Sea coast for the 
fresh and cooling ayre. 

And upon these pleasant and umbragious heights, I saw 
the fields overcled with flocks of Sheepe and Goats : which 
Sheepe are wondrous great, having from their rumpes and 
hips, broad and thicke tayles growing, and hanging to the 
ground, some whereof when sold, will weigh 16. 18. or 
20. pounds weight, and upwards. Here among the 
mountaines, our company knowing well the Countrey, 
tooke a great advantage of the way, and on the seventh 
day in the morning, wee arrived at the great Towne of Mine arrival 
Fez : where the French man and I were conducted by at Fez - 
some of our company to a great Moorish Inne or Taverne : 
& there received, we were as kindly & respectively used, as 
ever I was in any part of the Turks Dominions, being 
now out of them, & in the Empire of Morocco. 

This City of Fez is situate upon the bodies and twice 
double devalling faces of two hills, like to Grenada in 
Andelosia in Spaine ; the intervale, or low valley betweene 
l 321 x 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1615. 

both (through which the torride River of Marraheba 
runneth Southward) being the Center and chiefest place, is 
the most beautifull and populous part of the City ; the 
situation of which, and of the whole, is just set under the 
Tropick of Cancer. 

[VIII. 366.] Over which River, and in this bottome, there are three 
score and seaven Bridges of stone and Timber, each of 
them being a passage for open streetes on both sides. The 
intervayle consisteth of two miles in length, and halfe a 
mile broad ; wherein, besides five Chereaffs or Market 
places, there are great Palaces, magnificke Mosquees, 

Great Colledges, Hospitals, and a hundred Palatiat Tavernes, 

Colkdges and ^ worst whereof, may lodge a Monarchicke trayne : 

0S P l a • Most part of all which buildings, are three and foure 

stories high, adorned with large and open Windowes, long 

Galleries, spacious Chambers, and flat tectures or square 

platformes. 

The streetes being covered above, twixt these plaine- 
set Fabrickes, have large Lights cut through the tectur'd 
tops every where ; in whose lower shoppes or Roomes 
are infinite Merchandize, and Ware of all sorts to bee 
sold. 

The people of both kindes are cloathed in long breeches 
and bare Ancles, with red or yellow shooes shod with Iron 
on the Heeles, and on the Toes with white Home ; and 
weare on their bodies long Robes of Linning or Dimmety, 
and silken Wast-coates of diverse Colours : The behaviour 
of the Vulgars being far more civill toward Strangers then 
at Constantinople ; or else where in all Turkey. 

The Women here go unmasked abroad, wearing on 
their heads, broad, and round Capes, made of Straw or 
small Reedes, to shade their faces from the Sunne ; and 
damnable Libidinous, beeing prepared both wayes to 
satisfie the lust of their Luxurious Villaines ; neyther are 
they so strictly kept as the Turkish Women, marching 
where they please. 

There are some twelve thousand allowed Brothell- 

[VIII. 367.] houses in this Towne, the Courtezans being neatly kept, 

322 







The Modell of the Great City of Fez 



COMMENTS UPON FEZ a.d. 

1615. 

and weekely well looked to by Physitians ; but worst of 

all, in the Summer time, they openly Lycentiat three 

thousand common Stewes of Sodomiticall boyes : Nay I 

have seene at mid-day, in the very Market places, the 

Moores buggering these filthy Carrions, and without 

shame or punishment go freely away. 

There are severall Seates of Justice heere (though none 
to vindicate beastlinesse) occupied by Cadeis and San- 
zackes, which twice a Weeke heare all differences and 
complaints : their chiefe Seriff, or Vicegerent, being sent 
from Morocco, is returned hither agayne every third yeare. 

The two Hills on both sides the planur'd Citty, East, The beauty 
and West, are over-cled with streetes and Houses of two *** &****** 
stories high, beeing beautified also with delicate Gardens, °* 
and on their extreame devalling parts, with numbers of 
Mosquees and Watch-towers : On which heights, and 
round about the Towne, there stand some three hundred 
Wind-mils ; most part whereof pertayne to the Mosques, 
and the two magnifick Colledges erected for education of 
Children, in the Mahometanicall Law, 

One of which Accademies, cost the King Habahennor 
in building of it, foure hundred and three score thousand 
Duckets. Jacob sonne to Abdulach the first King of the 
Families of Meennons, divided Fez in three parts, and 
with three severall Walles, though now invironed with 
onely one, and that broken downe in sundry parts. 

The chiefest Mosque in it, is called Mammo-Currarad, 
signifying the glory of Mahomet, being an Italian mile 
in Compasse, and beautified with seventeene high ground 
Steeples, besides Turrets and Towers : having thirty foure 
entring Doores ; beeing supported within, and by the [VIII. 368.] 
length, with forty eight pillars, and some twenty three The modell of 
Ranges of pillars in breadth, besides many lies, Quires, the great City 
and circulary Rotundoes : Every Pillar having a Lampe °f Fez - 
of Oyle burning thereat; where there, and through the 
whole Mosque, there are every night nine hundred Lamps [VIII. 369.] 
lighted ; and to maintaine them, and a hundred Totsecks 
and preaching Talsumans, the rent of it extendeth to two 

3 2 3 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1615. 

hundred Duccats a day : Neverthelesse there are in the 
City besides it, more then foure hundred and threescore 
The magntfick Mosquees ; fifty whereof are well benefited and superbi- 
Mosque of ous ly decored within and without, with glorious and 
extraordinary workmanship, whose rooffes within are all 
Mosaick worke, and curiously indented with Gold, and 
the walles and pillars being of grey Marble, interlarded 
with white Alabaster, and so is the chiefe Mosque too in 
which Monsieur Chatteline and I had three sundry 
recourses accompanied with our Moorish hoste, who from 
their Priests had procured that licence for us. This 
City aboundeth in all manner of provision fit for man or 
beast, & is the goodliest place of all North Affrick, con- 
tayning a hundred and twenty thousand fire-houses, and 
in them a million of soules : Truely this is a world for a 
City, and may rather second Grand Caire, than subjoyne 
it selfe to Constantinople, being farre superior in great- 
nesse with Aleppo : For these are the foure greatest Cities, 
that ever I saw in the world, either at home or abroad. 

The Cittizens here are very modest and zealous at their 
divine services, but great dauncers and revellers on their 
solemne festivall dayes, wherein they have Bull-beating, 
Maskerats, singing of rimes, and processions of Priests. 
The Moores in times past of Fez and Morocco, had divers 
excellent personages, well learned, and very civill ; for 
amongst the Kings Mahometan one can not praise too 
much the Kings Almansor, Maunon, and Hucceph, being 
most excellent men in their superstition. 
[VIII. 370.] In whose times flourished the most famous medicines, 
and Philosophers that were among the Pagans, as A 
Vicenne, Rasis, Albumazar, Averroes, &c. with other great 
numbers maintained by the Kings of Morocco, that then 
were Masters of all Barbary and Spaine : As in Spaine 
may be seene yet, (though now fallen in decay) a great 
number of their Colledges, shewing they were great lovers 
of their Religion and Doctrine, and are so to this day, save 
onely in their drinking of Wine forbidden by their 
Alcoran. They were great devisers too of gallant sport- 

324 



COMMENTS UPON FEZ a.d. 

1615. 

ings, exercises, turnaments, and Bull-beating, which 
Spayne retaineth to this time ; yea, and the Romanes did 
learne, and follow many of them. 

Here in Fez there be a great number of Poets, that 
make Songs on divers subjects, especially of Love, and 
Lovers, whom they openly name in their rimes, without 
rebuke or shame : All which Poets once every yeare, agane Poets among ^ 
Mahomets birth-day, make rimes to his praise ; meane- Barbanans tn 
while in the after noone of that festivall day, the whole & ea reques ' 
Poets assembling in the market place, there is a Dasked 
chayre prepared for them, whereon they mount one after 
another to recite their verses in audience of all the people ; 
and who by them is judged to be best, is esteemed all that 
yeare above the rest, having this Epithite the Prince of 
Poets, and is by the Vicegerent and Towne rewarded ; 
But in the time of the Maennon Kings, the Prince on that 
day in his owne Pallace did conveine the whole Cittizens, 
in whose presence he made a solemne feast to all the best 
Poets ; causing every one of them to recite the praise of 
Mahomet before his face, standing on a high scaffold : 
And to him that was thought to excell the rest, the King 
gave him 100. Sultans of gold, an horse, a woman slave, 
& the long Robe that was about him for the time: And [VIII. 371.] 
to each one of the rest he caused give fifty Sultans, so that 
every one should have some recompense for their paines : 
Indeed a worthy observance ; and would to God it were 
now the custome of our Europian Princes to doe the like, 
and especially of this He, then would bravest wits, and 
quickest braines, studdy and strive to show the exquisit 
ingeniosity of their best styles, and pregnant invention, 
which now is ecclipsed, and smotherd downe, because now 
a dayes, there is neither regard nor reward for such excel- 
lent Pen-men. Fez was aunciently named Sylda, whose 
Kingdome hath Atlas to the South, the River of Burdraga 
to the East, and Tremizen : Morocco to the West : And 
the confynes of Guargula, and a part of the Sea to the 
North : Having spent in Fez 17. dayes, in all which time, 
we daily conversed with some Christian Abasines, 

325 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1615. 

Heragens or Heragenes, or Ethiopian Nigroes, some whereof were 
Ethiopian Merchands, and some religious ; and Monsieur Chat- 
egtoes. telines businesse not effected, seeking Diamonds and 

precious stones to buy ; was seriously advised by them, to 
goe for Arracon, a great Towne on the Frontiers of the 
Northerne ^Ethiopia : where he would finde abundance of 
such at an easie rate, giving him a perfit direction for his 
passage hither being 30. daies journey : he concluded with 
their counsell his resolution, and perswading me to the 
same intention, I yeeld, being over-mastred with the 
greedy desire of more sights. 

Meanewhile for our conduct, we hire a Dragoman Moore 
that spoke Italiens to be our Interpreter, and with him a 
Tent, and two Moorish drudges to guide, guard, & serve 
us by the way of fifty eight Sultans for gold, eighteene 
pounds foure shillings English : having sixe of their 
Kinsmen fast bound to a Sanzak or Justice, for our lives, 
liberties, and moneyes. 
[VIII. 372.] Hereupon having provided our selves, with all necessary 
things, and a Mule to carry our Victuals, Water and 
Baggage, we discharged our conscionable Hostage, at 
twenty Aspers a day the man, being thirty foure shillings 
to each of us ; and were brought on our way, by the afore- 
sayd Christian Heragenes some foure Leagues. Where 
having left them with dutifull thankes, wee set forward 
in our journey, and for seaven dayes together wee were 
not violently molested by any thing, save intolerable 
heate, finding tented people and scattered Villages all the 
way. 

The eight day, the way being fastidious and Rockey, 

Chatteline the and Chatteline on foot, he succumb'd, and could not sub- 

French Lap- s \ s ^ not beeing used to pedestriall travayle ; and for our 

sicke ^ €n Detter speed and his reliefe, wee mounted him aloft on the 

top of our baggage. At last arriving at Ahetzo (where we 

reposed) being the furthest and South-most Towne of the 

Kingdome of Fez, composed of a thousand fire-houses, 

well fortified with Walles, and a Garrison of Moores in it, 

subject to the Emperour of Morocco : the French-man 

326 



COMMENTS UPON THE LIBYAN DESERT a.d. 

1615. 

long or day, fell sicke of a burning Feaver : Whereuppon 

wee stayed five dayes expecting his health, which growing 

worse and worse, and hee mindfull to returne, which I 

would not : I left him in safe custody, and one of our 

Drudges to attend him till Fez. And bearing the charges 

of the other two, according to the former condition : I set 

forward for my purpose, which ere long turned to sad 

Repentance. 

Leaving Ahetzo behind us, and entring the Countrey 
of the Agaroes, we found the best inhabitants halfe cled, 
the Vulgars naked, the Countrey voyd of Villages, Rivers, 
or Cultivage : but the soyle rich in Bestiall, abounding in 
Sheep, Goates, Camels, Dromidores, and passing good [VIII. 373.] 
horses : Having an Emeere of their owne, being subject 
to none, but to his owne passions, and them to the dis- 
position of his scelerate nature ; yet hee, and they had a 
bastard show of Mahometanicall Religion : Their Bestiall 
are watered with sources, and the pastorable fields, with 
the nightly Serene, and themselves with the Watrish con- 
cavity of the earth. In our sixe dayes toyle, traversing 
this Countrey, we had many troubles and snarlings from 
these Savages, who sometimes over-laboured us with 
Bastinadoes, and were still inquirous what I was, and 
whether I went ; yea, and enough for the Dragoman to 
save my life and liberty. 

Having past the perverstnesse of this calamity, upon 
the seaventh day, wee rancountred with another soyle, 
and worser tribe of the Hagans or Jamnites, most part The Tribe of 
whereof were white Moores, a people more uglye then *%* H ?S ans or 
the Nigroes, yet some of the better sort had their members 
covered, but of condition farre more wicked then the 
former. 

They are ruled by a Seriff, whose Guard is composed 
of women, and young Balars, pages ; seeming rather to 
live without Religion, then acknowledging any kinde of 
Deity. Here my Dragoman, doubting of his passage, 
and the difficilnesse of the Countrey, which arose from 
his ignorantnesse thereof, was inforced to hyre a Hagan 

327 



A.D. 

1615. 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 



guide, to bring us to the province of Abadud, bordering 
with ^Ethiopia. But by your leave, our guide having led 
us for five dayes together South-eastward, and almost 
contrary to our purpose : in the sixt night of our Repose, 
he stole away, eyther for feare or falshood, mistaking our 
journey, or deceiving us for despight, the halfe of his 
Wages being payed him before. Well, the Villaine gone, 

[VIII. 374.] and my Dragoman the next day continuing our faces, in 
the same Arte, wee were long or night involved in a 
dis-inhabited Country, being Desartuous and dangerous 
for Wilde beasts, and full of Mountaynes. Pitching our 
Tent neare to a Rocke, we burnt all that night shrubs of 
Tara, to affright the Beasts of all kinds, and so did we 
every night of that wofull wandring, which flaming light 

[VIII. 375.] their nature cannot abide. Day come, and our comfort 
yet fresh, we sought further in, thinking to finde people 
and Tents to relieve us with Victuales, and informe us 
of the Countrey, but we found none, neither seven daies 
thereafter. The matter growing hard, and our victuals 
and water done, we were forced to relye upon Tobacco, 
and to drinke our owne wayning pisse, for the time afore- 
sayd. 

The Soyle we daily traced, was covered with hard and 
soft Sands, and them full of Serpents, being interlarded 
with Rockey heights, faced with Caves and Dens : the very 
habitacle of Wilde beasts, whose hollow cryes, as we heard 
in the night, so we too often sighted their bodies in the 
day, especially Jackals, Beares, and Boares, and sometimes 
Cymbers, Tygers, and Leopards, agaynst whom in the day 
time if they approached us, we eyther shot off a Harque- 
buse, or else flashed some powder in the Ayre ; the smell 
whereof, no ravenous beast can abide. 

This vast Wildernesse is a part of the Berdoans Coun- 
trey, one of the foure tribes of the olde Lybians, the 
Sabuncks, the Carmines, and the Southerne Garolines, 
being the other three. And now to helpe the expression 
of my grievous distresse and miseries, my Muse must 
lament the rest. 

328 



The Wilde 
Beasts of the 
Libian 
Desarts. 




The Author in the Libyan Desart 



COMMENTS UPON THE LIBYAN DESERT a.d. 

1615. 
Ah! sightlesse desarts! fil'd with barren Sands! 
And parched plaines ; where huge and hilly lands 
Have stone-fac'd scurrile bounds : O monstrous feare ! 
What destiny, drove my cross'd Fortune here? 
By day Pme scoarch'd with heate, by night the grounds 
Are cled with beasts ; whose rage sends horrid sounds 
Of dreadfull death : whence we to shunne their ire, 
Are forc'd to fright them, with bright Tara fire: [VIII. 376.] 

For if it were not, that they scarr'd at Light, 
No man could walke, or rest, safe in the night. 
Then next and nigh, the crawling Serpents lurke 
Still under foote, some stung-swolne smart to worke ; 
Which moove the Sands like Seas, in seeking shade, 
Where 'mongst their linking roles, Pme forc'd to wade : 
Whose neckes like legs are round, their bodies strong, 
With blacke-spred backes, their length full two yards 

long : 
Yet whilst I cut, and crush their warbling wombe, 
I point their death, their skin, I make their tombe. 
But worst Pme hungerbit, and starving slaine 
With pinching want, a sore-sunke gnawing paine : 
O helplesse torture! second'd with great drouth 
And fiery thirst, that scabbe my lips and mouth : 
Where for fine lyquor, as my heart would wish, 
Stress'd wandring I, am forc'd to drinke my pisse : 
So turnes my food to smoake, the smoake to ashes 
Which twice a night, we three do spend in flashes : 
Last casts my face the skin, my skin the colour, 
And spewing forth fled joyes, I drinke in dolour. 
Thus with the Torrid Zone, am I opprest, 
And lock'd twixt Tropickes two, which me invest. 
Where for reliefe, I pierc'd the Heavens with cryes, 
And cut the Clouds, to grieve the azure skies 
With sighs and grones ; yet carefull to regard 
My curious drifts, had got their just reward. 

But to shorten my Discourse, of barren Wildernesses, 
supposed to be a part of the Lybian Desarts, my Drago- 

329 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1615. 

man upon the fourth day of our seaven being there, falling 
in despaire, and wondring to see me indure such heate, 
[VIII. 377.] such hunger, and such toyle, did threaten mee with death, 
to make me seeke backe for our nearest refuge : Where- 
upon holding our course North-east, my compasse-Dyall 
being our guide, we rancountred earely on the eight day, 
with nine hundred Savages, naked Lybian Sabunks : five 
hundred whereof, were women armed with Bowes and 
Arrowes ; who with their complices, the former night had 
put to the sword, three hundred Berdoanes, their neigh- 
bour tribe : carrying away above sixe thousand Sheepe and 
Goats besides other bestiall : from whom after our sight of 
their Emeere or Prince, we had first liberty of life, and 
then reliefe of food ; for he came up in the Reare, with a 
hundred Horse-men charged with halfe Pikes, headed at 
The prince of both ends with sharpe Steele : The person of their Prince 
the Sabuncks was nely clothed from his breasts downe to his middle 
appaire . thigh w ith a Crimson vayle of Silke, hanging on his naked 
shoulders with coloured Ribans, and on his head a party 
coloured Shash set like a Garland : Both his knees were 
bare, so were his ancles, the calves of his legges being 
girded with Crimson Silke, and on his feet yellow shooes ; 
his beard was like his face, burnt with the Sun, and his 
age like to my owne, of 33. yeares, his Religion is damn- 
able, so is his life, for hee and all the foure tribes of Lybia 
worship onely for their God, Garlick, having Altars, 
Priests, and superstitious rites annexed to it : Thinking 
Garlicke, being strong of it selfe, and the most part of 
their food, to have a soveraigne vertue in a herball Deity. 
All his Courtiers were starke naked saving his Page, who 
was even covered like to the King his Master. 

And now having dismissed his Army for the way, and 
falling in a houres parley with us at his departure, he 
propyned me with his Bowe, & a Quiver of Arrowes, 
which afterward, I presented to his Majesty, then Prince. 
[VIII. 378.] There is a merry secret heere concerning the women, 
which often I recited to King James of Blessed memory, 
showing him also three Certificates of this my Desartuous 

33° 









COMMENTS UPON THE LIBYAN DESERT ad. 

1615. 

wandring : one of which was confirmed by English Waird 
at Tunneis upon the Dragomans Report ; though now 
they with all my other Patents are lost, in the Inquisition 
of Malaga. This former savage Prince sent a Guide with 
us for foure dayes journey, the condition of his mans 
Wages being made by himselfe, and franckly advised us 
that Tunneis was our best and nearest Recourse. Which 
being forcibly considered, I was constrayned to renew my 
bargaine agayne with the Dragoman, at the rate of forty 
five Sultans of gold, to bring me safely hither. 

This Sabunck Guide, to whom I gave five Sultans, 
thirty five shillings, brought us through the most Habit- 
able vallies, and best cled passages of the Countrey with 
Tents : where every day once we found Water, Bread, 
Garlicke and Onions, and sometimes Hennes at twenty 
Aspers the peece, two shillings ; which we would Rost, or 
scorch dry (if trueth may have credite) at the very face 
of the Sunne, and so eate them. Upon the fift day, our 
Guide leaving us in the after-noone, well setled among 
foure hundred Tents of Numidian Moores, or bastard 
Arabians, pitched in a pleasant Valley, betweene two 
sources of Water, wee stayed still there Reposing our 
selves, and Refreshing our bodies with Victuals, some nine 
dayes. 

Heere among these Tents, I saw Smiths Worke out Moorish 
of cold Iron, Horse-shooes, and Nayles, which is onely Smiths forging 
molified by the vigorous heate and Raies of the Sunne, j'jTTfl 
and the hard hammering of hands upon the An vile : So w i t ( out * re 
have I seene it also in Asia. I could bee more particular but the heat of 
here, but Time, Paper, Printing, and charges will not the Sun. 
suffer me. And now from hence, renewing our Guides [ VI11 - 379-J 
from place to place, and discending from Savage Moores 
to Civill Moores, we arrived (though with great difficulty 
and danger) safely at Tunneis. 

And to conclude this Eight Part, there are three Beg- TheBeglerbeg- 
lerbergships in the higher and lower Barbary : The first is *j& °f 
at Trypolis, which was taken in by Sinan Bassa from the ar ary ' 
Knights of Malta 1551. and commaundeth under him 

33i 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1615. 

eight thousand Tymariots, besides sixe thousand Janni- 
zaries. The second is at Tunneis, the Beglerbeg whereof, 
being of great Authority, commaundeth under him twelve 
Sanzackes, and thirty five thousand Tymariots. The third 
is, that of Algier, whose Bassa hath under him fourteene 
Sanzacks, and the commaundment of forty thousand 
Tymariots. These are all the Beglerbegs, the Great Turke 
retayneth in Affricke, except the great Vizier-Bassa of 
iEgipt : although in Asia major and Minor, he com- 
mandeth in severall Provinces and Kingdomes, thirty 
Bassaes or Beglerbegs. 



332 



A.D. 
I6l6. 



THE NINTH PART 

TUnneis beene sightlesse left, I sought the He 
Of little Malta : famous for the stile 
Of honoured Knight-hood, drawne from great Saint John, 
Whose Order and the Manner, Pie expone : 
Whence Coasting Sicilie, a tripled view 
I tooke of iEtna : Time discussing you 
A miracle of Mettall ; for its Kind 
Is nurs'd by Raine, and suffled up with wind : 
And thwarting Italy, the Venice Gulfe, 
Carindia, Carneola, the stiffe stream'd Dolf ; 
Head-strong Danubio, Vienne, Austriaes Queene, 
And Kinde Moravia, set before mine eyne. 
To Hungary I came, and Vallechie, 
The Transilvanian Soile, and Moldavie. 
Whence sighting Polle, and many Scotsmans face, 
I Kiss'd Sigismonds hands, at Warsow place : 
Whence Swethland I, and Denmarke last bewray, 
Noruegia too, in my sought London way ; 
Where bin arriv'd, safe on the brow of Thames, 
To Court I came, and homag'd Royall James. 

Nd now my Wish, and my arrivall, being 
both desirous for a while setled in 
Tunneis, I dispatched my Dragoman, and 
the other Barbarian hireling, with a 
greater consideration, then my two former 
conditions allowed me : Yet being urged 
to it by Captaine Wairds decernitour, I 
freely performed his Direction. My Conduct gone, and 

333 



[IX. 380.] 




A.D. 
I6l6. 



The hatching 
of Chicken 
without their 
mothers. 



[IX. 381.] 



Captaine 

Dansers 

imployment. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

I staying heere, Captayne Waird sent twice one of his ser- 
vants with me to see two sundry Ovens drawne, beeing 
full of young Chickens, which are not hatched by their 
mothers, but in the Fornace, being thus. The Oven is 
first spred over with warme Camels dung, and upon it 
the Egges, closing the Oven. 

Then behind the Oven, there is a daily conveyance of 
heate, venting through a passage beneath the dung, just 
answerable to the naturall warmnesse of the Hens belly ; 
upon which moderation, within twenty dayes they come to 
naturall perfection. The Oven producing at one time, 
three or foure hundred living Chickens, and where defec- 
tion is, every sharer beareth a part of the losse ; for 
the Hatcher or Curator, is onely Recompensed according 
to the living numbers be delivered. Surely this is an 
usuall thing, almost through all AfFricke, which maketh 
that the Hennes with them are so innumerable every 
where. 

And now it was my good fortune, after five Weekes 
attendance for Transportation, being about the 14. of 
February 161 6. to meete here with a Holland ship called 
the Marmaide of Amsterdam, beeing come from Tituana, 
and bound for Venice and Malta, touched here by the 
way. In this time of their staying, came one Captayne 
Danser a Fleming, who had beene a great Pyrate and 
Commaunder at Seas, and the onely inveterate enemy of 
the Moores ; beeing imployed by the French King in 
Ambassage, to relieve two and twenty French Barkes that 
were there Captivated, done by the policy of the Bashaw, 
to draw Danser hither ; notwithstanding that hee was then 
Retired, and marryed in Marseilles. 

Well, he is come, and Anchored in the Roade, accom- 
panied with two French Gentlemen : Two of which came 
a shoare, and saluted the Bashaw in Dansers behalfe : 
they are made welcome, and the next day the Bashaw went 
franckly a boord of Danser, seconded with twelve 
followers : Danser tooke the presence of the Bashaw for 
a great favour, and mainely feasted him with good cheare, 



334 






COMMENTS UPON TUNIS a.d. 

1616. 

great quaffing, sounding Trumpets, and Roaring shots, 
and none more familiar then the dissembling Bashaw, 
and over-joyed Danser, that had relieved the Barkes, for 
they were all sent to him that morning, not wanting 
any thing. 

After deepe cups, the Bassaw invites him to come a [IX. 382.] 
shoare, the day following, and to dine with him in the 
Fortresse: To the which unhappy Danser graunted, 
and the time come, he landed with twelve Gentlemen, 
and nearing the Castle, was met with two Turkes to 
receive him : where having past the draw-bridge, & the 
gate shut behind him, his company was denied entrance : 
where forthwith Danser being brought before the Bassaw, 
was strictly accused of many ships, spoyles, and great 
riches he had taken from the Moores, and the mercilesse 
murther of their lives, for he never spared any : Where- 
upon he was straight beheaded, and his body throwne over The untimely 
the walles in a ditch ; which done, off went the whole death °f 
Ordonance of the Fort, to have sunke Dansers two ships ; ^ ta ^ ne 
but they cutting their cables, with much adoe escaped, but p/eming bom. 
for the other Gentlemen a shoare, the Bassaw sent them 
very courteously and safely aboord of the redeemed Barks, 
whence they hoised Sayles for Marseilles. 

Loe there was a Turkish policy more sublime and crafty, 
than the best Europian alive could have performed. A 
little while thereafter, the afore-said Hollander being 
ready to goe for Sea, I bad goodnight to Generous Waird, 
and his rroward Runagates, where being imbarked, with 
prosperous windes upon the third day, wee landed at 
Malta, and there leaving my kind Flemings and their 
negotiation, I courted the shoare, saluting againe my 
former hoste. 

The fift day of my staying here, I saw a Spanish 
Souldier and a Maltezen boy burnt in ashes, for the 
publick profession of Sodomy, and long or night, there 
were above a hundred Bardassoes, whoorish boyes that fled 
away to Sicilie in a Galleyot, for feare of fire but never 
one Bugeron stirred, being few or none there free of it : [IX. 383.] 

335 



ad LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1616. 

The Knights that remaine here, as they are of divers 
howsoever, they of the better sort, are resolute in their 
atchievements. 

The Maltezes aunciently did adore the Goddesse Juno, 
whose Temple was superbiously adorned with rich decore- 
ments, and to which for homage and devotion, came all 
the Inhabitants of the circumjacent lies ; bringing rich 
presents and gifts ; and they were also honored with the 
. Temple of Hercules, the ruines of which appeare to this 
day. 

Now as for their order of Knighthood, the oath which is 

made at their receiving, in the order of St. John, or of the 

Thefirmall Religion of the holy Hospitall of Jerusalem, is thus : I 

oath of the V ow, and promise to God, to the most blessed Virgin 

Malta' °^ Mai 7> tJie Motner °f God, and to our glorious Patrone 

St. John the Baptist, that by the grace and helpe of 

Heaven, I shall ever be obedient to the superiour, that God 

and this Religion have appointed ; and from henceforth 

that I shal live chast, forsaking Marriage, and all other 

lusts, and to be without the proper possession of any thing 

that may be mine. 

After this, the Chappell clarke, a Priest of the order, 
receiving him with divers ceremonies, taketh a blacke 
Cloak in his hand, and shewing him the white crosse that 
is fixed thereon ; demandeth if he doth not beleeve that 
to be the signe of the Crosse, whereon Jesus Christ was 
crucified for our sinnes, he confesseth it, kissing the 
Crosse : After which, his receiver putteth the crosse of the 
Cloake upon the heart and left side of the new made 
Knight, saying : Receive this signe in the name of the 
trinity, the blessed Mother of God, the Virgin Mary, and 
of St. John the Baptist, for the augmentation of the 
[IX. 384.] Catholick faith, the defence of the Christian name and 
service of the poore : Also we put this crosse on thy left 
side, to the end, that thou mayst love it with all thy heart, 
and with thy right hand for to defend it : And in fighting 
against the enemies of Jesus Christ, thou shalst happen to 
flee, and leave this holy Signe behind thee, thou shalst of 

336 



COMMENTS UPON MALTA ad. 

1616. 
good right be depraved of this holy religious order, and 
of our company : This done, he knitteth the Cordon of the 
Cloake about him saying ; Receive the yoake of our Lord 
that is sweet, and light, and thou shalst find rest for thy 
soule : This spoke, he kisseth the Cordon, and so doe all 
the circumstanding Knights, and there are made unto him 
divers Orations and precepts, contained in the Booke of 
their Ordinances : They have a Priest-hood too of this 
same order, being Masse-Priests that weare this badge of 
the white Crosse. 

Now bidding farewell to Malta, and to mine aforesayd 
Countrey Gentleman William Dowglas, I landed the next 
morning at Sicly in Sicilia, being twenty leagues distant. 
And now this being the third time of my traversing 
this Kingdome, (triple experience, deeper knowledge) I 
begin to give you a perfit description thereof. 

Sicilia was first named Trinacria (whose figure is The first 
Triquetria) for that being triangular, it butteth into the denominations 
Sea with three Promontories : Capo di coro, South, Cap °* m 
di passaro West : and Cap di saro East : The length of 
each triangle from point to point, being 200. miles. 

Terra tribus scopulis, vastum procurrit in sequor, 
Trinacris a positu, nomen adepta loci. 

An He with corners three, out-braves the Mayne 
From whence the name Trinacry it doth gaine. 

It is now called Sicilia from the Siculi or Sicani who 
possessed it, and hath beene famous in all former ages : 

By Diodorus Siculus, it was cognominated the Paragon [IX. 385.] 
of lies : By Titus Livius, the Garden of Italy : It was 
also aunciently called the Grange of the Romanes, and is 
never a whit decayed to this day. 

The length of the Hand lyeth East and West, in circuit 
sixe hundred, large fifty, and in length two hundred fourty 
Italian miles : The soyle is incredible fruitfull, excelling The fertility 
in all sorts of graine, as cornes, Wheat, Wine, Sugar, Ryce, of Sicilia, 
Oyle, Salt, Allom, all kinds of fruit, wholesome Hearbs, 
l 337 v 



A.D. 
I6l6. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 



exceeding good Silke, exquisite mines of mettall, and the 
best Corall in the world is found here, beside Trapundy ; 
growing under the water greene and tender, but when 
arising above, it becommeth red and hard : The like 
whereof is sayd to be found in the red-Sea, and gulfe of 
Persia. 

The most of the Townes and Villages within land, are 
Townes set on builded on the highest hills and greatest heights in the 
heights reserve Countrie ; the reason is two-fold ; first it serveth them for 



good ay re. 



[IX. 386.] 

The auncient 
divisions of 
Sicilia. 



strength, and a great defence in time of cursarary in- 
vasions, of which divers bee so strait in ascending, that 
one man may easily resist and beat downe five hundred. 
The second is, because their dwellings being farre above 
the parching Plaines, these situations are good preserva- 
tives for their health, whereon they have a sweet and 
cooling ayre, which in such a hot climat, is the soveraigne 
salve to prevent sicknesse. 

Their Villages be farre distant, some sixe, ten, fifteene, 
twenty miles one from another ; in all which grounds there 
is no sequestrate house, unlesse (being a high way) it 
be a Fundaco or Inne. About the sides of the hills, 
whereon their Townes stand, grow all their Wines, and 
on the Plaines nothing but red Wheat, which for good- 
nesse is unparalelled, and the best bread and abundance of 
it in the world is here. Sicilia was formerly devided in 
three Regions, to wit, the valley of Demonia, containing 
iEtna, Catagna, Messina, and that angle of Cap di faro, of 
old Pelora : The other the valley of Neitia, containing 
Syracusa, Terra nova, and the angle of Cap di Cora of old, 
of Lilibea ; and the third was the valley of Matzzara 
contayning Palermo, Trapundy, Malzara, and the angle of 
Cap di passero old Pachinum : Many thinke that Sicilia 
was rent from Italy by the violence of waters, at the 
generall Deluge, some by infinit earthquakes, and some 
simply conjecture the cause to have proceeded from com- 
bustious ./Etna, which is meere ridiculous. 

There are divers grounds and valleyes in this He, that 
abound so in Wheat, that the Inhabitants recoyle a 

338 



COMMENTS UPON SICILY a.d. 

1616. 
hundred measures for one, and commonly are called the 
fields of a hundred measures. 

The Sycilians for the most part are bred Orators, which Sicilians are 
made the Apulians tearme them, men of three tongues : braveOrators. 
Besides they are full of witty sentences, and pleasant in 
their rancounters, yet among themselves, they are full of 
envy (meaning their former kindnesses was unto strangers) 
suspicious and dangerous in conversation, being lightly 
given to anger and offences, and ready to take revenge of 
any injury comitted : But indeed I must confesse, more 
generously than the Italians, who murder their enemies in 
the night ; for they appeale other to single combat, and 
that manfully without fraudulent practices. 

They are curious, and great lovers of novelties, and full 
of quicknesse and rare inventions in all kind of Sciences, 
great intelligencers, and lovers of histories : As I found 
in divers of them, who knew the passages formerly of my [ix. 387.] 
Countrey so exquisitly that I was astonished at their 
relations, so agreeable with the trueth and times past. The 
Parliament of Sicily hath a wonderfull great authority ; in- 
somuch that the Viceroy can not have the free gift (as 
they call it) which is every third yeare, nor no extra- 
ordinary thing, nor the renewing of any matter concerning 
the Common-wealth, without the generall consent of the 
whole Kingdome : The generall counsell whereof is The great 
composed of three branches, called by them, the armes of Counsell of 
the Kingdome : viz. first the Prelats, and inferiour Clergy Stct ' ta - 
men, named the arme Ecclesiastick : secondly of Barons 
called the arme Military : and the third, the Com- 
missioners of Cities and Townes, intitulated the arme 
Signioriall : The Crowne-rent of this Kingdome amounteth 
to a million and a halfe of Duccats yearely : which being 
disbursed ever for intertaining of Captaines, Garrisons and 
of Gallies, and cursary ships, the Badgelloes and servants 
for the fields, the maintaining of Towers, and watches 
about the coasts, the reparations of Colledges, high-wayes, 
Lords pensions, and other defrayings, there rests little, 
or nothing at all to the King. 

339 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1616. 

I remember in my twice being in this Kingdome, 
(especially the second time, wherein I compassed the whole 
Iland, and thrice traversed the middle parts thereof from 
Sea to Sea) I never saw any of that selfe Nation, to 
begge bread, or seeke almes ; so great is the beatitude of 
their plenty. And I dare avow it (experience taught mee) 
that the porest creature in Sicily eateth as good bread, as 
the best Prince in Christendome doth. The people are 
very humane, ingenious, eloquent and pleasant, their 
language in many words is nearer the Latine, then the 
Italian, which they promiscuously pronounce : somewhat 
[IX. 388.] talkative they are, and effeminate, but generally wonder- 
full kind to strangers. In the moneths of July and 
August, all the Marine Townes every yeare, are strictly 
and strongly guarded with them of the inland Villages 
and Bourges, both on foot and horse-backe : who are 
compelled to lie there at their owne charges, so long as 
this season lasteth ; in which they feare the incursions 
of the Turkes; but the rest of the yeare, these Sea- 
coast Townes are left to the vigilant custody of the 
Indwellers. 

This Countrey was ever sore oppressed with Rebells and 

The Duke of Bandits, untill such time that the military Duke of Sona, 

Sona Viceroy came to rule there as Viceroy, Anno 1 6 1 1 . where in the 

ofSuiha. £ rst y eare h e brought in five hundred ; some whereof 

were hanged, some pardoned, and some committed to the 

Gallies : So that within two yeares of his foure yeares 

government, there was not a Bandit left at randon in all 

Sicilia ; the like before was never seene in this Region, 

nor one in whom Astreas worth was more honoured, in 

fortitude of mind, and execution of true Justice than this 

Duke, before whose face, the silly ones did shine, and 

the proud stiffe-necked oppressours did tremble. 

And in a word, he was no suppressour of the subjects 
(as many now be) to satisfie either licentious humors, or 
to inrich light-headed flatterers, but serving Justice, he 
made Justice serve him : for the equitie of Justice of 
itselfe, can offend none, neither of any will it be offended ; 

340 



COMMENTS UPON SICILY a.d. 

1616. 

unlesse the corrupt tongue and hand of the mercenary 
Judge, suffer sound judgement to perish for temporary 
respects ; which this noble Governour could never doe, 
neither suffer any inferiour Magistrate to doe the like 
under him : As it well appeared by his just proceedings 
against the Jesuites of Palermo, and his authority upon [IX. 389.] 
them imposed in spight of their ambition. The circum- 
stances whereof were very plausible, if time did not 
slaughter my goodwill; and yet my patience could 
performe my paines with pleasure. 

And likewise against a Seminary Gallant, a Parochial 
Priest of that same City, who had killed a Knights servant An equitable 
in a Brothell-house, the brother of a Shoomaker, which Justice for 
fellow, the Viceroy caused to Pistoll the Priest in ***** 
spight of the Cardinall, and thereupon absolved him for 
the dead. 

The Cardinall having onely for the Priests fact, dis- 
charged him to say Masse for a yeare without satisfaction 
for the mans life : so the Duke inhibited the Shoo- 
maker to make shooes for a yeare, and neverthelesse 
allowed him two shillings a day to mainetayne him for 
that time. 

Many singular observations have I of his government, 
the which to recite would prove prolixious, though worthy 
of note to the intellective man ; hee was afterward Vice- 
roy of Naples, and now lately deceased in Spaine. It is 
dangerous to travell by the Marine of the Sea-coast 
Creekes in the West parts, especially in the mornings, 
least he finde a Moorish Frigot lodged all night, under 
colour of a Fisher-boat, to give him a slavish break- 
fast : for so they steale labouring people off the fields, 
carrying them away captives to Barbary ; notwithstanding 
of the strong Watch towers, which are every one in sight 
of another round about the whole Hand. 

Their arrivalls are usually in the night, and if in day 
time, they are soone discovered ; the Towers giving 
notice to the Villages, the Sea coast is quickly clad with 
numbers of men on foot and horse-backe : And oftentimes 

34i 



ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1616. 

[IX. 390.] they advantagiously seaze on the Moores lying in obscure 
clifts and bayes. All the Christian lies in the Mediteer- 
anean Sea, and the Coast of Italy and Spaine, inclining 
to Barbary, are thus chargeably guarded with watch 
Towres. 

The chiefe remarkeable thing in this He from all 
Antiquity is the burning Hill of iEtna, called now Monte 
Bello, or Gibello, signifying a faire Mountayne, so it is, 
being of height toward Catagna from the Sea side, fifteene 
Sicilian miles, and in Circuite sixty. The North side 
toward Rindatza at the Roote beeing unpassable steepe ; 
yet gathering on all parts so narrow to the top, as if it had 
beene industriously squared, having a large prospect in 
the Sea ; about the lower parts whereof, grow exceeding 
good Wines, Cornes, and Olives. 

My second And now in my second Travailes, and returne from 

viewofjEtna. Affricke, I not being satisfied with the former sight, the 
kinde Bishop of Rindatza courteously sent a Guide with 
me on his owne charges, to view the Mountayne more 
strictly. Ascending on the East and passable part, with 
tedious toyle, and curious climbing, wee approached neare 
to the second fire being twelve miles high ; which is the 
greatest of the three now burning in iEtna : whose vast 
mouth, or gulfe is twice twelve-score long and wide, lying 
in a straight valley betweene a perpendicular height and 
the mayne Mountayne ; whose terrible flames, and crack- 
ing smoake is monstrous fearefull to behold. 

Having viewed and reviewed this, as neare as my 
Guide durst adventure (the ground meane while whereon 
wee stood warming our feete, and is dangerous for holes, 
without a perfect Guide) wee ascended three miles higher 
to the maine top or Cima, from which the other two fires 
had their beginning. Where when come, wee found it 

[IX. 391.] no way answerable to the greatnesse of the middle fire; 
the other two drawing from it the substance, wherewith 
it hath beene aunciently furnished ; yet betweene them 
two upper fires, I found aboundance of Snow (beeing in 
July) lying on the septentrion sides of the Hill. It was 

342 



COMMENTS UPON SICILY a.d. 

1616. 

heere in this upmost Fornace, that Empedocles the 
Phylosopher cast himselfe in, to bee reputed for a god. 

Deus immortalis haberi 

Dum cupit Empedocles, ardentem fervidus iEtnam 
Insiluit 

To be a god, this curious Wretch desires 
And casts himselfe, in the fierce iEtnean fires. 

As we discended on the North-east side, we came to 
the third and lowest fire, which is within a short mile of the 
Mountaynes foote, over against Rindatza ; and if it were 
not for a sulphureat River, which divideth the Towne 
and the Hill, it would bee in danger to be burned. This 
last and least fire, runne downe in a combustible flood, Thehzvestand 
from the middle above, Anno 16 14. June 25. Where third fire of 
the Sulphure streames, before it congealed, falling in a tna ' 
bituminous soyle, where Wine and Olives grew there 
seased, and daily augmenteth more and more ; having 
quite spoiled the Lands of two Barons in Rindatza : But 
the King of Spaine, in recompence of their miserable mis- 
hapes, did gratifie them with some of his Crowne lands for 
their maintenance. 

I speake it credibly, I have found the Relickes of these 
Sulphure streames, which have burst forth from the 
upmost tops of iEtna Westward, above twenty miles in 
the playne. The reason of such ardent disgorgements, 
is thus ; that when the abundance of Sulphure, being put 
on edge with excessive Raine, and the bituminous sub- [IX. 392.] 
stance still increasing ; which by the chaps, slits, and 
hollow chinkes of the ground (rent partly by the Sunne, 
and by the forcing flames) is blowne by the Wind, as by 
a'payre of Bellowes ; the vault or vast bosome, of which 
ugly Cell not being able to contayne such a compositure 
of combustible matter, it impetuously vomiteth out, in 
an outragious Torrent ; which precipitately devalleth, so The com- 
long as the heate remayneth : and growing cold, it con- bustiom deval- 
gealeth in huge and blacke stones, resembling Minerall %!^ 
mettall, and full of small holes, like to the composed 

343 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1616. 

Cinders of a Smithes Forge, wherewith the Houses of 
nine Townes Circumjacent thereunto, are builded. 

This is that place, which the Poets did report to bee 
the shop of Vulcan, where Cyclops did frame the thunder- 
bolts for Jupiter : Whereof Virgill doeth make his Tract, 
called iEtna. Under this hill the Poets faine the Gyant 
Enceladus to be buried, whose hote breath fireth the 
Mountayne, lying on his face ; and to conclude of iEtna, 
the grosse Papists hold it to be their Purgatory. 
Palermo. The chiefe Cities therein are Palermo, the Seate of the 

Viceroy, situate in the North-west part over agaynst 
Sardinia : It is a spacious City, and well Watered with 
delicate Fountaynes, having goodly buildings, and large 
streetes, whereof Strado reale is principall, beeing a mile 
long. In which I have seene in an evening march along 
for Recreation above 60. Coaches ; a paire of Mulets, 
being tyed to every Coach : The Gallies of Sicilia, which 
are ten, lye here. 

The second is Messina, toward the East, over against 

Regio, in Calabria, being impregnable, and graced with 

a famous haven : having three invincible Castles, the 

[IX. 393.] chiefe whereof, is Saint Salvator by the Sea side ; there 

be divers other Bulwarkes of the Towne wals, that serve 

for offensive and defensive Forts, which is the cause (in 

derision of the Turkes) they never shut their Gates. 

The famous The third is Syracusa, standing on the Southeast Coast 

City of fifty miles beyond iEtna, and halfe way twixt Messina and 

Syracusa. Malta, a renowned Citty, and sometimes the Metro- 

politane Seate : It is famous for the Arathusean springs, 

and Archimedes that most ingenious Mathematician : He 

was the first Author of the Spheere, of which instruments 

he made one of that bignesse, and Arte, that one standing 

within, might easily perceive, the severall motions, of 

every Caelestiall Orbe : And when the Romanes besiedged 

Siracusa, he made such burning glasses, that set on fire all 

their Shippes lying in the Road : At last he was slayne 

by a common Souldier in his studdy, at the sacke of the 

Towne, to the great griefe of Marcellus the Roman 

344 



COMMENTS UPON SICILY a.d. 

1616. 
Generall ; when he was making plots, and drawing figures 
on the ground, how to prevent the assaults of the 
Romanes. 

The fourth is Trapundy in the West, over agaynst Trapundy. 
Biserta in Barbary, which yeeldeth surpassing fine Salt, that 
is transported to Italy, Venice, Dalmatia, and Greece ; 
made onely in some certayne Artificiall Salt pooles, by 
the vigorous beating of the scorching Sunne, which 
monthly they empty and fill. The Marine here ex- 
celleth in Ruby Corall, which setteth the halfe of the 
Towne at work, and when refined, is dispersed over al 
Christendom. 

This City is in great request amongst the Papists 
because of the miraculous Lady heere, reputed the Hands 
Protector, and sole Governour of these narrow Seas, for 
Shippes, Gallies, and Slaves : which indeede if an image 
cut out in white Marble were so powerfull, it might be [IX. 394.] 
credible ; but besides this Idolatrous title, they super- 
stitiously thereunto annexe a rable of absurd lies. 

The fift is Catagna, placed at the Marine foot of iEtna, 
that was so vexed by Dionisius the Tyrant. The sixt 
is Matzara South-west, over against the Barbarian Pro- 
montore of Lystra, the rest be Rindatza, Terra nova, 
Emma, whence Pluto is sayd to have stolne Proserpina, 
Malzara, Francavilla, Bronzo, Terramigna, and Argenti 
once Agrigentum, where the Tyrant Phalaris lived, who 
tortured Perillus in the Brazen Bull, which he made for the 
destruction of others. 

The tyrannies which were used in Sicilia were in times The Sicilian 
past so famous, that they grew unto this Proverbe, Invidia Tyrants. 
Siculi non invenire tyranni, tormentum majus. The 
elder and younger Dionisius, were such odious tyrants, 
and the third Dionisius worst of all, that when the 
people powred out continuall execrations on the last, wish- 
ing his death ; onely one old woman prayed for his life : 
This reason she gave, since from the grandfather, his 
father, and he, each succeeding worser and worser, and 
least (said she) he dying, the divell should come in his 

345 



A.D. 
I6l6. 



[IX. 395-] 

A true com- 
parison 
betweene the 
French and 
the Spaniards. 



The Sicilian 
customes. 



LITHGOW'S HARE ADVENTURES 

place, (for a worser never lived) I wish him to continue 
still. 

This Kingdome after it was rent from the Romanes, 
remained in subjection under the French till the yeare, 
1 28 1. in which Peter of Arragon, contrived his purpose so 
close, that at the sound of a Bell, to the evening vespers, 
all the French men in Sicilia were cruelly massacred ; 
since which time it hath ever belonged to the house of 
Arragon, and now of Spaine, which exploit masketh under 
the name of Vesperi Siculi. For nobility this Hand may 
compare with Naples, their styles (like unto Italy) are 
great, but their revenewes wondrous small. 

The Sicilians have a Proverb, as having experience of 
both, that the French are wiser than they seeme, and 
the Spaniards seeme wiser then they are : And even as the 
Spaniard is extremely proud in the lowest ebbe of 
Fortune : So is the French man exceeding impatient, 
cowardly desperate, and quite discouraged in the pinch of 
sterne calamity. The Spaniard and the French man have 
an absolute opposition, and conditionall disagreement in 
all fashions ; and in their riding both different, and 
defective : For the Spaniard rideth like a Monkey 
mounted on a Camell, with his knees and heeles alike 
aside, sitting on the sadle, like to a halfe ballast ship, 
tottering on top-tempestuous waves : And the French 
man, hangeth in the stirrop, at the full reach of his great 
toe, with such a long-legged ostentation, pricking his horse 
with neck-stropiat spurres, and beating the wind with his 
long waving limbes, even as the Turkes usually do, when 
they are tossed at their Byrham, hanging betweene two 
high trees, reciprocally waving in the ayre, from the force 
of two long bending ropes. 

The women ride here stridling in the sadle, and if 
double, the man sitteth behind the woman : The women 
also after the death of their friends keepe a ceremonious 
mourning twice a day, for a moneths space, with such 
yelping, howling, shouting, and clapping of hands, as if 
all Sicilia were surprised by the Moores : Yet neither 

346 



COMMENTS UPON SICILY a.d. 

1616. 

shedding teares, nor sorrowfull in heart, for they will both 
hollow and laugh at one time : The same custome for the 
dead, the Turkes observe, and all the Orientall people of 
Asia. 

This Hand finally is famous, for the worthy Schollers 
shee once produced : Archimedes the great Mathe- 
matician ; Empidocles, the first inventer of Rhetoricke ; 
Euclide the textuary Geomettrician ; Diodorus Siculus that [IX. 396.] 
renowned Historian, and iEshilus the first Tragedian of 
fame, who being walking in the fields, and bald through 
age, by chance, an Eagle taking his bald pate for a white 
rocke, let a shell-fish fall on it, of that bignesse, that it beat 
out his braines. 

But to proceed in my itinerary relation, having twice 
imbarked at Messina for Italy, from Asia, and Affricke, I 
have choosed the last time (double experience, deeper 
knowledge) for the discourse of my departure thence : 
After a generall surveigh of this Hand and Monte Bello 
arriving at Messina, Anno 1616. August 20. I encoun- Mine arrivatt 
tered with a Worshipfull English Gentleman Mr. at Messina. 
Stydolffe Esquier of his Majesties body, accompanied 
with my Countrey man Mr. Wood now servant to James 
Earle of Carelill, who instantly were both come from 
Malta, the generous affabilitie of which former Gentle- 
man to mee in no small measure was extended ; meeting 
also afterward at Naples, as in the owne place shall be 
succinctly touched. 

Here I found some 60. Christian Gallies, assembled to 
the Faire of Messina, which holdeth every yeare the 17. 
of August : Wherein all sorts of Merchandize are to be 
sold, especially raw Silke in abundance : 30 of which 
Gallies went to scoure the coasts of Greece. Messina is 
foure miles distant from Rhegio in Calabria, and two miles 
from the opposit Maine. This Rhegium was that Towne 
where Saint Paul arrived after his ship-wracke at Malta 
in his voyage to Rome : It was miserably sacked by the 
Turkish Gallies of Constantinople, Anno, 1609. ^ ut now 
by the Spaniards it is repaired with stronger walles, and 

347 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1616. 

new fortifications, sufficiently able to gaine-stand any such 
like accidentall invasions. 
[IX. 397.] In this time of mine abode here, there happily arrived 
from Italy my singular good friend Mr. Mathew Dowglas 
his Majesties Chirurgion extraordinary, being bound also 
for the Levant in the same voyage of the Christian incur- 
sions against the Infidels, whose presence to me after so 
long a sight of Hethnike strangers was exceeding comfort- 
able, and did there propine him with this Sonnet (which 
I made on iEtna) as the peculiar badge of my innated love. 

High stands thy top, but higher lookes mine eye, 
High soares thy smoake, but higher my desire, 
High are thy rounds, steepe, circled, as I see, 
But higher farre this breast, whilst I aspire : 
High mounts the fury of thy burning fire, 
But higher far mine aimes, transcend above : 
High bends thy force, through midst of Vulcans ire, 
But higher flies my spirit, with wings of love, 
High presse thy flames, the Christall aire to move, 
But higher moves the scope of my engine, 
High lieth the snow, on thy proud tops I prove, 
But higher up ascends, my brave designe. 
Thy height cannot surpasse this cloudy frame 
But my poore soule, the highest Heavens doth claime, 
Meane while with paine, I climb to view thy tops, 
Thy height makes fall from me ten thousand drops. 

Here in Messina I found the (sometimes) great English 
The death of Gallant Sr. Frances Verny lying sick in a Hospitall, whom 
Sir Frances s * xe wee fc- es before I had met in Palermo : Who after many 
*" misfortunes in exhausting his large patrimony, abandon- 
ing his Countrey, and turning Turk in Tunneis ; he was 
taken at Sea by the Sicilian Gallies : In one of which he 
[IX. 398.] was two yeares a slave, whence hee was redeemed by an 
English Jesuite, upon a promise of his Conversion to the 
Christian faith : When set at liberty, hee turned common 
Souldier, and here in the extreamest calamity of extreame 
miseries, contracted Death : Whose dead Corpes I charit- 

348 



COMMENTS UPON SICILY ad. 

1616. 
ably interred in the best manner, time could affoord me 
strength, bewailing sorrowfully the miserable mutability 
of Fortune, who from so great a Birth, had given him so 
meane a Buriall ; and truly so may I say, Sic transit 
gloria mundi. 

After sixteene dayes attendance for passage, their 
fortunately accoasted heere twelve Napolitan Gallies come 
from Apulia, and bound for Naples : In one of which, by 
favour of Marquesse Dell Sancta Cruce the Generall, I 
imbarked, and so set forward through the narrow Seas, 
which divide Italy and Sicilia : The strait whereof, is 24. 
miles in length, in breadth 6. 4. and 2. miles. This Sea, 
is called the faro of Messina, and fretum Siculum ; at the 
West end whereof, wee met with two contrary chopping 
tides, which somewhat rusling like unto broken Seas, did 
choake the Gallies with a strugling force : 

Incidunt in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Charibdim. 

Who strive to shunne, the hard Calabrian coast, 
On sandy Scilla, wrestling they are lost. 

Yet of no such eminent perill, or repugnable Currents, A comparison 
as be in the firths of Stronza and Westra : especially Pent- °f^ e P u g- 
land firth, which divideth Katnes from Pemonia, the n $ a tre e ames 
mayne Land of Orknay ; wherein who unskilfully looseth 
from eyther sides, may quickly loose sight both of Life 
and Land for ever. As we entred in the Gulfe of Saint 
Eufemia, we fetched up the little He of Strombolo : 
This Isolet is a round Rocke, and a mile in Compasse, 
growing to the top like to a Porno, or Pyramide, and not [IX. 399.] 
much unlike the Isolets of Basse and Elsey, through the 
toppe whereof, as through a Chimney arriseth a continuall 
fire, and that so terrible, and furiously casting foorth great 
stones and flames, that neyther Galley nor Boate, dare 
Coast or boord it. 

South from hence, and in sight thereof, on the North 
Coast of Sicily lye the two Hands, Vulcan Major, and 
Minor; whereof the lesser perpetually burneth, and the 
greater is long since consumed. On the fourth day we 

349 



A.D. 
I6l6. 



A boyling 
Fountaine in 
the lie oflsha. 



[IX. 400.] 



The 

antiquities of 
Putzolo. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

touched at Ischa, the greatest He belonging to Naples, and 
20. miles in Circuite, being strongly begirded with Rockey 
heights. The chiefe Towne is Ischa, whether Ferdinando 
of Naples fled, being thrust out of his Kingdome by 
Charles the eight. 

There is a Fountayne here of that incredible heate, that 
in short time will boyle any fish or flesh put in it, and the 
taste agreeable to digestion. Departing from thence, and 
coasting the mayne shoare, we had a Moorish Frigot in 
Chase, where seazing on her, we found 16. Moores 
therein, and sixe Christians, three men, two Women, and 
a Boy, whom they had taken up, in going betweene two 
Townes by the Sea side. The Peasants were set at liberty, 
and the Moores immediately preferred to chaynes of Iron, 
bloody lashes, tugging of Gaily oares, and perpetuall 
slavery. 

Neere the Marine, and in sight of Naples, wee boorded 
close by the foote of the Hill Vesuvio, which in time past 
did burne, but now extinguished : It was here that the 
elder Pliny who had spent all his time in discovering the 
secrets of Nature ; pressing neere to behold it, was stifled 
with the flame, so that he dyed in the same place, which 
is most excellently described in the Booke of his Epistles, 
by his Nephew the younger. 

Arriving at Naples, I gave joyfull thankes to God for 
my safe returne to Christendome, and the day following, 
I went to review the auncient Monuments of Putzola or 
Puteoli : Which when I had dilligently remarked in my 
returne halfe way to Naples, I met the aforesayd English 
Gentleman and M. Woode, who needes would have me 
turne backe to accompany them hither. When come, we 
tooke a Guide, and so proceeded in our sights ; the first 
thing of any note wee saw, was the stupendious Bridge, 
which Caius Caligula builded betweene Putzolo and Baia, 
over an arme of the Sea, two miles broad : Some huge 
Arches, Pillars, and fragments whereof remayne unruined 
to this day : The next, was the new made Mountayne of 
Sand, which hath dryed up Lago Lucrino, being by an 

35° 



COMMENTS UPON NAPLES a.d. 

1616. 

Earth-quake transported hither; at the foote of this 
fabolous Hill, we saw the remnants of Ciceroes Village. 

Thence we came to the Temple of Apollo, standing on 
the East side of Lacus Avernus, the Walles whereof, and 
pendicles (the Tecture excepted) are as yet undemolished. 

This Lake Averno is round, and hemb'd in about with 
comely heights, being as our Guide reported infinitely 
deepe, and in circuite a short mile. The West end where- 
of, is invironed with the Mountayne of Cuma, whether 
iEneas arrived when hee fled from Dido Queene of 
Carthage, and sister to Pigmalion King of Tyrus. 

Advancing our way, along the brinke of the Lake, we 
came to Sybillaes Cave, the entery being darke, because of SybilaesCave. 
the obscure passage, hewen out and cut through the mayne 
Rocke, our Guide strooke fire, and so with a Flambo 
marched before us. The first passage was exceeding high [IX. 401.] 
Cime, and the further end stopped with mouldring earth. 
Inclining to our right hand, we passed through a very 
straite and low passage, and so arrived in Sybillaes 
Chamber, which is a delicate Roome, and Artificially 
decored with Mosaical Worke : Here it is sayd, the Divell 
frequented her Company, and where shee wrot her Pro- 
phecies. From thence hee conducted us through a most 
intricate and narrow way, (wherein we were forced to 
walke sidling in) to a large and vast Rome : The Rockey 
vault whereof, was hanging full of loose and long stones, 
many of which were fallen to the bottome. 

This great Cell or Hall, is a yard deepe of blackish 
Water, and was the dining Roome of Sybilla : In which The old dining 
hearing toward the further end, a scriking noyse, as if it rom f °f 
had beene the chirking of Frogs, the hissing of Serpents, s y bl " a - 
the bussing of Bees, or snarling of Wolves ; we demanded 
our Guide from whence such a sound proceeded? Who 
answered, they were Dragons and flying Serpents, praying 
us to Returne, for the fellow was mightily affrayde : 
Whereat I laughing, Replyed, there was no such matter ; 
and M. Stydolffe desirous to know it, hee onely and I, 
leaving the other two behind us, adventured the tryall : 

35? 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1616. 

Having more then halfe way entered in this Sale, stepping 
on huge stones because of the Water, and I carrying the 
Flambo, for lacke of ayre, being so far under ground, the 
light perished. Whereupon wee hollowed to our Guide, 
but the Reverberating Eccho avoyded the sense of our 
words, neyther would he, nor durst he hazard to support 
us. 

Meanewhile it being Hell-darke, and impossible to find 
such a difficult way backe, and tendering (as by duty) the 
[IX. 402.] worthy Gentleman, I stepped downe to my middle thigh 
in the water, wrestling so along to keepe him on the dry 
stones. Where indeed I must confesse, I grew affrighted 
for my legs, fearing to be interlaced with water Serpents, 
and Snakes, for indeed the distracting noyse drew aye 
nearer and nearer us. At last, falling neare the voyce of 
our guide, who never left shouting, wee returned the same 
way wee came in, and so through the other passages, till 
wee were in open fields. 

Here indeed for my too much curiosity, I was con- 
dignely requited, being all bemired and wet to the 
middle, yet forthwith the vigorous Sunne disburdned me 
quickly thereof : From thence (to be briefe) we came to 
The ancient the Bagni, the relicts of Pompeis Village, to the Fort of 
varieties of the B a i a> an( j tne Laborinth of Ciento Camarello, into the 
Iputzo/o*'* admirable fish ponds of Lucullus, (the coverture of which, 
is supported by 48. naturall pillars of stony earth) to the 
detriments of Messina, Mercato sabbato, and the Elisian 
fields : Thence we returned by the Sepulcher of Agricula, 
the mother of cruell Nero, who slit up her belly to see the 
matrix wherein he was conceived ; and by the two decayed 
Temples of Venus, and Mercury : Crossing over in a boat 
to the Towne of Putzolo, the chiefe monument we saw, 
was the auncient Temple of Jupiter, who serveth now for 
their Domo, or Parochiall Church : The latter Idolatry 
of which, is nothing inferiour to the former. 

Meanewhile here arrived the French Gallies, fetching 
home Chevalier du Vandum, the Prior of France from 
Malta : Who scouring the coast of the lower Barbary, their 

35 2 



COMMENTS UPON NAPLES a.d. 

1616. 

fortune was to fall upon a misfortunate English ship 

belonging to Captaine Pennington, which they as a 

Cursaro or man of Warre confiscated. Their Anchors 

fallen, I boorded the Queenes Galley, where to my great [IX. 403.] 

griefe I found a Countrey-man of speciall acquaintance, 

George Gib of Burrowtownenes (who was Pylot to The Mr. of a 

the English) fast chained to an oare, with shaven head and Scots s j' l P dls ~ 

face : Who had his owne shippe twice seazed on by the JfcLff^™ 

Turkes, and Mamora, which ship he lastly recovered at the 

He Sardinia, and sold her at Naples being miserably 

worme-eaten. To whose undeserved miseries, in my 

charitable love, I made a Christian oath, that at my arrivall 

in England, I should procure by the helpe of his friends, 

his Majesties letters to the Duke of Guyse Admirall, for 

his deliverance. But soone thereafter, being of a great 

spirit, his heart broke, and so died in Marseils. 

Tempora labuntur, tacitisque senescimus annis, 
Et fugiunt fraeno, non remorante Dies. 

Times slide away, gray haires come posting on, 
No reyne can hold, our dayes so swiftly gon. 

Departing from Putzolo, we came to the Sulphatara, 
where the fine Brimstone is made, which is a pretty incircl- 
ing Plaine, standing upon a moderate hight ; having three 
vents, through two of which, the smoaking flame ariseth, 
and the other produceth no fire ; but after an excessive 
raine surgeth sixe foote high with blacke boyling water, 
which continueth so long as the rayne lasteth. 

From thence (our Guide leaving us) we came to Grotto 
di cane ; wherein if a Dogge be cast he will suddenly die, 
and taken thence, and cast in the Lake, he will forthwith 
revive : This Grotto or Cave, standeth on the side and 
root of a sulphure hill, the brinke of Lago di Avagno : 
We desirous to make tryall of a Dog ; and finding the 
fellow that purposely stayeth there somewhat extortion- [IX. 404.] 
able, I adventured in stead of a Dog to make tryall of 
my selfe ; Whereupon Maister StydolfFe holding up the 
quartered doore, I entered to the further end thereof, 
l 353 z 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1616. 

bringing back a warme stone in each hand from thence : 
whereat the Italians swore, I was a Divell and not a man : 
for behold (say they) there was a French Gentleman the 
former yeare, who in a Bravado, would needes goe in : 
whereupon hee was presently stifled to death, and here 
lyeth buried at the mouth of the Grotto to serve for a 
caveat, to all rash and unadvised strangers to doe the like. 
The dangerous The relation indeed was true, but I counting nothing 
Dogs Cave Q f {^ lwou ld needes (sore against the Gentleman and 
"putzo/o"' Master Woods will) goe in againe, where entred to the 
bottome being ten paces long, the moysty and choaking 
heat did so suffocate and benumbe my senses, that with 
much adoe I returned backe ; where receiving the fresh 
ayre, and a little Wine, I presently forgot my former 
trance : which when the Dog-keeper saw, he for an easie 
composition made triall of his Dog ; and having tyed a 
string to his hinder leg, he cast the Dog scarce halfe way 
in the Cave, where immediately his tongue hanging out, 
he fell downe dead : And forthwith his Master repulling 
him backe, cast him in the Lake, powring in water in his 
eares, but hee could never recover his life. Whereupon 
the poore man cried out, alas I am undone, what shall I 
doe, the Dog that wonne my dayly food is dead ; in com- 
passion whereof the worthy Gentleman doubled his wages. 
In our way and returne to Naples, we passed through 
Virgils Grot, being halfe a mile long, and cut through the 
maine body of a Rocke, whereby the Mountaine of Cataia 
[IX. 405.] by the Sea-side is made passable ; at the East end whereof 
neare the Cyme of the vault is Virgils Tombe: and 
arrived at Naples, Mr. William Stydolffe reporting to 
divers of his Countrey Gentlemen and mine, of my 
adventure in Grotto di Cane, they could hardly be per- 
swaded to beleeve it : But when avouched, they all avowed 
I had done that (so did divers Neapolitans) which never 
man had done before me reserving life. 

Bidding farewell to my generous friends, I marched 
through Terra di lavoro, and in the way of Saint Germane, 
and Mount Cassino to Rome ; within ten miles of Capua, 

354 



COMMENTS UPON ROME a.d. 

1616. 
I found the poorest Bishop (Nomen sine re) the world Great poverty 
affoordeth : having no more (nor never had he, nor any under &'** 
before him) than dui Carolini or Juletti twelve pence a s ' 
day to spend. So is there many a Marquesse, Earle, 
Baron, and Knight in Italy, who is unable at one time, to 
keepe a foote-man at his heeles, a Dog at his foote, a 
Horse betweene his legs, a good sute of clothes on his 
backe, and his belly well fed ; so glorious be their stiles, 
and so miserable their revenewes. 

Touching at Rome, I secretly borrowed one nights 
lodging there, and at the breach of day another houres 
sight and conference, with my Cousing Simeon Grahame ; 
who ere the Sunne arose, crossing Ponto flamingo, brought 
me on in my journey, till a high way Taverne like a Jayle 
held us both fast, where leaving our reciprocall loves 
behind us, wee divided our bodies East and West. 

And now ere I leave Rome, I thinke it best, to let our 
Papists here at home, see the shamefull lives & cruell 
deaths, of most of their Popes beyond Seas : which 
their owne best Authors in France, Italy, and Spaine, 
have justly & condignely avouched & recorded ; & author- 
ized also to light by their prime powers civil and spirituall. 
the papists generally hold, that in their Popes, is all power ; [IX. 406.] 
Super omnes Potestates, tarn Caeli quam Terrae ; above all 
powers both in Heaven and Earth : They tearme him 
Alter Deus in terris ; a second God upon the Earth : Deus 
mortalis in terris, et immortalis homo in Caelis ; a mortall 
god upon the Earth, and an Immortall man in the 
Heavens : Some of them have allotted, that he is, Non 
deus, non homo, sed utrunque ; neyther God nor man but 
both : The Popes former title was Servus servorum Dei ; 
and they call him Rex Regum, Dominus Dominantium, 
King of Kings, and Lord of Lords. 

Paul the third, entering Tolentino in the vale of The false and 
Ombria joyning with Tuscany, had this salutation : Paulo al T f> an * iitles 
tertio, Maximo, in terris Deo ; to Paule the third, the °* e ■ 
best, and greatest God on earth. Then since they will 
have them gods, above the God of Gods ; tell me I pray 

355 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1616. 

you, what a May pole Dauncer, was John 12. alias 13. of 
18. yeares old, who made the Lateran their great Church 
in Rome, a playne Stewes or Brothel house. 

What a Pope-boy of twelve yeares old, was Benedict 
the ninth ? and after wrought by inchantments. Another 
Pope they had, whom they called Unum pecus, in co quod 
de mane faciebat gratiam, et de sero revocabat : A very 
Asse, for in the morning hee would grant many great 
kindnesses, and at night revoake them all agayne. What 
a thiefe was Pope Boniface the seventh? who robbed St. 
Peters Church? What a sodomiticall Pope was Sixtus 
the fourth ; who builded Stewes of both kindes, 
granting his Cardinals the use of Sodomy, for three hote 
moneths. What an Atheisticall Pope, was Leo the tenth ? 
who called the Gospell a Fable. What a Hereticall Pope 
was Honorius the first ? who by sixe general Counsels, was 
[IX. 407.] condemned for a Monothelit : What a perjured Pope was 
Gregory the twelfth ? and openly forsworne : What a 
Negromancer was Silvester the second ? who gave himselfe 
both soule and body to the divell, to attaine the Pope- 
dome : What was Pope John the eleventh, but a bastardly 
brat to Pope Sergius? What a sorcerer, Charmer, and 
Conjurer, was Hildebrand, called Gregory the seventh? 
given to all beastlinesse, and diabolicall practices ; this was 
he that threw the Sacrament in the fire : What was 
Innocent the third? who was branded with this black 
marke, non est innocentius, imo nocens vere, he is not 
A tract of innocent ; but very nocent : What a wicked and cruell 
beastly Popes murtherer was John the twelfth a Romane borne, who 
"villaines cause d to cut off the nose of one Cardinall, and the thumbe 
of another Cardinall ; onely because they had wrot the 
whole tract of his abhominable vices to the Emperour 
Otho. 

What an inhumane and homicidious Pope was 
Stephanus the seventh? who after he had cancelled the 
decrees of his predecessour Formosus, caused to deterre his 
dead body, cut off his fingers, and lay him in the fields to 
be devoured with the fowles of the aire : What a beastly 

356 



COMMENTS UPON ROME a.d. 

1616. 
Pope was Sergius the third? that after he had im- 
prisoned Christopholus his predecessor, he caused to draw 
out the corps of Pope Formosus his old compeditor from 
the grave, and cut off his head, as though hee had beene 
alive. 

What a cruelty was shown upon John the 17. who after 
he was depraved his Papacy, had his eyes pulled out, his 
nose cut off and his members, and was hanged : What a 
poysonable Pope was Damasus? who poysoned his pre- 
decessour Clemens the second, to attaine the Papality, and 
yet dyed within a moneth there after being Pope : What 
a mercilesse Pope was Boniface the seventh, that after he [IX. 408.] 
had Rob'd Saint Peters Church and fled to Constantinople, 
hearing that Pope John the 14. was replaced, he returned, 
and pulling out his eyes, did cast him in prison, where he 
dyed of extreame hunger. What a persecution had 
Gelase borne in Gaetta neare Naples, who first by the 
Romanes was imprisoned, then stoned through the Citty, 
miserably dyed. Gregory the 8. succeeding him, was 
Deposed by Caliste brother to the Duke of Burgondy, who 
imprisoned the other, and starving him to Death, made 
him selfe Pope. 

What devotion fell out from the braines of Rome, to 
stone Pope Lucius the second to Death : What a shamefull 
division was in your Papality ; for fifty yeares, when 
Urbanus lived Pope at Rome and his Successours ; and 
Clemens 7. and his Successors at Avigneon. Nay, you 
have had three Popes at one time ; even when Sigismond 
King of Hungary and Boheme was elected Emperour, to 
wit. Benedict 3. at Avigneon ; John 23. at Bullogna; and Three several! 
Gregory the twelfth at Rimini: I pray you, could every Popes living at 
one of them open and shut the Gates of Heaven and Hell. *** tme ' 
What an Infidell, was Pope John 22. who denied the 
immortality of the Soule. 

What was Clement the 5. but an open Whore munger 
and a drunken sot. What was Boniface the 8. he was 
called a Theefe, a Robber, and rooted in all unspeakable 
sinnes, the eight Nero of Rome. What a furious and 

357 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1616. 

wicked Pope, was Julius the second? who given more to 
Warre then to Christ, cast Saint Peters keyes (as they call 
them) into Tiber. What a prophaine skoffer of Christ, 
was Paule the third? who lying in bed with his owne 
Cousin Laura Farnesia, was sore wounded by her Hus- 
band ; he lay with his owne Daughter, and poysoned 
her Husband ; and then lay with his owne sister, and 
[IX. 409.] after poysoned both her and his owne mother. What 
was Julius the third? an open Sodomite, and horrible 
blasphemer. What was Pope Eugenius? a damnable 
scandalizer of the Church, and condemned by the Counsel 
of Basil, for an incorrigible and wilfull Hereticke. Pope 
John 23. was deposed by the Counsell of Constance, for 
Heresie, Symony, Murtner, Enchantment, Adultery, and 
The Papists worst of all for Sodomy. What was Pope John 13. a 
may looke here y\\& t monster in his life, committing incest with both his 
Totes We " s i sters > an d fathers Concubine Stephana : Hee was a 
gamster, and playing at Dice, did call for helpe to the 
Divel, and would drinke to the Divels health ; hee was 
repleate with all abhominable vices ; at last being taken in 
the acte of Adultery, was wounded to Death. 

Boniface the 8. afore named, came to bee Pope, by 
cousning his predecessour Celestine, in speaking through 
the Wall in a Reed (as if it had beene a voyce from 
Heaven) admonished him to surrender his Papacy ; whose 
Epithit was thus : Intravit ut Vulpes, Regnavit ut Lupus, 
Mortuus est ut Canis : He came in like a Fox, he ruled 
like a Wolfe, he dyed like a Dogge. 

At the sixt Counsell of Carthage, was not the treachery 
and falshood of Pope Zosimus, condignely sifted out, in 
corrupting for ambitious government the Counsell of 
Nyce. Bernard about 500. yeares agoe, complayned much 
of the Tyranny of popes in his time, calling them De- 
frauders, Raveners, Traytors, darknesse of the world, 
Pilats, Wolves, and Divels. 

Albertus Magnus affirmeth, that they who now governe 
their Church, are for the most part Theeves and 
Murtherers. And Platina, calleth some of their popes 

358 



COMMENTS UPON ROME a.d. 

1616. 

vile Monsters, uncleane beasts, and strange creatures. 

And I remember it was noted by a Historian : Episcopos 

Romanos ne peccata quidem sine laude committere : The [IX. 410.] 

Popes could do nothing, were it never so mischievous, but 

it was commendable. 

And even likewise are their prime Pardons, for Noxas 
preteritas, aut futuras : and their future potestatem, tarn 
quo ad commissa, quam quo ad committenda crimina 
absolvenda ; That his Holinesse hath all manner of power, 
as well to absolve them from crimes to commit, as from 
crimes committed. And I remember about twenty yeares 
ago Paulo Papa quinto, Cannonized Carolo Borrameo, the A false 
late Bishop of Milane for a notable Saint, being knowne ™™™ i%ed 
to bee a notorious and scelerate liver : done sooner by 
fifteene yeares then their ordinary time, and that for the 
touch of forty thousand Duckats ; allotting Prayers, 
Miracles, Pardons, and Pilgrimages to him, and erecting 
a new Order of Friers, and Monasteries unto him. And 
yet the poore Bishop of Lodi, a good and charitable liver 
by all reports, could never, nor cannot attayne to the 
dignity of a Saint, his meanes was so small when dead, and 
his friends so poore being alive. 

And how wonderfull absurd is the Popes Bulla di Santa 
Cruzada, pro defunctis in Purgatory ; that for one Pater 
noster, at a Masse saying, or a Masse sayd for them : 
Sicavano fuora dalla Purgatorio, tre anime qualche ci 
vogliano, viz. You shall relieve any three soules out of 
Purgatory whom you please. Nay, I have seene the 
Popes Edict so gracious, that induring one Masse, as many 
Paters as you can recite, as many soules you free from 
thence. 

And thus me thinketh in one halfe yeare, he might 
soone empty that purging pit : Yet unlesse the Suppliant 
touch with his finger, during his Prayers, a gaudy beede 
inraveled betweene five small fast made irons, placed before [IX. 411,] 
the Altar ; their Bulla, their payment for it ; their Paters, 
their Devotion for their friends soules, are all lost. Then 
say, if peradventure, the friends of the defunct be oblivious 

359 



A.D. 
I6l6. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 



Ravenna the 
chiefe City of 
Romania. 



in this officiousnesse, and neglect both the Ceremony, and 
Pater noster, might not the Pope justly be reputed a cruell 
Monster, that for want of pattering an abridged Pater, his 
Cerberian Office in Hell, should detayne any poore soule 
in such torments, as they say are in Purgatory. 

Infinite passages of the like kind could I Recite, if I 
had longer time and larger leisure ; and especially of their 
miraculous leyes, or leying Miracles ; in erecting of fals- 
hood, and maintayning of perjury ; but till a fitter 
occasion, I will revert to my Itinerary Discourse, and so 
proceede. Having left my afore-sayde friend Maister 
Grahame, at a Taverne at Bilbo neere to Rome, I set 
forward through the vaile of Ombria and the Countrey 
Romania, whereof Ravenna is Lady, and the Pope Lord, 
I arrived (the way of Ferrara and Padua) at Venice. 
Who then was levying an Army against the Croatian 
Scokes of Gradisca, and the Duke of Grasso now 
Emperour. Of which Army Count Mansfield was 
Generall, and with whom I crossed the Gulfe to Pola in 
Istria, and from thence to the siege of Gradisca : The 
discourse whereof, I have here formerly avouched in the 
second Part of my first Travailes. Now to speake of a 
Souldier, certainely hee is more then prayse-worthy and 
fortunate, that hath faced the Low-Countries, reviewed 
Briscia in Lombardy, and footed and sighted the Arsenal 
of Venice, then his eyes have first seene, the sonnes, the 
force, the policies and Kingdome of Mars : Secondly, the 
fiery shoppe of Vulcan, where rarest Armes and Weapons 
are hammer'd out upon the Anvill, for the honour of 
Mars ; and lastly the incomparable Armory or store- 
house for Sea and Land, the Meggazin and treasury of 
Mars. 

Now leaving both the Armies barking at other like to 
Hircanian wolves, I traced the fertile soyles of Carindia, 
Carneola, and Stria even to Vienna : all which were subject 
to the Emperour, save a part of Carneola, that groanes 
under the Turke. Being arrived at Vienne, I found the 
common fame. Towne, and the flying fame of it far different, either for 

360 



[IX. 412.] 



Vienne in 
Austria no 
way answer- 
able to 



COMMENTS UPON VIENNA ad. 

1616. 
greatnesse, strength, or wealth : for the Towne rising upon 
a moderat height circular, is but of small compasse with- 
out, not passing two English miles. 

The suburbs round about, being twice as great as the 
Towne ; and the strength of it is no way comparable 
to a hundred Cities that I have seene, neither is it for 
wealth so much to be admired, being depraved of Seas, 
shipping, and navigation, having onely the needfull pro- 
sperity of dry land Townes. 

Here I found a Turkish Ambassadour, going downe 
the Champion Danubio of Europe, for Constantinople ; 
and with him one Gratianus, a Greeke his Interpreter, to 
whose familiar love I was much obliged ; and with whom 
I imbarked downe the River to Presburge a place where 
the Hungarian Crowne is kept, and from thence discend- 
ing the River to Comorre, the downemost Towne the 
Emperour retayneth on Danubio, I left my noble Inter- 
preter, and traversed the Champaine Countrey. 

The chiefe Townes whereof I wil briefly touch, and so 
proceed : Buda is the capitall Citie of Hungary, wherein 
the Turkish Bassaw hath his residence, and was taken in 
by Solyman the Emperour, the twenty of August 1526. 
the other is the aforesaid Presburge, aunciently Bosonia ; 
the rest are Belgrad or Albegrek, aunciently Taurinum, in [IX. 413.] 
Dutch Griechs : Weissenberge, that was taken by 
Soliman, 1520. Valpa, and Singidum, upon the Danubio, 
both under the Turke, and that of the seven Churches 
upon the River Drana taken in, in the yeare one thousand 
five hundred and forty three, and Zigeth taken also in 
the yeare one thousand five hundred sixty sixe. 

Moreover upon the Danubio, the Towne Strigonium The special 
commonly Grana, and Alberoyall otherwise Stulvesen- Townes of 
burg, a place destined for the Sepultures and Coronations **n*giry. 
of the Kings of Hungary, and was taken by the Turkes, 
Anno 1543. 

Neare the same place is Stridon, where they say St. 
Jerome was borne : And now above all other the strong 
Towne of Gamorra, standing in an He of the Danuby of 

361 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1616. 

that same name, which the Turkes have 'so oft besieged, 
yet never could surprise it. 

There is also Tockay, and Januarin or Rab seated too 
upon Danuby, a Towne as it were impregnable, yet it was 
overtaken by the Turkes, and lastly recovered by the 
Christians. 
The forces of The Beglerbeg of Buda, hath under his command, 
^iida"" e ig nt thousand Timariots, and twelve thousand common 
Souldiers which lye in Garrison, in continuall pay on the 
confines of Hungary, Croatia, and Dacia, and these con- 
fines belonging to the house of Austria : The Bassa hath 
under his authority 13. Sanzacks, lying at these thirteene 
Townes here undernamed, to wit, Novaguard, Semendria, 
Simontorno, Zetshen, Ecclesiae, Sirnium, Capan, Zornock, 
Alba Regalis, Sigedin, Mucchatz, Zegedin, and Sexard. 

The other Beglerbegship of Hungary is at Temesara, 
who retaineth under his command eight Sanzacks and as 
[IX. 414.] many jurisdictions, spreading his authoritie over sixe thou- 
sand Timariots, and eight thousand foote souldiers ; and 
these Sanzacks lying at Temesara, Lippa, Itishinad, 
Mudania, &c. The great Turke hath eight Beglerbegs or 
Bassawes under him in Europe ; that of Bosna being one of 
them, who commandeth ten Sanzacks and eight thousand 
Timariots ; the residence of which Bassa is at Bagi- 
vialezza, a commodious place lying in the midst of 
circulating Provinces ; over which he spreads the Ballucco 
of his power. 
Hungary is a The soyle of Hungary aboundeth innnitly in all things 
most fertile jjj e eart } 1 can p ro duce for the well of man ; and produceth 
mk!r admirable good Wines, the best whereof grow neare and 

about the Towne of Sirmia, and so sweet, that they may 
compare with the Wines of Candy, yea, and aboundeth in 
all kind of bestiall, that it is thought this Kingdome may 
furnish all Europe with Beefe and Mutton. 

The Hungarians are descended of the Hunnes, a people 
of Scythia or Tartary. The auncient Inhabitants divided 
their habitations in nine circles, which the Germanes 
named Hagyes, and impaled them with high walles, made 

362 



COMMENTS UPON HUNGARY a.d. 

1616. 
of earth and wood, being twenty foote high, and as much The first 
in breadth, being rampierd with divers Bulwarks and plantation of 
Towers of earth, whereon grew all sorts of hearbes, and Hun S ar y- 
fructiferous trees. 

The space from side to side of each one of these circles, 
amounted to twenty Dutch miles ; the Townes, Villages 
and houses being within, and so contrived, that each one 
was within cry of another : this was the first admirable 
plantation of the Hunnes in this Kingdome. 

The Hungarians have ever beene thiftuous, treacherous 
and false, so that there one brother will hardly trust 
another, which infidelity among themselves and distracted 
deceitfull governours, was the chiefest cause of their over- 
throw and subjection under Infidels : And so have corrupt [IX. 415.] 
Counsellors, and insolent Princes beene the ruine of their 
owne Kingdomes ; for if we would have a Prince fit to 
governe others, and to direct him selfe with the square 
rules of wisdome and judgement, to know how to become 
all places, and to use all fortunes ; let him bind his tender 
youth with a disposition temperd with sadnesse : for such 
a man can neither seduce his minority with ill examples, 
nor marre his waxen age with a false impression, too 
common a condition of these dissolute times. 

Now as for the Hungar soyle, and Kingdome it selfe, The infinite 
and for the goodnes of it, it may be tearmed the girnell of ™ hes 9 f 
Ceres, the Garden of Bachus, the Pastorage of Pan, and u * 
the richest beauty of Silvan : for I found the Wheat here 
growing higher then my head, the Vines over locking the 
trees, the Grasse jusling with my knees, and the high- 
sprung Woods, threatning the clouds : surely if I should 
enter on particulars here, I have more subject to worke 
upon, than any Kingdome that ever I saw : The Kingdome 
is divided in two parts, the higher and the lower, the 
lowest, largest, and best is under the Turke, and the other 
narrow proportion under the Emperour. 

The Hungarian miles are the longest upon earth, for 
every one of theirs, is sixe of our Scots miles, nine 
English : so that the most that ever I could travel! there 

363 



a.h. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1616. 

in one day, was but sixe miles : Their language hath no 
affinity with any other kind of speech, and yet the greatest 
part of the Countrey both under the Turke and Emperour 
are Protestants, and are the best of all the rest, the other 
being Arians and Papists. 

There is a great Gentry in this Kingdome, but un- 
travelled abroad, farre lesse mannerly at home, being 
[IX. 416.] luxurious and ill taught, and damnably given to that 
Masculine misery, the whole Southerne World is defiled 
with. Having now traversed all the Countrey to Grana, 
and so to Gatterad in Valechia, I found the Country so 
covered with Woods, and them full of Murtherers (for I 
was robbed on these confines, and hardly saved my life) 
I was constrayned I say, to returne to Tockai in the higher 
Hungary, and from thence in one day I stepped into 
Transilvania. 
A description This Countrey is so environed with high and unpassable 
o/Tran- mountaines about, that there is but only five entries to 
come into it, which make it so strong and impregnable : 
Within there is a rich bottome or plaine of thirty miles 
long, and sixe broad, being beautified with six faire 
Townes ; the chiefest whereof, are Cromestate, Juliastrad, 
and Hermestat. The sides of the mountaynes within rise 
all upward halfe levell way even to the tops, which 
maketh a pleasant and prospective Countrey, and the best 
mixt soyle of Europe : For on the incircled plaine, there 
groweth nothing but Wheat, Rye, Barley, Pease, and 
Beanes : And on the halfe, or lower parts of the Hills 
about, nothing but Wines, and infinite Villages ; and 
toward the extreame circulary heights, only Pastorage for 
Kine, Sheepe, Goates, and Horses, and thickets of woods : 
So fram'd that every one supplieth another, for they of 
the Valley furnish the other two parts with Victuall, and 
they againe them with Wines, Bestiall, Butter, and 
Cheese ; each interchanging all necessary things with one 
another as they need. Here I found every where kind and 
familiar people ; yea, and the very Vulgars speaking 
frequent Latine, and so commonly doe all the Hungarians. 

364 



silvania. 




The Author beset with six murderers in Moldavia 



COMMENTS UPON HUNGARY a.d. 

1616. 

The Inhabitants here are all Protestants, but for their 

Vayvod or Prince Bethlem Gabor, I saw him not, for hee 

was lying sicke of a Feaver at Juliastrad : This Province [IX. 417.] 

is a free Principality, and notwithstanding adherent in 

some respect to the authority of the Turke. But now 

having left this Religious Country, and crossing the North 

passage of the Hils, called the Borean Berger, or North 

mountaine, I entred in Moldovia ; where for my welcome 

in the midst of a border- Wood, I was beset with six 

murderers, Hungarians and Moldavians: where having [IX. 418.] 

with many prayers saved my life, they robbed mee of 

threescore Hungar Duccats of gold, and all my Turkish 

clothes, leaving me stark naked ; save onely they returned 

to me my Patents, Papers, and Seales. 

This done, and for their better security, they caryed mee 
a little out of the way, and bound my naked body fast 
about the middle to an Oaken tree, with wooden ropes, 
and my armes backward so likewise : swearing to me, that 
if I cryed for helpe, or marred them of their designes 
before the Sun set, they would turne backe and kill me ; 
promising then to set me free. 

But night come, and I forgotten, was left here in a A joy fall 
trembling feare, for Wolves and wild Boares till the deliverance 
morrow ; where at last by Gods providence I was relieved f m t l ate 
in the morning by a company of Heards : who clothing me thraldome. 
with an old long coat of theirs, and refreshing me with 
meat ; one of them caryed me five leagues unto the Lord 
of the ground, the Baron of Starhulds a Moldavian 
Protestant, with whom I stayed fifteene dayes : And was 
more than repaired of all my losses, by his owne bounty, 
and Noble Kinsmen, his neighbouring friends, and would 
not suffer mee to goe any further in the Countrey, because 
of the Turkes jealousie over strangers, in regard it was 
but lately wrested from a Christian Prince, with whom I 
was conversant at Constantinople in Sir Thomas Glover, 
the Ambassadours house. 

Well, I yeeld to the Noble mans counsell, and giving 
him all dutifull thankes for his kind regards, he sent a 

365 



A.D. 
l6l6. 



[IX. 419.] 



The Tartars 
are mighty 
oppressours of 
Podolia in 
Poland. 



[IX. 420.] 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

guide with mee for two dayes journey through a part of 
Podolia, the upmost Countrey of Polland, bordering with 
Tartary. 

The halfe of which Countrey I found left disinhabited 
and desolat by incursions of Tartarians. Here I deter- 
mined to have entered in Tartary, but rinding no conduct 
nor assurance of my safety, I continued my course to 
Crocavia, situat on the upper Frontiers of Polland border- 
ing with Hungary. 

Tartary is thought to be sixe hundred leagues in length, 
confining Eastward with China, to the South with the 
Caspian Sea, to the North with Russia, and to the West 
with Podolia, and Moldavia. 

The Tartars are not expert in Warre, neither are they 
so valerous as the Turkes, nor so manly as the Polonians, 
who counter-blow them at rancounters ; neverthelesse by 
stealth of inroades, they mightily suppresse the extreamest 
parts of Polland. The Turkes tearme the Cham or 
Emperour of Tartary, Vlakim, that is a great Prince, and 
the Moscovites call him Catzar Cataiski, to wit, the Caesar 
of Cataia : And hee is so obeyed and reverenced among the 
Tartars, that they intitulate him the sonne of God, the man 
of God, and the soule of God : yea, and the greatest Oath 
that they thinke can be sworne, which they usually doe in 
matters of fidelitie and importance, is by his Throne 
Royall. 

This custome of idolatrous obeysance, came first by one 
Rangavistah, who being chosen to be their Emperour, 
would try their promptnesse and goodwill of obedience 
towards him, commanding seven of his chiefest Princes, 
and head Governours under him of the people, to kill 
their Infants, with their owne hands. 

And notwithstanding the Commandement seemed very 
rude and intolerable, yet they fearing the common people, 
who esteeme their Emperours to be the divine Kinsmen 
(as it were) of God ; they did cut the throats every one 
of them, of their owne Children, before his owne eyes, and 
the sight of the people. 

366 



COMMENTS UPON POLAND a.d. 

1616. 

Insomuch that ever since, the life and death of the 
Tartars, depend upon the good-will and word of the King, 
which no way they dare contradict, such is the ignorant 
reverence they carry toward him. As for the idolatrous A love not 
Rites they use at his Death, in inclosing or interring worthy thinks, 
quicke in a Vault neere to his Tombe, one of every Office 
that he loved best, being alive, to goe serve him in 
Paradice ; I will not meddle with it, neither with the 
Vulgars Superstition, who Religiously feast upon the 
Corpes of their aged Parents, and then doe burne their 
bones into ashes, giving them such a buriall, as we give 
our Witches ; for indeede the Wormes come short among 
the dead Tartars of their foode. 

Being arrived in Crocko or Crocavia, the capitall City 
of Polland (though but of small importance) I met with 
diverse Scotish Merchants, who were wonderfull glade of 
mine arrival there, especially the two brothers Dicksones, 
men of singular note for honesty and Wealth. It was 
my lucke heere, to bee acquainted with Count du Torne, 
the first Noble-man of Boheme, who had newly broake out 
of Prison in Prage, and fled hither from Bohemia for The Counte of 
safety. Mathias then being Emperour, against whom hee Tome fled 
had highly offended in boasting him in his Bed-Chamber *$£** * 
with hard and intolerable speeches : Saying to Mathias in 
his face, and before his Wife the Empresse : Loe there is 
the right hand that helped to put the Imperial Crowne on 
thy head, and behold now there is my foote shall strike it 
off againe. 

This Fugitive Earle stayed me with him ten dayes to 
discourse, and beare him Company, for then hee had but 
onely one follower that came post with him : I found him [IX. 421.] 
Princely disposed in all things, and very familiar in his T ,- «• • 
cariage : At last his trayne and treasure comming with m "j King of 
many other Bohemian Barons and Gentlemen his friends, Polland did 
I humbly left him, and touching at Lubilina where the m * rr y two 
Judges of Polland sit for halfe the yeare, I arrived at s " ter * °f , 
Warsow, the resident place for the King Sigismond who now 
had newly married the other Sister of his former Wife Emperour. 

367 



A.D. 

I6l6. 



[IX. 422.] 



Polland is the 
Nurse of 
Scotlands 
common young- 
lings. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

being both Sisters to this Ferdinando now Emperour : A 
match I dare say more fit for the savage Sabuncks of Lybia, 
than for a Christian Prince or shepheard. 

But it is no matter Pope Paulus Quintus gave him 
licence, and in that liberty, a wide passage to Purgatory : 
who, when dead that incestuous guilt will bee royally 
purged ; loe there his pontificall absolution. 

Betweene Crocavia, and Warsow Lubilina ; lying halfe 
way it is a hundred Pollonian miles or French leagues : 
Here I found abundance of gallant rich Merchants my 
Countrey-men, who were all very kind to me, and so were 
they by the way in every place where I came, the conclu- 
sion being ever sealed with deepe draughts, and God be 
with you. 

Polland is a large and mighty Kingdome, puissant in 
Horse-men, and populous of strangers ; being charged 
with a proud Nobility, a familiar and manly Gentry, and 
a ruvidous vulgarity : They are all for the most part, of 
square and thicke bodies, having Bull-necks, great thighes 
and legs, grim and broad faces, and commonly their shaven 
heads are finely covered with overthwarting strokes of 
crooked shables : for they, and the Armenians of Asia are 
of stature and thicknesse the biggest, and grossest people 
the world arToordeth. 

The soyle is wonderfull fruitfull of Cornes, so that this 
Countrey is become the Girnell of Westerne Europe for 
all sorts of graine, besides Honey, Waxe, Flaxe, Iron, and 
other commodities : And for auspicuousnesse, I may rather 
tearme it to be a Mother and Nurse, for the youth and 
younglings of Scotland, who are yearely sent hither in great 
numbers, than a proper Dame for her owne birth ; in 
cloathing, feeding, and inriching them with the fatnesse 
of her best things ; besides thirty thousand Scots families, 
that live incorporate in her bowells. And certainely 
Polland may be tearmed in this kind, to be the mother of 
our Commons, and the first commencement of all our best 
Merchants wealth, or at the least most part of them. 

And now ceasing to peramble through any moe par- 

368 



COMMENTS UPON POLAND a.d. 

1616. 
ticulars of this familiar Nation to us, I was kindly- 
transported from Warsow upon a Waggon to Dansick, 
being fifty leagues distant, with a Generous young Mer- 
chant William Bailey my cliddisdale Countrey man, to 
whose courtesies I still rest thankfull. 

Here in Dansick I fell deadly sicke for three weekes 
space, insomuch that my Grave and Tombe was prepared 
by my Countrey-men there. 

Neverthelesse in end (it pleased almighty God) I 
recovered my health, and then imbarked for Alseynure in 
Denmarke, where being better convalessed, I recoursed 
backe in a Flemish Pink to Stockhollem : where after five 
or sixe dayes being there, and finding my sicknesse like to 
returne againe, and fearing the worst, I made hast for 
England. 

At last finding the commodity of an English shippe 
belonging to Ratcliffe, wee hoysed sayle, and set forward 
through the sound, or Belticke Sea for Alseynure agayne : 
Whence after three dayes abode, bidding farwell to that 
tributary Towne and Castle, wee Coasted the scurrile and [IX. 423. 
Rockey face of Norway, at two severall parts, but not 
without great stormes, and contrary Windes, yea and once 
finally indangered with a threatening shipwracke, which 
with good lucke we happily escaped. 

These tempestuous dangers past, upon the seaventh 
day the winds refavouring us, wee safely arrived at 
London, from whence I first began this Voyage, and there 
ended my second Peregination. 

Magnum virtutis principium est, ut dixit paulatim 
exercitatus animus visibilia & transitoria primum Com- 
mutare, ut post-modum possit derelinquere. Delicatus 
ille est adhuc, cui patria dulcis est, fortis autem jam 
cui omne solum patria est : perfectus vero, cui mundus 
exilium est. 

THE END OF THE SECOND BOOKE, OF MY SECOND 
TRAVAILES. 

L 369 2 A 



A.D. 
1619. 



[x. + *+.] THE TENTH PART 



N 



Contayning the third Booke, of my third 
Travailes. 

Ow swolne ambition, bred from curious toile 
Invites my feet, to tread parch'd iEthiops Soile, 
To sight great Prester Jehan, and his Empire ; 
That mighty King, their Prince, their Priest, their Sire ; 
Their Lawes, Religion, Manners, Life and frame, 
And Amais, mount-rais'd, Library of Fame. 
Well, I am sped, bids Englands Court adiew, 
And by the way the Hiberne bounds I view ; 
In whose defects, the truth like Razor sharpe 
Shall sadly tune, my new-string'd Irish Harpe : 
Then scud I France, and cross'd the Pyrheneise 
At the Columbian heights, which threat the skies ; 
And coasting Pampelon, I trac'd all Spaine, 
From Behobia, to Jubile Taure againe. 
Then rest'd at Malaga, where I was shent 
And taken for a Spie, crush'd, rackt, and rent. 
Where ah! (when- Treason tride) by fals position ; 
They wrest'd on me their lawlesse Inquisition : 
Which after Tortures, Hunger, Vermine gnashes, 
[X. 425.] Condemn'd me quick, stake-bound, to burn in ashes : 
Gods Providence comes in, and Pme discovered 
By Merchants meanes, by Aston last delivered : 
Where noble Maunsell, Generall of that Fleete, 
That I was rack't for ; did kind Halkins greete 

37o 



COMMENTS UPON IRELAND 

With strict command, to send me home for Court, 
To show King James, my torments, pangs, and tort : 
Loe I am come, to Bath Pme sent, and more 
Mine hoplesse life, made Worlds my sight deplore ; 
Which here Pie sing, in Tragicke tune to all 
That love the Truth, and looke for Babels fall. 



A.D. 

1619. 




Ut now having finished the two Descrip- 
tions, of my first and second adventures ; 
it rests now most necessary, to relate the 
meritorious designe, and miserable effect 
of my third Voyage. After I had (I say) 
by the great Providence of God, escaped 
infinite dangers, by Seas suffering thrice 
shipwracke, by Land, in Woods and on Mountaynes often 
invaded ; by ravenous Beasts, crawling and venemous 
Wormes daily incombred ; by home-bred Robbers, and 
remote Savages ; five times stripd to the skin ; excessive 
fastidiousnesse, unspeakable adversities, parching heates, 
scorching drouth, intolerable distresses of hunger, im- 
prisonments, and cold ; yet all these almost incredible 
sufferings past, could never abate the flame of mine 
austiere affection conceived ; but ambitious curiosity, 
exposing me to a third Voyage, I may say as .ZEneas did 
in his penetentiall mood : 

O socii neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum, 
O passi graviora, dabit Deus his quoque finem. 

O Socials ! we're not ignorant of losses ; 

O suffrings sad, God too, will end these crosses. 

But to observe a methodicall order, I thinke it best to 
show the unacquainted Reader, a reasonable satisfaction 
for undertaking this third, and almost invincible attempt. 

First, the most speciall and urgent cause, proceeded 
from a necessary good (the necessity of knowledge) in the 
requisite perfection, of Europes full and spacious sight, 
the ancient Tierce, and now most Christian world ; 
wanting formerly no part thereof unseene, as well under 

37i 



[X. 426.] 



A.D. 
1619. 



Certaine 
approved 
reasons. 



[X. + 27 .] 



The matchlesse 
LordCichester 
for vertue, 
zvisdome, y 
valour. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

the Turke as Christian, except Ireland and the halfe of 
Spaine. 

The second cause was mooved, from a more insatiate 
content, that when I had, and having compassed all 
Europe, my Resolution, was to borrow a larger dimmense 
of ground in Affricke then formerly I had done in twice 
before, even to ^Ethiopia, Prester Jehans Dominions. 
For the same effect, and a greater impression to my 
Resolution, I set Pen to Paper, drawing from the distaffe 
of the Retractable Muses, a Poeticall Pamphelet ; Dedi- 
cated to themselves, to their profound Apollo, his then 
hopefull Heire, and diverse Noble Peeres of both 
Kingdomes. 

And having from a Royall favour obtayned his 
Majesties Letters and Seales of safe Conduct, and Regall 
recommendation, to all Kings, Princes and Dukes, &c. I 
in all obsequious humility, bad farewell, to this sequestrate 
and most auspicuous Monarchy ; and arriving at Dublin 
in Ireland, August the two and twenty, one thousand sixe 
hundred and nineteene, I saluted the Right Honorable 
Sir Oliver St Johns late Lord Grandison, and then Lord 
Deputy there, from whom for regard and singular 
courtesies, I was greatly obliged : So was I also to many 
of the English Nobility and Knight hood there : who 
through the whole Countrey where ever I came intertayned 
mee kindly, sending Guides with mee from place to place ; 
yea, and sometimes safe-guards also ; beside in their 
houses great good-cheere and welcome : But in speciall 
a dutiful! remembrance I owe, to the memory of that some- 
times judicious and Religious Lord Arthur, late Lord 
Cichester, Baron of Belfast, &c. Who in his time for 
Vertue, Wisedome, and Valour, wore the Dyademe of 
Love, and Garland of true Noblenesse : Of whom, and for 
whose losse, if I should more praise, and longer lament, 
my Inke would turne to brinish teares, and I to helpelesse 
sorrow : But leaving him who lived in goodnesse here, and 
now in glory for ever, I celebrate these Lines, to his 
eternall Fame. 



372 



COMMENTS UPON IRELAND a.d. 

1620. 

If ever Bounty shin'd in loyall Brest ? 

If ever Judgment, flow'd from generous mouth ? 

If ever Vice-Roy, rul'd this Kingdome best ? 

If ever Valour, honour'd hopefull youth ? 

If ever Wisdome, Astreas worth possest? 

If ever Vertue, was inclin'd to rueth ? 

If ever Justice, enormities redrest ? 

If ever Patron, paterne was of truth ? 

Then noble Cichester, the Heavens assigne, 
These gifts (thy honour'd parts) were truely thine. 

And now after a generall surveigh of the whole 
Kingdome, (the North-west part of Canoch excepted) 
accomplished : from the 1 . of September til the last of 
February ; I found the goodnesse of the Soyle, more then [X. 428.] 
answerable to mine expectation, the defect only remayning 
(not speaking of our Collonies) in the people, and from 
them, in the bosome of two gracelesse sisters, Ignorance 
and Sluggishnesse. 

This Kingdome is divided in foure Provinces, although The foure Pro- 
some allude five, that is, Easterne and Westerne Maith, v j nc * s °f 
but they are understood to be annexed to Leinster : Their 
names are these, Leinster, Munster, Ulster, and Canoch : 
The South-most whereof, is Munster a soile (and so is 
Leinster in most parts) nothing inferiour, if seasonably 
manured, to the best grounds in England. The Hand 
lyeth almost in a Rotundo, being every way spacious ; the 
greatest River whereof is Shannon, whose course, 
amounteth to eight score miles, inclosing within it many 
little lies. 

And this I dare avow, there are moe Rivers, Lakes, 
Brookes, Strands, Quagmires, Bogs, and Marishes, in this 
Countrey, then in all Christendome besides ; for Travail- 
ing there in the Winter, all my dayly solace, was sincke 
down comfort ; whiles Boggy-plunging deepes kissing my 
horse belly ; whiles over-mired Saddle, Body, and all ; and 
often or ever set a swimming, in great danger, both I, and 
my Guides of our Lives : That for cloudy and fountayne- 

373 



ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1620. 

bred perils, I was never before reducted to such a floting 
Laborinth. Considering that in five moneths space, I 
quite spoyled sixe horses, and my selfe as tyred as the worst 
of them. 

And now I call to memory (not without derision) though 
I conceale the particular place and Prelate ; it was my 
Fortune in the County of Dunagale, to bee joviall with a 
Bishop at his Table, where after diverse Discourses, my 
[X. 429.] ghostly Father grew offended with mee, for tearming of 
his Wife Mistresse : which, when understood, I both called 
her Madame, and Lady Bishop : Whereupon he grew 
more incensed ; and leaving him unsatisfied ; resolve me 
Lector ? if it be the Custome heere or not ? and if, amends 
shall repay over-sight, a ghostly Wife, shall be still 
Madam Lady with me ; if not, mine observed manner 
shall be Mistresse. 

But now to come to my punctuall Discourse of Ireland ; 

true it is, to make a fit comparison, the Barbarian Moore, 

the Moorish Spaniard, the Turke, and the Irish-man, are 

The ignorant the least industrious, and most sluggish livers under the 

Tf f¥* ih Sunne, for the vulgar Irish I protest, live more miserably 

mon Irish. ' m tne * r brutish fashion, then the undaunted, or untamed 

Arabian, the Divelish-idolatrous Turcoman, or the 

Moone-worshipping Caramines : showing thereby a 

greater necessity they have to live, then any pleasure they 

have, or can have in their living. 

There Fabrickes are advanced three or foure yardes 
high, Pavillion-like incircling, erected in a singular Frame, 
of smoake-torne straw, greene long prick'd truff, and 
Raine-dropping watles. Their several Roomes of Pal- 
atiat divisions, as Chambers, Halls, Parlors, Kitchins, 
Barnes, and Stables, are all inclosed in one, and that one 
(perhaps) in the midst of a Mire ; where, when in foule 
weather, scarcely can they finde a drye part, whereupon 
to Repose, their cloud-baptized heads. Their shirts be 
woven, of the wooll or Linnen of their owne nature, and 
their penurious foode semblable, to their ruvid condition. 
And lastly, these onely titular Christians, are so ignorant 

374 



COMMENTS UPON IRELAND a.d. 

1620. 

in their superstitious profession of Popery, that neither 
they, nor the greatest part of their Priests know, or 
understand, what the mistery of the Masse is, which they [X. 430.] 
dayly see, and the other celebrat, nor what the name of 
Jesus is, either in his divine, or humane nature : Aske him 
of his Religion? he replyeth, what his father, his great 
grand-father were, that will he be also : And hundreds of 
better then the common sort, have demanded mee, if 
Jerusalem, and Christs sepulcher were in Ireland, and if 
the Holy Land was contiguat with Saint Patrickes 
purgatory. 

They also at the sight of each new Moone, (I speake it A foolish and 
credibly) bequeath their Cattell to her protection, obnix- superstitious 
iously imploring the pale Lady of the night, that shee will errour - 
leave their Bestiall in as good plight, as shee found them : 
And if sicke, scabbed, or sore, they solicitat her mayden- 
fac'd Majesty to restore them to their health, in which 
absurdity, they far surmount the silly Sabuncks, and 
Garolinean Moores of Lybia : Indeed of all things (besides 
their ignorance) I onely lamented their heavie bondage 
under three kind of Masters ; the Land-lord for his 
Rent, the Minister for his Tythes, and the Romish Priest 
for his Fees : And remarke when their owne Irish Rent 
masters have any voyage for Dublin, or peradventure 
superspended at home in feasting of strangers, then must 
these poore ones be taxed and afflicted with the supply of 
the devasted provision of their prodigall houses ; other- 
wise in supporting their superfluous charges for Dublin. 

O? what a slavish servitude doe these silly wretches 
indure, the most part of whom in all their lives, have 
never third part food, Natures clothing, nor a secure shelter 
for the Winter cold. 

The miserable sight whereof, and their sad sounding 
groanes, have often drawne a sorrowful remorse from my 
humane compassion. 

As for their Gentry such as are brought up here at [X. 431.] 
London, learne to become a great deale more civill, than 
these who are brought up at home, after their owne rude 

375 



A.D. 

l620. 



Two 

intollerable 
abuses in 
Ireland. 



[X. 432.] 



Theflthy 
corruption of 
Irish Priests 
and Wood- 
Carnes, 
theevish 
Rebells. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

and accustomable manner: And this I observed, in my 
traversing the whole Kingdome, I never saw one, or other, 
neither could move any of that selfe Nation, to pledge or 
present his Majesties health ; but as many other healths 
as you list ; they will both fasten, and receive from you, 
till they fall in the muddy hotch potch of their dead 
Grandfathers understanding : Indeed for entertainment of 
strangers they are freely disposed, and there Gentlemen of 
any good sort, reserve ever in their houses, Spanish Sack, 
and Irish Uscova, and will be as tipsy with their wives, 
their Priests, and their friends, as though they were 
naturaly infeft, in the eleven royall Tavernes of Naples. 

And now amongst many, there are two intollerable 
abuses of protections in that Kingdome : The one of 
Theeves and Woodcarnes, the other of Priests and Papists : 
I discourse of these corruptions now, as I found them then. 

The first is prejudicial! to all Christian civillnesse tran- 
quill government, and a great discouragment for our 
collonizd plantators there, belonging to both soyles of 
this Hand, being dayly molested, and nightly incombered 
with these blood-sucking Rebells. 

And notwithstanding of their barbarous crueltie, ever 
executed at all advantages, with slaughter and murder 
upon the Scots and English dwellers there ; yet they have 
and find at their owne wills Symonaicall protections, for 
lesser or longer times ; ever as the confused disposers, have 
their law-sold hands, filled with the bloody bribes of 
slaughtered lives, high-way, and house-robbed people : 
And then thereafter their ill got meanes being spent, like 
unto dogs, they returne backe to their former vomit ; so 
jugling with their in, and outgoings, like to the restlesse 
Ocean, that they cannot, nor never did, become true 
subjects to our King, nor faithfull friends to their 
Countrey : Unlesse by extremity of Justice, the one still 
hanged before the other, the remanent by the gallowes may 
examplifie amendment, contrarywise that Land shall never 
be quiet : for these villanous Woodcarnes are but the 
Hounds of their hunting Priests, against what faction 

376 



COMMENTS UPON IRELAND ad. 

1620. 
soever, their malicious malignity is intended : Partly for 
intertaynement, partly for particular splenes, and lastly, for 
a general disturbance of the Countrey, for the Priests 
greater security and stay. 

The other abuse is, their Libertinous Masses, the 
redresse whereof, I first to the Heavens, and then to my 
Prince bequeath : whose Sabboth recusant mony, whereof 
they bragge (as they say) in derision of our luke-warme 
dispensation, tendeth to none other purpose, but to 
obumbrat the true light of the Gospell, and to feed their 
absurd, and almost irrevocable ignorance. 

And neverthelesse at their dayly meetings (experience 
taught mee) there was never a more repining people 
against our Prince and Church as they be : for in this 
presumption a twofold cause arriseth, want of zeale, and 
Church discipline in our part, and the officious nine penny 
Masse on their part : yea, all, and each of them, so 
exacted and compounded with at higher or lower rates, as 
the officers in this nature please. 

The distribution whereof I nowaies paralell to the 
sleight concaviating veynes of the earth, nor the sole 
supply of high-rising Atlas, neither to invelope the Per- 
pendiculars of long-reaching Caucasus : howsoever tect-de- 
molished Churches, unpassable Bridges, indigent Schollers, [X. 43 3. J 
and distressed Families be supported there-with, I am as 
cleare of it as they, although I smart by the contrary 
confusion. 

But leaving this and observing my Method, I remember 
I saw in Irelands North-parts, two remarkable sights : 
The one was their manner of Tillage, Ploughes drawne A bad and 
by Horse-tayles, wanting garnishing, they are only unc'will 
fastned, with straw, or wooden Ropes to their bare ¥ m f**f r ) 
Rumps, marching all side for side, three or foure in a 
Ranke, and as many men hanging by the ends of that 
untoward Labour. It is as bad a Husbandry I say, as ever 
I found among the wildest Savages alive ; for the Cara- 
mins, who understand not the civill forme of Agriculture ; 
yet they delve, hollow, and turne over the ground, with 

377 



A.D. 
l620. 



Northerne 
Irish women 
giving sue ke to 
their Babes 
behind their 
shoulders. 



[X. 434.] 



An Ecclesia- 
sticke corrup- 
tion in 
unlawfull 
Preachers. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

manuall and Wooden instruments : but they the Irish have 
thousands of both Kingdomes daily labouring beside 
them ; yet they can not learne, because they wil not 
learne, to use garnishing, so obstinate they are in their 
barbarous consuetude, unlesse punishment and penalties 
were inflicted ; and yet most of them are content to pay 
twenty shillings a yeare, before they wil change their 
Custome. 

The other as goodly sight I saw, was women travayling 
the way, or toyling at home, carry their Infants about 
their neckes, and laying the dugges over their shoulders, 
would give sucke to the Babes behinde their backes, 
without taking them in their armes : Such kind of breasts, 
me thinketh were very fit, to be made money bags for 
East or West-Indian Merchants, being more then halfe a 
yard long, and as wel wrought, as any Tanner, in the like 
charge, could ever mollifie such Leather. 

As for any other customes they have, to avoyd prolixitie 
I spare ; onely, before my pen flee over Seas, I would 
gladly shake hands with some of our Churchmen 
there, for better are the wounds of a friend, than the 
sweet smiles of a flatterer, for love and trueth can not 
dissemble. 

Many dissembling impudents intrude themselves in this 
high calling of God, who are not truely, neither worthily 
thereunto called ; the ground here arrising either from a 
carnall or carelesse presumption, otherwise from needy 
greed, and lacke of bodily maintenance. 

Such is now the corruption of time, that I know here 
even Mechanick men admitted in the place of Pastors : 
yea, and rude bred Souldiers whose education was at the 
Musket mouth, are become there, both Lybian grave, and 
unlearned Church-men : Nay ; besides them professed ; 
indeed professed Schollers : whose warbling mouthes in- 
gorged with spoonefuls of bruised Latine,seldome or never 
expressed, unlesse the force of quaffing, spew it forth from 
their empty sculles : Such I say, interclude their doctrine, 
betweene the thatch and the Church-wall tops ; and yet 

378 



COMMENTS UPON IRELAND ad. 

1620. 
their smallest stipends shall amount to one, two three, or 
foure hundred pounds a yeare. 

Whereupon you may demand mee, how spend they, or 
how' deserve they this? I answer, their deserts are nought, 
and the fruite thereof as naughtily spent : for Sermons and 
Prayers they never have any, neither never preached any, 
nor can preach. 

And although some could, as perhaps they seeming 
would, they shall have no Auditour (as they say) but 
bare walles, the plants of their Parishes, being the rootes [X. 435.] 
of mere Irish. As concerning their cariage, in spending 
such sacrilegious fees, the course is thus. 

The Alehouse is their Church, the Irish Priests their 
Consorts, their Auditors be fill and fetch more, their Text 
Spanish Sacke, their Prayers carrousing, their singing of 
Psalmes the whiffing of Tobacco, their last blessing 
Aqua vitae, and all their doctrine, sound drunkenesse. 

And whensoever these parties meete, their parting is A flattering 
Dane-like from a Dutch Pot, and the Minister stil purse covenant twixt 
bearer defrayeth all charges for the Priest : Arguments j^^Prmts 
of Religion, like Podolian Polonians they succumbe ; their 
conference onely pleading mutuall forbearance ; the 
Minister affrayed of the Priests Wood-Carnes, and the 
Priests as fearefull of the Ministers apprehending, or 
denoting them ; contracting thereby a Gibeonized cove- 
nant, yea, and for more submissions sake, hee will give 
way to the Priest to mumble Masse in his Church, where 
hee in all his life made never Prayer nor Sermon. 

Loe there are some of the abuses of our late weake, 
and stragling Ecclesiasticks there,' and the soule-sunke 
sorrow of godlesse Epicures and Hypocrites. 

To all which, and much more have I beene an occular 
Testator, and sometimes a constrayned consociat to their 
companeonry ; yet not so much inforced, as desirous to 
know the behaviour and conversation of such mercenary 
Jebusites. 

Great God amend it, for it is great pitty to behold it, 
and if it continue so still, as when I saw them last ; O 

379 



A.D. 

l620. 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 



farre better it were! that these ill bestowed Tythes, and 
[X. 436.] Church-wall Rents, were distributed to the poore, and 
needy, than to suffocate the swine-fed bellies of such idle 
and prophane Parasits. 

And here another generall abuse, I observed that when- 
soever any Irish dye, the friend of the defunct (besides 
other fees) paying twenty shillings to the English Curat, 
shall get the corpes of the disceased to be buryed within 
the Church, yea often, even under the Pulpit foote : And 
for lucre interred in Gods Sanctuary when dead, who when 
alive would never approach, nor enter the gates of Sion ; 
to worshipe the Lord, nor conforme themselves to true 
Religion. 

Truely such and the like abuses, and evill examples 
of lewd lives, have beene the greatest hinderance of that 
Lands conversion ; for such like wolves have beene from 
time to time, but stumbling blocks before them ; 
regarding more their owne sensuall and licentious ends, 
than the glory of God, in converting of one soule unto 
his Church. 
Ministerial! Now as concerning the conscionable carriage of the 
Hybernian Clergy, aske mee, and there my reply : As 
many of them (for the most part) as are Protestant 
Ministers, have their Wives, children, and servants 
invested Papists ; and many of these Church-men at the 
houre of their death (like dogges) returne backe to their 
former vomit : Witnesse the late Viccar of Calin (belong- 
ing to the late and last, Richard, Earle of Desmond,) who 
being on death bed, and having two hundred pounds a 
yeare ; finding him selfe to forsake both life and stipend, 
send straight for a Romish Priest, and received the 
Papall Sacrament : Confessing freely in my audience, that 
hee had beene a Romane Catholick all his life, dissembling 
[X. 437.] onely with his Religion, for the better maintaining of his 
wife and children. And being brought to his buriall place, 
hee was interred in the Church, with the which hee had 
played the Ruffian all his life ; being openly carryed at 
mid-day with Jesuits, Priests, and Friers of his owne 

380 



offices 

strangely 

abused. 



COMMENTS UPON IRELAND a.d. 

1620. 
Nation, and after a contemptible manner in derision of our 
profession, and Lawes of the Kingdome. 

Infinite moe examples of this kind could I recite, and 
the like resemblances of some being alive ; but I respec- 
tively suspend (wishing a reformation of such deformation) 
and so concludeth this Clergicall corruption there. Yet 
I would not have the Reader to thinke that Icondemne all 
our Clergie there, no God forbid, for I know there are 
many sound and Religious Preachers of both Kingdomes 
among them, who make conscience of their calling, and 
live as Lanthorns to uncapable ignorants, and to those 
stragling Stoicks I complayne of, condemnatory Judges ; 
for it is a grievous thing to see incapable men, to jugle 
with the high mysteries of mans salvation. 

And now after the fastidious ending of a tempestuous My departure 
raine-sacking toyle, I imbarked at Yoghall in Munster, f rm Ireland 
February 27. 1620. in a little French Pinke bound for St. toFrance - 
Mallo in Bretagne. Where, when transported, I set face 
to Paris, where I found the workes of two scelerat and 
perverst Authors : the one of which had disdainefully wrot 
against the life and raigne of Queene Elizabeth of sempi- 
ternall renowne : the other ignominiously, upon the death 
of our late Queene Anne of ever blessed memory. The 
circumstances whereof, I will not avouch, since Malaga 
detaineth the notes of their abjured names, and perfidiat 
paines. 

A just reward (may I say) refounded, upon these fond [X. 438.] 
conceites, you have of the fantasticke French : Especially 
these superstitious straglers heree ; who, when they have 
sucked the milke of their selfe ends, and your lavish 
Liberalities without desert ; returne a kicke with their 
heeles (like to the Colt of an Asse) in your teeth agayne. 
And there your meritorious thankes, and their shamefull 
slaunders, in acquittance of your vayne Expence. 

Tell me, if you be tyed like Apes to imitate their ever- Thefantastkk 
changing humours ? and can you draw from them (in any fiolery of the 
Art or cariage) a greater draught, then they draw from the renc ' 
Italian, for first they be Imitators ; next, Mutators ; 

381 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1620. 

thirdly, Temptators ; and lastly, your Plantators, in all 
the varieties of vanity. Have you a desire to learne 
modestly to Daunce, skilfully to Fence, dexteriously to 
manage Great Horses, view Forraine sights, learne 
Languages, Humane policies, and the like conducements : 

Then rather reach, the Fountaine, whence they flow, 
Whence Science, Arts, and Practise lively grow ; 
Than sucke the streames, of separate distasts, 
He well derives, his labour never wasts ; 
Fond Fooles affect, what foolery Fooles effect, 
The sequell sight, than sense, doth more infect. 

Besides these two infamous Authors, what hath Edee, 
the Idea of a Knave, (and Gentle man of the French 
Privy Chamber) done ; who like a Wood weather cocke, 
and giddy headed Foole, (full of deficient Vapours) hath 
shamefully stayned with his shamelesse Pen, the light of 
this Kingdome, which now I omit to avouch till a fitter 
time. 

Thus, they fondly Write, thus they pratle, thus they 

[X. 439.] sing, thus they Daunce, thus they brangle, thus they dally 

in capritziat humours, and thus they vary, in the fleering 

conceite of sa, sa, sa, sa, sa, far beyond the inconstancy of 

all female inconstancies. 

But to conclude this Epitome of France, three things 
Certaine I wish the way-faring man to prevent there : First, the 

caveats fir eating of Victuals, and drinking of Wine without price 

'^to France makin g j least ( wnen ne natn done) for the stridor of his 
teeth his charges be redoubled. Next to choose his 
lodging (if it fall out in any way-standing Taverne) far 
from palludiat Ditches, least the vehemency of chirking 
frogs, vexe the wish'd-for Repose of his fatigated body, 
and cast him in a vigilant perplexity. 

And lastly, unlesse earely hee would arise, I never wish 
him to lye neere the fore-streetes of a Towne ; because of 
the disturbant clamours of the Peasant samboies or nayle- 
woodden shoes : whose noyse like an aequivox, resembleth 

382 



COMMENTS UPON BEARNE ad. 

1620. 
the clashing armour of Armies ; or the clangour of the 
Ulyssen-tumbling Horse to fatall Troy. 

But now to my purpose, leaving Paris behind me, I 
arrived at Pau in Bearne. This Province is a principality 
of it selfe, anciently annexed to the Kingdom of Navarre : 
lying betweene the higher Gascony of Guyan, and the 
Pyrhenei Mountaynes of Baske, bordering with the North 
parts of Navarre : Both of which, belongeth to the French 
King, except a little of Baske toward the Columbian Alpes, 
and that the Spaniard commandeth. 

Pau is the Justice seate of Bearne, having a goodly 
Castle, situate on an artificiall Rocke ; and in this place was 
that Martial Henry du Burbone la Quatriesme borne, than 
King of Navarre. 

Here be the finest Gardens in Christendome, the 
Gardens of Pretolino (5. miles from Florence) only ex- 
cepted. Yet for faire Arbors, spacious over-siling walkes, [X. 440.] 
and incorporate Trees of interchanging growths, it sur- 
passeth Pretolino : but the other for the variety of 
fructiferous Trees, rare and admirable ponds, artificial 
fountaynes ; Diana, and her Allabaster Nymphly-por- 
trayed trayne, the counter-banding force of Agvadotti, 
and the exquisite banqueting Roome, contrived among 
sounding unseene waters, in forme of Gargantus body, it 
much excelleth Pau. 

Hence, I discended the River of Orthes to Baion, and Biscai in 
crossing the River Behobia, which divideth France and Spayne is a 
Spaine, I entered in Biscai June 19. 1620. This is a s ™ rnle 
Mountaynous and invincible Countrey, (of which Victoria 
is the chiefe City) being a barren and almost unprofitable 
Soyle. The speciall commodities whereof, are Sheep, 
Woole as soft as silke, Goates, and excellent good Iron : 
Cornes they have none, or little at all, neither wine, but 
what is brought from Navarre in Pelagoes or Swineskins, 
carried on Mulets backes. 

Leaving Biscai, I entred Navarre, and came to Pampe- 
lona its Metropolitane Citty : Here I found the poorest 
Viceroy (nomen sine re) with the least meanes to main- 

383 



ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1620. 

taine him, that ever the World affoorded such a stile. 
Navarre is but a little Kingdome, amounting in length 
(with the South Pendicles of the high Pirhenese) to twenty 
three leagues : That is, betweene Porto di St. Joanne in 
Baske, and Grono upon the River Hebro, dividing the old 
Castilia and Navarre. In breadth it extendeth to seaven- 
teene Leagues, that is betweene Varen in Biscai, and 
Terrafranca in Arragon : The soyle is indifferent fertile of 
Cornes and Wines. From thence I set East-ward to 
Syragusa, the Capitall Seate of Arragon. 

[X. 441.] Arragon, hath Navarre to the West, South Valentia 
Kingdome, East, and South-east Catalogna ; and on the 
North the Alpes Pyrhenese. It is an auncient and famous 
Kingdome, under whose Jurisdiction, were both the petty 
Kingdomes of Valentia, & Barselona : And not long ago 
traduced to the Castilian King by marriage. For although 
Castilia hath the language, they have the lineall dissent of 
the Romans ; the Inhabitants whereof being instinctively 
endued with all humane affabilities. From thence return- 
ing through the old Castilia, or Kingdome of Burgos, in 
the way to St. Iago of Compostella in Galitia : It was my 
fortune, at St. Domingo to enter the Towne-Church : 
accompanied with two French Puppies, mindfull to shew 
me a miraculous matter. 

Where, when come, I espied over my head opposit to 
the great Altar, two milke white Hennes, enraveled in 

A /eying an iron Cage, on the inner side of the Porches Promontore. 

miracle. And demanding why they were kept? Or what they 
signified? Certaine Spaniards replyed come along with 
us, and you shall see the Storie, and being brought to the 
(Choro) it was drawne thereon as followeth. The father 
and the sonne, two Burboneons of France ; going in 
Pilgrimage to St. James, it was their lot to lodge here in 
an Inne : Where supper ended, and reckoning payed, the 
Host perceiving their denariat charge, he entered their 
Chamber, when they were a sleepe, and in bed, conveying 
his owne purse in the young mans Budget. 

To morrow earely ; the two innocent Pilgrimes, footing 

384 



COMMENTS UPON SPAIN aj>. 

1620. 

the hard bruising way, were quickly over-hied by the 
Justice ; where the Host making search for his purse, 
found it in the sonnes bagge. Whereupon instantly, and 
in the same place hee was hanged, and left hanging there, 
seazing on their money be a sententiall forfeiture 

The sorrowfull Father (notwithstanding) continued his [X. 442.] 
Pilgrimage to Compostella. Where, when come, and 
devotion made, our Lady of Mount Serata appeared to 
him saying : Thy prayers are heard, and thy groanes have 
pierced my heart, arise, and returne to Saint Domingo for 
thy sonne liveth. And hee accordingly returned, found 
it so, and the sonne-hanged Monster, after 30. dayes 
absence, spoke thus from the Gallowes, Father, goe to our 
Host, and shew him I live, then speedily returne. By 
which direction the old man entred the Towne, and finding 
the Host at Table, in breaking up of two roasted Pullets, 
told him, and sayd : My sonne liveth, come and see. To A damnable 
which the smiling Host replyed, he is as surely alive on delusion of a 
the Gallowes, as these two Pullets be alive in the dish. d ^fj^ 
At which protestation, the two fire-scorched fowles leapt 
out suddainly alive, with heads, wings, feathers, and feet, 
and kekling, tooke flight thrice about the Table. The 
which amazing sight, made the astonished Host to confesse 
his guiltines ; and the other relieved from the rope, he 
was hung up in his place, allotting his house for an 
Hospitality to Pilgrimes for ever. 

There are still two Hennes reserved here, in memory 
of this miracle, and aye changed, as they grow fat for the 
Priests chops, being freely given to the place. And I dare 
swearing say, these Priests eate fatter Hennes, than Don 
Phillipo him selfe, they being fed by the peoples devotion, 
at their enterance to the morning and evening sacrifices, 
and are tearmed holy Hennes. Infinite paper could I blot, 
with relating the like absurdities, and miraculous lies of 
the Romane Church, but leaving them till a fitter occasion, 
I proceed. From thence traversing a great part of the 
higher Asturia, I entred in Galitia, and found the Countrey 
so barren, the people so poore, and victuals so scarce, that [X. 443.] 
l 385 2 B 



A.D. 
l620. 



TheKingdome 
ofPortugale. 



The palace of 
Escuriall. 



[X. 444.] 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

this importunate inforcement, withdrew me from S. 
Jacques, to Portugale : Where I found little better, or 
lesser reliefe, their soyles being absolute sterile, desartuous, 
and mountainous. 

Portugale was formerly called Lusitania, and Hispania, 
ulteriora: It is in length 320. miles, large 68. and some- 
times under : In the Moorish domination it was divided 
in two Kingdomes, the one reserveth the name of all ; 
the other was called Agarbas : A word Arabick that signi- 
fied the part Occidentall : And were divided with the 
River Guadion, and the two Castles Odebera, and 
Aleotino : Agarbas was toward the South, & Portugale 
Northward. 

Portugale is now confined on the South, and South-East 
with Andolusia : West and South-West, the maine Ocean. 
Galitia to the North: And Eastward the old and new 
Castilia. After twenty dayes fastidious climbing in this 
Kingdome, I returned to Salamancha in Castilia Vecchia ; 
the Sacerdotall University of Spaine, whence springeth 
these Flockes of Studientes, that over-swarme the whole 
land with rogueries, robberies, and begging. From thence 
traversing the Alpes of Siera de Caderama, (which divide 
the two Castilias) I discended the South side of the 
mountaines, and arrived at the Escurial ; where then late 
King Phillip the third, had his residence. 

This Pallace standeth alone, and founded upon the skirt 
of a perpendicular hill of Caderama, squared out from a 
devalling steepnesse, having a large prospect Southwardly 
towards the Evenise mountaines beyond Toledo. This 
palatiat cloyster is quadrangled foure stories high, the 
uppermost whereof, is window-set in the blew tecture : 
The stone worke below, having three rankes of larger 
windowes, incircling the whole quadrangles, and French- 
like high rigged. At every spacious squadrat corner, 
there is an high Turret erected, above the coverture, whose 
tops beare each of them a golden Globe. In the middle 
court standeth a round incorporate Church, arising 
outward in a rotundo, with a wide leaden top, and on each 

386 



COMMENTS UPON SPAIN a.d. 

1620. 

side thereof a squadrat Steeple, higher then the round, 

making a goodly shew. It hath neither outward walles nor 

gates, but the two selfe doores of the eleven incloystered 

petty Courts, save onely some office houses without, 

and they stand alone by the hill broken side. I may Escurialis 

rather tearme it a Monastery, then a Kingly Pallace, rather a 

having a hundred and fifty Monkes, Chartuzians, of St. j£j"5J^ 

Hieronimoes order living within it ; the King onely 

remaining in a private corner, at his comming thither. 

Nay at that instant, he was so private that before I saw 

his face, I could not beleeve, that the Patrone of so great 

a Monarchy, could be so quiet ; yea, as quiet as a Countrey 

Baron is with us, and had lived so nine weekes before. 

The house it selfe I confesse, excelleth in beauty, that 

Constantinopolitan Seralia, of the great Turke : though 

not in divisions, and ground distances, yet for a maine 

incorporate house, and was builded by King Philip the 

second, standing seven leagues from Madrile, to which 

I arrived. 

Here is the residence of the Court though formerly at 
Valladoli : Madrid or Madrile, is the Center or middle 
part of Spaine, situate in the Kingdome of Toledo, the new 
Castilia. And distant from Lisbone in Portugale West- 
ward one hundred leagues : From Sevilia in Andoluzia 
ninety leagues : From Grenada Southward, sixty eight 
leagues : Barselona in Catalogna, East, South-eastward 
one hundred leagues : From Valentia fifty leagues : 
From Siragusa in Arragon Eastward fifty three leagues : 
From Saint Sebastian in Biscai North-westward seventy 
leagues : And from Pampelona in Navarre, North-east- [X. 445.] 
ward, forty nine leagues. Spaine generally, is a masse of 
mountaines, a barren ill manured soyle : Neither well 
inhabited nor populous : Yea, so desartuous that in the 
very heart of Spaine, I have gone eighteene leagues, (two 
dayes journey) unseeing house or Village, except two 
Ventas, Tavernes. And commonly eight leagues without 
any house : Villages be so farre distant, the Rockie Seraes 
or Alpes so innumerable. 

387 



A.D. 
l620. 

// is miserable 
travelling in 
Spaine. 



[X. 446.] 



The long 
captivity of the 
Spaniards 
under the 
Mores. 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

It is miserable travelling, lesse profitable, in these ten 
Provinces, or petty Kingdomes, hard lodging and poore, 
great scarcity of beds and deare : And no ready drest diet, 
unlesse you buy it raw ; and cause dresse, or dresse it your 
selfe, buying first in one place your fire, your meate from 
the Butcher, your bread from the Baker, your Wine from 
the Taverne, your Fruites, Oyle, and Hearbes from the 
Botega, carying all to the last place, your bed-lodging : 
Thus must the weary Stranger toile, or else fast : And 
in infinite places for Gold nor money can have no victuals ; 
but restrained to a relenting jejunation. The high-minded 
Spaniard and their high topped mountaines, have an 
infused contention together. The one through arrogant 
ambition, would invade the whole earth to inlarge his 
dominions : The other by a steepe swolne hight, seeme 
to threaten the Heavens to pull down Jupiter from his 
throne. And as I take it, the Spaniard being of a low 
stature, borroweth his high-minded breast from the high 
topped mountaines, for the one in quality, and the other 
in quantity, be extraordinarily infounded. 

Certaine it is, as the Spaniard in all things standeth 
mainely upon his reputation (but never to avouch it with 
single combat) so he vaunteth not a little of his antiquity, 
deriving his pedegree from Tubal, the Nephew of Noe. 
But (especially as they draw it) how often hath the Line 
of Tubal, beene bastarded, degenerated, and quite 
expelled, by invasions of Phoenicians, oppressions of the 
Greekes, incursiones of the Carthaginians, the Conquest 
and planting of Provinces, and Colonies of the Romanes, 
the general deluge of the Gothes, Hunnes, and Vandales : 
and lastly, by the long and intolerable Tyranny of the 
Moores, whose slavish yoake and bondage in 800. yeares, 
hee could scarcely shake off; his owne Histories beare 
sufficient testimony and Record. Then it is manifest, that 
this mixture of Nations, must of necessity make a com- 
pounded Nature, such as having affinity with many, have 
no perfection in any one. 

Their Manners are conformable to their discent, and 

388 



COMMENTS UPON SPAIN ad. 

1620. 
their conditionall Vertues semblable to their last and longest 
Conquerors, of whom they retayne the truest stampe. 

The most penurious Peasants in the World be heere, 
whose Quotidian moanes, might draw teares from stones. 
Their Villages stand as wast like as the Sabunck, Gara- 
mont, or Arabian Pavilleons, wanting Gardens, Hedges, 
Closses, Barnes, or Backe-sides : This sluggish and idle 
husbandry, being a natural instinct of their neighbour or 
paternal Moores. 

As for industrious Artes, Inventions, and Vertues, they 
are as dull thereof, as their late Predecessours : and truely 
I confesse for the Spanish Nunne, she is more holy then the 
Italian ; the former are onely Reserved to the Friers, and 
Priests : The latter being more Noble, have most affinity 
with Gentle-men. The Spaniard is of a spare dyet and 
temperate, if at his owne cost he spend ; but if given Gratis, 
he hath the longest Tuskes that ever stroke at Table. 

After a doubtfull and dangerous departure from Madrid [X. 447.] 
(as Sir Walter Aston his Majesties Ambassador can testifie 
with his Followers, as some of his people have already here 
done the same,) being the drift of my owne Country-men, 
I came to Toledo twelve Leagues distant from thence : 
This Citty is situate on a ragged Rocke upon the River 
Tagus, being an Arch-bishops seate, the Primat and 
Metropolitan Sea of all Spaine : Yet a miserably impover- 
ished and deformed place. 

And although the Spaniard, of all Townes in Spaine, Naked ambi- 
braggeth most of Toledo, it is neyther (doubtlesse I know) tlon con f erred 
for beauty, bounds, nor Wealth, if not for the Intrado ^j^ ' 
belongeth to it, amounting yearely (as they affirme) to 
200000 Duckats ; for there is no other Episcopal Seate, 
in all Castilia, or Kingdome of Toledo. Giving backe to 
Toledo, I crossed the crossing Siera de Morada, (which 
divideth the Kingdome of Grenada, from the Mansha of 
the new Castilia) and arrived at Grenada, the Capital of 
Andolusia. 

Here had the Moores their last residence in Spaine, and 
was magnanimously recovered, Anno 1499. yeares, by 

389 






A.D. 
l620. 



[X. 448.] 



Mr. Woodson 
a London 
Merchant. 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

Ferdinando the Castilian King, and his wife Isabella. It 
standeth at the foote of Siera de Nevada (the Snowy 
Alpes,) who reserve continually Snow on their tops, and 
partly inclosed betweene two Snow-melting Rivers. In 
this Citty is the principall Seate, and Colledge of Justice, 
of all South Spaine : As Valladoli is for the North of 
Spaine, the high Court of Madrid having Prerogative over 
both. 

It hath a spacious and strong Castle, which was builded 
by the Moores, and indeede a Kingly mansion : Where I 
saw the Hals and Bed-Chambers of the Moorish Kings, 
most exquisitly, over-siled, and indented with Mosaicall 
worke ; excelling farre any moderne industry whatsoever. 

The Emperour Charles the fift, and King of Spaine ; 
after his returne from that misfortunate voyage of Algier, 
left a monument here, never likely to have beene accom- 
plished, that is, the foundation of an admirable worke 
advanced two stories high : without it is quadrangled, 
and within round ; having two degrees of incircling pro- 
montores, supported by Marble pillars, and Allabaster 
arches. 

Being dismissed here, it was my fortune at Antecara to 
encounter with a Merchant, (M. Woodson a Londoner,) 
newly come from Venice, and bound to Malaga. With 
whom desirously accompanied, the day following being 
Sunday, with sore travayle wee came within night to 
Malaga, and thereafter parting to our severall Lodgings, 
the next morning I addressed my selfe to the shoare side ; 
where I had notice given me, of a French ship belonging 
to Tolon in Provance, that was lying in the Mould,- and 
shortly bound for Alexandria : And finding that Trans- 
portation most convenient for my designe (my safest 
course lying through Mgypt and the Red Sea, for Prester 
Jehans Dominions and Court) I presently made bargaine 
with the Ships-master, for my passage and Victuals. 

And now attending my departure thence, uppon the fift 
day after my comming hither Anno 1620. October 27. 
the English Fleete that went agaynst the Pyrats of Algier, 

390 



COMMENTS UPON SPAIN a.d. 

1620. 

gave Anchor at mid-night in the Roade : Whose suddaine 
comming, yeelded no small feare to the affrighted Towne, 
mistaking them for Turkes ; for the two Castle-bells 
Ringing backe-ward, the thundring Drums resounding, 
and the Towne all the latter night in Armes, bred such [ x - 449-] 
disturbant despaire to their families, and distraction to ^^tedwith 
themselves, that their wives and children fled to the higher t ^ e English 
Castle without the Towne ; and I a stayd Consort with Fleet. 
the Defendants till day light. But morning come, and the 
English Colours discovered, Don Jaspar Ruiz de Peredas 
the Governour, went aboord of the English Generall Sir 
Robert Maunsell ; where after congratulating comple- 
ments, he being returned a shoare, dismissed the Burgers 
and their Armes. In that afternoone, and the day follow- 
ing beeing Satturday, there came hundreds a shoare of 
my speciall friends, and olde familiars, Londoners, and 
Courtiers, with whom desirously met, we were joviall 
together, till Sunday morning : where then I went aboord 
of the Lyon, his Majesties ship, and saluted the Generall, 
who kindly intertained mee to the next day, that the Fleete 
was divided in three Squaders, and he under Sayle, and 
then unhappily came I a shoare in a Fisher boate, to my 
deare bought destruction, beeing sore agaynst the Generals 
will, but that I should have gone with him to Algier: 
Save onely that my Linnen, Letters, and Sacket was lying 
in my hostery, and so could not go : but what shal I say ? 

Quod fortuna dedit, nemo tollere potest. 

And so now followeth the sorrowfiill Relations of my 
Tragicall sufferings, which as briefly as I may, I shall 
succinctly avouch, although the larger, the better to be 
understood. 

Sad soule mixe truth, with grave and prompe discourse 
Let passiones be, this Tragicke stile must rest 
On Faith and Patience, Columnes of secourse, 
Which underprop'd my sufferings here exprest : 

Lord weigh my words, with wisdome, give me grace 

In all this Worke, to give thy glory place. 

39i 



ad. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1620. 
[X. 450.] I was no sooner entred the Towne, and drawing up a 

private way to my lodging, to shunne company and 
acquaintance, for that night was I to have imbarked for 
Alexandria, but I was suddenly surprised in that narrow 
depopulated street, with nine Alguozilos, Sergeants, who 
inclosing mee on both sides layd violent hands on mee, 
wrapping me up in a blacke frizado cloake, and gripping 
my throat to stop my crying, they carryed me on their 
armes to the governours house, and inclosed me in a low 
Parlour. 
A sad request To which when the Governour came, for I was 
to a mercilesse acquainted with him before I sadly spoke, saying, My 
Governour. mos t noble Governour, and worthy Lord, I humbly be- 
seech your goodnes to shew me, for what offence or cause, 
I am thus violently brought before you, knowing that in 
me, and from my carriage, there is no injury committed. 
Whereat, without answer, and shaking his head, he caused 
inclose mee in a little Cabinet within the Parlour, till he 
went for Masse, commanding them with all possible 
dilligence to fetch hither, the Captaine of the Towne Don 
Francesco, di Cordova, the Alcade major, and the States 
Scrivan, enjoy ning them to conceale my apprehending till 
further tryal under the paine of death. 

At last he from the Masse, and they come hither, the 
Sergeants were dismissed, the doores made fast, and I was 
brought forth before these foure Cavalliers, all placed in 
chayres, and the Scrivan-table set, with pen and paper to 
write my confession. Where after long silence, the 
Governour asked mee of my Nation, and how long, and 
how often I had beene out of my Country : and whether 
I was bound ? and how long I had beene in Spaine. 

To whom I punctually returned my dividuat answers : 
[X. 451.] Whereupon being inclosed in my former Cabinet, 

within a while Don Francesco entred my roome, demand- 
ing mee if I had beene in Civilia, or was come from it ; 
and clapping my cheeks with a Judas-smile made this 
entreaty. My deare brother, and gallant Companion, 
confesse freely that you have beene in Civilia, for your 

392 



COMMENTS UPON SPAIN ad. 

1620. 
countenance bewrayeth, there are some hidden purposes in 
the closet of your breast ; and Para fuyr mas malo, you 
had best in time relate to mee the trueth. 

Whereat I saying no, as truth acquired, he went back, 
resolving them of my stiffe denyall, and they therewith 
incensed, I was invited to their former presence, and maine 
accusations ensuing. First the Governour made me A tyrannical 
sweare and hold up my hand, that I should tell the par- C Q^ h ayned 
ticular trueth of every thing hee was to demand of mee ; 
which indeed I did according to my knowledge. 

Then he inquired if the English Generall, was a Duke, 
or great Signior, and what could be the reason, that he 
refused to come a shoare there ; for that was the first . 
impression of their false conceived jealousie. Next ; he 
asked mee, if I knew his name, and the other Captaines and 
what their names were? and what their intention was? or 
if I had knowne of their comming abroad, or preparation 
for it, before my departure from England. 

The Scrivan writing downe meanewhile every word he 
spoke and what I answered : well ; to all the former 
particulars giving condigne satisfaction, and to the last, 
denying that I knew of the forth comming of the fleet, 
they all foure gave a shout in the contrary. Whereupon 
the Governour swearing, cursed and said, thou leyest like 
a Villane, thou art a spy and a traytor, and earnest directly 
from England of purpose to Spaine ; and hath beene lying 
nine moneths in Sivilia, getting sure intelligence, when [X. 452.] 
the Spanish Navy was looked for from the Indies ; and 
that thou expressely heere, came to meete with the English 
Armado, (knowing of their dyet) to give them credible 
knowledge thereof: And that by thy information, they 
might the more readily compasse their endes, and thus thy 
treachery and subtilty, hath beene imployed. 

Whereat I being astonished, and seriously answering 
for the intention of the English Fleete, and my owne 
innocency concerning them: He threatning sayd, I was JzJjS!^ 
seene familiar a Boord and a shoare, with the whole my greatest 
Captaines, and knowne to be of their speciall acquaint- Hnderance. 

393 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1620. 

ance : besides three hundred other Gentle-men, and 
Mariners with whom, and they with thee, were so inward, 
that it far exceeded the kindnes of accidentall meeting. 

All this we saw, and hourely remarked (sayd hee) and 
thou art newly come from the Generall, when thou wast 
taken, where consulting with their Counsell of Warre this 
morning, (concerning what they assigned thee to accom- 
plish) thou hast delivered thy opinion, and the expectation 
of Sivilia, touching the returne of his Majesties Armado 
di Plato ; and therefore thou art a Spiono, a Traytor, and a 
scelerate Velacco : for wee are not ignorant (sayd he) of the 
burning of St. Thome in the West Indies ; for there and 
then, wee had a certaine evidence of the English infidelity, 
and treacherous exploytes in time of Peace : Wherefore 
these Lutheranes and Sonnes of the Divell, ought not from 
us good Catholickes to receive no credit. 

Whereupon I besought him, to send for some sufficient 
English Factors, there sojourning, who would testifie the 
[X. 453.] contrary in my behalfe, their Countrey, and their Fleete, 
but that he would not, for my being discovered. At last 
seeing his damnable opinion, and to cleare my selfe of 
such false imputations : I requested him to send a Sergeant 
to my Posado or Lodging for my Clogbag, where hee 
should see a more evident Testimony of my carriage and 
honest purpose, and thereupon the approbation of my 
Prince. 

This demaund liked him well, thinking thereby to finde 

out all the secrets and practises of my Negotiation with the 

English Fleete : Whereupon forthwith, and with close 

Circumspection he had it brought unto him, my hostage 

His Majesties House not knowing where I was. The Clogbag I 

Letters and opened my selfe, and showing him his Majesties Letters in 

mtrezarded P arcnment > ai *d under his Hand and Seale, dated at 

Theobals 1619. July 17. and compiled and wrot by M. 

Thomas Red, then Secretary for the Latine Tongue, done 

in my behalfe, and my intended Resolution for ^Ethiopia, 

the Kings safe Conduct he mis-regarded, giving it neyther 

Respect nor trust. 

394 



COMMENTS UPON SPAIN a.d. 

1620. 

After which, I show'd him divers Patents, Seales, and 
the great Seale of Jerusalem, Pasports, and my Booke of 
Armes, called Liber amicorum, wherein, I had the hand- 
writs, and Armes of sundry Kings, Dukes, Princes, Vice- 
Royes, Marquesses, Earles, Lords, and Governors, &c. 
done in Prose and Verse, in Greeke, Latine, or their 
maternall tongues, being as propitious pledges of their 
favour, in commendation of me, and of my Travailes. 

But all these would not satisfie him, nay, rather 
confirming a greater jealousie of his former suspition : 
whereupon misconstruing all, they seased absolutely upon 
my Clog-bag, viewing, and detayning all I had at their 
pleasure ; including me the third time. This done, and [X. 454.] 
within night, beeing Represented againe, the Governour 
commaunded me to subscribe my Confession, which I 
voluntarily obeyed ; though they still urged me further and 
further to confesse. Meanewhile these foure Complices 
consulting about my Imprisonment, the Alcalde or chiefe 
Justice would have had me along with him to the 
Town Jayle, but the Corrigidor refused saying, Para non 
star visto con sus Pesanos : That hee may not bee seene 
by his Country-men, it behoveth me to have a care of his 
concealement : and I warrant you (sayd he) I shal lodge 
him well enough. 

Upon the knowledge of this, that I was secretly to be An injust 
incarcerate in the Governours Palace, entred the M. robbery by 
Sergeant, and begged my mony, and Lycence to search ttn J mt ?**&'• 
it : and liberty granted hee found in my pockets eleaven 
Philippoes or Ducatons ; and then uncloathing me before 
their eyes, even to my shirt, and searching my breeches, 
he found in my Doublet necke, fast shut betweene two 
Canvesses, 137. double peeces of gold. Whereat the 
Corrigidor arose and counting my gold, being 548. 
duccats, he sayd to the Sergeant, cloath him againe, and 
inclose him there in the Cabinet till after Supper. Meane- . 
while the Sergeant got the 11. duccatons of Silver ; and my 
gold, which was to take me for ^Ethiopia, the Governour 
seased upon ; giving afterwards 200. Crownes of it to 

395 



A.D. 

l620. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 



And here is 
the embleme 
my misery. 
[X. 456.] 



A miserable 
W helplesse 
Lamentation 



supply the new layd Foundation of a Capuschine 
Monastery there, reserving the rest (being 348. duccats) 
for his owne avaricious ends. 

This done, and mid-night come, the Sergeant and two 
Turkish slaves releasing mee from the inferiour Roome, 
brought mee through certayne ascending passages, to a 
chamber, in a sequestrate side of the Palace, toward the 
[X. 455.] Garden, and right above his Summer Kitchen: Where 
there, and then, the Sergeants, and the two slaves, thrust 
on every ancle an heavy bolt, my legs being put to the 
f full stride, by a mayne gad of iron far above a yard long, 
upon the endes of which the two bolts depended, that were 
fastned about my legs. Insomuch, that I could never 
sit up, nor walke, nor stand, nor turne me ; but lay 
continually on my backe, the irons being thrice heavier 
then my body. 

Whereupon beholding my inevitable misery, and such 
monster-made irons my sighing soule deplored thus : 
Alas Sergeant, and you two Slaves, remarke in me the just 
Judgements of God ; and loe how the Heavens have 
reducted me to this meritorious reward, and truely 
deserved ; for I have dearely and truly bought it ; that I 
whose legges and feete the whole Universe could scarcely 
contayne, now these bolts and irons keepe them fast, in a 
body length, of a stone-paved Floore. O foolish pride, 
O suppressing ambition! and vaporous curiosity! woe 
worth the fury of your aspiring vanities ; you have taken 
mee over the face of the earth, and now left me in a 
Dungeon hole : My soule, O my soule is leager unto this 
Proverbe, Man proposeth, and God disposeth : O happy 
had I beene, thrice happy in a Shepheards life. 

Thus, and more lamenting the destiny of nature, they 
left mee with solacious words, and straight returned againe 
with Victuals ; being a pound of boyl'd Mutton, a wheat 
bread, and a small Pint of Wine : which was the first, the 
best, and the last of this kinde, that ever I got 
in that woefull Mansion. The Sergeant leaving me 
(never seeing him more, till a more unwelcomed sight) 

396 




The Author in irons in the Governour's Palace at Malaga 



COMMENTS UPON SPAIN a.d. 

1620. 
hee directed the Slaves, that after I had contented my dis- 
contented appetite, they should locke the doore, and carry 
the keyes to Areta, a Spaniard and keeper of the silver 
plate. 

A little while after he was gone, the other Drudge left 
me also, who was newly turned Christian : where being 
alone with Hazier the naturall Turke, who was to attend 
me, feede me, and keepe me, lying nightly a constrayned [ x - 457-] 
Centinell, without the doore of my imprisonment ; hee 
demanded me for what cause I was committed, and what 
malefact I was guilty of? to whom I answered, onely for 
a naked suspition, mistaking the honorable intention of the 
English Armado, I am as a spy apprehended, and falsely 
accused. 

Whereupon the silly Slave falling downe on his knees, The mourning 
held up his hands, crying, Hermano, Hermano, es muy of Hauler a 
grand menester, par a tomar pacenza, &c. Brother, Turktsh " ave - 
Brother, it is much needfull for you to take all in patience, 
for it is impossible now you can escape, some fearefull 
tryall, and thereupon a horrible punishment even unto 
death ; and alasse to relieve you, if I durst, (as I dare not 
under death) to discover you to your Countrey-men, I 
would doe it upon my knees, and leaving me with a weep- 
ing good night, he made fast the doore, and transported 
the keyes, as he was directed. 

The day following the Governour entered my Prison 
alone, intreating me to confesse that I was a spy, and he 
would be my friend, and procure my pardon, neither 
should I lacke (interim) any needfull thing : But I still 
attesting my innocency, hee wrathfully swore I should 
see his face no more, till grievous torments should make 
me doe it ; and leaving mee in a rage, he observed too 
well his condition. 

But withall in my audience, he commanded Areta, that 
none should come neare mee except the slave, nor no food 
should be given mee but three ounces of moosted browne 
bread, every second day, and a Fuleto or English Pint of 
water, neither any bed, pillow, or coverlet to be allowed 

397 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1620. 

mee : And close up sayd he, this window in his roome, with 
lyme and stone, stop the holes of the doore with double 

[X. 458.] Matts, hanging another locking to it ; and to withdraw 
all visible and sensible comfort from him, let no tongue, 
nor feet be heard neare him, till I have my designes 
accomplished : And thou Hazier I charge thee, at thy 
incommings to have no conference with him, nor at thy 
out-goings abroad to discover him to the English Factors, 
as thou wilt answer upon thy life, and the highest torments 
can be devised. 

These directions delivered, and alas too accessary to 
me in the performance : my roome was made a darke- 
drawne Dungeon, my belly the anatomy of mercilesse 
hunger, my comfortlesse hearing, the receptacle of sound- 
ing Bells, my eye wanting light, a loathsome languishing 
in despaire, and my ground lying body, the woefull 
mirrour of misfortunes : every houre wishing anothers 
comming, every day the night, and every night the 
morning. 

A speedy And now being every second or third day attended 

expedition for ^-^ ^ twinckling of an eye, and my sustenance agreeable 
d mercilesse ® * . 

mischeife. to m 7 attendance, my body grew exceeding debile and 

infirme ; insomuch that the Governour (after his answers 

receaved from Madrile) made haste to put in execution, 

his bloody and mercilesse purpose before Christmas Holy- 

dayes : least ere the expiring of the twelfth day, I should 

be utterly famished, and unable to undergoe my tryall, 

without present perishing, yet unknowne to me, save onely 

in this knowledge, that I was confident to dye a fearefull 

and unacquainted death : for it is a current custome with 

the Spaniard, that if a stranger be apprehended upon any 

suspicion, he is never brought to open tryall, and common 

Jayle, but clapd up in a Dungeon, and there tortured, 

impoysoned, or starved to death : Such meritorious deeds, 

accompany these onely titular Christians : for the Spaniard 

[X. 459.] accounteth it more to be called a Christian, than either to 

beleeve what hee professeth,or to conforme him selfe to the 

life of Christianity : yea, I sparingly avouch it, hee is the 

398 



COMMENTS UPON SPAIN ad. 

1620. 
worst and baddest creature of the Christian name ; having 
no more Religion (and lesse respective to devotion) than 
an externall presumptuous show ; which perfiteth this 
ancient Proverbe, The Spaniard ; est bonus Catholicus, sed 
malus Christianus. 

In end, by Gods permission, the scourge of my fiery 
tryall approaching ; upon the forty seventh day after my 
first imprisonment, and five dayes before Christmas ; about 
two a clocke in the morning, I heard the noyse of a Coach 
in the fore-street, marvelling much what it might meane. 

Within a pretty while I heard the locks of my Prison- My transpor- 
doore in opening ; whereupon bequeathing my soule to tationfrom 
God, I humbly implored his gracious mercie and pardon ^^tlbf 
for my sinnes : for neither in the former night nor this, rac ^ t 
could I get any sleepe, such was the force of gnawing 
hunger, and the portending heavinesse of my presaging 
soule. 

Meanewhile the former nine Sergeants, accompanied 
with the Scrivan, entered the roome without word speak- 
ing, and carrying mee thence, with irons and all, on their 
armes through the house, to the street, they layd mee on 
my backe in the Coach : where two of them sat up beside 
mee, (the rest using great silence) went softly along by the 
Coach side. 

Then Baptista the Coach-man, an Indian Negro droving 
out at the Sea-gate, the way of the shoare-side, I was 
brought Westward almost a league from the Towne, to 
a Vine-presse house, standing alone amongst Vineyards, 
where they inclosed mee in a roome till day light, for [X. 460.] 
hither was the Racke brought the night before, and 
privately placed in the ende of a Trance. 

And all this secresie was used, that neyther English, 
French, or Flemings, should see or get any knowledge 
of my Tryall, my grievous Tortures, and dreadfull dis- 
patch, because of their treacherous and cruel proceedings. 

At the breach of day the Governour, Don Francesco, 
and the Alcalde, came foorth in another Coach : where 
when arrived, and I invited to their presence, I pleaded 

399 



A.D. 
l620. 

A stranger 
ought not to be 
accused with 
strangers 
without an 
Interpreter. 



[x.461.] 



A mercilesse 
hurt, before 
they begun to 
Racke mee. 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

for a Trench man, being against their Law, to accuse or 
condemne a Stranger, without a sufficient Interpreter. 
The which they absolutely refused, neyther would they 
suffer or grant mee an Appellation to Madrid. 

And now after long and new Examinations, from 
morning to darke night, they finding my first and second 
Confession so runne in one, that the Governour swore, 
I had learned the Arte of Memory : Saying further, 
is it possible hee can in such distresse, and so long 
a time, observe so strictly in every manner the poynts 
of his first Confession, and I so often shifting him too 
and fro. 

Well, the Governours interrogation and my Confession 
being mutually subscribed : He and Don Francesco 
besought me earnestly to acknowledge and confesse my 
guiltinesse in time : if not, he would deliver me in the 
Alcaldes hands there present : Saying moreover, thou art 
as yet in my power, and I may spare or pardon thee ; 
providing thou wilt confesse thy selfe a Spie, and a 
Tray tour against our Nation. 

But finding mee stand fast to the marke of my spotlesse 
innocency, he, invective, and malicious hee, after many 
tremenduous threatnings, commanded the Scrivan to draw 
up a Warrant for the chiefe Justice : And done, he set his 
hand to it, and taking me by the hand, delivered me and 
the Warrant in the Alcalde Majors hands, to cause mee 
bee Tortured, broken, and cruelly Tormented. 

Whence being carried along on the Sergeants armes, to 
the end of a Trance or stone Gallery, where the Pottaro 
or Racke was placed : The Encarnador or Tormentor, 
begunne to disburden me of my irons, which beeing very 
hard inbolted he could not Ram-verse the Wedges for 
a long time : Whereat the Chiefe Justice being offended, 
the malicious Villaine with the Hammer which he had in 
his hand, stroake away above an inch of my left heele with 
the Bolt. Whereupon I grievously groaning, beeing 
exceeding faint, and without my three ounces of bread, 
and a little Water for three dayes together : The Alcalde 

400 



COMMENTS UPON HIS TORTURES a.d. 

1620. 

sayd, O Traytor all this is nothing, but the earnest of a 
greater bargaine you have in hand. 

Now the irons being dissolved, and my Torments 
approaching, I fell prostrate on my knees, crying to the 
Heavens : 

O Great and Gracious GOD, it is truely knowne to 
thy all-seeing Eye, that I am innocent of these false and 
fearefull accusations, and since therefore it is thy Good 
will and pleasure, that I must suffer now by the scelerate 
hands of mercilesse men : Lord furnish mee, with Courage, 
Strength, and Patience least by an impatient Minde, and 
feebling Spirit, I become my owne Murtherer, in Con- 
fessing my selfe guilty of Death, to shunne present 
punishment. And according to the Multitude of thy 
Mercies, O Lord, bee mercifull to my sinfull soule, and 
that for Jesus thy Sonne and my Redeemer his sake. 

After this, the Alcalde, and Scrivan, being both chaire- [X. 462.] 
set, the one to examine, the other to write downe my 
Confession and Tortures : I was by the Executioner 
stripped to the skin, brought to the Racke, and then 
mounted by him on the top of it : Where eftsoones I was 
hung by the bare shoulders, with two small Cords, which 
went under both mine armes, running on two Rings of 
iron that were fixed in the Wall above my head. 

Thus being hoysed, to the appoynted height, the 

Tormentor discended below, and drawing downe my Legs, 

through the two sides of the three-planked Racke, hee 

tyed a Cord about each of my ancles : And then ascending 

upon the Racke, hee drew the Cords upward, and bending 

forward with maine force, my two knees, against the two The hammes 

plankes ; the sinewes of my hammes burst a sunder, and and lids of my 

the lids of my knees beeing crushed, and the Cords made ,'**![* 
r . t l j jr 1 t_ both broken. 

fast, I hung so demayned, for a large houre. 

At last the Encarnador, informing the Governor, that 

I had the marke of Jerusalem on my right arme, joyned 

with the name and Crowne of King James, and done 

upon the Holy Grave. The Corrigidor came out of his 

adjoyning stance, and gave direction, to teare a sunder, 

l 401 2 c 



A.D. 
l620. 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 



inhumane 
murder. 



the name, and Crowne (as hee sayd) of that Hereticke 
King, and arch-enemy to the Holy Catholicke Church : 
Then the Tormentor, laying the right arme above the 
left, and the Crowne upmost, did cast a Cord over both 
armes, seaven distant times : And then lying downe upon 
his backe, and setting both his feete on my hollow-pinched 
belly, he charged ; and drew violently with his hands, 
making my Wombe support the force of his feete, till the 
seaven severall Cords combind in one place of my arme, 
(and cutting the Crowne, sinewes, and flesh to the bare 
[X. 453.] bones) did pull in my fingers close to the palme of my 
hands : the left hand of which is Lame so still, and will be 
for ever. 

Now mine eyes begun to startle, my mouth to foame 
and froath, and my teeth to chatter like to the doubling of 
O cruell and Drummers stickes. O strange inhumanity of Men- 
monster Manglers ! surpassing the limits of their nationall 
Law ; three score Tortures beeing the tryall of Treason, 
which I had, and was to indure : yet thus to inflict a 
seaven-fold surplussage of more intollerable cruelties: 
And notwithstanding of my shivering lippes, in this fiery 
passion, my vehement groaning, and blood-springing 
fonts, from armes, broake sinewes, hammes, and knees ; 
yea, and my depending weight on flesh-cutting Cords ; 
yet they stroke mee on the face with Cudgels, to abate 
and cease the thundring noyse of my wrestling voyce. 

At last being loosed from these Pinnacles of paine, I 
was hand-fast set on the floore, with this their incessant 
imploration : Confesse, confesse, confesse in time, for 
thine inevitable torments ensue : where finding nothing 
from me, but still innocent, O I am innocent, O Jesus! 
the Lambe of God have mercy upon mee, and strengthen 
mee with patience, to undergoe this barbarous murder. 

Then by command of the Justice, was my trembling 
body layd above, and along upon the face of the Racke, 
with my head downe-ward, inclosed within a circled hole, 
my belly upmost, and my heeles upward toward the top of 
the Racke : my legs and armes being drawne a sunder, 

402 



Here begun 
my mayne 
tortures. 




The Author in the Racke at Malaga 



COMMENTS UPON HIS TORTURES a.d. 

1620. 
were fastned with pinnes and Cords, to both sides of the 
outward plankes ; for now was I to receive my maine 
torments. 

Now what a Pottaro or Racke is (for it stood by the 
wall declining downe-ward) it is made of three plankes of [X. 464.] 
Timber, the upmost end whereof is larger then a ful 
stride; the lower end being narrow, and the three planks Loe here is the 
joyning together, are made conformable to a Mans manner f 10 ™ l 
shoulders : in the downe-most end of the middle planke R ac k e d. 
there was a hole, wherein my head was layd : in length it 
is longer than a man, being interlaced with small cords [X. 465.] 
from planke to planke, which divided my supported 
thighes from the middle plank : Through the sides of 
which exteriour planks there were three distant holes in 
every one of them ; the use wherefore you shall presently 
heare. 

Now the Alcalde giving commission, the executioner The manner 
layd first a cord over the calfe of my leg, then another on how J? f*4 
the middle of my thigh, and the third cord over the great Z^ed to the 
of my arme ; which was severally done, on both sides of Rack* before 
my body receaving the ends of the cords, from these sixe my tortures 
severall places through the holes made in the outward were tn fi lcted - 
planks, which were fastned to pinnes, and the pinnes made 
fast with a device : for he was to charge on the out side of 
the planks, with as many pinnes, as there were holes and 
cords ; the cords being first laid meet to my skin : And on 
every one of these sixe parts of my body, I was to receave 
seven severall tortures : each torture consisting of three 
winding throwes, of every pinne ; which amounted to 
twenty one throwes, in every one of these sixe parts. 

Then the Tormentor having charged the first passage 
about my body (making fast by a device each torture as 
they were multiplied) he went to an earthen Jarre standing 
full of water, a little beneath my head : from whence carry- 
ing a pot full of water ; in the bottome whereof, there was 
an incised hole, which being stopd by his thumb, till it 
came to my mouth, hee did powre it in my bellie ; the 
measure being a Spanish Sombre, which is an English 

403 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1620. 

Potle: The first and second services I gladly receaved, 

such was the scorching drouth of my tormenting payne, 

and likewise I had drunke none for three dayes before. 

But afterward, at the third charge, perceiving these 

[X. 466.] measures of water to be inflicted upon me as tortures, O 

strangling tortures! I closed my lips, gaine-standing that 

eager crudelity. 

A cruelty Whereat the Alcalde imaging, set my teeth asunder with 

beyond a payre of iron cadges, detayning them there, at every 

cruelties. severall turne, both mainely and manually ; whereupon 

my hunger-clungd bellie waxing great, grew Drum-like 

imbolstered : for it being a suffocating payne, in regard 

of my head hanging downeward, and the water reingorg- 

ing it selfe in my throat with a strugling force ; it 

strangled and swallowed up my breath from youling and 

groaning. 

And now to prevent my renewing griefe (for presently 
my heart fayleth and forsaketh me) I will onely briefly 
avouch, that betweene each one of these seven circular 
charges, I was aye reexamined, each examination continu- 
ing halfe an houre ; each halfe houre a hell of infernall 
paine, and betweene each torment, a long distance of life 
quelling time. 
A hellish and Thus lay I sixe houres upon the Racke, betweene foure 
insupportable a clocke afternoone, and ten a clocke at night, having had 
payne. inflicted upon me three score seven torments : Neverthe- 

lesse they continued me a large halfe houre (after all my 
tortures) at the full bending ; where my body being all 
begored with blood, and cut through in every part, to the 
crushed and bruised bones, I pittifully remayned, stil 
roaring, howling, foaming, bellowing, and gnashing my 
teeth, with insupportable cryes, before the pinnes were 
undone, and my body loosed. 

True it is, it passeth the capacity of man, either sensibly 

to conceave, or I patiently to expresse the intolerable 

anxiety of mind, and affliction of body in that dreadfull 

time I sustayned. 

[X. 4.67.] At last my head being by their armes advanced, and 

404 



COMMENTS UPON HIS TORTURES a.d. 

1620. 
my body taken from the Rack, the water regushed 
abundantly from my mouth ; then they recloathing my 
broken, bloody, and cold trembling body, being all this 
time starke naked, I fell twice in a sounding trance : which 
they againe refreshed with a little Wine, and two warme 
Egges, not for charity done, but that I should be reserved 
to further punishment ; and if it were not too truely 
knowne these sufferings to be of trueth, it would almost 
seeme incredible to many, that a man being brought so 
low, with starving hunger, and extreame cruelties, could 
have subsisted any longer reserving life. 

And now at last they charged my broken legs, with 
my former eye-frighting irons, and done, I was lamentably 
carryed on their armes to the Coach, being after mid-night, 
and secretly transported to my former Dungeon without 
any knowledge of the Towne, save onely these my A lamentable 
lawlesse, and mercilesse Tormentors : where, when come, remembrance 
I was layd with my head and my heeles alike high, on my °f tn ^ umane 
former stones. y ' 

The latter end of this woefull night poore mourning 
Hazier the Turke, was set to keepe me, and on the 
morrow, the Governour entred my roome threatning me 
still with moe tortures to confesse, and so caused he every 
morning long before day, his Coach to be rumbled at his 
gate, and about me where I lay, a great noyse of tongues, 
and opening of doores : and all this they did of purpose A dreadfull 
to affright and distract me, and to make me beleeve I was affrighting fir 
going to be rackt againe, to make me confesse an untrueth ; more tortures - 
and still thus they continued every day of five dayes till 
Christmas. 

Upon Christmas day Mariana the Ladies Gentlewoman 
got permission to visit me, and with her licence, she 
brought abundance of teares presenting me also with a [X. 468.] 
dish of Honey and Sugar, some confections, and Rasins 
in a great plenty to my no small comfort, besides using 
many sweet speeches for consolations sake. 

Shee gone, and the next morning of Saint Johns day 
come, long ere day the Towne was in Armes, the Bells 

405 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1620. 

ringing backward, the people shouting, and Drummes 
beating ; whereat my soule was over-joyed, thinking that 
the Moores had seazed upon all : And in the after noone 
the Turke comming to me with bread and water, being 
by chance the second day, I asked him what the fray was ? 

Alas too good who replyed, be of good courage, I hope in God and 

newesnot to Mahomet, that you and I ere long shall be set at liberty ; 

true eem ^ or y our Countrey-men, tne English Armado, and mine 
the Moores, are joyned together, and comming to sacke 
Malaga : And this morning Post came from Allagant to 
premonish the Governour thereof ; whereupon he and the 
Towne have instantly pulled downe, all the Cowper shops, 
and dwelling houses that were builded without by the 
shoare side, adjoyning to the Townes Wall : But yet 
sayd he it is no matter, the Towne may easily be surprised, 
and I hope we shall be merry in Algier, for there is above 
a hundred sayle seene comming hither ; and therewith 
kissing my cheeke, hee kindly left mee. 

Indeed, as for such new^s from Allagant ; the detriment 
of twenty eight houses, the shoare-planted Cannon, the 
suspicion they had of the English, and the Towne foure 
dayes in Armes were all true, save onely the confederacy 
of the English with the Moores, that was false. 

Witnesse Sir Richard Halkins, and the Captaines of his 
Squader, who a little after Christmas, comming to the 
Road, went to the Governour to cleere himselfe, and the 

[X. 469.] Fleete of that absurd imputation layde to their charge. 
The twelfth day of Christmasse expired, they beganne 
to threaten me on still with moe Tortures, even till 
Candlemasse : In all which comfortlesse time, I was 
miserably afflicted with the beastly plague of gnawing 
Vermin, which lay crawling in lumps, within, without, and 
about my body : yea, hanging in clusters about my beard, 
my lips, my nostriles, and my eye-browes, almost inclosing 
my sight. 

And for a greater satisfaction to their mercilesse mindes, 
the Governour caused Areta, his silver plate keeper, to 
gather and swipe the Vermine upon me twice in eight 

406 



COMMENTS UPON HIS TORTURES a.d. 

1620. 
dayes, which tormented me to the death, beeing a per- 
petuall punishment ; for mine armes being broake, my 
hands lucken and sticking fast to the palmes of both hands, 
by reason of the shrunke sinewes ; I was unable to lift mine No payne so 
armes, or stir my fingers, much-lesse to avoyde the filthy grievous, as a 
Vermine : neyther could my legges and feete performe i me t ^ a ? t0 
it beeing impotent in all. Yet I acknowledge the poore men t e dwith 
Infidell, some few times, and when opportunity served, gnawing 
would steale the keyes from Areta, and about mid-night vermine. 
would enter my Roome, with stickes and burning oyle, and 
sweeping them together in heapes, would burne the 
greatest part, to my great Releafe ; or doubtlesse I had 
beene miserably eaten up, and devoured by them. 

And now some eight dayes before Candlemasse, the 
slave informed me that an English Seminary Priest, borne 
in London, and belonging to the Bishops Colledge of 
Malaga ; and a Scottish Cowper, named Alexander Ley, 
borne in Dunbar, and there married ; were in Translating 
all my Bookes and Observations out of English, in the 
Spanish tongue, bringing every other day numbers of [X. 470.] 
wrot Papers to the Governour, and for their paines had 
thirty duccats allowed, and that they were saying, I was an 
Arch-Hereticke to the Pope and the Virgin Mary. 

Having redounded him concealed thankes, I was assured 
of their bloody Inquisition, preparing my selfe in God, 
with Faith, and Patience to Receive and gane-stand it : 
for my spirituall Resolution, was surely founded, being 
sightlesse of company, and humane faces, I had intirely 
the light of my Soule celebrate to God Almighty. 

And hereupon the second day after Candlemas, the A politick 
Governour, the Inquisitor a Canonicall Priest, entered my enquiry of a 
Dungeon, accompanied with two Tesuites, one of which , amna , e 

ir» i» 10 • r 1 >-n- • r^ 11 i inquisition. 

was Predicator, and bupenour of the Iiatinean Colledge 
of Malaga : Where being Chaire set, Candle-lighted, and 
doore locked ; the Inquisitor after diverse frivolous 
questions, demaunded me if I was a Romane Catholicke, 
and acknowledged the Popes Supremacy. To whom I 
answered, I was neyther the one, nor did the other. And 

407 



A.D. 

l620. 



[X.471.] 



A damnable 
Inquisitor 
applying fake 
attributs to our 
blessed Lady. 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

what power (sayd I,) have you to challenge me of my 
Religion, since it is a chiefe Article, of the former con- 
cluded peace, that none of our Kings subjects should be 
troubled by your Inquisition ; but as you have murdered 
me for alledged Treason ; so you meane to Martyre me 
for Religion. 

And you Governour, as you have Tortured and hunger- 
starved this helplesse body, consumed with cold and 
vermine to the last of my life ; the Almighty God who 
revealeth the secrets of all things (although I bee never 
relieved) will certainely discover it, to my Countrey and 
to the World. And is this the best of your good deeds ? 
you repay to our mercifull King, who then being onely 
King of Scotland, in the time of your just over-throw of 
Eighty Eight, gave secourse to thousands of your Ship- 
wracked people for many moneths ; and in the end, 
caused transport them safely to their desired Ports. 
Leaving to the Worlds memory an eternall stampe of 
Christian Bounty, Mercy, and royall Charity, and your 
acquittance to him, is an imputation of Treachery to his 
Fleete, detayning and mis-regarding his Letters and 
Seales, and now imposing to a tormented Innocent, your 
lawlesse Inquisition. 

To which the Governour answered, all that was true, 
but it was done more through feare then love, and there- 
fore deserved the lesser thankes ; but (interim) wee will 
follow the utter-most of our ends. And the Jesuite 
Predicator to confirme his words, sayd, there was no faith 
to be kept with Heretickes, which directly or indirectly is 
the sublime policy of Conquerours, which our mighty and 
invincible Nation evermore taketh notice of and observeth. 

Then the Inquisitor arrising, expressed himselfe thus : 
Behold the powerfull majesty of Gods mother, Corn- 
maunder of her Sonne, equall to the Father, Wife to the 
Holy Ghost, Queene of Heaven, Protector of Angels, 
and sole Gubernatrix of the earth, &c. How thou being 
first taken as a Spye, accused for Treachery, and innocently 
Tortured (as we acknowledge we were better informed 

408 



COMMENTS UPON HIS TORTURES a.d. 

1620. 
lately from Madrile of the English intention) yet it was 
her power, her Divine power, which brought these judge- 
ments upon thee ; in that thou hast wrot calumniously 
against her blessed miracles of Loretta: and against his 
Holinesse, the great Agent, and Christs Viccar on earth : 
Therefore thou hast justly fallen into our hands, by her 
speciall appointment ; thy Bookes and papers, are mir- 
aculously Translated by her speciall providence with thy [X. 472.] 
owne Countrey-men : wherefore thou maist clearely see, 
the impenetrable Misteries of our glorious Lady in punish- 
ing her offenders : and for a humble satisfaction, Repent 
thee of thy wickednesse, and be converted to the Holy 
mother Church. And after many such like exhortations 
of all the foure, the Inquisitor assigned me eight dayes for 
my Conversion : Saying, that hee, and the Tiatines would 
twice a day visite mee in that time, intreating me to be 
advised againe the next morning, of these doubts and 
difficulties that withstood my Conscience. 

Then in leaving mee, the Jesuite Predicator making a a skophanti- 
Crosse upon my crossed breast, sayd, My sonne, beholde call Oration 
you deserve to be burnt quicke, but by the grace of f rom a J u S /in i 
our Lady of Loretta, whom you have blasphemed, wee will Jebunte - 
both save your Soule and Body : Spewing forth also this 
Fasminine Latine ; Nam mansueta et misericordiosa est 
Ecclesia, O Ecclesia Romana ! extra quern non est salus : 
They gone and I alone, all this night, was I instant with 
my God, imploring his Grace, to Rectifie my thoughts, 
illuminate my understanding, confirme my confidence, 
beatifie my memory, to sanctifie my knowledge, to expell 
the servile feare of Death, and to save my soule, from 
the intangling corruption of any private ends, illusions, or 
mundane Respects whatsoever. 

The next morning, the three Ecclesiastickes returned, 
and being placed with Chaires and Candles, the Inquisitor 
made interrogation, of what difficulties, errors, or mis- 
beliefe I had. To whom ingenuously I answered I had 
none, neyther any difficulty, errour, nor mis-beliefe ; but 
was confident in the promises of Jesus Christ, and 

409 



A.D. 

l620. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 



assuredly believed his Revealed will in the Gospell, pro- 
[X. 473.] fessed in the Reformed Catholicke Church ; which being 
confirmed by Grace, I had the infallible assurance in my 
Soule, of the true Christian Faith. 

To these words, he answered, thou art no Christian, 

but an absurd Hereticke, and without Conversion, a 

member of perdition. Whereupon I replied, Reverend 

Sir, the nature of Charity and Religion, doe not consist 

in opprobious speeches ; wherefore if you would convert 

me (as you say) convince mee by Argument : if not, all 

your threatenings of fire, Death, nor Torments, shall make 

me shrinke from the truth of Gods Word in Sacred 

The fury of a Scriptures. Whereupon the mad Inquisitor clapd mee on 

mad inquisitor ^ t f ace w j t ] 1 hj s foote, abusing me with many Raylings, 

s l^ um arid if the Jesuites had not intercepted him, he had 

stobbed me with a knife ; where, when dismissed, I never 

saw him more. 

The third day insuing (and having broake their promise) 
the two Jesuites returned, and after a frowning silence, the 
Superiour asked me of my Resolution : I told him I was 
Resolved already, unlesse hee could show me good Reasons 
in the contrary. Whereupon having past with me some 
few superficial Arguments of their seaven Sacraments, 
Intercession, Transubstantiation, Images, Purgatory, Mir- 
acles, Merit, &c. he begun to brag of their Church her 
Antiquity, Universality, and Uniformity. Auncient no 
(sayd I) for the Profession of my Faith, hath beene ever 
since the first time of the Apostles ; And Christ had ever 
his owne Church (howsoever obscure) in the greatest time 
of your darknesse. 

So Rome foure hundred yeares and upward, was the 
true Church ; but afterward falling in apostacy by meanes 
of her corrupt leaders, wee have left her in nothing, but 
what shee hath left her former selfe. Universall no ; 
although shee assumeth a Catholicke name, was not the 
[X. 474.] Church in the East, a greater Church than yours in the 
West for hundreds of yeares, and I pray you what are 
now the Orientall Churches in Asia, (besides the Greeks) 

410 



COMMENTS UPON HIS TORTURES a.d. 

1620. 

and the ^Ethiopian Affricans that doe not so much as 
know, or heare of your Pope, far lesse his profession. 

With no small adoe, Boniface the third, obtained of 
Phocas the Emperour to be called universall Bishop : 
which was asisted afterward by Puppin the French King, 
and ratified by Paleologus, the father of Constantine who 
lost Constantinople : And what long contraversies about The Romish 
this new power, was betweene your Popes, and the Church falls 
counsells of Carthage, Calcedon, Ephesus, Alexandria, and ! of true 
Nice. Uniformable no ; some of your Priests give the un J m a/iiy f 
Sacrament onely in Bread, for reall flesh and blood, some in and 
Wine without Bread, and some in both. uniformity. 

The Bavarians in their owne language sing the Psalmes 
in prose at their Masses, and not else where done : The 
second Commandement goeth current amongst some of 
your Catholicks in France, yet not in Bretagne, nor 
Provance ; so doth it in Austria and Bavaria, but not in 
Italy and Spaine. 

It is most evident, what your former Popes have con- 
firmed, the succeeding Popes have disanulled, and dayly 
doe, as their present lives, and your auncient Histories 
beare a true record. 

And was there not at one time, three Popes in three 
severall places ? and oftentimes two at once : One professing 
one Heresie, and another Atheisme : What mutinies and 
malice, are dayly among your Monasteries, each envying 
anothers priviledge, anothers preferment, anothers wealth : 
And your order (father) by all the other Monasticks, is 
hated and vilipended to death ; besides diversities of 
Doctrine, betweene your professors and the Dominicans : 
and hundreds of like disunities you have both in ceremony [X. 475.] 
and order which now I suspend : So I pray you (father) 
where your uniformity, much lesse your universality, and 
worst of all your antiquity. 

Having thus concluded, the fiery fac'd Jesuits, with 
boisterous menacings left mee ; and the eight day there- 
after, being the last day of their Inquisition, they returned 
againe, in a more milder disposition : where after divers 

411 



A.D. 

l620. 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 



The Jesuits 
last allure- 



convei 
their sect 



arguments on both sides, the two Jesuits with teares 
distilling from their eyes, solidly protested, they were 
sorry from their heart, for that terrible death I was to 
undergo, and above all the loosing of my soule : And 
falling downe on their knees, cryed, convert, convert, O 
deare brother ! for our blessed Ladies sake convert : To 
conversion to wnom I reply ed, that neither death nor fire I feared ; for 
I was resolved for both, yet thinking my selfe unworthy 
to suffer for Christ and the Gospells sake, considering my 
vildnesse and my owne unworthinesse : yet the Spirit of 
God assureth my faith, it is his divine pleasure it should 
be so that I must suffer. Wherefore if I should divert, 
trust mee not, for I would but dissemble with you 
(through feare, flattery, or force) to shunne present 
death. 

Whereupon they called the Governour, and after their 
privy consulting, hee thus spoke ; Deare brother, my 
greatest desire is, to have thee a good Christian, a Romane 
Catholick, to which if thy conscience will yeeld, I will shew 
thee as great courtesie, as thou hast receaved cruelty : for 
pitty it were, that such an invincible spirit, and endued 
with so many good parts, should perish in both worlds 
for ever. Plucke up thy heart, and let the love of our 
blessed Lady enter in thy soule : Let not thy former suffer- 
ings dismay thee, (for thy sores being yet greene and 
curable) I shall transport thee to a fine Chamber, and there 
thou shalst have all needfull things for the recovery of 
thy health and strength. Thy money and Patents shall 
be refounded, but thy hereticall Bookes are already 
burned : And lastly sayd he, I will send thee with my 
owne Servant to Court, Counsel, and King, with letters 
from the holy Inquisition, and from mee, faithfully 
promising thou shalt enjoy a Pension of three hundred 
Duccats a yeare. 

But having satisfied his bewitching policy with a 
Christian constancy ; they all three left mee in a thundering 
rage ; vowing, I should that night have the first seale of 
my long sorrowes : And directing their course to the 

412 



[X. 476.] 



COMMENTS UPON HIS TORTURES a.d. 

1620. 
Bishop and Inquisitor (for the Governour had wrested the 
Inquisition upon mee, to free him of his former aspersion 
layd upon the English Fleet, and my tryall therefore, 
converting it all to matters of Religion) the Inquisition (I 
say) sat forthwith, where first I was condemned to receave A condemna- 
that night eleven strangling torments in my Dungeon : tory sentence 
and then after Easter Holy dayes, I should be transported **&**&*** 
privatly to Grenada, and there about mid-night to be l 

burnt body and bones into ashes, and my ashes to be flung 
into the ayre : Well, that same night the Scrivan, 
Sergeants, and the young English Priest entered my 
melancholly staunce : where the Priest in the English 
tongue urging mee all that he could (though little it was 
hee could doe) and unprevailing, I was disburdened of 
mine irones, unclothed to my skin, set on my knees and 
held up fast with their hands : where instantly setting my 
teeth asunder with iron Cadges, they filled my belly full of 
water, even gorgeing to my throat : Then with a garter 
they bound fast my throat, till the white of mine eye 
turned upward ; and being laid on my side, I was by two 
Sergeants tumbled to and fro seven times through the 
roome ; even till I was almost strangled : This done, they 
fastned a small cord about each one of my great toes, and [X. 477.] 
hoysing me therewith to the roofe of a high loft (for the 
cords runne on two rings of iron fastned above) they cut 
the garter, and there I hung, with my head downward, in 
my tormented weight, till all the gushing water dissolved : 
This done, I was let downe from the loft, quite senslesse, 
lying a long time cold dead among their hands : whereof 
the Governour being informed, came running up stayres, 
crying, Is he dead, O fie villanes goe fetch me Wine, which 
they powred in my mouth, regayning thereby a slender 
sparke of breath. 

These strangling torments ended, and I reclothed, and A Turkish 
fast bolted againe they left mee lying on the cold floore slaves charity 
praysing my God and singing of a Psalme The next l ^Zon. 
morning the pittifull Turke visiting mee with bread and 
water, brought me also secretly in his shirt sleeve, two 

413 



A.D. 
l620. 



[X. 47 8.] 



The deceitful- 
ness of female 
inconstancies. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

handfull of Rasins and figges, laying them on the floore 
amongst the crawling vermine, for having no use of armes 
nor hands, I was constrayned by hunger and impotency of 
time, to licke one up with another with my tongue : This 
charity of figs the slave did once every weeke or fortnight, 
or else I had long or then famished. 

After which sorrowfull distresse, and inhumane usage, 
the eye-melting Turke taking displeasure, fell five dayes 
sicke, and bedfast : but the house Spaniards understanding 
his disease made him beleeve I was a Divell, a Sorcerer, a 
Nigromancer, and a blasphemous miscreant, against their 
Pope, their Lady, and their Church ; giving him such a 
distast, that for thirty dayes, he never durst looke me in 
the face, being affraid of witchcraft. 

All this time of his absence, one Ellinor the Cooke, an 
Indian Negro woman, attended mee, for she being a 
Christian drudge, had more liberty to visit mee, than the 
slavish Infidell : who certainly (under God) prolonged then 
my languishing life, conveighing me for foure weekes 
space, once a day some lesse or more nourishment, and in 
her pocket a bottle glasse of Wine. Being no wayes 
semblable to the soule betraying teares of her Crocodilean 
sexe, which the Spanish Proverbe prettily avoucheth : 
las mugeres, engannan a los hombres, dellas lastimandoles, 
con sus lagrimas fingidas ; dellas hallagandoles, con 
Palabras lesongeras : to wit, Women deceave men, some 
of them, grieving them with their fayned teares, and other 
fawning on them with flattering words. But ; 

Kind Ellenor though blacke by nature borne, 

Made bounty (not her beauty) to adorne 

Her new chang'd Pagan life (though vail'd by night 

Of Romish shades) to shine on mee more bright, 

Then Sun scorch'd JEthiope beames ; Art-glancing 

spangles : 
Or that ^Egyptian Bird, mans sight intangles 
With rarest colours : for her loving sight 
Though black as pitch, gave me transparent light : 

414 



COMMENTS UPON HIS TORTURES a.d. 

1621. 
Food, and stolne-food, though little, yet enough ; 
(The finer soile, the ebber tilles the Plough,) 
Second with Wine, a mutchkin, thrice a weeke 
Pack'd in her pocket, for it might not speeke : 
Thus Females have extreames, and two we see, 
Eyther too wicked, or too good they be ; 
For being good no Creature can excell them, 
And being bad, no ill can paralell them : 
But sure this gift, from course of nature came, 
Rais'd up by Heaven to be my nursing Dame ; 
For she a Savage bred, yet shew more Love 
And humane pitty, then desert could moove : 
Wherein shee stain'd the Spaniards ; they did nought 
But what revenge, on slaughter'd sorrow wrought : [X. 479.] 

Thus, they who turn'd her, went themselves astray, 
And shee though ignorant, trac'd the Christian way : 
For which great God reward her make her Soule 
As white within, as she without is foule ; 
And if I might, as reason knowes I would 
Her love, and praise, my deeds should crowne with gold. 

Now about the middle of Lent, Hazier, my former 
Friend, was appoynted to attend me agayne, suspecting 
Ellenors compassion ; but as my miseries were multiplied, 
my Patience in God was redoubled : For men are rather 
killed with the impatience they have in adversity, then 
adversity it selfe : And of all men, that man is most 
unhappy, to whom God in his troubles hath not given An impatient 
Patience ; for as the violent enemy of age is griefe, so is mtnd '* 
the mindes impatiency, the arch-corruptor of all our tro . , " a 
troubles : But indeede in the weakenesse of judgement, 
when men seeme lost by long affliction to themselves, 
then they are often and ever neerest to God : for who 
would have thought, that I who had seene so many sects 
and varieties of Religion, dispersed over the face of the 
earth, could have stucke fast to any religion at all ; 
Travailers being reputed to be Ubique et omnibus parati. 
But I will tell thee Christian, it was the grace of God in 

415 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1621. 

me, and not mine : For as fire lying hid under ashes, and 
touch'd will flame ; so I seeming to my selfe carelesse of 
Christianity, then God pricking my Conscience made 
tryall of my Faith : For Christ forbid, that every Shippe 
which coasteth the rockey shoare, should leave her ruines 
there. 

This I speake not for any selfe-prayse, but to glorifie 
God, and to condemne the rash censures of opinion, and 
[X. 480.] with Phocion, I mistrust my selfe, because of popular 
applause : Erubuit quasi peccasset quod placuerit : But 
now to abbreviate a thousand Circumstances of my 
Lamentable sufferings, which this Volume may not suffer 
to containe : By Gods great providence, about a fortnight 
before Easter, Anno 1621. there came a Spanish Cavaliere 
of Grenada to Malaga, whom the Governour one night 
invited to Supper, being of old acquaintance : where after 
Supper to intertayne Discourse, the Governour related and 
Gods great disclosed to the stranger (God working thereby my dis- 
mercym my coverv anc j deliverance) all the proceedings and causes of 
ha str ran r. m Y fi rs t apprehending, my Confessions, Torments, stand- 
ings, their mistaking of the English Fleete, and finally the 
wresting of the Inquisition upon me, and their Condem- 
natory Sentence seeming also much to Lament my 
mis-fortunes, and praysing my Travailes and Deserts. 

Now all this while, the Gentlemans servant, a Flandrish 
Fleming, standing at his Maisters backe, and adhering to 
all the Governours Relations, was astonished, to heare 
of a sakelesse Stranger, to have indured, and to indure 
such damnable Murther and Cruelty. Whereupon, 
the Discourse ending and mid-night past, the stranger 
returned to his Lodging ; where the Fleming having 
bedded his Maister, and himselfe also in another Roome, 
he could not sleepe all that night, and if hee slumbered, 
still hee thought hee saw a man Torturing, and burning 
in the fire : which hee confessed to M. Wilds when 
morning came. 

Well, he longed for day, and it being come, and hee 
cloathed, hee quietly left his Lodging, inquiring for an 

416 



COMMENTS UPON HIS TORTURES a.d. 

1621. 
English Factor, and comming to the House of M. 
Richard Wilds, the chiefe English Consull : Hee told him 
all what hee heard the Governour tell his Master, but [X. 481.] 
could not tell my name : only Maister Wilds conjectur'd 
it was I, because of the others report of a Traveller, and 
of his first and former acquaintance with me there. 

Whereupon the Fleming being dismissed, he straight These are the 
sent for the other English Factors, Mr. Richard Busbitche, En S lish 
Mr. John Corney, Mr. Hanger, Mr. Stanton, Mr. Cooke, j^ r J^f 
Mr. Rowley, and Mr. Woodson : where advising with my re n e f e , 
them, what was best to be done for my reliefe ; they sent 
letters away immediatly with all post dilligence, to Sir 
Walter Aston, his Majesties Ambassadour lying at 
Madrile : Upon which hee mediating with the King and 
Counsell of Spaine, obtained a strait warrant to command 
the Governour of Malaga, to deliver mee over in the 
English hands : which being come, to their great disliking, 
1 was released on Easter-satturday before midnight, and 
carryed uppon Hazier the slaves backe to Master Bus- 
bitches house, where I was carefully attended till day light. 

Meanewhile (by great fortune) there being a Squader of 
his Majesties Ships lying in the Road, Sir Richard 
Halkins came earely a shoare, accompanied with a strong 
trayne, and receaved mee from the Merchants : Whence I 
was carryed on mens armes in a payre of blanquets, to 
the Vangard his Majesties ship. And three dayes there- / durst not 
after, I was transported to a ship bound for England, the stay a shoare 
Fleets victualler, named the goodwill of Harwich ; by fi r fi ar f°fthe 
direction of the Generall Sir Robert Maunsell : where n ^ um ton ' 
being well placed, and charge given by Sir Richard 
Halkins to the ships master William Westerdale, for his 
carefulnes toward the preservation of my life, which then 
was brought so low & miserable. The foresaid Mer- 
chants sent mee from shoare (besides the ships victuals) [X. 482.] 
a sute of Spanish apparrell, twelve Hennes, a barrell of 
Wine, a basket full of Egges, two Roves of Figges and 
Rasins, two hundred Orenges and Lemmons, eight pounds 
of Sugar, a number of excellent good Bread, and two 
l 417 2D 



A.D. 

l62I. 



Religious Sir 
Richard 
Ha/kins my 
speciall friend. 



[X. 483.] 



The strait of 
Gibelterre 
five leagues 
broad. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

hundred Realls in Silver and Gold ; besides two double 
Pistolls Sir Richard Halkins sent mee as a token of his 
love. 

The kindnesses of whom to bury in oblivion, were in 
me the very shame of ingratitude, I being then a lost man 
and hopelesse of life, which argued in them a greater 
singularitie of kindnesse and compassion. Yet I re- 
member for all my lamenes and distraction, I intreated Sir 
Richard Halkins to goe a shoare to the Governour, and 
demand him for my gold, my eight Patents, my Booke of 
Armes, and his Majesties Letters and Seales ; the which he 
willingly obeyed, (being accompanied with Captaine Cave, 
and Captaine Raymond) but could obtaine nothing at all, 
save blandements and leying excuses. 

And now on the twelfth day of our lying in the Road, 
our ship weighing her Anchors, and hoysing her Sailes, 
wee passed through the straits of Gibelterre, or fretum 
Herculeum ; for this was the furthest Land that Hercules 
could attayne unto ; which made him erect a Pillar, and 
indent thereon, nil ultra; but when Charles the fift, 
returned from that untoward voyage of Algier, hee caused 
to set up in the same place, Plus ultra. 

Here in this Channell, I remarked a perpetuall current ; 
flowing from the Ocean to the Mediterrene Sea without 
any regresse : which indeed is admirable the Mediterr- 
anean Seas being hembd in, and environed with the mayne 
Continent of South Europe ; the North and North west 
coasts of Asia, and the Northerne parts of Affricke ; save 
onely the narrow passage of Hellespont, which from Mare 
Propontis bendeth his course to Mare Euxinum : And yet 
the Euxine, or blacke Sea, hath no affinity with any other 
moving waters, being likewise incompassed with the mayne 
continent : And from it also runneth a continuall current, 
through Bosphorus Thraicus, to the Mediterraneum. 

This narrow Sea on Affricke, or side of Fez, consisteth 
betweene Cap di Sprat, and the Promontore of Sewty, 
and upon the coast of Spayne, betweene Cap de Trafolger^ 
and the butting forehead-land of Gibelterre, or Jubile 

418 



COMMENTS UPON HIS TORTURES a.d. 

1621. 
Tauro ; the passage being five leagues broad, and nine in 
length. 

And to be briefe, upon the fifty day after my departure 
from Malaga, I arrived at Datford upon Thames ; whence 
the next morning I was carried to Theoballs on a feather- 
bed, and brought to the privy Gallery, for the Kings 
comming from Parke. Witnesse all the Court of England, 
even from the King to the Kitchin, what a martyrd 
anatomy I was, at then of me their first sight ; and what 
small hope was either expected of my life or recovery. 

Where, when immediatly having made my most 
humble and grievous complaints unto his sacred Majesty, 
his gracious consideration (in the meane time) was such, 
for the recovery of my health, that I was twice sent to the 
Bath at the charges of his Royall love, during the space of 
twenty seven weekes, where by the Divine providence, and 
his Princely clemency, I have recovered for the time in a 
large measure, the health and strength of my body, [X. 484.] 
although my left Arme, and crushed bones be incurable. 

Meane while, in the first Weeke of my Arrivall in 
England, I was conveyed from Theobalds (by his 
Majesties direction) to Don Diego Surmento de Gunda- 
more, the Spanish Ambassadour, then Resident in Hol- 
borne. Where he vo tally undertooke, before then the two A fake 
Lord Marquesses, Hammilton and Buckingham, (confirm- promise unper- 
ing it the day following to his Majesty at Greenewich) f ormed ' 
that after a condigne tryall had from Spaine, concerning 
my grievances : I should have all my money, Cloathes, 
Observations, Testimoniall Patents, and his Majesties 
Seales restored me agayne, with a thousand pound sterling 
also, (beeing modified by his Royall pleasure) of the 
Governour of Malagaes meanes, for the maintayning of 
my Lame and Racked body. 

These promises were made the sixt of June 1621. and 
were to be performed againe Michaelmasse day insuing : 
But this day come, hee continued his drifts to the Prima 
vera ; and it also arrived, he deferred time, with new pro- 
testations, onely to Easter or Pascua : And that Season 

419 



A.D. 
l62I, 



A single com- 
bat betweene a 
Spanish Earle 
and a Scottish 
Traveller. 
[X. 485.] 



A false 
aspersion laid 
on me by 
Papists. 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

come, he turned my Pascua to Prison : For a little before 
his departure (seeing his policy too strong for mine 
oppressed patience) I told him flatly in his face, from the 
griefe of my soule, what he was, and what he went about ; 
which afterward proved true : Whereupon in the Chamber 
of Presence, before the Emperours Ambassadour, and 
diverse Knights and Gentle-men, his Majesties servants : 
he rashly adventured the credite of Leager honour, in a 
single Combat against me a retorted Plaintive : Where 
indeed his Fistula was contra-banded with a fist, and for 
Victory, favour lent him authority ; because of my Com- 
mitment, for I lay nine Weekes incarcerate in the 
Marshall-Sea at Southwarke : Whence I returned with 
more credite, then hee left England with honesty ; beeing 
both Vanquish'd and Victor. And my Muse left to 
mourne for my Liberty, deplored thus. 

Low levell'd lie, my lofty staring aymes, 
Low droupes the flight, of my swift wing'd designe ; 
Low bowes that top, whose hight true merit claimes : 
Low head-long fals the scope of my Engine : 
Low turnes my round, harsh grow the sacred nine ; 
Low sinke my joyes, pale griefe, converts in care : 
Low lurkes Ambition, in this breast of mine : 
Low stoupe these smiles, that Fortune wont to share ; 
Low rest my drifts, my curious Travailes rare : 
Low scude the limits, of my high-bred thought : 
Low plunge my hopes, in darke deepes of despaire ; 
Low I o'erthrowne, with crosses low am brought : 

Low live I here, in sad restraint and strife : 

Low then the lower of the lowest life : 

Low as I am, Pie lowly Sacrifice : 

Low deep fetch'd sighes, to heaven on my low Knees. 

But I remember in the aforesayd time of this my 
imprisonment, there were two Papists my Countrey-men, 
who wrot to me a Letter ; not like to a familiar Epistle of 
Cicero : No, but they would have fastned an untruth upon 
me ; affirming that I was a Romane Catholicke in my 

420 



COMMENTS UPON HIS TORTURES a.d. 

1621. 

heart ; and that they would justifie it, that I received the 

Sacrament at Rome, in the first yeare that Paulus (Burge- 

sius) Papa Quintus, came to his triple Crowne : to whom 

in a true and Christian defence, my serious and approbable 

reply was thus : 

THis is your Papall marke, [ x - 4 8 ^.] 

that as you runne astray, 
You eyther would, or needes will have, 

Christs Flocke to loose their way : 
Can you avouch this point, 

and dare you blaze your shame, 
Thus Painter-like to portray 5 d so, 

a figure for a name : 
Shall Symbolizing I, 

by Paragraphs defind, 
In Paradoxicke passages, 

Equivocate my minde. 
No tincture shall ingrosse, 

my Senses so delude, 
To maculate my Splendant path, 

with positives intrude : 
In this Aversion I, 

I more then Victor live, 
Let Crittickes sterne aspersions spew, 

this project Pie Atchieve : 
My words shall Seale the truth, 

my heart reserves the stamp, 
Wherein my Characters of Faith, 

as zealous shall incampe : 
That desuetude of Soule, 

I never did imbrace, 
Nor shall ; nor did, God is my Judge, 

Such was his Heavenly grace : 
No secondary meane, 

shall aggrevate my hope, 
The auncient Rule of Primacy, 

shall be my moderne scope : 
421 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1621. 

[X. 487.] Can such occurrents stand, 

as ominous in me, 
When you detract and falsly wrest, 

the truth in perjury : 
It is your lineall straine, 

Collusions to induct, 
With Misticke Contradictories, 

your implies you Construct : 
No inference can prye, 

nor strange illation proove, 
In your exorbitanting braines, 

my period I did moove : 
This microcosmos mine, 

such imputation scornes ; 
And turnes this grim demoniat spight, 

on your Hell- forked homes. 
My name you presse to staine, 

by base abortive leyes, 
To circumcise my recent fame, 

with sharpe edg'd Calumnies : 
And labour to depresse, 

that Confluence I have 
From Heaven ascrib'd, confirmed by Grace, 

the pledge my Spirit doth crave : 
That strife can not avayle, 

I so assume the right ; 
Your doubled darkned eies perceive, 

I triumph in the light : 
It's not your bloody Priests, 

nor Tortures can prevaile, 
I past your Purgatory ones, 

the rest must you impale. 
For what by dread or straine, 

you can not worke nor do, 
[X. 488.] You wrest, you leye, you paint, you faine, 

and add illusions too : 
These Latent Forgeries, 

annexed to your Faith, 
422 



COMMENTS UPON HIS TORTURES a.d. 

1621. 

As pendicles precipitate, 

inhaunce your Soules to death : 
With shrew'd Acerbious speech, 

you Anathematize 
My will Reciprocall to yours, 

such guile you Moralize : 
But this reflexing heart, 

in a transparent flame, 
Can by experience conster well, 

your Churches Sire and Dame : 
No Tort I introduct, 

to damnifie your Sexe, 
Whose empty Sculles (illuding feare) 

your selves perverstly vexe : 
I Organize the Truth, 

you Allegate the Sense, 
Disbending cominous defects, 

in your absurd pretence : 
Your immateriall proofes, 

I wish you would detect, 
My Processe craves Sedulity, 

for what you Guiles Suspect. 

After this, their sequell answere being mortified, and I 
set at liberty by a just favour of the Privy Councell, my 
formalists durst never attempt any further dispute with 
me, neither any passing countenance in our rancounters : 
But what shall I say concerning my grievances, Sed qui 
Patitur vincit : Since there is no helpe or Redresse to bee 
had for wrongs past, no, neither (alasse) for any present [X. 489.] 
in either meane, or mighty falls : for when the Starres of 
great states, decline under the selfe-same constellation of 
my sorrowes, and made the deplored for spectacles, of the 
inconstancy of fortune ; what shall I then in a privat life, 
and publicke pilgrimage expect, but the common calamity 
of this age, and the irrevocable redresse of my miseries 
sustayned, for this Crowne and Kingdome of England, 
which shall be presently cleared : yet would to God, I 
might doe, as Xerxes the Persian King did, that when the 

423 



A.D. 
l62I. 



Incompatible 
griefe without 
deserved 
reliefe. 



[X. +9 o.] 



A direction 
for Certificats 
by the Lord 
Keeper. 



LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

Greekes had taken Sardis, the Metropole of Lydia, he 
commanded one of his servants to stand before him every- 
day at dinner, and cry aloud, saying ; the Grecians have 
taken Sardis : whereby he was never at quiet, till it was 
recovered. 

So would I, oppressed I, by mighty powers ; (though 
not a King, yet the faythfull subject of a King) cry dayly 
from the heart-broken sorrow of my incompatible injuries ; 
O barbarous, and inhumane Malaga ! when shall my soule 
be revenged on thy cruell murther, and when shall mine 
eyes see thy mercilesse destruction? But tush, what 
dreame I ? now a dayes griefe can find no reliefe, far lesse 
compassion, and meaner revenge, and so farewell satisfac- 
tion, when flattering feare dare challenge obsequiousnesse, 
to the alteration of any thing. 

But afterward when death, Heavens fatall messenger, 
and enemy to nature, had darted King James of matchlesse 
memory ; who sometimes (besides my soveraigne) in some 
respects, and for the former cause, was a father to me ; 
then was I forcibly (I say) con stray ned to preferre a bill of 
grievance to the upper house of Parliament Anno 1626. 
which I dayly followed 17. weekes : Well ; my grievances 
were heard and considered, and thereupon an order 
graunted me (bearing the Lords reference and pleasure 
concerning my suite) unto Sir Thomas Coventrey, Lord 
keeper of Englands great Seale ; and through whose office 
my businesse should have passed : which order was 
delivered unto him, by Mr. James Maxwell Knight of 
the blacke Rode, and one of his Majesties Bed-chamber, 
in behalfe of the Lords of the upper house : The order thus 
being reserved then with the Lord-keeper for a moneth, 
hee appointed me to fetch him (because of a Warrant to his 
State office) the Certificats of Sir Walter Aston, Sir Robert 
Maunsell, and Sir Thomas Button, to cleare my sufferings^ 
and the causes wherefore : which I gladly obeyed, and 
brought all their three Certificates unto him : yea, and Sir 
Walter Aston, (besides his hand-writ) spoke seriously face 
to face with him thereanent. 

424 






COMMENTS UPON HIS TORTURES a.d. 

1626. 

Meane-while the house breaking up abruptly (because 
of soveraigne disliking) their order for my suite could take 
none effect as then, nor yet since, in regard it was no 
Session Parliament ; and so my order and reliefe lyeth 
suspended till some hapy time. 

But now to confound the calumnious and vituperious 
Papists, the miscreant and miserable Atheists, the peevish 
and selfe-opiniating Puritanes, the faithles misbeleeving 
Mungrells of true Religion, and of this trueth : And the 
very objections have beene sayd sometimes in my face, 
by irreligious and disdainefull Nullifidians : who have 
sayd and thought that I could neither be so constant, nor 
they so cruell : I thinke it not amisse, to set downe 
verbally one of their Certificats here, being all of one style, 
and to one purpose ; and thus it folio we th. 

To the Right Honorable, Sir Thomas Coventry [X. 491.] 
Knight, Lord Keeper of the great Seale of 
England, &c. 

MAy it please your Honour : I have taken boldnesse 
to certifie your good Lordship, of the trueth concern- 
ing the grievous sufferings of this heavily injured man, 
William Lithgow : true it is, that this bearer, being bound 
for Alexandria in Egypt, having with him Letters of safe 
Conduct, under the Hand and Seale of his late Majesty 
King James of blessed memory ; ran-countred with us, and 
our Fleete at Malaga : Whereof I was imployed as Vice- 
Admirall against the Pyrats of Algier ; where he repayring 
a Boord of us, and frequenting our Company a shoare, 
was presently (after we had set Sayle) apprehended by 
Command of the Governour and Magistrates there as a 
Spie ; whom they suspected, had of purpose beene left 
behind by our General!, and us of the Counsell of Warre, 
for the Discovery of that place, and other adjacent parts : 
Whereupon beeing secretly imprisoned in the Governours 
Palace ; and after serious examination of our intention ; 
hee was without any cause done, or offered by him, most 

425 



A.D. 
1626. 

[X. 492.] 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

unjustly put to the cruell Racke and tortures ; besides all 
other his unspeakable miseries, which for a long time he 
sustained thereafter : whereof I was credibly and infallibly 
informed by M. Richard Wilds, to whom he was first 
discovered, and by other English Factors of good note 
then resident there : in my repayring diverse times to the 
Roade of that towne with my Squadron of shippes, during 
the time of his long imprisonment, and after his deliver- 
ance. And afterward the Governour there beeing better 
informed of our loyall proceedings in those parts, and to 
colour their former cruelties, and suspition had of us, hee 
did wrest the Inquisition upon him, where being con- 
demned to Death, he had doubtlesse undergone (as I was 
likewise truely informed by the afore-said Merchants) the 
finall Sentence of their Inquisition : if it had not beene, for 
the Religious care, and speedy prevention of Sir Walter 
Aston, then Leiger Ambassadour there : By whose earnest 
mediation he being delivered, and afterwards sent home 
by direction of Sir Robert Maunsell Generall : I now 
commend his grievous and lamentable cause, unto your 
Lordshippes tender and Religious Consideration. Rest- 
ing* 

Your Lordships to Command, 

to serve You : 
From Fulham this tenth 
of July. 1626. 

Sir Thomas Button. 



[X. 493.] 



Gods miracu- 
lous mercy in 
my deliver- 
ances. 



And now to conclude this Tragicall discourse, the 
Religious eye, may perceive Gods compassionate love, 
foure wayes here extended. First, his powerfull provi- 
dence in my long and admirable preservation in Prison : 
hunger, Vermine, and Tortures, being my comfortlesse 
Companions. Secondly, the pittifull kindnesse of his All- 
seeing Eye, in the miraculous Wonder of my Discovery, 
when the perverted policy of subtile Serpents, had 
sceleratly suggested my concealement. Thirdly, his un- 
speakable mercy in my unlooked-for deliverance, beeing 

426 



COMMENTS UPON SCOTLAND a.d. 

1628. 

by hopelesse me, not thought, nor sought ; and yet by his 
munificence was wrought. And lastly, his gracious 
goodnesse, in the recovery (after some large measure) of 
my health and use of body againe ; all prayse and glory 
be to his infinite Majesty therefore. 

ANd finally, merit beeing masked, with the darkenesse 
of ingratitude, and the morning Spring- tide of 1627. 
come : I set face from Court for Scotland, suiting my 
discontents, with a pedestriall Progresse, and my feete 
with the palludiat way ; where fixing mine eyes on 
Edenbrugh, and prosecuting the Tennor of a Regall 
Commission (which partly beeing some where obeyed, 
and other-where suspended) it gave mee a large sight of 
the whole Kingdome, both Continent, and lies. The 
particular Description whereof, in all parts, and of all 
places, besides Ports and Rivers : I must referre to the 
owne Volume already perfected, Intitulated Lithgowes 
Surveigh of Scotland : which this Worke may not 
Containe, nor time suffer to publish till a fitter occasion. 
Only Commenting a little upon some generalls. I hasten 
to be at Finis. Traversing the Westerne lies (whose [X. 494.] 
inhabitants, like to as many Bulwarkes, are abler and apter 
to preserve and defend, their libertie and Precincts from 
incursive invasions ; then any neede of Forts or Fortified 
places they have, or can be required there : Such is the 
desperate courage of these awfull Hebridians:) I arrived The kindnes I 
(I say) at the He of Arrane, Anno 1628. where for certayne received from 
dayes, in the Castle of Braidwicke, I was kindly inter- i or ^ the 
tayned, by the illustrious Lord, James Marquesse of Marques of 
Hammilton, Earle of Arrane and Cambridge, &c. Hammilton. 

Whom GOD may strengthen, with the liveliest Heart, 
And fearelesse Minde, of all, e'vr fac'd that Art 
For Bohems Queene : Heavens prosper His intent ! 
With Glorious Successe, and a Brave event : 
That by a King beene Sped, for a Kings Sake, 
To helpe a King ; all Three from Him may take 

427 



A.D. 
1628. 



[X. 4950 



The nobility 
and commo- 
dities of 
Galloway 
excell in 
goodnesse. 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

Auspicuous Service, Friendship, Faithfull Love, 
'Gainst whom, and his, no time can breach improove. 
Let then (great God) blest Sparkes of Favour fall 
On his Designes, and Theirs, our Friends, and All; 
And Angels Guard Him, let Thy Mighty hand 
(Partition-like) 'twixt Him, and dangers stand : 
That Martiall ends, and Victory may Crowne 
His happy Hopes, his Life, with Love Renowne. 

This lie of Arrane, is thirty miles long, eight in 
breadth, and distant from the Maine, twenty foure miles \ 
beeing sur-clouded with Goatfield Hill : which with wide- 
eyes, over-looketh our Westerne Continent, and the 
Northerne Countrey of Ireland : bringing also to sight in 
a cleare Summers day, the He of Manne, and the higher 
Coast of Cumberland : A larger prospect no Mountaine 
in the World can show, poynting out three Kingdomes 
at one sight : Neither any like He or braver Gentry, for 
good Archers, and hill-hovering Hunters. Having 
agayne re-shoared the Maine, I coasted Galloway even 
to the Mould that butteth into the Sea, with a large 
Promontore, being the South-most part of the Kingdome. 
And thence footing all that large Countrey to Dumfries, 
and so to Carlile : I found heere in Galloway in diverse 
Rode-way Innes, as good Cheare, Hospitality, and 
Serviceable attendance, as though I had beene ingrafted 
in Lombardy or Naples. 

The Wooll of which Countrey, is nothing inferiour 
to that in Biscai of Spaine : providing they had skill, to 
fine, Spin, Weave, and labour it as they should. Nay> 
the Calabrian silke, had never a better luster, and 
softer gripe, then I have seene and touched this growing 
wooll there on Sheepes backes : the Mutton whereof 
excelleth in sweetnesse. So this Country aboundeth in 
Bestiall, especially in little Horses, which for mettall and 
Riding, may rather be tearmed bastard Barbs, then 
Gallowedian Nagges. 

Likewise their Nobility and Gentry are as courteous, and 

428 



COMMENTS UPON SCOTLAND a.d. 

1628. 
every way generously disposed, as eyther discretion would 
wish, and honour Command : that (Cunningham being 
excepted, which may bee called the Accademy of Religion, 
for a sanctified Clergy, and a godly people) certainly 
Galloway is become more civill of late, then any Maritine 
Country, bordering with the Westerne Sea. But now 
to observe my former Summary condition, the length of 
the Kingdome lyeth South and North : That is, betweene 
Dungsby head in Cathnes, and the afore-sayde Mould of 
Galloway ; beeing distant per rectam lineam, which my [X. 496.] 
weary feet troad over from poynt to poynt (the way of 
Lochreall, Carrick, Kyle, Aire, Glasgow, Stirveling, St. 
Johns Towne, Stormount, the Blair of Atholl, the Bra of 
Mar, Badeynoh, Innernes, Rosse, Sutherland, and so to 
the North Promontore of Cathnes) extending to three 
hundred twenty miles : which I reckon to be foure 
hundred and fifty English miles : Confounding hereby 
the ignorant presumption of blind Cosmographers, who 
in their Mappes make England longer than Scotland ; Scotland h 
when contrariwise Scotland out strippeth the other in 120. miles 
length, a hundred and twenty miles. The breadth lo "& er tJ * n 
whereof I grant is narrower than England ; yet extending ngan ' 
betweene the extremities of both Coasts in divers parts 
to threescore, fourscore, and a hundred of our miles : 
But because of the Sea ingulfing the Land, and cutting 
it in so many Angles, making great Lakes, Bayes, and 
dangerous Firths, on both sides of the Kingdome, the 
true breadth thereof can not justly be conjectured, nor 
soundly set downe. 

Our chiefest fresh water Lakes are these, Lochlomond, 
contayning twenty foure lies, and in length as many 
miles : divers whereof are inriched with Woods, Deere, 
and other Bestiall : The large and long Lake of Loch- 
Tay, in Atholl, the Mother and Godmother of Head- 
strong Tay, the greatest River in the Kingdome : And 
Lochnes, in the higher parts of Murray, the River whereof 
{that graceth the pleasant and commodious situation of 
Innernes) no frost can freize: The propriety of which 

429 



a.d. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1628. 

water will quickly melt and dissolve any hard congealed 
lumps of frozen Ice, be it on Man or Beast, stone or 
timber. 

The chiefest Rivers are Clyde, Tay, Tweed, Forth, 
Dee, Spay, Nith, Nesse, and Dingwells flood-ingorging 
Lake, that confirmeth Porta salutis ; being all of them, 
[X. 497.] where they returne their tributs to their father Ocean 
portable ; and as it were resting places for turmoyled seas 
and ships : And the principall Townes are Edenbrugh, 
Perth, Glasgow, Dundie, Abirdene, St. Andrewes, Aire, 
Stirveling, Lithgow, Dumfries, Innernes, Elgin, Minros, 
Jedbrugh, Hadington, Leith, &c. and for antiquity, old 
Lanerk, &c. 

So the most delicious soiles of the Kingdome are these 
following : first, the bounds of Clyde, or Cliddisdale, 
betweene Lanerk and Dunbertan, distanced twenty sixe 
miles ; and thence downeward to Rossay that kisseth the 
devulgements of the River : the beginning whereof is 
at Arick stone sixteene miles above Lanerk, whose course 
contendeth for threescore miles : All which, being the 
best mixed Countrey for Cornes, Meeds, Pastorage, 
Woods, Parks, Orchards, Castles, Pallaces, divers kinds 
of Coale, and earth-fewell, that our included Albion 
Cliddisdale is produceth : And may justly be surnamed the Paradice of 
the Paradice Scotland 1 Besides, it is adorned on both borders along, 
of Scotland. ^j^ ^ g reatest p eereSj an( j Nobility in the Kingdome : 
The Duke of Lennox, the Marques of Hammilton, the 
Earle of Angus, the Earle of Argyle, and the Earles of 
Glencairne, Wigton, and Abircorne. 

And for Lord Barons, Semple, Rosse, Blantyre, and 
Dalliell : The chiefest Gentry whereof are the Knights 
and Lairds of Luce, Skellmurelie, Blakhall, Greenock, 
Newwark, Houston, Pook-maxwell, Sir George Elping- 
ston of Blythswood, Minto, Cambusnethen, Calderwood, 
the two Knights of Lieye, and Castel-hill, Sir James 
Lokharts elder & yonger, Lamington, Westraw, his 
Majesties Gentleman Sewer, Blakwood, Cobinton, Stane- 
byres, and Corhous, &c. All which in each degree, as 

43° 



COMMENTS UPON SCOTLAND a.d. 

1628. 

they illuminat the soyle with grandure, so the soyle 
reflecteth on them againe with beauty, bounty, and 
riches. 

But least I partiall prove, because my breath [X. 498.] 

First sprung from Lanerk, so my christian faith ; 

Where thence (O natall place) my soule did coyle, 

Blood, sprit, and sense, flesh, birth, life, love, and soyle ; 

Pie leave Clydes fragrant fields, resplendant banks, 

Bedeckt with Silvans, stately beauteous ranks 

Of Pandedalian sparks ; which lend the sight 

Of variable colours, best Natures light ; 

And close these silver shades, that dazeling bloome 

Mongst thickest Groaves, with many brae-fac'd broome ; 

Strict in the records of eternall fame, 

For sight, for gaine, for birth, for noble name. 

And now the second soyle for pleasure, is the platformd 
Carse of Gowry, twelve miles long (Wheat, Rye, Cornes, Cane and 
Fruit yards, being its onely commodity) which I may Murray two 
tearme for its levelld face, to be the Garden of Angus ; ^S* 
yea, the Diamond-plot of Tay, or rather the youngest ° y 
Sister of matchlesse Piemont : The Inhabitants being onely 
defective in affablenesse, and communicating courtesies 
of naturall things, whence sprung this Proverbe, The 
kearlles of the Carse. 

The third, and beautifull soyle, is the delectable planure 
of Murray, thirty miles long, and sixe in breadth : whose 
comely grounds, inriched with Cornes, Plantings, 
Pastorage, stately dwellings, overfaced with a generous 
Octavian Gentrye, and topped with a Noble Earle, its 
chiefest Patrone ; it may be surstyled, a second Lombardy, 
or pleasant Meaddow of the North. 

Neither may I (abandoning eye-pleasing grounds) 
seclude here that sudaick bottome, reaching thirty miles 
twixt Perth and Minros ; involving the halfe of Angus, 
within a fruitfull, populous, and nobilitat planure, the [X. 499.] 
heart whereof saluting Glames, kisseth Cowper: So like- 
wise, as thrice divided Louthiane, is a girnell of graine, 

431 



a.d. LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

1628. 

for forrane Nations; and Fiffe twixt Carraill and Largo, 

the Ceren trenches of a Royall Camp, the incircling coast 

a nest of Corporations ; and Meandring Forth from 

tip-toed Snadoun, the prospicuous mirrour for matchlesse 

Majesty : Even so is melting Tweed, and weeping 

Tiviot, the ^Egyptian Strands, that irriguat the fertile 

fields, which imbolster both bosomes, sending their 

bordering breath of dayly necessaries to strengthen the 

life of Barwick. 

The Nobility Now as for the Nobility and Gentry of the Kingdome ; 

and Gentry of certainely, as they are generous, manly, and full of 

Scotland, are coura g e • so are they courteous, discreet, learned Schollers, 

keepers and ' we ^ reac ^ m best Histories, delicatly linguishd, the most 

generous part of them, being brought up in France or Italy : 

Gentlemen in That for a generall compleat worthinesse, I never found 

the World. their matches amongst the best people of forrane Nations : 

being also good house-keepers, affable to strangers, and 

full of Hospitality. 

And in a word the Seas of Scotland, and the lies abound 
plentifully in all kind of Fishes, the Rivers are ingorged 
with Salmond, the high-landish mountaines overcled with 
Firre-trees, infinite Deere, and all sorts of other Bestiall, 
the Valleyes full of Pasture, and Wild fowle ; the low 
layd Playnes inriched with beds of grayne ; Justice all 
where administred, Lawes obeyed, malefactors punished, 
Oppressors curbed, the Clergy religious, the people sincere 
Professors, and the Country peaceable to all men. 

The chiefest commodities whereof, transported beyond 
sea, are these, Wheat, Cornes, Hides, Skins, Tallow, 
Yearn, Linnen, Salt, Coale, Herrings, Salmond, Wooll, 
[X. 500.] Keilling, Ling, Turbet and Seaths. And last, and worst, 
all the Gold of the Kingdome, is daily Transported away 
with superfluous posting for Court. Whence they never 
returne any thing, save spend all, End all, then farewell 
Fortune : So that numbers of our Nobility and Gentry 
now, become with idle projects, downe-drawers of destruc- 
tion, upon their owne neckes, their children, and their 
estates : and posting Postilions by dissolute courses, to 

43 2 



COMMENTS UPON SCOTLAND ad. 

1629 
inrich Strangers, leave themselves deservingly desolate, of Prodigall and 
Lands, Meanes, and Honesty for ever. Doing even with superfluous 
their former Vertue, long continuance, and memory of sJjSjjf?" 
their noble Ancestors, as M. Knoxe did with our glorious Court. 
Churches of Abbocies, and Monasteries (which were the 
greatest beauty of the Kingdome,) knocking all down to 
desolation ; leaving nought to be seene of admirable 
Edifices, but like to the Ruines of Troy, Tyrus, and 
Thebes, lumpes of Wals, and heapes of stones. 

So do our ignoble Gallants (though nobly borne) 
swallow up the honour of their famous Predecessours, 
with posting foolery, boy-winding Homes, cormandizing 
Gluttony, Lust, and vaine Apparrell ; making a Trans- 
migration of perpetuity to their present Belly, and Backe. 
O lashivious ends : which I have condignely sisted, in my 
last Worke Intitulated Scotlands welcome to King 
Charles : with all the abuses and grievances of the whole 
Kingdome besides. 

But now leaving Prodigalls to their Purgatoriall 
Postings, I come to Trace through Rosse, Sutherland, and 
Cathnes : Soiles so abundant in all things, fit to illustrate 
greatnesse, Resplendour Gentry, and succour Commons ; 
that their fertile goodnesse far exceeded my expectation, 
and the affability of the better sort my deservings : beeing 
all of them the best, and most bountifull Christmasse- [X. 501.] 
keepers (the Greekes excepted) that ever I saw in the 
Christian World : Whose continuall incorporate Feastings 
one with another, beginning at Saint Andrewes day, never 
end til Shrovetide : which Ravished me, to behold, such 
great and daily cheare, familiar fellow-ship, and joviall 
chearefulnesse ; that me thought the whole Winter there, 
seemed to me, but the Jubilee of one day. And now 
beeing arrived at Maii, to imbarke for Orknay, sight, 
time, and duty, command me to celebrate these following A dutifull 
Lines, to gratifie the kindnesse of that noble Lord, George remembrance 
Earle of Cathnes, with his Honorable Cousing, and first z ^T, ° 
Accadent of his House, the Right worshipful Sir William 
Sinclair of Catboll Knight, Liard of Maii. 

l 433 2 E 



ad. LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1629 

Sir! sighting now thy Selfe, and Pallace Faire, 

I find a novelty, and that most rare, 

The time though cold and stormy, sharper Sun, 

And far to Summer, scarce the Spring begun ; 

Yet with good lucke, in Februar, Saturnes prey 

Have I not sought, and found out Fruitfull May, 

Flank'd with the Marine Coast, prospective stands, 

Right opposite to the Orcade lies and Lands : 

Where I for floures, ingorgM strong grapes of Spaine, 

And liquorM French, both Red and white amaine : 

Which Pallace doth containe, two foure-squar'd Courts, 

Graft with brave Works, where th' Art-drawne pensile 

sports 
On Hals, high Chambers, Galleries, office Bowres, 
Cells, Roomes, and Turrets, Plat-formes, stately Towres : 
Where greene-fac'd gardens, set at Floraes feet, 
Make Natures beauty, quicke Appelles greet : 
All which surveigh'd, at last the mid-most gate 
Design'd to me, the Armes of that great state, 

[X 502.] The Earles of Cathnes ; to whose praise inbag'd, 

My Muse must mount, and here's my pen incadg'd : 
First then their Armes, a Crosse, did me produce 
Limbd like a Scallet, trac'd with fleur du Luce ; 
The Lyon, red, and rag'd, two times divided 
From coyne to coyne, as Heraulds have decyded : 
The third joynd Staunce denotes to me a Galley, 
That on their sea-rapt foes, dare make assailley : 
The fourth a gallant Ship, pust with taunt saile 
Gainst them, their Ocean dare, or Coast assaile : 
On whose bent Creist, a Pelican doth sit 
An Embleme, for like love, drawne wondrous fit : 
Who as shee feeds her young, with her heart blood 
Denotes these Lords, to theirs, like kind, like good : 
Whose best Supporters, guard both Sea, and Land, 
Two sterne drawne Griffons, in their strength to stand : 
Their Dictum beares this verdict, for Heavens Ode 
Ascribd this clause ; commit thy worke to God : 

434 



COMMENTS UPON SCOTLAND aj> 

1629 
O sacred Motto ! Bishop Sinclairs straine, 
Who turnd Fiffes Lord, on Scotknds foes agayne : 
Loe ! here's the Armes of Cathnes, here's the Stock ! 
On which branch'd-boughes relye, as on a Rocke. 
But further in, I found like Armes more patent ; 
To kind Sir William, and his line as latent ; 
The Primier Accade, of that noble race 
Who for his vertue, may reclayme the place ; 
Whose Armes, with tongue and buckle, now they make 
Fast crosse, signe ty*d, for a faire Lesslyes sake. 
The Lyon hunts o're Land, the Ship, the Sea, 
The ragged Crosse can scale high walks wee see ; 
The wing-layd Galley, with her factious oares 
Both Havens and Floods command, and circling shoares : 
The feathred Griffon flees, O grim-limbd beast! 
That winging Sea and Land, upholds this Creist : pL 503.] 

But for the Pelicans, life-sprung kind Story, 
Makes honour sing, Yirtute, et Amore. Sir 

Nay, not by blood, as she her selfe can do, S u dur * 

But by her paterae, feeding younglings too ; 
For which this Patrones Crescent stands so stay, 
That neither Spight, nor Tempest, can shake Maii : 
Whose Cutchions cleave so fast, to top, and side, 
Portends to mee, his Armes shall ever bide. 
So Murckles Armes are so, except the Rose 
Spred on the Crosse, which Bothwels Armes disclose ; 
Whose Uterine blood he is, and present Brother 
To Cathnes Lord ; all three sprung from one Mother. 
Bothwels prime Heretrix, plight to Hepburaes Race, 
From whom Religious Murckles Rose I trace, 
This Countries instant Shrieve : whose Vertue raised 
His honoured worth, his godly life more pnuVd. 
But now to rouze their Rootes, and how they Sprung, 
See how Antiquity, Times triumph Sung. 

This Scallet, worth them blanch'd, for endeavour 
And Service done, to Englands Conquerour ; 
With whom from France, they first to Britaine came, 
Sprung from a Towne St. Claire, now tura'd their name. 
l «3S tsa 



ad LITHGOW'S RARE ADVENTURES 

1629 

Whose Predecessours, by their Val'rous hand, 
Wonne endlesse Fame, twice in the Holy Land : 
Where in that Christian Warre, their blood beene lost, 
They loath'd of Gaule, and sought our Albion Coast. 
Themselves to Scotland came, in Cammoires Raigne 
With good Queene Margret, and her English traine. 
The Ship from Orknay Sayl'd, now rul'd by Charles, 
Whereof they Sinclairs, long time, had beene Earles. 
Whose Lord then William, was by Scotlands King, 
(Call'd Robert Second, First, whence Stewarts spring) 
[X. 504.] Sent with his second Sonne, to France, cross'd James 
Who eighteene yeares, liv'd Captivate at Thames. 
This Prisner last turn'd King, call'd James the First, 
Who Sinclairs Credit, kept in Honours thirst : 
The Galley was the Badge of Cathnes Lords, 
As Malcome Cammoirs raigne at length Records : 
Which was to Magnus given, for Service done, 
Against Mackbaith, usurper of his Crowne. 
The Lyon came, by an Heretrix to passe, 
By Marriage ; whose Sire, was surnam'd Dowglas. 
Where after him, the Sinclair now Record, 
Was Shirefe of Dumfreis, and Nidsdales Lord : 
Whose wife was Neece, to good King James the Third ; 
Who for exchange, 'twixt Wicke and Southerne Nidde 
Did Lands incambiat : whence this Cathnes Soile 
Stands fast for them, the rest, their Friends recoile. 
Then Circle-bounded Cathnes, Sinclairs ground, 
Which Pentland Firth invirones, Orknayes sound ; 
Whose top is Dunkanes Bay, the Roote the Ord ; 
Long may it long, stand fast for their true Lord : 
And as long too, Heavens grant what I require, 
The Race of Maii, may in that Stocke aspire ; 
Till my Age may last, Times glasse be runne, 
For Earths last darke Ecclipse, of no more Sunne. 

Forsaking Cathnes, I imbraced the trembling Surges 
(at Dungsby) of strugling Neptune, which ingorgeth 
Pentland or Pitland Firth with nine contrarious Tides : 

43 6 



COMMENTS UPON SCOTLAND ad. 

1629 
each Tide over-thwarting another with repugnant courses, 
have such violent streames, and combustions waves, that 
if these dangerous Births be not rightly taken in passing 
over, the Passengers shall quickely loose sight of life and [ x - 5°5-] 
land for ever: yea, and one of these tides so forcible, at 
the backe of Stromaii, that it will carry any Vessell back- 
ward, in despight of the winds, the length of its rapinous 
current. 

This dreadfull Firth is in breadth betweene the Con- A dangerous 
tinent of Cathnes, and the He of South Rannald-shaw in Pf ace *j Fent ' 
Orknay twelve miles : And I denote this credibly, in a 
part of the North-west end of this Gulfe, there is a 
certaine place of sea, where these destracted tydes make 
their rancountering Randevouze, that whirleth ever 
about : cutting in the middle circle a devalling hole, with 
which if either Ship or Boat shall happen to encroach, they 
must quickly either throw over some thing into it, as a 
Barrell, a piece of timber, and such like, or that fatall 
Euripus shall then suddenly become their swallowing 
Sepulcher. A custome which these bordering Cathenians 
and Orcadians have ever heretofore observed. 

Arriv'd at South Rannaldshaw an He of five miles long, 
and thwarting the He of Burray, I sighted Kirkwall, the 
Metropole of Pomonia, the mayne Land of Orknay, and 
the onely Mistresse of all the circumjacent lies being 
thirty in number. The chiefest whereof (besides this tract 
of ground, in length twenty sixe, and broad five, sixe and 
seven miles) are the lies of Sanda, Westra, and Stronza : 
Kirkwall it selfe is adorned with the stately and magnifick 
Church of St. Magnus built by the Danes, whose Signiory 
with the lies lately it was ; but indeed for the time 
present, more beautified with the godly life of a most 
venerable and religious Bishop Mr. George Grahame : 
whom now I may tearme (Soveraignity excepted) to be the 
Father of the Countries government, then an Ecclesi- 
asticke Prelat : The Inhabitants being left void of a 
Governour, or solid Patrone, are just become like to a 
broken battell, a scattered people without a head : having [X. 506.] 

437 



A.D. 
1629 



Zetland 
mightily 
impoverished 
by corrupt 
governement. 



[X. 507.] 



LITHGOWS RARE ADVENTURES 

but a Burges Shreive to administer Justice, and he too an 
Aliene to them, and a Resider in Edenburgh : So that in 
most differences, and questions of importance, the Plain- 
tives are inforced to implore the Bishop for their Judge, 
and hee, the adverse Party for redresse. 

But the more remote parts of this auncient little 
Kingdome, as Zetland, and the adjacent lies there ; have 
found such a sting of deoccular government within these 
few yeares ; that these once happy lies, which long agoe 
my feet traded over, are Metamorphosed in the Anatomy 
of succourlesse oppression, and the felicity of the Inhabit- 
ants, reinvolved within the closet of a Cittadinean cluster. 

But now referring the whole particulars, and dividuall 
descriptions of these Septentrion lies, the mayne 
Continent, and the Gigantick Hebridian lies, to my 
aforesayd worke to be published, intitulated Lithgows 
surveigh of Scotland, I send this generall verdict to the 
World : 

Now having seene most part of thy selfe glore 
Great Kingdomes, Hands, stately Courts, rich Townes, 
Most gorgeous showes, pomp-glory deckt renownes, 
Hearbagious fields, the Pelage-beating shoare 
Propitious Princes, Prelats, potent Crownes : 
Smoake shadow'd times, curst Churles, Misers, Clownes. 
Impregnate Forts, devalling floods, and more 
Earth-gazing heights, Vayle-curling Plaines in store : 
Court-rising honours, throwne on envies frownes ; 
Worme-vestur'd workes, Enamild Arts, wits lore : 
Masse-marbled Mansions, Mineralls, coynd Ore, 
State-superficiall showes, swift-glyding Moones : 
I loath thy sight, pale streames, staine wattry eyne, 
Whose glorious shades evanish, no more seene. 

And now to conclude, as a Painter, may spoyle a 
Picture, but not the face ; so may some Stoicall Reader 
misconster and misconceave some parts of this eye-set 
History, though not able to marre the trueth of it : yet 
howsoever, here is the just relation of nineteene yeares 

438 



CONCLUSION a.d. 

1629 

travells, perfited in three deare-bought voyages : The 

generall computation of which dimmensious spaces, in my 

goings, traversings, and returnings, through Kingdomes, 

Continents, and Hands, which my paynefull feet 

traced over (besides my passages of Seas and 

Rivers) amounteth to thirty six thousand 

and odde miles, which draweth neare 

to twice the circumference of the 

whole Earth. And so 

farewell. 



FINIS. 



439 



Index 



Abasines, of Mount Moriah, 220 ; of 
Mount Sinai, 222 ; of Fez, 325. 

Abdeminoples, Mahomet sold to, 130. 

Abydos, fortress on the Hellespont 
(Asia Minor) opposite Sestos, 112. 

Achaia, district of Greece, situation of, 
107, 108; chief cities of, 108. 

Adriatic Coast, cities and sea-port 
towns on, 33. 

Adriatic Sea, marriage of the Doge 
and the, 36. 

yEgean Sea, 98. 

ALneas Silvius, Cosmographical Trea- 
tise of Europe by, 61. 

JZneid) Virgil's, quotation from, 108, 
109. 

Agamemnon at the siege of Troy, 98. 

Ahetzo, M. Chatteline at, 326, 327. 

Aiton, young, friend of Lithgow, 9. 

Alcade, of Malaga, 392, 395 ; and the 
Inquisition, 399. 

Alcino, gardens of, 53. 

Alcoran, or Koran, Mohammedan 
scriptures, 132, 135. 

Aleppo, commerce of, 147 ; Venetian 
consul at, 177; Pasha of, 180; com- 
ments upon, 181. 

Alexandria, 285, 286. 

Algiers, captured by Barbarossa (a.d. 
I 5 I 5)> 3*7; pirates of, 317; slaves 
°f> 3 j 7j 3 J 8; comments upon, 316- 
319. 

A I lathy a, the, of London, 154. 

Allen, John, a Scotchman, 83. 

Allen, Robert, panegyric verses of, 
xxvii. 

Alps crossed, 9, 295. 

Ambassador, Spanish, in London, false 
promises of the, 419. 



Ancona, city of, 32. 
Androsians, Themistocles and the, 98. 
Angusa, comments upon, 85. 
Antioch, ancient capital of the Greek 

kings of Syria, 176; Christians at, 

176. 
Antiochus the Great, founder of 

Antioch, 176. 
Antonio, Signior Marco, Venetian 

consul at Cairo, 267. 
Apollo, temple of, at Delos, 85. 
Arabia, kings of, 203 ; boundaries and 

inhabitants of, 262. 
Arabia Felix, 188. 
Arabia Petrcea, 188. 
Arabs, wandering, travellers attacked 

by, 206, 231, 258. 
Aragon, Peter of, and the Sicilian 

vespers, 346 ; kingdom of, 384. 
Arcadia, 62, 63. 
Archimedes, 344. 
Archipelago, Grecian, islands of the, 

84 ff., 98. 
Arethusa, fountain of, at Syracuse, 344. 
Aristotle, death of, 103. 
Armada, English, and the Moors, news 

of the, 406. 
Armenians, caravan of, 182, 
Armies, Turkish, 150. 
Arran, island of, description of, 428. 
Arthur, James, Scottish gentleman, 

28, 32. 
Asia Minor, comments upon, 154, 155. 
Asisi, St.'Francis of, 21. 
Aston, Sir Walter, English ambassador 

to Madrid (1621), and the governor 

of Malaga, 417; and the sufferings 

of Lithgow, 424. 
Athens, 66-68. 



440 



INDEX 



Athos, Mount, Greek reverence for, 

115. 
Atodala, converted Jew, and Mahomet, 

131- 
Aughmuty, Mr. James, 1 5. 
Authors, famous classical, 115. 
Azamglians, compared to the Pretorian 

army, 149. 

Babylon, journey from Aleppo to, 177. 

Badgello, captain of the sergeants at 
Pestoia, knavery of, and Lithgow, 
308, 309. 

Bailey, William, native of Clydesdale, 
369. 

Bajazet II. and the Jews, 54. 

Baldwin, King, tomb of, at Jerusalem, 
238. 

Balsam, garden of, at Cairo, 274. 

Baptista, Jean, 253, 255. 

Barbarossa and the Spaniards, 51. 

Barbary, kingdom of, 287; Turkish 
policy in (a.d. 1615), 318; and the 
provinces betwixt Egypt and Gib- 
raltar, 319; women of, 320. 

Basan, Og, king of, 204. 

Beauclair, M., French consul at Cairo, 
and Lithgow, 268. 

Beershacke (Birejeck), in Mesopo- 
tamia, 179. 

Beglerbeg, or Bassa (Pasha), Turkish 
governor of Greece, 66 ; Sofia, 
residence of Grecian, 66 ; rules con- 
cerning the, 66; of Damascus, 186. 

Beglerbegs, Bassas (Pashas), number 
of, 150. 

Beglerbergship, the, of Barbary, 331. 

Berne, comments upon, 383. 

Bethany, tomb of Lazarus at, 251. 

Bethlehem, Franciscan monastery at, 
246; of Judea, 248. 

Biscay, province of Spain, 383. 

Bishops' College of Malaga, priest of 
the, 407. 

Bithynia, division of Asia Minor, 154. 

Black Sea, 125. 

Boniface III., Pope, 133, 134. 

Books and observations, Lithgow's, 
translated into Spanish, 407. 

Bothwell, Earl of, at Naples, 294. 

Bouillon, Godfrey de, tomb of, at 
Jerusalem, 238. 

Boyde, Alexander, commendation of 
Lithgow's history by, xxx. 



Breda, 'A True and Experimentall 
Discourse upon the beginning Pro- 
ceeding and Victorious Event of 
this last Siege of,' by William Lith- 
gow. London, 1637, xii. 

Bridge, Jacob's, across the Jordan, 190. 

Brioni, islands of, 41. 

Brockesse, Master, English factor at 
Sidon, 199. 

Browne, John, 309, 311. 

Bruce, David, of Clackmannan, 304. 

Bryson, Robert, printer, Edinburgh, 
xii. 

Buda, 361 ; recovered by Soliman II., 
104 ; beglerbeg of, 362. 

Button, Sir Thomas, and the sufferings 
of Lithgow, 424 ; letter from, to Sir 
Thomas Coventry, 425, 426. 

Byzantium, see Constantinople. 

Caesarea Philippi, ruins of, 193. 

Caffar, tribute, exacted by Arabs from 
Christians in Palestine, 201. 

Cairo, commerce of, 147; comments 
upon, 266-273 ; consuls at, 267 ; beg- 
lerbeg of, 268 ; description of, 269 ff.; 
commerce of, 271 ; cosmopolitanism 
of, 271 ; caves of mummies at, 274. 

Caithness, Lord George, Earl of, 433 ; 
lines to, 434-436. 

Calabria, 309 ; bandits in, 310; peasant 
women of, 311; Albanians fled to, 

Caligula, Caius, founder of Gallipoli, 
114. 

Caliph, see Mufti. 

Calistha, birthplace of Calimachus, 85. 

Calvary, Mount, beauty of, 237. 

Camels, nature of, and dromedaries, 
263. 

Cana of Galilee, 193. 

Canaan, 190, 191 ; provinces and fer- 
tility of, 192. 

Candia, 79, 80. 

Candiots, or Cretans, character of, y^ 
80, 81. 

Canea, 73; a Frenchman's sad plight 
in the Venetian galleys at, 74. 

Canes, wayside inns, 182. 

Carabusa, Cretan fortress, 72. 

Carmel, Mount, 199, 200. 

Carmoesalo, Italian sailing vessel, 40. 

Carnaro, Gulf of, 42. 

Carre, Sir William, 1 5. 



441 



INDEX 






Carse of Govvrie, 431. 

Carthage, rivalry between Rome and, 

313 ; subject to the Turks, 314. 
Castriot, Captain George (Scander- 

beg), 51. 
Cataro, Gulf of, 49. 
Cecrops, King, Athens supposed to be 

founded by, 67. 
Cephalonia, island of, comments upon, 

56, 57; former names of, 56, 57; 

situation and products of, 57 ; subject 

to Venice, 57. 
Champions, Greek, 65. 
Charles V. and the Knights of St. John, 

292. 
Chatteline, M., in Algiers, 320. 
Chelfaines, country of the, supposed 

earthly paradise, 175, 179. 
Cheops, and the Pyramids, 276. 
Chichester, Lord, 372. 
Christian kings of Jerusalem, 217. 
Churchmen, Turkish, 139. 
Clyde, source of the, 430. 
Clydesdale, the paradise of Scotland, 

43°- 

Coffee drinking in Constantinople, 136. 

Constantine the Great, founder of 
Constantinople, 118, 119, 120. 

Constantinople, Christian slaves fled 
from, 113; splendour of, 116; com- 
ments upon, 1 1 8- 1 52; taken by the 
Turks under Mohammed II., 119, 
120; church of St. Sophia at, 121, 
124; hippodrome at, 121; slave 
market, 122; fires at, 122; subject 
to pestilence and earthquake, 124; 
commerce of, 147. 

Copts, Egyptian Christians, 257, 272; 
religion of, 273. 

Coral, best, found in Sicily, 338. 

Cordova, Don Francesco di, captain of 
Malaga, 392; and the Inquisition, 399. 

Corfu, island of, comments upon, 52- 
55; inhabitants and governors of, 
53; fortresses of, 53; former names 
of, 54 ; products of, 54. 

Cosmographical Treatise of Europe by 
./Eneas Silvius, 61. 

Coventry, Sir Thomas, 424. 

Cracow, Scots merchants at, 367. 

Crete (Candia), Turkish island in the 
Mediterranean, comments upon, 70- 
83 ; its products, rivers, and ancient 
cities, 71 ; harvest time in, 81. 



Croatia, comments upon, 42, 43. 

Crocodile of the Nile, account of the 
killing of by a Venetian merchant, 
277. 

Croesus, King, 155. 

Crub (crib), description of Christ's, at 
Bethelem, 246. 

Currants, great trade in, with England, 
58. 

Cursola, island of, 49. 

Customs, Moorish, 324. 

Cyclades and Sporades, see Archi- 
pelago. 

Cypress trees of Mount Ida, 78. 

Cyprus, comments upon, 163-169; in- 
habitants of, 163, 165 ; products of, 

164 ; minerals found in, 165 ; climate, 

165 ; recolonisation of, 165 ; history 
of, 166 ; conquered by the Turks, 
167. 

Cyrene, comments upon, 287-289. 

Dacia, provinces of, 51. 

Dalmatia, comments upon, 44, 45 ; 
provinces of, 45. 

Damascus, Georgians' paradise, 174; 
pasha, or beglerbeg of, 181, 186; 
comments upon, 182-189; capital 
of Syria, 184 ; Turkish belief con- 
cerning, 184, 185 ; antiquity of, 185. 

Danser, Captain, Flemish pirate, and 
the Moors, 334, 335. 

Danzig, 369. 

David, King, ruins of the palace of, 
249. 

Dead Sea, 226, 227, 228 ; apple, 228. 

Dedalus, labyrinth of, in Crete, 7$. 

Delta of the Nile, 281, 284. 

Demetrius, King, birthplace of, 48. 

Desert, comments upon the, 259-264 ; 
Turkish castles in the, 258 ff. ; towns, 
261. 

Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, 310. 

Doctor, Jewish, at Cairo, 268. 

Dominicans in Jerusalem, 241. 

Don John of Austria and the battle of 
Lepanto, 59 ; death of, 60. 

Douglas, Matthew, at Messina, 348. 

Douglas, William, made a knight of 
Malta, 291 ; remains at Malta, 337. 

Drinks, Turkish, 136. 

Dromedary, 263. 

Dumbarton Castle compared to the 
fortress of Carabusa in Crete, 72. 



442 



INDEX 



Duncansbay Head, 436. 
Dungeon, Lithgow's, at Malaga, 396, 
398, 405. 

Eden, village of, on Mount Lebanon, 
173; Nestorians' paradise, 173; 
Garden of, 173, 174. 

Egypt, fruitfulness of, 273 ; comments 
upon, 275-283 ; kings of, 282, 283 ; 
a Turkish province, 283 ; revenues 
of, 284. 

Elizeus, Elisha, fountain of, 232. 

Emperors, Roman and Grecian, in the 
east and west, summary of, 142, 143. 

Ephesus, decayed, 156; temple of 
Diana at, 156. 

Epirus, comments upon, 51, 52 ; birth- 
place of King Pyrrhus, 51 ; rivers 
of, 52 ; Laerto, chief town of, 52. 

Epistle Dedicatory, the, to Charles I., 
xvii. 

Escurial, palace of, description of, 386 ; 
built by Philip II., 387. 

Etna, Mount, 342, 343 ; and mythology, 
344- 

Factors, English, at Malaga, 417. 

Ferdinand, Emperor of Austria, A.D. 
1616, 42. 

Ferdinand, Duke, of Florence, and the 
invasion of Scios, 93, 94 ; attempted 
conquest of Cyprus by, 167 ; sea- 
fight between, and Turks, 168. 

Fez, comments upon, 321, 325 ; city of, 
compared to Granada, 32 1 ; public 
buildings of, 322 ; dress of the people 
of, 322 ; seats of justice at, 323 ; 
Mohammedan colleges at, 323 ; 
divisions of, 323 ; mosques of, 323, 

324. 
Fez, Modell of the Great City of, 322. 
Fleet, English, at Malaga, 390, 391 ; 

Lithgowand, 391 ; intentions of the, 

393- 

Florence, patrimony of the Duke of, 
22. 

Flying fish, 288. 

Fountains, curious, in Crete, 79. 

France, comments upon, 297-301, 381, 
382. 

Franciscans in Jerusalem, 241. 

French and Spaniards, comparison be- 
tween, 346. 

Frenchmen, four, death of, 287. 



Friars of Candia, 83. 
Frigate, Moorish (slaver), 341. 
Fruits of Crete, 71, 77. 

Galetto, Turkish garrison at, 314. 

Galilee, 190. 

Galleys, French, at Puteoli, 352, 353 ; 

Neapolitan, 349. 
Gallipoli, castles of, 113; seaport of 

Turkey, 114. 
Galloway, commodities of, 428. 
Gaza, 257, 258. 
Geneva, Lake, 307. 
Germans, three, death of, in the desert, 

260, 261 ; three, death of, at Cairo, 

267 ; money left by, 267, 277. 
Germany, comments upon, 305. 
Gib, George, and the French galleys, 

353- 

Glover, Sir Thomas, and the death of 
the English consul at Patras, 60; 
British ambassador to Constanti- 
nople, 116; and the Duke of Mol- 
davia, 126 ; good deeds of, 126 ; 
short account of, 127 ; his kindness 
to Lithgow, 153 ; at Constantinople, 
365. 

Goatfell, in Arran, 428. 

Goodwill, the, of Harwich, 471. 

Gradisca, town in Austria, 360. 

Graham, Mr. George, and St. Magnus 
Cathedral, Kirkwall, 437. 

Graham, Simeon, Lithgow's cousin, 
355,360. 

Grahame, Alison, mother of William 
Lithgow, ix. 

Granada, and the Moors, 389 ; and 
Ferdinand and Isabella, 390 ; and 
Charles V., 390; Spanish cavalier 
of, and his Flemish servant at 
Malaga, 416. 

Grand Cairo, see Cairo. 

Grandison, Lord, 372. 

Great Turk, beglerbegs of, in Africa, 
332. 

Greece, comments upon, 60-69 5 de- 
spoiled by the Turks, 65 ; govern- 
ment of, 66 ; vicissitudes of, 104, 
105. 

Greek Church, patriarchs in the, 105. 

Greeks, first converted Christians of 
the Gentiles, 105 ; vagabond, 106. 

Grey Friars of Jerusalem, 209. 

Grotto di Cane, Lithgow in the, 353. 



443 



INDEX 



Hamilton, Marquis of, and Lithgow, 

427. 
Hannay, Patrick, panegyric verses of, 

XXV. 

Hannibal's war with Rome, 46. 

Hanspauch (Anspach), Marquesse of, 
and the death of the German pil- 
grims, 305. 

Hargrave, Thomas, English soldier in 
Canea, 

Harvests, Egyptian, 266. 

Hawkins,Sir Richard,and thegovernor 
of Malaga, 406 ; with his squadron 
at Malaga, 417 ; and Lithgow, 418. 

Hay, Monsieur, of Smithfleld, friend of 
Lithgow, 9. 

Hazier, a Turkish slave, 397, 398, 406 ; 
charity of, 413. 

Hebrides, 438. 

Helen, Saint, and the Holy Sepulchre, 
236 ; and the cross, 238. 

Hellespont, derivation of, 115. 

Hepburn, Captain George, at Naples, 
294. 

Hephestia, birthplace of Vulcan, 87. 

Heraclius and Mahomet, 135. 

Heragenes, or ^Ethiopian negroes, 326. 

Hercules, temple of, in Malta, 336. 

Hexamite, famous Grecian wall, 61. 

Hills, Jerusalem's four, 213. 

History of Crete, 71. 

Hoggeis, holy men, 135. 

Holy Land, 192 ; seaports of the, 205. 

Holy Sepulchre, at Jerusalem, 235 ; 
exaction of tribute from pilgrims 
to the, 235 ; description of, 236 ; 
decorations of the chapel, 237 ; form 
of the quire, 236, 237 ; religious 
families of the church of the, 239 ; 
ceremonies in connection with, 240 ; 
Knights of the Holy Grave, 242. 

Homer, sepulchre of, in Scios, 91. 

Hungarians, 362 ; character of, 363. 

Hungary, fight between Turks and 
Christians in, 46 ; comments upon, 
361-365 ; special towns of, 361 ; 
beglerbeg ships of, 362 ; fertility of, 
362, 363- 

Huns, Hungarians descendants of, 362. 

Huttonhall, young, friend of Lithgow, 
9- 

Idumea (Edom), comments upon, 257. 
Incubation in Tunis (a.d. 1616), 334. 



India, nearer passage to, Eastern 
monarchs and the, 263. 

Inquisition, Spanish, 407 ff. ; condem- 
nation to death by the, 413. 

Inquisitor of Malaga, Lithgow and the, 
407, 408, 409 ; fury of the, 410. 

Ireland, comments upon, 372-3S1 ; 
provinces of, 373 ; people of, 374 ; 
conditions in (1620), 374 ; religion 
in > 375 J gentry of, 375 ; abuses in, 
376 ; husbandry in (1620), 377. 

Ischia, island of, 350. 

Israel, burial place of the kings and 
queens of, 244. 

I stria, comments upon, 40, 41 ; mar- 
graviate of Austria, 360. 

Istrians, antiquity of the, 41. 

Italy, comments upon, 10-39, 295, 296, 
309-312 ; derivation of name of, 19 ; 
founders of, 19 ; four papal terri- 
tories of, 21 ; soil of, 23 ; women of, 

23. 
Ithaca, ancient name of Cephalonia, 56. 

Jadileke, fortress or prison in Constan- 
tinople, 122. 

James VI., King, his foure Crownes, 
252 ; and the Holy Sepulchre at 
Jerusalem, 253 ; letters and patents 
of, to Lithgow, examined at Malaga, 
394; death of (1625), 424. 

Jericho, 231 ; house of Zacheus at, 231. 

Jerome, abbey of, 234. 

Jerusalem, sighted, 208 ; comments 
upon, 208-255; gates of, 210; an- 
tiquity of, 212 ; walls of, 213 : over- 
throw of, 214; government (a.d. 
1612), 214, 215; garrison at, 215; 
Christian kings of, 217 ; Turks, 
rulers of, 217 ; places of biblical 
interest in and round, 220, 221, 243, 
244 ff. ; arms of, 252, 253. 

Jerusalem, Model of the Great Seale 
of the Guardians of the Holy Grave 
at, 254. 

Jesuits, Scottish, in Rome, 18 ; in Jeru- 
salem, 241 ; of Malaga, and Lith- 
gow, 407, 410, 411, 412. 

Jewish kings, 216. 

Jewry, dukes of, 216. 

Jews, in Venice, 36 ; comparison be- 
tween and Jesuits, 39 ; in Turkey, 
148 ; origin of the, 191 ; bondage of, 
192 ; dispersion of the, 215. 



444 



INDEX 



Joab, Christian guide, treachery of, 

196, 197. 
Joppa, tribute exacted at, from pilgrims 

to Jerusalem, 207. 
Jordan, pilgrimage to, 225 ; river, 190 ; 

river, and the Dead Sea, 227 ; source 

of the, 229. 
Josephus, on the fall of Jerusalem, 214. 
Joshua, tomb of, on Mount Lebanon, 

172. 
Judea, mountain of, 246. 
Judgment, a favourable Turkish, 268. 
Juno, worship of, by the Maltese, 336. 
Justinopoli, ruins of, 41. 

Kingdoms of Greece mentioned, 52. 

Kings, Moorish, 324. 

Kirkwall, St. Magnus Cathedral at, 

437- 
Knights of St. John, of Malta, of 

Rhodes, 1 59 ; formal oath of Knights 

of Malta, 336. 
Knights of the Holy Grave, 242. 
Knox, John, and the abbeys and 

monasteries of Scotland, 433. 

Lacedaemon, see Sparta. 

Lanark, birthplace of William Lith- 
gow, ix. 431 ; churchyard of St. Ken- 
tigern at, xii. ; ancient city of, 72 ; 
paradise of Scotland, 430. 

Lanark Grammar School, William 
Lithgow educated at, ix. 

Lango, island of, 88, 89 ; birthplace of 
Hippocrates and Appelles, 157. 

Largastolo, Christian gallies assemble 

at(i570, 56. 

Latin, spoken in Hungary, 364. 

Lebanon, cedars of, 170, 171 ; com- 
ments upon Mount, 171 ; prince of, 
171. 

Lepanto, battle of, 46, 47 ; description 
of battle of, 59. 

Lesbos, island of, or Mytilene, 94 ; 
Sarcam, Turkish name for, 98 ; com- 
ments upon, 94-102. 

Lesina, island of, in the Adriatic, 47. 

Letters, Egyptians and, 273. 

Letters and patents granted to Lith- 
gow, 372 ; loss of, at Malaga, 418. 

Ley, Alexander, Scotchman in Malaga, 
407. 

Library of the ancient Romans, 15. 



Libyan Desert, comments upon, 327- 
332 ; wild beasts of the, 328. 

Lithgow, James, father of William 
Lithgow, ix. 

Lithgow, William, author and traveller, 
account of, ix.-xiii. ; William Lith- 
gow, Poetical Remains of, Edin- 
burgh, 1863, xii.; works of, xii.,xiii.; 
prologue of, to the reader, xxi.; the 
author to his book, xxxi.; portrait of, 
frontispiece, no; in his Turkish 
dress, 128; in the Libyan Desert, 
328 ; beset with six murderers, 364 ; 
in irons in the governour's palace, 
396 ; in the racke at Malaga, 402. 

Lithgow's Survey of Scotland, 427, 
438. 

Lombardy, garden of the world, 22, 
38. 

4 London, The present Surveigh of, 
and Englands State,' by William 
Lithgow. London, 1643, xii. 

London and Paris compared (1609), 9. 

Loretto, Madonna di, illusions con- 
cerning, 24 ; pilgrimages to, 24 ; 
opinions of Papists concerning, 27 ; 
chapel of, Armenians and, 194. 

Lyndesay, Walter, panegyric verses of, 
xxvi. 

Lyon, the, flagship of the English fleet 
at Malaga, 

Maccabean princes, 217. 

Macedonia, comments upon, 104-108. 

Madrid, 387. 

Mahomet, birth and early life, 130; 
later life, 131 ; tomb of, 133 ; the 
Great, Otranto taken by, Anno 1481, 
21. 

Maidment, Dr. James, and the ' Poeti- 
cal Remains of William Lithgow,' 
xii. 

Malaga, Mr. Woodson and Lithgow 
at, 390 ; English fleet in the harbour 
of, 39o, 391 5 English factors at, 394 ; 
417 ; imprisonment of Lithgow at, 
395 ff. 

Malta, comments upon, 290-293, 336, 
337 ; castles of, 291 ; products of, 

291 ; and the Knights of St. John, 

292 ; inhabitants and language, 292 ; 
slaves in, 293. 

Mamalukes, or Mamelukes, sultans of 
Egypt, 283. 



445 



INDEX 



Mansell, Sir Robert, Admiral of the 

English fleet at Malaga (1620), 391 ; 

and Lithgovv, 417 ; and the sufferings 

of Lithgow, 424. 
Mansfield, Count, army of, in Austria, 

360. 
Mariana, attendant, in the dungeon at 

Malaga, 405. 
Market place of Damascus, 185. 
Matthew \ the, of London, 3 1 3. 
Maxwell, Sir James, 424. 
Mecca, 133; pilgrimages to, 135. 
Mediterranean, queens of the, 166. 
Menelaus, king of Sparta, 68. 
Mermaid, the, of Amsterdam, 334. 
Mesopotamia, comments upon, 179; 

fruitfulness of, 179. 
Messina, Christian galleys at, 347. 
Miles, Hungarian, 363. 
Minerals found in Cyprus, 165. 
Minos, King, cave of, near Mount Ida, 

78. 
Miracle, account of a, 384, 385. 
Miracles, Our Lady of, see Loretto. 
Moldavia, Duke of, and Sir Thomas 

Glover, 126 ; northern division of 

Roumania, 365, 366. 
Monster, description of a, 47, 48. 
Montpellier, in Languedoc, a French- 
man of, in the Venetian galleys at 

Canea, 74 ; his escape, aided by 

Lithgow, 75, 76. 
Moorish brigantine (slaver), 293, 294. 
Moors, travellers attacked by, 208 ; 

Egyptian, 273. 
Morea or Peloponnesus, southern 

peninsula of Greece, description of 

the, 61. 
Morocco, kings of, and men of science, 

324. 

Mount Ida, 77, 78, 79. 

Mouslee, strange tree, 174. 

Mufti (chief priest), or caliph, Moham- 
medan sovereign and head of the 
Mohammedan religion, title now 
assumed by the Sultan of Turkey, 
129. 

Mummies, caves of the, at Cairo, 274. 

Murray, John, panegyric verses of, 
xxviii. 

Mussulman, Mahommedan, 184. 



Naples, commendation of, 19 ; king- 
dom of, 20 : chief cities, 20 ; com- 



ments upon, 350-353 ; Lithgow in 
the Grotto di Cane, 353. 

Navarre, kingdom of, 384. 

Nazareth, 194. 

Negro, Indian, kindness of, to Lith- 
gow, 414. 

Negropont, island of, comments upon, 
102, 103. 

Nestorians, 172 ; paradise of the, 173. 

Nestorius, heresy of, 154. 

Netherlands, comments upon the, 303 ; 
Spaniards in the, 303. 

Newcastle, An Experimental and 
Exact Relatio?i upon that famous 
and renowned Siege of, by William 
Lithgow. Edinburgh, 1645, xii. 

Nicalide, in Achaia, birthplace of 
Aristotle, 108. 

Nicaria, island of, 87. 

Nile, artificial channels of the, 266, 
280 ; irrigation of Egypt by the, 273, 
278-281 ; names of the, 281 ; its 
delta, 281 ; Rhone compared to the, 
282. 

Oils of Candia, 166. 

Okes, J., printer, London, xii. 

Olive trees of Crete, 77. 

Olivet, Mount, and its places of in- 
terest, 251, 252. 

Olympian Games, instituted by Her- 
cules, 104. 

Orange, Prince of, and war with Spain 
in the Netherlands, 303. 

Oranges and lemons of Scios, 91 ; 
fruits of Scios, 92. 

Orkney and Shetland Islands, voyages 
to, 9 ; compared to the Sporades, 95 ; 
fertility of, 95. 

Osero, island of, 43. 

Ostia, Mediterranean port, 13. 

Ovid, quotation from, 87. 

Padua, description of, 38. 
Palestine, comments upon, 193-207. 
Papists, superstition of, 17. 
Parenzo, port of, 40 ; city of, 41. 
Parliament, Lithgow's bill of grievance 

to, 424, 425. 
Parnassus, chief seat of the Muses, 106. 
Patent, of Jerusalem, 254, 296. 
Patents, Lithgow's, and the Inquisition 

at Malaga, 331. 



446 



INDEX 



Patmos, island of, Saint John in the, 86. 

Patriarchal sees, cities of the, 286. 

Pau, province of, 383. 

Pausanius, supposed founder of Byzan- 
tium, 118, 119. 

Pennington, Captain, and the confisca- 
tion of his ship by the French, 353. 

Pentland Firth, tides of the, 436; 
dangers of, 437. 

Pera, suburb of Constantinople, 125. 

Peredas, Don Jasper Ruiz de, governor 
of Malaga (1620), 391 ; traitorous 
dealings of, 392 ; and a tyrannical 
oath, 393 ; in Lithgow's prison, 397 ; 
and the Inquisition, 399. 

Pergamus, parchment first made at, 

« l65 - 

Persians and Turks compared, 151. 

Peterasso (Patras), Turkish armada at, 
56 ; description of the city of, 60 ; 
English consul poisoned at, 60. 

Pharsalia, battle of, in Arcadia, 62. 

Piedmont and Genoese jurisdictions, 
23- 

Pigeon post between Aleppo and 
Babylon, 181. 

Pilgrims' dinner at Rome, 13, 14. 

Pinder, Sir Paul, succeeds Sir Thomas 
Glover as ambassador at Constanti- 
nople, 126 ; kindness of, to Lithgow, 

.153- 
Pindus, Mount, $2. 
Pirates, Lithgow's vessel pursued by, 

54, 55, 56 ; Lithgow wounded by, 56 ; 

Turkish, danger from, 89, 99. 
Poets, Moorish, prince of, 325. 
Pola, poisonous exhalations from lake 

near, 41. 
Poland, comments upon, 367-369 ; 

people of, 368 ; soil of, 368. 
Pompey's Pillar, 125. 
Portugal, 386. 
Pottaro, or rack, instrument of torture, 

400 ; description of, 403. 
Potters' field at Jerusalem, 249. 
Prester, John, tribute paid by the 

Great Turk to, 281. 
Puteoli, ancient monuments of, 350, 

351, 352; dogs' cave near, 354. 
Pyramids, 274-277. 

Quaranto, mountain of, where Christ 
fasted forty days, 232 ; danger in 
descending, 233. 



Rack, see Pottaro. 

Ragusa, republic of, 49; islands be- 
longing to, 49; description of, 49, 

50 ; trade with Genoa, 50. 
Ramadan, or Beiram, Turkish lent, 

141. 
Ravenna, 360. 
Red Sea, 264. 

Rhama, inhabitants of, 207. 
Rhodes, island of, comments upon, 

r 58, 159; Colossus at, 159; Knights 

of Malta and, 1 59 ; conquest of, by 

Soliman, 160; chief cities of, 161. 
Rhone, river, compared to the Nile, 

307. 
Rivers of Hell, 52. 
Robbers, savage Arabian, tyranny of, 

from the Red Sea to Babylon, 186. 
Robertson, Eleazar, commendation of 

Lithgow by, xxix. 
Rollocke, James, secretary to Sir 

Thomas Glover at Constantinople, 

125. 
Roman antiquities, 14 f. 
Rome, antiquity of, 10; Seven Hills 

of, 11; Lithgow's escape from, 18; 

comments upon, 355-359. 
Royal Exchange ', the, of London, 169. 
Rubicon, river of Italy, 33. 

St. Angelo, Mount, in Apulia, 46. 

St. Catherine of Siena, observation of, 

12. 
St. Francis of Asisi, 21. 
St. Kentigern, churchyard of, at 

Lanark, xii. 
St. Maure, island of, 54. 
St. Peter's at Rome, 16. 
St. Salvator, monastery of, in Canea, 

75- 
Sabunks, or Sabuncks, Libyan desert 

tribe, 330. 
Salonica, situation of, 103; Jews of, 

103, 104. 
Samaria, 200 ; Jacob's Well at, 204. 
Samson's Pillar, 199. 
Samuel, tomb of, 243. 
Sancto Salvatore, Church of the Holy 

Sepulchre at Jerusalem, 235. 
Saracens, 133; descendants of Esau, 

144; and the Turks, 143; and the 

Knights of St. John, 159. 
Sardis, in Lydia, residence of King 

Crcesus, 155. 



447 



INDEX 



Savoy, Dukes of, and Cyprus, 166; 
Dukes of, 307 ; Turin, residence of, 
307 ; wars of, 308. 

Saybantus, Gaudentius, Father Guar- 
dian of the Grey Friars at Jerusalem, 

253- 
Scanderbeg, see Castriot, Captain 

George. 
Scios, comments upon, 91 ; under 

Turkish rule, 92; products of, 92; 

monasteries at, 92 ; women of, 92 ; 

fortress of, 93; Turkish Pasha of, 

and Duke Ferdinand, 93, 94. 
Scoks, Dalmatians, 42 ; and the Turks, 

42 ; and the Venetians, 42. 
Scotland, false aspersions upon, 96; 

comments upon, 427-439 ; length of, 

429; lakes or lochs of, 429; chief 

rivers and towns of, 430 ; nobility of, 

430, 432 ; chief commodities of, 432. 
Scots families in Poland, 368. 
Seal, Great, Discourse of, see Patent. 
Sehan, commerce of, 261. 
Sergius, Nestorian monk, and Ma- 
homet, 131. 
Serigo, island of, famous for its marble, 

68. 
Serpentine stone, found in Negropont, 

103. 
Sestos, fortress on the Hellespont 

(Turkey), opposite Abydos, 112. 
Shamma (Damascus), 184, 185. 
Shetland, islands of, 438. 
Shipwreck, account of a, 89 ; a happy 

deliverance, 90. 
Sicilians as orators, 339. 
Sicily, early names of, 337 ; fertility 

°f» 337 > wines and wheat of, 338 ; 

ancient divisions of, 338 ; parliament 

°f> 339 ! general council of, 339 ; 

crown-rent of, 339 ; language of, 340 ; 

chief cities of, 344 ; women of, 346 ; 

famous scholars of, 347. 
Sidon, 198; English factor at, 199. 
Sidonians, or Drusians, origin of, 172. 
Sigismund, king of Poland, 367. 
Sinclair, Sir William, of Catboll, 433 ; 

lines to, 434-436. 
Slavonia, comments upon, 46-50; 

former names of, 50. 
Slavonians, characteristics of, 50. 
Smith, John, English soldier in Canea, 

75 ; and Lithgow, 82, 83. 
Smiths, Moorish, 331. 



Smyrna, 155, 156. 

Sodom, lake of, see Dead Sea. 

Sofia, 114. 

Soliman the Magnificent and the Jews 

of Salonica, 104 ; conquest of Rhodes 

by, 159, 160; and the Knights of St. 

John, 292. 
Solomon, temple of, at Jerusalem, 223. 
Solomon's fish-ponds, 247. 
Sona, Duke of, and the banditr. of 

Sicily, 340. 
Spain, comments upon, 385-399; travel- 
ling in, 387. 
Spaniards, pedigree of, 388 ; their 

captivity under the Moors, 388; 

manners and virtues of, 388, 389; 

and arts and sciences, 389; Lith- 

gow's tortures by the, of Malaga, 

398 ff. 
Sparta, or Lacedaemon, ancient capital 

of Laconia, ruins of, 63. 
Sphinx, 277. 

Spices, of India and Arabia, 264. 
Starhulds, Baron, 365. 
Stromboli, island of, 349. 
StydolfTe, Mr., Englishman, at Messina, 

347- 
Suda, harbour of, or Suda Bay, 76; 

valley of, 76, 77. 
Suez Canal, 263. 

Sur, Moorish name for Tyre, 198. 
Survey of Scotland, Lithgow's, 427,438. 
Switzerland, comments upon, 305-307; 

cantons of, 305. 
Syra, comments upon, 89. 
Syracuse, 344. 

Syria, comments upon, 176, 177. 
Syrians, biblical Aramites, 181. 

Tarsus, birthplace of St. Paul, 162. 
Tartars, characteristics of the, 366; 

see Turks. 
Tartary, boundaries of, 366; Cham, or 

Emperor of, 366. 
Tenedos, island of, comments upon, 

108, 109 ; French merchants at, 109. 
Thebes, former capital of Upper 

Egypt, ruins of, 107. 
Thessaly, 104. 
Thrace, chief cities of, 115. 
Tiber, river, 11, 12; compared to the 

Jordan, 229. 
Timariots, 149, 186, 332, 362. 
Timars, 148, 149. 



448 



INDEX 



Tobacco pipes, Turkish, 183. 

Toledo, 389. 

Tophet, 250. 

Torne, Count of, in Cracow, 367. 

Torture, different forms of, used by the 
Inquisition, 401 rT. 

Tortures, Lithgow's comments upon 
his, 417-425. 

Totall Discourse, by William Lithgow, 
x., xi., xii., xiii. ; facsimile of title- 
page of 1632 edition, xvii. 

Transylvania, province of Hungary, 
364, 365 ; religion of, 365. 

Trapundy, salt trade of, 345 ; coral 
trade of, 345. 

Tremizen, or Telensim, kingdom of, in 
Barbary, 316. 

Tribes, desert, 327, 330. 

Tribute, exaction of, by wandering 
Arabs, 201, 202 ; from pilgrims to 
the Holy Sepulchre, 235. 

Tripoli, seaport of Syria, 169; com- 
merce of, 170. 

Trohodos, Mount, in Cyprus, 165. 

Trojans, tombs of the, 109. 

Tunis, capital of that territory, 313; 
kingdom of, 314; provinces of, 314; 
comments upon, 313-315. 

Turcomani, 176. 

Turin, residence of the Duke of Savoy, 

23- 

Turk, Great, 139, 151; power of, 145; 
revenues of, 147 ; beglerbegs or 
bassas of, in Europe, 362. 

Turkey, religious customs and cere- 
monies in, 127, 128; sabbaths in, 
127. 

Turkish, prayers, times of, 127; 
characteristics, 136, 147 ; justice, 
137; marriages, 138; paradise, 140, 
141 ; opinions of hell, 142; language, 
145 ; belief in predestination, 146 ; 
dress, 146; customs, 146; armies, 
150; customs, 183. 

Turks, injustice and cruelty of, 168; 
their seamanship, 169; Scythia and 
the, 143; description of, 144, 145; 
descendants of the Scythians, or 
Tartars, 145. 



Turpentine tree, 230, 248. 
Tyrants, Sicilian, 345. 
Tyre, city of ancient Phoenicia, 198; 
harbour of, 198 ; ruins of, 198. 

Vanguard, the, one of the British 

squadron at Malaga, 417. 
Venetians, character and supposed 

descent of, 35, 36. 
Venice, 33; St. Mark's Pillar at, 33; 

chief ordinary or inn at, 34 ; situation 

and common- wealth of, 35 ; Jews in, 

36; description of, 37; Mr. Arthur's 

farewell from, 37. 
Verny, Sir Francis, death of, at 

Messina, 348. 
Viccario, Laurenzo Antonia il, Grey 

Friar at Jerusalem, 253. 
Vienna, comments upon, 360, 361. 
Virgil, monument of, 19. 
Virgin Mary, attributes of the, 31. 

Ward, Captain, English pirate at 

Tunis, 315. 
Watch towers (beacons) of the Medi 

terranean, 342. 
Wedderburne, Dr. John, at Padua, 38. 
Wheat of Sicily, 338. 
Wilds, M., English consul at Malaga, 

417. 
Wine of Candia, 166; of Cyprus, 163; 

of Sicily, 338; of Crete, 71. 
Wolson, an English renegade, and 

Lithgow, 81. 
Women, Egyptian, 272. 
Wood, Mr., Scotsman at Messina, 347. 
Woodson, Mr., London merchant, 390. 
Writing, first ancient, 15. 
Wylie, William, native of Edinburgh, 

Xerxes' bridge of boats, 114. 

Zante, comments upon, 57, 58, 59; 

products of, 58; trade of, with the 

Peloponnesus; trade of, in currants, 

with England, 58. 
Zara, chief city of Dalmatia, 43, 44; 

Duke of Venice signior of, 44. 




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