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IN THE LIFE AND LABORS
OF A PIONEER
PACIFIC COAST SINCE
EATON a CO.. PRINTERS
SAN JOSE. CAL.. 1911
I. History and Biography 13
II. Duty and Destiny 22
III. Talk to San Jose Grange 28
IV. How a Grizzly Looks Twenty Feet Behind You 36
V. How I Lost and Found My Money 39
VI. Apostrophe to the Flag 44
VII. The Work of the Pioneer 46
VIII. The Provisional Government 51
IX. Historical Error of Sir George Seymour 70
X. The Raising of First American Flag in
Santa Clara County 75
XL Memorial Poem Recited at Vernon, N. Y 83
XII. The Ascent of Mt. Hood 97
XIII. Fourth of July Oration at Santa Rosa 106
XIV. That Other Bear, and How I Escaped 118
XV. The Light and Guide of Humanity 122
XVI. My First Acquaintance with the Klamath
XVII. Elected Chief of the Klamath Indians 132
XVIII. On Visiting the Old Homestead 138
XIX. A New Enterprise 140
XX. First View of the Potomac River 149
XXI. Some of the Perils of Pioneer Days 151
XXII. Returning Home from the East 155
XXIII. Composed on Our Golden Wedding Day 156
XXIV. On the Opening of the Rebellion 157
XXV. What Constitutes a State 159
XXVI. How I Destroyed the Des Chutes Ferry i6o
XXVII. Lincoln 170
XXVIII. Political Equality 174
XXIX. Classification 181
XXX. Verse 184
XXXI. Maxims 180
T^HIS little volume had its conception in a strong and pre-
vailing desire manifested amongst the early settlers on the
Pacific Coast to learn something of each others past experience,
and also at the same time, to study the character and capacity
of the physical, social and intellectual materials that was fast
aggregating into a new community for a new work and a new
order. If the knowledge and inspiration derived from this source
shall aid in any measure in promoting the cause of truth and the
pleasures of human fellowship, we shall feel ourselves amply
compensated for our time and toil.
History and Biography.
p EV. JOSEPH WILKINSON HINES, the subject of this
*" biographical sketch, is at the present writing (1904) the
president of the Santa Clara County Society of California Pio-
neers, a member of the board of trustees of the University of the
Pacific and also actively identified with several other local asso-
ciations designed to promote the various material, social and in-
tellectual interests of the State for whose expansion and up-
building he has, in various relations, spent the prime and strength
of his manhood. From the time his feet first pressed the soil
of California, nearly half a century ago, until now, when his
brow wears the silver crown of nearly four score years, his hand
has never wearied and his heart has never faltered in honorable
and intelligent effort to make his adopted state what it confess-
edly is at the present time — one of the grandest and most prom-
ising commonwealths in the great American Union. Independent
but not obtrusive, zealous but not impulsive, possessed of a won-
derful versatility, his mental habitudes were well adapted to the
varied and pressing demands of a new and rapidly growing
community, where ideals for future guidance were to be created,
and various uplifting and progressive agencies were to be em-
ployed and fitted to the demands and exigencies of a rapidly
shifting and varying scene. A mind thus endowed could scarce-
ly be expected to remain indifferent to any phase of society that
14 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
might, in the process of social development, present -itself for con-
sideration by the people.
Mr. Hines, therefore, in common with many others at that
early day in our history, lost no time in fearlessly grappling with
all questions of interest as they successively presented them-
selves. His genius for planning and pushing forward all en-
terprises calculated to improve the conditions and prospects of
society in all its essential needs was truly wonderful. No com-
munity that ever enjoyed the benefits of this counsel and laboi
but could show in many directions substantial evidences of his
public-spirited efforts in its behalf. His consciousness of per-
sonal honesty and integrity would never allow him to apologize
for appearing in the foremost ranks of progress and reform, or
to participate in eft'orts to compromise with wrongdoing in order
to gain some personal advantage by the sacrifice of the public
good. His mind was never groping in the dark alleys of agnos-
tic uncertainty or striving to feel its dubious way in the twilight
uncertainties of questionable expediency. With a positiveness
sometimes bordering upon obstinacy he always stood
"Firm as an iron pillar strong,
And steadfast as a wall of brass."
Like all men of advanced views, with positive and aggres-
sive feelings and purposes, he was compelled at times to wait
with patience for the day of vindication; but that day was sure
to come, responsive to the demands of a faith that would never
falter and a spiritual instinct that cheerfully allied itself with
the omnipotent energies of eternal truth.
Mr. Hines, in common with a host of others of similar traits
of character, was privileged to live during one of the most trying
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1 853 1 5
eras in the history of the Pacific coast. And we are assured that
to their wise and determined efforts the people of the present day
are greatly indebted for the prosperous and enviable condition
of its material, social and religious interests. But very few of
those heroic men who faced the fearful crisis of i860- 1865 and
-saved human freedom for ourselves and for the world are with
us today. Nearly all are now dwelling in that "city not made
with hands, eternal in the heavens."
The subject of this sketch took a prominent part in organ-
izing the Republican party, which at that time was the only re-
liable force that could be depended upon to turn back the rapidly
rising tide of secession in California. He was a delegate to the
first general convention of that party in the State, served on the
committee on platform, of which he was the chief author, and
labored with unflagging industry and devotion in carrying the
state for Lincoln and Stanford. This political victory saved the
Pacific Coast from becoming plunged into the dark, yawning
gulf of rebellion, and drew the eyes of the nation to her unriv-
aled importance as a member of the American Union.
When our national authorities wisely decided not to call
for recruits for the Union army from California he took an active
part in raising the seventeen thousand volunteers who so brave-
ly and effectually guarded our extended frontier, which then
reached from Puget Sound to the borders of Texas. It was those
noble men who headed off the expedition from the South who
were expected to form a junction with a band of conspirators
from California and together sweep the whole coast into the
Southern confederacy. Then Maximilian would have had an
empire on the Pacific, and Jeff Davis another on the Atlantic,
1 6 life: and labors of a pioneer
and the sun of religious and civil liberty would have set forever.
Men of today, will you remember the men who trod the burning
sands of the desert and scaled the rocky summits of the moun-
tains that you and your children might have a country to love
and defend, and a brightening hope to cheer the generations yet
At the opening of our Civil War Mr. Hines received com-
missions from the proper authorities in the east to act as agent
of both the sanitary and Christian associations on the Pacmi
Coast. He at once entered upon his work with his accustomed
zeal and devotion. His entire time, together with all his surplus
income, were freely given to the cause of the country; and his
success in raising money and other supplies for the army was
such as to call forth an autograph letter from General Grant,
which he now has in his possession and which is kept as an heir-
loom valued beyond all price. The special incident which called
forth this letter from the general may be stated in the following
words : The ladies of Humboldt county, where Mr. Hines and
family then resided, and where Grant, when but a captain in the
United States army, had once been stationed, conceived the idea
of sending a unique memorial present to Mrs. Grant. In order
to do this, and at the same time raise funds for the Christian
commission, they made a quilt composed of thirty-six separate
and distinct Union flags, with the coat of arms of the United
States wrought on a field of blue as a centerpiece, and the coat
of arms of each state on a blue field for each separate banner.
These thirty-six flags represented the number of states then in
the Union, while eight silver spangles on the border stood for
the number of the territories then existing. The material of
ON THi: PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 \J
which this quilt was composed was beautiful colored silk, and
the stars, numbering about six hundred, and the coat of arms,
both of the United States, and of each separate state, were of
floss silk, and all wrought by hand, nearly all by Mrs. Hines, she
being especially skillful in the use of the needle. When this
unique gift was completed (but very few people having been
left into the secret) almost the entire population for miles around
came together to witness the unveiling. It was given out that
each banner would be sold separately and only those coming
from the state the banner represented could vote upon it. The
central field, representing the United States, was to be bid for
promiscuously, without regard to state lines or nationality. The
interest in the affair was most intense and at the close it was
found that the sum of $2,400 had been raised for the cause of
the Union. The quilt was then sent to Mrs. Grant, and in re-
sponse the general returned the short but beautiful autograph
letter now in the possession of Mr. Hines. When General Grant
and his wife made the circuit of the world they visited San Jose
and she stated to Mrs. Hines that she cherished that beautiful
quilt, made by the ladies of Humboldt, as one of her most val-
Space will not permit of an extended recital of the thrilling
adventures and hairbreadth escapes through which Mr. Hines
passed in his travels over the coast during its pioneer history.
They would fill a volume, and if told in his graphic and earnest
style would be deeply interesting and instructive to future gener-
ations. His travels in the earlier days frequently took him
among the Indians tribes of Oregon and northern California, and
into association with the rough element of our frontier settle-
1 8 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
ments ; but such was his tact and quiet, fearless demeanor that
he never failed to command, and never lost the confidence and
respect of both the good and the bad with whom he came in con-
tact. He never carried about his person any deadly weapons
and never displayed any doubts or fears ; and even the wildest
Indians seemed so attracted and pleased by his cordial, unsus-
picious conduct that they were at once disarmed of all feeling
When the Civil war closed with the signal triumph of the
Union cause Mr. Hines, with the same broad patriotic feeling
that had characterized his conduct during its continuance, bent all
his energies to bringing about those feelings of mutual sympa-
thy and respect between the north and the south, without which
he felt that no permanent union or prosperity could be expected
for the country. He fully endorsed the sentiment expressed by
General Grant at the surrender of Lee, 'Xet us have peace," and
he labored to that end with constant and intelligent devotion.
Having been elected as superintendent of public instruction
for one of our most populous counties, Mr. Hines found himself
associated with many of the leading educators of the state in re-
vising our common school system and bringing it more in har-
mony with the advanced ideas of the eastern states. This work
was accomplished in such a thorough and satisfactory manner
that California stands today without a superior in all the states
of the Union for the perfection and practical operation of its
common school system. He served also for about two years as
agent of the University of the Pacific. His success in that po-
sition was so signal and timely that the board of trustees passed
a vote of thanks, in which they ascribed the success of its finan-
ON THK PACII?IC COAST SINCE 1853 I9
cial affairs largely due to his devoted and determined effort. In
more than one pressing emergency he bravely met the demands
of the crisis and caused the somber clouds of doubt and uncer-
tainty to give place to the sunlight of hope and assurance.
Mr. Hines possesses a decided literary taste, and has always
managed, notwithstanding the pressing duties incident to a new
and growing state, to keep in touch with the literary and scien-
tific progress of the age. As editor of the first labor paper pub-
lished on the Pacific Coast his editorial writings attracted the at-
tention of the secular press throughout the country, and were
universally regarded as masterly expositions of social and econ-
omic science. His contributions to other periodicals, both relig-
ious and secular, were numerous and able, and read by the people
in general with decided interest and profit. As a ready enter-
taining speaker he was everywhere listened to with decided ap-
preciation. He possessed in a wonderful degree the power of
concentration, one very competent judge having once declared
that "he could say more in five minutes than any other man he
ever heard." As an after-dinner speaker he had but few super-
By referring to the ancestry of Joseph Wilkinson Hines, we
find that he was the tenth child of James and Betsey (Round)
Hines, the latter a daughter of Bertram and Alice (Wilkinson)
Round. Bertram Round was the son of James and Susannah
(Seamen) Round, and was born in Rehoboth, Mass., Decembei-
II, 1741. James Round was born in Rehoboth, Mass., July 19,
1722, and was the son of George and Susanna Round. George
Round was the son of John and Elizabeth Round. John Round's
will is recorded in the town records as made October 16, 1716.
20 LIFE AND LABORS O^ A PIONEER
This John Round was the boy saved from the Indian massacre
of Swansea in 1675. It is probable his parents were then killed.
James Round and his son Bertram, who was grandfather to
Mr. Hines, emigrated from Swansea to Rhode Island, and thence
to Richfield, N. Y., in 1793, where he died October i, 1835, leav-
ing two hundred and thirty-six descendants ; one of whom,
Stephen Hopkins of Rhode Island, was a signer of the Declara-
tion of Independence. The Round family was of pure English
descent. Alice Wilkinson, wife of Bertram Round and grand-
mother of Mr. Hines, was the daughter of Joseph and Martha
(Bray) Wilkinson, great-granddaughter of Samuel and Plain
(Wickenden) Wilkinson and great-great-granddaughter of
Lawrence and Susanna (Smith) Wilkinson.
Lawrence Wilkinson came to Providence, R. I., in 1645. His
ancestry is given in a book entitled "Americans of Royal De-
scent," page 287-289, and shows him to have been the fifteenth
from King Edward I of England, and also that he was descended
from the royal house of both France and Spain. The Wilkinson
genealogy is given fully in a volume published in 1869, by Rev.
Israel Wilkinson of Illinois.
Mr. Hines was married August 30, 1847, to Miss Elizabeth
Meridith, of Steuben, Oneida county, N. Y. Her parents were
both natives of Wales, but were brought to this country when
children, .and were reared in full sympathy with American life
and institutions. Eight children, four sons and four daughters,
were born to Mr. and Mrs. Hines. Three of these, one son and
two daughters, died in early life, while three sons and two daugh-
ters now live within easy access of the paternal home.
We have here attempted to give a few incidents in the long,
ON the: pacii^ic coast sinck 1853 21
eventful career of one who was ambitious only to live a true,
manly life, devoted to the best good of universal humanity. His
ideals of life were always found to harmonize with man's high-
est needs and his purest and most earnest aspirations. Such men,
though not always understood and appreciated while living, gen-
erally have an influence that will unfold itself in the flowering
beauties and ripening harvests of future generations. To lose
such lives from the records of time is to obstruct in a positive
degree the march of civilization and to foster the sinister impul-
ses that will tend to gradual but fatal retrogression. So let us
give the world the light that we now have, and when the sum-
mons comes drop into the swelling current of the stream of time
those noble influences that will make it a broader, deeper and a
swifter river. Through these and their work, as the prophet has
said, "Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir tree, and in-
stead of the brier shall come up the myrtle tree, and it shall be
to the Lord for a name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be
22. life; and labors of a pioneer
Duty and Destiny.
' I 'HERE is no cruelty so great, so oppressive and so destruc-
•^^ tive, as that which is exercised upon sentient and intelHgent
beings when their hearts and lives are made the conscious recep-
tacle of a legitimate want or desire, and no adequate and approp-
riate means are furnished for their proper gratification. God, in
the order of nature, leaves no such blot upon the universe He
has made. As surely as the lily blooms in its loveliness, and the
grass of the field clothes itself in emerald beauty, or the sparrow
carols its song from the shady leaves, so surely has our wise and
loving Father made rich and ample provision for all the wants
of His unnumbered offspring.
Wisely was it said by one of old, "Man shall not live by
bread alone." This saying invests humanity with a worth and
dignity far above all inanimate or purely animal creations. It
lifts him at once out of the narrow sphere of material things,
into the higher realm of reason and faith. Eating and drinking
now become means and not ends of his existence.
Not here and now have we time or space to trace the suc-
cessive steps that have led up to the conditions and alternatives
of the present hour. Suffice it to say, that any thoughtful person
must see that a fearful crisis is now upon us. All hearts seem
to feel the thrilling touch of a wonderful and mysterious pres-
ence. Lessons of deep and mighty import are being impressed
upon minds hitherto unused to serious reflection.
ON the: pacii^ic coast since; 1853 2^
Every thought and every act that we put forth to-day cre-
ates a necessity for other acts and other thoughts to-morrow.
Physically we may live and thrive on a uniformity of supply, but
mentally, spiritually and socially we cannot. In all these latter
things we must go on growing greater and better, or perish. Civ-
ilization, then, invests humanity not only with an exalted and in-
estimable privilege, but also with a serious and fearful responsi-
With the man or associations who may feel disposed to lay
claim to the chief honor of having achieved the world's present
advancement, we have no controversy. Whatever their form or
name, if their claims are vindicated, they shall stand approved be-
fore the world.
For long ages the various elements of progression have been
doing their appointed work, and the hour has at last struck that
marks the beginning of a new cycle. The is and the ought must
now be brought into nearer companionship. The zvant and the
hare must be more harmoniously blended in the experience of
the future, or the moral and social integrity of the world must
The hero cannot create the type, neither furnish the ele-
ments which create a civilization. It is the work of all, and all
are entitled to its benefits. The thought that most perplexes us
to-day is, how shall our boasted Christian civilization vindicate its
right to continue? Beyond question, it can be only by a prompt
and successful effort to supply the demands which itself has
A comfortable and attractive home, time for thought and
social intercourse, a sense of comparative freedom, healthful and
24 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONE^ER
sufficient food, attractive and inspiring recreation, correct knowl-
edge of the responsibilities and dependencies of personal and col-
lective life, these are a few of the objects and duties brought be-
fore us and placed upon us by the civilizing influences of the past.
These may not all be understood or appreciated by many, but
that they should be made possible to all is obviously the duty of
And now, brothers, bear with me a moment while I press
with sincerity and earnestness this all-important question : Is it
the plan and the purpose of our present social and political or-
ganizations to seek to invest humanity with these noble and es-
sential environments and blessings? That humanity sees the
need of these things, after having felt so long the power of ad-
verse principles and practice, is a marvel. That alone stamps the
race with the signet of divinity. It tells of possibilities beyond
the power of human conception.
Without attempting to fetter your thoughts and desires by
a too distinct and positive array of theoretic formula, we here and
now challenge you as Christians, as philanthropists, as patriots, as
lovers of truth and justice, and above all and beyond all, as men
and women inspired by a common hope and created for a com-
mon destiny, to put together in solid and irresistible volume the
strength and wisdom that from all worlds and from all beings
come to your hearts and minds, and beat down and destroy
the competition that brutalizes, and the selfishness that degrades,
and let humanity have what it has earned and realize what it
In the imperative need that this work be -done, Nationalism
discovers her inspiring mission. In the realization of its ultimate
ON the: pacific coast since 1853 25
accomplishment she will reap her beatitude of joy and her crown
of honor. And when she hath done this — as she surely will — is
there on earth or heaven one harp too sweet and melodious to
strike its chords to her praise and glory? Proudly and joyously
let her now fling her banner to the breezes of all lands, while
you all shall see in letters of living light, emblazoned upon the
ample folds, ''Peace on earth and good-will to man."
With our eye fixed upon the most truthful and sacred of all
inspired records, with our minds pondering upon the vast and
wonderful possibilities revealed in all that humanity has or is,
with our souls uplifted and energized by a knowledge of the past
and present of our race, we cannot, and dare not, intimate that
its course is already run, or its appointed destiny already accom-
All indications point to a still greater material and social uni-
fication among men. Truth, justice, wisdom and love are all and
always spiritual elements conductive to order or harmony. They
create a kingdom whose dominating rule of intercourse is,
"whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even
so unto them."
Isolated and fractional are the associations of men where
these realizations have fixed themselves lastingly in forms and
habits of life.
Hitherto nearly all that the most earnest and eloquent ut-
terances of pulpit, press, rostrum and fellowship could do, has
been to write upon the outspread tablets of human being the pro-
phetic indications of a yet to be. Now as never before our opened
vision is reading these heaven-illuminated lines. If neither pas-
sion nor hate, nor selfishness nor doubt shall blur and blind us,
26 life: and labors of a pioneer
ours shall be the "light of the just which shineth more and more
unto the perfect day.'' This must be our remembrance: that the
strength and penetration of our vision depend not so much upon
the light that is around us, as upon the light that is within us.
If that be not darkened, we shall see both the beginning and the
end, and all the intermediate steps will be right and sure.
Let it be remembered that now, as ever, the people are the
builders of the nation. Kings and queens, senates and cities, are
but the extraneous forms, the gilded drapery that clothes and
decks the internal and majestic form. Pyramids may lift their
towering heads to the sky and proclaim the name of a moldering
and departed Pharaoh, but Egypt was made by its toiling mil-
lions. Pericles and Phidias may write their names on the grand
and lofty facade of a marble Parthenon, but the power and glory
of Greece found their form and expression in the bravery and
devotion of its people. Vespasian may be remembered by the
stupendous ruins of a crumbling colosseum, but its conception
was the work of an humble artist, and the patient persevering
toil of the faithful mechanic reared on high its ancient walls.
And so was it all along the track of the ages. Behind all heroes,
and temples, and arches, and thrones, and crowns, and empires,
have gathered the people, the swarming millions that have made
them what they are. The bewitching power of forms and names
is no more the talisman to move and inspire the world.
You, my brother ; you, my sister — you are the kingdom.
When it is prosperous, you are prosperous. When it is great and
honorable, truthful, just, stable and pure, it will be because those
grand and noble qualities are enthroned in your hearts and lives.
We are looking into the future now, not to see the gilded pagean-
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 2/
try of a mock royalty, but for the serried ranks of the noble and
patriotic heroes whose strong and steady hands hold up the
mighty pillars of the temple of liberty. We put our ear to the
ground now, not to listen to the discordant notes of revelry com-
ing from the gilded halls of wealth and dissipation, but to catch
the swelling music that echoes from the busy marts of commerce,
and the plying implements of prosperous toilers, as they build
cities, plow the billows of the ocean, beautify homes of content-
ment, rear the halls of science and knowledge, and by thought,
and look, and deed, point to the day of plenty and joy that now
lives only in the imaginations and hopes of man.
Look at the platforms of the Reformers. How far-reaching
and grand in conception ! How broad and ample in plan and pur-
pose! When the wisdom of each shall be centered in one by
the thoughtful action of the leading minds of all, history will
look in vain for anything in the form of party literature more
elevating and inspiring. Can faith, can hope, can desire go be-
yond its provisions? Will it not embody and hold forth all that
humanity in all ages has expected or toiled for? Will it not fur-
nish play, ample, dignified play, for all the possibilities of the
race ? Bring on the wisdom of a Solomon, the zeal of a Paul, the
chivalry of a Bayard, the eloquence of a Demosthenes, the pa-
triotism of a Washington, and the statesmanship of a Lincoln,
and here on this broad and ample field there will be found room
and work for each and for all.
28 LIFE AND LABORS O]? A PIONEER
Talk to the San Jose Grange No. 10.
JW. HINES, of College Park, at the meeting of the San Jose
•Grange, No. lo, in Odd Fellows' Hall, read the following
paper, which was greatly appreciated by the members of the
There is no page of American history more thrilling and in-
structive than that of the relation and work of the varied mis-
sionary societies with the different Indian tribes that have oc-
cupied the Pacific Coast since its discovery and settlement by the
white inhabitants, who now call it their home. Centuries have
passed away since the first brave and devoted Catholic fathers
began their noble and praiseworthy eft'orts to elevate and Chris-
tianize the aboriginal tribes that once extended along the shores
of the Pacific Ocean from the Straits of Magellan to the ice-
bound regions of the North. No more heroic and sincere men
ever raised aloft the sacred symbol of Calvary's bloody tragedy
than those who wrought for the religious instruction and civili-
zation of the native inhabitants of both California and Oregon.
I shall undoubtedly give exp^ression to the enlightened con-
viction of every thoughtful person before me at this hour, when
I say that it will require an historian of clear vision and of un-
prejudiced mind to separate truth from fiction in dealing with a
subject like this, so as to mete out equal and exact justice to
all concerned, and to transmit to future generations those ideals
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 29
and hopes that Have been fashioned and inspired by the self-de-
nying toil of the years that have passed.
To my mind it appears quite plain that there could scarce-
ly be selected a more appropriate time in which to give to the
pages of history a clear and satisfactory account of the efforts
that have been made to elevate the various and widely scattered
Indian tribes who for untold ages had inhabited these shores,
and to estimate correctly their capacity for the type of civiliza-
tion which Providence had evidently decreed must exist here in
order to reveal and uphold His plans for the ultimate and uni-
versal establishment of those social and spiritual ideals set forth
in the Gospel of His Son.
History makes us acquainted with no portion of our country
that has furnished a more fitting theater for the revelation of
the various possibilities residing in the different races of men
for the effectual working out of those difficult problems of hu-
man life which from time to time appear in the march of hu-
manity to a higher and a better destiny. Were I called upon to
select two localities that in the past hundred years have furnished
precedents of the most reliable and instructive character in this
regard, I should without hesitation designate California and
Not only were these the most fitting theaters of action, but
the most capable and appropriate agencies that ever wrought
amongst the Indian tribes of the Pacific Coast were employed ;
I mean the Catholic church of California and the Methodist
church of Oregon. Before these missionary organizations ap-
peared upon the scene, the dreamy story of the life with more
or less distinctness and historic accuracy, went floating over the
30 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
communities of the civilized world. These two agencies since
1840 had, by their presence and work, brought about conditions
that were fast crystalizing into imperative demands, that called
for a greater degree of social and political order. The odor of
the wigwam and the old adobe hovel had become monotonous
if not really disgusting in the presence of a higher and a better
In the North, where the Methodist element predominated,
and in the south where the Catholic influence was greatly in the
ascendant, practically the same social and religious problems ap-
peared for solution. In both regions the most enlightened and
progressive leaders of the rapidly growing communities saw
clearly that a crisis had arrived in the history of the Pacific
Coast that called for the establishment of a higher and purer
ideal of life than had hitherto guided and controlled their re-
ligious and political activities. Everywhere the truth seemed
taking deep and permanent root in the minds of all intelligent
people that it was neither erroneous nor profane to believe that
the Creator had larger and better uses for this wonderful land
that had so long been cumbered by a people so ignorant, de-
graded and unimproving. Their vision began to take in the
swarming millions of the old Orient where reside the great his-
tories of olden times under the purer and loftier inspiration that
was fast thrilling and moving the Christian population of these
Let is be remembered that neither of these agencies men-
tioned had ever entertained the idea that physical force should
be employed in the subjugation of any portion of these Orien-
tal lands. But this fact they both saw clearly, that the Indian
ON THE PACII^IC COAST SINCE: 1853 3I
tribes of Oregon and California possessed neither the intellectu-
al nor moral fitness to perform the work that needed to be done
on those distant shores. The learned and pious men who had
been guiding the unfolding destinies of this Western empire had
carefully studied God's historic order in leading the march of
the ages upwards towards Himself.
The present ever owed a vast debt to the future, and the
people who will not pay that debt must perish, and a people
who will must take their place. It was because the old ages did
not attempt to liquidate to the ages to come the debt they owed
that what remains of them, burned to cinders and trampled into
ashes, are being crushed and blown away by the whirlwind
march of the newer time and better humanity. Look at China.
She has stood for over 4000 years. There have lived in that
empire during its history more than five trillion of people. What
have they done for the upbuilding of mankind, for the betterment
of the human race ? What a resplendent opportunity God gave
them. He set them up in the world's sunrise. He gave them
ample time in which to measure up to the sublime attitude of
their abounding opportunity. Recklessly they cast it into the
dark abyss of a bestial, degraded, unimproving life. Their de-
fault to the future blots them out of that future of which they
might have been the masters. Those only of men or nations mas-
ter the future who pay to that future the debt they owe to it.
''The mills of the gods grind slowly, but they grind exceeding
fine." The belts that drive the grinding stones stretch out of
sight, but beyond our vision they are attached to the great motor
of eternal right, and eternal law, and eternal power, and the
''mills" are surely 'grinding them to powder.' The thing which
32 li^e: and labors of a pioneer
the world at present is striving to learn is not that they are lost,
bnt what it is and who it is that is able to save them. When
this question is settled, and the remedy applied, a remnant will
be found and will join the ranks of the redeemed and will be
merged into the grand army of truth and righteousness, who are
now marching to the conquering of the world.
The great danger to which we are now exposed, and the
one that is liable to waste both our time and energies is in mis-
calculating the importance of the scattered remnants of those
Indian tribes in our future efforts for'civil and religious progress.
The most we can reasonably expect to do for them now and
hereafter is to hold them up true to what they have already at-
tained, while together we try to preserve and perpetuate the
various landmarks that will tell to future generations the story
of the noble and heroic achievements of a bygone age. Let this
important work go on throughout the length and breadth of the
land, while we, as the dutiful children of the departed strive to
lift to still greater and more sublime heights the standard of the
cross, the glorious symbol of a world's hope. Let us do this
not only in our own country, where still linger, in various forms,
evidences of heroic achievement for the elevation of a degraded
humanity ; but in other portions of this beautiful land wdierever
hope and desire for better and nobler things still linger in the
aspiring hearts of all those who have so long been wandering in
sadness and sorrow.
Personal experience and observation for upwards of half a
century confirming the opinion that the original purpose for
which these missionary efforts were at first begun has been fully
accomplished, and the noble and Christian impulses that gave
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 33
them birth must now and ever hereafter move on a higher plane
of thought and activity. But in this transition we will do great
injustice both to the faithful and the devoted toilers that have
done their work and left amongst us such indubitable evidence^
of their zeal and devotion, if we fail to impress upon the rising
generation the valuable lessons they are calculated to impart.
In the North there appeared at first various difficulties of a
perplexing nature growing out of the presence in the same local-
ity of associations of a purely industrial and communal character,
such as the "American Northwest Fur Company," established by
John Jacob Astor, and the Hudson Bay Company, an English
organization occupying the vast territory north of the Columbia
river and at present embracing three flourishing States of our
Union, besides one-half of Oregon and the vast region of Brit-
ish Columbia. At an early day the Astor company was crowded
from the field by its more powerful neighbor, after which, with
headquarters at Vancouver, the entire Northwest was brought
under one administration, but owing no allegiance to any civil-
ized nation in the world.
It may be regarded as a singular coincidence that in the
Northwest the two agencies before mentioned arrived on the
field of their future toil at nearly the same time, and without any
effort at concert of action. In the year 1859 three Jesuit mis-
sionaries arrived at Vancouver, namely, F. N. Blancher, A. De-
mero, and P. G. De Smet. These had their headquarters at
Vancouver, and made it their aim to look after the spiritual in-
terest of the trappers and hunters, who were mostly French
Canadians, and whose business it was to gather furs and peltries
from Indian trappers and assist in their shipment to European
34 LIFK AND LABORS 01^ A PIONEER
merchants. The same year saw depart from the harbor of New
York the greatest missionary expedition that has ever sailed from
any American port. For this purpose the Methodist missionary
society chartered a vessel called the Lausonni, loaded her with
adequate supplies and with thirty-five missionaries to reinforce
the half dozen already in the field. Early in October, 1839, she
svvcpt out of the harbor of New York and turned her provv^ to-
wards the story headlands of the dreaded Cape Horn.
At that time and under those circumstances it is difficult
to conceive of a more utter abandonment of all those social ties
and happy influences that cluster around an American home.
The writer of this article was then a mere child. An elder
brother and his family were among that devoted band. He well
remembers how, in that soft October day, after it was known
that they had sailed away to the dark and distant field of re-
ligious toil, he leaned against his mother's side, in the rural
home in central New York, and listening to her as she softly
told of the holy mission on which they were going, and then,
with tears in her eyes but triumph in her heart, sung with tremu-
lous voice Heber's grand missionary hymn,
"Shall we where saints are lighted by wisdom from on high,
Shall we to men benighted the lamp of life deny?"
Out of that hour, by the voice of that mother in that song,
the young heart of the little boy felt the first inspiration that
fourteen years after carried him to the same work in the same
But when that field was reached how changed were all the
conditions and prospects that had once so thrilled and moved
the churches of the Eastern States. These native tribes that had
ON rut PACIFIC COAST SINCE: 1 853 35
swarmed upon these shores, both in Oregon and California,
were fast melting away and the most casual observer could plain-
ly see that their days were numbered and that nothing could
save them from utter destruction. Lo, all organized effort for
their salvation ceased, and in each State the agencies employed
readjusted their religious forms and are now moving forward
in their respective fields to build up and beautify the waste
places of our spiritual Zion.
36 life: and labors of a pioni:er
How a Grizzly Bear Looks When Only Twenty Feet Behind You.
' I 'HE most formidable and dreaded animal that roams the
forests of California, or, indeed, of any other land on the
face of the earth, is the grizzly bear. All other wild animals will
flee from the presence of man, unless driven into a corner, or
starved into desperation. But this shaggy monster roams the
forests far and wide, seeking the weak and helpless of all classes
as legitimate prey to his insatiable appetite. Nothing is allowed
to escape from his savage fury but those of his own kind, or
unless possessed of a foot that enables them to outstrip him in
pursuit and then his pent-up fury vents itself in savage growls
that are frightful to hear. Any one who has ever encountered
one of these bloodthirsty brutes, especially when alone and des-
titute of deadly weapons or a friendly tree to climb, will, in all
probability, never live to tell the sorrowful tale.
The adventure which I am about to relate actually happened
to myself while traveling the Humboldt District in 1866. I had
been to Smith River Valley to attend a quarterly meeting, and,
being somewhat anxious to hasten my return to my home at
Eureka, and being able to save at least 20 miles travel by taking
a cut-off which led me along the ocean beach I concluded to take
that course, which led for about 6 miles close under a perpendic-
ular bluff of at least one hundred feet, which made it impossible
to pass that way only at low tide.
ON THi: PACIFIC COAST SINCE) 1853 37
When arriving at the beginning of this bluff I saw at a
glance that I had made a mistake in regard to the incoming tide
as they were then rolling far up towards the foot of the bluff.
Fortunately I was riding a horse accustomed to traveling along
a sand beach, had it not been the case I should probably have re-
traced my steps and deferred my journey to another day. But
before I was fully aware of the fact, I had gone nearly or quite
one-half of the way over, and consequently to return was as
difificult and quite as dangerous as to press forward. So, watch-
ing with eagle vision every reflex of the foaming water, I soon
came to the point where the trail turned up the bluff, when,
looking over my left shoulder, I saw a huge grizzly not over
40 yards behind me and seemingly as badly frightened as myself
at the rushing and noise of the incoming tide. Apparently he
had but just discovered me, when a huge breaker struck him
in the side and sweeping his feet from under him threw him over
upon his side, while my horse, with better sense and more experi-
ence, deliberately turned his heels to dashing billow and stood
firmly upon his feet, while the foam-crested wave did no harm
but the giving himself and his rider a severe dousing. The crisis
had evidently come, for as soon as the bear had struggled to his
feet he discovered me for the first time and without waiting for
a formal introduction showed plainly that a more intimate fa-
miliarity would not be disagreeable to his feelings. Just then
I needed an extra moment of time very badly and I quickly con-
trived a way to gain it. In the morning my landlady had pre-
pared a nice lunch for my dinner, which she had tied in a napkin
and I had hung it upon the horn of my saddle. Quick as a flash,
I seized it and tossed it over my left shoulder. It fell right in
38 life: and labors of a pioneer
front of the shaggy monster, who, seizmg it, shook it loose and
paused a moment to swallow the precious morsel. That moment
was my salvation, for my horse, bounding forward, took the
trail just in front of the pursuing monster. The race I knew
was now won, for while my horse could not ascend the hill in
any but a diagonal path, the bear I knew could only in a per-
pendicular manner. Hence, while every step carried me safely
up, every leap carried the bear fatally down. In a moment I
paused on the summit of the bluff, while the disappointed bear
was growling and floundering in the bushes one hundred feet
below. I paused a moment to view the ludricrous situation, and
then, waving my hand in token of victory, exclaimed, "Good-
bye, old fellow."
When I return, I hope our relations may continiie about
as at present. I have never passed over that trail since. I wrote
the lady who put up my lunch that it did me more good than
any meal I had ever eaten.
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE) 1853 39
How I Lost and Found My Money.
"IV/HEN I so narrowly escaped death at the hands of th'e two
^^ Indians, as related before, and fotmd myself safe and
secure at the Block House, I sat down before a blazing fire and
leisurely took account of stock to ascertain, if possible, the exact
influence which the scenes of danger and excitement through
which I had just passed had made upon me. I had evidently
saved myself, my pony and my two mules. But had I lost any
thing? All at once it burst upon my recollection that I had
placed in the pocket of an outer garment the sum of six hundred
dollars in gold coin, and I found also that too was all safe. And
I slept soundly that night. With gratitude to the Divine Power
and Goodness that had so signally watched over and preserved
me, I at once prepared to resume my journey homeward, which
was still at least one hundred and fifty miles away. I began
to feel that I would have a story to tell to the wife and children
that were dearer to me than life itself and for whose comfort
and happiness I had cheerfully braved all these toils and dangers.
The next stage of my journey would lead me over the Cala-
perrah Mountains and down their slope a distance of about
twenty miles to the home of a Mr, Cartwright with whom. I was
well acquainted, and I began to feel that a few hours more and
I would be able to sit down at my fireside and regale myself at
my own table. So, with my spirits cheered by the kindness and
hospitality of the Cartwright family, I now felt strong enough
40 life: and labors of a pioneer
to resume my journey, knowing that about forty miles would
end my tiresome 200-mile trip and bring me to the comforts of
my own dear home.
During the night a severe snow storm came up over the
mountains and in the morning the ground was covered with two
or three inches of snow. So I delayed my departure until about
noon. The ground being soft and the road rough and difficult,
my progress was necessarily quite slow and I therefore con-
cluded to give two days to the remaining part of my journey
which was about forty miles.
I had gone about two miles and had just crossed a corderoy
bridge spanning a deep mountain stream, suddenly calling to
mind the fact that I was carrying about six hundred dollars, I
reached around to the inside pocket where I had placed it, when
lo, every dollar of it was gone.
For a few moments I sat utterly bewildered and stupefied
at my loss, while the past and the future seemed to unite on that
fatal spot, and while imagination painted in dark dismal colors
the story of the was hope and faith bore onward my fainting
soul and attempted to span the dark cloud with a rainbow prom-
ise of what would surely be. This feeling lasted but for a few
moments, and then, taking a hasty glance at the declining sun
that just then burst from behind a dark cloud and wearing a
diadem of beauty around the waving tree tops, hastened to its
setting behind the distant mountains. I was yet about two miles
distant from the log cabin of a kind friend, where I intended to
tarry for the night, so hastening on I soon heard the welcome
greeting, "Halloo, old fellow, alight and come in out of the
cold, and I will care for your animal."
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 4I
The evening soon passed in pleasant converse and I was
politely informed which corner of the cabin I was expected
to occupy. While all in the room instinctively turned their backs,
I disrobed and laid myself down for the night.
Up to this moment not a word had passed my lips in regara
to my loss, and I had concluded to defer the matter until morning
before revealing the matter to my friend and asking his opinion
and advice. In answer to the greeting of mine host in the morn-
ing, I frankly stated the situation, and assured him that the past
night had afforded me but very little rest or comfort, and I was
desirous of having his opinion and advice as to the future. I
then described to him minutely the experiences of the previous
day, and especially the loss of my money. I told him how seem-
ingly impossible it would be to meet my obligations when I ar-
rived at home, and the probable loss of my home for which I
had been toiling for two years.
The entire situation was fully canvassed and when we had
got through he deliberately stated that while he deeply sympa-
thized with me in my loss, yet he could see no probability what-
ever of my ever recovering a dollar of my money. I then called
to his attention the familiar adage, so often on the lips of
our preacher, that "Man's extremity was God's opportunity."
I then told my friend that I had always acted upon the philoso-
phy that a hope based upon a simple possibility was vastly better
than no hope at all, and therefore I had concluded to return and
make my search.
Leaving my mules to be cared for by my friend with a re-
quest that he would pray for me, I was soon mounted upon my
pony and facing a driving storm of snow and sleet, was thread-
42 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
ing my way back to the foot of the Calepooch. Just about sun-
down, I arrived at Brother Cartwright's and by the aid of a
warm supper and a blazing fire was soon in a talkative mood.
They all wondered at my sudden return. I soon made known
to them the events of the past day. While they all manifested
the utmost sympathy and sorrow, all concurred in the opinion
that nothing but a miracle could aflford relief. Early in the
morning I prepared to return to the place where I had left the
mules. The snow, that had fallen during the night to the depth
of 2 or 3 inches, now began to melt and the mud and slush made
the traveling slow and tedious. I soon came to the stream where
I had missed the money the day before, and was riding leisurely
along with my eyes fixed upon the ground when I saw just at
my horse's feet about the one-half of a twenty dollar piece stick-
ing in the mud. My heart gave a sudden bound and turning
quickly aside I was not long in tying my horse to the fence, and
then in the space of ten feet I picked up 520 dollars of my lost
money. Two men, living in a cabin about 80 rods away, seeing
a stranger thus employed, came down to investigate. I told
them I had lost a little money there the day before, but withheld
from them the exact amount, stating that there was a little more
that I had not yet found. They both scratched about for a few-
minutes, picking up 21 dollars each, which they handed me.
With night approaching, I mounted my horse and rode away,
telling them that I would stay all night where I had left my
mules, and if they should find the balance they might leave it
with him. I never received the forty dollars, and presume it
was never found.
I was now about 40 miles from home, with two noble mules,
ON THE) PACIFIC COAST SINCE) 1853 43
560 dollars in money, and the same little pony that I had ridden
away about two months before. The anticipated Rogue River
war soon broke out, the government advertised for mules to
pack provisions to the army, and I sold my mules for 250 dol-
lars each that had cost me 100 dollars each. I had found all but
40 dollars of my money, had an awful scare, a romantic ride,
paid all my debts, and had in my pocket about 300 dollars in
gold coin. In all of my experiences on the coast, I doubt if I
could think of another through which I passed where so many
incidents harmonized to make that experience in the final out-
come such a grand success. Romance never crowded into its
pages more of the awe inspiring scenes, more heroic attitudes
in action, more courageous onsets in physical struggle, than the
two of these times and the two hundred miles of travel from
the beginning of the struggle on Cow Creek to my triumphant
arrival at m.y own fireside on the banks of the beautiful Willam-
44 LII^K AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
Apostrophe to the Flag.
Thou glorious banner, emblem of the free,
Whose radiant beauties cover land and sea,
Beneath thy starlit folds do millions bring
The gladsome offerings of another spring.
The gray-haired father with the mystic thread
That links the living to the honored dead,
The noble matron who her time employs
In forming patriots of her growing boys,
The bright-eyed maiden whose unfolding charms
Await a transit to her lover's arms.
The little urchin whose soft flaxen curls
In sportive glee the gentle breezes twirls,
The rich, the poor, the humble and the proud,
May here be gathered in one common crowd,
And lifting up to heaven the beaming eye.
Swear with this flag to live and for it die.
The magic scarf the heavenly goddess gave,
To float Ulyssus o'er the boisterous wave,
Firm to his breast the sacred gift he binds
And braves the fury of the whistling winds ;
To strength divine his own best efforts lends
And gains the shore where all his trouble ends.
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE: 1853 45
So shall it be when threatening tempests rise,
And danger gathers on our nation's skies ;
When deepest gloom our fondest hopes enshroud,
And lightnings leap along the rifted cloud.
When love of country seems to disappear.
And patriots' bosoms quake with inward fear,
With chords of love no earthly power can part,
We'll bind this sacred banner to our heart.
And gathering aid from heaven descended power,
Find a sure triumph in each threatening hour.
46 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
The "Work of the Pioneer.
■fV/HENEVER a California Pioneer closes his work upon
^^ earth and passes into the spirit world, it is almost abso-
lutely certain that he will leave behind him a record of toil and
achievement that is worthy of remembrance, and that is needed
in order to intelligently account not only for the scenes and
events of the past, but also for the conditions of the present and
the hopes and prospects of the future. We may lay it down as
a universal rule that if the beginning of a people's history is
weak, tame and inefficient, it will inevitably point to a destiny
of doubt, darkness and premature decay; while upon the othtr
hand, if that history begins upon a high and noble plane, it will
be almost sure to proceed along a pathway of ever brightening
beauty, stability and splendor.
I am sure this intelligent audience will pardon me if I re-
peat at this serious hour what I have often said before, and if
God spare me will be sure to repeat again with all the sincerity
and emphasis which words can give, that the Pioneer life and
achievements on the Pacific Coast stand far above and beyond
those of any other people in the history of the world.
I have been a somewhat careful and diligent student of
history and my mind has often been engaged in comparing the
relative efficiency of different peoples in their efforts in planting
and establishing the nations that have gone before us, and I
have no hesitation in making the ascertion that more has been
ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 47
done in the last sixty years, on this Coast than has ever been ac-
compHshed by any other people of whom history gives us ac-
count in the first six hundred years of their pioneer life. Now,
how shall we account for this astonishing disparity? After mak-
ing all due allowance for the favoring conditions of our envi-
ronment, and the comparative weakness of the opposing obsta-
cles, we will be forced to acknowledge that the most potent fac-
tor in the creation of so superior a record can only be found in
the moral, physical and intellectual traits of the men and women
who have occupied this field.
Indulge me a few moments while I attempt to place before
your minds in a more careful and elaborate manner some of the
leading characteristics of the early settlers of California, who
laid so broad and deep the foundations of this great and noble
commonwealth. And, first, they created and have steadily up-
held a pure and lofty ideal of true American citizenship.
It may be said, and that very truly, that such ideal was an
importation and not a creation of the Pioneers. That the most
plastic and impressible period of their life was spent in other
States and in other associations, where they passed their early
days, and cultivated those social, moral and intellectual habi-
tudes that so well fitted them for the great and important work
that awaited their coming and to which they were now provi-
dentially hastening. All this m.ay be conceded, and yet the
greatest wonder and the greatest mystery of all still remains un-
explained. How came it to pass that these Pioneers possessed
at the beginning such a marvelous unity of thought and pur-
pose, coming, as they did, from every State of the Union, and
taught and trained in almost every conceivable school of polit-
48 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
ical and religious thought? What unseen power, in that su-
preme hour seized upon their very life-being, and lifted them
into the cloudless region of self-forgetfulness and patriotic fer-
vor? So they tread the trackless desert, and scaled the lofty
summits of the rugged mountains, they all sang the same song
of freedom and shouted the same peans of victorious struggle
But the greatest wonder and mystery still remains to be ex-
plained. Where are they now and what is before them? Their
long and tedious journey is over. From all parts of the world
they have converged to a common centre. Strangers to each
other, in a new and untried environment, with no common pur-
pose for their future action, or knowledge of the dangers or
trials that surrounds them, it seems next to an impossibility that
they should escape from a serious and fatal plunge into the deep
dark gulf of anarchy and disorder. To say that they did es-
cape, that all the temptations and allurements by which they
found themselves surrounded were quickly and effectually sub-
ordinated to the demands of the grand and noble work of build-
ing and beautifying a new and wonderful scene, is but to repeat
a fact that has already passed into the current history of our
common country. In the short space of fifty years, the experi-
mental stage, — if, indeed, it ever existed, — passes away, and
gives place to an assurance and stability that seems to promise
a long and brilliant career of civil and social happiness and
And now must the warmth of our admiration and the fervor
of our eulogy be turned away from the real source of this mar-
velous and unprecedented achievement? Shall we be told that all
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE: 1853 49
of this wonderful work has come out of the favoring natural
elements by which we have been surrounded? Let all those
who make such assertions remember that it is men that makes
a state, and not states that make men; that to sit down in list-
less inactivity and sing the praises of the sunlight and the breeze,
is to be quickly overtaken by premature decreptitude and death.
Such were not the Pioneers of the State of California. With
the common frailties of human nature, we find them as a class
possessed of a clear vision, and a faith that never falters. They
did not sit calmly down and wait for somebody to come from
somewhere and help them in their work. It was a fleet runner
indeed who could overtake them in the race, or reach the goal
of their hope while they loitered upon the way.
Shall we be thought a wild, visionary partisan if we now
declare that the almost immediate union of sentiment and fel-
lowship, united as it was with a kindred impulse to harmonious
action, will be regarded by the thoughtful historian in the future
as standing, if not in the realm of the miraculous, certainly quite
at the summit of social and intellectual marvels.
Look at the result. "Do men gather grapes of thorns or
figs of thistles?" Not much, especially if they have lived and
moved in the social and mental atmosphere that usually per-
vaded the Pioneers of the State of California. Nature seemed
to furnish them not only with a unity of purpose, but a true
philosophy of action as well. These in their practical applica-
tion revealed an order of sequence in the moral and social, as
positive and as emphatic, as it was soon to be in the material
world around them. In this respect they anticipated the science
of evolution in its highest and purest forms. They, unconscious-
50' life: and labors of a pioneer
ly, revealed its moulding and fashioning power in the higher and
freer realm of social and intellectual life. Where they toiled
up the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, pausing to slake
their thirsts at the rippling fountain at their feet, watching it as
it sung its merry way towards the western sea, or, it may be,
standing upon the deck of a frail vessel, as it rode the foam-
crested billows of the perilous headlands of the dreaded Cape
Horn, or, still worse, breathed for days the miasmatic vapors
that bore to the vitals the death dealing fires of the dreaded
Panama fever, each and all of them seemed to derive courage
and strength by the dangers of the way, and gather into their
eager souls a more grand and noble purpose.
But we have brought them at last by their devious ways to
the chosen haven of their hopes and desires. And surely never
did men and women come into companionship with brighter
prospect of transmitting to the future an inheritance of nobler
and grander proportions, to transmit to the future generations.
And surely no men and women ever lived who have founded a
combination more in harmony with the demands of the natior»
and the age. The ideals of social and political life were those
demanded by all lands where progressive humanity has ever
had an abiding dwelling place. Motherhood and the home, child-
hood and the school, manhood and the State, all these have been
fostered and upheld by the Pioneers of Oregon and California
for the last two generations, and are stronger to-day than ever
before. These are characteristics that have not been imported,
but created by the Pioneers. Importations, as a rule, have been
of a different type and different tendency, and we challenge the
world to successfully deny our statement.
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 5 1
The Provisional Government.
np HE subject of what is known in history as "The Provisional
Government of Oregon," is to be introduced here only so
far as it relates to the era of the missionary organizations, and
the periods when the results of their presence and work were
crystalizing into social conditions that called for civil and po-
litical order. Before this time the dreamy story of the Indian
tribes had simply changed into the scarcely less dreamy story
of the fur traffic, hardly more civilizing than was the other.
How little there was of anything that had the fragrance of civ-
ilization rather than the odor of the wigwam in it up to the close
of 1840 will be seen by the following summary of arrivals of
American in the country up to that time. In 1834 the four mem-
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Missions and six other Ameri-
cans arrived. In 1835 there were none. In 1836 three male
and two female missionaries of the American Board. In 1837
five male and seven female missionaries of the Methodist Board,
with three children and three settlers reached the country. In
1838 eight persons reinforced the Missions of the American
Board and three white men from the Rocky Mountains came into
the country. In 1839 ^^^^^ independent Protestant missionaries
and eight settlers came. In 1840 thirty-one adults and fourteen
children came to the Methodist Mission, and four independent
Protestant missionaries and thirteen settlers, mostly Rocky
Mountain men with Indian wives, came in. This made in all 86
52 Ll^t AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
adults connected with the missions and twenty-eight American
settlers, a total of 114. Besides these, in 1838 and 1839 F. N.
Blanchet, A. Demers and P. G. DeSmet, Jesuit missionaries, ar-
rived. These, of course, added nothing to the American settle-
ment, and surely not to the American sentiment in the country,
but rather the reverse. Outside of these there were a small 'num-
ber of the superannuated employes of the Hudson Bay Company
located at various points, yet holding legal and social relations
to that body.
Civilly and politically there were two sentiments ; one Amer-
ican and one British. Being largely in the majority of the Amer-
icans, and a chosen body of able and educated men and women,
the missionaries of the Methodist Episcopal Church naturally and
necessarily took the lead in all matters that looked towards the
establishment of any form of government in the country. The
missionaries of the American Board, namely, Dr. Whitman and
Messrs. Spalding and Eells and Walker were so far removed
from the center of settlement that they had no participation in
the movements that resulted in the establishment of the Provis-
ional Government. There was not a single American resident
within a hundred and fifty miles of any of their missions.
So situated they had no opportunity to co-operate with the
small American community in the Willamette in any movement
looking to the general interests of Oregon as related to general
educational work, or to the extension of the authority of the
United States Government over the territory. Of course they
were in sentiment entirely in accord with the American citizens
of Oregon, and but for their isolation would have heartily co-
cperated with them.
ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 53
On the other hand the Jesuit missionaries, the retired ser-
vants of the Hudson's Bay Company, with that company itself,
could always be relied on to sustain the pretensions of Great
Britain, and oppose the plans and purposes of the American
population, led by the Methodist missionaries. Thus it happened
at the close of 1840, that the forces in array against each other
for the ultimate possession of the country, were on the one side,
the Hudson's Bay Company, and its retired servants, together
with the Roman Catholic missionaries. On the other side the
Methodist Missions and the American settlers.
The stake was the country itself, and whether it should be-
come American or English was the question at issue. The stake
was immeasurable ; and the players were so nearly equal in num-
ber that no man could tell where the majority would fall until the
day for a final count should come. Counted by numbers it was
the smallest force that ever contended for an empire. Gauged by
results it was the mightiest conflict of the century. All told there
were 137 Americans of all ages and sexes in the country, over 90
of whom were connected with the Protestant missions.
Such men as led the American contingent in this contest do
not slumber at their posts. Indeed before 1840 the first step
towards the final one was taken by the memorial gotten up by
the mission and carried by Mr. Jason Lee to Washington. In
1839 the subject was again brought to the attention of Congress
in a memorial, too important as a part of the missionary history
of the Northwest to be omitted here. It was as follows:
"To the Honorable, the Senate and House of Representatives
of the United States of America, in Congress assembled:
"Your petitioners represent unto your honorable bodies that
54 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
they are residents in the Oregon Territory, and citizens of the
United States, or persons desirous of becoming such.
They further represent unto your lionorable bodies that they
have settled themselves in said territory under the belief that it
was a portion of the public domain of the United States, and
that they might rely upon the government thereof for the bless-
ings of free institutions, and the protection of its arms.
Your petitioners further represent that they are uninformed
of any acts of said government by which its institutions are ex-
tended to them ; in consequence whereof themselves and families
are exposed to be destroyed by the savages around them, and
others that would do them harm.
And your petitioners would further represent that they have
no means of protecting their lives and the lives of their families
other than self-constituted tribunals, originated and sustained by
an ill-instructed public opinion, and the resort to force and arms.
And your petitioners would further represent these means
of safety to be an insufficient safeguard of life and property,
and that the crimes of theft, murder, infanticide, etc., are increas-
ing among them to an alarming extent, and your petitioners de-
clare themselves unable to arrest this progress of crime and its
terrible consequences without the aid of law, and tribunals to
Your petitioners therefore pray the Congress of the United
States to establish as soon as may be a Territorial Government
in the Oregon Territory.
And if other reasons than these presented were needed to
induce your honorable bodies to grant the prayer of the under-
ON the: pacific coast since 1853 55
signed, your petitioners, they would be found in the vaUie of
the territory to the nation and the alarming circumstances that
portend its loss.
Your petitioners, in view of these last considerations, would
represent that the English government has had a surveying party
on the Oregon coast for two years, employed in making accurate
surveys of all its bays, rivers and harbors, and that recently the
said government is said to have made a grant to the Hudson's
Bay Company of all lands lying between the Columbia River and
Puget Sound, and that the said company is actually exercising
unequivocal acts of ownership over said lands and opening ex-
tensive farms upon the same..
And your petitioners represent that these circumstances, con-
nected with other acts of said company to the same effects, and
their declaration that the English government owns and will hold,
as its own soil, that portion of Oregon Territory situated north
of the Columbia River, together with the important fact that the
said company are cutting and sawing into lumber and shipping to
foreign marts vast quantities of the finest pine trees upon the
navigable waters of the Columbia, have led your petitioners to
apprehend that the English Government does intend at all events
to hold that portion of this territory lying north of the Columbia
And your petitioners represent that the said territory north
of the Columbia River is an invaluable possession to the Ameri-
can Union; that in and about Puget Sound are the only harbors
of easy access and commodious and safe upon the whole coast of
the territory, and that a great part of this said northern part of
the territory is rich in timber and valuable minerals. For this
56 life; and labors of a pionehjr
and other reasons your petitioners pray that Congress will es-
tablish its sovereignty over said territory.
Your petitioners would further represent that the country
south of the Columbia River and north of the Mexican line, and
extending from the Pacific ocean 120 miles into the interior is
of unequaled beauty. Its mountains, covered with perpetual
snow, pouring into the prairies around their bases transparent
streams of the purest water, the white and black oak, pine, cedar
and fir forests that divide the prairies into sections convenient
for farming purposes, the rich mines of coal in its hills, and salt
springs in its valleys, its quarries of limestone, sandstone, chalk
and marble, the salmon of its rivers, and the various blessings of
the delightful and healthful climate, are known to us and im-
press your petitioners with the belief that this is one of the most
favored portions of the globe.
Indeed the deserts of the interior have their wealth of pas-
turage, and their lakes, evaporating in summer, leave in their
basins hundreds of bushels of the purest soda. Many other cir-
cumstances could be named showing the importance of this ter-
ritory in a national, commercial and agricultural point of view.
And although your petitioners would not undervalue considera-
tions of this kind, yet they beg leave especially to call the atten-
tion of Congress to their own condition as an infant colony, with-
out military force or civil institutions to protect their lives and
property and children, sanctuaries and tombs from the hands
of uncivilized and merciless savages around them. We respect-
fully ask for the civil institutions of the American Republic. We
pray for the high privilege of American citizenship, the peaceful
enjoyment of life, the right of acquiring, possessing and using
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 57
property, and the unrestrained pursuit of rational happiness. And
your petitioners will ever pray.
And about seventy others.
The reader must pronounce this a most remarkable document.
David Leslie was at this time pro tem Superintendent of the
Methodist Mission in Oregon, in the absence of Jason Lee, then
on his return from the States with the great reinforcement that
reached Oregon June ist, 1840. It certainly was fortunate for
the United States that the church had in her missionary work in
Oregon at that most critical period of Oregon history, men who
were capable of producing such documents, and at the same time
brave and patriotic enough to take up on the disputed soil the
cause of the American possession of the country, when that of
Great Britain was championed by such a power on the very
ground as the Hudson's Bay Company, aided by all the influence
of the Catholic missions. It is a most brilliant chapter of Meth-
odist history. While this memorial had gone on to Congress,
and the people of Oregon were waiting for some congressional
action, the necessities of the colony were growing more and more
urgent. Something in the form of a government seemed imper-
atively demanded. To meet the requirements of the time a meet-
ing of a number of the leading citizens was called at Champoeg,
not far from the Methodist Mission, on the 7th of February, 1841,
for consultation on the steps necessary to be taken for the for-
mation of laws and the election of officers to execute them. Rev.
Jason Lee was called to the chair. He advised the appointment
of a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws for the gov-
ernment of the country south of the Columbia river, but no def-
58 life: and labors of a pione:e:r
inite action was had. Another meeting was held at the Meth-
odist Mission on the 17th of February, when nearly all the peo-
ple of the valley were present. Rev. David Leslie was presi-
dent, and Giistavus Hines and Sidney Smith wxre secretaries.
Though a committee was appointed to formulate a system of
government of which Rev. F. N. Blanchet, afterwards Roman
Catholic Archbishop of Oregon, was chairman, to report to the
meeting of June nth, it was found that Mr. Blanchett had not
called the committee together, and no further action was had in
the matter at this time.
Early in the autumn the first indication that the memorials
sent to Congress in 1838 and 1839 were having any effect on
the action of the government relating to Oregon was received
in the country. Dr. Elijah White, who had formerly held the po-
sition of physician to the mission, but had returned to the State,
arrived again in the country holding a government commission
as sub- Agent for the Indians w^est of the Rocky Mountains. The
people were rejoiced at even so slight an evidence that the gov-
ernment would, sometime, extend its jurisdiction over the coun-
try, and, at least, were encouraged to wait with confidence. Grad-
ually it became rather clear that the American sentiment pre-
dominated over the English. This induced the British and Cath-
olic influence to adopt the plan of forming a governmicnt entire-
ly independent ; national in itself ; a new power among the world's
nationalities. Dr. McLoughlin gave the weight of his name and
influence to this scheme, carrying with him, of course, the men
of the Hudson's Bay Company, the Catholic clergy, and the re-
tired servants of the company. This was a combination not easy
to be overcome. It v/as the more dangerous because Dr. Mc-
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 59
Loughlin was a man of large business, much the largest in the
country, and had retained able attorneys to care for it, who were
always ready to serve whatever he considered for his interests.
At a public lyceum in Oregon City, where many of the most in-
fluential men of the community were accustomed to meet to dis-
cuss public questions, Mr. L. W. Hastings, as attorney for Dr.
McLoughlin, introduced a resolution in the following words:
"Resolved, That it is expedient for the settlers of the coast
to organize an independent government."
At the close of the discussion the vote was taken and the
resolution was adopted. This was a critical moment in the his-
tory of Oregon. While this lyceum was not a legislative body,
it had influence enough to determine the action of the community
on any question upon which the people was so evenly divided
as upon this. All the British party were in favor of this action,
because anything that would prevent the United States from as-
suming jurisdiction over the country would only be a way of
turning the country over to Great Britain. This, doubtless, was
the ultimate end sought by the party that sustained the resolution.
The resolution was passed, but the man was at hand who was
equal to the emergency. It was Mr. George Abernethy, the stew-
ard of the Methodist Mission, having charge of all the temporal
business of the Mission, who was a resident of Oregon City. He
immediately shifted the issue by introducing the following reso-
lution for discussion the following week :
"Resolved, That if the United States extends its jurisdiction
over this country during the next four years it will not be ex-
pedient to form an independent government."
A very earnest debate followed. Both sides were at their
6o LIFK AND LABORS OlP A PIONEKR
best. Both felt that the action here to be had would determine
the course the Oregon community would take in the establishment
of a government, which, evidently, could not be much longer de-
layed without plunging the country into a state of riotous an-
archy. By a considerable majority the resolution of Mr. Aber-
nethy was adopted.
This resolution, in effect, pledged the people against an ''In-
dependent government," at least for four years. It also clearly
indicated the abiding faith of the American party that the laws
of the United States would soon be extended over Oregon. It
also left the way open for the organization of such a scheme
of order as the people might adopt that would anticipate its own
supercession by the authority of the United States at some fu-
There were three classes of opinion in the country at this
time in regard to the proper action to be had. First, and per-
haps stronger than either of the others, as it was led by the in-
fluence of the Hudson's Bay Company, under the guidance of
Dr. McLoughlin ; An Independent Government. Second, a Pro-
visional Government looking to the early extension of the au-
thority of the United States over the country. Third, a continu-
ation of the present condition until the United States should ex-
tend its laws over Oregon. The American sentiment was some-
what divided between the second and third propositions. Mr.
Abernethy's resolution had a strong tendency to unite this senti-
ment, as it, in conection with the action on the resolution of Mr.
Hastings, showed clearly that the majority of the people were de-
cided that a government was a necessity. It became at once,
therefore, only a question whether it should be "Independent" or
ON the: pacific coast siNcr: 1853 61
"Provisional." The "Independent" movement meant nothing ul-
timately but British ownership. The "Provisional" movement
meant just as certainly American ownership. The action that
must now soon be had would determine what the people of Ore-
gon themselves chose as the relation of the future State that all
now saw was soon to rise out of the somewhat chaotic con-
dition of the country. What that choice should be when made
undoubtedly meant the decision of the "Oregon question." It was
a pivotal time ; and Mr. Abernethy's resolution was the pivot
on which the future turned.
Fearing that the swing of opinion was against the forma-
tion of an "Independent" government, those who had favored
that began to fall in line against any government at all. The
reason is obvious. A Provisional government meant simply a
temporary regulation which avowedly looked forward to the
speedy occupancy of the country by the United States. This was
the one thing that all who favored an Independent government
were trying to avoid. That movement was from the beginning
to end in behalf of the British ownership of Oregon under the
guise of independency until such a time as the guise could be
thrown off and the ownership proclaimed.
Events began now rapidly to hasten. Space does not per-
mit us to follow the successive steps of the drama, only to state
their outcome. After some important preliminary meetings and
conferences on the part of the friends of a Provisional govern-
ment, and many counter movements on the part of those who had
adopted the shibboleth of "No Government," a meeting was
called to be held at Champoeg on the 2nd day of May, 1843, ^^
which all understood that the determinative action would be
62 life: and labors of a pionee:r
taken. Pending this meeting "An address of the Canadian citi-
zens of Oregon to the meeting at Champoeg,'' was circulated
throughout the country, and every effort was made to prevent
affirmative action at the meeting of May 2nd. This "Address"
was written by Rev. F. N. Blanchet, a very astute Roman Cath-
ohc priest, who afterwards became Archbishop. He was a mas-
ter in dialectics in his own tongue, the French, but was not able
to perfectly Anglicise his speech. It was ably conceived, though
expressed in imperfect English. A quotation of paragraphs ii
and 12 will disclose the animus and purpose of the entire address.
They are as follows :
"ii. That we consider the country free, at present to all
nations till government shall have decided; open to every in-
dividual wishing to settle, without distinction of origin, and with-
out asking him anything, either to become an English, Spanish,
or American citizen.
12. So we, English subjects, proclaim to be free, as well as
those who come from France, California or the United States,
or even natives of this country ; and we desire unison with all
the respectable citizens who wish to settle in this country ; or we
ask to be recognized as free among ourselves to make such regu-
lations as appear suitable to our wants, save the general interest
of having justice from all strangers who might injure us, and that
our reasonable customs and pretensions be respected."
Through the ambiguous expressions of this extract is shown
as clearly as any thing can be shown, that the real conflict that
was to be joined at the meeting at Champoeg was the old one
of British or American ownership of Oregon, now on the very
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 6^,
point of coming to a decisive issue before the people of Oregon
It was an intense moment when the appointed meeting
gathered at Champoeg on the 2nd day of May, and it was found
that the larger part of the adult males of the Oregon settlement
were present and ready for the decisive contest. Dr. Ira L. Bab-
cock, of the Methodist Mission, was made chairman of the meet-
ing, and G. W. he Breton elected secretary. A committee of
twelve, which had been appointed at a previous meeting to report
at this, made a report which favored an organization. A motion
to accept it was made, but the Hudson's Bay men and the Cath-
olics under the lead of Rev. F. N. Blanchet, unanimously voted
"No," and the motion to accept was lost. There was much con-
fusion and some consternation at this result, for it seemed that
all the hopes of those who had labored so earnestly and patriot-
ically in behalf of the organization of a Provisional government
were to be blasted. Mr. Blanchet's forces were well trained, and
though many of them did not well understand the English lan-
guage, they could say "No" when any motion was made by one
on the side of an organization, and "Yes" when the motion was
made by one of their own side. There was hesitation about
another motion that would bring the question to a direct vote.
In the midst of the uncertainty, a loyal mountaineer stepped forth
and solved the uncertainty. "Joe Meek," an old Rocky Moun-
tain man, of tall, erect and commanding form, fine visage, with.
a coal-black eye, and the voice of a stentor, stepped out of the
crowd and shouted, "All in favor of the report of the commit-
tee and an organization, follow me." The Americans, with a
few of the more intelligent and far seeing of the Canadians v/ere
64 life: and labors of a pioneer
quickly in line by his side. The opposition, led by Blanchet,
filed more slowly *'to the left." The lines were carefully counted.
Fifty-two stood with Meek ; fifty with Blanchet ; so narrow was
the margin on this historic hour in favor of the organization of
any government at all.
If Joseph h. Meek had never performed any other public
act worthy of mention the act of this day would alone have made
his name historic. He was a leader among the Rocky Mountain
men who had abandoned the perilous and unsatisfactory life of
the fur hunter for a home under the blue skies and on the
flowery prairies of the Willamette. These were, almost to a
man, loyal Americans, and in all the questions that were being
thus adjudicated in Oregon they could be depended upon to
vote and act for the interests of the United States. The moun-
taineer and the missionary stood side by side on this occasion,
as, indeed, they did on many another that concerned the country
which they had both chosen for their home.
The result of the count was received with ringing shouts
by the Americans; shouts which will ''go ringing down the
grooves of time," as marking an act hardly less decisive than
any other one act that illustrates the history of Oregon. Prompt-
ly the chairman called the meeting to order again, but the de-
feated party, under the lead of Mr. Blanchet, silently and some-
what sullenly withdrew, leaving only those who had voted in
the affirmative to conclude the business of the day. This was
easily accomplished, as the meeting was now in the hands of its
friends. It proceeded at once to the organization of a form of
jgovernment, providing for the election of a supreme judge,
with probate powers, a clerk of the court, a sheriff, three magis-
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1 853 65
strates, three constables, a treasurer, a major and three capt-ams.
It also appointed a Legislative Committee of nine. These places
were all filled by competent and patriotic men, as follows : A. E.
Wilson, supreme judge; G. W. Le Breton, clerk of the court;
J. Meek, sheriff ; W. H. Willson, treasurer ; and Messrs. D.
Hill, Robert Shortess, Robert Newell, Alanson Beers, T. J.
Hubbard, W. H. Gray, J. 0''Neil, R. Moore and William
Doughtery, Legislative Committee.
This meeting adjourned to the 5th day of July, when it
was to hear a report from the Legislative Committee on a form
of organic law for the nascent commonwealth.
It had been fixed on the 5th day of July in order that the
people might gather on the day preceeding and show their
American loyalty by a grand "Independence Celebration." Both
the celebration and the meeting on the 5th were occasions to
call out the greatest enthusiasm. Rev. Gustavus Hines delivered
an oration on the 4th, and was also the president of the meet-
ing on the 5th. Quite a number of those who opposed an or-
ganization at the preceeding meeting were present at this and
announced their cordial support of the objects sought to be ob-
tained by the Americans. The Catholic missionaries and the
members of the Hudson's Bay Company, however, not only did
not attend, but publicly asserted that they would not submit to
the authority of any government that might be organized. The
represenatives of the Hudson Bay Company even addressed a
communication to the leaders of the movement, stating that they
felt abundantly able to defend both themselves and their politi-
cal rights. But neither opposition nor threats gave pause to the
66 LIF^ AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
determined men who were leading this movement for a govern-
ment that should be Americar..
With affairs in this attitude, Mr. Hines announced that the
report of the Legislative Committee was in order. It was ac-
cordingly read by Mr. Le Breton. It consisted of a body of
what were styled "organic laws," prefaced by the following pre-
''We, the people of Oregon Territory, for the purpose of
mutual protection, and to secure peace and prosperity among
ourselves, agree to adopt the following laws and regulations un-
til such time as the United States of America extend their juris-
diction over us."
The report of the Legislative Committee, with slight amend-
ments, was adopted by the meeting. The report provided for
the election of an "Executive Committee" of three, and, on
ballot being taken, Alanson Beers, David Hill and Joseph Gale
were chosen. The other officers elected in May were continued
until the following May.
When the primary meeting of the loyal citizens of Oregon
adjourned on the evening of the 5th of July, 1843, Oregon had
passed into a condition where every man was a law unto him-
self into that of an organized political commonwealth.
This action was bold, and might be called revolutionary,
as Oregon was claimed alike by Great Britain and the United
States. As against the claim of Great Britain it approached re-
bellion. The people of Oregon had decided for themselves
where their allegiance lay. That decision did more than any one
thing or any dozen things else to decide the "Oregon Ques-
tion," and if it is justifiable to claim for any man or any one fact
ON the: pacific coast since 1853 ^y
the glory of "Saving Oregon" to the United States, it must lay
to the credit of the men whose presence and work in the coun-
try, and whose constant memorializing of the government of
the United States in behalf of the country, and whose intense
Americanism, always and everywhere displayed, had made the
organization of the "Provisional Government" a possibility.
The government thus ordained was so wisely administered
that opposition gradually subsided. In the autumn following an
immigration of not far from 100 people from the eastern states
entered the Willamette Valley, and melted quietly and happily
away into the body politic of the embryo State, thus giving such
a vast preponderance to the American population and sentiment
that even the Hudson's Bay Company and the Catholic priests
saw that further opposition would be useless, and began to co-
operate with the new order of things. Some changes were sub-
sequently made in the "Organic law." The "Executive Com-
mittee" of three was found to be cumbersome, and provision was
made for the election of a governor, and at an election in 1845,
George Abernethy, whose name has so often and honorably ap-
peared in this history, was chosen to that important place.
To the immortal honor of Oregon it may be recorded that
no country ever had a greater proportion of men strong enough
and wise enough to govern themselves than she had. This was
the result of the auspices under which the foundations of her
civilization were laid. Her pioneers were the Missionaries of
the Cross, and no names at this day of 1899 are mentioned so
often by her historians as the names of the noble missionary
bands of the period beginning with Jason Lee, first and fore-
most of them all, in 1834.
68 LIFK AND LABORS 01^ A PI0NE:ER
Mr. Abernethy's term of office was in most exigent times
for the new and feeble commonwealth, but he filled it in a man-
ner that reflected honor on himself, on the missionary service
from which he graduated to the chair of executive of the young
commonwealth, and to the great advantage of the people who
had chosen him to be the First Governor of Oregon. All ques-
tions of the ownership of Oregon having been decided in the
manner forecast in the organization of the Provisional Govern-
ment, and the Government of the United States having organized
her into a Territory of the Union, on the 3rd day of March,
1849, Governor George Abernethy, of the Provisional Govern-
ment, passed over his authority into the hands of Governor
Joseph Lane, appointed Territorial Governor by President Polk,
and the Provisional was merged into the National authority.
This change was a change only in form. The Provisional
Government was an American Government. California had her
"Bear Flag," Texas had her "Lone Star," but Oregon never
marched under any other banner than the "Stars and Stripes."
From the time Jason Lee stepped over the ridge of the contin-
ent on the 15th day of June, 1834, and began his march to the
western sea, her missionaries, her immigrants, her mountaineers
forever sung to the winds and waves of her glorious mountains
and her illimitable seas
"The Star Spangled Banner forever shall wave
O'er the Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave."
True, he found, as he stepped on the pebbly beach of the
mighty Columbia at Vancouver, on the i6th day of September,
1834, a flag-staff, and a British flag flying at its peak, but it
was marred by a cabalistic sign, "H. B. C," on its crimson
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 69
folds. It was degraded from its national significance to the
mere emblem of trade and barter and gain. The results of his
work, and the work of those who accompanied him and of those
who followed him have found their glorious vindication in the
grand Pacific Empire that they revealed, and then confirmed
to the Great Republic. And it is not possible to evade the
historic conclusion reached by one of the most paintaking stu-
dents of the story of missionary work on the Northwest coast:
"That to the Methodist missionaries and their friends in Wash-
ington and elsewhere was due the inaugural movements towards
a Provisional Government with all that it implied." Its impli-
cation and its sure prophecy was the treaty of 1846, between
the United States and Great Britain, under which the latter
withdrew her flag from all the territory of the "Old Oregon,"
and the former lifted the "Stars and Stripes" in unchallenged
authority over what is now the grandest, most resourceful, most
patriotic and most promising of our National Domain. This
Empire of the West faces the old Orient, and here are the forces
that will renew the great histories of the olden times in them
under the loftier inspirations of the Anglo-Saxon spirit that so
splendidly dominates this "Ultimate West."
70 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
Historical Error of Sir George Seymour.
IT will be remembered by the student of history that in 1579
**• Sir Francis Drake discovered the Bay of San Francisco, just
267 years before the Collingwood, commanded by Sir George
Seymour, sailed through the Golden Gate. This was during the
reign of Queen Elizabeth of England, who had bestowed the
order of knighthood upon Drake for gallant service in the de-
struction of the great Armada, which occurred during her reign.
Drake had not only discovered the bay, but had laid claim to
the entire country under the name of New Albion, which made
it by right of discovery a part of the British Empire,
It seems, however, to have escaped the notice of the British
admiral that the conditions of international law had never been
fulfilled on the part of England, and, for that reason, if for no
other, his hoisting the flag in 1846 would have been of no avail
whatever. The right of discovery had lapsed 67 years previous
to his arrival.
An additional reason why Admiral Seymour at that par-
ticular time desired to prevent the raising of the American
flag at San Francisco is found in the fact that what is known
as the "Oregon Boundary" question was then unsettled. Many
at the present day remember the electioning "Slogan," 54-40 or
fight, which carried a quite ordinary man into the Presidential
office over one of the most popular statesmen our nation ever
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 71
produced. England then laid claim to all the rest of the terri-
tory north of the Columbia River, by virtue of its occupancy by
the ''Hudson Bay Company," which had its headquarters at
Vancouver, one hundred miles above the mouth of that river. It
will be noted, the Northwest Fur Company, founded by John
Jacob Astor, had been bought up by the Hudson Bay people,
who claimed to be under the jurisdiction of the British govern-
ment. If that contention had made good, with the same govern-
ment floating its banner at San Francisco Bay, the United States
would have been without a harbor of any consequence on the
Pacific Coast. Thanks to the noble pioneers of Oregon and Cali-
fornia, we now have them all from Victoria on the north to San
Diego on the south.
Disappointed at San Francisco, the final struggle was trans-
ferred to Oregon, and other actors appeared upon the scene. The
peculiar difficulties and embarrassments that surrounded the peo-
ple of California were measurably unknown in Oregon, except-
ing it may be that the same intense American sentiment dominat-
ed both localities. We shall better maintain the continuity of
our historic narrative by centering the thoughts of our readers
upon a new class of actors who were working out the same re-
sult in a different manner and in quite a different way. With
more of the calmness and self-poise than has usually charactei-
ized the citizens of our country, in great emergencies, and with
an impulse springing from the most lofty ideals of personal re-
sponsibility, a few men under discouraging environments were
working out social and political problems that were destined to
touch with vital force the life of generations yet unborn.
Being disappointed in his expectations of gaining a foot-
'JT. LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
ing in California, Sir George Seymour, instead of sailing north,
where was to be found a vast field and where he might still do
efficient service in promoting the general purpose of the British
government, in a despondent and pettish mood, sailed as far
from it as he well could, thus leaving the American people of
the Pacific Coast free to work out their destiny more in har-
mony with the sentiment of freedom and justice. We can scarce-
ly realize what the result would have been had the influence he
was capable of exerting been added to that of the Hudson Bay
Company in determining the relations of Oregon to the British
government. While we might have saved California, yet the
loss of all the country north of San Francisco would have been
reduced almost to a dead certainty.
So narrow indeed was the margin betwen the forces in the
field that but a miracle could have saved any part of the Pacific
Coast to the United States. With emotions of love and grati-
tude we contemplate the hand of Providence in saving to our
nation so rich an inheritance. No intelligent man can contem-
plate the wonderful events of the last fifty years without finding
his faith in a God of wisdom and truth marvellously strengthened.
FOLLY OF SIR GEORGE SEYMOUR.
Little did Sir George Seymour, when on his mission to the
Pacific Coast, in the British warship "Collingwood," realize
what an opportunity he missed to do a signal service to his coun-
try, and at the same time to have immortalized his own name,
when, in a pettish feeling of disappointment at seeing the Amer-
ican flag waving over Portsmouth Square in San Francisco on
the 7th of July, 1846, instead of heading his noble ship towards
ON THK PACII^IC COAST SINCK 1853 73
the Sandwich Islands he had steered directly for the month of
the Columbia River, and joining his forces with those of the
Hudson Bay Company assisted in fixing the boundary line be-
tween British Columbia and the Territory of Oregon.
To have cast into the strong, yet somewhat chaotic elements
of British strength which was centered at the headquarters of
the Hudson Bay Company at Vancouver, under the able leader-
ship of Dr. McLaughlin, reinforced as he was by the Catholic
church at that particular time, the additional forces under the
command of Sir George Seymour, with a war vessel like the
Collingwood anchored at the Vancouver wharf, would without
doubt have outnumbered and overawed the American element to
that extent as to make their success an utter impossibility, and
the Columbia river must have been the dividing line between
British Columbia and a small but powerless community on the
south side of the Columbia river. All the Northwest would have
gone to Great Britain, the moral, and many of the physical in-
fluences of the Louisiana Purchase would have been destroyed
forever. Never in the history of the world was an empire
gained on such a small margin ; never was an empire lost by such
consummate folly, ignorance and whimsical pettishness. When
Providence drew an obscuring veil over the face of Admiral Sey-
mour so as to leave him to wander away from the Golden Gate
to the Sandwich Islands, little if anything less was done for hu-
man civilization and hope, than when the same hand drew aside
the obscuring veil from the eyes of Captain Grey and revealed
to him the broad, open channel of the majestic Columbia. So
true it is that "He makes the wealth of man to please Him."
When the historian shall com.e with a vision so unclouded,
life: and labors of a pioneer
and a faith so pure and exalted as to be able to see the ever-
brightening pathway that leads to the millenial dawn, we shall
see God in history as we have never seen him before. The world
will soon see that it is not by the hastening tread of marshaled
legions, not by the thunder of cannon, or the charge of gleam-
ing steel, but the persuasive voice of peace, and the uplifting
energy of Divine Love that reveals to the world its hope and as-
surance of its ultimate triumph over every foe. Not by might
nor by power, but by my spirit saith the Lord of hosts."
Broader and more positive every day reveals to us the es-
sential and ineffaceable difference between the civic virtues in-
hering in the teachings of Christianity and the blind and erratic
utterances of human expediency. All over the broad earth the
wise, the thoughtful, are reaching forth their hands to grasp and
to hold the inestimable treasures of a permanent and abiding
peace and joy.
ON the: pacific coast sinck 1853 75
The Raising of the First American Flag in Santa Clara County,
and Incidents Which Preceded and Followed that Event.
f TAKE it for granted that the gathering of historical inci-
dents and personal experiences connected with the early set-
tlement and development of Santa Clara County, is not the only
purpose of this Association. No doubt you have fully taken
into account the peculiar features of our situation, as well as the
unique character of our present and past environment, and also
the unusual and varied impulses that dominated the chief agencies
that have guided our steps thus far on our course.
In California, to a greater extent than in any other State in
the Union, it has been more difficult to gather together communi-
ties where a co-operative integrity with a unity of place and pur-
?pose could be sustained for any considerable length of time. In
a State with a cosmopolitan population like ours, with so many
untried and uncommon possibilities, the experimental stage must
necessarily be greatly varied, and in all cases exceedingly dif-
ficult and protracted. It is obvious, therefore, that a clear and
satisfactory continuity of historical narrative will scarcely be
maintained unless a correlation of time and events are carefully
I think we may safely say that a failure at this point has been
the chief cause of the fragmentary and unsatisfactory character
of nearly all our historical publications on the Pacific Coast. Local
"J^ LIFS AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
events of real interest, have been deprived of much of their im-
portance by being shorn of needed auxiliary aid, and are thus
made to appear disjointed and bewildering.
The historic setting that surrounded the ten days succeed-
ing July 7th, 1846, can scarcely be equaled by any period of the
same length of time in all the past history of this nation.
In estimating the beauty and relevancy of individual or na-
tional achievement, we should always seek the beginning from
the end and not the end from the beginning. Indeed, by this
philosophy of historic narrative, we shall be quite sure to esti-
mate correctly the characters of the men who played such a
prominent part in the stirring scenes of sixty years ago, arid
whose marvellous deeds it is the work of the historian to strive
To simply mention such names as Float, jMontgomery, Re-
vere, Sutter, Fallon, Fremont, Dupont and Stockton, is but to
immortalize any scene or any work of which they had formed
a part. While, on the other hand, the Castros, the Vallejos, the
Pockicoes and the Alvisos stood in the front rank of the Span-
ish population of the Pacific Coast. We have no word of re-
proach for those noble men, or of condemnation for the part
they played in the stirring drama of those eventful days. An
uncontrolable destiny seemed to have fixed their course and de-
termined their sphere of action, and what they purposed and
what they did was in perfect harmony with the spirit and ten-
dency of the age in which they lived.
And now let us have clearly before our minds the exact sit-
uation when the brave Capt. Thomas Fallon quietly marched
down from yonder mountains with his little band of refugees,
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 'J']
and boldly lifted to the soft, gentle breezes of a Jul}- morning
that most beautiful symbol of a nation's glory. This little band
of intelligent and heroic men, understanding more fully than
others the trend of passing events, had quietly retired to the
Coast Range of mountains, camping near what is now known as
Wright's Station, where they patiently awaited events that were
daily expected to occur in the valley below, and where they could
easily watch the movements of those whom they knew to be an-
tagonistic to their plans and purposes.
At that time there were but thirty stars shining upon that
banner, now there are forty-six and more close at hand. Then
there were about thirty million inhabitants living in the United
States, now there are eighty-five million, while equally great
and marvellous has been our advance in all other departments
of national strength and greatness.
But now look at the situation during the six eventful days
between the raising of the flag by Commodore Sloat at Mon-
terey, and the performance of the same patriotic work by Captain
Fallon at San Jose. Sloat had quietly moved out of the harbor
of ^lazetlan with his little fleet of three small vessels, and turn-
ing their prows towards the north, sought to conceal both the
place of his destination and the object of his mission. He leis-
urely moved up the coast, and in a few brief hours, cast his
anchor in the broad open bay of Monterey, where he immediately
disembarked a small squad of his sturdy marines. From the
place of their landing their vision could scan the ocean far north-
ward tovv^ards the Golden Gate, but not a sail appeared to break
the monotony of the scene, and not a sound but the solemn roar
cf the dashino- billows of the ocean.
yS LIFE AND LABORS OP A PIONEER
The Commodore was not long in making known the ob-
ject of his visit, for in a few moments a flag-stafif consisting of a
castoff spar was firmly planted in the rocky soil, from the sum-
mit of which floated for the first time in California that beauti-
ful banner we all love and admire.
Scarcely had this work been accomplished when the CoUing-
wood, one of England's most powerful war-ships, coming from
the same Mexican port, and commanded by Admiral Sir George
Seymour, entered the harbor of Monterey and cast its anchor
near the flagship of Commodore Sloat. The Commodore was
not long in gaining the deck of the Collingwood, and with the
utmost suavity and politeness bade the distinguished Admiral a
most cordial welcome and a most pleasant sojourn at Monterey.
At this point of their interview, in answer to the greetings
of Commodore Sloat, Sir George unwittingly revealed the sin-
ister design of his present attitude, by quietly remarking ''You
Americans have stolen a march on me, but I guess it is all right."
These few words, while attempting to conceal a great disap-
pointment, gave expression to a prophecy that, in the march of
events soon to follow and even in our day, has been wonderfully
And now, see how these events began to develop themselves
and how rapidly they have moved in shaping the character and
destiny of our State and Nation. While the Commodore was en-
deavoring to entertain the British Admiral to the best of his
ability, a foaming steed might have been seen speeding over hill
and valley, headed towards the Bay of San Francisco, bearing
a message from Commodore Sloat to Captain Montgomery, who,
with the little sloop Portsmouth, was stationed at that port. The
ON the: pacii^ic coast since: 1853 79
message read as follows : "You will immediately hoist the Amer-
ican flag at your place, and also at Sonoma." Lieutenant J. W.
Reveer was soon crossing the bay with this order from Mont-
gomery. "Take down the Bear Flag and run up in its place
the Stars and Stripes." Thus went down forever that strange
and mysterious symbol, the secret meaning and design of which
was closely guarded by its author ; but having served its purpose,
could not and did not abide. No event, perhaps, in the early his-
tory of the State, has given rise to more romance and conjecture,
than the raising of the "Bear Flag" at Sonoma by Colonel Fre-
mont after his return from the wilds of Oregon in 1846. When
the historian who is to come, shall give to the country a true
version of this interesting transaction it will be seen to have been
more far reaching and decisive in its results than almost any
other event of those early days.
We will now return for a few moments to our redoubtable
English Admiral whom we left in the harbor of Monterey as the
guest of Commodore Sloat. After completing a few slight re-
pairs to his vessel, he quietly weighed anchor and turned the prow
of the Collingwood towards the Bay of San Francisco, feeling
quite certain that for once, at least, that sly and wide-awake
Yankee had been left behind. A few hours' sail brought him to
the Golden Gate, entering which, he sailed quietly over the placid
waters of the bay, charmed by the virgin beauties of the scener\-
around him, and fondly anticipating a speedy and successful
termination to his anxiety and toil. While preparing to anchor
his ship, for, as he hoped, a long and peaceful rest, he happened
to turn his vision landward when lo ! there, right before his as-
tonished gaze, appeared the seemingly ubiquitous Stars and
8o life: and labors of a pionekr
Stripes waving in majesty and triumph, and kissed by the gentle
breezes of the ocean. The well-laid scheme of the Admiral had
failed, the keen-sighted Yankee was once more victorious. See-
ing that the game was now up, the disappointed Admiral at once
saw the futility of further effort. In a few hours the noble ship
Collingwood was gracefully riding the foam-crested billows of
the mighty Pacific, headed toward the Sandwich Islands, and
disappearing below the distant horizon the last hope of Great
Britain to capture California was lost forever. Three years be-
fore she had met with a similar failure in Oregon, the circum-
stances attending which having come to the knowledge of Fre-
mont, materially aided him in the shrewd and successful work
which gave to the Union the Golden State of California.
It will be remembered that in 1579 the bold and successful
navagator Sir Francis Drake had discovered the Bay of San
Francisco, and after remaining there for several months, gave it
the name of New Albion and claimed the entire country for the
sovereign of England. Notwithstanding the fact that 267 years
had passed away since Drake had made this discovery, yet the
English had done absolutely nothing to make good their claim,
and the country had remained for all these years in the undisput-
ed possession of Spain.
But the eighteenth century had brought many wonderful
changes, and no nation seemed more alert in studying those
changes and availing herself of the advantages they might oflfei
than did Great Britain.
Every movement of Admiral Seymour plainly indicated that
he was on the Pacific Coast for a specific purpose, and that such
purpose was antagonistic to the one which occupied the time and
ON the: pacific coast since 1853 81
attention of Commodore Sloat. Of this fact the raising of the
American flag at Monterey had just given an undoubted evi-
dence, and the revelation had just put both parties on their guard,
and as a natural consequence, materially quickened the action of
each. The Admiral in his reply to Sloat, also, had made it quite
plain that, in his opinion the crucial hour had not yet arrived,
but was so near at hand that time had become an important factor
in all his future movements.
California especially seemed of the utmost importance to
England at this particular crisis. Besides enabling her to press
with greater hope of success her claims in the north, it would
serve as a valuable auxiliary in building up her Canadian pos-
sessions, and in neutralizing the expected benefits to flow to the
United States from the Louisiana Purchase.
San Francisco Bay then, by virtue of Sir Francis Drake's
discovery, was, in the estimation of Admiral Seymour the key
to the present situation. To reach that point before Sloat, to
raise the British flag where Drake had raised it 279 years be-
fore and to revive that ancient claim, would place him upon a
vantage ground from which no power on earth would be able to
dislodge him. If he failed in this he well knew the failure would
be ruinous and fatal. And he failed, and now the Admiral's re-
cent prophecy, "I guess it is all right," is gloriously fulfilled and
together we will continue to sing to the dashing billows of our
illimitable seas :
"The star spangled banner forever shall zvave,
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave/'
Then followed in rapid succession, the raising of our flag
at Sonoma, Sacramento, and San Jose, which brings us to the
S2 LIJ^e: and labors of a PION]eKR
13th day of July, 1846, and to the northwest corner of Market
and Post streets, then, and until recently called El Dorado.
There, not far from the place where stands the present flag-pole,
Captain Fallon, surrounded by about thirty brave companions
joyfully, with shouts of triumph, and just as the first rays of the
marching sun shot their shimmering beams down from the lofty
summit where now stands our noble observatory, raised on high
the first American flag that ever fluttered in the gentle breezes of
Santa Clara County.
And still the patriotic work went on. Five more localities
witnessed the same noble ceremony, coming in the following
order: San Juan, July, i8th; San Diego, July 29th; Santa Bar-
bara, August 4th ; San Pedro, August 6th ; Los Angeles, August
13th; San Fernando, January 12th, where the final surrender was
made to Colonel John C. Fremont, and a territory larger than ten
Palestines was forever redeemed from the semi-barbarism of
Spanish rule, and consecrated to the cause of freedom and pro-
Thus was the chain completed that now binds together the
fairest land upon which the sun shines, with the most glorious
destiny that humanity can know. And now.
With chords of love no earthly power can part,
We'll bind this sacred banner to our heart,
And gathering strength from heaven-descended pozver,
Find a sure triumph in each threatening hour.
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 83
Memorial Poem Recited at Vernon, N. Y.
Freedom! thou sweetest word in human tongue,
Of thee have sages thought and poets sung,
In all the ranks of busy human kind
This word, suggestive, thrills the sentient mind,
Sweeps the dark clouds of gloomy night away,
And brings before us joy-inspiring day;
Falls like sweet music on the ravished ear,
And stills the heart that palpitates with fear,
Lifts up the head so long by sorrow bound
And spreads the bow of promise on the cloud.
Ye heavenly Powers! while I begin my song.
Inspire my soul, and bear the strain along.
Bring to my aid the patriot's holy fires.
That glowed so brightly in departed sires.
Bid them survey us from the bending sky.
And tell us how to live and how to die.
Is there a heart so dead to purest bliss.
As not to glory in a land like this,
Whose mind debauched by treason's deadly blight,
Would sink its glories in eternal night?
Avant! ignoble one, and let they name
84 LII^E^ AND LABORS 01^ A PIONEER
Perish forever from the roll of fame,
Turn from the place where noble patriots stood,
And leave your country for your country's good,
But let the pure these hallowed hours employ
To swell the anthem of a nation's joy.
Thou glorious banner ! emblem of the free,
Whose radiant beauties cover land and sea,
Beneath thy star-lit folds do millions bring
The gladsome offerings of another spring;
The grey-haired father with the mystic thread
That, links the living with the honored dead,
The sober matron who her time employs
In forming patriots of her growing boys.
The bright-eyed maiden whose unfolding charms
Await a transit to her lover's arms.
The little urchin, whose soft, flaxen curls
In sportive glee the gentle breeze twirls.
The rich, the poor, the humble and the proud
May here be gathered in one common crowd;
And lifting up to heaven the beaming eye
Swear with this flag to live and for it die.
No other standard shall our homage claim.
No other color, whatsoer'er its name.
In beauteous contrasts, red white, and blue,
Is the proud banner which our fathers made ;
And not one star shall ever from it fade.
While floating now in freedom's bold crusade.
ON the: pacii^ic coast since: 1853 85
Not half so quick the forked Hghtning flies,
On murky cloud along the bending skies,
As our just wrath to smite with instant death
Who breathes upon it but one hostile breath.
Is there a land beneath the circling sun,
Where mountain rears its head or rivers run.
That can, Columbia, ever equal thee.
Whose verdant beauties spread from sea to sea ?
On thy broad bosom nations come to rest,
And throng the valleys of our peerless west.
The bleeding victims of oppression's wiles,
Hear of thy blessings with a thousand smiles.
While He who rules the heavenly powers above
Looks down and blesses with a Father's love.
How must their spirits feel the lambient flame
Of brightening hope, at mention of thy name,
Else never could these swarming millions brave
Such sundered ties, and oceans swelling wave,
They drop the tear, and heave the sorrowing sigh,
O'er the dear spot where friends departed lie,
Sadly they breathe the tender word, adieu.
To all the scenes their early childhood knew;
Gazing, they stand and view the less'ning shore.
Whose hills and vallies they shall see no more.
Silent they stand resolve to fix in mind
Those joys and friendships they have left behind.
As beauteous Dido plied her winsome art.
86 li^e: and labors of a pionEER
To fix the flame of love in Eanea's heart.
To stay his steps and give his wandering o'er,
And brave the ocean and the wars no more,
But find at one in Carthage's pleasing scene
A rising kingdom and a lovely queen.
So does our goddess kindly spread her arms,
And bid the nations view her radiant charms.
Speaks sweetly to them from her loving heart.
And soothes their sorrows by her gentle art,
Spreads her broad ages in the needful hour,
And awes the tryrant by her dreadful power.
But bids the oppressed enjoy her fruitful soil,
And spread her glory by their willing toil.
Dark is the soul, and void of truth and right.
Unworthy happiness, unworthy light,
Unfit for public trust, for private care,
A wretch, a monster, who would thee forswear,
Or with a cruel hand would wish to rend
The beauteous garments of so kind a friend.
Here let us pause and carefully relate
What makes a nation truly wise and great.
Do towering monuments that pierce the sky.
O'er the proud dust where buried heroes lie?
Do cities fair with gorgeous temples crowned.
Or busy commerce with its murmuring sounds.
Is it the train that thunders through the land
ON THi: PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 87
To bear our products to some distant strand?
Or the tamed lightning darting o'er the wire,
To bear our message on its wings of fire?
No: these may flourish with exulting pride,
Where virtue, honor, truth and right have died,
'Tis men we need, men of a noble mould,
Who scorn to barter principle for gold.
Constant to keep a noble end in view.
And with unfaltering step that end pursue.
Who seek through all the fleeting days of life
To turn the thoughtless from the paths of strife,
Who scorn the seeds of party hate to sow,
From which a crop of bloody deeds may grow,
Who call no virtue by a fancied name.
And then betray her to a lasting shame.
Who passion crush, however strong or dear.
And for no loss of evil shed a tear,
Who loathes the man who holds the evil creed,
"Bleed not for country but your country bleed."
Say, trembling statesman, can ye do no more
Than fearful paltry souls have done before.
But while prophetic clusters fill the hand
Halt on the borders of the promised land?
Learn this, while sailing o'er a troubled sea.
The wise possess a chart unknown to thee,
They hold no parley with unmanly fear.
But boldly by the light of truth they stear,
88 . life: and labors of a PIONKE^R
Knowing a prattling child who holds the right
Will crush an emperor tho' clothed with might,
That none who kindle passion's deadly hate,
Can ever make a nation truly great,
But he who bears the wonder-working rod,
In strict obedience to the voice of God,
Shall face with steadfast heart at duty's call,
Ten thousand dangers and surmount them all.
Such were the men who on New England's shore
Planted their standard in the days of yore.
They scorned the fiery bolt by tyrants hurled.
And breathed new power into a sinking world.
Who dared to think and act on nature's plan.
And grant her born to each aspiring man.
Said to the waves that beat the trembling soul,
''Thus far, no farther, shall thy waters roll."
But here whole sombre forests nod the head
O'er paths by savages for ages tread,
Where untamed beasts from gloomy thickets sprang,
Or serpents coiled to dart the deadly fang,
Where birds and insects bright with various hue
In sportive glee, or fatal fury, flew.
Here in the name of freedom we will stand.
Turning forever from our native land.
And while to heaven we raise our fervent call,
Build up an empire that shall never fall.
Nobly they stood with calm and steadfast mind,
Neither to reason nor to conscience blind,
A holy impulse all their bosoms fired.
. ON the: pacific coast since 1853 89
And history speaking o'er the lapse of time,
Has made their memory and their deeds sublime.
With newborn zeal we votive offerings bring,
And names immortal here attempt to sing.
We hail with joy our country's bright ning morn.
And turn from empires and from kings with scorn,
Now, while our radiant flag is here unfurled,
Proclaim our doctrine to a list'ning world.
And charge our minds at each inquiring turn.
To hold the truths that others seek to learn.
Yes : there are men whom liberty can trust.
To guard her banner from despoiling dust.
Whose souls united to the sons of worth,
Will speak, enraptured, of her noble birth,
Sing of her beauteous life in Eden's bowers.
When man unf alien, passed his joyous hours.
Tell how in classic Greece her footsteps strayed
To claim asylum in Arcadian shade.
Then how her form on restless pinions flies,
To scan the beauty of Italia's skies,
And mourn the while that man should care to know
Her name, her spirit, and her work below:
But see ! once more we view her radiant face,
Cheering the nations with its winning grace,
Smiling where Gesler feels the wrath of Tell,
And weeping when a Kosciusko fell;
90 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PI0NE:ER
Bold Cromwell cheers with vengeance in his eye.
But sighed to see a noble Hampden die,
Inspired the Pilgrims when the Mayflower bore
Her gathered treasures to a distant shore.
Here now I rest, and fold my weary wings.
And turn, rejected, from the courts of kings.
And here for ages will I fix my seat,
While gathering millions shall my image greet;
ril here inspire the orator and sage,
To spread their wisdom on the classic page,
The warrior's soul shall feel my secret power
And stand undaunted in the dangerous hour.
The fettered slave shall feel my sudden stroke,
And from his neck shall fall the galling yoke,
And beauteous woman, guided by my wand.
Shall be enfranchised through this favored land.
Like yon bright pillar raised at heaven's command,
To guide His people o'er a deserted land,
In lonely wilds it shed its hallowed light.
And blazed its glory on the gloom of night,
Guiding the wandering in his weary way,
And gave to midnight all the light of day.
So shall my radiance, heavenly and divine,
On you who love me never cease to shine.
Shall we not sing at each returning year,
Those names to freedom and to country dear.
Shall we not tell the mighty deeds they wrought,
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 91
The words they uttered and the battles fought?
How firm they stood in danger's trying hour,
To stem the tide of treason's threatening power.
Shall freedom's altar, reared at such a cost,
To future ages be forever lost.
Shall we consent in doubting fear to stand,
And let dread Anarch rule this lovely land ?
No, never, never, will we cease to be
True to those men who made our country free.
In all the forms that joy has been expressed,
With all the hope that kindles in the breast.
With all the zeal that human bosom fires.
With all the faith that heavenly love inspires,
We'll march, and weep, and talk, and sing and pray,
Through all the hours of this memorial day.
Not like the matrons in Eneas train,
Wearied with toil and dangers of the main,
In wanton haste, by adverse gods inspired.
With impious hands their anchored vessel fired,
And sought to end in the devouring flame,
Rome's future empire and the Trojan name ;
We swear no human hands, however great.
Shall bear the torch to fire our Ship of State.
If to that work one step they dare to go.
That step shall make those men our mortal foe;
No mountain heights, or forest's rocky dell,
No cave, though deeper than the depths of hell,
Shall be a refuge from the awakened wrath,
92 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
That sweeps with fury on the traitors' path,
And pauses not, till their false bosoms feel
The fatal power of our avenging steel.
Our humble lyre must strike its mournful strains,
To tell the glory of two noble names.
And wait the bard with a diviner flame
To sing more sweetly of their deathless fame.
Thou sainted Lincoln ! whose untimely end
Bereft a nation of its dearest friend.
To imitate thy virtues shall engage
The toiling patriot of each coming age.
From thee they learn to love their country's laws,
And die with pleasure in her sacred cause ;
No sting of envy thy pure soul possessed,
No vengeful feelings burned within thy breast.
From chilling prejudice thy mind was free.
And suffering bondmen found a friend in thee;
No sordid end pursued, but firmly stood,
For truth, and labored for the people's good.
While slumbering now among the silent dead,
A martyr's crown adorns thy sainted dead.
And while we cherish what thy brave deeds won,
We write thy name next to our Washington.
That other scene, we view with tearful eyes,
Where noble, generous, pious Garfield dies.
How grand his speech, how lofty every deed !
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 93
Yet for that greatness he is doomed to bleed,
When his pure life admiring men behold,
In conscious virtue theirs are firm and bold.
And view with pride the path his footsteps trod,
Who loved the people, while he loved his God.
Like Carmel's seer who in his deathless flight
Looked down with blessing on a world of might,
And ere his fiery steeds their course began.
Cast gently down one sacred gift to man ;
So from his shoulders, as he soars above.
He drops the mantle of a patriot's love.
Go freedom's martyrs ! heaven does thus ordain
To rend our bosoms with severest pain,
'Tis thine to tread the flowery fields of bliss.
While we mitst struggle in a world like this,
But while thy vision sweeps from star to star,
Smile sweetly on us from thy home afar.
And as in heaven thy spirits sing and shine.
Forever hover o'er thy country's shrine.
Rome wept with grief when Cato's body passed.
And cried, alas ! this patriot is our last.
Not so are we ; when to the grave we give
Our buried heros, others with us live.
Ah never shall our tongues forget to tell
Of how they fought and how their comrades fell,
Of how they stood at evening's fading light,
And watched for freedom through the gloom of night,
In fruitful fields, where smiling verdure grew.
94 life: and labors of a pioneer
They lift the stains that nature never knew,
They flecked the hill-side with their gushing blood,
And stained the current of the river's flood,
To wounded, dying brothers oft they came.
To take love's tokens, or to learn their name ;
Oft on a bosom cold and void of life
They found the picture of a loving wife,
Or one from whom he tore himself away,
Before the pleasures of the bridal day,
Or catch the fleeting message e'er he dies.
And close in death a fallen comrade's eyes.
Where now had been this banner and this day,
Had they betrayed us in that bloody fray.
Had they but faltered in that trying hour.
And gave our country to the traitor's power.
Had they complained and halted on the way.
Because, perchance, they failed to get their pay,
They proved 'tis nobler, let it now be told,
To die for freedom than to live for gold.
Ten thousand blessings on their noble head.
Ten thousand flowers along their pathway spread.
And may they ever feel and ever know
The sweetest pleasures in their life below.
And may at last a Saviour's deathless love
Proclaim them welcome to a home above.
We come not here to strike our lyre to kings,
No servile flattery from us on its strings,
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 95
No slavish chords shall bind our souls with fear,
But truth's sweet music charm the list'ning ear.
He that too much his own perfections see
Will see too much the faults of you and me.
We should be calm and moderate in our view
And not with malice any thing pursue.
With equal scales to balance others' rights,
Nor blame at morning what we praise at night.
Not curse old Shylock's every passing hour.
Then do him honor by our lust of power.
Since heavenly wisdom in this world ordains
That freedom follows after galling chains,
That he who views the distant landscape bright
Must toil to reach the mountain's dizzy height.
That ere the calm of sacred peace is ours,
We feel the fearful shock of hostile powers.
And sweetest flowers of sacred memory grow
Along the banks where crimson currents flow;
Who plants the tree must wait the circling years
Before the flower and golden fruit appears.
The man or nation who true greatness knows
Must plant the seeds from whence that greatness grows.
Fair pleasure's train is love, faith, hope and joy.
None but ourselves can this fair train destroy.
If in our land true justice we invade
And dim its brightness by obscuring shade.
If unjust laws instruct at every turn
Shall we complain because the people learn?
Can we demur, when stagnant pools we bare.
96 life: and labors of a pionee:r
If ghastly death rides on the tainted air?
Or when our statutes false distinctions draw
To tangle justice in a web of law?
We strike with vengeance 'till the fight is won,
The creed, that many here must toil for one,
That makes of God an engine here below.
To play man's fury on some hated foe.
If public, and not private good shall stand,
Justice and truth must rule through all the land.
He who would seek to thwart so great an end
Can look to God nor man to find a friend.
When Phoon's hand, by heavenly wisdom led,
The magic ungent o'er his body spread,
Admiring Sappho dropped her trembling lyre.
And sudden wonder checked the poet's fire.
So shall the expanding beauty of our land.
Touched by the plastic power of freedom's hand,
While joyful patriots viewing shall admire
Her altars glowing with celestial fire.
ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 97
The Ascent of Mount Hood.
/^ N the morning of the twenty-fourth day of July, 1866, in
^^ company with three gentlemen of the city of Portland,
Oregon, I set out with heart and hope, full of determination to
stand upon that summit if mortal energy and determination could
reach it. Our place of rendezous was at the house of a Canad-
ian by the name of Revnue, who, fourteen years before, had
erected a cabin at the place where the emigrant road leaves the
mountains and enters the valley of the Willamette. Our way
here entered the mountains in the gorge, through which flows a
dashing river three hundred feet wide, which rises from beneath
the glaciers of Mount Hood. Up this stream we traveled for
thirty miles, when, leaving the gorge, the way makes a detour to
the right to gain the summit ridge. Here is the celebrated
"Laurel Hill." For three or four miles the ascent is continuous,
and in many places very steep and difficult. The top of Laurel
Hill is the general summit of the range, which is perhaps ten
miles in width, and has the general character of a marsh or
swamp. There is here a dense and grand growth of fir, cedar,
sugar-pine, and kindred evergreens, with an almost impenetrable
undergrowth of laurel. There is an inexpressible sense of lonli-
ness in these deep solitudes. Struggling rays of sunlight only
here and there find way through the dense foliage, and then fall
cold and white upon the damp ground. Passing over this level
98 life; and labors of a pioneer
we crossed several bold, clear streams, dashing across our way
from the direction of Mount Hood over beds of scoriaceous sand,
which had been borne down from that vast pile of volcanic ma-
terial, nov/ only five or six miles away. We now found an old
Indian trail leading in the direction of the mountain, and, after
a ride of an hour and a half upon it, came out into an opening
of scattered trees, which sweeps around the south side of the
mountain. It was five o'clock when we emerged from the forest,
and stood for the time appalled, confronting the body of rocks
and snow which springs up from the average altitude of the
mountains and enters into wedlock with the bending ether. The
bewildering greatness without inspired an unutterable awe
within. Selecting a place for our camp on a beautiful grassy
ridge between one of the main affluents of the Des Chutes and the
Clackamas Rivers, and which really constitute the dividing ridge,
we erected a booth of boughs, gathered fuel for a large fire dur-
ing the night, and gave ourselves up to hours of contemplation
of the strange scene around, above, and beneath us.
"The evening now came on, creeping noiselessly over the
mountains, and shedding a strange, weird, and melancholy splen-
dor over the scene. The moon was at its full, the sky clear as
crystal, and the moonbeams seemed to troop in columns along
the glittering acclivities of the glaciers. Mount Hood seemed
taller, grander, and more glorious than before. Often, during
the night of that march over the hills, I arose from my blankets,
walked to a point a few rods away, and contemplated with some-
thing of awe and much of reverence the divinely-illumined pic-
ture. Those who study Mount Hood only in the studio of the
artist, before such paint and brush caricatures Bierstadt's, know
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1 853 99
nothing of its real grandeur, its overwhelming greatness. Men
praise the artist who, on canvas, can make some slight imita-
tion of such a scene ; why will they not adore the Maker whose
power and skill builds and paints the grand originals?
At seven o'clock of Thursday, having provided ourselves
with staves seven feet in length, and taken such refreshments
as we should need on the mountain, we were ready for the ascent.
For the first mile and a half the way was easy, over a bed of
volcanic rock, decayed, and intermixed with ashes. Huge rocks
stood here and there, and two or three stunted junipers and a few
varieties of mosses were all the vegetation.
We now reached the foot of a broad field of snow which
sweeps around the south side of the mountain for several miles
in length, and extending upward to the immediate summit of the
mountain, perhaps four miles. Two miles of this snow field is
smooth, and only in places so steep as to render the footsteps un-
certain. Near its upper edge the deep gorges, from which flow
affluents of the Des Chutes on the right, and Sandy on the left,
approach each other, cutting down to the very foundations of the
mountain. The waters are rushing from beneath the glaciers,
which, at the upper extremity, were rent and broken into fissures
and caverns of unknown depth.
The present summit of the mountain is evidently what was
long since the northern rim of an immense crater, which could
not have been less than three miles in diameter. Its southern
wall has fallen completely away, and the crater itself is filled with
rock and ashes, overlaid with the accumulated snows of ages,
through the rents and chasms of which now escape smoke, steam,
and gases from the pent-up fires below. The fires are yet so near
100 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
that many of the rocks which project upward through these icy
depths are so hot that the naked hand cannot be held upon them.
Just at the southwest foot of the circular wall now constituting
the summit, and at a distance of about two thousand feet from its
extreme height, is now the main opening of the crater. From this
a column of smoke and steam is continually issuing, at times
rising and floating away on the wind, at other times rolling heav-
ily down the mountain. Into this crater I descended as far as it
was possible without ropes, or till the descent was prevented by
a perpendicular wall of ice sixty or seventy feet high, which rest-
ed below on a bed of broken rock and ashes so hot as immediately
to convert the water which dripped continually from the icy roof
one hundred feet above into steam. The air was hot and stifling ;
but I did so desire to gather some ashes and rocks from the bot-
tom of the crater that if ropes had been at hand I should certainly
have ventured down.
At this point the real peril of the ascent begins. It leads
out and up the inner wall of what was once the crater, and near
a thousand feet of it is at an angle of sixty degrees. This ascent
is up an ice field, the upper limit of a great glacier, which is
crashing and grinding its slow journey down the mountain far
to the right. About seven hundred feet from the summit a cre-
vasse from five to fifty feet in width, and of unknown depth, cuts
clear across the glacier from wall to wall. There is no evading
it. The summit cannot be reached without crossing it. There is
no other pathway. Steadily and deliberately poising myself on
my staff, I sprang over the crevasse at the most favorable place
I could select, landing safe on the declivity two or three feet
above it, and then with my staff assisted the others to cross. The
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE: 1853 lOI
last movement of fifteen feet had considerably changed the pros-
pect of the ascent. We were thrown by it directly below a wall
of rock and ice five hundred feet high, down which masses, de-
tached by the sun, were plunging with fearful velocity. To
avoid them it was necessary to skirt the crevasse on the upper
side for a distance, and then turn diagonally up the remaining
steep. It was only seven hundred feet high, but it was two hours'
sinewy tug to climb it. The hot sun blazed against the wall of
ice within two feet of our faces, the perspiration streamed from
our foreheads, our breath was labored and difficult, yet the weary
steps of inches were multiplied till, on nearing the summit, the
weariness seemed to vanish, an ecstatic excitement thrilled along
every nerve, and with feelings and shouts of triumph we bounded
upon the pinnacle of the highest mountain in North America.
The summit was reached at about the center of the circular
wall which constitutes the extreme altitude, and where it had
so sharp an edge that it was impossible to stand erect upon it.
Its northern face is an escarpment several thousand feet high.
Here we could only lie down on the southern slope, and holding
firmly to the rocks, look down the awful depth. A few rods to
the west was a point forty or fifty feet higher, to the summit of
which we crawled, and there discovered that forty rods eastward
was a point still higher, the highest of the mountains. We
crawled back along the sharp escarpment, and in a few minutes
stood erect on the highest pinnacle. This was found to be seven-
teen thousand six hundred and forty feet high; the thermometer,
by a very careful observation, standing at one hundred and eighty
degrees, where the water boiled about forty feet below the sum-
mit. This gives thirty-two degrees of depression, which, at the
102 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEE:r
usual estimate of five hundred and fifty feet to the degree, gives
the astonishing altitude indicated above.
The scene around us was indescribable. We were favored
with one of the clearest, brightest days of summer, and in this
latitude and on this coast objects are plainly visible at an almost
incredible distance. It would be impossible to convey to the
reader an adequate impression of the scene, yet a few general
observations may be taken. The first is the Cascade Range
itself. From south to north, from Diamond Peak to Rainier, a
distance of not less than four hundred miles, the whole moun-
tain line is under the eye. Within that distance are Mounts Saint
Helens, Baker, Jefferson, the Three Sisters, making, with Mount
Hood, nine snowy mountains. Eastward the Blue Mountains
are in distinct view for at least four hundred miles in length, and
lying between us and them are the broad plains of the Des
Chutes, John Day's, and Umatilla Rivers, one hundred and fifty
miles in width. On the west the piny crests of the Coast Range
cut clear against the sky, with the Willamette Valley sleeping in
quiet beauty at their feet. The broad silver belt of the Columbia
winds gracefully through the evergreen valley toward the ocean,
which we are blending with the horizon through the broad vista
at the mouth of the river. Within these wide limits is every
variety of mountain and valley, lake and prairie, bold, battling
;precipices, and gracefully rounded summits, blending and melt-
ing away into each other, forming a whole of unutterable mag-
nificence. The descent to the great crevasse, though much more
rapidly accomplished, was perhaps quite as perilous as the as-
cent. We were now approaching the gorge, and a single mis-
step might precipitate us into unfathomed depths. Less than half
ON the: pacific coast since 1853 103
an hour was sufficient to retrace the weary cHmbing of three
hours, and, standing for a moment on the upper edge of the
chasm, we bounded over it where it was about eight feet in
width. The impetus of the leap sent us phinging down the
icy steep below.
In two hours from the summit we reached our camp. At
dark we began to pay the price of our pleasure. The glare of the
sun on the ice had burned our faces and dazzled our eyes till
they were so painful that not one of the party slept a moment
during the night. I kept over my eyes and face a cloth wetted
vv^ith ice-water all night, and in the morning was able to see;
but two of the party were as blind as rocks for forty-eight hours.
But we were well compensated for all our toil and pain. And
new, as often as thought recurs to the moment when I stood
upon that awful height, and the same awe of the infinite God
who settest fast the mountains, being girded with power, comes
over my soul, I praise Him that He gave me strength to stand
where His power speaks with words few mortals ever hear, and
the reverent worshipings of mountains and solitudes seem flow-
ing up to His throne.
From this magnificent picture, in which we have seen blend-
ed in beautiful harmony extended valleys and fertile plains, dot-
ted here and there with numerous signs of civilization, lines of
forest, rising grounds, lofty hills, towering mountains, majestic
glaciers, meandering streams, and flowing rivers, we will turn
our faces southward, and there, as clearly as from the top of
Mount Hood, the shimmering summit of Jefferson greets th(»
eye, and, looking a little further still, the Three Sisters, clad in
their robes of unsullied whiteness, stand out in bold relier, as if
I04 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
to add a finish to the glorious panorama which we have been
contemplating. We have as yet gone round but half the circle, and
we have time only to glance at the other half, where the Coast
Range draws its lines against the western sky, and then leave
this point of observation, and proceed up the valley with our ex-
plorations. Six miles above the city of Salem comes flowing
down into the Willamette from the west a stream called La Cre-
ole, which can also boast of its privileges for milling operations,
and of watering a splendid portion of the country. Fifteen miles
above this is the Luckimute, a fine stream, bordered on each
side by fertile plains. Three miles further on is Soap Creek,
which can also boast of its advantages. These all rise in the
Coast Range, and, running eastward from thirty to fifty miles
crosswise of the valley, hasten to mingle their waters with those
of the Willamette. Fifteen miles above Salem, on the east side
of the Willamette, the Santiam comes dancing down its channel
as clear as the crystal drop that oozes from the pines, whose
forms are reflected from its limpid waters. This is a very con-
siderable stream, and flows through an excellent portion of tlie
country. The springs of the Cascade Mountains supply its sev-
eral branches, and from the extent of the country westward, and
the driving power which it affords, it is not second to any of the
tributaries of the Willamette. Eight miles above the Santiam
we come to the point where the flourishing city of Albany is lo-
cated, at the mouth of the Callapooia River. This stream, rising
far up in the Cascades, and flowing across the eastern half of the
valley diagonally, fertilizes and beautifies a large portion of tnt
county of Linn. Above this a few miles is another stream, ap-
propriately named Muddy, from the appearance of its dark, tur-
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 IO5
bid waters. Its principal value consists in its affording an abun-
dance of stock water in the dry season. Above this some twenty
miles the M'Kenzie fork of the Willamette comes booming out of
a gorge in the Cascade Mountains, and from this we will pass
over to the westward side, and cross Grand Prarie, beautiful in
the extreme, and at its further border we find a very interesting
stream bearing the euphonious name of "Long Tom."
This stream rises in nimierous rivulets which issue from the
Coast Range, and, watering a large extent of country, unite, and,
running northward at the base of the foot hills of the Coast
Range, discharge their waters into the Willamette twelve miles
above the city of Corvallis. We have now reached the upper or
south end of the valley proper, and a collection of prairie and tim-
bered hills, which are generally settled up, extend southward
for twenty-five miles or more before they swell into the bolder
and loftier outlines of the Callapooia Mountains, which form the
southern boundary of the great Willamette Valley.
The Siuselaw is a small though independent valley, lying
between the waters which flow into the Willamette River and
those of the Umpqua. The upper part of this valley, some fifty
miles from the ocean, though small, is rich and fertile, and ca-
pable of sustaining a much heavier population than have yet set-
tled upon its limpid and health-giving waters. The river pierces
the entire Coast Range, forming a valley of varied extent, and
empties itself into the Pacific Ocean. Salmon enter this river, as
also nearly all the streams that run into the ocean, in great abun-
dance in their season, so that at times they literally fill the channel
from bank to bank.
io6 life: and labors of a pioneer
Fourth of July Oration at Santa Rosa.
nPHE title which your worthy chairman has been pleased to
use in presenting me to this large and intelligent audience,
on this occasion, has caused some slight degree of embarrassment
to take possession of my mind. I am not here as an ''oritor,"
nor do I desire that the few remarks I shall make here to-day
should be dignified with the name of an "oration." It is not my
desire, even if I were able, to hold up before you in measured
and glowing sentences either the things that have been, or those
that are expected to be. My ambition will be fully met if I shall
succeed in presenting to your minds some plain and important
facts upon which you may find it profitable to meditate in other
Every solid and enduring advance in both individual or na-
tional life and character must be achieved by appeals to the en-
lightened reason and judgment of men. Our passions and our
fancies will never prove to us a safe and reliable guide. These
and the various images which they evoke will now, as in the
past, '*lead to bewilder and dazzle to blind."
To-day we count the fifteenth year of the second century of
our life as a nation. Nearly four generations have passed away
since the great event transpired which gave us this, our natal
day. These have been generations whose characters and achieve-
ments have made us what we now are. Deeds of noble daring
ON the: pacii?ic coast since 1853 107
in battle, deeds of heroic fortitude in toil and suffering, deeds in
which have been revealed the most profound learning; the most
wonderful flights of eloquence in pulpit, senate and forum; the
most inspiring and elevating strains of poetry and song; crowned
and sanctified by the purest and most sincere devotion to the
institutions of our country and the universal elevation and im-
provement of the human race. To blot out these deeds and
words from the records of time would almost seem equivalent
to the destruction of human being and hope. When they, who
performed them, came, the world needed them ; when the passed
away, the world mourned their loss. With all the grand and
glorious results of their toil and devotion around us, with all
the noble and beautiful traits of their characters for our inheri-
tance ; with the elevating and inspiring examples of their un-
selfish patriotism glowing on the pages of history and living in
the cherished and grateful memories of our own souls, we now
and here look upward from this sylvan scene, and, while our
eyes are greeted with that glorious and revered emblem of our
nation's greatness and grandeur, stirred by the gentle breezes
from the mountains and kissed by the radiant sunbeams of
heaven ; with the heart throbbing with sentiments of devotion
and love, we exclaim :
"Forever our souls will be grateful to God,
That the blood of such heroes now flows in our veins."
This, we doubt not, is to each one of us a suggestive and
patriotic occasion. Not unlike that which burned so brightly in
the souls of the founders of the Republic, is the fire that warms
our hearts to-day.
But let it be borne in mind that what we are here to cele-
I08 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEEJR
brate on this occasion is not merely or chiefly a day, an act, or an
historic event. These, though they may all be interesting and
important as revealing a statement by which the human progress
is measured, yet above, and beyond, and better, and more glo-
rious than all the facts of history is the spirit, the all-pervading
life that made these immortal declarations of men the true ex-
ponents of the will and purpose of Heaven. It was a mere in-
cident that gave us the day, for the sun was just sinking in the
western sky when the momentous decision was reached, but it
was an infinite Wisdom that gave us the sentiment and doctrine,
by implanting in the nature of man an instinct of freedom, with
a living and glowing ideal pointing out the manner of its appli-
cation and the progress of its development.
When our good brother, with so much fervor and sin-
cerity, bore our spirits heavenward on the wings of faith and
prayer, our thoughts turned backward to the time when the
fathers of the Republic sought in their councils and delibera-
tions the favour and guidance of Heaven. When a nation or a
people loses their hold upon the divine, the most patent and posi-
tive element of success and greatness has been weakened, if not
destroyed. While we have always and wisely set our faces as a
people against all attempts at union of church and State, yet
blending with our most enthusiastic tributes to national freedom,
has always been found united the elevating and inspiring senti-
ment of religious devotion. It is as true now as it ever has been
in the past that the torch-bearers of human hope, those who have
lifted on high the beacon light that has guided a struggling race
to battle and to victory, have been thoughtful and reverent men.
While we do not desire to appear unmindful of the physical
ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 109
struggles of our Revolutionary sires, their sufferings, privations
and wonderful and glorious military achievements, yet we cannot
pause here to recount them, or make them a leading factor in the
lessons to be taught on this anniversary of our natal day. These
are all valuable and must not be forgotten by the American peo-
ple, but their value now, as ever, consists in their power to re-
veal and enforce a grand and noble principle.
This then shall be the key-note of our present reflections, the
inspiration of all our thoughts and words to-day, and not only
now and here, but all along the future years, until the whole
spirit of the immortal principle of freedom shall become the
inheritance of all the people.
Listen again to the grand and noble statement that first fell
upon the ears of man in old Independence Hall, and has been to
all the intervening generations a priceless treasure of truth and
wisdom. To-day, in the light of passing events, it seems to
possess a new and more instructive significance than ever before.
"We hold these truths to be self-evident : That all men are
created equal ; that they are endowed by their Creator with cer-
tain inalienable rights ; that among these are life, liberty and the
pursuit of happiness.
"That to secure these rights governments are instituted
among men, deriving their just power from the consent of the
governed ; that whenever any form of government becomes de-
structive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or
abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its founda-
tion on such principles and organizing its powers in such form
as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and hap-
no LIF^ AND LABORS* OF A PIONEER
This, then, is what we celebrate to-day: the beauty and
grandeur, the far-reaching significance of a Divine Endowmeni
of humanity. "Our Creator" has endowed us with "Hfe," or the
privilege and immunities of being. We not only have a right
to live because we are, but also because the Creator is. Life is
an inestimable, inalienable, God-given endowment or right. In
all its forms of presentation, it seems the crowning exercise of
Divine power, wisdom and love ; the bewildering and unfathom-
able mystery of all worlds ; the only thing v/ithout which we
knovv^ nothing, and about v.hich nothing is known. None by
searching can find it, and none by wisdom can tell the place of
its hiding, or the boundaries of its dominion and the throne of its
There is but one thing in the universe superior to life : that
is law ; or the mode and model after which life was formed and
by which it continues to be.
To be endowed, therefore, by our All-Wise Creator with life
implies a free access to all those super-added natural elements
by which that life is sustained and perpetuated, such as air,
light^ water and land. These are the fundamental and vital
sources from which all life draws its nourishment and support.
No man has a right to say, or can say, that he will continue to
exist in this world independent of these natural elements. And
no government has a right to say, or can say, that man shall
perform the duties and functions of citizenship without the use
of these natural elements. It takes all of these to make up the
complicated machinery and vital energy we call life. To elimi-
nate one of them is to derange and destroy the whole. They must
exist in harmony of support, and in exactness of supply or the
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE) 1853 III
central fire is at once extinguished. All that government can
properly do is to guide and encourage man in the attainment of
these things, and protect him in their use and enjoyment
One thing we desire especially to impress upon your minds
on this occasion; and that is, that we have not measured up to
the full demands of a Christian civilization when we make men
equal before the law. This undoubtedly would be a great and
important consummation, and would work a wonderful and, in
many instances, a radical change in our national jurisprudence.
The duty of the hour with us is to make the law itself equal.
Or, in other words, make the law a true and unmistakable ex-
ponent and protector of the natural and inalienable rights of
man. When the people give their formal consent to a govern-
mental policy that seeks to hamper or obliterate these, the dark-
ness that obscures and the corruption that enslaves will speedily
and inevitably come upon them. This has been the history of all
ages and peoples. The scattered wrecks of fallen em.pires that
strew the pathway of departed centuries bear sad and affecting
testimony to this inflexible law of human life.
What would be your opinion of a government that would
deliberately make it impossible for a part of its good and faith-
ful subjects to drink the refreshing waters, or breathe the vital
air, or look upon the golden sunlight, or should turn over these
natural elements, which the wise and loving Creator has pro-
duced for all, into the hands of a favored few. But you say,
this would be a physical impossibility. Suppose we grant th's
for a mom.ent and see where it will lead us. Upon this theory,
the obstacles of control exist in the elements themselves and not
in the relation which the government sustains to my personal
112 life: and labors of a pioneer
inalienable rights. This would eliminate all moral or spiritual
attributes from the nature and relations of men and limit the
sphere of law to the narrow range of physical powers and possi-
bilities. It would destroy the beauty and harmony of the Cre-
ator's workmanship, and bring man down from the lofty and
dignified sphere of reason and faith, where the mightiest battles
have been fought and the noblest victories won.
The spirit of our great charter undoubtedly contemplated
the free and untrammeled access of men to all the natural re-
sources essential to the unfoldment and perpetuity of "life, lib-
erty and the pursuit of happiness." All that government can
do is to make it possible for men to realize the best there is, both
in themselves and the world around them. The measure and
character of its repressive force must always depend upon the
action of individuals in endeavoring to justify and maintain an
usurpation of natural rights. The spirit of that noble Declara-
tion is lost when government allows even one of the poorest and
weakest of its subjects to suffer the loss of a single right, or feci
the unnecessary pressure of a single wrong.
Woe to the government that shuts out from the eyes of the
people the bright beams of truth, and leaves them to wander in
the dark, dismal labyrinths of error and falsehood. Woe to the
nation that holds with an unequal hand the seals of equity and
justice, and permits any within its borders to become a prey to
violence and oppression.
Woe to the country that closes the gates to the temple of
knowledge and wisdom, and leaves its toiling and enquiring
people to wander upon the bleak and barren mountains of ig-
norance and folly. When the seed she has planted has sprouted
ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 113
and grown, and the fruitful harvest of error, injustice, ignor-
ance and degradation has matured and ripened, then, together,
with sighing and weeping, we shall be compelled to bend our
weary bodies to the toil of reaping. The law of reproduction is
as certain and fixed in the moral and political as in the natural
world, and it is as true now as it ever has been or ever will be,
that "whatever a man soweth that shall he also reap."
We do not believe you would be at all satisfied, or consider
us true to the day and the occasion, did we fail to present for
your thoughtful consideration some very important and interest-
ing questions of reform and progress that are now pressing upon
the attention of the entire nation.
But we wish it distinctly understood that no Cjuestion will
be urged upon you in narrow spirit of captious criticism. We
are aware that we are speaking to-day before men and women
of different parties and creeds. But better than all, we feel as-
sured that we are addressing those who esteem patriotism as
better than party, and truth better than a creed.
Before me are the noble and worthy sons of those immortal
statesmen and heroes who promulgated and defended the glo-
rious document read to us, and the ever-living inspiration of
which IS moving the heart of the nation to-day.
These questions should not and must not be ignored by
any. They strike at the very heart of our theme on this occa-
sion. They belong to every man and woman before me. They
ought to come to every heart and conscience with a sanction and
pov/er from which there can be no appeal.
But we must hasten to other points, leaving you to trace
out this fruitful theme in its more elaborate details and find how
114 life: and labors of a pione:e:r
fully and inspirably it stands connected with your present and
One of the most imminent dangers that threatens the in-
stitutions of our country at the present time is the wholesale and
reckless manner, in which people of other countries are admitted
to citizenship in our country. Especially is this noticeable in
all our large cities. This practice has become so open and per-
sistent that all intelligent and patriotic people have become filled
with suspicion and alarm. No one can longer doubt but that a
conspiracy has been formed, by corrupt and destroying men, to
break down our industrial system, and destroy the recognized
safeguards of our national liberties.
In many instances courts have been held open from early
morning until the hour of midnight in order to carry out this
nefarious crime against the American people. Thousands and
tens of thousands of citizens have been made out of raw and
ignorant immigrants, unable to read the English language, and
utterly destitute of every qualification essential to a proper un-
derstanding of the character and spirit of our institutions. In
most instances they are persons who acknowledge a sovereignty
existing independent of all national boundaries or laws. Profess-
ing to hold authority from a Power that rules and governs all
peoples and all kingdoms, it claims the right to establish impirio
impiriiim, — an empire within an empire, — for the especial bene-
fit of its own subjects.
Professional witnesses have been kept on hand, ready to testi-
fy at a moment's notice to the good moral character of a herd of
low, ignorant, degraded persons, who carry in their festering
bodies and souls the moral and social pollution and crimes of
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 II5
twenty centuries. Knowing nothing of the genius of our govern-
ment, and caring less, they stand ready to yield obedience to
the commands and wishes of those whom for generations they
and their ancestors have been taught to regard as their guides
But recently, in the city of New York, 68,000 of these peo-
ple were made citizens of the United States in the space of one
week. Enough, as we can plainly see, to carry any election in
that great State in favor of the political party that may chance
to have them under its control.
But do not misunderstand us. We rejoice to know that
there is a place in this tyrant-cursed world where men and wom-
en may find a refuge from the cruel hand of the oppressor. This
has been our proud boast through all generations, that America,
the land of liberty, has been the asylum for the oppressed of all
But from the very first this proud distinction was not in-
tended to imply that this country could or would be an asylum
for any principle or practice, whether secular, social or reHgious,
that is not in sympathy and harmony with the institutions of
freedom for which our fathers toiled and died.
At the very borders of our territory, we meet the man smit-
ten with a contagious disease, or guilty of a heinous crime, and
promptly and without hesitancy turn him back to the place from
whence he came. Has it been any more plainly demonstrated,
we would enquire, that the physical and moral health and welfare
of our people depend upon the exclusion of disease and crime,
than that the safety and perpetuity of our government rests upon
intelligence and patriotism?
Il6 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
The truth isr the time has fully come in the history of this
Republic when it becomes a sacred duty on the part of every
lover of his country to sound a note of warning upon this ques-
tion. To hesitate longer would be treason to liberty. However
humiliating the statement, yet in the light of recent events, we
cannot avoid the conclusion that upon our own soil and in high
places of honor and power there is now being matured a pur-
pose to build up an aristocracy of wealth upon the downfall of
America will always be proud to acknowledge that invalua-
ble service of those noble heroes and lovers of liberty who came
from their distant homes, from beyond the sea, to aid us by
their councils and swords, in our great struggle for independ-
ence. The names of Lafayette, De Kalb, Steuben, Pulaski and
others, will ever stand associated in our memory and praise with
those immortal soldiers and statesmen who had their birth upon
our own soil. But all these with one accord, and with one pur-
pose, fought, and toiled, and bled for the nation. And all of
their countrymen of to-day, who breathe the same spirit and
are actuated by the same motives are welcome to a home within
We are not, however, at the present time, in the fiery peril
of battle, but in the greater and more trying peril of peace. If
we fail, therefore, to guard with sleepless vigilance the glorious
inheritance that has been left us, and to insist upon a more
carefully considered assurance of safety on the part of those who
come to our shores, another generation will not have passed
away before it will be known the world over that all the blood,
ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 117
and battle, and speech, and prayers, that have been offered for
the liberties of our country have been offered in vain.
Therefore, in all forms of petition and remonstrance, this
question must be urged upon the attention of our national and
State legislatures without further delay. For the best good of
those strangers that have come amongst us ; for the sake of the
rising generation that is growing up around us ; for the safety
of a land where human freedom must fight the last battle with
oppression and wrong; for the triumph and establishment of a
Christian civilization that is here destined to vindicate its heav-
enly origin, and enthrone truth, justice and love as the dominating-
principles of all human action, we insist that this matter be
pressed for a speedy and favorable decision.
Whatever it may cost, or wherever it may lead us, whether
through fire and water, and sacrifice, and suffering, we must
stand firm and true, marching steadily and bravely on, until this
American sentiment of freedom, that had its birth 115 years
ago in old Independence Hall, shall be assured of a life that
shall only be m.easured by the circling years of all coming time.
Il8 LiFi: AND LABORS OF A PIONEKR
That Other Bear, and How I Escaped.
IN those early days it was no uncommon thing, especially along
* the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada mountains, to meet a wan-
dering grizzly, and a fresh track made by one of those terrible
monsters, when five or six miles from any known habitation, is
enough to cause a cautious man to look for a convenient tree,
where he might take up his lodgings for the night. About the
first thing I did after entering upon my work as agent of the Un-
iversity was to visit the general office of the Central Pacific Rail-
road and solicit the endorsement of Leland Stanford and Charles
Crocker, president and vice-president of the road, and who
were then regarded as standing at the head of the business men
of the State. On entering their office I was at once impressed
with the difference in the appearance and attitude of these two
men. Mr. Stanford was as grave and serious as an Arch-Bishop
and his entire personality indicated strength and endurance, with
a faith that could remove mountains, and would, did they but
stand in his way. Mr. Crocker, on the other hand, was quick,
alert, somewhat impulsive, who would ilot hesitate if obstacles
were in his way, to give them notice to move by an unceremon-
ious kick. Mr. Stanford quietly arose, shook me cordially by the
hand, and inquired as to the purpose of my visit. I stated in a
brief manner the nature of the work in which I was engaged. I
had barely closed my little speech when Mr. Crocker turned ab-
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 II9
ruptly in his chair, and in a few words settled the whole matter
by snapping out : "I know what he wants," and in about two
minutes after having written out a free pass on all their railroads
and river boats, said, as he handed it to me, "there, take that and
call as often as you can. We are building railroads, you are build-
ing universities ; all are necessary and we will have them all." I
quietly remarked, "that will do to start with, and we will consid-
er ourselves both fully committed to a good and noble work." I
bowed myself out, and at once hastened to the depot to test the
first time the virtue of my pass. I was soon speeding away to-
wards Colfax, where I intended to take the trail to North San
Juan, Michigan Bluffs, and other small mining towns in that
region. We had a very fine congregation at San Juan and quite
a large number of members engaged in mining at the different
camps in the foothills. I remained three weeks in that region,
preached two and sometimes three times on the Sabbath, and dur-
ing the week days visited from house to house and explained to
the people the plans and purposes of our University. All seemed
well pleased at the prospects before us, gave us liberal subscrip-
tions and promises of better things in the future. The distance
from Michigan Bluff to Colfax is about i6 miles, with nothing
but a pack trail for at least two-thirds of the way. With my
satchel strapped on my back I started on that trail just as the sun
was rising over the distant mountains, intending to reach the
station in order to board the afternoon train for Sacramento.
About 10 miles from the starting point I came to a suspension
foot-bridge spanning the North Fork of the American River.
When about midway over the bridge I cast my eyes down towards
the shore of the river, and there leisurely walking up the stream
I20 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONE^ER
I saw a huge grizzly bear, apparently searching for fish in the
shallow pool where they had been stranded in a recent freshet.
The old fellow had not yet seen me, so I quickly secreted myself
behind the railing of the bridge and watched the monster with
curious emotions. He was about lo rods down the stream, exact-
ly where I must go on my way to Colfax. I watched the sun as
it mounted towards midday, and the bear whose slowness tor-
mented me. At length he slowly waddled past the end of the
bridge and slowly moved up the river. Not daring to rise up, I
slowly crept on my knees to the top of the ladder that was for-
tunately placed on the lower side of the bridge. A high boulder
which lay at the water's edge, hid for a few minutes his bearship
from me. I slid quickly and quietly down the ladder, and climb-
ing up a ledge of rocks about ten feet high found myself in the
broad plain trail that led to the Colfax station. I had no means
of telling the exact time of day, but knew I had no time to lose,
so I started upon the run having six miles yet to go before reacii-
ing the railroad. I was pressing on with all my might, had come
within sight of the road, as the whistle blew for the final depar-
ture. In a moment it swept around a bend of the road, right be-
fore my eyes. I yelled with all my might, swinging my sachel over
my head. The brakes fell, the train slowed, I was pulled aboard
and arrived at Sacramento before sun down.
After I had related my adventures with the old grizzly, and
told the passengers who I was and in what business engaged,
they took up a liberal collection for me, expressed by resolution
warm commendation of my work, and hoped to see me again
when I could tell them that the University had been completed.
I have visited these points since that day, and the people of
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE: 1853 121
that region have always been found staunch friends of the Uni-
versity. Some of their children have been members of the stu-
dent body at nearly every semester, and their generosity has al-
ways been shown in every emergency through which it has
passed. You will look in vain for purer or warmer friends than
has come to us from Sacramento and the mining towns along the
foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains. I rejoice to-day that it
fell to my lot to plant some of the seed from which some of this
rich harvest has been gathered.
122 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
The Light and Guide of Humanity.
No starlight of evening or sunlight of day,
Can guide the lone pilgrim along the dark way,
For his thoughts ever spurning his footsteps are turning,
From heaven's highway.
Tho his heart is now fainting and ready to die,
He need not despair, there is light in the sky;
Let his faith now behold it for Prophets foretold it,
In ages gone by.
There is power in its shining to banish the night
Of all who are willing to walk in the light.
In its beams there is healing and heaven revealing,
That gladdens the sight.
Why, then, need we dv»^ell in a midnight of gloom.
Or in the dark valley of shadows now roam,
. While the light here is beaming, its radiance is gleaming,
To show us our home.
From the chamber of death it has banished the gloom,
And shed its bright beams in the dark, silent tomb;
The chains now are broken which gives us the token
Of immortal bloom.
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 I23
Turn your eyes to the heavens where gates stand ajar,
And behold the bright beams as they shine from afar,
They shine in their glory and tell the old story
Of Bethlehem's star.
In its light we must walk if we ever shall stand
On the mountain of God in Immanuel's land,
And see the bright beaming that ever is streaming
From Bethlehem's star.
To millions more gone 'twas the day-star on high,
Undimmed as the cycle of ages passed by,
'Twas the light on the pages of prophets and sages,
Their guide to the sky.
124 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
My First Acquaintance With the Klamath Indians.
IT was in the fall of 1861 that I received my appointment to
'*' the Humboldt District to take the place of Father Leahy, as
he was familiarly known in the conference. He had been on
the district two years and was highly esteemed by the entire
chnrch- His reason for leaving was not therefore on account
of any dissatisfaction with his official administration, but was,
as strange as it may seem, purely a race difficulty. In passing
over the northern part of the district, it was impossible to reach
the appoints without passing through the territory occupied by
the Klamath tribe of Indians, who were considered among the
most treacherous in all the northern part of the State, and the
most dreaded by the whites, except it may be the bloody Mo-
docks, who murdered Dr. Thomas and George Canby. These
Indians had conceived a deadly dislike of Father Leahy, and
had attempted to kill him by shooting at him as he was riding
on horseback about two miles before reaching the little lumber
camp called Trinidad.
To escape. Brother Leahy had been compelled to take an
open boat, leave his horse at Trinidad, and, sailing around the
headlands of the bay, reach his home at Eureka.
At the next session of our Conference, of course one of
the most difficult places to fill was Humboldt District. Of course,
the sober, grave and serious brother who had just come down
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 125
from those wild regions came in for a storm of jokes and wit-
ticisms, both in the Cabinet and on the floor of the Conference.
All seemed anxious that the Presiding Elder of Humboldt Dis-
trict should locate as the Conference would have no one left to
preach on "justification by faith," — a favorite subject of Broth-
er Leahy's. Thus matters stood until near the close of the Con-
ference, when Brother Tonsey, who was then traveling the Napa
District, dropped a remark that seemed to let in a little light on
the perplexing problem.
**May it please the Bishop," remarked Brother Tonsey, '1
have a man on my district that would do to take the place of
Brother Leahy, if he would be willing to go. He has recently
come to us from Oregon and is without question better acquaint-
ed with the Indian character than any other man in the Confer-
ence. He it was that warned Dr. Thomas and Gen. Canby, when
they started on their foolhardy mission to the Modocks, a warn-
ing, if it had been followed, would doubtless saved to the country
the lives of those two noble men. The man I refer to is now
preaching in Vallejo, where he has also been serving as Super-
mtendent of Public Instruction of Solano County. His term
of office, however, in that office is now about to expire, and while
I had intended to send him to Napa City, he would be available
for Humboldt District."
So the appointment was made, and so the first steamer that
sailed for Eureka carried myself and family to that delightful
After visiting Eel River Valley, and holding quarterly meet-
ings at the various appointments, I mounted my horse for my
first trip to the north, a distance of over lOO miles with but one
126 LI^E) AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
house where the traveler could find entertainment for the night.
That was at "Gold Bluff," where the manager of a mining prop-
erty owned in San Francisco resided. His name was Hall, and
when I made known to him my object and mission, he received
me very cordially, and during the long evening we talked over
the troubles of my predecessor with the Indians, who resided
about six miles further on, at the mouth of Klamath River.
When I was about to retire for the night, I fortunately discov-
ered the grounds of his confidence. While sitting with my
back towards a door that led into a side room, I saw the door
softly open and two little black eyes peering into our room. I
knew at once to whom they belonged, for I had learned before
that mine host was living with a Klamath Indian woman. But
I said nothing and went to bed.
In the morning, I requested Mr. Hall to give me any in-
struction or advice that I might need in dealing with the Indians.
I informed him of my experience with the Rogue River tribe
and also of others living along the shores of the Willamette on
the north side of the Calapora Mountains, and my ability to talk
to them in their own jargon, which was common to all the tribes
west of the Rocky Mountains. Mr. Hall informed me that he
thought I would have no difficulty, for, said he, the Indians are
a good deal like other men in the world, open, sociable, generous
men, who were willing to treat others as they desired others to
treat them. I told him that was my religion, and I had prac-
ticed it all my life, even to the utmost of "whatsoever ye would,"
as the Master had said.
He further told me that the first question the Indians would
ask me, in all probability, would be ''Wake cumtiix Hall?" or,
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 I27
in English, "Do you known Hall?" He then said, ''You are at
liberty to enlarge on that subject as you may think the occasion
demands, for really after our visit last evening, I feel better ac-
quainted with you than I did with your predecessor after he had
been my guest two years." I thanked him for his compliment,
and expressed the hope that the fellowship that auspiciously be-
gan might continue to the end. I saw no more of the "two black-
eyes," and concluded to wait for a more favorable occasion be-
fore seeking an introduction.
In about 30 or 40 minutes I rode into the little village at
the Klamath River, where I found about 15 or 20 Indians as-
sembled to receive me. They had evidently been advised of my
coming, and what their feelings or intentions might be I could
only conjecture. I saluted them in the jargon, ^^Vilayiiaiiui six,"
'•How do you do," but I fancied their responses were not very
cordial. They met me, however, with the inquiry about my ac-
quaintanceship with Hall, and after my assurance that he was
my particular friend, they seemed a little more friendly. Their
canoe to ferry me over the river was soon in readiness, and after
depositing my blankets therein, tied the lariat to the bridle and in
five minutes we stood on the opposite bank of the river. Hand-
ing them a silver dollar, the price of ferrying me over, I mounted
my horse and hastened towards Crescent City, a distance of about
40 miles through a dense forest, where I arrived about one hour
before sundown. About midway between the river and the
place of destination, I met in the narrow trail a company of five
Indians, all armed with bows and arrows, but on saluting them
they gave me a loud whoop and returned my salute, and we
were quickly out of each other's sight.
128 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
I remained about six weeks in the northern part of the dis-
trict, holding quarterly meetings, and aiding Brother Cleveland,
the preacher at Crescent City, in raising money for the pin-pose
of making improvements upon his church, and in holding funeral
services over two members of his congregation and uniting in
marriage three others. Early on a pleasant Monday morning
we took our departure for our home, about no miles distant, and
only one white man in the entire distance. I braced myself for
the weary journey, and with a warm heart, and tireless zeal, sing-
ing as I went,
"We lodge here in tents below,
And gladly wander to and fro.
Till we our Canaan gain."
] had planned to arrive at the crossing of the river so as to
get over in time to ride on to Hall's and stop for the r'ght, but
when arriving on the bluf¥ where I could look down vipon the
feiry, to my consternation, not a boat could be seen. For the
first time since starting on my northern trip, I felt completely
nonplussed, but pulling myself together as best I could I dis-
mounted from my horse, led him back over the hill, tied him to
an oak grub, and went back to reconnoitre. Slowly the moments
passed away, and when the sun went down behind the western
hills, and twilight began to fold the forest in sombre gloom, not
a solitary Indian had yet appeared upon the scene. You can
well interpret my emotions while standing alone in the midst of
a dense forest, not another white man nearer than six or seven
miles, and surrounded by a numerous horde of savages, of whose
feelings and purposes I was, as yet, unacquainted, but whose in-
ox THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 I29
stinct of dislike, not to say treachery and cruelty, had been so
recently manifested towards my predecessor.
A man feels some relief, even when the probabilities are
against him, but when he finds that all possibilities are gone he
can find no refuge but in despair. One writer has said, "that an
all-wise and omnipotent God is the usual and convenient refuge
of the weak and foolish," but if ever I felt weak and insufficient
it was at that supreme moment, so, crying out from the depths
of despair, "O my God, help me!'' I felt my mind quieted with
a sudden gleam of hope, and quickly settled down to the rest
of the night. The calmness of mind under the circumstances
was a great surprise to me. Tying my horse to a little tree so as
to enable him to graze on the luxuriant grass, I spread my blan-
kets down under the sheltering branches of a fir tree, entered
the domains of Morpheus, and prepared my mind to revel in the
perplexing uncertainties of dreamland.
About 9 o'clock my quickened sense of hearing detected the
stealthy tread of human feet near my bed, and before I could un-
cover my face a voice cried out, "Hyas close moas a inoas," ''A
very good horse. The moon was just rising over the distant
mountains, and springing upon my feet, I saw an Indian close
to my horse and holding the lariat in his hand. I quickly saluted
■him, and when he returned my salute, I felt quite well assured
of my safety. He beckoned me to follow him, which, of course,
I did, when, leading me a few hundred yards towards the river,
he pointed towards a large wigwam and motioned me to enter.
Of course, I didn't stop to debate the question with him, but
crawled into the open door, which consisted of a round hole
about 2 1-2 or 3 feet in diameter. Inside the room was about
130 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONE:e:R
TO or 12 feet across, and nearly circular in shape and dug about
two feet below the surface. In the center of this excavation was
a blazing fire, around which were seated four Indians, engaged
in roasting salmon for their supper. They pointed to a bear
skin and each one uttered a low grunt, which I was glad to in-
terpret, '*We are happy to meet you here." I knew very well
the crisis had come, for I understood that the Indian will never
molest one with whom he has shared his meal. That refinement
of hypocrisy, savages the world over are never guilty of. So I
waited patiently for the salmon to roast, and watched the move-
ments of the Indians with eager solitude. I had never triea to
eat salmon without salt, and, in fact, was not very fond of it in
any form. But now I was not quite certain how it would taste.
Presently one of the Indians, selecting a nice piece about the size
of my hand, deliberately placed it upon a clean chip and reaching
it towards we said, "Likee salmon?" Gnawing hunger may have
had something to do in the matter, but I can assure you that ev-
ery particle of the chipload of fish went down with a relish.
When I reached out the chip for another piece, all the Indians
gave a loud grunt, and one of them, reaching over, gave me a
poke in the side, as much as to say, ''Big belly."
But how to get out of the wigwam, after I had satisfied my
desire for salmon, was now to be settled. The Indian who had
conducted me down, as soon as I had entered, sat down in the
door and during the entire evening without moving from his
position. I had left my horse on the hill, tied to the oak scrub,
and I felt anxious to know if it was still there. What if this
had been a ruse on their part to keep me away, while others
made away with m.y horse, saddle and blankets. So I intimated
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1 853 I3I
as plainly as I could that I would like to go, but he kept his
post. At length I got upon my feet, pointed to the door, but he
seemed not to understand my meaning. At length, growing
desperate, I made a rush up to his very face, when he quickly
slipped aside and I as quickly slipped out into the open air, and
hastened up the hill with all possible dispatch. I found my horse
still unmolested and all my other belongings safe and sound.
It was now well on towards midnight, so, spreading out my
blankets, petting for a moment my faithful steed, I laid myself
down and slept the sleep of the just. The sun was well up in
the blue sky when I arose in the morning from my couch, and
descended to the ferry, where, after paying the Indians one dol-
lar for taking me over, I mounted my noble steed and was quick-
ly at the hospitable fireside of my friend Hall, where I remained
until the following morning, when I hastened on my journey,
and the next day was relating the incidents of my first trip on
the Humboldt District. In my next trip you will find a strange
admixtUire of romance, comedy and tragedy.
132 life: and labors of a pioneer
Elected Chief of the Klamath Indians — Provided a Wife —
Kow I Escaped From Polygamy.
IT was about the first of June, 1863, when I entered upon my
■■' second year on the Humboldt District, prepared to take my
second trip to the north, which took me as far as Smith river
valley and Coos Bay. ^ Early one bright and balmy Wednesday
morning I left my family at Eureka, expecting to be absent about
six or seven weeks. My road led me around the upper bend of
the Bay, through the quiet little village of Areata, across the
South Branch of the Trinity river, which I forded, and then on
to Trinidad where I entered once more the territory of the Klam-
ath Indians for the second time. Passing on about fifteen miles
when I drew up at the hospitable dwelling of my friend Hall,
where I found him and his dusky companion apparently occupying
the same relation to each other as when I was here the previous
year. Perhaps I ought to say at this point, that it was no un-
common thing for the mountaineers of Oregon and California,
who lived in the vicinity of the natives of the country, to co-habii
together a man and wife, a practice which was not only tolerated
but encouraged by the Hudson Bay Company throughout the
entire Northwest. But in justice to the Protestant missionaries
I will add, that whenever a settler asked for membership in the
church, before he was granted that privilege he was required to
<publicly renounce that relation and become man and wife. Others,
ON THK PACII^IC COAST SINCE 1853 I33
however, were not so particular, regarding this social relation
more as a matter of commerce than one of religious duty.
This, my second visit to friend Hall, soon revealed to me a
change in the feelings of the entire household, including, I was
glad to find, both the dogs and the little squaw. All seemed
genial and friendly, and seemed to indicate something good to
come. As soon as we had finished the evening meal, which con-
sisted of well-cooked salmon and home-made bread, we sat down
before the blazing fire and spent a social evening which run close
up to the hour of midnight. Hall informed me that the Indians
at the ferry thought that I was hyac cloas tiliciim (a very good
man) and all danger had now passed away.
In the morning, however, when I arrived at the ferry, where
I found a large crowd of Indians from the upper settlement, I
felt a little suspicious, as Hall had not told m.e of any thing un-
usual among -them. I soon learned that they had been called to-
gether in order to elect a new chief, as their present chief was
very old and decrepit and would soon be gone beyond the great
I found these Klamath Indians in this crisis in their tribal
affairs, just as uncivilized men have been in all ages and na-
tions, more desirous of securing physical than moral qualities in
order to build up and strengthen their own national or tribal for-
tunes. It remained for Christianity to bring into this world the
ethical forms and forces of life to establish and perpetuate the
progressive possibilities that resided in the scheme of human re-
demption by the Cross of Calvary. You may call this a refine-
ment of spiritual philosophy if you please, but it was the thrill
134 life: and labors of a pioneer
that went quivering along the world's spiritual life-being when
down from the cross fell the prophetic words "It is finished."
It was very plain to be seen that interest of the entire tribe
was centered upon the selection of a new chief, and in a few mo-
ments after my arrival they paraded the young man whom they
apparently had been training for that high position. He was, I
should judge, about 20 years of age, well formed and with a
pleasing countenance. From what soon transpired I should infer
that the Indians' supreme test of fitness had not yet been ap-
plied to him, for they at once formed a circle around me, they
led him up near to where I was standing and at once exclaimed,
"Hello, there. You like to wrestle ?" They at once enlarged the
circle and inclosed the young man and myself within it and there
was no escape. To run was impossible, so to wrestle was the only
alternative. So I threw off my coat and hat, walked into the cen-
ter of the ring, and squaring myself in true pugilistic style, mo-
tioned the young man to come on. He seemed eager for the en-
counter, and the best of feeling seemed to pervade the entire
crowd. We seemed about equal in size and weight, but there
was one secret I possessed that he had not yet learned, and that
was the difiference between iiesh and muscle made by eating sal-
mon without salt, and of that accumulated by the use of animal
and vegetable food. The first was flabby and unwieldly ; the
second was solid, elastic and substantial. I was not long in
putting my superior knowledge into practice, for in less than
five minutes I had tumbled the young fellow over, and once
threw him squarely over my shoulder and letting him down with
a terrible thud. This seemed to decide the contest, for running
up to the young man they hustled him about, all the time ex-
ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 135
claiming, "You no chief! You no chief!" All the time crying,
"He our chief! He our chief!" pointing to me, and dancing-
like mad !
The man seemed to take it all in good humor, thinking that
;a change of dynasty might be of some benefit, even to the Tribe
of Klamath Indians. The whole matter was quickly arranged
very much as it seemed to the satisfaction of the entire tribe,
including the young man who had been defeated, he thinking,
perhaps, that when I was inaugurated I would make him my
As soon as the election was over, and the matter was finally
settled that I was to take the place of the old chief as soon as
he should pass away, the Indians ferried me and my horse over
the river, and I mounted and speeding my way over the hills
and through the forest, arrived at Crescent City about sundown.
I spent four weeks attending my quarterly meetings in the upper
portion of the district, and then, once more prepared to retrace
my steps to my home at Eureka. Taking leave of Brother Cleve-
land and his kind-hearted people, and by their aid measuring
correctly the state of the tides along the ocean beach, I arrived
at an early hour in the afternoon at the crossing of the river,
where I found that during my absence the old chief had died,
and, consequently, the last obstacle to my ascending the throne
had disappeared. I was about to congratulate myself on my
good fortune, when, alas, I found that my troubles had but just
commenced. I learned, when too late, that the old saying was
true, that "uneasy lies the head that wears a crown." The In-
dians were greatly delighted to see me, and appeared exceed-
ingly anxious to know when I would come back and "ciuntiix
136 LIFE AND LABORS 01^ A PIONEER
iia na," which, in white man's vocabulary, means, "Deliver my
inaugural address." I told them I intended to return in about
4 or 5 weeks. They seemed greatly delighted at the prospect,
and, coming close to me, all yelled, with all their might, "N'yas
close/' — very good. Then in a milder tone of voice, they in-
formed me that when I came back they would bring down for
me one hyas Clase clulchaniiui, — a very good wufe. Oh, hor-
rors ! I had now put my foot squarely into it, and how it was
to be got out was to me a profound mystery. But, believing
that man's extremity is God's opportunity, without regard to
"race or color or previous condition of servitude," I held my
peace and waited developments. I soon took leave of my tribe,
and went on to my friend Hall's and spent the night with him
and his squaw, both of whom seemed, by their pleasant quizzical
looks, to know more than they were willing to tell.
Usually, after a tiresome ride of 40 or 50 miles, in five or
six hours, I gUdly welcome the time devoted to rest, and find
purest pleasure in meditations and dreams. But now, all seemed
mysterious and perplexing, and my mind seemed agitated and
bewildered. I could see no way by which the conflicting inter-
ests of all parties could be reconciled, and a slight mistake might
plunge me into a tragical disaster, unable, tlierefore, to be enter-
tained myself, or to entertain others. I concluded that the safest
course to pursue was to turn my steps towards the quiet, peace-
ful shelter of my own home. So, as soon as the sunlight had
proclaimed the advent of morning, I was up and in the saddle,
measuring off with rapid strides the 40 or 50 intervening miles.
When the sun had crossed the meridian about two hours, I drew
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 I37
rein at my own gate, and bright eyes and shrill voices proclaimed
me welcome to a pleasant fireside.
In a few days a micssage was placed in my hands from Dr.
Thomas of San Francisco, Editor of the "California Christian
Advocate," requesting me to come down to the city as soon as
possible, and meet the Board of Trustees of the University of the
Pacific, but did not state definitely the purpose for which I was
desired to meet them. So another mystery must now be adde.l
to those already perplexing me, and seemingly casting over the
future a still deeper gloom than ever before. I had but two
words to express my emotions and purpose, and exclaiming,
"Who knows?" I boarded the first vessel that went out of Hum-
boldt Bay, and sailed for the Golden Gate.
At a meeting of the Trustees of the University a few days
after my arrival in the city, I was elected "Field Agent of the
University of the Pacific." My work was of a somewhat special
character, being devoted to the selling of a tract of land consist-
ing of 400 acres, extending from the Guadalupe River on the
northeast to the far-famed Alameda Road on the southwest.
This tract of land was situated about midway between the City of
San Jose and the town of Santa Clara, and had been purchased
by the Trustees with the intenton of removing the site of the
University to a more central and convenient location. It was
a part of an old Spanish grant, and the first, I believe, that was
confirmed in Alta California, after the treaty of "Guadalupe
Hidalgo." I entered at once upon my work, prosecuted it with
diligence, lost my chieftainship of the Klamath Indians, "clase
chilchiiiuu/' which I doubt not would have been an ornament to
a Turkish harem.
LII^E) AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
On Visiting the Old Homestead After Thirty-five Years' Absence.
By the cottage that stands on the brow of the hill,
We pensively pause in our manhood to-day.
And the breeze and the sunshine refreshes us still,
As they greeted our youth ere we wandered away.
We hail thee ! thou home of our boyhood's delight,
And sigh as we think of the years that have flown,
While the unchanging beauties that beam on our sight.
Tell of infinite Love, whose direction we own.
As the bright golden pinions of fancy now bring
The beautiful pictures that gladdened the past,
Our spirit will sweetly and tenderly cling
To joys that we knew were too holy to last.
We are listening once more to the sweet thrilling song
That fell from the lips of a mother so dear,
And while the soft music is floating along.
We feel she is truly and lovingly near.
How brave were the fathers and mothers who wrought
To conquer the lands where we flourish to-day.
How fierce were the battles their courage once fought,
To keep the sweet hopes that now beam on our way.
ON TH^ PACi:^IC COAST SINCS 1853 I39
Our memory forever shall cherish the sod
That covers with green their beloved remains,
And ever our souls v^ill be grateful to God
That the blood of such heroes now fiows in our veins.
I40 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
A New Enterprise.
IN inaugurating a new enterprise, tlie success of which de-
* pends to a large extent upon the integrity and stability of
different agencies, not clearly, and fully moved by a kindred im-
pulse and an equal intelligence, men must be ready for emer-
gencies that may, at almost any moment, shift responsibilities
from one place to another, and from one class of environments
to those entirely dissimilar, both in nature and potency. This is
true, especially true, when our ideals have been created for dif-
ferent purposes, and by habits of thought. In no part of our
country has this been revealed more than in California in the
early years of its settlement by the Americans. What it is to-
day, is, to a very great extent, the harvest that sprung from the
seed that was sown but yesterday. Distinct and positive nation-
ality is usually a plant of slow growth, and the history of the
race shows that centuries have been needed to give such char-
acter and form. But here we have been expected to create a
nation in a day.
On coming down from the mountains, where I had realized
marked success in collecting money to defray incidental expenses,
such as the payment of the salaries of teachers and local agent,
I gave to the Board of Trustees a frank statement as to the policy
I thought ought to be pursued in order to attain the object for
which I had been elected field asrent. I srave it as mv solemn con-
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1853 I4I
viction that if we can make the original purpose for which we
had purchased the 400 acres of land, called the "University
Grounds," we must enlist the ministers in the work of taking
up collections, while the Agents should devote their first atten-
tion to the selling of the lands, that the work of prospecting
and developing mines vvas in the hands of speculators and men
without families who had put off to a more convenient season
the work of rearing and educating a family.
Fortunately, the Board of Trustees at the time had at its
head several men of practical business experience and enter-
prise, who worked cheerfully and earnestly to carry out this
policy. Hon. Annis Merrill of San Francisco was the President
and Dr. Hayden of Santa Clara was the Secretary of the Board,
the former a lawyer and a man of considerable wealth and in-
fluence in business circles, the other a practical farmer and hor-
ticulturist, one of the Pioneers in fruit growing in the Santa
Clara Valley. Among the ministers we could name Edward
Banister, M. C. Briggs, S. D. Symonds, D. A. Dryden, T. H.
Linx and others. In fact, we may say that without exception
the entire California Conference at the time stood undivided and
firm in support of the policy then adopted.
So the first stage of the work was over, the inspiration of
the Master resting upon all ; and with clear vision and undoubt-
ing trust all seemed willing and anxious to move forward. The
local Agent, aided by the county Surveyor, proceeded to the work
of laying out the University Grounds into lots and blocks of
suitable dimensions. While the field Agent, armed with tlie
same free pass presented to him at Sacramento, went forth into
our beautiful valleys to induce the people to purchase the same
142 lii^e: and labors of a pioneer
upon the favorable terms offered them by the Board of Trustees,
which was one-quarter down, and the balance in three equal aa-
My trip into the country to carry into effect the newly
adopted plan of operation v\as to the upper portion of San
Joaquin county. The late Warner Oliver, who at that
time was living near Lodi, threw himself with his accustomed
zeal into the work, and went with me from house to house, u?i-
til we had, in five days, sold between five and six thousand dol-
lars worth of land, and collected one hundred dollars in money.
Rev. J. H. Maddoc was our preacher at Stockton City, where,
on Sunday we held a grand rally for the University, which add-
ed to our cash credits another one hundred dollars.
I need not give in detail the various places I visited, but
at the next meeting of the Trustees all concurred in the opinion
that the success of our land venture was practically assured. It
was seen very plainly that the condition of society at the time
we changed our method of operation appealed so obviously and
directly to the wants and ability both of the people and of the
University that all doubts and uncertainties seemed to disappear,
and without a discordant note the Trustees said to the Agents,
"Say unto the people, 'Go forward.' " The preachers also cheer-
fully and efficiently co-operated with those who were more di-
rectly engaged in the field work, and we found that there had
been sold during the year twenty thousand dollars worth of land,
mostly in single lots but in one or two instances, in larger
amounts. Such was the interest awakened that at one time a
company was quietly formed to buy up all that v^^as left at the
ON the: pacific coast since 1853 143
price we had been selling at retail. Fortunately, we escaped the
trap, and still live.
Since that day it has appeared in several instances that the
desire to smother our plans for building up and establishing the
University was altogether more widespread and determined
than at first believed, and the note of warning which we sounded
was none too earnest and none too often repeated. Local preju-
dices and rivalries were especially difficult to handle, being quite
impersonal, and unscrupulous in the use of expedients for shift-
ting of responsibilities. The experiences of personal friendship,
which only designed to encourage zeal and activity in so desir-
able a work, was allowed to influence some real friends of the
cause in their relation to each other.
It was at this stage of the work that the Trustees were
called together in order to give the whole field a thorough and
careful investigation, disclosing the fact that to retreat was a
virtual impossibility, and our President of the Board, Annis
Merrill, sounded the key note when, in summing up the case,
exclaimed in the words of a celebrated captain, "The old guard
can die but it never surrenders." The fact of the matter was,
we had carried ourselves at one lofty bound so far into the realm
of success, that the easiest thing to do was to draw the cords a
little tighter, let the locks of our strength grow, take our head
from the lap of a fascinating Delila, bid defiance to the whole
tribe of Philistines, and win. And that is just what we did.
A NARROW escape:. A DREAM THAT COMES TO PASS.
I had spent about three weeks in Butte and Colusa counties
and had met with gratifying success, especially in and about
Chico, the home of General Bidwell, one of the most wealthy and
144 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONFKR
influential men then in the State of California, and then stand-
ing high in the estimation of National politicians. The cause of
education, on this coast especially, took a very firm hold upon
his mind, and enlisted his cordial and earnest co-operation. He
had learned of our efforts to establish the University of the
Pacific, and when I called upon him invited me to remain over-
night and explain the matter more fully. This I gladly consent-
ed to do, and his practical mind during our conversation made
many valuable suggestions in relation to the matter.
In the morning, when I departed for San Francisco, he re-
quested me to call again and to be sure to keep him posted in ref-
erence to the success of our land scheme, and tell the Trustees
to be of good heart, and they might even depend on his co-op-
eration. On arriving in the city, I went at once to the home
of the President of the Board, told him of my visit to Chico,
and the pleasant words of cheer from Mr. Bidwell, and the
general feeling of good will among the people at large. He
listened calmly and attentively to my statement, and then re-
plied: "Brother Hines, I am sorry to be compelled to state that
I feel almost certain that we have serious trouble before us." 1
sat down completely stupefied. After a moment, I replied, "Well,
now what has happened?" He replied that a statement just re-
ceived from Messrs. Newhall & Polhemus, the parties from
whom, vv'e had purchased the land, revealed the fact that we had
defaulted in our payments and they wished the matter attended
to at once.
After talking the matter over with the President of the
Board, he and Bro. Briggs, who was present, thought that I, as
Agent of the Board, had better call on Mr. Newhall and ascer-
ON THE) PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1 853 I45
tain, if possible, just how the matter stood. So, armed with a
letter of introduction, I called on H. M. Newhall & Co., auction-
eers and commission merchants, Sansome street. I deliberately
walked into the office and handed Mr. Newhall my letter of intro-
duction. He eyed it for a moment, looked at me with a search-
ing glance, then blurted out: "Well, well, that looks a little sus-
picious. One of the best beggars in California, and the best
preacher in the United States, that surely ought to be sufficient.
And now, what do you want?" I told him that it would be at
least two weeks before the Board of Trustees could be got to-
gether, and I wanted his promise that we should have that length
of time in which to arrange the matter. Mr. Newhall gave me
his promise, and the next train took me to Santa Clara. I went
to see our Secretary, Dr. Hayden, who informed me that the
Local Agent had just sent in his resignation. I then informed
him of the condition of matters in the City, and throwing up his
hands he exclaimed "What next?" I told him never mind the
next, that will come soon enough. Go forward ! As soon as our
Secretary had taken a hasty glance at the situation I hastened
to my home, and found the family all well. We occupied what
was known as the Maltby house, which was the first frame
house built upon the University grounds. Mr. Maltby had been
appointed Indian Agent at Tulare and consequently rented his
house already furnished.
After looking the matter over the first evening after return-
ing home, I becam.e satisfied that there was no time to be lost
in ascertaining the exact status of affairs, and what, if any thing,
could be done to improve the situation. Two weeks would soon
be gone, and at any moment complications might arise that would
146 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
be certain to confuse and distract the minds of our people, and
especially those who had already purchased our lands.
It was no easy matter at that time, when all the business
pertaining to the University was in such an unsettled condition
to adopt and maintain a settled policy, especially when surround-
ed by so many perplexities of a local and personal character.
During the night, therefore, my mind became strongly im-
pressed with a desire to visit San Jose, and several times I found
myself startled by the force and vividness of that impression.
So quite early in the morning I walked down The Alameda,
which, by the way, presented a quite different appearance from
what it does now, and when coming to the corner of First street,
just opposite where the Bank of San Jose now stands, I met face
to face with ]\Ir. John Spence, who was keeping a small grocery
store about the place where the Victory Theatre now stands. Af-
ter a hearty, old-fashioned shake of hands, he requested me to
call at the store before I returned home, for said he, "I have some
good news to tell you.'' I told him I would go right back with
him now, as such a thing as "good news" would be quite wel-
come to me at the present time. After we were seated, he re-
marked : ''Brother Hines, I have sold my ranch (as he called it),
over on the Coyote Creek.'' He owned 40 or 50 acres on the
East Side as it was called, where the town of East San Jose now
stands. Well, I replied, I hope you have done well by selling,
but I always thought it a very delightful place. What did you
get? "I sold it for $16,000 dollars in cash." You will now be
able to enlarge your business here I presume. He replied: "I
intend to put about one-half, or $8000 into the store and the bal-
ance I will keep for some other purpose."
ON THE PACII^IC COAST SINCK 1853 147
I could scarcely describe my emotions while he was mak-
ing this statement, but at its close I looked into his bright and
pleasant face, and quietly remarked, I see it all now, you are the
very man I saw in my dreams last night. He turned aside the
joke by saying that the old patriarchs used to think a great
deal of dreams, but at the present people preferred something
rather more substantial. "But," said he, "tell me how you are
getting along in selling the University lands?" I explained the
complicated condition of affairs, the promise Mr. Newhall had
made to me, and the urgency of the matter in view of the limit-
ed time in which we had to act. I requested him to hold the mat-
ter in hand until I could consult some of the Trustees, and we
then would see our way more clearly.
About noon I went back to my home with my faith in
dreams much firmer than when I visited San Jose in the morn-
ing. I went in the afternoon to see Dr. Hayden, our Secretary,
who lived about one mile outside of the town of Santa Clara and
told him of my visit to Mr. Spence, and the probability of our
getting the money of him. He advised great caution, and said
he would come to my house in the morning and we would go to-
gether and see Mr. Spence. He was on hand in time with his
horse and buggy and we rode over to San Jose, highly elated
with the prospects before us. We found Mr. Spence at his
store, looked the whole question over together, arranged the
matter in a satisfactory manner, secured the $8,000, the amount
of the deficiency, drove out to the home of Mr. John Polhemus,
who was attorney-in-fact of Charles B. Polhemus, the partner
of Mr. Newhall in the purchase of the University grounds, took
148 lii^e: and labors of a pioneer
his receipt for the same, and the victory was won and the land
When the amount of our indebtedness was endorsed on
the contract by Mr. John Polhemus, and certified to by C. B. Pol-
hemus, I went to bed and took a good long nap, and I don't think
I dreampt for at least twelve hours ; but still I believe in dreams.
As soon as the business was closed up and made secure, I
wrote to the President of the Board, Mr. Annis Merrill, giving a
detailed account of the matter, and advised him to immediately
call a meeting of the Board, so as to secure their ratification of
the whole matter, and have it spread upon their minutes. He
wrote me at once, informing me that he had called the meeting
to be held at his office in the city, and giving directions how to
proceed. Suffice it to say, the meeting was held, appropriate ac-
tion was had, and a certified copy of the minutes was given me
to show to Mr. Newhall and Mr. Polhemus. And the work was
done and it has stood the test for more than forty years. I kept
a "diary" at the time, and thus find myself able to tell this story.
Every other person who participated in those important trans-
actions except myself, have passed over the great divide. I will
just add that as soon as the Board adjourned I took 'the field
again and sold enough of the land to pay Mr. Spencer his $8000,
when he concluded to move to Los Angeles, where, I think, he
lived until a few years since when he passed away.
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 I49
First View of Potomac River.
We had tread the proud halls where the tablets had told
Of the words of the wise and the deeds of the bold,
When far through the vista in beauty was seen
A. deep rolling stream with its bright silver sheen.
Of that stream in my youth my dear mother had sung,
And I thrilled at the words as they fell from her tongue.
And I trembled with fear as she told o'er and o'er
Of the dark, savage tribes that once roamed on its shores.
Who reads of the heroes that stood on thy shore.
Who thinks of the navies thy bosom once bore.
But feels in his spirit the swellings of pride.
While peacefully borne o'er the swift-rolling tide?
But brighter thy fame as the years roll along.
Shall live on the pages of story and song,
No river that murmurs its way to the sea,
Thou lovely Potomac, is fairer than thee.
While thy w^aters shall gleam in the sunlight of God,
And we hallow the Halls where our W^ashington trod,
Enshrined in the hearts of Columbia shall be
Potomac's fair stream as it rolls to the sea.
150 life: and labors of a pioneer
We will pray that thy bosom may never more feel
The tumult of war and the clashing of steel,
While the people who cherish and love thee may be
As gentle and pure and as peaceful as thee.
Great souls of the mighty look down from the sky,
And smile on these shores where our heroes now lie,
That liberty's flames on our altars may glow.
As long as Potomac's bright waters shall flow.
ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 151
Some of the Perils and Exciting Scenes of Pioneer Days
in Oregon and California.
IT is undoubtedly the part of wisdom, and will add greatly to
* the knowledge as well as amusement and pleasure of those
who are soon to enter into the toils and achievements of the early
settlers of the Pacific Coast, to have placed in a tangible and re-
liable form the peculiar incidents and personal experiences of the
pioneer settlers of Oregon and California. We have now ar-
rived at our utmost limits. No more unoccupied territory
stretches out beyond us, inviting the restless footsteps of the
emigrant to make for himself and his posterity an abiding dwell-
ing place. To leave to the uncertain utterances of tradition the
most important and interesting period of our social and political
life would be a positive calamity both to the future historian
and generations that may come after us. To avoid this we have
written these short sketches, which we have reason to believe
will be acceptable to the general public and aid somewhat in cre-
ating the ideals for our future guardians and supporters.
It was about the middle of the month of August, in 1855,
that we had occasion to make a business trip from my home in
the central part of the Willamette valley to Jacksonville, a dis-
tance of about 200 miles. In making the journey our road led
us for some 20 miles through a country inhabited by natives
called the ''Rogue River Indians." For a number of years they
152 life; and labors of a pioneer
had been manifesting a growing dissatisfaction at the encroach-
ments of tlie whites in passing and repassing through their
country, thus frightening away the game from their hunting
grounds, from which they procured their Hving. These indians
were unusually blood-thirsty and cruel and in several instances
lone travelers had been waylaid and murdered while passing from
one settlement to another. The people all over the country had
been for some time looking for an outbreak, but in what man-
ner it would come, there seemed to be no settled opinion. On
the extreme northern part of their territory the white inhabi-
tants had erected a block-house as a place of refuge in case of
emergency, where the settlers could flee for protection until re-
lief could be obtained. On the southern border about 15 or 20
miles distant the government had erected a fort called *'P'ort
Lane," named after General Joseph Lane, first Governor of Ore-
gon. Here was stationed a squad of soldiers well supplied with
arms and ammunition, and ready to stand a siege of several
Thus matters stood, when I had ocasion to pass through the
entire length of the "Rogue River Country" as it was called,
riding on horse-back, and driving before me a span of mules,
which I had purchased at Jacksonville and was taking to my
home near Corvallis in the central part of the Willamette valley.
I was entirely unarmed, and unprepared for either offensive or
defensive hostilities. I had just crossed a small stream called
**Cow Creek' and was slowly jogging along at the foot of the
mountains, on the other side of which was the before mentioned
block-house, when I saw in the road not a hundred yards before
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 153
me, two Indians, one armed with a gun, and the other, a smaller
man, entirely unarmed, like myself.
Those who have been acquainted with the Indians of Ore-
gon, especially within the territory of Hudson Bay Company,
will remember that whenever saluted by a person meeting them
upon the road, in the jargon or speech used by all the tribes in
their traffic with each other, your safety from molestation or
harm was assured. I had picked up many of their most common
words, so when these two Indians came near enough to plainly
hear, I cried out "cla hoy em sex,'' or what in our tongue would
be, "how do you do, sir." To my astonishment neither of them
paid the least attention to what I said, or even deigned to look
at me. You may rest assured I took the hint and kept my eyes
riveted upon their movements. As soon as they had passed mc
about ten feet, the one carrying the gun paused, turned around
and attempted to raise it to his shoulder. The other one at once
seized the barrel and pulling it down, prevented its being dis-
charged. Like a flash I seized my lariat, and struck the mules
with all my strength. They both leaped forward carrying me
in an instant behind a bunch of bushes. As I came out for an
instant within sight of the Indians, they were still contending
with each other for the gun. In an instant my animals leaped
over a small hillock, and away we sped over the Cow Creek
mountains, a distance of six miles, to the block-house. There
was, or seemed to be, at least a dozen Indians and behind every
bush, but I didn't stop to count them or to salute them in their
native tongue. In about two weeks afterwards two teamsters,
freighting provisions with four yoke of oxen to Jacksonville and
Fort Lane, were waylaid and shot on the very spot where I had
154 lii'e: and labors of a pioneer
met the two Indians, and thus opened one of the most bloody
Indian wars that was ever fought on the Pacific Coast. And so
close did I come to being its first victim.
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 1 55
Returning Home From the East.
Thou fair smiling valley, I hasten to thee,
As the long absent sailor speeds over the sea,
That his vision may feast on the beauties once more
That deck the sweet fields of his own native shore.
Tell us not of the glories of city or field,
Or seek to allure by the pleasure they yield,
For naught have we found as we wandered away
Such beauties as crown thee, thou fair San Jose.
For thee will we banish all doubtings and fears,
For thee will we cease all our sorrows and tears,
No starlight of evening or sunlight of day
Can equal the brightness of sweet San Jose.
We will pray that thy temples may evermore stand,
The hope, and the joy, and the pride of our land,
That thy sons and fair daughters may never betray
The name and the fame of our loved San Jose.
156 . LIFK AND LABORS OF A PI0NE;ER
Composed On Our Golden Wedding Day
For many years we've sailed the main,
In fair and stormy weather,
Our vessel sometimes felt the strain
That comes with wind and storm of rain,
But still we stood together.
Before our faith each cloud would fly,
Like dancing wind-tossed feather.
And we could see, as they passed by,
Through rifted cloud the clear blue sky.
That promised brighter weather.
But how so e'er the sea might seem.
Or dark and drear the weather,
Our eyes would see love's beacon star
That beamed so sweetly from afar.
And held our hearts together.
To-day the voyage is almost o'er.
But we still sail together.
And pray that God may give each soul.
When death shall call, that heavenly goal,
Where sunlight shines forever.
ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 157
On the Opening of the Rebellion.
When treason's hosts were marshalled on our southern sunny
And their stirred ranks were marching to the sound of mar-
The first to heed the warning as it rang out there and then,
Were the sons of Massachusetts, and they all were laboring
Arouse, ye sturdy yeomen ! flashed along the trembling wires,
Let the altars of your country blaze anew with patriot fires,.
For Freedom's voice is calling you from every dell and glen.
To rise for her protection and acquit yourselves like men.
And they hurled the demon slavery from its hoary, bloody throne.
Inspired by truth and justice they restored to man his own.
For naught could stay the battle as it swept its fiery way,
Till all the suffering bondmen saw the light of freedom's
Hear ye not the muttering thunder as it echoes clear and loud.
See ye not the forked lightning as it leaps the rifted cloud,
'Tis Heaven's voice prophetic that proclaims the coming day.
When labor's host triumphant o'er this land shall bear the
158 LIFE AND LABORS 01^ A PIONEKR
They would chain our bold Prometheus to the sturdy flinty rack,
And would bear his beating bosom to the tempests fearful
But the fire he brought from heaven and bestowed with generous
Still glows with radiant beauty on the altars of our land.
Again the notes of warning sound along our hills and plains.
Rise, freemen! save your country from corruption's fearful
Not the bullet, but the ballot, now can make you feel as when
Sweet freedom rose and slavery fell by. the power of laboring
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 159
What Constitutes a State?
Pause now and learn what constitutes a State:
What makes a nation truly wise and great?
Do towering monuments that pierce the sky,
O'er the proud dust where buried heroes lie?
Do cities fair with gorgeous temples crowned,
Or busy commerce with its murmuring sound?
Is it the train that thunders through the land.
To bear our products to some distant strand?
Or the tamed lightning darting o'er the wire,
To bear our message on its wings of fire?
No — these may flourish with exulting pride.
Where virtue, honor, truth and right have died.
'Tis men we need, men of a noble mould
Who scorn to barter principle for gold.
Constant to keep a noble end in view,
And with unfaltering step that end pursue.
l60 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
How I Destroyed the Des Chutes Ferry.
TT was about the fifteenth of June, 1853, that I received my
transfer from the Genesee Conference, the territory of which
then lay in the western part of the State of New York, to the
Oregon Conference, which then embraced the Territories of Ore-
gon and Washington. About the first of May my two brothers,
one older and one younger than myself, had been appointed to
the same field, and then had procured their traveling outfit and
were headed overland to their future place of Missionary toil
in the State of Oregon. When they left my home, which was in
the city of Warsaw, Wyoming county, N. Y., I had no expec-
tation of ever seeing them in the world again. When I received
my transfer it was entirely unknown to them, as they were then
nearly one month out on the plains, headed for the Pacific Coast
with their slow-moving ox teams. Without being able to com-
municate with them, I received instructions to be ready to sail
on the 20th of June on the steamer Illinois, Capt. Patterson, at
4:00 o'clock P. M.
I was on hand promptly, with my family, and was the veri-
est land lubber on the earth, for I had never seen the ocean,
though born and reared in the State of New York. We steared
away for Kingston, Jamica, where we took in coal, then went
away across the Carrabean Sea to Aspinwall on the Isthmus
of Panama. At Aspinwall we took cars for Gargona, on the
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 161
Chagres River, but a span of the bridge over that river having
been carried away in the flood of a few days previous, we were
compelled to take open boats and be rowed six miles by naked
Indians to the little town of Cruses, where we were to tarry for
the night. About midnight, we were startled by the cry of
iire, which swept through the town and destroyed every hovel
in it to ashes in less than two hours. Here were about lOO pas-
sengers, without shelter, waiting for daylight to arrive and show
their deplorable condition. The women and children were per-
mitted to occupy one of the frame buildings of the Railroad
Company, and nearly all of them were provided with ham-
mocks, where they swung themselves up for a little rest.
This, at that time, was the terminus of the railroad, and
the balance of the way to Panama, which was about 12 or 15
miles, was to be traveled on mules, all but the children, who
were carried on the backs of naked savages at five dollars per
head. We had some trouble with mules, but at last all was
ready for a start. It seems that the mule business was con-
troled by the Railroad Company, and there was a terrible scram-
ble after the best mules. At last all were quite well satisfied and
we moved on and at about sundown we entered the ancient city
of Panama. It looked, I have no doubt, much as it did in the
days of the Montezumas. The next day was the 4th of July,
which we celebrated as best we could. We had several speeches,
sang several patriotic songs, had a good dinner.
The next day we went aboard the fine steamer Golden Gate
and sailed quietly over the bright and placid waters of the mighty
Pacific, and in due time cast our anchor at the foot of Jackson
Street, in the struggling city of San Francisco. Then there was
l62 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
no street above Powell, nor below Sansome. There was a grave-
yard about where the Baldwin Hotel now stands, and dogs were
chasing jack rabbits where the Palace Hotel now stands. I
remained in San Francisco about one week, stopping with M.
C. Briggs, the pastor of the Powell Street Church. Except the
little Bethel, where William Taylor preached to the sailors, this
was the only Methodist church for quite a number of years.
We went on board the small steamer Columbia and sailed
out of the Golden Gate about the 13th of July. We crossed the
storm swept bar of the Columbia in safety, and, sailing up the
broad river, where the majestic fir forests crept down to the
waters, and turning 12 miles up the beautiful Willamette, tied
up our little steamer in front of the prospective metropolis of
Our journey was ended. The varied scenes and checkered
scenery through which we had passed had made a deep and last-
ing impression upon our minds, and I felt eager to acquaint
myself with the field where I expected at that time to pass the
remainder of my life. Everything seemed new and so roughly
primitive in style that I questioned my power of adaptation, and
felt at times a little feeling of homesickness creeping over me.
But this I would shake of¥, and rush out into the field or for-
est and address myself to some enterprise that would tend to
build up and beautify my new and future home.
About the first of August, the emigrants began to arrive
from the plains, wearied and sometimes sick, and many of them
disheartened on account of the loss of teams and wagons dur-
ing the journey, and the worst of all the death and burial of
friends in the desert. Sometimes it was a husband, sometimes
ON the: pacific coast since 1853 163
a wife, a son or a daughter ; sometimes both husband
and wife, leaving a number of orphans children to be cared
for by strangers, or wander without care, ragged and destitute
and forsaken, themselves to perish in the wilderness. No pen
has ever been able to adequately describe the terrible sufferings
of those early emigrants during the ten years succeeding 1850.
Having crossed the Isthmus of Panama, I had a few weeks to
spare before the bulk of the emigrants began to arrive, and
nothing could exceed the terrible sufferings I witnessed amongst
the first arrivals from the plains. Frequently a solitary horse-
man would arrive, bringing news of some special disaster, and
the settlers would pack several horses and mules with provisions
and clothing and hasten to their relief.
When I arrived at Portland in the Autumn of 1853, I found
myself confronted with an unusual number of such scenes, and
I soon exhausted all my surplus means, in efforts for their relief,
and then began to work for wages in order to be able to accom-
plish more. As soon as the first emigrants began to arrive in
the settlements west of the Cascade Mountains, I began to
seek information in regard to my brothers, three of whom had
left St. Joseph, ^lo., in the early Spring. I found they had be-
gun to arrive quite freely at the Dalles, then the head of naviga-
tion on the east of Hood River, where it empties into the Co-
lumbia. There were but a few permanent buildings there at
that time, but a large number of tents, where traders kept sup-
plies during the emigrant season, and bought up cattle from
those just in from the sage brush plains, especially from those
whose cattle were run down and were thought to be unable to
cross the Cascade Mountains to the grass covered plains of the
164 LIFK AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
Willamette Valley. It will be remembered that at the Dalles the
river branches, one branch leading down the Columbia River,
around the Cascades on the west about two miles, then across
the tongue of land between the Columbia and the Willamette to
the City of Portland.
At it was uncertain which route my folks would take, I
was advised to go up to the Dalles and await their coming there.
So I took the advice, and, traveling the usual route in about
twelve hours, arrived at the place of destination. I put up with
a friend with whom I had become acquainted in Portland, and
sought his advice in regard to my future movements. About
midnight, we were aroused by a voice at the door of our tent
v/ith the inquiry, "Is there any one in the place that can perform
the marriage ceremony?" He was answered in the affirmative
by my friend and told that inside the tent there was a Methodist
preacher who could attend to such matters when desirable. A
few words explained the situation. There stood a neat and
gentlemanly appearing young man, and at his side a blushing
damsel of about 18 years of age. The young man said they
were all from Missouri, were all members of the Methodist
Church, and were camped miles out near the crossing of the
Des Chutes River, and would be in town as soon as possible in
the morning. They desired to be married without delay so as
return to the camp before they were missed. I told them that
I would require a clear, truthful statement of the exact situation
before I would consent to perform the ceremony. They told
me that the mother of the girl was willing and anxious for them
to be married before their leaving home, but the father, who was
of a miserly turn, was unwilling because the young man vv^as
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE; 1 853 165
poor. To avoid the marriage of his daughter to this poor young
man, he had sold his property and crossed the plains with his
entire family. Such was the attachment of the young people to
each other that the young man had taken the next train and had
followed the girl across the plains. Last night he had made
himself known to the mother and daughter, and had come in
together to the business that they had so ardently desired. I
then performed the ceremony making them man and wife. 1
then told them to return immediately, acquaint the mother of
all that had happened, and I would be out early and have a
talk with the father. They promised strict compliance with my
request, and, shaking them by the hand, while a glistening tear-
drop trembled over the fair, sweet face of the happy bride, I
mvoked the blessing of God upon them in all their future life.
Early in the morning, having procured a good riding horse
of my friend, I rode out to the camp, and, speeding over the
rolling prairie, soon drew rein at the door of the tent and asked
to see the proprietor of the same. The father of the bride came
to the door, and, with a quiet, yet somewhat abrupt, tone, asked
what I desired. I asked him if his wife was in the tent, and
being answered in the affirmative, inquired if it would be agree-
able to them to hold a few moments' interview with me alone.
He gave his consent, but intimated that they were in a
great hurry, and wished the interview to be as brief as
possible. I then related the events of the past night, and told
him that if he would^ remain a few days at the Dalles, I had a
friend there who would be able to give them some information
of especial value to the whole family. I told him that I was out
on the plains to meet brothers who had crossed the plains in the
i66 life: and labors of a pionee:r
present year, and I presumed would soon be in the Dalles. He
said he intended to stop there for several days and he would
wait there for my return. I told him that as we had all come
a long distance, to build up homes in a new and strange land,
we should strive to help each other as much as possible. Evi-
dently the old man felt a little sore over the course things had
taken, but I gained my point in getting him to wait my return.
They soon moved on into the Dalles and pitched their tent
for a few days' rest, and to await my return, while I rode down
the hill towards the Des Chutes River to meet my brothers, whom
I knew could not be many miles away. When I arrived at the
ferry landing, I found the boat had just crossed to the opposite
side of the river, where alone there was a chance to rest before
starting on the last 15 miles to the Dalles. On the opposite side,
from a small elevation, one could see the road for nearly four
m.iles away, and I was anxious to see if there were any trains
of emigrants now at hand. So I called to the ferryman to come
and take me over, and offered him the dollar which the law re-
quired. He refused to come, and told me to wait unto the next
train came up and then he would come. I informed him that
I had come all the way from Portland to meet some friends, and
the next train, which was then about one mile away, might be the
train, and I desired to meet them on the other side. He turned
abruptly away, saying he could do nothing ror me. ''Very
well," I replied, "then I will help myself." I rode up to an In-
dian nearby, showed him a silver dollar and asked him to lead my
horse over. In a moment he had tossed his lariat over the head
of my horse and was dragging me into the river. He seemed
to understand what I desired, and seemed to know exactly what
ON THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 167
to do. They soon discovered what was going on at the ferry
above, and offered to come over and get me if I would go back.
I told them that I guessed I would wait until the train came up,
then we would all go back together. We passed safely over,
the water in no place being higher than the horse's knees. The
stream having divided about 300 yards below the ferry, it was
easily fordable on horseback. Strangers, of course, knew noth-
ing about this, and the ferry people, by exaggeration and de-
ception, had kept it a secret a great length of time.
As soon as I was over, I at once rode up to a little eleva-
tion, and there, right before my eyes, was the train I had come
nearly 200 miles to meet. I knew them at a glance, but I was
entirely unrecognized by them, although six months before they
had left my house in the State of New York. So I turned back,
and, riding down near the river, awaited their arrival. In a few
moments, my elder brother, leading by the hand his little adopt-
ed daughter, the only child of Rev. Jason Lee, the founder of
the Oregon Missions. They were walking leisurely along,
searching for a suitable place to stop their wagons. I was sit-
ting upon my horse not 100 feet away when they went by, barely
giving me a casual glance. After selecting a suitable place, they
started to inform the incoming team. This led them a little
nearer to me. All at once, the little girl paused, looked up to-
wards my face, her great blue eyes dilating with wonder and
awe; she lifted up her little hand and cried out, "Papa! papa!
come here! Come here!" all the time staring wildly at my
face. Brother, no less excited than the little girl, cried out,
"Merciful Heavens, Joseph, is that you, or is it your ghost?"
1 68 LII^i: AND LABORS OF A PIONKER
I guess the Des Chutes River never saw a more surprised and
excited crowd than stood on its banks at that hour.
We were soon refreshed and brought to our senses by a
cup of Aunt Lydie's tea, and we mutually agreed that no ex-
planation should be required of the ghost who had a few mo-
ments before entered camp, as it had acted towards Aunt Lydie's
tea just as the original did way back in the State of New York,
until a more convenient season arrived. The entire company was
called together for consultation, as a crisis evidently was near at
hand. I had provided myself with about $20.00 to pay my
expenses on the trip, not thinking that an emergency might
arise like the present. In talking the matter over, I incidentally
alluded to my adventure with the Indian in getting over the riv-
er, and gave it as my opinion that we had no use for a ferryboat.
I told them that if they were willing to take the risk, I would
guide them over the stream the same way I had come. I mount-
ed my horse, rode over, showing them the marks I had made on"*
the shore, and on my return all concluded to make the venture.
My youngest brother, who, by the way, was celebrated as an
expert driver, and had a well trained team, was selected to take
the lead the the rest were to follow close behind. All were in-
structed that, in case of the upsetting of a wagon, by the swift
running waters, to be sure to seize hold of some secure part of
cover and not be separated from it, to roll up the curtains of
the cover so as not to be caught under them. I put my lariat
around the off ox which was the fartherest down stream. All being
ready, the word was given and the long lash whirled over the
backs of the oxen, the riders driving the loose stock pressed
close behind and in just about 15 minutes after the wheels of
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 169
the first wagon had touched the run of the river, the last of our
three teams had reached the opposite shore. Other teams came
rolHng up behind us, and others behind them, leaving a well
beaten track, which revealed the deception of the Des
Chutes ferry and numbered it with the things that were. A ferry
has not been run there from that day to this, and in all probability
never will be again, as a railroad bridge has been built a short
distance above, and a well known ford is all that is needed for
local travel, except in very high water. And that is the way I
destroyed the Des Chutes Ferry. So perish all liars and de-
ceivers, who seize on the gifts of God to man and strive to de-
ceive and rob the people.
170 life: and labors of a pioneer
CHAPTER XXVIL -
Thou sainted Lincoln, whose untimely end
Bereft a nation of its dearest friend,
To imitate thy virtues shall engage
The toiling patriot of each coming age.
From thee they learn to love their country's laws,
And die with pleasure in her sacred cause.
No sting of envy thy pure soul possessed,
No vengeful feelings burned within thy breast.
From chilling prejudice thy mind was free,
And suffering bondmen found a friend in thee.
No sordid end pursued, but firmly stood
For truth, and labored for the people's good.
While slumbering now among the silent dead,
A martyr's crown adorns thy sainted head ;
And while we cherish what thy deeds have won,
We write thy name next to our Washington.
/^NE feels lost and bewildered when one attempts to say
^^ anything new or instructive concerning Abraham Lincoln.
His great and wonderful career, during one of the most event-
ful and critical periods of our national history, has for nearly
fifty years been before the country in almost every form in which
ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 171
genius or patriotism could possibly present it. His unique per-
sonality, his early habits and experience, his rapid elevation to
the highest and most responsible position in our country, his of-
ficial acts, while occuping that position, and the sudden and
startling exit from it, can scarcely find a single parallel in the
history of the human race. While bearing about in his form
and features the appearance of premature age, yet he was com-
paratively a young man when elevated to the Presidency in
i860. This, when all collateral circumstances are considered,
pointed him out to all thoughtful and discerning minds as being-
set apart by Infinite Wisdom for a special work in his day and
generation, but also for the years that are to come.
Like all great reformers, Lincoln built better than he knew.
It was necessary for him to learn the art of government, for by
nature and patriotic impulse his life flowed on in perfect har-
mony with the eternal principles of justice and truth. He did
not hesitate to spurn with instinctive dislike all attempts to com-
promise with falsehood and error. As highly as he estimated
the friendship and work of Horace Greeley, and others of sim-
ilar views, he turned a deaf ear to all their hesitating fears, and
stood firm and confident in support of his policy to crush out the
rebellion at whatever cost. He clearly recognized the fact that
an order of sequence existed not only in the physical but in the
moral and spiritual world as well, and that to attempt to ignore
this fact to escape its operation would only end in ignominious
failure. Like the Israelites of old, while standing upon the
shores of the Red Sea, the only road to peace and safety was in
going straight forward, he did not hesitate to lift up his voice
and say to the doubting people around him, "Go forward!"
172 lib'e: and labors of a pione:er
Contemporaneous testimony, coming from reliable sources,
revealed the fact that Abraham Lincoln was a devout and re-
ligious man. While adopting no particular denominational for-
mula of faith, he sought the companionship of those devout and
pious men vv^hose prominence and influence in the religious
world was known and acknowledged in all lands. In addition
to his being a great student of the Bible, he was in constant fel-
lowship with such church leaders as Bishop Simpson, Bishop
Ames, Henry Ward Beecher, Horace Bushnell, and other great
religious leaders of the day. He appointed and devoutly ob-
served the days of fasting and prayer, and like Washington at
Valley Forge, he often sought upon his knees aid and direction
from the Supreme Ruler of nations.
What may be termed the humorous side of Mr. Lincoln's
character is shown in his gift of story telling, which was mar-
velous in the extreme. By a simple anecdote, he would fre-
quently settle a deep and perplexing problem, and throw a flood
of light upon questions that had defied the skill and power of the
most learned logicians. Sometimes men of undoubted sincer-
ity, but perplexed by doubts and fears, would leave his pres-
ence feeling shocked and sorrowful after listening to a light and
seemingly frivolous story, but a little time for reflection, and
the one great purpose of his life would rise up before them in
vindication of integrity and settled convictions. Failing at times,
by the intermeddling of theoretical bores, a single humorous ut-
terance from his lips would cut like a two-edged sword in put-
ting therri all to speedy and disorderly flight. Take for instance,
his reply to a delegation who called to remonstrate against the
promotion of General Grant, on account of his alleged excessive
ON the: pacific coast since 1853 173
use of ardent spirits. With that quizzical look peculiar to the
man, he gravely inquired if they could tell him of the brand of
liquor General Grant used as he "would be glad to send for a
supply for some of his other generals." This settled the ques-
tion and the committee retired. It is scarcely too much to sav
that, even at this early day, the life and achievements of Lincoln
changed in a fundamental manner the moral basis of civil gov-
ernment. He raised it above the expediential basis of France,
the aristocratic theory of England and Germany, and left it as
an inheritance "for the people and by the people." The ''self-
evident" proposition of Jefferson has now received an addi-
tional illumination, and the divine supremacy of law lends its
dominating power to all social and political relationships.
The "compact" idea of national government, as entertained
by such master-minds as Clay and Webster, Calhoun and Doug-
lass, went down when the well poised mind of Lincoln built his
moral standard of social order, around which aroused humanity
could rally and march on together for the redemption of the
world. He made potent and plain the divine right of man to a
civil government, but the divine right of man to govern he stead-
As truly as Christ made incarnate the Spiritual Kingdom
of God upon earth, so Lincoln incarnated the true ideal of civil
government among men. He stands before us as the great High
Priest of the Nation, and laid the willing sacrifice of the purple
upon the altar of their patriotic devotion. So we close as we
began, with the mystery of his personality still unsolved, but
with the untarnished glory of immortal deeds as bright as the
sunlight in the heavens.
174 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
TT is so eminently right that under the principles of our govern-
ment a woman's position politically should be exactly equal
to that of a man (and the opposite theory or assumption is so
wrong) that it becomes almost certain that when once the full
realization of the justice of it is grasped by everyone there will
remain no opposition whatever.
The doctrine of "suffrage for woman," as well as "suffrage
for man," will come in time to be a very axiom, concerning which
there can be no argument. The objections raised at present will
be fully exposed as being as unreasoning and as contrary to sound
thinking as are any of the fallacies in logic. After that they will
be as easily overthrown whenever they arise as is the proposi-
tion, "two and two don't make four"; or this one, "two apples
and three oranges make five peaches" ; or this, ''three apples away
from seven peaches leaves four apples."
It will come yet to be fully recognized and acknowledged
that "a government by the people and of the people" means just
that, and does not mean "a government by and of a part of the
It will be seen that if ''political power inheres in the peo-
ple" and is an universal human right, then there is no possible
logical way in which to deny that power to women, who are
incontrovertibly people, neither more nor less.
THE PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 I75
In time it will be freely acknowledged by everyone that if
governments must ''derive their just powers from the consent of
the governed," then women, because they are certainly governed,
by no means that can possibly be righteously devised are to be
prevented from expressing that consent exactly as do men.
It will be seen clearly in the future, although it may fail to
be so clearly apparent today, that if for one class of persons
''taxation without representation is tyranny," then it is tyranny
for each and every class of persons.
When it comes to be fully perceived that there is no way in
which to exclude half the people from rights that are conceded
to belong to all people, then it will be seen that there are no ar-
guments to deprive women of freedom and equality, that may
not be applied also to men. Such arguments simply deny the
principles of our Constitution and Declaration of Independence ;
they justify tryanny and despotism ; they take away the only ti-
tle that any man holds to his own ballot.
When this is clearly understood and appreciated there will
be no one left who will attempt to maintain such an inconsistent,
dangerous and absolutely contradictory and impossible position.
At that time the objections and so-called arguments which
are now from time to time presented will be no more heard of.
for they will be clearly seen to have no bearing or application
upon the subject of political equality, the ballot and the suffrage,
or if they have, to apply with equal justness to men as to women.
It will be recognized that the health or alleged invalidism of
women is not a factor in the matter. Why should it be? It is
not in the case of men. Our theory of democracy is not "gov-
ernment on the consent of the athletic." We nowhere read ''Tax-
176 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONKER
ation without representation in the case of sound lungs and
trained muscles is tyranny," nor "Political power inheres in the
people who train the gymnasium."
When the matter is rigiitly looked into everybody is going
to acknowledge right joyfully that there is no sound reasoning
in depriving half the governed, the taxed and the people of
political rights, on the score that for them to earn their own
living is to compete for wages with men, the same being unfair
to the men. For everybody will see, upon hardly looking at the
thing twice, that in depositing a ballot is in no way earning
one's living, therefore voting women do not compete one whit
more than non-voting women have already done and are still
doing. In fact it will be seen that this whole matter belongs
under the category, "working or not working as applied to wom-
en," and not in the remotest degree under the category, 'Vot-
ing or not voting as applied to women."
When it becomes fully enough recognized and acknowledged
that the whole question of the vote for women is a question of
right, justice and the consistent (and therefore necessary) ap-
plication of the principles of the government under which we
live, no more will be said about the necessity for each woman, or
even for a majority of women, wishing and demanding it.
Does the right of slaves to be freed, and not enslaved of any
man, depend upon a wish and demand upon the part of the
Does the right and desirability of school facilities for ev-
ery child in the land rest upon the wish and the demand of the
children of the land?
Has the right of women to a share in whatever highest
ON TH^ PACTI^IC COAST SINCE: 1853 177
educational opportunities the country affords, existed only since
every woman, or since a majority of the women, have wished
and demanded it ? So far is this from representing the case, that
only the smallest proportion of women are concerned in that
privilege and avail themselves of it. For every woman who
avails herself of a college education, there are two-fold, four-
fold, aye, ten-fold as many women demanding for themselves
and their sisters the right of representation and self-govern-
Why, at the beginning in this country, when the question
of a woman's right to education first arose, it was not by any
means a question of collegiate or university education. The
question then was, "shall a woman be accorded that very man-
nish privilege and accomplishment, the power to read and write?'*
Be sure there were just as many opponents then as there are
to the more advanced woman question to today. There was
an almost overpowering fear that if women should be able to
read in books they would misuse their powers and neglect their
duties. With such a masculine fear as that in the air, do you
suppose a very large proportion of women either openly or se-
cretly advocated ''education for women"? And when men rec-
ognize the right of a woman to a vote, and abide consistently
by that recognition, they will themselves, without troubling
themselves much as to woman's own attitude in the matter, ad-
vocate and demand political position for women. In those days
how enormously will increase the proportion of the gentle sex
who ''demand" it !
An objection has lately been presented : "While woman re-
mains the religious slave that she is, I doubt that it would be
178 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
right to put that dangerous weapon (the ballot) into her hanas.
I am for all reforms, but there are 50 per cent more women
than men in the churches, these pious women all strongly under
the influence of priest and parson. Now, if the ballot should
be put in the hands of woman, I fear that religious persecution
would be carried on upon a gigantic scale. Haven't Christians
alv.'-ays persecuted when they had the power? If she is going
to help the clergy fight the people in their just demands she
should not have the ballot."
Perhaps it will be remembered that this same objection was
very strongly presented in San Francisco a year or so ago.
The fact remains that our government is a government of
and by the people ; not ''a part of the people." It is not a theory
of democracy or popular government that people who would
vote as you would, or as I would, or as someone else thinks
proper, may have that privilege; but that all, equally, shall
share political duties, responsibilities and privileges.
In some of the largest of the churches, and in some of the
sects, there is seen to be a very goodly proportion indeed of
men. Yet those men themselves are not disfranchised on that
account, much less are all other men disfranchised because of
them. Is a man who is a Christian less dangerous than a woman
who is a Christian? If I mistake not, those Christians who
persecuted for opinion's sake, when they had the power, in the
darker ages of the world, were mostly men. The spirit of the
time in which we live safely may be counted with. The fear of
a religious persecution in California, conducted by ministers and
women overly pious, may safely be dismissed as a grossly ex-
aggerated one. Make woman less a slave outside the church,
ON the: pacii^'ic coast sinck 1853 179
teach her to rely upon her reason more, and doubtless she will
become less a "slave" within the church. But all women who
are periodically seated in churches are not slaves to supersti-
tion. There are many other elements in society fully as dan-
gerous, and yet men are not disfranchised and made into a
legally and politically degraded class because of them. That is
not the theory, as cannot be too often repeated, upon which
American government and the ballot rest.
Ah, the many "fears," which, existing in men's minds con-
cerning women, are counted as valid reasons for depriving wom-
en of their just share in the dignity of a government of whose
burdens they bear their full proportion. Women may not go to
the polls once a year to express openly and worthily their wishes
and opinions upon city, county and state affairs, all of which
concern them as much as men. Why not? Because men "fear''
that women would thereupon change from being women ; would
desert and neglect their homes ; would adopt public lecturing as
their profession; would go to work to earn their own living,
particularly in some really remunerative way; that they would
close up the saloons and deprive men of the right to buy drinks ;
that they would inaugurate a religious persecution in the state ;
aye, one of the "fears" of men that deprive women of a vote is
the "fear" that they do not want it.
Most of these alarms are concerned with a possible future
injustice or wrong which might happen to somebody. And yet
there is no concern about a present injustice to millions of wom-
en — in fact, to half the nation. Because some people fear wom-
an's goodness, and some fear her badness, seems in the light
of calm reflection and candid reasoning but a poor argument for
i8o life: and labors of a pione:e:r
maintaining that she should be prevented from being considered
a responsible human being, with the same rights in the govern-
ment under which she lives as are so carefully secured to even
the least noble of men.
We let democrats make mistakes, and populists, and repub-
licans, if they can ; we do not confine the male ballot to those
who never cast it wrongly or mistakenly; yet we relegate women,
in their own eyes and in the eyes of "ignorant men and small
boys,'' to a lower step or scale of civilization than that of the
most uninstructed, newly-naturalized foreign citizen, just "for
fear" she might make mistakes !
No woman believes that the millenium will come when wom-
en begin to vote. Men's votes have never been able to bring it
about, so why expect hers to? But men's and women's together
will be better than either alone. And the votes of good citizens,
men and women, will outnumber those of all the bad citizens in
the land, if only good men will do their full political duty.
ON the: pacific coast since 1853 181
The very thing we wish to know, and the thing which furn-
ishes the key to the question under discussion, is, what is the
difference between moral beauty and spiritual beauty? Why was
it that the young man who was morally beautiful, was declared
by Christ not to be spiritually beautiful ? Why do qualities known
by the same names and definitions in the one case and conection
appear right and excellent and in the other wrong and defective?
Until these questions can be answered, it seems to us but
little advance can be made towards a clear and proper classifica-
tion in the science of religion. Confusion here leaves the whole
question disjointed and superficial. The Bible is full of state-
ments directing the mind to some fundamental difference in moral
standing between the two charcters ? What is it ? In what does it
consist? Our author should have answered these questions in his
article on "Classification."
We fear that our author has made a very serious mistake
in his effort to trace an analogy between the moral development
of the natural man and the spiritual man. It seems to us that the
same moral principles or elements must enter into the structure
of the character of both. Whence then the difference? Is it not
found in the different natural powers or faculties in man which
is used in the apprehension of moral truth? Why is love the
fulfilHng of the law ? Because love is the highest and most potent
i82 life: and labors of a pioneer
element for assimilation of moral principles. Mere intellectual
assent or belief never can touch the secret springs of life. But
love makes the object upon which it fixes itself a part of our
very selves. ''The devils believe and tremble." But the devils
never are said to love and tremble. They tremble because they
cannot love, while knowing that their very nature must forever
remain destitute of that moral faculty that can make them spirit-
ual and give hope.
We should have been better pleased, and for that matter
better instructed, had our author defined more clearly and care-
fully the line of demarcation between the fallible and the in-
fallible in theology. To assert that "faith in infallibility is noth-
ing but rank credulity," is, to say the least, stating but half a
truth. If anywhere in the universe there is to be found the in-
fallible, certainly it must be somewhere in theology. Infallibility
belongs to interpretation, but prophecy belongs to inspiration. In-
spiration is infallible, but interpretation is by the authority and
intelligence of man. Hence the Apostle placed prophesying as
the best of all spiritual gifts "but rather that ye may prophesy"
is the noble climax that ended his grand and earnest exhortation
to his brethern to covet earnestly the best gifts.
No one will pretend to say that there is no difference be-
tween believing in justice and loving justice, between believing
in wisdom and loving wisdom, of believing in truth and loving
truth. All, even the most unlearned, can see the difference at
once. Here is seen the difference then between the natural moral
man and the spiritual moral man. Love is the transforming
power in the spiritual sphere. This is what makes perfect. No-
where in the sphere of life can we find an element superior to
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCK 1 853 183
this. We can find morality without it, but not spirituahty.
Knowledge puffeth up, that is, makes men look very fine, but it
is charity or love that edifyeth, or buildeth up,— ''God is love,"
and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God. "U ye love me
keep my commandments." This, then, is the difference between
the moral natural man and the moral spiritual man. The form-
er is exalted by knowledge, the latter is transformed by love, or
by God, for God is love.
184 life: and labors of a pioneer
'It is finished," Jesus said,
When in death He bowed his head;
*'I my Father's work have done.
Glorified Him as the Son.''
Seated on His Father's throne.
He the Kingdoms calls his own,
Purchased with His precious blood,
He would bring us back to God.
Always he is with us here,
Let not then our spirits fear,
He will ever be our friend,
Keep and guide us to the end.
He will teach us how to win.
How to conquer death and sin.
How to live from day to day,
Walking in the narrow way.
He that ''overcometh" here.
Striving in his love and fear,
Shall upon His throne sit down,
Wear with Him a victor's crown.
In that house not made with hands,
There the throne forever stands,
Truth of greatest mystery, "
God in Christ and Christ in thee.
ON the: pacific coast since 1853 185
No treacherous strains from Herme's lyre shall rise,
To close our Argus' ever watchful eyes,
When sage or hero shall their country serve.
Our faithful Clio will their fame preserve.
But let them never seek to soar too high,
Or like Icarius they may fall and die.
Who plans the tree must wait the circling years
Before the flower and golden fruit appears.
The pushing roots must feel the quickening power
Of careful culture and of generous shower ;
Redundant branches must expect to feel
The painful pressure of the Pruner's steel,
And o'er symmetric beauty we impart
We add to nature's force the skill of art.
When Phaon's hand, by heavenly wisdom led.
The magic ungent o'er his body spread,
Supernal beauty glowed on all his frame,
Firing his spirit with a god-lit flame ;
Admiring Sappho dropped her trembling lyre,
And sudden wonder checked the poet's fire.
So shall the expanding beauty of our land.
Touched by the plastic power of freedom's hand,
While joyful patriots viewing shall admire
Our altars glowing with celestial fire, . -
And happy millions shall pronounce her name
And spread the knowledge of her well-earned fame.
l86 LIFD AND LABORS 01^ A PIONEER
The shades gather round us, we lay down to slumber,
Our yesterdays gone and we heed not their number ;
We dream of the happiness promised to-morrow,
But open our eyes on a heart-breaking sorrow.
Then again we retire to our sighing and weeping,
But our faith places all in the Master's safe-keeping,
When lo! all the gloom that our spirits enshrouded
Pass away, and we gaze on a morning unclouded.
Lo, we pass from our yesterdays into the present,
And we pause not to think it is gloomy or pleasant.
For hope spread her pinions and soars to tomorrow,
Where she never can see either sighing or sorrow.
So passes our life, whether waking or sleeping.
Calm following storm while joy follows weeping.
But all will unite to complete the glad story,
And add to the "weight" of eternity's glory.
"Thy word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path '
Thou source of light! to Thee we raise
Our songs of gratitude and praise
For all Thy favors given:
But brightest, best, and most divine,
Is that which on our spirits shine
And guides our steps to heaven.
ON THK PACIFIC COAST SINCE 1853 187
Now, Brother Markham, let us pause and calmly state the case,
Not every one that's swift of foot will surely win the race,
Not all the battles here we fight is given to the strong,
Not every man that has a hoe, will to that hoe belong.
Our Washington, when he was young, possessed a little hatchet.
And when he grew to be a man, he had a hoe to match it.
And Putnam, Stark and other men who fought our battle,
Knew how to plow and use the hoe, and feed their sheep and
Go tell your "lords and masters" then, who tread on nature's
They'll have a mighty funny job in pulling down our jaw.
And if they undertake the task of pushing "back our brow,"
They'll see how quickly hoe men here can raise a fearful row.
"The emptiness of ages" then is in the hoe man's "face,"
I think on second thought you'll find 'tis in another place,
For when your ''lords and masters" come, we shut the door and
For all the "emptiness" in fear is "emptiness" of pocket.
"The whirlwinds of rebellion" was a figure neat and grand,
And we hope to see it sweeping on the sea and on the land.
Not the one that bringeth weeping, sighing, blood and tear,
But the "whirlwind" of the ballot is the one the rulers fear.
And now, my Brother Markham, let us give each other aid.
While we all march on together now in freedom's bold crusade.
And then your kings and rulers here will surely see and know
That freedom's best defenders are the men that use the hoe.
i88 life: and labors oi^ a pionder
As we sail o'er life's sea to the harbor of rest,
While our speed may be swift or slow,
It is not the gales but the set of the sails
That tells us the way to go.
If our eye is fixed on the star above.
And the spirit is true and brave,
We shall know no fear when the tempest is near,
And we ride on the crested wave.
Though the winds may sweep o'er the ocean deep,
And the tides may come and go,
We must reach the goal by the set of the sail,
And not by the currents that flow.
Then steady the helm as you sail along,
Keep the pole-star ever in view.
And so you will feel some pleasure or weal.
You have done the best you knew.
Then when at last the voyage shall end.
And the haven of rest you see,
You shall know the hand that guided you on
Ruled the tempest on blue Gallilee.
ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 189
It is easier to criticise men's defects than to emulate their
Beware of the statesman who serves men for the sake of
ruling them, but cleave to the one who rules men for the sake of
Eulogies and tombstones reveal the startling fact that "none
but good men die."
He who believes in immortality makes the soul a star, but
he who disbelieves in it makes the soul a candle.
We are placed in this world not to afford us opportunities
for indulgence, but to be disciplined.
It is difficult to tell whether men display more folly in spend-
ing money, or in keeping it.
Beware how you attempt to get rid of one evil by exchang-
ing it for another.
Unless men continually strive to make new friends, there
will soon be nothing to supply the place of the old ones.
He who sees himself as he sees others will "see himself as
others see him."
Placed side by side with the teachings of Christ, all world-
ly wisdom seems like driveling folly.
190 LIFE AND LABORS OF A PIONKER
It is often difficult to determine whether it requires more
work to move the world forward than it does to prevent it from
Remember you have two ears : while an angel may be speak-
ing into one, beware that the devil does not whisper into the
The world is saved, not by trying to keep it as good as it
is, but by laboring to make it better than it is.
The Christian can safely dispense with greatness, but he
cannot dispense with his goodness.
Our faults are like our faces, more plainly to be seen by
others than by ourselves.
No man need tell us he is happy now,
If sin has set her signet on his brow.
While we take warning by others' follies, others may be
taking warning by ours.
Except the future take character from the present, there
can be no motive for progress or security for virtue.
The radicalism of to-day will be the conservatism of tomor-
ON the: pacific coast since: 1853 191
There are two things that man proves the existence of, God
and the immortaHty of the soul.
When reHgious sentiment reacts against credulity, it will
soon begin to react against skepticism.
By being too eager for fame, we are in danger of attaining
The more we learn to improve without suffering, the less
will we be likely to suffer.
Naught can inspire to great endeavor
But hope which says, "We live forever."
Never turn away from the Hill of Difficulty lest you run
into the Slough of Despond.
Never allow your imagination to borrow strength from your
It is not often that our reasoning measures up to the de-
mands of our reason.
No man will be likely to be saved unless he thinks he is
worth saving .
He who thinks troubles worse than they are makes them
worse than they need be.
192 life: and labors of a pioneer
We will raise our standard higher as our souls receive the light,
And our faltering footsteps quicken in the pathway of the right,
And the nations that have doubted us and called our doctrines
Shall see when freedom touches man it makes him wise and
And what we find we ought to be, and what we are without,
We will all unite together now to bring it all about,
So that freedom's radiant banner that our fathers once unfurled,
Shall shed its beams of promise on the nations of the world.
Men grow old, but mankind is always young.
The Eastern Sages used to say,
However bright or dark the day,
"This, too, will quickly pass away.
.While we cannot be too good, we may be too scrupulous ; to
extinguish a burning house, we may sometimes find it necessary
to break down a door or a window.
Curable evils requires energy to overcome and destroy them,
incurable ones require patience to bear them.
While God expects us to make mistakes. He also expects us
to profit by them.
ON the: pacific coast since 1853 193
While the order of nature is fixed, prayer may enable us to
see that order and work in harmony with it.
Wisdom is the essence of knowledge. It is distilled in the
retort of experience and gathered in the vials of patience.
One of the worst things we can do it to do nothing.
Many an ambitious man, like Sisyphus, toils and struggles
to roll a stone up the hill, only to see it roll back again after it has
reached the summit.
Our progress in wisdom will be slow if we fail to see that
there are examples to be shunned as well as examples to be imi-
The church that worships relics only show that in their es-
timation the finger of a dead saint is better than the soul of a
Wisdom is cheap at any price, but nothing so dear as vice.
Virtue makes a weak man strong, but vice makes a strong
The best and surest way to help others is to show them how
to help themselves.
194 LIFK AND LABORS 01? A PIONEER
God's grace is always proportioned to our efforts, hence he
saves us by showing us how to save ourselves.
Inspired writings must have been inspired readers. Inspi-
ration only can comprehend inspiration.
Good sense about common things is known among men a;
When there is but one side to a question, the fool generally
takes the other side.
The wise man will not only train himself by examples to be
imitated, but also by examples to be shunned.
If men would have their rights respected they must see to
it that they are protected.
Whose walk is heavenward, when his body dies,
One single step transports him to the skies.
We never can build a heavenly mansion after an earthly
pattern. All our efforts w^ll be but "castles in the air."
The good in us and the good in the world around us grows
by small accretions ; so also evils wear away by small diminutions.
To seek with constant solicitude the final supremacy of the for-
mer, and consequent destruction of the latter is not only the de-
sire of the wise but also the will and purpose of God.
ON TH^ PACIFIC COAST SINC^ 1853 I95
It is not enough to do what we may thing to be right. We
must first learn what is right. The bigot will do the former,
while it leaves him a bigot still ; while the wise man will guide
his footsteps by the light of intelligence and find exaltation and
The enthusiast is the man who talks against evil, and then
acts in harmonv with it.
There is nothing that so elevates and strengthens the human
mind as to feel and believe that we are moving along in a direc-
tion ordained by Infinite Wisdom towards an end worthy of an
Infinite Intelligence. No careful student of American history,
it seems to me, can fail to see this, in a special and prominent
degree, has been the case with our own country. Suppose the
march of American civilization had begun at Florida instead of
at Plymouth Rock.
Everything we see in the universe around us seems to cover
or conceal some great mystery. Thus it is that ten thousand
voices are constantly telling us of a yet to be.
Evolution placed man by a slow and seemingly tedious
^process at the head of the animal kingdom, but personal con-
sciousness was the direct spontaneous gift of the Creator. '%et
us make man after our image." Moral life was the gift of God
and not the product of evolution, as taught by Herbert Spencer
196 LIFE AND LABORS 01^ A PIONEER
We must not begin the present century by drawing around
our minds the dark mantle of doubt or despair. We may rest
assured that the world can never settle down again into the re-
pose of indifference, or fall asleep in the lap of evil and slavery.
It has had a vision that it will never forget. It has caught a
glimpse of a bright concourse of forces which slowly but surely
are conv-erging to one grand control point, will surely open up
to humanity a brighter and a better day. Said Jesus, ''Except
a grain of wheat fall into the ground and die, it bear no fruit."
Death is the condition of perpetual resurrection.
The true value of all organized labor, whether in Church or
State, is to bring the real up to the ideal. The principle of
Christianity is not a doctrine, but a religious experience, "until
Christ.be formed in you."
What, let me ask you, is the source of all rational strength?
Is it not faith? "Without faith it is impossible to please God!"
Whatever we approach, whatever we touch, whether our pur-
pose be to appropriate or change we can only fortify and
strengthen our hearts for the struggle and toil by the power of
a living faith.
We should always remember that every thing that now is,
has come out of the things that have been, and that all things
that are to be, must come from things that now are. This is the
evolutionary order of creation and the law of continuity of being.
This principle also reveals the Divine order of Sequence which
prevails alike both in the natural and spiritual world.
ON THi: PACIFIC COAST SINCE) 1853 ^97
It would seem at first view a trivial and unimportant thing
for the Redeemer of the world to pause in his stupendous work
and turn aside to mingle for a day or an hour in social fellow-
ship with that ideal household in the little village of Bethany.
But we have learned that no act of his life has so touched the
heart of humanity as this, or gathered around it a more sub-
lime moral power. The gentle and loving reproof uttered in
the ears of the prophets, the solicitude of Martha for the pleas-
ures and proprieties of the passing moment, and the sweet ap-
proving words that held the loving Mary at his feet in eager
quest for the knowledge of the higher and more enduring, has
done more to elevate and sanctify womanhood than all the fine-
spun theories that human philosophy has ever spoken or writ-
ten in praise of social ana domestic duty and fellowship. The
former has brought to the heart light and joy and hope, the lat-
ter toilsome drudgery, discouragement and sometimes despair.
May freedom's temple in its beauty rise
And court the favor of the bending skies.
May men and angels join in glad acclaim,
To tell the glory of its deathless name,
And every eyes behold in every land
Freedom and justice, walking hand in hand.
And read along the flaming vault of heaven
Triumphant truth, the last impression given.
Increasing wrong will spread our country o'er.
And we shall fall as others fell before.
198 LI]FE AND LABORS OF A PIONEER
I think we may truthfully say that in many respects the early
settlers of this coast were unique in their personal characteris-
tics which they exhibited, the ideals which they followed and the
types of manhood which they sought to develop and exhibit. The
struggle through which they were called to pass, while it sharp-
ened and brightened their intellects, did not blast and deaden
their human sensibilities. By sheer force of ability many of them
won a large measure of success, even as success is now meas-
ured in this stirring and commercial age. The highest hopes we
can cherish at this day and hour of our State's history is, that
the bright and noble young men and women will in the sway
they shall give to the years of the past will be able to fix their
thoughts upon some noble example amongst our pioneer fathers
that will be worthy of their affection and imitation, thus trans-
mitting into a living, moving force these exalted elements of
human character which alone can perpetuate those inestimable
blessings purchased by the toil and sacrifice of the past.
A statesman who is worthy of name should have as. deep and
as profound moral convictions as does the man who ministers
in holy things at the altar of God's house.
While strength and feebleness was the antithesis from which
or by which the Greek philosophy realized the divine, sin and
righteousness is the antithesis by which Dedeism and Christian-
ity evolves the same idea.