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Oc 977.2 P25t 

Rabb, Kate Milner, 1-'-- 

l^^tour ti-, Indiana In 



IN 1840 

From a daguerreotype 



IN 1840 

The Diary of John Parsons 
of Petersburg, Virginia 

Edited by 




.Alien county PubVicUbrary 

900 Webster Street Copyright, 1920, by 

PC Box 2270 ^._^, 9970 Robert M. McBride & Co. 

Fort Wayne. IN 46801-^^' 

Printed in the 
United States of America 

Published, June. 1920 



John Parsons graduated from the University of 
Virginia in 1839 and began the study of the law. 
Not finding the profession to his taste, however, he 
made a tour of Indiana in the spring of 1840, with 
the intention of visiting a cousin, who had gone 
there three years before, and of purchasing land and 
settling there if he found conditions to his liking in 
*'the "Wabash country." He was 23 years old at 
the time, handsome, intelligent, a keen observer and 
possessed of a charming personality. 

The time of his journey is one of unusual interest, 
being the year of the Harrison campaign, the be- 
ginning of our modern presidential campaigns. 
That it was a time when the traveler used the stage 
coach, the canal boat, the steamboat, the horse's 
back, to say nothing of an occasional day's journey 
on the latest novelty in transportation, the railroad, 
gives variety and interest to his travels. 

Carrying some letters of introduction from East- 
ern friends, he gained entry into what were known 
as ''the most respectable families" of the various 
Indiana towns he visited, and his observations on 
family life, as well as on the country, are of suf- 
ficient interest and value to warrant their publica- 


Special thanks are due to Mr. Lee Burns of 
Indianapolis for the selection and preparation of 
the pictures in this volume, and to the lyidiana 
State Library for the use of the Play Billy the 
Harrison campaign poster and for other courtesies. 


John Parsons .....: Frontispiece 


A Stage Coach on the National Road .... 10 

An Ohio River Steamboat 28 

The River Front, Cincinnati, in 1840 .... 34 

The Eggleston Homestead, Vevay 52 

An Old House at Madison 60 

Tombstone of Jesse Vawter ....... 70 

The Tunnel Mill at Vernon ...... 84 

Announcement of Tippecanoe Rally, 1840 . . 88 

An Old House Near Centerville 136 

The Governor's House, Indianapolis, in 1840 . 178 

A Pioneer's Cabin in 1840 .226 

A ViNCENNES Play Bill of 1839 340 

St. Francis Xavier's Cathedral, Vincennes . . 352 

The Old State Capitol at Corydon 358 

View of New Albany in 1840 . , , , ,. , 364 


May 9, 1840. 

1WILL seize the opportunity offered for an hour 
or so of quiet while our steamboat lies at the 
landing of the city of Wheeling, to chronicle the 
account of my happenings since starting on my 
journey, an act impossible on the long way by stage 

Having decided on my trip to the Western coun- 
try I made a careful study of ''The Western 
Tourist or Emigrant's Guide Through the States of 
Ohio, Michigan, Indiana and Missouri and the Terri- 
tories of Wisconsin and Iowa," a book published 
only last year by J. H. Colton of New York, which 
purports to give a concise and accurate description 
of each state with principal stage routes, canals, 
railroads, etc., together with much other informa- 
tion gathered from the letters of my cousin 
Jonathan Parsons, who went three years ago to the 
Wabash country and whom it is my intention to 

I left Petersburg, Virginia, for Richmond by rail 
the morning of May 3, 1840. My father accom- 
panied me to the railroad depot in the family chariot 
driven by old Uncle Peter and, ''wise and grave 
man" that he is, occupied the time, like the elder 
Crusoe, in giving me "serious and excellent coun- 


seP' as to tlie conduct of one, like Robinson, of 
"a wandering inclination" though hitherto un- 

My mother, after some tears shed when the part- 
ing was imminent, troubled herself over a luncheon 
she would have me pack in my carpet bag. This I 
refused, however, having secretly determined to 
dine in state at the Powhatan House in Richmond, 
whose beautiful situation on the hill fronting the 
capitol I had frequently admired on my visits to 
that city. 

Here I would willingly have lingered had the 
journey planned been a briefer one; as it was, I 
took the railroad again, and in due time arrived in 
Fredericksburg. This method of traveling, a new 
one to me, is in the main very pleasant, but the 
rumbling, tremulous motion of the cars is not very 
agreeable, and after the novelty has worn off, the 
pleasure of it is much diminished by the fumes of 
the oil, the hissing of the steam, and the scorching 
of the cinders which are falling all around you. 
Neither is it a very rapid method of traveling, for 
I noted that we did not go beyond seven or eight 
miles an hour. 

It was therefore with a sensation of pleasure that 
I left the railroad at Fredericksburg to enter the 
stage coach, which was to take me nine hilly miles 
to Potomac Creek, where I found the steamboat. 
This last is a most excellent method of travel when 
the boat is, as was this, spacious, rapid and very 
clean. This part of my journey was made by night, 
and being very weary, it seemed that I was only 


through my first nap when Peter knocked at my 
door to announce that we had arrived at Washing- 
ton and that it was time to arise. 

I tarried in this city only long enough for a meal 
at that miserable caravansary, Gadsby's, as I had 
viewed the city only last autumn, when a guest at 
the reception of the lovely Mrs. Van Buren, wife 
of the President's nephew, when, just home from 
Europe, she assumed her place as mistress of the 
"WHiite House. I had known her as the beautiful 
Augusta Singleton of South Carolina, and with all 
the sweet graciousness of her girlhood and alto- 
gether unspoiled by her position as first lady of the 
land, she welcomed me to the "White House, so ex- 
travagantly refurnished by the President, an ex- 
travagance which I surmise will be dwelt on at 
length by our Whig orators in the months to 

Into a wretched, dirty omnibus at Gadsby's, with 
my carpet bags tossed carelessly about by the hire- 
ling, and off again to the railroad depot, where I 
took the train to Baltimore, forty miles in two 
hours. Here I stopped at Barnum's Hotel, a matter 
for rejoicing, for if there is a hotel keeper in the 
United States who merits the commendation of the 
traveler, it is the host of this tavern. His neat 
private parlors and bedrooms, his quiet house, his 
obliging attendants leave nothing to be desired, and 
when I think of his excellent table, the canvas-back 
ducks, the soft shell crabs — anticipation can never 
come up with the reality. 

It is hard to realize that 100 years ago the land 


on which this populous city stands was covered with 
wide-spreading forests.^ 

How different a scene must that have been from 
the one which met my eye on that never-to-be-for- 
gotten day of my stay here, a scene well worth the 
effort of my journey, had it terminated here. For 
this very day had been chosen by the young "Whigs 
for their national convention- partly no doubt be- 
cause they hoped thus at the outset to discourage 
the Democrats who were holding their national con- 
vention in Baltimore at the same time. 

From The Baltimore Patriot I copy a few lines 
descriptive of the day and far more eloquent than 
words my pen could inscribe. 

Never before was seen such an assemblage of the people, 
in whose persons are concentrated the sovereignty of the 
government. . . . The excitement, the joy, the enthusiasm 
which everywhere prevailed, lighting up the countenance 
of every man in the procession ; the shouts, the applause, 
the cheers of those who filled the sidewalks and crowded 
the windows; the waving of handkerchiefs by the ladies; 
the responsive cries of the people ; the flaunting banners ; 
the martial music; the loud roar at intervals of the deep- 
mouthed cannon. ... In no country, in no time, never be- 
fore in the history of man, was there a spectacle so full of 
natural glory. . . . Standing on an eminence commanding 
a view of the line of the procession in the whole extent of 
Baltimore Street, you beheld a moving mass of human be- 
ings. A thousand banners burnished by the sun, floating 
on the breeze, 10,000 handkerchiefs waved by the fair 

*The census of 1841, the year after this, gives the population of 
Baltimore as 102,313.— Editor. 

' William Henry Harrison of Ohio had been nominated for Presi- 
dent, and John Tyler for Vice-President, at the Whig national con- 
yention, held in Harrisburg, Pa., Dec. 4, 1839. — Editor, 


daughters of the city, gave seeming life and motion to the 
very air. A hundred thousand faces were before you, age, 
manhood, youth and beauty, filled every place where a foot- 
hold could be got or any portion of the procession be seen. 
. . . The free men of the land were there, the fiery son of 
the South, the substantial citizen of the East, the hardy 
pioneer of the West, were all there. It was the epitome 
of a great nation. 

It was really a great and inspiring sight, with its 
lines of marching men, its log cabins drawn by 
many horses, its banners predicting the fall of Little 
Van and the rise of the "Log Cabin" candidate. I 
had not guessed that so much enthusiasm could 
have been aroused over a comparatively unknown 
candidate, a backwoodsman, as we of the East are 
accustomed to speak of him. For my father was a 
follower of Henry Clay, and while, with a mag- 
nanimity which bespoke the hero, this truly great 
man had pushed aside the kingly crown, my father 
with many others felt that he truly deserved and 
should have had the nomination. 

There was much in what was said in the publica- 
tions of the time anent the Democratic convention ' 
held on this same day to give a thoughtful man 

One party, the Whig, said they, on this day cast 
reason aside. The other, the Democratic, a digni- 
fied, deliberative body, regiflarly formed, met 
quietly, and broadly and plainly stated its principles 
and submitted them to the consideration of the peo- 

*At the Democratic national convention held in Baltimore on 
May 4, 1840, Martin Van Buren was nominated for President, and 
Richard M. Johnson for Vice-President. — Editor. 


pie, made no mflammatory appeals, held no parades 
of unmeaning contrivances, resorted to no clatter of 
barrels and tin cups. The one — ^but I anticipate, for 
a part of this was really in a discussion held in the 
stage coach which I will transcribe in due season. 

Rejoicing that I found myself in the city on this 
occasion, but realizing that I must push on, I took 
my seat that same evening on the cars of the B. & 0. 
and Patapsco River Railroad. These cars were 
drawn by horses for the distance of one mile, the 
jangling bells on their harness a strange contrast to 
the puffing steam engine for which they were then 
exchanged. This railroad follows the winding bank 
of the Patapsco, a noble stream at Baltimore, capa- 
ble of floating any vessels that come to its wharves, 
but before coming to Frederick it loses its impor- 
tance and dwindles to the size of a fishing creek. 
The river channel runs through a narrow valley 
with imposing precipices along the entire course, 
hence the railroad is constructed on the banks to 
avoid making deep cuts and in this way increases 
the distance between the two towns from forty-five 
to sixty miles. 

Some miles out from Baltimore stands Ellicott's 
Mills, a place famous in a prosaic way for manufac- 
turing flour, still more famous for its wild and pic- 
turesque scenery. The bed of the river is rocky, 
the shore steep and wild. During the hot weather 
this is a favorite resort of the citizens of Baltimore. 

On an eminence overlooking the village, stands 
the Female Seminary of Mrs. Lincoln Phelps. This 
was known to me by reputation, my cousin Lucy 


having once been a pupil here, so that I had heard 
of Mrs. Phelps's high literary reputation as well as 
her signal success as a teacher of youth in those 
moral and domestic virtues which sweeten and 
purify life, and render woman a blessing and an 
ornament to society, and I looked forth from the 
car window with some curiosity. There I beheld a 
group of females apparently bidding farewell to one 
of their number, no doubt a pupil of the school, since 
they were accompanied by an elderly female, with- 
out doubt an instructress in the institute. The 
young women kissed their young companion and 
wept profusely, alternately wiping their eyes and 
waving their hands as she boarded the train and 
took her seat, unfortunately for me, in the rear of 
the coach, where I had not the opportunity to 
further observe her. 

She was soon forgot, however, in my observations 
on the landscape, whose private and public edifices 
alike showed no particular taste in architecture, be- 
ing marked by variety without uniformity. Fred- 
erick, Md., our next stop, is a rich and populous city, 
second in the state, but I had little opportunity to 
observe it while transferring myself and my bag- 
gage to the stage, glad of the change of vehicle. 

I was the first of the nine passengers to take my 
seat in the coach. I had heard much of the splendor 
of these coaches on the Cumberland road, and this 
one did not fall below my expectations. Indeed, I 
was afterwards told that chance had sent me to 
one of the most beautiful coaches of the famous 
''Good Intent'* line. It was painted in brilliant 


colors, its gilded panels ornamented with a picture 
of the great Lafayette, whose name it bore, and the 
interior was lined with soft silk plush. Both drivers 
and line were famous. One of these drivers, Peter 
Burdine by name, had once made a rhyme sung all 
along the pike : 

If you take a seat in Stockton's line, 

You are sure to be passed by Pete Burdine, 

Stockton being the proprietor of the rival line of 
coaches known as the ' ' June Bug. ' ' 

There were three seats in the vehicle, each seat- 
ing three passengers, so the capacity of the coach 
was nine, with an extra seat beside the driver. 

Scarcely was I seated before a second passenger 
arrived and took her place in the opposite corner 
of the rear seat which I had taken, a young female 
whom I instantly recognized by her mantle, a long 
circular cloak of rich brown satin embellished with 
black velvet, completely enveloping her form, as the 
pupil of Mrs. Phelps, who had taken the railroad 
train at Ellicott's Mills. She, too, was evidently 
westward bound. Her leghorn bonnet, encircled by 
an elegant plume, shaded her face, and her jetty 
eyelashes veiled her dark blue eyes, of whose melt- 
ing luster I caught the most fleeting glimpse, and lay 
upon her cheek, now mantling with the blush of 
modesty at the sight of the stranger with whom she 
must perforce sit alone. 

Not for long, however. Speedily our future 
traveling companions gathered, the first evidently a 
minister of the Methodist denomination, a circuit 


rider bound for the West, his baggage a pair of 
saddlebags, which he threw carelessly under his 
seat; the second, a rather handsome gentleman, 
from his manner a politician, and, like myself, from 
the South; and next, a man in Quaker dress and, to 
judge from his bearing and the authority of his 
speech, one high in their councils, and no doubt 
bound on a mission of importance. The others were 
uninteresting specimens of humanity for whom a 
glance sufficed, though for these principals I have 
just named I determined to learn, like the chroni- 
cler of the Canterbury pilgrimage, 'Svliich they 
Averen and of what degre,'* before our ''journey's 

The coach full, off we started, going at a great 
rate, past the beautiful and fertile valleys that lay 
between Frederick and Hagerstown and on to Han- 
cock, where the country is very broken and the hills 
very high. Six miles from Hancock is the base of 
the Cumberland Mountain, whose ascent we im- 
mediately began and which continued for more than 
three miles. It was a stupendous sight, as we 
mounted higher and higher, the fleecy clouds over 
our heads and far, far below the little brook, now 
only a thread. Each held his breath, marveling at 
the spectacle ; doubtless each mused on the thought 
of how frail the bond between him and eternity, to 
which a false step, the stumble of a horse, the break- 
ing of a trace, would consign us. The parson voiced 
our thoughts. "Give glory to God," he ejaculated. 
* ' Give glory to God for His infinite goodness, to Him 
who has shown us in this spot how frail is man. 


and how we are indeed held in the hollow of His 
hand. Amen!" 

The hilltop reached without the least slackening 
of speed, down, down the next incline we raced, each 
no doubt inwardly wondering if the bottom of the 
hill would ever be reached in safety though some- 
what comforted by the thought that the vehicle was 
equipped by a novel device known as a '* brake," 
a piece of iron running across the bottom of the 
stage and which the driver, by the use of a crank, 
could throw against the wheel and thus impede its 
velocity. And at the bottom of the hill was waiting 
the postilion, an unusual sight, who quickly attached 
the two horses he was holding to our four, to make 
our next ascent easier. 

From Hancock to Cumberland the road repeated 
itself, the forty miles stretching between the two 
highest points being filled in with hills and valleys ; 
and then came Cumberland, a pretty place of 3,000 
inhabitants, where begins the famous Cumberland 
Road, commenced by the United States government 
thirty or thirty-five years ago, and which almost 
every year has been a subject of debate in Congress. 
It has been carried through Wheeling, Va., on to 
Terre Haute, la.* It is macadamized and is indeed 
one of the finest roads in the United States, al- 
though, from excessive use, it is in many places in 
bad repair, in spite of the state act which I was 
told was passed in 1828, authorizing the erection of 
toll gates for the purpose of collecting toll in order 
to make repairs on the roads. 

* la. was the old abbreviation for Indiana. 


From an old print 


"We halted, of course, at each of these old round 
stone toll houses, most picturesque features of the 
landscape. One of the toll gate keepers, I was told, 
went by the name of ' ' Gate Bob ' ' to distinguish him 
from the other Bobs of the locality. 

From Baltimore to Cumberland, the road has also 
been finished in the same style, but not so perfect, 
by private enterprise. 

From Cumberland to a little village called Frost- 
burg, from Frostburg to Union, from Union to 
Washington, Pa., runs the route, and the account of 
the expense, which I will herewith set down for 
future reference was as follows : 


From Baltimore to Frederick $2.00 

From Frederick to Hagerstown. ...... 2.00 

From Hagerstown to Cumberland. .:.. . 5.00 

From Cumberland to Uniontown 4.00 

From Uniontown to Washington. . . . . .^ 2.25 

From Washington to Wheeling. ....... 2.00 

Through fare to the Ohio River. . .$17.25 

The scenes and happenings of these two days and 
two nights of travel were so varied and numerous 
as, at the time, to be confusing, but as I look back 
I see them in a series of pictures on my mind. The 
broad white highway, winding ribbonlike over moun- 
tain top and through valley, with its many stately 
stone bridges, its iron mile posts and its great iron 
toll gates, and over it the long procession of stage 
coaches, like ours, going and coming, heralded by 
the winding horn, with picturesque drivers, who, at 


each appointed spot, drew up the horses, threw down 
the reins and watched the quick attachment of the 
fresh team, and off again at the same high rate of 
speed; the great Conestoga wagons of which I had 
heard but never seen, long and deep, bending up- 
ward at the bottom in front and rear, the lower 
broadside painted blue, with a movable board in- 
serted above painted red, the covering of white can- 
vas, stretched over broad wooden bows, and the 
whole heralded by the bells on the high arch over 
the horses ' backs ; the emigrant wagon, whose occu- 
pants encamped at night by the roadside; an oc- 
casional young man on horseback with a country lass 
behind him, on their way to a frolic; ''pike boys,'* 
the aristocracy, who dwelt beside the pike, and coun- 
try boys, and now and again a long line of negro 
slaves, driven along in couples, fastened to a long 
thick rope. 

At this last, not, to me, an unfamiliar spectacle, 
the Quaker gentleman gave a groan. "How long, 
O Lord, how long!" 

The Methodist parson scanned his face closely. 
"Brother, I have observed that you wear the garb 
of the Society of Friends. From your abhorrence of 
this lamentable sight I surmise that you are also a 
member of the Anti-Slavery Society. It may be that 
we travel on the same business, work toward the 
same goal. May I inquire your name?'* 

"Arnold Buffum," the Quaker responded. 

"Then, without doubt you are that Arnold Buf- 
fum, organizer of the American Anti-Slavery Soci- 


ety on the ground of immediate and unconditional 
emancipation, bound to Ohio and the "West, so I 
have heard it rumored, to hold meetings among the 
people and to talk of the wrongs and sufferings of 
the slave." 

^*The Heavenly Father has called me to plead 
the cause of the oppressed; to speak for the dumb, 
and to show forth the cruelty of slavery." 

*'My name is Louis Hicklin," said the circuit 
rider, ' ' and on my return to my home near Madison, 
I, too, have the intention of traveling over the state 
of Indiana organizing anti-slavery societies. It 
may be that there our paths will cross." 

The Quaker lapsed into silence. I scanned him 
curiously, for it was my first sight of one of these 
agitators of whom I had heard little good. How- 
ever, both he and the circuit rider were decent ap- 
pearing men, and, the blacks having been left be- 
hind, it seemed prudent to let the subject drop, 
particularly in the presence of ladies. 

The inns or taverns at which the coach stopped, 
that we might take our meals, impressed me 
mightily. There were taverns especially for the 
wagoners, who patronized them in great numbers, 
sometimes as many as thirty six-horse teams being 
stabled on one lot for the night, and the assembly 
room full of jesting, singing, dancing, drinking 
wagoners; the other taverns, ''stage houses," as 
they were called, were located at intervals of about 
twelve miles and were of almost uniform excellence. 
One feature of the fare I found a most interesting 


novelty, a bread vulgarly called salt- rising, unknown 
in the South, most delicious, and which, it is said, 
will cure dyspepsia. 

One incident connected with the tavern I shall not 
forget. After waiting some moments in the as- 
sembly room of a tavern not far from Wheeling we 
were just obeying the summons to table when I ob- 
served that the young female, who had modestly 
withdrawn to one side of the room on our entrance 
and had now passed into the dining room, had 
dropped a small volume she had been perusing. As 
I picked it up the title page met my eye, *'The 
Flower Vase, Containing the Language of Flowers 
and Their Poetic Sentiments," and below, in deli- 
cate chirography, **To Caroline from Lucy." 

I eagerly followed her and put the tiny book in 
her hands. She thanked me almost inaudibly and 
turned away to her chair, and somewhat chagrined, 
I was left to talk to the Southern gentleman who, 
by this time, I had learned was the Hon. Robert P. 
Letcher^ of Kentucky returning home from a trip 
to Washington to enter upon his campaign as candi- 
date for Governor of Kentucky for the Whig party. 

He had served in Congress several years and, I 
gathered, was a man of great personal popularity. 
He was not a gentleman in our sense of the word, 
his father having been a brick-layer, but he had 
chanced to fall, while a mischievous, headstrong boy, 
under the influence of a famous teacher, a Mr. Fry, 
who had turned his abilities in the right direction. 

•Robert Perkins Letcher, 1788-1861, Member of Congress, 1823- 
1833. Presidential elector for Harrison in 1837. Elected Governor, 
of Kentucky on Whig ticket in 1840. — Editor. 


I had already found him a most interesting conver- 
sationalist. He dresses studiously plain, wears his 
hair long, falling about his face, and his motions are 
certainly not offsprings of the polished drawing 
room, but under this plain exterior there lurks, if 
I mistake not, an indomitable pride and a sense of 
mental superiority. 

''The Whigs," he assured me, **are certain to win. 
Van Buren's shocking extravagance and misman- 
agement of financial affairs have turned the people 
against him.'' 

I ventured to take issue with him. *'I myself am 
a Whig,'' I assured him, ''but I have heard my 
elders in Virginia question the propriety of nomi- 
nating a man comparatively unknown and whose 
popularity rests solely on his military reputation 
and to the fact that he lives in a log cabin." 

The circuit rider smiled. "As to the humble con- 
dition of that log cabin you will be able to judge 
for yourself if you take the river route from Wheel- 
ing," he said. 

Mr. Letcher continued the conversation. "While 
I appreciate to the full the ability and the merits 
of my distinguished fellow citizen, Mr. Clay, I am 
convinced that he could never have been elected, had 
he received the nomination. And I surmise that 
your elders have no idea of the following Gen. Har- 
rison has in the West. I predict a great surprise 
for you as you penetrate farther into the Wabash 
country. Here in Pennsylvania, of course, Van 
Buren has many followers," and he proceeded to 
narrate with great humor an incident of a fight be- 


tween Democrats and Whigs in which the Democrats 
were the victors, which occurred on the Cumberland 
Road and which he had witnessed on his journey to 
"Washington. An old wagoner had exhibited from 
the front of his wagon a petticoat in allusion to a 
partisan and groundless charge of cowardice made 
against Gen. Harrison. Even the young female, 
Caroline, whose surname, alas, I know not — smiled 
faintly as he narrated the incident. She has not 
spoken to me, however, only nodded slightly in re- 
sponse to the assistance I have occasionally rendered 
her in alighting from or mounting into our vehicle. 
Our minds perforce turned continually to politics, 
for everywhere, in to^vn and countryside, we ob- 
served the progress of the campaign. In one town, 
we would see the log cabins, the barrels of hard cider 
and hear the song. 

Little Van's a used-up man, 
A used-up man, a used-up man, 
A used-up man is he, 

while in the next town 'twould be all for Van Buren, 
and the singers would roar out: 

When the Whigs at a table begin to feel "hip," 

They roar out right boldly, * ' Hurrah for old Tip ! ' ' 

When another glass seems to indicate high, 

'Tis three lusty cheers for old Tip and old Ty ! 

Alas, what a mishap is easy acquired — 

In the month of November 'twill be '*Tip-sy and Ti-red!" 

It was soon after this that the circuit rider, sitting 
beside me at our evening meal, broached the sub- 
ject of the continuance of my journey. *'I had 


thought, ' ' I told him, ' ' of continuing overland to my 
cousin's home." 

''You will find the river voyage of much greater 
interest and improvement to your mind," he coun- 
seled me, ''and from my knowledge of our state of 
Indiana you will have enough and more of journey 
by land once you are within its borders. By the 
river route you will see Blennerhassett's Isle 
de Beau, Cincinnati, the largest and most flourishing 
city of the West, the ''log cabin" of Gen. Harrison 
at North Bend, and many interesting villages in 
Indiana on to my town of Madison, with whose most 
respectable families I shall be most happy to make 
you acquainted." 

The prospect was attractive, but I had heard much 
of steamboat disasters and mentioned the large 
colored posters I had seen in the East, made to warn 
travelers by showing vessels whose boilers were ex- 
ploding, throwing the mangled victims far and wide 
into the waters. Mr. Letcher, who had heard our 
conversation, smiled at this. 

' ' Do not allow yourself to be unduly frightened, ' ' 
he said. "It is not so frequent a happening as you 
might suppose. Most frequently it is because of 
the ambition of the boat's master to maintain his 
boat's reputation as the swiftest boat on the river. 
Wood is heaped on, rosin sprinkled on the fires, the 
boilers are forced to the limit, and all at once — off 
they go, and the boat is blown into kindling wood. 
There have been some famous explosions — the Ben 
Sherrod, in '37, and the Moselle, in '38— frightful 
catastrophes, both of them, but they served as a 


warning to the other masters, and, judge for your- 
self, our Methodist friend and myself have many 
times braved the perils of the flood and still survive. 
Besides," he continued, ''on the boat you will be 
sure of continuing in good company. Our friend 
here, myself, Mr. Buffum, for I take it, sir, you dis- 
embark at Cincinnati, and — .'* His eyes sought our 
fair traveling companion across the table, with 
whom our conversation had been limited throughout 
the journey to the merest civilities. 

My spirits rose as her jetty eyelashes swept her 
cheek in her nodded assent. Suppose the boat 
should blow up, suppose I were given the chance to 
play the rescuer, suppose — 

"I think I shall take the river route," I said 

So our journey progressed, the circuit rider, who, 
in spite of being the most ungainly, homely looking 
man I ever saw, I had soon found to be possessed 
of a very good mind and very well informed, and 
Mr. Letcher passing the time with conversation on 
many subjects, and the Quaker occasionally inter- 
jecting a word when appealed to, otherwise he sat 
silent, until, all too soon, we came in sight of Wheel- 
ing, in my own state of Virginia. 


Cincinnati, 0., May 12, 1840. 

1HAD hoped to write freely and at length from 
day to day on the boat, but the influence of the 
high-pressure engines made the boat shake so 
badly that I could not write legibly and so was com- 
pelled to abandon the idea. 

Having arrived in Wheeling, we — my stage coach 
companions and I — ^upon inquiry learned that the 
steamboat Pensacola was lying at the wharf ready 
to go down the next morning. We accordingly 
passed the night at a most excellent tavern where 
I sought my couch early, being much fatigued, and 
rose betimes in the morning that I might view the 
City of Wheeling. This, I found to my astonish- 
ment, a bustling city of 8,000 inhabitants, being a 
place of embarkation and landing of goods for the 
surrounding country, and the most important town 
on the river between Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. It 
has but one street of any importance, however, be- 
ing shut in on one side by a mountain and on the 
other by the Ohio River. These two, however, are 
the sources of its prosperity, the river providing 
commerce, the mountain iron ore for its forges. 

The steamboat to which I presently turned my 
steps proved to be a most elegant one. I was told 
of the great improvement that had been made in 



these vessels within the last two years. "Whereas 
formerly the berths stretched the whole length of 
the cabin, one part being curtained off for the ladies, 
now staterooms have taken their place, both elegant 
and commodious and giving both privacy and com- 
fort. The salons are marvels of comfort and 
beauty, the floors are carpeted, the folding doors 
into the ladies' cabin richly paneled; indeed, the 
whole of the noble vessel is fitted up with exquisite 
taste. The officers and men are of a much better 
class than formerly, less reckless than those com- 
manders who risked the precious lives entrusted to 
their care to keep up their vessel's record for speed. 
Anxious to see the vessel on which I was to take 
this journey, I arrived at the wharf before 10, and, 
acting upon Mr. Letcher's advice, chose one of the 
four rooms aft the wheel, which are considered safer 
in blowing up or accidents of this kind. In my 
ignorance, I had supposed we would start at the 
time stated, 10 o 'clock. Instead we lay at the wharf 
until 3 o'clock in the afternoon, taking on freight. 
This, I learned, is the main object of the trip, and 
when the boat is descending the river a stop is made 
at every little hamlet, at many a lonely landing, to 
leave freight or to take it on. This makes the 
voyage tedious in the extreme if the traveler is im- 
patient. *^You can make no calculations on your 
arrival anywhere. You may calculate when an 
eclipse will certainly happen, but you can not ascer- 
tain the period when you will go 100 miles on a 
steamboat without interruption," said my friend, 
counseling me to patience, though in truth I had 


sliown no impatience, foreseeing, as I did, much 
pleasure both in the way of sightseeing and of com- 

Some humorous stories were told us by the com- 
mander of our boat in relation to these frequent 
stops. One day, as a boat was plowing along at a 
rate of twelve miles an hour, it was hailed by a man 
on shore. With difficulty the boat stopped and 
rounded to, supposing he either had freight to be 
taken on, or wished a passage, only to learn that 
he merely wanted to know whether they could take 
his hemp to New Orleans on their next trip. An- 
other boat landed for a passenger who had been 
signaling with both hands only to be informed that 
he had not been signaling at all, but merely brush- 
ing away the mosquitoes with both hands to enable 
him to read the name of the boat. 

In groups of twos and threes the passengers came 
on, men whose dress and bearing indicated wealth 
and position, planters without doubt from the South 
who had been visiting in the East and were return- 
ing home, frequently accompanied by their families 
and servants; men whose assured manner without 
the leisurely elegance of the planter class clearly in- 
dicated the merchant; roughly-clad farmers; an oc- 
casional smooth-looking gentleman whose shifty eye 
marked him as a member of the gambling fraternity, 
who I had been told infest the steamboats and are 
the cause of many a comedy and tragedy. On and 
on they came until I foresaw that we were to have 
a large, varied, and interesting company from whom, 
in the freedom of intercourse permitted in so 


leisurely and pleasurelike an excursion, I should 
liave ample opportunity to learn much of the West- 
ern country. Our own party was already on board. 

The circuit rider and Arnold Buffum had pre- 
ceded me, for it was with Mr. Letcher that I had 
gone about the city after breakfast. The young 
female came later and had evidently gone at once 
to her stateroom. Just as the last barrel was being 
rolled aboard and preparations being made for lift- 
ing the gang plank, I perceived far up the hill, a 
couple hurrying towards the wharf, followed by a 
negro carrying their bags. Something familiar in 
the man's carriage caught my eye. I looked again, 
and as he set his foot on the gang plank, recognized 
him as Thomas Buford, my class mate at the Uni- 
versity, whom I had not seen since the day of our 
graduation, when he returned to his home in Missis- 
sippi. His surprise and pleasure, when I rose to 
greet him, equaled mine. The reason for his pres- 
ence was soon explained. He had returned to my 
state to marry the lady at his side. Miss Jane 
Hunter of Ohio County, Virginia, and was now tak- 
ing her back to his home in Mississippi, stopping for 
a few visits on the way. 

Mrs. Buford is a pretty creature of about 17, of 
a figure full, yet delicate. Her hair is as black as 
the raven's wing and has its very sheen; her eyes 
rival it in hue and are as bright as stars. She is 
extremely vivacious, and I speedily foresaw that, 
no matter how tedious our journey in the matter of 
time, we should at no time be lacking in entertain- 


**We were to meet my cousin here," she said. 
''She has been at Mrs. Phelps's school at EUicott's 
Mills and we were to accompany her on her journey 
down the river. She was intrusted to my care — in- 
deed, otherwise, she would not have been permitted 
to go so far alone. Our carriage was mired a few 
miles out of Wheeling, hence our delay. Have you, 
sir, by any chance, observed her among the pas- 
sengers, a very pretty young girl, extremely shy?" 

''A young female from the Patapsco Institute 
came out to Wheeling in the same coach with our 
party," I informed her. ''I observed her come 
aboard this vessel some hours ago." 

' ' Oh, 'tis she ! ' ' she cried, and darted off, followed 
by her husband, who had not yet reserved their 
stateroom, and my friends and I resumed our obser- 
vations of the ''deckaneers," ^ as the men are called 
who handle the freight. 

It was an hour at least before Mr. Buford, ac- 
companied by the ladies, came on deck and sought 
our group, the ladies, I surmised, having occupied 
the time mth much important conversation on per- 
sonal matters. We were all duly presented to Miss 
Caroline Hunter, for such, I learned, was her sur- 
name, and as I had surmised from our journey in 

*From 1811 to 1830, the "deckaneers" as they were then called, 
were native Americans whose manhood exacted a manly treatment 
from their employers. Between 1830 and 1835, this work was done 
by German immigrants. From 1835, through the Civil War period, 
the Irish immigrants monopolized the deck labor upon the western 
steamboats. Since the Civil War, the whites have been altogether 
supplanted by negroes, and the term deckaneer has given way to 
that of roustabout. The individual condition and treatment of these 
crews have gone from bad to worse. — Editor. 


the stage coach, she is most shy and modest. I had 
now the opportunity to observe her more particu- 
larly in the proximity afforded by the grouping of 
our deck chairs. Her nose is the finest feature of 
her face, which is very rare. Her face is one of 
those which require studying. When excited in con- 
versation she is very interesting, her deep blue eyes 
have depths that — ^but enough of this — I am not in 
love yet! 

Mr. Letcher and the circuit rider proved them- 
selves most edifying companions, as they sat with 
us, commenting on the constantly changing scene 
that passed before our eyes as the gallant steamer, 
glorious champion over winds and waves, rode 
with the current of the noble river. The Quaker 
said little, but I noticed that he drew his chair near 
ours always, and seemed ever intent on the conver- 
sation. Gradually, into our group were drawn 
many of the others. Some were already known to 
Buford, others to Mr. Letcher. With some, we fell 
to talking without introduction at the table or in the 
smoking room or over the cards. For I confess 
that I took a hand at cards occasionally and was a 
witness late one night of a game of faro, in which a 
negro man was staked and played by Bullock, a 
negro trader. And lost, I should add, as well. 

One of the men, a planter from Mississippi, as- 
sured me that it was almost impossible to believe 
the rapid changes in the Western country, which 
imparts to it the character of a players ' stage where 
both the actors and the scenery are shifted as fast 
as you can turn your eye. ''It is difficult to 


realize," said he, 'Hliat only twenty-nine years ago 
the first steam craft ^ navigated these Western 
waters and that these lonely shores, which hitherto 
had echoed only to the occasional ululations of the 
boatman's horn, were ever after to be wakened by 
the shrill yet often musical whistle of the steam- 

Not many years ago, he informed us, these river 
banks were covered with the primeval forests, which 
from time to time were mowed down by storms. 
Over the fallen trees, masses of vines and creepers 
soon ran, making a passageway impossible; trees 
and wreckage were also brought by the floods, so 
that many times the river traveler must go miles 
and miles before he could find a landing place. In 
the winter the stream was frequently frozen for 
long periods, and when the ice finally broke up 
terrible ice gorges were formed, the blocks of ice, 
enormous in size, working themselves up on the 

Not only were the banks thus terrible and forbid- 
ding, but the river bed itself was full of terrors, 
seen and unseen. There were ** planters," logs 
which were imbedded in the river bed and stuck out 
of the water, either straight up or slanting, and 
which were immovable. There were ** sawyers," 
trunks or limbs of trees protruding from the water, 

*The New Orleans, belonging to the Ohio Steamboat Navigation 
Company, incorporated by D. D. Tompkins, Robert R.. Livingston, 
DeWitt Clinton, Robert Fulton, and Nicholas J. Roosevelt, December, 

1810, was launched March, 1811, went to New Orleans in October, 

1811, the first steamboat to navigate the waters of the interior. — • 


which were kept in motion by the swinging tides of 
the river. There were bars, snags, rocks and sunken 
logs, and worse than all these, the Indian foe along 
the river bank. 

*'And some of these dangers stili remain," Mr. 
Letcher, who stood near by, reminded him. *'Ten 
thousand obstructions were removed from the Ohio 
in the twenties and thirties, but for some reason the 
work has ceased, though as many more remain. It 
requires great nerve and hardihood to pilot a mag- 
nificent steamer like this on a river which has re- 
ceived so little improvement. Wliether another ad- 
ministration — " He broke off abruptly. 

*'If you are meaning, sir, to cast any aspersion 
upon the President, pray understand that as a loyal 
Democrat, I stand ready to defend him against the 
world," cried my friend Buford hotly. 

I had not forgotten the fiery temper which more 
than once had got my former classmate into trouble 
at the University. Buford is a handsome young 
fellow, with dark glossy hair, regular features, a 
sparkling eye, and with a perfection of dress and 
delicacy of swagger that mark the dandy, though he 
is far from the empty-headed foppishness of that 
class. He is in reality a fine-souled fellow with a 
stratum of good common sense in his composition, 
though with an excessiveness of the fiery tempera- 
ment usually attributed to the South. I was re- 
lieved at the tactful manner with which Mr. Letcher 
relieved the situation. 

*'I trust, my young sir," said he, ''that you will 
recall the presence of our young female companions, 


and hasten to make your apologies to them. As to 
the attributing of the failure to continue internal 
improvements to any body of men, that is too large 
a question to enter upon now. Pray note, my dear 
madam," he turned to Mrs. Buford, *Hhe resem- 
blance of yon hilltop to an ancient fortification." 

Buford instantly collected himself, made his apolo- 
gies, and, harmony restored, we sat in silence con- 
templating the scene before us, whose beauties, 
silhouetted against the sky and mirrored in the 
placid bosom of the river, to be enjoyed should ever 
be viewed from the deck of some quiet boat. 

The banks on either side, approaching and reced- 
ing like all earthly joys, present a succession of tall 
and picturesque cliffs with alternate valleys, 
meadows and woodlands which nature seems to have 
arrayed with more than her customary regularity; 
while numerous islands, decorated with superb 
trees, complete a natural panorama. The deep 
forests that cover the hillsides or lave their branches 
in the waters of the beautiful river are arousing 
themselves from the slumbers of winter, and against 
their green appear at frequent intervals the white 
umbrella of the dogwood, the pink blossoms of the 
red bud, and the pendulous bloom of the trumpet 
vine. Small wonder that the French, whose taste 
is as correct as that of the Greeks, called this the 
Beautiful River ! 

And yet it is not, as might be inferred from this 
description, a quiet river. Craft of every kind were 
continually passing us — steamboats, large and 
small, going up and down the river; flatboats on the 


way to New Orleans laden with corn, hay, pork and 
manufactured articles and smaller craft of great 
variety. These flatboat excursions, I was told, are 
eagerly look 3d forward to by the farmer whose dull 
and monotonous round of existence is enlivened by 
these long journeys to the famous and far-away city 
of New Orleans. The danger from the river bed 
itself, from the river pirates and from the long, 
tedious journey homeward, for, as the flatboats can 
not come up stream, they are broken up and sold in 
New Orleans and the men must walk home on "the 
Tennessee Path" or *'the Bloody Way," as the 
perilous road is called, does not deter them. Many 
of these craft we passed on our way, among them, 
a novelty, a floating theater, concerning which I was 
told an amusing story. When moored one time at 
an Indiana town, an audience aboard and the play 
in progress, the moorings were cut loose by some 
mischievous boys and the boat, drifting down, could 
not be landed for some miles, from which point the 
audience was compelled to walk home. 

Added to the interest given our journey by the 
sight of this varied water craft, was the excitement 
caused by the steamboat landing. Heralded by the 
whistle, blown several miles away, our boat would 
approach a town, turn with a laborious churning of 
the waters to make its landing at the floating wharf, 
to find a crowd gathered to meet it. It has been 
twenty-nine years since the first steamboat journey, 
yet, 'tis said, interest in the boat's arrival never 
slackens. The townspeople come aboard to see and 
chat with their friends, the officers; the loafers 




gather to watch the deckaneers unload the freight; 
in short, the steamboat's arrival is one of the events 
on the town's calendar. 

I will here and now endeavor to set down my im- 
pressions of the towns ere they slip completely from 
my memory. Marietta^ the first town of any im- 
portance, called, 'tis said, from the ill-fated Marie 
Antoinette, was the first settlement made in Ohio, 
being settled by revolutionary officers, soldiers and 
their families of sturdy Puritanical stock of Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut, and to them is attributed 
its culture and intellectuality. 

The town is pleasantly situated on the right bank 
of the majestic Ohio, at the junction of the clear 
waters of the Muskingum, and in the midst of a 
thickly wooded country whose hills furnished in un- 
limited abundance the oak, the pine and the locust 
for shipbuilding, which was established here in 1800. 
By 1805, 'tis said, no less than two ships, seven 
brigs and three schooners were built and rigged 

"0 wouldst thou view fair Melrose right, 
Go visit it by pale moonlight." 

The same might be said of Isle de Beau, Blenner- 
hassett's Island, past which we floated by a moon- 
light which transformed the historic spot into a' 
scene of enchantment. ''This little world, the pre- 
cious stone set in a silver sea," this little wooded 

'In 1878 Manesseh Cutler and Winthrop purchased for The Ohio 
Company of the general government 1,500,000 acres lying along the 
Ohio River. The first settlement at Marietta was piade iu 1788, — ■ 


island took on another aspect as Mr. Letcher, in 
eloquent phrases, repeated the story of the ill-fated 
Irishman to the two young ladies, re-creating the 
past with an unbelievable vividness. 

" 'Twas here," he said, 'Hhat this gentleman and 
scholar, a man who could repeat from memory the 
Iliad in the original Greek, came in 1801 and, having 
purchased this island, reared upon it a costly and 
splendid edifice for his dwelling house. A consider- 
able part of the island was laid out into gardens 
after the most approved model of European taste, 
and the whole scenery combined seemed like the 
fabled fields of Elysium." 

He sketched for us the picture of the mansion 
forming half an ellipse, with circular porticoes, one 
wing with library, philosophical apparatus, labora- 
tory and study, all furnished with luxurious comfort 
and elegance — rich carpets, splendid mirrors, hand- 
some curtains, costly silverware; he told us of the 
idyllic happiness of the family, of Mrs. Blennerhas- 
sett, a brilliantly active girl, '*a marvelously good 
and sweet mother, hostess and friend," of the com- 
ing of Aaron Burr into this paradise like the ser- 
pent into Eden. He described the scene of Blenner- 
hassett's flight, the w^anton destruction of their 
Lares and Penates before Mrs. Blennerhassett 's 
eyes, of her departure from her ruined paradise and 
of her lonely death in a New York garret, closing 
with a burst of eloquence which indicated the power 
he must have over the multitude when he chooses to 

**Few or no vestiges now remain of this transient 


splendor and magnificence. The grandeur of this 
rural spot, sequestered from the turmoil of Euro- 
pean strife, rose in a few short months, exhibited 
itself to our astonished view for a little time, and 
then, like the evanescent phantoms of the night be- 
fore the morning sun, almost as suddenly disap- 
peared, resembling in its progress and termination 
the effect of enchantment. ' ' 

As he ceased, all sat silent for a moment, under 
the spell of his melodious accents and the spring 
night, the air soft and rich with the perfume from 
the dogwood and the wild plum borne to us on the 
breeze as our vessel now and then swept near the 

Miss Hunter had laid aside her bonnet and sat by 
the rail, her head propped on her hand, her eyes 
fixed on the island, fast disappearing from view. 
The moon's rays revealed her rare features, pale as 
though cut in marble. I noted a tear glistening on 
her fair cheek — exquisite sensibility in one so 
young ! 

At Gallipolis, the third settlement made in Ohio, 
made by French immigrants, and which contains a 
meeting house, a court house, a jail and an academy, 
the commander of our boat called our attention to 
a very large, semi-globular mound, eighteen or 
twenty rods in circumference at the base, which 
stands near the academy. Similar and more elabo- 
rate works were viewed at Marietta, the work, 'tis 
said, of long vanished aborigines. 

The aspect from the river of Portsmouth was 
most pleasing, mth its factories, large, substantial 


and handsome stores, dwelling houses and churches. 
The iron manufactured in its blast forges is now 
worth $2,000,000 annually. 

Maysville, Ky., formerly called Limestone, though 
settled, I was told, in 1784, is not the oldest settle- 
ment in the state. On the 24th and 25th of this 
month there is to be a celebration of the first settle- 
ment at Boonesborough, at which, no Providence 
preventing, Mrs. French, a daughter of Col. Richard 
Calloway, and her female servant, who were in the 
fort during the siege of 1777, will be present. 
Maysville, they say, is one of the most important 
towns on the river between Wheeling and Cincin- 
nati. It presents from the river an unbroken front 
of elegant brick buildings and has a good landing. 
As a place of business, it ranks second to Louis^dlle. 
I was astonished at the size of the place, its twenty- 
eight or more stores of dry goods, its stoneware 
manufactory, its paper mill. One of the merchants 
from Louisville with whom I had become ac- 
quainted, a Mr. Bulleit, assured me that the people 
of Maysville, **for intelligence, industry and ster- 
ling patriotism are surpassed by none in the 
Union." In spite of this it was not mentioned on 
the maps I consulted, I informed him. * ' I am aware 
of this fact," said he, ''and why the authors of 
maps have neglected, as so many of them have, to 
notice so important a place as this seems strange 

Words fail me when I attempt a description of 
Cincinnati, "The Queen City of the West," as it has 
been called. This thronged city, with its work 


shops, its marts, its stores, its canals, its roads, its 
churches and schools, its vine-clad hills, the Corin- 
thian house, the distant cottage, the observatory of 
science, and all that labor and art of the modern 
can furnish, has made a deep impression on me.* 

Nothing I have seen in the Eastern cities can com- 
pare with its landing, the extensive paved area of 
several acres, and the long and elegant river front. 
The situation, so far as the encircling hills on which 
stand many of the buildings, reminds me of Balti- 
more, as does also the cleanness and neatness with 
which it is kept, though I am assured that it was 
laid out on the model of Philadelphia. The hills by 
which it is environed intersect each other in such 
a manner as to form an imperfect square through 
the northeast and southwest angles of which the 
Ohio River enters and passes out. The winters, I 
was told, are as cold as those of northern France, 
the summers as warm as southern Italy, yet it is as 
healthy a place as can be found anywhere. 

As a seat of commerce, I shall always remember 
Cincinnati with wonder. Its whole water front was 
encumbered with packages of every description, 
waiting to be loaded on the numerous steam vessels 
moored at its floating wharves, the foreign imports 
or the domestic produce of the Miamis concentrat- 
ing on this point. The hurried arrival and depar- 
ture, singly and in squads, of a whole battalion of 
drays ; the unremitting labors of hands loading and 
unloading the vessels in port ; the incessant ringing 
of bells as signals to the passengers or the crews 

* The population of Cincinnati at this time was 36,338. — Editor. 


of the boats; the brief and abrupt interchange of 
business among the clerks on board and those be- 
longing to the mercantile houses of the city, this 
gives the stranger an idea of the marvelous busi- 
ness carried on. When I add that thousands of 
dollars' worth of eggs are exported to New Orleans, 
that as early as 1805, 4,457 barrels of flour were ex- 
ported, and that the pork packing which has made 
it famous was begun as early as 1812, and that manu- 
facturing is also a feature of the city, some idea of 
its importance may be gained. 

We were told, anent the pork packing, that in 
1827, cart loads upon cart loads of spare ribs from 
these packing establishments were drawn to the 
water's edge and emptied into the Ohio to get rid 
of them. The influx of Germans and the rapid in- 
crease of inhabitants gradually opened a market for 
these delicacies. 

What was my delight to be informed by one of the 
officers of the boat that, owing to some repairs it 
had been found necessary to make, we should be 
compelled to lie at the wharf over night. Buford 
quickly suggested that we make up a party for a 
drive about the city, a dinner at the hotel, and an 
evening at the theater. One of our party was to 
be a Mr. George H. Dunn of Lawrenceburg, Ind., a 
gentleman to whom I had been greatly attracted be- 
cause of his intelligent interest in the matter of 
internal improvements. My attention had been 
called by Mr. Bulleit to the Miami Canal, the 
earliest and most important of the great works 
connected with Cincinnati, extending beyond the 


flourishing town of Dayton, and which has, for the 
last two years, paid more than the interest on the 
debt incurred for its construction. 

Mr. Bulleit was most enthusiastic over the canals. 
**That sagacious and tranquil people, the Chinese," 
he said, ''have been accumulating the fruits of a 
hundred generations on the subject. Canals are 
with them as ancient as their history. Imagine a 
Chinese woman guiding rapidly along a canal boat 
of ten tons burden. She rows after the fashion of 
the country, with an oar attached to each foot, 
managing the sail with one hand. With the other 
she holds a rudder and thus transports a load which, 
when carried on land, would have required ten teams 
and as many drivers to do it." 

While Mr. Dunn was also heartily in favor of 
canals, having in 1836 induced the General As- 
sembly of his state of which he was a member to 
pass an act authorizing the building of the White- 
water Canal, whose beginning at his city of Law- 
renceburg he promises to show me, he is most en- 
thusiastic over the railroad, and is most desirous to 
see one built between his town and Indianapolis, the 
capital city of Indiana. 1049333 

Our party, consisting of Mr. and Mrs. Buford, 
Miss Caroline Hunter, Mr. Dunn, Mr. Letcher, Mr. 
Bulleit and myself, soon found ourselves driving 
about the city, first through the business portions, 
and then the region of dwelling houses and public 
buildings, from Broadway to Fourth, a row of 
modern palaces, bordering broad, well paved and 
thoroughly ventilated streets. We admired the 


number, variety and beauty of the public buildings, 
the taste and spirit which leaves spaces between the 
private edifices for borders and sidewalks, and 
furnishes an avenue to behold the garden attractions 
in the rear of the houses, the verdure of the grass 
plats, the fragrance of the shrubbery, which deco- 
rates the front of the house, and the exhibition of 
flower vases in the windows of those who have no 
space except the rear of the buildings to cultivate. 
These people, think I, have taste to improve and 
spirit to enjoy, as well as ability to acquire. 

Much impressed were we also by the public build- 
ings, schools, museums, churches, manufactories, all 
triumphs of art and industry. The manufactories 
were amazing, the facilities for the pursuit of 
knowledge unbelievable. The city contains a Medi- 
cal College, a Law School, a Mechanics' Institute, 
many schools, both public and private; pork-pack- 
ing houses, shipyards, where many steamers are 
constructed in the course of the year, and, of 
especial interest to me, eight bell factories, turning 
out bells to the aggregate value of $135,000. Cin- 
cinnati supplies the whole of the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi valley with bells of all sizes and every use, 
making the best in the country, accurately propor- 
tioned in ingredients and having a hanging and 
mounting peculiar to Cincinnati and an unusual 
beauty and melody. While they make many church 
bells, it is for their steamboat bells that there is the 
greatest demand, for it seems that it is the pride of 
every steamboat master to have liis boat equipped 
with a large, sweet-sounding bell, 


Our tour of the city completed, we dined at the 
Shires House.^ 

The city boasts several theaters, but we agreed 
upon Shires' Theater because it was adjoining 
the hotel, and thither, after our dinner, we repaired. 
Mr. Bulleit, a young man of somewhat pompous 
manner and a good deal of commercial knowledge, 
pushed himself next to Miss Caroline as we walked 
toward the theater, and I am convinced would have 
seated himself beside her had Mrs. Buford not 
cleverly intervened, leaving the way open to me. 

This theater has a commodious stage, a spacious 
pit, one tier of boxes for a dress circle and an un- 
commonly large balcony or second tier. The play, 
of moderate interest, was called "Tortesa the 
Usurer." Miss Hunter found much entertainment 
in the notices printed on the play bills, among which 
were the following: *'It is particularly requested 
that dogs will not be brought to the theater, as they 
can not be admitted," and, ''Peanuts are pro- 
scribed. ' * 

I was up betimes in the morning, and hence able 
to observe the cities of Covington and Newport, op- 
posite Cincinnati, both beautiful and flourishing. 
The principal streets of Covington are laid off so 

■This was the predecessor of the historic Burnet House. When 
Judge Burnet transferred his property on Third and Vine to the 
Branch Bank of the United States and removed to his new building 
at the corner of Seventh and Elm, Mr. Shires converted the old 
building into a restaurant and hotel and later built a theater on 
the remaining vacant lot. Tliis last was a plain frame building 
fifty by a hundred feet. It has beeil said that "Cincinnati never 
Baw better playing and acting than on the boards of Shires' Theater." 


as to present the appearance of a prolongation or 
continuation of those of Cincinnati. It is separated 
from Newport by the Licking River. 

Our Quaker friend, Arnold Buffum, had left us 
immediately on our arrival at Cincinnati, parting 
from us, it would seem, with some regret. To me 
and to the circuit rider he expressed, in bidding us 
farewell, the hope that our paths might eventually 
cross during my Indiana sojourn. 

Soon after sunrise, our boat turned from the 
wharf and began to plow its way down stream. 
Twenty miles below Cincinnati, I was told, I would 
see the *'Log Cabin" of Gen. William Henry 


Madison, May 16, 1840. 

HAVING just arrived in Madison, I shall pro- 
ceed to jot down the incidents of my journey 
from Cincinnati to this town, before retiring 
for the night. 

I came on deck early in the morning after our 
evening at Shires ' Theater in order to have one last 
look at the Queen City, and that I might not miss 
a sight of North Bend and the famous ''Log Cabin" ; 
and as a reward for my early rising was the witness 
of several amusing and interesting incidents. Cin- 
cinnati had faded from our view and we were again 
gliding past wooded island, perpendicular cliffs and 
happy valleys, when our steamer was hailed by two 
fellows at a lonely landing, and turned in, as was 
the custom, with a great puffing and churning of the 
waters. As we rounded to, one of the fellows 
shouted to the officer to know if the boat was bound 
for Louisville and if he would take any kind of 

"What do you want taken?" asked the officer. 

**Not much," replied the fellow, "a grist mill, a 
sawmill, two churches and a carriage and horses." 

The officer, thinking the fellow a practical joker, 
became infuriated, cursed him roundly, and ordered 
the boat to back away from the landing. Then the 



man explained that the mills piled up on the landing 
did not weigh more than 400 or 500 pounds apiece, 
and that the two churches were himself and his 
brother, whose name was Church. At this, the 
officer was propitiated and took them and their be- 
longings aboard, for it appears that a rough sort of 
joking is peculiar to these Western river men. 

It was on this morning, too, that we saw great 
rafts of logs, which I was assured come from afar 
in the interior, down small streams swollen by the 
spring rains, and are now on their way to the Gulf. 

North Bend, the home of Gen. "William Henry 
Harrison, was founded by Judge Symmes,^ to whose 
daughter Harrison is married. 

Here is a postoffice and a thriving circumjacent 
settlement. Judge Symmes is interred on the sum- 
mit of a knoll which is beautifully conspicuous to 
miles of the river and country around. 

The location of the famous "Log Cabin" is a 
beautiful one. It is in reality a log cabin, but has 
been covered with boards, has large wings added to 
the original building, and the whole structure, 
painted white, is quite palatial looking. It is ex- 
tremely neat, and stands in a noble lawn with large 
trees about it and has a fine view of the river. 

The circuit rider, Mr. Hicklin, who knows Gen. 
Harrison well, gave me much information concern- 

* Judge John Cleves Symmes of New Jersey in 1787 purchased of 
Congress what is known as the Miami or Symmes tract of 1,000,000 
acres lying between the Great and Little Miami Rivers and bordering 
on the Ohio, where he started the second settlement made in Ohio. 
In the great freshet of 1789 Symmes found that his town site was 
imder water and in 1790 began another settlement at North Bend, 
first called Symmes City. — Editor. 


ing him. It seems that he is much interested in the 
Methodist ministers and Mr. Hicklin has in his pos- 
session a letter from Gen. Harrison to a friend 
which he permitted me to read and from which I 
make a few notes. 

^'I have been a witness," he wrote, **of their con- 
duct [the circuit riders] in the Western country for 
nearly forty years. They are men whom no labor 
tires, no scenes disgust, no danger frightens in the 
discharge of their duty. The vow of poverty is not 
taken by these men, but their conduct is precisely 
as it would have been had they taken one. Their 
stipulated pay is barely sufficient to enable them to 
perform the services assigned them.'* 

The circuit rider narrated an incident illustrating 
Gen. Harrison's kindness. A Methodist minister 
traveling through southern Ohio had passed the 
night at his home. In the morning, he was informed 
that his horse had died during the night. Gen. 
Harrison bade him farewell, expressing his con- 
dolence over the loss, and the sorrowing .minister 
left the house to find waiting for him at the gate, 
one of the general's own horses, a parting gift, ac- 
coutered with his own saddle and bridle. This is but 
one of his many benevolences. Small wonder that 
he is held in such high esteem! 

Asking for details of his life, for I must confess 
that we in the East have heard little and thought 
less of this Western Indian fighter, I was told that 
he resigned his commission in 1814, that two years 
after he was elected to Congress, then in 1824 state 
senator in Ohio, in 1828 had been appointed min- 


ister to Colombia, South America. The fact that he 
had won the battle of Tippecanoe, which battle field 
it is my intention to visit, as well as Vincennes, the 
city which* was the capital when Gen. Harrison was 
Territorial Governor, increased my interest in this 
hero of the Western country. 

On his return from South America, Gen. Harrison 
retired to this farm, by no means rich, having never 
asked nor received compensation for his services in 
the Tippecanoe expedition, and here, contented with 
the honors acquired by years of pathetic devotion 
to his country, he has lived, employing himself in 
rural occupations and at the same time gathering 
from the soil his support, which others, if not more 
selfish, yet more careful of their own interests, have 
secured from the emoluments of office. 

In person, he is tall and slender ; his eye is dark 
and remarkable for its expression, his manners, 
plain, easy and undemonstrative. 

I listened most eagerly to this description, for I 
had not been unaware on my progress westward of 
the increasing enthusiasm over our Whig candidate 
in every town and village, an enthusiasm which, I 
am convinced, would astound both Democrats and 
Whigs in our Eastern states. 

As we approached Lawrenceburg, Ind., the home 
of Mr. Dunn," that gentleman suggested that I go 
ashore with him during the period in which freight 

'George H. Dunn (1797-1854), born in New York, came to Dear- 
born County in 1817. Member of the Legislature in 1828-1832. 
Member of Congress, 1837-1839. State treasurer from 1841 to 1844. 
He and Governor Bigger revised the code of Indiana and later he 
served as judge of the Circuit Court.— Editor. 


was being taken aboard and view the town and the 
Whitewater Canal, of which the people were so 
justly proud. Lawrenceburg, situated in Dearborn 
County, occupies a position in a broad expanse of 
most fertile bottom lands, back of which there arises 
a ridge and range of hills towering perhaps 100 
feet above the valley, from which is presented a 
picture most grand to behold, the broad and ex- 
tended bottoms coursed by the Great Miami, the 
town with its graceful spires pointing heavenward, 
the majestic Ohio flowing beneath the towering Ken- 
tucky hills. The town was laid out in 1822, and 
at one time was the seat of justice of Dearborn 
County, which honor was transferred in 1836 to 

The soil of the county is a rich loam, very produc- 
tive, and corn and pork are largely exported. 

While the river, I was told, frequently overflows, 
driving the inhabitants out of their houses or to the 
upper story, this period of the flood, from ancient 
custom and from the suspension of all customary 
pursuits, has become a time of carnival. The floods, 
instead of creating disease, wash the surface of the 
earth and are supposed to be rather conducive to 
health than otherwise. 

At the present time the chief interest of the town 
is the Whitewater Canal. In January, 1836, when 
the news came that the internal improvement bill 
had passed the Indiana General Assembly, a great 

* Those who desired a division of Dearborn County moved the 
county seat in 1836 to Wilmington. In 1843 the county was divided 
and Ohio County organized, and Lawrenceburg again became the 
county seat of Dearborn County. — Editor. 


celebration was held in Brookville, between wbicii 
town and Lawrenceburg tlie first construction was 
to be made, with speakings, illuminations, ringing 
of bells, roarings of cannon, bands of music; and 
again in September, when the ceremony of ** break- 
ing ground" was held, with a barbecue and a speech 
by' Governor Noble. Mr. Dunn spoke here, he in- 
formed me, and the editor of a Richmond paper 
gave an original verse: 

There is not in the wide world a valley so sweet 
As that vale where the branches of Whitewater meet; 
Oh! The last picayune shall depart from my fob 
Ere the east and the west forks relinquish the job.* 

The first boat to reach Brookville and Lawrence- 
burg was the Ben Franklin, which arrived June 8, 

Mr. Dunn gave his carpet bag to a negro boy and 
together we strolled about the streets. 

The first brick house was erected in the city by 
Dr. Jabez Percival. It is a substantial two-story 
building with walls three feet thick. The Hunt 
Tavern was the first three-story brick building in 
the state, a matter of pride with the people of 
Lawrenceburg. Of particular interest to me were 
the Miami Mills, whose brand of flour has become 
noted for its excellence, not only in the United 
States, but in the West Indian Islands and South 
American ports. It is said it will remain sweet for 
months in tropical climates, while other brands sour. 

Viewing these many interests and the canal pro- 
viding a channel for business from the interior, I 

* John Finley in the Richmond Palladium. — Editor. 


am convinced, with Mr. Dunn, that Lawrenceburg, 
with its many interests and advantageous location, 
is destined to great commercial supremacy. 

As we passed along the streets, Mr. Dunn fre- 
quently paused to greet his fellow citizens and to 
present me to them as a stranger from the East 
making a tour of the state. One of them, a rather 
portly gentleman, on learning that I had been in 
Washington, inquired at once if I were acquainted 
with John Quincy Adams. ''Those who know us 
both," said he, ''assure me that for form, size, 
features and complexion, I strongly resemble that 
*old man eloquent' and children often call his por- 
trait 'Judge Cotton.'^ Another resemblance," he 
added, "we both poetize readily when aroused by 
any particular emotion, and if similar circumstances 
had surrounded both, who knows — ?" 

As we passed on Mr. Dunn informed me that 
this rather eccentric old gentleman had the habit of 
poetizing on religious, temperance and political 
topics, and also on various happenings in the 
county, and when we entered his office a few mo- 
ments later, he showed me some of these effusions. 
One written on Andrew Jackson, in 1832, ran: 

The hero of Orleans has once been elected 

To preside o'er the Union, and more than expected — 

Ability and skill he has clearly displayed 

Yes, even to those who him President made. 

■The Judge Cotton of this meeting published in 1858 a collection 
of these poems with a short autobiographical sketch and a brief 
history of the early settlements of Dearborn County, called "Cotton's 
Keepsake," now much sought after by those interested in the state's 
early history. — Editor. 


Let Clay and the bank against him conspire, 
They can't put him down nor raise him much higher; 
Let us he independent, keep our money at home, 
Re-elect Andrew Jackson and let aliens roam. 

Among others, I met Mr. Gregg, publisher of the 
Political Beacon, a most zealous AVhig; Dr. Robert 
Gillespie, a Scotchman, graduate of the University 
of Edinburgh and a leading physician of this 
locality; Ebenezer Dumont, a most promising young 
lawyer, so Mr. Dunn informed me, *'an organizing 
genius," said he, 'Svith fertility of expedient and 
sleepless mental activity." This young man, learn- 
ing that I was going to Vevay, gave me a letter to 
his mother, Mrs. Julia L. Dumont, a well-known edu- 
cator and widely famed in the East as a writer of 
both prose and verse. So many did I meet that 
of the remainder only a few names remain in 
my memory, Tousey, Tait, Dunn, Sparks, Burk- 
ham; many of them suggesting Southern antece- 

The warning whistle recalled me ere I was nearly 
through with my sightseeing, and bidding a hasty 
farewell to Mr. Dunn, whom I had come to esteem 
most highly during our too brief acquaintance, I 
made haste to return to the steamboat. 

There was still the usual concourse of passengers, 
for while some had left the boat others had come 
on board, and in clianging groups we chatted on the 
various subjects of the day. My attention was 
called to Rising Sun, a village near Lawrenceburg 
whose location, on high bottom land, is particularly 
beautiful, set as it is among primeval forest trees — 


gigantic sycamores, wide spreading elms, and grace- 
ful beeches. 

The next small village to which my attention was 
called was Patriot, whose principal families I was 
assured by a member of the Universalist Church 
whom I had encountered on the boat, a follower of 
Erasmus Manford, he informed me, who at this 
very time was making a tour of Indiana, were of the 
liberal faith, excellent people and practical Chris- 

They loved the truth, said he, loved to talk about 
it, and loved to attend services at the sanctuary. 
That place, he declared, was an oasis in the desert 
— no controversy, no denunciation, but peace, love 
and harmony combined. 

Though reared strictly within the tenets of the 
established church I have acquired, I flatter myself, 
considerable broadness of view on religious matters 
at the University, stamped as it is mth Jefferson's 
broadness of view, so that I listened at this follower 
of a new faith with considerable interest, realizing, 
however, with what horror such expressions would 
be heard by my friend the circuit rider. 

A gentleman from this town here left the boat 
after bidding me farewell, a Mr. Daniel H. Howe.^ 

He had been most obliging in pointing out various 
interesting features of the country to me on the 
voyage down, among others mentioning the Rising 
Sun Insurance Company for marine, fire and flat- 
boat insurance, which struck me as an interesting 
novelty. He urged me at parting, should I make a 

®The father of Judge Daniel Wait Howe of Indianapolis. — Editor. 


return voyage up the river, to stop off at Patriot 
and during my stay there make his house my 

As the Universalist turned away, I observed Mrs. 
Buford and Miss Hunter sitting near the rail, Mrs. 
Buford idle, as usual, and Miss Hunter engaged in 
a species of handiwork which, I learned, upon in- 
quiry, was a *'rachel," a convenient sort of head- 
gear made of soft yarn, very elastic and partaking 
of the various natures of cap, bonnet, and hood. 
This article was of the shade of the blush rose which 
tinted her rounded cheek, and will, I feel assured, 
be most becoming to its wearer. 

The moment seemed propitious, since their almost 
constant attendants, Bulleit, Letcher and Buford, 
;were absent, to announce my plans. Mr. Hicklin, 
the circuit rider, had suggested to me that instead 
of continuing on the boat to Madison, as first 
planned, that I leave it with him at Vevay, visit that 
town, and proceed on horseback along the river road 
to Madison, which method of travel would give me a 
better idea of the country, the road now winding 
through forest, now emerging into the open and 
more cultivated country, and giving me my first 
opportunity of seeing the manners and hearing the 
idioms of the ignoble and vulgar. 

Madison, he assured me, was well worth a stay of 
some days, being an old town and a seat of culture, 
and while there he besought me to make his house 
my home. 

''Oh, then, sir," cried Mrs. Buford, *'if you are 
to leave us so soon, you must write in our albums. 


We spoke of it the other day. I'll run to bring mine 
and yours, Caroline. Mr. Letcher and Mr. Bulleit 
inscribed their names this morning while you were 
viewing Lawrenceburg. " 

*' Affection's Gift" was the title inscribed on the 
blue and gilt morocco covered volume which bore 
Miss Caroline's name, and ''The Laurel Wreath'* 
in red and gilt was Mrs. Buford's volume. 

As I suspected, Mrs. Buford's volume was filled 
with ardent sentiments, either original or ''se- 
lected," from admiring swains who had evidently 
laid their hearts at the feet of Miss Jane Hunter; 
Miss Caroline's with sentimental verses from young 
females, her schoolmates, though an occasional 
Thomas or Charles indicated the possession of ad- 
mirers, who, however, addressed her in a much more 
delicate and formal manner than did the admirers 
of the less reserved Mrs. Buford. 

Buford, who had come on deck,' laughed as he 
looked over my shoulder. 

"Females are naturally sentimental," said he. "I 
consider such a request a mere bait for flattery." 

"Not at all," cried his wife. "I can not help what 
they write — I could not help it, I mean, but what I 
want is just something to remember them by, the 
handwriting, the name — " 

"A mental daguerreotype," said the shy Miss 
Caroline, blushing as she spoke. 

If this was to be my mental daguerreotype — I took 
thought as I sought the cabin of the steamer where 
were ink and pen. I too, though I had not confessed 
it, like the old Judge Cotton, occasionally "poetize" 


under stress of emotion. If this was to be my men- 
tal image, what should I reveal? Slowly I dipped 
quill into ink and wrote. 

(To Miss Hunter) 

As to the distant moon 

The sea forever yearns, 
As to the polar star 

The earth forever turns; 

So does my constant heart 

Beat but for thee alone, 
And o'er its far-off heaven of dreams 

Thine image high enthrone. 

But, ah ! the moon and sea, 

The earth and star meet never ; 
And space as deep and dark and wide 

Divideth us forever. 

I managed to put the book into her hands when 
she was alone. 

**One promise I exact," I said; ''that you do not 
read my lines until I have left the boat at Vevay. 
You will?" 

"I promise," she said, almost inaudibly and, 
blushing deeply, slipped away toward her state- 

Our parting was commonplace enough, taking 
place as it did in broad daylight, on deck, in the 
midst of the crowd. 

"Our lines may cross again," said Buford cheer- 
fully. "We are thinking of prolonging our stay in 


the North and making several visits. Our first 
stop will be with Caroline at her home in New 
Albany. ' ' 

Miss Hunter said nothing. Her little hand quiv- 
ered as I held it in mine for a moment, but I could 
not see her eyes for the long lashes resting on her 
cheek. New Albany! I shall visit that town. 

The village of Vevay is on a beautiful site. The 
river has a majestic curve, and the level plateau on 
the shore corresponds to its semi-circular sweep, 
while around its periphery stand, like guardian sen- 
tinels, a range of noble hills. The object of the col- 
ony was to find a place in the New World for rais- 
ing the grape, and vineyards were soon set out in 
the wilderness. The wine made from these vines, 
dressed and trimmed according to the Swiss man- 
ner, is said to be of the very best, and superior to 
the claret of Bordeaux. The names of the inhabi- 
tants indicate their Swiss origin, Dufour, More- 
rod, Thiebaud, and the old Swiss customs are still 
preserved. These people, I am informed, are very 
energetic, and brought with them a healthy disposi- 
tion to enjoy life so that their homes present a 
marked difference to those of other river towns. 
The houses are well built of brick or wood stoutly 
finished, no log cabins or slightly built wooden 
houses, they are set in acre lots with fruit trees, 
grape vines on ornamental arbors, flowering shrubs, 
beds of flowers, climbing rose bushes and honey- 
suckles, and all displaying scrupulous cleanliness 
and exquisite neatness. Some of these homes I vis- 


ited, and to another, altogether different and equally 
interesting I went with a letter given me by Mr. 
Dunn to Mr. Joseph Gary Eggleston/ 

This was a two-story brick house in a square of 
ground about an acre in extent, or perhaps a little 
more, planted in fruit trees, grape vines and the like. 
The office (Mr. Eggleston was a lawyer) was a small 
brick structure on the grounds a little way from the 
house. The house had a little porch and a beautiful 
doorway leading into a hall whose graceful winding 
stairway at once struck the eye. I found Mr. 
Eggleston at home, and his already warm greeting 
increased in cordiality when he found that I, like 
himself, was a Virginian. He was the son of an 
old planter family, his father a captain in Wash- 
ington's army, and he had taken his degree in arts 
at William and Mary College and had studied law 
in Judge Tucker's school at Winchester. He had 
sought the West to see what use he could make of 
his natural and acquired gifts in a region then the 
promised land to young men of character. He has 
a fine library, among whose books I noted Gibbon's 
miscellaneous works. My chat was a most enjoy- 
able one ; he told me much of the Wabash country, 
and at parting gave me a letter to his cousin. Judge 
Miles Gary Eggleston of Brookville, said to be the 
most famous judge that ever held court in the 

I next turned my steps toward the home of Mrs. 

'Father of Edward Eggleaton, author of "The Hoosier School- 
master etc. and of George Gary Eggleston, author of «A Rebel's 
Recollectiona," "Recollections of a Varied Life," etc.-Editor 

From a drawing by Wilbur Briant Shook 


Julia C. Dumont,^ bearing the letter which her son 
Ebenezer had given me. 

I found Mrs. Dumont at her home, rocking in a 
chair, a little cape around her shoulders, talking 
rapidly and enthusiastically to the group of pupils 
before her on some plan for a debating society. The 
hour was late and yet the pupils lingered without a 
thought of time. The affection and veneration in 
which she was held by them was evident on every 

She quickly dismissed them on my arrival and, 
smiling as she perused her son's letter, she asked 
me to tell her of my journey from the East. For- 
getful of the hour, we sat in the gathering twilight, 
as she told me of her early experiences in the wil- 
derness, of the school she had started for the benefit 
of her own children and because she loved to teach, 
and of the celebrated litterateurs who had come 
from Cincinnati, and even Philadelphia, to visit 

Returning to the inn, I sought my couch early, and 
the next morning the circuit rider and I were on 
our way, on horseback, along the river road to Mad- 

* Mrs. Julia C. Dumont, the first Indiana poet whose work haa 
been preserved, was the daughter of Ebenezer and Martha D. Corey 
of Rhode Island. She was born in 1794, and her early life was 
spent in Greenfield, N. Y. In 1812 she was married to John Dumont 
and removed with him to Indiana territory, where she entered upon 
that heroic struggle in behalf of education and culture that has 
wedded her name to the history of the educational movement in 
Indiana. Mrs. Dumont wrote with equal facility in prose and verse, 
and Eastern publishers were always ready to pay her liberally for 
her productions. — Editor. 


Space is lacking to give details of tlie journey, but 
I do not need to set it down; it is forever imprinted 
on the tablets of my memory. The air was soft and 
warm and heavy with the perfume of the wild plum 
and the hawthorn. The giant trees, sycamore, elm 
and beech, interspersed with black walnut, hickory 
and sugar maple, towered aloft, overgrown with a 
tangle of wild grape vines. Willows edged the banks 
of the river and the small streams that often crossed 
our path. Here and there a group of tall pecans 
reared their heads heavenward. The pawpaw and 
the persimmon were familiar to me, and the circuit 
rider, to w^hom the woods were as an open book, oft 
perused, enumerated long lists of plants and shrubs 
growing indigenously in the country, the Indian tur- 
nip, the trumpet vine, Solomon's seal, horse weed, 
blue flag, mandrake, ginseng, and many others. The 
Avoods were full of birds, the robin, the red-headed 
woodpecker, the black bird, the blue jay, and, most 
interesting to me, the paroquet in great numbers, a 
bird with a most brilliant and beautiful plumage but 
a most discordant shrieking voice. Wild turkeys 
and wild duck were abundant. 

Enchanting glimpses of the river, full to its banks 
and sparkling in the morning sun, came to us be- 
tween rifts in the hills and breaks in the woods. 
This road, so Mr. Hicklin informed me, was first 
surveyed in 1799 by Capt. Ephraim Kinney, then 
of Cincinnati. 

The horses which Mr. Hicklin had hired were ex- 
cellent, and we rode briskly, stopping for dinner at 


a cabin, where they gave us a good dinner of fried 
ham and eggs, biscuits and coffee. Everything be- 
tokened a good housewife, a well-cooked meal, set 
on a clean tablecloth and in order. 
Then on again until we came in sight of Madison. 


Madison, Ia., May 21, 1840. 

THE day I was to spend in Madison has 
stretched itself into three, four and five, and 
now that my plans are made for my departure 
and my bags are packed for the morrow's journey, 
I regret most deeply that I must leave this pleasant 
abiding place. 

From many points of view, Madison is one of the 
most interesting towns I have as yet viewed, in its 
beauty of location and natural surroundings, its 
flourishing business conditions, and its prospects for 
the future, to say nothing of the wholesouled hos- 
pitality and cordiality, the culture and intelligence 
of its citizens. 

This is accounted for, I am told, by the fact that 
such a new and growing town in such a new and 
growing country is especially attractive to young 
men, and for this reason Madison has had an influx 
of men of talent and ability. 

The early Madisonians, I was informed, were 
men of rugged will, sturdy pioneers whom hard- 
ship and danger never daunted, with whom to 
conceive an enterprise was only esteemed the 



preliminary step necessary to its accomplishment. 

As Mr. Hicklin still insisted that I should consider 
his house my home while in Madison, and I could 
see that his hospitality was sincere, I accompanied 
him thither on our arrival from Vevay to meet his 
wife, a plain woman, but with beautiful hair, a dark 
glossy brown, disposed in the Madonna style over 
a high and well-shaped forehead. After her warm 
hand-clasp and a look into her clear eyes, I felt no 
atom of doubt as to my welcome, and when I looked 
about the plain room, its rag carpets, its plain but 
snowy curtains, its homely furnishings, the walls, 
whose only adornments were the portrait of John 
Wesley and the minister's framed certificate of or- 
dination, the few precious books, ''Clark's Com- 
mentaries," * ' Summerfield 's Sermons and Sketches 
of Sermons," '' Bright 's Essay," "Doddridge's Rise 
and Progress," I felt the glow of that altar fire by 
whose radiance every homely article was trans- 
formed and given grace and beauty. In short I 
knew myself to be in a home where dwelt goodness 
and mercy, and I could now clearly understand, as I 
had been dimly understanding ever since my meet- 
ing with the minister, why Gen. Harrison, though 
not himself of that faith, could pay so heartfelt 
and sincere a tribute as he had paid in the letter 
I had seen, to the circuit rider of the western 

Another sect, I was soon to learn, had also es- 
tablished itself here and is making itself known by 
its good works, the Baptists, one of whose most 


prominent members, Elder Jesse Vawter/ died here 
just two years ago. 

Another member of this family, Col. John Vaw- 
ter, laid out the town of Vernon and is a resident of 
that town, and pastor of the Vernon Baptist Church. 
As Vernon is the terminus of the railroad on which I 
leave Madison to-morrow, and my plan is to remain 
there for a season, I have letters to this gentleman, 
who will acquaint me, I doubt not, with much I wish 
to know. 

Madison, which is the seat of justice of Jefferson 
County (the county and town named for two of our 
Presidents), is, at this writing, the most populous of 
any other in the state. It is situated on the crown 
of a horseshoe bend, at an elevation above the high- 
est floods. It has about 4,000 inhabitants, is 
handsomely laid out, the houses are principally of 
brick and substantially built, and the streets are 
wide, straight, handsomely graded, paved or mac- 
adamized. It contains a court house, jail, market 
house, two Presbyterian Churches, one Baptist, one 
Episcopal, one Methodist Episcopal, one Methodist 
Reformed, a banking house, a very tasty structure, 
a savings institution, an insurance office, two iron 
foundries, a paper mill, and a steam engine factory, 
an oil mill, a steam grist and sawmill, and a boat 

* Elder Jesse Vawter came to Indiana in 1806 and located on a 
hill overlooking Madison from the north, naming his home Mount 
Glad. He assisted in organizing the first Baptist Church in Jeffer- 
Bon County. "He was without doubt one of the most pious men in 
his day, and as a doctrinal, practical and experimental preacher, his 
qualifications were far above mediocrity." From "History of Baptist 
Denomination." Descendants of this pioneer family are scattered all 
over Indiana. — Editor. 


yard, at which a number of boats have been built, 
about fifty stores and two hotels. It is bounded on 
the north by a range of cultivated hills, 250 feet 
above the river, from w^hich there is a beautiful view 
commanding the river and the Kentucky shore op- 
posite; but, beautiful as it is, I enjoy more looking 
down upon the prospect of the city spread before me, 
the pattern of the streets, delightfully shaded at this 
season of the year, with umbrageous trees. 

Of the citizens I met through the offices of Mr. 
Hicklin, I must first record the name of Gen. Milton 
A. Stapp,^ president of the Madison Savings Institu- 
tion, whom I found a most interesting man. Stapp 
was a Kentuckian, and an old Indian fighter, still 
bearing a scar acquired at the battle of the Thames. 
A\Tiile marching through Indiana in this Indian cam- 
paign, he w^as so much impressed with its possibili- 
ties that in 1816, the year in which it became a state, 
he came to make Madison his home. He told me 
with great pride of his drilling of the Madison 

He is a man of about 47, has served in the Legis- 
lature and Senate of the state, and has been Lieuten- 
ant Governor. He is a fine-looking man, easy of 
access, an active member of the Baptist organiza- 
tion, in politics a AVhig. He is much interested in 
the new railroad and has given me much valuable 
information concerning it. 

* Milton A. Stapp (1793-1869) argued for the building of the 
Madison & Indianapolis Railroad before several sessions of the Legis- 
lature, but without success until the internal improvement act was 
passed Jan. 27, 1836, and work on the road was commenced by the 
state soon after. The road was completed to Vernon June 6, 1839, 
just a year before our traveler's visit. — Editor. 


Because of Madison's location on the river, lie told 
me, and the fact that it is a terminus of various state 
roads, commodities can easily be sent from south 
and east into the interior, to the capital of the state 
and every interior town in fact, much more cheaply 
and easily than from any other point of supply. 
Then, all state products will drift by natural law 
to Madison to be sent onward to the various parts of 
the world by water, thus giving the town a monopoly 
of the transportation system. 

At Madison, it seems, are concentrated six im- 
portant roads, one of them to Vincennes, on the 
Wabash River, one hundred and forty miles above 
its mouth; another, through Brownstown to Bloom- 
ington, in the vicinity of which is seated Indiana 
College, an institution which does credit to the state 
by which it was established ; this road also continues 
to Terre Haute, at the intersection of the Wabash 
with the great National Road, distant from Indi- 
anapolis seventy-five miles; another road extends 
to Columbus, forty-four miles, and thence to Indi- 
anapolis, making the total distance from Madison 
eighty-five miles; another extends to Versailles, 
the seat of justice of the adjoining county of 
Ripley; another to Mt. Sterling, besides the river 
roads to Vevay and others above and villages 

This being the case, Mr. Stapp has foreseen what 
the railroad penetrating the interior would mean to 
a city on that great highway, the river. By its 
means, Madison, already of commercial importance, 

From a photograph 


would become one of the chief cities of the west—* 
a gateway of commerce for the state. 

Although only twenty-two miles have been built 
at this writing, it is the intention to make the other 
point of termination Lafayette, on the Wabash 
Eiver, seat of justice of Tippecanoe County, thus 
bisecting the state in a southeasterly and north- 
westerly direction and passing through Indianapolis. 
It will be, when completed, about 146 miles long, 
and wdll traverse a country of great resources or 
susceptible of being made so. 

The details of the opening of the railroad I 
learned through Jesse D. Bright, a young la^vyer 
near my own age, whom I met most pleasantly on 
the occasion of an evening party given at the home 
of a Mr. Creagh. 

The residence of this gentleman was near the 
modest dwelling of Mr. Hicklin, and I had much 
admired, in passing, the fine old mansion fronting 
on a well-kept lawn shaded by majestic trees, behind 
which lies an extensive garden, rich in fruits and 
radiant with flowers. The charming atmosphere of 
the interior was enhanced by the presence of two 
daughters, delightful girls. The elder. Miss Nancy, 
has blue eyes and blonde hair, a face of Grecian 
contour, and exquisite fairness; the younger. Miss 
Mary, is a pretty creature of about 16, with hazel 
eyes, a soft voice and a light step. The mother, 
Mrs. Creagh, I found, to my delight, a highly edu- 
cated and accomplished woman, whose conversation 
is rich in anecdotes of her personal experience. Sho 


has a clear, broad brow, stamped with intellect. 

Miss Mary, I soon learned, plays charmingly, and 
the two sisters sang several duets for the company, 
much to our entertainment. I requested during 
the evening an old song, a very old one but a 
favorite with me, ''The Last Link Is Broken,'* and 
Miss Mary sang this for me deliciously and with 
considerable science. These young ladies attend the 
Young Ladies' Seminary,^ an institution which had 
been pointed out to me the day before 

This school, I was informed, presented a most 
elaborate course of instruction comprising Arithme- 
tic, Algebra, Geometry, Grammar, Composition, 
Rhetoric, Latin, Greek and French, Natural Phi- 
losophy, Chemistry, Astronomy, Geology, Physi- 
ology, Intellectual and Moral Philosophy, the 
Analogy of Natural and Revealed Religion, History, 
Ancient and Modern, Vocal and Instrumental Music, 
and Painting by Theorem.* 

For the moment, on hearing the glib recital of this 
ponderous curriculum from the rosebud lips of 
Mistress Mary, ''my wonder grew, that one small 
head should carry all she knew," but I was some- 
what reassured after a glance at the small volumes 
to which she called my attention, "Mrs. Lincoln's 
Lectures on Botany," a thin volume entitled "Ele- 
ments of History" and others not nearly so worn 
by use as were the domestic tales of T. S. Arthur, 

"The Madison Young Ladies' Seminary was built in 1838 


* The figure or flower was cut in stencil by the teacher, and traced 
and colored by the pupil.— Editor, 


the popular novelist, several volumes of whose 
works I had noted in the large and well-selected 

It was at this party that I met, as I have said 
before, Mr. Jesse D. Bright.^ 

He was a tall, good looking young man of im- 
perious manner, one destined, I was told by some of 
his admirers, t.o become a leader among men. Being 
almost of an age — for he is but a few years my 
senior — we have found much in common, and he has 
been my almost constant companion during my stay 
here, and has introduced me to many of the most 
agreeable people, Mr. Lanier,*' John R. Cravens, Mr. 
Marshall, Michael Bright, brother of my friend, C. P. 
J. Arion, John King, James McMillan, William H. ' 
Webb, E. J. Whitney, John Sering, and many 

Among the many interesting events of which he 
told me, the most interesting to me was the story of 
the building of the railroad. When the first seven- 
teen miles of the road were completed to a village 
called Graham, arrangements were made for a great 
celebration and an invitational ride for some of the 
grandees of the state, followed by a banquet. The 
passengers, let me note, are carried up from the 
toAvn to the railroad in an omnibus, but an inclined 

'Jesse D. Bright (1812-1875) lawyer, able Democratic politician, 
state senator, Lieutenant Governor in 1843, and later, United States 
senator. — Editor. 

* James F. D. Lanier, founder of Winslow, Lanier & Co., was at 
one time a practicing lawyer in Madison and later president of the 
Madison Branch Bank. He went to New York in 1848 to start the 
banking house which bears his name.— Editor, 


plane ^ is in process of construction — commenced in 
1836 — by which the cars will be let down the incline 
by gravity and hauled back by horses. 

A locomotive for this railroad had been ordered 
from Baldwin Company's works in Philadelphia, but 
unfortunately it had been shipped on a vessel around 
by New Orleans, and during a storm was thrown 
overboard with other freight to save the ship. As 
the invitations to the grandees had already been is- 
sued when this news came, a locomotive, the Elkhorn, 
was borrowed from Louisville, brought over on a 
boat used to transport stone and dragged up the hill 
by five yoke of oxen. The great event was a success. 
The people gathered from far and wide to view the 
sight, the Governor and important officials arrived 
in due time, the trip was made, and on the party's 
return a banquet was held in a building down by the 
river, over which Mr. Bright was master of cere- 
monies. He showed me one of the invitations, which 
he is carefully preserving, and which reads as fol- 
lows : 

"Madison, Oct. 15, 1838. 

"Sir—The Common Council of the city of Madison has 
directed us to invite you to participate with them m a 
festival to be given on the occasion of opening the re^^ular 
trips of the cars on the Madison & Indianapolis Railroad. 

'When the plane was completed the cars were let down the in- 
toTno/ir'S ^"^ »^,^"l^<i b^^k with eight horses driven tandem 
Jn^t •?' P'^'*''' "^ ^'^"^"^ ^" ^'^^SU and passenger cars 

tT t,^r^^*y ^^^ r"^"''^ ™*^^ 1^80' ^t ^hich time c!l. Johu 
Lt S-'^^^^J'.f^Pe/^^tendent of the Jeffersonville, Madison & In- 
danapohs Railroad, issued orders requiring the hill engine to be 
attached in the rear of all cars coming down and going up the i^! 
clme. This order is still effective—Editor ^ ^ ^ 


The hospitalities of the citizens of the city will be tendered 
to you on Monday of the 26th of November next. On 
Tuesday the celebration will take place, and on Wednes- 
day you will be taken on the cars to Vernon on your way 
to Indianapolis. Arrangements will be made to convey 
you from Vernon to Indianapolis if necessary. 

* ' Milton Stapp, J. F. D, Lanier, C. P. J. Arion, Jesse D. 
Bright, John King, Committee. ' ' 

Mr. Bright, I soon learned, was an ardent Demo- 
crat, and when I heard his views on the coming 
election I began to wonder if, after all. Gen. Har- 
rison was so likely to be elected as I had supposed. 
*'True,'' said he, *'the Whigs are noisy and con- 
spicuous ; the tocsin has been sounded and they are 
daily girding on their armor, preparing for the con- 
flict, but they do not realize the strength of their 
foe." Taking up a copy of the Madison Courier of 
recent date, he read me a long editorial, concluding 
with, "Let us leave the subject for the present with 
a firm reliance that the people of the State of Indi- 
ana and of the Union at large will never place an 
individual at the head of the affairs of the only re- 
publican government upon earth, that has and still 
entertains sentiments so diametrically opposed to 
the universal spirit of freedom that pervades every 
American heart." 

As he concluded, most impressively, a sound at- 
tracted my attention (we were sitting in his office), 
and I turned to see standing in the doorway a most 
unusual man, over six feet high, ungainly, with a 
large head covered with a mop of sandy hair. He 
was carelessly dressed, his stock bow awry, his 


trousers twisted, but there was that in his face and 
bearing that bespoke the man of power. He smiled 
rather scornfully. 

''Faugh, Bright, you know as well as I that Gen. 
Jackson turned the ship of state out of her course 
and Mr. Van Buren has kept on. He has been ad- 
monished of danger, been told by several good old 
pilots that he would run the ship aground or drive 
her on the breakers, where she would be ship- 
wrecked, but he seems to fear no evil and to listen 
to no counsel. Thus the country suffers. Business 
is nearly suspended, confidence is destroyed, and 
will never be restored until Gen. Harrison is elected. 
But stay" — he silenced Bright with a gesture — ''I 
did not come for this ; we can talk politics any day. 
I wish to meet your young friend, of whom I have 
heard much." 

This was Joseph Glass Marshall.^ 

For some time, he sat and chatted with us on 
various subjects. Among other things he related to 
me the story of Daniel Webster's visit to Madison 
in 1839, on which occasion he made the welcoming 
speech. A Mr. George Robinson, an orator, editor 
and lawyer, who was present, after hearing the 
speeches, went to his office, wrote both speeches out 
from memory, and returning, laid them before the 
speakers. Both pronounced them exact, word for 
word, a most remarkable performance. 

On the same evening, in company with Mr. Bright, 

"Joseph G. Marshall born 1800, came to Madison in 1828. As a 
lawyer he stood among the very first in the state; his ability to 
present his^ facts m the strongest possible manner was excelled by 


I called at the residence of Mr. and Mrs. Creagh and 
together with the young ladies we sallied forth to 
Paul's Spring, a pleasure resort. This Col. Paul,® 
I was told, was the founder of Madison. 

The spring known as Paul's Spring, to which we 
now bent our steps, is in the heart of the city. Here, 
in 1812, a pleasure resort was established, with 
rustic seats of he^\Ti logs disposed about the 
grounds. Here, I was told, the pioneers indulged in 
dances on the green and wrestling bouts with the 
Indian braves. Every evening, in pleasant weather, 
the population of Madison gathered at Paul's 

The young ladies were most charmingly attired 
for this occasion. Miss Nancy, who walked with 
Mr. Bright, wore a gown of violet satin with the 
skirt immensely full, trimmed with lace, the whole 
veiled by a long lace mantle. Miss Mary's simple 
frock was almost covered by a pardessus of muslin 
lined with straw colored silk and enriched with rich 
descriptions of laces. Under her bonnet rim were 
tucked clusters of violets and rosebuds. I felt my- 
self quite equal to the occasion, for I had dressed 
myself with care in my frock coat of broAvn, with 
high rolling velvet collar, and vest of light buff, with 
striped pantaloons. 

"Col. John Paul (1758-1830) bought the site of Madison in 1808; 
founded Madison in 1810; was a volunteer colonel in the War of 
1812. His home, the second brick house in Madison, is a two-story 
house on the second bank of the river. Mindful of the difficulty he 
had in making a landing, cutting liis way through vine-tangled 
thickets of willow, sycamore and cottonwood, he cleared the trees 
from the terrace reaching from his front door to the river, making 
a lawn 400 x 600 feet before his house. He piped water through 
hollow logs to his house from a spring two miles distant. — Editor. 


'Twas a beautiful night, moon lighted, the breezes 
soft and warm, and we sat for some time on the 
benches, watching the people passing to and fro and 
the gambols of the children. We talked of songs 
and of books. Miss Mary had, just that day, she in- 
formed me, been perusing ''The Laurel Wreath,'' 
a gift book, whose contributors are among our most 
eminent writers, and which is recommended as a 
model of literary excellence as well as moral instruc- 
tion. She plays the guitar, too, she confesses. 

Mr. Bright was in high spirits, he confessed, as we 
strolled homeward, having parted from the young 
ladies, feeling the witchery of the moon. He 
hummed a serenade, then much in vogue — 

Underneath thy lattice, love, at even, 
When the village clock is tolling seven, 
And the stars are gleaming in the heaven, 
Thou wilt hear my light guitar. 
Tra-le ra le ra la la la 
Tra-la le ra la la la ! 

'Tis true she is charming, and so are many of the 
others whom I met at the evening party, but I must 
confess that since meeting one all others, howe'er 
fair, seem insipid. Ah, well ! 

Much impressed with the city, which I learn is 
soon to be visited by Eastern architects who will 
erect handsome residences for some of the town's 
wealthy citizens, I desired much to view the adjacent 
country and learn something of the price of farming 
lands. Since it is my purpose eventually to pur- 
chase land in this state, I intend making careful in- 


quiry into prices and quality of land and market 
facilities in each locality I visit. 

In company with Mr. Bright I rode horseback one 
fine May morning out to Wirt, a village a few miles 
from Madison settled by the "Iron Jacket" Bap- 
tists, among them John Burns and wife and James 
Burns and wife, to call on this same Capt. James 
Burns ^° who, I was told, was the owner of several 
farms and could give me much of the information 
I desired. 

Wirt was named by Capt. Burns for William Wirt 
of Virginia, his native state, which he left early in 
life to come out to Kentucky and thence to Ohio, 
where he was one of the militia of Ohio who kept 
guard along the river at the time of Aaron Burr's 
flight to intercept and capture him. He came down 
to Madison on a flatboat in 1814. 

Capt. Burns 's home is a large frame house with 
two front doors, pleasantly situated on a hillside, 
among forest trees, and was of particular interest to 
the entire countryside at that time because in its 
spacious kitchen stood the first iron cook stove in 
the community. Capt. Burns drove me out through 
the country,^^ showing me the farms, giving prices 
and regaling me with many interesting anecdotes 
from his varied experience. 

Across the road from Captain Burns 's house was 
a graveyard in which Mrs. Burns told me I would 
find the grave of her father. Elder Jesse Vawter, 

" Grandfather of Judge Harrison Burns of Indianapolis. — Editor. 
" It is a matter of regret that our diarisfe neglected to record 
the prices of this farming land. — Editor. 


whom I mentioned early in this diary as a promi- 
nent Baptist minister. I copied the inscription on 
the stone for my father, to prove that, after all, 
Indiana is not so new a country. The lines run, 

"In Memory of Elder Jesse Vawter, who departed this 
hfe March 20, 1838, aged 82 years, 3 months, 20 days. 
He lived in the state of Indiana 32 years. He left sur- 
viving him 4 sons and 4 daughters, 71 grand- and 54 
great-grandchildren. ' ' 

Another drive of interest which I took in company 
with Mr. Marshall had for its object the college at 
Hanover, founded in 1827 by the old-school Presby- 
terians of Salem (la.) Presbytery. The road to this 
institution winds pleasantly along the river and to 
the college up the face of the river bluffs by gentle 
grades and easy curves, from which elevation the 
scene is of most impressive beauty. I had the 
pleasure of meeting the president, the Rev. Erasmus 
D. McMaster, D. D., who informed me that during 
this collegiate year, which would end in September, 
the whole number attending was 105 students, of 
whom five were candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. Mr. Marshall told me much of 
the Union Literary Society and presented me to 
several of the members, among whom I remember 
most distinctly a Mr. Thomas A. Hendricks of Madi- 
son, a most charming young fellow, now in his 
junior year. 

To-day being my last in the city, I made a visit 
to the boat yard, one of the flourishing industries 
ot Madison, and made note of many points in the 
construction of the steam boat and of its business. 

At N)^irt, a few miles north of Madison 


The steam boats on the western waters, it seems, 
are all what is termed "high pressure" and are con- 
structed very differently from those on the Atlantic 
waters, with which I am somewhat familiar. The 
cylinders are generally in a horizontal position. 
The lower deck, on which is the engine and ma- 
chinery, all open, is appropriated for some freight, 
fuel and deck passengers, but the bulk of the freight 
is carried in the hold. On the upper deck, extend- 
ing nearly the whole length of the boat, except a 
small portion forward, is the upper or dining 
cabin, but the details of this part of the boat I 
have set down earlier in my diary. What inter- 
ested me here was what I learned of the life of a 
boat. It is not of long duration. In three or four 
years it is generally *'used up." But they are in- 
dustrious when afloat, running on an average about 
180 days in a year. Their consumption of fuel 
varies somewhat in proportion to their tonnage ; be- 
cause some boats of the same number of tons con- 
sume more than others for this reason, they have 
more boilers. A boat of 100 tons will consume 
about eighteen cords of wood in twenty-four hours. 
The price of this wood in Ohio is $2.50 a ton. 

The monthly wages of a captain or commander 
are $150 a month; of a pilot, $140; of an engineer, 
$125 ; of a clerk, $50, and of a fireman, $25. 

I was informed that the price of voyaging is 
higher by at least 25 per cent than last year, in 
consequence, say the parties interested, of the ad- 
vance of wages and the high price of provisions, and 
when their tables do not present as plentiful a sup- 


ply and as great variety the same reason is assigned, 
**tlie high price of provisions will not permit it.'* 

The hour is late, my candle burns low, and as I 
depart in the morning, and the cars leave the depot 
at 9 'clock, I must now seek my couch. 


Vernon, June 2, 1840. 

1WAS accompanied to the omnibus which carries 
the passengers from the town up to the station 
at the top of the hill on the morning of my de- 
parture from Madison by Mr. Hicklin and Mr. 
Bright, who bade me farewell and gave me into the 
care of John G. Sering, who was acting as Station 
Agent in behalf of the state. The duties of this 
office require him to be on the train each trip, and 
see that all the passengers and freight are duly 
entered on the Way Bill and a copy of the same kept 
on file for the use of the state. This bill, which Mr. 
Sering permitted me to examine, gives the pas- 
senger's name, the number of seats occupied by him 
and his family, if so accompanied, his extra baggage, 
his home, his destination, and the sum paid for his 
fare. Our passengers numbered twelve on this trip, 
stopping at various stations on the route, and the 
sum collected from them was $7.75. 

I previously had met several of the gentlemen on 
the train, among them Mr. Cravens and Mr. Sims, 
who were making the journey together, and they 
showed themselves most agreeable in pointing out 
to me various localities of interest along the line of 
the railroad. A remark to Mr. Cravens concerning 
my journey to a new country indicated that he con- 


sidered tliis country no longer new and he talked 
to me most interestingly of tlie classes of settlers 
who sought it in earlier days. 

"There are three classes in the Western settle- 
ments," said he, "which, like the waves of the ocean, 
have rolled in one after the other. First comes the 
pioneer, who makes a small clearing and builds a 
rude cabin in the primeval forest. The next class 
comes in, purchases the land of the pioneer, who 
pushes on to more distant primeval forests, and adds 
field to field, builds roads, bridges, schoolhouses and 
leads a plain, frugal but civilized life. 

' ' The next class is composed of men of capital and 
enterprise, under whose leadership the small village 
rises to a spacious town or city, adorned with sub- 
stantial edifices of brick." This third wave, he in- 
formed me in conclusion, is now sweeping over large 
districts of Indiana, Illinois and Missouri. 

In pleasant conversation on topics connected with 
the country and political affairs, the time passed 
very rapidly, and by noon I found myself in Vernon. 
The approach of this town is most interesting, as the 
county, named after Jonathan Jennings, the state's 
first Governor, is traversed by creeks, whose borders 
are broken, the hills interspersed with rich alluvial 
valleys and high tablelands or "flats." 

The north and west forks of the Muscattatuck, 
quite a large and beautiful stream, unite with the 
south fork here at Vernon, curving like an encircling 
arm around the little village and shutting it in on 
three sides. 

Having sought the tavern on my arrival and there 


procured, I must confess, an indifferent dinner of 
the ham, eggs, biscuit and coffee, which seems to 
be the universal bill of fare at country cabin and 
village caravansary in the western country, I walked 
about over the town on a voyage of discovery. 

Vernon is a post town and seat of justice and its 
location on the state road, and the fact that it is at 
present a post road, insures it an increasingly pros- 
perous future/ 

It was court week, I learned from the proprietor 
of the tavern, a time when all the people, old and 
young, men and women, assemble at the county 
seat. The chairs before the tavern front were all 
occupied by men who, tilted back against the wall 
under the grateful shadow of the overhanging bal- 
cony, exchanged stories and viewed the changing 
crowd in evident satisfaction. To the hitching racks 
around the Court House lawn were tied the horses 
of the country people, whose women, in gay calicoes 
and flower-wreathed bonnets, often piloting a little 
family, crowded the stores. Farm products were 
being unloaded, freight that had been brought in on 
the train, carried away from the depot to the various 
mercantile stores, in short, the whole scene was one 
of extreme liveliness and ceaseless activity. 

The population of the town is now 350, 1 had been 
told. Besides its large and elegant brick Court 
House, whose lawn is shaded by tall forest trees', it 
has a jail, a stray pound, and a clerk's office, two 
taverns, two mercantile stores, a carding machine, 

* Our diarist's prophecies are sadly incorrect as regards the future 
of some of our early towns. — Editor. 


two physicians, one lawyer, a minister, and a num- 
ber of craftsmen of various trades. 

As I liad been given letters by some of my Madi- 
son friends to Dr. Ezra F. Peabody, I now sought 
him out at his office, which I found to be situated on 
the ground floor of a small building on the public 
square, a large room with shelves on one side of 
which were ranged large glass jars with gilt labels 
indicating their contents, a great mortar and pestle 
for the pulverizing and compounding of drugs, and 
a pair of scales in which, at the moment of my en- 
trance, the doctor was engaged in weighing out a 
quantity of quinine. He is of a gaunt figure, and 
speaks low, as I learned later, and w^ith great slow- 
ness, but is full of easy and interesting talk. 

''Enter, sir, and be seated," he said courteously, 
and having perused my letter, **I am now engaged 
in the compounding of pills for the cure of the ague, 
the scourge of our new country. While it is now 
not so severe as it was at the time of the first settle- 
ment, when it was often so malignant that as many 
as three or four deaths of adults occurred in one 
family in less than forty-eight hours, the long and 
severe chills followed by a burning fever still are 
common and are frequently more than a match for 
our skill. The form which afflicts the settlers along 
the Wabash is known as the Wabash ague, and is 
the most severe known." ^ 

As he talked, he proceeded with deft fingers to 
pour the quinine on an inverted plate, mix it with 
a small quantity of molasses into a thick dough, with 
the aid of a spatula, cut portions of this into bits and 


roll them into pills, dusting tliem, at the last, with 

Among many other things he told me that the 
towTi of Vernon was founded in 1818 by Col. John 
Vawter,^ now an elderly man, to whose home, near 
by, he promised to take me as he started forth to 
make his call. When founded, the proprietors made 
a donation for the benefit of the county, which pro- 
duced upwards of $5,000, by the avails of which the 
Court House, which I had so much admired, was 
erected, as well as the stray pound, the jail, and the 
clerk's office, in which, he told me with pride, is a 
library room with near 200 volumes of choice books. 
After defraying all these expenses, the county still 
has about $500 loaned out at interest. 

Col. Vawter, he told me, like all the Vawters, is 
a peculiar character, very stubborn, but good, honest 
and dependable. He was once subpoenaed as a wit- 
ness in two cases in which a well-known Irish lawyer 
was engaged, in one, on the side in whose favor Col. 
Vawter was to testify ; in the other, on the opposite 
side. In summing up the first case, in which Col. 
Vawter was his witness, the lawyer cried out: 
''And who is this Col. John Vawter? He is the 
marshal of the territory of Indiana, the founder of 
Vernon, and the defender of the oppressed." In 
the other case, the la"vvyer thus apostrophized him: 

'Col. John Vawter, born in 1782, in Virginia; moved to Madison 
in 1807; first magistrate of Madison; sheriff of Jefferson and Clark 
Counties in 1810; United States marshal in Indian campaign, 1811- 
1813; colonel of militia in county, 1817; pastor of Baptist Church 
in Vernon, 1821-1848; in Legislature, 1831-1835; state Senate, 1836; 
moved to Morgantown in 1848; died in 1862. — Editor. 


''Who is this old John Vawter? He is the hireling 
of the United States government, the nabob of 
Vernon, and a secrater of nagers!" 

The pills compounded and put in the pill box, 
which found its place in the saddle bags, Dr. Pea- 
body flung these over his arm and walked with me 
out on to the square. As we walked towards Col. 
Vawter's house, he told me two other facts of great 
interest. One was that a large brick meeting house 
had been erected at a common expense, in which the 
several churches. Baptist, Methodist and Presby- 
terian, convene, each one according to its appoint- 
ment, the oldest having the preference; the other, 
the Jennings County Academy, which was organized 
in 1824 by Dr. Burt, the Rev. Daniel Lattimore, W. 
A. Bullock, Alanson Andrews, the Rev. J. B. New 
and Dr. Peabody, and he pointed out to me the two- 
story brick building with two rooms and an outside 
stairway. A superior class, surely, these citizens of 
Vernon, so early to provide for education by means 
of such a school and a library ! 

By good fortune, we found Col. Vawter at home, 
and he received me with the utmost cordiality. As 
he was just preparing to ride out to the home of 
his brother, a few miles from Vernon, he invited me 
first to take dinner with him, and then to accompany 
him on his journey. 

''There are two different kinds of timber land 
in this county," he informed me, as we set forth 
soon after dinner. ''The flats, as we denominate 
them, are covered with large and tall timber, white 
oak, beech, gum, soft maple, burr oak, hickory, and 


some other varieties, with a thick undergrowth in 
many sections, interwoven with grapevines. The 
second is the rolling land, where grow profusely the 
white oak, the black oak, the beech, the sugar tree, 
the linden, the ash, the black walnut, the white wal- 
nut, the cherry and the poplar, with an undergrowth, 
on the rich bottoms, of pawpaw and an occasional 
large sassafras. On the bottom lands along the 
streams, sycamore, hackberry, elm and buckeye, 

So he talked as we rode, pointing out splendid 
specimens of the forest growth, and the feathered 
denizens of the wood, as well, whose sweet song 
smote the ear — this old man to whom the wood was 
an open book, for, like his father before him, when- 
ever he learned of a new settlement being founded, 
he visited it, and held religious meetings there, some- 
times blazing trees and breaking down underbrush 
to mark his way through the wilderness. 

On May 8, 1833, he told me, there was a killing 
frost, still well remembered, because it had done 
such damage to the timber in certain localities. On 
the *'west flats," the beech grove was almost en- 
tirely destroyed, and in other places, the tops of the 
white oaks were killed. All the fruit was killed that 
year except a few varieties of hardy apples. 

The prosperity of the region was easily explained, 
he said. In the rich alluvial bottoms, corn grew in 
abundance, yielding ample harvests; wheat, oats, 
buckwheat, hay and potatoes flourished, and there 
was ample pasture for mules, horses and cattle. 
The fruit I could judge for myself, for we passed 


orchards of apple, peach and cherry trees, and the 
borders of the woods were full of blackberry vines, 
these berries, he said, being unusually fine and 
plentiful in this locality. 

A few miles along the pleasant country road, and 
we came to the 200-acre farm of William Vawter, 
who was a preacher as well as a farmer. The com- 
fortable house had a pleasant situation on a hillside 
above the road, and we spied the proprietor as we 
approached, sitting on the porch. His old horse, 
Farmer, the colonel called him, stood at the 
hitching block— they had evidently just returned 

He greeted me cordially and called his wife, who, 
he said, was engaged in making soap, and on my ex- 
pressing an interest in the proceeding, she took me 
around to the back of the house, where a young 
woman was watching a bubbling mass in a great iron 
kettle over a fire of chunks of wood. Nearby was 
set a box of wood ashes, and she showed me how the 
water draining through a hole in the bottom of this 
box made the lye which, combined with the waste 
fat from the kitchen, made a soft soap for house- 
hold use, and also a fine hard soap of which she, had 
great quantities improving with age, in the garret 
of the house. She pointed out to me the flourishing 
orchards, the two fine springs with which the place 
was blessed, and her old horse, Fanny. She was a 
woman of great intelligence, I soon discovered, and, 
what I imagine is unusual among the women of the 
countryside, a great reader. I noted later some 
books on the table, among them one of the edifying 


volumes of Mrs. Sigourney, as we went into the 
room to our supper. 

For to supper these hospitable people insisted that 
we should stay, and we did full justice to the buck- 
wheat cakes fried on a griddle over the fireplace, and 
eaten swimming in fresh butter and sirup made that 
same spring from the sugar trees in their grove. 

As we rode home slowly in the gathering twilight 
Col. Vawter, who, by the way, possesses a most en- 
gaging and persuasive personality, broached a new 
idea to me. 

*'In a few days,'* said he, *'I am going to start 
on a journey, and I should like much to have you for 
a traveling companion." He then proceeded to tell 
me that, being a most enthusiastic Whig, he had de- 
termined to attend a monster Whig meeting to be 
held at the place known as the Battle Ground, the 
scene of Gen. Harrison's great victory over Te- 
cumseh. This is to be a meeting of unbelievable 
numbers and enthusiasm, he assured me, and it 
would be the greatest of misfortunes for a visitor 
from another state to fail to see it. 

When I demurred at the distance, and mentioned 
the fact that that point was included in my itinerary 
later, he waved this aside with a ''Pooh! What, sir, 
would the vacant Battle Ground amount to, com- 
pared with a sight of it crowded with troops of men, 
all followers of our candidate?" and with some of 
that ''stubbornness" which Dr. Peabody had as- 
sured me was a characteristic of the Vawters, pro- 
ceeded to arrange our plans as though I had already 


*'Tlie distance is nothing, sir," lie declared. **I 
could ride it in a day, but, an old preacher, you 
know" — and his eye twinkled — ''inclines to stop here 
and there. It may be a wedding he is wanted for, 
or a funeral to be preached, or some old friends 
met unexpectedly, so it will be well for us to start in 
time and give ourselves two or three days at the 

"Horseback will be the better way," he replied 
to my next question. "I think, sir, that I am cor- 
rect in asserting that travelers through the interior 
of our state find that the most convenient, sure, 
economical and independent mode of travel. Their 
own convenience and pleasure as to time and place 
can always be consulted, and were time alone to be 
considered, we should probably do better on horse- 
back, for the statements of stage, steamboat and 
canal boat agents are notoriously uncertain. More- 
over, even this late in the season, the stage coach is 
like to become mired, or overturned, and, finally, 'tis 
a hopeless task to undertake to convince an old 
preacher against his will! And I myself can and 
will provide you, my dear young sir, with a most 
excellent beast." 

Col. Vawter then proceeded to tell me for how 
long a time he had been a staunch Whig and follower 
of Harrison. When Gen. Harrison was nominated 
for the presidency in 1835, Col. Vawter called one of 
the very first meetings in the interest of his candi- 
dacy at Vernon. And the reason for this is worthy 

tL'^'^li k\Z ''^^^^'"'^ ^^'^^ '^ '' ^«t known in 
the East, that Clay never received the support of 


the church people of Indiana, the Quakers, Baptists, 
Presbyterians and Methodists, as they all, and 
especially the preachers of these sects, were con- 
tinually finding fault with his drunkenness, his 
gambling, his profanity and other immoralities with 
which he was charged. They charged that in every 
question that arose during that quarter of a century, 
Clay threw the weight of his influence against good 
morals, and from him and such other characters as 
Van Buren, Webster and Buchanan, these church 
folk turned to look with hope to Gen. Harrison. 

This, then, explained to me this old minister's en- 
thusiasm. At the convention held in Indianapolis 
on Dec. 14, 1835, he had called the convention to 
order, giving it over then to a Mr. Clark, a relative 
of the great George Rogers Clark.^ 

From that time, as this convention. Col. Vawter 
assured me, was really a reunion of the veterans of 
Tippecanoe, the feeling waxed warmer and warmer, 
several papers carrying from 1835 to 1840 as a 
motto the words, *' Uncompromising Hostility to the 
Re-election of Martin Van Buren. ' ' 

By the time we reached Vernon I had decided in 
my mind what he had already taken for granted, 
that I would be his traveling companion on this 
journey. I was, he declared, to remain in the town 
several days as his guest, and then go with him to 
Battle Ground, leaving my baggage behind me at 
his home. I will confess that these days were in- 
finitely delightful. At various times I rode in the 
country with Col. Vawter, viewing the farm lands 

^Marston G. Clark.— Editor. 


and inquiring as to their values, on one of these 
occasions meeting Mr. Allen Campbell, who had oc- 
cupied a farm near Vernon since 1817. In the town 
I made the acquaintance, among others, of Thomas 
J. Storey, who was in the war of 1812, and who had 
come to Vernon as a house builder in 1820; Mr. 
Smith Vawter, owner of one of the mercantile stores, 
a peculiar and most interesting character; John 
Walker, the recorder of the county; Simeon Robin- 
son, who was a notary public; Mr. Baldwin, a mer- 
chant, and a most interesting young man, a mem- 
ber of the Christian Church, so he told me; Hick- 
man New, a cabinet maker, whose father, Jethro 
New, had come here from Delaware, through Ken- 
tucky, in 1822. Another gentleman of the same 
name, of whom I heard much, was the Rev. John B. 
New, a highly esteemed minister of the Christian 
Church, who had left Vernon only last year. 

I spent some time roaming over the beautiful hills 
about the town and along the banks of the Mus- 
cattatuck, whose most picturesque spot I found to 
be the Tunnel Mills, a place of great natural beauty, 
where the hill is tunneled through in order to lead 
water through from the Muscattatuck to provide mo- 
tive power for the stone mill on the other side, a 
tall and most imposing structure. This and the 
graveyard, a peaceful spot on a hillside overlooking 
the Muscattatuck, whose graves, overrun with 
myrtle and shaded by trees, dark against the west- 
ern sky, presented a picture on which I was never 
tired of looking. After an excursion such as this, 
.the words of the poet Horace constantly recurred 



to me, when I thought of the town of Vernon, "Ule 
terrarum mihi praeter omnes angulus ridet."* 

''This little corner of the earth pleases me beyond 
all others." 

In this graveyard I found the graves of two 
soldiers of the Revolution, born in Virginia. 

I shall take neither the time nor the space to 
record in detail our journey to Battle Ground, for 
some of my steps I shall retrace later. Suffice it to 
say that we passed through the town of Shelbyville 
and Indianapolis, the capital of the state, over a 
road known as the Michigan Road, on which we con- 
tinued to travel for some little time after leaving the 
latter city.^ 

I regretted much not being able to see this city, 
but, arriving there after dark, we stayed the night 
at a farm house on the outskirts and left at day- 
break the next morning. However, my regret was 
tempered by the thought that this city was included 
in my itinerary and that I had planned a stay there 
of some days, later on. 

I found Col. Vawter a most entertaining com- 
panion, a man of great energy of mind, very explicit 
in his views, of much humor and excellent common 
sense. As he prophesied, we did indeed tarry by the 
wayside in the early part of our journey, for thia 
and for that. We stopped at country inn and cabin, 

*Our diarist evidently had a gentleman's knowledge of Latin. — 

* It i8 a matter of regret that Mr. Parsons failed to set down 
this route. He might have taken one of several. It is highly 
probable that Col. Vawter chose the more often used road through 
the northern part of Boone County and through Crawfordaville. — 


sometimes with good, sometimes with bad fare and 
lodgment, and at the end of our journey, my aged 
companion, inured to the hardships of backwoods' 
travel, showed, to my shame, far less fatigue than 
did I. As for the rain which fell, almost continu- 
ously, that only gave him food for exposition on the 
greater safety in horseback travel over the stage 
coach, in such weather. 

His spirit was shared by the multitudes who 
joined us at Indianapolis and farther along the way. 
Thousands of them there were, some on horseback, 
some on foot, those from Indianapolis carrying a 
splendid banner presented them, on leaving, by the 
ladies of that city. Some who joined us were in 
wagons, in huge log cabins mounted on wheels, in 
long canoes painted and decorated with party em- 
blems. One group was preceded by a full rigged 
ship, the Constitution, drawn by six white horses. 

Among the men, so Col. Vawter told me, were 
revolutionary soldiers, heroes of Fort Meigs, sur- 
vivors of Tippecanoe. And it was my good fortune 
to hear some of these last named describe the battle 
—the attack, in the darkness that is greatest just be- 
fore the dawn, the heavy firing, the loud voice of the 
Prophet urging on his men, the charge, the repulse 
of the enemy, their flight— the pursuit and the burn- 
ing of the Prophet's town— as I heard these stories 
from the lips of the heroes, my heart thrilled and I, 
too caught the fire of enthusiasm for their cherished 
leader ! 

Arriving finally at the battle ground, we sought 
the elevated point of woodland said to have been the 


site of Gen. Harrison's headquarters twenty-nine 
years before, and discovered the whole woods and 
the lower level of the prairie for a long distance to 
be filled w^itli tents, wagons, flags, banners and 
streamers, in the midst of which lay the plat of 
ground encircled by a board fence, where rest the 
bodies of those who fell in the great battle. 

Among the countless attractions, the barbecue had 
for me the greatest interest. In one great trench 
were cooking whole carcasses of shoats, sheep and 
oxen, dressed and spitted, with carvers continually 
cutting and serving with their long sharp knives. 
In another trench, burgoo, a rich and well-seasoned 
soup of many ingredients, was boiling over a slow 
fire. Three tables, each 100 yards long, were 
heaped with the food, and with corn and wheaten 
rolls, all this bounteous supply free to all who 
came, and, again and again, the table company was 
changed and the supply renewed until at last all 
were filled. 

Then, and not until then, did my friend Col. 
Vawter mount the platform, and with his great 
voice, rich and full, call the multitude together and 
invoke the blessings of the Lord upon them, intrust- 
ing the meeting then to Gen. Jonathan McCarthy. 
Col. Vawter had already told me on our journey the 
story of Spier Spencer and his Yellow Jackets and 
when I saw the procession of the heroes of Tippe- 
canoe who, clustered together, came forward at this 
moment to the speakers' stand under the tattered 
banner of that fallen hero brought hither for this 
purpose, the tears sprang to my eyes. 


There were many speeches at this meeting, and 
much singing, but more than the rounded periods of 
Mr. Brooks and the other orators of the day, was 
the sight of the people, from Michigan, Ohio, Illinois 
and Kentucky, who had traveled through mud and 
rain so long a distance to show their allegiance to 
the hero of the West ! 

As we rode homeward, more rapidly this time, 
our talk was all of the Whitewater Valley, toward 
which I would next turn my steps. 

m THi unm mmm 

Ever If mati to his teni!^^ 


Are lo meet upon tlir R \ PTl L Uf f I) Ol J IPPE( A^OE on tht 


To welcome the Old Soldiers once more to that scent- of sflory, where everlasting benefitB 
were wrouglit in blood for Indiana? 

■oiin.', thp p^r and pooror. (none can say rich now.) are already providing Iheir "br«ad and 
n. I Do V ou knuw tKst thai one Ihine « hich ftw havo in theie Snb-Tri-nstiry liro«. will not 

> will once more eDlist undtir thebaaoer of bim who is b«'io*cd br his old no 

■, became be is lilerallj ' one of q»— one of the People— one who tills his own land— one posMiwed ol tnw 
- parting nitb (he brsToliUle hand who fougbt 

» old iwldicrs, and despised liy lAe 

^polkd b." Socb is tbe^an. such Ibc daj and occaston Tor which we meet to£ 

rippecanoc Battk FwM. Who 

From the original in the Indiana State Library 


Brookville, June 6, 1840. 

1WAS sufficiently weary from my long horseback 
ride to welcome the information that I could go 
by stage coach from Vernon to Greensburg and 
thence to Brookville, even though, as Col. Vawter 
warned me, the vehicle was built more for hard 
usage than for comfort, and that the roads were 
frequently corduroy. That term at the time, hap- 
pily, meant little to me, for we have few in Virginia, 
and I have traveled over them only on horseback in 
this state. The ** corduroy," I knew, is the settler's 
way of making the mudhole passable. Ten-foot 
rails are made of good timber, oak or ash, split wide 
and laid close together across the grade with a little 
soil thrown on the rails to level up and hold them in 
place. Sometimes a full half mile of swampy road 
is corduroyed, and I was soon to learn the sensation, 
first of rapid travel along a comparatively smooth 
stretch of level upland, a swift descent of a steep 
hillside, then the indescribable bump, bump, bump 
of the vehicle as the wheels leap jarringly from one 
log to the next. Infinitely better than being mired, 
no doubt, but I doubted many times on this journey, 
whether it had not been wiser to keep to the horse, 
for the roughest traveler I have ever bestrode has 


never given me such a shaking and drubbing as I 
received on this stage coach journey. 

However, there is always some good to offset the 
ill, as I long ago learned from my favorite Robinson 
Crusoe, and on the stage coach I found several inter- 
esting companions and learned much of the customs 
of the country. 

One sight that greatly astonished me, but which, 
I was assured, was not an uncommon one, was a 
large drove of hogs that was being driven to the 
Cincinnati market. As I had already seen these 
great pork-packing establishments in Cincinnati, I 
was doubly interested in this, and was amazed when, 
in the distance, I heard the sound of the approach- 
ing army of porkers. Later, as we were drawn up 
at an inn, I saw them pass by along the road. The 
word '^army" rightly describes them, for there were 
from two to three thousand in a drove, and ten days 
or two weeks are required to drive them from this 
part of the country to Cincinnati, according to the 
conditions of the roads. 

Falling into a conversation with a gentleman of 
much dignity of carriage and intelligence of conver- 
sation who I learned presently was Mr. Abram T* 
Hendricks,^ a graduate of Hanover College, whicli 
I had so lately visited, and at the present time the 
prmcipal of the Greensburg Academy, I was given 
much mformation by him concerning this "hos 

The weighing of them is a very slow and tedious 

». \?^ "fS.^'^"" ^'■- Hendricks entered the ministry He was a 
brother of Thomas A. Hendricks, Vice-President of the LitS S^es 


process. One hog is caught at a time, and put into 
a pair of harness breeching, with steelyards hooked 
into the big rings, and a lever attached to the steel- 
yards to hoist the hog to be weighed. This process 
is so tedious that many times whole droves are 
''guessed off" without weighing. A good wagon 
and team are always taken with the drove to haul 
such hogs as may "give out," as they say, on the 
road. The drove, as I observed for myself, extends 
quite a distance, the best travelers in front, which 
sometimes have to be held back, and the slow trav- 
elers and ''heavies," as he expressed it, in the rear, 
with a man at intervals, to keep them in bunches. 
Some of these hogs, he said, are dangerous, wild 

Much cider is made in this country, Mr. Hendricks 
informed me, so there has been no scarcity for the 
"Hard Cider Campaign," a campaign he inter- 
jected, "in which intemperance has become the 
badge of a political party." I had become very 
familiar with the barrels ; now I was to have pointed 
out to me the cider presses. Many of the farmers 
have their own crude presses, just as we have in 
Virginia, a kind of lever press, the apples being 
pounded or crushed with a wooden pestle or maul, 
and the cider pressed out; but at one of our stop- 
ping places, a poor house, and poor fare be it said, 
was a cider mill and press, to which many farmers 
came with their apples, themselves doing the work, 
and paying the mill owner 10 cents per barrel for 
the use of the mill and the press. As cider is an 
essential ingredient of the popular "apple butter," 


as the only vinegar to be procured is formed from 
tlie hard cider, and as every one drinks sweet cider, 
the cider mill is a most important institution. 

While we waited, I examined this mill with some 
curiosity. It has wooden rollers, about twelve inches 
in diameter and eighteen inches long, with large 
grooves cut in them which fit into each other like 
big cog wheels. A crooked pole makes the * ' sweep," 
the small end of which is fastened to the horse. A 
hopper to put the apples in is fastened on the front 
part of the mill, so they fall into the cogs of the 
rollers as they turn around. A five or six-barrel 
poplar trough is placed under the rollers to catch 
the pomace. The heavy beams and posts are made 
of oak, and my attention was called to the fact that 
in this mill there is a great wooden screw, twelve 
feet long and six inches in diameter, eight feet of 
which has an inch thread cut in it, made of black 
gum, the first ever made in this part of the country. 

After the apples have been ground, they are 
placed in a hoop, lined with clean, dampened wheat 
straw and these hoops, like cheeses, are put in the 
press, the weight applied by means of the screw. 
On hot days, said Mr. Hendricks, bees and yellow 
jackets are a terror to the cider maker, as they 
swarm about the press to get the cider. 

I was much entertained, as we rode, by a queer 
character who very soon entered into conversation 
with me, choosing me, I confess, because he sat fac- 
ing me, and conversation seemed a necessity with 
him. He was a minister, I was soon to learn, of 
the Universalist denomination, but of an altogether 


different type from the gentleman I had met on 
the boat, and by whose conversation I had been so 
greatly edified. This gentleman was stout and 
slightly bald ; his stock was awry ; his clothes in need 
of brushing; he talked in a loud complaining voice, 
his theme partly the merits of a Brother Moore 
whom he had recently heard discourse, and' partly 
his disappointment over a journey he had recently 
taken into Illinois. Brother Moore, he informed us, 
*4s one of the brightest stars in the firmament of 
our race, and will soon throw the coruscant beauties 
of an intelligent mind upon the visions of listening 
multitudes. He is about 21 years old," he continued 
so persistently that any other conversation was im- 
possible, "of wealthy and highly respectable parent- 
age, and is now under the educational care of the 
learned, pious, and devoted E. S. Wiley." 

We had but left the miserable dinner at a more 
miserable inn, when this minister burst forth upon 
the fondness of many preachers for food. **What 
goeth into the mouths of too many of our preach- 
ers," he exclaimed, **are the things which defile the 
man; for some are such huge eaters that they are 
continually laboring under dyspepsias and other dis- 
eases of a melancholic and hypochondriacal nature. 
If they would add to their faith a little more temper- 
ance, they would become healthier men, better 
preachers and be less plagued with gloom and de- 
spondence of mind. Show me a man who crowds 
into the narrow confines of a small stomach a little 
of everything (and some are in the habit of filling 
themselves from the four quarters of the globe), 


pork, beef, fowl, fish, potatoes, milk, tea, coffee, rice, 
etc., and I will show you one whose habits will inev- 
itably engender disease, becloud and obscure his 
mind, and render him unfit for strong mental exer- 
cises. We seldom see hearty eaters of pork rise to 
eminence in anything but muscular force." 

As I had observed, at the miserable tavern at 
which he had just dined, that this worthy man had 
partaken largely of the fried pickled pork, the greasy 
potatoes and the wretched coffee, I could not forbear 
a smile, which he failed to observe because of his 
self-absorption. He continued to dwell on his trou- 
bles, no doubt enhanced by this time by the weight 
of the pork, and to recite at length the story of his 
journey into Illinois to hold a meeting, which he said 
*'was completely blotted out" by the appearance in 
the town, on that same day, of one of the candidates 
for the United States presidency. *'He, with his 
attendants," said he spitefully, ''were so much more 
popular with the people of Fairfield than Jesus 
Christ and His apostles that the latter did not once 
seem to be thought of by either saint or sinner!" 

*'What manner of man was he, brother?" in- 
quired a little man in a corner, a new passenger. 

*'He was, indeed, a very genteel looking old gen- 
tleman," admitted the minister reluctantly, ''appar- 
ently about three score and ten, tall and slender and 
plainly appareled. I made no inquiry as to his 
name, but the presumption is that it was either Mar- 
tin Van Buren or William Henry Harrison. ' ' 

"The latter," said the little man blandly, "for 
Martin Van Buren, thinks I, can not leave his golden 


spoons and his silken damask long enough to come 
out among us of the West." 

*'Be that as it may," replied the preacher. ''I 
saw nothing but a man, and could not divine why 
so great a stir was made because a fellow man was 
passing. My meeting was completely blotted out. 
I had a similar experience in Dayton, where I had 
an appointment at candlelight. Forty or fifty thou- 
sand people on the street, all gaping to hear political 
speeches — the streets filled with an almost impass- 
able electioneering apparatus — I did not even stop, 
but returned home to remain until this madness is 
over. ' ' 

He lapsed into silence, and presently Mr. Hen- 
dricks called my attention to some of the scenes we 
were passing. This county, he told me, was named 
for the gallant Commodore Decatur, and was organ- 
ized in 1821. There are no barrens or prairie lands 
in the county ; the face of the country is mostly level 
with gentle undulations, though on some of the 
streams it is hilly. The bottoms are rich, though 
small; the soil of the uplands is generally a rich 
black loam, and the timber consists principally of 
ash, poplar, walnut, sugar tree, oak and beech. 

Greensburg, at which I left the coach, remaining 
there over night, as the coach for Brookville was 
not to depart till the morrow, is a post town and seat 
of justice, situated on the Michigan Road. The 
town is flourishing, and the inhabitants of both town 
and country are very industrious; the dwelling 
houses, I noted, are generally of brick and of con- 
siderable size. 


I spent some time in walking about the town with 
Mr. Hendricks, who took me first to the scene of 
his labors, the seminary, a large, square two-story 
brick structure with a brick cupola and large grounds 
surrounding it. The seminary was erected in 1834. 

Mr. Hendricks introduced me to several of the 
leading citizens, among them Mr. Henry T. Talbott, 
a young Virginian who is filling the offices of clerk, 
auditor and recorder and whose mother-in-law, Mrs. 
Hendricks, had asked to have the town named — as 
it was — after her home in Pennsylvania ; Mr. James 
Morgan, at this time state senator from this county ; 
Mr, Wyatt Henderson, the sheriff, and Mr. Andrew 
Davison, a learned technical lawyer, so says Mr. 
Hendricks, who has no superior at the bar as a 
pleader. He is a Pennsylvanian by birth, and in 
1825, while taking a horseback journey through the 
Western country for his health, he stopped at 
Greensburg perforce because his horse dropped dead 
at this place, and liking it well, he has here remained, 
marrying the daughter of Judge Test. I also met 
Mr. Ezra Lathrop, a very successful business man; 
Dr. "William Amington, a native of New York, who 
had first located in Switzerland County and had only 
this year come to Greensburg, and many others 
whose names have slipped my memory. 

When bidding farewell to Mr. Hendricks, who 
courteously accompanied me to the coach on my de- 
parture, I discovered again my traveling companion, 
the Universalist minister. He was not going on to 
Brookville, but remembering that I had said I was 
to depart on this day, he had come to the tavern 


yard to tell me of a great religious debate which was 
to be held in a grove near Brookville the next day, 
lasting two days, in which one of the speakers is to 
be Brother Winans, who, he assures me, always ''ut- 
ters a good discourse," and ''Jim Johnson, a son 
of Methodism," who, he said, "thinks that my head 
ought to be amputated," the subject to be: "Was 
baptism preceded by faith and repentance, appointed 
by divine authority, in order to obtain the remission 
of sins and induction into the Christian kingdom?" 

The debate, he assured me, would be well worth 
hearing, and I agreed with him that this was doubt- 
less true. I had decided, however, to attend, in- 
stead, a political meeting of which Mr. Hendricks 
had told me, at which the speaker is to be Robert 
Dale Owen of the New Harmony settlement, an- 
nounced to be one of the best of the Democratic 

We were ere long over the county line, I was in- 
formed by my fellow travelers, and into the county 
of Franklin, a county of rolling and broken hills 
watered by the beautiful Whitewater River, formed 
at Brookville by the union of the east fork and the 
west fork, this part of the state being known as the 
Whitewater district. A gentle summer rain had 
been descending since daybreak, and as we entered 
the spurs of the great hills among which, I was told, 
Brookville is situated, I thought mine eyes had ne'er 
been privileged to rest upon a more beautiful scene. 
Occasionally we passed a gentle slope set with the 
graceful beech; the hills, clad in trees of varying 
shades of green, towered high, their tops veiled in 


mist. Between the rifts in the hills gushed little 
streams; in every hollow a pool rested, the hue of 
emerald from the o'erhanging trees. The whole 
landscape was emerald veiled in silvery mist. 

Then, toward noon, the clouds were swept away 
by a brisk breeze, and the warm June sun shone 
forth. Briskly our horses mounted the hills, tow- 
ering more and more grandly toward the skies, and 
we came at last upon serene Brookville, surrounded 
by her amphitheater of hills, a little town of won- 
drous charm, and beautiful in her robe of summer 
green, plentifully besprinkled with the pink of the 
wild rose. 

Here I have tarried for several days, making my 
headquarters at the Yellow Tavern, an inn built in 
early days by James Knight. It is not, perhaps, 
the best caravansary in the village, but I chose it, 
I confess, for somewhat sentimental reasons. Here, 
I am told, in the early days, assembled such famous 
men as George Rogers Clark, Simon Kenton, and 
Daniel Boone. Here has come, many times. Gen. 
Harrison. 'Twas within these walls, my host as- 
sured me, that this leader planned the Tippecanoe 
campaign. To-day, it is a favorite meeting place 
for both Whigs and Democrats, and it is my expecta- 
tion to derive much entertainment from such sources 
in the few days I tarry here. 

The town of Brookville, I have learned, has in its 
brief life known both growth and decline. Founded 
in 1808, it experienced its most flourishing period in 
1820, when the lands in the interior as far north as 
the Wabash River were thrown open and the Land 


Office established in this town. All purchasers, of 
necessity, visited the town -and it consequently grew 
and flourished. The men who were drawn there 
made of it a seat of culture, and many of the state 's 
prominent public men dwelt here. Then the Land 
Office was moved to Indianapolis, a town, it was said, 
set in the wilderness and *' surrounded by a bound- 
less contiguity of shade." 

Then evil days fell upon Brookville, business 
languished, houses fell vacant, and so it stood, 
lapsing into decay until 1833, when with the passing 
of the internal improvement act, and in 1836, the act 
providing for the construction of the Whitewater 
Canal, it experienced new life. I have already 
recorded Mr. Dunn's story of the celebration at 
Brookville on the day of the letting of the contracts. 
At this time, the town being a point of shipment, and 
also a receiving place for supplies, it is flourishing, 
and the people are now looking forward to a canal 
between Richmond and Brookville, the project hav- 
ing been under way since 1837 and some excavations 
for which have already been made.^ 

On my visit to Joseph Eggleston at Vevay he had 
given me a letter to his brother. Judge Miles C. 
Eggleston of Brookville, and as soon as possible 
after arriving in Brookville I hastened to present it 
to that gentleman, who had been appointed presi- 

• Our diarist is probably wrong here. In an article on this canal 
in the Indiana Magazine of History in 1905 James M. Miller says: 
"The lettings took place as advertised, except Section 52, near Brook- 
ville, which, owing to heavy excavations, was not let. I can not 
learn of any work done near Brookville, but on Section 40, near 
Fairfield, the contractors excavated about one and one-half miles 
of the canal down the east side of the river." — Editor. 


dent judge of the Third Judicial District at the 
organization of the state government and had held 
the office for over twenty-one years. As I have 
said before, he and his brother are Virginians, 
liberally educated, and I was told that he is most 
eminently fitted for his position. I found Judge 
Eggleston a good-looking gentleman, rather below 
the middle size, with a finely shaped head, and ex- 
ceedingly well dressed. He received me with the 
utmost cordiality, and on learning that my stay was 
to be brief, iimnediately took me for a stroll about 
the toAvn and invited me to his house that evening 
for tea. I found him excellent company and a man 
who, though of great dignity, enjoys much the telling 
of a good story. From him perhaps more than from 
any other did I learn the story of the growth of this 

One of the first places to which Judge Eggleston 
took me was the brick Court House, a square build- 
ing in the center of which runs up a cupola, on the 
top of which is a carved eagle with spreading wings, 
and within, a triangle, used for a bell, by striking 
on its base with a hammer. The bar, on the ground 
floor, is in two parts, the inside for the lawyers ; the 
outside, paved with brick, for the people, who come 
to hear the lawyers plead. The judge's bench is on 
the west side, nearly to the ceiling. 

As we strolled about the town, conversing on 
many subjects, for he had many inquiries to make 
about Virginia, and I, in turn, was anxious to know 
many things about this new state, he pointed out to 
me, in the center of the town, the home built by 


James Brown Ray, in 1828, when he was a candidate 
for Governor, a house considered at that time so 
extravagant, because of its size and a red and green 
glass window, that it was called *' Ray's Folly" and 
was undoubtedly the cause of his being elected by the 
smallest plurality ever given a Governor in spite of 
his previous great popularity. A similar ''folly" 
had been committed, he said, by Governor Noah 
Noble in ornamenting his front porch with fluted 
iron columns — indication that the populace is the 
same the world over ! 

As it is possible that I may hear this James Brown 
Ray^ speak during the campaign, Judge Eggleston 
has told me something of his character. 

He is very egotistical, very fond of display, very 
fond of sensations. Judge Eggleston told me a 
most humorous story of Ray's riding, when he was 
Governor, at top speed to an execution, waiting un- 
til the young man stood at the gallows, then saying 
to him most impressively, ''Young man, do you know 
in whose presence you stand? There are but two 
powers known to the law that can save you from 
hanging by the neck till you are dead; one is the 
great God of the Universe, the other, J. Brown Ray, 
Governor of Indiana. The latter stands before you. 
You are pardoned." 

Although he is not an old man. Judge Eggleston 
says that he has recently given indication of a fail- 
ing mind, for he dwells continually on a scheme he 

^ James Brown Eay, boru in Kentucky, 1794, moved to Brookville, 
1818, to practice law. State senator, 1822; acting Governor, 1825; 
Governor, 1828-1831.— Editor. 


has concocted since liis residence in Indianapolis of 
railway concentration in that city. He foresees a 
day when railways will be everywhere, and it is his 
crazy idea that they should radiate like a spider's 
web from the center of that city, with villages at 
intervals of five miles, towns at ten miles, and cities 
at twenty miles. 'Tis absurd, and laughable, and 
yet, 'tis pathetic, says Judge Eggleston, to see a 
noble mind, grown old before its time, and its pos- 
sessor become a laughing-stock. 

The present Governor of Indiana, David "Wallace,* 
is also a native of Brookville, having read law in 
Judge Eggleston 's office. 

According to Judge Eggleston, the state never had 
a better presiding officer. 

The tea at Judge Eggleston 's I pass over 
hurriedly, though it was a most pleasant occasion, 
with some of the neighbors invited in. I walked 
home with a young lady fast verging into the sere 
and yellow leaf, and our conversation was not of 
sufficient interest to bear recording. 

On the day I walked about the streets with Judge 
Eggleston we met a young Andrew Shirk, to whom 
he introduced me. He lives just three miles from 
the town, and at Judge Eggleston 's suggestion, he 
promptly agreed to accompany me to the campaign 
speakmg on the next day. Early the next morning, 
therefore, the young man rode into town after me, 
leadmg another horse by the bridle, and we set forth 

^ David Wallace born 1799 in Pennsylvania, admitted to the bar 
llln ^'^^^^^ "^''' 1828-1829; Lieutenant Governor, 1831-1834- 
elected Governor in 1837; Congress, 1841.-Editor 


together in high spirits. Mr. Shirk, I learned, is 
24, just a year older than I; his father was born in 
Kentucky of parents who had come out from 
Pennsylvania and had come into Indiana in 1808. 
His family had assisted in founding the Little Cedar 
Baptist Church, three miles south of town and ad- 
joining their farm, the oldest church hereabouts. 

As it was early in the morning and the weather 
fine, he suggested that we might ride out and view 
it, and so we did. It is built of brick, quite substan- 
tial, and the clay for these bricks, the young man 
tells me, was tramped by oxen. Once they were 
compelled to cease building for a long season for 
lack of nails, and again to build a blockhouse, for 
these first settlers were in frequent danger from the 
Indians. . His grandf athei helped to make the brick, 
and was a deacon and singing clerk, he said. 

It would have been a queer sight, said he, to see 
these first settlers going to church, many of them 
barefoot, others wearing moccasins, the men in buck- 
skin breeches and hunting shirts and caps fashioned 
of fox, possum or coon skin, with the tails hanging 
down behind. As he told me, we both fell to laugh- 
ing loudly, sitting on horseback there in front of the 
church, to think of that procession through the 
woods, and here were we, to-day, quite dandyish 
young fellows, in our bell-shaped beavers, our tight 
trousers, our stocks tied a la mode ! Then suddenly 
sobering, I looked within at the stout seats, the 
ample gallery, the little pulpit high up on the side 
with a tiny window, and then at the gravestones in 
the little graveyard at the side, the bees drowsing 


lazily in the bushes, the gray stones showing among 
the overrunning vines, graves of these men who 
cleared the woods and built this altar to their God ! 

Mr. Shirk I found to be quite an interesting young 
man, and as we rode back to the grove he told me 
many things of interest and much of the young peo- 
ple of the town. When I mentioned that I was to 
stop in Greencastle later, he promised to give me a 
letter to a young man from Brookville, Thomas A. 
Goodwin, who will graduate this year from Asbury 
College in that town, the first out-of-town student 
at this college from Brookville. 

The grove in which the speaking was held we 
found almost filled when we arrived there, people 
having driven in wagons or come on horseback, 
whole families, bringing their dinners and prepared 
for an all-day outing. Mr. Shirk had told me that 
he is a Whig, but, like myself, willing to hear a 
speech on the opposite side. I confess I felt a great 
desire to see the speaker, Robert Dale Owen, con- 
cerning whose settlement I had already heard much. 
Mr. Owen, I learned, is a man finely educated in 
Europe, with a strong, comprehensive and vigorous 
mind, highly improved by education and reading. 
He has been in the Legislature and is considered one 
of the best of the Democratic campaign speakers. 

His arguments were the same which I had heard 
advanced in Baltimore, that the Whig campaign was 
not based on reason, that it made inflammatory ap- 
peals to the people, that it uttered not a word of 
party principle, no reason why Mr. Van Buren J 
should be opposed, but resorted continually to a ' 


clatter of barrels and tincups. Mr. Owen is a man 
small in stature, with a large high forehead, light 
hair and eyes, and prominent features. He looks 
every inch a Scot. He speaks fluently, and, I must 
admit, with some show of reason, and he interested 
his audience, though there were among them some 
boisterous disturbers of the peace. 

It was a pleasant day, and it was with a feeling 
of regret that I parted from my young companion 
at the Yellow Tavern that evening, expecting to 
leave in the morning by coach for Centerville, on 
my way to Richmond. What was my delight to 
hear from the landlord that Mr. Owen is stopping at 
the Tavern and that he wiU be my fellow passenger 
on the morrow. 


Richmond, June 11, 1840. 

NO matter how long my life may be, I never 
expect to spend a more delightful period of 
time, nor a more edifying one than that spent 
in the coach on the day I rode from Brookville to 
Centerville with Robert Dale Owen. I am, I con- 
fess, a hero worshiper. The man who achieves, I 
admire above all others. Half the charm of the uni- 
versity for me, in my residence there, was the im- 
pression Mr. Jefferson had left upon it of his char- 
acter, his personality, and many a pilgrimage did I 
make to Monticello to admire his one-time dwelling 
place and to marvel over his brilliancy and many- 
sidedness. Therefore, I rejoiced from the moment 
the landlord told me that Mr. Owen would be my 
fellow passenger to Centerville. 

The fame of his communistic settlement had long 
since spread to the East, not from the place itself, 
but by means of the many savants from Europe who 
came to our country solely to visit New Harmony 
and the group of notable men who there cultivated 
the arts and sciences, remote from the world. I had 
also been told that some wealthy families of New 
York and Philadelphia had sent their children out to 
Harmony to attend the famous school for the in- 



struction of young children established there by Mr. 
Owen after the plan devised by Pestalozzi. 

Since I had been in Indiana I had heard much of 
Mr. Owen, his education and the wealth of his ex- 
perience, and after having heard him speak, I de- 
sired especially to converse with him. Fate was 
kind to me, for at first we were the only passengers 
in the stage, and soon fell into conversation, and he 
speedily proved so agreeable, particularly on learn- 
ing that I was from another state and on a voyage 
of discovery, that I ventured at last to inquire how 
he had chanced to enter into the political arena, for 
I had heard that he had been elected to the Leg- 
islature in 1834 and twice reelected since that 

**Well," said he, '* 'Squire Zach Wade, farmer 
and justice of the peace, a tall, lank, hardy, illiterate 
but shrewd and plain-spoken neighbor, called on me 
one morning and said, 'Mr. Owen, the neighbors 
have been talking matters over, and we've concluded 
to ask you to be our candidate for the Legislature 
this season.' 

** 'But I am a foreigner,' said I. *It is not nine 
years since I left the old country.' 

" 'Anyhow, you're an American citizen.' 

*' 'Yes, an adopted one. But my birthplace will 
be sure to be brought up against me.' 

" 'Well, it oughtn't to be. A man isn't a horse, 
if he was born in a stable. ' 

"I was very proud of my native country, Scot- 
land, but I knew he meant no harm, so I promised 
to consider it. I liked my neighbors, and I appre- 


ciated the ability concealed under an uncouth ex- 
terior. I don't know what opinion you have formed 
of our Westerners, sir, in your brief stay, but I 
want to say to you that hidden under their eccen- 
tricities are things rare and valuable. I have 
sojourned among the laborers of England, the 
peasantry of France, the mountaineers of Switzer- 
land, but the spirit of man was not there, the spirit 
that can lift up the brow with a noble confidence and 
feel that while it is no man's master, neither is it 
any man's slave. You will find it far otherwise in 
the frontier West. It is an equal you meet here, 
an equal in political rights. Their conversation run- 
ning over the great subjects of the day assures you 
of it. I have heard in many a backwoods cabin 
arguments on government, views of national policy, 
judgments* of men and things, that, for sound sense 
and practical shrewdness, would not disgrace any 
legislative body upon«earth. ' ' 

f I remarked that I had noted this interest in 
political discussions during my stay here. 

"Very true," he replied. "On a hundred oc- 
casions I have addressed and heard others address 
crowds of hardworking men grouped under the 
forest shade, calm, deliberate arguments, lightened 
now and then, it may be, by a few homely anecdotes 
in point — arguments which were listened to with In- 
dian quietude and courtesy, and with eyes riveted on 
the speaker, with sober applause or laughter now 
and then, but no sign of weariness. However much 
such men may, for the time, be stirred by dema- 
gogical sophistry or misled by falsehood, they can 


be guided in the end by a logical appeal to reason 
and common sense. 

**Yes," he concluded with emphasis, **it is this 
class, the agricultural masses, on whom we can de- 
pend. Theirs is the law-abiding spirit; they have 
the pride of ownership in their country's institu- 
tions. It is 'our laws, our Constitution' with them." 

Our road had by now taken us through Fairfield, 
a thriving little post town of about 700 inhabitants, 
which in addition to its mercantile stores, taverns, 
mills of various kinds and carding machine, pos- 
sessed an academy of learning, and on into the ad- 
joining county of Union. 

This is a small county, and when I expressed some 
interest in the juxtaposition of the names of Union 
for the county and Liberty for the county seat I was 
told that the county was named from the hope that 
it would harmonize the difficulties in Wayne and 
Fayette, and that there was no special reason so far 
as known for the name of Liberty. This county 
much resembles Franklin on its western side, along 
which our road lay, and the soil appears to be 
good. The little town of Liberty, of about 500 in- 
habitants, contains professors of many religious 
sects, Methodists, Presbyterians, Friends, Reformed 
Church, Universalists, and here for the first time I 
heard the name of ''New Lights." ^ 

^ "The Christian [Disciples] Church had its origin in Indiana 
early in the Nineteenth Century. It was a result of the protest 
against creeds in the church., It gained its membership largely from 
the Baptist and the Dunkard societies, though many Presbyterians 
and Methodists became members. It is impossible in many instances 
to tell at what point a Baptist church became a 'New Light' and 
then a Disciple or Christian." Esarey. — Editor. 


Liberty also contains a flourishing county semi- 
nary. Brownsville is another post village in this 
county, and then we came to Philomath. Mr. Owen 
had evidently some knowledge of this town, and bade 
me take special note of it as we tarried here for our 

''This town," said he, **was founded in 1833, by 
the Universalists, under the leadership of Kidwell, 
and a session of the convention of the Univer- 
salists of the Western states was held here. Kid- 
well and Manford, of whom you have no doubt 
heard, were violent opponents, and Manford once 
sneeringly remarked that 'it is well known that 
Philomath has been for a long time the city of 
refuge for outcasts of the Universalist denomina- 

"Kidwell has established here a little college and 
a press for the dissemination of their sentiments. 
I'll wager — wait a moment." 

He spoke to the landlord and returned in a mo- 
ment smiling, a small volume in his hand. 

"I thought it would be safe to wager that I would 
find in our good landlord's possession one of these 
volumes, ' ' and he held out to me a small book which 
I examined curiously and one of which I presently 
purchased from Mr. Kidwell himself, going with Mr. 
Owen, before the departure of the stage, to visit the 
press and see the monthly "Philomath Encyclo- 

'"The real cause for the opposition was Kidwell's position that 
Christianity was not dependent upon certain portions of the Old 
Testament nor upon the miracles of the New, a position which 
would meet with little opposition to-day, though at that time it 
provoked violent controversy." Esarey. — Editor. 


pedia and Circle of the Sciences," which he prints 

''Federurbian, or U. S. Sessions, Intended to Pro- 
mote Learning and a Knowledge of Republican 
Principles in the Mind of Our Youth ' ' stands on the 
title page of this curious volume, together with the 
name of the author, Henry Houseworth, Professor 
of Languages and Science in the Western Union 
Seminary, this being the name of the institution here 
founded by Mr. Kidwell. It was published only last 
year, and its contents cover a wide range of subjects, 
being divided into various departments, national, 
biographies, philosophers, miscellanies and ques- 
tions and answers, and containing articles on the 
Declaration of Independence, George Washington, 
the national character of the Mexicans, the crocodile, 
Mr. Adams 's reception at the Court of St. James, re- 
marks concerning the savages of North America, 
and selected verses. I thought it well worth the 
modest sum asked for it, and shall enjoy the sur- 
prise of my Virginia friends when they see a book 
actually published in what they consider so wild a 

Mr. Owen spoke with some feeling of the religious 
controversies now raging in this section of the coun- 
try, and praised the early legislators of the United 
States, *^the noble and enlightened spirits," he 
called them, who framed our Constitution, who 
recognized its sacred claims to free speech and 
equal protection. ''That same let-alone principle 
in legislation," he said, "how great and impor- 
tant are its results! In three little words how 


much wisdom may be contained! Think of the 
legion of horrors that has sprung from that 
monster Intolerance!" 

He had, I observed, a habit of musing for a 
season, and then speaking as though to himself. 
After a time, he roused himself; perhaps it was 
when we had passed through a forest where' jolting 
through bogs, over stumps, stones and corduroy- 
roads made conversation almost impossible, and 
came into a clearing where a few log huts marked 
a new settlement, dead upright trees standing in the 
fields, dense woods all around shutting out the rays 
of the morning and evening sun, and upon my re- 
marking upon the striking pictures afforded by the 
contrasts in these Western settlements, and the 
difference between them and the scenery of my own 
South, the groves of Georgia and Carolina redolent 
with the luscious perfumes of magnolia blossoms, 
the glades of evergreen oak and the savannahs 
clothed with varied wild flowers, or the contrasting 
scene to be found in these same states of brushwood 
copses, sandy barrens, dismal woods of pitch pine 
and untenanted morasses, he replied, with en- 
thusiasm : 

**Ah, but you should see the autumn glory of 
Indiana's forests, the atmosphere of the Indian 
summer, when for weeks not a cloud appears on the 
horizon, and the rays of light are mellowed only by 
that almost imperceptible haze which, the legend 
runs, comes from the red men smoking their pipes 
beyond the pasture ground of the buffaloes. The 
oaks wear a mantle of dark crimson; the creeping 


vines and underwood are dyed vermilion; the 
poplars dressed out in yellow; the beeches robed in 
purple ; a delicate flame color distinguishes the rock 
maple, while the pine stands aside in its somber 
green, and above, a sky of brilliant blue completes 
the gorgeous livery of the scene." 

He fell into silence again, and be it noted, that 
such was my reverence and respect for him that I 
ventured not to intrude myself upon his reverie, but 
waited until his musings again found voice. The 
sight of some women engaged in outdoor work in 
one of these clearings, suggested his next utterance. 

*' Whenever I see women engaged in the hard 
labor that life in the country places entails, I can but 
ponder on their hardships and the injustice done 
them by the laws of our state. No successful settler 
would ever have built up his fortunes and made com- 
fortable his home without the assistance of his wife, 
she who saves while he accumulates, who so faith- 
fully seconds all his exertions with her labors and 
prudent economies. And yet, our iniquitous laws 
take from her, if disease or accident deprive her of 
his sustaining arm, the property which her watchful 
care has mainly contributed to increasing and keep- 
ing together. May heaven speed the day when these 
unjust laws are changed ! ^ 

'Through Mr. Owen's efforts there were procured for the women 
of Indiana, at a later date: (a) the right to own and control their 
separate property during marriage; (b) the right to their own 
earnings; (c) the abolishment of the simple dower of the common 
law and the widow's absolute ownership of the deceased husband's 
property; (d) the modification of the divorce laws of the state so 
as to enable a married woman to secure relief from habitual 
drunkenness and cruelty. — Editor. 


"You are going to Centerville T ' lie asked pres- 
ently, and I somewhat bashfully confessed that I 
had taken that round-about route to Richmond be- 
cause I had heard he was to speak there. 

"You will find in that part of the state," said he, 
"many members of the Society of Friends, and no 
doubt will encounter some discussion on the subject 
of negro slavery." 

This, I confessed to him, I had endeavored so far 
to avoid. I am, I explained, by no means a bigoted 
upholder of this institution, but, in view of all the 
embarrassments and obstacles in the way of emanci- 
pation interposed by the statutes of the slave-hold- 
ing states, and by the social influence affecting the 
views and conduct of those involved in it, one should 
not pronounce a judgment of general and promiscu- 
ous condemnation, implying absolute destitution of 
Christian principle and feeling on the part of the 
slave owner. 

"No, of a certainty, no," said Mr. Owen, and 
lapsed into silence for a season. Then, with a smile 
I had come to watch for, so sweet it was, so indica- 
tive of the man's fineness and nobility, "You seem 
to be a reasonable young gentleman, and open to 
conviction, so we will not discuss the question fur- 
ther. You are now traveling upon soil which the 
Ordinance of 1787 has forever dedicated to human 
liberty; your feet are now set toward two settle- 
ments made by the Society whose upholding prin- 
ciple is that of individual freedom. When you min- 
gle with some of these men, when you have longer 
breathed the free air of our Western country, un- 


tainted by any breath of human ownership of fellow 
beings, I trust, I know, indeed, young sir, that the 
scales will fall from your eyes. 

"We were speaking of the fineness and ability of 
these Westerners under their shell of uncouthness," 
he resumed after a season. *^They have one vice 
which is greatly to be regretted — one which is in 
reality responsible for many of their crimes and 
offenses, the vice of intemperance. Against this the 
Friends have labored, and have indeed started a 
Temperance Society. We at New Harmony* have 
long stood against strong drink. 

*'This claptrap campaign, with its tin cups, its 
barrels of hard cider, would indicate that we have 
yet far to go in this reform," he added with some 

The first settlement in the county of Wayne, I am 
informed, was made by one David Hoover, who came 
out from Ohio, found this garden spot and, return- 
ing, brought back his family and others of his faith 
to find homes in ''The Twelve Mile Purchase," 
made from the Indians in 1810. Centerville is the 
seat of justice, pleasantly situated on the National 
Road, and I confess I was much impressed with this 
place when I first beheld it from the stage, and later 
when walking about its streets. The town is level, 
said to be healthy, and surrounded by fine farming 
land. It contains mills and machinery of various 
descriptions, several mercantile stores, three taverns, 

*"New Harmony in 1826 afforded the first known American ex- 
ample of prohibition of the liquor traffic by administrative edict." 
Lockwood. — Editor. 


several physicians and lawyers, a printing office, a 
seminary and, so I was told, a large number of 
mechanics of almost all descriptions. 

Arriving with Mr. Owen, who most kindly intro- 
duced me to the gentlemen who received him, I met 
at once, I believe, most of the intelligent people re- 
siding in the town and was the recipient from them 
of many courtesies. I had been told at Brookville 
of the Mansion House, kept by Henry Rowan, a com- 
modious three-story brick structure, they said, with 
accommodations in good style, but Mr. Owen as- 
sured me that the Lashley House, a homelike, well- 
ordered, and most excellent hotel, was always the 
headquarters for prominent lawyers, and that there- 
fore it had been named as his stopping place. We 
accordingly put up at this inn, and here it was my 
good fortune to meet, with Mr. Owen, James 
Rariden, Judge Charles H. Test, John D. Newman, 
John B. Stitt, Michael Wilson, Thomas Means, 
Jacob Julian, and his younger brother, George W. 

To this last named young man, just my own age, 
I soon learned, I took quite a fancy, and 'twas he 
who, when Mr. Owen was surrounded by a group of 
men, took me for a walk about the town and talked 
most entertainingly, taking me also to the home of his 
mother, Mrs. Rebecca Julian, whose home is the 
oldest house in Centerville. Mrs. Julian, it seems, 

'George W. Julian, born near Centerville, 1817; admitted to bar, 
1840; Whig, anti-slavery; elected to Congress as a Free Soiler, 1848; 
Legislature, 1845; candidate for Vice-President on Free Soil ticket, 
1852; Congress, 1848-9, '51, '61, '71; surveyor general of New Mexico, 
1880-1890; died in Indianapolis, 1899.— Editor. 


is a remarkable woman of strong character, of whose 
struggles and sacrifices in lier widowhood her son 
spoke most feelingly. This young Mr. Julian has 
taught school for a season, and then engaged in the 
study of the law, and he has just been admitted to 
the bar. I confided to him my similar experience in 
the law, and we soon found much in common. 

He called my attention to many of the houses, the 
brick house of Mr. Rawson Vaile, a teacher; the 
home of Mr. Dill, whose colonial pillars reminded me 
of my own Virginia ; the grand white brick house of 
Mr. Pritchett and many others. 

All of these men and many more I met the next 
evening at the Lyceum, for Mr. Julian promised me 
that if I would wait over for the meeting of the 
Lyceum he would ride with me to Richmond on the 
next day and introduce me to some of the most re- 
spectable families there, and, as I had no letters to 
any one in that town, I gladly availed myself of this 

That morning, the morning of the next day, I had 
the pleasure of observing the joint celebration of the 
scholars of Miss Sarah Dickinson and Mr. and Mrs. 
George Rea, who formed a procession at the Semi- 
nary at 9 o'clock and marched thence to the Metho- 
dist Church, where the address was made by John 
B. Stitt, whom I was also to hear at the Lyceum that 
night. The Centerville Musical Institute provided 
the music for this occasion, and as one of two ex- 
cellent bands had furnished music at Mr. Owen's 
meeting the evening before, I perceived that the 
atmosphere of Centerville savored not at all of the 


backwoods, and that both literature and the arts 
here flourished most amazingly. 

I was the more convinced of this after meeting 
John Finley,^ the clerk of the Wayne County Court, 
to whose home on Plum Street, I accompanied Mr. 

Mr. Finley is a Virginian, I found, a man of genial 
manners, and well endowed mentally. He has writ- 
ten, Mr. Julian tells me, much verse, semi-humorous, 
semi-pathetic, always on homely themes. The best 
known of this is a poem entitled "The Hoosier's 
Nest." He read us some verses recently written, 
*'An Advertisement for a Wife," and at my solicita- 
tion presented me with a copy in his own chirog- 
raphy. Mr. Julian assured me that Mr. Finley is 
not only a poet, but has capabilities for business, 
and is a man highly esteemed by his fellow citizens. 

The Lyceum I found of greater interest to me than 
any form of entertainment I have as yet encountered 
in the Western country — wilderness I shall of a cer- 
tainty not call it, for that would be a misnomer. 
Seat of culture would be a better name for this town, 
with its academies and schools, and its men and 
women of culture and refinement. The Lyceum 
meets weekly in the Court House, at 6 o 'clock in the 
evening, and the public generally is invited to attend. 
The question for the evening was, "Would it be con- 
sistent with the genius of our institutions to add ad- 
ditional qualifications other than the present to the 

'John Finley, born, 1797; clerk of Legislature, 1837; clerk of 
Wayne County Court for seven years; author of "The Hoosier's 
Nest."— Editor. 


right of suffrage in this state?" Last week, I was 
told, the question was, ''Has Congress the constitu- 
tional power to abolish slavery in the District of 
Columbia, and if they have, would it be policy to 
exercise it?" 

The meeting was largely attended, many females 
being among the listeners, and in addition to those 
lawyers I had already met, I here made the acquaint- 
ance of Dr. Richard H. Swain, Dr. John Pritchett 
and Dr. Israel Tennis, Mr. Lot Bloomfield, a promi- 
nent merchant; Mr. Burbank, another merchant; 
Mr. David Commons and a Mr. Samuel Hannah, a 
man, I learned, of much distinction. Mr. Hannah 
was a pioneer of the county and is a member of the 
Society of Friends. He has been sheriff of the 
county, has served in the Legislature, was appointed 
postmaster by John Quincy Adams, and removed by 
Andrew Jackson. He was one of the commissioners 
appointed to locate the Michigan Road. I found him 
a most agreeable and intelligent man, and through 
his offices I was presented to others, among them 
some of the females in the audience, wives and 
daughters of the members. 

The scene was an interesting one. The western 
window and the early hour of meeting made candle- 
light unnecessary in the early part of the evening, 
and the rays of the setting sun shone in upon the 
intent faces of the gathering, some in staid Quaker 
garments, others in worldly clothing of fine broad- 
cloth with high stocks and ruffled shirt fronts, and I 
had to admit to myself that nothing more enhances 
female beauty than the dove-colored garments and 


snowy kerchief prescribed by the religion of the 

According to his promise, Mr. Julian met me be- 
fore the tavern the next morning after the Lyceum 
meeting, and together we took the stage for Rich-, 
mond, which lies six miles directly east of Center- 
ville, on the east fork of the Whitewater. He was 
a personable young man, in his broadcloth garments, 
tall, with black hair, and bright hazel eyes, and while 
I had been at once impressed with his dignity of 
bearing, I had found him fun loving and most com- 
panionable. I asked him at once why he had not 
taken part in the debate the evening before, at the 
Lyceum. He admitted that he had longed to do so, 
but, said he, **I have a seemingly unconquerable 
timidity. I fear to hear my voice in public. Some- 
times I fear I shall never overcome it. I have been 
this long time frequenting the courts, listening to 
arguments, trying to acquaint myself with the cus- 
toms of the profession in the hope that when the 
time comes, I shall dare to address the judge and 

We talked on many subjects as we rode, for I 
found him full of knowledge of many things, and he 
told me how he had worked, because of the priva- 
tions entailed by his mother's widowhood, to obtain 
the means for his education. ''I gathered nuts each 
year, a large crop of walnuts, one fall as many as 
sixteen bushels, and sold the hulls at Nathan Bond's 
carding and fulling mills at 6 cents a bushel for 
money with which to buy my books and stationery." 
And what books! I found to my surprise that he 


was familiar with Plato, Dante, Bruno, Milton, had 
read philosophy, history, biography, sermons. The 
whole range of literature and history was his ! , The 
love of the woods was his, too, and as we passed over 
the fertile country and through the great forests of 
oak, beech, ash, poplar, maple and walnut, he pointed 
out the plants, the flowers, the wildwood songsters, 
with all of which he was familiar. 

The soil of this country, he told me, is a rich loam 
bedded in clay, well adapted to the cultivation of 
grains of all kinds ; it is unrivaled in the exuberance 
and variety of its productions by any county in the 
state, and without doubt, because of the fruitful soil, 
the salubrious climate and its moral population, 
Richmond is rapidly advancing to wealth and inde- 

Arrived at Richmond, I waited at the tavern, the 
National Hotel, while Mr. Julian transacted some 
business before walking abroad with me, and im- 
proved the period by perusing a paper. The Jeffer- 
sonian and WorMng man's Advocate, its motto, 
*' A frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is 
absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of 
liberty," published, so I observed, by a Mr. Samuel 
Eliot Perkins, who I learned later was a most able 
lawyer of the town. The paper, I found to be an 
excellent one, and I perused the foreign news, 
especially, with great interest, having heard little 
or nothing of it since I left Petersburg. 

The Great Western, it seems, has recently arrived 
with intelligence from Europe. Hostilities are 
seemingly threatened between England and the 


Sicilies over tlie sulphur trade. The belligerent at- 
titudes assumed by England and China are unmiti- 
gated, the cause and nature of the quarrel, the 
East India Company's opium trade. A railway is 
planned from London to Bristol, at a cost of $6,- 
000,000. From the United States the news is of a 
tornado which has nearly destroyed the city of 
Natchez, and the arrival in New York of Fanny ' 
Elssler, the most brilliant, extraordinary and cele' 
brated opera dancer in the world. 

As its title would indicate, this is a Democratic 
paper, and the first editorial proclaimed the Demo- 
cratic attitude. ''The Fourth of July meeting," it 
ran, ''must go on. We Democrats, being all hard- 
fisted workingmen, have but little time to spend and 
scarcely any money in making preparations for cele- 
bration, but, though poor, we are honest politicians, 
go for principle, and want no gull-trap shows, 
parades and fandangoes. It will cost us Democrats 
nothing for ribbons, silk stockings and gloves, rufiled 
shirts, etc. We are all plain workingmen and want 
things in a plain, equal, Jeffersonian, Democratic 
way. ..." I also read with some amusement vari- 
ous flings at some of the gentlemen I had just met 
at Centerville, who I inferred are of the Whig per- 

"Rariden, Newman and Bloomfield owe their 
future to David Hoover, Esq., but now that Samuel 
Hannah has come and is elected to a clerkship, they 
cling to him. ' ' 

I had just turned the page when a shadow fell on 
the paper and I looked up to behold Mr. Hicklin of 


Madison, my circuit rider friend, who, saddle bags 
in hand, stood before me. 

"I trusted I should meet you here," said he, **and 
now, we three fellow travelers, Arnold Buffum the 
Friend, you and I shall again sit in converse to- 
gether, for he has even now come into this town. 
And I have other tidings for you as well," he added. 
*'I have but just come from your friend Buford and 
his ladies, and they hope ere long to meet you 


Indianapolis, June 15, 1840. 

GREAT was my joy at beholding again my 
friend, the circuit rider, and also to hear that 
he had so recently seen Buford and his wife 
—his ladies, he had said, but he explained no 
further, and my tongue was tied when I undertook 
to inquire if he had meant Mrs. Buford 's cousin. 
Buford had intimated to me when we parted that 
he and his wife might make some visits in Indiana 
before setting off for the South, so that I had 
cherished the hope of meeting them again and with 
them, the fair Miss Caroline. Mr. Hicklin men- 
tioned several towns which they contemplated visit- 
ing, among them Vincennes, returning thence to 
New Albany. As both these towns are included in 
my itinerary, it is within the range of probability 
that I may encounter them. Mr. Hicklin also asked 
me to go with him on the morrow to Newport, a 
small town in the vicinity of Richmond, where dwells 
a well-known and worthy friend, Levi Coffin by name, 
under whose roof Arnold Buffum is domiciled while 
in this region. I agreed to this, and he bade me 
farewell until the morrow, going on to an appoint- 
ment at some neighboring post town. 

Mr. Julian soon returned and together we set about 
\dewing the town, though, it must be confessed, we 



spent more time and found more interest in an in- 
terchange of ideas, happily finding so much that is 
congenial in our tastes, so many questions for dis- 
cussion, that time sped far too swiftly for our liking. 
While perusing the paper, I had noted the adver- 
tisement of a book store which interested me much ; 
a Mr. D. P. Holloway, a bookseller, had inserted a 
notice in the paper that he had just received from 
Philadelphia a small assortment of books in the 
various departments of literature and science. Mr. 
Julian readily acceded to my suggestion that we turn 
our steps thither, and we did so, finding there much 
of interest. Among the books I noted particularly 
the works of Patrick Henry, Collins' Poems, "Lock- 
hart's Burns," ''The Life of Wilberf orce, " ''The 
History of the Jews," "The Pirates' Own Book," 
"The Sentiment of Flowers," "The Language of 
Flowers." As I opened this small volume with its 
colored frontispiece, a nosegay in a graceful vase, 
and scrutinized the page on which, in a delicate com- 
bination of learning and sentiment, stood first the 
popular name of the flower, then its scientific name 
and botanical description, its language, and a verse 
full of sentiment, expressing the love, constancy, 
affliction, despair, or whatsoe 'er the meaning may be, 
memory carried me back to the day in the inn when 
I had restored a similar volume to its fair owner, 
and I at once purchased the book of Mr. Holloway. 
Well, why not? The bookseller and Mr. Julian 
thought it a gift for a sister, and I did not unde- 
ceive them. 'Tis not beneath a man, is it, to learn 
a language in which the fair sex is so proficient? 


Suppose he is a faint heart, and fears to put into 
words the sentiment he feels for the fair one, what 
more fitting than that he lay at her feet a nosegay 
whose lily, rose, and forget-me-not will breathe in 
perfumed accents his undying love and devotion — 
his prayer that she be his? 

Together with this I purchased an album, richly 
gilt and profusely embellished with engravings from 
the Scripture, as a gift for my mother, and also for 
myself a supply of the gilt-edged paper and quill 
pens for the excellence of which, it is said, Mr. Hollo- 
way is famous. Mr. Julian purchased ' ' The Life of 
Wilberforce," and after our having examined all the 
collection and commented upon each volume in turn, 
we again went forth on to the streets, where Mr. 
Julian pointed out curious objects of interest to 
me, as we continued our conversation, light, 'tis true, 
but with enough sense scattered through it to keep 
it from flying off to the moon. 

In politics, Mr. Julian told me, he is a Whig, and 
acknowledged that in the matter of attending mass 
meetings and. singing Whig songs, he is playing a 
considerable part in this campaign. When I men- 
tioned some of the objections that are made to 
Harrison by the Democrats, he said that one reason 
for his support of him is that he is a poor man and 
will be a better man therefore to administer to the 
poor people in poverty and hard times than Van 
Buren, who is an aristocrat and has high ambitions 
to gain all control in his hands by overthrowing the 
liberties of the people. However, he admits that the 
campaign has resolved itself into altogether too 


mucli of a frolic, into — to use his words — "such 
a jubilant and uproarious expression of the im- 
prisoned mirth and fun of the people that anything 
like calmness of judgment and real seriousness of 
purpose is out of the question in the Whig camp." 

As we walked about the broad streets I was intro- 
duced to members of several of the intelligent 
families of the towm. Among these whom I met was 
Mr. Perkins, editor of The Jejfersonian, in whose 
columns only this morning I had found so much of 
interest and entertainment, and this gentleman, I 
was told and learned also from conversation with 
him, is a man of sound, discriminating mind, untir- 
ing energy, industry and strict integrity. Mr. 
Achilles Williams I met also, who has been in the 
Legislature and is now postmaster, and Dr. John 
Plummer, who is a friend and correspondent of 
Noah Webster, who, he tells me, is about to publish 
a new edition of his great dictionary. Dr. Plummer 
possesses a fine cabinet of Natural History speci- 
mens over which we spent a great part of the after- 
noon. He is a man, I learn, of great benevolence, 
and high moral principles, and we both delighted in 
his conversation. 

Charles W. Starr was another citizen whom I met 
at this time, a Philadelphian who came here in 1825, 
bought a farm of more than 200 acres and laid it 
off in lots. He also established a cotton factory. 
We visited the State Bank, where Mr. Julian is 
known, and here I made the acquaintance of its 
cashier, Elijah Coffin, a friend and patron of educa- 
tion and a most estimable gentleman; Messrs. Leeds 


and Jones, wlio own the paper mill and Jeremiah 
Mansur, a substantial citizen who only last year sold 
his mercantile business and retired to his farm near 

From these gentlemen I learned of the town's 
prosperity and prospects of growth. Only this year 
it has been incorporated as a city, its first mayor 
having been elected last month, and this gentleman, 
Mr. John Sailor, I met and from him gained much 
information concerning the city. 

Richmond's location, I have neglected to state, is 
most attractive, standing, as it does, upon an oval 
crest on the east bank of the Wliitewater, its few 
streets are wide, and its residences well built, in the 
main. Its population is estimated at 1,130. While 
I was most favorably impressed with the flourishing 
business of the town, its factories, mills, foundries, 
manufactories, its many mercantile establishments, 
drug stores, stores of general merchandise, silver 
smiths, and so forth, I was still more impressed with 
the plans made for its future expansion, the Rich- 
mond and Brookville Canal, which I have already 
mentioned, the macadamized roads which are in con- 
templation in various directions, the plans for the 
extension of the town and the erection of new and 
more pretentious buildings. Still more interesting 
and worthy of note is the attention accorded to the 
cultivation of the arts and sciences in this town. 
Its schools, both male and female, are numerous and 
well conducted, and the orthodox Friends, I am told, 
are builcmg m the vicinity of the town a large and 
beautiful seminary. The town also possesses "two 


literary and scientific societies, one of which has a 
large collection of minerals, shells, and other 

The contrast between this and other towns in the 
matter of social life is more noticeable to the casual 
visitor, perhaps, than any other one feature ; this, of 
course, being due to the influence of the Society of 
Friends, whose members compose the majority of 
the population. This I spoke of with Mr. Julian, 
whose mother is a member of this Society, though 
his father was of Huguenot extraction. Over the 
town, said I, I felt the mantle of quiet, of silence, 
and we both agreed that to one not of their faith, 
and unaccustomed to their mode of thought or man- 
ner of life, there seems to be an ever-present feel- 
ing of restraint and repression, both mental and 
physical, a feeling sometimes irksome and uncon- 
genial to a youth of high spirits. 

There is little social life here as we understand the 
word, according to Mr. Julian; no lectures, no con- 
certs ; even music is frowned on as unbecoming and 
even sinful. When written down it sounds far from 
pleasing — to a gay youth, at least — silence whenever 
possible, no ''concord of sweet sounds," the plainest 
of plain costumes, all as different as possible from 
the gay attire, the variety and frequency of enter- 
tainment which characterize my Southern home, 
and yet, I am free to confess at this very moment 
and to set it down in my diary, that even to so 
volatile and spirited a young person as I admit my- 
self at all times to be, and one who had been talking 
most volubly throughout this long-to-be-remembered 


day I fell somewliat under tlie spell of the quiet 
dignity, the careful language, the long silences of 
the Friends, and as to the attire, well, it is true that 
the long soher coats and the broad-brimmed hats of 
the men are not so taking as the blue and brown 
broadcloths, the gay vests, the patent leather shoes, 
and the bell-shaped beavers of the worldly people, 
but of a certainty, the garb of the females, the 
simple robe of dove color, the plain bonnet, the 
sno^\y kerchief crossed demurely, when the costume 
of one as young and fair as Miss Lavinia Cotton, I 
never have seen in the ballroom a gown which could 
compare to it in becomingness ! 

Miss Lavinia, or Friend Lavinia, I should say, 
rode with us to Newport the next morning in the 
stage which carried Mr. Hicklin, Robert Morrison 
and myself to the home of Levi Coffin. Mr. Hicklin 
met me at the tavern, accompanied by the Methodist 
minister then stationed at Richmond, with whom 
he had spent the night, and to whom he now intro- 
duced me. This was Joseph Tarkington.^ 

He had come here from Lawrenceburg in 1839, 
sending his household goods to Brookville by canal 
and from there to Richmond overland. I found him 
a most interesting and discursive gentleman, who 
told me much of the Methodist Church in the White- 
water country, in which he had been preaching the 
Gospel from the time of his early ordainment into 
the ministry. A few years before, he had suffered 
a breaking down of health from hard work and ex- 

^ Father of Mr. John S. Tarkington of Indianapolis. See "Auto- 
l)iography of Reverend Joseph Tarkington.' V-Editor, 


posure, and had been ''located," as they express it, 
in Lawrenceburg, until his recovery, at which time 
he was sent to the ''Richmond Station," as it is de- 
nominated. He spoke of the town's educational ad- 
vantages and mentioned that three of his children 
are attending the Poe school in the basement of the 
Methodist Church. He also mentioned the fact that 
the Friends had not been at the first particularly 
friendly to the other denominations, but were grow- 
ing more so, and he also called my attention to the 
fact that their influence in the matter of dress and 
amusement consciously or unconsciously has af- 
fected the ministers of other denominations who de- 
mand a similar sobriety in dress and amusements 
from their o^vn church members. 

Mr. Morrison, who traveled with us, is one of 
Richmond's foremost citizens, who came early to 
this county, established himself as a merchant, and 
by his frugality, prudence and business talent has 
accumulated a large estate. He is, I am told, a de- 
vout member of his Society and ever a friend of the 
poor. Naturally, the conversation was carried on 
principally by Mr. Hicklin, though Mr. Morrison 
broke through his Quaker silence occasionally to ask 
questions concerning the formation of anti-slavery 
societies in which the circuit rider is engaged. Miss 
Cotton said nothing, not even lifting her eyes after 
the first glance, in which I discovered them to be 
a most beautiful dark blue with eyelashes bro^vn to 
match the heavy bands of hair of which I caught a 
glimpse under the prim bonnet. "Permit me," I 
said once, on restoring her reticule which a lurch of 


the stage had thrown to the floor. ''I thank thee, 
friend," she replied, and her voice was as soft and 
low and sweet as her eyes had promised it should be. 

The day was an interesting one, and I surprised 
myself at the interest I took in the words of Arnold 
Buffum, who seemed truly glad to see my face again, 
although not given to any expression of emotions. 
Mr. Levi Coffin, to whose home we went, has been en- 
gaged for some years in the mercantile business in 
this small thriving town settled by Friends, a sightly 
town wiih many flowing wells which furnish an un- 
failing supply of pure cold water. He is also en- 
gaged in pork packing, and owns an oil mill for the 
manufacture of linseed oil. 

The early settlers of Newport - were, he told me, 
of a positive, determined class ; believing in a right, 
they would maintain and defend it. 

For two principles they had stood from the begin- 
ning, temperance and anti-slavery. The Newport 
Temperance Society was organized in 1830. The 
conviction against slavery also early found an ex- 
pression here, and in 1838 Mr. Coffin established an 
Anti-Slavery Library Society for the collection and 
distribution among the people of books, tracts, and 
other publications. ''It is not a popular cause, '» 
said Mr. Coffin. ''It tries a man's soul to take such 
a stand m these days, when brickbats, stones and 
rotten eggs are some of the arguments we have to 
meet, but our faces are set in that way and there 
will remain." 


I ofttimes thought, during that day, of the amaze- 
ment, the rage, that would have found expression on 
my father's face could he have seen his son hobnob- 
bing with these enemies of an institution he sup- 
ports ! I reflected, however, that I was not alone in 
my position ; the father of my cousin Jonathan who 
has come out to the Wabash country, freed his 
slaves before his death, and had besought his son to 
come to a country free from this curse. I reflected 
also that I could not listen to this talk so calmly 
had I not been more influenced than I had suspected 
by the fairmindedness and the friendliness of 
Arnold Buffum and the really warm affection which 
Mr. Hicklin had so early shown for me, to say noth- 
ing of the weight of Mr. Owen's words on this 

So I sat through the meeting addressed by Arnold 
Buffum, who makes no attempt to organize societies, 
this being the w^ork of Mr. Hicklin, listening some- 
times, though I confess that my mind and my eyes 
strayed frequently to the side of the meeting house 
in which sat Friend Lavinia, who had tucked into 
her kerchief a sprig of the sweetbriar which grows 
against the church wall, another sprig of which she 
held in her slim fingers. A dove, a Quaker dove in 
her soft silk, a rosebud, rather, as yet tightly folded. 
What youth would not wish to be the wooing sun 
and air to unfold this rose, to see, within, the hidden 
heart of gold ! 

To my great pleasure, I learned that Mr. Hicklin 
was on the morrow going on to Indianapolis, and ac- 
cordingly on the next morning we took the stage at 


Richmond to travel together over the National Road 
to the capital city. This would have been my route 
had I continued on by land from Baltimore, across 
Pennsylvania and Ohio into Indiana, through Rich- 
mond straight west to Indianapolis. 

Here I will note that the road presents many of 
the features which marked it in the East. 'Tis true, 
the country is flat, and not so picturesque because of 
this, though most fertile and with many farmhouses 
and villages along the entire route. 'Tis also true 
that the road is still in a somewhat unfinished state, 
and different in that it is cut through what is still 
a new country, but the pageant of travel is much the 
same here as in Pennsylvania. For some years 
there has been a continual stream of movers from 
the East, from Ohio, from different parts of Indiana 
and from the South, into the Wabash country, and 
we passed continually these families, sometimes five 
or ten in a company, wagons, men, women, children 
and stock. The younger women were often driving 
the teams, the men and boys walking by turns to 
drive and look after the stock. Sometimes there 
was also, in the procession, a carriage built very 
high to go over stumps and through streams, in 
which were sitting the older women and the children. 
Sometimes, too, one family would have two or more 
of these great wagons, with their household goods, 
their farming implements, behind which came extra 
horses, colts, cattle, sheep, and sometimes even hogs. 
There were also little Southern carts drawn by 
bony little Southern horses, and now and again the 
stage coach, with its bright paint, its fine teams, its 


heralding bugle. And on tliis journey I had many 
occasions on which to reflect on the pleasures of this 
method of travel, the interesting fellow travelers, 
the edifying conversations, the amusing incidents. 

Our route led us back through Centerville and as 
our stage halted before the Mansion House a great 
number gathered for the mail and to catch sight of 
travelers and visitors, and we spoke again of what 
an eminent political center this town is, and to what 
a future it is destined. 

I had been told something of the first county seat, 
Salisbury, a bit of romance, for, with much opposi- 
tion from many in the county, it was made the first 
seat of justice, and for a season was a flourishing 
town with thirty-five houses, a log Court House and 
jail, taverns, public buildings and mercantile stores, 
all now vanished from the earth, since the transfer 
of the seat of justice to Centerville. 

'Tis said that the site of Salisbury was the tryst- 
ing place of some Indian lovers who were killed by 
a band of pioneers, and that the Indian mother pro- 
nounced a curse upon the place, saying that it should 
not live, but should disappear forever from the face 
of the earth. A second curse also rested upon it, a 
man hanged there, so he declared unjustly, cursed 
the town. By 1826, 'tis said, Salisbury had only ten 
families and ere long these dwindled until now the 
town has completely disappeared, leaving, as the 
bard poetically expressed it, ''not a rack behind." 

After Centerville our next stop was Cambridge 
City, and here a most interesting fact was related to 
me illustrating the change occasioned by the build- 


ing of the National Road. In 1824 a little village 
called Vandalia was established near here and gave 
promise for some years of a flourishing existence. 
When the road was laid out, however, it failed to 
pass through Vandalia, and the town gradually fell 
into decay and was abandoned, the families going to 
the beautifully situated and flourishing town of 
Cambridge City, established on the road. 

Here befell one of the most interesting of the 
many interesting events of my journey, for *twas 
here that a gentleman entered our stage coach who 
we learned later was the eminent Prof. Samuel K. 

'Twas not long till we were engaged in conversa- 
tion, and he told us at length of his theories of edu- 
cation. He had come to Wayne County in 1826, had 
been head of the Wayne County Seminary for 
several years, and had only last year come to Cam- 
bridge City, to become the Principal of its Seminary, 
which he described as large and tastefully con- 
structed. His theories are new and, so it appears to 
me, excellent. His scholars are urged always "to 
give or get a reason for everything you do." He is 
deeply interested in the science known as etymology, 
and when the pupils seem to be wearying of their 
work, he suggests investigation of various words, 
their original meaning and their strange changes on 
their journey down to us. 

* S. K. Hoshour, born in Pennsylvania, 1803. Professor at Gettys- 
burg in 1826; came to Wayne County, Indiana, 1835; head of Wayne 
County Seminary, 183G; teacher of sons of Governor Wallace, Cam- 
bridge City, 1839; President Northwestern Christian University, 
lft58; Superintendent Public Instruction, 1862. Died, 1883.— Editor. 


A stopping place for emigrants on their way to the West 

Pen drawing by Wilbur Briant Shook 


He told us of a book lie had written in 1837, called 
''The Altissonant Letters," which he had composed 
for the purpose of impressing upon the minds of his 
pupils the meaning of the unusual words of the 
English language. In this, as in his other work, his 
purpose was ' ' to make amusement the hand-maiden 
of instruction." Altissonant means high-sounding, 
and the hero, Lorenzo Altissonant, details to his 
friend Squire Pedant, the incidents of a pedestrian 
journey to the West in words which are only oc- 
casionally used at the present day, their meaning for 
that reason being remembered with difficulty. He 
recited some examples, and we made merry over our 
lack of familiarity with some of the words, "the 
ecclesiastic who was to colligate the parties in indis- 
soluble gyves;" *'he was a sexagenary;" **the 
gracility of his crural organs engaged all optics. ' * 

It was with regret that we parted from this inter- 
esting and learned gentleman at Dublin, where he 
was to make an address at the County Seminary. 
This town, though quite small, is the location of the 
Dublin Academy, in a tine brick building erected two 
years ago, and also the Dublin Female Seminary, 
expressly for young females, which is conducted in 
a frame building built in 1836, and which possessed 
the first bell in the county. 

The landscape changed very little as we passed 
from Wayne County into the adjacent county of 
Henry, the land being level and uniformly fertile. 
The houses are frequent along the road, many of 
them of brick, and when I expressed surprise at this, 
I was informed that many of the earliest houses 


were built of brick because sawmills were far apart 
and the use of sawed lumber meant a long haul, 
while bricks could be made at any place where a 
clay bank was available. The architecture of these 
houses followed that of the state from which the 
settler came, so that many of them suggest the 
homes of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia. 
Some of them are set among orchards and sur- 
rounded by gardens, so that the landscape, though 
level, is pleasing. 

I was told, too, the way in which the towns grew — < 
first a blacksmith and wagon shop for the con- 
venience of travelers along the road, then a tavern 
and a general store, in which the postoffice was 
located. From this store peddlers' wagons went 
forth to the more remote settlements. 

Raysville, the next settlement on our way, though! 
small, is pretty and well built and is surprisingly 
thriving. There are several mills (it is situated on 
the Blue River) and a carding machine near the 
town. The most interesting thing noted concerning 
this town is an excellent spring a short distance 
from the town whose waters are brought through an 
aqueduct into the town, there forming a fine fountain 
which supplies the whole town with water. It was 
named after Governor Ray, incidents in whose life 
I have elsewhere recorded. Two taverns are on 
opposite sides of the road, kept respectively by 
Elijah Knight and John Death, and 'tis said by 
travelers ''Knight is on one side of the road and 
Death on the other. ' ' 

And now we came to Knightstown just across the 


river, a post town located after the building of the 
road, which forms its main street and along which 
most of its houses are located. A traveler who 
entered the coach at this point found fault with it 
as a village which had received little attention from 
its citizens. Its streets are wide, said he, but 
muddy, unpaved and unshaded, and many of the 
houses are unsightly, though he admitted that im- 
provement is already beginning to be seen, and other 
passengers said its prospects are promising. 

'Twas here we learned of a most interesting de- 
bate held at this place only a few days ago between 
a young Methodist minister, L. W. Berry, and a Uni- 
versalist minister named M'Cuen. This M'Cuen, it 
seems, is an old theological pugilist who has held 
thirty-four debates with ministers of different de- 
nominations, and he challenged the young Methodist 
to debate with him on the question, ''Will all men 
be holy and happy in the future state?" M'Cuen to 
affirm, Berry to deny. 

Young Mr. Berry had never engaged in a debate, 
but had spent most of his time since the age of 18 
in traveling large circuits as an itinerant preacher, 
so his friends trembled at the thought of his meeting 
this ecclesiastical gladiator. No church would hold 
the crowd that gathered to hear this debate, said 
our informant, so they were assembled in a large 
grove where for three days the speakers discoursed 
alternately. Dr. Berry's discourse, said this man 
w^ho traveled with us, was wonderful. His soul 
seemed to catch inspiration from on high, his lips 
and tongue were touched anew with a live coal from 


off God's altar and his words burned as they fell 
upon the audience. Small wonder that M'Cuen and 
his friends turned pale ! 

With such discourse we passed the time until we 
came to Greenfield, a post town and the seat of jus- 
tice of Hancock County. The town is small but con- 
tains several mercantile stores, two taverns, one 
lawyer, a physician and craftsmen of many trades. 
The town is supplied with water by a very notable 
spring within its limits, and has the advantage of 
mills at convenient distances and on the streams 
which pass through the county. The most notable 
point is the rich, fertile land surrounding this town, 
which is in a very prosperous and flourishing state 
of improvement. Much buckwheat is raised here, 
1,614 bushels I learned and set down as a matter of 
interest; 39,000 pounds of maple sugar and much 
hemp and flax, six and one-fourth tons during the 
last year. Immense crops of flax are sown each 
year by the farmers because the oil crushers buy the 
seed to make oil and furnish it to the farmer, agree- 
ing to purchase the crop when made. Tobacco is 
another important crop, 10,304 pounds being re- 
ported last year, and there is one distillery in this 
county, where 10,000 gallons of whisky were made 
last year. 

'Twas while talking with the traveler who gave 
me this agricultural information that I learned more 
of the disease called ''milk sickness," of which I 
had heard at intervals in this state. It is contracted, 
said he, either from eating beef or drinking milk 
from a cow that has the disease, but no one has ever 


found out how the cattle get this disease. When a 
person gets the milk sickness it is very hard to get 
rid of; some say it will always remain in the blood, 
producing what is known as 'Hhe tires." The per- 
son will feel pretty well, but can stand very little 
fatigue; he fails in strength and feels always trem- 

After Greenfield, our next stop was in Cumber- 
land, a small village in Marion County, just ten miles 
east of Indianapolis, and night had fallen when we 
reached the capital. Our stage drew up before the 
tavern known as Washington Hall, a famous hos- 
telry, so Mr. Hicklin informed me, which has for 
years been the headquarters of the Whig party. We 
found our host, Edward Browning, most agreeable, 
and I am anticipating the morrow's dawning, when 
I may go forth to present the many letters given 
me by friends in the state and thus meet the city's 


Indianapolis, June 18, 1840. 

I HAVE had a great desire to view Indianapolis, 
liaving heard so many opinions of a different 
nature concerning it from friends and travelers 
during my journey in the Western country. Some 
assert, as Governor Ray is said to have done, that 
it is a miasmatic place, ' ' set in a boundless contigu- 
ity of shade." Others declare that its location is not 
only beautiful but salubrious. It would seem that I 
must view it with my own eyes and judge for myself. 
Then, too, there is always much to excite interest in 
the capital of a state, and I have letters and oppor- 
tunities for introduction to most of the respectable 
families residing here, so I have been most anxious 
for the time to come when I might walk about its 
streets and meet its people. 

I will set down first my observations on the city. 
The population, I am told, is 2,692, whereas, accord- 
ing to the ''Emigrant's. Guide," which the host of the 
inn, Mr. Browning, showed to me, there were in 1832, 
just eighteen years ago, only ninety families, an in- 
dication of rapid growth and, in consequence, pros- 
perity. The county, the Guide continues, is an ex- 
act square, a delightful tract of country, presenting 
a level and rich surface. The town is situated on a 



beautiful, fertile and very extensive plain just at the 
confluence of Fall Creek with the White River, 
and the main street,, sometimes called Washington 
Street, and which is the National Road, is 120 feet 
wide. In 1820, Mr. Browning informs me, the whole 
country for forty miles in every direction, with the 
exception of a few unimportant prairies, was a dense 
forest with no settlements nearer than fifty miles, 
and it was through these forests that the first set- 
tlers had to make their way. Naturally they made 
their first settlements near the river, where there 
was less underbrush and but a few thinly scattered 
sugar trees which only required to be deadened and 
the land fenced in order that it might be cultivated. 

Discovering my interest in this settlement, Mr. 
Browning himself pointed out to me the historic spot 
where the first settler, McCormick — although I learn 
that there is a dispute as to whether he or George 
Pogue really came first to this spot — ^built his cabin 
overlooking White River and not far from where is 
now the long and handsome bridge which spans the 
river and affords entrance to the town over the Na- 
tional Road from the west, the road being improved 
by being graded and bridged as far as the town of 
Terre Haute. The first comers to this spot came 
because gf the Indian trails, a half dozen of which 
converged to the mouth of Fall Creek, because of 
a sandbar across the river. 

In my few days* stay here I have been several 
times driven about the city and am charmed with 
its plan. On mentioning to some friends that it re- 
called to me the city of Washington, I was informed 
that this was not singular, since one of the surveyors 


who planned the city, Alexander Ealston, had as- 
sisted Major L 'Enfant in the survey of our national 
capital. This young Ralston later came out to 
Louisville, Ky., then to Salem, la., and thence to 
Indianapolis in 1822, where he became county sur- 
veyor. He and Elias Fordham, a young English- 
man, an engineer, planned the city on a very large 
scale; their plat, it is said, provides for a mile 
square, the boundary streets being known as North, 
South, East and West, a ridiculously large plat, it 
would seem, even to so thriving a population, but it 
may be, Mr. Browning says, and many others proph- 
esy, that it will eventually fill the entire space in- 
cluded in these encircling streets. 

The four central blocks of the city are known as 
the Governor's Square, and at their very center is a 
circle known as the Governor's Circle, on which, 
stands the house of the Chief Executive. From the 
four corners of the Governor's Square four diag- 
onal streets branch out, which run to the four cor- 
ners of the plat, and all these streets are ninety feet 
in width. They are named respectively for the 
states of Indiana, Kentucky, Virginia and Massa- 
chusetts. The streets east and west are parallel with 
Washington (the National Road) and north of it are 
named Market, Ohio, New York, Vermont, Michigan 
and North, and to the south of Washington Street 
they run Maryland, Georgia, Louisiana and the 
bounding street, South. 

After the first two blocks north of and south of 
the main street, or Washington, the streets can 
hardly be dignified by that name. They bear much 


more resemblance to the country roads over some 
of which I have fared. In the very middle of some 
of them the forest trees are still standing ; in others, 
stumps compel the wagon way to wander crookedly 
along, and this same wagon way is rendered ex- 
tremely unpleasant for travel by numerous mud 
holes. South of Washington, and along the part of 
the plat traversed by the creek known as Pogue's 
Creek, the land is extremely swampy, and in order 
to reach some of the houses of men of prominence 
whom I shall name later, it is necessary to pass 
along over corduroyed thoroughfares and skirt 
swampy pastures fringed with willows. However, 
this is all incident to the making of a town on level 
ground traversed by water courses. 

These blocks which are built upon, none of them 
completely covered as yet with buildings, present a 
very pleasing appearance. Some of the buildings 
are surrounded by gardens and give evidence of the 
presence of a sober, moral and industrious commu- 

Of the salubriousness of this town I was soon to 
hear varying opinions. Some declare it a most 
health-giving spot. Others say that it is infested 
with that ague of which Dr. Peabody of Vernon told 
me so particularly. Still others declare that while 
there was much chills and fever at the time of the 
city's settling, such is no longer the case. So I am 
forced to dismiss the subject, unsettled, with the 
hope that I, myself, may not be made the proof of 
the existence of this dread disease. 

The first letter I chose to present was one from 


Mr. Dumont of Vevay, to Mr. Samuel Merrill. My 
reasons for this were several. Mr. Merrill, I had 
heen told by Mr. Dumont, had years ago come out 
from Vermont, his birthplace, to Vevay, had served 
in the Legislature, was elected the state's first treas- 
urer, had assisted in the naming of the capital city, 
and, when the capital was moved to the city in the 
wilderness, as was said at the time, had brought 
with him in a wagon the state's moneys, over the 
long and perilous wilderness road. On the expira- 
tion of his term of office Mr. Merrill had become 
connected with the State Bank. 

On seeking Mr. Merrill at his home on Washing- 
ton Street, opposite the new State House, of which 
I shall have more to say later, I found him all and 
more than Mr. Dumont had assured me I would. 
He introduced me to his family, has invited me to 
his home several times, has presented me to several 
of the principal men of the community, and it is in 
his company that I have viewed much of the city. 
One of the interesting things he has told me is the 
story of his journey from Corydon to Indianapolis, 
a distance of 160 miles, requiring two weeks, on 
account of the difficulties of travel, and on which 
journey he carried in wagons the state's silver, 
packed in strong wooden boxes. 

In my several visits to Mr. Merrill's home, I was 
much impressed with his library, one of the three 
best libraries in the city, I am told, the others being 
those of Calvin Fletcher and James M. Blake, Mr. 
Merrill's being the largest. As to his character, I 
was to hear from others as well as to observe for 


myself, his benevolence, his generosity, his interest 
in all good works. 

Having served as an official in its beginnings, Mr. 
Merrill was most excellently qualified to describe to 
me the most intelligent people in the community and 
to point out the places of interest connected with 
the government. All center naturally about the 
Governor's Square, the Governor's Circle and the 
Governor's Mansion. This mansion, he explained 
to me, because of the publicity of its location, is not 
and never has been occupied as a residence, but is 
used for any social gatherings the Governor may 
desire, and is now occupied by the judges of the 
Supreme Court and is also the home of the State 
Library. He informs me that at the corner of Illi- 
nois and Market Streets is to be found the home of 
Governor Wallace, to whom I have letters from vari- 
ous acquaintances in Brookville, and he has prom- 
ised himself to accompany me to call on this digni- 

Mr. Merrill has given me the history of the new 
State House, very recently completed, and on the 
occasion of my first visit to him he took me across 
the street to view it at close hand. It is a magnifi- 
cent structure, stuccoed and built in the Doric style.^ 

I met at this time, through the offices of Mr. Mer- 
rill, James Blake, the commissioner, a most inter- 

* Our diarist's taste must be at fault here, if we are to credit 
Col. Holloway, who in his history of Indianapolis (1870) declares 
that the style of architecture is unfitted to the level country, that 
the stucco has not withstood the extreme vicissitudes of the climate, 
and that "the incongruous contemptible dome condemns it utterly." 
Mr. Parsons being young and enthusiastic, evidently did not think 
for himself, but reflects the sentiment of the community. — Editor. 


esting man, whose conunercial venture in ginseng 
and later in hemp form an interesting chapter in 
the town's history, and also young Mr. T. A. Morris, 
an engineer who assisted in the building of the State 
House, a West Point graduate, who a few years ago 
organized an excellent military company. This com- 
pany, in their handsome gray uniforms faced with 
black velvet, I have several times had the pleasure 
of seeing drill and parade. 

The Court House, also on Washington Street, and 
two blocks east of my tavern, has been, since its erec- 
tion soon after the location of the capital, the seat 
of the town's business and social interests, so Mr. 
Merrill informs me. It had originally a fine situa- 
tion among beautiful forest trees, but many of these 
have been cut away, others, left unprotected, have 
been blown down, until now almost all are gone, and 
the grounds present a bare and unsightly appear- 
ance. From the years 1825 to 1835 this rather 
sightly two-story building was the only public build- 
ing in the town, and was used for the meetings of the 
Legislature, the Federal and Supreme Courts and 
the county board. Now that these are passed, it is 
still in constant use for meetings, lectures, preach- 
ings, theatrical exhibitions, concerts, conventions 
and balls. To one of these last named, soon to be 
given, I have been invited. 

One of Mr. Merrill's daughters, a most intelligent 
and interesting young female, has been most kind 
to me, and has given me much information concern- 
ing the social side of the city. The family belongs 
to Mr. Beecher's church, and she tells me that two 


of the most beautiful young women in the city are 
members of this congregation. There are in this 
city, she says, many men of the most polished man- 
ners, among them former Governor Noble, who, 
Mr. Beecher asserts, has the finest manners of any 
man he has ever known. Dr. Andrew Wylie,^ pres- 
ident of the State College at Bloomington, a town 
at not a great distance from here, who has lectured 
here recently before the Female Academy, Miss Mer- 
rill professes to admire almost more than any man 
she knows. 

"You should have seen him,'* she said, ''that hot 
June day, walking along in the street in his brown 
linen coat, w^ith a Leghorn hat, beneath whose ample 
brim a breath of wind occasionally stole to play with 
his silver locks; his large, well-proportioned form, 
his broad, noble brow, the domain of high thought, 
the bluff independence of his look and manner. And 
then his address — ^you should hear him engaged in 
argument, and hear the depth of his thought, the 
elegance in which this thought is clad, and his elo- 
quence also. Oh, sir — !" She paused, unable to 
continue. It is my hope that ere I leave this state I 
may have the opportunity to meet this man, to whose 
school I have been told Governor Wise of my own 
Virginia has sent three of his sons, so highly does 
he value the excellence of this great instructor's 

It was this same young lady who informed me of 

'Andrew Wylie, born in 1789 in Washington County, Pennsylvania. 
Came to Bloomington in 1829 to assume the presidency of the Uni- 
versity. Died 1851.— Editor. 


some of the social gayeties of Indianapolis to which, 
through her agencies no doubt, I am soon to be ad- 
mitted. There are, she says, parties, church sup- 
pers, sewing societies, singing schools, something 
continually with which to divert and also to im- 
prove one's self. 

The weather has become quite warm, the heat most 
oppressive, indeed, within the last few days, and 
while passing along the main street yesterday in 
company with Mr. Hicklin, who was bound to a camp 
meeting in the military reservation, a large ground 
in the western part of the city, I stopped at a store 
whose advertisement I had noted in the newspaper 
at the tavern, to purchase some clothing better 
adapted to the exigencies of the weather than that 
with which I am provided. The store is known as 
The Indianapolis Clothing- Store, and is situated on 
Washington Street, the first door east of the Man- 
sion House, and the notice in the paper advised that 
its proprietor had just received from Baltimore an 
extra supply of summer clothing, white and brown 
grass coats, also drab and white linen, Holland and 
gingham coats, together with a splendid assortment 
of muslin, linen and gingham shirts, plain and fig- 
ured satin vests, and also those of marseilles, Va- 
lencia, silk, merino and toilonet. I found an assort- 
ment quite to my liking, and a most genteel propri- 
etor, Mr. Orr, most solicitous as to pleasing, and 
soon made a selection of appropriate garments with 
which to attire myself for the days I intend to linger 
in this city, whose social life is far more extensive 
than I had imagined. 


I soon met, and this too through Mr. Merrill, 
whose kindness was unceasing, Mr. Calvin Fletcher, 
who showed me the greatest courtesy, and on learn- 
ing that I was a stranger come from Virginia to 
inspect farming land in the Western country, as- 
sisted me in every way in acquiring information and 
viewing the environing country. He informed me 
that in 1835 this county contained 1,300 farms, and 
produced 1,300,000 bushels of wheat and the same 
of corn. 

As we drove about, Mr. Fletcher told me much of 
the surrounding country and of the citizens of the 
capital. Born in Vermont, he had lived in Ohio for 
a season, acting there as tutor in a family, and from 
there went to Richmond, Va., to engage in the prac- 
tice of the law. His love for freedom and the rights 
of man soon caused him to feel the atmosphere of 
this state uncongenial, and he returned to the north, 
eventually settling in Indianapolis in 1821, where he 
was the first lawyer to come to the city. From oth- 
ers I learned of his success in the practice of the law, 
of his serving as State Senator, and as District At- 
torney. He is at present sinking fund commissioner 
for the State Bank, which he assisted to organize. 

My acquaintance with Mr. Fletcher I found most 
delightful, the congeniality of our tastes completely 
bridging over the difference in our years. Like Mr. 
Merrill, he possesses an extremely fine and well se- 
lected library, and when I visit him I find the great- 
est delight in perusing the titles of the books, among 
them some volumes of Audubon's ''Birds of Amer- 
ica'* with beautiful hand-colored plates. Mr. 


Fletcher is a great lover of nature and is especially 
fond of ornithology, and he has told me much of 
Audubon and of his "Western residence in Hender- 
son, Ky. 

When he told me something of the round of his 
daily life, I was not so greatly astonished at the ex- 
tent of his accomplishment. He rises, so he tells 
me, at 4 in the morning and attends to his corre- 
spondence until breakfast. He next rides out to his 
farm of 600 acres, two miles from the city, and then 
returns to take up his duties at the banl?:. He is in- 
terested in every good work, is a man of remark- 
able temperance in all his habits, and of a most re- 
markable energy. He is something under six feet 
in height, strongly and compactly built, and has an 
extremely penetrating gray eye. He tells me he is 
keeping a diary in which he records everything of 
importance which takes place under his notice. I 
have met him at some of the gatherings of lawyers 
of which I shall have more to say presently, and I 
note that while he indulges in none of the convivial- 
ity which is a feature of these meetings, he is as fond 
of a joke as the best of them, and I am told has a 
considerable reputation for his quizzing and prac- 
tical jokes among the members of his profession. 

On my confiding to Mr. Fletcher my impressions 
of the city, he informed me that I am correct in con- 
cluding that the citizens are unusual in the degree 
of their enlightenment. He has had ample opportu- 
nity for observation during his residence in Vir- 
ginia, Pennsylvania and Ohio, and he assures me 
that in the new towns in Virginia, the old towns of 


Pennsylvania, and in Urbana, Columbus, Dayton 
and Bellefontaine, Ohio, there is not the enlighten- 
ment that he has found among the citizens of In- 
dianapolis. There is in this place, said he, both a 
certain intellectual activity and a strong moral bent . 
which is a characteristic of all. There are many 
political meetings, but these are not all. These men 
are continually engaged in town meetings to promote 
civil affairs, in debating societies, in Bible classes, 
and the union Sunday School under the leadership 
of Dr. Coe is flourishing beyond belief. **I am con- 
vinced," he concluded, ''that there is not a settle- 
ment in the West which has a more church-going 
population than has ours. As for our schools, you 
will, I am sure, find them most interesting and flour- 

With this I was ready to agree, for I had already 
viewed the Indianapolis Female Institute, under the 
leadership of the Misses Axtell, to which I am in- 
vited to attend an exhibition given soon by the young 
females who attend it. I had also seen the Franklin 
Institute of which Nathan B. Palmer is president, 
and on University Square, between the streets of 
New York and Vermont, and of Pennsylvania and 
Meridian Street, a square held now by the city on 
consent of the Legislature, but given originally to 
help endow a state university, the County Seminary, 
the best educational establishment, I am told, in the 
city. This building was erected six years ago and 
stands on the southwest corner of this square. 

It is two stories high with projecting lobbies at 
each end, has two rooms below and a lecture room 


and a teachers' private room above. Besides its 
use as a school, it is much used as a lecture room 
and for church services, this being the place in which 
Mr. Henry Ward Beecher holds his church services 
until the completion of his new church in the Circle, 
even now in process of erection. The principal of 
this school, the Rev. James Kemper, it has been my 
good fortune to meet, and I find him not only a 
remarkable scholar, but a man of fine personality 
and highly esteemed in the community. 

While I had brought letters and had several means 
of introduction to citizens of Indianapolis, some of 
my introductions were brought about quite by acci- 
dent. One of these incidents I shall narrate be- 
cause of its amusingness and unexpectedness. 

I have neglected to say that the time of my visit 
finds this city, as it has many others, filled with 
excitement over the political campaign, although I 
am surprised to be informed that General Harrison 
is not so well known here as I had imagined to find 
him. It is natural that he should not be known out- 
side the Northwest Territory, but even here, it seems 
that since the days of his active participation in af- 
fairs and his return to Ohio, his name has become 
unfamiliar to a generation that has grown up since 
the days of Tippecanoe and Tecumseh. However, 
the Whig population seems to be in the majority, or 
perhaps possessed of better lungs, and the hurray- 
ing and jollifying has been going on ever since my 
arrival. 'Twas during a Whig procession preceding 
a stump speaking in the outskirts of the town that 
I unexpectedly made an acquaintance which I had 


expected to make later on through other and more 
formal channels. 

At the corner of Illinois and Washington Streets 
a cabin of buckeye logs had been erected. "Buck- 
eye" being the name applied, I am told, to the state 
of Ohio, and this, then in compliment to General 
Harrison, and whenever a Whig meeting is in prog- 
ress, as was the case on the day of which I am 
speaking, barrels of cider are kept constantly run- 
ning before it. This procession was in nature like 
all I have seen since coming to the state — wagons 
with log cabins, with coons, with barrels of cider, 
*'dug out" canoes filled with young females singing 
the popular Whig song: 

"What has caused this great commotion, motion, motion, 
The country through? 

It is the ball a-rolling on for Tippecanoe and Tyler, too, 
And with them we '11 beat little Van ! ' ' 

I was standing on this particular day on the oppo- 
site corner from the cabin, where the new inn, which 
is to be called the Palmer House, is in the process 
of erection, when two gentlemen stopped near me 
to watch the procession and to engage in conversa- 
tion. The one, a tall, striking looking man, I soon 
gathered from his conversation to be a minister of 
the Campbellite Church, and who, I learned later, is 
named O'Kane, and is a distinguished controver- 
sialist, who has debated long and successfully on 
religious topics, his most noted debate being held 
recently with none other than my recent acquaint- 
ance, the Universalist Kidwell. The other man, to 
whom I felt at once attracted by a certain charm of 


manner and an exceeding richness and melodious- 
ness of voice, was a man below medium size, with 
prominent eyes, large forehead and fine features. 
They talked first of politics and then spoke of reli- 
gion, and finally on the last-named subject, the tall 
man said: 

*' Suppose we debate on it, Beecher." 

**No, no," replied the other man, laughing. **You 
would soon use me up, O'Kane, and I can't afford 
to be demolished so young!" 

*'Beecher!" So this was Henry Ward Beecher, 
who had preached only the last year at Lawrence- 
burg and to whom my friend, Mr. Dunn, had given 
me a letter. Since coming to Indianapolis I had 
learned, both through Mr. Merrill and Mr. Fletcher, 
of his success as a minister. I have had pointed 
out to me the First Presbyterian Church, established 
here very soon after the founding of the city, and 
have been told of the separation in 1837 into the 
Old School and the New School, at which time fif- 
teen males and females left this church and founded 
the church known as the Second, to which Mr. 
Beecher came from Lawrenceburg only last year. 
As Mr. O'Kane passed on and Mr. Beecher re- 
mained, looking at the procession, I ventured to step 
forward, introduce myself, and explain that I had at 
the tavern a letter to him from Mr. Dunn. 

His greeting was hearty and sincere. I knew he 
meant his welcome and the invitation he extended 
to me to his church and his home. The latter, a 
neat, one-story cottage, in Market Street, near 
New Jersey, I soon visited, meeting his wife, a 


rather discontented woman, complaining constantly 
of the chills and the unhealthy nature of the 
to^vTi. I also met here a Mr. W. S. Hubbard, a 
young man of the congregation who was boarding 
with them, for it appears that the ministers ' salaries 
in these new places are insufficient to support their 
families Avithout additions from other sources. 

Mr. Hubbard accompanied Mr. Beecher and my- 
self in a stroll about the garden in which the minis- 
ter is extremely interested, and which is greatly pro- 
ductive of vegetables, fruits and flowers. I soon 
found that one of Mr. Beecher 's great interests is 
horticulture, and that he contemplates establishing 
here a horticultural society and eventually publish- 
ing a paper devoted to its interests.^ 

On the subject of horticulture in Indiana, Mr. 
Beecher talked at length. 

"There is," said he, "no better soil and climate 
for the perfection of small fruits. Our variable 
springs are their only obstacle. The long summers, 
the brilliantly clear atmosphere, the great warmth 
and dryness during the fall ripening months give 
our fruit great size, color and flavor. There are 
very few gardens in Massachusetts except near large 
cities which can compare with ten or twenty in this 
town. ' ' 

He then went on to speak of the interest the peo- 
ple in Indianapolis take in gardening. ' ' I hope you 
have noticed, sir, as you walked about our city, the 

^He did both. In August, 1840, he established the Indianapolis 
Horticultural Society, and a few years later published the Western 
Farmer and Gardener. — Editor. 


many beautiful little flower gardens, the cleaned 
walks, the trimmed borders, this, too, when, from the 
rear, one can almost throw a stone into the primeval 
forest. In some places you will find only an acre of 
ground, but this covered with fruits and vegetables 
of every kind. Ah, when I see, as I have seen, such 
a little garden, the personal labor of one man, and 
that man poor and advanced in years, I do believe, 
sir, that this sight has delighted me more than would 
the grounds of the London Horticultural Society!'' 

Mrs. Beecher, in our brief conversation, confided 
to me that whenever Mr. Beecher goes to see one 
of his parishioners or some poor person in whom he 
is interested, it is his wont to carry in his hand some 
choice specimen from his garden, to present it to 
the person visited, telling him something of inter- 
est concerning it and its growth, and then offering 
him a plant of it from his garden. And almost 
always, she said, he arouses sufficient interest for 
the person to accept his offer and to ask for the 
plant, and ere long he, too, is the proud possessor 
of a garden. 

Mr. Beecher deplored the cutting down of the trees 
from the Court House grounds and the Circle, and 
declared his intention of inducing public-spirited 
gentlemen to assist in planting the streets with spec- 
imens of all our best forest trees. 

At Mr. Beecher 's request, I remained to tea with 
them on this evening, and accompanied him to 
prayer meeting in the room in the Seminary, which, 
as I have said, he is using until the completion of 
the church. As we went forth to prayer meeting, 


accompanied by Mr. Hubbard, two gentlemen came 
out of a house directly opposite, a plain two-story 
brick structure, and turned their steps our way. 
These gentlemen were presented as Daniel Yandes 
and his son, Simon. Daniel Yandes is a pioneer, 
and a man who has hewn a fortune out of the wil- 
derness by his own efforts, I am told, and he is a 
most devout member of the church and most liberal 
in his benevolences. The son Simon is extremely 
tall and thin, with light hair and gray eyes. He is, 
as I soon perceived, not given to conversation, but 
as we walked together and he learned that I was a 
stranger and observed my interest in Mr. Beecher, 
he told me much of him. He is, says Mr. Yandes, 
a man admirably adapted to Western life. From 
the moment he came to town, he entered with the 
greatest enthusiasm into all the social life and en- 
gagements ; he has a talent for conversation, is full 
of wit and fun, and already knows everybody in 
the town. 

I was ready to agree with this, and when I heard 
him preach, as I did later, I subscribed immediately 
to the words of praise from other sources — that as 
a preacher he is a landscape painter of Christianity ; 
that he has no model, is off-hand and original ; that 
his great power over his congregation consists 
mainly in the clearness of his mental vision, the 
range of his thoughts, the deep interest he imparts 
to whatever he teaches. 

Before the evening was over I had reason to thank 
the chance which led me to Mr. Beecher and had 
brought about my invitation to the prayer meeting. 


for here I met among others, Mr. Lawrence M. 
Vance, a young man near my own age, a member of 
the choir (Mr. Beecher is said to have introduced 
choirs into this city), and to Mr. Vance I owe much 
of the special pleasure I have enjoyed during my 
stay in the city. I also met here some of the found- 
ers of the church, Mr. John L. Ketcham, Mr. Joseph 
F. Holt and wife, Mr. Sidney Bates, Mr. Alexander 
Davidson and many others, whom I have encoun- 
tered again at other gatherings and all of whom 
have showed me attention. 

Time presses and I must bring this installment 
of my diary to a close. In my next I shall chronicle 
the next incidents of days in this city, the ball, the 
tea at Mrs. Sarah Bolton's, a poetess of the "West- 
ern wilderness, my meeting with a company of law- 
yers, an evening at the home of Governor Wallace, 
and my trip to a ** pleasure garden" with a most 
beautiful and accomplished young lady. 


Indianapolis, June 21, 1840. . 

I ALREADY have mentioned young Mr. T. A. 
Morris, a West Point graduate and an engi- 
neer who superintended the work of construc- 
tion on the State House, and who has for some years 
been captain of a company of volunteer militia. It 
was my good fortune to see this militia in action 
one day of this week. This company, the "Marion 
Guards," I was informed by my companion at the 
time, was organized in 1837 by Col. Russell, who was 
later succeeded in the captaincy and the work of 
drilling by Mr. Morris. Their uniform is of gray 
cloth, black-faced, with high shakos of black shiny 
leather, with black cockades. Col. Russell, 'tis said, 
drilled them well in the beginning, and after Mr. 
Morris took them in hand they became quite pro- 
ficient in their evolutions, which afforded great en- 
tertainment to the town. There is another company 
also, incorporated just two years ago, known as the 
''Marion Rifles," under Capt. Thomas McBaker, and 
these men wear an altogether different uniform — 
a blue-fringed hunting shirt with blue pantaloons 
and caps, not nearly so soldierly, but after all more 
attractive, in my eyes at least, because of this very 
suggestion of the frontier. 
Sometimes, I hear, the Guards are called "Gray 



Backs" because of their gray uniform, and the other 
company, perhaps because of their less disciplined 
appearance and their method of warfare, unlike the 
European, or Prussian, I should say, in which the 
Guards are so well drilled, are called ''The Arabs." 

On this day of which I speak the two companies, 
by agreement, as I learned later, met for a sham 
battle along Washington Street, and soon all who 
were on the street or in the stores and various build- 
ings were lined along the sidewalks watching the 
performance. Down the street came the Guards, 
marching and firing in platoons, most stately and 
imposing in their tall shakos, when suddenly up- 
started the Arabs, and went through their skirmish 
drill, lying down in the dust, firing, loading again, 
rising, retreating in a run, dropping down again 
and going through the same maneuvers, much to the 
delight of the spectators. It was a most interest- 
ing spectacle, and I was much pleased to have this 
opportunity of observing the efiiciency of the militia 
and the interest of the lookers-on. 

Young Mr. Morris or Capt. Morris, I should say, 
who is just 29 years old, is a young gentleman of 
fine presence and most agreeable manners, and he 
has been most gracious to me on the occasion of 
our several meetings and has related to me many 
most entertaining anecdotes of his experiences. He 
was, he informs me, at Tippecanoe, at the great 
meeting which I attended in company with Col. 
Vawter, and he has presented me to several of the 
gentlemen who were his companions on this occa- 
sion. The delegation which went from this city was 


of most imposing proportions and importance, and 
was given the name of ''The Wild Oats of Indian- 
apolis," and several of these gentlemen, among 
whom I remember most distinctly Elliott Patterson, 
Charles Cady, John D. Morris, James R. Nowland, 
Andrew Byrne, Hugh 'Neal, George Bruce, George 
Drum and Vance Noel, have told me many amusing 
stories of this long journey through the rain and 
mud to one of the greatest political demonstrations 
they had ever witnessed. 

This Mr. Noel, or Vance, as he is familiarly ad- 
dressed by many of his townsmen, is a Virginian by 
birth, who came here in 1825 with his parents and 
has been in the office of the Indiana Journal, a paper 
which was first published under the name of the 
Western Censor and Emigrant's Guide, established 
by Harvey Gregg and Douglass Maguire, most es- 
timable gentlemen, whom I have met several times. 
My friend, Mr. Merrill, I learn, was an editor of 
this paper for a season, and five years ago it was 
purchased by Mr. Douglass and Mr. Noel. The lat- 
ter tells me that he has learned the entire business 
in this office, beginning as an apprentice and serving 
later as journeyman, foreman, and now proprietor. 

A most amusing incident narrated to me by Mr. 
Noel, and one which explains jesting- remarks I have 
heard exchanged frequently among various gentle- 
men on the occasion of their meetings, concerns, an 
event known as **the Black Hawk War." Early in 
1832, I am told, a Sac Indian chief, by name Black 
Hawk, by his hostile acts a.roused much fear among 
the northern frontier settlements of Illinois and 


northwestern Indiana, and in order to reassure the 
settlers and to provide for the permanence of the 
settlements Governor Noble- sent two detachments 
of militia to the northern frontiers of the state, or- 
dering small detachments of mounted riflemen to 
be stationed at different points from the skirts of 
the settlements beyond the Wabash and the lake. 

This same Col. Russell who organized the Marion 
Guards, was commissioned by the Governor to raise 
the 300 volunteer militia, and the prestige of this 
gallant gentleman whose greatest delight, 'tis said, 
is to ride dashingly along by his line of men, sword 
flashing, plume flying in the breeze, shouting his or- 
ders, induced a great number to join the body. In 
a very few days the companies made up of citizens 
of this and adjoining counties were full, at some 
expense, too, for all were expected to arm and equip 
themselves with horses, rifles and camp, equipage, 
and were settled in the camp on the high ground 
just beyond West Street and north of Washington, 
where they employed themselves while waiting in 
molding bullets and throwing tomahawks at a mark. 

*'I shall never forget the day of our departure,'* 
said Mr. Noel, as he related to me the story. **It 
was a Sunday morning, and this long line of 300 
mounted men marched along Washington Street, 
which was lined with onlookers, mothers, fathers, 
friends, many of them weeping as they thought of 
the possibility of their heroes never returning. The 
dreariness of this occasion was enhanced by the dol- 
orous notes of a great tin horn which heralded our 
movements, and each onslaught on which brought 


a fresh deluge of tears from the spectators who 
thought never to look on us again. As a matter of 
fact, like that ancient King of Spain, we all marched 
out and then marched back again. We were gone 
just three weeks, all told, the greater part of this 
time consumed in going and coming, for when, 
guided by William Conner, we arrived at Fort Dear- 
born, we found that the war was over and Black 
Hawk a prisoner. We marched around the lake to 
South Bend on our homeward way, a most unfortu- 
nate proceeding, by the way, for the editor of the 
paper in that town, John B. Defrees, enormously 
amused by our very warlike appearance and our late 
arrival on the field of combat, gave us the name of 
'The Bloody Three Hundred.' 

''The name did not reach Indianapolis for a sea- 
son. We arrived at home on the 3d of July and 
were given a dinner at Washington Hall on the 
Fourth by our grateful fellow citizens, who wel- 
comed us as returned heroes who had undoubt- 
edly prevented their wholesale massacre. However, 
'twas not long till the story crept out of our blood- 
less and uneventful journey, and then Mr. Defrees 's 
happy epithet, the Bloody Three Hundred! 'Twas 
too apt a title to be forgotten, and though eight 
years have elapsed since then, we are still twitted 
with it." 

• Later I encountered some of the leading men who 
were members of this company, and to all of them 
was presented by Mr. Noel — Stoughton A. Fletcher, 
Gen. James P. Drake, Capt. John Wishard, Gen. 
Robert Hanna, Capt. Alex Wiley — all of whom, I 


observed, still found pleasure in recounting the in- 
cidents of this expedition. Col. Russell himself I 
have had the pleasure of meeting; he is a stock- 
holder in the inn, Washington Hall, whose impor- 
tance as a center of Whig activities I am beginning 
more and more to realize as the excitement incident 
to the prosecution of the campaign progresses, and 
I have found him a man of most ardent and enthu- 
siastic temperament and one most kind and devoted 
to his friends. 

On the evening of the day on which I saw the mili- 
tia maneuvers, I went, according to arrangement, 
to Mr. Merrill's house that he might accompany me 
to call on Governor Wallace. I have noted before 
that the house known as the Governor's Mansion, 
situated in the Circle, has never been used for a res- 
idence, the situation being too public, and during 
the incumbency of Governor Wallace, a house has 
been purchased by the state which was built by Dr. 
John Sanders, and which is said to be the finest 
house in the town. It stands on the northwest cor- 
ner of Market and Illinois Streets, and at not a great 
distance from Mr. Merrill's home. 

'Twas not yet sunset, as I strolled along Wash- 
ington Street toward Mr. Merrill's, and frequently 
I encountered the urchins of the town driving home 
the cows. From the south they came, from the place 
known as Sheets' pasture.^ 

This place Mr. Fletcher in driving out has pointed 
out to me. They came down Illinois Street, a cow 

^ Two blocks between Georgia and South Streets and Tennessee and 
Mississippi Streets. {Holloivay, 1870.)— Editor. 


or more for every family, it would seem, from their 
number, sometimes pausing to graze, anon lashed to 
a gallop by their young drivers who were shouting, 
fighting, singing, indulging in the thousand and one 
pranks common to youth the world over. These 
same urchins I had observed but the day before 
while walking abroad with Mr. Vance, flocking to 
Noble's Hole,- their favorite swimming place, he 
said, because of the blue clay in the bank which, 
sloping steeply, gives them a fine slide into the 
water, and also affords paint with which they streak 
and spot their naked bodies hideously for an Indian 
play about the meadow. 

Judge Miles C. Eggleston of Brookville, who was 
so kind to me during my stay there, had given me 
a letter to Governor Wallace, who studied law in 
his office. He is very fond of his former protege, 
and declared him one of the finest lawyers of the 
Whitewater Valley. He told me, too, of the death 
of Governor Wallace's first wife, a daughter of 
Judge Test, and of his union four years ago with 
Miss Zerelda Sanders, a beautiful and accomplished 
young female, a daughter of Dr. John Sanders, the 
same whose handsome house has been purchased for 
the Governor's residence. 

I soon found that so far as the cordiality of my 
reception was concerned, the letter was all unnec- 

* "Noble's Hole," where Market Street bridge is, "Morris's Hole," 
where the creek passes out of the culvert under the Union Depot, 
and another deep "elbow" near the gas works and the foot of Wash- 
ington Street at the old ferry landing, were favorite swimming places 
for Indianapolis boys in the forties and fifties. (Holloway, 1870.) 
— Editor. 


essary. While Governor Wallace professed him- 
self delighted to hear thus from his old preceptor, 
he would, I am assured, have been equally gracious 
to any stranger, unintroduced, within his gates, for 
he is the happy possessor of most charming and dis- 
tinguished manners. 

I shall not soon forget the happy family scene into 
which Mr. Merrill and I were welcomed — the spa- 
cious house with its plain, but handsome furnish- 
ings, the mahogany secretary, the tall and massive 
bookcase, the central table with its brass candle- 
sticks, the vases of flowers, the little ornamental 
articles of feminine construction, the knitted mats 
and anti-macassars, the worked covers of the foot- 
stools and fire screen, and, illumined by the soft 
candle light, the family circle, the handsome head 
of the house, his beautiful young wife, now only 23 ; 
the young sons of the household, William, 15 years 
old, and Lewis, a handsome and lively lad of 13.* 
Nor must I forget the charming Miss Mary, sister 
of our hostess, a pretty creature, whom I am sure 
a nearer acquaintance will prove delightful, who sat 
throughout the evening engaged in her needlework, 
but blushingly regardful of our conversation. 

Governor Wallace I found a man of a character 
that at once attracts and holds. He is handsome, 
with black hair ajid piercing blue eyes. His voice 
is beautiful and finely modulated, and I can well 
believe what Mr. Merrill told me on our way thither, 
that with this modulated voice, a countenance and 

Later to become General Lewis Wallace and author of "Ben-Hur." 


person remarkable for beauty and symmetry, a style 
of composition chaste, finished, flowing and beauti- 
ful, and a style of delivery impressive, graceful, and 
at times impassioned, he has, as an orator, few 
equals in the nation. , 

In the course of the evening our talk turned on 
Robert Dale Owen, and I was informed that his play, 
''Pocahontas," was presented during the last winter 
by a group of young actors known as ' * The Indiana- 
polis Thespian Corps" and that the part of Poca- 
hontas, the princess, was taken by the young Wil- 
liam Wallace.* 

I had noted on entering. Governor Wallace *s li- 
brary, among which were prominent Gibbons *s ' ' Mis- 
cellaneous AVorks" and Goldsmith's "Citizen of the 
World" and ''Animated Nature," and our conver- 
sation soon turned upon this topic of reading. Mrs. 
Wallace joined in the talk at intervals, and 'twas 
not long ere I perceived that she is deeply inter- 
ested in all matters of public weal and of education 
in particular, displaying therein a taste rare in a 
female, so that our talk proved most edifying. We 
spoke of the writings of our American authors, and 
Governor Wallace declared that he considers Mr. 
John Quincy Adams's eulogy on the "Life and Serv- 
ices of Lafayette," the best memoirs on this cele- 
brated character published in this country. He 

* During the winter of 1839-40, an old foundry building called the 
"hay press" was fitted up with stage and scenery and used by the 
Indianapolis Thespian Corps to present Robert Dale Owen's play of 
"Pocahontas." The leading actors were James G. Jordan as Capt. 
John Smith; James McCready as Powhatan; William Wallace as 
Pocahontas; John T. Morrison, Davis Miller and Jamea McVey in 
other characters. (Holloway, 1870.) — Editor. 


spoke, too, of ''The Pioneers," by Mr. J. Fenimore 
Cooper, a historical novel of our country of which 
I have heard but have not as yet perused, and also 
he commended highly the writings of Mr. Washing- 
ton Irving, whose ''Sketch Book" he asserts with 
some warmth to be, to his mind, as good, if 
not superior to the "Sir Roger DeCoverley 

"Pray, Mary, hand jne that volume on the table 
beside you, ' ' he requested, and turning to me, asked 
if I were familiar with the effusions of that gifted 
poetess, Mrs. Lydia Huntley Sigourney. 

"These poems," said he, indicating the red and 
gilt volume, "are remarkable for their correct versi- 
fication, their harmony, and their true poetry, as 
well as for their straightforward common sense, 
their pure and unobtrusive religion, and their vein 
of natural tenderness." 

"That may be true," responded Mrs. Wallace, 
"but I confess that my idol is still Mrs. Hemans, 
the English Sappho, as she has been styled." 

Her husband shook his head. "Mrs. Hemans is 
the high-souled and delicately proud poetess of an 
old dominion ; her lays are full of the noble chivalry 
of a state whose associations are of aristocracy ; she 
is the asserter of hereditary nobility, the nobility of 
thought, of action and of soul, 'tis true, no less than 
of broad lands and of ancient titles. Mrs. Sigour- 
ney is the Hemans of a republic; and if she rather 
delights to dwell in the hamlet, to muse over the 
birth of the rustic infant, or the death of the vil- 
lage mother, it is that such is the genius of her 


country, that the boasted associations of her land 
are simplicity and freedom, and as befits the muse 
of such a land, her meditations are fain to celebrate 
the virtues of her country's children. If, as you say, 
young sir, you are not familiar with this poetess, 
permit me to read you a few lines — see if you do not 
agree with me as to her merits." 
And, opening the book, he read. 

Death found strange beauty on that polished brow, 
And dashed it out. There was a tint of rose 
On cheek and Hp, He touched the veins with ice, 
And the rose faded. Forth from those blue eyes 
There spake a wistful tenderness, a doubt 
"Whether to grieve or sleep, which innocence 
Alone may wear. With ruthless haste he bound 
The silken fringes of those curtaining lids 
Forever. There had been a murmuring sound 
"With which the babe would claim its mother's ear, 
Charming her even to tears. The Spoiler set 
His seal of silence. But there beamed a smile 
So fixed, so holy, from that cherub brow 
Death gazed, and left it there. He dared not steal 
The signet ring of heaven. 

We all sat in silence for a moment, and I noted 
a tear on Miss Mary's pink cheek. I wondered not, 
for, recited as it was, the poem was most affecting. 
I had already heard how our host delights in read- 
ing aloud, and that he frequently is persuaded to 
read for company, and I was most pleased to have 
this opportunity to hear him. Mrs. Wallace broke 
the silence, addressing me. 

*'0h, sir," said she, *4f you are interested in 
poetry, you must be informed, if indeed, you do not 


already know it, that young as is our state, we have 
already poetry writers of our own.'* 

"And that I do know," I replied, and told her of 
my meeting with Mrs. Dumont of Vevay and John 
Finley of Centerville, each of whom had favored 
me with autograph verses. 

''And they do not surpass us, for we have one 
here," she replied. ''Mrs. Sarah T. Bolton, and if 
it is to your taste, you shall go to her home with us 
to-morrow evening to an evening party." 

The name fell on my ears strangely familiar, and 
then presently it came to me that it was of this lady 
that my friend Jesse Bright of Madison had told 
me, and of how that they were schoolmates in Madi- 
son, she heing then Sarah Barrett. 

We went the next evening to the farm, Mt. Jack- 
son,° named by Mr. Bolton's stepfather in honor of 
Gen. Andrew Jackson. 

The party consisted of Governor and Mrs. Wal- 
lace and myself with Miss Mary and a young gentle- 
man who, from his attentive conduct, I judge is pay- 
ing her his addresses, a Mr. Robert B. Duncan. I 
was told something of this interesting family. Mr. 
Bolton, they say, was for a time the editor of the 
Indianapolis Gazette, and having met with financial 
reverses, he and his wife removed to this farm a few 
years ago, in the endeavor to restore their fortunes 
and to retain possession of this piece of property. 
The hardships induced by the financial stringency 

'On Jan. 13, 1845, Dr. John Evans, Dr. L. Dunlap and Jame3 
Blake were appointed commissioners to obtain a site not exceeding 
200 acres for an insane hospital. They selected Mt. Jackson, then 
the home of Nathaniel Bolton. — Editor. 


of the last years, the scarcity, nay, the utter absence 
of money, have been greatly felt by them. They 
have transformed their home into a tavern and much 
of the heaviest work of the household, cooking, clean- 
ing, milking many cows, making butter and cheese, 
to say nothing of the necessary spinning, weaving 
and sewing, have been done by this gifted, cour- 
ageous and high-spirited woman, who, they say, with 
all this, finds time for much social intercourse — she 
and her husband are most popular — and for some 
literary labors. 

I was most pleasantly impressed by the atmos- 
phere of this simple home. True, the furnishings 
were of the plainest, but the hospitable spirit, the 
evident delight in the society of her guests, furnished 
an irresistible attraction, and I could easily under- 
stand why Mrs. Bolton's parties are so popular and 
why she is in such demand; her companions being, 
so Mrs. Wallace tells me, the best in the state. I 
found Mr. Bolton a man of fine character, of ex- 
ceptional conversational powers, and 'tis said, too, 
that he is a ready writer. 

AVhen I beheld Mrs. Bolton I perceived at once 
that the reports of her charm were not exaggerated. 
Slightly built, of low stature, with a face at once 
interesting and intellectual, expressive eyes and 
abundant and beautiful bro^vn hair, she possesses 
also the charm of vivacity, her every movement 
speaks of youth and joy. 

Her manner is graciousness itself, and she told 
me in a most humorous fashion of her infancy in 
Jennings County, of her father's moving to Madi- 


son in order that she might attend school, and of 
her wedding there and her journey through the 
woods to this town, her trousseau in half a pair of 
saddle bags. I was emboldened presently to ask her 
if she would inscribe a few lines in the album I am 
taking to my mother, adding that the autograph of 
one so gifted would greatly enhance its value. 

''You flatter me, young sir," she replied, making 
me a sweeping courtesy. ''Trust a son of the Old 
Dominion to understand the arts and graces of po- 
lite intercourse with the fair sex ! And for that, if 
you will but bring your book to Mrs. Wallace's 
house to-morrow, when I shall ride into town, I'll 
promise to indite a poem for your mother and one 
on our state, at that." 

And so she did, in her delicate chirography, and 
this poem, "Indiana," she tells me was first printed 
some years ago in the Indiana Democrat at the time 
her husband was its editor. 

"Home of my heart, thy shining sand, 

Thy forests and thy streams, 
Are beautiful as fairyland 

Displayed in fancy's dreams. 

Home of a thousand happy hearts, 

Gem of the far wild West, 
Ere long thy sciences and arts 

Will gild the Union's crest. 

Thy skies are bright, thy airs are bland, 

Thy bosom broad and free ; 
We need not wave a magic wand 

To know thy destiny. 


Great spirits bled, and dying gave 

Thy stars and stripes to thee ; 
Thy sons would die that trust to save 

In pristine purity." 

As I parted from Governor and Mrs. "Wallace on 
our return from Mount Jackson, Mr. Duncan, who 
had in the meantime been bidding farewell to his 
pretty companion, volunteered to walk with me to- 
wards my inn. He is the clerk of the county, he 
told me, having held this office for six years, and as 
we parted he invited me to accompany him, Miss 
Mary, and several other young people of the town 
on the evening of to-morrow to the ** pleasure 


Indianapolis, June 22, 1840. 

I WILL inscribe a few lines in my diary while 
waiting for ttie stage which is to carry me from 
Indianapolis for — I was about to write, for- 
ever, but why should 11 Should I decide to remain 
in the Western country, should I cast my lines in 
these places which have proved themselves so pleas- 
ant, I shall not be so remote from this city that I 
can not visit it again, and again meet these new 
friends who already seem like old ones, so warm- 
hearted, so generous in their hospitality have they 
proved themselves to be. 

It would seem that most of my acquaintances have 
been among the lawyers, this not altogether be- 
cause of my own studies in the law, but in part from 
accident. First I formed the acquaintance of Mr. 
Dunn of Lawrenceburg on the steamboat, and 
through letters from him made the acquaintance of 
other members of his profession in other places, and 
so on, one leading to another. This experience has 
been repeated in Indianapolis through letters from 
Mr. Bright at Madison and Judge Eggleston at 
Brookville and also the kind offices of Mr. Fletcher, 
who has introduced me to many of his profession 
in this city. It was through him that I came to 



know Judge Blackford/ concerning whom, his abil- 
ity and his hermit-like life in his room in the Gov- 
ernor's Mansion I had heard so many stories that 
I formed a great desire to meet him. 

It was with considerable curiosity that I ap- 
proached the ** Mansion," which until now I had 
viewed only from afar. This location in the center 
of the Circle was chosen, I was told, because it is 
central, and lies away from the main business street 
with its disturbing uproar and constant crowd of 
passengers. The Circle is inclosed in a neat rail 
fence ; the house is large and square, two full stories 
high, with a low, slightly inclined roof covering an 
attic story, lighted by a dormer window on each of 
the four sides. On the roof is a ''flat" about twelve 
feet square, surrounded by a low balustrade, in- 
tended for a resort in the cool of the evening, and 
it is, indeed, a pleasant place to overlook the town, 
since the Circle is the highest point in the plat of 
the city. The floor of the first story is raised some 
four feet or so above the ground, and is reached by 
a broad flight of steps at each side. It is divided 
off from north to south and east to west by two 
wide halls crossing at right angles, making a large 
room in each of the four corners, and the partitions 

^ Isaac Blackford, born in New Jersey, 1786; graduate of Princeton 
University; came to Indiana in 1813; clerk of territorial Legis- 
lature; resigned to become judge of the First Judicial Circuit; first 
located in Salem, moved later to Vincennes. Appointed by Governor 
Jennings as judge of the Supreme Court, which position he held for 
thirty-five years. In 1855 appointed by President Pierce as judge 
of the Court of Claims at Washington, where he died in 1859. "His 
reputation was at that time and still is, world wide." {Turpie.) — 


on this floor are made with sliding panels, so that 
they can be thrown into one room on the occasion 
of a ball or levee. 

The State Library, as yet very small, has its home 
here, and Mr. Fletcher informed me that the Sec- 
retary of State is the librarian and keeps the library 
in his office in this building. When he told me the 
small sum allowed by the Legislature each year for 
the purchase of books, I did not so much wonder at 
its size. In 1825, said Mr. Fletcher, when an act of 
Legislature made the Secretary of State the State 
Librarian, $50 was appropriated for the purchase of 
books and a continuing appropriation of $30 a year. 
I noted the beginnings of an excellent library — the 
Federalist, Hume's ''History of England,'* John- 
son's ''Lives of the Poets" and some few others. 

The Supreme Court occupies the upper rooms as 
chambers, and it was to this upper floor that we 
turned our steps to meet this judge who, Mr. 
Fletcher and Mr. Merrill both declared to me, is a 
man who has attained great eminence in judicature 
both by natural talents and unceasing industry. 

"We found the little room — the upper rooms in 
the Mansion are much smaller than those on the 
floor below — plainly but comfortably furnished. I 
scarcely noticed the. furniture, however, nothing par- 
ticularly except the tables laden with books and mag- 
azines, and the desk piled with papers, for my at- 
tention was at once absorbed by the man himself. 

Judge Blackford is not six feet tall, but carries 
himself so erect that he seems taller; his head is 
shapely, his face indicative both of intellectuality 

Pen drawing by Willard Osier 


and refinement. His movements are rapid and 
graceful. He took some papers from the chairs, 
urged us to seat ourselves, and when Mr. Fletcher 
explained the object of our visit, that I was a 
stranger from another state, and particularly when 
my legal studies and my acquaintance with Judge 
Eggleston were mentioned, he made minute inquiries 
into my journey to the Western country and gave 
me much information concerning my future prog- 
ress. When I assured him, in answer to his query, 
that I am going on to the Wabash country, he im- 
mediately insisted on writing some letters to friends 
at Vincennes, his home, for though a sojourner in 
the capital, he still considers that place his actual 

''Every year since coming to Indianapolis," said 
he, ''I have spent a part of my time in that town, 
a town you must see, sir; a town most intimately 
connected with the beginnings of our state.'* 

With that, he turned to his desk, and began writ- 
ing the letters, most painstakingly and carefully. 
Mr. Fletcher told me afterward of this peculiarity 
of Judge Blackford — that he is prudish in the man- 
ner of writing his opinions. The orthography must 
be perfect and the punctuation faultless before the 
matter leaves his hand. 'Tis said he pays as much 
attention to a comma as to a thought. He has been 
known to stop the press to correct the most trivial 
error, one that few would notice. Once some one, 
wishing to delay an opinion, asked him the correct 
spelling of a word he knew would be in the opinion. 
The Judge answered, giving the usual orthography. 


The other took issue with him, and argued that the 
spelling wa« not correct. The Judge at once com- 
menced an examination of the word, dug out its 
roots and carefully weighed all the authorities he 
could find. He spent two days at this work, and 
before he got through, the court had adjourned and 
the case went over to the next term. 

It was not surprising then that we waited some 
time while his quill was trimmed, the paper ad- 
justed, the letters composed, sanded, folded and ad- 
dressed in his neat, careful and interesting chirog- 
raphy. Then we lingered a little for conversation 
on books, on politics, on many subjects. It seems 
that Judge Blackford was originally a Whig, but 
supporting Van Buren in 1836, has remained a 

Judge Blackford told me a story of an accident 
which happened to him on one of his journeys to 
Vincennes, in which he came very near to losing his 
life. On horseback, equipped with overcoat, leg- 
gings and saddlebags full of law books, he under- 
took to ford "White River near Martinsville while 
the river was very much swollen by a freshet. He 
and his horse were swept down the stream a great 
distance, but eventually they landed on an island. 
The judge was wet and cold and it was several hours 
before he reached the mainland, being at last res- 
cued by a farmer, who had heard his outcries. He 
spent a couple of days in drying his law books and 
clothing and in waiting for the waters to fall low 
enough for him to cross the river with safety, and 
then proceeded with his journey. 


Similar experience I had heard from other law- 
yers, from Judge Eggleston at Brookville, and at a 
gathering which I attended at the office of a lawyer 
one evening during my stay here. I had heard much 
of the meetings of the lawyers of this new state, and 
the good fellowship that exists among them, and it 
was no other than the shy and quiet Mr. Yandes 
whom I had met the evening I went to prayer meet- 
ing with Mr. Beecher and with whom, despite his 
reserve, I have formed a friendship based upon our 
youth and similarity of tastes, who invited me to go 
with him to the gathering. Mr. Yandes began the 
practice of the law with Mr. Fletcher, who declares 
him to be remarkably equipped, being a young man 
of fine mind and a graduate of Harvard College in 
Massachusetts. We have indeed spent some time 
in discussing the similarities and differences be- 
tween this and the University, as we Virginians al- 
ways call Mr. Jefferson's great school. 

This meeting to which Mr. Yandes took me was 
held in the office of Mr. Lucian Barbour.^ 

Mr. Barbour's office, it turns out, is directly across 
the street from my tavern, Washington Hall, and 
here the lawyers of the city are wont to congregate, 
exchange jests, sometimes very cutting ones at each 
other's expense, play practical jokes on one another, 
play cards, — this custom is frowned upon in this 
community, but none the less 'tis whispered that 

* Sulgrove in his history of Indianapolis expresses a doubt as to 
the time of Mr. Barbour's coming to Indianapolis, but the Indian- 
apolis papers for June, 1840, print his legal advertisement and this, 
together with Mr. Parsons's entry, verify the statement that he was 
in the city at this time. — Editor. 


some of these men are inveterate gamblers, — and 
as often engage in most serious and edifying dis- 

On this same evening, I met at the inn another 
one of the Supreme Court judges. Judge Dewey, 
whose home is at Charlestown, in Clark County, near 
the Ohio River, who was appointed a judge of this 
court four years ago. When Mr. Yandes came for 
me this gentleman was sitting on the recessed portico 
of the inn, and when Mr. Yandes presented me to 
him, he remarked that he, too, was going to the 
office of Mr. Barbour, and would accompany us. 
He is, I observed, large and commanding in per- 
son, at least six feet tall, with black hair, dark com- 
plexion, high forehead, and very expressive mouth. 
I should pronounce him extremely handsome were 
it not that his nose and chin are too long to be sym- 
metrical, but this is more than overbalanced by the 
intelligence and dignity of his expression. I found 
him excellently educated, — he is a native of Massa- 
chusetts and a graduate of Williams College, — and 
a great reader. He is very fond of novels, being 
conversant with those of Fielding, Sterne and Smol- 
lett, I learned from our conversation, this too, in 
a region where novel reading is frowned upon by 
the churches, and in spite of the fact that he is him- 
self a devout member of the church known as the 
Disciples or Christian. 

He is also, I was soon to learn, extremely fond 
of joking and very quick at repartee. In this he is 
no whit excelled by Oliver H. Smith, whom I met 


this same evening, much to my satisfaction, as I had 
heard of him through Judge Eggleston, under whom 
he was licensed to practice law and with whom he 
came frequently in contact during his residence in 
Connersville, where he followed the practice until 
last year, when he removed to Indianapolis. He 
has served in the Legislature, and as circuit prose- 
cuting attorney and United States senator. His 
most striking feature is his dark hair, which stands 
straight up from his forehead. He told me an amus- 
ing incident concerning his election to the Senate, 
in which his competitors were Noah Noble, William 
Hendricks and Ratliff Boon. On the first ballot he 
fell behind both Governor Noble and Governor 
Hendricks, but on the eighth took the lead, and on 
the ninth was elected. On his return home, after 
election, he started to Cincinnati with a drove of 

*'Late in the evening," said he, **I reached 
Henrie 's Mansion House in Cincinnati, covered with 
mud. There were many inquiries about the result 
of our senatorial election; I was asked if there had 
been an election. 

* ' ' Wliich is elected, Hendricks or Noble ? ' 

" * Neither.' 

"'Who, then, can it be r 

** *I am elected.* 

" 'You! What is your name? Oliver H. Smith! 
You elected a United States senator? I never heard 
of you before!* '* 

Mr. Smith is an irrepressible talker, jovial and 


apparently possessed of a most happy disposition, 
and, I noted, of great popularity among his asso- 
ciates at the bar. 

Among others I met on this evening, were Wil- 
liam Quarles, an excellent criminal lawyer, I am 
told; Ovid Butler, a gentleman with whom I was 
much impressed, a fine lawyer, so they say, in man- 
ner plain, quiet, modest and gentlemanly, and a 
young Hugh O'Neal, who is a native of this county 
and who has been educated at the State College as 
one of the two students to which each county is 
entitled, and who has just been admitted to the bar. 
He is already something of an orator, and is a Whig 
in politics. He is well-known among the young peo- 
ple, and I have met him on more than one occasion. 

Noting the pleasure these gentlemen found in each 
other's company, though of various tastes, some, as 
Mr. Fletcher, for instance, being most abstemious, 
others, I was told, being addicted to both drinking 
and gambling, I was led to marvel over what drew 
and kept them together, and was told that in the 
first place all were alike in being men of fine natural 
endowment, liberal acquirement, sedulous occupa- 
tion, integrity, dignity, courtesy, and learning, and 
being thus endowed, find each other's society most 

Moreover, their method of life in itself has tended 
to draw them together. Their riding the circuit is 
as laborious as that of the minister, who I now learn 
is not the only circuit rider. A Mr. Hiram Brown, 
a lawyer whom I had met on a previous occasion, 
and who came to this city in 1823, a man unlike most 


of these others, it would seem, in that he was born 
in the West with, therefore, poorer educational op- 
portunities, and who has acquired, all say, a most 
excellent command of English because of his con- 
stant reading, this Mr. Bro^vn, a man now 48 years 
old, told me something of the hardships of circuit 
riding, something of which I had already heard from 
Judge Eggleston. The judicial circuits are large 
ones, and the roads lead through the wilderness in 
many cases, particularly near the capital city. It 
involves weeks of absence from home, swimming 
swollen rivers, sleeping in the woods. It is at all 
times tedious and laborious, and in some seasons 

These lawyers, meeting together at the trial 
court, make the most of their stay at the country 
taverns, spending their leisure time in discussions 
of legal questions, in which they display the keen- 
est zest and philosophic foresight. "When the ses- 
sion is ended, all wait to accompany the judge on 
the journey to his next appointment and the end of 
the session is celebrated in a session of another kind, 
at the tavern. Then they may indeed be called a 
convivial fraternity — for those who drink, drink; 
cards are played by those who do not share the re- 
ligious convictions of the church-going, and the walls 
ring with songs, old ballads, comic songs, while those 
who abstain from such exercises as these, bandy 
jokes, for almost all are veteran jokers, I am told, 
and even able to enjoy jokes on themselves — and my 
informant concluded with the statement that while 
there are many hardships to be endured in riding 


the circuit, after all they can be endured while the 
circuit riders continue to have good appetites, and 
to find cheerful landlords and good-natured land- 
ladies, and while all are banded together like 

Lest it should slip my mind, I must jot down in 
this entry the names of several whom I would not 
forget, and yet have not time to write of in detail — 
Morris Morris, father of my friend, Capt. T. A. Mor- 
ris, at whose home I met two Methodist ministers of 
note, the Rev. Allen Wiley, and the venerable man 
known as Father Havens; Mr. Nicholas McCarty, 
one of the town's best business men, a man of re- 
markable shrewdness and sagacity, and withal one 
of the friendliest, kindest, most generous citizens 
of the town ; W. H. Morrison, through whose activity 
and generous assistance Christ Church, the Epis- 
copal meeting house on the Circle, was built, a 
frame edifice with a spire, said to be the most beau- 
tiful house of worship in the state. And I must not 
forget William Sheets, who was Secretary of State 
in 1836, and at whose house, a beautiful brick cot- 
tage at Ohio and Pennsylvania Streets, I called, on 
learning that Mrs. Sheets is a Randolph, and a 
cousin of my mother's several times removed. I 
found her, I will add, both accomplished and charm- 
ing, and she played for me on her piano, one of the 
few of these instruments in the city. 

I had not forgotten Mr. Duncan's mention to me 
of the evening at the pleasure garden, to which I 
have been looking forward since it was first men- 
tioned, and particularly after my disappointment as 


to the ball. Mr. Vance had suggested to me the pos- 
sibility of a ball during my stay in the city, but he 
was forced to tell me later that the sentiment of the 
church people against this manner of entertainment 
is so strong that the young people who had thought 
to make my presence an excuse for holding it were 
forced to give up the plan. It seems that in 1823, 
when Washington Hall was first opened, a ball was 
given in celebration of the event, of which my friend 
Mr. Fletcher was one of the managers; and that a 
few years later a ball was given at the Governor's 
Mansion whose managers included Judge Blackford, 
Judge Wick, Dr. John S. Bobbs, Capt. T. A. Morris 
and others, but the opposition to this or any other 
form of light amusement by the churches was pres- 
ent even then, and has increased more and more with 
each year, so that dancing now is not to be con- 
sidered. Even the performance of plays is frowned 
upon, and the only amusements tolerated are church 
parties, evening parties, such as I had attended at 
Mrs. Bolton's, invited receptions at which standing 
suppers are served, and the levees occasionally held 
by the Governor, at which no refreshments are 
served and all the world is invited. 

I was the more delighted with the prospect of 
the evening excursion to the pleasure garden, be- 
cause of an unexpected and most delightful meeting 
with one of the most beautiful young females I 
have ever seen. 

I first discovered her on the portico of the inn, 
one morning. This inn is an imposing three-story 
brick structure, with a large and beautiful recessed 


portico, most suitable for promenading, and it lias 
been my custom each morning, on rising, to descend 
for a turn or two in the fresh air before partaking of 
my breakfast. Here she sat, bent low over some 
needle work on which she was engaged, and I could 
but note how much of expression was centered in 
the delicate arch of her brow, which spanned eyes 
whose hue I could not guess. She seemed not to 
observe my intrusion on her solitude, but when pres- 
ently Mr. Browning emerged from the hall and pre- 
sented me to his daughter, but just returned from a 
visit to some neighboring hamlet, I was allowed to 
observe for a moment how soft was the melting 
luster of her dark blue eyes, how surpassingly en- 
ticing the sweetness of her smile. Later, I learned 
from the young gentlemen, what I should have 
guessed without this information, that this young 
Miss Elizabeth is one of the belles of the city. 

With this same Miss Elizabeth 'twas arranged 
that I was to go to the pleasure garden,^ and thither 
accordingly, on the evening of this same day, we took 
our way, in company with Mr. and Mrs. Vance, who 
had been visiting at the home of Mrs. Vance's father, 
Mr. Hervey Bates, the residence being not very far 
away, on New Jersey Street. Mr. Bates, whom I 
have met, is a successful business man, was the first 
sheriff of the county, and is a very warm friend of 
Mr. Beecher, of whose church he is a member. 

Mr. and Mrs. Vance drove past for us, and as we 
passed along Washington Street and down Illinois, 

•The ''pleasure garden " was at the corner of Tennessee and 
Georgia Streets, the corner now occupied by St. John 's.— Editor. 


they pointed out various objects of interest to me, 
among them the store of Mr. Pope, a ''steam doc- 
tor" recently come here from Baltimore, who not 
only practices this system of medication, but keeps 
a store stocked with vegetable remedies, prickly ash, 
lobelia, pocoon, cohosh, May Apple root, and prep- 
arations which go by the names of "liquid flames,'* 
''bread of heaven," and others, over which names 
we made merry, as indeed it was easy to do, in such 
pleasant weather, with such lively young company. 
I had put on my best blue broadcloth, with the plated 
gold buttons, a buff vest, and a high hat, and Mr. 
Vance was similarly attired. Mrs. Vance wore a 
blue striped silk with a lace mantle, and Miss Eliza- 
beth 's frock was pure white with green crepe shawl. 
Beneath the rim of her bonnet, half-hidden, moss 
rose buds were peeping, symbol of maiden mod- 
esty I 

The pleasure garden, while within the plat of the 
city, is so remote as to be really in the country, and 
when we at last came to it I was amazed at its beauty 
and the taste with which it is laid out. 

The proprietor is an Englishman, by name John 
Hodgkins, and 'tis said 'tis marvelous what a trans- 
formation he has worked here. The acre on which 
it stands contains an ice house, where he stores ice 
for the freezing of his creams, and the confectionery 
where he manufactures his wares, and the remainder 
of the grounds is covered with an orchard of apples 
and other fruit trees under which are arranged 
rustic seats. Flower beds dot the plat, and wind- 
ing graveled paths lead to vine-clad bowers and 


summer houses; altogether a more charming place 
and a more delightful company was never looked 

Here came together most of the young people I 
have met during my stay in the city — the fair Miss 
Mary Sanders, accompanied by Mr. Duncan, the two 
pretty Miss Browns, and a number of other young 
females whose names I have already forgotten, Mr. 
Hugh O'Neal, Mr. Vance Noel, Mr. Nat and Mr. 
John Cook, both accomplished Thespians, and Mr. 
Ned Tyler, member of the brass band and most ac- 
complished Thespian of them all. 

Never, surely, have I passed a more enchanting 
evening than this one in the pleasure garden, nor 
one with more variety of entertainment; the back- 
ground of green and flowers setting oft' the delicate 
costumes of the young females, the handsome young 
men, the flushed cheek, the bright eye, the whispered 
compliment. We walked in couples about the grav- 
eled paths, we sat in the summer houses, we gath- 
ered together over our creams and confections, and 
then, our conversation. ''Ah, the dalliance and the 
wit,'' as Shakespeare puts it. 'Twas then, as we 
lingered, with twilight falling, and the stars hang- 
ing low over us, that Mr. Tyler, at our solicitation, 
sang — a new song and one most beautiful and touch- 
ing. 'Tis called, ' ' Isle of Beauty, Fare Thee Well. ' ' 
I had already perused it, but was not prepared for 
its excessive beauty and its sadness, when sung in 
such a voice, and with such surroundings. The last 
verse— I shall not soon forget it— I will here tran- 
scribe ; 


' ' When the waves are round me breaking, 

As I pace the deck alone, 
And my eye in vain is seeking 

Some green leaf to rest upon; 
What would I not give to wander 

Where my OAvn companions dwell ? 
Absence makes the heart grow fonder, 

Isle of Beauty, fare thee well ! ' ' 

My heart was seized with a strange foreboding. 
This, this was the Isle of Beauty, this little city 
where I have been made so welcome, and I — I am 
the one who is leaving these companions of a few 
days. Will they forget me? We left the tables 
soon after the song, for another perambulating of 
the graveled walks preparatory to our leave-taking, 
for twilight was now falling and we must return to 
the city. I still remained with Miss Elizabeth, whom 
I had discovered in our conversation to be a young 
lady of singular accomplishments and charms, and 
we wandered silently about, past the vine-draped 
arbors, the little bowers, until summoned by the 

I spoke little until our arrival at the inn, then, 
having bade farewell to the others with a forced 
gayety, I asked her, as she lingered on the portico, 
for a flower she had plucked in the garden and still 
held in her slender fingers. She gave it to me, blush- 
ing, but laughing, too, at my melancholy face. 

*'If 'twill but make you smile, sir," she said. 
**Be not so melancholy! No one is dead, nor likely 
to be, and you will find it just as merry, I'll venture 
to say, the next place you go!" 

Her light laugh followed me up the stairway. 


The stage on which I am to journey northward 
to.Logansport makes two trips a week, and belongs 
to the line of a Mr. Vigus of Logansport. The 
stage line is a new one, having been in operation only 
two years, and the stages, which I have already ob- 
served during my stay here, are fine, new and shin- 
ing, drawn by four horses, and carrying the United 
States mails. I am told that they cost $600 a piece, 
and that they are a matter of great pride to the 
settlers along the road. The Michigan Road on 
which they run is -a great thoroughfare during eight 
months of the year, I am told, and affords an open 
passable highway to a new and very attractive coun- 
try, but during the winter 'tis an endless stream of 
black mud, almost impassable. 

I shall close my diary now until my arrival at 
Logansport, as some of my young friends are com- 
ing to bid me'Grodspeed on my journey. My clothes 
are packed, my carpet bags locked, I shall soon be 
embarked for the Wabash country ! 


LoGANSpoRT, June 26, 1840. 

IT was a cool, pleasant June morning when I took 
my seat in the Vigus line coach, having bade 
farewell to my young friends who had gathered 
to see me go. The coach was not crowded, as fre- 
quently happens, and I found myself seated -next 
to a gentleman of most pleasing appearance — aJittle 
below the medium height, compactly built, with 
ruddy complexion, blue eyes, and light bro^vn hair. 
It was not long until we fell into conversation, for 
I had many questions to ask, and I presently learned 
that he was Mr. Edward A. Hannegan ^ of Coving- 
ton, of whom I had already heard as Democratic 
candidate for Congress against Mr. Henry S. Lane 
of Crawfordsville. 

It appeared, in the course of our conversation, 
that Mr. Hannegan loves the Wabash country 
greatly, and when he learned that I was from Vir- 
ginia and on a voyage of discovery, he gave me 
many most interesting details concerning the coun- 
try and its settlement, in which he was joined by 
other gentlemen passengers, so that I found my 

^E. A. Hannegan, born in Ohio, studied law in Kentucky, located 
at Covington, Ind. Entered politics. State Legislature, 1833. Con- 
gress, 1835. Defeated for Congress, 1840. United States Senate, 
1845. Minister to Prussia, 1849. Recalled, Died in St. Louis, 
1859.— Editor. 



journey, while much slower than I had expected, 
occupying, as it did, over two days, very instructive 
and edifying. 

Mr. Hannegan informed me that he could never 
endure to remain long away from the ** lovely val- 
ley of the Wabash," and that while in Washington 
he longed for it continually. He dwelt at length 
upon its beauty and the fertility of the soil, on the 
alternating prairies and hills, and then, of the stream 
itself, extending from the northern part of the state 
to its southernmost tip, and forming part of its west- 
ern boundary. Its whole length exceeds 500 miles, 
and there is but a very small distance that does not 
present an inviting soil to the agriculturist. The 
name of this stream in French was Ouabache, and 
it appears to have been discovered before the Ohio, 
and is found on maps before the year 1730 ; the Ohio 
at its mouth was called the Ouabache. Settlements 
were made at a very early period at Vincennes and 
at the mouth of the Wea or Ouiatenon, where the 
Jesuits had their missions and schools, and the bark 
canoes of the Indians and French, these gentlemen 
declared to me, at certain seasons of the year passed 
from Lake Erie to the Mississippi, by way of the 
Maumee, a short portage to Little River and the 

From Mr. Hannegan and my other companions, 
I learned much of great tides of immigration that 
some years ago had set toward this part of the state. 
'Twas said that in 1834, the streets of Indianapolis 
were one moving mass of men, women and chil- 
dren, carriages, wagons, cattle, horses, hogs and 


slieep, all joyously wending their way to their new 
habitations in the Wabash country. As many as 
twenty to^vns, 'tis said, were laid out in this re- 
gion from 1827 to 1834 ; in 1827 'twas reported that 
200 families passed through Centerville bound for 
the Wabash country in the months of September and 
October. This statement was made by one of the 
passengers, a young gentleman residing in Carroll 
County, so he said, who was a boy at the time, and 
remembered that as his family passed through Rich- 
mond and Centerville they were annoyed continually 
by the croaking predictions of ill luck uttered on all 
sides. *'You will never get through," said one. 
*'You will die if you go to the Wabash; every one 
that goes there dies in less than a year," said an- 
other. This, I presume, from the ** Wabash ague" 
of which my friend, Dr. Peabody of Vernon, had 
told me, which is so much more dangerous to life 
than the ordinary *' chills and fever" of the other 

My fellow travelers explained to me that these 
settlers all poured along the roads that centered in 
Indianapolis, taking from there the Crawfordsville 
or Terre Haute trails. When the building of the 
canals began in 1827 the crowd swelled still more, 
for speculators held out great inducements to 
city builders and to settlers along the canal 

This Michigan Road over which we were travel- 
ing begins, it seems, at Lake Michigan and runs 
south to Indianapolis, then south again to Madison, 
its purpose being altogether similar to that of the 


Cumberland or National Road. Until its construc- 
tion some years ago, there was no way for travelers 
to reach the northern part of the state save by In- 
dian trails. However, this road, agreed the passen- 
gers, is no easy or comfortable route. I marveled 
at this, for to me the travel seemed easy enough, 
save for an occasional jolting over the corduroys. 
However, my companions reminded me that there 
had been no rain for some time. Had there been, 
summer though it is, they informed me, we would 
be finding ourselves jolting from one bog to another, 
at one moment on an almost floating bridge of cor- 
duroys ; at another mired in a mudhole and all alight- 
ing to lend assistance in dragging and pushing the 
coach out again. 

I rejoiced, therefore, at my good fortune at find- 
ing such fair weather and looked forth with some 
curiosity on the landscape, interrogating my com- 
panions at frequent intervals. 

Passing through the county of Marion and a cor- 
ner of Hamilton County, we came into Boone, the 
first stop being Eagle Village, a pleasant town of 
about thirty houses. 

This county was named, I am told, after the cele- 
brated Daniel Boone, whose love of forest life, enter- 
prise, and disinterestedness were prototypes of 
much that is admirable in Western manners. The 
country is level or agreeably undulating, and the 
soU is very fertile, and in no part of the state, they 
say, is the timber heavier or of better quality. One 
of my informants, the young gentleman from Car- 
roll County, declared that it is not uncommou to 


see on a single acre 100 oak trees averaging four 
inches in diameter, and from eighty to 100 feet in 
height. The principal products, he informed me, 
are wheat, corn, beef, pork, honey, etc., and cattle, 
hogs, horses and mules are driven to market. 

This conversation suggested a most amusing in- 
cident to an elderly gentleman who had heretofore 
remained silent. 

"You must understand, young sir," said he, ad- 
dressing me, ''that in the thirteen or more years 
that have elapsed since the settling of this county, 
great changes have occurred. The heavy timber, 
level surface, and porous soil of Boone were not very 
attractive to the agriculturist at the first settlement 
and accordingly the pursuit of game and the col- 
lection of skins, furs and wild honey were reckoned 
far more important than any kind of farming. The 
only real necessaries for a family at that time were 
two rifles, powder and lead, a barrel of salt, a camp 
kettle, and a couple of dogs. At this time, the only 
currency was the skins of deer, raccoons, mink and 
wild honey, and even now, though we have a con- 
siderable number of farmers, a large amount of 
money is made by these hunters and trappers, some 
even acquiring as much as five thousand dollars a 

*'In these early days," he continued, ** 'tis said 
that a traveler from Cincinnati came hither in com- 
pany with a resident of the county and encountered 
on the road a man whose horse was so covered with 
the skins of 'varmints' as almost to hide both horse 
and rider, and the only information he could get was 


that this was the collector of the county seat with 
the 'funds' from one of the townships." 

When asked if this were true, he replied with a 
laugh: ''Well, at any rate, the story found its way 
into the newspapers, and those who gave full credit 
to the statement must have supposed the collector 
of Boone had an odd set of customers to collect his 
poll tax from. The coon skins, it was said, were 
for the state, the deer for county revenue and the 
mink for change." 

When we laughed over this, he told another story 
to illustrate to me the rudeness of pioneer life. In 
those early days one of the judges, who, for want 
of other accommodations, had taken his luncheon to 
court, was supposed at a distance to be reading a 
newspaper, when, on nearer approach, it was ascer- 
tained that he was eating a large buckwheat pan- 

Noting the considerable difference in vegetation 
in this and the lands contiguous to the Ohio River, 
I made inquiries concerning both fauna and flora, 
and set them down in order in my book, as they were 
enumerated to me. I did this at a tavern where the 
mail was being sorted. The mail pouch is carried 
under the driver's seat, and as the pouches are 
scarce in this new country, the stage is compelled to 
stand at the small towns along the line while the 
postmaster opens the pouch and makes up the out- 
going mail. 

As to the quadrupeds, I was informed that the 
buffalo long ago disappeared, but their bones are 
found about the "salt licks," and their paths known 


as ''traces" were frequently used as trails by the 
first settlers. The bear, panther, wild cat, beaver 
and others are now but seldom met with except in 
the unsettled parts of the state. Wolves are more 
numerous. But the deer, opossum, raccoon, and 
several species of squirrels are sometimes more nu- 
merous than when the country was first settled. 
When nuts and other food they are fond of in the 
forest fail, they migrate to the vicinity of the culti- 
vated fields and supply themselves there, and their 
numbers are sometimes immense. Besides these, 
the fox, porcupine, polecat, ground hog, rabbit, mink, 
muskrat, weasel, mole, mouse and gopher are found 
in particular localities, but not usually in great num- 
bers. In place of the animals that have left, others 
have been gained by migration. Rats are not yet 
found in new parts of the state, but they are be- 
coming very numerous in other parts. 

Singing birds were rare a few years since, but a 
variety has rapidly followed the increase of civili- 
zation. Not being carnivorous, they are not usually 
found except where fields of grain are cultivated. 
Of birds originally found in this country, the most 
common are the wild turkey, prairie fowl, partridge 
or quail, pigeons, geese, ducks and cranes. Pheas- 
ants, paroquets, woodpeckers, Baltimore birds, red 
birds, mocking birds, humming birds, indeed, most 
of the birds of the Eastern states are found here, 
but not usually in large numbers. Of carnivorous 
birds, the eagle, the buzzard, the hawk, the crow 
or raven, the owl, etc., are occasionally found. 

Two most interesting facts concerning these birds : 


There are here great numbers of wild pigeons, so 
vast indeed that sometimes in flight they obscure the 
sun. They sometimes resort to roosts in such large 
numbers that for miles nearly all the small branches 
of a thick forest are broken off by them. The sec- 
ond concerns the cranes. On the large prairies in 
the northwest part of the state it is not uncommon, 
I was assured, to pass in a single hour thousands of 
sand hill cranes who stand quietly and gaze at the 
traveler from a distance of but a few rods. 

Reptiles abound, the most formidable being the 
copperhead and the rattlesnake, and many a pioneer 
has had a gruesome story to tell of encounters with 
these formidable foes, whose bite is so poisonous as 
to occasion death. However, the fires on the prai- 
ries destroy them and the hogs running at large are 
their inveterate enemies. 

One gentleman, who seemed inclined to an interest 
in scientific matters, informed me that Dr. Richard 
Dale Owen reports that none of the precious metals 
will ever be found in Indiana, unless in minute por- 
tions in bowlders or in small quantities in combina- 
tion with other metals. This Dr. Owen, I learned to 
my great pleasure, is a brother of Robert Dale Owen, 
and a scientist of great repute, and when State Geol- 
ogist made exploratory tours of the state and pub- 
lished the result of this in a volume entitled ** Re- 
port of a Geological Reconnaissance of the State of 

We had by this time come into Clinton County 
and approached the village of Kirklin, named after 
its proprietor, Nathan Kirk, this and Michigantown 


being the only towns in this county on the Michigan 
Road. Thence we passed into Cass County, of which 
Logansport is the seat of justice and the objective 
point of my journey. 

A part of this county, I was informed, is level and 
consists of prairie land; the other, either bottom 
land, along the rivers, or high bluff land. The 
Wabash and the Eel Rivers run swiftly through this 
county; they have high banks and solid rock bot- 
toms, and afford an immense amount of water power. 

A gentleman, a fellow passenger, who later gave 
me interesting information concerning the Indians, 
informed me that in a prairie southeast of Logans- 
port there is a spring that boils up from the center 
of the mound, six feet above the level surface of the 
prairie. Three miles below Logansport is a stream 
that turns a saw mill on the top of a bluff 150 feet 
high, and then pitches down the whole distance with 
but few interruptions. This stream has its source 
only a mile and a half in the rear of the bluff. 

Two points clearly mark the difference between 
this and the earlier parts of my journey. This part 
of the country being so much more recently settled 
is much less advanced — the life is much more that 
of the pioneer than in the other localities visited. 
Also, there is much that is interesting connected with 
the aborigines. Frequently, on the road hither, the 
sites of villages were pointed out to me that were 
very recently entirely inhabited by Indians and a 
few French traders. The country about Logansport 
was inhabited, I am told, by the Pottawotamies and 
the Miamis, the former being the OAvners and pro- 


prietors of tlie lands north of tlie Wabash, and the 
Miamis, south, and both dwelling along the Eel. 

I have already spoken of the Black Hawk War in 
connection with the story of the ''Bloody Three Hun- 
dred" in Indianapolis. It was this war that caused 
the settlers to be continually uneasy over their In- 
dian neighbors ; undoubtedly, too, these settlers cast 
covetous eyes on the Indian lands. There was con- 
tinual trouble between them, and various treaties 
and purchases made until finally the Pottawotamies 
were removed to a reservation in the West.^ 

' "The best illustration of the attitude which the Indiana settlers 
bore toward the Indians is their treatment of the Pottawotamies, 
whom they forcibly expelled from the state in 1838. The Potta- 
wotamies originally hunted over the region south of Lake Michigan, 
north of the Wabash and west of the St. Joseph and St. Mary's Rivers. 
As early as 1817, in a treaty at Fort Meigs, the government adopted 
the unfortunate policy of making special reservations for Indian 
chiefs who refused to join the tribe in selling land. As a result of 
this policy, several bands of Pottawotamies had special reservations 
in Marshall and adjoining counties. Tlie treaty of 1832 took from 
the tribe its tribal lands, leaving the chief Menominee a reservation 
around Twin Lakes. ... In fact, the Indians claimed and occupied 
the whole county except a strip of land which they had given the 
state for the Michigan Road. ... In 1834 a commission tried to buy 
the land. . . . Col. Abel C. Pepper, Indian agent, finally succeeded 
in buying the Indians out at $1 an acre, and giving them the 
privilege of remaining two years on the land. The Indians asserted 
that this cession was obtained by unfair means. Anticipating the 
sale which was to take place when the Indian lease expired, Aug. 5, 
1838, the squatters began to enter the country and settle on Indian 
land. . . . The Indians began to show resentment as the time for 
their forced migration approached. . . . Tliey made no excuses for 
their outbreaks and refused to leave their homes. . . . Squads of 
soldiers patrolled the country in all directions looking for the In- 
dians and driving them in. . . . All the Indian cabins and wigwams 
were destroyed. . . . Early on the morning of Sept. 4, Tipton com- 
menced to load the thirteen army wagons in which their goods was 
to be removed (their destination was the Osage River, Kansas). 
The journey required about two months and cost the lives of one- 
fifth of the tribe." {Esarey.) — Editor. 


Two of the gentlemen in the coach told me some- 
thing of the incident of the removal. One of them, 
a Mr. Sluyter, said, '^I lived near the Menominee 
village at that time, just north of Twin Lakes, and 
was present when the Indians were congregating 
there in September to be removed to the new reser- 
vation. Their village was composed of seventy-five 
or a hundred log huts and wigwams of poles covered 
with bark or matting, erected without any system. 
The soldiers disarmed the Indians, taking from them 
their guns, tomahawks, axes, bows and arrows, 
knives, etc., and placed them in wagons for trans- 
portation. They marched off in single file, a soldier 
at the head of about every forty or fifty. It was 
indeed a sad sight to see them leaving their homes 
and hunting grounds, where many of them had lived 
all their lives, and going to a strange land concern- 
ing which they knew nothing. Over 800 started on 
that September morning. After they left the wig- 
wams were torn down and burned." 

A younger man, not over 22 I should judge, said 
that he went with the caravan to Kansas as a team- 
ster, driving a four-horse team. The Indians, he 
said, were afraid of the wagons and could not be 
induced to ride in them unless so feeble that walk- 
ing was impossible. He told of their sufferings 
from hunger, thirst and fatigue. 

It was with considerable curiosity that I ap- 
proached Logansport, named, I was told, for the In- 
dian chief of that name, and I was not disappointed 
in my anticipations. It lies in the center of the 
county, and has a most beautiful situation in the 


valleys of the Wabash and the Eel, occupying ground 
between the two rivers at their junction, with the 
hills rising to a height of 150 feet to the north and 
south. The town thus lying in the valley with two 
rivers flowing through it and uniting their waters 
at its very heart, presents a most picturesque 

The interest and importance of the town are en- 
hanced moreover by the Wabash and Erie Canal, 
which is to extend from the northeast to the south- 
west corners of the state, from the city of Fort 
Wayne to Evansville on the Ohio River, and a part 
of which is already completed. Of this canal I ex- 
pect soon to know more, as the next stage of my . 
journey is to be made on its waters. 

I stopped at the Mansion House, kept by a Mr. 
Douglass, which I found an agreeable resting place, 
and fitted up in good style. As my stay in this city 
was to be very brief, I hastened at once to seek out 
Mr. D. D. Pratt,^ to whom I had a letter from Mr. 
Calvin Fletcher, in whose office Mr. Pratt had once 
engaged in the practice of the law. I observed the 
town with much interest as I passed along; it has 
less than 1,000 inhabitants, I judge, but because of 
its location on rivers and canal and its plentiful 
water power, gives promise of flourishing growth. 
I noted its bridge, a handsome covered structure 

'Hon. D. D. Pratt, born in Maine, 1813; died in Logansport, 1877. 
Graduate of Hamilton College, 1831. For twenty- five years he was 
without a rival in northern Indiana before a jury. Presidential 
elector, 1848; Legislature, 1851-3; secretary of national convention 
at Chicago, which nominated Lincoln, 1860; Congress, 1868; Senate, 
1869. "Pratt is the most absolutely honest man I ever knew," 
said Wendell Phillips. — Editor. 


over the Wabash, its Market House, a roof on brick 
pillars, much frequented by farmers I am told, its 
library, a substantial log building, and a brick edi- 
fice which I later learned is the Seminary. 

Mr. Pratt, whom I found to be but a few years 
older than myself, is a most interesting young man. 
He is tall in stature, something over six feet, and 
well proportioned, possessing unusual conversational 
powers, and having a fluent command of the most 
classic English. 

Mr. Fletcher, who has taken the greatest interest 
in him, had told me much concerning his life. He 
was born in Maine and passed his early life in New 
England, in adverse circumstances, but his father, 
early perceiving his mental powers, gave him an ex- 
cellent education. He taught, studied law, and came 
out to Ohio, journeying part of the way on foot, 
taught at Rising Sun, Indiana, and in 1836 arrived 
in Indianapolis, where he went into Mr. Fletcher's 
office. Later, he located in Cass County and as Mr. 
Fletcher, together with many other attorneys, prac- 
tice in this court, he has been able to continue their 
friendship. Mr. Fletcher, so Mr. Pratt informs me, 
was one of the first practitioners in the courts of 
this county, and ranks as high here as he does in 
his own home. Here also came James Rariden of 
Wayne County, whom I met during my stay there, 
and many other of the la\^^ers, of whose long and 
tedious journeys I have spoken before. 

Like the other residents of the Wabash country, 
Mr. Pratt loves it, and has great hope of its future. 
He told me with much enthusiasm of the town and 


its people, and dwelt at length on one of its pioneers, 
Gen. Jolin Tipton.* 

This Gen. Tipton, it appears, who conferred honor 
on the city by his residence here and had much to do 
with the state's early history, died here only last 
year. Coming to Indiana in early days, he first set- 
tled on the Ohio River and joined the ^'Yellow Jack- 
ets, ' ' a military company which played an important 
part at the battle of Tippecanoe, where, because of 
so many being killed, 'tis said, he rose in one day 
from the rank of ensign to that of captain. Later, 
serving in the Legislature, he was one of those 
chosen to select the site of the state's capital, and in 
1823 was made Indian agent. At this time he re- 
moved to Fort Wayne, the seat of the agency, and 
a little later at his instance this agency was removed 
to Logansport. After this he served as United 
States Senator for some years. 

His political and military careers, it can be seen 
from this, were of sufficient importance, but the citi- 
zens of Logansport think even more of his life as a 
civilian and a citizen. He loved the city of his adop- 
tion, a mere village at the time of his coming, and 
did all in his power throughout the term of his life 
to make it better, to secure for it the advantages in- 
cident to cultivated society and the development of 
its natural resources. I have already mentioned 
the building pointed out as the Seminary. It seems 
that one of Gen. Tipton's first steps on reaching 

Jol?Sn.*^V''"'''' ^^ ^r*^^^"^' ^^^ ^'^ ^ g^^^der work than 
and J £r f r' I f'^^ "^^° ^" ^^« ^^'^"^il ^"d in the field. 


Logansport was to organize the Eel River Seminary 
Society, to erect a suitable building for school pur- 
poses, and to employ and support teachers. This 
was accomplished in the winter of 1828 and 1829; 
he used his means and never allowed his cares to 
detract from his interest in it. Both courts and 
church were held in this building until suitable edi- 
fices could be erected for their occupancy. 

One of the most interesting things Mr. Pratt nar- 
rated to me concerning Gen. Tipton, however, was 
the statement that he presented to the state the bat- 
tle ground of Tippecanoe, that it might be preserved 
as a monument to the victory over their savage foes. 

It was interesting, too, to hear that Gen. Tipton 
was a member of the Free and Accepted Masons. 
Lodges of this fraternity, I am told, were established 
at an early date in what was then Indiana Territory; 
Gen. Tipton was a member when residing at Cory- 
don, and on coming to Cass County, he established 
a lodge at Logansport when this to^vn was only two 
months old. The town has already a Lodge Hall, 
which was dedicated four years ago. When Gen. 
Tipton died last spring, most impressive funeral 
services, said Mr. Pratt, were conducted by his 
brother Masons. This is my first encounter with 
members of this fraternity in this state. 

Through Mr. Pratt I met some other la"«^^ers of 
the town, G. W. Blakemore, S. S. Tipton, William- 
son Wright, and his partner, William Z. Stuart, and 
Mr. Palmer, Mr. Pratt's partner. I met also a most 
interesting physician, Dr. Graham N. Fitch. Dr. 
Fitch is a man of about thirty years, who has al- 


ready attained a Mgli standing in Ms profession, 
and is one of the most entertaining men I have met. 
He is deeply interested in politics, and has read and 
thought much upon the constitutional principles of 
our government, and has formed his opinions of the 
proper mode of their development by legislation. 
He is deeply read in the writings of Mr. Jefferson, 
so I found to my delight, and the hour I spent in 
his society I consider one of the most pleasant of 
the many hours I have spent in the Western country. 
With all this, I found that Dr. Fitch cares most of 
all for his profession, and when I considered his 
hardships, for even more than the lawyer or the cir- 
cuit rider, the country medical practitioner suffers 
from bad roads and bad weather, I marveled at 
once over his endurance and his enthusiasm. 

With an account of an interesting meeting with 
three other gentlemen of Logansport, I must close 
this entry in my diary. These gentlemen were Mr. 
Horace Biddle, whom I met through the kind offices 
of Mr. Pratt, and Mr. John B. Dillon and Mr. George 
Winter, whom I encountered in Mr. Biddle 's office. 

Mr. Biddle is a young lawyer, admitted to the bar 
only last year, and only last fall come to this city. 
He too loves the Wabash country, and spoke most 
poetically of the gentle hills that surround the city, 
and of the meeting of the waters in the valley. "I 
was pleased with it when I first saw it, and its charm 
is on me yet," he said. Mr. Pratt told me that he 
is a young man of brilliancy and attainments, and 
has literary tastes as well, having already contrib- 
uted both prose and poetic efforts to magazines and 


papers. He is a great friend of a most interesting 
young man, Mr. Jolm B. Dillon,^ editor, with Mr. 
Hyacinth Lasselle, of The Logansport Telegraph. 

Mr. Dillon, I was told before meeting him, is a 
man of fine literary tastes, which has no doubt ce- 
mented the friendship between him and Mr. Biddle. 
Before coming to Logansport Mr. Dillon resided in 
Cincinnati, and while there was connected with the 
Cincinnati Mirror, a literary paper of high excel- 
lence. As we chatted together Mr. Biddle talked at 
length and with enthusiasm of this friend. 

*'He cares nothing for the law," said he, *'but he 
is an attentive reader and is well acquainted with 
the general principles of jurisprudence. He has, 
however, no adaptability to the business affairs of 
life; all he desires is to think and to know; he has 
no disposition to do and to have. He delights in 
original composition and in belles lettres," 

As he spoke Mr. Dillon entered in company with 
Mr. Winter. In person, I found him peculiar. He 
is of medium height, with a fine athletic figure, yet 
his hands and feet are clumsy and quite ungainly. 
His head is large, his hair dark, and, perhaps be- 
cause of some affection of the eyes, he wears spec- 
tacles with large, dark sideglasses, which effectually 
conceal his eyes. His manner is most .serious and 
he seems very shy, though Mr. Biddle assured me 
that with his familiar friends over a game of chess, 
or at a feast of anecdotes, or in athletic exercises, 

'John B. Dillon, born in Virginia, 1808; Logansport, 1834, studied 
law and admitted to bar; editor Logansport Telegraph, 1839-43; 
later went to Indianapolis; author "History of Indiana," two 
volumes. — Editor. 


he is often mirthful and sometimes even uproarious. 

We talked at some length together, and soon, feel- 
ing the comradeship of ambitious youth, spoke of our 
hopes and our dreams. Mr. Biddle yearns for fame 
in his chosen calling, but he intends ne'er to desert 
the muse. Mr. Dillon's ambition is to preserve for- 
ever the facts of our early history for the great and 
wise and good of all coming generations in a history 
of merit. He does not care for popular applause, he 
says, but desires to be read by scholars, by states- 
men, by historians, by students of the past. To such 
ends, he devotes all his spare time to the general 
reading of English literature and the special in- 
vestigation of the history of the Northwest Terri- 
tory and the states formed from it, in connection 
with the history of Indiana. 

The other young gentleman, is, I learned later, 
about 30 years old, and is an Englishman and an 
artist. Wlien he found that I was a stranger in 
the state and much interested in its history, he gave 
me much information concerning his work and the 

It seems that he was born and educated in Eng- 
land, and then came to New York. Later, he came 
out to Cincinnati on account of his interest in the 
Indians and their proposed migration, and at the 
council held by Col. Pepper concerning the Potta- 
wotamies of which I have already written, he found 
excellent material for his sketches. His painting, 
*'The Treaty of Kuwa-nay," so pleased Col. Pep- 
per that Mr. Winter presented it to him. He has 
continued to paint Indians, and the reason for his 


residence in Logansport was its nearness to the 
reservations. He told me at length of his visit to 
''Dead Man's Village" only last year, at the request 
of the Slocum family to sketch the likeness of 
Frances, the ''lost sister," a little girl who was 
stolen from her Quaker parents in Wilkesbarre, Pa., 
and was not discovered until she was an old woman 
and had become the wife of She-buck-oo-wah, an 
Indian chief. 

He also confided to me that he had been painting 
views of the Tippecanoe battle field in the hope that 
they would find a sale because of the great interest 
in the election. One of these views was hanging 
in Mr. Biddle's office at this time, and I immediately 
purchased, it as a gift for my father, who has a 
taste for historic happenings. I judge him a young 
man of great talent, no doubt destined to acquire 
name and fame in this new country. 

I found him most genial and witty, and before we 
parted we all three became on such intimate terms 
that they told me of a practical joke they played on 
the town this very spring. 

"We were sitting together here," said Mr. Bid- 
die, and I guessed that they sat much together, these 
three young men, with their interest in art and belles 
lettres so out of keeping, one might think, with a 
rude pioneer settlement, "when all at once Mr. Dil- 
lon said (the day was April 1) : 

" 'Let us fool somebody!' 

"We all agreed, and he took a pen and a narrow 
strip of paper and wrote : ' There will be exhibited 
at the Court House this evening a living manthrop, 


from 8 to 10 o'clock. Sir Roger DeCoverley, man- 
ager. ' 

''He took a couple of wafers, and wlien we went 
to the hotel where we all three board, he managed 
to stick up the- notice on a small billboard without 
being observed. 

''Much to our amusement, there was a great dis- 
cussion at dinner about the strange animal. Dur- 
ing the afternoon, young gentlemen of the town who 
prided themselves on their learning, several of the 
clergymen, and some of the lawyers, were busy 
studying the encyclopedia, natural histories, all the 
books they could find, to ascertain what the new 
creature was. The word manthrop, as you no doubt 
know, sir, is really a compound of two Anglo-Saxon 
words meaning 'the man of the village,' and as Sir 
Roger DeCoverley is Addison's amiable character, 
Mr. Dillon had no expectation of the success of the 
joke, indeed he was mortified at the result. For a 
long time, Dillon's April fool was talked about 
through the town." 


June 30, 1840. 

A FEW more interesting items concerning my 
stay in Logansport are to be noted before 
leaving the subject. 

In the office of Mr. Pratt I met a most agreeable 
young gentleman, Charles B. Lasselle,^ who is just 
21 years old. 

Mr. Lasselle received his early education at the 
*' Seminary," which I have already mentioned as 
founded by General Tipton, and then went to the 
State College, where he pursued his studies until 
last year, when he entered Mr. Pratt's office to en- 
gage in the study of the law. His grandfather. Col. 
James Lasselle, descendant of French emigrants to 
Montreal, was Indian agent near the village of Fort 
Wayne and his father, Gen. Hyacinth Lasselle, was 
the first white child born in that locality. His 
mother is also of French parentage and her father 
fought in the Revolutionary War. General and Mrs. 
Lasselle came to Logansport in 1833, first settling 
on a farm and later moving into the towTi, where 

* Charles B. Lasselle, born in Vincennes, 1819; admitted to bar, 
1842; prosecuting attorney, 1847; assistant editor Logansport Tele- 
graph; Legislature, 1862; State Senate, 1868-9-70; took much inter- 
est in Wabash Valley history; part of his collection in State Library. 



one of the sons is proprietor of The Telegraph, of 
which Mr. Dillon is editor. 

Young Mr. Charles and I found much in common 
in our brief conversation, and on learning that my 
last evening in the town was unoccupied, he invited 
me to supper at his father's home, where I enjoyed 
a most delightful visit with this charming family and 
learned much of the French occupants of the Wa- 
bash, besides being given letters by them to some 9f 
the most respectable families in Vincennes, which 
city is included in my itinerary. 

In the home of the Lasselles I found, together with 
relics of the aborigines collected by the grandfather, 
many indications of culture in books, pictures and 
furniture. The only piano in the town is in this 
home, and General Lasselle told me a most amusing 
story of its coming to Logansport. It was pur- 
chased, it seems, in Philadelphia and shipped thence 
by water to New Orleans. From there, it was sent 
up the Mississippi on a steamboat, and from there 
by the same means up the Ohio and the Wabash, 
reaching the Logansport wharf in safety. But from 
carelessness on the part of the deckhands, when it 
was undertook to carry it ashore, it fell into the 
river and must needs lie there until the waters sub- 
sided, when it was lifted out. 

I discovered that young Mr. Lasselle is most in- 
terested in history and belles lettres. We talked 
much of books and he presently brought forth for 
my perusal a publication now being issued at Bloom- 
ington at the State College, a periodical entitled 
The Extra Equator, devoted, so it was stated on 


the cover, '^to the interests of science and literature 
in the West." 

I examined this periodical with great interest. 
The opening article is a translation of one of the 
dialogues of Plato, especially addressed, says the 
editor, ''to those who are in the habit of thinking 
accurately and deeply on every subject within their 
mental grasp. To those who do not cultivate this 
faculty it is not addressed ; for upon such its opera- 
tion would be most unwelcome and even painful. 

''Readers of a more serious turn," he goes on to 
say, "may be pleased with the 'Notes of Sunday 
School Instruction,' all the lovers of our civil insti- 
tutions will admire the humor and spirit of the 
'Fourth of July Address,' and the candor and fair- 
ness of the review department. The 'studious of 
change and pleased with novelty' will be amused 
and instructed by the 'Rambles in Vacation,' and 
sundry descriptive and poetic pieces interspersed 
throughout the work." 

The editor seemed somewhat uncertain, appar- 
ently, as to the acceptance of his Greek translation, 
for he continues to insist that it is worth the read- 
ing for the improvement such reading will give. 
"The stiffness and pomp of our style, I have often 
thought," he says, "might be corrected by a more 
intimate acquaintance with the manner of the an- 
cients. It should be published moreover, because 
it is edifying to furnish a specimen of the method 
of instruction pursued by Socrates, the most cele- 
brated teacher of ancient times." 

The Fourth of July Address, I noted, is one given 


the preceding year by Dr. Andrew Wylie, Presi- 
dent of the College, he whom Miss Merrill had so 
highly praised to me, and one of the poetic selec- 
tions noted in the table of contents is an extract 
from a poem delivered ''At the Departure of the 
Senior Class of Yale College in 1836/' 

All this was most interesting and, with Mr. Las- 
selle's permission, I made note of this publication 
and its contents in my pocketbook. The most in- 
teresting article to me, however, in the entire book 
concerned a volume published in Louisville, Ky., 
whose second edition has just appeared. This work, 
it would seem, is entitled ''Tannehill's History of 
Literature," published by subscription. The first 
edition was published some years ago. The notice 
I will quote : 

''This volume was published in the "West and lit- 
tle or no pains were taken to make it known or to 
give it circulation in other sections of the Union. 
The few copies, however, which were sent to the 
Northern and Eastern states were well received, and 
it was pronounced a work of great research and 
merit ; and the New York Review seems utterly sur- 
prised that a volume requiring so much and so ex- 
tensive reading could have been produced in the 
backwoods of the West. The work is a succinct com- 
pendium of the history of literature from the earliest 
period to the revival of letters in the fifteenth cen- 
tury. It is written in a neat and chaste style and 
while it can be perused with interest and profit to 
the general reader, by literary men it will be hailed 
with delight as an invaluable companion. We can 


not help thinking what a God-send such a volume 
would have been in our college days when themes 
and compositions weekly stared us in the face. With 
this ample magazine at our elbow, how learnedly 
could we have descanted on the literature of Greece 
and Rome, those fruitful themes for the sophomore's 
pen — while in Egypt or Russia, or China or India, or 
Arabia or Spain, we should have been as much at 
home as Sir William Jones or the learned black- 
smith of Massachusetts." 

I have made a note of this valuable volume, the 
title and publisher with the intent to purchase it 
Avhen next in a bookseller's shop. 

The discussion of books led to the subject of pub- 
lic libraries, and a regret that there was not more 
money available for the purchase of books for the 
Logansport Library, A gentleman, a Mr. Taber, 
who had come in to spend the evening, at once 
entered into an argument over the means of rais- 
ing funds for the purchase of books for the 

''Every citizen," said he, ''will readily acknowl- 
edge the importance of public libraries in promoting 
the cause of general education. Well, then, let a 
library company be founded and incorporated and 
let the company obtain from the Legislature a 
charter for the purpose of raising a library fund, 
say $50,000 by lottery." He admitted that this was 
not an original idea with him, but that he believed 
it a most feasible one. "By this means," he went 
on to say, "the town and country might become pos- 
sessed of one of the best libraries in the Western 


country. The plan, if properly managed, can not 
fail to prove successful." 

Another member of the company objected at once, 
declaring that the influence of the lottery is most 

**Not at all," declared its first advocate. ''The 
case is altogether different when the lotteries are 
used for the purpose of promoting the cause of edu- 
cation and other useful interests. In almost every 
state, lotteries have been authorized by law to aid 
in building colleges, academies, hospitals, asylums, 
etc. They have also been authorized by law for 
purposes of public improvement, such as tha mak- 
ing of roads, the building of bridges, the improve- 
ment of the navigation of rivers, the draining of 
large tracts of wet land." 

He appealed to me to know if this were not true, 
and I was compelled to acknowledge that this means 
of raising money for educational and other worthy 
purposes was no novelty in many of the Eastern 
states. The gentleman concluded by stating that he 
was going this very week to issue a call for a meet- 
ing to consider this subject, at the Presbyterian 
Church at candlelight on Friday night. 

In the course of the evening these friends gave 
me much other interesting information concerning 
their city and the Western country in general. It 
would seem that much ginseng grew in the woods 
and was an early source of income to the first set- 
tlers. James Blake, whom I had known in Indian- 
apolis, had soon perceived the value of this product 
of the woods and had established in several places. 


among them Logansport, factories in which the root 
was prepared and dried for shipment to China, 
where it is highly valued as a medicine. As civiliza- 
tion advances and the country is cleared, 'tis said 
the ginseng gradually disappears, and one of the 
''first wave" pioneers, those who make the first 
clearings and then move on to the wilder places, said 
that he followed the wild turkey which, when there 
are no more ''sang" berries (the pioneer calls the 
ginseng "sang") to eat in the forest, leaves it for 
wilder and more remote places. 

These gentlemen, perceiving my interest in the 
town's social affairs as well as its business develop- 
ment, told me something of their musical societies 
and of the Thespian Society, in which all are most 
interested and wiiich has been in existence for sev- 
eral years and has given several notable perform- 
ances. Among these, they mentioned the play of 
"Douglas," acted together with the farce, "Tom 
Noddy's Secret," and Kotzebue's "The Stranger," 
with the farce ' ' The Mummy. ' ' Another all remem- 
bered with the greatest pleasure, was the "Tragedy 
of Bertram, ' ' by the Rev. Mr. Mathurin, pronounced 
universally one of the best and most beautiful pro- 
ductions in the language, to do justice to which en- 
tirely new scenery was executed by an artist, which 
would have been creditable, they declared, to any 
theater, and which, together with the costumes made 
for the occasion, won universal admiration and 

My father having suggested that I occasionally 
note prices of various commodities in order to com- 


pare them with similar commodities in the East, I 
will here set down prices as copied from a number 
of the Logansport Herald for the month of June, 
1840, as read out to me by Mr. Lasselle on this 

Beef, 3 cents a pound ; pork, 2 cents ; lard, 5 cents ; 
butter, 8 cents ; cheese, 10 cents ; ham, 6 cents ; shoul- 
der, 5 cents; flour, $3 a barrel; wheat, 56 cents 
per bushel ; oats, 12 cents per bushel ; coffee, 25 cents 
a pound; whisky, 19 cents a gallon. 

The time had now come for my departure from 
this town, and with it a slight change in my plans. 
As noted before, my cousin, Jonathan Parsons, had 
come out to the Wabash country and it was my in- 
tention to pass through Covington and pay him a 
visit. On my inquiring of Mr. Hannegan, however, 
on learning that this town was his home, I was in- 
formed that my cousin had left this country some 
months ago, having suffered greatly from the ague, 
with the intention of going to Ohio. We have 
cousins there from Maryland and it is possible that 
he has sought them out with the idea of settling 
there. As Covington is a new settlement and not 
unlike these other towns of the Wabash country, I 
shall not now visit it, but shall continue my journey 
to Lafayette and thence to Crawfordsville. 

I have learned, much to my chagrin, that the Wa- 
bash and Erie Canal, on which I had hoped to make 
part of my journey, is not yet completed. Adver- 
tisements in the Logansport papers had led me to 
believe that the canal was open for some distance, 
but it seems that it is only open to Georgetown, 


seven miles from Logansport, although work is be- 
ing done at several points along the line. This be- 
ing the case, I engaged passage on the stage for 

The beginning of my journey was not altogether 
propitious. The stage was a dingy lumbering ve- 
hicle, altogether unlike the trim Vigus coaches ; the 
driver, rough and profane. We started off well 
enough, however, and as usual, I gathered much in- 
formation concerning the country from my fellow 
travelers with whom I was soon engaged in conver- 
sation. The county of Carroll, in which we found 
ourselves after driving a considerable distance and 
crossing the river, which runs diagonally through 
Cass County, Carroll and Tippecanoe, southwest of 
Carroll, was named after the venerable Charles Car- 
roll, at the time of its organization, the sole survivor 
of those noted men who signed the Declaration. 
The surface of this county is not unlike that I had 
just quitted. The road could be called so only by 
courtesy, — 'twas simply a way made by felling the 
trees, many of whose stumps remained in the road- 
way, together with some of the logs. I scarcely no- 
ticed the miserable jolting, however, so impressed 
was I with the marvelous beauty of the country we 
were traversing. 

Sometimes the road ran through the forest, where 
the trees rose nearly 100 feet in height, standing on 
either side of the road like a protecting wall. Again 
we passed over level plains, or again, through the 
river bottoms and this last was a most beautiful and 
novel sight to me, indicating clearly why men werQ 


willing to endure fever and ague and other ills to 
abide in the Wabash country. The river rolled its 
silver current along the edge of the plain, which was 
besprinkled with wild flowers of every rich and 
varied tint, intermingled with tall grass that nodded 
in the passing breeze. The hawthorn, wild plum 
and crabapple bushes were overspread with a tangle 
of vines, grape, wild hops, honeysuckle, and clam- 
bering sweet brier, fantastically wreathed together, 
all growing in clusters along the river bank as if 
in love with its placid smiling waters. 

The forest rang continually with the songs of the 
birds and among them I noted particularly, because 
of their strangeness, the crane and the parroquet. 
These sand-hill cranes are quite different from the 
common blue cranes, being much larger and of a 
sandy gray color. They go in flocks, I am told, like 
wild geese, but fly much higher and their croaking 
can be heard distinctly when they are so high in 
the air that they can not be seen. The parroquets 
are beautiful birds, as I have already noted in writ- 
ing of my ride along the Ohio River. In size they 
are a little larger than the common quail and re- 
semble small parrots. When full gro^vn, a gentle- 
man informed me, their plumage is green, except 
the neck, which is yellow, and the head is red. The 
heads of the young continue yellow until they are 
a year old. Waen flying, this bird utters a shrill 
but cheerful and pleasant note and the flash of its 
golden and green plumage in the sunlight is inde- 
scribably beautiful in its tropical suggestion. 

The gentleman who gave me much of this infor- 


mation and who, he confessed, is much interested 
in natural history and has many times perused Gold- 
smith 's ''Animated Nature," said most poetically, 
that on seeing these brilliant birds in the sunlight, 
he "deemed for the moment that he was on the 
verge of a brighter sphere, where the birds wear 
richer plumage and utter a sweeter song." 

We had left Logansport at noon, and time sped 
rapidly enough in gazing at the varied and delight- 
ful landscape and in conversation of a sort which 
ever proves edifying. Evening was coming on 
when, after a crash as of the wheel striking a 
log or obstruction of some sort, the stage gave 
a tremendous lurch and precipitated us one against 
the other as it came to a full stop, half over- 

Having scrambled out as best we could, we were 
informed surlily by the driver that we would have 
to find lodging in a cabin in a clearing nearby the 
place where our accident had fortunately occurred, 
as it would be impossible to repair the damages done 
to the stage before morning. 

Looking about bewildered, we discovered near the 
roadside, in a clearing of some fifteen or twenty 
acres, a single cabin built of logs to which our driver 
was already leading his horses, which he had speed- 
ily unhitched from the stage. My fellow passengers 
and I walked toward the door of the cabin, where 
we were met by a half grown girl, rudely attired 
in a coarse garment of dull blue, 'tis true, but pos- 
sessed of delicate features and fresh color. All 
romance was dispelled when she spoke, however ! 


' ' May we stay here for the night, my girl 1 ' ' asked 
one of the gentlemen. 

*'I ain't your girl that I knows of," she drawled, 
"but we sometimes keeps strangers, and I reckon 
you kin stay here if you like." 

At that we entered the cabin, which consisted of 
a single room with a large fireplace at one end. 
The walls had been whitewashed, and from pegs 
here and there was suspended the family's extra 
wearing apparel. Two large beds occupied the sides 
of the room, with trundle beds beneath ; some splint- 
bottomed chairs and an old bureau completed the 
furniture. The kitchen was in a *' lean-to" at the 
back of the house. 

The father came in presently, a tall, raw-boned 
man, with a face bronzed by exposure, and shook 
hands with us warmly and made us welcome. Soon 
the children, healthy and sunburned, came strag- 
gling in, and last the mother, she alas! the true 
pioneer wife, broken by many hardships. How 
many of these poor women have I already encoun- 
tered on this Western journey, prematurely old and 
broken from hard work and many privations ! 

She was kind, too, and welcomed us shyly, and 
presently we sat down to a meal of fried pork, corn 
dodgers and tea. Later, I talked with her concern- 
ing a beautiful hand-woven coverlet which spread 
its gorgeous colors on the rude high bed, and which 
for the moment I had the thought of attempting to 
purchase for my mother. She said she did not 
weave it, though the other was her handiwork, point- 
ing to the other bed on which one of plainer design 


was spread. Perceiving that my interest was gen- 
uine, she forgot herself and grew eloquent over the 
subject of designs. Her *' mammy" had woven 
many of them, she said. In that old **chist" she 
had the ''Sunrise," the ''Pine Bloom" and the 
"Dogwood Blossoms" folded away, all brought 
from "Kyarliny," and she had a loom in the shed, 
and some of "mammy's" patterns. But this one 
which I admired was a "double kiver," the art of 
making which is known only to the professional 
weavers. The soft, fine wool for this, to whose ex- 
quisite quality she called my attention, she herself 
had prepared, carding, spinning, dyeing, and her 
sister, who lived over in Fountain County, had taken 
it to be woven to a woman, French, she reckoned, 
whose name was Lattaratt. (After a Avhile I trans- 
lated her barbarous pronunciation into LaTourette.^) 

"Frenchman's Fancy," was its name, and she 
reckoned "it was the prettiest kiver in this part of 
the kentry." When I saw her hungry eyes feast 
themselves upon this one beautiful object in the 
dreary cabin, I said no word concerning its pur- 

As we sat and talked after supper, the farmer told 
us something of his history. He had come with his 
wife from North Carolina to Ohio, and thence to 
Indiana. He owned now eighty acres of land, 
twenty of them cleared, a yoke of oxen, a mule, a 
cart and some farming tools. He was getting rest- 
less, though; it was becoming too thickly settled 

^The LaTourettes of Fountain County were famous weavera of 
fine coverlets, — Editor, 


about here, and he might yet be moving on to a 
wilder country. 

Ere long bed time was announced, the trundle 
beds were brought forth, pallets made on the floor, 
each one's couch assigned him, and soon we all were 
sound asleep. 

Next morning we performed our ablutions in a tin 
basin set on a rough bench beside the door. The 
water was from a spring near by, clear and cold, 
and a clean towel hung from a nail by the door 

After breakfast, a good one, of fried ham, eggs 
and coffee, our host informed us that a little fur- 
ther down the road a wedding was to be celebrated 
that day, and suggested that as he and his family 
were going, we join them and remain there until the 
driver had finished his repairs on the coach and 
came to pick us up. 

Being assured that we would be welcome, and 
having agreed among ourselves to make up a purse 
as a gift for the bride, we accordingly joined the 
family procession to the next clearing. 

This house proved a much more pretentious dwell- 
ing than that of our host of the preceding night. 
This was a ''double cabin," one room of which was 
very large, the other of ordinary size, about eighteen 
by twenty feet, I fancy. In the smaller room, the 
floor was of dirt, and here were most ingeniously 
constructed tables for the day, made by forked 
sticks driven into the floor at regular intervals, upon 
which were laid other sticks, and on these ranged 
puncheons, upon which the cloths were spread. 

From a drawing ty Caar "^'illiams 


It was about 9 o 'clock when we reached the cabin, 
and many of the guests were already assembled. 
The elder ones came, I was informed, to assist in 
the preparation of the dinner; the younger, to en- 
gage in dancing, as soon as the ceremony was per- 
formed, so popular is this amusement in these settle- 
ments. As the two rooms were already occupied, 
the bride had to make her toilet in the ''lean-to," 
where she, with the friends who "stood up" with 
her, received the bridegroom and his attendants on 
their arrival. All this, we witnessed, as also the 
coming of the squire who was to perform the cere- 

This ceremony was performed in a most back- 
woods fashion in the larger cabin, and immediately 
afterward the bride and bridegroom, together with 
the older guests, and ourselves — we were treated, 
I have failed to note, with great respect — were in- 
vited to the dining table. I perceived the necessity 
now of the strong structure I had observed this 
morning, for an enormous feast now stood upon the 
coarse white cloths that hid the rude puncheons. 
Wild turkey, roasted and steaming hot ; a saddle of 
venison, various vegetables, pies of all sorts, dishes 
of wild honey, and a great pot of coffee, with the 
"fixin's," as they called it, of rich cream and a great 
pan of maple sugar, stood before us, but only for a 
season, for this Brobdingnagian feast vanished all 
too quickly. 

"When we returned to the first cabin we found the 
young people already dancing, having induced the 
old fiddler to take his station in one corner, where 


he played in a most lugubrious fashion the old tune 
of ''Leather Breeches." 

We tarried for a season watching them, and then, 
our driver appearing with the coach, we presented 
our gift to the buxom bride, thanked our hosts for 
their hospitality, and, I'll confess it, since she was 
a comely girl with sparkling, black eyes and a fine 
color, availed ourselves of the permitted ''salute'* 
on the bride's rosy cheek ! Then, assuming our seats 
in the coach, we were soon bowling rapidly along 
over the road to Delphi. 


Laeayette, July 2, 1840. 

NOTHING of particular interest occurred to 
mark our journey from the settler's cabin 
where we beheld the marriage ceremony, un- 
til we came to the village of Delphi. The prospect 
was much the same, alternating woodland and 
prairie, and I occupied my time in gazing upon the 
scenery, whose natural beauty had not yet palled 
upon me, and in conversation with my fellow 

One elderly gentleman — ^I learned later that his 
name was Odell — who took the stage for Delphi at a 
hamlet at which we stopped on the morning of the 
wedding, proved to be one of the pioneers of Carroll 
County and told me much that was interesting con- 
cerning the newness of these settlements and the 
hardships of the first settlers. Looking upon the 
small but thriving villages and the cultivated fields 
separated from each other though they are by dense 
woodlands, I found it difficult to comprehend that 
only fourteen years ago when the people in the 
locality that is now Delphi, came together to assist 
in raising a saw mill, there were only twenty-eight 
present and those twenty-eight were all of the resi- 
dents, as he put it oddly enough, "from Wild Cat to 


Rock Creek" within the limits of what two years 
later became Carroll County, and that now there are 
in these same limits several hundred people. These 
first settlers, he said, suffered many privations that 
first winter. Their stock of provisions, tea, coffee, 
and flour which they had brought with them was 
soon exhausted and they were forced to subsist on 
what substitutes were to be had— potatoes and 
squash for bread stuffs and a brew made from spice- 
wood to take the place of tea and coffee. 

The mail in these early days, he told me, was first 
carried on horseback, later in what were called 
' ' mud wagons, ' ' and still later in ' * hacks. ' ' Indian 
trails and deer paths were the roads, and he declared 
that a settler who came into the country in 1824 said 
that the face of the country was then covered with a 
growth of nettles as thick as a crop of flax and 
about as high, and in the river bottom as high as 
a man's head when he was on horseback. 

There were many frogs and snakes, he said. In - 
deed, every one with whom I have talked has an 
experience with these reptiles to relate, for the 
rattlesnakes abounded here in such numbers that 
the settlers frequently formed companies to go 
forth and attack their dens. In one place, near 
Deer Creek, ninety-five were once killed in one 

The wolves, too, were plentiful in the early days, 
and after telling me several stories of these huge 
gray wolves, the old gentleman recited a poem he 
had composed last winter on a bill introduced into 
the Legislature asking for a bounty on wolf scalps; 


"The wolf, the enemy of sheep, 

Prowls about when we're asleep, 

And in despite of faithful dogs, 

They kill our sheep and junior hogs, 

And rob us of our wool and bacon. 

One by one, the imps of Satan. 

Hence, I pray the Legislature 

To pass a law to kill the creature; 

And by a unanimous vote. 

Make the scalp a treasury note." 

A Methodist minister, who was also a passenger 
and who until now had taken little part in the con- 
versation, perceiving my interest in these stories 
relating to the wildness of the country, informed 
me that only last year, when going to Conference 
with some of his fellow circuit riders, one of them 
feeling ill, they all stopped for the night at a farm 
house somewhere between Greencastle and Craw- 
fordsville. During the night they were aroused by 
a great commotion in the yard, the barking of the 
dog and the voice of the farmer, but presently when 
all became quiet again, they fell asleep and were 
surprised in the morning to hear from the farmer 
that a bear had climbed into his yard and en- 
deavored to get away with one of his pigs. The 
bear was compelled to surrender his prey but man- 
aged to make his escape. The ministers were 
chagrined that they had not arisen and assisted in 
the capture of the bear on their way to Conference — • 
it would have made such a good story ! 

I learned more, too, on the stage of my friend 
James Blake of Indianapolis, of whom I have 
written several times before, and whose activities 


in this part of tlie state in the early days of the 
settlement are still remembered. 

In Indianapolis I had heard Mr. Blake's praises 
sung on all sides as one of the most useful, energetic 
and public-spirited of its citizens, always first to 
help in any improvement that was to be made, al- 
ways heading the list in every benevolent enterprise, 
a man most noble and unselfish, to whom was due 
much of the prosperity of the city in which he made 
his home. It was therefore most interesting to come 
upon a chapter of his early life in this country. 

'Tis said that he lived several months of every 
year in Carroll County at its beginning and estab- 
lished a ginseng factory on Gen. Milroy's farm, pur- 
chasing large quantities of this root from the 
settlers, from which source alone many of them ac- 
quired sufficient funds for the purchase of their land 
from the government. 

He attended the first sale of lots in Delphi and 
was leader of the subscription for the erection of the 
school house. He at once organized a Sunday 
School, and as long as he remained a resident of 
the county kept it under his supervision. In short, 
it was evident that Mr. Blake did not become a resi- 
dent of the town for purely selfish reasons. He be- 
came a citizen not only to better himself but to better 
the town. He set a standard of religion, morality 
and virtue, and made it easier for other good men 
to stand for these principles. In brief, every town 
in which he has lived felt the influence of his resi- 
dence there long after he had departed. To use Mr. 
Odell's words, **He gave the young community a 


start in the right direction, and that influence is 
still felt." 

As the old gentleman concluded his speech, I sat 
in silence for a period, meditating on what he had 
told me and on the influence for good a man may- 
have in a community. Here, thought I, is this man 
who came out to the Western country, just as I 
have now come, to carve out his fortune and to make 
a place for himself. By his own efforts, he has not 
only succeeded in one but in both. Here and in 
Indianapolis, his present home, I have heard only 
words of praise when his name is mentioned. And 
here am I, come likewise to find a place for myself 
in this new country. Twelve, fourteen years from 
now, will some young man, such as I am now, riding 
through the country on a similar voyage of dis- 
covery, hear my name spoken in such terms of grati- 
tude and praise? What a happy destiny could such 
a thing be ! 

We had by this time approached Delphi where I 
had planned to remain over night. I accordingly 
took lodgings at the Delphi House. This hotel, I am 
informed, was established in 1835 and stands at the 
foot of Main Street. I was most agreeably sur- 
prised to find so large and handsome a tavern-stand 
in so new a town. The building is of frame, con- 
tains forty-five rooms and a cellar and also pos- 
sesses a most commodious stable. Its situation is a 
fine one as it commands a view of the river, the 
canal and the town. 

Unfortunately, the town only last year suffered 
from a most disastrous fire, in which an entire block 


of buildings was consumed, and has not yet^ re- 
covered from this catastrophe. However, it is a 
pleasant looking village, and, while small, it is hard 
to believe that so few years ago its site was an open 
woods of oak, walnut, elm, plum bushes and hazel, 
as I am told. The surrounding country is beautiful 
beyond description, the river, the creeks, the bot- 
toms overgrown with flowers, the forests, altogether 
forming a scene to cast a spell over any one pos- 
sessed of imagination. 

The editor of the paper, The Express, R. C. 
Green, to whom I had a letter from one of my 
Logansport friends which I speedily presented, gave 
me to understand that in spite of this calamity, Del- 
phi will rally and that the day is not distant when 
it will be the largest town on the Wabash River. 
Mr. Green has been, until last year, the editor of the 
first paper started in Delphi, but recently gave this 
up to become editor of The Express, which is a 
Harrison paper. He and a gentleman whom I 
found in his office, a Dr. Blanchard, talked much of 
the resources of the town and most bitterly regretted 
that the Michigan Road did not pass through it, this, 
they declared, being due to carelessness on the part 
of some of the citizens who did not take time to ex- 
plain the advantages of such a route to the com- 
missioners, who therefore went into Cass County, 
where they found men who were willing to spend 
the time and gain this important thoroughfare. 

They talked much of the natural advantages of 
Carroll County, its fertility of soil and facilities 
for water power, and pointed out to me the fact that 


it is the head of steamboat navigation on the Wa- 
bash, because any time that steamboats can come to 
Lafayette they can come to Delphi. 

Similar enthusiasm over the county *s resources I 
found in General Samuel Milroy,^ one of the pioneer 

Gen. Milroy was most agreeable to me and 
narrated the circumstances of the naming of Delphi. 
He had in mind of course the ancient shrine of 
Apollo, the seat of the famous oracle, and by a 
pretty fancy the first newspaper established was 
named The Del phi Oracle. 

Gen. Milroy assured me, as others have done, that 
the first settlers of this county possessed more in- 
telligence and piety than is usual in new settlements, 
early establishing churches and schools, and the 
moral tone of their influence and example has left its 
impress on the present inhabitants. 

It was this gentleman in his talk on internal im- 
provements who called to my mind again tlie Madi- 
son and Lafayette Railroad, on which I had traveled 
from Madison to Vernon, its terminus at that time, 
and which if ever completed will connect the north 

^Samuel Milroy, born, 1780, in Pennsylvania; lineal descendant 
of Robert Bruce; came to Middle West when a young man; to 
Indiana in 1814; delegate to constitutional convention, 1816; mem- 
ber of first Legislature; Brigadier General, commissioned by Gov. 
Jennings, 1819; in Legislature for nine years in succession; moved 
to what is now Carroll County in 1826; petitioned Legislature to 
form county; drafted bill for same, located county seat and sug- 
gested name; appointed by J. Q. Adams to inspect Illinois land 
oflaces; same year made register of land offices at Crawfordsville ; 
delegate to first Democratic national convention at Baltimore, 1832; 
opposed internal improvement system, 1839; agent for Miami and 
Pottawotamie Indiana; died, 1845. — fiditor. 


part of the state with the south in a way now almost 
unbelievable. He told me that he had aroused much 
enmity in the Legislature by opposing the building 
of a steamboat lock at Delphi, but he stood firm be- 
cause he was determined that time and materials 
should not be taken from the citizens of Carroll 
County to construct something which he considered 
as absolutely useless. I discovered in the course of 
our conversation that he is an ardent Democrat and 
a great admirer of Robert Dale Owen. On learn- 
ing of my admiration for him, although I am a 
Wliig, he presented me with a printed pamphlet of 
an address which Mr. Owen delivered before a meet- 
ing last year, which he considers a most noble effort. 

In answer to my inquiry as to whether the town 
is sickly, he assured me that other settlements jeal- 
ous of Delphi have circulated the report that it is 
sickly, whereas, to the contrary, in four years only 
one adult person has died in the town. 

During my stay in Delphi I met several of the 
physicians in addition to Dr. Blanchard, among 
them Dr. Ewing and Dr. Webber and Dr. James 
Stewart, also Judge Grantham, the probate judge; 
John Armitage and several attorneys, including L. 
B. Sims and a Mr. Graham. In company with these 
friends I viewed the little city, saw the substantial 
Court House, a brick building with a bell and cupola 
which cost $1,351, 1 am told, and the octagonal school 
house erected several years ago. 

I was told by these gentlemen of the Moot Legis- 
lature, an organization that existed at Delphi for a 
season. It consisted of a body of men supposed to 


represent a legislative body with officers consisting 
of a governor or speaker, a clerk, a treasurer and 
a doorkeeper. This Dr. Stewart, whom I found 
much interested in all the county affairs, was my in- 
formant, and he was the first clerk to be elected for 
this body. The length of the session was four weeks 
and the Governor delivered a message at its begin- 

It was most interesting, he said, and nothing ever 
created more interest in the community than did 
this organization. 

Again on the stage and bound now for Lafayette, 
the seat of justice of Tippecanoe County, which 
county I had visited once before on my journey to 
Battle Ground with Col. Vawter. 

The first town on our course was in Tippecanoe 
County, on the east side of the Wabash River, a vil- 
lage called Americus, and as our stage stopped there 
for some time for the exchange of mail I stepped off 
to view the town. I became so impressed with the 
possibilities of this town in the wilderness that I 
ordered my carpet bags set off and remained at the 
tavern until the coming of the next coach, two days 
later. There is no haste in my journey and as the 
object of my visit is not so much recreation as 
search for an abode, or an investment in lands which 
may later prove valuable, it seems important, since 
I have decided that the Wabash country is the most 
promising I have yet discovered, to take time in the 
investigation of the possibilities of these various 

Americus is a new town and a small one, laid out. 


I have learned, in 1832 by William Digby, who also 
ceded the land for the original plat of Lafayette. 
At this time, it is said, it was considered as the loca- 
tion for the seat of justice for its position as the 
terminus of the Wabash and Erie Canal, where the 
Tippecanoe River empties into the Wabash, was of 
great importance. Because of this, lots sold at very 
high prices and it gave promise of becoming the 
foremost to^\Ti in the county. However, it was de- 
cided to extend the canal to Lafayette, which was 
made the seat of justice, and the price of the lots in 
Americus therefore declined. However, this does 
not indicate to me the end of Americus. On the 
contrary, I am convinced that it has a great future ; 
it has the canal, the Wabash River, the neighbor- 
hood of the Tippecanoe River, the advantages of 
water power of various sorts. The township in 
which it is located is in the extreme northern part 
of Tippecanoe County. The surface of the town- 
ship is low and level along the river banks, the soil 
being of the richest formation and produces corn 
and wheat in great abundance. From north to 
southwest the surface is characterized by hills that 
slope gently toward the center of the township, 
forming beautiful farming lands. 

Americus is the only town in this township and 
with such advantages of location and resources I 
see no reason why it should not soon become a great 
commercial town, outstripping Logansport, Delphi 
and Lafayette. Having drawn these conclusions 
after a study of the land and the town during my 
two days' stay, I have written at length to my father 


of the advisability of making investments here. 
'Twill seem strange to him no doubt, yet I have 
heard so much since coming into the Wabash coun- 
try of these towns of mushroom growth that I am 
no longer astonished, but only desire to find the 
proper one and there to invest my money with the 
hope of profit in the future.^ 

On my way to Lafayette I found much to interest 
me in Tippecanoe County and learned much of its 
configuration from fellow travelers. On my way to 
Crawfordsville I shall pass, I am told, over the 
beautiful Wea Plains and there make my first ac- 
quaintance with prairies. This county is not ex- 
celled in beauty and fertility by many lands in the 
Western country ; it is generally level or gently un- 
dulating, and consists of prairies, barrens and forest 
lands, one-half prairie, one-eighth barrens and the 
remainder heavy forests. 

I have for two days now been taking my ease in 
Lafayette, a town picturesquely situated upon a de- 
clivity which affords a beautiful view of the Wa- 
bash, three miles above and two below the town. It 
is sufficiently elevated to prevent inundation and 

"Mr. Parsons, like others of his time, was no prophet on this 
subject. The collapse of the canal system, the "hard times," the 
building of railroads, combined with other circumstances caused the 
growth and duration of Americus, to quote S. C. Cox, "to be much 
after the fashion of Jonah's Gourd." The Indiana Gazetteer of 1849 
describes Americus as "a small town on the Wabash River in Tippe- 
canoe County, ten miles from Lafayette, containing one dry goods 
store, two groceries and about fifty frame dwelling houses." In 
1887, it had forty inhabitants. 

Unfortunately the diary does not disclose whether Mr. Parsons 
made investments here, if so to what extent, or whether this course 
was opposed by his father. — Editor. 


low enough to make access to the river quite con- 
venient. The ground ascends gradually for the dis- 
tance of about 300 yards from the river; it then de- 
scends a little and again swells into a handsome 
eminence on the east side of the town on which fancy 
may place in anticipation the habitation of future 
wealth and luxury. It contains about 400 houses 
and between 1,900 and 2,000 inhabitants, and al- 
ready possesses a Court House, churches and a 

If I am pleased with the town, what shall I say 
of its citizens? The letters I have carried with 
me have given me a welcome into several inter- 
esting circles and I already number among my 
acquaintances some of the most respectable at- 
torneys, business men and men of letters of the 

Having been informed that there is an Episcopal 
Church in the city and having seldom been able to 
worship with my own denomination, their churches 
being few in the Western country, and the next day 
being Sunday, I betook myself to St. John's Church, 
and met the pastor, the Rev. S. R. Johnson, with 
whom I speedily formed a warm friendship. He 
came out to the Western country from New York 
State as a missionary some years ago, and, making 
his home in this town, gave the lot on which the 
church is built, and has refused during these years 
of his pastorate to accept any salary for his services. 
He is a most excellent man and one whose compan- 
ionship I have found most delightful. I have ac- 
cepted an invitation to his house for the morrow and 


I anticipate a most delightful evening, which I shall 
record later. 

The church I found a most handsome structure of 
frame, erected at a cost, I am told, of $3,500. In the 
high pulpit, the reading desk, the communion table, 
all painted white, and the square-topped pews with 
doors, I found a sufficient suggestion of home, bar- 
ring the antiquity of our buildings of worship, to 
put me at my ease. I went again at candle light 
and found the nmsic most pleasing, the voices of the 
choir being augmented most pleasingly by the flute, 
violin and bass viol. Mr. Johnson detained me 
after the service that I might meet the choir, Ezekiel 
Timmons, Mr. Bansemer and Mr. Rhein playing the 
instruments, and the singers being David Turpie 
and the Misses Mary Turpie, Ma-ry Hatcher and 
Hannah Wilstach. The ** parson," as he is com- 
monly called, is fond of music and has in his home 
the first piano brought to Lafayette. In fact, the 
entertainment to which I am invited at his home is 
to be a musical entertainment. 

The next acquaintance I made, and this through a 
letter from Mr. Green of Delphi, was Henry Wil- 
liam Ellsworth,' on whom I called on Monday and 
in whose company I have already spent some de- 
lightful hours. Mr. Ellsworth is a son of Oliver 
Ellsworth^ chief justice of the Supreme Court of the 

Mr. Ellsworth has told me much of the society of 

* William Henry Ellsworth, born in Connecticut, 1814; graduated 
at Yale, 1835; came at once to Lafayette; author of some poems and 
of a book entitled, "Valley of the Upper Wabash, Indiana," published 
in New York in 1838.— Editor. 


Lafayette and has introduced me to many gentle- 
men. He pointed out to me many of the public 
buildings, the Presbyterian Church among others, to 
show to me the early interest of the community in 
education, for, said he, those who contributed to its 
erection stipulated that a room should be set off on 
the west end for a schoolhouse until such time as it 
was possible to erect a proper school building. 

He told me something of the social life of the city. 
''The rules for good society are now well estab- 
lished," said he, "embracing, we may hope, every 
honest man and woman. True, there are some who, 
through perverted minds, consider themselves in- 
dividually too high above the masses to be agreeable. 
This class is to be pitied. Maturer years may teach 
them better." 

Accidentally mentioning my interest in the Wa- 
bash country as a field for agricultural experiment, 
I found to my delight that this is a subject on which 
Mr. Ellsworth may be said to be an authority. He 
co-nfessed that in the five years of his residence here 
he has made a study of this subject and is thor- 
oughly convinced of the superiority of the Wabash 
Valley as a home for the enterprising settler because 
of its position, the extraordinary productiveness of 
its soil, its delightful climate, and its means of com- 
munication with the markets of the Northern and 
Southern states. Two years ago he published a book 
entitled "Valley of the Upper Wabash, with Hints 
of Its Agricultural Advancement, the Plan of a 
Dwelling, Estimates of Cultivation and Notices of 


Labor-Saving Machines." He showed me a copy 
of this work, and I perused with interest his descrip- 
tion of the geographical position of the Wabash 
Valley, the railroads which it is hoped ere long will 
be constructed, the discussion of the soil and its 
products and the products that can be grown on 
these fertile fields are hay for the New Orleans mar- 
ket; flax, from whose seed quantities of oil can be 
extracted; beet sugar, hemp, sunflower, etc. He 
gives also, with a plan for a neat and convenient 
dwelling for the settler, a minute description of a 
mowing and reaping machine recently invented by a 
Mr. Hussey of Cambridge, Md., which is especially 
adapted for use on a large prairie farm, and also of 
a ditching and banking machine. 

The book is written in a most interesting style and 
closes with an eloquent chapter on the effects re- 
sulting from the rapid means of intercourse 
between distant nations and an impassioned ap- 
peal to all true Americans to preserve their 
country — the abode of liberty — at any cost, from 

"And above all, let us guard against contentions, 
schisms, and disunions. Pluck not a single plume, 
cripple not one pinion of the heaven-daring bird we 
have chosen as our symbol. Let his flight be still as 
far, as strong and as fearless. Let him soar amid 
the full effulgence of a noon-day sun and that the 
sun of liberty ! Pluck not out one star from the rich 
group that sparkles in our country's banner! Let 
them shine in all the brightness of untarnished 


lustre as a beacon to the storm-tost nations of the 
earth, of the home which they adorn. Let them 
shine, outshone by none save those brighter constel- 
lations of a world above." * 

*In the light of future events in their country's history, it is 
interesting to think of this ardent young Southerner reading with 
Buch delight this appeal for loyalty written by a New Englander. — 


Crawfordsville, July 6, 1840. 

THREE events of my visit in Lafayette stand 
out above all others, never to be forgotten — a 
political speaking, an evening party at the 
home of the Rev. Mr. Johnson and a Fourth of July 

My subsequent journey over the Wea Plains, a 
scene of enchanting beauty, and my arrival in this 
delightful town have served to strengthen rather 
than to efface the impressions made by that visit. 
When I recall that galaxy of brilliant men, that com- 
pany of elegant and beautiful women and when clos- 
ing my eyes the vision of the lovely Julia again rises 
before me, then — ah, then, I know that I have graven 
it deep upon the tablets of my memory, never to be 
effaced ! 

Mr. Ellsworth had most genteelly accompanied me 
to the office of Rufus A. Lockwood to whom I had a 
letter given me by Mr. Biddle of Logansport, and 
it was through his offices that I found myself at the 
political speaking. 

I had already been informed that Mr. Lockwood 
is a gentleman of marked eccentricities but of great 
intellectual powers. Mr. Ellsworth told me that he 
has again and again heard him plead in court, and 
that he is each time more deeply impressed with the 



superbness of liis diction, his style and his deliver^/. 
Mr. Hannegan had mentioned him on our stage 
coach journey. When I informed him that my 
itinerary included Lafayette, he remarked that as 
an orator, Mr. Lockwood is not unlike Joseph Glass 
Marshall of Madison, both of whom he had heard 
speak in a certain trial. 

''However," said he, "Mr. MarshalPs argu- 
ment was from first to last, a splendid conflagration; 
Mr. Lockwood 's, a slower more consuming fire." 

The speaking to which Mr. Lockwood himself con- 
ducted me was held outdoors in a grove on the out- 
skirts of the town. 

The speaker, he informed me, is a senator at this 
time, the Hon. Albert S. White.^ I subsequently 
met Mr. White at the inn, where, as he is a bachelor, 
he makes his residence, having an office in another 
part of the city. The day was fine, not too warm, 
and the attendance was quite large, a number, so Mr. 
Lockwood informed me, having come in from the 
country, for this town is surrounded by fine farms, 
and its farming class is intelligent and prosperous. 

A wagon had been driven underneath a giant 
beech tree, the horses unhitched, and in the back of 
the wagon, Mr. White took his stand. It was a most 
interesting scene. Here were gathered people from 
town and country, men in broadcloth and beaver 
hats, others in the rude garments of the pioneer 
farmer. There were graybeards leaning upon 

' Mr. Parsons fails to mention it, but Mr. Lockwood was the 
partner of the speaker of the day, the Hon. Albert S. White. Mr. 
Wliite was one of the ablest and most popular lawyers in the state, 
and Mr. Lockwood soon proved himself his equal. — Editor. 


canes; there were young boys who had left their 
games of marbles and mumble-peg to come to the 
meeting; all gathered together eagerly listening to 
this small, narrow-chested young man, who with his 
thin face and Eoman nose could not be called hand- 
some. His voice is fine, however, his manner most 
pleasing, and in a little while I perceived that he is 
a most strong and convincing speaker. 

He held a document in his hand, to which he oc- 
casionally referred for items and facts, and he be- 
gan his address with an attack on the extravagance 
of the Van Buren administration, charging it with 
lavish and unnecessary expenditure of public money 
in furnishing the White House and beautifying 
its gardens and grounds. For all this, he de- 
clared, Mr. Van Buren is responsible, this man who 
eats from gold spoons, also purchased with the 
public money, and this at a time when most of the 
people of the United States are still using spoons 
made of horn and wood. He read from the paper 
the account of the purchase of a large number of 
young trees of the "morus multicaulis. " 

*'My Latin is a little rusty," he explained, **but I 
understand this to mean the many-leaved mulberry, 
whose foliage is fed upon by the silkworm. The 
President is evidently going into the mulberry trade 
in order .to procure, I presume, silk napkins, table- 
cloths and towels to match the golden spoons. But 
let me say, gentlemen, that there is another tree 
which would have been far more appropriate to 
adorn the lawns and gardens of the executive 
mansion than the morus multicaulis ; that tree is the 


ulmus lubrica, rendered into English, the slippery 

At this there was loud applause and much 
laughter, with shouts of ''Down with the Kinder- 
hook Wizard" and ''Little Van's a used-up man!" 

When the crowd again became quiet, Mr. White 
dropped into a more serious vein and described the 
great Whig national convention at which he was 
present; he detailed Gen. Harrison's government of 
Indiana Territory ; told of the faithful and long con- 
tinued safe-guarding of white settlers on the fron- 
tier; his treaties with the Indian tribes; his defeat 
of the Prophet at Tippecanoe and the subsequent 
overthrow and death of Tecumseh at the Thames, 
closing with an appeal full of force and feeling to 
the old soldiers and settlers of Indiana to stand by 
their former friend and commander. 

I thought the applause would never cease when he 
had concluded. Men threw their hats in the air, 
clapped their hands, shouted and huzzaed. It was 
evident that Mr. White is a man of great popularity 
as well as ability. 

As I approached with Mr. Lockwood to be pre- 
sented to him, I observed part of the secret of his 
popularity. He is extremely affable, and I noted 
again as we walked into the town in his company 
that his greetings to the young boys whom we met 
and to whom he always touched his hat, was ever as 
agreeable as it was to his elders. 
^ I learned in the course of our pleasant conversa- 
tion that he is a graduate of Union College and came 
to Lafayette eleven years ago. I had already dis- 


covered that he is a ripe scholar, his speech was full 
of classical allusions, his references and quotations 
from the most noted thinkers and writers disclosed 
the wideness and depth of his learning. 

'Twas on the evening of this same day that the 
Rev. Mr. Johnson had invited me to a small com- 
pany at his home, and I must confess that my mind 
had dwelt continually on this event with the greatest 
anticipations of pleasure. Much as I have enjoyed 
my experiences in the wilds, the crude life, the ad- 
venture, yet the thought of again mingling with 
those of my own kind and my own age in social inter- 
course was irresistibly attractive. 

I found the little company assembled when I ar- 
rived at the house, for I had spent some time at my 
toilet, arraying myself in my bro^vn broadcloth coat 
with the velvet collar, drab pantaloons and Monroe 
shoes with brass buckles. My host I found as 
charming as he had been on the day of our first meet- 
ing; his manners are marked by a childlike sim- 
plicity, and his countenance wears the pale cast of 
thought. It was evident that these young people 
whom he has gathered around him are bound to him 
by the ties of love and affection as well as of simi- 
larity of taste. 

I learned here, on commenting to a young gentle- 
man on the excellence of the music I had heard at 
the church on Sunday, that this music is widely 
known and that the special music given by the choir 
at Easter and Christmas brings large crowds to the 
church from the town, the country, and even from 
other towns. 


In my occasional visits to the capital of my state 
and to Washington I have been a guest at various 
parties where there has been a vast amount of grace- 
ful pantomime and pretty conversation, sometimes 
sparkling, mostly, I must confess, silly; where there 
have been Italian music and American dancing; 
pyramids of ice cream and piles of confectionery 
and mountains of cakes; where the guests talked 
about the last opera and quoted long Italian names, 
and criticized the new theater and the star actresses, 
or indulged in little side eddies of gossip. At the 
time, I thought it all most enchanting and edifying, 
but I must confess, no social gathering I have ever 
attended, has had for me the interest, the charm, of 
this at Mr. Johnson's. The simple rooms, candle 
lit, with their plain mahogany furniture, the wild- 
wood flowers disposed with such taste, the handsome 
young gentlemen in their broadcloth and ruffled 
shirts, the beautiful young females in gowns of silk 
or of cambric, the music, the sweet voices, the light 
laughter, the edifying and intellectual conversation, 
I shall probably never again, take it for all in all, 
experience another such evening. 

'Tis impossible to transcribe all the events of this 
evening. When I write of the episode of Julia 'tis 
not that I need to do so to fix her image in my mind. 
Far from it — 'tis ineffaceably graven on my 
memory, on, alas, my heart! Julia, in white book 
muslin with blue sash, her bright brown hair looped 
in smooth bands over her ears, most timid and 
maidenly, until she lifted those white lids, and one 
perceived gazing forth from those glorious dark 


orbs, the spirit of proud, impassioned youth I And 
when she sang, and when she talked, such charm, 
such grace, such cleverness in conversation I have 
never before heard from the lips of a young female. 

Mr. Johnson had recently been sent by a friend in 
the East, the autographs of some famous English 
writers, and these he now exhibited to us. The first 
was the autograph of the Honorable Mrs. Caroline 
Norton. "Poor lady," he said, "I sympathize with 
her in her domestic sufferings." 

* ' What ? ' ' exclaimed his wife. * ' I thought you al- 
ways blamed her for leaving her husband's protec- 

'*I no longer blame her for leaving her husband 
since I have had the opportunity of learning the 
abuse she has suffered." • 

"No good wife ever left a good husband," replied 
his wife, "and it is very doubtful to me whether a 
wife ever improved her own happiness by leaving a 
bad husband." 

"Her conduct since her separation has been above 
reproach," the minister responded warmly, "and 
her genius has been, as it were, endowed with new 
life ; for genius often seems to require crushed affec- 
tions for its sacrifice." 

"I have heard," remarked one of the young 
gentlemen, "that some of the English reviewers 
have styled her * the female Byron. * ' ' 

"For that I am sorry," said Miss Julia, who, it 
seems, is something of a blue, "for it seems to imply 
more of passions than affections and the last are 
so much more the province of woman's poetry 


that I tMnk the critic paid her a poor compliment." 
** Critics often consider more the effect than the 
truth of these comparisons," replied Dr. Johnson. 
**It is a very pretty turn of expression, this * female 
Byron/ and Mrs. Norton may have fallen a little 
too much into his hahit of dwelling too much on his 
own sorrows; but there the similarity ceases. She 
is tender and devotional in her sorrows and wrongs ; 
Byron, terrible and misanthropical in his injuries 
and resentments." 

My friend Mr. Ellsworth launched into a eu- 
logium of Eliza Cook, whose autograph he had 
found and whom he declared deserved the laurel, 
displaying as she does more native poetical talent 
than any female writer now living in Great Britain. 
''She displays such originality," he persisted. 
"Listen to this: 

" 'Hold up your heads, ye sylvan lords, 

"Wave proudly in the breeze ; 
Our cradle bands and coffin boards 

Must come from the forest trees.' 

"The idea- in the third line was never probably 
expressed before," he continued. "It strikes the 
reader at once as original, bold and true. Such 
new thoughts, vivid as a flash from a dark cloud, and 
strong enough to paint the rush of the cataract, are 
not infrequent in her productions. She wants a 
little sweetness, a little grace at times, but she will 
gain these by and by, when she marries." 

"La! la!" cried Miss Julia, tossing her pretty 

"I mean it," said Mr. Ellsworth earnestly. "She 


only needs to become a wife and mother to know the 
real tenderness of the heart, and then her lyre will 
assume all the softness it needs to make its tones 
perfect; it is now, at times, harsh.'^^ 

'Twas soon after this most learned and edifying 
conversation that music was called for. The violin 
was played by the gentleman of the choir; there 
were some instrumental selections and then Miss 
Julia sang. 'Twas a little song, the words by Mrs. 
Hemans, entitled **The Stranger's Heart," and 
when it was received with much applause she was 
besought again to favor us. She refused at first, 
but when I, standing close to the piano, besought her, 
telling her in low tones that this was the first music 
I had heard on my journey, and that, after another 
day, I should again set forth into the wilderness, she 
turned the stool and sang a gay little melody, the 
music by Miss Augusta Browne, Professor of the 
Logierian system of music, and the piece, I noted 
that I might purchase it, is to be had at Osbourn's 
Music Saloon in Philadelphia. The words I jotted 
down with her permission : 

"Dost thou idly ask to hear 

At what gentle seasons 
Nymphs relent when lovers near, 

Press the tenderest passions? 
Ah ! they join their faith too oft 

To the careless wooer; 
Maidens' hearts are always soft; 

Would that men were truer! 

'It is fortunate for us that Mr. Parsons' admiration for Misa 
Julia led him to record this conversation which gives so illuminating 
a glimpse into the literary tastes and standards of the time. — Editor. 


"Woo the fair one when around, 

Early birds are singing. 
When o'er all the fragrant ground 

Early herbs are springing; 
When the brook side, bank and grove, 

All with blossoms laden, 
Shine with beauty, breathe of love, 

Woo the timid maiden. 

"Woo her when with rosy blush 

Summer eve is sinking; 
When o'er rills that softly gush 

Stars are softly winking; 
When through boughs that weave the bower 

Moonlight gleams are stealing; 
Woo her till the gentle hour 

Wakes a gentler feeling." 

We were served after this with a most delicious 
repast of floating island and pound cake made by 
Mrs. Johnson from her tried New England recipe, 
and the party was then over much too soon. I had 
the pleasure of escorting the fair Miss Julia to her 
home, or, to speak more correctly, half the pleasure, 
for on the other side of her strutted a pert young 
coxcomb in blue broadcloth and white beaver hat, 
by name Jones, who monopolized the conversation 
and had the impertinence at the gate to ask for one 
of the pink roses from her garland. She suffered 
his impertinence, not well being able to help it, but 
as we parted I felt the slight pressure of her fingers 
returning that of mine, and I, too, received one of 
the pink roses, which even now reposes over my 

The next day was the Fourth of July and I was 


invited as a special guest to be present at a great 
celebration and dinner in honor of the occasion. 

I have attended many Fourth of July celebra- 
tions, but never one planned on lines of such magni- 
tude and carried out with such perfection of detail. 
On this occasion I met some of the notable men of 
the town, of whom there is a surprising number, 
Mr. Sandford C. Cox, Dr. Elizur Deming, a phy- 
sician of prominence; Mr. Martin L. Pierce, who is 
the present sheriff — these gentlemen all from the 
East, and Mr. Lawrence B. Stockton, a Virginian 
like myself, who has resided here for sixteen years 
and was the county's first surveyor. He drove me 
out to his house that evening, a palatial residence 
erected five years ago and said to be the largest and 
finest in the county. I also made the acquaintance 
of Mr. Henry T. Sample, who came here from Ohio, 
and of Mr. Moses Fowler, a young man near my own 
age, who came here only last year and has engaged 
in the mercantile business. He talked to me at some 
length of the importance of this city and the busi- 
ness opportunities in the way of importing goods 
from Southern ports. It seems that he and his 
partners have five or six steamers chartered for this 
purpose, so were I minded to enter the business 
world instead of engaging in the pi-actice of the law, 
I should be inclined to choose this city as my loca- 

Among the lawyers who here as elsewhere I found 
banded together like brothers, I remember most dis- 
tinctly in addition to Mr. TVHiite, Mr. John Pettit, 
who came here from New York. Mr. Pettit has 


served in the Legislature and was last year ap- 
pointed United States district attorney by President 
Van Buren. He is, I am told, no scholar, but has a 
mind of great force and an intellect which grasps 
successfully great and mighty questions. 

With him was his protege, a young man just my 
own age whom at first sight I fancied mightily, a Mr. 
Godlove S. Orth. I do not flatter myself that I dis- 
played any great intuition, however, for I am told 
that when he came to this state from Pennsylvania 
where he was reared on a farm among the yeo- 
manry, and educated at Gettysburg College, he met 
Mr. Pettit at Delphi and that this gentleman was at 
once so impressed with him that he gave him the 
keys to his law office at Lafayette and told him to go 
on and take possession as his partner. Mr. Orth 
is a tall young man, already inclined to corpulency, 
and extremely complaisant in manner. 

This Fourth of July celebration began at daylight 
with the hoisting of a superb national flag and after 
this was unfurled to the breeze, a salute was fired 
from some pieces of artillery. The morning was 
spent in mingling with friends and acquaintances on 
the streets, and at 12 o'clock a procession was 
formed in front of the hotel of the highly respectable 
citizens of the town and county and a few of the 
venerable worthies of the Revolution yet surviving. 
This procession moved to a grove in which a plat- 
form had been erected under a giant tree, and here 
the Declaration of Independence was read by Mr. 
Orth, and an eloquent and highly appropriate ad- 
dress was given by no less a personage than Mr. 


Tilghman A. Howard,^ the Democratic candidate for 

I was most pleased to have the opportunity to 
hear this eloquent speaker of whom I had heard so 
much during my travels in the state. He presents 
a most dignified appearance, and it is said is ex- 
tremely sober, seldom indulging in levity. In ap- 
pearance, he is most striking, being very tall, of 
symmetrical form, with coal black hair and eyes, 
large and most expressive features. Every gesture, 
every expression of his face betokens intellect of the 
highest order. 

After paying tribute to the veterans of the Revolu- 
tion, *Hhe men who in the dark and portentous era 
of '76 promptly stepped forth, the avengers of their 
country's wrongs, and freely offered themselves a 
willing sacrifice at the shrine of patriotism," he 
made a most stirring appeal for the support of a 
representative democracy. He quoted in conclusion 
with most telling effect : 

"Where barbarous hordes on Scythian mountains roam, 
Truth, mercy, freedom, yet shall find a home. 
Where'er degraded nature bleeds and pines, 
From Guinea's coast to Siber's dreary mines, 
Truth shall pervade the unfathomed darkness there 
And light the dreadful features of despair. 
Hark! the stern captive spurns his heavy load 
And asks the image back that Heaven bestowed. 
Fierce in his eye the fire of valor burns, 
And as the slave departs, the man returns!" 

'Tilghman A. Howard, born in South Carolina in 1797; district 
attorney for Indiana, 1832; Congress, 1839. Candidate for Governor, 
1840.— Editor. 


After the address the procession again formed 
and returned to the hotel, and at 2:30 o'clock we 
sat down to an elegant repast at which the utmost 
harmony prevailed. Upon the removal of the cloth 
the folloudng toasts were drunk with great una- 
nimity, amid the roar of artillery and the cheerings 
of grateful and happy hearts. These I have copied 
from the newspaper, a number of which I secured 
before leaving the city : ( 1 ) ' ' The day we celebrate 
—the sixty-fourth anniversary of our country's 
freedom"; (2) ''the memory of those illustrious 
patriots who on the Fourth of July, '76, mutually 
pledged to each other their lives, their fortunes and 
their sacred honor"; (3) ''the memory of George 
Washington"; (4) "the officers and soldiers of the 
Revolution — death has thinned their ranks, but their 
fame is defended by the shield of immortality"; (5) 
"the President of the United States ";( 6 )" the Vice- 
President and heads of the departments"; (7) "the 
Constitution of the United States — ^like a root in the 
rifted rock, it will withstand the storms of faction 
and the tempests of party"; (8) "the People — en- 
lightened they can never be slaves; ignorant, they 
can never be free"; (9) "our Flag— may its stars 
ever shine resplendent in glory until the lights of 
heaven cease to burn"; (10) "the American fair." 

"Oh, woman, woman, thou wast made, 
Like Heaven's own pure and lovely light, 

To cheer life's dark and desert shade 

And guide man's erring footsteps right." 

These toasts were followed by volunteer toasts, 
for the first of which I was called upon. I proposed 


that we drink *'To the Sovereignty of the People — 
let it pervade the globe. ' ' The others that followed 
were: ''Our Farmers and Mechanics — the nerves 
and sinews of the commonwealth"; "The Militia of 
Indiana — when again called into the field of battle 
may they imitate the valor of their countrymen at 
Tippecanoe"; "Wisdom, Strength and Beauty — our 
executive, legislative and judicial departments pos- 
sess the first, our army and navy the second, and our 
fair countryAvomen the third"; "Gen. Lafayette, the 
Companion of Washington — ^may his virtues be ever 
engraven on the hearts of Americans"; "The Love 
of Country — ^may it always prevail over personal 
and party considerations " ; " The People 's Servants 
— may they never succeed in becoming the people's 
masters. May a generous and enlightened competi- 
tion induce them to look solely to the common pros- 

With these toasts, the celebration ended, and the 
next day I set forth to the town of Crawfordsville 
from which I am now writing, directly south of 
Lafayette and in the adjoining county of Mont- 
gomery. The road runs over the beautiful Wea 
Plains, called, 'tis said, for the Wea or Ouiatenon 
Indians, a branch of the Miamis. These prairies, 
gently rolling and absolutely treeless as far as eye 
can see, gemmed with flowers of all varieties, the 
brilliancy of whose coloring baffles all description, 
are a most entrancing sight to the traveler. At this 
season, the wild rose is in predominance and fre- 
quently the entire surface of the plain appears to be 
carpeted with these blossoms of ravishing beauty. 


These prairies are sparsely settled, I am told, and 
the solitary traveler may ride for hours without 
meeting or seeing any one, directing his course by 
the distant groves which look like islands in the sea 
of grassy plains. 

The most notable plant is the bluejoint grass, so 
called from the color of its stalk and leaves, which is 
dark green with a bluish tint near the ground. It 
is indigenous to the prairie and grows to the height 
of a man's shoulder, sometimes even high enough 
to conceal" a man on horseback. Cattle, sheep and 
horses are all fond of it and it is said to remain 
juicy and tender until late in the fall, and is an excel- 
lent food when cut and dried as hay. 


Crawfoedsville, July 8, 1840. 

1 FAILED to record in my last entry in which I 
told of my closing days in Lafayette, the man- 
ner of my journey to Crawfordsville. I started 
off, commonplace enough, in the stage coach, a man- 
ner of traveling of which I had by now grown suf- 
ficiently weary, when a young gentleman from 
Lafayette, the same coxcomb Jones who had aroused 
my indignation by his attentions to the beautiful 
Julia, proposed that we vary the monotony of the 
journey by changing our method of travel. We 
would shortly, he said, come to the village of Con- 
cord, and he proposed that here we should leave the 
coach, send our baggage on by this means, and make 
the remainder of the journey on horseback. In that 
way we could get a much better view of the beauti- 
ful country, we could travel as leisurely or as 
rapidly as we pleased, and altogether we would find 
this manner of travel most pleasant. A fellow pas- 
senger reminded him of a story he had from Judge 
Law of Vincennes of a time in 1828 when he and 
Gov. James B. Ray, who was at that time a candi- 
date for re-election, were traveling over the Wea 
Plains, lost their way and lay out all night without 
shelter or supper. My companion responded that 
that was twelve years ago, when there were far 



fewer settlements, and that to such men as our- 
selves, the matter of going without food or lodging 
was a matter of indifference, anyway. 

I hailed his proposal with delight, and in a short 
time we were cantering along over the plain, "the 
prettiest place this side of Heaven," he declared, 
which I found most entrancing in its summer gar- 
ment of green, scarlet and pink. Occasionally we 
could catch a glimpse of the silvery river, along 
which grew clusters of hawthorn and wild plum 
trees overgro^m with honeysuckle. When night 
fell, it was still more entrancing, for the moon was 
at its full, and poured its silver light over a scene 
which would have delighted the heart of a painter. 

'Twas on this same night that we overtook the 
''movers" encamped by the side of the road. 

'Twas an interesting sight, as we approached 
them — the two great wagons filled with household 
furniture and farm implements, standing at one side 
of the road, the horses unhitched and tethered near 
by. Here also were the cow, the colts and a few 

They had kindled a fire and were cooking their 
supper over it, the mother and two half -grown girls, 
pretty, though shy creatures, while the father and 
his sons were busying themselves about feeding the 
cattle and disposing of them for the night. We 
drew rein as we approached, and asked some ques- 
tions. The family, it seems, had come two years 
ago from North Carolina and had settled in the 
northern part of the county. Two months ago, the 
man had taken up land in the southern part of this 


county, and after building liis cabin and clearing a 
piece of land, had returned for liis family and Ms 
household goods, and they were now all on their way 
to their new home. On learning of our destination, 
they invited us to share their evening meal, and sug- 
gested that we pass the night at their camp. We ac- 
cepted their invitation with undisguised eagerness. 
I could see that my friend, for all his braggadocio 
on the stage, had some fear, after all, of sharing 
Governor Ray's fate and lying out all night without 
shelter or food, and from the manner in which he 
devoured the ham, eggs and Johnny cakes which the 
girls shyly brought us, and drank the scalding hot 
coffee, I perceived that food was not such a matter 
of indifference after all, as he had feigned. 

After supper, our new friends again insisted that 
we spend the night near their camp fire where we 
would be safer from snakes or any prowling animals. 

*' 'Tis not a Wabash bedstead," said our host, 
"but it will answer the purpose, and we can lend you 
all a Kyarliny kiver. It gits right cold out in the 

''And what, pray, is a Wabash bedstead?" I 
asked, and was told that the settlers who had no 
beds were wont to construct them by driving a piece 
of a huge sapling upright in the floor for one leg of 
the bed, and with smaller saplings fitted into holes 
bored in the wall making side pieces and supports 
for puncheons upon which were placed the ticks of 
straw and feathers, the whole forming a very sub- 
stantial and comfortable bed. 

A long time we sat in the moonlight around the 


dying fire, talking of the fertile prairies, now 
covered with blackberries and raspberries, and of 
the great range they afforded for cattle and horses ; 
of the game and fish in the streams, plenty and 
plenty for these men's sons and their sons after 

The talk of danger from wild animals suggested 
stories of the wolf hunts which the early settlers 
often found necessary, in which the inhabitants of 
several neighborhoods, and sometimes of a whole 
county, took part. The territory to be hunted over 
was circumscribed by four lines sufficiently distant 
from each other to inclose the proper area. To each 
line was assigned a captain, with his subaltern 
officers, whose duty it was to properly station his 
men along the line and at the hour agreed upon to 
cause them to advance in order toward the center 
of the arena. The lines all charged simultaneously 
toward the center on horseback, with dogs, guns 
and clubs, thus completely investing whatever game 
was within the lines and scaring it from the advanc- 
ing lines toward the center, where the excitement 
of the chase was greatly heightened and the greatest 
carnage ensued. Often from two to ten wolves and 
as many deer were taken in a day at these hunts., and 
wildcats, foxes and catamounts in abundance. 
Horses and dogs soon became fond of the sport and 

1 Short visioned settlers. In 1860 Mr. Sandford Cox wrote of 
tliese "boundless plains:" "For more than fifteen years past these 
plains have been like so many cultivated gardens, and as for venison, 
wild turkeys and fish, they are now mostly brought from the 
Kankakeea and the lake."— Editor. 


seemed to enter into it with a zest surpassing that 
of their masters. 

With this man was his brother-in-law, a tall, 
gaunt young man who, up to this time, had kept 
silence. Now he was moved to tell an adventure of 
his o^\Ti mth the wild hogs, which, 'tis said, roam 
through the woods in some places and are most 
dangerous if encountered when in any way enraged. 
This young man — his name, I think, was Tucker, 
and he, too, had lived for a season in the north- 
western part of the county, said that he had had a 
most exciting adventure some years ago. He had, it 
seems, been the first of the family to come to the 
county, having come from Carolina into Kentucky, 
and now he had sold his farm and was accompany- 
ing his brother-in-law to his new location. 

'Twas just such a night as this, he said, bright 
moonlight, and he had rambled out before going to 
bed into a little valley, near his cabin. He is a shy 
youth of few words, but I fancy he is at heart 
poetical and that he wandered farther than he 
thought under the spell of the moonlight and the 
beauty of the landscape. He had climbed one of the 
wooded hills that edged the valley, he said, and stood 
gazing over the beautiful valley and the silvery river 
in the distance, when all at once, a fox darted past 
him, barking as it ran. Back it came in a few 
minutes, followed by a gang of wild hogs which it 
had aroused, and which came in pursuit with a 
cracking of bushes, rattling of stones, and gnashing 
of teeth. For a moment his heart stood still. He 


could not climb the liuge tree near wliicli he stood, he 
had only time to snatch a fallen limb with which to 
beat them off. His only hope lay in keeping them 
off until his calls could be heard at the cabin, if they 
could be heard. He stood fighting the furious gang, 
shouting desperately, foreseeing himself devoured 
alive, when, presently, his calls heard, his friends 
came to the rescue. It was a narrow escape, and he 
wiped his brow as he spoke, as though even yet the 
very thought caused him to break into a perspira- 

Presently our talk turned into lighter channels — 
we told jokes, we sang. The young man who told 
the wolf story had a fiddle which, after some per- 
suasion, he was prevailed upon to bring from the 
wagon, where it hung safely up in the bows, with the 
guns, and to its accompaniment we sang homely 
songs, ''Old Virginny Never Tire" and "Old Dan 
Tucker," songs which I have heard from my cradle 
up, in the darky cabins on my father's plantation. 
I was pleasantly surprised to learn that these 
settlers knew some of the old ballads, too, and we 
sang together ''Barbara Allen" and others. The 
young girls spoke never a word, though they listened 
most attentively to our conversation in which, it 
must be confessed, I took a part, for I was im- 
portuned to relate the story of my journey from 
Virginia to this remote part of the country, and I 
felt in the gaze of their deep dark eyes and the in- 
terest expressed on their innocent faces something 
of the stimulus Othello must have felt when he re- 
cited to Desdemona his adventures in field and flood. 


At last we lay ourselves down under our home- 
spun "Kyarliny kiver" and slept soundly until 
dawn, when we again gathered round the fire and 
partook of an excellent breakfast, corn bread baked 
in a covered skillet piled over with hot coals, a most 
delicious concoction, with the added relish of fresh 
berries which the young girls, risen early, had 
picked, and then, mounting our horses, we galloped 
on, after bidding farewell and Godspeed to these 
good people who had shown us such genuine hos- 

I have neglected to state that this young gentle- 
man, my companion, is a student of the law in the 
office of Mr. Lockwood at Lafayette, and only last 
year graduated from a college at Crawfordsville 
known as the Wabash College, although its title was 
originally ' ' The Wabash Manual Labor College and 
Teachers' Seminary." He is, I judge from his 
attire and his manner, in affluent circumstances, and 
he is going for a visit to his Alma Mater and to at- 
tend the Commencement at which a young friend is 
to graduate. He is 22, of good form and feature, 
and of a gay and lively disposition, and in pleasant 
desultory conversation the time has passed most 

After we left the ''movers" and entered the 
county of Montgomery of which Crawfordsville is 
the seat of justice, he gave me much information 
concerning the county and town, for, 'tis clearly to 
be discerned, he has habits of observation, and is 
well fitted by nature as well as education for what- 
ever career he chooses to embark in. 


The county, wMch was organized seventeen years 
ago, was named for Col. Richard Montgomery. 
'Tis marvelous, he says, in the way of natural 
beauty and fertility of soil. The northern part of 
the county is prairie, interspersed with groves of 
timber, oak, hickory, elm and ash; its soil is rich 
black loam, mixed with sand. The middle is chiefly 
forest land, watered by Sugar Creek and its tribu- 
taries. The southern part is gently rolling and 
covered with timber, chiefly walnut, and sugar tree, 
with a rich loamy soil, and is watered by a creek 
called Big Raccoon. This land, he assures me, is so 
fertile that the owners grow rich almost without 
labor, for it has been said that at the time of the 
first settlement a settler no sooner put up a cabin, 
deadened fifty or a hundred acres, fenced in fifteen or 
twenty, sufficiently cleared to raise a corn crop, than 
he asked $800 or $1,000 for his improvements, and 
what is still more astonishing, no sooner offered to 
sell than he realized the amount in cash. During his 
stay at the college he had explored much of the 
county, being of an investigating mind, and he told 
me of a most beautiful spot some miles away from 
the town where two small streams run together and 
where the scenery is of stupendous grandeur, with 
towering cliffs, deep ravines, waterfalls — altogether 
a most marvelous and indeed terrifying scene. 

Our ride through the northern part of the county 
was uneventful though the landscape was ever of 
interest to me. Before entering the town we forded 
Sugar Creek, a large stream running diagonally 
through the county, and soon came into the town of 


Crawfordsville, named, my companion informed 
me, for Col. William Crawford, Secretary of the 
Treasury at the time it was laid off. The site was 
chosen no doubt because of its proximity to a great 
Indian trail that, crossing Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, 
gave passage through the wilderness to the tide of 
immigration from the East. These settlers were no 
doubt also influenced by the neighborhood of several 
large springs of pure and medicinal qualities of 
water. The growth of the town, he told me, was as- 
sured from the first, by the location of the land 
office which was moved there from Terre Haute, and 
of which Judge Williamson Dunn of Hanover was 
the first Register. 

I can not now disentangle the sensations of my 
first view of this little town and my later impres- 
sions; suffice it to say that I have found it, small 
as it is, most pleasant to look upon, with its broad 
streets and its forest shade. Its material pros- 
perity is shown in its new Court House, a two-story 
brick building, forty by fifty feet, with a cupola, 
which stands upon the public square, and which was 
erected, I am told, at a cost of $3,420. I was shown, 
too, the Baptist church, the first church erected in 
Crawfordsville, on a lot given by Major Whitlock, 
of whom I shall have more to say later, a building 
of brick, used exclusively for church services, and 
which was used by all sects until they were able to 
erect edifices of their oa\ti. The Presbyterian 
Church was established in 1824, and a building soon 
after erected. As in the other places I have visited, 
there has been the separation into old school and 


new school, and the new school has only this year 
erected a large frame structure. There are here 
taverns, merchandise stores, in short the town is in 
all respects most thriving. 

Something of its growth and prosperity I learned 
from Mr. Henry S. Lane ^ upon whom I soon called 
in company with Mr. Jones, and to whom I had been 
given a letter by Mr. Lockwood. 

Mr. Lane is an ardent Whig, has served in the 
state Legislature and is now a candidate for Con- 
gress, and as he is a popular speaker, he is engaged 
in the campaign almost constantly, so that we were 
fortunate to find him in his office. Mr. Jones has 
heard him frequently, and informs me that he has a 
most winning address, that he abounds in anecdotes, 
is very felicitous in illustrations and happy in his 
applications of them, speaks most fluently, and has 
such charm of manner that he is irresistible. 

He welcomed us to his office, and on learning who 
I was and the object of my visit from Mr. Lock- 
wood's letter, made himself most agreeable. He is 
a tall, slender young gentleman, just 29 years of age, 
with light hair and gray eyes ; his expression is most 
kindly, and never have I heard a voice of such 
peculiar sweetness. From his voice, his charm of 
manner, from his every movement and gesture, I 
could comprehend his power over an audience. 

=" Henry S. Lane, born in Kentucky in 1811; studied law at 18; 
settled in Crawfordsville in 1835; popular and successful criminal 
lawyer; state Legislature, 1837; Congress in 1840; worlced for 
Mexican War and in this war was commissioned Captain and Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel; became Republican on formation of that party; 
elected Governor in 1861, served two days and became United States 
senator; died 1881. "A gentleman, a patriot, a Christian."— Editor. 


He at once began to tell me of the town in which 
he had cast his lines, as he expressed it, and cast 
them, he added, in such pleasant places. The site, 
he said, is an excellent one, surrounded as it is with 
such fertile fields, and already the township in which 
Crawfordsville is located is well settled, was so in- 
deed in 1828. The location of the land office at once 
added to its growth and prosperity, and now, he de- 
clares, the town is a center of trade, of enterprise, 
and of education, leading in politics, social life and 
general progress. 

He inquired as to the method of my travel from 
the East, and when I replied that it was by the rail- 
road, the stage, the canal boat, horseback, and 
steamboat, he told me of the growing interest in 
railroads throughout the state. Eight years ago, he 
said, books were opened at the clerk's office for sub- 
scription to the capital stock of the Ohio & Lafayette 
Railroad,^ which is to extend from New Albany to 

Shares were sold at $50 each. A gentleman from 
Salem, Mr. Booth, was the president, and two gentle- 
men, to whom he introduced me later, Dr. Israel 
Canby and John Wilson, were agents to solicit the 
subscriptions. He has hopes yet that when the elec- 
tions are over and the Whigs in power (he spoke as 
though there was no manner of doubt as to the elec- 
tion), the country might come out from under this 
cloud of depression and become sufficiently pros- 
perous to undertake this new enterprise. 

^The present Monon line — Louisville, New Albany & Chicago. — 


- Mr. Jones remarked that he had heard that Mont- 
gomery County was for Van Buren. 

Mr. Lane smiled. ''Most amusing! A super- 
latively ridiculous idea! Never will Montgomery 
swerve from her political faith to bow the knee to 
the Baal of Van Burenism. If there be a county in 
the state which will adliere to the correct principles 
for which it has been so long distinguished, it is the 
county of Montgomery. That she will carry the 
whole Harrison ticket triumphantly next month, 
there can be no question. ' ' 

Mr. Jones informed him that we had heard Gen. 
Howard pronounce the Fourth of July address at 

''Yes, and I have heard him pronounce political 
addresses here and elsewhere and heard reports of 
these speeches," said Mr. Lane contemptuously. 
"He says but very little of Gen. Harrison, less about 
Mr. Van Buren. The burden of his speeches is 
system, system, Whig mismanagement, Bank of the 
United States, soft sawder, democracy — ^bah! But 
enough of politics ! This young gentleman, I fancy, 
would fain know more of our town. You will find 
it agreeable, I am sure," he continued, turning to 
me again with a smile. "While our citizens are in 
the main of a most polished and intellectual cast, 
their hospitality is of the genuine backwoods, log- 
cabin kind, free from the affected cant and polished 
deception of conventional life. Come, and I will 
introduce you to some of our citizens." 

With that, he led us out upon the streets, into the 
taverns, the stores of general merchandise, where he 


presented me to many of the most respectable 
citizens — David Vance, the sheriff; John B. Austin, 
George Miller, Frederick Moore, Robert McAfferty, 
James Gregory — these last-named gentlemen all 
commissioners of the county, who told me something 
of the labors of the early citizens, who rolled logs, 
burned brush, blazed out paths from one neighbor's 
cabin to another, and from one settlement to another, 
made and used hand mills and hominy mortars, 
hunted deer, turkeys, otter and raccoons, caught fish, 
dug ginseng, in short, did everything necessary to 
the making of a settlement, and now were reaping 
the reward of their labors, taking their ease in this 
pleasant and prosperous community. 

I met also Maj. Henry Ristine, who had come here 
in 1825 and had opened the first tavern; his son, 
Benjamin Ristine, just my own age; Maj. Isaac 
Elston, proprietor of one of the merchandise stores 
and one of the early settlers; Mr. Nicholson, who 
o^vns the tanyard and who told me of his voyage 
here in a pirogue down the Ohio and up the Wabash 
to Sugar Creek; Maj. Randolph Davis, Jeremiah 
Stillwell, James Herron, Samuel Gilliland, Dr. 
Israel Canby, Mr. Burbridge, the merchant, a most 
interesting man; Maj. A^Tiitlock, who was born in 
Virginia in 1767, assisted in the erection of Fort 
Washington at Cincinnati, engaged in Indian war- 
fare at various times, and, under Mr. Jefferson, was 
made paymaster, Avith the rank of major, in the 
United States Army. Later he was made receiver 
of public moneys at the Land Office, which, by direc- 
tion of the Secretary of the Treasury, he located in. 


this town. He gave me much information of a 
valuable nature and I found him most affable and 

I now come to the most pleasant experience of 
my many pleasant experiences in Crawfordsville, 
which I have left to the last of my record, my visit 
to Wabash College. 

Young Mr. Jones had told me something of the 
founding of the college but I was to hear it again 
from another and a greater, on the evening on which 
he took me to call at the home of the president. Dr. 
Elihu Baldwin, who had been pastor of the Seventh 
Presbyterian Church of New York City before be- 
coming President of the College. It appears that on 
this evening Dr. Baldwin was holding a reception at 
his home to which Mr. Jones was invited and he 
had asked the privilege of bringing me. When I 
recalled that I had met in Indianapolis a daughter * 
of Dr. Baldwin, who had urged me when I told her 
that I would probably include Crawfordsville in my 
itinerary, to pay my respects to her father, he was 
even more agreeable, and I had marked him at once 
as a man of great urbanity as well as of kindness 
of heart. 

'Twas Dr. Baldwin who introduced me to Dr. 
Hovey, professor of chemistry and natural science, 
and Dr. Hovey told me the story of the founding 
of the college in the wilderness, how he and four 
other young men, all home missionaries to the Wa- 

* Either from haste or from failure of memory, Mr. Parsons has 
omitted the name of this daughter of Dr. Baldwin who lived in 
Indianapolis. — Editor. 


basil country and all very poor, finding the fields 
ripe for the harvest and the laborers few, realized 
that somewhere in this country a college must be 
founded in which young ministers could be trained 
for the service. Simply and modestly he told the 
story of their labors, how Judge Dunn had given the 
land; how they had organized the college seven 
years ago, planning at first only a classical and Eng- 
lish High School to rise into a college as soon as it 
was demanded. He told the story of their early 
struggle to secure funds, of the coming of Dr. Bald- 
win and their help from the East, of their building, 
and then of the disastrous fire two years ago ; and of 
their determination not to be thus thwarted, and of 
the new building now completed and occupied. 
Simply he told the story, but it was as though his lips 
had been touched with coals from the altar, and as 
he spoke I pictured the scene he described so vividly, 
the earnest young men going to the spot in the 
primeval forest selected for their building, and 
kneeling there in the snow dedicating the grounds 
to the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost for a 
Christian college. 

The same evening will ever remain a memorable 
one to me for 'twas then I met for the first time a 
man whom I regard as one of the greatest men I 
have met in the Western country, Caleb Mills,'^ Pro- 
fessor of Languages in the College. 

Professor Mills is a native of New Hampshire 

■^Indiana's debt to Caleb Mills for its present school system is 
too well known to make further note necessary. Its history is 
given in "Caleb Mills and the Indiana School System," by Charles 
W. Moores, published by the Indiana Historical Society. — Editor. 


and a graduate of Dartmouth College and of the 
Andover Theological Seminary. 

He came out to the Wabash country in 1833, a 
young man who had just married. We at once en- 
tered into conversation, for he expressed interest 
in my journey and told me of his early visits in 
southern Indiana and Kentucky in the interests of 
schools, and how much he had desired to have a 
college founded here in the wilderness. ^'Two 
things," said he, "are most important in this coun- 
try, the common schools and the preaching of the 
gospel, and I hold one as important as the other.'* 
He told me how in his travels through the country 
he had come to realize that the children of men who 
had come out to the Western country, themselves 
college graduates, were to be deprived of the com- 
monest education because of the lack of schools and 
of suitable teachers and he saw that the population 
would speedily sink lower and lower unless the 
condition was soon remedied. It was necessary 
that the people should be made to see that they must 
have schools, and that in order to have schools and 
to keep churches going, they must have a college 
in which the young teachers and preachers could be 
trained. His desire most of all was to establish a 
classical school to train competent teachers to 
spread over the country to teach the children of 
these rapidly populating districts; to change public 
sentiment in regard to free schools, to awaken it to 
the need of carrying the means of education to 
every door. 
I was not slow to perceive as he talked, how fine 


a scholar lie is, liow modest, how courteous, how 
conscientious. And as I looked into his face, and 
met the kindly glance of his fine eyes, I thought, 
here now is a man who has come into a community 
without a thought of self, who is willing to give all 
his strength, all his wisdom, for the betterment of 
his kind. He more than any man I have met in this 
country, has looked forward, has had a vision of the 
days to come. He has been able to see the future 
of this loved "Wabash country, when its forests will 
be leveled, its fields all tilled, its population doubled, 
yea, trebled, and he is even now engaged in forging 
the weapons by which its insidious enemy. Ignor- 
ance, shall be laid low. Noble man! To hear him 
was to forget all thought of self, to yearn to do 
something, as he is doing, for the betterment of 
one's kind. Long may it be before I forget that 
kindly countenance! 

Professor Mills lent me a catalogue of the College 
from which I might copy some' of the items, for I 
was interested to note how it compares with my own 
University, and also with other institutions of learn- 
ing in the state which it is my purpose to- visit. The 
faculty consists of Dr. Baldwin, who is President 
and Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy; 
Mr. Hovey, M. A., Professor of Chemistry and Nat- 
ural Science; Mr. John S. Thomson, M. A., Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy; 
Professor Mills, Professor of Languages; and Mr. 
Thomas S. Milliga.n, B. A., Tutor. The courses are 
divided into four departments, the Classical, the 
Physical, the Rhetorical and the Department of In- 


tellectual and Moral Philosopliy. In Greek, Homer, 
Xenophon, and Demosthenes are studied; in Latin, 
Cicero and Horace with exercises in the composition 
of Greek and Latin. In Physics, Algebra, Geome- 
try, Trigonometry, Analytics, Mechanics, Optics, 
Astronomy, Chemistry, these last two in lectures. 
Mineralogy and Geology. In the Rhetorical depart- 
ment. Rhetoric, Criticism, original declamation and 
forensic discussions occupy the year, and in the de- 
partment of .Intellectual and Moral Philosophy, the 
texts include Paley's ''Natural Theology," Butler's 
** Analogy," "Moral Philosophy," ''Evidences of 
Christianity," and "Political Economy." 

I made note also of the fact that the tuition is $7 
a term, there being three terms a year, extending 
from Sept. 17 to the last Wednesday in July, the 
room rent, $3 a. term, the board in private families, 
$1.50 a week. For indigent students there is a text 
book library from which books may be procured, and 
these same indigent young men have an opportunity 
to earn their expenses by cutting wood, being paid 
311/4 cents a cord for their labor. 

The senior class of this year numbers six, the 
sophomore, five; the freshman, thirteen; the pre- 
paratory, seventy-six, making a total of 100. 

Mr. Jones desired that I meet some of his young 
friends, and 'tis but an indication of the frivolity 
of youth, I suppose, that I should turn so readily 
from the conversation of these great men and good 
to the chatter of the young gentlemen by whom the 
popular and vivacious Jones was surrounded. 

Among them were all the members of the senior 


class, Smitli Fry, George Miller and Ebenezer 
Palmer of Crawfordsville, Alex Lemon of Tippe- 
canoe County, Jones 's friend, whom he had come to 
see graduate ; Mr. Newbury of Harrison County and 
Franklin Robb of Princeton. Among the sopho- 
mores I remember particularly Dr. Canby's son, 
Charles; Maj. Elston's son, James; Henry Ristine, 
Jr., and young John Maxwell Cowan, just 19, he 
told me, whose father is a Virginian. 

As I turned to meet them, they were in a circle 
about Jones, who was taking on some airs, I per- 
ceived, as a graduate and a student of the law, and 
I fancied as I approached that he had been boasting 
of his conquests. ''And have you yet seen the fair 
Susan?" asked one. "Of course that is why you 
have returned — you say it is Alex's commencement, 
but we know it is Susan. ' ' 

As Jones blushed and turned the subject, my heart 
lightened. He had referred to Julia several times 
on our journey without a blush or an indication of 
embarrassment. It must be Susan, then. My heart 
warmed to him as I watched him in conversation 
with his comrades. A fine fellow, Jones, a young 
gentleman of parts ! 


PUTNAMVILLE, JuLY 26, 1840. 

THE road from Crawfordsville runs directly 
soutli through Montgomery and Putnam 
Counties into Greencastle, the seat of justice, 
with but few stops at insignificant villages. The 
county, so far as I was able to observe, is, in the 
northern part, either level or slightly undulating ; in 
the center, and Greencastle is situated in exactly the 
center of the county, it is more rolling, and quite 
hilly in the neighborhood of the streams. The 
timber is the usual beech, sugar, walnut, ash, oak, 
and poplar, and the soil, so far as I could observe, 
a rich black loam, excellently adapted, I was in- 
formed, to the production of wheat, corn, grass, 
hemp and fruit. 

The town of Greencastle, into which I came by 
stage in the evening, is very small and unpre- 
tentious. The houses are mostly of logs, with the 
exception of the Methodist and Presbyterian 
Churches, which are one-story brick edifices, and the 
streets are so-called only by courtesy. Locomotion 
is at all times difficult but, as one of the citizens 
pointed out to me, jestingly, in muddy weather it is 
necessary to exercise great precautions in crossing 
the ravines on the logs which are used as foot- 
bridges. I have already learned, however, that 


these pioneer settlements are not to be judged by 
their outward appearance, and that in the most un- 
prepossessing surroundings I am likely to find 
citizens of great business ability and men of educa- 
tion and refinement, so that time only is necessary to 
change the pioneer settlement into a thriving towTi. 

I betook myself at once to the tavern of which I 
had been told by friends in Crawfordsville, Wash- 
ington Hall, kept by Col. John Lynch, which I dis- 
covered to be an inn of some pretensions. Mine 
host, I soon learned, is a great admirer of Andrew 
Jackson, whom he in some measure resembles, and, 
I noted, takes great pride in the resemblance. On 
learning the nature of my journey, he immediately 
made me most pleasantly at home, and introduced 
me to a number of the respectable gentlemen of the 
community, who were gathered in the cool of the 
evening in the front of the tavern, engaged in con- 

In the course of my travels, I have learned to 
value the inn where, winter and summer, are 
gathered the men of the community and the 
travelers, the la^vyers, and judges, where all public 
questions are discussed, arguments engaged in, 
sallies of wit exchanged. Certainly no better place 
can be found for the traveler who would learn the 
nature and temper of the community in which he 
stops for the moment. 

I was especially fortunate this evening, for here 
I found gathered a number of the citizens, among 
them Judge Joseph Farley, the first Probate judge, 
I am told, associated in the publication of the first 


paper, and a man who took part while still a resi- 
dent of Kentucky in the expedition against the In- 
dians who committed the great Pigeon Roost mas- 
sacre, of which I have heard much since coming into 
the state. Here were also several of the county 
officers— David Rudisill, the sheriff; William E. Tal- 
bott, the recorder of deeds ; William H. Shields, the 
surveyor, and the county clerk, Arthur McGaughey. 
This last-named gentleman I met again, for upon his 
invitation I stopped at his farm, three miles south 
of Greencastle, on my way to Putnamville, where I 
found great pleasure in meeting his family, par- 
ticularly his wife, a woman of unusual strength of 
character and remarkable energy,- of which last- 
named quality she showed me an unusual product. 
On a large and flourishing mulberry tree on their 
place she has cultivated silk worms, prepared the 
thread, and from it knitted a pair of gloves for 
her son Edward, a young gentleman of my own 

Mr. McGaughey is somewhat past 50, I should 
judge, and is a native of Pennsylvania. He has 
lived here several years, his daughter, Mary Jane, 
being the first white child born in the county. He 
told me something of the character of the settlers, 
of whom he is able to speak with authority, by 
reason of his long residence here. The early 
settlers, he informs me, came mostly from Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee and North Carolina, many of them 
because of the growing disapproval of slavery, and 
they are of high moral character, are honest, in- 
dustrious, charitable toward their neighbors, and 


amply imbued with the principles of the Christian 

At the tavern I met also the proprietor of a farm 
north of the town, Colonel Alexander Farrow, who 
informed me that he had brought blue grass seed 
from Kentucky and sowed it successfully in his 
fields. He is a most interesting gentleman who 
gave me much information concerning the Western 
country, and was, so he told me, appointed a colonel 
of the fifty-sixth regiment of militia by Governor 
Noble. There was present also a la^vyer, a Mr. 
Henry Secrist, whom I found a most genial and in- 
teresting gentleman, and who, I was told later, is 
a brilliant la"\\yer, a fine speaker, and a young man 
of keen wit. To my great delight, I learned that 
several of these gentlemen are trustees of the col- 
lege, Mr. James Talbott, who is also the postmaster, 
Mr. Rees Hardesty, a cabinet maker, a sturdy citizen 
of great worth, and president of the board of trus- 
tees, Capt. W. H. Thornburgh, the most enterprising 
business man of the town and a man of taste, as I 
soon discovered in our conversation, and Dr. A. C. 

Dr. Stevenson, who is a tall, dignified gentleman 
is, I learned later from Col. Lynch, a physician of 
prominence and a native of Kentucky, who sought 
this state because of his opposition to slavery. He 
conversed with me most entertainingly on the sub- 
ject of education in the West, in which because, per- 
haps, of my acquaintance with Professor Caleb 
Mills, I take greater interest than heretofore. Dr. 
Stevenson is one of the trustees of Asbury College 


and is, as is Professor Mills, an advocate of the 
establishment of free schools, in which, he insists, in 
addition to the regular curriculum, training should 
be given in agriculture and the mechanical arts. I 
learned, too, that he has served in the Legislature 
and is a follower and great admirer of Henry Clay. 

Here to my great delight I heard again the name 
of Calvin Fletcher, who, I am told, is one of the 
trustees of the College. 

From these gentlemen I learned something of the 
establishment of the College, which is named for the 
celebrated pioneer bishop, Francis Asbury. An- 
other bishop, Bishop Roberts, has been most active 
in its founding, and most deeply imbued with the 
spirit of sacrifice, since, 'tis said, he gave out of his 
salary of $200 a year $100 to the new institution. 

It has been many weeks since I left my friend, 
Louis Hicklin, the circuit rider, whose society I had 
enjoyed so greatly in the early part of my journey 
and from whom I had learned so much of the spirit 
of these circuit riders, one of whom was described 
to me as ''a man of iron frame who traveled the 
district from Bloomington to Crawfordsville, who 
could swim rivers and climb mountains to reach his 
appointment, and who died as he lived, full of faith 
and the Holy Ghost," and now again I was come 
among them and was to hear the story of their 
carrying the tidings of this new school far and wide 
among the people of their appointments. 

These men had felt, as did the young Presbyterian 
missionaries in Montgomery County, the need of a 
higher institution of learning in the Western coun- 


try, and accordingly three of their ministers, Calvin 
Ruter, Allen Wiley, of whom I had heard much in 
Indianapolis, and James Armstrong, were requested, 
in 1832, to report at the Conference on the advisa- 
bility of establishing a higher school of learning to 
furnish its people with both intellectual training and 
the means for spiritual growth. 

When the establishment of such an institution 
was agreed upon, several towns were competitors 
for the site, Putnamville, Rockville, Madison, In- 
dianapolis, Lafayette and Greencastle, and a very 
large subscription was offered by Putnamville in 
particular, but Greencastle having presented the 
largest subscription, was the site selected. At this 
time, the population of the town numbered but 500. 
The College, these gentlemen informed me, was 
opened at first on a very small scale, in an old school 
building, but last September the first regular faculty 
entered upon the duty of teaching in the new build- 
ing, with eleven students enrolled. 

I bade good night to these new-found friends who, 
in our few hours ' intercourse had shown me such 
courtesy that I consider myself justified in calling 
them friends, and sought my bed, but I could not 
sleep. All the while these gentlemen were talking 
of the College I had been trying to remember some- 
thing which had some connection with this school, 
and which I should remember. And all at once it 
came back to me. 

On the day in Brookville which I spent with young 
Mr. Shirk, one of the most delightful days of my 
entire experience, he had told me of a young friend 


of his who was in Greencastle attending Asbury Col- 
lege, one Tom Goodwin, he had called him, who 
would graduate in September, and he had urged me 
to seek him out if by chance I should visit Green- 
castle. Goodwin ! The name recalled, I determined 
to seek him out early in the morning. 

The next day chanced to be Saturday, and on in- 
quiring of Col. Lynch, I was directed to the house 
at which the young gentleman is boarding. I found 
him, and, moreover, found, him all that my friend, 
Mr. Shirk, had described him to be. He is just 22, 
a year younger than I; born in Brookville, but of 
Virginia descent; he is tall, slender, with very keen 
eyes, and a manner which I have learned char- 
acterizes the Hoosiers, as they sometimes call them- 
selves, of high degree; a free and easy manner, 
though with no tincture of familiarity; a most en- 
gaging warm-heartedness and interest in all whom 
they encounter; a natural independence of manner 
and thought — most admirable in all its manifesta- 
tions. All of these Mr. Goodwin possesses, and on 
hearing my story and of my visit to Brookville and 
of my friendship with Mr. Shirk, he again shook my 
hand and offered himself as my cicerone. 

Off we set toward the College, for it was a sight 
of it that I most wished for at this moment, Mr. 
Goodwin enlivening our walk by congratulating me 
on making my journey in warm and dry weather. 
''Better be glad that this is not a rainy day," he 
said. ' ' Do you see that gully ? It looks bad enough 
now, but when it has been raining for a week or 
more, and the water is rushing along, digging it 


deeper and deeper, and you have to balance your- 
self along this bridge, if it is not broken down, or if 
it is, on a log or two that some kind-hearted person 
has laid across, and if your boots are so heavy with 
the mud gathered up on the streets that you can't 
calculate how and where to set them down, and may 
slip, for as the old janitor says, * hit's powerful 
slippery mud,' then you can imagine that going to 
college or at least going to the college building, is 
pursuing learning under difficulties. 

''Speaking of mud," ho continued, "would you 
like to hear of my first journey to this institution!" 
And when I assented, he continued: "An agent of 
the college came to Brookville and induced my 
father to buy a scholarship, so in November, three 
years ago, I set out by stage from Brookville to 
Greencastle. You haven't seen our roads in winter 
and w^et weather, so you can have no idea what they 
are like. 

"I left Brookville Wednesday at noon, expecting 
to reach Greencastle by Friday night.^ 

"We should have known better, for it had been 
raining for two weeks. However, with high hopes, 
I left home in a two-horse coach in which my fellow 
passenger and I traveled for seventeen miles. It 
took us several hours to travel this distance, and at 
that point we learned that the stage to Indianapolis 
had been taken off on account of the roads, and that 
we must transfer ourselves to a two-horse wagon 
without cover or springs. 

^Tlie distance to be traveled was one hundred and ten miles, — 


*' Fifty-three miles stretched between us and In- 
dianapolis, but as we started before daylight Thurs- 
day morning, the driver assured me that we would 
reach there by ten that night— in time for me to 
catch the stage to Putnamville. 

*'It rained all day, and the roads grew worse and 
worse. The corduroy was floating like a bridge. 
Creeks and rivers were bank full, and no bridges. 
Night came on, dark as pitch, and we with no man- 
ner of light, and at last — our wagon broke down, 
stuck in a mud hole. 

''The driver finally decided that he would ride 
one horse, carrying my trunk before him, while the 
other passenger, who was the agent of the stage 
line, would ride the other, with the mail pouch be- 
fore him and me behind. In this manner, we 
reached Indianapolis at 11 o'clock Thursday, too 
late for the coach, which meant chat I must spend 
all the next day and till 10 o'clock at night, in 

"We started for Putnamville the next night, to 
find the mud even worse than before. In fact, there 
was more water than mud from Brookville to In- 
dianapolis, while this was mud deep and stiff, and 
in a little while, at midnight, in fact, we — the eleven 
passengers, two of them females, found ourselves 
stuck in a mudhole. Out we got — the men I mean — 
and pried the coach out of the mud, then on again, 
repeating this process many times. One took rails 
from a fence and constructed a corduroy, and the 
driver, pleased with our inventiveness, suggested 
that we take more rails and carry them on two hun- 


dred yards and more to another mudhole which was 
worse than this. At this, one of our passengers, a 
merchant who had been East for goods, and who had 
led the rescue party, informed the driver in profane 
language that while he did not mind paying his 
passage and Avalking, he'd see him hanged before 
he would carry rails and walk. 

*'In spite of all this, we finally came to Putnam- 
ville, which, you may have learned, is on the Na- 
tional Road. What? No?" He made a gesture 
of mock surprise. ''Oh, yes, you haven't yet been 
to Putnamville. "When you pass through that settle- 
ment, if you stop long enough, you mil hear just 
such laments as I did over the stupidity of the peo- 
ple who would locate a seat of justice and a college 
in a towTi that is not on the National Road. My 
inn-keeper informed me that there was no stage to 
Greencastle, and that my only way of getting there 
would be to wait till Sunday, when, for the sum of 
$2, he would convey me and my trunk thither in his 
two-horse wood wagon, and wait I did. And while 
I waited, I heard again and again the lament over 
the stupidity of people who would locate a college 
off the National Road, in such an out-of-the-way 
town as Greencastle, which would never amount to 
anything anyway, being off the National Road, 
whereas Putnamville has all the advantages of loca- 
tion and business. And so on, until I reached 
Greencastle and stilled his laments with my $2." 

I had not laughed so much since the day that Mr. 
Shirk and I sat on our horses outside the country 
church and conjured up a vision of the early set- 


tiers. There is something most humorous about 
this Goodwin, and anything he tells he knows how 
to invest with interest. He has, too, a most con- 
vincing manner. 

We had by now come within the high board fence 
which incloses the college grounds, and beheld the 
campus, on which there is little shrubbery, only a 
few locusts and other forest trees. The building I 
viewed with much interest. It is constructed of 
brick, with a hall through the middle, recitation 
rooms on either side, and a chapel in the rear, with 
an elevated platform. Recitation rooms are on the 
second floor ; on the third, museums, the library and 
the meeting rooms for the two literary societies, 
concerning which I inquired with some interest. 
They are called, he informed me. The Platonian and 
The Philological, and their purpose is to improve 
the young men in public speaking, and also to 
familiarize them with the forms of transactions of 
most deliberative assemblies. An attic occupies the 
fourth floor, and there is a cupola, but, as yet, no 

''This is not the building I saw the day after my 
arrival," said Mr. Goodwin, ''and I wasn't even 
sure I would find any building, after what the tavern 
keeper said to me. When I asked where the college 
was he replied, 'I don't know for certain. It was, 
last summer, at the district school house, but I have 
hearn that they have moved it to the County 
Seminary. Be you come to go to it? You'll not 
find it much of a university, I reckon. ' 

"However, I went to church the next morning, in 


my Sunday suit of blue jeans, and sunnnoning cour- 
age to introduce myself to the minister, afterwards, 
I received a warm reception, for I was the first stu- 
dent who had come from outside the to^vn. 
Reverend James Thompson was the preacher, and 
he called out, 'Hold! Stop, brothers! Here, 
Brother Dangerfield, Brother Thornburgh, Brother 
Cooper, Brother Hardesty, Brother Nutt, here is 
Brother Tommy Goodwin come all the way from 
Brookville to attend the institution!' And then, 
sir ; you ought to have seen the handshaking I got. ' ' 

Having expressed a desire to examine the College 
Catalogue, and make some notations in my book, as 
I did of the Wabash College, Mr. Goodwin procured 
me one, from which I have set down the following : 

The course of study for the Freshman year is 
Sallust and Roman Antiquities ; Graeca Minora and 
Algebra, continuing into the second session with 
Cicero and Horace, Graeca Majora and Legendre's 

The Sophomore year embraces Horace, Tacitus 
and Juvenal, Graeca Majora, Trigonometry and 
x\nalytical Geometry, continuing in the Junior year 
into Calculus, Ancient and Modern History, Chemis- 
try, Rhetoric and Logic. 

In the Senior year, Natural Philosophy is con- 
tinued from the second session of the Junior year, 
Geology is taken up. Mental Philosophy, Political 
Economy, the Law of Nations, Paley's Theology, 
Moral Science and Evidences of Christianity. Par- 
ticular attention is paid, I noted, to composition and 
declamation, and the seniors are regularly exercised 


in f orensics. I noted, as of particular interest, that 
instruction will be furnished, if desired, in the 
Hebrew, French and German languages, ''when 
either the inclination of the student or his peculiar 
destination may render them desirable." 

The collegiate year embraces two sessions or 
terms of twenty-one weeks each, the winter session 
commencing the first Monday in November, after a 
vacation of six weeks, the commencement exercises 
being held in September. The tuition per term is 
$12, $7 more than the tuition at the Wabash College, 
the boarding in private families the same — $1.50 a 
week. The discipline is announced as mild but firm, 
and parents and guardians are requested not to 
furnish funds to the students, but to place the money 
in the hands of some member of the faculty or some 
other citizen, giving specific directions as to what 
amount shall be furnished except for necessary ex- 
penses — a quarterly exhibit to be sent to parents 
containing items of the accounts. There are about 
120 students, all told, in the college at this time. 

The other members of the senior class I met 
through Mr. Goodwin. One of them, Mr. John 
Wheeler, is an Englishman, a young gentleman of 
25, with all the English characteristics. Mr. 
Madden, the other member, is a Kentuckian, just 
Mr. Goodwin's age, and possessed of the ardent 
temperament of the Southerner. Mr. Goodwin I' 
have already described, and the three present a most 
interesting contrast. 

To Mr. Goodwin I owe also my acquaintance with 
some members of the faculty. The next day was 


Sunday, and he informed me that Dr. Simpson,^ the 
President of the College, was to preach on that day, 
at the Methodist Church, and that it would be well 
worth my while to accompany him thither. Ac- 
cordingly, I went with him to the little one-story 
brick church with its one coat of plastering and its 
rude benches, where, in primitive fashion, the men 
sat on one side of the room, the women on the other. 

Perhaps I was a little more affected than I wish 
to admit by the pioneer aspect of my surroundings ; 
the rough church, the simple and, in many cases, 
poorly dressed congregation; and when I saw Dr. 
Simpson enter the pulpit, this very young-looking 
man, stooped, with a shock of brown hair growing 
very near his eyebrows, clad in the blue jeans of the 
men of his congregation instead of the clerical black 
to which I am accustomed, I felt great disappoint- 
ment and even a wonder that my friend should have 
brought me here. He evidently guessed my feeling, 
for, catching my eye, he smiled and whispered, 
''Just wait." 

The hymn was sung, a hymn in which all joined, 
untutored voices, 'tis true, but so full of faith and 
hope and love that ere I knew it, my eyes were moist, 
and I had entered into the spirit of the meeting. 
The minister made the prayer and read the lesson, 
and then Dr. Simpson stood forth, read the text, 
and began his sermon. And had I thought him un- 
gainly and rough and unprepossessing? Had I pre- 
sumed to sit in judg-ment upon this god among men? 
Scarcely had he begun to speak than he took on a 

^ Later to become the celebrated Bishop Simpson. — Editor. 


new expression, his eyes burned, his face wore a 
look of unearthly beauty. And his voice ; I kept no 
record of the sermon, even the text has slipped my 
memory, but it now seems to me that whatever 
words he may have spoken, had they been in Greek 
and Hebrew they w^ould have had the same effect, it 
was the voice, the manner, that swayed his audience. 
For swayed the audience was by this pathos, this 
power. One moment, a hush like death rested over 
them, the next moment their shouted '' Amens'* rose 
to the heavens. Never, never have I seen such a 

And this young man, so Mr. Goodwin told me 
later, has ever this effect. Always at first, the dis- 
appointment over his youth, his shyness, his home- 
liness, always the triumph of his spoken word. 

Dr. Simpson, I learned later, is a native of Cadiz, 
0., and is just 29 years old. He came here last year 
from Allegheny College, where he was engaged in 
teaching. His motto, inscribed in all his books, is 
''Read and know. Think and be wise." 

It was with great regret that I parted from 
young Mr. Goodwin, but I wished to spend a day 
in Putnamville, which from all accounts is one of the 
most flourishing towns in this region, with a beauti- 
ful situation on the National Road. I was directed 
by friends to the tavern kept by James Townsend, 
and never was a more happy direction given a 

Mr. Townsend is known as the proprietor of 
Putnamville, for he it was who laid out this thriving 
town. Having inclinations toward civil engineer- 


ing, he had already laid out the town of Morganfield, 
Ky., to which he had gone from his native Mary- 
land, before coming here. In his society, I found 
myself quite at home, and yet, his attitude toward 
some of the questions of the hour gave me food for 
thought. Mr. TowTisend is a man of 50. He lived, 
as I have said, in Maryland and left it for Kentucky, 
leaving Kentucky for this state because of his feel- 
ing against slavery. He owned a large number of 
slaves, so he told me, and on preparing to leave Ken- 
tucky, he freed them all, and offered to bring them 
North with him. To each of those who wished to 
remain behind, he made a present of $50 in money; 
for those who accompanied him, he has built cabins, 
giving each a home. There are seven of these 
former slaves, and when, in his company, I visited 
them, old Grandmother Sibley, whom he had 
brought out from Maryland; Aunt Hetty, Uncle 
Tom, it turned my thoughts toward home. And yet, 
when I reflect on my attitude toward this question 
at the time I left my home and my attitude now, 
for I must note do^\Ti here that, little by little, the 
strong convictions of Arnold Buffum and Louis 
Hicklin and the many other wise and honorable 
gentlemen I have encountered during my journey 
through this state have unconsciously changed my 
feeling on the subject of slavery; I do not believe 
that I could ^\dllingly again become the owner of 
human flesh and blood; and I am convinced that 
this, more than any other one thing, has made me 
wish to cast my lot in the new country. 

Mr. Townsend's wife is also a Southern woman, 


and we found many subjects for conversation, for 
she has visited widely and knows many of my 
mother's friends. I learned that she is a cousin of 
Jefferson Davis, whom I had met while on a visit 
only last year. 

Putnamville is, I believe, one of the most flourish- 
ing towns it has been my fortune to visit, and 
through the kind offices of Mr. Townsend I have met 
many of the respectable citizens and have seen most 
of its industries, remarkable in number and variety, 
it would seem, for a town only nine years old. The 
National Road, here in a very good condition, is a 
most interesting spectacle, with its red stage 
coaches, passing frequently ; its barns, for the horses 
are always changed here, the wagons pushing on to 
the West; the ^'movers," the merchants with their 
goods, a continual stream of travel from sunrise to 
sunset. All this activity brings business to the 
town, so its many industries are, after all, not such 
a matter for surprise, but I continue to wonder 
at the aggregation of men of fine education and 
excellent family who have gathered into this 

In company with Mr. Townsend I met Worthing- 
ton B. Williams, a graduate of Dartmouth College, 
who came here from Poughkeepsie, N. Y., to look 
after lands bought by his father and who owns a 
store of general merchandise and is a man highly 
respected in the community; John Hendrix, who 
came here from Kentucky to set up a sawmill and 
gristmill; John S. Perry and Amos Welker, each 
the proprietor of a pottery; William Eaglesfield, a 


keeper of a tavern at Deer Creek ; Dan Hepler, who 
owns a flourisliing distillery; Jack Clark, a carpen- 
ter and owTier of a store of merchandise; Mr. 
Smock, a merchant of prominence; Mr. Griggsby, 
a very intelligent man, the proprietor of a harness 
and saddlery shop, one of the most important call- 
ings here, 'tis said, on account of the large amount 
of travel along the road and necessary repairs to 
harness, etc. ; Wesley Nance, a stock dealer and large 
farmer; the proprietors of two tanneries, whose 
names I failed to set down in my commonplace book 
and hence can not reproduce here ; Gilmore Connelly 
and Flower Swift, both of whom are proprietors of 
large holdings along the National Road and citizens 
of importance; Mr. Chapin; Benjamin Parks, a 
Baptist minister and farmer from North Carolina; 
and the pastor of the Presbyterian Church, founded 
in Mr. Townsend's home, the Rev. Mr. Ransom 
Hawley, who, with his wife, came out from Con- 
necticut, where they had been prominent edu- 

I met also the proprietor of another store and a 
tailor shop, Albert Layman, a most interesting 
gentleman, whose wife I found a charming female 
from the East, a graduate, she tells me, of a female 
college recently founded there by Miss Mary Lyon. 
Her father, I learn, is judge of the Supreme Court 
of New York.^ 

Ever to live in my memory are the hours I spent 
in company with Mr. ToAvnsend's son-in-law. Dr. D. 

'Judge Estea Howe. The college referred to was !Mount Holyoke. 


W. Layman,* wliose society I found most congenial 
and wliose story, lie told me as we sat pleasantly 
together on his porcli in the evening. 

The sun had set behind the forest trees on the 
horizon, and the twilight was gathering around us, 
and from the parlor came the tinkling notes of the 
spinet which Mrs. Layman's father had purchased 
from her French teacher in Kentucky and had 
brought with him to Putnamville. The atmosphere 
breathed romance, and as I listened to this story of 
the National Road, and of the accidents by which 
love comes, told in his gentle voice, with the notes of 
the spinet struck at intervals, almost as an accom- 
paniment, I was moved to wonder if I, too, was 
destined in my wanderings to some such happy fate ! 

''I was born in Pennsylvania," said he, **and be- 
ing early left an orphan was reared by relatives in 
Augusta County, Virginia. At the University of 
Virginia, where I received my education, I formed 
a warm friendship with a young gentleman who 
came out to Terre Haute, and who wrote repeatedly, 
urging me to come to him as soon as I had completed 
my medical course. 

"Accordingly, one day, driving my faithful horse 
and carrying all my worldly possessions, I set out 
over the National Road for Terre Haute. 

''My first unusual experience was at Zanesville, 
0., where I encountered an epidemic of typhoid 
fever, and remained for a week to assist in the care 

* Father of Mr. James T. Layman of Indianapolis. After a long 
and most successful career in Putnamville, Dr. Layman died in 
Indianapolis in 1887 and is buried at Crown Hill.— Editor. 


of the stricken. Tliey besought me to remain 
permanently, and 'tis tnie, the location offered 
many inducements, but something pushed me on. I 
refused their pleadings, and turned my face toward 
the West. 

*'It was nightfall when I came through Putnam- 
ville, and just as I reached Mr. Townsend's inn my 
horse fell lame and I must perforce dismount fix)m 
my vehicle and remain until he had recovered. 'Tis 
a matter of nine years now, and from a lad of your 
age I have come to be thirty-two — the horse is long 
since over his lameness, and I am still here ! 

''The reason! Mr. Townsend had a daughter just 
seventeen, and the next morning after my arrival 
I beheld her for the first time. She was pressing 
grapes, all unconscious of my scrutiny, and when I 
saw her lovely, serene face, her air of gentle dignity, 
I resolved that if the fates were kind, she should be 
mine, and I would remain in Putnamville ! " 

He paused, and we sat in silence for a season, 
pondering over who knows what — life, youth, love I 

From him and from others I have learned much 
of the life and the work of this admirable man. His 
only ambition is in the line of his profession, for 
he puts his work above all else, and such is his popu- 
larity that no other physician can gain a footing in 
this locality. His calls are so many that he keeps 
four horses always in his stable, dri^ang them in the 
summer and riding horseback in the winter when the 
mud makes the roads impassable for vehicles. He 
could have won political preferment. I am told he 
was urged to accept the nomination for Congress 


four years ago, but refused to sacrifice his pro- 
fession to politics. He is interested in politics, how- 
ever, for we liave discussed the campaign fre- 
quently, and he has told me that he was once a 
Democrat, but because of his dislike for Andrew 
Jackson has become an ardent Whig, and that he 
particularly admires Gen. Harrison. 

Mrs. Layman I found as lovely as he had pictured 
her, a convent-bred girl of intelligence and charm. 
It is with deep regret that I part from these 
friends, who recall so vividly the atmosphere of 
my home, and set my face toward Terre Haute. 


Teree Haute, July 16, 1840. 

LEAVING Putnamville, charged by Dr. Layman 
with many messages for his friend in Terre 
Haute, and thanking the providence that had 
guided my footsteps among such delightful ac- 
quaintances, I found myself in the stage coach, again 
on the National Road, on which I had not been since 
arriving in Indianapolis. This last stretch of road 
toward the state 's western boundary was under con- 
struction during last year and the year before, and 
is in fairly good condition. There are some excel- 
lent bridges with stone abutments across small 
streams, and a notably long one, the yellow bridge, 
just before one arrives in Terre Haute. There are 
many inns along the way, in Clay County, Ken- 
nedy's, and, in a delightful situation, upon a hill, 
Cunningham Tavern, which last named is fixed in 
my memory because it stands just opposite a most 
beautiful homestead erected by a Mr. Usher just two 
years ago, I was informed, and which is considered 
the finest dwelling house in this part of the state. 

I had not been long in the stage coach before 
noting the physiognomy of the gentleman who was 
my vis-a-vis. There was something strangely 
familiar in that noble face, the finely curved mouth, 
the strong chin, whose squareness was but empha- 



sized by its cleaving dimple. When he smiled and 
spoke, I recognized his voice at once; he was a 
clerical gentleman, a Methodist minister, whom I 
had met briefly in Indianapolis, at the home of 
Morris Morris, the Rev. Allen Wylie. 

Mr. Wylie had recognized me immediately, he 
said, and had been waiting to see if I would remem- 
ber him. We talked most pleasantly of Indian- 
apolis, and of our friends, and then he disclosed to 
me that he was going on to attend the closing days 
of a camp meeting, and suggested that if I had no 
great reason for haste, I would find it well worth my 
while to bear him company thither. 

Needless to say that I accepted his invitation at 
once. I had heard much of these camp meetings, 
for this was the season in which they are held. I 
was aware that this peculiar style of worship be- 
longs to the Methodists, and I felt considerable 
curiosity concerning them and was well aware how 
pleasant it would be to visit one in company with a 
man of the prominence of Mr. Wylie. As we rode 
forward, he gave me much information concerning 
the church and its practices. 

This state, it seems, is divided into districts called 
Conferences. At intervals, gatherings known as 
Conferences are held quarterly. The camp meetings 
are always held in the summer, and take the place 
of the Conference for that quarter. They are 
largely attended, many eloquent divines are present, 
and Mr. Wylie assures me that they are occasions of 
great spiritual outpouring, and conducive to great 
moral and spiritual good. Unlike the other re- 


ligious gatherings I have heard of or beheld in this 
state, the debates between those of opposite sects, 
for example, there are here* no controversies, only 
exhortations to repentance, a continuous effort to 
bring the sheep into the fold. There is, Mr. AVylie 
declares, a great need of such meetings, because 
there is, in this state, a class of well-disposed peo- 
ple who have grown up witho-ut much religious in- 
struction, and children of families who have run 
wild in pursuit of pleasures of the world, and toward 
these their efforts are mainly directed. Then, the 
occasion is one to strengthen the faith of those al- 
ready w^ithin the fold, a time when, undistracted by 
either duties or pleasures, they may give themselves 
altogether to worship, and renew their spiritual 
strength from the Eternal Fountain. 

All this is altogether new and unlike anything to 
which I have been accustomed, and yet I am aware 
that a new life and new conditions may perhaps 
demand a new form of worship and,- while anything 
so far from the conventions among which I have 
been reared was, I will admit, on my first coming 
hither, somewhat repugnant to me, I have now 
breathed sufficiently the Western air, acquired suf- 
ficiently the Western habit of thought, to be fain to 
see somew^hat of truth in what he told me. Mayhap, 
too, I was the more readily become a convert be- 
cause of his eloquence, for he spoke the most 
quaintly and yet withal most wisely and convinc- 
ingly. I had already \\4tnessed it, and I was again 
to observe at this camp meeting, that, while these 
circuit riders are not, in the main, educated men, 


yet they have studied the Scriptures so thoroughly, 
that their speech, even their common conversation, 
is almost altogether that of the Word — simple, most 
convincing, often poetical beyond belief. Yea, I 
have heard prayers — ^but I anticipate. 

We left the stage at some wayside tavern, sending 
on my bags to Terre Haute, and rode some distance 
on horseback, penetrating deeper and deeper as we 
rode into the primeval forest. I thought, as I rode 
under these noble trees, centuries old, erect as 
marble columns, their heavy branches arching over 
us, and came at last into the- oijening chosen for the 
**camp grounds," as they are called, that I had 
never seen a more beautiful spot nor one more ap- 
propriate for such worship. The camp was pitched 
on a gentle declivity covered with a large growth 
of trees, but no- underbrush, and from a neighboring 
spring a little stream rippled, providing water in 
plenty for all purposes of the encampment. 

In this spot, a hollow square wa^ laid out, the 
inner side of which formed the front row of tents. 
About midway on the lower side of this square, a 
little in front of the line of tents, was erected the 
preacher's stand or pulpit, in the rear of which was 
a tent which served as a sort of vestry room for the 
ministers. From this point tents were put up in 
the form of lines fronting together, the rows being 
left with proper entrance openings at the corners 
of the main avenues. The cooking, I learned later, 
was done in the rear of the tents, where also the 
meals were eaten. In front of the preaching stand 
were log seats for the congregation. 


By day one was impressed by the forest depth and 
stillness, the arches of the great trees, the slanting 
rays of sunlight on the thick turf; by night, in the 
light of the candles thrust into bolts driven in the 
trees and of beacons kindled on mounds built up, not 
unlike altars, at frequent intervals without and 
within the grounds, the heavy shadows throwing 
into strong relief the rapt faces of the congregation, 
one could but long for the brush of the artist, since 
words alone could ne'er depict the scene. I be- 
thought me of the lines of our native American poet, 
"William Cullen Bryant, which I had read many 
times with pleasure, but which I now recalled with 
true appreciation. He must have witnessed some 
such scene as this, or he could ne'er have written 
so feelingly of ''God's First Temples," these groves 
where — 

" — in the darkling wood, 
Amid the cool and silence, he knelt down 
And offered to the Mightiest, solemn thanks 
And supplication. For his simple heart 
Might not resist the sacred influence — " 

These backwoods ministers are right when they 
choose such spots as this — among these ** venerable 
columns," ''this verdant roof," these "dim vaults," 
"these winding aisles," "fit shrine for humble wor- 
shiper to hold communion with his Maker," 

There was, I soon learned, a rigid program for 
the day, which is strictly followed out. I was 
aroused very early, our first morning, by a loud 
voice, the voice of some Brobdingnagian, it would 
seem, for surely from no ordinary mortal throat 


could such a voice proceed, and obeying Mr. Wylie's 
beckoning forefinger, I peered tlirougb the tent en- 
trance to see, in the preacher's stand, a man of 
ordinary stature, rather uncouth in appearance, clad 
in blue liomespun, the skirted coat enormously long, 
reaching indeed almost to his heels. His face was 
upturned, his eyes closed, and he was bellowing 
forth a song which, later, with Mr. Wylie's aid, I 
recalled sufficiently to inscribe two stanzas in my 
commonplace book. * ' Fishing Peter ' ' was its name, 
and the stanzas ran : 

"When Christ the Lord was here below, 

About the work he came to do, 

Before He left His little band 

He said to Peter, 'Feed My lambs.' 

*'But Thomas was of doubtful mind, 
Yet Jesus left him not behind. 
'Thomas,' He cried, 'behold My hands!' 
To Simon Peter, 'Feed My Iambs.' " ' 

'Twas fortunate for me that Mr. Wylie, although 
most devout, was also most full of fun and life, for 
he therefore has told me the amusing sides of camp 
life as well as the serious. 'Tis usual, he says, at 
the meeting, to call the people together, to indicate 
the time for prayers, for meals, for all down sittings 
and uprisings; in fact, by means of a horn hung 
in the speakers' stand. This man, he said, is old 
Father Bennett, known as an ''exhorter;" that is, 
not a licensed preacher, but one who speaks God's 
word and calls the sinners to repentance at various 

' A song of innumerable stanzas much in vogue in southern Indiana 
in the forties and fifties. — Editor. 


religious meetings. He possesses, moreover, this 
tremendous voice, and 'tis his pleasure, when he at- 
tends a camp meeting, to sing this song, a favorite 
of his, Avith, says Mr. Wylie, innumerable verses, to 
call the people together, and from my own observa- 
tion 'twas an undoubted success, for I give my word 
'twas heard from one end of the township to the 

Mr. Wylie told me many other things which I have 
not space to record — some of the humors of the 
meeting — for when these simple people are over- 
come with emotion they are wont sometimes to ex- 
press themselves in most amusing fashion, and to 
express their conversion in most amazing terms. 
One young man, Mr. Wylie told me, insisted that no 
one was converted until he could smell fire and 
brimstone, and that he himself smelt it. AVlien the 
minister assured him that this was imagination, and 
tried to turn his mind toward Christ, he declared 
that he did and that no one could be truly converted 
until he smelt the terrible pit. At another time, a 
woman, overcome with emotion, kept up her shout- 
ing throughout the night, keeping all the camp 
awake. When one of the ministers at last remon- 
strated with her, urging her to save herself for the 
morrow and be quiet, she called out, ** Quiet? 
Quiet? Ah, brother, if I were to keep quiet the 
very stones would cry out ! ' ' 

Many amusing and many serious stories he told 
me, and explained at length the program of the 
camp meeting. 

These meetings, he explained, usually begin on 


Thursday, this being the day of pitching the tents, 
gathering the supply of wood, arranging the lights, 
settling the families ; by night, all being in order, a 
special opening service is held, the first sermon 
preached and the evening concluded with a brief 
prayer meeting. The following Tuesday is the last 
day, because, he explained, ''the true time to ad- 
journ is while the spirit of the meeting is yet in its 
strength. ' ' 

No liquor is allowed on the grounds, and a volun- 
teer police of young men of good family and 
friendly to the church but not religiously affected 
by the worship, keep guard against the rowdies who 
delight in disturbing such meetings by trying to pass 
within the lines, untethering horses, pulling down 
fences, making an uproar and mimicking sounds. 

In the morning, the horn is sounded at sunrise — 
or in this case Father Bennett sang — at which time 
all are to rise; half an hour later it is blown for 
family worship, which must be observed in every 
tent; breakfast next, and at eight or nine the horn 
announces prayer meeting in tents. 

At ten, preaching is held, then prayers at the 
stand and call for ''mourners," this meaning, it 
seems, an invitation to such as desire the prayers of 
those present from a conviction that they are 
sinners, ^fter this, there is a recess for the mid- 
day meal ; at two in the afternoon, preaching ; again 
prayers at the stand and a call for mourners. A 
stop at the setting of the sun for the evening meal, 
through which the mourners commonly fast, then, 
the fires are lighted, making the beautiful scene I 


have described, the heavy foliage brought out by the 
light, the rapt faces before the pulpit; at seven, the 
preaching, the hymns, the call for mourners ; at nine, 
the horn, the signal for family worship in tents, and 
then, to bed. 

Mr. Wylie explained to me that the preaching is 
regarded as a subordinate matter; the sermons, to 
be successful, should be brief and telling; that the 
desirable thing is exhortations to repentance, a serv- 
ice which will convict the sinner of his sins and 
bring those seeking repentance into the fold. 

I have not yet spoken of the singing, of the plain- 
tive voices joining in songs of exhortation, of invi- 
tation to the sinner, yet 'tis the most agreeable and 
striking feature of the meeting : 

"Come, ye sinners, poor and needy, 
Weak and wounded, sick and sore ; 
Jesus ready stands to save you, 
Full of pity, love and power ! 
He is able, 
He is willing ; doubt no more. ' ' 

And of the one with which those who have found 
light, who have become converted are greeted, the 
Hymn of Rejoicing in Communion with God. 

"Come, thou Fount of every blessing, 

Tune my heart to sing thy grace ; 
Streams of mercy, never ceasing. 

Call for songs of loudest praise. 
Teach me some melodious sonnet, 

Sung by flaming tongues above ; 
Praise the Mount, I'm fixed upon it, 

Mount of thy redeeming love ! ' ' 


I can not describe the effect on me of this hymn, 
carried by the high treble voices, rising in the sum- 
mer night. Ah, who can say that this homage in 
His woodland temple is not pleasing to the Great 
Jehovah, and that He does not incline His ear, hear, 
and grant these prayers? 

I must haste, without further detail, to describe 
the breaking of the camp which I remained to see 
and which I deemed most impressive. 

Early in the morning, the tents were struck. The 
congregation then assembled, the exhortation was 
given, hymns were sung, prayers were made. Then 
the fareAvell procession was formed, led by the 
ministers, followed by the congregation, and all 
marched around the outside row of tents. On ap- 
proaching the stand, the ministers stopped, and as 
the line passed by, they took the hand of each one 
in solemn farewell. 'Twas a most moving sight, 
one I shall ne'er forget, and which left me most 
solemn long after the woods had closed behind me 
and my face was again turned toward Terre Haute. 

The journey to Terre Haute was accomplished 
without incident worthy of note, across the county 
of Clay and into that of Vigo. I was so fortunate, 
however, as to meet on the stage coach, which, as 
I have noted before, is, like the inn, the great meet- 
ing ground, and whose enforced intimacy one may 
say almost compels conversation, a Mr. Chapman, 
who told me presently that he is the editor of the 
Wabash Enquirer, a newspaper published at Terre 
Haute, and who, on learning of my tour of the coun- 
try, volunteered much information to me. 


The county of Vigo, I learned from liim, is named 
for Col. Francis Vigo, a companion and friend of 
Gen. George Rogers Clark, a most gallant gentle- 
man, who, after the war, cast his fortunes in the 
new country and settled at Vincennes. Touched by 
the compliment of conferring his name upon the 
county. Col. Vigo left a bequest - to Terre Haute for 
the purchase of a bell for the Court House cupola, 
which will be purchased if e'er the estate is settled. 

The surface of this country is either level or 
gently undulating, its fine timbered lands inter- 
spersed with beautiful prairies, and the land is uni- 
formly rich, giving large crops of wheat, corn and 
oats. The town, Mr. Chapman informs me, is 
beautifully situated on a high bank of the Wabash, 
indicated by the name, Terre Haute (high land), 
and the views, as I was soon to learn, of prairie, 
river and bottom land, most enchanting, the banks 
along the river being especially beautiful with grass, 
flowers and large trees. This town has the distinc- 
tion of having come into being the same year that 
the state was admitted into the Union, 1816, so it is 
now twenty-four years old, and has about 2,000 in- 
habitants. As are many of these towns, it is built 
about a public square on which the court house 

="1116 money mentioned in the bequest was to come from Vigo's 
claim against the United States government for money loimed the 
government by which Gen. George Rogers Chirk was abh' to provide 
rations for his soldiers in their mareli for the recapturing of Vin- 
cennes in 1779. Tlie original amount loaned was $11,387.40. When 
it was at last allowed, the principal and interest amounted to $i>0,- 
000. The claim was paid in lS7(i, forty years after his deatli. 
Vigo's bequest was used as the nucleus in tlie purdiase of u bell und 
a clock for the new Court House erect. 'd in 1884— Editor. 


stands, and when this was reserved, two quarter 
blocks were also reserved, one for a Seminary and 
one for a cliurcli, located at an equal distance from 
the public square. The town, said Mr. Chapman, 
was laid off and platted by the Terre Haute Com- 
pany, and when he recited the names, I found to my 
great pleasure that I knew one of the gentlemen and 
was familiar with the names of the others. The 
Bullitts of Kentucky were known to me by reputa- 
tion, some members of the family having attended 
the University while I was there, and the other 
familiar name was that of Hyacinthe Lasselle. 
Other members of the company were Jonathan 
Lindley of Orange County, Indiana, and Abraham 
Markle of Fort Harrison, whose sons I was soon to 

Mr. Chapman waxed most enthusiastic over the 
past and future of this city. 

"Who," said he, *' would have expected such 
rapid growth of a settlement in this situation? A 
thousand miles from the sea coast, with no highway 
of intercourse, no approach even, excepting the back 
door of Vincennes, by way of Cincinnati, in a region 
subject to incursions of the Indians, yet what hap- 
pened! In 1815, a settled peace was concluded with 
the Indians, permanent settlers began pouring into 
the state ; later, the National Road was planned and 
constructed, and now, in a location geographically 
on the direct line of travel from East to the far un- 
explored West, with the Wabash and Erie Canal on 
the way toward completion, and with citizens of in- 


telligence and gentility, the town has gro\vn beyond 
belief, and has a radiant future." 

On perceiving my interest and my desire to note 
facts in my commonplace book, he drew forth from 
his pocket a copy of the Bloomington paper, The 
Extra Equator ^ a number of which I had seen be- 
fore and made note in this diary, and read me the 
following selection : 

''There are some towns, however, and irrespec- 
tive of the aid they receive from this source (the 
public works) have sprung into life as if by magic. 
Among these and at the head, stands the town, al- 
most city, of Terre Haute. Here, where a few years 
since, all w-as in its native wilderness, now is the 
show of life and business. Farms cover the rich 
prairie as far as the eye can reach. By what town 
is it surpassed, by what place is it equaled in beauty, 
elegance, and health! Surrounded by the large and 
rich farming communities of Parke, Clay and Sulli- 
van, the products of which may easily be launched 
on the bosom of the Wabash, which rolls at her base, 
and thus quickly be deposited at any of the Southern 
ports, her commercial advantages are by no means 
of minor importance. Neither are her means of 
communicating less than those of any other place 
in our state. From every direction, stages are run- 
ning—the proprietor of one of which resides in our 
town— and in favor of whose enterprise and accom- 
modations too much can not be said. To what, then, 
can this growing superiority of Terre Haute be at- 

'The Extra Equator, Bloomington, Ind., Nov. 8, 1839.— Editor. 


tributed? Next to her local advantages may be 
mentioned the enterprise and industry of her citi- 
zens. By her salubrious soil and beautiful situation 
she has invited the stranger of intelligence and 
capital to reside here. "When here, they have evi- 
dently taken a pleasure in expending their industry 
and capital in benefiting and launching the town. 
In a word, as the prints of a town are generally 
considered as the representatives of its prosperity 
and generosity, if judging from this infallible proof 
in this case we read the interesting, racy and 
spirited columns of the Courier and Enquirer, we 
should say that Terre Haute is unequaled." 

''By far too complimentary to the editors," ob- 
served Mr. Chapman modestly, "but most true of 
the town. ' ' 

I learned from this same source that I was now 
approaching a place of genuine historical interest, 
a place that has a part in the history of the north- 
west territory, Fort Harrison, erected by Gen. Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison in October, 1811. The old 
log fort, now sadly fallen into decay, I have looked 
upon with the greatest interest. The inclosure is 
150 feet square, a stockade of heavy timbers, with 
block houses at the corners and two-story bastions, 
a typical Western fort, even in its decay calculated 
to fire the imagination and to recall the day when 
from beneath the high bluff came the war cry of the 
savage in his canoe echoing the shout of his brother 
lurking above in the forest fastness ! 

For some time after 1816, 'tis said, the fort was 
used as a refuge, for although the Indian was said 


to be friendly, he was still regarded with suspicion. 
The fort, too, was the landing place for all who came 
up the Wabash to the new settlement, and many of 
the first prospectors boarded at the fort on their 
arrival, among them, Chauncey Rose,'' Abraham 
Markle and Curtis Gilbert. 

I was quite ready, therefore, to be pleasantly im- 
pressed with Terre Haute, at which we arrived near 
nightfall. I had been advised by Dr. Layman to go 
to "The Eagle and Lion," one of the oldest and 
best taverns in the town, but Mr. Chapman advised 
me of a new inn which I should by all means seek 
out. This inn, he says, has but recently been built 
by Mr. Rose, and is kept by a Mr. Barnum. This 
Mr. Rose, he says, I must by all means make the ac- 
quaintance of. 

Mr. Rose is a gentleman of about 47, who came 
out to Terre Haute from Connecticut in 1817. He 
has, during his residence here, .engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits, purchased vast tracts of land, built 
houses, and, said Mr. Chapman, if I am interested 
in investments in the new country he is the man 
above all others with whom I should liold consulta- 
tion. He furthermore promised himself to intro- 
duce me to Mr. Rose. 

I found the inn, Avhile some distance removed 
from the rest of the town, all and more tlian Mr. 

■•Chauncey Rose, born in Connecticut, 1793; went to Terre Haute, 
1817; died, 1877. "Tlie list of liis benefactions is a Ion-; one, includ- 
ing the Rose Ladies' Aid Society, the Rose Polyteclinic Seliool. the 
Rose Orphans' Home, the Rose Dispensary." Tlie inn referred to is 
the famous Prairie House, whose name Mr. Parsons neglects to give. 
It is described at length in Beate's "The Wabash" ( 18r)n.— Editor. 


Chapman had declared it to be. His statement that 
it is the largest and best appointed inn in this state, 
if not in the West, is true without doubt, and I found 
my apartment both commodious and comfortable, 
and my meals all and more than I could have de- 
manded. It was in a most excellent humor, there- 
fore, that, the next morning, having changed the 
garments in which I had traveled for the more 
modish attire of broadcloth, fresh ruffled shirt, and 
my best beaver hat, I set forth to find Dr. Layman's 
friend,^ and to view the city. 

Through this friend, it was my good fortune to 
make the acquaintance of the town's most prominent 
physicians, of whom there is an unusual number. 
Most capable and interesting men I found them. It 
is a matter of interest and worthy of note, I think, 
that among the pioneers, the professional men — the 
preachers, the doctors, the lawyers, who endure 
great hardships in the practice of their professions 
— have been formed by this hard school of experi- 
ence into men of mark. To change the figure, those 
of baser metal do not survive the fire, and those who 
do survive are all men of exceeding ability. How- 
ever it be, I have found this uniformly the case in 
each community I have visited. 

A most striking and interesting figure is that of 
Dr. Modesitt, pioneer physician, a typical Virginia 
gentleman, unchanged by his residence in a pioneer 
settlement. He can truly be called a pioneer, for 
he built the first log house in Terre Haute, and 
proved himself a man of affairs, setting up a mortar 

° strangely, at no time does he give this friend's name. — Editor. 


for corn, when there was no mill, and establishing a 
ferry across the Wabash, at the same time laying 
the foundation for his reputation as a most excellent 
physician and surgeon. He is a graduate of Prince 
William College, and resided in Cincinnati for a 
season before coming to this place. He is a hand- 
some gentleman, somewhat past 50, with snow-white 
hair, an erect figure, an imposing presence and 
most courtly manners, reminding me much of my 

Among the younger physicians, I found most con- 
genial Dr. Reed, a young gentleman of 29. In his 
office on the public square, he has collected a library 
of considerable size and merit, and I found much 
amusement and edification in poring over these 
volumes while waiting for him to measure out 
nostrums for the patients who had gathered in his 
office. He showed me the latest tale of our South- 
ern novelist, William Gilmore Simms, **Playo, a 
Tale of the Goth," purchased, he says, at the Pliila- 
delphia Book Store, kept by a Mr. Flint, a rather 
good emporium. ''Simms," he remarked, ''will 
add a new chaplet to his wreath of literary honors 
with this volume, and do great credit to his fame. 
It is an exciting story of the old time, as its name 
imports, and richly rewards a perusal." 

Here, too, I found a book of graceful letters, 
"L'Abri, or the Tent Pitch 'd," by N. P. Willis, 
Esq., a young writer coming more and more into 
favor; a most excruciatingly funny book entitled 
"John Smith's Letters with 'Picters' to Match," 
from the graphic pen of the veritable and original 


Jack Downing;^ ''The Private Journal of Aaron 
Burr" in two volumes, which I longed for the time 
to read, and a year 's numbers of a magazine printed 
in Cincinnati called The Family Magazine, a veri- 
table treasure trove of information which does 
credit to the West. 

Through Dr. Reed I met many of the physicians 
— Dr. Ball, a native of New Jersey, a gentleman 
highly esteemed in the community, and whose wife's 
family, the Richardsons, were among the first set- 
tlers of the town, she a most delightful female, I 
will add ; Dr. Patrick, brusque and most intelligent ; 
Dr. Richard Blake, a Southerner from Maryland; 
Dr. Daniels, and next — a surprise sufficient yet to 
make my heart beat faster as I write — Dr. Thomas 
Parsons ! 

I remember that Dr. Reed had repeated my name 
when first he heard it, as though 'twere not un- 
familiar, but he said naught until he brought me 
face to face with him. I knew that my father had 
cousins residing in Maryland, who long ago had 
gone out to Kentucky. We knew not their where- 
abouts, but my father had urged me to make in- 
quiries. This Dr. Parsons, it seems, was but a boy 
when the family moved to Kentucky, and he came 
to Indiana in 1819, being now a man about 36 years 
old, and as yet utimarried. He was as rejoiced, 
apparently, to see me, as I to see him, and he in- 
sisted at once on my coming with him that I might 
relate to him everything I could remember of his 

*An extremely popular humorist of the time, Maj. Jack Downing, 
now forgotten. — Editor, 


relatives in Virginia, promising, in return, to see 
that I view everything of note, and make the ac- 
quaintance of every notable before leaving his 
adopted city. To-morrow I shall record my meet- 
ing with Mr. Rose and my various social experiences 
in his company. 


On Board Steamer Indian, July 20, 1840. 

I AM beyond doubt deeply indebted to Mr. Chap- 
man for recommending that I take up my abode 
at the Prairie House while in Terre Haute. 
While 'tis true that it is literally ''out on the 
prairies," the walk into the town is not a long one, 
and the tavern itself is so palatial in every way and 
the guests so agreeable that I can of a truth say 
that nowhere on my journey have I been so pleas- 
antly entertained. 

I rose betimes, the morning after my meeting with 
Dr. Parsons, my new-found cousin several times re- 
moved, for a cool breeze was blowing over the 
prairie, the birds were singing, and all nature was 
calling me to come out. After an excellent repast 
I wandered into the office room and taking up a 
number of Mr. Chapman's paper was soon lost to 
my surroundings in a perusal of events of import- 
ance. News from the outside world has now the 
spice of novelty to me, for it haps sometimes that 
I am so situated that I do not see a news sheet for 
several weeks together. 

I therefore perused with much interest the account 
of a United States exploring expedition. Letters 
have been received from Lieut. Wilkes dated 



Sydney, New South Wales, which establish beyond 
question the existence of a great continent in the 
Antarctic seas, this discovery made Jan. 19, 1840, 
and just now reaching our public prints. Full de- 
tails are said to be given in the Sydney papers. 

Queen Victoria held a drawing room last 
month, and her costume is described at length, a 
dress of white tulle over white satin, body and 
sleeves richly ornamented with diamonds and 
blonde; skirt elegantly trimmed with a rich blonde 
flounce ; train of pink Irish poplin richly brocaded in 
silver and lined with white satin, with a head-dress 
of feathers and diamonds, necklaces and rings en 
suite. The details of fashion have a special 
piquancy, after our backwoods experiences. 

An item of especial interest to the traveler be- 
cause it reveals the dangers only too recently from 
the Indians, was copied from a Peru, Indiana, 
paper: *'Mr. John Parrett, Jr., residing in AVhitley 
County about thirty-five or forty miles east of this 
place, visiting the residence of some Indians, found 
in their company a white male child supposed to be 
6 years old, black eyes and fair hair, large for his 
age, and has a long, broad, full face. The cliild is 
thought to have been taken from its parents by the 
Indians and carried to where it was found. Mr. 
Parrett purchased the boy of his adopted parents 
for $2.50, and took him to his house, where his 
parents, if living and chance to see this notice, may 
find him." 

According to my custom, I noted tlie market price 
of various commodities, flour, $3.75 a barrel ; meal, 



12 and 15 cents a bushel ; wheat, 50 cents a bushel ; 
potatoes 10 and 12 cents a bushel; butter, 5 and 6 
cents a pound ; eggs, 3 and 6 cents a dozen ; whisky, 
14 cents a gallon. 

The greater part of the paper was devoted to 
political items, a long letter from Mr. Robert Dale 
Owen covering the entire front page. These polit- 
ical items I read always with the greatest interest, 
because each party seems to me to be very strong, 
and espousers of either side each assure me that his 
party can not fail to win. From a perusal of this 
paper, for instance, one would be convinced that the 
followers of Gen. Harrison stand no chance what- 
ever in the coming elections. The editor writes that 
he thinks it an evidence of insanity on the part of 
Mr. Lane, Whig nominee for Congress in the 
Seventh District, that he should run against Mr. 
Hannegan. In another column the accusation is 
made that Mr. George H. Profhtt, a Congressman, I 
was to learn later from Vincennes, and one of the 
most brilliant men in the state, *'is literally flooding 
the state with electioneering documents. Not con- 
tent with practicing on the unsuspecting of his own 
district, he must stick his finger into every other. 
We have a letter before us from Clay County, stat- 
ing that at one small postoffice no less than three 
pounds of 'Lives of Harrison' printed at the Madi- 
sonian office, came in one mail, franked by G. H. P. 
as public documents. These are the men who cry 
so loud about abuse of official power! Democrats, 
you must be stirring! Every scheme which in- 


genuity can invent will be put into operation to de- 
feat you. Be watchful, then! Be prudent! Be 
firm ! And above all, be united ! " 

It is probable that my face betrayed my thoughts, 
for a gentleman sitting near me, having evidently 
perceived what I was reading, said, with a smile, 
''Most convincing, no doubt, until you read the other 
side ! Pray listen to this. ' ' Drawing a paper from 
his pocket, a Whig sheet with the title The Spirit of 
Seventy-Six, which I learned later is printed at the 
capital, Indianapolis, he showed me column after 
column of statements entirely as positive that the 
"V^Tiigs would be victorious in the state elections. 
He told me the story of how some leader had 
written to the editor. Chapman, telling him that he 
must put on a bold front and seem to be positive 
that the Democrats would win. "Tell Chapman he 
must crow," he said, and that this story has got out, 
to the discomfiture of the Democrats and the enor- 
mous delight of the Whigs, and that every Whig 
paper has in black letters, "Crow, Chapman, 
Crow." He read me from this paper a bit of 
doggerel entitled "Song of Jim Crow." 

"Let all de British Tory 

Who feel so very low, 
Keep stiff de upper lip 

And give a loud Crow. 
Brag about and bet about 

And grin just so, 
And every time you meet a Whig 

Give a loud Crow, 


"Massa Van he frightened, 

Everybody know. 
Still he scold at Amos 

Cause he doesn't crow, 
Brag about and bet about. 

And grin just so; 
And never lose de spirits, 

But give a loud crow. ' ' ' 

''Now as for Mr. Proffitt," continued my com- 
panion, '' 'tis all a base and scurrilous slander. 
Mr. Proffitt is one of the finest gentlemen in the 
state, and the greatest public speaker in the West. 
Let me tell you something in confidence," he said, 
lowering his voice. ''The Whig citizens of this 
county have so high a regard for Mr. Proffitt and 
esteem so greatly his services in this campaign, that 
they intend in September to give a great barbecue 
in his honor. We have the form of our invitation 
already prepared, which I will show you, strictly in 
confidence, sir, we do not want our enemies as yet 
to get wind of it. It will be engraved in due season 
and sent out to the respectable citizens of this and 
other counties," he added. 

I unfolded the memorandum he handed to me 
with great interest. It ran as follows: "Sir: 
The Wliig citizens of the County of Vigo will give 
a barbecue to the Hon. George H. Proffitt on the 
third of October next in a grove south of this town 
for his vigilant, bold, and energetic course as a 
Representative in Congress, and for his general zeal 

*One could wish that Mr. Parsons had gone into more detail be- 
cause this incident is said to be the origin of the adoption of the 
rooster as the symbol of the Democratic party. — Editor, 


in sustaining and advancing the Whig cause. You 
are respectfully invited to dttend with the assur- 
ance that it will afford the citizens of Vigo great 
satisfaction to have the honor of your company on 
the occasion. With high regard, Your obedient serv- 
ants, Thomas H. Blake, James Farrington, T. A. 
Madison, A. L. Chamberlain, John Dowling, Rufus 
Minor, Henry Ross, Charles T. Noble, Lucius Scott, 
Committee. ' ' 

''There, sir, the cream of the community, on that 
committee, present company always excepted!" he 
added, with a whimsical smile. 

I was sufficiently impressed, for this seemed to me 
a great tribute, and presently my new acquaintance 
explained to me that he was the A. L. Chamberlain 
of the committee and we fell into an interesting 

Learning of my intended profession, Mr. Cham- 
berlain straightway presented me to a gentleman 
who sat near us, a Mr. Griswold, who is a young 
man come here recently and who for a season was 
the instructor in a school, but who has now formed 
a partnership for the practice of the law with an- 
other young gentleman, a Mr. Usher,- who came 
here from New York state driving all the way in an 
open buggy. 

"We met here in this tavern," said Mr. Griswold. 
*'0n a frosty morning in the fall, as I left the break- 
fast table, I was followed by a strange young guest, 
and meeting face to face before the fireplace, we fell 

" John P. Usher, who later became a member of Lincoln's Cabinet 
and died in 1889.— Editor. 


into conversation. From exchanging experiences, 
we came to confidences, and it was not long until 
we had agreed to enter into a partnership. This 
was only last year, ' ' he explained, ' ' and our firm is 
Usher and Griswold, and our office is on Cherry 
Street, where I hope to have the honor of your pres- 
ence for a call. 

''This inn," continued Mr. Griswold, **I regard 
as a paradise. 'Tis not alone its comforts, though 
there is much to be said for them, 'tis the company 
that gathers here and the free and easy intercourse 
— ah, sir, it has something about it I can scarcely 
define, but which you must even now perceive!" 

I admitted that already I had felt something of 
this charm in the hospitality and the pleasant com- 
panionship afforded in its ample rooms, and we were 
conversing in a most lively fashion when who should 
arrive but Dr. Parsons, who naturally knew them 
both well, and we accordingly sauntered forth to- 
gether toward the town, talking gayly, as is the cus- 
tom with young folk, together, in pleasant weather 
and beset by no carping care. 

All of the young gentlemen are members of the 
fire company, it seems, and there was no little jest- 
ing on the subject as we walked along, and they told 
me something of the formation of the company. In 
spite of their jests I noted that they felt consider- 
able pride in the company and in the engine — "Old 
Hoosier"— bought some years back. Their Council, 
they said, had but recently appropriated $300 for 
the construction of a cistern in each ward. Many 
funny tales had they to tell of fires and fire fighting. 


Spirited young men, all tliree of them, in their sev- 
eral ways. 

Our next burst of laughter was at the sight of a 
drove of hogs coming down the street. I have al- 
ready described the appearance of a drove of hogs 
on a country road on their way to Cincinnati. 

"Behold, Mr. Parsons," said Mr. Griswold, in 
tones of mock solemnity, ''behold a vision of Pork- 
opolis. Mayhap you have not heard that in spite of 
our culture, our schools, our professions, the real 
source of our prosperity lies in our pork-packing 
establishments, of which we have so many. Can it 
be that none has as yet vouchsafed you a view of 
those elegant edifices, those slaughter houses, our 
pride, that cluster on the river's brink? Mayhap it 
has been whispered to you, young sir, that our great 
fear, at least the fear of those of us who o^\^l no 
porkers, and no packing house, but who breathe the 
refined air of the heights of culture, that our 
adopted city may yet receive the name of Pork- 
opolis! Perish the thought! Rather may our 
boasted prosperity vanish!" 

As he burlesqued tragedy in his tone, we stood at 
attention on the sidewalk, watching the surging 
mass of porkers go by, a sight well worth the see- 
ing. First went a man on horseback, scattering 
corn and uttering at intervals in a minor key the cry 
*'Pig-oo-ee! Pig-oo-ee!" All along the sidewalk, 
at street crossings and at alley ways helpers were 
stationed to keep in line the pigs that were driven 
forward from the rear by drovers with long sticks. 
The rear was brought up by the very fat porkers 


who had to have special attendants, and a wagon fol- 
lowed for those who became too tired to walk. 
'Twas an interesting sight, and we stood until they 
had entirely passed. 

*' Joke as you will, Grriswold," said Mr. Chamber- 
lain, *' these are indeed amazingly the source of our 
prosperity. And whence, pray tell me, would your 
much needed fees come were it not for these de- 
spised hogs? You must understand, Mr. Parsons," 
he said to me, "that corn grows on our fertile 
prairies for the planting, and that it is the food 
of all others for fattening these hogs. 'Tis then but 
a matter of killing them and sending the meat to 
New Orleans on flat boats. Let us show him," he 
proposed to the others. ''Let us walk over to the 
river. ' ' 

I confess that I had not the slightest idea of the 
immensity of the river traffic, and that I hastened 
to jot down the information that these three ac- 
corded me, between jokes, as we stood on the river 
bluff and looked down at the beautiful river at 
whose wharf lay several steamers. 

The use of the river for shipping is almost un- 
believable, they informed me. In 1836, as many as 
800 steamboats came here, steamboats from New 
Orleans, St. Louis, Louisville, Cincinnati and Pitts- 
burg, being daily visitors during the boating season.^ 

This year more than 200 boats are carrying on 
a regular traffic between these Wabash towns and 
ports on the Ohio and Mississippi. However, the 

"The almost complete passing of the steamboat traffic on both 
Wabash and Ohio makes the statement almost as unbelievable to ua 
as it was to Mr. Parsons. — Editor. 


flat boats are the most astonishing sight to me. 
This Wabash River, it seems, is a thoroughfare for 
all the country to the north by which the farmers 
may ship their produce, and it is undoubtedly made 
excellent use of. In less than a month and a half, 
in the fall, they told me, 1,000 flat boats will pass 
down the river, the majority of them loaded with 
flour, pork, etc., in this proportion: one-tenth with 
pork, 300 barrels to the boat; one-tenth, lard, 
cattle, horses, oats, corn meal, etc., and the re- 
mainder of the load consisting of corn on the ear. 
However, as a proof that this is not always the load, 
they told me of a flat boat setting out from Jackson 
County at one time, going do^vn White River, carry- 
ing a load of hickory nuts, walnuts and venison 
hams. The value of the produce and stock on flat 
boats is $1,000,000 annually. 

I had already seen flat boats on the Ohio River, 
but had received no particular information concern- 
ing them. Mr. Chamberlain, who seems a most 
practical gentleman, explained to me their value, as 
besides having great carrying capacity, they are of 
light draft, and hence adapted to small streams, and 
in times of flood, the countryman living on a small 
stream in the interior can construct his flat boat, 
load it and float it to the Wabash and thence to the 
Ohio and Mississippi. The matter of construction 
is easy and not expensive. He called my attention 
to the great tulip poplars which abound in this 
locality. ''These," said he, ''are easily worked 
with the ax, and afford slabs long and broad 
enoudi for the sides. All that remains to bo done, 


then, is simply to attach planks to these for the 
bottom and ends, and the boat is completed." 

He told me what I had already heard, that these 
flat boats can not come up stream. The flat boat 
man disposes of his produce in New Orleans, sells 
his boat to be broken up for lumber, and returns on 
the steamboat, though in the early days it was neces- 
sary that he should walk home over the long road 
known as the Tennessee Path, though it was fre- 
quently called The ^loody Path because of the high- 
waymen that infested it. 

I will note here that through the kind offices of 
Mr. Griswold and Mr. Usher, whom I found most 
congenial companions, I met many of the members 
of the bar of this city for whom there is but space 
to record their names that I may be enabled al- 
y^ajs to recall them. It seems to me, as I recount 
them, that the number is unusual for the size of 
the city and that their ability is also remarkable. 
There is Judge Demas Deming, vastly rich, a man 
of ability and of remarkable poise; the President 
Judge, Elisha Huntington, a man of vast popu- 
larity; Judge Jenckes, Judge Gookins, the firm is 
Kinney, AVright and Gookins, and I found them all 
men of most agreeable manners. Judge Kinney and 
Judge Gookins being most interested in the good of 
their fellow men. This last named gentleman re- 
lated to me the interesting fact that with his mother 
and brother, he was the first to come into the settle- 
ment by the northern route, they having come out 
from New York, and the journey occupying six 
weeks and two days. Another attorney-at-law was 


Mr, Barbour, a young gentleman who graduated 
from Indiana College at Bloomington and in whom 
I was particularly interested when he informed me 
that he had read law in the office of Judge Isaac 
Blackford in Indianapolis. 

Through Judge Kinney, I made the acquaintance 
of a most interesting man, the Rev. Mr. Jewett,* 
pastor of the Congregational Church. 

While I have found many sects in the Western 
country, Methodist, Presbyterian, Baptist, Chris- 
tian, Catholic and Universalist, this is my first en- 
counter with the Congregational Church, whose 
stronghold, I learn, is New England. Mr. Jewett, I 
was informed, was making a tour of the West as a 
missionary, and passing through Terre Haute, de- 
termined to remain over the Sabbath. On hearing 
that he was a minister, the people invited him to 
preach at the court house, and so much impressed 
were those who heard him by his beautiful character 
and his interesting discourses that he was urged by 
all classes to establish a church here and return East 
for his family. Mr. Jewett, 'tis easily to be seen, 
is a man of strong sympathy and broad catliolicity 
of spirit and superior talent, and I marveled not 
at all at his popularity when I had heard him preach 
and engaged in conversation with him. 'Tis no 
wonder that his church is so thriving and embraces 
such admirable citizens among its members. 

Among the merchants of the city whom I remem- 
ber best, perhaps, is Mr. Chauncey Warren, at one 

♦ It is a matter of interest that the successor of Dr. Jewett in this 
church was Dr. Lyman Abbott who remained there from 18C0 to 1860. 


time a partner of Mr. Rose. Him I met through 
Dr. Modesitt, his father-in-law, and I found him a 
man of great liveliness, an excellent raconteur and 
in manner most kind and agreeable. A gentleman 
of the Quaker faith, a man of refinement and most 
gentle manners was a Mr. Ball who^ came to this 
city some years ago and was engaged as the chief 
engineer in the building of the Wabash and Erie 
Canal. I met, too, the sons of Maj. Markle, one of 
the founders of the city, and builder of its first mill, 
a man, 'tis said, of unusual charm and ability, and 
these sons I found most agreeable young gentlemen. 
I must record the name, too, of Mr. Curtis Gilbert, 
one of the early citizens, for^a long time postmaster 
and conspicuous in all public movements, a most 
estimable and agreeable gentleman, who told me, 
among interesting narrations of the town's early 
history, of the visit here, in 1831 of Mr. Clay. This 
great man, he said, was entertained at the Eagle 
and Lion, the first tavern in the village, and a most 
noted resort, which I have seen with its quaint sign 
of the American bird pecking out the eyes of the 
British Lion. In the early days, it was frequented 
by chance travelers and by the traveling la\\'yers, 
and it was the central place of meeting for the 
townspeople and moreover possesses an enormous 
stable for the acconmiodation of the stage and 
wagon horses. 

Senator Clay, said Mr. Gilbert, was met several 
miles from the village by a large number of citizens 
and escorted into the town, his approach being an- 
nounced by the roar of artillery. Addresses were 


made by citizens of prominence and liis eloquent 
reply is still quoted by his admirers of whom I find 
many, a matter which will delight my father, and of 
which I must not fail to inform him. 

Space is lacking for more than a brief mention 
of one item that has impressed me much, the multi- 
plicity of businesses and occupations I have found in 
this small city — more, I believe, than in any other I 
have yet viewed. I have already mentioned the 
pork-packing, a great industry in itself, the stores 
of general merchandise, a most excellent market. 
There are also a w^agon yard, a brick yard, shoe- 
making is carried on, coopering, and hat-making 
and there are several mills. 

In the matter of schools, this, for a town of its 
size, does not compare, it seems to me, with others 
I have viewed, though I am told there are several 
private schools, in one of which Mr. Oris wold, as ho 
told me, taught when he first came to Terre Haute." 

'Twas in this same assembling room of the tavern 
in w^hich more and more from day to day as I lingered 
I was to perceive the charm of which ^Ir. Griswold 
had spoken so poetically, that I finally met Mr. 
Chauncey Rose. Dr. Parsons had been call(>d away 
but he told me that he had spoken to liim concern- 
ing me, and one morning as I entered the ofTicc? room 
after breakfast, I saw a serious-faced, though kindly 
gentleman approaching me, who inquired if I were 

•Mr. Parsons could not know of course that in October of this samo 
year (1840) tlie famous school of St. Mary's in the Woods was to 1)p 
founded, nor could he foresee the Rose I'olytecliiiic, tlie State Ndrmnl 
and other schools which were soon to flourish in Torre Haute.— 


Mr. Parsons of Virginia and informed me that lie 
was Chauncey Rose. 

I found him pleasing at our first meeting, for 
though a man of reticent nature, he is in reality 
full of enthusiasm over his various enterprises, and 
when he perceives interest in one with whom he con- 
verses he talks rapidly and enough. 

He told me at once of his coming here when there 
were but two houses in the town, one occupied by 
Dr. Modesitt whom I have already met, and that he 
boarded at the Old Fort. He was only 25 then, — he 
is now 47, he says, but he soon perceived the value 
of the prairie land and soon made large purchases, 
— in 1830, 640 acres in one vast tract. He was for a 
time in the business of general merchandise with Mr. 
Warren. He asked me many questions concerning my 
legal studies, the purpose of my journey, and made 
me some wise suggestions concerning investments. 

**I am myself but now considering entering into 
a company," said lie, ''which you may find of inter- 
est, something altogether new in this part of the 
world. In Greene County, not far distant and in 
a southerly direction, a gentleman, Downing by 
name, has discovered vast quantities of iron ore, 
some under the surface, some scattered over the top 
of the ground, due no doubt to some convulsion of 
nature in past ages. He has started there a blast 
furnace for the purpose of making pig iron, casting 
stoves, etc., about a mile from Bloomfield, the seat 
of justice, calling it the Richland Furnace." ' 

''And is this town," I inquired, "on a body of 
water, or what are the means of transportation?" 


He seemed pleased with my question. ''True," 
said he, "it would seem strange that one would go 
into such a business so far from the ordinary means 
of transportation for such heavy freight. Much of 
this iron is hauled with horse teams to Louisville, a 
distance of 100 miles, and for this the teamsters re- 
ceive five dollars a ton. Later, some gentlemen 
went into the business with Mr. Do\vning and pur- 
chased a steamboat which they called The Richland, 
and which could occasionally come up White River 
and take off the iron. These gentlemen have left 
the company and I am contemplating entering it 
and increasing the capital so that the business can be 
carried on on a large scale. I have great expecta- 
tions of success from this enterprise. ' ' ° 

Space is lacking and time is too pressing to do 
more than record most briefly the remaining events 
of my stay in this city. Through my friend, Dr. 
Parsons, I was taken to the palatial mansion of the 
Blakes, built by a merchant now deceased, a Mr. 
Linton, situated some distance from the town. 
Here, eight years ago, Mrs. Blake brouglit the first 
piano of the town. 'Twas such a curiosity, she said, 
that for a season passersby among the uneducated 
would stop and ask her "to play on tlie critter." 
Another fine mansion is that of Dr. Ball, whom I 
have already mentioned, his wife being the daughter 
of Joseph Richardson, one of the early settlers at 

«The original members of this enterprise besides :Mr. Downing were 
M. H. Shryer, William Evelcigh, William Mason, E. J. Pfck and A. L. 
Voorhees. It is a matter of regret that Mr. Parsons leaves tlie anb- 
ject with such abruptness and does not tell us more of this enterprise, 
the existence of whicli must be a matter of surprise to many resi- 
dents of Indiana. — Editor. 


Fort Harrison, and a most excellent female. Dr. 
Parsons being young and unmarried, 'twas but nat- 
ural that I should meet in his company several of 
the young females, and while I have not time to 
record these facts, I must jot down the incident of 
our sunset walk to the old Indian orchard.^ 

This spot is so called, I was informed, from an 
old Indian legend, and 'tis indeed a place of sur- 
passing beauty. Three couples walked out together, 
Mr. Usher, Dr. Parsons and myself, in the company 
of the young females. Miss Eliza was my partner, 
a pink-cheeked damsel, whose face, though pretty, 
is lacking in intellectuality. She is a chatterer, 
however, and she told me the story of the Indian 
lovers most engagingly and I fancy that she is a sad 
coquette. Ah well, were it not for the thought of 
Julia, I might have been a readier victim, for the 
spot is one to be dedicated to love on a summer eve ! 
We stood among the gnarled apple trees — said to 
have been planted by the Indian maiden, on the high 
bluff looking out over forest, prairie, bluff and river. 
The river makes a sweeping serpentine curve here, 
and can be seen, 'tis said, for a distance of two miles. 
The scene at sunset is one of surpassing loveliness, 
the place a rural paradise. 

'Twas from such scenes as this and such congenial 
companionship as I have described that I was at 
length forced to tear myself away and embark on 
the steamer Indian for my next stopping place, 

' Used as a burying ground for many years until the opening of 
the City Cemetery about 1839.— Editor. 


ViNCENNEs, July 24, 1840. 

IN spite of the announcement of the Indian's 
owners that **The public can rely on the boat 
making her trips on time, being the fastest boat 
ever in this trade, ' ' I fear I should have thought the 
journey a slow one had it not been for the congenial 
companionship of a gentleman who introduced him- 
self to me as Capt. Willis Fellows, recently ap- 
pointed inspector of steamboats for the Port of 
Vincennes. Him I found exceedingly well informed, 
and while sitting on deck gazing upon the ever 
beautiful and ever changing scene, I was continually 
engaged in asking questions and jotting do^\'n the 
information thus accorded me. 

Ample as it w^as, it did not in the least temper my 
amazement over the beauty, the antiquity, the inter- 
est of this town. Its situation is of great loveliness, 
being on what the early writers term a ''savannali" 
of irregular size, some miles in extent, with the 
dense woods behind it and the placid river at its 
feet. Along its streets, small century old houses 
alternate with more recently erected magnificent 
mansions. Its inhabitants, I have learned, are ex- 
traordinarily interesting, high-bred people among 
whom I have spent some of the most enjoyable days 
of all my enjoyable journey. 



I must confess to myself, although I endeavor to 
keep the knowledge from others, that I am of a most 
romantic temperament, and ne'er have I found a 
spot, it seems to me, so full of charm as is this town 
of Vincennes, a charm that I find it impossible to de- 
scribe. Some of my newfound acquaintances have 
told me much of the beauty of Indian summer in this 
state, of the colors of the trees and of the opalescent 
haze that hangs o'er woods and prairie and me- 
thinks the charm is not unlike this haze. It is a 
charm that comes from the age of the place and its 
romantic history. The first French inhabitants 
were, 'tis said, so good natured, warm hearted, and 
gentle mannered that 'twas impossible not to love 
them, and from what I can learn, their successors, 
the English settlers, were people of refinement and 
culture. From the beginning, there has always been 
hospitality here; the place has been sought by 
visitors from the old world, and these palatial home- 
steads have been the scene of lavish entertainment. 
When I close my eyes I can see, against the back- 
ground of forest, the picturesque figures, the 
painted Indian, the Jesuit father, the French 
coureur-du-bois, the English soldier, the titled 
visitors, the backwoodsman with his rifle — ah, small 
wonder mj pen fails me when I attempt to write of 
Vincennes! I shall merely set down, therefore, 
some few of the incidents which I find most worthy 
of recording. 

First of all I sought out, on Captain Fellows' rec- 
ommendation, the American Tavern kept by Mr. 


John C. Clark, a most affable gentleman. This inn 
is in a most desirable situation, close by the Old 
Fort, and commanding the Main Street ferry land- 
ing on the river. It is situated on a corner, with 
elevated porches on two sides from which one can 
view the happenings in the streets, notably the mili- 
tia musters. It is a meeting place for all promi- 
nent citizens to transact business of a public char- 
acter, and is moreover the headquarters for mer- 
chants and traders from all parts of the country. 

On the occasion of my memorable call on Judge 
Blackford in Indianapolis in his room in the Gov- 
ernor's mansion, he told me that he still considers 
Vincennes his home, coming here every year, and 
gave me the names of several of its respectable citi- 
zens whose acquaintance I should make, and with 
them, a letter to Mr. Samuel Judah of the firm of 
Judah and Gibson. I accordingly set out to find Mr. 
Judah, who received me most warmly and whom I 
found a most extraordinarily interesting gentleman 
of a little past forty, perhaps, with remarkably fine, 
piercing black eyes. He is a native of New York, 
and came out to Vincennes some years ago. He is, 
I soon perceived, a profound scholar, and a gentle- 
man most interested in young men of ambition. He 
is most proficient in the Greek and Latin languages 
and possesses an interesting library whose contents 
I took pleasure in noting. Having learned the pur- 
pose of my visit, he was even more gracious and 
affable, if such were possible, and invited me to re- 
main to a meeting to be held that same afternoon at 


four o'clock, in liis office, of the Historical and Anti- 
quarian Society/ 

This society, of which Judge Blackford was one 
of the original members, was organized in the year 
1808 to investigate authentic evidence concerning 
the early history of the place, over which there is 
some dispute, I learn, and it has already accumu- 
lated a considerable library and museum. 

At their last meeting the officers for. the coming 
year were elected: Mr. Nathaniel Ewing, Presi- 
dent; Mr. S. Hill, Vice-President; Mr. G. R. Gibson, 
Treasurer; Mr. A. T. Ellis, Secretary, all of whom 
I met on this occasion and who showed themselves 
most cordial to me. 

At this meeting several objects of interest were 
presented to the society which I, with their permis- 
sion, noted down — By the Honorable John Law, a 
discourse before the New York Historical Society 
by William B. Reed; by the Kentucky Historical 
Society, a large collection of books and pamphlets; 
by the Honorable Albert S. White, whom I had met 
at Lafayette, a memoir, historical and political of 
the northwest coast of North America, by Rob- 
ert Greenhow, translator and librarian to the De- 
partment of State ; by the Honorable John W. Da- 
vis, documents No. 206, 26 Con. I Sess. House Rep- 

^"It is a matter of sincere regret that the Vincennes Historical 
and Antiquarian Society was permitted to perish for want of appre- 
ciation and support. The valuable collection of important physical 
specimens contained in its museum and its documents and records 
were suffered to be carried oflT and scattered, and are not now, for the 
greater part, in existence, or at least are not accessible to the pub- 
lic." — (Cauthorn.) The society has in recent years been revived. — 


The "Vmcennfs Literary Drnmntir Sodety' will give llicir first pcrform- 
ance ou Satarday the 2nd of Ftlirunrj, 1839. in tlic romu fornieih occupied 
as the Poet Office, on Waltr Slrecli where »vill be prcbcntid llie'ller. B. C. 
Matrum'fl Traged/ of 





e uitA tk UvifVii^andimirh aima^jvruti 

The Apprentice. 

The members of this Socirt^ deem it a d«t/ dcTOlvinK apnn Iheniselrcs to 
make this public decU'ration of their inlcnlions, h:' publishing, to Uio clli- 
zens of Vincennes, the (Irst resolution of thair "By-Laici.'" 

"Jlesolved, That the surplus of this Societjr shall be presented to the ( oun- 
eil of the Borough of Vincennes, to be b/ Ucm, opplied in the purchase of a 

'Tnie"o'om is wellfltted up, and proper oBlceri will be in attendance to en- 
force ord«r. JVo tmokhig alhiced. Front s-ats reserred for the ladles.— 
Doore open at 6. Curtain will posilivel;' riie JS minutes before 7. 

Tickets of ndni ssion, 60 cenU. Childrei oter 10 jears of age will 6e 
charged fnll price No money received at Ifae door. „ TiekeU to be had at 
Clark's Hotel, and at the stores of Messrs. Hurlch ^i" n.nn.h, 0. Crulk- 
thank ^ Co. and tke Coffee-nouses. Good muBlc will attend the performance. 

From the original in the Indiana State Library 


resentatives, entitled ''National Defense and Na- 
tional Boundaries;" by tlie Honorable George W. 
Bathbone, two skeins of sewing silk, one black and 
one white, gro\^^l and manufactured in Vincennes 
in 1839 ; by H. D. Wheeler, a specimen of ore from 
Iron Mountain, Missouri; by George Frederick, a 
calculus from a hog's bladder; by D. Stahl, a geo- 
logical report of the state of Michigan; by H. Bert- 
rand, Esq., a manuscript volume of 240 pages, in 
French, dated 1790, a most beautiful specimen of 

Mr. Ewing, the President, I found most agreeable. 
In conversation, after the meeting, having inquired 
concerning my journey, he informed me that he had 
first come to this place as a boy from Pennsylvania 
on a trading trip in a pirognie laden with apples 
and salt, later ha\dng come to settle permanently. 
He has been Register of the Land Office, and Presi- 
dent of the first bank here, and has retired, being 
now near to 70, to his country place, Mont Clair, 
east of the city, to which estate he has invited me, 
showing himself especially agreeable after I men- 
tioned meeting his daughter, Mrs. Farrington of 
Terre Haute. He also presented me to his son-iu- 
law. Judge Law,- to whom I at once gave Judge 
Blackford's letter of introduction. 

Judge Law is a man eminently handsome and ele- 
gant in appearance, portly, with aquiline nose and 

*John Law, born in Connecticut, 1796. died at Evansville, Ind., 
1873. Graduated at Yale. Came to Corydon. 1817: later to Vin- 
cennes. 1825, prosecuting attorney; 18:^0. legislative judge. Klect.d 
to Congress. '^A fluent and graceful writer, wlio gained a national 
reputation for his contributions to the Colonial History of Indiana." 
! v-Editor. 


penetrating eyes. He is most urbane and at once 
invited me to his home, to which I went on that same 
evening, my stay here being limited. I noted with 
pleasure the beautiful home, the books and papers 
— like Judge Blackford he is an inveterate reader. 
The spirit of hospitality was evident, and the affec- 
tion in which he holds his family. Later, we sat 
in the garden under the beautiful trees, and among 
the flowers and fruits in whose cultivation he de- 
lights, and he quoted Marvell. 

"What wondrous life is this I lead! 
Eipe apples drop about my head; 
The luscious chisters of the vine 
Upon my mouth do crush their wine; 
The nectarine and curious peach 
Into my hands themselves do reach; 
Stumbling on melons as I pass, 
Ensnared with flowers, I fall on grass. 

''Here at the fountain's sliding foot. 
Or at some fruit tree's mossy root, 
Casting the body 's vest aside 
My soul into the boughs does glide ; 
There, like a bird, it sits and sings, 
Then whets and claps its silver wings, 
And, till prepared for longer flight. 
Waves in its plumes the various light." 

His love for these surroundings was, I could per- 
ceive, no idle fancy. 

He is 44 years of age, he informed me ; from Con- 
necticut, from which state his grandfather was a 
member of the Continental Congress, and he him- 
self graduated from Yale at the age of 18. The 
pride of birth is there, it speaks in the stateliness 


of his bearing, but much else, a courtliness of man- 
ner, a brilliancy of intellect, a wit and humor that 
make his conversation most delectable, in short, I 
never have looked upon a man who, I deem, unites 
in himself more of the gifts men pray the gods for. 

On learning of my interest in the history of the 
Western country and also my surprise over finding 
such a body as the Antiquarian Society here, he 
told me much concerning the object of the society 
and its work and confessed that only last year he 
had delivered an address ^ before the society on 
the date of the first settlement of Vincennes. 

When I ventured to express to him my feeling 
over finding a city of such age and of such historical 
interest in what we in the East are wont, I fear, to 
consider a wilderness, he burst forth: 

''Think, sir, you are in a town which is one of 
the oldest on the continent, one for the possession 
of which the greatest nations of the earth have con- 
tended — France, England, the United States. Think, 
sir, of this river, the Ouabache, they called it, a 
river known and noted on the maps of the West 
long before the Ohio was known in the geography 
of the Mississippi Valley, — a river which for nearly 
a century bore upon its waters the bateaux of the 
three great powers above mentioned, bringing their 
armed warriors to occupy and if possible, to pre- 
serve it. One which had seen mthin its garrison 
the Mousquetaire of Louis XV, the grenadier of 
George III, the rifleman of Clark, and the regular 

^This address was delivered on Feb. 22, 1839, and printed in 1858 
under the title "Tlie Colonial History of Vincennes under French, 
British and American Government." — Editor. 


troops of Harmar, St. Clair and Harrison,— one 
above which has floated the Fleur-de-Lys, the Cross 
of St. George, and our own glorious Stars and 

He paused for a moment, and then continued: 
**I came here at twenty-one, — in 1817 — it has 
changed much since then; it had changed greatly 
since 1800, I was told. Fancy, sir, what those first 
English speaking settlers must have seen when they 
came here, — this little foreign village, the low-ceil- 
inged, straw-thatched cottages, vine-wreathed, set in 
blossoming fruit trees, — the old church, which you 
must see without fail, the Old Fort,— no French- 
man's tongue calls it aught else, 'twas only the Eng- 
lish who said Fort Sackville, — the Indians, the 
priests, ah, 'twas a picture to stimulate a man's im- 
agination to make a poet of him — " 

I ventured to say that the spell still hangs over 
it for me, and 'twas perhaps this appreciation of a 
place he loved so well that caused his continuous 
and untiring kindness to me throughout my visit. 
'Twas upon this occasion that Judge Law told me 
of those men who have given what I may call his- 
toric interest to the town — the Sieur de Vincenne, 
from whom it takes its name : Father Gibault, a most 
celebrated priest who, when he heard of the Amer- 
ican Revolution, called a public meeting of the 
French of Vincennes, explained to them the nature 
of the struggle and administered to them the oath 
of allegiance to the American cause; Gen. George 
Rogers Clark, over whose exploits I have marveled 
much; Col. Francis Vigo of whom I had already 


heard at Terre Haute, and above all, of Gen. Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison, who came here as first Ter- 
ritorial Governor of Indiana to find a French vil- 
lage, few in the place speaking or understanding 
aught but the French language, and who devoted 
himself while here to the promotion of learning and 

Besides these whom we may call public charac- 
ters and historic, are men of prominence now living 
here or but lately passed away, who are a part of 
the history of the place. Among these is Bishop 
Brute, the first Roman Catholic bishop of the Dio- 
cese of Vincennes, born and educated in France, 
who came to this city in 1834, at which time the 
church of St. Francis Xavier was partly erected. 
Bishop Bmte left, so Judge Law tells me, a mar- 
velous library of 6,000 or 7,000 volumes, priceless 
manuscripts, many of them, some dating back to 
1476. Another gentleman is Elihu Stout, who 
founded the first newspaper in the state, the Vin- 
cemies Sun, the first number of which was issued in 
1804. Mr. Stout was one of the founders of the 
Historical Society, where I met him and enjoyed his 
conversation, although, as he was an ardent Dem- 
ocrat, I found his opinions of the election altogether 
at variance with the opinions of the many Whigs I 
have encountered. 

I found the opinions of another gentleman, Mr. 
Caddington, who edits the Yinccnncs Gazette, much 
more to my liking, and it was tliis gentleman who, 
when I questioned him concerning Gen. Harrison's 
following in this place and the strength of the Wliig 


party, invited me to accompany Mm to a great mass 
meeting and barbecue to be given in the walnut 
grove before the Harrison mansion, of wMch last 
named I shall write at length later on. 

The scene was one of indescribable interest. Two 
speakers had been provided, so Mr. Caddington in- 
formed me, but the crowd was so enormous, so far 
exceeding all expectations, that it was necessary to 
provide two others that all the crowd might be ac- 
commodated at once. The two speakers first pro- 
vided were the Mr. George Proffitt,^ concerning 
whom I had heard so much in Terre Haute, and a 
Mr. George G. Dunn of Bedford; the two others 
hastily invited, were Mr. Richard W. Thompson, 
who chanced to be in the city at this time, and Mr. 
John Ewing of Vincennes, whom I had already met. 
With my new friend, Mr. Caddington, as cicerone, 
I penetrated the vast crowd, stood on the trench in 
which the great bullocks were roasting, when the 
time came, ate my share with, I must confess, a most 
unsuspectedly voracious appetite, washed it down 
with dippersful of campaign cider, heard with great 
delight campaign songs shouted forth by lusty 
voices, and listened with the greatest curiosity and 
interest to each of the speakers. 

Of Mr. Proffitt I had heard so much, including the 

* George H. Proffitt, educated in England and France ; belonged to 
one of the leading families in Louisiana, where his grandfather held 
the office of surveyor general under the French government. Came to 
i'ike County in 1826, a very young man and engaged in merchandise 
business. Legislature, 1828, and elected to same position five times 
in succession; two terms in Congress; minister to Brazil under 
Tyler; died in Louisville, 1847. Man of extraordinary popularity; 
had high standing in the East. — Editor. 


encomiums of my Terre Haute friend who had told 
me of the barbecue planned in his honor next month, 
that I had the greatest curiosity to see him and 
was no ways disappointed in my expectations. Mr. 
Proffitt is a handsome young man, below the medium 
size, slim and spare, with a good mouth, a high 
forehead, dark eyes and light brown hair. He had 
spoken but a few moments when I perceived the se- 
cret of his power and marveled not when Mr. (\ul- 
dington informed me that he has already a high 
reputation for oratory in the East and South. Hi.s 
voice is remarkably loud and clear, having that qual- 
ity knowm as ''silvern," so here he has an advan- 
tage over many of his adversaries; his elocution is 
of the most fluent, his imagination most fertile, he is 
ever quick and ready. 'Twas easy to see how he 
swayed the multitude — I have never heard a more 
persuasive speaker. Mr. Caddington related to me 
an incident revealing this power. It seems that for 
some reason, some years ago, about the time of an 
election, he had become unpopular witli tlie people 
of his town, w^hether through the defamation of his 
rivals or some fancied wrongs, is unknown. Hav- 
ing in some w^ay become aware of this displeasure, 
Mr. Profiitt notified the voters by placards at the 
polling place, that he wished to address them once 
more before they voted, and such was his ])ower, 
popular or unpopular, that a large crowd gatiiered 
to hear him. He spoke for an hour, says Mr. Cad- 
dington, and so strong was his logic, so overpow- 
ering his eloquence, that he secured every vote in 
the town, much to the chagrin of his scheming op- 


ponents. ' * He is a true Southerner, ' ' concluded Mr. 
Caddington, apparently forgetful of my origin, of 
which I did not remind him, fearing his embarrass- 
ment, ''and cares far more for hunting, fishing and 
horse racing than for his business. I have heard 
that he never scruples to close his store any day 
in the week to pursue these pleasures.'* 

A most striking man is Mr. Richard W. Thomp- 
son, whom I had also heard spoken of at Terre 
Haute, very erect, with fine black hair and eyes. 
His face is not regularly handsome — ^his features 
are too prominent for that, but in person he is a 
man of mark, and his voice, while not equaling that 
of Mr. Proffitt in sweetness, is of great volume; his 
manner is strong, clear, emphatic, even vehement. 
"He has few, if any superiors as a speaker in the 
West,'* said Mr. Caddington, and I was fain to 
agree with him. 

Then my friend led me to the part of the grove 
in which Mr. Dunn ^ was speaking. 

He informed me that I was now to hear not only 
a great orator, but one of the finest lawyers of the 
state. "When he takes a case," said my friend, 
"he inspires oth-ers with such confidence in his 
strength that the case is considered as decided in 
his favor beforehand. He is argumentative, im- 
pressive, his w^ill is invincible, and he is a master 
of ridicule and invective. The Democrats fear his 
sarcasm more than that of any other of our speak- 

" George G. Dunn of Bedford, born in Kentucky in 1812; settled 
in Monroe County, Indiana, and then located in Bedford in 1833. 
Mr. Caddington 's statement is borne out by his biographers. — 


ers. You will see for yourself, sir, that as some one 
has said of him, he embodies wit, droUeiy, invec- 
tive, sarcasm, eloquence, in one symmetrical whole." 

Mr. Dunn was indeed one of the most impressive 
of the speakers. In person, he is most pleasing, 
being tall and commanding, with fair complexion, 
light hair, and blue eyes. I perceived at once that 
Mr. Caddington spoke the truth and that he indeed 
possesses all the qualities that gentleman attributes 
to him. Indeed, I should much prefer having him 
my. advocate than my opponent. His voice is rich 
and full, and he possesses great personal magnet- 
ism, no doubt in part the secret of his power, for 
no one could listen to his mellow voice without at 
once being persuaded of the justice of liis cause. 
I was moved beyond belief at his marvelous decla- 
mation of the lines, ''Now is the winter of our dis- 
content made glorious summer by the sun of York." 

The fourth speaker was a Mr. John Ewing, of 
whom Mr. Caddington spoke with enthusiasm. He 
is an Irishman, it seems, a gentleman of wealtli, who 
has become interested in politics, and having been 
suddenly discovered to be a fluent and versatile 
speaker, has been in constant demand this campaign. 
He speaks a rich brogue, and this with his Irish 
wit, his agreeable manner, his keen sarcasm, his 
hail-fellow-well-met attitude toward all tlie people 
make him a most popular speaker. At the inoment 
we approached the stump from whicli he spoke ho 
was reading a list of reasons from some Democratic 
print of why the writer was going to vote the Dem- 
ocratic ticket. Taking up each one, as "I intend to 


vote for Martin Van Buren because," etc., lie 
quickly explained why the statement was untrue, 
and this with so much wit that the audience was 
continually in a roar. 

I have made some inquiries concerning the state 
of education in this city and have been informed 
that in 1808 a university was established, from 
which, by reason of some injustice, 'tis claimed, of 
legislation, the state's support was withdrawn, but 
which has recently been reestablished, and for 
which is hoped a flourishing future. There is a 
most interesting Catholic institution, St. Gabriel's 
College, which offers a large and interesting curricu- 
lum, providing greater instruction in languages than 
any other institution in the state. Instruction is 
given, it is announced, in both ancient and modern 
languages, to-wit : Hebrew, Latin and Greek, Italian, 
Portuguese and Spanish, English, French and Ger- 
man, the last three of which are taught by pro- 
fessors to whom they are vernacular. 

Besides all these branches, mathematics, philoso- 
phy and the sciences, instruction is offered in draw- 
ing, painting and vocal and instrumental music upon 
the piano, violin, flute, guitar and clarinet.* The in- 
stitution, 'tis said, is provided with a splendid phil- 
osophical apparatus, an extensive library and ele- 
gant specimens for the study of anatomy. There is 
also in preparation a botanical garden designed to 
contain the greatest possible variety of plants. The 
scholastic year consists of two sessions of twenty- 
two weeks each, and the terms, including boarding, 
washing, mending, bed and bedding, medical attend- 


ance, paper, quills, ink and books per session, is $70. 
Music and drawing are extra as are also modern 

There is in the city also a most excoHont scliool 
for females, St. Mary's Academy, whicli is dosigiird 
"to promote the cause and enhance tlie value of 
learning and virtue, and exert itself in accordance 
with the character, necessities and increasing pros- 
perity of the country." 

The system of education in tliis Academy embraces 
the English and French languages, Ortlio^raphy, 
Reading, AVriting, Grammar, Practical and Kational 
Arithmetic, Geography and the Delineation of Mai)s, 
American and Modern History, Rhetoric and B»'lk^s 
Lettres, Natural Philosophy and Chemistry, music 
on piano, vocal music, drawing and painting in water 
colors, plain sewing, tapestry, embroidering, bead 
and lace work, in short all branches usually tauglit 
in female academies. Board and tuition, bed and 
bedding, washing, are $100 a year, and tlie use of 
pens, ink, reading books and patterns for work are 
621/^ cents for the season. Music and the use of the 
piano are $7 per quarter. I note these to compare 
with the cost in other institutions and also because 
my father and mother will be much interested in 
these details. 

As to religion, because of the age of this settl^o- 
ment, there are several flourisliing clmrclies, St. 
Francis Xavier, the oldest, founded in 1702, and also 
the congregations of Methodist, Presbyterian and 
Christian. A most interesting story was told me 
that the first Protestant service in the to\Mi was liold 


by a circuit rider who came through the place, whose 
sole congregation was President Harrison, who, as 
there was no table, held the candle while the minister 
read the Scripture lesson. 

Only last year the Episcopal Church was founded 
here. The meetings, I am told, are held in the town 
hall, and the females of the congregation have re- 
cently raised the sum of $117.21 for the fitting up of 
the hall for the services. The rector, the Rev. Mr. 
Killikelly,® I have found a most intelligent and 
agreeable gentleman. 

What I see most clearly, in my mind's eye, when 
I think of Vincennes is first, its old French houses, 
quaint and low, which Judge Law had described so 
eloquently, in one of which I took tea one never-to- 
be-forgotten afternoon with a Mrs. Wolverton, most 
charming young matron, and next its many mag- 
nificent mansions, first among them that of Gen. 
Harrison, whose plantation, ''Grouseland," is quite 
near the home of Judge Law, who took me to call 
upon Mr. Drake, its present tenant, that I might 
view the mansion.'^ 

I was charmed by the approach to the house. The 
plantation is a large one, the grove of trees magnifi- 
cent. I have not yet, I fear, dwelt sufficiently on the 
trees of this Wabash country, the giant tulip pop- 

' 'The next year, 1841, Mr. Killikelly went East and to Europe to 
raise funds for this church, and it is said that among the subscribers 
were Queen Adelaide, widow of William IV, the Duke of Northumber- 
land, the Archbishops of Canterbury and of London, and others whose 
names are equally illustrious. — Editor. 

' Tliis historic house was saved from destruction by the Francis 
Vigo Chapter, D. A. R., which purchased it in December, 1916, — 


Begun in 1826 

Pen drawing by WillarJ Osier 


lars, some 190 feet high; the sycamores, the walnut, 
white oak, sweet buckeye, sweet gum, ehns, catalpas, 
all enormously tall and of great circumference. Be- 
sides this, there is the vineyard and a garden of ex- 
quisite loveliness, with plants, shrubs and vines of 
great variety, rivaling the garden of Judge Law. 

The house has a magnificent situation ovcrhmking 
the river, and on this side it is oval, the other throe 
walls square. The mansion itself is constructed of 
brick, the first brick house in the county, if not in the 
territory, and erected at a cost of $20,000. 

The main stairway is most beautiful, rising from 
a commodious hallway, from the left of whicli opens 
a stately room, 30x22 feet, I was told, tlie ceiling 
13 feet high, the west wall of which, facing the river, 
is oval. ''This room," said Mr. Drake, *'has been 
the scene of many a gay and splendid gathering, for 
here Gen. Harrison entertained many dignitaries 
from the Old World, as well as from the East, in 
royal style. After his departure his son Cleves 
Harrison and his gay young wife dwelt here for a 
season and made the house an assembly place for 
youth, beauty, wealth, rank and title." There are 
many chambers with beautiful woodwork, handsome 
mantelpieces, entrancing views from the windows, 
and two verandas, one attached to the house on the 
east side, the other on the front. There are heavy 
walnut shutters to all the windows, and Mr. Drake 
called my attention to a bullet hole in one, the re- 
sult of a ball fired from a gun one night by an Indian 
with the intention of assassinating the Governor, 
while he was walking the floor with his little son in 


liis arms. He pointed out to me, also, a crack in 
the wall caused by the great earthquake of 1811. 

Of great interest to me, also, was the one-time 
mansion of Col. Vigo, a most elegant residence, with 
a veranda, the whole painted white, with blinds of 
purest green. Its floors, 'tis said — for I did not 
view the interior — are inlaid with diamond-shaped 
blocks of black walnut and white oak, highly 
polished. The story is told that Col. Vigo offered 
the builder twenty guineas reward if he would 
hasten its construction that he might offer the house 
to Governor Harrison on his first coming to Vin-' 
cennes. On its walls, at that time, says Judge Law, 
hung a handsome oil painting of Thomas Jefferson. 

I can but name the other palatial dwellings, the 
Bonner mansion — Mr. Bonner is owner of the great 
cotton factory — a three-story house with the great 
columned portico our Virginia builders delight in, 
in a magnificent situation; Bellevue, the country 
residence erected years ago by Judge Vanderburg, 
now dead, and the home of John Wise, a most re- 
spectable citizen and merchant, once the residence of 
Judge Benjamin Parke, an early notable of the 
state, and which stands overlooking the river near 
the Harrison mansion. 

To Nathaniel Ewing's beautiful country home, 
Mont Clair, I went one evening together with a com- 
pany of young people, and never have I seen a more 
beautiful and restful spot. We supped together on 
the green sward in front of the house, while the sun 
gave us a magnificent pageant at his setting, going 
to rest right regally, with a mass of cloud drapery 


all crimson and gold floating about his couch, an.l 
the full moon rose from the horizon like a giant 
shield of copper, and finally, growing smaller and 
more silvery, rode the heavens above us. And of 
what did we talk, of what sing? 

I have always loved the guitar. Some decry it 
as an unimportant instrument, not realizing Uw rich 
and mellow harp tones obtained by an accomplished 
performer. 'Tis indeed an orchestra in liltlo, and 
the great Paganini himself said of it, '*I esteem it as 
a conductor of thoughts; I love it for its hannony; 
it is my constant companion in all my travels." 

'Tis not in the hands of a Paganini, however, tliat 
I wish to see this instrument, but rather to see it 
clasped by some fair damsel, its blue ribbon encir- 
cling her neck, its strings touched by lier tapering 
ivory fingers. And **on such a night as this" 'twas 
just a lovely young female, Aimee her name, from 
which I guessed a French ancestress, wlio toucliod 
the guitar and sang. She was a blonde of tlie most 
delicate description, the seeming embodiment of all 
most exquisitely ethereal and spiritual, endowed 
with the voice of an angel, and this is the sad melody 
she sang: 

*'0 there are tones of voices prone, 

That breathed from lips now cold and mute 
The echoes of a once-loved soup, 

The murmurs of a broken lute ; 
That waken tears — warm, prushinp tears — 

The blighted hopes of bri']jhtcr hours, 
And win us back to parted years 

To weep aloud our withered flowers. 


' ' And gentle locks that once were bright, 

And smiles that lips we loved adorned, 
Now fall with cold and faded light 

Around the heart they once have warmed; 
And mem 'ry round her ruin rears 

Her ivy mantled, broken urn, 
And feeds with sighs and softer tears 

The fires which round her altar burn. ' ' 

For a season we all sat silent, more moved than 
we wished to reveal by the haunting sadness of the 
melody, the moon, the summer night. And to what 
did the song carry me back! Again I was sitting on 
the deck of the steamboat, gliding down the Beauti- 
ful River, again the moon was smiling down upon 
the lovely face, the deep blue eyes of Miss Caroline 
Hunter. Had I so soon forgotten her? Could I 
ever forget her? Did I realize that I might soon 
see her? My next stop is New Albany, and 'tis in 
New Albany that Buford had informed me she 
dwells, and intimated that I might even find him and 
his wife there on my arrival. 'Tis not unlikely, 
for he will no doubt choose to remain in the north 
through the extreme heat of the summer. New Al- 
bany! Caroline! Of a sudden, I forgot the music 
and the summer eve, I forgot my companions, and 
starting up in feverish haste,, most ungallantly de- 
clared that the hour was late, and that I must seek 
my inn, since in the morning I was to take the stage 
early for my journey's end! 


New Albany, July 30, 1840. 

TRULY fortune hath favored me beyond belief 
in ending my journey in tliis phice, so n'd- 
olent of the perfume of youth, romance and 

The trail from Vincennes to New Albany is one 
of the oldest in the state, having been used by the 
Indians in their journeys from Kentucky across the 
Falls of the Ohio to Vincennes, one of the oldest 
towns in the country. For a long time the stage 
route followed exactly the old Indian trail, but in 
1832 a new road was opened up, macadamized, ami 
made a toll road, the section over the Knobs alone, 
I am told, costing $100,000. It is in this old part 
of the state quite near New Albany that Corj'don, 
the state's first capital, is situated and greatly I re- 
gret that lack of time prevents my visiting it. 'Tia 
a quaint town, they say, and the old stone capitol 
building quite pretentious. 

Space will not permit my entering upon a descrip- 
tion of this beautiful country, and I have in pre- 
vious entries dwelt upon the giant trees, the in- 
credible number of wild grapevines festooning them, 
the wonderfully luxuriant vegetation, the feathered 
songsters of brilliant hues, tlic flowers, all uniting 
to form a picture of indescribable loveliness. The 



only point I will note is that as we progressed 
farther south the vegetation increased in luxuriance, 
and the canebrake, so familiar to the dweller in the 
land of the cotton and the cane, was frequently to 
be observed. 

The first town of any size at which our stage 
stopped was Washington, the seat of justice of 
Daviess County, a flourishing town whose houses are 
constructed in a genteel style. Mount Pleasant in 
Martin County, on an elevated site, with fine springs, 
came next, and then, Hindostan, a village with a 
most interesting history, and to whose name the in- 
habitants give a most rude and barbarous pro- 
nunciation which I succeeded in understanding only 
after frequent repetitions, Hindawson. 

A gentleman on the stage coach, perceiving my 
interest, gave me something of the history of this 
town, now fallen into ruin and decay. A trail from 
Clarksville (of which more anon) to Vincennes, 
crossed the river at this point, and early settlers, 
considering the situation an advantageous one, en- 
tered land here prior to 1812, the first land, he as- 
serted, entered from the United States in this coun- 
try. A ferry was established, many settlers came 
in, and for a season, the town promised to be one of 
the most flourishing settlements in the state. An 
early traveler, said he, wrote of it as ''an infant 
ville, Hindostan, on the falls of the White River, a 
broad crystal stream, running navigable to the Ohio, 
over a bed of sand and stone, smooth and white as 
a floor of marble, a pleasant, healthy place, the land 
rich and inviting." This state of affairs continued 

Pen drawing by Wilbur Driant Shook 


untU 1820, mills and business houses flourishing tli.' 
place far m advance of any settlement outsidi. of 
Vmcennes and New Albany, wlien, in 1827, a mys- 
terious malady swept over the community, like one 
of the ancient plagues, and, in a ni-lit, the dead out- 
numbered the living. The curse remained after tlie 
plague passed on, and never again was it possible to 
recall the first prosperity. The next year, the seat 
of justice was removed to another to\\-n, the living 
departed one by one, and now all that is left of 
Hindostan is a few crumbling houses by tlie river, 
which ripples on as gayly as ever, over its marbh'- 
w^hite bed of sand and stone. A village fallen to 
decay is always a melancholy sight, but how much 
more melancholy in these Western woods, where all 
else is young and flourishing, and where age and 
decay would seem to have no part. 

Characteristic of this part of the state are tho 
many swift and beautiful streams, one of which, 
Lick Creek, runs through the settlement of Paoli, a 
flourishing post town and seat of justice of the 
county of Orange. This town has six stores of 
general merchandise, three taverns, two oil mills, 
a cotton factory, a county seminary, and the land 
surrounding it is, I am informed, good farming land, 
in a high state of cultivation, and the farms an* 
abounding wdth the comforts and necessaries of life. 

It was a matter of deep regret to me that here I 
had not the time to go to view a great natural 
curiosity nine miles west of this town. The place is 
knoAvn as the French Lick, a spring of mineral water 
which contains, said my informant, a large portion 


of some other substance than salt, though it has not 
yet been sufficiently analyzed to determine precisely 
the ingredients. It is of a bluish color and emits 
a very strong, offensive odor, and is exceedingly 

Our road, always beautiful, dropped farther and 
farther to the south and we passed through Fred- 
ericksburg, on the west bank of Blue Eiver, and then 
Greenville, twelve miles northwest of New Albany, 
'tis said. When the location of the county seat was 
in question Greenville was one of the contestants 
and offered a considerable subscription. New Al- 
bany's subscription was a few dollars larger, and to 
it was added the donation of a bell for the Court 
House, and this won the victory. 

The range of hills known at New Albany as the 
Knobs, and called by the Indians Silver Hills, hence 
the legend that somewhere within this range lies a 
silver mine known only to the Indians, is said by 
my informant to run along the northern bank of the 
Ohio from the western part of the state to New 
Albany, at which place it turns, circling the city and 
runs through the county from south to north, mak- 
ing a wide circuit from the river and returning to it 
at Madison. Hills is a modest term for these giant 
and beautiful elevations, thickly covered with trees 
and undergrowth, from whose tops one commands 
an entrancing view of the surrounding country. To 

*The Gazetteer of 1849 states that this land was donated by the 
state to Congress on tlie supposition that the salt might be in suflB- 
cient quantity to make its possession valuable to the government, 
but as the plan was not practicable, the lands were sold. The 
Gazetteer goes on to state that "it has been learned that the waters 
are valuable for their medical properties." — Editor. 


tlie top of one of these, Bald Knob, a gentleman of 
New Albany led me, one day, up the old Indian trail, 
and ne'er shall I forget the view spread before my 
eyes. The wide expanse of country, the sparkling 
''Belle Riviere" visible in its turns above and below 
the city, the Falls with their never ceasing, musical 
roar; the fields, covered with bountiful harvests; the 
range of Silver Hills, stretching to the horizon, 
towering from 400 to 600 feet in grandeur and 
beauty; in one direction Jeffersonville, named for 
the great Virginian and laid out according to his 
plan; on the other, New Albany, most charming 
city, with its spacious streets, Water, High, Market 
and Spring, running parallel to the river, its public 
squares and market houses, its beautiful and com- 
modious harbor — surely 'twas with no more en- 
rapturing vision than this that Satan tempted the 
Master from the mountain top. 

Some such view, though not so grand and far- 
reaching, because it was from a lower knob, did I 
see the time we paused at the Rising Sun Tavern 
on the last hill top to be crossed before descending 
to the level and New Albany. This hilltop inn was 
built, I was told, by Caleb Dayton, who came hero 
from Connecticut in 1826. The inn is of logs but 
was weatherboarded a few years ago, and is a hand- 
some, substantial structure, with high gal)led roof, 
and great main room on one side of tlie hall, with a 
deep closet with glass doors, and a monstrous fire- 
place. The house has many windows, set-in porches 
and large wagon yards and a stable to accommodato 
both stages and emigrants, and the sign painted 


with the rising sun hangs on an iron arm affixed to 
a wooden post in front of the house that all may 

'Tis frequently quite merry here, my host in- 
formed me, for great hunting parties come over 
from Louisville to remain for a week, wearing their 
fringed buckskin hunting suits, and with their mus- 
kets and their hounds, and there is always the stage 
both ways each day, to say nothing of parties of 
emigrants pushing into the Wabash country. Mr. 
Dayton also made known to me that this road was 
known as the Daniel Boone Trace, because 'twas 
said that the Indians once stole Daniel Boone's 
daughter in Kentucky and that the mighty hunter 
pursued them over this road, overtook them, rescued 
the girl and wreaked his vengeance upon her 

Again under way, and down the steep hillside past 
the famous big Raeger Spring, at which the horses 
are always watered, and then, on and on, bits champ- 
ing, harness rattling, till we are come into New 
Albany ! 

I had known when I stood on the Dayton knob 
and looked over the enchanted and enchanting coun- 
try that I should love New Albany; even there 
I felt its charm; how much more, as we drove 
over its broad streets and drew up with great noise 
and ceremony before the long, low, many-gabled, 
many-windowed house on High Street, which bore 
the name of High Street or Hale's Tavern, one of 
the best taverns, the driver had already informed 
me, west of the Allegheny Mountains, and one fre- 


quented, so he says, by the beauty and fashion of 
the South, who flee hither up the Mississippi and 
Ohio in the summer season to avoid the dread 
scourge of the yellow fever. Mr. Daniel Webster, 
he informed me, Mr. Van Buren, Mr. Henry Clay 
and Gen. William Henry Harrison have been among 
its distinguished guests, to say nothing of a long 
array of less widely-kno^^Tl but most excellent 
gentlemen. And this, it was explained to me later, 
is not at all remarkable, for New Albany is the 
head of navigation of the Ohio, and tavern head- 
quarters for all steamboat men. Naturally, it is, in 
the season, the scene of much festivity and many 
social gatherings. 

When I entered the low-ceilinged cozy office room 
I felt at once this atmosphere of hospitality and of 
the charm given a house whose walls have witnessed 
much merry making. And when I met mine host I 
was still more pleased, for Dr. Hale is a true gentle- 
man, his ruffled shirt white as the driven snow, his 
broadcloth of the finest and blackest, and his dignity 
of the sort that would do credit to a Virginia states- 
man, tempered as it is with the proper courtesy to 
the stranger. I could see at once why notables, 
beauties and fashionables, once come to this inn, 
would return again and again. 

'Twas Dr. Hale gave me my first historical in- 
formation regarding New Albany. 'Twas founded, 
he said, by three brothers, Joel, Abner and Na- 
thaniel Scribner, who, attracted by the site n(»ar the 
Falls of the river, bought it in 181.'^, convlncil tliat 
''the world would one dav revolve around New 


Albany. '^ This city, says he, now numbering 4,226 
inhabitants, and only last year incorporated as a 
city, with its matchless situation at the head of 
navigation, will in time become the largest interior 
city on the continent. Its founders were all public- 
spirited men, foremost in all benevolent and liberal 
enterprises for building up and bettering the com- 
munity, and said he, ''The enterprise, industry, 
morality and public spirit which have heretofore 
contributed so much to its growth will not fail to 
carry it on hereafter.'' 

Quickly perceiving my interest in the city and its 
activities. Dr. Hale told me much of its business, its 
printing offices, its stores of general merchandise, 
liquor stores, foundries, mills, one in particular, pro- 
pelled by steam power, in which 100 barrels of flour 
are manufactured in twenty-four hours ; its schools, 
of which more anon ; its churches, and above all, its 
ship yards, for he said, ''While this country is not 
excelled in the state in the variety and extent of its 
business, its average income from the river business 
alone is more than $75,000 each year." 

From 1830 to 1835, he informed me, seventeen 
boats were built here, of the value of $377,642. 
From 1835 to this year, thirty-three vessels of the 
value of $714,942, and the output is expected to rise 
in the next year or two to thirty-eight boats each 
year. It is this building and the fact that the city 
is a headquarters for river men that give it so dif- 
ferent an atmosphere from other cities I have 
visited, — for there is a constant stream of visitors 
and of merchandise from New Orleans and in many 


respects its atmosphere is tliat of a Southern city. 

^^'The society of this citj^" says Dr. Hale, "you 
will soon perceive, is most delightful. 'Twas be- 
cause of these founders and the men wlio have suc- 
ceeded them. They first shaped the city in its tastes, 
its refinement and geniality and with tlie crowning 
glories of religion, and the highest morals to bless 
it, it has so continued ever since. The excellent so- 
ciety at New Albany will always be its chief attrac- 

'Twas Dr. Hale introduced me to the mayor of the 
city, Mr. Shepard Whitman, a most estimable 
gentleman, who at once invited me to a meeting of 
the Lyceum to be held that same evening at 6 o'clock. 
This Lyceum, it seems, was established some years 
ago, and has already a number of members and a 
library of several hundred valuable books and 
the necessary apparatus for illustrating different 

I found the meeting of special interest l)ecauso 
'twas well attended, giving me thus the opjtortunity 
to meet at once the to^^^l's most respectable citizens, 
and as the constitution and by-laws were read by 
the secretary, Mr. Alexander McClelland, I learned 
the object and aims of the society. The object of 
this— a called meeting— was to rouse the interest of 
the members, which, I gathered, had been somewhat 
lagging, and on motion of Mr. Whitman, it was "re- 
solved that we make all exertion possible to sustain 
this institution, inasmuch as we regard it as the most 
inestimable means for the advancement of tlie youth 
of both sexes as well in morals as in education, and 


that the better to effect this object, Mr. T. J. Barnett 
be requested to deliver an introductory address at 
the next meeting and that the public generally be in- 
vited to attend and unite with us." This Mr. 
Barnett, I was to learn later, is both an editor and a 
lawyer, a man of splendid attainments, a superior 
scholar and a fine speaker, one of the finest, indeed, 
in the city. 

The members present were Dr. Clapp, Mr. John 
Evans, Mr. D. M. Hooper, my host, Mr. AVhitman, 
Mr. H. B. Shields, Mr. Charles Woodruff, Mr. David 
Hedden, Mr. T. J. Barnett, Mr. Andrew Thickstun, 
Mr. James Brocks and Mr. Alexander McClelland. 
Of these. Dr. Clapp is the president, Mr. Hooper, 
the vice-president of the Lyceum, Mr. Shields, the 
treasurer, Mr. Thickstun, the librarian, Mr. Hedden, 
one of the curators. Mr. Bollman, the correspond- 
ing secretary, was not present, and neither was Mr. 
Dwyer, the other curator. 

In chatting with these gentlemen after the meet- 
ing, for all proved themselves most agreeable and 
tarried to converse with me, I learned that Mr. 
Hedden is one of the pioneer settlers, and that the 
name Shields is one indissolubly connected with the 
settling of New Albany. Mr. Patrick Shields, whom 
I was later to meet, 'being one of its most distin- 
guished citizens, an associate of Gen. Harrison, a 
member of the Constitutional Convention, the first 
circuit judge of Harrison County, an associate judge 
of this county, and his wife, the daughter of Clement 
Nance, a Huguenot, she said to be the first white 
woman to cross the Knobs. 


Dr. Clapp I found to bo a most aj;r(>oablc K<'iitl('- 
man. He, too, came here nearly thirty years ago 
and married a daughter of one of the founders of 
the town. He is a most prominent, influential and 
respected citizen and a most successful practitioner, 
and through his kindness I mot many of tlie physi- 
cians of the city. Dr. P. S. Shields, Dr. Leonard, Dr. 
Cooper, Dr. Stewart, Dr. Hoover and Dr. Dowling, 
also a Dr. John Sloan, who had but recently gradu- 
ated from BoAvdoin College and come here to engage 
in the practice of medicine. 

I made also the acquaintance of many of the 
lawyers, this through a letter to John S. Davis, a 
gentleman of prominence both in the law and in 
politics, and who is in partnership with ^laj. Henry 
P. Thornton, who introduced mo to his brothers at 
the bar. Especially congenial I found Randall 
Crawford, who is a fine student and scholar and 
who, with James C. Collins, has, 'tis said, three- 
fourths of the law business of the city. 

Other names I will sot down that I may not for- 
get them, some merchants, some city ollioials, all 
men of prominence: Peter Stoy, a pioneer; Mr. 
Paxton and Mr. Eastburn, Jamos R. Sliields. cashier 
of the bank, a most imposing structure with great 
columns at the front; Uv. Fitch, Mr. Warren, Mr. 
Pattison, Preston F. Tuley and Mr. Pennington, the 
merchant. I was soon to learn that a meetinir with 
any one of these gontlomon meant, through liis kind 
offices, a meeting witli another and another, so that, 
in an incredibly short time T hnd shaken tin* hand 
of nearly every respectable citizen of the place and 


had received more invitations to various gatherings 
than I had the time to accept. 

'Twas on my way to some meeting to which I had 
been invited, stopping along High Street to gaze 
into the window of Mr. Pattison, where was to be 
seen a most ravishing display of hats, black beavers, 
gray and white, also black and drab satin beavers, 
and gentlemen's leghorn hats, which display minded 
me, that as the weather here was become of such 
extreme warmth, I should mayhap purchase me one 
of these leghorns and don my linen suit. Suddenly, 
I felt a touch on my arm, and looked around to be- 
hold my old friend, Louis Hicklin. 

Time permits not that I should inscribe all the 
words that passed between us, for I was truly at- 
tached to this good man, and I could see that time 
and absence had not diminished the affection he had 
so clearly demonstrated that he felt for me. His 
welcome was a warm one. He has but just come to 
this part of the country to preach at some camp 
meetings, and as he was at this moment at leisure, 
he insisted that I stroll with him about the streets 
and pass the time in conversation over my travels 
and experiences since we parted. We did so, and 
he at the same time told me something of the his- 
tory of his church in New Albany. Being an old 
town, the church was founded early, and is now 
strong and flourishing, there having been held last 
year at the Wesley Chapel a most extensive and 
powerful revival of religion. My friend the Rev. 
Allen Wiley, who took me to the camp meeting, was 
stationed here a few years ago, and was most popu- 


lar, a statement I did not in the least question. Mr. 
Hicklin bethought himself to tell me a most excellent 
story of a recent conference here, a year or two ago, 

Most of the preachers from the eastern part of 
the state, among them Mr. Hicklin, wlio was then 
stationed at Vevay, came on the river and on their 
return forty or fifty of them, among them Bishop 
Soule, took passage on the General Pike, a steam- 
boat running between Louisville and Cincinnati. 
There was a large company of gamblers on board, 
said Mr. Hicklin, returning from the Louisville 
races, which had just closed. These men took pos- 
session of the gentleman's cabin and in a short time 
were engaged in gambling at cards and in consum- 
ing vast quantities of liquor. Bishop Soulo, a re- 
markable person, tall, muscular and athletic, viewed 
this scene with the utmost abhorrence, and, pres- 
ently calling the ministers together, he began to 
sing, joined at once by his companions : 
"Jesus, the name high over all, 

In hell or earth or sky ; 
Angels and men before it fall, 

And devils fear and fly." 

It did not take many such h>Tnns, shouted forth in 
such stentorian tones, said Mr. Hicklin, to cause 
these ' ' devils ' ' to fly. Very shortly they a])andoned 
the cabin and fled either to the deck or to their state- 
rooms, and the rest of the voyage was passed in 
decent quiet. 

^This conference to which Mr. Parsonn rrf.-rs waB hM in N'rw 
Albany in 1837.— Editor. 


Mr. Hicklin pointed out to me in the course of 
our stroll the New Albany Seminary,^ a flourishing 
institution under the protection of the Methodist 
Church, with about 200 scholars, male and female. 

When on my return to the inn, after an appoint- 
ment with Mr. Hicklin for the morrow, I spoke with 
Mrs. Hale of the flourishing condition of the Meth- 
odist Church, she at once declared that the Presby- 
terian, the church of the Scribner family, was in an 
equally flourishing condition, having held its first 
meeting in 1817 in the old Scribner home. She also 
told me of the female prayer meeting organized in 
1823, at her home, the tavern, by herself, Mrs. 
Ayres, Mrs. Robinson and Mrs. Shields, and of the 
organization, the next year, of the Female Bible So- 
ciety at the home of Mrs. Phoebe Scribner, at which 
Mrs. Robinson, Mrs. Ayres, Mrs. Jones, Mrs. Abner 
and Mrs. Joel Scribner became members, together 
with fifty-eight other ladies, and the organization is 
still flourishing. The Baptist and Campbellite 
Churches were also founded here at a somewhat 
later date and all have flourished, so that Dr. Hale 
is without doubt correct when he attributes much 
of the city's flourishing condition to ''the crowning 
glories of religion and the highest morals. ' ' 

I was told, too, a most interesting story of a 
French settlement (there are two near by), whose 

"This institution, founded in 1835 and continuing for ten years, 
was the predecessor of the famous DePauw Female College at New 
Albany. "Although the seminary was discontinued as a conference 
institution, and ceased, it nevertheless accomplished great good in its 
day and showed that the Methodist was then, as now, the real friend 
of Christian education." E. C. Holliday's "Indiana Methodism," — 


brick clmrch, St. Mary's-of-tlio-Knobs, was built but 
a few years ago and wliosc priest, a most interest- 
ing character, Father Neyron, was a soldier under 
Napoleon, a surgeon of great ability, Miio came to 
America and became a priest.* 

My appointment for the morrow with Mr. Hicklin 
promised the greatest interest. He was going over 
into the adjoining county of Clark, in wliich lies 
Jeffersonville, to a camp meeting, and he proposed 
that I ride over to that city in his company, view 
the surrounding country and city, and thence return 
to New Albany, while he continued on the way to his 
appointment. As he has trod tliese paths so many 
times and is so familiar with the country and its 
history, I hailed the opportunity with delight, find- 
ing, moreover, much pleasure in his company. 

On the morrow^ therefore, we set forth early, each 
on horseback, he having his horse and I hiring one, 
a good animal, with the help of Dr. Hale, ever most 

Leaving New Albany behind and pusliing on over 
the level country wliich lies between it and .T(^(Tcr- 
sonville, we rode rapidly, the roads licing in good 
condition, and Mr. Hicklin passing the time most 
pleasantly in relating to me the story of Clark's 
grant. For a long time this county was spoken of, 
he says, as "the Grant," for in 1783, Virginia gave 
to George Rogers Clark, his officers and sol(li«'rs in 

* It is most unfortunate that ^fr. Parsons did not visit th.-w tt- 
tlements and give us more information ronccrninp tliom. Tlioro wrr© 
two, one near Mooresville, tlie other on tlie Riidd nt nni» 
time very flourishing. At the first named, a frnat ,-...-i..Tai:.- ».iii»in.'M 
was carried on for a time. Both settlements and truditions are now 
Almost vanished. — Editor. 


the Revolution the 149,000 acres of land here, to- 
gether with 1,000 acres on which was to be located 
the town of Clarksville, and this land is still under 
the jurisdiction of Virginia.^ 

He pointed out to me the town of Clarksville and 
the two-story log house erected by Gen. Clark, in 
which he lived for a season, beautifully situated 
upon General's Point, giving a delightful view of 
the Falls, and told the sad story of his life and death 
which I had already heard at Vincennes. In this 
county is the town of Charlestown, he informed me, 
in which lived the state's first Governor, Jonathan 
Jennings, and Judge Dewey, whom I had met at 
Indianapolis. Governor Posey, he says, once lived 
at Jeff ersonville. 

The situation of JefPersonville is a beautiful one, 
on a terrace a mile above the Falls, beside a deep 
eddy where boats of the largest size can approach 
within a cable length of the shore at all stages of 
the water, and with an enchanting view of Louis- 
ville and Corn Island, a historic spot on which Mr. 
Hicklin told me. Gen. Clark's army encamped in 
May, 1778, on their way to Kaskaskia.^ 

*This "Grant" was originally controlled by a charter given by 
Virginia. In 1852 the General Assembly of Indiana annulled this 
charter and gave Clarksville a charter under the laws of the state. 
The old patent dated 1786 and signed by Edmund Randolph of Vir- 
ginia is still preserved at Clarksville. — Editor. 

®Tliis historic spot was a long, narrow strip of land about three- 
fourths of a mile in length, reaching from what is now Fourth Street 
to Fourteenth Street in Louisville, and very near the south side of 
the river. By 1840 much of the heavy timber in which the early set- 
tlers had found refuge from the Indians had been cut away and the 
island had washed away to about seventy acres. It has now en- 
tirely disappeared, and even its location is a subject of dispute.: — 


In 1825, said Mr. Hicklin, wlicn Gen. Lafayette 
paid Ms visit to this country, making a tour under 
the supervision of the Federal government, he was 
entertained most sumptuously at JefTcrsonville. 
As he was brought over to Jeffersonville on the 
General Pike a salute of thrice twenty-four ,mins was 
fired from cannon stationed on the river bank, where 
had been erected three flag staffs twenty feet high 
with appropriate flags. A reception was tendered 
him, and afterward, a great dinner, the table spread 
under an arbor woven of beech boughs, in u wood 
just above the Posey mansion. At the head of the 
table was placed a transparency bearing the words, 
^'Indiana welcomes Lafayette, the champion of 
liberty in both hemispheres," and at the foot, an- 
other bearing the words, '' Indiana, in 1770, a wilder- 
ness; in 1825, a civilized community! Thanks to 
Lafayette and the soldiers of the Revolution." 

The welcome address was made by Governor 
James Brown Ray, concerning whom I have written 
in previous entries. There were a vast number of 
guests present, among them many from Kentucky, 
fine music by a band, a splendid military escort, a 
great number of most eloquent toasts, altogetlier, 
'tis said to be the greatest occasion e'er witnessed 
on Indiana soil. Mr. Hicklin made merrj' over my 
stopping him on horseback tliat I might note those 
items in my commonplace book, but I assured him 
that if I did not have it all set down witli exactness, 
time, place and names, it would not be credited by 
my family and friends, ^vho have no idea of tlie ad- 
vance of civilization in the Western country. 


We parted in Jeffersonville, and this time some- 
what sadly, for I am soon to take my way home- 
ward, and we each felt that we might never meet 
again. Having given me his blessing, the good man, 
spurring his horse, turned his face toward the camp 
grounds, and I mine toward the tavern to which he 
had directed me. 

'Tis well that I have kept so exact a diary ; other- 
wise, I myself might find it difficult to believe all 
the experiences I have had, all the novelties I have 
found in the western country. How was I to know 
that here in Jeffersonville I was to find a resort of 
beauty and fashion unexcelled in any spot I have 
ever seen? 

Years ago, 'twas discovered that in the outskirts 
of Jeffersonville were several valuable springs 
mineralized by sulphur and iron, a powerful natural 
chalybeate water, and the proprietor, a Swiss, by 
name Fischli, realizing their value and possible 
profit to himself, erected a large and commodious 
building for the reception of those who sought re- 
lief either from physical indisposition, their own 
thoughts, or the disagreeable atmosphere of the 
cities during the summer months, and laid off the 
surrounding grounds most beautifully and attrac- 
tively in walks, bath houses, bowling alleys, foun- 
tains, and puzzle gardens. The fame of the place 
spread rapidly by the river route, and it soon be- 
came a mecca for visitors from the South with their 
families, who hastened here to enjoy a brilliant and 
attractive society during the summer months. So 
popular did the place become that two years ago the 


owners— Mr. Fischli is now dead— erected a spa- 
cious and palatial tavern on the river bank, tlie finest 
of its kind, 'tis said, in Indiana or Kentucky, aii.l 
graded tlie street leading out to the springs, Broad- 
way, which soon proved, I am told, a highway for 
the equipage of fashion and wealth. 

'Twas toward this caravansary that, following the 
direction of Mr. Hicklin, I turned my steps, and who 
can refuse to believe in fate? Tliere, upon one of 
the porticoes — the sight of them, filled as they were 
with fashionably-clad women and men, made my 
heart beat faster — whom should I descry but my 
friend Buf ord and his lovely wife ! 

The recognition was instant, and the upshot of 
our meeting was that I dispatched a servant to New 
Albany for some of my baggage, and spent several 
days in their company. I have not time nor space to 
set it down, our rides, our drives, our entertainment 
by Capt. Fitzgerald, — an old sea captain, who dwells 
in a magnificent mansion built in the Soutliern styh' 
with a great columned porch — presided over, he be- 
ing a bachelor, by his sister, Mrs. Duanc, at a lavish 
repast, with rounds of beef, elegant desserts, tle- 
licious wines, all served in a most elegant fasliion, 
and many others. '*0, the dalliance and the wit, the 
flattery and the strife!" Quickly the days sped by 
in this charmed circle, and all at once I realized that 
the time had come to say good-by to this merry- 
making and turn my steps homeward. I comnuini 
cated my thoughts to Buford, sitting one ni«;ht on 
the portico in the moonlight. 

''To-morrow, come wliat may," said I firmly, "I 


must set my face toward home. Early in the 
morning I will return to New Albany for my 
baggage and take my passage on the boat for Cin- 
cinnati. ' * 

**And are you going to leave us and New Albany 
without once inquiring about Caroline?" he in- 
quired. "My wife and I have waited and won- 
dered, but she has refused, so far, to let me 
speak. She said that you perhaps had forgotten 

I confessed then that my stubborn tongue had re- 
fused to ask the question. I had watched and 
waited in New Albany, hoping that I might en- 
counter her on the street, that somewhere I might 
hear her name mentioned. Again and again I had 
tried to question him, but for some reason I could 

" 'Twas no wonder you did not hear her name; 
her father was a steamboat captain and is long since 
dead. She and her mother live very quietly in the 
old house. You will have no trouble to find it ; they 
are well known — the house is a handsome old dwel- 
ling. Go, and — " he laughed as he rose and ex- 
tended his hand in farewell, '^I may not see you in 
the morning if you are to depart so early — go, and 
God be with you ! ' ' 

'Twas a laughing adieu, but still I .felt, at heart, 
a sincere wish for my welfare and happiness. And 
so to bed and on the morrow I was on my way back 
to New Albany — New Albany and journey's end. 
And what was the couplet that ran through my head 
and would not out, but repeated itself again and 


again such as such foolish things have a habit of 

"Trip no farther, pretty sweeting, 
Journeys end in lovers' meeting?, 
Every wise man's son doth know." 

By judicious inquiry and a little direction, I soon 
found the house. 'Twas one of those old mansions 
which give the place its character, situated on the 
high bank of the river, with its terraced .i^Mrden sloj)- 
ing down to the water, its three-storied lattic»*d 
porches facing the stream. The grounds, to which 
entrance was given through a great iron gate, were 
handsomely laid off in a formal garden, with latticed 
arbors and sununer house, the winding walks set 
with little box^vood trees between two rows of conch 
shells, two huge pink shells on either side of the 
front door, a sure sign, I had been told, of tlie river 
man's home. The door, with its side lights and 
beautiful fan light, recalled my o^vn home, as did the 
black girl Avho opened the door to me. 

''Miss Caroline? She done gone to the summer 
house with her w^ork. You want me to call her!" 

No, I would seek her out, and turning, I walked 
slowly, with fast beating heart, toward the distant 
summer house, whose doorway, I surmised, faced 
the river, so that I could come upon her unaware. 
Slowly I went down the graveled path, gazing 
at the bordering plants, wondering wliat I should 
say first. Then, of a sudden, a thought— and 
hurriedly, I stooped and plucked the flowers, mak- 
ing my selection most carefully, toucli-me-not, blue- 
bell, columbine, heliotrope, honeysuckle, myrtle, 


pansy and rosebud — a most creditable nosegay/ 
The summer house, vine covered, faced the river, 
and there, seated in a low chair, her needlework 
fallen on her lap, the shining bands of her hair 
drooping over her flushed cheek, sat the lovely 
Caroline, her deep blue eyes full of dreams. My 
heart leaped up as I looked at her — modest as the 
dove, beautiful as an angel — lovelier, far lovelier 
was she than I had dreamed her. I paused a mo- 
ment, unseen, to gaze upon the vision; then, the 
sound of the gravel under my foot aroused her from 
her reverie and, turning, her eyes met mine! 

I pressed the nosegay into her hands. **Read, 
read," I murmured. And, reading, she turned those 
glorious eyes upon me, then let the jetty lashes 
sweep her blushing cheek ! 

"Journeys end in lovers' meeting, 
Every wise man's son doth know." 

'The reader must remember that Mr. Parsons had purchased in 
Richmond a copy of "The Flower Vase," the book which Miss Caro- 
line had carried on her journey, and had therefrom learned the lan- 
guage of flowers, a language with which every young lady of that 
day was conversant. Hence, his nosegay expressed, in the order in 
which he has named the flowers, impatience, constancy, I can not 
give thee up, true love, devotion, fidelity, love in absence, tender and 
pleasant thoughts, and confession of love. — Editor. 



On- his way home from New Albany, happy in his 
engagement to Miss Caroline Hunter, Mr. Parsons 
left the boat at Cincinnati and went to Oxford, Ohio, 
to visit some relatives from Maryland, who, he 
heard, had gone there soon after the War of 1812, 
the same relatives whom his cousin Jonathan had 
joined after leaving the Wabash country. While 
here, he suddenly sickened and died, whether from 
some epidemic disease or from some physical weak- 
ness aggravated by the hardships of his long journey 
is not known. Had he lived, his education, his na- 
tive brilliancy, his charming personality, would cer- 
tainly have insured him success and position. The 
Diary, recently brought to light, is all that remains 
of his papers. 



Academy, Jennings Co., 78. 
Adams, John Quincy, 45. 
"Affection's Gift," 49. 
Ague, 145; Wabash, 76. 
Album, 49. 
"Altissonant Letters, The," 

American Tavern, The, 338. 
Americus, 237, 238. 
Amington, Dr. William, 96. 
Andrews, Alanson, 78. 
Anti-Slavery Society, 12, 132. 
"Arabs, The," 62. 
Arion, C. P., 63. 
Armitage, John, 236. 
Asbury, Bishop F., 284. 
Asburv College, 104, 285, 294. 
Austin, John B., 273. 
Axtell, Misses, 153. 
Ayres, Mrs., 370. 

Baldwin, Mr,, 84. 

Baldwin, Dr. Elihu, 274. 

Ball, Dr., 318. 

Ball, Mr., 332. 

Baltimore, 3, 33. 

Baltimore & Ohio & Patapsco 

Eiver R. R., 6. 
"Baltimore Patriot, The," 4. 
Bansemer, Mr., 241. 
Baptists, 57, 69, 103. 
Barbecue, 87, 346, 347. 
Barbour, Lucian, 181, 182. 
Barbour, Mr., 331. 
Barnett, Mr. T. J., 366. 
Barnum's Hotel, 3. 
Bates, Hervey, 188. 
Bates, Sidney, 160. 
Battle Ground (Tippecanoe), 82, 

86, 87. 
Beecher, Rev. Henry Ward, 149, 

154, 156. , ,^, 

Beecher, Mrs. Henry Ward, 157. 

Bell Factory, 36. 

"Bellevue," 354. 

"Ben Franklin, The." 44. 

"Ben Sherrod, The," 17. 

Bennett, Father, 356. 

Berrv, Rev. L. W.. 139. 

Biddle, Horace, 208. 

Big Raccoon Creek, 268. 

Birds, 52, 222. 

Blackford, Judge Isaac, 177, 178, 

179, 180, 187, 339. 
Black Hawk War, The, 163, 202. 
Blake, James, 146, 147, 218, 231, 

Blake, Dr. Richard, 318. 
Blake, Thomas H., 325, 
Blakemore, G. W., 207. 
Blanchard, Dr., 234. 
Blast furnace. 334. 
Blennerhassett, 17, 29, 30. 
"Bloodv Three Hundred, The," 

165, 202. 
Bloodv Wav, The, 28. 
Bloom'field.'Mr. Lot, 119, 122. 
Bloomington, 60. 
Blue grass, 283. 
Blue River, 1.30. 
Bobbs, Dr. John 8., 187, 
Bollman, Mr., 366. 
Bolton, Nathaniel, 172. 
Bolton, Sarah T., 160, 172, 17.1. 
Bonner. Mr.. 354. 
Boone County, 196, 198, 199. 
Boone, Daniel, 98, 196. 
Boonesborough, 32. 
Bond. Nathan, 120. 
Booth, Mr., 271. 
Brake, 10. 
Bright 's Essay. 57. 
Bright. Jesse D.. 61, 63, 65, 66. 

69, 73, 172. 
Bright, Michael, 63. 
Brooks, Mr., 88. 



Brooks, Mr. James, 366. 
Brookville, 44, 53, 89, 96, 97, 105. 
Brown, Hiram, 184. 
Browne, Miss Augusta, 253. 
Browning, Edward, 141, 188. 
Browning, Miss Elizabeth, 188. 
Brownstown, 60. 
Brownsville, 110. 
Bruce, George, 163. 
Buckeye, 155. 

Buford, Thomas, 21, 23, 24, 26, 
27, 50, 122, 124, 132, 133, 375. 
Buffum, Arnold, 12, 18, 21, 38. 
Bulleit, Mr., 32, 34, 35, 37. 
Bullock, Mr., 24, 40. 
Bullock, W. A., 78. 
Burbank, Mr., 119. 
Burbridge, Mr., 273. 
Burdine, Peter, 8. 
Burkham, Mr., 46. 
Burns, Harrison (note), 69. 
Burns, James, 69. 
Burns, John, 69. 
Burr, Aaron, 30, 69. 
Butler, Ovid, 183. 
Burt, Dr., 78. 
Byrne, Andrew, 163. 

Cabin, pioneer, 224. 
Caddington, Mr., 345. 
Calloway, Col. Eichard, 32. 
Cambridge City, 135, 136. 
Cambridge City Seminary, 136. 
Camp meeting, 302-310. 
Campaign songs, 16. 
Campbell, Allen, 84. 
Canals, 34, 35, 128. 
Canbv, Dr. Israel, 271-273. 
Carroll County, 195, 221, 230, 

Cass County, 201. 
Centerville, 105, 114, 115, 135, 

Centerville Musical Institute, 

Chamberlain, Mr., 325. 
Chapiu, Mr., 297. 
Chapman, Mr., 310, 311, 323. 
Charlestown, 182, 372. 
Chinese, 35. 
Christ Church, 186. 
Cider presses, 91, 92. 

Cincinnati, 18, 19, 32-36. 

Circle, The Governor's, 144. 

Circuit Eider, The, 8, 13, 15, 16, 
18, 21, 24, 40, 48, 122. 

Circuit riders, 41, 284, 352. 

Clay, Henry, 5, 15, 284, 332, 333, 

Clapp, Dr., 366, 367. 

Clarke's Commentaries, 57. 

Clarke County, 370. 

Clark, George Eogers, 83, 98. 

Clark's Grant, 371, 372. 

Clark, Jack,, 297. 

Clark, John C, 339. 

Clark, Mr., 83. 

Clarksville, 358, 372. 

Clinton County, 200. 

Coach, 7. 

Coe, Dr. Isaac, 153. 

Coffin, Elijah, 127. 

Coffin, Levi, 124, 130, 132. 

Colleges, Hanover, 70 ; State Col- 
lege, 60, 149, 184; Asbury, 
104, 290, 292; Wabash, 268- 

Collins, James C, 367. 

Colton, J. H., 1. 

Commons, Mr. David, 119. 

Conestoga wagons, 12. 

Congregational Church, 331. 

Connecticut, 28. 
Connolly, Gilmore, 297. 
"Constancy" (verse), 50. 
"Constitution," 86. 
Conventions, Democratic, 5; 

Young Whig, 5, 6. 
Cook, Eliza, 252. 
Cook, John and Nat, 190. 
Cooper, Dr., 367. 
Corduroy roads, 89. 
Corn Island, 372. 
Corydon, 357. 
Cotton, Judge, 45, 46. 
"Cotton's Keepsake," 45. 
Cotton, Miss Lavinia, 130, 131, 

County Seminary, 153. 
Country wedding, 226-228. 
Court House, Indianapolis, 148. 
Coverlets, 224, 225. 
Covington, Ind., 220. 
Covington, Ky., 37. 


Cowan, John Maxwell, 279. 
Cox, Sandford C, 255. 
Cravens, John R., 63, 73. 
Crawford, Col. William, 269. 
Crawford, Randall, 367. 
Crawfordsville, 269, 
Creagh, Mr. and Mrs., 61. 
Creagh, Misses Mary and Nancy, 

61, 62. 
"Crow, Chapman, Crow," 323. 
Crusoe, Robinson, 1, 90. 
Cumberland, 10, 11. 
Cumberland Mountain, 9. 
Cumberland Road, 7, 10, 16. 
Cunningham Tavern, 301. 

Daniels, Dr., 318. 
Dayton, Caleb, 361. 
Dayton Knob, 362. 
Dayton, Ohio, 35, 95. 
Davis, John S., 367. 
Davis, Major Randolph, 273. 
Davidson, Mr. Alexander, 160. 
Davidson, Mr. Andrew, 96. 
Dearborn Countv, 43. 
Death, John, 138. 
Debates (religious), 97. 
Decatur Countv, 95. 
Deckaneers, 23, 29. 
Defrees, John D., 165. 
Delphi, 229, 233, 236. 
Delphi House, 233. 
Deming, Judge Demas, 330. 
Deming, Dr. Elizur, 255. 
Democratic speakers, 97. 
Democrats, 98, 122. 
Dewey, Judge Charles, 182, 372. 
Dickinson, Miss Sarah, 117. 
Digby, William, 238. 
Dill, Mr., 117. 

Dillon, John B., 208, 209, 210. 
Doddridge's "Rise and Prog- 
ress," 57. 
Douglass, Mr., 204. 
Dowling, Dr., 36. 
Dowling, John, 325. 
Drake, Gen. James P., 165. 
Drake, Mr., 352, 353. 
Drum, George, 183. 
Dublin Academy, 137. 
Dublin Female Seminary, 137. 
Dublin, Ind., 137. 

Dufour, Mr., 51. 
Dumont, Ebenezer, 46, 53, 148. 
Dumont, Julia L., 46, 53, 172. 
Duncan, Robert B., 172, 17r), 18fi, 

Dunn, George G., 346, 348. 
Dunn, George IT., 34, 35, 42, 44, 

46, 52, 99, 156. 
Dunn, Judge Williamson, 269. 
Dwyer, Mr., 366. 

"Eagle and the Lion, The," 315. 
Eaglc?field. William, 296. 
Eagle Village, 196. 
Eastburn, Mr., 367. 
Eel River, 201, 204. 
Eel River Seminar>' Society, 207. 
Egglcston, Edward, 52. 
Eggleston, George Cary, 52. 
Egglcston, Joseph Carv, 52, 99. 
Egglcston, Miles Carv, 52, 99, 

1(57, 183. 
"Elkhorn, The," 64. 
Ellicott 's Mills, 6, 8, 23. 
Ellis, Mr. A. T., 340. 
Ellsworth, Henry W., 241, 242. 
Elston, Maj. Isaac. 273. 
Episcopal Church, 186. 
Evans, John, 366. 
Ewing, Dr., 236. 
Ewing, John, 349, 350, 354. 
Ewing, Nathaniel. 340. 
"Express, The," 234. 
"Extra Equator, The," 214,215, 


Fairfield. 108. 

Fall Creek, 143. 

Falls, 372. 

"Fannv, " Mrs. Vawter*!* hor«<<, 

Farlcv, Judge Joseph. 2S1. 
"Farmer," William Vawter'« 

horse, 80. 
Faro, 24. 

Farrington, James, 32.'>. 
Farrington, Mrs., 341. 
Farrow, Col. Alexander, 283. 
Fayette, 109. 
"Federurl>ian," 111. 
Fellows, Capt. Willis, 337. 
Female Bible Society, 370. 



Female Prayer Meeting, 370. 

Finley, John, 44, 118, 172. 

First Presbyterian Church (In- 
dianapolis), 156. 

Fischli's Springs, 374. 

"Fishing Peter," 306. 

Fitch, Dr. Graham, 207, 208. 

Fitch, Mr., 367. 

Fitzgerald, Capt., 375. 

Flatboats, 27, 28, 239'. 

Fletcher, Calvin, 146, 151, 152, 
176, 177, 178, 204, 284. 

Fletcher, Stoughton A., 165. 

"Flower Vase, The," 14, 378. 

Floods, 43. 

Fordham, Elias, 144. 

Fort Harrison, 314. 

Fourth of July Celebration, 245, 
246, 247. 

Fowler, Mr. Moses, 255, 

Franklin County, 97. 

Franklin Institute, 153. 

Frederick, Md., 7, 9. 

Fredericksburg, Ind., 360. 

Fredericksburg, Va., 2. 

French immigrants, 31. 

French Lick, 359, 360. 

French, Mrs., 32. 

Friends, Society of, 12, 114. 

Frostburg, 11. 

Fry, Mr., 14. 

Fry, Mr. Smith, 279. 

Gadsby's, 3. 

Gamblers, 21. 

Gallipolis, 31. 

"Gate Bob," 11. 

General Pike, 369. 

General 's Point, 372. 

Georgetown, 220. 

Gibbons' Miscellaneous "Works, 

Gillespie, Dr. Eobert, 46. 
Gibson, Mr. S. R., 340. 
Gilbert, Curtis, 315, 332. 
Gilliland, Samuel, 273. 
"Good Intent" Line, 7. 
Goodwin, Thomas A,, 104, 286- 

Gookins, Judge, 330. 
"Governor's Circle, The," 144, 


* * Governor 's Mansion, The, ' ' 

147, 177, 178, 187. 
"Governor's Square, The," 144. 
Graham, Mr., 236. 
Grahamtown, 63. 
Grantham, Judge, 236. 
"Gray Backs," 161. 
Green, R. C, 234. 
Greencastle, 104, 280-294. 
Greene County, 334. 
Greensburg, 96, 97. 
Greensburg Seminary, 96. 
Greenfield, 140. 
Greenville, 360. 
Gregg, Harvey, 163. 
Gregg, Mr., 46. 
Gregory, James, 273. 
Griswold, Mr., 325. 
"Grouseland," 352-3. 
Guitar, 68, 365. 

Hagerstown, Md., 9. 
Hale's Tavern, 362. 
Hall, Washington, 141, 166. 
Hamilton County, 19'6. 
Hanna, Gen. Eobert, 165. 
Hannah, Mr. Samuel, 116, 122. 
Hancock, 9. 
Hancock County, 140. 
Hannegan, Edward A., 193. 
Hanover College, 70. 
Hard Cider Campaign, 91. 
Hardesty, Mr. Rees, 283. 
Harrison, Cleves, 353. 
Harrison, William Henry, 4, 15, 

16, 17, 38, 41, 42, 57, 66, 82, 

94, 98, 126, 154, 248. 
Harrison Mass Meeting, 341, 

Harvard College, 182. 
Hatcher, Mary, 241. 
Havens, Father, 186. 
Hawley, Rev. Ransom, 297. 
Hedden, Mr. David, 366. 
Hemans, Mrs., 253. 
Henry County, 137. 
Henderson, Mr. "Wyatt, 96. 
Hendricks, Abram T., 91. 
Hendricks, John, 296. 
Hendricks, Mrs. A., 70. 
Hepler, Dan, 297. 
Herron, James, 273. 



Hicklin, Louis, 13, 40, 4], 48, 
54, 57, 59, 61, 73, 122, 130, 
131, 133, 368, 371. 

Hicklin, Mrs., 57. 

Hill, Mr. S., 340. 

Hindostan, 358. 

Historical and Antiquarian So- 
ciety of Vincennes, 340. 

Hodgkins, John, 189. 

Hogs, 90, 91. 

Holloway, D. P., 125. 

Holt, Joseph F., 160. 

Hooper, Mr. D. M., 366. 

"Hoosier's Nest, The," 118. 

Hoover, David, 115, 122. 

Hoover, Dr., 367. 

Horseback travel, advantages of, 

Horticultural Society, Indian- 
apolis, 157. 

Hashour, Prof. S. K., 136. 

Houseworth, Henry, 111. 

Howe, Daniel H., 47. 

Howe, Daniel Waite, 47 (note). 

Hovey, Dr., 274. 

Howard, Tilghman A., 257. 

Hubbard, w: S., 157. 

Hunter, Miss Caroline, 14, 16, 
23, 24, 31, 37, 55, 356, 376, 

Hunt Tavern, 44. 

"Indian Orchard," 336. 

"Indian" (steamboat), 336,337. 

Indian Summer, 338. 

Indiana, 17. 

"Indiana" (poem), 174. 

Indiana College, 60, 149. 

Indiana Insane Hospital, 172 

"Indiana Journal, The," 163. 

Indianapolis, 35, 85, 102, 134- 

Indianapolis Court House, 148. 

Indianapolis Female Institute, 

"Indianapolis Gazette," 172. 

Indianapolis Horticultural So- 
ciety, 157. 

Indianapolis Thespian Corps, 

Indigenous plants, 54. 

Immigration, Tides of. 194. 
Inns, 13, 37, 44, 75, 93, 94. 
Internal Improvements, 27 40 
99. » I . 

Isle de Beau, 16, 29. 

Jackson, Andrew, 45, 65. 

Jeiferson County, ."i8, 79. 

Jefferson, Thomas, 47, 106, 2ns, 

"JefFersonian and Working- 
man's Advocate, The," 121. 

Jeffersonville. 361, 371, 374. 

Jenckes, Judge, 330. 

Jennings County Academy, 78. 

Jennings, Jonathan, 74, 372. 

Jewett, Rev. Mr., 331. 

"Jim Crow," 323. 

Johnson, Jim, "Son of Metho- 
dism," 97. 

Johnson, Rev. S. B., 240, 249, 

Jones, Mr., 254, 261, 267, 278, 

Jones, Mrs., 376. 

Judah, Samuel, 339. 

"Julia," 250, 251, 253, 254. 

Julian, George W., 116, 120, 121, 
124, 126, 129. 

Julian, Jacob, 116. 

Julian, Mrs. Rebecca, 116, 117. 

"June Bug Line," 8. 

Kemper, Rev, James, 154. 

Kenton, Simon, 98. 

Kentucky, 14. 

Ketcham, John L., 160. 

Kidwell, 110. 

Killikelly, Rev. Mr., 352. 

King, John, 63. 

Kinney, Capt. Ephraim, 54. 

Kinnev, Judge, 330. 

Kirk, Nathan, 200. 

Kirklin, 200. 

Knight, Elijah, 1.38. 

Knightstown, 13S, 139. 

Knobs, The, 361. 

"Kyarliny Kiver, A," 225, 2«.1. 

Lafavetto (city), 60, 237, 239, 

Lafayette, General, 8, 373. 



Lane, Henry S., 270, 322. 
"Language of Mowers, The," 

14, 125. 
Lanier, J. F. D., 63. 
Lashley House, 116. 
Lasselle, Charles, 213, 214. 
Lasselle, Hyacinth, 209, 213, 312. 
Lathrop, Mr. Ezra, 9'6. 
Lattimore, Eev. David, 78. 
LaTourette, 225. 
''Laurel Wreath, The," 49. 
Lawrenceburg, 34, 35, 42, 44, 49, 

Law, Judge John, 341, 342, 343. 
Lawyers (Indiana), 181, 182, 

Layman, Albert, 297. 
Layman, Dr. D. W., 298, 299. 
Leeds & Jones Paper Mill, 128. 
Lemon, Alex, 279. 
Leonard, Dr., 367. 
Letcher, Hon. Eobert P., 14, 15, 

17, 18, 20, 21, 24, 26, 30, 35. 
Liberty, 109. 
Library, State, 147. 
Lick Creek, 359. 
Licking Kiver, 38. 
Limestone, Ky. (Maysville), 32. 
Lindley, Jonathan, 312. 
Linton, Mr., 335. 
Little Cedar Baptist Church, 

Lockwood, Eufus A., 245, 246, 

247, 248. 
Log Cabin, 15, 16, 38, 39. 
Log Cabin Candidate, 5. 
Logansport, 192-204. 
Logansport Seminary, 206. 
"Logansport Telegraph, The," 

Lotteries, 217, 218. 
Louisville, Ky., 32. 
Lucy, 14. 
Lyceum, 117, 118. 
Lynch, Col. John, 281. 

Madden, Mr., 292. 

Madison, 13, 17, 39, 48, 53, 55, 

"Madison Courier, The," 65. 

Madison and Indianapolis Rail- 
road, 59 (note). 

Madison, T. A., 325. 
Maguire, Douglass, 190. 
Mail, carrying of, 230. 
Manford, Erasmus, 47, 110. 
Mansion House, The, 116, 135, 

Mansion, The Governor's, 147. 
Mansur, Jeremiah, 128. 
Maple sugar, 81. 
Marietta, 29. 
Marion County, 141, 196. 
Marion County Court House, 

Marion County Seminary, 153, 

Marion Guards, 161. 
Marion Eifles, 161. 
Markle, Abraham, 312, 315, 332. 
Marshall, Joseph Glass, 63, 65, 

66, 70. 
Masons, 207. 
Massachusetts, 29. 
McAfferty, Mr., 273. 
McBaker, Col. Thomas, 161. 
McCarthy, Gen. Jonathan, 87. 
McCarty, Nicholas, 186. 
McClelland, Alexander, 365. 
McCormiek, John, 143. 
McCuen, Eev., 139. 
McGaughey, Arthur, 282. 
McMaster, Eev. B. D., 70. 
McMillan, Mr., 63. 
Means, Thomas, 116. 
Menominee Village, 203. 
Merrill, Miss, 148, 149. 
Merrill, Samuel, 146, 151, 166. 
Methodists, 8, 12, 232. 
Miami Mills, 44. 
Miami Eiver, 33, 34, 40, 43. 
Michigantown, 200. 
Michigan Eoad, 85, 119, 192, 195, 

196, 201, 234. 
Mile Square, The, 144. 
Military Eeservation, The, 150. 
Miller, George, 273. 
Milligan, Thomas, 277. 
Milk sickness, 140, 141. 
Mills, Caleb, 275, 276, 277. 
Mill, The Tunnel, 84. 
Milroy, Gen. Samuel, 235. 
Minister, the Universalist, 93, 

94, 96. 



Minor, Rufus, 325. 
Mississippi, 22, 24. 
Modesitt, Dr., 316, 317. 
Montgomery, Col. Richard, 268 
Montgomery County, 268. 
Monticello, Va., 106. 
Mont Clair, 341, 354, 355. 
Moore, Frederick, 273. 
Moot Legislature, The, 236. 
Morerod, Mr., 51. 
Morgan, Mr. James, 96. 
Morris, John D., 163. 
Morris, Morris, 186. 
Morris, T. A., 148, 161, 162, 187. 
Morrison, Roljert, 51. 
Morrison, W. H., 186. 
Moselle, 17. 
Mounds, Indian, 31. 
Mount Jackson, 172. 
Mount Pleasant, 358. 
"Movers," 262, 263, 264, 265. 
Muscattatuck, 74, 84. 
Muskingum, 29, 

Nance, Clement, 366. 

Nance, Weslev, 297. 

National Road, The, 115, 134, 

143, 196, 296, 301, 312. 
New Albany, 51, 361, 370. 
New Albany Seminary, 370. 
Newbury, Mr., 279. 
New Harmony, 97, 106, 107, 114. 
New, Hickman, 84. 
New, Jethro, 84. 
New, Rev. John B., 78, 84. 
"New Lights," 109. 
Newman, John D., 116, 122. 
New Orleans, 21, 25, 28, 34. 
Newport, Ind., 124, 132. 
Newport, Ky., 37. 
Newport Temperance Society, 

Nevron, Father, 371. 
Nicholson, Mr., 273. 
Noble, Charles T., 325. 
Noble's Hole, 167. 
Noble, Noah, 44, 101, 149, 183. 
Noel^ Vance, 163, 190. 
North Bend, 17, 39, 40. 
Norton, Hon. Caroline, 251, 252. 
Nowland, James B., 163. 

Ohio Company, The, 29 (note). 

Ohio County, Va., 22. 

Ohio River, The, 19, 25. 27 43 

361. ' 

Old Trail, The (Vinrennc« to 

New Albany), 357. 
O'Kane, Rev.', 155. 
O'Neal, Hugh, 163, 184, 190. 
Ordinance of 1787, The, 114. 
Orr, Mr., 150. 
Orth, Godlove S., 256. 
Owen, Richard Dale, 200. 
Owen, Robert Dale, 97, 104, 105, 

106, 107, 113, 114, 116, 133. 

169, 322. 

Palmer, Ebcnezer, 279. 

Palmer House, 155. 

Palmer, Nathan, 153. 

Palmer, Mr,, 207. 

Paoli, 359. 

Parke, Judge Benjamin, 297, 

Parroquet, 54, 224, ' 
Parsons, John; Introduction, 

Note on, 378. 
Parsons, Jonathan, 1, 133, 220. 
Parsons, Dr. Thomas, 318, 326. 
Patapsco River, 6, 
Patterson, Elliott, 163. 
Pattison, Mr., 36, 37, 368. 
Patriot, 47, 48. 
Paul, Colonel, 67 (note). 
Paul's Spring, 67. 
Pa.xton, Mr.,' 367. 
Peabody, Dr. Ezra. 76, 78, 
Pennington, Mr., 367. 
"Pcnsacola, The," 19. 
Pepper, Col. .Xbol. 210. 
Percival, Dr. .lahoz, 44. 
Perkins, S. E.. 121. 127. 
Perry, John S., 296. 
Pestalozzi, 107. 
Petersburg, Va., 1. 
Pettitt, Mr. John, 2.'>.'>, 256. 
Phelps, Mrs. Lincoln, 6, 8, 2.1. 
Philadelphia. :i3. 
Philomath, 110. 
Philomatli Kn.'yrlo|)C(liii. 111. 
Pierce, Mr. .Martin L., 255. 
Pigeon Roost Mnj-wicre, 282. 
"Pike boya," 12. 


Pioneer cabin, 224. 
Pioneer women, 224. 
Pioneers, Labors of, 273. 
1 Pittsburg, 19. 

Planters, 21, 24, 25. 
♦'Pleasure Garden, The," 160, 

175, 186, 189, 190. 
Plummer, Dr. John, 127. 
"Pocahontas," a play, 169'. 
Poe School, The, 131. 
Pogue's Creek, 145. 
Pogue, George, 143. 
Pork packing, 34, 327. 
"Porkopolis," 327. 
Political Beacon, The, 46. 
Pope, Mr., Steam Doctor, 189. 
Portsmouth, O., 31. 
Postillion, 10. 
Potomac Creek, 2. 
Pottawotamies, 202. 
Powhatan House, The, 2. 
Prairie House, The, 315, 316. 
Prairies, 239, 259. 
Pratt, Mr. D. D., 204, 205. 
Presbyterians, 70, 149, 154. 
Prices of commodities, in Lo- 

gansport, 220; in Terre Haute, 

321, 322. 
Pritchett, Dr. John, 117, 119. 
Proflfitt, George H., 322, 324, 

346, 347. 
Prophet, The, 86. 
Putnamsville, 289, 294, 296. 

Quaker gentleman, 12, 18, 24. 
Quarles, William, 184. 

"Eachel, A," 48. 
Eaeger Spring, 362. 
Eailroad, 2, 63, 271. 
Ealston, Alexander, 144. 
Eariden, James, 116, 122, 205. 
Eay, James Brown, 100, 101, 

102, 142, 373. 
Eaysville, 138. 

Eea, Mr. and Mrs. George, 117. 
Eeed, Dr., 317. 
Eeligious Debate, 97. 
"Eeport of a Geological Eecon- 

naissance of Indiana," 200. 
Eevolutionary soldiers buried at 

Vernon, 85. 

Ehein, Mr., 241. 

Eichards, Joseph, 335, 336. 

Eichland Furnace, 334. 

"Eichland, The," 334. 

Eichmond, Va., 1. 

Eichmond and Brookville Canal, 

Eichmond, Ind., 99, 105, 106, 

114, 120, 130. 
Eichmond Station, 131. 
Eights of Women, 113. 
Eising Sun, 46. 
Eising Sun Insurance Company, 

Eising Sun Tavern, 361. 
Eistine, Maj. Henry, 273. 
Eistine, Jr., Henry, 279. 
Eoad, The National, 115, 134, 

143, 196, 296, 301, 312. 
Eoads, 60. 

Eobb, Franklin, 279. 
Eoberts, Bishop, 284. 
Eobinson, Mr. George, 66. 
Eobinson, Mrs., 370. 
Eobinson, Simeon, 84. 
Eose, Chauncey, 315, 333, 334. 
Eoss, Henry, 325. 
Eowan, Henry, 116. 
Eudisill, David, 282. 
Eussell, Alexander, 161, 164, 

Enter, Calvin, 285. 

Sailor, Mr. John, 128. 

Saint Francis Xavier Church, 

345, 352. 
Saint John's Church, 240, 241. 
Saint Mary's Academy, 351. 
Saint Mary 's of the Knobs, 371. 
Salem, 70. 
Salisbury, 135. 
"Salt rising," 14. 
Sample, Henry T., 255. 
Sanders, Dr. John, 167. 
Sanders, Miss Mary, 167. 
Sanders, Miss Zerelda (Mrs. 

David Wallace), 168, 190. 
"Sawyers," 25. 
Schools, 276. 
Scott, Lucius, 323. 
Scribner, Abner, 363. 
Scribner, Joel, 363. 


Scribner, Nathaniel, 363. 
, Scribner, Mrs. Abner, 370. 
Scribner, Mrs. Joel, 370. 
Scribner, Mrs. Phoebe, 370. 
Secrist, Mr. Henry, 283. 
Seminary, Female, (Mrs. 

Phelps'), 6, 22. 
Seminary, Greensburg, 96. 
Seminary, Logansport, 206. 
Serenade, 68. 
Sering, John S., 63, 73. 
Sheets' pasture, 166. 
Sheets, William, 186. 
Shelbyville, 85. 
Shields, Mr. H. B., 366. 
Shields, James, 367. 
Shields, Patrick, 366. 
Shields, Dr. P. S., 367. 
Shields, William H., 282. 
Shields, Mrs., 370. 
Shipbuilding on Ohio, 29*. 
Shires House, 37 (note). 
Shirk, Andrew, 102, 103. 
Sigourney, Mrs., 69, 81, 170. 
Silver HiUs, 361. 
Simpson, Dr., 293, 294. 
Sims, Madison, 173. 
Singleton, Augusta, 3. 
Slavery, Negro, 12, 114, 295. 
Sloan, Dr. John, 367. 
Sluyter, Mr., 203. 
Smith, Oliver H., 182, 183. 
Smock, Mr., 297. 
Snakes, 230. 
Soap making, 80. 
Soule, Bishop, 369. 
Society of Friends, 12, 114, 129, 

130, 131. 
"Song of Jim Crow," 323. 
Sparks, 46. 
Spencer Spiers, 87. 
"Spirit of Seventy-Six, The," 

Square, The Governor's, 144. 
Stage Coach passage, 11, 287, 

Stapp, Milton A., 59. 
State College, 60, 149. 
State House, 147. 
State Library, 147, 178 
Starr, Charles W., 127. 

Steamboats, 2, 17 19 20 "5 "8 
29, 39, 71, 72, 328, 329! ' " ' 
Steveuaon, Dr. A. C, 283 
Stewart, Dr., 367. 
Stewart, Dr. James, 236, 237. 
Stillwcll, Jeremiah, 273. 
Stitt, John B., 116, 117. 
Stockton, Lawrence B., 255. 
Stockton's Line, 8. 
Storey, Thomas J., 84. 
Stoy,' Peter, 367. 
Stuart, William Z., 207. 
Sugar Creek, 268. 
Summerfield's Sermons, 57. 
Swain, Dr. Ricliard IL, 119. 
Swift, Flower, 297. 
Swiss settlers, 51. 
Symmes, Judge, 40. 

Taber, Mr., 217. 

Tait, Mr., 46. 

Talbott, Henry T., 96. 

Talbott, James, 283. 

Talbott, William E., 282. 

Taniiehill's History of Litera- 
ture, 216. 

Tarkington, John S., 130 (note). 

Tarkington, Rev. Joseph, 130. 

Taverns, 13, 98. 

Temperance Society, 115, 132. 

Tennessee Path, 28. 

Tennis, Dr. Israel, 119. 

Terre Haute, 18, 311-330. 

Test, Judge, 96, 116, 117. 

Theater, 28, 34, 37. 

Thespian Society of Logansport, 

Thibaud, Mr., 51. 

Thickstun, Andrew, :\M. 

Thompson, Rev. Jamen, L'HL 

Thompson, Richard W., 340. 

Thomson, Mr. John M.. 277. 

Thornburgh. Cnpf. W. H., 2S3. 

Thornton, Major Henry P., 307. 

Tides of immij^rntion, IIM. 

Timber (Jennings County), 7». 

Timmons, Ezekiel, 241. 

Tippecanoe, 42. 

Tippecanoe Battleground, 82, 86, 
87, 162, 207. 

Tippecanoe County, 00, 239. 

Tippecanoe River, 238. 



Tipton, Gen. John, 206, 207. 

Tipton, Mr. S. S., 207. 

"Tortesa the Usurer," 37. 

Tousey, Mr,, 46. 

Townsend, James, 294, 295, 296. 

Tucker, Judge, 53. 

Tuley, Preston F., 367. 

Tunnel Mill, 84. 

Turpie, David, 241. 

Turpie, Mary, 241. 

"Twelve Mile Purchase, The," 

Tyler, Mr. Ned and Mr. Jack, 

Union, 11. 

Union County, 109. 

Universalist Church, 47, 110. 

Universalist, The, 48, 139. 

University Square (Indianapo- 
lis), 153. 

University, The (Virginia), 22, 
47, 182, 298. 

Usher, Mr., 301, 325, 326. 

Vaile, Mr. Eawson, 117. 

Van Buren, 3, 5, 15, 16, 26, 66, 

83, 94, 105, 126, 247, 272, 363. 
Vance, David, 273. 
Vance, Lawrence M., 160, 188. 
Vandalia, 136. 
"Valley of the Upper Wabash, 

The" (Ellsworth), 240. 
Vawter, Elder Jesse, 58, 69, 70. 
Vawter, Col. John, 58, 77, 81, 

85, 87. 
Vawter, Smith, 84. 
Vawter, William, 80. 
Vawter, Mrs. William, 80. 
Vernon, 58, 74, 85. 
Vevay, 46, 48, 50, 51. 
Vigo, Col., 311, 354. 
Vigo County, 311. 
Vigus (stage line), 192, 193. 
Vincennes, 42, 60, 179, 337, 356. 
"Vincennes Gazette, The," 345. 
Virginia, 18. 

Wabash Ague, 76, 195. 
Wabash bedstead, A, 263. 
Wabash College, 268-278. 

Wabash Country, 1, 15, 179, 193, 
194, 205, 208, 222, 352, 353. 

Wabash & Erie Canal, The, 204, 
220, 238. 

Wabash Eiver, 60, 61, 201, 204, 

Wabash Valley, 242, 243. 

Wagoners, 13,' 16. 

Walker, John, 84. 

Wallace, Gov. David, 102, 147, 
160, 166, 167, 168. 

Wallace, Lewis, 168. 

Wallace, William, 168, 169. 

War, The Black Hawk, 163. 

Warren, Chauncey, 331, 332. 

Warren, Mr., 367. 

Washington, D. C, 3. 

Washington Hall, 141, 166, 187, 
188, 281. 

Washington, Ind., 358. 

Washington, Pa., 11. 

Washington Street, 143. 

Way Bill, A, 73. 

Wayne County, 115. 

Wayne County Seminary, 128, 

Wea Plains, 239, 259', 261, 262. 

Webb, William H., 63. 

Webber, Dr., 236. 

Webster, Daniel, 66, 363. 

Wedding, Country, 226, 228, 

Western settlements, classes in, 
74; contrasts in, 112. 

Western Union Seminary, 111. 

Welker, Amos, 296. 

Wesley, John, 57. 

"Western Censor and Emi- 
grant's Guide, The," 163. 

"Western Tourist or Emi- 
grant's Guide, The," 1. 

Wheeler, Mr. John, 292. 

Wheeling, 1, 10, 14, 18, 19, 23, 

Whigs, 4, 15, 16, 18, 30, 65, 83, 
98, 104, 141, 154, 323. 

White, Albert S., 246, 247. 

White House, 3. 

White Eiver, 143. 

Whitewater Canal, 35, 43, 99. 

Whitewater Eiver, 97. 

Whitewater Valley, 88, 130. 



Whitloek, Major, 273. 

Whitman, Shepard, 365. 

Whitney, E. J., 63. 

Wick, Judge W. W., 187. 

Wild hogs, 265. 

"Wild Oats of Indianapolis, 

The," 163. 
* ' Wilberf orce, The Life of," 

Wiley, Capt. Alexander, 165. 
Wiley, E. S., 93. 
Wiley, Rev. Allen, 186, 285, 302, 

368, 369. 
William and Mary College, 53. 
Williams, Achilles, 127. 
Williams, Worthington, 13, 296. 
Wilmington, Ind., -iS. 
Wilson, John, 271. 
Wilson, Michael, 116. 
Wilstach, Hannah, 241. 
Winans, Brother, 97. 
Winchester, 53. 

Winter, George H., 208, U'ni* 

210, 211. 
Wirt, 69. 

Wishard, Capt. John, 165. 
Wise, John, 354, 
Wise, of Virginia, Gov., 149. 
Wolverton, Mrs., 362. 
Wolves, 230, 231; wolf hunt, 

Woodruff, Charles, 366. 
Wright, Williamson, 207. 
Wylie, Dr. Andrew, 149, 216. 

Xavier Church, St. Francii, 345, 

Yandes, Daniel, 159. 
Yandes, Simon, 159, 181. 
"Yellow Jackets," 87, 206. 
Yellow Tavern, 98, 105. 
Young Ladies' Seminary (Mad- 
ison), 62, 63.