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Full text of "Touching incidents in the life and labors of a pioneer on the Pacific coast since 1853"

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TOUCHING INCIDENTS 



IN THE LIFE AND LABORS 



OF A PIONEER 



ON THE 



PACIFIC COAST SINCE 



1853 



EATON a CO.. PRINTERS 
SAN JOSE. CAL.. 1911 



5! 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. History and Biography 13 

II. Duty and Destiny 22 

III. Talk to San Jose Grange 28 

IV. How a Grizzly Looks Twenty Feet Behind You 36 
V. How I Lost and Found My Money 39 

VI. Apostrophe to the Flag 44 

VII. The Work of the Pioneer 46 

VIII. The Provisional Government 51 

IX. Historical Error of Sir George Seymour 70 

X. The Raising of First American Flag in 

Santa Clara County 75 

XL Memorial Poem Recited at Vernon, N. Y 83 

XII. The Ascent of Mt. Hood 97 

XIII. Fourth of July Oration at Santa Rosa 106 

XIV. That Other Bear, and How I Escaped 118 

XV. The Light and Guide of Humanity 122 

XVI. My First Acquaintance with the Klamath 

Indians 124 

XVII. Elected Chief of the Klamath Indians 132 

XVIII. On Visiting the Old Homestead 138 



CHAPTER PAGi: 

XIX. A New Enterprise 140 

XX. First View of the Potomac River 149 

XXI. Some of the Perils of Pioneer Days 151 

XXII. Returning Home from the East 155 

XXIII. Composed on Our Golden Wedding Day 156 

XXIV. On the Opening of the Rebellion 157 

XXV. What Constitutes a State 159 

XXVI. How I Destroyed the Des Chutes Ferry i6o 

XXVII. Lincoln 170 

XXVIII. Political Equality 174 

XXIX. Classification 181 

XXX. Verse 184 

XXXI. Maxims 180 



PREFATORY NOTE 



T^HIS little volume had its conception in a strong and pre- 
vailing desire manifested amongst the early settlers on the 
Pacific Coast to learn something of each others past experience, 
and also at the same time, to study the character and capacity 
of the physical, social and intellectual materials that was fast 
aggregating into a new community for a new work and a new 
order. If the knowledge and inspiration derived from this source 
shall aid in any measure in promoting the cause of truth and the 
pleasures of human fellowship, we shall feel ourselves amply 

compensated for our time and toil. 

The: Author. 



CHAPTER I. 
History and Biography. 

p EV. JOSEPH WILKINSON HINES, the subject of this 
*" biographical sketch, is at the present writing (1904) the 
president of the Santa Clara County Society of California Pio- 
neers, a member of the board of trustees of the University of the 
Pacific and also actively identified with several other local asso- 
ciations designed to promote the various material, social and in- 
tellectual interests of the State for whose expansion and up- 
building he has, in various relations, spent the prime and strength 
of his manhood. From the time his feet first pressed the soil 
of California, nearly half a century ago, until now, when his 
brow wears the silver crown of nearly four score years, his hand 
has never wearied and his heart has never faltered in honorable 
and intelligent effort to make his adopted state what it confess- 
edly is at the present time — one of the grandest and most prom- 
ising commonwealths in the great American Union. Independent 
but not obtrusive, zealous but not impulsive, possessed of a won- 
derful versatility, his mental habitudes were well adapted to the 
varied and pressing demands of a new and rapidly growing 
community, where ideals for future guidance were to be created, 
and various uplifting and progressive agencies were to be em- 
ployed and fitted to the demands and exigencies of a rapidly 
shifting and varying scene. A mind thus endowed could scarce- 
ly be expected to remain indifferent to any phase of society that 



14 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

might, in the process of social development, present -itself for con- 
sideration by the people. 

Mr. Hines, therefore, in common with many others at that 
early day in our history, lost no time in fearlessly grappling with 
all questions of interest as they successively presented them- 
selves. His genius for planning and pushing forward all en- 
terprises calculated to improve the conditions and prospects of 
society in all its essential needs was truly wonderful. No com- 
munity that ever enjoyed the benefits of this counsel and laboi 
but could show in many directions substantial evidences of his 
public-spirited efforts in its behalf. His consciousness of per- 
sonal honesty and integrity would never allow him to apologize 
for appearing in the foremost ranks of progress and reform, or 
to participate in eft'orts to compromise with wrongdoing in order 
to gain some personal advantage by the sacrifice of the public 
good. His mind was never groping in the dark alleys of agnos- 
tic uncertainty or striving to feel its dubious way in the twilight 
uncertainties of questionable expediency. With a positiveness 
sometimes bordering upon obstinacy he always stood 
"Firm as an iron pillar strong, 
And steadfast as a wall of brass." 

Like all men of advanced views, with positive and aggres- 
sive feelings and purposes, he was compelled at times to wait 
with patience for the day of vindication; but that day was sure 
to come, responsive to the demands of a faith that would never 
falter and a spiritual instinct that cheerfully allied itself with 
the omnipotent energies of eternal truth. 

Mr. Hines, in common with a host of others of similar traits 
of character, was privileged to live during one of the most trying 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1 853 1 5 

eras in the history of the Pacific coast. And we are assured that 
to their wise and determined efforts the people of the present day 
are greatly indebted for the prosperous and enviable condition 
of its material, social and religious interests. But very few of 
those heroic men who faced the fearful crisis of i860- 1865 and 
-saved human freedom for ourselves and for the world are with 
us today. Nearly all are now dwelling in that "city not made 
with hands, eternal in the heavens." 

The subject of this sketch took a prominent part in organ- 
izing the Republican party, which at that time was the only re- 
liable force that could be depended upon to turn back the rapidly 
rising tide of secession in California. He was a delegate to the 
first general convention of that party in the State, served on the 
committee on platform, of which he was the chief author, and 
labored with unflagging industry and devotion in carrying the 
state for Lincoln and Stanford. This political victory saved the 
Pacific Coast from becoming plunged into the dark, yawning 
gulf of rebellion, and drew the eyes of the nation to her unriv- 
aled importance as a member of the American Union. 

When our national authorities wisely decided not to call 
for recruits for the Union army from California he took an active 
part in raising the seventeen thousand volunteers who so brave- 
ly and effectually guarded our extended frontier, which then 
reached from Puget Sound to the borders of Texas. It was those 
noble men who headed off the expedition from the South who 
were expected to form a junction with a band of conspirators 
from California and together sweep the whole coast into the 
Southern confederacy. Then Maximilian would have had an 
empire on the Pacific, and Jeff Davis another on the Atlantic, 



1 6 life: and labors of a pioneer 

and the sun of religious and civil liberty would have set forever. 
Men of today, will you remember the men who trod the burning 
sands of the desert and scaled the rocky summits of the moun- 
tains that you and your children might have a country to love 
and defend, and a brightening hope to cheer the generations yet 
unborn ? 

At the opening of our Civil War Mr. Hines received com- 
missions from the proper authorities in the east to act as agent 
of both the sanitary and Christian associations on the Pacmi 
Coast. He at once entered upon his work with his accustomed 
zeal and devotion. His entire time, together with all his surplus 
income, were freely given to the cause of the country; and his 
success in raising money and other supplies for the army was 
such as to call forth an autograph letter from General Grant, 
which he now has in his possession and which is kept as an heir- 
loom valued beyond all price. The special incident which called 
forth this letter from the general may be stated in the following 
words : The ladies of Humboldt county, where Mr. Hines and 
family then resided, and where Grant, when but a captain in the 
United States army, had once been stationed, conceived the idea 
of sending a unique memorial present to Mrs. Grant. In order 
to do this, and at the same time raise funds for the Christian 
commission, they made a quilt composed of thirty-six separate 
and distinct Union flags, with the coat of arms of the United 
States wrought on a field of blue as a centerpiece, and the coat 
of arms of each state on a blue field for each separate banner. 
These thirty-six flags represented the number of states then in 
the Union, while eight silver spangles on the border stood for 
the number of the territories then existing. The material of 



ON THi: PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 \J 

which this quilt was composed was beautiful colored silk, and 
the stars, numbering about six hundred, and the coat of arms, 
both of the United States, and of each separate state, were of 
floss silk, and all wrought by hand, nearly all by Mrs. Hines, she 
being especially skillful in the use of the needle. When this 
unique gift was completed (but very few people having been 
left into the secret) almost the entire population for miles around 
came together to witness the unveiling. It was given out that 
each banner would be sold separately and only those coming 
from the state the banner represented could vote upon it. The 
central field, representing the United States, was to be bid for 
promiscuously, without regard to state lines or nationality. The 
interest in the affair was most intense and at the close it was 
found that the sum of $2,400 had been raised for the cause of 
the Union. The quilt was then sent to Mrs. Grant, and in re- 
sponse the general returned the short but beautiful autograph 
letter now in the possession of Mr. Hines. When General Grant 
and his wife made the circuit of the world they visited San Jose 
and she stated to Mrs. Hines that she cherished that beautiful 
quilt, made by the ladies of Humboldt, as one of her most val- 
ued treasures. 

Space will not permit of an extended recital of the thrilling 
adventures and hairbreadth escapes through which Mr. Hines 
passed in his travels over the coast during its pioneer history. 
They would fill a volume, and if told in his graphic and earnest 
style would be deeply interesting and instructive to future gener- 
ations. His travels in the earlier days frequently took him 
among the Indians tribes of Oregon and northern California, and 
into association with the rough element of our frontier settle- 



1 8 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

ments ; but such was his tact and quiet, fearless demeanor that 
he never failed to command, and never lost the confidence and 
respect of both the good and the bad with whom he came in con- 
tact. He never carried about his person any deadly weapons 
and never displayed any doubts or fears ; and even the wildest 
Indians seemed so attracted and pleased by his cordial, unsus- 
picious conduct that they were at once disarmed of all feeling 
of hostility. 

When the Civil war closed with the signal triumph of the 
Union cause Mr. Hines, with the same broad patriotic feeling 
that had characterized his conduct during its continuance, bent all 
his energies to bringing about those feelings of mutual sympa- 
thy and respect between the north and the south, without which 
he felt that no permanent union or prosperity could be expected 
for the country. He fully endorsed the sentiment expressed by 
General Grant at the surrender of Lee, 'Xet us have peace," and 
he labored to that end with constant and intelligent devotion. 

Having been elected as superintendent of public instruction 
for one of our most populous counties, Mr. Hines found himself 
associated with many of the leading educators of the state in re- 
vising our common school system and bringing it more in har- 
mony with the advanced ideas of the eastern states. This work 
was accomplished in such a thorough and satisfactory manner 
that California stands today without a superior in all the states 
of the Union for the perfection and practical operation of its 
common school system. He served also for about two years as 
agent of the University of the Pacific. His success in that po- 
sition was so signal and timely that the board of trustees passed 
a vote of thanks, in which they ascribed the success of its finan- 



ON THK PACII?IC COAST SINCE 1853 I9 

cial affairs largely due to his devoted and determined effort. In 
more than one pressing emergency he bravely met the demands 
of the crisis and caused the somber clouds of doubt and uncer- 
tainty to give place to the sunlight of hope and assurance. 

Mr. Hines possesses a decided literary taste, and has always 
managed, notwithstanding the pressing duties incident to a new 
and growing state, to keep in touch with the literary and scien- 
tific progress of the age. As editor of the first labor paper pub- 
lished on the Pacific Coast his editorial writings attracted the at- 
tention of the secular press throughout the country, and were 
universally regarded as masterly expositions of social and econ- 
omic science. His contributions to other periodicals, both relig- 
ious and secular, were numerous and able, and read by the people 
in general with decided interest and profit. As a ready enter- 
taining speaker he was everywhere listened to with decided ap- 
preciation. He possessed in a wonderful degree the power of 
concentration, one very competent judge having once declared 
that "he could say more in five minutes than any other man he 
ever heard." As an after-dinner speaker he had but few super- 
iors. 

By referring to the ancestry of Joseph Wilkinson Hines, we 
find that he was the tenth child of James and Betsey (Round) 
Hines, the latter a daughter of Bertram and Alice (Wilkinson) 
Round. Bertram Round was the son of James and Susannah 
(Seamen) Round, and was born in Rehoboth, Mass., Decembei- 
II, 1741. James Round was born in Rehoboth, Mass., July 19, 
1722, and was the son of George and Susanna Round. George 
Round was the son of John and Elizabeth Round. John Round's 
will is recorded in the town records as made October 16, 1716. 



20 LIFE AND LABORS O^ A PIONEER 

This John Round was the boy saved from the Indian massacre 
of Swansea in 1675. It is probable his parents were then killed. 
James Round and his son Bertram, who was grandfather to 
Mr. Hines, emigrated from Swansea to Rhode Island, and thence 
to Richfield, N. Y., in 1793, where he died October i, 1835, leav- 
ing two hundred and thirty-six descendants ; one of whom, 
Stephen Hopkins of Rhode Island, was a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. The Round family was of pure English 
descent. Alice Wilkinson, wife of Bertram Round and grand- 
mother of Mr. Hines, was the daughter of Joseph and Martha 
(Bray) Wilkinson, great-granddaughter of Samuel and Plain 
(Wickenden) Wilkinson and great-great-granddaughter of 
Lawrence and Susanna (Smith) Wilkinson. 

Lawrence Wilkinson came to Providence, R. I., in 1645. His 
ancestry is given in a book entitled "Americans of Royal De- 
scent," page 287-289, and shows him to have been the fifteenth 
from King Edward I of England, and also that he was descended 
from the royal house of both France and Spain. The Wilkinson 
genealogy is given fully in a volume published in 1869, by Rev. 
Israel Wilkinson of Illinois. 

Mr. Hines was married August 30, 1847, to Miss Elizabeth 
Meridith, of Steuben, Oneida county, N. Y. Her parents were 
both natives of Wales, but were brought to this country when 
children, .and were reared in full sympathy with American life 
and institutions. Eight children, four sons and four daughters, 
were born to Mr. and Mrs. Hines. Three of these, one son and 
two daughters, died in early life, while three sons and two daugh- 
ters now live within easy access of the paternal home. 

We have here attempted to give a few incidents in the long, 



ON the: pacii^ic coast sinck 1853 21 

eventful career of one who was ambitious only to live a true, 
manly life, devoted to the best good of universal humanity. His 
ideals of life were always found to harmonize with man's high- 
est needs and his purest and most earnest aspirations. Such men, 
though not always understood and appreciated while living, gen- 
erally have an influence that will unfold itself in the flowering 
beauties and ripening harvests of future generations. To lose 
such lives from the records of time is to obstruct in a positive 
degree the march of civilization and to foster the sinister impul- 
ses that will tend to gradual but fatal retrogression. So let us 
give the world the light that we now have, and when the sum- 
mons comes drop into the swelling current of the stream of time 
those noble influences that will make it a broader, deeper and a 
swifter river. Through these and their work, as the prophet has 
said, "Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir tree, and in- 
stead of the brier shall come up the myrtle tree, and it shall be 
to the Lord for a name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be 
cut off." 



22. life; and labors of a pioneer 



CHAPTER II. 
Duty and Destiny. 

' I 'HERE is no cruelty so great, so oppressive and so destruc- 
•^^ tive, as that which is exercised upon sentient and intelHgent 
beings when their hearts and lives are made the conscious recep- 
tacle of a legitimate want or desire, and no adequate and approp- 
riate means are furnished for their proper gratification. God, in 
the order of nature, leaves no such blot upon the universe He 
has made. As surely as the lily blooms in its loveliness, and the 
grass of the field clothes itself in emerald beauty, or the sparrow 
carols its song from the shady leaves, so surely has our wise and 
loving Father made rich and ample provision for all the wants 
of His unnumbered offspring. 

Wisely was it said by one of old, "Man shall not live by 
bread alone." This saying invests humanity with a worth and 
dignity far above all inanimate or purely animal creations. It 
lifts him at once out of the narrow sphere of material things, 
into the higher realm of reason and faith. Eating and drinking 
now become means and not ends of his existence. 

Not here and now have we time or space to trace the suc- 
cessive steps that have led up to the conditions and alternatives 
of the present hour. Suffice it to say, that any thoughtful person 
must see that a fearful crisis is now upon us. All hearts seem 
to feel the thrilling touch of a wonderful and mysterious pres- 
ence. Lessons of deep and mighty import are being impressed 
upon minds hitherto unused to serious reflection. 



ON the: pacii^ic coast since; 1853 2^ 

Every thought and every act that we put forth to-day cre- 
ates a necessity for other acts and other thoughts to-morrow. 
Physically we may live and thrive on a uniformity of supply, but 
mentally, spiritually and socially we cannot. In all these latter 
things we must go on growing greater and better, or perish. Civ- 
ilization, then, invests humanity not only with an exalted and in- 
estimable privilege, but also with a serious and fearful responsi- 
bility. 

With the man or associations who may feel disposed to lay 
claim to the chief honor of having achieved the world's present 
advancement, we have no controversy. Whatever their form or 
name, if their claims are vindicated, they shall stand approved be- 
fore the world. 

For long ages the various elements of progression have been 
doing their appointed work, and the hour has at last struck that 
marks the beginning of a new cycle. The is and the ought must 
now be brought into nearer companionship. The zvant and the 
hare must be more harmoniously blended in the experience of 
the future, or the moral and social integrity of the world must 
be destroyed. 

The hero cannot create the type, neither furnish the ele- 
ments which create a civilization. It is the work of all, and all 
are entitled to its benefits. The thought that most perplexes us 
to-day is, how shall our boasted Christian civilization vindicate its 
right to continue? Beyond question, it can be only by a prompt 
and successful effort to supply the demands which itself has 
created. 

A comfortable and attractive home, time for thought and 
social intercourse, a sense of comparative freedom, healthful and 



24 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONE^ER 

sufficient food, attractive and inspiring recreation, correct knowl- 
edge of the responsibilities and dependencies of personal and col- 
lective life, these are a few of the objects and duties brought be- 
fore us and placed upon us by the civilizing influences of the past. 
These may not all be understood or appreciated by many, but 
that they should be made possible to all is obviously the duty of 
the hour. 

And now, brothers, bear with me a moment while I press 
with sincerity and earnestness this all-important question : Is it 
the plan and the purpose of our present social and political or- 
ganizations to seek to invest humanity with these noble and es- 
sential environments and blessings? That humanity sees the 
need of these things, after having felt so long the power of ad- 
verse principles and practice, is a marvel. That alone stamps the 
race with the signet of divinity. It tells of possibilities beyond 
the power of human conception. 

Without attempting to fetter your thoughts and desires by 
a too distinct and positive array of theoretic formula, we here and 
now challenge you as Christians, as philanthropists, as patriots, as 
lovers of truth and justice, and above all and beyond all, as men 
and women inspired by a common hope and created for a com- 
mon destiny, to put together in solid and irresistible volume the 
strength and wisdom that from all worlds and from all beings 
come to your hearts and minds, and beat down and destroy 
the competition that brutalizes, and the selfishness that degrades, 
and let humanity have what it has earned and realize what it 
has expected. 

In the imperative need that this work be -done, Nationalism 
discovers her inspiring mission. In the realization of its ultimate 



ON the: pacific coast since 1853 25 

accomplishment she will reap her beatitude of joy and her crown 
of honor. And when she hath done this — as she surely will — is 
there on earth or heaven one harp too sweet and melodious to 
strike its chords to her praise and glory? Proudly and joyously 
let her now fling her banner to the breezes of all lands, while 
you all shall see in letters of living light, emblazoned upon the 
ample folds, ''Peace on earth and good-will to man." 

With our eye fixed upon the most truthful and sacred of all 
inspired records, with our minds pondering upon the vast and 
wonderful possibilities revealed in all that humanity has or is, 
with our souls uplifted and energized by a knowledge of the past 
and present of our race, we cannot, and dare not, intimate that 
its course is already run, or its appointed destiny already accom- 
plished. 

All indications point to a still greater material and social uni- 
fication among men. Truth, justice, wisdom and love are all and 
always spiritual elements conductive to order or harmony. They 
create a kingdom whose dominating rule of intercourse is, 
"whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even 
so unto them." 

Isolated and fractional are the associations of men where 
these realizations have fixed themselves lastingly in forms and 
habits of life. 

Hitherto nearly all that the most earnest and eloquent ut- 
terances of pulpit, press, rostrum and fellowship could do, has 
been to write upon the outspread tablets of human being the pro- 
phetic indications of a yet to be. Now as never before our opened 
vision is reading these heaven-illuminated lines. If neither pas- 
sion nor hate, nor selfishness nor doubt shall blur and blind us, 



26 life: and labors of a pioneer 

ours shall be the "light of the just which shineth more and more 
unto the perfect day.'' This must be our remembrance: that the 
strength and penetration of our vision depend not so much upon 
the light that is around us, as upon the light that is within us. 
If that be not darkened, we shall see both the beginning and the 
end, and all the intermediate steps will be right and sure. 

Let it be remembered that now, as ever, the people are the 
builders of the nation. Kings and queens, senates and cities, are 
but the extraneous forms, the gilded drapery that clothes and 
decks the internal and majestic form. Pyramids may lift their 
towering heads to the sky and proclaim the name of a moldering 
and departed Pharaoh, but Egypt was made by its toiling mil- 
lions. Pericles and Phidias may write their names on the grand 
and lofty facade of a marble Parthenon, but the power and glory 
of Greece found their form and expression in the bravery and 
devotion of its people. Vespasian may be remembered by the 
stupendous ruins of a crumbling colosseum, but its conception 
was the work of an humble artist, and the patient persevering 
toil of the faithful mechanic reared on high its ancient walls. 
And so was it all along the track of the ages. Behind all heroes, 
and temples, and arches, and thrones, and crowns, and empires, 
have gathered the people, the swarming millions that have made 
them what they are. The bewitching power of forms and names 
is no more the talisman to move and inspire the world. 

You, my brother ; you, my sister — you are the kingdom. 
When it is prosperous, you are prosperous. When it is great and 
honorable, truthful, just, stable and pure, it will be because those 
grand and noble qualities are enthroned in your hearts and lives. 
We are looking into the future now, not to see the gilded pagean- 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 2/ 

try of a mock royalty, but for the serried ranks of the noble and 
patriotic heroes whose strong and steady hands hold up the 
mighty pillars of the temple of liberty. We put our ear to the 
ground now, not to listen to the discordant notes of revelry com- 
ing from the gilded halls of wealth and dissipation, but to catch 
the swelling music that echoes from the busy marts of commerce, 
and the plying implements of prosperous toilers, as they build 
cities, plow the billows of the ocean, beautify homes of content- 
ment, rear the halls of science and knowledge, and by thought, 
and look, and deed, point to the day of plenty and joy that now 
lives only in the imaginations and hopes of man. 

Look at the platforms of the Reformers. How far-reaching 
and grand in conception ! How broad and ample in plan and pur- 
pose! When the wisdom of each shall be centered in one by 
the thoughtful action of the leading minds of all, history will 
look in vain for anything in the form of party literature more 
elevating and inspiring. Can faith, can hope, can desire go be- 
yond its provisions? Will it not embody and hold forth all that 
humanity in all ages has expected or toiled for? Will it not fur- 
nish play, ample, dignified play, for all the possibilities of the 
race ? Bring on the wisdom of a Solomon, the zeal of a Paul, the 
chivalry of a Bayard, the eloquence of a Demosthenes, the pa- 
triotism of a Washington, and the statesmanship of a Lincoln, 
and here on this broad and ample field there will be found room 
and work for each and for all. 



28 LIFE AND LABORS O]? A PIONEER 

CHAPTER III. 
Talk to the San Jose Grange No. 10. 

JW. HINES, of College Park, at the meeting of the San Jose 
•Grange, No. lo, in Odd Fellows' Hall, read the following 
paper, which was greatly appreciated by the members of the 
local grange. 

There is no page of American history more thrilling and in- 
structive than that of the relation and work of the varied mis- 
sionary societies with the different Indian tribes that have oc- 
cupied the Pacific Coast since its discovery and settlement by the 
white inhabitants, who now call it their home. Centuries have 
passed away since the first brave and devoted Catholic fathers 
began their noble and praiseworthy eft'orts to elevate and Chris- 
tianize the aboriginal tribes that once extended along the shores 
of the Pacific Ocean from the Straits of Magellan to the ice- 
bound regions of the North. No more heroic and sincere men 
ever raised aloft the sacred symbol of Calvary's bloody tragedy 
than those who wrought for the religious instruction and civili- 
zation of the native inhabitants of both California and Oregon. 

I shall undoubtedly give exp^ression to the enlightened con- 
viction of every thoughtful person before me at this hour, when 
I say that it will require an historian of clear vision and of un- 
prejudiced mind to separate truth from fiction in dealing with a 
subject like this, so as to mete out equal and exact justice to 
all concerned, and to transmit to future generations those ideals 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 29 

and hopes that Have been fashioned and inspired by the self-de- 
nying toil of the years that have passed. 

To my mind it appears quite plain that there could scarce- 
ly be selected a more appropriate time in which to give to the 
pages of history a clear and satisfactory account of the efforts 
that have been made to elevate the various and widely scattered 
Indian tribes who for untold ages had inhabited these shores, 
and to estimate correctly their capacity for the type of civiliza- 
tion which Providence had evidently decreed must exist here in 
order to reveal and uphold His plans for the ultimate and uni- 
versal establishment of those social and spiritual ideals set forth 
in the Gospel of His Son. 

History makes us acquainted with no portion of our country 
that has furnished a more fitting theater for the revelation of 
the various possibilities residing in the different races of men 
for the effectual working out of those difficult problems of hu- 
man life which from time to time appear in the march of hu- 
manity to a higher and a better destiny. Were I called upon to 
select two localities that in the past hundred years have furnished 
precedents of the most reliable and instructive character in this 
regard, I should without hesitation designate California and 
Oregon. 

Not only were these the most fitting theaters of action, but 
the most capable and appropriate agencies that ever wrought 
amongst the Indian tribes of the Pacific Coast were employed ; 
I mean the Catholic church of California and the Methodist 
church of Oregon. Before these missionary organizations ap- 
peared upon the scene, the dreamy story of the life with more 
or less distinctness and historic accuracy, went floating over the 



30 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

communities of the civilized world. These two agencies since 
1840 had, by their presence and work, brought about conditions 
that were fast crystalizing into imperative demands, that called 
for a greater degree of social and political order. The odor of 
the wigwam and the old adobe hovel had become monotonous 
if not really disgusting in the presence of a higher and a better 
civilization. 

In the North, where the Methodist element predominated, 
and in the south where the Catholic influence was greatly in the 
ascendant, practically the same social and religious problems ap- 
peared for solution. In both regions the most enlightened and 
progressive leaders of the rapidly growing communities saw 
clearly that a crisis had arrived in the history of the Pacific 
Coast that called for the establishment of a higher and purer 
ideal of life than had hitherto guided and controlled their re- 
ligious and political activities. Everywhere the truth seemed 
taking deep and permanent root in the minds of all intelligent 
people that it was neither erroneous nor profane to believe that 
the Creator had larger and better uses for this wonderful land 
that had so long been cumbered by a people so ignorant, de- 
graded and unimproving. Their vision began to take in the 
swarming millions of the old Orient where reside the great his- 
tories of olden times under the purer and loftier inspiration that 
was fast thrilling and moving the Christian population of these 
Western slopes. 

Let is be remembered that neither of these agencies men- 
tioned had ever entertained the idea that physical force should 
be employed in the subjugation of any portion of these Orien- 
tal lands. But this fact they both saw clearly, that the Indian 



ON THE PACII^IC COAST SINCE: 1853 3I 

tribes of Oregon and California possessed neither the intellectu- 
al nor moral fitness to perform the work that needed to be done 
on those distant shores. The learned and pious men who had 
been guiding the unfolding destinies of this Western empire had 
carefully studied God's historic order in leading the march of 
the ages upwards towards Himself. 

The present ever owed a vast debt to the future, and the 
people who will not pay that debt must perish, and a people 
who will must take their place. It was because the old ages did 
not attempt to liquidate to the ages to come the debt they owed 
that what remains of them, burned to cinders and trampled into 
ashes, are being crushed and blown away by the whirlwind 
march of the newer time and better humanity. Look at China. 
She has stood for over 4000 years. There have lived in that 
empire during its history more than five trillion of people. What 
have they done for the upbuilding of mankind, for the betterment 
of the human race ? What a resplendent opportunity God gave 
them. He set them up in the world's sunrise. He gave them 
ample time in which to measure up to the sublime attitude of 
their abounding opportunity. Recklessly they cast it into the 
dark abyss of a bestial, degraded, unimproving life. Their de- 
fault to the future blots them out of that future of which they 
might have been the masters. Those only of men or nations mas- 
ter the future who pay to that future the debt they owe to it. 
''The mills of the gods grind slowly, but they grind exceeding 
fine." The belts that drive the grinding stones stretch out of 
sight, but beyond our vision they are attached to the great motor 
of eternal right, and eternal law, and eternal power, and the 
''mills" are surely 'grinding them to powder.' The thing which 



32 li^e: and labors of a pioneer 

the world at present is striving to learn is not that they are lost, 
bnt what it is and who it is that is able to save them. When 
this question is settled, and the remedy applied, a remnant will 
be found and will join the ranks of the redeemed and will be 
merged into the grand army of truth and righteousness, who are 
now marching to the conquering of the world. 

The great danger to which we are now exposed, and the 
one that is liable to waste both our time and energies is in mis- 
calculating the importance of the scattered remnants of those 
Indian tribes in our future efforts for'civil and religious progress. 
The most we can reasonably expect to do for them now and 
hereafter is to hold them up true to what they have already at- 
tained, while together we try to preserve and perpetuate the 
various landmarks that will tell to future generations the story 
of the noble and heroic achievements of a bygone age. Let this 
important work go on throughout the length and breadth of the 
land, while we, as the dutiful children of the departed strive to 
lift to still greater and more sublime heights the standard of the 
cross, the glorious symbol of a world's hope. Let us do this 
not only in our own country, where still linger, in various forms, 
evidences of heroic achievement for the elevation of a degraded 
humanity ; but in other portions of this beautiful land wdierever 
hope and desire for better and nobler things still linger in the 
aspiring hearts of all those who have so long been wandering in 
sadness and sorrow. 

Personal experience and observation for upwards of half a 
century confirming the opinion that the original purpose for 
which these missionary efforts were at first begun has been fully 
accomplished, and the noble and Christian impulses that gave 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 33 

them birth must now and ever hereafter move on a higher plane 
of thought and activity. But in this transition we will do great 
injustice both to the faithful and the devoted toilers that have 
done their work and left amongst us such indubitable evidence^ 
of their zeal and devotion, if we fail to impress upon the rising 
generation the valuable lessons they are calculated to impart. 

In the North there appeared at first various difficulties of a 
perplexing nature growing out of the presence in the same local- 
ity of associations of a purely industrial and communal character, 
such as the "American Northwest Fur Company," established by 
John Jacob Astor, and the Hudson Bay Company, an English 
organization occupying the vast territory north of the Columbia 
river and at present embracing three flourishing States of our 
Union, besides one-half of Oregon and the vast region of Brit- 
ish Columbia. At an early day the Astor company was crowded 
from the field by its more powerful neighbor, after which, with 
headquarters at Vancouver, the entire Northwest was brought 
under one administration, but owing no allegiance to any civil- 
ized nation in the world. 

It may be regarded as a singular coincidence that in the 
Northwest the two agencies before mentioned arrived on the 
field of their future toil at nearly the same time, and without any 
effort at concert of action. In the year 1859 three Jesuit mis- 
sionaries arrived at Vancouver, namely, F. N. Blancher, A. De- 
mero, and P. G. De Smet. These had their headquarters at 
Vancouver, and made it their aim to look after the spiritual in- 
terest of the trappers and hunters, who were mostly French 
Canadians, and whose business it was to gather furs and peltries 
from Indian trappers and assist in their shipment to European 



34 LIFK AND LABORS 01^ A PIONEER 

merchants. The same year saw depart from the harbor of New 
York the greatest missionary expedition that has ever sailed from 
any American port. For this purpose the Methodist missionary 
society chartered a vessel called the Lausonni, loaded her with 
adequate supplies and with thirty-five missionaries to reinforce 
the half dozen already in the field. Early in October, 1839, she 
svvcpt out of the harbor of New York and turned her provv^ to- 
wards the story headlands of the dreaded Cape Horn. 

At that time and under those circumstances it is difficult 
to conceive of a more utter abandonment of all those social ties 
and happy influences that cluster around an American home. 
The writer of this article was then a mere child. An elder 
brother and his family were among that devoted band. He well 
remembers how, in that soft October day, after it was known 
that they had sailed away to the dark and distant field of re- 
ligious toil, he leaned against his mother's side, in the rural 
home in central New York, and listening to her as she softly 
told of the holy mission on which they were going, and then, 
with tears in her eyes but triumph in her heart, sung with tremu- 
lous voice Heber's grand missionary hymn, 
"Shall we where saints are lighted by wisdom from on high, 
Shall we to men benighted the lamp of life deny?" 

Out of that hour, by the voice of that mother in that song, 
the young heart of the little boy felt the first inspiration that 
fourteen years after carried him to the same work in the same 
distant field. 

But when that field was reached how changed were all the 
conditions and prospects that had once so thrilled and moved 
the churches of the Eastern States. These native tribes that had 



ON rut PACIFIC COAST SINCE: 1 853 35 

swarmed upon these shores, both in Oregon and California, 
were fast melting away and the most casual observer could plain- 
ly see that their days were numbered and that nothing could 
save them from utter destruction. Lo, all organized effort for 
their salvation ceased, and in each State the agencies employed 
readjusted their religious forms and are now moving forward 
in their respective fields to build up and beautify the waste 
places of our spiritual Zion. 



36 life: and labors of a pioni:er 

CHAPTER IV. 

How a Grizzly Bear Looks When Only Twenty Feet Behind You. 

' I 'HE most formidable and dreaded animal that roams the 
forests of California, or, indeed, of any other land on the 
face of the earth, is the grizzly bear. All other wild animals will 
flee from the presence of man, unless driven into a corner, or 
starved into desperation. But this shaggy monster roams the 
forests far and wide, seeking the weak and helpless of all classes 
as legitimate prey to his insatiable appetite. Nothing is allowed 
to escape from his savage fury but those of his own kind, or 
unless possessed of a foot that enables them to outstrip him in 
pursuit and then his pent-up fury vents itself in savage growls 
that are frightful to hear. Any one who has ever encountered 
one of these bloodthirsty brutes, especially when alone and des- 
titute of deadly weapons or a friendly tree to climb, will, in all 
probability, never live to tell the sorrowful tale. 

The adventure which I am about to relate actually happened 
to myself while traveling the Humboldt District in 1866. I had 
been to Smith River Valley to attend a quarterly meeting, and, 
being somewhat anxious to hasten my return to my home at 
Eureka, and being able to save at least 20 miles travel by taking 
a cut-off which led me along the ocean beach I concluded to take 
that course, which led for about 6 miles close under a perpendic- 
ular bluff of at least one hundred feet, which made it impossible 
to pass that way only at low tide. 



ON THi: PACIFIC COAST SINCE) 1853 37 

When arriving at the beginning of this bluff I saw at a 
glance that I had made a mistake in regard to the incoming tide 
as they were then rolling far up towards the foot of the bluff. 
Fortunately I was riding a horse accustomed to traveling along 
a sand beach, had it not been the case I should probably have re- 
traced my steps and deferred my journey to another day. But 
before I was fully aware of the fact, I had gone nearly or quite 
one-half of the way over, and consequently to return was as 
difificult and quite as dangerous as to press forward. So, watch- 
ing with eagle vision every reflex of the foaming water, I soon 
came to the point where the trail turned up the bluff, when, 
looking over my left shoulder, I saw a huge grizzly not over 
40 yards behind me and seemingly as badly frightened as myself 
at the rushing and noise of the incoming tide. Apparently he 
had but just discovered me, when a huge breaker struck him 
in the side and sweeping his feet from under him threw him over 
upon his side, while my horse, with better sense and more experi- 
ence, deliberately turned his heels to dashing billow and stood 
firmly upon his feet, while the foam-crested wave did no harm 
but the giving himself and his rider a severe dousing. The crisis 
had evidently come, for as soon as the bear had struggled to his 
feet he discovered me for the first time and without waiting for 
a formal introduction showed plainly that a more intimate fa- 
miliarity would not be disagreeable to his feelings. Just then 
I needed an extra moment of time very badly and I quickly con- 
trived a way to gain it. In the morning my landlady had pre- 
pared a nice lunch for my dinner, which she had tied in a napkin 
and I had hung it upon the horn of my saddle. Quick as a flash, 
I seized it and tossed it over my left shoulder. It fell right in 



38 life: and labors of a pioneer 

front of the shaggy monster, who, seizmg it, shook it loose and 
paused a moment to swallow the precious morsel. That moment 
was my salvation, for my horse, bounding forward, took the 
trail just in front of the pursuing monster. The race I knew 
was now won, for while my horse could not ascend the hill in 
any but a diagonal path, the bear I knew could only in a per- 
pendicular manner. Hence, while every step carried me safely 
up, every leap carried the bear fatally down. In a moment I 
paused on the summit of the bluff, while the disappointed bear 
was growling and floundering in the bushes one hundred feet 
below. I paused a moment to view the ludricrous situation, and 
then, waving my hand in token of victory, exclaimed, "Good- 
bye, old fellow." 

When I return, I hope our relations may continiie about 
as at present. I have never passed over that trail since. I wrote 
the lady who put up my lunch that it did me more good than 
any meal I had ever eaten. 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE) 1853 39 

CHAPTER V. 
How I Lost and Found My Money. 

"IV/HEN I so narrowly escaped death at the hands of th'e two 
^^ Indians, as related before, and fotmd myself safe and 
secure at the Block House, I sat down before a blazing fire and 
leisurely took account of stock to ascertain, if possible, the exact 
influence which the scenes of danger and excitement through 
which I had just passed had made upon me. I had evidently 
saved myself, my pony and my two mules. But had I lost any 
thing? All at once it burst upon my recollection that I had 
placed in the pocket of an outer garment the sum of six hundred 
dollars in gold coin, and I found also that too was all safe. And 
I slept soundly that night. With gratitude to the Divine Power 
and Goodness that had so signally watched over and preserved 
me, I at once prepared to resume my journey homeward, which 
was still at least one hundred and fifty miles away. I began 
to feel that I would have a story to tell to the wife and children 
that were dearer to me than life itself and for whose comfort 
and happiness I had cheerfully braved all these toils and dangers. 
The next stage of my journey would lead me over the Cala- 
perrah Mountains and down their slope a distance of about 
twenty miles to the home of a Mr, Cartwright with whom. I was 
well acquainted, and I began to feel that a few hours more and 
I would be able to sit down at my fireside and regale myself at 
my own table. So, with my spirits cheered by the kindness and 
hospitality of the Cartwright family, I now felt strong enough 



40 life: and labors of a pioneer 

to resume my journey, knowing that about forty miles would 
end my tiresome 200-mile trip and bring me to the comforts of 
my own dear home. 

During the night a severe snow storm came up over the 
mountains and in the morning the ground was covered with two 
or three inches of snow. So I delayed my departure until about 
noon. The ground being soft and the road rough and difficult, 
my progress was necessarily quite slow and I therefore con- 
cluded to give two days to the remaining part of my journey 
which was about forty miles. 

I had gone about two miles and had just crossed a corderoy 
bridge spanning a deep mountain stream, suddenly calling to 
mind the fact that I was carrying about six hundred dollars, I 
reached around to the inside pocket where I had placed it, when 
lo, every dollar of it was gone. 

For a few moments I sat utterly bewildered and stupefied 
at my loss, while the past and the future seemed to unite on that 
fatal spot, and while imagination painted in dark dismal colors 
the story of the was hope and faith bore onward my fainting 
soul and attempted to span the dark cloud with a rainbow prom- 
ise of what would surely be. This feeling lasted but for a few 
moments, and then, taking a hasty glance at the declining sun 
that just then burst from behind a dark cloud and wearing a 
diadem of beauty around the waving tree tops, hastened to its 
setting behind the distant mountains. I was yet about two miles 
distant from the log cabin of a kind friend, where I intended to 
tarry for the night, so hastening on I soon heard the welcome 
greeting, "Halloo, old fellow, alight and come in out of the 
cold, and I will care for your animal." 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 4I 

The evening soon passed in pleasant converse and I was 
politely informed which corner of the cabin I was expected 
to occupy. While all in the room instinctively turned their backs, 
I disrobed and laid myself down for the night. 

Up to this moment not a word had passed my lips in regara 
to my loss, and I had concluded to defer the matter until morning 
before revealing the matter to my friend and asking his opinion 
and advice. In answer to the greeting of mine host in the morn- 
ing, I frankly stated the situation, and assured him that the past 
night had afforded me but very little rest or comfort, and I was 
desirous of having his opinion and advice as to the future. I 
then described to him minutely the experiences of the previous 
day, and especially the loss of my money. I told him how seem- 
ingly impossible it would be to meet my obligations when I ar- 
rived at home, and the probable loss of my home for which I 
had been toiling for two years. 

The entire situation was fully canvassed and when we had 
got through he deliberately stated that while he deeply sympa- 
thized with me in my loss, yet he could see no probability what- 
ever of my ever recovering a dollar of my money. I then called 
to his attention the familiar adage, so often on the lips of 
our preacher, that "Man's extremity was God's opportunity." 
I then told my friend that I had always acted upon the philoso- 
phy that a hope based upon a simple possibility was vastly better 
than no hope at all, and therefore I had concluded to return and 
make my search. 

Leaving my mules to be cared for by my friend with a re- 
quest that he would pray for me, I was soon mounted upon my 
pony and facing a driving storm of snow and sleet, was thread- 



42 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

ing my way back to the foot of the Calepooch. Just about sun- 
down, I arrived at Brother Cartwright's and by the aid of a 
warm supper and a blazing fire was soon in a talkative mood. 
They all wondered at my sudden return. I soon made known 
to them the events of the past day. While they all manifested 
the utmost sympathy and sorrow, all concurred in the opinion 
that nothing but a miracle could aflford relief. Early in the 
morning I prepared to return to the place where I had left the 
mules. The snow, that had fallen during the night to the depth 
of 2 or 3 inches, now began to melt and the mud and slush made 
the traveling slow and tedious. I soon came to the stream where 
I had missed the money the day before, and was riding leisurely 
along with my eyes fixed upon the ground when I saw just at 
my horse's feet about the one-half of a twenty dollar piece stick- 
ing in the mud. My heart gave a sudden bound and turning 
quickly aside I was not long in tying my horse to the fence, and 
then in the space of ten feet I picked up 520 dollars of my lost 
money. Two men, living in a cabin about 80 rods away, seeing 
a stranger thus employed, came down to investigate. I told 
them I had lost a little money there the day before, but withheld 
from them the exact amount, stating that there was a little more 
that I had not yet found. They both scratched about for a few- 
minutes, picking up 21 dollars each, which they handed me. 
With night approaching, I mounted my horse and rode away, 
telling them that I would stay all night where I had left my 
mules, and if they should find the balance they might leave it 
with him. I never received the forty dollars, and presume it 
was never found. 

I was now about 40 miles from home, with two noble mules, 



ON THE) PACIFIC COAST SINCE) 1853 43 

560 dollars in money, and the same little pony that I had ridden 
away about two months before. The anticipated Rogue River 
war soon broke out, the government advertised for mules to 
pack provisions to the army, and I sold my mules for 250 dol- 
lars each that had cost me 100 dollars each. I had found all but 
40 dollars of my money, had an awful scare, a romantic ride, 
paid all my debts, and had in my pocket about 300 dollars in 
gold coin. In all of my experiences on the coast, I doubt if I 
could think of another through which I passed where so many 
incidents harmonized to make that experience in the final out- 
come such a grand success. Romance never crowded into its 
pages more of the awe inspiring scenes, more heroic attitudes 
in action, more courageous onsets in physical struggle, than the 
two of these times and the two hundred miles of travel from 
the beginning of the struggle on Cow Creek to my triumphant 
arrival at m.y own fireside on the banks of the beautiful Willam- 
ette River. 



44 LII^K AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

CHAPTER VI. 
Apostrophe to the Flag. 

Thou glorious banner, emblem of the free, 
Whose radiant beauties cover land and sea, 
Beneath thy starlit folds do millions bring 
The gladsome offerings of another spring. 
The gray-haired father with the mystic thread 
That links the living to the honored dead, 
The noble matron who her time employs 
In forming patriots of her growing boys, 
The bright-eyed maiden whose unfolding charms 
Await a transit to her lover's arms. 
The little urchin whose soft flaxen curls 
In sportive glee the gentle breezes twirls, 
The rich, the poor, the humble and the proud, 
May here be gathered in one common crowd, 
And lifting up to heaven the beaming eye. 
Swear with this flag to live and for it die. 

The magic scarf the heavenly goddess gave, 
To float Ulyssus o'er the boisterous wave, 
Firm to his breast the sacred gift he binds 
And braves the fury of the whistling winds ; 
To strength divine his own best efforts lends 
And gains the shore where all his trouble ends. 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE: 1853 45 

So shall it be when threatening tempests rise, 
And danger gathers on our nation's skies ; 
When deepest gloom our fondest hopes enshroud, 
And lightnings leap along the rifted cloud. 
When love of country seems to disappear. 
And patriots' bosoms quake with inward fear, 
With chords of love no earthly power can part, 
We'll bind this sacred banner to our heart. 
And gathering aid from heaven descended power, 
Find a sure triumph in each threatening hour. 



46 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 



CHAPTER VII. 
The "Work of the Pioneer. 

■fV/HENEVER a California Pioneer closes his work upon 
^^ earth and passes into the spirit world, it is almost abso- 
lutely certain that he will leave behind him a record of toil and 
achievement that is worthy of remembrance, and that is needed 
in order to intelligently account not only for the scenes and 
events of the past, but also for the conditions of the present and 
the hopes and prospects of the future. We may lay it down as 
a universal rule that if the beginning of a people's history is 
weak, tame and inefficient, it will inevitably point to a destiny 
of doubt, darkness and premature decay; while upon the othtr 
hand, if that history begins upon a high and noble plane, it will 
be almost sure to proceed along a pathway of ever brightening 
beauty, stability and splendor. 

I am sure this intelligent audience will pardon me if I re- 
peat at this serious hour what I have often said before, and if 
God spare me will be sure to repeat again with all the sincerity 
and emphasis which words can give, that the Pioneer life and 
achievements on the Pacific Coast stand far above and beyond 
those of any other people in the history of the world. 

I have been a somewhat careful and diligent student of 
history and my mind has often been engaged in comparing the 
relative efficiency of different peoples in their efforts in planting 
and establishing the nations that have gone before us, and I 
have no hesitation in making the ascertion that more has been 



ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 47 

done in the last sixty years, on this Coast than has ever been ac- 
compHshed by any other people of whom history gives us ac- 
count in the first six hundred years of their pioneer life. Now, 
how shall we account for this astonishing disparity? After mak- 
ing all due allowance for the favoring conditions of our envi- 
ronment, and the comparative weakness of the opposing obsta- 
cles, we will be forced to acknowledge that the most potent fac- 
tor in the creation of so superior a record can only be found in 
the moral, physical and intellectual traits of the men and women 
who have occupied this field. 

Indulge me a few moments while I attempt to place before 
your minds in a more careful and elaborate manner some of the 
leading characteristics of the early settlers of California, who 
laid so broad and deep the foundations of this great and noble 
commonwealth. And, first, they created and have steadily up- 
held a pure and lofty ideal of true American citizenship. 

It may be said, and that very truly, that such ideal was an 
importation and not a creation of the Pioneers. That the most 
plastic and impressible period of their life was spent in other 
States and in other associations, where they passed their early 
days, and cultivated those social, moral and intellectual habi- 
tudes that so well fitted them for the great and important work 
that awaited their coming and to which they were now provi- 
dentially hastening. All this m.ay be conceded, and yet the 
greatest wonder and the greatest mystery of all still remains un- 
explained. How came it to pass that these Pioneers possessed 
at the beginning such a marvelous unity of thought and pur- 
pose, coming, as they did, from every State of the Union, and 
taught and trained in almost every conceivable school of polit- 



48 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

ical and religious thought? What unseen power, in that su- 
preme hour seized upon their very life-being, and lifted them 
into the cloudless region of self-forgetfulness and patriotic fer- 
vor? So they tread the trackless desert, and scaled the lofty 
summits of the rugged mountains, they all sang the same song 
of freedom and shouted the same peans of victorious struggle 
and achievement. 

But the greatest wonder and mystery still remains to be ex- 
plained. Where are they now and what is before them? Their 
long and tedious journey is over. From all parts of the world 
they have converged to a common centre. Strangers to each 
other, in a new and untried environment, with no common pur- 
pose for their future action, or knowledge of the dangers or 
trials that surrounds them, it seems next to an impossibility that 
they should escape from a serious and fatal plunge into the deep 
dark gulf of anarchy and disorder. To say that they did es- 
cape, that all the temptations and allurements by which they 
found themselves surrounded were quickly and effectually sub- 
ordinated to the demands of the grand and noble work of build- 
ing and beautifying a new and wonderful scene, is but to repeat 
a fact that has already passed into the current history of our 
common country. In the short space of fifty years, the experi- 
mental stage, — if, indeed, it ever existed, — passes away, and 
gives place to an assurance and stability that seems to promise 
a long and brilliant career of civil and social happiness and 
prosperity. 

And now must the warmth of our admiration and the fervor 
of our eulogy be turned away from the real source of this mar- 
velous and unprecedented achievement? Shall we be told that all 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE: 1853 49 

of this wonderful work has come out of the favoring natural 
elements by which we have been surrounded? Let all those 
who make such assertions remember that it is men that makes 
a state, and not states that make men; that to sit down in list- 
less inactivity and sing the praises of the sunlight and the breeze, 
is to be quickly overtaken by premature decreptitude and death. 
Such were not the Pioneers of the State of California. With 
the common frailties of human nature, we find them as a class 
possessed of a clear vision, and a faith that never falters. They 
did not sit calmly down and wait for somebody to come from 
somewhere and help them in their work. It was a fleet runner 
indeed who could overtake them in the race, or reach the goal 
of their hope while they loitered upon the way. 

Shall we be thought a wild, visionary partisan if we now 
declare that the almost immediate union of sentiment and fel- 
lowship, united as it was with a kindred impulse to harmonious 
action, will be regarded by the thoughtful historian in the future 
as standing, if not in the realm of the miraculous, certainly quite 
at the summit of social and intellectual marvels. 

Look at the result. "Do men gather grapes of thorns or 
figs of thistles?" Not much, especially if they have lived and 
moved in the social and mental atmosphere that usually per- 
vaded the Pioneers of the State of California. Nature seemed 
to furnish them not only with a unity of purpose, but a true 
philosophy of action as well. These in their practical applica- 
tion revealed an order of sequence in the moral and social, as 
positive and as emphatic, as it was soon to be in the material 
world around them. In this respect they anticipated the science 
of evolution in its highest and purest forms. They, unconscious- 



50' life: and labors of a pioneer 

ly, revealed its moulding and fashioning power in the higher and 
freer realm of social and intellectual life. Where they toiled 
up the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, pausing to slake 
their thirsts at the rippling fountain at their feet, watching it as 
it sung its merry way towards the western sea, or, it may be, 
standing upon the deck of a frail vessel, as it rode the foam- 
crested billows of the perilous headlands of the dreaded Cape 
Horn, or, still worse, breathed for days the miasmatic vapors 
that bore to the vitals the death dealing fires of the dreaded 
Panama fever, each and all of them seemed to derive courage 
and strength by the dangers of the way, and gather into their 
eager souls a more grand and noble purpose. 

But we have brought them at last by their devious ways to 
the chosen haven of their hopes and desires. And surely never 
did men and women come into companionship with brighter 
prospect of transmitting to the future an inheritance of nobler 
and grander proportions, to transmit to the future generations. 
And surely no men and women ever lived who have founded a 
combination more in harmony with the demands of the natior» 
and the age. The ideals of social and political life were those 
demanded by all lands where progressive humanity has ever 
had an abiding dwelling place. Motherhood and the home, child- 
hood and the school, manhood and the State, all these have been 
fostered and upheld by the Pioneers of Oregon and California 
for the last two generations, and are stronger to-day than ever 
before. These are characteristics that have not been imported, 
but created by the Pioneers. Importations, as a rule, have been 
of a different type and different tendency, and we challenge the 
world to successfully deny our statement. 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 5 1 



CHAPTER VIII. 
The Provisional Government. 

np HE subject of what is known in history as "The Provisional 
Government of Oregon," is to be introduced here only so 
far as it relates to the era of the missionary organizations, and 
the periods when the results of their presence and work were 
crystalizing into social conditions that called for civil and po- 
litical order. Before this time the dreamy story of the Indian 
tribes had simply changed into the scarcely less dreamy story 
of the fur traffic, hardly more civilizing than was the other. 
How little there was of anything that had the fragrance of civ- 
ilization rather than the odor of the wigwam in it up to the close 
of 1840 will be seen by the following summary of arrivals of 
American in the country up to that time. In 1834 the four mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Missions and six other Ameri- 
cans arrived. In 1835 there were none. In 1836 three male 
and two female missionaries of the American Board. In 1837 
five male and seven female missionaries of the Methodist Board, 
with three children and three settlers reached the country. In 
1838 eight persons reinforced the Missions of the American 
Board and three white men from the Rocky Mountains came into 
the country. In 1839 ^^^^^ independent Protestant missionaries 
and eight settlers came. In 1840 thirty-one adults and fourteen 
children came to the Methodist Mission, and four independent 
Protestant missionaries and thirteen settlers, mostly Rocky 
Mountain men with Indian wives, came in. This made in all 86 



52 Ll^t AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

adults connected with the missions and twenty-eight American 
settlers, a total of 114. Besides these, in 1838 and 1839 F. N. 
Blanchet, A. Demers and P. G. DeSmet, Jesuit missionaries, ar- 
rived. These, of course, added nothing to the American settle- 
ment, and surely not to the American sentiment in the country, 
but rather the reverse. Outside of these there were a small 'num- 
ber of the superannuated employes of the Hudson Bay Company 
located at various points, yet holding legal and social relations 
to that body. 

Civilly and politically there were two sentiments ; one Amer- 
ican and one British. Being largely in the majority of the Amer- 
icans, and a chosen body of able and educated men and women, 
the missionaries of the Methodist Episcopal Church naturally and 
necessarily took the lead in all matters that looked towards the 
establishment of any form of government in the country. The 
missionaries of the American Board, namely, Dr. Whitman and 
Messrs. Spalding and Eells and Walker were so far removed 
from the center of settlement that they had no participation in 
the movements that resulted in the establishment of the Provis- 
ional Government. There was not a single American resident 
within a hundred and fifty miles of any of their missions. 

So situated they had no opportunity to co-operate with the 
small American community in the Willamette in any movement 
looking to the general interests of Oregon as related to general 
educational work, or to the extension of the authority of the 
United States Government over the territory. Of course they 
were in sentiment entirely in accord with the American citizens 
of Oregon, and but for their isolation would have heartily co- 
cperated with them. 



ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 53 

On the other hand the Jesuit missionaries, the retired ser- 
vants of the Hudson's Bay Company, with that company itself, 
could always be relied on to sustain the pretensions of Great 
Britain, and oppose the plans and purposes of the American 
population, led by the Methodist missionaries. Thus it happened 
at the close of 1840, that the forces in array against each other 
for the ultimate possession of the country, were on the one side, 
the Hudson's Bay Company, and its retired servants, together 
with the Roman Catholic missionaries. On the other side the 
Methodist Missions and the American settlers. 

The stake was the country itself, and whether it should be- 
come American or English was the question at issue. The stake 
was immeasurable ; and the players were so nearly equal in num- 
ber that no man could tell where the majority would fall until the 
day for a final count should come. Counted by numbers it was 
the smallest force that ever contended for an empire. Gauged by 
results it was the mightiest conflict of the century. All told there 
were 137 Americans of all ages and sexes in the country, over 90 
of whom were connected with the Protestant missions. 

Such men as led the American contingent in this contest do 
not slumber at their posts. Indeed before 1840 the first step 
towards the final one was taken by the memorial gotten up by 
the mission and carried by Mr. Jason Lee to Washington. In 
1839 the subject was again brought to the attention of Congress 
in a memorial, too important as a part of the missionary history 
of the Northwest to be omitted here. It was as follows: 
"To the Honorable, the Senate and House of Representatives 
of the United States of America, in Congress assembled: 

"Your petitioners represent unto your honorable bodies that 



54 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

they are residents in the Oregon Territory, and citizens of the 
United States, or persons desirous of becoming such. 

They further represent unto your lionorable bodies that they 
have settled themselves in said territory under the belief that it 
was a portion of the public domain of the United States, and 
that they might rely upon the government thereof for the bless- 
ings of free institutions, and the protection of its arms. 

Your petitioners further represent that they are uninformed 
of any acts of said government by which its institutions are ex- 
tended to them ; in consequence whereof themselves and families 
are exposed to be destroyed by the savages around them, and 
others that would do them harm. 

And your petitioners would further represent that they have 
no means of protecting their lives and the lives of their families 
other than self-constituted tribunals, originated and sustained by 
an ill-instructed public opinion, and the resort to force and arms. 

And your petitioners would further represent these means 
of safety to be an insufficient safeguard of life and property, 
and that the crimes of theft, murder, infanticide, etc., are increas- 
ing among them to an alarming extent, and your petitioners de- 
clare themselves unable to arrest this progress of crime and its 
terrible consequences without the aid of law, and tribunals to 
administer it. 

Your petitioners therefore pray the Congress of the United 
States to establish as soon as may be a Territorial Government 
in the Oregon Territory. 

And if other reasons than these presented were needed to 
induce your honorable bodies to grant the prayer of the under- 



ON the: pacific coast since 1853 55 

signed, your petitioners, they would be found in the vaUie of 
the territory to the nation and the alarming circumstances that 
portend its loss. 

Your petitioners, in view of these last considerations, would 
represent that the English government has had a surveying party 
on the Oregon coast for two years, employed in making accurate 
surveys of all its bays, rivers and harbors, and that recently the 
said government is said to have made a grant to the Hudson's 
Bay Company of all lands lying between the Columbia River and 
Puget Sound, and that the said company is actually exercising 
unequivocal acts of ownership over said lands and opening ex- 
tensive farms upon the same.. 

And your petitioners represent that these circumstances, con- 
nected with other acts of said company to the same effects, and 
their declaration that the English government owns and will hold, 
as its own soil, that portion of Oregon Territory situated north 
of the Columbia River, together with the important fact that the 
said company are cutting and sawing into lumber and shipping to 
foreign marts vast quantities of the finest pine trees upon the 
navigable waters of the Columbia, have led your petitioners to 
apprehend that the English Government does intend at all events 
to hold that portion of this territory lying north of the Columbia 
River. 

And your petitioners represent that the said territory north 
of the Columbia River is an invaluable possession to the Ameri- 
can Union; that in and about Puget Sound are the only harbors 
of easy access and commodious and safe upon the whole coast of 
the territory, and that a great part of this said northern part of 
the territory is rich in timber and valuable minerals. For this 



56 life; and labors of a pionehjr 

and other reasons your petitioners pray that Congress will es- 
tablish its sovereignty over said territory. 

Your petitioners would further represent that the country 
south of the Columbia River and north of the Mexican line, and 
extending from the Pacific ocean 120 miles into the interior is 
of unequaled beauty. Its mountains, covered with perpetual 
snow, pouring into the prairies around their bases transparent 
streams of the purest water, the white and black oak, pine, cedar 
and fir forests that divide the prairies into sections convenient 
for farming purposes, the rich mines of coal in its hills, and salt 
springs in its valleys, its quarries of limestone, sandstone, chalk 
and marble, the salmon of its rivers, and the various blessings of 
the delightful and healthful climate, are known to us and im- 
press your petitioners with the belief that this is one of the most 
favored portions of the globe. 

Indeed the deserts of the interior have their wealth of pas- 
turage, and their lakes, evaporating in summer, leave in their 
basins hundreds of bushels of the purest soda. Many other cir- 
cumstances could be named showing the importance of this ter- 
ritory in a national, commercial and agricultural point of view. 
And although your petitioners would not undervalue considera- 
tions of this kind, yet they beg leave especially to call the atten- 
tion of Congress to their own condition as an infant colony, with- 
out military force or civil institutions to protect their lives and 
property and children, sanctuaries and tombs from the hands 
of uncivilized and merciless savages around them. We respect- 
fully ask for the civil institutions of the American Republic. We 
pray for the high privilege of American citizenship, the peaceful 
enjoyment of life, the right of acquiring, possessing and using 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 57 

property, and the unrestrained pursuit of rational happiness. And 
your petitioners will ever pray. 

DAVID LESLIE. 
And about seventy others. 
The reader must pronounce this a most remarkable document. 
David Leslie was at this time pro tem Superintendent of the 
Methodist Mission in Oregon, in the absence of Jason Lee, then 
on his return from the States with the great reinforcement that 
reached Oregon June ist, 1840. It certainly was fortunate for 
the United States that the church had in her missionary work in 
Oregon at that most critical period of Oregon history, men who 
were capable of producing such documents, and at the same time 
brave and patriotic enough to take up on the disputed soil the 
cause of the American possession of the country, when that of 
Great Britain was championed by such a power on the very 
ground as the Hudson's Bay Company, aided by all the influence 
of the Catholic missions. It is a most brilliant chapter of Meth- 
odist history. While this memorial had gone on to Congress, 
and the people of Oregon were waiting for some congressional 
action, the necessities of the colony were growing more and more 
urgent. Something in the form of a government seemed imper- 
atively demanded. To meet the requirements of the time a meet- 
ing of a number of the leading citizens was called at Champoeg, 
not far from the Methodist Mission, on the 7th of February, 1841, 
for consultation on the steps necessary to be taken for the for- 
mation of laws and the election of officers to execute them. Rev. 
Jason Lee was called to the chair. He advised the appointment 
of a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws for the gov- 
ernment of the country south of the Columbia river, but no def- 



58 life: and labors of a pione:e:r 

inite action was had. Another meeting was held at the Meth- 
odist Mission on the 17th of February, when nearly all the peo- 
ple of the valley were present. Rev. David Leslie was presi- 
dent, and Giistavus Hines and Sidney Smith wxre secretaries. 
Though a committee was appointed to formulate a system of 
government of which Rev. F. N. Blanchet, afterwards Roman 
Catholic Archbishop of Oregon, was chairman, to report to the 
meeting of June nth, it was found that Mr. Blanchett had not 
called the committee together, and no further action was had in 
the matter at this time. 

Early in the autumn the first indication that the memorials 
sent to Congress in 1838 and 1839 were having any effect on 
the action of the government relating to Oregon was received 
in the country. Dr. Elijah White, who had formerly held the po- 
sition of physician to the mission, but had returned to the State, 
arrived again in the country holding a government commission 
as sub- Agent for the Indians w^est of the Rocky Mountains. The 
people were rejoiced at even so slight an evidence that the gov- 
ernment would, sometime, extend its jurisdiction over the coun- 
try, and, at least, were encouraged to wait with confidence. Grad- 
ually it became rather clear that the American sentiment pre- 
dominated over the English. This induced the British and Cath- 
olic influence to adopt the plan of forming a governmicnt entire- 
ly independent ; national in itself ; a new power among the world's 
nationalities. Dr. McLoughlin gave the weight of his name and 
influence to this scheme, carrying with him, of course, the men 
of the Hudson's Bay Company, the Catholic clergy, and the re- 
tired servants of the company. This was a combination not easy 
to be overcome. It v/as the more dangerous because Dr. Mc- 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 59 

Loughlin was a man of large business, much the largest in the 
country, and had retained able attorneys to care for it, who were 
always ready to serve whatever he considered for his interests. 
At a public lyceum in Oregon City, where many of the most in- 
fluential men of the community were accustomed to meet to dis- 
cuss public questions, Mr. L. W. Hastings, as attorney for Dr. 
McLoughlin, introduced a resolution in the following words: 

"Resolved, That it is expedient for the settlers of the coast 
to organize an independent government." 

At the close of the discussion the vote was taken and the 
resolution was adopted. This was a critical moment in the his- 
tory of Oregon. While this lyceum was not a legislative body, 
it had influence enough to determine the action of the community 
on any question upon which the people was so evenly divided 
as upon this. All the British party were in favor of this action, 
because anything that would prevent the United States from as- 
suming jurisdiction over the country would only be a way of 
turning the country over to Great Britain. This, doubtless, was 
the ultimate end sought by the party that sustained the resolution. 
The resolution was passed, but the man was at hand who was 
equal to the emergency. It was Mr. George Abernethy, the stew- 
ard of the Methodist Mission, having charge of all the temporal 
business of the Mission, who was a resident of Oregon City. He 
immediately shifted the issue by introducing the following reso- 
lution for discussion the following week : 

"Resolved, That if the United States extends its jurisdiction 
over this country during the next four years it will not be ex- 
pedient to form an independent government." 

A very earnest debate followed. Both sides were at their 



6o LIFK AND LABORS OlP A PIONEKR 

best. Both felt that the action here to be had would determine 
the course the Oregon community would take in the establishment 
of a government, which, evidently, could not be much longer de- 
layed without plunging the country into a state of riotous an- 
archy. By a considerable majority the resolution of Mr. Aber- 
nethy was adopted. 

This resolution, in effect, pledged the people against an ''In- 
dependent government," at least for four years. It also clearly 
indicated the abiding faith of the American party that the laws 
of the United States would soon be extended over Oregon. It 
also left the way open for the organization of such a scheme 
of order as the people might adopt that would anticipate its own 
supercession by the authority of the United States at some fu- 
ture date. 

There were three classes of opinion in the country at this 
time in regard to the proper action to be had. First, and per- 
haps stronger than either of the others, as it was led by the in- 
fluence of the Hudson's Bay Company, under the guidance of 
Dr. McLoughlin ; An Independent Government. Second, a Pro- 
visional Government looking to the early extension of the au- 
thority of the United States over the country. Third, a continu- 
ation of the present condition until the United States should ex- 
tend its laws over Oregon. The American sentiment was some- 
what divided between the second and third propositions. Mr. 
Abernethy's resolution had a strong tendency to unite this senti- 
ment, as it, in conection with the action on the resolution of Mr. 
Hastings, showed clearly that the majority of the people were de- 
cided that a government was a necessity. It became at once, 
therefore, only a question whether it should be "Independent" or 



ON the: pacific coast siNcr: 1853 61 

"Provisional." The "Independent" movement meant nothing ul- 
timately but British ownership. The "Provisional" movement 
meant just as certainly American ownership. The action that 
must now soon be had would determine what the people of Ore- 
gon themselves chose as the relation of the future State that all 
now saw was soon to rise out of the somewhat chaotic con- 
dition of the country. What that choice should be when made 
undoubtedly meant the decision of the "Oregon question." It was 
a pivotal time ; and Mr. Abernethy's resolution was the pivot 
on which the future turned. 

Fearing that the swing of opinion was against the forma- 
tion of an "Independent" government, those who had favored 
that began to fall in line against any government at all. The 
reason is obvious. A Provisional government meant simply a 
temporary regulation which avowedly looked forward to the 
speedy occupancy of the country by the United States. This was 
the one thing that all who favored an Independent government 
were trying to avoid. That movement was from the beginning 
to end in behalf of the British ownership of Oregon under the 
guise of independency until such a time as the guise could be 
thrown off and the ownership proclaimed. 

Events began now rapidly to hasten. Space does not per- 
mit us to follow the successive steps of the drama, only to state 
their outcome. After some important preliminary meetings and 
conferences on the part of the friends of a Provisional govern- 
ment, and many counter movements on the part of those who had 
adopted the shibboleth of "No Government," a meeting was 
called to be held at Champoeg on the 2nd day of May, 1843, ^^ 
which all understood that the determinative action would be 



62 life: and labors of a pionee:r 

taken. Pending this meeting "An address of the Canadian citi- 
zens of Oregon to the meeting at Champoeg,'' was circulated 
throughout the country, and every effort was made to prevent 
affirmative action at the meeting of May 2nd. This "Address" 
was written by Rev. F. N. Blanchet, a very astute Roman Cath- 
ohc priest, who afterwards became Archbishop. He was a mas- 
ter in dialectics in his own tongue, the French, but was not able 
to perfectly Anglicise his speech. It was ably conceived, though 
expressed in imperfect English. A quotation of paragraphs ii 
and 12 will disclose the animus and purpose of the entire address. 
They are as follows : 

"ii. That we consider the country free, at present to all 
nations till government shall have decided; open to every in- 
dividual wishing to settle, without distinction of origin, and with- 
out asking him anything, either to become an English, Spanish, 
or American citizen. 

12. So we, English subjects, proclaim to be free, as well as 
those who come from France, California or the United States, 
or even natives of this country ; and we desire unison with all 
the respectable citizens who wish to settle in this country ; or we 
ask to be recognized as free among ourselves to make such regu- 
lations as appear suitable to our wants, save the general interest 
of having justice from all strangers who might injure us, and that 
our reasonable customs and pretensions be respected." 

Through the ambiguous expressions of this extract is shown 
as clearly as any thing can be shown, that the real conflict that 
was to be joined at the meeting at Champoeg was the old one 
of British or American ownership of Oregon, now on the very 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 6^, 

point of coming to a decisive issue before the people of Oregon 
itself. 

It was an intense moment when the appointed meeting 
gathered at Champoeg on the 2nd day of May, and it was found 
that the larger part of the adult males of the Oregon settlement 
were present and ready for the decisive contest. Dr. Ira L. Bab- 
cock, of the Methodist Mission, was made chairman of the meet- 
ing, and G. W. he Breton elected secretary. A committee of 
twelve, which had been appointed at a previous meeting to report 
at this, made a report which favored an organization. A motion 
to accept it was made, but the Hudson's Bay men and the Cath- 
olics under the lead of Rev. F. N. Blanchet, unanimously voted 
"No," and the motion to accept was lost. There was much con- 
fusion and some consternation at this result, for it seemed that 
all the hopes of those who had labored so earnestly and patriot- 
ically in behalf of the organization of a Provisional government 
were to be blasted. Mr. Blanchet's forces were well trained, and 
though many of them did not well understand the English lan- 
guage, they could say "No" when any motion was made by one 
on the side of an organization, and "Yes" when the motion was 
made by one of their own side. There was hesitation about 
another motion that would bring the question to a direct vote. 
In the midst of the uncertainty, a loyal mountaineer stepped forth 
and solved the uncertainty. "Joe Meek," an old Rocky Moun- 
tain man, of tall, erect and commanding form, fine visage, with. 
a coal-black eye, and the voice of a stentor, stepped out of the 
crowd and shouted, "All in favor of the report of the commit- 
tee and an organization, follow me." The Americans, with a 
few of the more intelligent and far seeing of the Canadians v/ere 



64 life: and labors of a pioneer 

quickly in line by his side. The opposition, led by Blanchet, 
filed more slowly *'to the left." The lines were carefully counted. 
Fifty-two stood with Meek ; fifty with Blanchet ; so narrow was 
the margin on this historic hour in favor of the organization of 
any government at all. 

If Joseph h. Meek had never performed any other public 
act worthy of mention the act of this day would alone have made 
his name historic. He was a leader among the Rocky Mountain 
men who had abandoned the perilous and unsatisfactory life of 
the fur hunter for a home under the blue skies and on the 
flowery prairies of the Willamette. These were, almost to a 
man, loyal Americans, and in all the questions that were being 
thus adjudicated in Oregon they could be depended upon to 
vote and act for the interests of the United States. The moun- 
taineer and the missionary stood side by side on this occasion, 
as, indeed, they did on many another that concerned the country 
which they had both chosen for their home. 

The result of the count was received with ringing shouts 
by the Americans; shouts which will ''go ringing down the 
grooves of time," as marking an act hardly less decisive than 
any other one act that illustrates the history of Oregon. Prompt- 
ly the chairman called the meeting to order again, but the de- 
feated party, under the lead of Mr. Blanchet, silently and some- 
what sullenly withdrew, leaving only those who had voted in 
the affirmative to conclude the business of the day. This was 
easily accomplished, as the meeting was now in the hands of its 
friends. It proceeded at once to the organization of a form of 
jgovernment, providing for the election of a supreme judge, 
with probate powers, a clerk of the court, a sheriff, three magis- 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1 853 65 

strates, three constables, a treasurer, a major and three capt-ams. 
It also appointed a Legislative Committee of nine. These places 
were all filled by competent and patriotic men, as follows : A. E. 
Wilson, supreme judge; G. W. Le Breton, clerk of the court; 
J. Meek, sheriff ; W. H. Willson, treasurer ; and Messrs. D. 
Hill, Robert Shortess, Robert Newell, Alanson Beers, T. J. 
Hubbard, W. H. Gray, J. 0''Neil, R. Moore and William 
Doughtery, Legislative Committee. 

This meeting adjourned to the 5th day of July, when it 
was to hear a report from the Legislative Committee on a form 
of organic law for the nascent commonwealth. 

It had been fixed on the 5th day of July in order that the 
people might gather on the day preceeding and show their 
American loyalty by a grand "Independence Celebration." Both 
the celebration and the meeting on the 5th were occasions to 
call out the greatest enthusiasm. Rev. Gustavus Hines delivered 
an oration on the 4th, and was also the president of the meet- 
ing on the 5th. Quite a number of those who opposed an or- 
ganization at the preceeding meeting were present at this and 
announced their cordial support of the objects sought to be ob- 
tained by the Americans. The Catholic missionaries and the 
members of the Hudson's Bay Company, however, not only did 
not attend, but publicly asserted that they would not submit to 
the authority of any government that might be organized. The 
represenatives of the Hudson Bay Company even addressed a 
communication to the leaders of the movement, stating that they 
felt abundantly able to defend both themselves and their politi- 
cal rights. But neither opposition nor threats gave pause to the 



66 LIF^ AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

determined men who were leading this movement for a govern- 
ment that should be Americar.. 

With affairs in this attitude, Mr. Hines announced that the 
report of the Legislative Committee was in order. It was ac- 
cordingly read by Mr. Le Breton. It consisted of a body of 
what were styled "organic laws," prefaced by the following pre- 
amble : 

''We, the people of Oregon Territory, for the purpose of 
mutual protection, and to secure peace and prosperity among 
ourselves, agree to adopt the following laws and regulations un- 
til such time as the United States of America extend their juris- 
diction over us." 

The report of the Legislative Committee, with slight amend- 
ments, was adopted by the meeting. The report provided for 
the election of an "Executive Committee" of three, and, on 
ballot being taken, Alanson Beers, David Hill and Joseph Gale 
were chosen. The other officers elected in May were continued 
until the following May. 

When the primary meeting of the loyal citizens of Oregon 
adjourned on the evening of the 5th of July, 1843, Oregon had 
passed into a condition where every man was a law unto him- 
self into that of an organized political commonwealth. 

This action was bold, and might be called revolutionary, 
as Oregon was claimed alike by Great Britain and the United 
States. As against the claim of Great Britain it approached re- 
bellion. The people of Oregon had decided for themselves 
where their allegiance lay. That decision did more than any one 
thing or any dozen things else to decide the "Oregon Ques- 
tion," and if it is justifiable to claim for any man or any one fact 



ON the: pacific coast since 1853 ^y 

the glory of "Saving Oregon" to the United States, it must lay 
to the credit of the men whose presence and work in the coun- 
try, and whose constant memorializing of the government of 
the United States in behalf of the country, and whose intense 
Americanism, always and everywhere displayed, had made the 
organization of the "Provisional Government" a possibility. 

The government thus ordained was so wisely administered 
that opposition gradually subsided. In the autumn following an 
immigration of not far from 100 people from the eastern states 
entered the Willamette Valley, and melted quietly and happily 
away into the body politic of the embryo State, thus giving such 
a vast preponderance to the American population and sentiment 
that even the Hudson's Bay Company and the Catholic priests 
saw that further opposition would be useless, and began to co- 
operate with the new order of things. Some changes were sub- 
sequently made in the "Organic law." The "Executive Com- 
mittee" of three was found to be cumbersome, and provision was 
made for the election of a governor, and at an election in 1845, 
George Abernethy, whose name has so often and honorably ap- 
peared in this history, was chosen to that important place. 

To the immortal honor of Oregon it may be recorded that 
no country ever had a greater proportion of men strong enough 
and wise enough to govern themselves than she had. This was 
the result of the auspices under which the foundations of her 
civilization were laid. Her pioneers were the Missionaries of 
the Cross, and no names at this day of 1899 are mentioned so 
often by her historians as the names of the noble missionary 
bands of the period beginning with Jason Lee, first and fore- 
most of them all, in 1834. 



68 LIFK AND LABORS 01^ A PI0NE:ER 

Mr. Abernethy's term of office was in most exigent times 
for the new and feeble commonwealth, but he filled it in a man- 
ner that reflected honor on himself, on the missionary service 
from which he graduated to the chair of executive of the young 
commonwealth, and to the great advantage of the people who 
had chosen him to be the First Governor of Oregon. All ques- 
tions of the ownership of Oregon having been decided in the 
manner forecast in the organization of the Provisional Govern- 
ment, and the Government of the United States having organized 
her into a Territory of the Union, on the 3rd day of March, 
1849, Governor George Abernethy, of the Provisional Govern- 
ment, passed over his authority into the hands of Governor 
Joseph Lane, appointed Territorial Governor by President Polk, 
and the Provisional was merged into the National authority. 

This change was a change only in form. The Provisional 
Government was an American Government. California had her 
"Bear Flag," Texas had her "Lone Star," but Oregon never 
marched under any other banner than the "Stars and Stripes." 
From the time Jason Lee stepped over the ridge of the contin- 
ent on the 15th day of June, 1834, and began his march to the 
western sea, her missionaries, her immigrants, her mountaineers 
forever sung to the winds and waves of her glorious mountains 
and her illimitable seas 

"The Star Spangled Banner forever shall wave 

O'er the Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave." 

True, he found, as he stepped on the pebbly beach of the 

mighty Columbia at Vancouver, on the i6th day of September, 

1834, a flag-staff, and a British flag flying at its peak, but it 

was marred by a cabalistic sign, "H. B. C," on its crimson 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 69 

folds. It was degraded from its national significance to the 
mere emblem of trade and barter and gain. The results of his 
work, and the work of those who accompanied him and of those 
who followed him have found their glorious vindication in the 
grand Pacific Empire that they revealed, and then confirmed 
to the Great Republic. And it is not possible to evade the 
historic conclusion reached by one of the most paintaking stu- 
dents of the story of missionary work on the Northwest coast: 
"That to the Methodist missionaries and their friends in Wash- 
ington and elsewhere was due the inaugural movements towards 
a Provisional Government with all that it implied." Its impli- 
cation and its sure prophecy was the treaty of 1846, between 
the United States and Great Britain, under which the latter 
withdrew her flag from all the territory of the "Old Oregon," 
and the former lifted the "Stars and Stripes" in unchallenged 
authority over what is now the grandest, most resourceful, most 
patriotic and most promising of our National Domain. This 
Empire of the West faces the old Orient, and here are the forces 
that will renew the great histories of the olden times in them 
under the loftier inspirations of the Anglo-Saxon spirit that so 
splendidly dominates this "Ultimate West." 



70 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

CHAPTER IX. 

Historical Error of Sir George Seymour. 

IT will be remembered by the student of history that in 1579 
**• Sir Francis Drake discovered the Bay of San Francisco, just 
267 years before the Collingwood, commanded by Sir George 
Seymour, sailed through the Golden Gate. This was during the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth of England, who had bestowed the 
order of knighthood upon Drake for gallant service in the de- 
struction of the great Armada, which occurred during her reign. 
Drake had not only discovered the bay, but had laid claim to 
the entire country under the name of New Albion, which made 
it by right of discovery a part of the British Empire, 

It seems, however, to have escaped the notice of the British 
admiral that the conditions of international law had never been 
fulfilled on the part of England, and, for that reason, if for no 
other, his hoisting the flag in 1846 would have been of no avail 
whatever. The right of discovery had lapsed 67 years previous 
to his arrival. 

An additional reason why Admiral Seymour at that par- 
ticular time desired to prevent the raising of the American 
flag at San Francisco is found in the fact that what is known 
as the "Oregon Boundary" question was then unsettled. Many 
at the present day remember the electioning "Slogan," 54-40 or 
fight, which carried a quite ordinary man into the Presidential 
office over one of the most popular statesmen our nation ever 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 71 

produced. England then laid claim to all the rest of the terri- 
tory north of the Columbia River, by virtue of its occupancy by 
the ''Hudson Bay Company," which had its headquarters at 
Vancouver, one hundred miles above the mouth of that river. It 
will be noted, the Northwest Fur Company, founded by John 
Jacob Astor, had been bought up by the Hudson Bay people, 
who claimed to be under the jurisdiction of the British govern- 
ment. If that contention had made good, with the same govern- 
ment floating its banner at San Francisco Bay, the United States 
would have been without a harbor of any consequence on the 
Pacific Coast. Thanks to the noble pioneers of Oregon and Cali- 
fornia, we now have them all from Victoria on the north to San 
Diego on the south. 

Disappointed at San Francisco, the final struggle was trans- 
ferred to Oregon, and other actors appeared upon the scene. The 
peculiar difficulties and embarrassments that surrounded the peo- 
ple of California were measurably unknown in Oregon, except- 
ing it may be that the same intense American sentiment dominat- 
ed both localities. We shall better maintain the continuity of 
our historic narrative by centering the thoughts of our readers 
upon a new class of actors who were working out the same re- 
sult in a different manner and in quite a different way. With 
more of the calmness and self-poise than has usually charactei- 
ized the citizens of our country, in great emergencies, and with 
an impulse springing from the most lofty ideals of personal re- 
sponsibility, a few men under discouraging environments were 
working out social and political problems that were destined to 
touch with vital force the life of generations yet unborn. 

Being disappointed in his expectations of gaining a foot- 



'JT. LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

ing in California, Sir George Seymour, instead of sailing north, 
where was to be found a vast field and where he might still do 
efficient service in promoting the general purpose of the British 
government, in a despondent and pettish mood, sailed as far 
from it as he well could, thus leaving the American people of 
the Pacific Coast free to work out their destiny more in har- 
mony with the sentiment of freedom and justice. We can scarce- 
ly realize what the result would have been had the influence he 
was capable of exerting been added to that of the Hudson Bay 
Company in determining the relations of Oregon to the British 
government. While we might have saved California, yet the 
loss of all the country north of San Francisco would have been 
reduced almost to a dead certainty. 

So narrow indeed was the margin betwen the forces in the 
field that but a miracle could have saved any part of the Pacific 
Coast to the United States. With emotions of love and grati- 
tude we contemplate the hand of Providence in saving to our 
nation so rich an inheritance. No intelligent man can contem- 
plate the wonderful events of the last fifty years without finding 
his faith in a God of wisdom and truth marvellously strengthened. 

FOLLY OF SIR GEORGE SEYMOUR. 

Little did Sir George Seymour, when on his mission to the 
Pacific Coast, in the British warship "Collingwood," realize 
what an opportunity he missed to do a signal service to his coun- 
try, and at the same time to have immortalized his own name, 
when, in a pettish feeling of disappointment at seeing the Amer- 
ican flag waving over Portsmouth Square in San Francisco on 
the 7th of July, 1846, instead of heading his noble ship towards 



ON THK PACII^IC COAST SINCK 1853 73 

the Sandwich Islands he had steered directly for the month of 
the Columbia River, and joining his forces with those of the 
Hudson Bay Company assisted in fixing the boundary line be- 
tween British Columbia and the Territory of Oregon. 

To have cast into the strong, yet somewhat chaotic elements 
of British strength which was centered at the headquarters of 
the Hudson Bay Company at Vancouver, under the able leader- 
ship of Dr. McLaughlin, reinforced as he was by the Catholic 
church at that particular time, the additional forces under the 
command of Sir George Seymour, with a war vessel like the 
Collingwood anchored at the Vancouver wharf, would without 
doubt have outnumbered and overawed the American element to 
that extent as to make their success an utter impossibility, and 
the Columbia river must have been the dividing line between 
British Columbia and a small but powerless community on the 
south side of the Columbia river. All the Northwest would have 
gone to Great Britain, the moral, and many of the physical in- 
fluences of the Louisiana Purchase would have been destroyed 
forever. Never in the history of the world was an empire 
gained on such a small margin ; never was an empire lost by such 
consummate folly, ignorance and whimsical pettishness. When 
Providence drew an obscuring veil over the face of Admiral Sey- 
mour so as to leave him to wander away from the Golden Gate 
to the Sandwich Islands, little if anything less was done for hu- 
man civilization and hope, than when the same hand drew aside 
the obscuring veil from the eyes of Captain Grey and revealed 
to him the broad, open channel of the majestic Columbia. So 
true it is that "He makes the wealth of man to please Him." 

When the historian shall com.e with a vision so unclouded, 



74 



life: and labors of a pioneer 



and a faith so pure and exalted as to be able to see the ever- 
brightening pathway that leads to the millenial dawn, we shall 
see God in history as we have never seen him before. The world 
will soon see that it is not by the hastening tread of marshaled 
legions, not by the thunder of cannon, or the charge of gleam- 
ing steel, but the persuasive voice of peace, and the uplifting 
energy of Divine Love that reveals to the world its hope and as- 
surance of its ultimate triumph over every foe. Not by might 
nor by power, but by my spirit saith the Lord of hosts." 

Broader and more positive every day reveals to us the es- 
sential and ineffaceable difference between the civic virtues in- 
hering in the teachings of Christianity and the blind and erratic 
utterances of human expediency. All over the broad earth the 
wise, the thoughtful, are reaching forth their hands to grasp and 
to hold the inestimable treasures of a permanent and abiding 
peace and joy. 



ON the: pacific coast sinck 1853 75 



CHAPTER X. 

The Raising of the First American Flag in Santa Clara County, 
and Incidents Which Preceded and Followed that Event. 

f TAKE it for granted that the gathering of historical inci- 
dents and personal experiences connected with the early set- 
tlement and development of Santa Clara County, is not the only 
purpose of this Association. No doubt you have fully taken 
into account the peculiar features of our situation, as well as the 
unique character of our present and past environment, and also 
the unusual and varied impulses that dominated the chief agencies 
that have guided our steps thus far on our course. 

In California, to a greater extent than in any other State in 
the Union, it has been more difficult to gather together communi- 
ties where a co-operative integrity with a unity of place and pur- 
?pose could be sustained for any considerable length of time. In 
a State with a cosmopolitan population like ours, with so many 
untried and uncommon possibilities, the experimental stage must 
necessarily be greatly varied, and in all cases exceedingly dif- 
ficult and protracted. It is obvious, therefore, that a clear and 
satisfactory continuity of historical narrative will scarcely be 
maintained unless a correlation of time and events are carefully 
considered. 

I think we may safely say that a failure at this point has been 
the chief cause of the fragmentary and unsatisfactory character 
of nearly all our historical publications on the Pacific Coast. Local 



"J^ LIFS AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

events of real interest, have been deprived of much of their im- 
portance by being shorn of needed auxiliary aid, and are thus 
made to appear disjointed and bewildering. 

The historic setting that surrounded the ten days succeed- 
ing July 7th, 1846, can scarcely be equaled by any period of the 
same length of time in all the past history of this nation. 

In estimating the beauty and relevancy of individual or na- 
tional achievement, we should always seek the beginning from 
the end and not the end from the beginning. Indeed, by this 
philosophy of historic narrative, we shall be quite sure to esti- 
mate correctly the characters of the men who played such a 
prominent part in the stirring scenes of sixty years ago, arid 
whose marvellous deeds it is the work of the historian to strive 
to perpetuate. 

To simply mention such names as Float, jMontgomery, Re- 
vere, Sutter, Fallon, Fremont, Dupont and Stockton, is but to 
immortalize any scene or any work of which they had formed 
a part. While, on the other hand, the Castros, the Vallejos, the 
Pockicoes and the Alvisos stood in the front rank of the Span- 
ish population of the Pacific Coast. We have no word of re- 
proach for those noble men, or of condemnation for the part 
they played in the stirring drama of those eventful days. An 
uncontrolable destiny seemed to have fixed their course and de- 
termined their sphere of action, and what they purposed and 
what they did was in perfect harmony with the spirit and ten- 
dency of the age in which they lived. 

And now let us have clearly before our minds the exact sit- 
uation when the brave Capt. Thomas Fallon quietly marched 
down from yonder mountains with his little band of refugees, 



I 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 'J'] 

and boldly lifted to the soft, gentle breezes of a Jul}- morning 
that most beautiful symbol of a nation's glory. This little band 
of intelligent and heroic men, understanding more fully than 
others the trend of passing events, had quietly retired to the 
Coast Range of mountains, camping near what is now known as 
Wright's Station, where they patiently awaited events that were 
daily expected to occur in the valley below, and where they could 
easily watch the movements of those whom they knew to be an- 
tagonistic to their plans and purposes. 

At that time there were but thirty stars shining upon that 
banner, now there are forty-six and more close at hand. Then 
there were about thirty million inhabitants living in the United 
States, now there are eighty-five million, while equally great 
and marvellous has been our advance in all other departments 
of national strength and greatness. 

But now look at the situation during the six eventful days 
between the raising of the flag by Commodore Sloat at Mon- 
terey, and the performance of the same patriotic work by Captain 
Fallon at San Jose. Sloat had quietly moved out of the harbor 
of ^lazetlan with his little fleet of three small vessels, and turn- 
ing their prows towards the north, sought to conceal both the 
place of his destination and the object of his mission. He leis- 
urely moved up the coast, and in a few brief hours, cast his 
anchor in the broad open bay of Monterey, where he immediately 
disembarked a small squad of his sturdy marines. From the 
place of their landing their vision could scan the ocean far north- 
ward tovv^ards the Golden Gate, but not a sail appeared to break 
the monotony of the scene, and not a sound but the solemn roar 
cf the dashino- billows of the ocean. 



yS LIFE AND LABORS OP A PIONEER 

The Commodore was not long in making known the ob- 
ject of his visit, for in a few moments a flag-stafif consisting of a 
castoff spar was firmly planted in the rocky soil, from the sum- 
mit of which floated for the first time in California that beauti- 
ful banner we all love and admire. 

Scarcely had this work been accomplished when the CoUing- 
wood, one of England's most powerful war-ships, coming from 
the same Mexican port, and commanded by Admiral Sir George 
Seymour, entered the harbor of Monterey and cast its anchor 
near the flagship of Commodore Sloat. The Commodore was 
not long in gaining the deck of the Collingwood, and with the 
utmost suavity and politeness bade the distinguished Admiral a 
most cordial welcome and a most pleasant sojourn at Monterey. 

At this point of their interview, in answer to the greetings 
of Commodore Sloat, Sir George unwittingly revealed the sin- 
ister design of his present attitude, by quietly remarking ''You 
Americans have stolen a march on me, but I guess it is all right." 
These few words, while attempting to conceal a great disap- 
pointment, gave expression to a prophecy that, in the march of 
events soon to follow and even in our day, has been wonderfully 
fulfilled. 

And now, see how these events began to develop themselves 
and how rapidly they have moved in shaping the character and 
destiny of our State and Nation. While the Commodore was en- 
deavoring to entertain the British Admiral to the best of his 
ability, a foaming steed might have been seen speeding over hill 
and valley, headed towards the Bay of San Francisco, bearing 
a message from Commodore Sloat to Captain Montgomery, who, 
with the little sloop Portsmouth, was stationed at that port. The 



ON the: pacii^ic coast since: 1853 79 

message read as follows : "You will immediately hoist the Amer- 
ican flag at your place, and also at Sonoma." Lieutenant J. W. 
Reveer was soon crossing the bay with this order from Mont- 
gomery. "Take down the Bear Flag and run up in its place 
the Stars and Stripes." Thus went down forever that strange 
and mysterious symbol, the secret meaning and design of which 
was closely guarded by its author ; but having served its purpose, 
could not and did not abide. No event, perhaps, in the early his- 
tory of the State, has given rise to more romance and conjecture, 
than the raising of the "Bear Flag" at Sonoma by Colonel Fre- 
mont after his return from the wilds of Oregon in 1846. When 
the historian who is to come, shall give to the country a true 
version of this interesting transaction it will be seen to have been 
more far reaching and decisive in its results than almost any 
other event of those early days. 

We will now return for a few moments to our redoubtable 
English Admiral whom we left in the harbor of Monterey as the 
guest of Commodore Sloat. After completing a few slight re- 
pairs to his vessel, he quietly weighed anchor and turned the prow 
of the Collingwood towards the Bay of San Francisco, feeling 
quite certain that for once, at least, that sly and wide-awake 
Yankee had been left behind. A few hours' sail brought him to 
the Golden Gate, entering which, he sailed quietly over the placid 
waters of the bay, charmed by the virgin beauties of the scener\- 
around him, and fondly anticipating a speedy and successful 
termination to his anxiety and toil. While preparing to anchor 
his ship, for, as he hoped, a long and peaceful rest, he happened 
to turn his vision landward when lo ! there, right before his as- 
tonished gaze, appeared the seemingly ubiquitous Stars and 



8o life: and labors of a pionekr 

Stripes waving in majesty and triumph, and kissed by the gentle 
breezes of the ocean. The well-laid scheme of the Admiral had 
failed, the keen-sighted Yankee was once more victorious. See- 
ing that the game was now up, the disappointed Admiral at once 
saw the futility of further effort. In a few hours the noble ship 
Collingwood was gracefully riding the foam-crested billows of 
the mighty Pacific, headed toward the Sandwich Islands, and 
disappearing below the distant horizon the last hope of Great 
Britain to capture California was lost forever. Three years be- 
fore she had met with a similar failure in Oregon, the circum- 
stances attending which having come to the knowledge of Fre- 
mont, materially aided him in the shrewd and successful work 
which gave to the Union the Golden State of California. 

It will be remembered that in 1579 the bold and successful 
navagator Sir Francis Drake had discovered the Bay of San 
Francisco, and after remaining there for several months, gave it 
the name of New Albion and claimed the entire country for the 
sovereign of England. Notwithstanding the fact that 267 years 
had passed away since Drake had made this discovery, yet the 
English had done absolutely nothing to make good their claim, 
and the country had remained for all these years in the undisput- 
ed possession of Spain. 

But the eighteenth century had brought many wonderful 
changes, and no nation seemed more alert in studying those 
changes and availing herself of the advantages they might oflfei 
than did Great Britain. 

Every movement of Admiral Seymour plainly indicated that 
he was on the Pacific Coast for a specific purpose, and that such 
purpose was antagonistic to the one which occupied the time and 



ON the: pacific coast since 1853 81 

attention of Commodore Sloat. Of this fact the raising of the 
American flag at Monterey had just given an undoubted evi- 
dence, and the revelation had just put both parties on their guard, 
and as a natural consequence, materially quickened the action of 
each. The Admiral in his reply to Sloat, also, had made it quite 
plain that, in his opinion the crucial hour had not yet arrived, 
but was so near at hand that time had become an important factor 
in all his future movements. 

California especially seemed of the utmost importance to 
England at this particular crisis. Besides enabling her to press 
with greater hope of success her claims in the north, it would 
serve as a valuable auxiliary in building up her Canadian pos- 
sessions, and in neutralizing the expected benefits to flow to the 
United States from the Louisiana Purchase. 

San Francisco Bay then, by virtue of Sir Francis Drake's 
discovery, was, in the estimation of Admiral Seymour the key 
to the present situation. To reach that point before Sloat, to 
raise the British flag where Drake had raised it 279 years be- 
fore and to revive that ancient claim, would place him upon a 
vantage ground from which no power on earth would be able to 
dislodge him. If he failed in this he well knew the failure would 
be ruinous and fatal. And he failed, and now the Admiral's re- 
cent prophecy, "I guess it is all right," is gloriously fulfilled and 
together we will continue to sing to the dashing billows of our 
illimitable seas : 

"The star spangled banner forever shall zvave, 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave/' 
Then followed in rapid succession, the raising of our flag 
at Sonoma, Sacramento, and San Jose, which brings us to the 



S2 LIJ^e: and labors of a PION]eKR 

13th day of July, 1846, and to the northwest corner of Market 
and Post streets, then, and until recently called El Dorado. 
There, not far from the place where stands the present flag-pole, 
Captain Fallon, surrounded by about thirty brave companions 
joyfully, with shouts of triumph, and just as the first rays of the 
marching sun shot their shimmering beams down from the lofty 
summit where now stands our noble observatory, raised on high 
the first American flag that ever fluttered in the gentle breezes of 
Santa Clara County. 

And still the patriotic work went on. Five more localities 
witnessed the same noble ceremony, coming in the following 
order: San Juan, July, i8th; San Diego, July 29th; Santa Bar- 
bara, August 4th ; San Pedro, August 6th ; Los Angeles, August 
13th; San Fernando, January 12th, where the final surrender was 
made to Colonel John C. Fremont, and a territory larger than ten 
Palestines was forever redeemed from the semi-barbarism of 
Spanish rule, and consecrated to the cause of freedom and pro- 
gress. 

Thus was the chain completed that now binds together the 
fairest land upon which the sun shines, with the most glorious 
destiny that humanity can know. And now. 

With chords of love no earthly power can part, 
We'll bind this sacred banner to our heart, 
And gathering strength from heaven-descended pozver, 
Find a sure triumph in each threatening hour. 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 83 

CHAPTER XL 

Memorial Poem Recited at Vernon, N. Y. 

Freedom! thou sweetest word in human tongue, 
Of thee have sages thought and poets sung, 
In all the ranks of busy human kind 
This word, suggestive, thrills the sentient mind, 
Sweeps the dark clouds of gloomy night away, 
And brings before us joy-inspiring day; 
Falls like sweet music on the ravished ear, 
And stills the heart that palpitates with fear, 
Lifts up the head so long by sorrow bound 
And spreads the bow of promise on the cloud. 

Ye heavenly Powers! while I begin my song. 
Inspire my soul, and bear the strain along. 
Bring to my aid the patriot's holy fires. 
That glowed so brightly in departed sires. 
Bid them survey us from the bending sky. 
And tell us how to live and how to die. 

Is there a heart so dead to purest bliss. 

As not to glory in a land like this, 

Whose mind debauched by treason's deadly blight, 

Would sink its glories in eternal night? 

Avant! ignoble one, and let they name 



84 LII^E^ AND LABORS 01^ A PIONEER 

Perish forever from the roll of fame, 
Turn from the place where noble patriots stood, 
And leave your country for your country's good, 
But let the pure these hallowed hours employ 
To swell the anthem of a nation's joy. 

Thou glorious banner ! emblem of the free, 
Whose radiant beauties cover land and sea, 
Beneath thy star-lit folds do millions bring 
The gladsome offerings of another spring; 
The grey-haired father with the mystic thread 
That, links the living with the honored dead, 
The sober matron who her time employs 
In forming patriots of her growing boys. 
The bright-eyed maiden whose unfolding charms 
Await a transit to her lover's arms. 
The little urchin, whose soft, flaxen curls 
In sportive glee the gentle breeze twirls. 
The rich, the poor, the humble and the proud 
May here be gathered in one common crowd; 
And lifting up to heaven the beaming eye 
Swear with this flag to live and for it die. 

No other standard shall our homage claim. 
No other color, whatsoer'er its name. 
In beauteous contrasts, red white, and blue, 
Is the proud banner which our fathers made ; 
And not one star shall ever from it fade. 
While floating now in freedom's bold crusade. 



ON the: pacii^ic coast since: 1853 85 

Not half so quick the forked Hghtning flies, 
On murky cloud along the bending skies, 
As our just wrath to smite with instant death 
Who breathes upon it but one hostile breath. 
Is there a land beneath the circling sun, 
Where mountain rears its head or rivers run. 
That can, Columbia, ever equal thee. 
Whose verdant beauties spread from sea to sea ? 
On thy broad bosom nations come to rest, 
And throng the valleys of our peerless west. 
The bleeding victims of oppression's wiles, 
Hear of thy blessings with a thousand smiles. 
While He who rules the heavenly powers above 
Looks down and blesses with a Father's love. 

How must their spirits feel the lambient flame 
Of brightening hope, at mention of thy name, 
Else never could these swarming millions brave 
Such sundered ties, and oceans swelling wave, 
They drop the tear, and heave the sorrowing sigh, 
O'er the dear spot where friends departed lie, 
Sadly they breathe the tender word, adieu. 
To all the scenes their early childhood knew; 
Gazing, they stand and view the less'ning shore. 
Whose hills and vallies they shall see no more. 
Silent they stand resolve to fix in mind 
Those joys and friendships they have left behind. 

As beauteous Dido plied her winsome art. 



86 li^e: and labors of a pionEER 

To fix the flame of love in Eanea's heart. 
To stay his steps and give his wandering o'er, 
And brave the ocean and the wars no more, 
But find at one in Carthage's pleasing scene 
A rising kingdom and a lovely queen. 

So does our goddess kindly spread her arms, 
And bid the nations view her radiant charms. 
Speaks sweetly to them from her loving heart. 
And soothes their sorrows by her gentle art, 
Spreads her broad ages in the needful hour, 
And awes the tryrant by her dreadful power. 
But bids the oppressed enjoy her fruitful soil, 
And spread her glory by their willing toil. 

Dark is the soul, and void of truth and right. 

Unworthy happiness, unworthy light, 

Unfit for public trust, for private care, 

A wretch, a monster, who would thee forswear, 

Or with a cruel hand would wish to rend 

The beauteous garments of so kind a friend. 

Here let us pause and carefully relate 
What makes a nation truly wise and great. 
Do towering monuments that pierce the sky. 
O'er the proud dust where buried heroes lie? 
Do cities fair with gorgeous temples crowned. 
Or busy commerce with its murmuring sounds. 
Is it the train that thunders through the land 



ON THi: PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 87 

To bear our products to some distant strand? 
Or the tamed lightning darting o'er the wire, 
To bear our message on its wings of fire? 
No: these may flourish with exulting pride, 
Where virtue, honor, truth and right have died, 

'Tis men we need, men of a noble mould, 
Who scorn to barter principle for gold. 
Constant to keep a noble end in view. 
And with unfaltering step that end pursue. 
Who seek through all the fleeting days of life 
To turn the thoughtless from the paths of strife, 
Who scorn the seeds of party hate to sow, 
From which a crop of bloody deeds may grow, 
Who call no virtue by a fancied name. 
And then betray her to a lasting shame. 
Who passion crush, however strong or dear. 
And for no loss of evil shed a tear, 
Who loathes the man who holds the evil creed, 
"Bleed not for country but your country bleed." 

Say, trembling statesman, can ye do no more 
Than fearful paltry souls have done before. 
But while prophetic clusters fill the hand 
Halt on the borders of the promised land? 
Learn this, while sailing o'er a troubled sea. 
The wise possess a chart unknown to thee, 
They hold no parley with unmanly fear. 
But boldly by the light of truth they stear, 



88 . life: and labors of a PIONKE^R 

Knowing a prattling child who holds the right 

Will crush an emperor tho' clothed with might, 

That none who kindle passion's deadly hate, 

Can ever make a nation truly great, 

But he who bears the wonder-working rod, 

In strict obedience to the voice of God, 

Shall face with steadfast heart at duty's call, 

Ten thousand dangers and surmount them all. 

Such were the men who on New England's shore 

Planted their standard in the days of yore. 

They scorned the fiery bolt by tyrants hurled. 

And breathed new power into a sinking world. 

Who dared to think and act on nature's plan. 

And grant her born to each aspiring man. 

Said to the waves that beat the trembling soul, 

''Thus far, no farther, shall thy waters roll." 

But here whole sombre forests nod the head 

O'er paths by savages for ages tread, 

Where untamed beasts from gloomy thickets sprang, 

Or serpents coiled to dart the deadly fang, 

Where birds and insects bright with various hue 

In sportive glee, or fatal fury, flew. 

Here in the name of freedom we will stand. 

Turning forever from our native land. 

And while to heaven we raise our fervent call, 

Build up an empire that shall never fall. 

Nobly they stood with calm and steadfast mind, 

Neither to reason nor to conscience blind, 

A holy impulse all their bosoms fired. 



. ON the: pacific coast since 1853 89 

And history speaking o'er the lapse of time, 

Has made their memory and their deeds sublime. 

With newborn zeal we votive offerings bring, 
And names immortal here attempt to sing. 
We hail with joy our country's bright ning morn. 
And turn from empires and from kings with scorn, 
Now, while our radiant flag is here unfurled, 
Proclaim our doctrine to a list'ning world. 
And charge our minds at each inquiring turn. 
To hold the truths that others seek to learn. 

Yes : there are men whom liberty can trust. 

To guard her banner from despoiling dust. 

Whose souls united to the sons of worth, 

Will speak, enraptured, of her noble birth, 

Sing of her beauteous life in Eden's bowers. 

When man unf alien, passed his joyous hours. 

Tell how in classic Greece her footsteps strayed 

To claim asylum in Arcadian shade. 

Then how her form on restless pinions flies, 

To scan the beauty of Italia's skies, 

And mourn the while that man should care to know 

Her name, her spirit, and her work below: 

But see ! once more we view her radiant face, 
Cheering the nations with its winning grace, 
Smiling where Gesler feels the wrath of Tell, 
And weeping when a Kosciusko fell; 



90 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PI0NE:ER 

Bold Cromwell cheers with vengeance in his eye. 
But sighed to see a noble Hampden die, 
Inspired the Pilgrims when the Mayflower bore 
Her gathered treasures to a distant shore. 

Here now I rest, and fold my weary wings. 
And turn, rejected, from the courts of kings. 
And here for ages will I fix my seat, 
While gathering millions shall my image greet; 
ril here inspire the orator and sage, 
To spread their wisdom on the classic page, 
The warrior's soul shall feel my secret power 
And stand undaunted in the dangerous hour. 
The fettered slave shall feel my sudden stroke, 
And from his neck shall fall the galling yoke, 
And beauteous woman, guided by my wand. 
Shall be enfranchised through this favored land. 
Like yon bright pillar raised at heaven's command, 
To guide His people o'er a deserted land, 
In lonely wilds it shed its hallowed light. 
And blazed its glory on the gloom of night, 
Guiding the wandering in his weary way, 
And gave to midnight all the light of day. 
So shall my radiance, heavenly and divine, 
On you who love me never cease to shine. 

Shall we not sing at each returning year, 
Those names to freedom and to country dear. 
Shall we not tell the mighty deeds they wrought, 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 91 

The words they uttered and the battles fought? 

How firm they stood in danger's trying hour, 

To stem the tide of treason's threatening power. 

Shall freedom's altar, reared at such a cost, 

To future ages be forever lost. 

Shall we consent in doubting fear to stand, 

And let dread Anarch rule this lovely land ? 

No, never, never, will we cease to be 

True to those men who made our country free. 

In all the forms that joy has been expressed, 

With all the hope that kindles in the breast. 

With all the zeal that human bosom fires. 

With all the faith that heavenly love inspires, 

We'll march, and weep, and talk, and sing and pray, 

Through all the hours of this memorial day. 

Not like the matrons in Eneas train, 

Wearied with toil and dangers of the main, 

In wanton haste, by adverse gods inspired. 

With impious hands their anchored vessel fired, 

And sought to end in the devouring flame, 

Rome's future empire and the Trojan name ; 

We swear no human hands, however great. 

Shall bear the torch to fire our Ship of State. 

If to that work one step they dare to go. 

That step shall make those men our mortal foe; 

No mountain heights, or forest's rocky dell, 

No cave, though deeper than the depths of hell, 

Shall be a refuge from the awakened wrath, 



92 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

That sweeps with fury on the traitors' path, 
And pauses not, till their false bosoms feel 
The fatal power of our avenging steel. 

Our humble lyre must strike its mournful strains, 

To tell the glory of two noble names. 

And wait the bard with a diviner flame 

To sing more sweetly of their deathless fame. 

Thou sainted Lincoln ! whose untimely end 

Bereft a nation of its dearest friend. 

To imitate thy virtues shall engage 

The toiling patriot of each coming age. 

From thee they learn to love their country's laws, 

And die with pleasure in her sacred cause ; 

No sting of envy thy pure soul possessed, 

No vengeful feelings burned within thy breast. 

From chilling prejudice thy mind was free. 

And suffering bondmen found a friend in thee; 

No sordid end pursued, but firmly stood, 

For truth, and labored for the people's good. 

While slumbering now among the silent dead, 

A martyr's crown adorns thy sainted dead. 

And while we cherish what thy brave deeds won, 

We write thy name next to our Washington. 

That other scene, we view with tearful eyes, 
Where noble, generous, pious Garfield dies. 
How grand his speech, how lofty every deed ! 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 93 

Yet for that greatness he is doomed to bleed, 
When his pure life admiring men behold, 
In conscious virtue theirs are firm and bold. 
And view with pride the path his footsteps trod, 
Who loved the people, while he loved his God. 

Like Carmel's seer who in his deathless flight 
Looked down with blessing on a world of might, 
And ere his fiery steeds their course began. 
Cast gently down one sacred gift to man ; 
So from his shoulders, as he soars above. 
He drops the mantle of a patriot's love. 
Go freedom's martyrs ! heaven does thus ordain 
To rend our bosoms with severest pain, 
'Tis thine to tread the flowery fields of bliss. 
While we mitst struggle in a world like this, 
But while thy vision sweeps from star to star, 
Smile sweetly on us from thy home afar. 
And as in heaven thy spirits sing and shine. 
Forever hover o'er thy country's shrine. 

Rome wept with grief when Cato's body passed. 

And cried, alas ! this patriot is our last. 

Not so are we ; when to the grave we give 

Our buried heros, others with us live. 

Ah never shall our tongues forget to tell 

Of how they fought and how their comrades fell, 

Of how they stood at evening's fading light, 

And watched for freedom through the gloom of night, 

In fruitful fields, where smiling verdure grew. 



94 life: and labors of a pioneer 

They lift the stains that nature never knew, 
They flecked the hill-side with their gushing blood, 
And stained the current of the river's flood, 
To wounded, dying brothers oft they came. 
To take love's tokens, or to learn their name ; 
Oft on a bosom cold and void of life 
They found the picture of a loving wife, 
Or one from whom he tore himself away, 
Before the pleasures of the bridal day, 
Or catch the fleeting message e'er he dies. 
And close in death a fallen comrade's eyes. 

Where now had been this banner and this day, 
Had they betrayed us in that bloody fray. 
Had they but faltered in that trying hour. 
And gave our country to the traitor's power. 
Had they complained and halted on the way. 
Because, perchance, they failed to get their pay, 
They proved 'tis nobler, let it now be told, 
To die for freedom than to live for gold. 
Ten thousand blessings on their noble head. 
Ten thousand flowers along their pathway spread. 
And may they ever feel and ever know 
The sweetest pleasures in their life below. 
And may at last a Saviour's deathless love 
Proclaim them welcome to a home above. 

We come not here to strike our lyre to kings, 
No servile flattery from us on its strings, 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 95 

No slavish chords shall bind our souls with fear, 

But truth's sweet music charm the list'ning ear. 

He that too much his own perfections see 

Will see too much the faults of you and me. 

We should be calm and moderate in our view 

And not with malice any thing pursue. 

With equal scales to balance others' rights, 

Nor blame at morning what we praise at night. 

Not curse old Shylock's every passing hour. 

Then do him honor by our lust of power. 

Since heavenly wisdom in this world ordains 

That freedom follows after galling chains, 

That he who views the distant landscape bright 

Must toil to reach the mountain's dizzy height. 

That ere the calm of sacred peace is ours, 

We feel the fearful shock of hostile powers. 

And sweetest flowers of sacred memory grow 

Along the banks where crimson currents flow; 

Who plants the tree must wait the circling years 

Before the flower and golden fruit appears. 

The man or nation who true greatness knows 

Must plant the seeds from whence that greatness grows. 

Fair pleasure's train is love, faith, hope and joy. 

None but ourselves can this fair train destroy. 

If in our land true justice we invade 

And dim its brightness by obscuring shade. 

If unjust laws instruct at every turn 

Shall we complain because the people learn? 

Can we demur, when stagnant pools we bare. 



96 life: and labors of a pionee:r 

If ghastly death rides on the tainted air? 
Or when our statutes false distinctions draw 
To tangle justice in a web of law? 
We strike with vengeance 'till the fight is won, 
The creed, that many here must toil for one, 
That makes of God an engine here below. 
To play man's fury on some hated foe. 
If public, and not private good shall stand, 
Justice and truth must rule through all the land. 
He who would seek to thwart so great an end 
Can look to God nor man to find a friend. 
When Phoon's hand, by heavenly wisdom led, 
The magic ungent o'er his body spread, 
Admiring Sappho dropped her trembling lyre. 
And sudden wonder checked the poet's fire. 
So shall the expanding beauty of our land. 
Touched by the plastic power of freedom's hand, 
While joyful patriots viewing shall admire 
Her altars glowing with celestial fire. 



ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 97 

CHAPTER XII. 

The Ascent of Mount Hood. 

/^ N the morning of the twenty-fourth day of July, 1866, in 
^^ company with three gentlemen of the city of Portland, 
Oregon, I set out with heart and hope, full of determination to 
stand upon that summit if mortal energy and determination could 
reach it. Our place of rendezous was at the house of a Canad- 
ian by the name of Revnue, who, fourteen years before, had 
erected a cabin at the place where the emigrant road leaves the 
mountains and enters the valley of the Willamette. Our way 
here entered the mountains in the gorge, through which flows a 
dashing river three hundred feet wide, which rises from beneath 
the glaciers of Mount Hood. Up this stream we traveled for 
thirty miles, when, leaving the gorge, the way makes a detour to 
the right to gain the summit ridge. Here is the celebrated 
"Laurel Hill." For three or four miles the ascent is continuous, 
and in many places very steep and difficult. The top of Laurel 
Hill is the general summit of the range, which is perhaps ten 
miles in width, and has the general character of a marsh or 
swamp. There is here a dense and grand growth of fir, cedar, 
sugar-pine, and kindred evergreens, with an almost impenetrable 
undergrowth of laurel. There is an inexpressible sense of lonli- 
ness in these deep solitudes. Struggling rays of sunlight only 
here and there find way through the dense foliage, and then fall 
cold and white upon the damp ground. Passing over this level 



98 life; and labors of a pioneer 

we crossed several bold, clear streams, dashing across our way 
from the direction of Mount Hood over beds of scoriaceous sand, 
which had been borne down from that vast pile of volcanic ma- 
terial, nov/ only five or six miles away. We now found an old 
Indian trail leading in the direction of the mountain, and, after 
a ride of an hour and a half upon it, came out into an opening 
of scattered trees, which sweeps around the south side of the 
mountain. It was five o'clock when we emerged from the forest, 
and stood for the time appalled, confronting the body of rocks 
and snow which springs up from the average altitude of the 
mountains and enters into wedlock with the bending ether. The 
bewildering greatness without inspired an unutterable awe 
within. Selecting a place for our camp on a beautiful grassy 
ridge between one of the main affluents of the Des Chutes and the 
Clackamas Rivers, and which really constitute the dividing ridge, 
we erected a booth of boughs, gathered fuel for a large fire dur- 
ing the night, and gave ourselves up to hours of contemplation 
of the strange scene around, above, and beneath us. 

"The evening now came on, creeping noiselessly over the 
mountains, and shedding a strange, weird, and melancholy splen- 
dor over the scene. The moon was at its full, the sky clear as 
crystal, and the moonbeams seemed to troop in columns along 
the glittering acclivities of the glaciers. Mount Hood seemed 
taller, grander, and more glorious than before. Often, during 
the night of that march over the hills, I arose from my blankets, 
walked to a point a few rods away, and contemplated with some- 
thing of awe and much of reverence the divinely-illumined pic- 
ture. Those who study Mount Hood only in the studio of the 
artist, before such paint and brush caricatures Bierstadt's, know 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1 853 99 

nothing of its real grandeur, its overwhelming greatness. Men 
praise the artist who, on canvas, can make some slight imita- 
tion of such a scene ; why will they not adore the Maker whose 
power and skill builds and paints the grand originals? 

At seven o'clock of Thursday, having provided ourselves 
with staves seven feet in length, and taken such refreshments 
as we should need on the mountain, we were ready for the ascent. 
For the first mile and a half the way was easy, over a bed of 
volcanic rock, decayed, and intermixed with ashes. Huge rocks 
stood here and there, and two or three stunted junipers and a few 
varieties of mosses were all the vegetation. 

We now reached the foot of a broad field of snow which 
sweeps around the south side of the mountain for several miles 
in length, and extending upward to the immediate summit of the 
mountain, perhaps four miles. Two miles of this snow field is 
smooth, and only in places so steep as to render the footsteps un- 
certain. Near its upper edge the deep gorges, from which flow 
affluents of the Des Chutes on the right, and Sandy on the left, 
approach each other, cutting down to the very foundations of the 
mountain. The waters are rushing from beneath the glaciers, 
which, at the upper extremity, were rent and broken into fissures 
and caverns of unknown depth. 

The present summit of the mountain is evidently what was 
long since the northern rim of an immense crater, which could 
not have been less than three miles in diameter. Its southern 
wall has fallen completely away, and the crater itself is filled with 
rock and ashes, overlaid with the accumulated snows of ages, 
through the rents and chasms of which now escape smoke, steam, 
and gases from the pent-up fires below. The fires are yet so near 



100 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

that many of the rocks which project upward through these icy 
depths are so hot that the naked hand cannot be held upon them. 
Just at the southwest foot of the circular wall now constituting 
the summit, and at a distance of about two thousand feet from its 
extreme height, is now the main opening of the crater. From this 
a column of smoke and steam is continually issuing, at times 
rising and floating away on the wind, at other times rolling heav- 
ily down the mountain. Into this crater I descended as far as it 
was possible without ropes, or till the descent was prevented by 
a perpendicular wall of ice sixty or seventy feet high, which rest- 
ed below on a bed of broken rock and ashes so hot as immediately 
to convert the water which dripped continually from the icy roof 
one hundred feet above into steam. The air was hot and stifling ; 
but I did so desire to gather some ashes and rocks from the bot- 
tom of the crater that if ropes had been at hand I should certainly 
have ventured down. 

At this point the real peril of the ascent begins. It leads 
out and up the inner wall of what was once the crater, and near 
a thousand feet of it is at an angle of sixty degrees. This ascent 
is up an ice field, the upper limit of a great glacier, which is 
crashing and grinding its slow journey down the mountain far 
to the right. About seven hundred feet from the summit a cre- 
vasse from five to fifty feet in width, and of unknown depth, cuts 
clear across the glacier from wall to wall. There is no evading 
it. The summit cannot be reached without crossing it. There is 
no other pathway. Steadily and deliberately poising myself on 
my staff, I sprang over the crevasse at the most favorable place 
I could select, landing safe on the declivity two or three feet 
above it, and then with my staff assisted the others to cross. The 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE: 1853 lOI 

last movement of fifteen feet had considerably changed the pros- 
pect of the ascent. We were thrown by it directly below a wall 
of rock and ice five hundred feet high, down which masses, de- 
tached by the sun, were plunging with fearful velocity. To 
avoid them it was necessary to skirt the crevasse on the upper 
side for a distance, and then turn diagonally up the remaining 
steep. It was only seven hundred feet high, but it was two hours' 
sinewy tug to climb it. The hot sun blazed against the wall of 
ice within two feet of our faces, the perspiration streamed from 
our foreheads, our breath was labored and difficult, yet the weary 
steps of inches were multiplied till, on nearing the summit, the 
weariness seemed to vanish, an ecstatic excitement thrilled along 
every nerve, and with feelings and shouts of triumph we bounded 
upon the pinnacle of the highest mountain in North America. 

The summit was reached at about the center of the circular 
wall which constitutes the extreme altitude, and where it had 
so sharp an edge that it was impossible to stand erect upon it. 
Its northern face is an escarpment several thousand feet high. 
Here we could only lie down on the southern slope, and holding 
firmly to the rocks, look down the awful depth. A few rods to 
the west was a point forty or fifty feet higher, to the summit of 
which we crawled, and there discovered that forty rods eastward 
was a point still higher, the highest of the mountains. We 
crawled back along the sharp escarpment, and in a few minutes 
stood erect on the highest pinnacle. This was found to be seven- 
teen thousand six hundred and forty feet high; the thermometer, 
by a very careful observation, standing at one hundred and eighty 
degrees, where the water boiled about forty feet below the sum- 
mit. This gives thirty-two degrees of depression, which, at the 



102 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEE:r 

usual estimate of five hundred and fifty feet to the degree, gives 
the astonishing altitude indicated above. 

The scene around us was indescribable. We were favored 
with one of the clearest, brightest days of summer, and in this 
latitude and on this coast objects are plainly visible at an almost 
incredible distance. It would be impossible to convey to the 
reader an adequate impression of the scene, yet a few general 
observations may be taken. The first is the Cascade Range 
itself. From south to north, from Diamond Peak to Rainier, a 
distance of not less than four hundred miles, the whole moun- 
tain line is under the eye. Within that distance are Mounts Saint 
Helens, Baker, Jefferson, the Three Sisters, making, with Mount 
Hood, nine snowy mountains. Eastward the Blue Mountains 
are in distinct view for at least four hundred miles in length, and 
lying between us and them are the broad plains of the Des 
Chutes, John Day's, and Umatilla Rivers, one hundred and fifty 
miles in width. On the west the piny crests of the Coast Range 
cut clear against the sky, with the Willamette Valley sleeping in 
quiet beauty at their feet. The broad silver belt of the Columbia 
winds gracefully through the evergreen valley toward the ocean, 
which we are blending with the horizon through the broad vista 
at the mouth of the river. Within these wide limits is every 
variety of mountain and valley, lake and prairie, bold, battling 
;precipices, and gracefully rounded summits, blending and melt- 
ing away into each other, forming a whole of unutterable mag- 
nificence. The descent to the great crevasse, though much more 
rapidly accomplished, was perhaps quite as perilous as the as- 
cent. We were now approaching the gorge, and a single mis- 
step might precipitate us into unfathomed depths. Less than half 



ON the: pacific coast since 1853 103 

an hour was sufficient to retrace the weary cHmbing of three 
hours, and, standing for a moment on the upper edge of the 
chasm, we bounded over it where it was about eight feet in 
width. The impetus of the leap sent us phinging down the 
icy steep below. 

In two hours from the summit we reached our camp. At 
dark we began to pay the price of our pleasure. The glare of the 
sun on the ice had burned our faces and dazzled our eyes till 
they were so painful that not one of the party slept a moment 
during the night. I kept over my eyes and face a cloth wetted 
vv^ith ice-water all night, and in the morning was able to see; 
but two of the party were as blind as rocks for forty-eight hours. 
But we were well compensated for all our toil and pain. And 
new, as often as thought recurs to the moment when I stood 
upon that awful height, and the same awe of the infinite God 
who settest fast the mountains, being girded with power, comes 
over my soul, I praise Him that He gave me strength to stand 
where His power speaks with words few mortals ever hear, and 
the reverent worshipings of mountains and solitudes seem flow- 
ing up to His throne. 

From this magnificent picture, in which we have seen blend- 
ed in beautiful harmony extended valleys and fertile plains, dot- 
ted here and there with numerous signs of civilization, lines of 
forest, rising grounds, lofty hills, towering mountains, majestic 
glaciers, meandering streams, and flowing rivers, we will turn 
our faces southward, and there, as clearly as from the top of 
Mount Hood, the shimmering summit of Jefferson greets th(» 
eye, and, looking a little further still, the Three Sisters, clad in 
their robes of unsullied whiteness, stand out in bold relier, as if 



I04 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

to add a finish to the glorious panorama which we have been 
contemplating. We have as yet gone round but half the circle, and 
we have time only to glance at the other half, where the Coast 
Range draws its lines against the western sky, and then leave 
this point of observation, and proceed up the valley with our ex- 
plorations. Six miles above the city of Salem comes flowing 
down into the Willamette from the west a stream called La Cre- 
ole, which can also boast of its privileges for milling operations, 
and of watering a splendid portion of the country. Fifteen miles 
above this is the Luckimute, a fine stream, bordered on each 
side by fertile plains. Three miles further on is Soap Creek, 
which can also boast of its advantages. These all rise in the 
Coast Range, and, running eastward from thirty to fifty miles 
crosswise of the valley, hasten to mingle their waters with those 
of the Willamette. Fifteen miles above Salem, on the east side 
of the Willamette, the Santiam comes dancing down its channel 
as clear as the crystal drop that oozes from the pines, whose 
forms are reflected from its limpid waters. This is a very con- 
siderable stream, and flows through an excellent portion of tlie 
country. The springs of the Cascade Mountains supply its sev- 
eral branches, and from the extent of the country westward, and 
the driving power which it affords, it is not second to any of the 
tributaries of the Willamette. Eight miles above the Santiam 
we come to the point where the flourishing city of Albany is lo- 
cated, at the mouth of the Callapooia River. This stream, rising 
far up in the Cascades, and flowing across the eastern half of the 
valley diagonally, fertilizes and beautifies a large portion of tnt 
county of Linn. Above this a few miles is another stream, ap- 
propriately named Muddy, from the appearance of its dark, tur- 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 IO5 

bid waters. Its principal value consists in its affording an abun- 
dance of stock water in the dry season. Above this some twenty 
miles the M'Kenzie fork of the Willamette comes booming out of 
a gorge in the Cascade Mountains, and from this we will pass 
over to the westward side, and cross Grand Prarie, beautiful in 
the extreme, and at its further border we find a very interesting 
stream bearing the euphonious name of "Long Tom." 

This stream rises in nimierous rivulets which issue from the 
Coast Range, and, watering a large extent of country, unite, and, 
running northward at the base of the foot hills of the Coast 
Range, discharge their waters into the Willamette twelve miles 
above the city of Corvallis. We have now reached the upper or 
south end of the valley proper, and a collection of prairie and tim- 
bered hills, which are generally settled up, extend southward 
for twenty-five miles or more before they swell into the bolder 
and loftier outlines of the Callapooia Mountains, which form the 
southern boundary of the great Willamette Valley. 

The Siuselaw is a small though independent valley, lying 
between the waters which flow into the Willamette River and 
those of the Umpqua. The upper part of this valley, some fifty 
miles from the ocean, though small, is rich and fertile, and ca- 
pable of sustaining a much heavier population than have yet set- 
tled upon its limpid and health-giving waters. The river pierces 
the entire Coast Range, forming a valley of varied extent, and 
empties itself into the Pacific Ocean. Salmon enter this river, as 
also nearly all the streams that run into the ocean, in great abun- 
dance in their season, so that at times they literally fill the channel 
from bank to bank. 



io6 life: and labors of a pioneer 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Fourth of July Oration at Santa Rosa. 

nPHE title which your worthy chairman has been pleased to 
use in presenting me to this large and intelligent audience, 
on this occasion, has caused some slight degree of embarrassment 
to take possession of my mind. I am not here as an ''oritor," 
nor do I desire that the few remarks I shall make here to-day 
should be dignified with the name of an "oration." It is not my 
desire, even if I were able, to hold up before you in measured 
and glowing sentences either the things that have been, or those 
that are expected to be. My ambition will be fully met if I shall 
succeed in presenting to your minds some plain and important 
facts upon which you may find it profitable to meditate in other 
days. 

Every solid and enduring advance in both individual or na- 
tional life and character must be achieved by appeals to the en- 
lightened reason and judgment of men. Our passions and our 
fancies will never prove to us a safe and reliable guide. These 
and the various images which they evoke will now, as in the 
past, '*lead to bewilder and dazzle to blind." 

To-day we count the fifteenth year of the second century of 
our life as a nation. Nearly four generations have passed away 
since the great event transpired which gave us this, our natal 
day. These have been generations whose characters and achieve- 
ments have made us what we now are. Deeds of noble daring 



ON the: pacii?ic coast since 1853 107 

in battle, deeds of heroic fortitude in toil and suffering, deeds in 
which have been revealed the most profound learning; the most 
wonderful flights of eloquence in pulpit, senate and forum; the 
most inspiring and elevating strains of poetry and song; crowned 
and sanctified by the purest and most sincere devotion to the 
institutions of our country and the universal elevation and im- 
provement of the human race. To blot out these deeds and 
words from the records of time would almost seem equivalent 
to the destruction of human being and hope. When they, who 
performed them, came, the world needed them ; when the passed 
away, the world mourned their loss. With all the grand and 
glorious results of their toil and devotion around us, with all 
the noble and beautiful traits of their characters for our inheri- 
tance ; with the elevating and inspiring examples of their un- 
selfish patriotism glowing on the pages of history and living in 
the cherished and grateful memories of our own souls, we now 
and here look upward from this sylvan scene, and, while our 
eyes are greeted with that glorious and revered emblem of our 
nation's greatness and grandeur, stirred by the gentle breezes 
from the mountains and kissed by the radiant sunbeams of 
heaven ; with the heart throbbing with sentiments of devotion 
and love, we exclaim : 

"Forever our souls will be grateful to God, 
That the blood of such heroes now flows in our veins." 
This, we doubt not, is to each one of us a suggestive and 
patriotic occasion. Not unlike that which burned so brightly in 
the souls of the founders of the Republic, is the fire that warms 
our hearts to-day. 

But let it be borne in mind that what we are here to cele- 



I08 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEEJR 

brate on this occasion is not merely or chiefly a day, an act, or an 
historic event. These, though they may all be interesting and 
important as revealing a statement by which the human progress 
is measured, yet above, and beyond, and better, and more glo- 
rious than all the facts of history is the spirit, the all-pervading 
life that made these immortal declarations of men the true ex- 
ponents of the will and purpose of Heaven. It was a mere in- 
cident that gave us the day, for the sun was just sinking in the 
western sky when the momentous decision was reached, but it 
was an infinite Wisdom that gave us the sentiment and doctrine, 
by implanting in the nature of man an instinct of freedom, with 
a living and glowing ideal pointing out the manner of its appli- 
cation and the progress of its development. 

When our good brother, with so much fervor and sin- 
cerity, bore our spirits heavenward on the wings of faith and 
prayer, our thoughts turned backward to the time when the 
fathers of the Republic sought in their councils and delibera- 
tions the favour and guidance of Heaven. When a nation or a 
people loses their hold upon the divine, the most patent and posi- 
tive element of success and greatness has been weakened, if not 
destroyed. While we have always and wisely set our faces as a 
people against all attempts at union of church and State, yet 
blending with our most enthusiastic tributes to national freedom, 
has always been found united the elevating and inspiring senti- 
ment of religious devotion. It is as true now as it ever has been 
in the past that the torch-bearers of human hope, those who have 
lifted on high the beacon light that has guided a struggling race 
to battle and to victory, have been thoughtful and reverent men. 

While we do not desire to appear unmindful of the physical 



ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 109 

struggles of our Revolutionary sires, their sufferings, privations 
and wonderful and glorious military achievements, yet we cannot 
pause here to recount them, or make them a leading factor in the 
lessons to be taught on this anniversary of our natal day. These 
are all valuable and must not be forgotten by the American peo- 
ple, but their value now, as ever, consists in their power to re- 
veal and enforce a grand and noble principle. 

This then shall be the key-note of our present reflections, the 
inspiration of all our thoughts and words to-day, and not only 
now and here, but all along the future years, until the whole 
spirit of the immortal principle of freedom shall become the 
inheritance of all the people. 

Listen again to the grand and noble statement that first fell 
upon the ears of man in old Independence Hall, and has been to 
all the intervening generations a priceless treasure of truth and 
wisdom. To-day, in the light of passing events, it seems to 
possess a new and more instructive significance than ever before. 

"We hold these truths to be self-evident : That all men are 
created equal ; that they are endowed by their Creator with cer- 
tain inalienable rights ; that among these are life, liberty and the 
pursuit of happiness. 

"That to secure these rights governments are instituted 
among men, deriving their just power from the consent of the 
governed ; that whenever any form of government becomes de- 
structive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or 
abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its founda- 
tion on such principles and organizing its powers in such form 
as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and hap- 
piness." 



no LIF^ AND LABORS* OF A PIONEER 

This, then, is what we celebrate to-day: the beauty and 
grandeur, the far-reaching significance of a Divine Endowmeni 
of humanity. "Our Creator" has endowed us with "Hfe," or the 
privilege and immunities of being. We not only have a right 
to live because we are, but also because the Creator is. Life is 
an inestimable, inalienable, God-given endowment or right. In 
all its forms of presentation, it seems the crowning exercise of 
Divine power, wisdom and love ; the bewildering and unfathom- 
able mystery of all worlds ; the only thing v/ithout which we 
knovv^ nothing, and about v.hich nothing is known. None by 
searching can find it, and none by wisdom can tell the place of 
its hiding, or the boundaries of its dominion and the throne of its 
power. 

There is but one thing in the universe superior to life : that 
is law ; or the mode and model after which life was formed and 
by which it continues to be. 

To be endowed, therefore, by our All-Wise Creator with life 
implies a free access to all those super-added natural elements 
by which that life is sustained and perpetuated, such as air, 
light^ water and land. These are the fundamental and vital 
sources from which all life draws its nourishment and support. 
No man has a right to say, or can say, that he will continue to 
exist in this world independent of these natural elements. And 
no government has a right to say, or can say, that man shall 
perform the duties and functions of citizenship without the use 
of these natural elements. It takes all of these to make up the 
complicated machinery and vital energy we call life. To elimi- 
nate one of them is to derange and destroy the whole. They must 
exist in harmony of support, and in exactness of supply or the 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE) 1853 III 

central fire is at once extinguished. All that government can 
properly do is to guide and encourage man in the attainment of 
these things, and protect him in their use and enjoyment 

One thing we desire especially to impress upon your minds 
on this occasion; and that is, that we have not measured up to 
the full demands of a Christian civilization when we make men 
equal before the law. This undoubtedly would be a great and 
important consummation, and would work a wonderful and, in 
many instances, a radical change in our national jurisprudence. 
The duty of the hour with us is to make the law itself equal. 
Or, in other words, make the law a true and unmistakable ex- 
ponent and protector of the natural and inalienable rights of 
man. When the people give their formal consent to a govern- 
mental policy that seeks to hamper or obliterate these, the dark- 
ness that obscures and the corruption that enslaves will speedily 
and inevitably come upon them. This has been the history of all 
ages and peoples. The scattered wrecks of fallen em.pires that 
strew the pathway of departed centuries bear sad and affecting 
testimony to this inflexible law of human life. 

What would be your opinion of a government that would 
deliberately make it impossible for a part of its good and faith- 
ful subjects to drink the refreshing waters, or breathe the vital 
air, or look upon the golden sunlight, or should turn over these 
natural elements, which the wise and loving Creator has pro- 
duced for all, into the hands of a favored few. But you say, 
this would be a physical impossibility. Suppose we grant th's 
for a mom.ent and see where it will lead us. Upon this theory, 
the obstacles of control exist in the elements themselves and not 
in the relation which the government sustains to my personal 



112 life: and labors of a pioneer 

inalienable rights. This would eliminate all moral or spiritual 
attributes from the nature and relations of men and limit the 
sphere of law to the narrow range of physical powers and possi- 
bilities. It would destroy the beauty and harmony of the Cre- 
ator's workmanship, and bring man down from the lofty and 
dignified sphere of reason and faith, where the mightiest battles 
have been fought and the noblest victories won. 

The spirit of our great charter undoubtedly contemplated 
the free and untrammeled access of men to all the natural re- 
sources essential to the unfoldment and perpetuity of "life, lib- 
erty and the pursuit of happiness." All that government can 
do is to make it possible for men to realize the best there is, both 
in themselves and the world around them. The measure and 
character of its repressive force must always depend upon the 
action of individuals in endeavoring to justify and maintain an 
usurpation of natural rights. The spirit of that noble Declara- 
tion is lost when government allows even one of the poorest and 
weakest of its subjects to suffer the loss of a single right, or feci 
the unnecessary pressure of a single wrong. 

Woe to the government that shuts out from the eyes of the 
people the bright beams of truth, and leaves them to wander in 
the dark, dismal labyrinths of error and falsehood. Woe to the 
nation that holds with an unequal hand the seals of equity and 
justice, and permits any within its borders to become a prey to 
violence and oppression. 

Woe to the country that closes the gates to the temple of 
knowledge and wisdom, and leaves its toiling and enquiring 
people to wander upon the bleak and barren mountains of ig- 
norance and folly. When the seed she has planted has sprouted 



ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 113 

and grown, and the fruitful harvest of error, injustice, ignor- 
ance and degradation has matured and ripened, then, together, 
with sighing and weeping, we shall be compelled to bend our 
weary bodies to the toil of reaping. The law of reproduction is 
as certain and fixed in the moral and political as in the natural 
world, and it is as true now as it ever has been or ever will be, 
that "whatever a man soweth that shall he also reap." 

We do not believe you would be at all satisfied, or consider 
us true to the day and the occasion, did we fail to present for 
your thoughtful consideration some very important and interest- 
ing questions of reform and progress that are now pressing upon 
the attention of the entire nation. 

But we wish it distinctly understood that no Cjuestion will 
be urged upon you in narrow spirit of captious criticism. We 
are aware that we are speaking to-day before men and women 
of different parties and creeds. But better than all, we feel as- 
sured that we are addressing those who esteem patriotism as 
better than party, and truth better than a creed. 

Before me are the noble and worthy sons of those immortal 
statesmen and heroes who promulgated and defended the glo- 
rious document read to us, and the ever-living inspiration of 
which IS moving the heart of the nation to-day. 

These questions should not and must not be ignored by 
any. They strike at the very heart of our theme on this occa- 
sion. They belong to every man and woman before me. They 
ought to come to every heart and conscience with a sanction and 
pov/er from which there can be no appeal. 

But we must hasten to other points, leaving you to trace 
out this fruitful theme in its more elaborate details and find how 



114 life: and labors of a pione:e:r 

fully and inspirably it stands connected with your present and 
future happiness. 

One of the most imminent dangers that threatens the in- 
stitutions of our country at the present time is the wholesale and 
reckless manner, in which people of other countries are admitted 
to citizenship in our country. Especially is this noticeable in 
all our large cities. This practice has become so open and per- 
sistent that all intelligent and patriotic people have become filled 
with suspicion and alarm. No one can longer doubt but that a 
conspiracy has been formed, by corrupt and destroying men, to 
break down our industrial system, and destroy the recognized 
safeguards of our national liberties. 

In many instances courts have been held open from early 
morning until the hour of midnight in order to carry out this 
nefarious crime against the American people. Thousands and 
tens of thousands of citizens have been made out of raw and 
ignorant immigrants, unable to read the English language, and 
utterly destitute of every qualification essential to a proper un- 
derstanding of the character and spirit of our institutions. In 
most instances they are persons who acknowledge a sovereignty 
existing independent of all national boundaries or laws. Profess- 
ing to hold authority from a Power that rules and governs all 
peoples and all kingdoms, it claims the right to establish impirio 
impiriiim, — an empire within an empire, — for the especial bene- 
fit of its own subjects. 

Professional witnesses have been kept on hand, ready to testi- 
fy at a moment's notice to the good moral character of a herd of 
low, ignorant, degraded persons, who carry in their festering 
bodies and souls the moral and social pollution and crimes of 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 II5 

twenty centuries. Knowing nothing of the genius of our govern- 
ment, and caring less, they stand ready to yield obedience to 
the commands and wishes of those whom for generations they 
and their ancestors have been taught to regard as their guides 
and masters. 

But recently, in the city of New York, 68,000 of these peo- 
ple were made citizens of the United States in the space of one 
week. Enough, as we can plainly see, to carry any election in 
that great State in favor of the political party that may chance 
to have them under its control. 

But do not misunderstand us. We rejoice to know that 
there is a place in this tyrant-cursed world where men and wom- 
en may find a refuge from the cruel hand of the oppressor. This 
has been our proud boast through all generations, that America, 
the land of liberty, has been the asylum for the oppressed of all 
nations. 

But from the very first this proud distinction was not in- 
tended to imply that this country could or would be an asylum 
for any principle or practice, whether secular, social or reHgious, 
that is not in sympathy and harmony with the institutions of 
freedom for which our fathers toiled and died. 

At the very borders of our territory, we meet the man smit- 
ten with a contagious disease, or guilty of a heinous crime, and 
promptly and without hesitancy turn him back to the place from 
whence he came. Has it been any more plainly demonstrated, 
we would enquire, that the physical and moral health and welfare 
of our people depend upon the exclusion of disease and crime, 
than that the safety and perpetuity of our government rests upon 
intelligence and patriotism? 



Il6 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

The truth isr the time has fully come in the history of this 
Republic when it becomes a sacred duty on the part of every 
lover of his country to sound a note of warning upon this ques- 
tion. To hesitate longer would be treason to liberty. However 
humiliating the statement, yet in the light of recent events, we 
cannot avoid the conclusion that upon our own soil and in high 
places of honor and power there is now being matured a pur- 
pose to build up an aristocracy of wealth upon the downfall of 
popular freedom. 

America will always be proud to acknowledge that invalua- 
ble service of those noble heroes and lovers of liberty who came 
from their distant homes, from beyond the sea, to aid us by 
their councils and swords, in our great struggle for independ- 
ence. The names of Lafayette, De Kalb, Steuben, Pulaski and 
others, will ever stand associated in our memory and praise with 
those immortal soldiers and statesmen who had their birth upon 
our own soil. But all these with one accord, and with one pur- 
pose, fought, and toiled, and bled for the nation. And all of 
their countrymen of to-day, who breathe the same spirit and 
are actuated by the same motives are welcome to a home within 
our borders. 

We are not, however, at the present time, in the fiery peril 
of battle, but in the greater and more trying peril of peace. If 
we fail, therefore, to guard with sleepless vigilance the glorious 
inheritance that has been left us, and to insist upon a more 
carefully considered assurance of safety on the part of those who 
come to our shores, another generation will not have passed 
away before it will be known the world over that all the blood, 



ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 117 

and battle, and speech, and prayers, that have been offered for 
the liberties of our country have been offered in vain. 

Therefore, in all forms of petition and remonstrance, this 
question must be urged upon the attention of our national and 
State legislatures without further delay. For the best good of 
those strangers that have come amongst us ; for the sake of the 
rising generation that is growing up around us ; for the safety 
of a land where human freedom must fight the last battle with 
oppression and wrong; for the triumph and establishment of a 
Christian civilization that is here destined to vindicate its heav- 
enly origin, and enthrone truth, justice and love as the dominating- 
principles of all human action, we insist that this matter be 
pressed for a speedy and favorable decision. 

Whatever it may cost, or wherever it may lead us, whether 
through fire and water, and sacrifice, and suffering, we must 
stand firm and true, marching steadily and bravely on, until this 
American sentiment of freedom, that had its birth 115 years 
ago in old Independence Hall, shall be assured of a life that 
shall only be m.easured by the circling years of all coming time. 



Il8 LiFi: AND LABORS OF A PIONEKR 

CHAPTER XIV. 
That Other Bear, and How I Escaped. 

IN those early days it was no uncommon thing, especially along 
* the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada mountains, to meet a wan- 
dering grizzly, and a fresh track made by one of those terrible 
monsters, when five or six miles from any known habitation, is 
enough to cause a cautious man to look for a convenient tree, 
where he might take up his lodgings for the night. About the 
first thing I did after entering upon my work as agent of the Un- 
iversity was to visit the general office of the Central Pacific Rail- 
road and solicit the endorsement of Leland Stanford and Charles 
Crocker, president and vice-president of the road, and who 
were then regarded as standing at the head of the business men 
of the State. On entering their office I was at once impressed 
with the difference in the appearance and attitude of these two 
men. Mr. Stanford was as grave and serious as an Arch-Bishop 
and his entire personality indicated strength and endurance, with 
a faith that could remove mountains, and would, did they but 
stand in his way. Mr. Crocker, on the other hand, was quick, 
alert, somewhat impulsive, who would ilot hesitate if obstacles 
were in his way, to give them notice to move by an unceremon- 
ious kick. Mr. Stanford quietly arose, shook me cordially by the 
hand, and inquired as to the purpose of my visit. I stated in a 
brief manner the nature of the work in which I was engaged. I 
had barely closed my little speech when Mr. Crocker turned ab- 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 II9 

ruptly in his chair, and in a few words settled the whole matter 
by snapping out : "I know what he wants," and in about two 
minutes after having written out a free pass on all their railroads 
and river boats, said, as he handed it to me, "there, take that and 
call as often as you can. We are building railroads, you are build- 
ing universities ; all are necessary and we will have them all." I 
quietly remarked, "that will do to start with, and we will consid- 
er ourselves both fully committed to a good and noble work." I 
bowed myself out, and at once hastened to the depot to test the 
first time the virtue of my pass. I was soon speeding away to- 
wards Colfax, where I intended to take the trail to North San 
Juan, Michigan Bluffs, and other small mining towns in that 
region. We had a very fine congregation at San Juan and quite 
a large number of members engaged in mining at the different 
camps in the foothills. I remained three weeks in that region, 
preached two and sometimes three times on the Sabbath, and dur- 
ing the week days visited from house to house and explained to 
the people the plans and purposes of our University. All seemed 
well pleased at the prospects before us, gave us liberal subscrip- 
tions and promises of better things in the future. The distance 
from Michigan Bluff to Colfax is about i6 miles, with nothing 
but a pack trail for at least two-thirds of the way. With my 
satchel strapped on my back I started on that trail just as the sun 
was rising over the distant mountains, intending to reach the 
station in order to board the afternoon train for Sacramento. 
About 10 miles from the starting point I came to a suspension 
foot-bridge spanning the North Fork of the American River. 
When about midway over the bridge I cast my eyes down towards 
the shore of the river, and there leisurely walking up the stream 



I20 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONE^ER 

I saw a huge grizzly bear, apparently searching for fish in the 
shallow pool where they had been stranded in a recent freshet. 
The old fellow had not yet seen me, so I quickly secreted myself 
behind the railing of the bridge and watched the monster with 
curious emotions. He was about lo rods down the stream, exact- 
ly where I must go on my way to Colfax. I watched the sun as 
it mounted towards midday, and the bear whose slowness tor- 
mented me. At length he slowly waddled past the end of the 
bridge and slowly moved up the river. Not daring to rise up, I 
slowly crept on my knees to the top of the ladder that was for- 
tunately placed on the lower side of the bridge. A high boulder 
which lay at the water's edge, hid for a few minutes his bearship 
from me. I slid quickly and quietly down the ladder, and climb- 
ing up a ledge of rocks about ten feet high found myself in the 
broad plain trail that led to the Colfax station. I had no means 
of telling the exact time of day, but knew I had no time to lose, 
so I started upon the run having six miles yet to go before reacii- 
ing the railroad. I was pressing on with all my might, had come 
within sight of the road, as the whistle blew for the final depar- 
ture. In a moment it swept around a bend of the road, right be- 
fore my eyes. I yelled with all my might, swinging my sachel over 
my head. The brakes fell, the train slowed, I was pulled aboard 
and arrived at Sacramento before sun down. 

After I had related my adventures with the old grizzly, and 
told the passengers who I was and in what business engaged, 
they took up a liberal collection for me, expressed by resolution 
warm commendation of my work, and hoped to see me again 
when I could tell them that the University had been completed. 

I have visited these points since that day, and the people of 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE: 1853 121 

that region have always been found staunch friends of the Uni- 
versity. Some of their children have been members of the stu- 
dent body at nearly every semester, and their generosity has al- 
ways been shown in every emergency through which it has 
passed. You will look in vain for purer or warmer friends than 
has come to us from Sacramento and the mining towns along the 
foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains. I rejoice to-day that it 
fell to my lot to plant some of the seed from which some of this 
rich harvest has been gathered. 



122 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

CHAPTER XV. 

The Light and Guide of Humanity. 

No starlight of evening or sunlight of day, 
Can guide the lone pilgrim along the dark way, 
For his thoughts ever spurning his footsteps are turning, 
From heaven's highway. 

Tho his heart is now fainting and ready to die, 
He need not despair, there is light in the sky; 
Let his faith now behold it for Prophets foretold it, 
In ages gone by. 

There is power in its shining to banish the night 
Of all who are willing to walk in the light. 
In its beams there is healing and heaven revealing, 
That gladdens the sight. 

Why, then, need we dv»^ell in a midnight of gloom. 
Or in the dark valley of shadows now roam, 
. While the light here is beaming, its radiance is gleaming, 
To show us our home. 

From the chamber of death it has banished the gloom, 
And shed its bright beams in the dark, silent tomb; 
The chains now are broken which gives us the token 
Of immortal bloom. 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 I23 

Turn your eyes to the heavens where gates stand ajar, 
And behold the bright beams as they shine from afar, 
They shine in their glory and tell the old story 
Of Bethlehem's star. 

In its light we must walk if we ever shall stand 
On the mountain of God in Immanuel's land, 
And see the bright beaming that ever is streaming 
From Bethlehem's star. 

To millions more gone 'twas the day-star on high, 
Undimmed as the cycle of ages passed by, 
'Twas the light on the pages of prophets and sages, 
Their guide to the sky. 



124 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

CHAPTER XVI. 

My First Acquaintance With the Klamath Indians. 

IT was in the fall of 1861 that I received my appointment to 
'*' the Humboldt District to take the place of Father Leahy, as 
he was familiarly known in the conference. He had been on 
the district two years and was highly esteemed by the entire 
chnrch- His reason for leaving was not therefore on account 
of any dissatisfaction with his official administration, but was, 
as strange as it may seem, purely a race difficulty. In passing 
over the northern part of the district, it was impossible to reach 
the appoints without passing through the territory occupied by 
the Klamath tribe of Indians, who were considered among the 
most treacherous in all the northern part of the State, and the 
most dreaded by the whites, except it may be the bloody Mo- 
docks, who murdered Dr. Thomas and George Canby. These 
Indians had conceived a deadly dislike of Father Leahy, and 
had attempted to kill him by shooting at him as he was riding 
on horseback about two miles before reaching the little lumber 
camp called Trinidad. 

To escape. Brother Leahy had been compelled to take an 
open boat, leave his horse at Trinidad, and, sailing around the 
headlands of the bay, reach his home at Eureka. 

At the next session of our Conference, of course one of 
the most difficult places to fill was Humboldt District. Of course, 
the sober, grave and serious brother who had just come down 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 125 

from those wild regions came in for a storm of jokes and wit- 
ticisms, both in the Cabinet and on the floor of the Conference. 
All seemed anxious that the Presiding Elder of Humboldt Dis- 
trict should locate as the Conference would have no one left to 
preach on "justification by faith," — a favorite subject of Broth- 
er Leahy's. Thus matters stood until near the close of the Con- 
ference, when Brother Tonsey, who was then traveling the Napa 
District, dropped a remark that seemed to let in a little light on 
the perplexing problem. 

**May it please the Bishop," remarked Brother Tonsey, '1 
have a man on my district that would do to take the place of 
Brother Leahy, if he would be willing to go. He has recently 
come to us from Oregon and is without question better acquaint- 
ed with the Indian character than any other man in the Confer- 
ence. He it was that warned Dr. Thomas and Gen. Canby, when 
they started on their foolhardy mission to the Modocks, a warn- 
ing, if it had been followed, would doubtless saved to the country 
the lives of those two noble men. The man I refer to is now 
preaching in Vallejo, where he has also been serving as Super- 
mtendent of Public Instruction of Solano County. His term 
of office, however, in that office is now about to expire, and while 
I had intended to send him to Napa City, he would be available 
for Humboldt District." 

So the appointment was made, and so the first steamer that 
sailed for Eureka carried myself and family to that delightful 
town. 

After visiting Eel River Valley, and holding quarterly meet- 
ings at the various appointments, I mounted my horse for my 
first trip to the north, a distance of over lOO miles with but one 



126 LI^E) AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

house where the traveler could find entertainment for the night. 
That was at "Gold Bluff," where the manager of a mining prop- 
erty owned in San Francisco resided. His name was Hall, and 
when I made known to him my object and mission, he received 
me very cordially, and during the long evening we talked over 
the troubles of my predecessor with the Indians, who resided 
about six miles further on, at the mouth of Klamath River. 
When I was about to retire for the night, I fortunately discov- 
ered the grounds of his confidence. While sitting with my 
back towards a door that led into a side room, I saw the door 
softly open and two little black eyes peering into our room. I 
knew at once to whom they belonged, for I had learned before 
that mine host was living with a Klamath Indian woman. But 
I said nothing and went to bed. 

In the morning, I requested Mr. Hall to give me any in- 
struction or advice that I might need in dealing with the Indians. 
I informed him of my experience with the Rogue River tribe 
and also of others living along the shores of the Willamette on 
the north side of the Calapora Mountains, and my ability to talk 
to them in their own jargon, which was common to all the tribes 
west of the Rocky Mountains. Mr. Hall informed me that he 
thought I would have no difficulty, for, said he, the Indians are 
a good deal like other men in the world, open, sociable, generous 
men, who were willing to treat others as they desired others to 
treat them. I told him that was my religion, and I had prac- 
ticed it all my life, even to the utmost of "whatsoever ye would," 
as the Master had said. 

He further told me that the first question the Indians would 
ask me, in all probability, would be ''Wake cumtiix Hall?" or, 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 I27 

in English, "Do you known Hall?" He then said, ''You are at 
liberty to enlarge on that subject as you may think the occasion 
demands, for really after our visit last evening, I feel better ac- 
quainted with you than I did with your predecessor after he had 
been my guest two years." I thanked him for his compliment, 
and expressed the hope that the fellowship that auspiciously be- 
gan might continue to the end. I saw no more of the "two black- 
eyes," and concluded to wait for a more favorable occasion be- 
fore seeking an introduction. 

In about 30 or 40 minutes I rode into the little village at 
the Klamath River, where I found about 15 or 20 Indians as- 
sembled to receive me. They had evidently been advised of my 
coming, and what their feelings or intentions might be I could 
only conjecture. I saluted them in the jargon, ^^Vilayiiaiiui six," 
'•How do you do," but I fancied their responses were not very 
cordial. They met me, however, with the inquiry about my ac- 
quaintanceship with Hall, and after my assurance that he was 
my particular friend, they seemed a little more friendly. Their 
canoe to ferry me over the river was soon in readiness, and after 
depositing my blankets therein, tied the lariat to the bridle and in 
five minutes we stood on the opposite bank of the river. Hand- 
ing them a silver dollar, the price of ferrying me over, I mounted 
my horse and hastened towards Crescent City, a distance of about 
40 miles through a dense forest, where I arrived about one hour 
before sundown. About midway between the river and the 
place of destination, I met in the narrow trail a company of five 
Indians, all armed with bows and arrows, but on saluting them 
they gave me a loud whoop and returned my salute, and we 
were quickly out of each other's sight. 



128 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

I remained about six weeks in the northern part of the dis- 
trict, holding quarterly meetings, and aiding Brother Cleveland, 
the preacher at Crescent City, in raising money for the pin-pose 
of making improvements upon his church, and in holding funeral 
services over two members of his congregation and uniting in 
marriage three others. Early on a pleasant Monday morning 
we took our departure for our home, about no miles distant, and 
only one white man in the entire distance. I braced myself for 
the weary journey, and with a warm heart, and tireless zeal, sing- 
ing as I went, 

"We lodge here in tents below, 
And gladly wander to and fro. 
Till we our Canaan gain." 

] had planned to arrive at the crossing of the river so as to 
get over in time to ride on to Hall's and stop for the r'ght, but 
when arriving on the bluf¥ where I could look down vipon the 
feiry, to my consternation, not a boat could be seen. For the 
first time since starting on my northern trip, I felt completely 
nonplussed, but pulling myself together as best I could I dis- 
mounted from my horse, led him back over the hill, tied him to 
an oak grub, and went back to reconnoitre. Slowly the moments 
passed away, and when the sun went down behind the western 
hills, and twilight began to fold the forest in sombre gloom, not 
a solitary Indian had yet appeared upon the scene. You can 
well interpret my emotions while standing alone in the midst of 
a dense forest, not another white man nearer than six or seven 
miles, and surrounded by a numerous horde of savages, of whose 
feelings and purposes I was, as yet, unacquainted, but whose in- 



ox THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 I29 

stinct of dislike, not to say treachery and cruelty, had been so 
recently manifested towards my predecessor. 

A man feels some relief, even when the probabilities are 
against him, but when he finds that all possibilities are gone he 
can find no refuge but in despair. One writer has said, "that an 
all-wise and omnipotent God is the usual and convenient refuge 
of the weak and foolish," but if ever I felt weak and insufficient 
it was at that supreme moment, so, crying out from the depths 
of despair, "O my God, help me!'' I felt my mind quieted with 
a sudden gleam of hope, and quickly settled down to the rest 
of the night. The calmness of mind under the circumstances 
was a great surprise to me. Tying my horse to a little tree so as 
to enable him to graze on the luxuriant grass, I spread my blan- 
kets down under the sheltering branches of a fir tree, entered 
the domains of Morpheus, and prepared my mind to revel in the 
perplexing uncertainties of dreamland. 

About 9 o'clock my quickened sense of hearing detected the 
stealthy tread of human feet near my bed, and before I could un- 
cover my face a voice cried out, "Hyas close moas a inoas," ''A 
very good horse. The moon was just rising over the distant 
mountains, and springing upon my feet, I saw an Indian close 
to my horse and holding the lariat in his hand. I quickly saluted 
■him, and when he returned my salute, I felt quite well assured 
of my safety. He beckoned me to follow him, which, of course, 
I did, when, leading me a few hundred yards towards the river, 
he pointed towards a large wigwam and motioned me to enter. 
Of course, I didn't stop to debate the question with him, but 
crawled into the open door, which consisted of a round hole 
about 2 1-2 or 3 feet in diameter. Inside the room was about 



130 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONE:e:R 

TO or 12 feet across, and nearly circular in shape and dug about 
two feet below the surface. In the center of this excavation was 
a blazing fire, around which were seated four Indians, engaged 
in roasting salmon for their supper. They pointed to a bear 
skin and each one uttered a low grunt, which I was glad to in- 
terpret, '*We are happy to meet you here." I knew very well 
the crisis had come, for I understood that the Indian will never 
molest one with whom he has shared his meal. That refinement 
of hypocrisy, savages the world over are never guilty of. So I 
waited patiently for the salmon to roast, and watched the move- 
ments of the Indians with eager solitude. I had never triea to 
eat salmon without salt, and, in fact, was not very fond of it in 
any form. But now I was not quite certain how it would taste. 
Presently one of the Indians, selecting a nice piece about the size 
of my hand, deliberately placed it upon a clean chip and reaching 
it towards we said, "Likee salmon?" Gnawing hunger may have 
had something to do in the matter, but I can assure you that ev- 
ery particle of the chipload of fish went down with a relish. 
When I reached out the chip for another piece, all the Indians 
gave a loud grunt, and one of them, reaching over, gave me a 
poke in the side, as much as to say, ''Big belly." 

But how to get out of the wigwam, after I had satisfied my 
desire for salmon, was now to be settled. The Indian who had 
conducted me down, as soon as I had entered, sat down in the 
door and during the entire evening without moving from his 
position. I had left my horse on the hill, tied to the oak scrub, 
and I felt anxious to know if it was still there. What if this 
had been a ruse on their part to keep me away, while others 
made away with m.y horse, saddle and blankets. So I intimated 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1 853 I3I 

as plainly as I could that I would like to go, but he kept his 
post. At length I got upon my feet, pointed to the door, but he 
seemed not to understand my meaning. At length, growing 
desperate, I made a rush up to his very face, when he quickly 
slipped aside and I as quickly slipped out into the open air, and 
hastened up the hill with all possible dispatch. I found my horse 
still unmolested and all my other belongings safe and sound. 

It was now well on towards midnight, so, spreading out my 
blankets, petting for a moment my faithful steed, I laid myself 
down and slept the sleep of the just. The sun was well up in 
the blue sky when I arose in the morning from my couch, and 
descended to the ferry, where, after paying the Indians one dol- 
lar for taking me over, I mounted my noble steed and was quick- 
ly at the hospitable fireside of my friend Hall, where I remained 
until the following morning, when I hastened on my journey, 
and the next day was relating the incidents of my first trip on 
the Humboldt District. In my next trip you will find a strange 
admixtUire of romance, comedy and tragedy. 



132 life: and labors of a pioneer 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Elected Chief of the Klamath Indians — Provided a Wife — 
Kow I Escaped From Polygamy. 

IT was about the first of June, 1863, when I entered upon my 
■■' second year on the Humboldt District, prepared to take my 
second trip to the north, which took me as far as Smith river 
valley and Coos Bay. ^ Early one bright and balmy Wednesday 
morning I left my family at Eureka, expecting to be absent about 
six or seven weeks. My road led me around the upper bend of 
the Bay, through the quiet little village of Areata, across the 
South Branch of the Trinity river, which I forded, and then on 
to Trinidad where I entered once more the territory of the Klam- 
ath Indians for the second time. Passing on about fifteen miles 
when I drew up at the hospitable dwelling of my friend Hall, 
where I found him and his dusky companion apparently occupying 
the same relation to each other as when I was here the previous 
year. Perhaps I ought to say at this point, that it was no un- 
common thing for the mountaineers of Oregon and California, 
who lived in the vicinity of the natives of the country, to co-habii 
together a man and wife, a practice which was not only tolerated 
but encouraged by the Hudson Bay Company throughout the 
entire Northwest. But in justice to the Protestant missionaries 
I will add, that whenever a settler asked for membership in the 
church, before he was granted that privilege he was required to 
<publicly renounce that relation and become man and wife. Others, 



ON THK PACII^IC COAST SINCE 1853 I33 

however, were not so particular, regarding this social relation 
more as a matter of commerce than one of religious duty. 

This, my second visit to friend Hall, soon revealed to me a 
change in the feelings of the entire household, including, I was 
glad to find, both the dogs and the little squaw. All seemed 
genial and friendly, and seemed to indicate something good to 
come. As soon as we had finished the evening meal, which con- 
sisted of well-cooked salmon and home-made bread, we sat down 
before the blazing fire and spent a social evening which run close 
up to the hour of midnight. Hall informed me that the Indians 
at the ferry thought that I was hyac cloas tiliciim (a very good 
man) and all danger had now passed away. 

In the morning, however, when I arrived at the ferry, where 
I found a large crowd of Indians from the upper settlement, I 
felt a little suspicious, as Hall had not told m.e of any thing un- 
usual among -them. I soon learned that they had been called to- 
gether in order to elect a new chief, as their present chief was 
very old and decrepit and would soon be gone beyond the great 
river. 

I found these Klamath Indians in this crisis in their tribal 
affairs, just as uncivilized men have been in all ages and na- 
tions, more desirous of securing physical than moral qualities in 
order to build up and strengthen their own national or tribal for- 
tunes. It remained for Christianity to bring into this world the 
ethical forms and forces of life to establish and perpetuate the 
progressive possibilities that resided in the scheme of human re- 
demption by the Cross of Calvary. You may call this a refine- 
ment of spiritual philosophy if you please, but it was the thrill 



134 life: and labors of a pioneer 

that went quivering along the world's spiritual life-being when 
down from the cross fell the prophetic words "It is finished." 

It was very plain to be seen that interest of the entire tribe 
was centered upon the selection of a new chief, and in a few mo- 
ments after my arrival they paraded the young man whom they 
apparently had been training for that high position. He was, I 
should judge, about 20 years of age, well formed and with a 
pleasing countenance. From what soon transpired I should infer 
that the Indians' supreme test of fitness had not yet been ap- 
plied to him, for they at once formed a circle around me, they 
led him up near to where I was standing and at once exclaimed, 
"Hello, there. You like to wrestle ?" They at once enlarged the 
circle and inclosed the young man and myself within it and there 
was no escape. To run was impossible, so to wrestle was the only 
alternative. So I threw off my coat and hat, walked into the cen- 
ter of the ring, and squaring myself in true pugilistic style, mo- 
tioned the young man to come on. He seemed eager for the en- 
counter, and the best of feeling seemed to pervade the entire 
crowd. We seemed about equal in size and weight, but there 
was one secret I possessed that he had not yet learned, and that 
was the difiference between iiesh and muscle made by eating sal- 
mon without salt, and of that accumulated by the use of animal 
and vegetable food. The first was flabby and unwieldly ; the 
second was solid, elastic and substantial. I was not long in 
putting my superior knowledge into practice, for in less than 
five minutes I had tumbled the young fellow over, and once 
threw him squarely over my shoulder and letting him down with 
a terrible thud. This seemed to decide the contest, for running 
up to the young man they hustled him about, all the time ex- 



ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 135 

claiming, "You no chief! You no chief!" All the time crying, 
"He our chief! He our chief!" pointing to me, and dancing- 
like mad ! 

The man seemed to take it all in good humor, thinking that 
;a change of dynasty might be of some benefit, even to the Tribe 
of Klamath Indians. The whole matter was quickly arranged 
very much as it seemed to the satisfaction of the entire tribe, 
including the young man who had been defeated, he thinking, 
perhaps, that when I was inaugurated I would make him my 
Prime Minister. 

As soon as the election was over, and the matter was finally 
settled that I was to take the place of the old chief as soon as 
he should pass away, the Indians ferried me and my horse over 
the river, and I mounted and speeding my way over the hills 
and through the forest, arrived at Crescent City about sundown. 
I spent four weeks attending my quarterly meetings in the upper 
portion of the district, and then, once more prepared to retrace 
my steps to my home at Eureka. Taking leave of Brother Cleve- 
land and his kind-hearted people, and by their aid measuring 
correctly the state of the tides along the ocean beach, I arrived 
at an early hour in the afternoon at the crossing of the river, 
where I found that during my absence the old chief had died, 
and, consequently, the last obstacle to my ascending the throne 
had disappeared. I was about to congratulate myself on my 
good fortune, when, alas, I found that my troubles had but just 
commenced. I learned, when too late, that the old saying was 
true, that "uneasy lies the head that wears a crown." The In- 
dians were greatly delighted to see me, and appeared exceed- 
ingly anxious to know when I would come back and "ciuntiix 



136 LIFE AND LABORS 01^ A PIONEER 

iia na," which, in white man's vocabulary, means, "Deliver my 
inaugural address." I told them I intended to return in about 
4 or 5 weeks. They seemed greatly delighted at the prospect, 
and, coming close to me, all yelled, with all their might, "N'yas 
close/' — very good. Then in a milder tone of voice, they in- 
formed me that when I came back they would bring down for 
me one hyas Clase clulchaniiui, — a very good wufe. Oh, hor- 
rors ! I had now put my foot squarely into it, and how it was 
to be got out was to me a profound mystery. But, believing 
that man's extremity is God's opportunity, without regard to 
"race or color or previous condition of servitude," I held my 
peace and waited developments. I soon took leave of my tribe, 
and went on to my friend Hall's and spent the night with him 
and his squaw, both of whom seemed, by their pleasant quizzical 
looks, to know more than they were willing to tell. 

Usually, after a tiresome ride of 40 or 50 miles, in five or 
six hours, I gUdly welcome the time devoted to rest, and find 
purest pleasure in meditations and dreams. But now, all seemed 
mysterious and perplexing, and my mind seemed agitated and 
bewildered. I could see no way by which the conflicting inter- 
ests of all parties could be reconciled, and a slight mistake might 
plunge me into a tragical disaster, unable, tlierefore, to be enter- 
tained myself, or to entertain others. I concluded that the safest 
course to pursue was to turn my steps towards the quiet, peace- 
ful shelter of my own home. So, as soon as the sunlight had 
proclaimed the advent of morning, I was up and in the saddle, 
measuring off with rapid strides the 40 or 50 intervening miles. 
When the sun had crossed the meridian about two hours, I drew 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 I37 

rein at my own gate, and bright eyes and shrill voices proclaimed 
me welcome to a pleasant fireside. 

In a few days a micssage was placed in my hands from Dr. 
Thomas of San Francisco, Editor of the "California Christian 
Advocate," requesting me to come down to the city as soon as 
possible, and meet the Board of Trustees of the University of the 
Pacific, but did not state definitely the purpose for which I was 
desired to meet them. So another mystery must now be adde.l 
to those already perplexing me, and seemingly casting over the 
future a still deeper gloom than ever before. I had but two 
words to express my emotions and purpose, and exclaiming, 
"Who knows?" I boarded the first vessel that went out of Hum- 
boldt Bay, and sailed for the Golden Gate. 

At a meeting of the Trustees of the University a few days 
after my arrival in the city, I was elected "Field Agent of the 
University of the Pacific." My work was of a somewhat special 
character, being devoted to the selling of a tract of land consist- 
ing of 400 acres, extending from the Guadalupe River on the 
northeast to the far-famed Alameda Road on the southwest. 
This tract of land was situated about midway between the City of 
San Jose and the town of Santa Clara, and had been purchased 
by the Trustees with the intenton of removing the site of the 
University to a more central and convenient location. It was 
a part of an old Spanish grant, and the first, I believe, that was 
confirmed in Alta California, after the treaty of "Guadalupe 
Hidalgo." I entered at once upon my work, prosecuted it with 
diligence, lost my chieftainship of the Klamath Indians, "clase 
chilchiiiuu/' which I doubt not would have been an ornament to 
a Turkish harem. 



138 



LII^E) AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



On Visiting the Old Homestead After Thirty-five Years' Absence. 



By the cottage that stands on the brow of the hill, 
We pensively pause in our manhood to-day. 
And the breeze and the sunshine refreshes us still, 
As they greeted our youth ere we wandered away. 

We hail thee ! thou home of our boyhood's delight, 
And sigh as we think of the years that have flown, 
While the unchanging beauties that beam on our sight. 
Tell of infinite Love, whose direction we own. 

As the bright golden pinions of fancy now bring 
The beautiful pictures that gladdened the past, 
Our spirit will sweetly and tenderly cling 
To joys that we knew were too holy to last. 

We are listening once more to the sweet thrilling song 
That fell from the lips of a mother so dear, 
And while the soft music is floating along. 
We feel she is truly and lovingly near. 

How brave were the fathers and mothers who wrought 
To conquer the lands where we flourish to-day. 
How fierce were the battles their courage once fought, 
To keep the sweet hopes that now beam on our way. 



ON TH^ PACi:^IC COAST SINCS 1853 I39 

Our memory forever shall cherish the sod 

That covers with green their beloved remains, 

And ever our souls v^ill be grateful to God 

That the blood of such heroes now fiows in our veins. 






I40 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

CHAPTER XIX. 

A New Enterprise. 

IN inaugurating a new enterprise, tlie success of which de- 
* pends to a large extent upon the integrity and stability of 
different agencies, not clearly, and fully moved by a kindred im- 
pulse and an equal intelligence, men must be ready for emer- 
gencies that may, at almost any moment, shift responsibilities 
from one place to another, and from one class of environments 
to those entirely dissimilar, both in nature and potency. This is 
true, especially true, when our ideals have been created for dif- 
ferent purposes, and by habits of thought. In no part of our 
country has this been revealed more than in California in the 
early years of its settlement by the Americans. What it is to- 
day, is, to a very great extent, the harvest that sprung from the 
seed that was sown but yesterday. Distinct and positive nation- 
ality is usually a plant of slow growth, and the history of the 
race shows that centuries have been needed to give such char- 
acter and form. But here we have been expected to create a 
nation in a day. 

On coming down from the mountains, where I had realized 
marked success in collecting money to defray incidental expenses, 
such as the payment of the salaries of teachers and local agent, 
I gave to the Board of Trustees a frank statement as to the policy 
I thought ought to be pursued in order to attain the object for 
which I had been elected field asrent. I srave it as mv solemn con- 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 I4I 

viction that if we can make the original purpose for which we 
had purchased the 400 acres of land, called the "University 
Grounds," we must enlist the ministers in the work of taking 
up collections, while the Agents should devote their first atten- 
tion to the selling of the lands, that the work of prospecting 
and developing mines vvas in the hands of speculators and men 
without families who had put off to a more convenient season 
the work of rearing and educating a family. 

Fortunately, the Board of Trustees at the time had at its 
head several men of practical business experience and enter- 
prise, who worked cheerfully and earnestly to carry out this 
policy. Hon. Annis Merrill of San Francisco was the President 
and Dr. Hayden of Santa Clara was the Secretary of the Board, 
the former a lawyer and a man of considerable wealth and in- 
fluence in business circles, the other a practical farmer and hor- 
ticulturist, one of the Pioneers in fruit growing in the Santa 
Clara Valley. Among the ministers we could name Edward 
Banister, M. C. Briggs, S. D. Symonds, D. A. Dryden, T. H. 
Linx and others. In fact, we may say that without exception 
the entire California Conference at the time stood undivided and 
firm in support of the policy then adopted. 

So the first stage of the work was over, the inspiration of 
the Master resting upon all ; and with clear vision and undoubt- 
ing trust all seemed willing and anxious to move forward. The 
local Agent, aided by the county Surveyor, proceeded to the work 
of laying out the University Grounds into lots and blocks of 
suitable dimensions. While the field Agent, armed with tlie 
same free pass presented to him at Sacramento, went forth into 
our beautiful valleys to induce the people to purchase the same 



142 lii^e: and labors of a pioneer 

upon the favorable terms offered them by the Board of Trustees, 
which was one-quarter down, and the balance in three equal aa- 
tiral payments. 

My trip into the country to carry into effect the newly 
adopted plan of operation v\as to the upper portion of San 
Joaquin county. The late Warner Oliver, who at that 
time was living near Lodi, threw himself with his accustomed 
zeal into the work, and went with me from house to house, u?i- 
til we had, in five days, sold between five and six thousand dol- 
lars worth of land, and collected one hundred dollars in money. 
Rev. J. H. Maddoc was our preacher at Stockton City, where, 
on Sunday we held a grand rally for the University, which add- 
ed to our cash credits another one hundred dollars. 

I need not give in detail the various places I visited, but 
at the next meeting of the Trustees all concurred in the opinion 
that the success of our land venture was practically assured. It 
was seen very plainly that the condition of society at the time 
we changed our method of operation appealed so obviously and 
directly to the wants and ability both of the people and of the 
University that all doubts and uncertainties seemed to disappear, 
and without a discordant note the Trustees said to the Agents, 
"Say unto the people, 'Go forward.' " The preachers also cheer- 
fully and efficiently co-operated with those who were more di- 
rectly engaged in the field work, and we found that there had 
been sold during the year twenty thousand dollars worth of land, 
mostly in single lots but in one or two instances, in larger 
amounts. Such was the interest awakened that at one time a 
company was quietly formed to buy up all that v^^as left at the 



ON the: pacific coast since 1853 143 

price we had been selling at retail. Fortunately, we escaped the 
trap, and still live. 

Since that day it has appeared in several instances that the 
desire to smother our plans for building up and establishing the 
University was altogether more widespread and determined 
than at first believed, and the note of warning which we sounded 
was none too earnest and none too often repeated. Local preju- 
dices and rivalries were especially difficult to handle, being quite 
impersonal, and unscrupulous in the use of expedients for shift- 
ting of responsibilities. The experiences of personal friendship, 
which only designed to encourage zeal and activity in so desir- 
able a work, was allowed to influence some real friends of the 
cause in their relation to each other. 

It was at this stage of the work that the Trustees were 
called together in order to give the whole field a thorough and 
careful investigation, disclosing the fact that to retreat was a 
virtual impossibility, and our President of the Board, Annis 
Merrill, sounded the key note when, in summing up the case, 
exclaimed in the words of a celebrated captain, "The old guard 
can die but it never surrenders." The fact of the matter was, 
we had carried ourselves at one lofty bound so far into the realm 
of success, that the easiest thing to do was to draw the cords a 
little tighter, let the locks of our strength grow, take our head 
from the lap of a fascinating Delila, bid defiance to the whole 
tribe of Philistines, and win. And that is just what we did. 

A NARROW escape:. A DREAM THAT COMES TO PASS. 

I had spent about three weeks in Butte and Colusa counties 
and had met with gratifying success, especially in and about 
Chico, the home of General Bidwell, one of the most wealthy and 



144 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONFKR 

influential men then in the State of California, and then stand- 
ing high in the estimation of National politicians. The cause of 
education, on this coast especially, took a very firm hold upon 
his mind, and enlisted his cordial and earnest co-operation. He 
had learned of our efforts to establish the University of the 
Pacific, and when I called upon him invited me to remain over- 
night and explain the matter more fully. This I gladly consent- 
ed to do, and his practical mind during our conversation made 
many valuable suggestions in relation to the matter. 

In the morning, when I departed for San Francisco, he re- 
quested me to call again and to be sure to keep him posted in ref- 
erence to the success of our land scheme, and tell the Trustees 
to be of good heart, and they might even depend on his co-op- 
eration. On arriving in the city, I went at once to the home 
of the President of the Board, told him of my visit to Chico, 
and the pleasant words of cheer from Mr. Bidwell, and the 
general feeling of good will among the people at large. He 
listened calmly and attentively to my statement, and then re- 
plied: "Brother Hines, I am sorry to be compelled to state that 
I feel almost certain that we have serious trouble before us." 1 
sat down completely stupefied. After a moment, I replied, "Well, 
now what has happened?" He replied that a statement just re- 
ceived from Messrs. Newhall & Polhemus, the parties from 
whom, vv'e had purchased the land, revealed the fact that we had 
defaulted in our payments and they wished the matter attended 
to at once. 

After talking the matter over with the President of the 
Board, he and Bro. Briggs, who was present, thought that I, as 
Agent of the Board, had better call on Mr. Newhall and ascer- 



ON THE) PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1 853 I45 

tain, if possible, just how the matter stood. So, armed with a 
letter of introduction, I called on H. M. Newhall & Co., auction- 
eers and commission merchants, Sansome street. I deliberately 
walked into the office and handed Mr. Newhall my letter of intro- 
duction. He eyed it for a moment, looked at me with a search- 
ing glance, then blurted out: "Well, well, that looks a little sus- 
picious. One of the best beggars in California, and the best 
preacher in the United States, that surely ought to be sufficient. 
And now, what do you want?" I told him that it would be at 
least two weeks before the Board of Trustees could be got to- 
gether, and I wanted his promise that we should have that length 
of time in which to arrange the matter. Mr. Newhall gave me 
his promise, and the next train took me to Santa Clara. I went 
to see our Secretary, Dr. Hayden, who informed me that the 
Local Agent had just sent in his resignation. I then informed 
him of the condition of matters in the City, and throwing up his 
hands he exclaimed "What next?" I told him never mind the 
next, that will come soon enough. Go forward ! As soon as our 
Secretary had taken a hasty glance at the situation I hastened 
to my home, and found the family all well. We occupied what 
was known as the Maltby house, which was the first frame 
house built upon the University grounds. Mr. Maltby had been 
appointed Indian Agent at Tulare and consequently rented his 
house already furnished. 

After looking the matter over the first evening after return- 
ing home, I becam.e satisfied that there was no time to be lost 
in ascertaining the exact status of affairs, and what, if any thing, 
could be done to improve the situation. Two weeks would soon 
be gone, and at any moment complications might arise that would 



146 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

be certain to confuse and distract the minds of our people, and 
especially those who had already purchased our lands. 

It was no easy matter at that time, when all the business 
pertaining to the University was in such an unsettled condition 
to adopt and maintain a settled policy, especially when surround- 
ed by so many perplexities of a local and personal character. 
During the night, therefore, my mind became strongly im- 
pressed with a desire to visit San Jose, and several times I found 
myself startled by the force and vividness of that impression. 
So quite early in the morning I walked down The Alameda, 
which, by the way, presented a quite different appearance from 
what it does now, and when coming to the corner of First street, 
just opposite where the Bank of San Jose now stands, I met face 
to face with ]\Ir. John Spence, who was keeping a small grocery 
store about the place where the Victory Theatre now stands. Af- 
ter a hearty, old-fashioned shake of hands, he requested me to 
call at the store before I returned home, for said he, "I have some 
good news to tell you.'' I told him I would go right back with 
him now, as such a thing as "good news" would be quite wel- 
come to me at the present time. After we were seated, he re- 
marked : ''Brother Hines, I have sold my ranch (as he called it), 
over on the Coyote Creek.'' He owned 40 or 50 acres on the 
East Side as it was called, where the town of East San Jose now 
stands. Well, I replied, I hope you have done well by selling, 
but I always thought it a very delightful place. What did you 
get? "I sold it for $16,000 dollars in cash." You will now be 
able to enlarge your business here I presume. He replied: "I 
intend to put about one-half, or $8000 into the store and the bal- 
ance I will keep for some other purpose." 



ON THE PACII^IC COAST SINCK 1853 147 

I could scarcely describe my emotions while he was mak- 
ing this statement, but at its close I looked into his bright and 
pleasant face, and quietly remarked, I see it all now, you are the 
very man I saw in my dreams last night. He turned aside the 
joke by saying that the old patriarchs used to think a great 
deal of dreams, but at the present people preferred something 
rather more substantial. "But," said he, "tell me how you are 
getting along in selling the University lands?" I explained the 
complicated condition of affairs, the promise Mr. Newhall had 
made to me, and the urgency of the matter in view of the limit- 
ed time in which we had to act. I requested him to hold the mat- 
ter in hand until I could consult some of the Trustees, and we 
then would see our way more clearly. 

About noon I went back to my home with my faith in 
dreams much firmer than when I visited San Jose in the morn- 
ing. I went in the afternoon to see Dr. Hayden, our Secretary, 
who lived about one mile outside of the town of Santa Clara and 
told him of my visit to Mr. Spence, and the probability of our 
getting the money of him. He advised great caution, and said 
he would come to my house in the morning and we would go to- 
gether and see Mr. Spence. He was on hand in time with his 
horse and buggy and we rode over to San Jose, highly elated 
with the prospects before us. We found Mr. Spence at his 
store, looked the whole question over together, arranged the 
matter in a satisfactory manner, secured the $8,000, the amount 
of the deficiency, drove out to the home of Mr. John Polhemus, 
who was attorney-in-fact of Charles B. Polhemus, the partner 
of Mr. Newhall in the purchase of the University grounds, took 



148 lii^e: and labors of a pioneer 

his receipt for the same, and the victory was won and the land 
was saved. 

When the amount of our indebtedness was endorsed on 
the contract by Mr. John Polhemus, and certified to by C. B. Pol- 
hemus, I went to bed and took a good long nap, and I don't think 
I dreampt for at least twelve hours ; but still I believe in dreams. 

As soon as the business was closed up and made secure, I 
wrote to the President of the Board, Mr. Annis Merrill, giving a 
detailed account of the matter, and advised him to immediately 
call a meeting of the Board, so as to secure their ratification of 
the whole matter, and have it spread upon their minutes. He 
wrote me at once, informing me that he had called the meeting 
to be held at his office in the city, and giving directions how to 
proceed. Suffice it to say, the meeting was held, appropriate ac- 
tion was had, and a certified copy of the minutes was given me 
to show to Mr. Newhall and Mr. Polhemus. And the work was 
done and it has stood the test for more than forty years. I kept 
a "diary" at the time, and thus find myself able to tell this story. 
Every other person who participated in those important trans- 
actions except myself, have passed over the great divide. I will 
just add that as soon as the Board adjourned I took 'the field 
again and sold enough of the land to pay Mr. Spencer his $8000, 
when he concluded to move to Los Angeles, where, I think, he 
lived until a few years since when he passed away. 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 I49 

CHAPTER XX. 

First View of Potomac River. 

We had tread the proud halls where the tablets had told 
Of the words of the wise and the deeds of the bold, 
When far through the vista in beauty was seen 
A. deep rolling stream with its bright silver sheen. 

Of that stream in my youth my dear mother had sung, 
And I thrilled at the words as they fell from her tongue. 
And I trembled with fear as she told o'er and o'er 
Of the dark, savage tribes that once roamed on its shores. 

Who reads of the heroes that stood on thy shore. 
Who thinks of the navies thy bosom once bore. 
But feels in his spirit the swellings of pride. 
While peacefully borne o'er the swift-rolling tide? 

But brighter thy fame as the years roll along. 
Shall live on the pages of story and song, 
No river that murmurs its way to the sea, 
Thou lovely Potomac, is fairer than thee. 

While thy w^aters shall gleam in the sunlight of God, 
And we hallow the Halls where our W^ashington trod, 
Enshrined in the hearts of Columbia shall be 
Potomac's fair stream as it rolls to the sea. 



150 life: and labors of a pioneer 

We will pray that thy bosom may never more feel 
The tumult of war and the clashing of steel, 
While the people who cherish and love thee may be 
As gentle and pure and as peaceful as thee. 

Great souls of the mighty look down from the sky, 
And smile on these shores where our heroes now lie, 
That liberty's flames on our altars may glow. 
As long as Potomac's bright waters shall flow. 



ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 151 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Some of the Perils and Exciting Scenes of Pioneer Days 
in Oregon and California. 

IT is undoubtedly the part of wisdom, and will add greatly to 
* the knowledge as well as amusement and pleasure of those 
who are soon to enter into the toils and achievements of the early 
settlers of the Pacific Coast, to have placed in a tangible and re- 
liable form the peculiar incidents and personal experiences of the 
pioneer settlers of Oregon and California. We have now ar- 
rived at our utmost limits. No more unoccupied territory 
stretches out beyond us, inviting the restless footsteps of the 
emigrant to make for himself and his posterity an abiding dwell- 
ing place. To leave to the uncertain utterances of tradition the 
most important and interesting period of our social and political 
life would be a positive calamity both to the future historian 
and generations that may come after us. To avoid this we have 
written these short sketches, which we have reason to believe 
will be acceptable to the general public and aid somewhat in cre- 
ating the ideals for our future guardians and supporters. 

It was about the middle of the month of August, in 1855, 
that we had occasion to make a business trip from my home in 
the central part of the Willamette valley to Jacksonville, a dis- 
tance of about 200 miles. In making the journey our road led 
us for some 20 miles through a country inhabited by natives 
called the ''Rogue River Indians." For a number of years they 



152 life; and labors of a pioneer 

had been manifesting a growing dissatisfaction at the encroach- 
ments of tlie whites in passing and repassing through their 
country, thus frightening away the game from their hunting 
grounds, from which they procured their Hving. These indians 
were unusually blood-thirsty and cruel and in several instances 
lone travelers had been waylaid and murdered while passing from 
one settlement to another. The people all over the country had 
been for some time looking for an outbreak, but in what man- 
ner it would come, there seemed to be no settled opinion. On 
the extreme northern part of their territory the white inhabi- 
tants had erected a block-house as a place of refuge in case of 
emergency, where the settlers could flee for protection until re- 
lief could be obtained. On the southern border about 15 or 20 
miles distant the government had erected a fort called *'P'ort 
Lane," named after General Joseph Lane, first Governor of Ore- 
gon. Here was stationed a squad of soldiers well supplied with 
arms and ammunition, and ready to stand a siege of several 
months. 

Thus matters stood, when I had ocasion to pass through the 
entire length of the "Rogue River Country" as it was called, 
riding on horse-back, and driving before me a span of mules, 
which I had purchased at Jacksonville and was taking to my 
home near Corvallis in the central part of the Willamette valley. 
I was entirely unarmed, and unprepared for either offensive or 
defensive hostilities. I had just crossed a small stream called 
**Cow Creek' and was slowly jogging along at the foot of the 
mountains, on the other side of which was the before mentioned 
block-house, when I saw in the road not a hundred yards before 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 153 

me, two Indians, one armed with a gun, and the other, a smaller 
man, entirely unarmed, like myself. 

Those who have been acquainted with the Indians of Ore- 
gon, especially within the territory of Hudson Bay Company, 
will remember that whenever saluted by a person meeting them 
upon the road, in the jargon or speech used by all the tribes in 
their traffic with each other, your safety from molestation or 
harm was assured. I had picked up many of their most common 
words, so when these two Indians came near enough to plainly 
hear, I cried out "cla hoy em sex,'' or what in our tongue would 
be, "how do you do, sir." To my astonishment neither of them 
paid the least attention to what I said, or even deigned to look 
at me. You may rest assured I took the hint and kept my eyes 
riveted upon their movements. As soon as they had passed mc 
about ten feet, the one carrying the gun paused, turned around 
and attempted to raise it to his shoulder. The other one at once 
seized the barrel and pulling it down, prevented its being dis- 
charged. Like a flash I seized my lariat, and struck the mules 
with all my strength. They both leaped forward carrying me 
in an instant behind a bunch of bushes. As I came out for an 
instant within sight of the Indians, they were still contending 
with each other for the gun. In an instant my animals leaped 
over a small hillock, and away we sped over the Cow Creek 
mountains, a distance of six miles, to the block-house. There 
was, or seemed to be, at least a dozen Indians and behind every 
bush, but I didn't stop to count them or to salute them in their 
native tongue. In about two weeks afterwards two teamsters, 
freighting provisions with four yoke of oxen to Jacksonville and 
Fort Lane, were waylaid and shot on the very spot where I had 



154 lii'e: and labors of a pioneer 

met the two Indians, and thus opened one of the most bloody 
Indian wars that was ever fought on the Pacific Coast. And so 
close did I come to being its first victim. 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 1 55 

CHAPTER XXII. 
Returning Home From the East. 

Thou fair smiling valley, I hasten to thee, 

As the long absent sailor speeds over the sea, 

That his vision may feast on the beauties once more 

That deck the sweet fields of his own native shore. 

Tell us not of the glories of city or field, 
Or seek to allure by the pleasure they yield, 
For naught have we found as we wandered away 
Such beauties as crown thee, thou fair San Jose. 

For thee will we banish all doubtings and fears, 
For thee will we cease all our sorrows and tears, 
No starlight of evening or sunlight of day 
Can equal the brightness of sweet San Jose. 

We will pray that thy temples may evermore stand, 
The hope, and the joy, and the pride of our land, 
That thy sons and fair daughters may never betray 
The name and the fame of our loved San Jose. 



156 . LIFK AND LABORS OF A PI0NE;ER 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

Composed On Our Golden Wedding Day 

For many years we've sailed the main, 

In fair and stormy weather, 

Our vessel sometimes felt the strain 

That comes with wind and storm of rain, 

But still we stood together. 

Before our faith each cloud would fly, 
Like dancing wind-tossed feather. 
And we could see, as they passed by, 
Through rifted cloud the clear blue sky. 
That promised brighter weather. 

But how so e'er the sea might seem. 
Or dark and drear the weather, 
Our eyes would see love's beacon star 
That beamed so sweetly from afar. 
And held our hearts together. 

To-day the voyage is almost o'er. 

But we still sail together. 

And pray that God may give each soul. 

When death shall call, that heavenly goal, 

Where sunlight shines forever. 



ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 157 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
On the Opening of the Rebellion. 

When treason's hosts were marshalled on our southern sunny 
plains, 
And their stirred ranks were marching to the sound of mar- 
tial strain. 
The first to heed the warning as it rang out there and then, 

Were the sons of Massachusetts, and they all were laboring 
men. 

Arouse, ye sturdy yeomen ! flashed along the trembling wires, 
Let the altars of your country blaze anew with patriot fires,. 

For Freedom's voice is calling you from every dell and glen. 
To rise for her protection and acquit yourselves like men. 

And they hurled the demon slavery from its hoary, bloody throne. 
Inspired by truth and justice they restored to man his own. 

For naught could stay the battle as it swept its fiery way, 

Till all the suffering bondmen saw the light of freedom's 
day. 

Hear ye not the muttering thunder as it echoes clear and loud. 
See ye not the forked lightning as it leaps the rifted cloud, 

'Tis Heaven's voice prophetic that proclaims the coming day. 

When labor's host triumphant o'er this land shall bear the 
sway. 



158 LIFE AND LABORS 01^ A PIONEKR 

They would chain our bold Prometheus to the sturdy flinty rack, 
And would bear his beating bosom to the tempests fearful 
shack, 
But the fire he brought from heaven and bestowed with generous 
hand, 
Still glows with radiant beauty on the altars of our land. 

Again the notes of warning sound along our hills and plains. 
Rise, freemen! save your country from corruption's fearful 
stains, 
Not the bullet, but the ballot, now can make you feel as when 
Sweet freedom rose and slavery fell by. the power of laboring 
men. 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 159 

CHAPTER XXV. 

What Constitutes a State? 

Pause now and learn what constitutes a State: 
What makes a nation truly wise and great? 
Do towering monuments that pierce the sky, 
O'er the proud dust where buried heroes lie? 
Do cities fair with gorgeous temples crowned, 
Or busy commerce with its murmuring sound? 
Is it the train that thunders through the land. 
To bear our products to some distant strand? 
Or the tamed lightning darting o'er the wire, 
To bear our message on its wings of fire? 
No — these may flourish with exulting pride. 
Where virtue, honor, truth and right have died. 
'Tis men we need, men of a noble mould 
Who scorn to barter principle for gold. 
Constant to keep a noble end in view, 
And with unfaltering step that end pursue. 



l60 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

How I Destroyed the Des Chutes Ferry. 

TT was about the fifteenth of June, 1853, that I received my 
transfer from the Genesee Conference, the territory of which 
then lay in the western part of the State of New York, to the 
Oregon Conference, which then embraced the Territories of Ore- 
gon and Washington. About the first of May my two brothers, 
one older and one younger than myself, had been appointed to 
the same field, and then had procured their traveling outfit and 
were headed overland to their future place of Missionary toil 
in the State of Oregon. When they left my home, which was in 
the city of Warsaw, Wyoming county, N. Y., I had no expec- 
tation of ever seeing them in the world again. When I received 
my transfer it was entirely unknown to them, as they were then 
nearly one month out on the plains, headed for the Pacific Coast 
with their slow-moving ox teams. Without being able to com- 
municate with them, I received instructions to be ready to sail 
on the 20th of June on the steamer Illinois, Capt. Patterson, at 
4:00 o'clock P. M. 

I was on hand promptly, with my family, and was the veri- 
est land lubber on the earth, for I had never seen the ocean, 
though born and reared in the State of New York. We steared 
away for Kingston, Jamica, where we took in coal, then went 
away across the Carrabean Sea to Aspinwall on the Isthmus 
of Panama. At Aspinwall we took cars for Gargona, on the 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 161 

Chagres River, but a span of the bridge over that river having 
been carried away in the flood of a few days previous, we were 
compelled to take open boats and be rowed six miles by naked 
Indians to the little town of Cruses, where we were to tarry for 
the night. About midnight, we were startled by the cry of 
iire, which swept through the town and destroyed every hovel 
in it to ashes in less than two hours. Here were about lOO pas- 
sengers, without shelter, waiting for daylight to arrive and show 
their deplorable condition. The women and children were per- 
mitted to occupy one of the frame buildings of the Railroad 
Company, and nearly all of them were provided with ham- 
mocks, where they swung themselves up for a little rest. 

This, at that time, was the terminus of the railroad, and 
the balance of the way to Panama, which was about 12 or 15 
miles, was to be traveled on mules, all but the children, who 
were carried on the backs of naked savages at five dollars per 
head. We had some trouble with mules, but at last all was 
ready for a start. It seems that the mule business was con- 
troled by the Railroad Company, and there was a terrible scram- 
ble after the best mules. At last all were quite well satisfied and 
we moved on and at about sundown we entered the ancient city 
of Panama. It looked, I have no doubt, much as it did in the 
days of the Montezumas. The next day was the 4th of July, 
which we celebrated as best we could. We had several speeches, 
sang several patriotic songs, had a good dinner. 

The next day we went aboard the fine steamer Golden Gate 
and sailed quietly over the bright and placid waters of the mighty 
Pacific, and in due time cast our anchor at the foot of Jackson 
Street, in the struggling city of San Francisco. Then there was 



l62 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

no street above Powell, nor below Sansome. There was a grave- 
yard about where the Baldwin Hotel now stands, and dogs were 
chasing jack rabbits where the Palace Hotel now stands. I 
remained in San Francisco about one week, stopping with M. 
C. Briggs, the pastor of the Powell Street Church. Except the 
little Bethel, where William Taylor preached to the sailors, this 
was the only Methodist church for quite a number of years. 

We went on board the small steamer Columbia and sailed 
out of the Golden Gate about the 13th of July. We crossed the 
storm swept bar of the Columbia in safety, and, sailing up the 
broad river, where the majestic fir forests crept down to the 
waters, and turning 12 miles up the beautiful Willamette, tied 
up our little steamer in front of the prospective metropolis of 
the North. 

Our journey was ended. The varied scenes and checkered 
scenery through which we had passed had made a deep and last- 
ing impression upon our minds, and I felt eager to acquaint 
myself with the field where I expected at that time to pass the 
remainder of my life. Everything seemed new and so roughly 
primitive in style that I questioned my power of adaptation, and 
felt at times a little feeling of homesickness creeping over me. 
But this I would shake of¥, and rush out into the field or for- 
est and address myself to some enterprise that would tend to 
build up and beautify my new and future home. 

About the first of August, the emigrants began to arrive 
from the plains, wearied and sometimes sick, and many of them 
disheartened on account of the loss of teams and wagons dur- 
ing the journey, and the worst of all the death and burial of 
friends in the desert. Sometimes it was a husband, sometimes 



ON the: pacific coast since 1853 163 

a wife, a son or a daughter ; sometimes both husband 
and wife, leaving a number of orphans children to be cared 
for by strangers, or wander without care, ragged and destitute 
and forsaken, themselves to perish in the wilderness. No pen 
has ever been able to adequately describe the terrible sufferings 
of those early emigrants during the ten years succeeding 1850. 
Having crossed the Isthmus of Panama, I had a few weeks to 
spare before the bulk of the emigrants began to arrive, and 
nothing could exceed the terrible sufferings I witnessed amongst 
the first arrivals from the plains. Frequently a solitary horse- 
man would arrive, bringing news of some special disaster, and 
the settlers would pack several horses and mules with provisions 
and clothing and hasten to their relief. 

When I arrived at Portland in the Autumn of 1853, I found 
myself confronted with an unusual number of such scenes, and 
I soon exhausted all my surplus means, in efforts for their relief, 
and then began to work for wages in order to be able to accom- 
plish more. As soon as the first emigrants began to arrive in 
the settlements west of the Cascade Mountains, I began to 
seek information in regard to my brothers, three of whom had 
left St. Joseph, ^lo., in the early Spring. I found they had be- 
gun to arrive quite freely at the Dalles, then the head of naviga- 
tion on the east of Hood River, where it empties into the Co- 
lumbia. There were but a few permanent buildings there at 
that time, but a large number of tents, where traders kept sup- 
plies during the emigrant season, and bought up cattle from 
those just in from the sage brush plains, especially from those 
whose cattle were run down and were thought to be unable to 
cross the Cascade Mountains to the grass covered plains of the 



164 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

Willamette Valley. It will be remembered that at the Dalles the 
river branches, one branch leading down the Columbia River, 
around the Cascades on the west about two miles, then across 
the tongue of land between the Columbia and the Willamette to 
the City of Portland. 

At it was uncertain which route my folks would take, I 
was advised to go up to the Dalles and await their coming there. 
So I took the advice, and, traveling the usual route in about 
twelve hours, arrived at the place of destination. I put up with 
a friend with whom I had become acquainted in Portland, and 
sought his advice in regard to my future movements. About 
midnight, we were aroused by a voice at the door of our tent 
v/ith the inquiry, "Is there any one in the place that can perform 
the marriage ceremony?" He was answered in the affirmative 
by my friend and told that inside the tent there was a Methodist 
preacher who could attend to such matters when desirable. A 
few words explained the situation. There stood a neat and 
gentlemanly appearing young man, and at his side a blushing 
damsel of about 18 years of age. The young man said they 
were all from Missouri, were all members of the Methodist 
Church, and were camped miles out near the crossing of the 
Des Chutes River, and would be in town as soon as possible in 
the morning. They desired to be married without delay so as 
return to the camp before they were missed. I told them that 
I would require a clear, truthful statement of the exact situation 
before I would consent to perform the ceremony. They told 
me that the mother of the girl was willing and anxious for them 
to be married before their leaving home, but the father, who was 
of a miserly turn, was unwilling because the young man vv^as 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE; 1 853 165 

poor. To avoid the marriage of his daughter to this poor young 
man, he had sold his property and crossed the plains with his 
entire family. Such was the attachment of the young people to 
each other that the young man had taken the next train and had 
followed the girl across the plains. Last night he had made 
himself known to the mother and daughter, and had come in 
together to the business that they had so ardently desired. I 
then performed the ceremony making them man and wife. 1 
then told them to return immediately, acquaint the mother of 
all that had happened, and I would be out early and have a 
talk with the father. They promised strict compliance with my 
request, and, shaking them by the hand, while a glistening tear- 
drop trembled over the fair, sweet face of the happy bride, I 
mvoked the blessing of God upon them in all their future life. 

Early in the morning, having procured a good riding horse 
of my friend, I rode out to the camp, and, speeding over the 
rolling prairie, soon drew rein at the door of the tent and asked 
to see the proprietor of the same. The father of the bride came 
to the door, and, with a quiet, yet somewhat abrupt, tone, asked 
what I desired. I asked him if his wife was in the tent, and 
being answered in the affirmative, inquired if it would be agree- 
able to them to hold a few moments' interview with me alone. 
He gave his consent, but intimated that they were in a 
great hurry, and wished the interview to be as brief as 
possible. I then related the events of the past night, and told 
him that if he would^ remain a few days at the Dalles, I had a 
friend there who would be able to give them some information 
of especial value to the whole family. I told him that I was out 
on the plains to meet brothers who had crossed the plains in the 



i66 life: and labors of a pionee:r 

present year, and I presumed would soon be in the Dalles. He 
said he intended to stop there for several days and he would 
wait there for my return. I told him that as we had all come 
a long distance, to build up homes in a new and strange land, 
we should strive to help each other as much as possible. Evi- 
dently the old man felt a little sore over the course things had 
taken, but I gained my point in getting him to wait my return. 
They soon moved on into the Dalles and pitched their tent 
for a few days' rest, and to await my return, while I rode down 
the hill towards the Des Chutes River to meet my brothers, whom 
I knew could not be many miles away. When I arrived at the 
ferry landing, I found the boat had just crossed to the opposite 
side of the river, where alone there was a chance to rest before 
starting on the last 15 miles to the Dalles. On the opposite side, 
from a small elevation, one could see the road for nearly four 
m.iles away, and I was anxious to see if there were any trains 
of emigrants now at hand. So I called to the ferryman to come 
and take me over, and offered him the dollar which the law re- 
quired. He refused to come, and told me to wait unto the next 
train came up and then he would come. I informed him that 
I had come all the way from Portland to meet some friends, and 
the next train, which was then about one mile away, might be the 
train, and I desired to meet them on the other side. He turned 
abruptly away, saying he could do nothing ror me. ''Very 
well," I replied, "then I will help myself." I rode up to an In- 
dian nearby, showed him a silver dollar and asked him to lead my 
horse over. In a moment he had tossed his lariat over the head 
of my horse and was dragging me into the river. He seemed 
to understand what I desired, and seemed to know exactly what 



ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 167 

to do. They soon discovered what was going on at the ferry 
above, and offered to come over and get me if I would go back. 
I told them that I guessed I would wait until the train came up, 
then we would all go back together. We passed safely over, 
the water in no place being higher than the horse's knees. The 
stream having divided about 300 yards below the ferry, it was 
easily fordable on horseback. Strangers, of course, knew noth- 
ing about this, and the ferry people, by exaggeration and de- 
ception, had kept it a secret a great length of time. 

As soon as I was over, I at once rode up to a little eleva- 
tion, and there, right before my eyes, was the train I had come 
nearly 200 miles to meet. I knew them at a glance, but I was 
entirely unrecognized by them, although six months before they 
had left my house in the State of New York. So I turned back, 
and, riding down near the river, awaited their arrival. In a few 
moments, my elder brother, leading by the hand his little adopt- 
ed daughter, the only child of Rev. Jason Lee, the founder of 
the Oregon Missions. They were walking leisurely along, 
searching for a suitable place to stop their wagons. I was sit- 
ting upon my horse not 100 feet away when they went by, barely 
giving me a casual glance. After selecting a suitable place, they 
started to inform the incoming team. This led them a little 
nearer to me. All at once, the little girl paused, looked up to- 
wards my face, her great blue eyes dilating with wonder and 
awe; she lifted up her little hand and cried out, "Papa! papa! 
come here! Come here!" all the time staring wildly at my 
face. Brother, no less excited than the little girl, cried out, 
"Merciful Heavens, Joseph, is that you, or is it your ghost?" 



1 68 LII^i: AND LABORS OF A PIONKER 

I guess the Des Chutes River never saw a more surprised and 
excited crowd than stood on its banks at that hour. 

We were soon refreshed and brought to our senses by a 
cup of Aunt Lydie's tea, and we mutually agreed that no ex- 
planation should be required of the ghost who had a few mo- 
ments before entered camp, as it had acted towards Aunt Lydie's 
tea just as the original did way back in the State of New York, 
until a more convenient season arrived. The entire company was 
called together for consultation, as a crisis evidently was near at 
hand. I had provided myself with about $20.00 to pay my 
expenses on the trip, not thinking that an emergency might 
arise like the present. In talking the matter over, I incidentally 
alluded to my adventure with the Indian in getting over the riv- 
er, and gave it as my opinion that we had no use for a ferryboat. 
I told them that if they were willing to take the risk, I would 
guide them over the stream the same way I had come. I mount- 
ed my horse, rode over, showing them the marks I had made on"* 
the shore, and on my return all concluded to make the venture. 
My youngest brother, who, by the way, was celebrated as an 
expert driver, and had a well trained team, was selected to take 
the lead the the rest were to follow close behind. All were in- 
structed that, in case of the upsetting of a wagon, by the swift 
running waters, to be sure to seize hold of some secure part of 
cover and not be separated from it, to roll up the curtains of 
the cover so as not to be caught under them. I put my lariat 
around the off ox which was the fartherest down stream. All being 
ready, the word was given and the long lash whirled over the 
backs of the oxen, the riders driving the loose stock pressed 
close behind and in just about 15 minutes after the wheels of 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 169 

the first wagon had touched the run of the river, the last of our 
three teams had reached the opposite shore. Other teams came 
rolHng up behind us, and others behind them, leaving a well 
beaten track, which revealed the deception of the Des 
Chutes ferry and numbered it with the things that were. A ferry 
has not been run there from that day to this, and in all probability 
never will be again, as a railroad bridge has been built a short 
distance above, and a well known ford is all that is needed for 
local travel, except in very high water. And that is the way I 
destroyed the Des Chutes Ferry. So perish all liars and de- 
ceivers, who seize on the gifts of God to man and strive to de- 
ceive and rob the people. 



170 life: and labors of a pioneer 

CHAPTER XXVIL - 

LINCOLN. 

Thou sainted Lincoln, whose untimely end 

Bereft a nation of its dearest friend, 

To imitate thy virtues shall engage 

The toiling patriot of each coming age. 

From thee they learn to love their country's laws, 

And die with pleasure in her sacred cause. 

No sting of envy thy pure soul possessed, 

No vengeful feelings burned within thy breast. 

From chilling prejudice thy mind was free, 

And suffering bondmen found a friend in thee. 

No sordid end pursued, but firmly stood 
For truth, and labored for the people's good. 
While slumbering now among the silent dead, 
A martyr's crown adorns thy sainted head ; 
And while we cherish what thy deeds have won, 
We write thy name next to our Washington. 

/^NE feels lost and bewildered when one attempts to say 
^^ anything new or instructive concerning Abraham Lincoln. 
His great and wonderful career, during one of the most event- 
ful and critical periods of our national history, has for nearly 
fifty years been before the country in almost every form in which 



ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 171 

genius or patriotism could possibly present it. His unique per- 
sonality, his early habits and experience, his rapid elevation to 
the highest and most responsible position in our country, his of- 
ficial acts, while occuping that position, and the sudden and 
startling exit from it, can scarcely find a single parallel in the 
history of the human race. While bearing about in his form 
and features the appearance of premature age, yet he was com- 
paratively a young man when elevated to the Presidency in 
i860. This, when all collateral circumstances are considered, 
pointed him out to all thoughtful and discerning minds as being- 
set apart by Infinite Wisdom for a special work in his day and 
generation, but also for the years that are to come. 

Like all great reformers, Lincoln built better than he knew. 
It was necessary for him to learn the art of government, for by 
nature and patriotic impulse his life flowed on in perfect har- 
mony with the eternal principles of justice and truth. He did 
not hesitate to spurn with instinctive dislike all attempts to com- 
promise with falsehood and error. As highly as he estimated 
the friendship and work of Horace Greeley, and others of sim- 
ilar views, he turned a deaf ear to all their hesitating fears, and 
stood firm and confident in support of his policy to crush out the 
rebellion at whatever cost. He clearly recognized the fact that 
an order of sequence existed not only in the physical but in the 
moral and spiritual world as well, and that to attempt to ignore 
this fact to escape its operation would only end in ignominious 
failure. Like the Israelites of old, while standing upon the 
shores of the Red Sea, the only road to peace and safety was in 
going straight forward, he did not hesitate to lift up his voice 
and say to the doubting people around him, "Go forward!" 



172 lib'e: and labors of a pione:er 

Contemporaneous testimony, coming from reliable sources, 
revealed the fact that Abraham Lincoln was a devout and re- 
ligious man. While adopting no particular denominational for- 
mula of faith, he sought the companionship of those devout and 
pious men vv^hose prominence and influence in the religious 
world was known and acknowledged in all lands. In addition 
to his being a great student of the Bible, he was in constant fel- 
lowship with such church leaders as Bishop Simpson, Bishop 
Ames, Henry Ward Beecher, Horace Bushnell, and other great 
religious leaders of the day. He appointed and devoutly ob- 
served the days of fasting and prayer, and like Washington at 
Valley Forge, he often sought upon his knees aid and direction 
from the Supreme Ruler of nations. 

What may be termed the humorous side of Mr. Lincoln's 
character is shown in his gift of story telling, which was mar- 
velous in the extreme. By a simple anecdote, he would fre- 
quently settle a deep and perplexing problem, and throw a flood 
of light upon questions that had defied the skill and power of the 
most learned logicians. Sometimes men of undoubted sincer- 
ity, but perplexed by doubts and fears, would leave his pres- 
ence feeling shocked and sorrowful after listening to a light and 
seemingly frivolous story, but a little time for reflection, and 
the one great purpose of his life would rise up before them in 
vindication of integrity and settled convictions. Failing at times, 
by the intermeddling of theoretical bores, a single humorous ut- 
terance from his lips would cut like a two-edged sword in put- 
ting therri all to speedy and disorderly flight. Take for instance, 
his reply to a delegation who called to remonstrate against the 
promotion of General Grant, on account of his alleged excessive 



ON the: pacific coast since 1853 173 

use of ardent spirits. With that quizzical look peculiar to the 
man, he gravely inquired if they could tell him of the brand of 
liquor General Grant used as he "would be glad to send for a 
supply for some of his other generals." This settled the ques- 
tion and the committee retired. It is scarcely too much to sav 
that, even at this early day, the life and achievements of Lincoln 
changed in a fundamental manner the moral basis of civil gov- 
ernment. He raised it above the expediential basis of France, 
the aristocratic theory of England and Germany, and left it as 
an inheritance "for the people and by the people." The ''self- 
evident" proposition of Jefferson has now received an addi- 
tional illumination, and the divine supremacy of law lends its 
dominating power to all social and political relationships. 

The "compact" idea of national government, as entertained 
by such master-minds as Clay and Webster, Calhoun and Doug- 
lass, went down when the well poised mind of Lincoln built his 
moral standard of social order, around which aroused humanity 
could rally and march on together for the redemption of the 
world. He made potent and plain the divine right of man to a 
civil government, but the divine right of man to govern he stead- 
fastly denied. 

As truly as Christ made incarnate the Spiritual Kingdom 
of God upon earth, so Lincoln incarnated the true ideal of civil 
government among men. He stands before us as the great High 
Priest of the Nation, and laid the willing sacrifice of the purple 
upon the altar of their patriotic devotion. So we close as we 
began, with the mystery of his personality still unsolved, but 
with the untarnished glory of immortal deeds as bright as the 
sunlight in the heavens. 



174 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 
Political Equality. 

TT is so eminently right that under the principles of our govern- 
ment a woman's position politically should be exactly equal 
to that of a man (and the opposite theory or assumption is so 
wrong) that it becomes almost certain that when once the full 
realization of the justice of it is grasped by everyone there will 
remain no opposition whatever. 

The doctrine of "suffrage for woman," as well as "suffrage 
for man," will come in time to be a very axiom, concerning which 
there can be no argument. The objections raised at present will 
be fully exposed as being as unreasoning and as contrary to sound 
thinking as are any of the fallacies in logic. After that they will 
be as easily overthrown whenever they arise as is the proposi- 
tion, "two and two don't make four"; or this one, "two apples 
and three oranges make five peaches" ; or this, ''three apples away 
from seven peaches leaves four apples." 

It will come yet to be fully recognized and acknowledged 
that "a government by the people and of the people" means just 
that, and does not mean "a government by and of a part of the 
people." 

It will be seen that if ''political power inheres in the peo- 
ple" and is an universal human right, then there is no possible 
logical way in which to deny that power to women, who are 
incontrovertibly people, neither more nor less. 



ON 



THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 I75 



In time it will be freely acknowledged by everyone that if 
governments must ''derive their just powers from the consent of 
the governed," then women, because they are certainly governed, 
by no means that can possibly be righteously devised are to be 
prevented from expressing that consent exactly as do men. 

It will be seen clearly in the future, although it may fail to 
be so clearly apparent today, that if for one class of persons 
''taxation without representation is tyranny," then it is tyranny 
for each and every class of persons. 

When it comes to be fully perceived that there is no way in 
which to exclude half the people from rights that are conceded 
to belong to all people, then it will be seen that there are no ar- 
guments to deprive women of freedom and equality, that may 
not be applied also to men. Such arguments simply deny the 
principles of our Constitution and Declaration of Independence ; 
they justify tryanny and despotism ; they take away the only ti- 
tle that any man holds to his own ballot. 

When this is clearly understood and appreciated there will 
be no one left who will attempt to maintain such an inconsistent, 
dangerous and absolutely contradictory and impossible position. 

At that time the objections and so-called arguments which 
are now from time to time presented will be no more heard of. 
for they will be clearly seen to have no bearing or application 
upon the subject of political equality, the ballot and the suffrage, 
or if they have, to apply with equal justness to men as to women. 
It will be recognized that the health or alleged invalidism of 
women is not a factor in the matter. Why should it be? It is 
not in the case of men. Our theory of democracy is not "gov- 
ernment on the consent of the athletic." We nowhere read ''Tax- 



176 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONKER 

ation without representation in the case of sound lungs and 
trained muscles is tyranny," nor "Political power inheres in the 
people who train the gymnasium." 

When the matter is rigiitly looked into everybody is going 
to acknowledge right joyfully that there is no sound reasoning 
in depriving half the governed, the taxed and the people of 
political rights, on the score that for them to earn their own 
living is to compete for wages with men, the same being unfair 
to the men. For everybody will see, upon hardly looking at the 
thing twice, that in depositing a ballot is in no way earning 
one's living, therefore voting women do not compete one whit 
more than non-voting women have already done and are still 
doing. In fact it will be seen that this whole matter belongs 
under the category, "working or not working as applied to wom- 
en," and not in the remotest degree under the category, 'Vot- 
ing or not voting as applied to women." 

When it becomes fully enough recognized and acknowledged 
that the whole question of the vote for women is a question of 
right, justice and the consistent (and therefore necessary) ap- 
plication of the principles of the government under which we 
live, no more will be said about the necessity for each woman, or 
even for a majority of women, wishing and demanding it. 

Does the right of slaves to be freed, and not enslaved of any 
man, depend upon a wish and demand upon the part of the 
slaves ? 

Does the right and desirability of school facilities for ev- 
ery child in the land rest upon the wish and the demand of the 
children of the land? 

Has the right of women to a share in whatever highest 



ON TH^ PACTI^IC COAST SINCE: 1853 177 

educational opportunities the country affords, existed only since 
every woman, or since a majority of the women, have wished 
and demanded it ? So far is this from representing the case, that 
only the smallest proportion of women are concerned in that 
privilege and avail themselves of it. For every woman who 
avails herself of a college education, there are two-fold, four- 
fold, aye, ten-fold as many women demanding for themselves 
and their sisters the right of representation and self-govern- 
ment. 

Why, at the beginning in this country, when the question 
of a woman's right to education first arose, it was not by any 
means a question of collegiate or university education. The 
question then was, "shall a woman be accorded that very man- 
nish privilege and accomplishment, the power to read and write?'* 
Be sure there were just as many opponents then as there are 
to the more advanced woman question to today. There was 
an almost overpowering fear that if women should be able to 
read in books they would misuse their powers and neglect their 
duties. With such a masculine fear as that in the air, do you 
suppose a very large proportion of women either openly or se- 
cretly advocated ''education for women"? And when men rec- 
ognize the right of a woman to a vote, and abide consistently 
by that recognition, they will themselves, without troubling 
themselves much as to woman's own attitude in the matter, ad- 
vocate and demand political position for women. In those days 
how enormously will increase the proportion of the gentle sex 
who ''demand" it ! 

An objection has lately been presented : "While woman re- 
mains the religious slave that she is, I doubt that it would be 



178 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

right to put that dangerous weapon (the ballot) into her hanas. 
I am for all reforms, but there are 50 per cent more women 
than men in the churches, these pious women all strongly under 
the influence of priest and parson. Now, if the ballot should 
be put in the hands of woman, I fear that religious persecution 
would be carried on upon a gigantic scale. Haven't Christians 
alv.'-ays persecuted when they had the power? If she is going 
to help the clergy fight the people in their just demands she 
should not have the ballot." 

Perhaps it will be remembered that this same objection was 
very strongly presented in San Francisco a year or so ago. 

The fact remains that our government is a government of 
and by the people ; not ''a part of the people." It is not a theory 
of democracy or popular government that people who would 
vote as you would, or as I would, or as someone else thinks 
proper, may have that privilege; but that all, equally, shall 
share political duties, responsibilities and privileges. 

In some of the largest of the churches, and in some of the 
sects, there is seen to be a very goodly proportion indeed of 
men. Yet those men themselves are not disfranchised on that 
account, much less are all other men disfranchised because of 
them. Is a man who is a Christian less dangerous than a woman 
who is a Christian? If I mistake not, those Christians who 
persecuted for opinion's sake, when they had the power, in the 
darker ages of the world, were mostly men. The spirit of the 
time in which we live safely may be counted with. The fear of 
a religious persecution in California, conducted by ministers and 
women overly pious, may safely be dismissed as a grossly ex- 
aggerated one. Make woman less a slave outside the church, 



ON the: pacii^'ic coast sinck 1853 179 

teach her to rely upon her reason more, and doubtless she will 
become less a "slave" within the church. But all women who 
are periodically seated in churches are not slaves to supersti- 
tion. There are many other elements in society fully as dan- 
gerous, and yet men are not disfranchised and made into a 
legally and politically degraded class because of them. That is 
not the theory, as cannot be too often repeated, upon which 
American government and the ballot rest. 

Ah, the many "fears," which, existing in men's minds con- 
cerning women, are counted as valid reasons for depriving wom- 
en of their just share in the dignity of a government of whose 
burdens they bear their full proportion. Women may not go to 
the polls once a year to express openly and worthily their wishes 
and opinions upon city, county and state affairs, all of which 
concern them as much as men. Why not? Because men "fear'' 
that women would thereupon change from being women ; would 
desert and neglect their homes ; would adopt public lecturing as 
their profession; would go to work to earn their own living, 
particularly in some really remunerative way; that they would 
close up the saloons and deprive men of the right to buy drinks ; 
that they would inaugurate a religious persecution in the state ; 
aye, one of the "fears" of men that deprive women of a vote is 
the "fear" that they do not want it. 

Most of these alarms are concerned with a possible future 
injustice or wrong which might happen to somebody. And yet 
there is no concern about a present injustice to millions of wom- 
en — in fact, to half the nation. Because some people fear wom- 
an's goodness, and some fear her badness, seems in the light 
of calm reflection and candid reasoning but a poor argument for 



i8o life: and labors of a pione:e:r 

maintaining that she should be prevented from being considered 
a responsible human being, with the same rights in the govern- 
ment under which she lives as are so carefully secured to even 
the least noble of men. 

We let democrats make mistakes, and populists, and repub- 
licans, if they can ; we do not confine the male ballot to those 
who never cast it wrongly or mistakenly; yet we relegate women, 
in their own eyes and in the eyes of "ignorant men and small 
boys,'' to a lower step or scale of civilization than that of the 
most uninstructed, newly-naturalized foreign citizen, just "for 
fear" she might make mistakes ! 

No woman believes that the millenium will come when wom- 
en begin to vote. Men's votes have never been able to bring it 
about, so why expect hers to? But men's and women's together 
will be better than either alone. And the votes of good citizens, 
men and women, will outnumber those of all the bad citizens in 
the land, if only good men will do their full political duty. 



ON the: pacific coast since 1853 181 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
Classification. 

The very thing we wish to know, and the thing which furn- 
ishes the key to the question under discussion, is, what is the 
difference between moral beauty and spiritual beauty? Why was 
it that the young man who was morally beautiful, was declared 
by Christ not to be spiritually beautiful ? Why do qualities known 
by the same names and definitions in the one case and conection 
appear right and excellent and in the other wrong and defective? 

Until these questions can be answered, it seems to us but 
little advance can be made towards a clear and proper classifica- 
tion in the science of religion. Confusion here leaves the whole 
question disjointed and superficial. The Bible is full of state- 
ments directing the mind to some fundamental difference in moral 
standing between the two charcters ? What is it ? In what does it 
consist? Our author should have answered these questions in his 
article on "Classification." 

We fear that our author has made a very serious mistake 
in his effort to trace an analogy between the moral development 
of the natural man and the spiritual man. It seems to us that the 
same moral principles or elements must enter into the structure 
of the character of both. Whence then the difference? Is it not 
found in the different natural powers or faculties in man which 
is used in the apprehension of moral truth? Why is love the 
fulfilHng of the law ? Because love is the highest and most potent 



i82 life: and labors of a pioneer 

element for assimilation of moral principles. Mere intellectual 
assent or belief never can touch the secret springs of life. But 
love makes the object upon which it fixes itself a part of our 
very selves. ''The devils believe and tremble." But the devils 
never are said to love and tremble. They tremble because they 
cannot love, while knowing that their very nature must forever 
remain destitute of that moral faculty that can make them spirit- 
ual and give hope. 

We should have been better pleased, and for that matter 
better instructed, had our author defined more clearly and care- 
fully the line of demarcation between the fallible and the in- 
fallible in theology. To assert that "faith in infallibility is noth- 
ing but rank credulity," is, to say the least, stating but half a 
truth. If anywhere in the universe there is to be found the in- 
fallible, certainly it must be somewhere in theology. Infallibility 
belongs to interpretation, but prophecy belongs to inspiration. In- 
spiration is infallible, but interpretation is by the authority and 
intelligence of man. Hence the Apostle placed prophesying as 
the best of all spiritual gifts "but rather that ye may prophesy" 
is the noble climax that ended his grand and earnest exhortation 
to his brethern to covet earnestly the best gifts. 

No one will pretend to say that there is no difference be- 
tween believing in justice and loving justice, between believing 
in wisdom and loving wisdom, of believing in truth and loving 
truth. All, even the most unlearned, can see the difference at 
once. Here is seen the difference then between the natural moral 
man and the spiritual moral man. Love is the transforming 
power in the spiritual sphere. This is what makes perfect. No- 
where in the sphere of life can we find an element superior to 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1 853 183 

this. We can find morality without it, but not spirituahty. 
Knowledge puffeth up, that is, makes men look very fine, but it 
is charity or love that edifyeth, or buildeth up,— ''God is love," 
and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God. "U ye love me 
keep my commandments." This, then, is the difference between 
the moral natural man and the moral spiritual man. The form- 
er is exalted by knowledge, the latter is transformed by love, or 
by God, for God is love. 



184 life: and labors of a pioneer 

'It is finished," Jesus said, 
When in death He bowed his head; 
*'I my Father's work have done. 
Glorified Him as the Son.'' 

Seated on His Father's throne. 
He the Kingdoms calls his own, 
Purchased with His precious blood, 
He would bring us back to God. 

Always he is with us here, 
Let not then our spirits fear, 
He will ever be our friend, 
Keep and guide us to the end. 

He will teach us how to win. 
How to conquer death and sin. 
How to live from day to day, 
Walking in the narrow way. 

He that ''overcometh" here. 
Striving in his love and fear, 
Shall upon His throne sit down, 
Wear with Him a victor's crown. 

In that house not made with hands, 
There the throne forever stands, 
Truth of greatest mystery, " 
God in Christ and Christ in thee. 



ON the: pacific coast since 1853 185 

No treacherous strains from Herme's lyre shall rise, 
To close our Argus' ever watchful eyes, 

When sage or hero shall their country serve. 
Our faithful Clio will their fame preserve. 
But let them never seek to soar too high, 
Or like Icarius they may fall and die. 

Who plans the tree must wait the circling years 
Before the flower and golden fruit appears. 
The pushing roots must feel the quickening power 
Of careful culture and of generous shower ; 
Redundant branches must expect to feel 
The painful pressure of the Pruner's steel, 
And o'er symmetric beauty we impart 
We add to nature's force the skill of art. 

When Phaon's hand, by heavenly wisdom led. 

The magic ungent o'er his body spread, 

Supernal beauty glowed on all his frame, 

Firing his spirit with a god-lit flame ; 

Admiring Sappho dropped her trembling lyre, 

And sudden wonder checked the poet's fire. 

So shall the expanding beauty of our land. 

Touched by the plastic power of freedom's hand, 

While joyful patriots viewing shall admire 

Our altars glowing with celestial fire, . - 

And happy millions shall pronounce her name 

And spread the knowledge of her well-earned fame. 



l86 LIFD AND LABORS 01^ A PIONEER 

The shades gather round us, we lay down to slumber, 
Our yesterdays gone and we heed not their number ; 
We dream of the happiness promised to-morrow, 
But open our eyes on a heart-breaking sorrow. 

Then again we retire to our sighing and weeping, 
But our faith places all in the Master's safe-keeping, 
When lo! all the gloom that our spirits enshrouded 
Pass away, and we gaze on a morning unclouded. 

Lo, we pass from our yesterdays into the present, 
And we pause not to think it is gloomy or pleasant. 
For hope spread her pinions and soars to tomorrow, 
Where she never can see either sighing or sorrow. 

So passes our life, whether waking or sleeping. 
Calm following storm while joy follows weeping. 
But all will unite to complete the glad story, 
And add to the "weight" of eternity's glory. 
"Thy word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path ' 

— *Tsalmist." 



Thou source of light! to Thee we raise 
Our songs of gratitude and praise 
For all Thy favors given: 
But brightest, best, and most divine, 
Is that which on our spirits shine 
And guides our steps to heaven. 



ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 187 

Now, Brother Markham, let us pause and calmly state the case, 
Not every one that's swift of foot will surely win the race, 
Not all the battles here we fight is given to the strong, 
Not every man that has a hoe, will to that hoe belong. 
Our Washington, when he was young, possessed a little hatchet. 
And when he grew to be a man, he had a hoe to match it. 
And Putnam, Stark and other men who fought our battle, 
Knew how to plow and use the hoe, and feed their sheep and 

cattle. 
Go tell your "lords and masters" then, who tread on nature's 

law, 
They'll have a mighty funny job in pulling down our jaw. 
And if they undertake the task of pushing "back our brow," 
They'll see how quickly hoe men here can raise a fearful row. 
"The emptiness of ages" then is in the hoe man's "face," 
I think on second thought you'll find 'tis in another place, 
For when your ''lords and masters" come, we shut the door and 

lock it. 
For all the "emptiness" in fear is "emptiness" of pocket. 
"The whirlwinds of rebellion" was a figure neat and grand, 
And we hope to see it sweeping on the sea and on the land. 
Not the one that bringeth weeping, sighing, blood and tear, 
But the "whirlwind" of the ballot is the one the rulers fear. 
And now, my Brother Markham, let us give each other aid. 
While we all march on together now in freedom's bold crusade. 
And then your kings and rulers here will surely see and know 
That freedom's best defenders are the men that use the hoe. 



i88 life: and labors oi^ a pionder 

As we sail o'er life's sea to the harbor of rest, 
While our speed may be swift or slow, 
It is not the gales but the set of the sails 
That tells us the way to go. 

If our eye is fixed on the star above. 

And the spirit is true and brave, 

We shall know no fear when the tempest is near, 

And we ride on the crested wave. 

Though the winds may sweep o'er the ocean deep, 
And the tides may come and go, 
We must reach the goal by the set of the sail, 
And not by the currents that flow. 

Then steady the helm as you sail along, 
Keep the pole-star ever in view. 
And so you will feel some pleasure or weal. 
You have done the best you knew. 

Then when at last the voyage shall end. 
And the haven of rest you see, 
You shall know the hand that guided you on 
Ruled the tempest on blue Gallilee. 



ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 189 

It is easier to criticise men's defects than to emulate their 
merits. 



Beware of the statesman who serves men for the sake of 
ruling them, but cleave to the one who rules men for the sake of 
serving them. 



Eulogies and tombstones reveal the startling fact that "none 
but good men die." 



He who believes in immortality makes the soul a star, but 
he who disbelieves in it makes the soul a candle. 



We are placed in this world not to afford us opportunities 
for indulgence, but to be disciplined. 



It is difficult to tell whether men display more folly in spend- 
ing money, or in keeping it. 



Beware how you attempt to get rid of one evil by exchang- 
ing it for another. 



Unless men continually strive to make new friends, there 
will soon be nothing to supply the place of the old ones. 



He who sees himself as he sees others will "see himself as 
others see him." 



Placed side by side with the teachings of Christ, all world- 
ly wisdom seems like driveling folly. 



190 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONKER 

It is often difficult to determine whether it requires more 
work to move the world forward than it does to prevent it from 
going backv/ard. 



Remember you have two ears : while an angel may be speak- 
ing into one, beware that the devil does not whisper into the 
other. 



The world is saved, not by trying to keep it as good as it 
is, but by laboring to make it better than it is. 



The Christian can safely dispense with greatness, but he 
cannot dispense with his goodness. 



Our faults are like our faces, more plainly to be seen by 
others than by ourselves. 



No man need tell us he is happy now, 
If sin has set her signet on his brow. 



While we take warning by others' follies, others may be 
taking warning by ours. 



Except the future take character from the present, there 
can be no motive for progress or security for virtue. 



The radicalism of to-day will be the conservatism of tomor- 

"OW. 



ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 191 

There are two things that man proves the existence of, God 
and the immortaHty of the soul. 



When reHgious sentiment reacts against credulity, it will 
soon begin to react against skepticism. 



By being too eager for fame, we are in danger of attaining 
infamy. 



The more we learn to improve without suffering, the less 
will we be likely to suffer. 



Naught can inspire to great endeavor 
But hope which says, "We live forever." 



Never turn away from the Hill of Difficulty lest you run 
into the Slough of Despond. 



Never allow your imagination to borrow strength from your 
weakness. 



It is not often that our reasoning measures up to the de- 
mands of our reason. 



No man will be likely to be saved unless he thinks he is 
worth saving . 



He who thinks troubles worse than they are makes them 
worse than they need be. 



192 life: and labors of a pioneer 

We will raise our standard higher as our souls receive the light, 
And our faltering footsteps quicken in the pathway of the right, 
And the nations that have doubted us and called our doctrines 

wrong, 
Shall see when freedom touches man it makes him wise and 

strong. 

And what we find we ought to be, and what we are without, 
We will all unite together now to bring it all about, 
So that freedom's radiant banner that our fathers once unfurled, 
Shall shed its beams of promise on the nations of the world. 



Men grow old, but mankind is always young. 



The Eastern Sages used to say, 
However bright or dark the day, 
"This, too, will quickly pass away. 



.While we cannot be too good, we may be too scrupulous ; to 
extinguish a burning house, we may sometimes find it necessary 
to break down a door or a window. 



Curable evils requires energy to overcome and destroy them, 
incurable ones require patience to bear them. 



While God expects us to make mistakes. He also expects us 
to profit by them. 



ON the: pacific coast since 1853 193 

While the order of nature is fixed, prayer may enable us to 
see that order and work in harmony with it. 



Wisdom is the essence of knowledge. It is distilled in the 
retort of experience and gathered in the vials of patience. 



One of the worst things we can do it to do nothing. 



Many an ambitious man, like Sisyphus, toils and struggles 
to roll a stone up the hill, only to see it roll back again after it has 
reached the summit. 



Our progress in wisdom will be slow if we fail to see that 
there are examples to be shunned as well as examples to be imi- 
tated. 



The church that worships relics only show that in their es- 
timation the finger of a dead saint is better than the soul of a 
live one. 



Wisdom is cheap at any price, but nothing so dear as vice. 



Virtue makes a weak man strong, but vice makes a strong 
man weak. 



The best and surest way to help others is to show them how 
to help themselves. 



194 LIFK AND LABORS 01? A PIONEER 

God's grace is always proportioned to our efforts, hence he 
saves us by showing us how to save ourselves. 



Inspired writings must have been inspired readers. Inspi- 
ration only can comprehend inspiration. 



Good sense about common things is known among men a; 
'common sense." 



When there is but one side to a question, the fool generally 
takes the other side. 



The wise man will not only train himself by examples to be 
imitated, but also by examples to be shunned. 



If men would have their rights respected they must see to 
it that they are protected. 



Whose walk is heavenward, when his body dies, 
One single step transports him to the skies. 



We never can build a heavenly mansion after an earthly 
pattern. All our efforts w^ll be but "castles in the air." 



The good in us and the good in the world around us grows 
by small accretions ; so also evils wear away by small diminutions. 
To seek with constant solicitude the final supremacy of the for- 
mer, and consequent destruction of the latter is not only the de- 
sire of the wise but also the will and purpose of God. 



ON TH^ PACIFIC COAST SINC^ 1853 I95 

It is not enough to do what we may thing to be right. We 
must first learn what is right. The bigot will do the former, 
while it leaves him a bigot still ; while the wise man will guide 
his footsteps by the light of intelligence and find exaltation and 
safety. 



The enthusiast is the man who talks against evil, and then 
acts in harmonv with it. 



There is nothing that so elevates and strengthens the human 
mind as to feel and believe that we are moving along in a direc- 
tion ordained by Infinite Wisdom towards an end worthy of an 
Infinite Intelligence. No careful student of American history, 
it seems to me, can fail to see this, in a special and prominent 
degree, has been the case with our own country. Suppose the 
march of American civilization had begun at Florida instead of 
at Plymouth Rock. 



Everything we see in the universe around us seems to cover 
or conceal some great mystery. Thus it is that ten thousand 
voices are constantly telling us of a yet to be. 



Evolution placed man by a slow and seemingly tedious 
^process at the head of the animal kingdom, but personal con- 
sciousness was the direct spontaneous gift of the Creator. '%et 
us make man after our image." Moral life was the gift of God 
and not the product of evolution, as taught by Herbert Spencer 
and others. 



196 LIFE AND LABORS 01^ A PIONEER 

We must not begin the present century by drawing around 
our minds the dark mantle of doubt or despair. We may rest 
assured that the world can never settle down again into the re- 
pose of indifference, or fall asleep in the lap of evil and slavery. 
It has had a vision that it will never forget. It has caught a 
glimpse of a bright concourse of forces which slowly but surely 
are conv-erging to one grand control point, will surely open up 
to humanity a brighter and a better day. Said Jesus, ''Except 
a grain of wheat fall into the ground and die, it bear no fruit." 
Death is the condition of perpetual resurrection. 

The true value of all organized labor, whether in Church or 
State, is to bring the real up to the ideal. The principle of 
Christianity is not a doctrine, but a religious experience, "until 
Christ.be formed in you." 



What, let me ask you, is the source of all rational strength? 
Is it not faith? "Without faith it is impossible to please God!" 
Whatever we approach, whatever we touch, whether our pur- 
pose be to appropriate or change we can only fortify and 
strengthen our hearts for the struggle and toil by the power of 
a living faith. 



We should always remember that every thing that now is, 
has come out of the things that have been, and that all things 
that are to be, must come from things that now are. This is the 
evolutionary order of creation and the law of continuity of being. 
This principle also reveals the Divine order of Sequence which 
prevails alike both in the natural and spiritual world. 



ON THi: PACIFIC COAST SINCE) 1853 ^97 

It would seem at first view a trivial and unimportant thing 
for the Redeemer of the world to pause in his stupendous work 
and turn aside to mingle for a day or an hour in social fellow- 
ship with that ideal household in the little village of Bethany. 
But we have learned that no act of his life has so touched the 
heart of humanity as this, or gathered around it a more sub- 
lime moral power. The gentle and loving reproof uttered in 
the ears of the prophets, the solicitude of Martha for the pleas- 
ures and proprieties of the passing moment, and the sweet ap- 
proving words that held the loving Mary at his feet in eager 
quest for the knowledge of the higher and more enduring, has 
done more to elevate and sanctify womanhood than all the fine- 
spun theories that human philosophy has ever spoken or writ- 
ten in praise of social ana domestic duty and fellowship. The 
former has brought to the heart light and joy and hope, the lat- 
ter toilsome drudgery, discouragement and sometimes despair. 



May freedom's temple in its beauty rise 
And court the favor of the bending skies. 
May men and angels join in glad acclaim, 
To tell the glory of its deathless name, 
And every eyes behold in every land 
Freedom and justice, walking hand in hand. 
And read along the flaming vault of heaven 
Triumphant truth, the last impression given. 
Increasing wrong will spread our country o'er. 
And we shall fall as others fell before. 



198 LI]FE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER 

I think we may truthfully say that in many respects the early 
settlers of this coast were unique in their personal characteris- 
tics which they exhibited, the ideals which they followed and the 
types of manhood which they sought to develop and exhibit. The 
struggle through which they were called to pass, while it sharp- 
ened and brightened their intellects, did not blast and deaden 
their human sensibilities. By sheer force of ability many of them 
won a large measure of success, even as success is now meas- 
ured in this stirring and commercial age. The highest hopes we 
can cherish at this day and hour of our State's history is, that 
the bright and noble young men and women will in the sway 
they shall give to the years of the past will be able to fix their 
thoughts upon some noble example amongst our pioneer fathers 
that will be worthy of their affection and imitation, thus trans- 
mitting into a living, moving force these exalted elements of 
human character which alone can perpetuate those inestimable 
blessings purchased by the toil and sacrifice of the past. 



A statesman who is worthy of name should have as. deep and 
as profound moral convictions as does the man who ministers 
in holy things at the altar of God's house. 



While strength and feebleness was the antithesis from which 
or by which the Greek philosophy realized the divine, sin and 
righteousness is the antithesis by which Dedeism and Christian- 
ity evolves the same idea. 



i