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A RCH/EOLOGY has for the last thirty years engaged a great deal of 
-^1- public attention ; and on no branch of this science has a larger amount 
of literary research been bestowed than on investigations respecting the 
distinctive Architecture and religious systems of ancient Ireland. 

Having from childhood taken an interest in Irish antiquities, I was led 
in the course of my studies to form opinions not in accordance with any of 
the commonly received theories ; and the result has been the following work, 
now respectfully submitted to the Public as a contribution to the elucidation 
of certain problems in Irish history and archaeology, which have never been 
satisfactorily solved. 

I have furnished as " Introductory Remarks" a brief outline of the 
theory which I have undertaken to defend ; and I have added a Glossary 
of Irish and Cuthite terms used throughout the work, with the authorities 
for the interpretations given to the words by me. These will materially 
assist the reader in his study of the subject. 

I have scrupulously avoided all technicalities and erudite expressions, 
such as would be intelligible only to the scientific student, so that it is hoped 
the book will be acceptable and instructive to the general reader. 

Residing as I do in a remote part of the country, my visits to available 
libraries have been necessarily few and brief, and some trifling errors in 
reference or quotation may have escaped my pen ; but while craving the 
reader's indulgence for any such, I would remind him, that they do not in 
anywise invalidate the main arguments confirmatory of my theory. 

I have received suggestions, approval, and sympathy from several 



gentlemen of scientific distinction and extensive research in course of this 
arduous undertaking, and trust they will accept my grateful acknowledg- 
ments without individual mention. In the pictorial department of the work 
I have had the advantage of Mr. Henry O'Neill's graphic pencil, and 
Mr. George A. Hanlon's wood engraving, and many of the illustrations 
have been appropriated from Mr. O'Neill's magnificent work on " Ancient 
Irish Crosses." I beg to acknowledge my obligations to Messrs. Hodges, 
Smith & Co. for the use of several wood-engravings, of which they possess 
the copyright. Many of these illustrations appear for the first time in the 
following work. Some of the engravings also have been executed from 
very beautiful drawings by Mr. Gordon M. Hills, of London, intended for his 
forthcoming elaborate and illustrated work on the Round Towers of Ireland. 
This Work has been projected and completed in the leisure hours 
snatched from a busy life within the last three years, and neither labour nor 
expense has been spared in visiting and closely inspecting the numerous 
sites and specimens of early architecture described or illustrated in the 
following pages. In the progress of this undertaking I have travelled more 
than five thousand miles, chiefly on " post-cars." Correct delineation may be 
relied on, and the situations of the various localities are exactly described ; so 
that whatever opinion may be formed of my Cuthite theory, I have furnished 
the Archaeologist, as well as the tourist in search of the picturesque, with a 
trustworthy and convenient topographical and pictorial guide to the most 
remarkable Ancient Ruins of Ireland. 


ist November, 1867. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, ............ xiii 




The Irish Celts not builders in stone before the twelfth century, . .7 

On the contrast between English Norman and Irish (so-called) Norman architecture, 1 7 

Cuthite architecture of Ireland, commonly called " Norman," 25 

The Four Evangelists, etc. Sculptures, . . . . 3 1 

Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, 45 

Catalogue of supposed Saints, and the places associated with their names, . . 53 

St. Buithe, St. Mochudee and St. Cronan, 55 

St. Luan [the Moon], _ . . . . . . . . . -59 

St. Bridgid, St. Declan, St. Moctee, and St. Rioch, 60 

Gobban Saer, and St. Abban, . 62 

St. Bolcan or Volcan, . 63 

St. Molach, .64 

St. Dagan, . . 66 

St. Satan and St. Diul [the Devil], .66 

St. Shanaun [the Ancient Ana, the Mother of the Tuath-de-Danaan gods], . 69 

St. Hiarlath, and St. Earc, . 7 J 

St. Ciaran and St. Nessan, .... ... -73 

St. Dair-bile, Dair, and its compounds, ...... 74 

St. Columb, St. Finean, and their compounds, 7 8 

St. Endee, and its compounds, ....... . . 84 

Achad, ... 86 

Disart, Ess, and their compounds, .... ... .88 




Sundry other supposed Saints, . 88 

Other foundations of Cuthite origin, . -93 

Peculiar characteristics of Irish Saints, . . 94 

All Saints existing at each place, . . . 97 

Saints and heavenly bodies identified, ... . 98 

Aliases of Irish Saints and their numerous temples, . .100 

Vast number of monks assigned to each Saint, . . . . . . .100 

Ubiquity of Irish Saints, ....... . 101 

Compound names of Irish Saints, ....... 102 

Aristocratic character of Irish Saints, .... .102 

Longevity of Irish Saints, ...... 1 03 

Susceptibility of Irish Saints to the plague and leprosy, . .104 

Miracles ascribed to Irish Saints, ........ .104 


Veneration for the Cross in all ages, ..... ..114 

Details of ancient Irish sculpture, .... . ... 125 

The Mermaid. The Fish God, .... . ... 125 

The Wolf and the Red Hand, 132 

The Crosier and Shepherd King, . . . . . . . . . .137 

The Yule Log and Palm-tree, ..... .... 143 

The Ox and the Centaur, ...... . 146 

The Serpent, ......... . . 156 

Irish Crucifixion scenes, . . . . . . . . . . . .158 

The Mural Crown and Winged Quadruped, ... . .167 

Baal-Berith, heathen rite of Baptism, . . . . . . . . .168 

The armed warrior and the white horse, ..... 173 


THE SEMICIRCULAR ARCH, . . . . . . . . . . 197 


Outline of Cuthite History, ........... 208 

Great works of the Cyclopeans, Cuthites, . . . . . . . .213 

Cuthite human sacrifices, . . . .. . . . . . -215 

Indo-Cuthites, . . . . . . . . . . . . .218 

Scythians, Cuthites, . . . . . . . . . . . .220 

Shepherd Kings and Phoenicians, Cuthites, . . . . . . . -223 

War of the Sexes, the first great commotion, . . . . . . . -225 

Knowledge extinguished by the destruction of the Cuthites, 227 

Phallic worship, . . . . . . . . . . . . .228 

The Black Divinity, . . . . . . . . . . . -230 



Period of Cuthite dominion, . . . . . . . . . . -231 

Daemons, Cuthites, ............ 233 

The Hyperboreans, Cuthites, . 235 

Concluding remarks on Cuthite History, ........ 242 



Ancient American architectural ornament, ........ 284 

Gobban Saer, 287 

Cloich Teach, 295 

Fidh Nemphed, ............. 296 

Inscriptions on ancient Crosses and Temples, . . . . . ^. . 299 


Round Towers, ............. 303 

Stone-roofed Temples, . . . . . . . . . . . -322 

Stone-roofed Temples of larger size, 323 

Buttresses, . . . . . . . . . . . . . -327 

Coigns, . 328 

Round-headed Doorways, . . . . . . . . . . -329 

Cyclopean Doorways, . . . . . 330 

Ancient Windows of wide and narrow splay, ........ 330 

Sculptured and plain Crosses, . . . . . . . . . . 331 

Holy Wells, . 331 

Pillar Stones, 332 

Holed Stones, 336 

Subterranean Passages, . .- 339 

Rock Basins, ... 340 

The Shrine. The Wooden Image. The Stone Coffin. The Bed, . . . . 342 

Chancel Arches, .... 349 

Postscript. Sir William Wilde's " Lough Corrib," 351 


Antrim County, 355 

Armagh County, -357 

Carlow County, 359 

Cavan County, ........ . 360 

Clare County, 361 

Cork County, 379 

Deny County, ............. 385 

Donegal County, 389 

Down County, . . . . . 39 * 



Dublin County, ... 

Fermanagh County, 

Galway County, 

Kerry County, . 

Kildare County, . 

Kilkenny County, 

King's County, . 

Leitrim County, . . 

Limerick County, 

Longford County, 

Louth County, . 

Mayo County, .... 433 

Meath County, 

Monaghan County, 

Queen's County, 443 

Roscommon County, 

Sligo County, 448 

Tipperary County, 

Tyrone County, .... 

Waterford County, 

Westmeath County, ..... 

Wexford County, 

Wicklow County, .... 


INDEX, ' 4 ?3 



Frontispiece Title Doorway of Clonkeen, Co. Limerick. ..... iii 

1. Blank Arcades of interior of Cormac's Chapel ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . .13 

2. Excavations at Carli (East Indies); from a drawing by Henry Salt, Esq., ... 14 

3. Interior of Cormac's Chapel ; from Dr. Petrie,. . . . . . . .15 

4. The Sarcophagus, called " The Font," at Cashel ; from Dr. Petrie, 16 

5. A double Arch of English Norman Architecture ; from the tower of Jarrow Church, 

Durham. See "Gent. Mag.," Dec. 1864; 22 

6. The Four Evangelists of Norman sculpture, Selby Abbey ; from "A Chart of Anglican 

Church Ornament," by F. Bedford, Jun. Esq., . . . . . -32 

7. Corresponding Figures The Angel, The Eagle, The Lion, and The Bull ; from 

Nineveh sculptures, ......... ... 32 

8. The Lion and the Bull at Cashel; from a drawing by the Rev. St. John Mitchell, . 32 

9. Sculptures on Northern doonvay of Cormac's Chapel, Cashel, ..... 33 

10. Idol found at base of Round Tower, Cashel ; from a drawing by the Rev. St. John 

Mitchell, 33 

11. Sculpture at Cashel ; from a Photograph, ........ 34 

12. Juno, the mother of the gods, with the Branch ; from a Coin of Ascalon. See Bryant, 

vol. 3, p. 84, . . 82 

13. Sculpture at Rath, near Dysart, Co. Clare; from a Photograph, .... 82 

14. Head-stone of Window at Inchicronan Church, Co. Clare ; from a rubbing, . . 82 

15. Cross of Durrow, King's County; from a Photograph by Captain Charles Rollestone, 

made for Captain George Garvey, R. N., . . . . . . . .112 

1 6. Cross of Moone Abbey, Co. Kildare ; from O'Neill's " Ancient Irish Crosses," plate 18, 112 

17. Monograms of the Planets ; from Maurice's " History of Hindostan," . . . 115 

1 8. Budhist and Egyptian Crosses ; from Hislop's " Two Babylons," " Asiatic Researches," 

"Wilkinson," 118 

19. Head of Bacchus ; from Smith's Classical Dictionary. See " Two Babylons," pp. 69, 



20. Egyptian Tau ; from " The Gnostics and their Remains," plate 6, . .118 



21. Heathen Crosses of Ancient America; from Stephens's " Central America," vol. 2. 

The first three are from sculptures on the tablet of the back wall of Altar at Casa. 
See Frontispiece to vol. 2, and p. 345. The other Crosses are from hierogly- 
phics enlarged, .... .....119 

22. The Assyrian Dagon; from " Two Babylons ;" Layard's " Nineveh and Babylon," . 126 

23. Vishnu incarnate as a Fish to recover the sacred books lost in the Deluge ; from 

Maurice, ...... . .... 126 

24. The Mermaid, Clonfert Cathedral ; from a drawing, . . . . . . .126 

25. The Fish worshipped, Cross of Kells ; from O'Neill's " Ancient Irish Crosses," plate 29, 126 

26. Two Wolves devouring a man Sculpture on Cross of Kells ; from O'Neill, plate 34, . 132 

27. Same design on doorway of Dysart Church, Co. Clare ; from a drawing, . . .132 

28. Same design, Cross of Monasterboice ; from O'Neill, plate 21, .... 132 

29. Same design, Cross of Moone Abbey; from O'Neill, plate 18, .... 132 

30. Same design, Cross of Arboe, Co. Tyrone ; from O'Neill, plate 31, . . . . 132 

31. Same design, Sculptures at Glendalough ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . . 133 

32. Same design, ditto ditto ...... 133 

33. Hand bitten off by a wolf, Cross of Kells ; from O'Neill, plate 29, . . . . 134 

34. Same design from another Cross at Kells ; from O'Neill, plate 34, . . -134 

35. Same design, Cross of Monasterboice ; from O'Neill, plate 19, .... 134 

36. Same design, Cross of Kilcullen; from Ledwich's "Antiquities of Ireland," . . 134 

37. The Hand on Cross of Monasterboice ; from O'Neill, plate 15, .... 135 

38. The Hand on Cross of Clonmacnoise ; from O'Neill, plate 24, .... 135 

39. Crosier found at Cashel ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . . . . . .140 

40. Base of Kilclispeen Cross, Co. Tipperary ; from O'Neill, plate 12, . . .144 

41. The Yule-log and Palm ; from Maurice's "Indian Antiquities." See "Two Babylons," 

p. 141, . . 144 

42. Another side of Base of Kilclispeen Cross ; from O'Neill, plate 6, . . . 144 

43. Southern doorway of Cormac's Chapel, Cashel; from Dr. Petrie, .... 148 

44. Sculpture on wall of Ardmore Cathedral, County Waterford ; from " Gent. Mag.," 

September 1864, . . . . . . . . . . . -149 

45. Sculpture of Ox, Cross of Kells ; from O'Neill, plate 30, ...... 149 

46. Sculpture of Ox, on another Cross at Kells ; from O'Neill, plate 29, . . . 149 

47. " Hippa Phygalensium" in a cavern temple of Arcadia ; from " Mythologia" (Natalis 

Comes), Ed. 1637. See Pausanias, 1. 8, p. 686 ; and Bryant, vol. 3, p. 276. The 
goddess is represented as seated under an arch, . . . . . . -150 

48. Northern doorway of Cormac's Chapel, Cashel ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . -152 

49. Base of Cross in street of Kells ; from O'Neill, plate 34, ...... 153 

50. Cross of Killamery, Co. Kilkenny; from O'Neill, plate i, . . . . 157 

51. Cross of Monasterboice, Co. Louth; from O'Neill, plate 14, 160 



52. Irish Crucifixion scene, Cross of Monasterboice ; from O'Neill, plate 14, . . . 161 

53. Same design on another Cross at Monasterboice ; from O'Neill, plate 20, . . 161 

54. Same design on a third Cross at Monasterboice ; from O'Neill, plate 21, . . . 161 

55. Same design, Cross of Clonmacnoise ; from O'Neill, plate 23, ..... 161 

56. The Crucifixion scene. Early Christian (Irish) Designs, viz : From "Dimma's Box," 

from " Meeshac," and from St. Columb's " Caah ;" all copied from Sir William 
Betham's "Antiquarian Researches," plates 6, 7 and 9, ..... 163 

57. Crucifixion, Cross of Tuam ; from O'Neill, plate 12, ...... 166 

58. Nubian Crucifixion, from M. Rifaud, Paris. See O'Brieh's " Round Towers," p. 336, 166 

59. An Ancient Irish Relic ; from the " Dublin Penny Journal," one third of the size of 

the original, which is in the possession of Mr. W. Maguire, . . . . .167 

60. Creeshna crushing the Serpent's head ; from Maurice's " History of Hindostan," . 167 

6 1. Crest of Ancient Arms of Ireland; from Sir W. Betham. See "Parliamentary 

Gazetteer of Ireland," . . . . . . . . . . .169 

62. Head of " Diana of the Ephesians ;" from Kitto's " Illustrated Commentary." See 

"Two Babylons," p. 43, ........... 169 

63. Winged Quadrupeds on base of Clonmacnoise Cross; from O'Neill, plate 24 . .169 

64. Winged Quadruped, Cross of Monasterboice; from O'Neill, plate 21 (erroneously 

described at the engraving as " Duleek, Co. Meath"), . . . . .169 

65. Winged Quadruped, Cross of Kells, Co. Meath ; from O'Neill, plate 28 (erroneously 

described at the engraving as " Monasterboice, Co. Louth"), .... 169 

66. Winged Quadruped, Cross of Duleek, Co. Meath ; from a drawing, (erroneously 

described at the engraving as " Kells, Co. Meath"), . . . . . .169 

67. Baal-Berith, or Mithras Bovinus. Sculpture on a Persian Rock Temple, from Theve- 

not's Travels, part 2, p. 145. See Bryant, vol, 3, p. 295, . . . 170 

68. Sculpture of horseman on stone at Annagh Church, near Tralee, Co. Kerry ; from 

" Kilk. Arch. Journal," vol. 2, p. 242, 174 

69. Same design, Cross of Arboe, Co. Tyrone ; from O'Neill, plate 32, . . . . 174 

70. Doorway of Kilmacduagh Church, Co. Galway ; from a Photograph, . . .182 

71. Doorway at Alatrium, Italy ; from Dodwell, plate 96, ...... 182 

72. Doorway at Banagher Church, Co. Deny; from a drawing, ..... 183 

73. Doorway of Fechin's Church, Fore, Co. Westmeath ; from Dr. Petrie, . . .184 

74. Subterranean Gateway at Alatrium, Italy ; from Dodwell, plate 92, .... 185 

75. Doorway at Rattas, near Tralee ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . . . . .186 

76. Doorway, Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae ; from Dodwell, plate 9, . .186 

77. Doonvay, Our Lady's Church at Glendalough ; from Dr. Petrie, . .187 

78. Doonvay at Tomgraney, Co. Clare ; from a drawing by Gordon M. Hills, Esq., . 188 

79. Gate of the Lions, at Mycenae; from Dodwell, plate 6, ...... 189 

80. Doonvay of Gallerus Oratory, Kilmelchedor, Co. Kerry; from Dr. Petrie, . .190 



81. Base of Round Tower, Cashel, Co. Tipperary ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . .191 

82. Pier at Norba, Italy ; from Dodwell, plate 75, 191 

83. Wall at Roselle, Italy; from Sir William Betham's " Etruria-Celtica," . . .192 

84. Base of Round Tower of Kilmacduagh, Co. Galway ; from a Photograph, ' . -193 

85. Gateway at Ferentinum, Italy ; from Dodwell, plate 99, . . . . .194 

86. Doorway of Dairbile's Church, Co. Mayo; from Dr. Petrie, . . . . -195 

87. Interior of Giant's house, Bashan ; from Porter's " Giant Cities of Bashan," . -199 

88. Doorway of Clonkeen, Co. Limerick ; from a Photograph and Drawing, . . 248 

89. Arch of doorway at Dysart, Co. Clare ; from a Photograph, ..... 249 

90. Fragment of Pillar found in Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae; from Ferguson's " His- 

tory of Architecture," . . . . . . . . . . . 249 

91. Fragment of Pillar found at Avantipore in Cashmere ; from Ferguson, . . . 249 

92. Ornament on doorway of Aghadoe Cathedral, Co. Kerry; from "Gent. Mag.," 

April, 1864, . . . . . . . . . . . . .251 

93. Doorway of Ardmore Round Tower; from "Gent. Mag.," September, 1864, . . 255 

94. Lintel, Glendalough; from Dr. Petrie, . . 256 

95. Doorway of Britway Church, Co. Cork; from Dr. Petrie, ..... 256 

96. Doorway, and details of Ornament on same, Kildare Round Tower; from Dr. Petrie, 257 

97. Doorway of Timahoe Round Tower ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . . . .258 

98. Ornament of Capital, same doorway ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . . . -258 

99. Capital, St. Ottmar's Church, Nurnberg ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . . . 259 

100. Capitals, Freshford Church, Co. Kilkenny; from Dr. Petrie, . . . . 259 

101. Doorway of Freshford Church ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . . . . .260 

102. Arch of Kilmelchedor doorway, Co. Kerry; from a drawing, ..... 265 

103. Doorway of Church at Rahen, King's County; from Dr. Petrie, .... 266 

104. Doorway at Sheeptown (Knocktopher), Co. Kilkenny ; from Dr. Petrie, . . 267 

105. Window of Kilmacduagh Church, Co. Galway; from a Photograph, . . . 269 

106. Section of same window from a drawing, ...... 269 

107. Window at Annaghdown, Co. Galway, represented as if restored; the ornaments are 

from a drawing by Gordon M. Hills, Esq., ...... .270 

1 08. Window at Rath Church, near Dysart, Co. Clare. The line A B shows an ancient 

sill-stone used into a modern Window. From a drawing, . . . .272 

109. Sill-stone of Ancient Window at Rath ; from a Photograph, . .272 
no. Window, Cathedral Church, Glendalough; from a drawing made for Col. Conyng- 

ham. See Petrie, p. 250, . 273 

in. Ornament on same, ., . . . . . . . . . -273 

112. Exterior view of Window of Mochuarog's temple, Glendalough; from Dr. Petrie, . 275 

113. Exterior view of Window of Church at Iniscaltra, Lough Derg, Co. Galway; from 

"Gent. Mag.," January, 1866, 275 


114. Exterior view of Window at Gallerus Oratory, Kilmelchedor, Co. Kerry ; from Dr. 

Petrie, . -275 

115. Interior view of Window at Cormac's Chapel, Cashel ; from a drawing, . . . 277 

1 1 6. Interior view of Window at Cruach MacDara, Co. Galway ; from Dr. Petrie, . . 277 

117. Interior view of Window at Gallerus Oratory, Kilmelchedor; from a drawing. (See 

fig 114, for exterior view of same), ......... 277 

118. Interior view of Window of temple on Middle Island of Aran; from Dr. Petrie, . 280 

119. Exterior view of Window, Cormac's Chapel, Cashel; from Dr. Petrie, . . . 280 

120. Exterior view of Window at Rahen, King's County; from Dr. Petrie, . . . 280 

121. Specimen of curious Jointing from the Buttress at Coole Abbey, Co. Cork; from a 

drawing, . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 

122. Jointing in the jamb of a window at Cloyne Round Tower, Co. Cork ; from a drawing, 281 

123. Jointing in the jamb of doorway of Cloyne Round Tower; from a drawing, . .281 

124. Jointing in the piers of the large window at Corcomroe Abbey, Co. Clare. The cen- 

tre specimen is seen outside of one of the piers, and the others on the inside splays 

of piers of same window ; from a drawing, . 281 

125. Jointing in jamb of doorway of Lusk Round Tower, Co. Dublin; from a drawing, . 281 

126. Jointing in the splay of ancient window at Iniscaltra, Lough Derg, Co. Galway. (The 

window is represented at fig. 113), ......... 281 

127. Samples of ancient American Ornament; from Stephens's "Travels in Yucatan," 

enlarged by photography from sundry illustrations of that work, .... 285 

128. Sculpture at New Grange, Co. Meath; from " Gent. Mag ," June, 1865, . . . 286 

129. Centre of Cross in Church-yard of Kells, Co. Meath; from O'Neill, plate 28, . . 286 

130. Ornament of Window at Ardfert, Co. Kerry ; from a drawing by G. M. Hills, Esq., 286 

131. Base of Monasterboice Cross ; from O'Neill, plate 14, ...... 300 

132. Ornament under the arms of same Cross; from O'Neill, plate 15, .. . 301 

133. Devenish Round Tower ; from a drawing by Mr. Henry O'Neill, . . . . 304 

134. Cornice and Ornament on same Tower ; from Dr. Petrie, 305 

135. Drumlane Round Tower; from a drawing by Mr. Henry O'Neill, .... 306 

136. Doorway of same Tower ; from a drawing by Mr. Henry O'Neill, .... 306 

137. Doorway of Roscrea Round Tower ; from Dr. Petrie, 307 

138. Doorway of Donoughmore Round Tower ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . . . 307 

139. Doorway of Monasterboice Round Tower ; from Dr. Petrie, 308 

140. Doorway of Dysart Round Tower, Co. Limerick ; from a drawing by Dr. Petrie, . 308 

141. Doorway of Clonmacnoise Round Tower ; from Dr. Petrie, 308 

142. Doorway of Dysart Round Tower, Co. Clare ; from a drawing by Dr. Petrie, . . 308 

143. Doorway of Kilmacduagh Round Tower ; from Dr. Petrie, 309 

144. Doorway of Glendalough Round Tower; from Dr. Petrie, . . 309 

145. Doorway of Antrim Round Tower ; from Dr. Petrie, 309 




146. Ornament over same ; from a drawing by Mr. Henry O'Neill, . 309 

147. Doorway of Swords Round Tower; from Dr. Petrie, . 3 10 

148. Doorway of Roscom Round Tower; from a drawing by Dr. Petrie, . 310 

149. Window of Cashel Round Tower; from Dr. Petrie, 3 11 

150. Window of Dysart Round Tower, Co. Limerick ; from Dr. Petrie, . 3 11 

151. Window of Timahoe Round Tower; from Dr. Petrie . 3 11 

152. Window of Roscrea Round Tower ; from Dr. Petrie, . 3 12 

153. Window of Kells Round Tower ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . 3 12 

154. ditto ditto . 3 12 

155. ditto ditto . 3 12 

156. Window of Cashel Round Tower; from Dr. Petrie, ... 3 T 3 

157. View of Round Tower on Aranmore Island, Co. Galway ; from a drawing by Dr. 

Petrie, 3 : 3 

158. View of Kilbannon Round Tower ; from a drawing by Dr. Petrie, . 314 

159. View of Rathmichael Round Tower ; from a drawing by Dr. Petrie, . . .314 

1 60. View of Drumeskin Round Tower; from a drawing by Dr. Petrie, . . . 315 

161. View of Drumcliffe Round Tower, Co. Sligo ; from a drawing by Dr Petrie, . . 315 

162. View of Killashee Round Tower, Co. Kildare ; from a drawing by Dr. Petrie, . 316 

163. View of Antrim Round Tower ; from a drawing by Mr. Henry O'Neill, . . -317 

164. Round Tower at Jorjan in Persia ; from Hanway, 317 

165. Round Tower in Hindostan, described by Lord Valentia, . . . . . 317 

166. Round Tower of Coel, East Indies; from a drawing by Captain Smith, late 44th 

Regiment ...... .... 3 T 7 

167. Round Tower at Lake Umayu, Peru; from Markham's " Travels in Peru," . . 317 

1 68. American Round Tower ; from Stephens's " Yucatan," 319 

169. American Round Tower ; from same, . . . . . . . . -319 

170. View of Cormac's Chapel, Cashel; from Dr. Petrie, ...... 322 

171. View of stone-roofed Temple, Island of Cruach MacDara, Co. Galway; from Dr. 

Petrie, . ... 327 

172. The Mudros of Phoenicia; from Dr. Hyde. See " Collectanea," vol. 4, p. 212, . 334 

173. Mahody of Elephanta; from Captain Pyke. See "Collectanea," vol. 4, p. 212, . 334 

174. Muidhr of Inis Murry, Co. Sligo; from "Grose's Antiquities," plate 122, vol. 2, . 334 

175. Pillar Stone at the Hill of Tara ; from Wakeman's " Handbook of Irish Antiquities," 334 

176. Ancient American Holed Stone ; from Stephens's " Yucatan," .... 337 

177. Holed Stone at Castledermot, Co. Carlow ; from "Gent. Mag." December, 1864, . 339 

178. Ancient Irish Relic, called the Shrine ; from a Photograph of the model in possession 

of Sir William R. Wilde, M. D., 342 

179. Shrine of Ammon ; from an ancient Egyptian Sculpture. See Bryant, vol. i, p. 313, 343 

1 80. Capitals of Chancel Arch, Tuam Cathedral ; from Dr. Petrie, .... 349 



181. Chancel Arch and left pier of doorway, Cathedral of Iniscaltra, Lough Derg ; from 

Dr. Petrie, ............. 350 

182. Chancel Arch, Mochuarog's Temple, Glendalough ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . 351 

183. Doorway of stone-roofed temple at Killaloe ; from Dr. Petrie, . . . . 371 

184. Cross of Kilnaboy ; from Dutton's " Survey of Clare," 373 

185. Cuthite device described by Bryant, " two hands joined in union, with ears of corn, 

and the symbolical Rhoia," from Gorlaeus. See Bryant, vol. 3, p. 339, . . 373 

1 86. View of " Gallerus Oratory," in the parish of Kilmelchedor, Co. Kerry ; from Dr. 

Petrie, 418 


List of Abbreviations of the titles of some authorities referred to in this 
work, introduced to avoid the frequent repetition of full titles. 


A. 4 M. . 

Antq. Res. 

Betham, . 


Chronicles of Eri, 
Colman, . 

Dodwell, . 

Dub. Penny Jour. 
Etruria Celtica, 



Monasticon Hibernicum, by Mervyn Archdall, A.M. Dublin, 


Annals of Ireland to the year 1616 by the Four Masters, trans- 
lated by John O'Donovan, M.R. I. A., 5 vols. Dublin, 

Irish Antiquarian Researches, by Sir William Betham, F. S. A. 

Dublin, 1826. 

See Antiquarian Researches, and Etruria Celtica. 
Analysis of Antient Mythology, by Jacob Bryant, Esq., 3rd 

Edition ; 6 vols. London, 1807. 
Collectanea de Rebus Hibernicis, by C. Vallancey, LL.D., 2nd 

Edition, 6 vols. Dublin, 1786. 

The Chronicles of Eri, by O'Connor, 2 vols. London, 1822. 
Mythology of the Hindus, by Charles Colman, Esq. London, 

Carthage and her Remains, by Dr. N. Davis, F. R. G. S. 

London, 1861. 
Cyclopean or Pelasgic Remains in Greece and Italy, by 

Edward Dodwell, Esq., F. S. A. London, 1834. 
Dublin Penny Journal, 2 vols. Dublin, 1832, 1833. 
Etruria-Celtica, by Sir William Betham, Ulster King of Arms, 

etc., 2 vols. Dublin, 1842. 
The Origin of Pagan Idolatry, by Rev. George Stanley Faber, 

D.D., 3 vols. London, 1816. 
History of Architecture, by James Ferguson, F.R.S., etc., 2 vols. 

London, 1865. 




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Keating, . 


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Mon. Hib. 
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O'Reilly's Die. 
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The Jeynes and Boodhists of India, by Lieut. Colonel William 

Francklin, H. E. I. C. S. London, 1827. 
Handbook for Travellers in Ireland. Dublin, 1844. 
The Gentleman's Magazine, published by John Henry and 

James Parker. London and Oxford. 
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The Doctrine of the Deluge, by Rev. L. Vernon Harcourt, 2 

vols. London, 1838. 
Two Babylons, or Nimrod and the Papacy, by Rev. Alexander 

Hislop, 3rd Edition. Edinburgh, 1862. 
Transactions of the Kilkenny Archaeological Society. Dublin, 

History of Ireland, by Jeoffry Keating, D. D., translated by 

Dermod O'Connor, 2 vols. Dublin, 1809. 
Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts, by Patrick Kennedy. 

London, 1866. 
Antiquities of Ireland, by Edward Ledwich, LL.D., etc., 2nd 

Edition. Dublin, 1804. 
Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, by Samuel Lewis, 2 vols. 

London, 1837. 

The English-Irish Dictionary, by MacCurtin. Paris, 1732. 
The Martyrology of Donegal, 1630, translated from the original 

Irish, by John O'Donovan, LL.D. Edited by Dr. Todd 

and Dr. Reeves. Dublin, 1864. 
Monasticon Hibernicum, printed for William Mears. London, 

The Ancient History of Hindoostan, by Rev. Thomas Maurice, 

3 vols. London, 1820. 
Picturesque Views of the Antiquities of Ireland, by Robert 

O'Callaghan Newenham, Esq. London, 1830. 
The Round Towers of Ireland, by Henry O'Brien, Esq., A. B. 

London, 1834. 
An Irish-English Dictionary, by J. O'Brien, 2nd Edition. 

Dublin, 1832. 

An Irish-English Dictionary, by Edward O'Reilly, with a supple- 
ment by John O'Donovan, LL.D. Dublin, 1864. 
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London, Dublin, and Edinburgh, 1844. 
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by George Petrie, LL.D. R.I. A. edition. Dublin, 1845. 
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J. L. Porter, A.M. London, 1866. 

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Esq. Belfast: Archer & Son, 1853 to 1862. 


A FEW preliminary observations, setting forth the leading arguments 
^ * in support of my views, will, it is hoped, be acceptable to the reader. 
The favorite theory respecting our Round Towers and their contemporary 
architectural remains is, that they belong to the Christian era of Ireland. 
My object is to prove, that they were erected for the purposes of heathen 
worship, several hundred years before the Birth of Christ. Again those 
who hold the Christian theory are divided into two schools ; one, of which 
the late eminent Dr. Petrie was the head, maintains, that these ancient build- 
ings were erected at various periods from the introduction of Christianity, or 
(more accurately speaking) from the commencement of the 5th to the close 
of the 1 2th century. The other school maintains, that the period of all these 
buildings is confined to the i2th and following centuries ; and in support of 
this conclusion, they reason very soundly on the fact that the Celtic Irish 
had no buildings of stone and mortar before the i2th century, than which 
there is no fact in history (resting upon evidence of a negative character) 
more strongly attested. We have the testimony of contemporary writers 
that then, for the first time, buildings in stone began to be erected ; the pre- 
vious structures built by the Irish, whether palaces, churches, or monasteries, 


being all of wood and earth-work. If, therefore, the beautifully wrought 
specimens of architecture (illustrations of some of the richest of which will 
be found throughout this work) be assumed to belong to the Christian era 
they cannot be assigned to a period earlier than the i2th century ; because, 
then, for the first time, the Celtic Irish began to substitute stone for wood as 
a building material ; and not later than the 1 2th century, for then was intro- 
duced the Gothic or early English style, displaying in Ireland the same archi- 
tectural character as that of the more civilized country, though the buildings 
themselves were inferior in decorative skill and artistic completeness. 

The Round Towers, and other edifices of what may be termed the 
primitive architecture of Ireland, are commonly classed with the English 
Norman, from a similarity in the outline ; both having doorways and 
windows with semicircular heads : but so many difficulties and anomalies 
present themselves in following up the comparison that several of the most 
learned and diligent enquirers have given up the subject as utterly inex- 
plicable. It is manifestly absurd to affirm that a people, who had never 
previously to the I2th century constructed buildings of stone, and openly 
expressed their contempt for such structures, should have produced, at their 
very first essay, so many fine examples of skill in building and sculpture, 
attesting the early excellence of architectural art, and challenging comparison, 
even now in their condition of ruin, with the ecclesiastical structures of our 
advanced period. However, there is a large amount of evidence to prove 
that some of the finest examples of ancient Irish architecture existed long 
before the I2th century some as early as the 5th which has induced Dr. 
Petrie and his school to question the authenticity of the evidence, attesting 
that the commencement of building in stone among the Irish Celts was not 


earlier than the i2th century. The anomalies of these interesting and long- 
pending historical questions are attempted to be explained and reconciled in 
the following pages. 

I have stated that the primitive architecture of Ireland is commonly 
classed with the early English Norman, but a critical examination of both 
will show, that notwithstanding occasional similarity of outline, they are the 
works of widely separated eras. Great as may be the varieties of design in 
the Anglo Norman specimens, they are all alike in one respect, viz : the 
jambs of doorways and windows are parallel ; whereas in all the specimens 
of ancient Irish architecture, still remaining in their original positions, the 
doorways and windows are wider at bottom than at the top ; and in this respect 
they correspond with the orifices found in the Cyclopean remains of Greece 
and Italy, which, both in their sculptured ornaments and style of building, 
exhibit a remarkable resemblance to the Cuthite architecture of ancient 
Ireland. This one distinguishing and peculiar feature ought to satisfy every 
impartial student of the subject, that there is as little of identity between the 
Anglo-Norman and the ancient Irish buildings, as between a Grecian temple 
and an English theatre. 

Now while there is ample evidence to prove, that the Irish Celts did not 
build in stone before the i2th century, another equally important historical 
fact in support of my views is sustained by even more abundant evidence ; 
viz. : that antecedent to the Celtic invasion, which took place many centu- 
ries before our era, Ireland was inhabited by a highly civilized race of 
building celebrity ; and a careful investigation of the ancient classic and 
Oriental histories and traditions will clearly prove the identity of this 
primitive race with the Cuthites of Antiquity, the descendants of Ham, 


about whom Bryant in his " Analysis of Antient Mythology," and Faber in 
his " Origin of Pagan Idolatry," have so fully written. 

As a general rule the sites at which the remains of ancient Irish Archi- 
tecture are found, have their foundation ascribed to Christian Saints 
reported to have lived in the 5th and 6th centuries. I endeavour to prove 
that these so-called Saints, with the exception of St. Patrick and a few 
others, were the divinities or hero-gods worshipped by the earliest apostates 
from the truth ; who under the names of Cuthites, Scythians, and various 
other denominations, bore sway in the earth for a considerable period, 
commencing at the usurpation of Nimrod, the grandson of Ham ; and 
that Cuthite superstitions traditionally preserved were the origin of Irish 
legendary hagiology. 

That so many of these structures should have survived the wasting 
effects of time and change during an interval of more than three thousand 
years is accounted for by several causes : 

First The building stone of Ireland excels in enduring resistance to 
atmospheric influences the same material in other European countries. 

Secondly Ireland never having been subjected to Roman dominion, 
the substantial edifices of the primitive colonists escaped demolition for the 
construction of an alien architecture. And thirdly the Celtic conquerors 
of these Cuthite colonists, though themselves despising the art of building 
in stone, suffered to remain uninjured those edifices to which they ascribed 
a supernatural origin. 


The following corrections will have to be made by the reader : * 
Page 63, line 2^ for " Turough" read "Turlough." 
Page 77, line i^for " Golan " read " Columb." 
Page 169, under fig. 64, for Duleek," Co. Meath," read" Monasterboice, Co. Louth." 

- under fig. 65, for " Monasterboice, Co. Louth," read " Kells, Co. Meath." 

- under fig. 66, for " Kells, Co. Meath," read " Duleek, Co. Meath." 
Page 212, line T.for " Ancestor," read" Potentate of the Ancestors." 

Page 214, line 20, for" Diety," read" Deity." 

Page 296, line ig.for Brien," read " Brian." 

Pa ge 335, line 22, for " Genetive," read " Genitive." 

Page 381, line 26, ) 

Pa ge 383, line 23, j & USir Henr y Rawlinson," read George Ravvlinson." 

(though each of them contains a portion of the truth), I trust 1 shall be 
excused for attempting what I conceive to be a nearer approach to the true 
solution of this still mysterious problem. 

I have read many of the treatises, that have appeared upon the subject 
of Round Towers and other Ancient Ruins of Ireland. At first I did so 
merely for information, and without any disposition to differ from the views 
put forward by various writers. However, after much consideration, I have 
been forced to the conclusion that something is still wanted, and that the 
generally received theory is not supported by sufficient evidence. My 



about whom Bryant in his " Analysis of Antient Mythology," and Faber in 
his " Origin of Pagan Idolatry," have so fully written. 

As a general rule the sites at which the remains of ancient Irish Archi- 
tecture are found, have their foundation ascribed to Christian Saints 
reported to have lived in the 5th and 6th centuries. I endeavour to prove 
that these so-called Saints, with the exceotion of .^i- P-^- 1 ' 

construction of an alien architecture. And thirdly the Celtic conquerors 
of these Cuthite colonists, though themselves despising the art of building 
in stone, suffered to remain uninjured those edifices to which they ascribed 
a supernatural origin. 


IRELAND more than any other country of Europe abounds with Ruins, 
' such as Round Towers, Sculptured Crosses, and Stone-roofed Churches, 
many of which display no mean degree of artistic skill. Of such remote 
antiquity are some of these Ruins, that the age of their foundation has never 
yet been determined. Questions as to what race of men erected such 
buildings, and for what purpose they were used, have given rise to much 
ingenious speculation, and to a vast amount of laborious research. 

After all that has been written by so many learned authorities, it may be 
deemed presumptuous to offer any suggestions with the view of further 
elucidation ; but, believing as I do, that neither of the present leading 
theories on the subject can meet the difficulties that occur to every inquirer 
(though each of them contains a portion of the truth), I trust I shall be 
excused for attempting what I conceive to be a nearer approach to the true 
solution of this still mysterious problem. 

I have read many of the treatises, that have appeared upon the subject 
of Round Towers and other Ancient Ruins of Ireland. At first I did so 
merely for information, and without any disposition to differ from the views 
put forward by various writers. However, after much consideration, I have 
been forced to the conclusion that something is still wanted, and that the 
generally received theory is not supported by sufficient evidence. My 


conviction of the heathen origin of these ruins has been strengthened in 
proportion to the increased knowledge, which I have acquired by examination 
of the Ruins themselves, and by the study of works bearing upon the subject. 
My object therefore in this work shall be to adduce weighty evidence 
(amounting, as I believe, to positive proof) in support of my views, not only 
from the writings of learned men, but also from a comparison of different 
specimens of Architecture, and from the Topography and Hagiology of 

The late DR. PETRIE'S ESSAY on the Round Towers can never cease to 
be highly valued. As an artist, he has collected and preserved much that 
might, but for his exertions, be lost ; and his work will always be found a 
rich repository for the study of the Irish antiquary. His dissertation may 
be divided into two parts. First, he undertakes to prove that the Round 
Towers of Ireland are coeval with the ancient so-called " Norman " stone- 
ro.ofed Churches and curious Crosses, fou4id so frequently in Ireland ; and 
secondly, that these stone-roofed Churches and Crosses, as well as the Round 
Towers, were erected after the introduction of Christianity. I think Dr. 
Petrie has given satisfactory evidence in proof of his first proposition. He 
has clearly shown, that many of the Round Towers were erected by the 
architects of the Crosses and stone-roofed Churches ; but I think that he 
has failed in his second argument ; and my effort shall be to show, that not 
only the Round Towers, but also the Crosses, and stone-roofed Churches, are 
entirely of Heathen origin; and are, in fact, the work of the Tuath-de-Danaans, 
and their Cuthite predecessors. 

Having seen that Dr. Petrie's arguments, in proof of the identity of the 
age of the Towers with that of the other ancient specimens of Irish Architec- 
ture, were unanswerable, I sought, but in vain, for a single substantial proof 
of the age of even one of these Churches, to which his work referred. The 
Doctor grounds his arguments as to the age of the other Churches on the 
assumption that the age of Cormac's Chapel, Cashel, is " definitely fixed by 
the most satisfactory historical evidence!' As the settling of the question 


relative to the age of Cormac's Chapel would, in my opinion, put an end to 
the controversy, I shall now proceed to examine Doctor Petrie's proofs. He 
says : 

" The next example, which I have to adduce, is a Church of probably 
somewhat later date than that of Freshford, and whose age is definitely fixed 
by the -most satisfactory historical evidence. It is the beautiful and well known 
stone-roofed Church on the Rock of Cashel, called Cormac's Chapel, one of 
the most curious and perfect Churches in the Norman style in the British 

"In the Munster Annals, or, as they are generally called, the Annals 
of Inisfallen, the foundation of this Church is thus recorded : 



" 1127. Two churches [" were erected "] at Lismore, and a church at 
Cashel by Cormac. 

" And again, in the same annals, the erection of this Church is thus dis- 
tinctly stated in the following record of Cormac's death, at the year, 1138 :" 
[Here follows a lengthened Irish quotation, in which the words CUMDACH 
TEAMPUILL CORAMAIC occur which Dr. Petrie translates " having built 
Temple Cormac." The whole passage is thus translated by Dr. Petrie] : 

" A. D. ii 38. Cormac, son of Muireadhach, son of Carthach, son of 
Saorbhrethach, son of Donough, son of Ceallachan Cashel, King of Desmond, 
and a man who had a continual contention for the Sovereignty of the entire 
Province of Munster, and the most pious, most brave, and most liberal of 
victuals, and clothing, after having built [" the church called"] Teampull 
Chormaic, in Cashel, and two churches in Lismore, was treacherously 
murdered by Dermot Sugach O'Conor Kerry, at the instigation of Turlough 
O'Brien, who was his own son-in-law, gossip and foster child." 

" Lastly, thus in the Annals of the Four Masters : ' 1 1 34. TEAMPULL DO 
ROXAD LA CORBMAC.' ' 1134. The church which was built by Cormac." 
(See Round Towers, p. 287). 


But Dr. Petrie deprives his argument of all its force by the candid 
admission made in the following : 

"It may indeed be objected, that the word CUMDACH, which is used by 
the annalists to express the erection or foundation of this church, does 
not literally bear that signification, but rather a restoration or covering of 
the building, as the word is employed in that sense to denote the covering 
or casing of a book ; and, in fairness, I should confess that, in the translation 
of the Annals of Inisfallen, preserved in the Library of the Royal Irish 
Academy the word CUMDACH is rendered doubtfully ' built, or restored ;' and 
I should also add, that the verb CUMDACHIM is explained in O'Brien's 
Dictionary as signifying ' to keep or preserve, to maintain or support, 
also to build or rather to roof and cover a building.' ' 

Now it is manifest that the mistake (if it be so), which the Annalists 
made in using a word literally meaning restoration or covering, to express 
the erection or foundation of this Church, destroys altogether the weight of 
Dr. Petrie's most satisfactory historical evidence of the foundation and erection 
of this Church. 

The Annals furnish no evidence that Cormac's chapel was built by 
Cormac M'Carthy. I do not deny that it may have been repaired by him ; 
although I think it probable that the Church referred to in the Annals was 
some other, which stood upon the site of the present Cathedral. 

Dr. Petrie proceeds at some length to object to the definition of the 
word CUMDACH in O'Brien's Dictionary, whichj be it remarked, is the 
only one of four ancient Dictionaries (O'Brien's, M'Curtin's, Walshe's and 
Plunket's), that in any degree countenances Dr. Petrie's translation of the 
word. The Doctor's arguments are not satisfactory, as proof of a proposition 
upon which he grounds so much ; but it is needless to occupy space with 
further explanation. 

Judging from the information of persons thoroughly acquainted with the 
language, and competent to form an opinion upon it, I am induced to believe 
that the Irish word "CUMDACH" would not in any case be correctly translated 


by the English word " to build," except where building was made to 
protect something already built. The common translation of the word 
is " to defend," " to protect," " to guard," " to fence." This translation is 
confirmed by O'Brien's, O'Reilly's, and M'Curtin's Dictionaries. The word 
is applied to the covering of a book only in this sense as the book is 
complete in itself before it becomes protected by a cover. The word 
" RONAD," used in the Annals of the Four Masters quoted above by Dr. 
Petrie, literally means a " club," or " stake," and turned into a verb should 
be rendered "staked" or "propped." The verb "RONAD" is frequently 
used to express the repairing of a building, which, among the Celts, 
was frequently effected by means of wooden stakes and props ; but the 
erection of a stone building from its foundation is not expressed by 
the word. 

I shall, before I close, have much more to say about the temple called 
" Cormac's Chapel ;" and shall, I trust, furnish evidence, which ought to 
convince every intelligent and impartial student of the subject, that it was a 
Heathen Temple, built before the Christian era. This is but one out of 
numerous specimens of ancient so-called " Norman" stone-roofed Churches still 
remaining in Ireland, all of which, as well as the Round Towers and Ancient 
Crosses, were, I have no doubt, erected by the early Cuthite inhabitants of 
Ireland. This will be pronounced a bold statement; but I believe the 
proofs will be found sufficiently strong to convince many, who at first would 
be ready to condemn the idea as an absurdity the result of a fanciful 
imagination. My proofs will consist of evidence : 

i st. That the Celtic Irish, who preceded the English, were not the 
architects of these beautiful buildings and sculptured Crosses. 

2nd. That the English since the Conquest in 1 172 have not built them. 

3rd. That Ireland was, up to about a thousand years before Christ, 
inhabited by a Cuthite race, celebrated for their skill in the Arts particu- 
larly in that of building. 

4th. That Irish Topography and yet extant names prove the identity 


of most of the celebrated Irish saints of antiquity, the reputed founders of 
these buildings, with the heathen divinities of Canaan and India. 

These, with some arguments on comparison of architecture, will con- 
stitute my proofs. Mr. Henry O'Brien's work furnishes evidence that 
the Round Towers were Heathen ; and Dr. Petrie shows that their architec- 
ture is identical with that of the ancient stone-roofed Churches. My aim 
shall be to reconcile their theories, and confirm what is sound in each, by 
such proofs as the study of Ancient History and Archaeology, assisted by 
some knowledge of the Irish language and history, may enable me to 

There is one objection to this theory which I have no doubt will occur 
to many of my readers. It is the improbability of buildings erected three 
thousand years ago still remaining in a state of such comparative perfection, 
as many of the Cuthite ruins of Ireland present at this day. Such objection 
can have no weight with any one acquainted with the quality of our Irish 
building stone. There are ecclesiastical edifices in Ireland of known date, 
which have not been touched for at least 400 years ; and, although exposed 
to the action of the weather for so long a period, they present at this day all 
that sharpness of edge and such marks of the stone-cutter's chisel, as might 
be expected in a building of not more than ten years of age. They have in 
fact no mark of age save a slight alteration of colour. I refer to the Cloister 
and Coigns of Quin Abbey, county Clare, and to the Cloisters of the Abbey 
of Sligo, as illustrations of this remark. The action of the atmosphere has 
only tended to harden the surface of the stone, and therefore in four thousand 
years hence if the world last so long specimens of stone cutting in these 
ruins will be found as perfect as any specimen of a supposed Cuthite ruin 
now remaining in Ireland, that is to say if not injured otherwise than by 
the action of time and atmospheric influence. I am aware of the vast 
difference which exists between English and Irish building stone in this 
respect. The superiority of the Irish stone sand-stone as well as lime- 
stone may be owing to the quality of the stone itself combined with more 


favourable circumstances in the action of the atmosphere upon it. Whatever 
the cause may be, the fact is undeniably as I have stated. 

The Cuthites must have been excellent judges of the material which they 
used in their buildings and sculptures, yet they were sometimes deceived in 
the quality of the stone ; and wherever such a stone of inferior quality exists 
in their sculptured work, the action of the weather upon it in contrast with 
the perfection of other stones adjoining, furnishes unmistakable evidence of 
the great antiquity of the building itself. 

Some Round Towers and other buildings are made altogether of stone of 
inferior quality, but the best which the neighbourhood could afford. These 
buildings present a very rude aspect, having become so weather-worn as 
to lose every mark of the skilful hands by which they were originally 


A valuable contribution in aid of the study of this vexed question is 
found in a series of articles by John Henry Parker, Esq., published in the 
Gentleman s Magazine, years 1864 and 1865. 

He tells us most truly that " The earlier Churches of modern Europe 
were generally of wood ;" that " it was not until the Eleventh century that 
churches were commonly built of stone ; that the building entirely of ashlar 
or cut stone, was not anywhere attained until the Twelfth century. That the 
other European nations copied the older buildings of the Romans, but that 
Roman civilization never penetrated to Ireland. The Irish had no Roman 
buildings to copy as other European nations had." (p. 5, Jan. 1864). He 
goes on to say, that after the conquest : 

" The English brought with them their own manners, their own laws, 
their own arts. They erected Castles to maintain their power, and to keep 
the natives in check. They founded monasteries and endowed Cathedrals 


in expiation of their crimes, and to propitiate the Church, and all these 
buildings they erected in the style of their own country, modified by having 
to employ native workmen, and by the nature of the material they had to 
work on ; and in general, buildings of the same style are later in date in 
Ireland than in England." (p. 8). 

The facts, which he adduces on historical authority, are in confirmation 
of these his opinions, viz. : That it was not until 1331, that " a bell Tower 
of stone was erected at Christ Church, Dublin." (p. 10). That ''when 
Henry II. was in Dublin in 1171, he caused a royal palace to be erected for 
him, with excellent workmanship of smooth wattles, after the fashion of 
Ireland." (p. 158,^. 1864). 

And, in describing the Castle built by the English at Clonmacnoise, in 
1212, Mr. Parker says : 

" The keep is massive, with very thick rude Walls, the Windows are 
mere rude loops, but not very small nor very narrow. The whole appearance 
of this ruin is that of very rough work of the Twelfth Century, without any 
ashlar. It is scarcely more advanced in character than Gundulph's keep at 
Mailing in 1080, and shews that the Architecture of Ireland could not have 
been in advance of other countries at the time this Castle was built." (p. 158). 
He adds : " There is no difference in construction between Churches or 
Towers, and Castles or houses. Stone walls must be built in the same 
manner, to whatever purpose they are applied ; and it is evident that the 
Irish were not accustomed to the use of cut stone even at the end of the Twelfth 
Century" (p. 158). 

Now, all this is quite true, and fully confirmed by the authorities of 
Giraldus Cambrensis, Dr. O'Connor, Sir John Davis, and Sir William Petty, 
quoted by Dr. Ledwich, who says (Coll. vol. ii., p. 124) : 

" Turgesius, the Danish chief, having in the year 840, subdued this 
island, examined it round, and at proper stations erected castles and fortresses 
throughout it. Hence it is, says Cambrensis, that we see at this day an 
infinite number of intrenchments, very high, round, and many of them triple ; 


also walled castles now (A.D. 1185) in good preservation, though empty and 
deserted ; the remains and traces of former times. For the Irish, continues 
he, build no castles ; woods serve them for fortifications, and morasses for 
entrenchments. (Ch. 37). These accounts, our author tells us, he learned 
from Irish writers, and he himself, who was well acquainted with the Danish 
settlements at Dublin, Waterford, and Limerick, and with the Danish clergy, 
many of whom possessed high dignities in the church, suggested nothing to 
contradict them. Our own writers complain (Walshes Prospect, p. 51) : 
That being enfranchised from the tyranny of Turgesius, we resigned our- 
selves to ease and unmasculine laziness ; neglected navigation and fleets, 
which alone could secure us from fresh attacks ; and were so far blinded as 
to slight all the Danish fortifications. Dr, O'Connor informs us (Dis- 
sertations, p. 104, 2nd Ed.) that the buildings of the ancient Scots were 
for use solely, and not for ostentation. They built their houses of timber, as 
several nations of Europe have done until very lately, and as some do at this 
day. They did not conceive that real magnificence consisted in rearing 
heaps of stone, artfully disposed and closely cemented ; or that real grandeur 
received any diminution from the humility of its habitation. The first in 
worthy accomplishments was generally elected to the dignity of magistrature, 
whether royal or dynastal. In such a country durable or superb structures 
could not well take place. As the possession was temporary, so was the 
building. And so far did inveterate customs prevail among the people, that 
even after their reception of Christianity, they could not be induced to build 
their churches and monasteries of more durable materials than their own 
habitations. The exceptions are very few, and the church of St. Kianan, 
built in the sixth century, is the first instance of any stone-work erected in 
this kingdom. They had no cities or towns in the earlier ages. In a 
country where the inhabitants have but few mechanical arts ; where they 
draw most of their necessaries from the soil they cultivate, and where precious 
metals are not made equivalents, or signs of national wealth, there can be few 
or no cities. In their wars with the English they were at last obliged to avail 


themselves of the arts of their enemies, by erecting castles and other strong- 
holds. This gave rise to stone buildings in Leinster, Munster, and Con- 
naught, and soon after in Ulster. The northern bards inveighed bitterly 
against this innovation, and represented it as a signal that the nation was 
ripening for foreign subjection Let us, said one of them, pull down those 
fortresses of the insidious enemy, and cease working for them, by erecting 
any of our own ; their stratagems will assuredly wrest them out of our hands. 
Our ancestors trusted entirely to their personal valour, and thought the 
stone-houses of the Galls a disgrace to courage. Every line of this citation 
goes to confirm the authority of Cambrensis." 

Ledwich proceeds to say : " Let us hear Sir John Davis, a candid and 
intelligent observer : ' Though the Irishry be a nation of great antiquity, 
and wanted neither wit nor valour ; and, though they have received the 
Christian faith above 1,200 years since, and were lovers of poetry, musick, 
and all kinds of learning, and were possessed of a land in all things necessary 
for the civil life of man yet, which is strange to be related, they did never 
build any houses of brick or stone, some few poor religious houses excepted, 
before the reign of king Henry II. though they were lords of the isle many 
hundred years before and since the conquest attempted by the English. 
Albeit, when they saw us build castles upon their borders, they have only in 
imitation of us, erected some few piles for the captains of the country. Yet 
I dare boldly say, that never any particular person, either before or since, 
did build any stone or brick house for his private habitation, but such as 
have lately obtained estates according to the course of the law of England. 
Neither did any of them in all this time, plant any garden or orchard, 
settle villages or towns, or make any provision for posterity.' (Historical 

" There is at this day (says Sir William Petty, in his Political Anatomy 
of Ireland] no monument or real argument, that when the Irish were first 
invaded by Henry II. they had any stone housing at all, any money, any 
foreign trade, &c. Doctor Campbell, in his Political Survey of the South of 


Ireland, positively asserts, that what is reported by bards and others of the 
magnificent place of Teamor cannot be true, for the hill of Taragh itself is 
evidence enough to prove, that there never has been a considerable house of 
lime and stone upon it." 

I shall conclude this part of the subject with one important fragment of 

The Church of Bangor in Down, an ecclesiastical establishment of very 
ancient repute, began to revive in the twelfth century. The efforts of Bishop 
Malachi to restore its former greatness are recorded by his friend and 
biographer, St. Bernard, whose account of the matter, as that of a con- 
temporary, may be relied on. I quote from an article by Dr. Reeves ; 
St. Malachi's " first oratory was ' constructed of boards, but well and 
closely united, a Scotic fabric, respectable enough,' and this was a step in 
advance of the early structure which probably answered to the description 
'of wicker work interwoven like a fence, and surrounded by a ditch.' 
Subsequently, however [in the year 1 1 20], when foreign travel had enlarged 
his views, ' it seemed fit to Malachi that he should build at Benchor an 
oratory of stone, like those churches which he had seen in other countries. 
But when he had begun to lay the foundations, some of the inhabitants were 
astonished, for no buildings of the kind were known in that land.' Where- 
upon a factious crowd gathered around him, and one who was chosen as 
their spokesman expressed their sentiments in these memorable words : 
' O, worthy man, what is your motive of introducing this novelty in our 
neighbourhood ? We are Scots, not Gauls. Why this vanity ? what need 
of a work so extravagant, so aspiring ?' The work however proceeded, and 
subsequently received additions at various times ; but, like the second temple, 
it fell very far short of primitive greatness, and in process of time, under 
civil commotions, it dwindled into insignificance and finally became but a 
name." (Ulster Journal, vol. i. p. 170). 

This seems to be the first well-authenticated case of stone being used for 
the erection of a Christian Church in Ireland ; and the surprise elicited by 


such an unusual proceeding is significant. I ask the intelligent and candid 
reader to reflect for one moment, and he cannot fail to be struck by the 
absurdity of supposing that the stone-roofed Temple at Cashel a building 
that for beauty, richness, and variety of sculpture has not been equalled by 
any modern Irish structure, should have been erected only seven years after 
this first essay by St. Malachi in building with stone. Erroneous views 
may be obstinately held, but in time they must yield before the persuasive 
influence of substantive facts. 

The several authorities recited seem to furnish us with a perfectly true 
and consistent picture of the condition of Ireland as to Architecture on the 
arrival of the English and yet we are asked to believe that Cormac's 
Chapel, was built by an Irish Provincial Chief who aspired unsuccessfully to 
the sovereignty of Munster : and that he did build Cormac's Chapel with all 
its beautiful sculpture, more than forty years before Henry II. erected his 
" Royal Palace in Dublin of Smoothe Wattles after the fashion of Ireland" 
and more than 200 years before Christ's Church was furnished with a Bell 
Tower of Stone. 

Cormac's Chapel is the only specimen of a Cuthite structure of the temple 
class in Ireland approaching to its original perfection, and it may be taken as 
a type of all the others. 

The general character of the ornament is alike in all -with some trifling 
varieties and the identity of all with the Round Towers and the Ancient 
Stone Crosses may be assumed to be proved by Dr. Petrie. 

As to the general description of this Temple : it appears to have been 
built without windows sidtable for glass for the lights now appearing in it 
were manifestly an effort of after times to adapt it to Christian uses. Then, 
the Temple is built of cut stone within and without, and ornamented with 
the greatest variety of minute and beautiful Architecture. 

The two styles of Arches which ornament the interior are furnished to 
us in Dr. Petrie's work. (Fig. i). 

"The first represents one of the decorated arches of the blank arcade which 


ornaments the sides of the nave ; and the second, one of the arches of the 
open arcade which ornaments the apsis, or recess, at the end of the chancel." 
The door-way and chancel arch are ornamented with columns and 
capitals all of the same general form, but the ornaments on each are 


In Dr. Petrie's work we are furnished with about thirty of the ornaments 
on these, every one of them presenting a different style of decoration. 

The Temple is small in dimensions, yet more costly by far in proportion 
to its size than any ancient Church or Cathedral ever erected in Ireland since 
the conquest by England. A temple in design and construction unlike any 
ancient church in Christendom, whose building can be proved to date within 
the Christian era. A temple roofed with a thorough semicircular arch 
of cut stone appearing like the interior of one of the Rock Temples of 
Hindostan. This arch is again surmounted by another cut stone roof, having 
chambers between both. 






Compare the ribs on the under surface of the semicircular roof of Cashel 
temple (Fig, 3), with the like in Franklin's description of Kandeish Rock 

" The second at Kandeish," says Franklin (p. 73), " is a small Temple 
with a vaulted roof, which, from the shape, and manner of cutting the arched 
parts of the rock into forms resembling ribs in Naval Architecture, has a 
striking likeness to the inverted bottom of a ship, to which it has been often 
compared. At the farthest end is a pyramidal building supposed to contain 



some relic of the Saint to whom the temple is sacred. In this and the next 
arched cave, which fell under our observation, the ribs do not appear in the 
body of the place, as they do in those of Canara, in the Island of Salsette and 
of Car/i, about half way between Bombay and Poonah, but are seen in the 
aisles, about the height of the pillars from the floor of the cave." 

I annex an illustration (Fig. 2), from a drawing by the celebrated Henry 
Salt, of one of the Rock temples of India at Carli, photographed from a print 
in the possession of Charles Desborough Bedford, Esq., Montague Street, 
Portman Square. 

Even the entwined serpents, the common ornaments of Irish Cuthite 
Crosses, and the ornament on the Sarcophagus (Fig. 4) called The Font, at 
the Cashel Temple, have their parallels in Hindostan. Colonel Franklin, 
describing the Rock temple of Bhilsa, says (p. 84) : 

" The upper parallels of this costly Temple, says Captain Fell, are beau- 




tifully sculptured with hooded serpents, passing through them in spiral 

Square basons, such as " The Font" at Cashel, are met with in the Rock 
Temples of the East. 

In Bryant's Antient Mythology, vol. 5, p. 243, I find the following 
quotation from Thevenot's travels into the Indies : " ' I saw three temples 
one over another ; which have but one front all three ; but it is divided 
into three stories, supported by as many rows of pillars : and in every story 
there is a great door for the temple. The stair cases are cut out of the rock. 
I saw but one temple which was arched ; and therein I found a room, 
whereof the chief ornament was a square bason. It was cut in the rock 
and full of spring water, which arose within two or three feet of the brim of 
the bason. . . . The constant tradition was, that all these pagodas, 
great and small, with all their works, and ornaments, were made by Giants : 
but in what age they could not tell !' " 

Dr. Petrie, after informing us that this " Font" was traditionally recorded 


as the burial place of Cormac, goes on to mention the fact which, he says : 
" May throw some doubt on the truth of these traditions, or at least so 
far as they relate to the tomb having been that of the founder of the Church, 
namely, that, on the opening of the tomb, there was discovered a crozier of 
exceedingly beautiful workmanship." (Petrie, p. 303). I hope hereafter to 
show that Croziers are of Cuthite origin. 

I am convinced by a personal inspection of this ruin (Cormac's Temple), 
that it was originally made with only small windows not suited for glass. 
Subsequently, on the Cathedral being built, these windows were deprived 
of light by the south transept of that building, which crossed them ; where- 
upon two windows were broken out on the south side of the Chapel, 

Antiquaries of the last century follow each other in saying that the stone- 
roofed Churches, which furnish this beautiful architecture, were the first 
buildings of stone and cement erected by the Irish ; and this they believed 
for the best reason possible, because they found them to be older than any 
other buildings to which they could assign a date. But no one who examines 
these ruins will suppose them to be the work of such a Nation as the Irish 
were at the period assigned to their construction. 

The other Irish Temples of this class are (with few exceptions) too small 
for congregational uses, the nave of Cormac's Chapel measuring only twenty- 
eight feet by seventeen ; but they make up in costliness of ornamental details 
what they want in size, and I venture to say that there is not in Ireland a 
Cathedral, which, in proportion to its size, is so elaborately ornamented as 
Cormac's Chapel. But this I leave to the reader's judgment. 


While the ancient architecture of Ireland bears such resemblance to the 
Norman of England, as to lead superficial observers to the hasty conclusion 
that the Irish was Norman, borrowed from the English, which of course 


was the more ancient ; there are at the same time so many features of 
striking contrast between the English and Irish styles of architecture, as to 
present insuperable difficulties to the minds of some English Archaeologists, 
who have compared them. The Architecture of England is now thoroughly 
understood ; and thirty years' close examination of its history has reduced it 
to a Science, about which no difficulty exists. Every particular ornament, 
with every progressive style of masonry in England is so well known as to 
be assigned to its particular era, no difference of opinion of even a few years 
as to the date existing among the learned. The knowledge acquired 
on the subject is with confidence applied by some to the case of the Irish 
" Norman" Architecture. But here difficulties commence. The well-known 
circumstances of the Irish when the English came among them are utterly 
inconsistent with the idea, that such architecture belongs to the date, to 
which the principles of English Archaeology would assign it. Intelligent 
writers on the subject have most correctly concluded, that the Celtic Irish 
had in fact no native architecture among them when the English arrived : 
nevertheless they are obliged to notice the fact, that the " Norman" ruins of 
Ireland abound with distinctive peculiarities. Now the existence of these 
peculiarities, as well as their superior style of workmanship, are inconsistent 
with the well-established fact, that the inhabitants, previous to the English 
invasion, had no skill whatever in building with stone. Their kings palaces 
were made of smooth wattles of wood. 

In the course of this work I shall have occasion to treat at considerable 
length of these Irish peculiarities ; but, for the present, I pause only to 
observe, that the most striking peculiarities of this primitive architecture in 
Ireland are those, which specially identify it with that ancient style of CutJiite 
architecture, so well known under the name of Cyclopean. Let the reader 
examine the base of the Round Tower of Kilmacduagh. If an intelligent 
English Archaeologist were to find this specimen of architecture in Greece, he 
would have no hesitation in at once pronouncing it to be undoubtedly 
Cyclopean ; but, finding it in Ireland, he reserves his judgment. Ireland 


abounds with doorways of ruined Temples, called Churches. They have 
all the Cuthite or Cyclopean characteristic of sloping or inclining jambs. 
Compare the Cyclopean ruins at Mycene, and Etruria, hereinafter introduced, 
with sundry Irish doorways. The reputed Saints, to whom Irish Churches 
are dedicated, will be shown to be nothing more than the Cuthite Pantheon 
christianised. Every so-called Norman doorway and window in Ireland, 
which I have examined, and found in its original position, has this Cyclopean 
peculiarity of sloping or inclining sides ; and I have been informed that a 
single specimen of such characteristic is not to be found in any existing 
example of English Norman. 

The construction of windows is another point, in which the ancient Irish 
architecture stands in direct contrast with the English Norman. Glass was 
known throughout England since the eighth century. It was in general use 
in Churches from the earliest age of Norman architecture. But in Ireland 
there is no specimen of the ancient so-called Norman window adapted to the 
use of glass : the only exception to the rule with regard to England being 
that, in some country Churches specimens of the Early Norman rude 
loopholes were used instead of windows to admit light. But the rudeness 
of architecture in such unglazed windows without a morsel of ashlar stands 
in striking contrast with the Irish windows belonging to the so-called 
Norman style. Such windows will be made the subject of a subsequent 
chapter. I shall here only observe that there are hundreds of them in 
Ireland, and all of the same general character. In respect to masonry, they 
are all made of the best cut-stone, closely and perfectly jointed, some plain- 
others highly ornamented with the richest devices of so-called Norman 
sculpture. But they all exhibit similar characteristics, being constructed so 
as to admit a very limited supply of light ; they are not adapted for fitting of 
glass ; and, they have got slightly inclining jambs being generally from 
half an inch to two inches wider at bottom than at top. The large double 
window at Kilmacduagh (hereinafter inserted) consists of about 200 super- 
ficial feet of beautifully executed cut-stone, used to admit about 9 superficial 


feet of light. This is one of the largest in Ireland; but the characteristics of 
all are alike, namely, thoroughly well-cut stone little light and no prepa- 
ration for glass or frame. While hundreds of this class of window are to be 
found among the " Norman" ruins of Ireland, I have in vain endeavoured 
to discover from the information of those best instructed on the subject the 
existence of a single specimen in England of a well-executed window with 
ashlar jambs having sloping sides, but unprepared for the use of glass. 

The Anglo-Norman architecture is rude compared to the Gothic or 
Pointed style, which succeeded it. Mr. Parker, referring to existing 
examples of early Norman architecture in England (Archaeological Journal, 
vol. 4, p. 204), notices " a considerable degree of roughness in the masonry" as 
a characteristic of them all. The examples to which he refers are The 
Chapel of the White Tower, London ; The Nave of Rochester Cathedral ; 
and portions of the Cathedrals of Ely, Lincoln, Winchester, Worcester, 
Gloucester, Durham, Norwich, and Canterbury. Mr. Rickman, writing of 
the Gothic or Early-English style, says : " After the Conquest, the rich 
Barons erecting very magnificent castles and churches, the execution mani- 
festly improved, though still with much similarity to the Roman mode 
debased. But the introduction of shafts, instead of the massive pier, first 
began to approach that lighter mode of building, which, by the introduction 
of the pointed arch, and by an increased delicacy of execution and boldness 
of composition, ripened at the close of the twelfth century into the simple 
yet beautiful Early-English style." (Rickman s Gothic Architecture, p. 4). 
Now if the best specimens of ancient Norman, in the richest localities of 
England, manifest a considerable degree of roughness in the masonry com- 
pared to the styles which succeeded them, the very opposite is found to be 
the case in Ireland. The so-called Norman ruins in Ireland are in point of 
masonry, and the abundance of ashlar used, as far superior to the Gothic 
buildings (the genuine Christian Churches) as the Gothic of England is 
superior to the English Norman. This anomaly has never before been 
attempted to be explained. 


English Archaeologists have no difficulty in correctly accounting for the 
Gothic or Pointed ruins found in Ireland. Almost every Church in Ireland 
built within the period of authentic history is found to be in the Pointed 
style, like the English of the same date, but far inferior to the English 
Churches in point of material and execution. Most of these Churches were 
subsequently repaired and beautified by the addition of handsome windows, 
and a greater quantity of ashlar ; but even in their improved state they 
fall far short of the " Norman" ruins in respect of the quantity and 
workmanship of the cut-stone used. Randown Church on Lough Ree in 
the County Roscommon is a good example of the Gothic architecture of its 
day. It was built in the reign of King John, and, as some writers say, at 
his express command. The style is the Pointed Gothic, but without a 
vestige of ornamental work, and the masonry is extremely rude. The 
inferiority of this Church to buildings of the same age in England may 
be accounted for on the same principle as Mr. Rickman accounts for the 
inferiority of the Roman work found in England, which, he tells us, " was 
rude, and by no means comparable with the antiquities of Greece and Italy, 
though executed by the Romans." (Rickman, p. 3). 

There are particular dates assigned to more than a hundred Gothic 
Churches and Monasteries in Ireland. The earliest are ascribed to the 
twelfth century ; but there is no historical record whatever of the foundation 
of a single one of the so-called Norman Churches. Two cases are relied 
on by some Irish antiquaries as exceptions to this statement one is that 
of Cormac's Chapel, already noticed ; and the other is that of the Church of 
the Nuns at Clonmacnoise, to which I shall afterwards allude. 

The finding of the zigzag ornament on so many Irish ruins has led to 
the hasty conclusion that such must be Norman ; but we learn from Mr. 
Rickman, that the use of this ornament is much more ancient than the 
Norman architecture. He says (p. 4) : " It is curious to observe that the 
ornament, afterwards used so profusely in Norman work, is used in the 
buildings of Diocletian, the Corinthian modillions being capped with a 



moulding cut in zigzag, which only wants the enlargement of moulding to 
become a real Norman ornament." An examination of the Ruins of 
Palenque and Yucatan, as illustrated by Stephens, will be sufficient to show 
that this favorite Norman ornament belongs to a period of very remote 
antiquity. The zigzag ornament may there be found in great profusion and 
of the same form running in straight bands, as it exists on the southern 
doorway of Cormac's Chapel. 

As an evidence of the inferiority of the Irish genuine Christian architec- 
ture to the English of the same period, I would notice the fact that, while 
several specimens of Bell-towers of stone of the early Norman period exist 
in England, there is no proof that any such ever existed in Ireland. It 
was not till the year 1331, that a Bell-tower of stone was provided for Christ 
Church in Diiblin. 

There is one very ornamental appendage to 
Anglo-Norman Churches, examples of which are to 
be found in every county in England, viz. a double 
window supported by a pier (see fig. 5). They are 
generally used in Bell-towers, and in the fronts of 
Chapter-houses of Norman date. Hundreds of them 
exist in England at this day : but there is not, that 
I am aware of, an ancient specimen of one such in 
any part of Ireland used as a window, although a 
few specimens are found in the chancels of some of 
FIG 5. WINDOW IN JARROW the largest Irish Temples. They are niches, which 

CHURCH, DURHAM. i 11 j , T O T 

were probably made to contain Images or Kehcs. 

I think the fact will be found to be, that, when the general use of stone 
as material for Churches had begun in Ireland, the period of Norman archi- 
tecture in England had been succeeded by the Pointed Gothic or Early- 
English style. 

All the anomalies relating to the ancient Irish " Norman" architec- 
ture are altogether irreconcilable with the assumption of its having been 


borrowed from the English Norman ; but these difficulties are removed by 
assigning it to the Cuthite Colonists of Ireland, of whose existence in ancient 
times there is abundance of such evidence, as the nature of the subject is 
capable of affording. Irish topography, legends, history, language, and 
hagiology, all point back to a period when Ireland was ruled by a nation 
who were descendants of Ham, answering to the Cuthites, about whom the 
learned Bryant has written so much. 

There is an interesting example of the Irish ancient style of architecture, 
which, from the topography and legends connected with it, has strongly 
confirmed my opinions on this subject. It is the church of Kilmelchedor, a 
small building like Cormac's Chapel at Cashel, but less rich in its variety of 
ornament. There is a handsome " Norman" doorway of three orders, 
and the interior is lined with panels, separated by well-cut stone semi- 
detached semi-circular piers. The locality is the parish of Kilmelchedor in 
the wilds of Kerry at the extreme west of Ireland. The building is called 
" Teampull Melchedor," which (as Irish) may be translated " The 
Temple of the Golden Molach." On the inside of the soffit stone of the 
doorway is sculptured in relief the head of an Ox the Golden Molach 
himself. The presence of this emblem of divinity is explained by the 
learned Bryant, who tells us that " it was usual with the Amonians 
[Cuthites] to describe upon the architrave of their temples some emblem of 
the deity who there presided." The Ox's head on the architrave of the 
" Temple of the Golden Molach" is eight inches broad, and projects five 
inches above the surface of the stone, which, having been originally seven- 
teen inches thick, was reduced to twelve inches for its whole length, so as to 
leave the head five inches in relief. The name is spelled Melchedair in the 
Martyrology of Donegal (p. 127), the derivation may therefore be Melech, 
the offspring of Dair, the Oak, which will afterwards be shown to be of 
Cuthite origin. It is probable that the Temple, as well as its reputed founder, 
may have been called by both names. The name of the parish is at this 
day spelled Kilmelchedor and Kilmalkeader. The promontory of Sybil Head 


is in the same locality. All these names are of Cuthite origin, as is also the 
term " Golden" applied to Molach. Bryant has written at considerable length 
on " The Golden Age," showing that it referred to the period of Cuthite domi- 
nion. See Bryant, vol. 4, p. 210. Some Archaeologists to whom Cormac's 
Chapel presented no difficulty, have been sadly puzzled to account for a 
beautiful " Norman" Temple in such a remote locality as the parish of Kilmel- 
chedor. I may add that the tradition of the common people in this place is, 
that it was erected by supernatural agency in one night. I may also remark 
here that this legend, of being erected in one night, is never applied to 
Gothic ruins, but only to Round Towers, Irish Crosses, " Norman" Churches, 
and such Cuthite relics, which may perhaps be accounted for by the fact that, 
after a long period of the dominion of the Celts, who had no stone buildings, 
these beautiful Cyclopean remains could only be explained by the peasantry 
as the result of supernatural agency. 

There is another Irish peculiarity which marks the contrast between 
English Norman and ancient Irish architecture. A striking characteristic 
of Cyclopean architecture is, that the stones are not set in horizontal courses, 
but they are so prepared, that the irregularities of one stone are met by the 
angles of the stones adjoining. This mode of workmanship was evidently 
designed to communicate strength. The same principle may be perceived, 
introduced in profusion, throughout the Ashlar masonry of the " Norman" 
ruins of Ireland. There is scarcely a window of this style throughout 
Ireland, in which specimens of such masonry are not to be found. Several 
specimens may be perceived in the cut-stone window of Kilmacduagh : and 
a variety of others, some very singular examples, may be seen in the 
illustrations of this book ; but indeed this style of jointing is common through- 
out the ancient ruins of Ireland ; while I believe scarcely a specimen of the 
like is to be found in English Norman architecture. 

Now if so striking a feature of Irish " Norman" ashlar work is 
absent in England, it is a fact utterly irreconcilable with the theory that the 
Irish was derived from the English Norman. I have elsewhere shown that 


the English Norman is rude compared with the several styles which suc- 
ceeded it, but the opposite is the case in Ireland. There are in Ireland 
at this day no better specimens of stone cutting and closeness of jointing 
than the ashlar work of the so called Norman ruins. Norman architecture 
has become fashionable in Ireland within the past 20 years. Every Church 
and other building, intended to be expensive and handsome in the extreme, 
is built in the Norman style. Notwithstanding which there is nothing to be 
found in Irish modern architecture, which for richness of ornament and 
costliness of work is worthy of comparison with the Cuthite doorways of 
Kilmelchedor, Freshford Church or Clonfert cathedral, with their Cuthite 



I shall in the course of this work have occasion to refer to about one 
hundred and forty localities where specimens of the style of Irish architecture 
called " Norman," or fragments of sculpture belonging to the same order, are 
to be found. I would direct the reader's particular attention to the fact that 
about a hundred and twenty of these localities are associated with the names of 
5th and 6th century saints Cuthite divinities, or Finian heroes. The few 
that are not connected with such names are foundations, of which no record, 
written or traditional, has been preserved ; but the topography of most of 
these places proves that they are undoubtedly as ancient as the others. 

Now I would ask how it came to pass, that builders of Norman architec- 
ture in the 1 2th century should invariably have chosen ancient foundations, 
ascribed to the 5th and 6th centuries, for their sites ? How is it, that the 
records of the I2th century are silent respecting the erection of these beautiful 
" Norman" edifices and Crosses, while they are very particular in noticing 
the erection of Gothic buildings of the same date buildings, which, be it 

remembered, are much inferior as specimens of artistic skill to the so-called 



Norman architecture ? The conclusion to be drawn from these facts seems to 
my mind unanswerable, namely, that we must assign the ancient Irish 
architecture and sculpture to a date as early at least as the 6th century ; and, 
as abundance of evidence has already been adduced to prove, that the Celtic 
Irish (who preceded the Danes and the English) had no architecture or 
sculpture in stone, we are forced to the further conclusion, that the ancient 
architecture (which existed in the 6th century) must have been the work of 
the antecedent Cuthite colonies of Ireland, the names of whose Divinities 
and Heroes answer to those of the reputed founders of the Irish " Norman" 

One very important fact tends to disprove the assumption, that the 
ancient Irish architecture is Norman. This is, that the so-called Norman 
architecture has disappeared wherever Norman colonists obtained a perma- 
nent footing in Ireland. 

If the reader wishes to visit the best specimens, and in greatest variety, 
of ancient " Norman" buildings in Ireland, he must go to those remote 
parts of the country where the Normans were never known to be in occupation ! 
Several specimens of this ancient style of architecture are found at Glenda- 
lough in the County Wicklow, but this is owing to the exceptional circum- 
stance that the district, though within 25 miles of Dublin and surrounded by 
the English Pale, was held by the O'Tooles, an Irish Clan, " who maintained 
possession of it with uncontrolled authority till the i *]th century" Clonmacnoise 
also has its " Norman" ruins, but even to this day that district, unlike the 
remainder of the King's County, is inhabited by families almost exclusively 
Irish. Yet, notwithstanding the numerous ruins of Glendalough and Clon- 
macnoise, I think it will be found that with the exception of Round Towers 
and Sculptured Crosses, which have been everywhere carefully preserved 
during the past hundred years a greater number of specimens of Cyclopean 
and so-called Norman, but really Cuthite architecture exist in the County of 
Clare and the islands of Aran, Scattery, and Iniscaltra on its coasts, than in 
the twenty-one counties of Leinster and Ulster. These provinces have 


been occupied almost entirely by English and Scotch settlers, while in Clare 
the inhabitants have ever been for the most part of exclusively Irish descent. 

Wherever a good specimen of this architecture is to be met with in 
Ulster or Leinster, there are generally some exceptional circumstances 
connected with it to account for its not having disappeared like the others. 
Thus, for instance, a beautiful doorway (called Norman by archaeologists) is 
preserved at Kilmore Cathedral in the County Cavan. This relic of ancient 
times owes its preservation to the fact of Bishop Bedell's having been 
imprisoned during the wars of Charles the First's time in the island of 
Cloher Oughter. He there saw this beautiful doorway, which, on being 
restored to his See, he got transferred to the Cathedral of Kilmore. Here 
it remained for about 200 years. A new Cathedral having been erected a 
few years since, the ancient doorway was considered too handsome to be 
abandoned ; so it was again removed, and is now beyond comparison the 
richest piece of work in the handsome new Cathedral. 

There are ten Saints, or Cuthite divinities, recorded in connection with 
ruins in the County of Clare. Every one of these names is found also in 
Ulster and in Leinster, but in these provinces the Temples, with which they 
were associated, have for the most part disappeared, only fragments being 
left to attest their former existence. Having gone to search for one of these 
temples in Drumhome parish, County Donegal, which the Ordnance Survey 
had marked as a Ruin on their map, I ascertained that every vestige of it 
had disappeared. Meeting shortly after an intelligent farmer of Norman 
descent, he told me that a very curious little Church had stood on his farm 
with carved stones and a grave of uncommon construction, but that a short 
time ago he had thrown down the Church and broken the stones for draining 
materials ! This, from his description of the ruin and locality, I believe to 
have been the one for which I had been searching. 

The efforts of the Government after the Reformation to overcome 
popular superstition still further account for the disappearance of these 
ancient Temples, such having ever been the resort of pilgrims, being the 


localities of Holy Wells and other relics of the supposed Saints. Mr. Otway 
relates of the island in Lough Derg, County Donegal, called " Patrick's 
Purgatory," that " in 1632 'the State ordered Sir James Balfour and Sir 
William Stewart to seize unto his Majesty's use this island of Purgatory ; 
and accordingly we find that Sir William proceeds to the island, and reports 
that he found an abbot and forty friars, and that there was a daily resort of 
four hundred and fifty pilgrims, who paid eightpence each for admission 
to the island. Sir William further informs the Privy Council, that in order 
to hinder the seduced people from going any longer to this stronghold of 
Purgatory, and wholly to take away the abuse hereafter, he had directed the 
whole to be defaced and utterly demolished ; therefore the walls, works, 
foundations, vaults, etc., he ordered to be rooted up, also the place called 
St. Patrick's bed, and the stone on which he knelt. These and all other 
superstitious relics he ordered to be thrown into the lough.' " (Donegal 
Highlands, p. 64). 

So effectually did Sir William Stewart finish his work, that not one stone 
upon another is now to be found on the once celebrated island of Purgatory. 
Similar records exist with reference to other places, and what is recorded of 
one place was no doubt done at other localities also. We need therefore 
have no difficulty in accounting for the disappearance of Cuthite Temples 
from numerous sites, which are still associated with Cuthite names. 

I have already observed that English Archaeology has been reduced to a 
Science, and that the Irish Gothic Architecture fits into the place, to which 
English Archaeologists would assign it; but not so with the Irish so-called 
" Norman." Difficulties and anomalies with respect to it present themselves 
at every step. John Henry Parker Esq. of Oxford is perhaps the most 
learned man of the age on the subject of genuine Norman Architecture. I 
doubt whether, for many years, he has experienced any difficulty on questions 
relating to Norman Churches ; but when he comes to examine the Irish 
ruins, he confesses that the subject has not yet been mastered. The fact 
that the Irish had no Roman buildings to copy from, while the English and 


Continental nations had, presented difficulties to his mind in accounting 
for the fact, that some so-called " Norman" buildings of Ireland display as 
much artistic skill as buildings of the same age in England and France ; 
but he assists us in arriving at the truth, by reminding us that the architec- 
ture of a country cannot be properly understood without a knowledge of 
its history. His last sentence of a series of articles on the subject in the 
Gentleman s Magazine is " The study of Irish Architecture is only commenced, 
and will require the labour of many heads and hands to work it out as it ought 
to be." 

The question then suggests itself, whence was the English and French 
Norman Architecture derived ? I mean the peculiar characteristics of it, as 
distinguished from the Roman. A difficult question to answer at this day ; 
yet it might be accounted for first, by the fact, that, although in the 8th 
and Qth centuries the Irish despised Architecture, yet their Schools and 
Colleges, as seats of learning, are generally supposed to have been superior 
to any in Europe at the time, in proof of which numerous authorities might 
be adduced, for instance King Alfred is said to have been educated in 
Ireland, at the college of Baal in Mayo, and all of his time, who desired to 
become scholars, came to Ireland for education. 

Now, as some of the most beautiful specimens of our ancient architecture 
existed in the localities of Irish Colleges, though even then in ruins, it is but 
reasonable to suppose that they should not be overlooked by some intelligent 
Architects among the English and other foreigners although disregarded by 
the Irish. 

This would in part account for the Norman Architecture in England and 
other places ; but in addition, it may be said, secondly, that if the Cuthites 
be assumed to have inhabited Ireland, it may be proved that they had 
settlements also in England, Scotland, France, and Switzerland; and vestiges 
of their buildings may have remained so long after, as to suggest designs for 
Norman Architecture ; however these countries are beyond the range of the 
.subject of this work. 


An impartial examination of the whole subject will lead to the con- 
clusion, that not only these relics of " Norman" Architecture, but also the 
general form of our ancient Churches with many of their ornaments, had 
their origin in a Heathen age. M. de Beugnot, a very learned Roman 
Catholic writer, whose work was sanctioned by the Institute of France, 
informs us that 

" After the Council of Ephesus the churches of the East and West offered 
to the adoration of the faithful the Virgin Mary. They received this new 
worship with an enthusiasm sometimes too great, since for many Christians 
this worship became the whole of Christianity. The heathen did not 
endeavour to defend their altars against the progress of this worship of the 
Mother of God. They opened to Mary the Temples, which they had kept 
shut against Jesus Christ, and confessed themselves conquered. It is true, 
they often mixed with the adoration of Mary those heathen ideas, those vain 
practices, those ridiculous superstitions, from which they seemed unable to 
separate themselves. The Church, however, was delighted to see them 
enter into her bosom, because she knew well that it would be easy for her, 
with the help of time, to purify from its alloy a worship, whose essence was 
purity itself." (M. de Beiignot, Histoire de la Destruction du Paganisme en 
Occident. Vol. ii., 271). 

His illustration of the fact is in the following note : " Among a multitude 
of proofs I choose only one, to shew with what facility the worship of Mary 
swept before it the remains of heathenism which still covered Europe 
Notwithstanding the preaching of St. Hilarion, Sicily had remained faithful 
to the old worship [Heathenism]. After the Council of Ephesus [that which 
offered the Virgin Mary to the adoration of the faithful] we see its eight 
finest Pagan Temples become, in a very short space of time, Churches under 
the invocation of the Virgin." 

These circumstances account for the fact, that not only the buildings, and 
localities connected with the worship, but the customs and traditions of 
Heathenism, passed over to Christian uses. Heathen Feasts became Saints' 


Days, legends of Heathen Gods became ascribed to Christian mythical 
Saints ; and the localities, venerated on account of their association with 
Heathen legends and worship, became the favorite sites of Christian 
Churches and Monasteries. We learn that Theodoret recommended that, 
to win the Gentiles, they should present to " them the Saints and Martyrs 
in lieu of their demi-gods." 


Among the many relics of Heathenism which were thus transferred to 
Christianity, I reckon the Winged Bull, the Winged Lion, the Angel, and 
the Eagle. Whilst other monstrosities of Heathenism were rejected from 
Christian uses, these were suffered to remain, and were adopted as the 
emblems of the Four Evangelists. The Christians, who first adopted them 
as such, never anticipated, that in the nineteenth century similar figures 
would be found among the ruins of Nineveh, to which Christianity could lay 
no claim. I believe that they had their origin, like many heathen customs 
and traditions, in some primeval revelations (probably antediluvian) such as 
are described in Ezekiel (chap, i.), and elsewhere in Scripture ; and that, like 
other sacred truths, they became corrupted in after times into the heathen 
monstrosities exhibited at Nineveh. 

Fig. 6 is copied from A CJiart of Anglican Church Ornament collected 
from ancient existing samples by F. Bedford, Jun. " The Emblems of the 
Evangelists : The Angel (appropriated to St. Matthew) supposed to signify 
the Manhood of our Lord the Lion, (St. Mark) His Almighty power the 
Ox or Bull, (St. Luke) His Sacrifice and the Eagle, (St. John) His Resur- 
rection and Ascension. From a Brass in Selby Abbey Church." 

In Fig. 7 are the corresponding figures found among the Ruins of 
Nineveh ; and in Fig. 8 are the Winged Bull and Winged Lion found among 
the Ruins of Cashel. I merely notice this remarkable coincidence and simili- 
tude between the three, but I cannot take on myself to say positively whether 


the Cashel figures are pagan or Christian sculptures, though the fork on the 
Lion's tail (St. Mark) does not appear on the devices, which are generally 
admitted to be of Christian origin. 




It is remarkable, in considering the ancient Irish so-called " Norman" 
Architecture, that, while the strictest uniformity of outline perfectly con- 
sistent with Architectural taste is preserved, there is in the Irish specimens 
a rich variety in detail of Ornament. For richness and beauty the speci- 
mens which remain are not excelled by those found in any other country in 





Europe. It has before been remarked, that of the thirty ornaments of 
Capitals at Cashel Temple though all alike in outline there are no two of 
the Capitals alike in the detail of ornament. Fig. 9 represents the orna- 
ments of opposite Capitals of the Southern doorway. 




Fig. 10 is that of an idol, formed of well-cut limestone, two feet six 
inches in height, which was discovered some years since, buried several feet 
under the ground near the base of the Round Tower at Cashel. I believe 
it to be the emblem of Female nature, the " Grove" of the Scriptures, 
and possibly the " Fiedh-nemadh" of the Irish, treated of in a subsequent 

Fig. 1 1 is another sculpture found among the Ruins of Cashel. There is 
not a vestige of Christian symbolism to be seen among the devices upon it. 
The arch with the pointed top has its exact counterpart repeated many 
times in the view (Fig. 3) of the temple of Carli. Whether it is Christian, 
or heathen, I will not take upon myself to decide. I am however of opinion, 
that it is heathen, and therefore I insert it as a Cuthite relic, leaving the reader 
to judge for himself. There are several Christian Altars in Ireland exhibit- 
ing much the same outline, but the contrast between them and that at 
Cashel in respect to detail and elaborateness of design is so marked, as to 

lead me to believe that the only connection between them is, that the ancient 

E 2 




Cashel sculpture may have suggested the design for the modern Christian 

This piece of Sculpture consists of nine panels, five of which the most 
interesting are represented in fig. n. The whole piece, as it now stands, 
is seven feet two inches long, by two feet one inch in height. 


T3 EFORE proceeding further with the subject of Irish Architecture, I 
JL>J shall make a short digression upon Irish History, as the one is 
intimately interwoven with the other. 

No country in Europe possesses so large an amount of ancient historical 
records as Ireland, yet objections have been raised as to the genuineness of 
these records, so as to make them contemptible among the learned. How- 
'ever there are few, if any, among those who have studied them, who believe 
them to be purely inventions ; and, for my own part, I have been often 
puzzled in forming an opinion upon them, by the evident marks of antiquity, 
coupled with the ingenuousness of those who recorded them, on the one 
hand ; and the direct contradictions and absurdities of some of the principal 
records, on the other. The conclusion to which I have been led is that, 
Irish History was originally genuine, and extended as far back into remote 
antiquity as it purports to do ; but that on different occasions it underwent 
corruption and alteration, owing to various circumstances, which at the pre- 
sent day deprive it of such value as a relic of antiquity, as attaches to the 
fragments of Sanchoniathon and Berosus. 

If neither the English, nor their predecessors the Celts, were the 
artificers of the Round Towers and Crosses, we must seek in History 
for some other people more ancient still, whose reputation would justify 
us in ascribing such works to them. Now we find such a people in the 
Tuath-de-Danaans, who, Dr. Petrie informs us, (p. 384), "are always 
referred to as superior to the Scoti in the knowledge of the arts. We learn," 
he says, " that in the traditions of the Irish the Tuath-de-Danaans were no 


less distinguished from their conquerors in their personal than in their 
mental characteristics." 

The age in which the Tuath-de-Danaans flourished corresponds with the 
period of Cuthite rule elsewhere throughout the world ; and I think it will be 
found, that there are good historical grounds for concluding also that the 
Irish colonies of Fomcerians and Nemedians (predecessors of the Tuath-de- 
Danaans) were of the same Cuthite race. 

As to proofs on this subject 

First, we have, on the unanimous testimony of Irish Historians, the fact, 
that the Tuath-de-Danaans (the last Cuthite Colony that settled in Ireland, 
about 1,900 B.C.) were learned, and well skilled in Science and Magic. This 
must be taken as an unquestionable fact, because it is recorded by all His- 
torians of the Celtic race who subdued the Cuthites. The Celts were 
ignorant of the use of letters until taught by the vanquished party/' 5 " 

The Bards or Priests of the Tuath-de-Danaans, after their Phallic 
worship became interdicted or utterly abolished, continued for generations to 
be the Musicians, the Poets, the Historians, and finally the flatterers of their 
masters. These in time, I doubt not, corrupted Irish History by ascribing 
to the Celtic Chieftains the pedigrees and records of ancient exploits, which 
properly belonged to their Cuthite or Tuath-de-Danaan predecessors. Thus 
we find the Celtic pedigrees extending to Noah ; though I very much doubt 
whether the celebrated Heber and Heremon, their first Kings, could have 
told the names of their ancestors to the fourth generation. From mingling 
among the Tuath-de-Danaans, the Celts soon acquired that taste for long 
pedigrees, of which they afterwards became so proud. This I believe to 
have been the first great corruption of Irish History. 

Many names of Tuath-de-Danaan divinities, after their religion was inter- 
dicted, were ascribed in the mythic legends of the Bards to the supposed Kings 

* We have the authority of the Book of Ballymote for stating, that the Scythians acquired their 
knowledge of letters from Ogmus, the Tuath-de-Danaan. (O'Brien's Round Towers, p. 493). 


and Heroes of that race ; while the names of real historical personages of 
the Tuath-de-Danaans were, with their pedigrees, exploits, and wanderings, 
ascribed by the Bards to their conquerors, the Celts. This corruption of 
history seems to have been systematized in the reign of Olam Fodla (about 
700 B.C.). He revived much of the learning, and some customs of the 
Tuath-de-Danaans such as the Taltine Games at Tara, and the use of the 
Laic Feal, or Coronation Stone ; only transferring their traditions to his own 
Celtic race. He is called the Solomon of the Irish. 

If we examine the several accounts, which have reached us, of the 
" Laic Feal," or " Stone of Destiny" supposed to be the Coronation Stone 
in Westminster Abbey, they will serve to illustrate what I have said 
respecting the corruptions of Irish History. 

The Tuath-de-Danaans are stated by the best Authorities to have 
brought this stone with them to Ireland, together with other wonderful objects 
said to have been possessed of magical properties. (Keating, vol. i, p. 70). 

This is the account now generally received in Ireland, and I believe it 
to be the truth ; but the relic was too venerable as a Coronation stone, not 
in time to be turned to use by the victorious Celts and accordingly another 
version of its history was invented. The Chronicles of Eri inform us, 
that, long before the Celts left Spain, the God " Baal had sent the blessed 
Stone," Lafail, to their ancestors, with instructions as to its use. Cathac, their 
Chief, brought it to Ireland, after which the Danaans, hearing of its virtue, 
did bear it away to Oldanmact, where it remained till the reign of Olam 
Fodla, who brought it to Tara, and restored it to its original use (O'Connor's 
Translation,* vol. 2, p. 88). This Olam Fodla is described as " a prince of 
the most comprehensive knowledge, that ever sat on the Irish Throne. He 

* I am aware that O'Connor's " Chronicles of Eri " is not looked upon as good autho- 
rity by learned archaeologists, and that some suppose it to have been a composition by 
Mr. O'Connor himself. But to my mind the early portion of it bears internal evidence 
of authenticity as an ancient composition. I believe it to be the work of Olam Fodla, in 
fact, the work in which he systematized the plagiarisms, by which he assigned to his own 
ancestors the history and pedigrees of their Cuthite predecessors. In it he brings the 


perused and revised the National Records, erasing all falsehoods and he 
punished severely all historians who made improper representations" 
(Keating, vol. i, p. 197). That is to say : He altered the records, in order 
to suit the pretensions of his own dominant race to that remote antiquity of 
which Irish Annals treated ; and he enforced these alterations on Historians 
by severe penal laws. 

A third legend respecting the Laic Feal, noticed by O' Flaherty, is that, 
Simon Breac, the leader of a colony of Scythians, came from Spain to invade 
Ireland "whither he carried the marble stone, we call the fatal stone, on 
which our kings were installed, and from which Ireland was called Inis Fail, 
which they say Gathelus brought out of Egypt, or, as some will have, Simon 
drew up from the bottom of the sea with an anchor, in a great tempest," 
(Ogygia Vindicated, p. 30). 

A fourth account of the " Laic Feal," or " Stone of Destiny" (invented 
after the introduction of Christianity), is, that it was the stone Jacob used for 
his pillow at Bethel ; that Gad-el-glas, the ancestor of the Celts, received it from 
Moses when in the Wilderness, and that he (Gad-el-glas) having been bitten by 
a fiery serpent was cured by looking at the Serpent of Brass, for which 
reason his descendants used the Snake entwined on a pole for centuries 
afterwards as their National Standard. (See Keating, vol. i, pp. 208, 213). 

The true solution of these contradictions I believe to be, that Gad-el-glas 

Scythian Irish from the banks of the Tethgris [Tigris] to Ibar [Iberia, Spain] before their 
arrival in Ireland thus far corresponding with Bryant's researches respecting the Cuthite migra- 
tions from Babylon. The myth respecting the Laic Feal is too flimsy to conceal the truth it 
covers. I need not notice the improbability of the enslaved Danaans, having heard of its 
virtues, being able to steal from their conquerors and bear away to Oldanmact [Connaught], 
their most venerated relic, the Laic Feal. But the truth is transparent through the legend- 
namely, that the Danaans when conquered took with them from Tara to Oldanmact [Connaught] 
their own venerated relic, and there retained it until the reign of Olam Fodla, who took forcible 
possession of the Sacred Stone, finding that without it he could not effect his purposes. Olam 
Fodla's erasing all falsehoods from the National Records, as he is stated to have done, and his 
misunderstanding and reconciliation with the Danaans, seem to me very significant circumstances 
all confirming my explanations regarding this composition. 


was not the name of a man, much less of an ancestor of the Celts, but the 
name of the Serpent, which was worshipped by the Cuthites. Mr. O'Brien 
interprets the name " Gad el Glass" " Green God snake." It was in fact 
the Serpent of Paradise, which through primeval traditions found its way into 
the worship of all the nations of remote antiquity. It is also singular and 
worthy of notice, that the name " Cathac," the Celtic chief who, according 
to the Chronicles of Eri, brought this Stone from Spain to Ireland, should 
also answer to the name of the Serpent Cathac is the name of the double- 
headed Serpent, which, according to yet extant oral tradition, kept possession 
of Scattery Island, until overcome by St. Shanaun. 

The traditions of this Serpent, continuing among the people long after all 
Cuthite worship was abolished, were transferred to Celtic myths, and, after 
the introduction of Christianity the legend was enlarged by addition of the 
names of Jacob and Moses, and the Scriptural account of the fiery serpents in 
the wilderness. 

The Legendary Poems, ascribed to Ossian and others, seem to have 
had their origin in remote antiquity, many of the names of their heroes 
being found to correspond with those of the Tuath-de-Danaan race. Several 
parallels have lately been drawn in Archaeological Journals, between these 
legends and similar ones in the extreme East, but space will not permit of 
my enlarging upon this part of the subject. 

There appeared in the Ulster Journal, vol. 7, p. 334, a most interest- 
ing article by Mr. O'Laverty, in which he records several very ancient 
Irish legends, comparing them with similar legends of the East, and of 
ancient Grecian Mythology. The coincidence of names and events is 
wonderful, and is sufficient to prove that the legends are mythological, and 
not historical. 

The story of Conloch, the son of the Irish Hero, Cuchullin, is compared 
with the Persian legend of Rustam. In both cases, the father is described as 
killing his own son, not knowing him to be such until the time of his death. 

The Irish King Labhradh Loing-Seach is compared with Midas King 


of Phrygia, and son of the goddess Cybele. Both had asses' or horses' ears 
both took equal pains to conceal the fact, but in both instances the manner 
of discovery of the deformity was the same, and miraculous. 

Conan of Ossian is compared with the Thersites of Homer. 

ODuibne of Ossian is compared with Adonis of Greek mythology. 
Their histories are wonderfully alike. Each is killed by a mystical Boar. 
The story of the Irish King Balor Beimeaun is contrasted with the Grecian 
legends of Perseus. The incidents are so much alike in each case, as to 
prove that both were derived from the same mythological origin. 

Mr. O'Laverty's article is well worthy the attention of every student of 
the subject. 

The second corruption of Irish history took place after the introduction 
of Christianity. 

The Bards finding that the Bible records, which they did not venture 
to question, contradicted theirs in several particulars, undertook to correct 
the latter, superinducing on the ancient legends names borrowed from 
Scripture history ; and then were introduced the names of Jacob and Moses, 
which of course never appeared in the National Records before the Chris- 
tian era. These circumstances are to be regretted, as they have deprived 
the most ancient Irish Records of much of that interest, which would have 
attached to them had they come to us in their original form ; and the 
manifest contradictions thus occasioned in the Records, touching such points 
as I have referred to, leave the reader to his own choice, as to which Record 
(if to either) he will give any credit. I have already said that I believe the 
Tuath-de-Danaans, the Fomoerians, and the Nemedians to have been 
different Colonies of the same people ; and that all were Cuthites, or 
descendants of Ham. Thus Vallancey refers (vol. 4, p. 155), to the state- 
ment in " the Reim Riogra," or Royal Calendar of Ireland, that this (Tuath- 
de-Danaan) " Colony was of the family of Cush the Son of Ham." Then 
follows the pedigree. 

From the above Royal Calendar (which is admitted to be one of the 


most genuine authorities) I conclude, that the Tuath-de-Danaans were of 
the posterity of Cush, which is also confirmed by many other writers on 
Ireland, although Keating, without quoting any authority, dissents from it. 

In @ Flaherty s Ogygia, vol. i, p. 19, we read, " Breas, the first King 
of the Danaans being of the Fomcerian race by his father, and Danaan by 
his mother ; and Lugad the third King of the Danaans, who was a Danaan 
by his father and grandson of the King of the Fomcerians by his daughter, 
put it beyond possibility of doubt that a mutual commerce and intermar- 
riage subsisted between the Fomcerians and Danaans." 

In confirmation of Mr. O' Flaherty's opinion, Mr. O Brien furnishes an 

Irish quotation from the Book of Leccan to prove that the last three Tuath- 

-de- Danaan Chiefs, who ruled together at the time of the Celtic Invasion, 

were the sons of Milad, a Fomcerian, by a Queen of the Tuath-de-Danaans 

(See p. 393). I not only agree with Mr. O'Flaherty in his conclusion, 

but I believe them to have been of the same Cuthite race, the names of 

successive colonists being different, but all bearing the same general character. 

As to the name " Fomcerians," pronounced " Fomorogh," Mr. O'Brien 

interprets it as meaning " Mariners of Fo" or Budha. 

Doctor Keating states that the Tuath-de-Danaans, and their predeces- 
sors the Nemedians, sprung from the same stock. In fact he traces relation- 
ship between the Nemedians, the Tuath-de-Danaans, and the Gadelians or 
Scythians, but while other historians noticed by O'Flaherty (vol. i, p. 7), say 
they were all the offspring of Cham, Keating ascribes their ancestry to 
Japheth, the son of Noah ; and also, contrary to numerous other respectable 
authorities, he traces the descent of the Fomcerians or African pirates 
to Shem, the son of Noah, (vol. i, pp. 49 and 52). The identity of race of 
early Irish colonists seems to have been generally recognized ; but, after 
Christianity had brought to light the curse upon Ham and his descend- 
ants, the Celtic Irish were forced either to abandon the ancient pedigrees 
which they had assumed, or else to declare the whole stock of ancestors 
to have been uncontaminated by the blood of Ham. This explanation 


to my mind accounts for the discrepancies which ancient Irish pedigrees 

The name by which the Colony is designated Nemedians I am dis- 
posed to think is derived from " NEMEADH," holy or consecrated, rather 
than from " Nemed," the proper name of their Chief or King. This inter- 
pretation agrees with what would appear to be the pretensions of the first 
apostates, for Persia was called " Iran," interpreted to mean in the Palahvi 
language, " Sacred land, or land of believers ;" and the ancient name of 
Ireland was " Irin" " the Sacred Island." 

Keating proceeds to tell us, that at Achaia the "Tuath-de-Danaans learned 
the art of Necromancy and Enchantment, and became so expert in Magical 
knowledge," that when the city of Athens was invaded by the Assyrians, 
these Sorcerers by their diabolical charms raised the dead bodies of the 
Athenians, and brought them next day into the field, which sorely vexed the 
Assyrians. The force of their enchantment being destroyed by the skill of 
the Assyrian Druid, they fled, wandering from place to place. (Vol. i, 
p. 68). 

It would appear that the Phallic element in the religion of the ancient 
Irish was specially interdicted in the Celtic worship, the two systems being in 
certain other respects alike. The Celts worshipped the Sun under the name of 
Croum on Cromlechs ; but among the traditions of the peasantry the names 
and customs of the Tuath-de-Danaans never ceased to be traced. It would 
seem that the Celts, on appropriating the pedigrees and traditions of their 
predecessors, adopted the names of Graine and Baal (from which such tradi- 
tions were inseparable), but only as aliases of the name of the Sun. We 
have a remarkable instance of this in the present Irish name of May- Day 
*' La Baal Thinna"- the day of Baal's Fire. The name of " Baltinglass," 
V The Fire of the green Baal," may be also traced to the same source, and 
it is probable that the name of " the Green God Snake" (Gad-el-glas) may 
have given rise to Ireland being first called the " Green Island." 

Who the " Green God" was may be learned from Colemaris Hindu 


Mythology, p. 133, where we find that the primeval Budh the planet Mer- 
cury (whose monogram we have in a subsequent illustration,) was described as 
of a greenish colour. Maurice suggests that this monogram represented 
the Sun and Moon combined with the sacred cross, and that its outline 
answered to the form of the celebrated caduceus of Mercury the double snake 
entwined round a rod, answering to the Irish standard of Gad-el-glas, already 
noticed, (Maurices Hist, of Hindoostan, vol. i, p. 235). It would therefore 
appear that the colour green was that, in which this snake was originally 
represented. This would explain the Green Budh of India ; the Green God 
Snake of Ireland ; the Green Baal, of Baltinglass ; as well as several other 
names of Irish topography, such as Tirdaglas, the Tower of the Green God 
(now Terryglass in Tipperary), an ancient ecclesiastical establishment of the 
5th century ; also Achad-ur (Freshford, Co. Kilkenny), which may be trans- 
lated, the Green Achad. The word ACHAD is found in our Irish diction- 
aries, and rendered " A green field." The real original meaning of 
ACHAD is furnished to us by Bryant, vol. I, p. 104, of his Anticnt Mytho- 
logy, who tells us that it was a Cuthite radical, and a term applied by the 
Amonians to their Deity. (See the subsequent notice of the term ACHAD.) 
Like many other cases to be found throughout Ireland, the original meaning 
of this term became obsolete, when the ancient religion with which it was 
connected was proscribed ; but the name itself still remained in connection 
with some localities where the worship had been carried on. The name 
Achad is frequently found in Irish topography, but never that I could 
discover except in places of ancient ecclesiastical renown ; and therefore 
it is unreasonable to suppose, that its primary meaning should have 
been simply " a green field," though such interpretation is sufficiently 
probable as a secondary signification, after the original use of the term was 

The May Pole ceremony, with its dancing and rejoicing, was in fact a 
common mode of celebrating the Feast of Baal at a distance from the 
Round Tower, or real May Pole ; and it was continued among the peasantry 


as a harmless custom long after the Round Tower worship was interdicted, 
and after the knowledge of its real origin was lost by lapse of time. 

Although we know on the highest existing historical evidence, that at 
the time of the Celtic invasion the Fomcerians or Fomorogh were closely 
connected with the Tuath-de-Danaan Kings ; yet the contempt, with which 
posterity was taught to regard their very name, may be judged from the 
fact, that to this day the Dogfish, a miniature Shark of no value as food 
and very destructive to its finny brethren, is honoured with the very name 
" Fomorogh." The humble fisherman knows the word only as the Irish 
name for the Dogfish. 

A well-known opprobrious term in use among the Irish to this day 
BUDH A VOHER (Budh of the Road), by which is meant an idle good- 
for-nothing vagabond, is, according to O'Brien's explanation, synonymous 
with " Agious Apollo," " Apollo of the high Road ;" though it is probable 
that the term, as one of the ancient appellations of the Divinity, was once as 
much venerated in Ireland as it is now despised. 

I am disposed on the whole to agree with Mr. O'Brien in ascribing the 
erection of the Round Towers to the Cuthites, whether under the name of 
Tuath-de-Danaans, Nemedians, or Fomcerians (the latter of whom are stated 
to have been the Aborigines), and I also believe them to have been the 
artificers of the Ancient Crosses and Stone-roofed Temples, as well as of 
the so-called Bells and Croziers. For, in addition to the evidence that the 
predecessors of the Celts were a colony of Cuthites, who were well-skilled 
in all that in their age constituted learning and science, especially in the art 
of building, of which they have left traces in the Cyclopean Architecture 
found wherever they had settled all over the world, we have also the 
strongest presumptive evidence, which such a subject will admit of, that these 
Towers were not built by any subsequent inhabitants of Ireland, and 
therefore the conclusion is but reasonable, that they were the work of the 



Defective as the ancient political history of this country is, it is truth 
itself, compared with the narrations in the Lives of the Saints, the supposed 
Founders of the earliest Christian structures in Ireland. 

It will be found, that most of the localities of Round Towers, Crosses, 
and other specimens of (so-called) Norman Architecture of the ancient style, 
are foundations ascribed to the earliest ages of Christianity in Ireland, 
namely, the 5th and 6th centuries ; and this period I shall beg leave to call 
the fabulous age of the Irish Church. How far I am justified in thus desig- 
nating it is left to the reader to judge. 

It is also to be observed that they are stated to be the foundations of 
Saints, many of whom are said to have wrought extraordinary miracles ; and 
most of the names of these supposed Saints are so suspicious as to lead to 
the conviction, that they are names of heathen divinities, traditionally pre- 
served among the peasantry, until early Christian writers -per/taps from 
well-meaning ignorance ascribed them to Christian Saints. 

Popular traditions preserved names, and transmitted with comparative 
accuracy the extravagant legends connected with them ; but Chronology 
never could be preserved by such means. From the introduction of Christi- 
anity all literature or written matter remained in the custody of Ecclesiastics, 
the legends of the Bards having been orally communicated. In after times, 
when it was thought desirable to ascribe ancient legends to Christian Saints, 
all were without distinction referred to the 5th and 6th centuries, as of course 
no celebrated Saint could have been ascribed to a period before St. Patrick. 
This was the foundation of our Irish Hagiology, which began to be com- 
mitted to writing about the loth century. 

The ancient literature seems to have been destroyed by the early Chris- 
tians, as we read that St. Patrick caused more than 180 volumes of ancient 
Irish Theology to be burned. But, as I have said, nothing but the loss of 

4 6 


their language could deprive the peasantry of their traditions, or of their 
faith in them. They seemed indifferent as to whether the subject of a legend 
were called a saint or a hero, or to the period in which he flourished, provided 
his name and exploits were correctly preserved. 

Before proceeding further, I beg to say that I am far from denying the 
fact, that during these centuries Ireland had many Saints and learned men. 
However, these learned men did not in their autobiographies, or in the Lives 
of their contemporaries, furnish us with the facts recorded by Colgan. These 
I believe to have been founded on compositions written centuries after- 

Among the Irish Saints we have the names of: 
ST. BUITHE answering to Boodh, a Divinity of Hindostan. 



Mahody, the Divinity of Elephanta. 

Dagon, the God of the Philistines. 

The Idol Moloch of the Bible. 

The Devil in Irish. 

Satan, the Destroyer. 

Cronos, the Titan. 

Vulcan of Cuthite Mythology. 

Chiron, the Centaur of Cuthite Mythology. 

Nessus, the Centaur of Cuthite Mythology. 

Declain, the God of generation (Irish). 

The one God (Irish). 

Senel, The Ancient God. 

Luan, the Moon (Irish). 

Shanaun, The Ancient Ana, the Mother of the 

Gods (Irish), The river Shannon. 
Earc, the Sun (Irish) : Ere, Heaven (Irish). 
Breedh, the Irish Goddess of Poets and Smiths. 
Dimah, the good God (Irish). 



ST. COCCA answering to Caca, the name of a Cuthite divinity. 


Canaan, the father of the Canaanites. 

Melissa, a Cuthite divinity representing the Ark. 

Dair-eirce, the oak of the Ark. 

Dair-bile, the Oak-tree (Irish). 

Dair-maide, the Branch of the Oak. 

Maideog, the emblem of virginity (Irish). 

In my opinion all these names, with others to be afterwards noticed, 
can be traced to Heathen derivations, and there are many besides, which are 
only latinized modifications. 

The Author of Man. Hid. informs us that there " were some names 
among the Irish Saints to which sanctity seemed to be inherent." He 
proceeds to furnish a list, out of which I extract the following. 

Bearing the name of 
GOBBAN, there were 








Ten Saints, answering to 
Eleven Saints, 

Thirty Saints, 

Twenty-seven Saints, 
Twenty-five Saints, 
Sixteen Saints, 

Fifteen Saints, 

Twelve Saints, 

Twelve Saints, 

Fifteen Saints, 

Twenty-four Saints, 

Gobban Saer. 


Cronos, the Titan. 

the Antediluvian. 

the Ancient Ana. 

the Son of the Dove. 

the Moon, Luan. 

the Goddess of Smiths. 

the Devil. 

the Branch of the Oak. 

the Dove. 

Afterwards he proceeds to say : 

" Nor is it Colgan alone that has advanced a matter so surprising and 
extraordinary, for St. Keledeus, who was an Irish Bishop, and lived in the 


7th century, likewise assures us that there had been in that island sixty-two 
Classes of Saints, who bore the same name, among whom were remarkable 
thirty-four Mochuminses, thirty-seven Moluans, forty-three Malaises or 
Laserenes, fifty-eight Mochuans, and to conclude, two hundred Caimans, 
which much exceeds what Colgan has said. But that which most amazes 
all readers is, that the Irish Historians pretend to decide the difference 
between all the Saints of the same name by their several genealogies, and 
the diversity of the time and place of their birth an undertaking so bold 
that it does not seem likely. So that it has always hitherto appeared that 
not only the profane, but also the Ecclesiastical History of Ireland is, more 
than any other, perplexed with a vast number of the same names of 
synchronisms and anachronisms." (Man. Hid. Int.) 

Such is the style of authority so often referred to by antiquaries for 
historical facts ! 

To me these legends of numerous Saints of the same name seem quite 
simple, and just what I should expect. And for this reason, that those, who 
originally collected the legends, finding the same name to be venerated in 
many different localities (which must have been the case, if the legends were 
those of Heathen Divinities) naturally assumed that they were different 
Saints of the same name, and recorded them accordingly. Such were the 
materials for Colgan's A eta Sanctorum. 

For instance, if the Shannon, like the Ganges, was worshipped, its name 
would be associated with every religious house of Pagan origin along the 
banks of that river, and so twenty-five St. Shanauns would be found. 

In offering this explanation of so many Saints of the same name, I do 
not deny the unquestionable fact, that in subsequent ages of Christianity 
many Ecclesiastics and real Saints were called after the supposed Saints so 
much venerated in past ages. 

Before presenting to the reader a Catalogue of the ancient Ecclesiastical 
Establishments of Ireland, which are usually the sites of (so-called) Norman 
Architecture and Round Towers, and the names of their reputed founders, 


I find it necessary to offer a few remarks upon the Irish language. And 
here I may notice, that all Irish words in English character introduced 
throughout this work are, as a general rule, spelled as they are pronounced 
to the English ear the sound of the words being the object intended to be 
expressed. Whenever an Irish quotation is introduced, or that attention is 
required to the letters forming a word, the fact is noticed ; and in such cases 
the words are correctly spelled in English characters, according to the Irish 
mode of spelling. 

" The Irish language," says Davies, an intelligent and respectable Welsh 
writer, " appears to have arrived at maturity amongst the lapetidse*, while 
they were yet in contact with Aramaean families and formed a powerful tribe 
in Asia Minor and in Thrace. It may, therefore, in particular instances 
have more similitude or analogy to the Asiatic dialects, than what appears in 
those branches of the Celtic that were matured in the west of Europe. 
Those who used this language consisted partly of Titans, of Celto-Scythians, 
or of those lapetidse, who assisted in building the city of Babel, and must 
have been habituated, after the dispersion, to the dialects of the nations 
through which they passed, before they joined the society of their brethren." 
(O'Briens Round Towers, p. 58). 

The Irish language seems to be a compound of the Celtic and Cuthite 
languages, as the modern English is a compound of the Saxon, French and 
other languages. t The Celts were at the time of the invasion of Ireland, 
without literature, having, as I have elsewhere shown, acquired the know- 
ledge of letters from their Cuthite predecessors. This circumstance 

* In page 15, vol. 5, of his Antient Mythology, Bryant remarks " lapetus was one of the 
Titanic race. He was a person of great antiquity, and of the Giant brood. Hence by the 
lapetidae, the sons of Ham and Chus are undoubtedly alluded to." 

t In using the expression " Cuthite language," I mean the language spoken by the Cuthites 
of Ireland previous to the Celtic invasion. I believe that the Cuthites in different countries 
used different dialects ; but that affinity between all may be traced. I am aware that the Sanscrit, 
though a dialect of the Cuthite, differs widely from the Irish language.. 


occasioned the adoption by the Celts of the Cuthite language, to a greater 
extent than is usual for conquerors respecting the language of the vanquished. 
Such remnants of a Cuthite dialect manifestly furnish the numerous words 
referred to by the learned in their notices of the affinity between the Irish 
and the Sanscrit. 

There is one circumstance in particular leading to the conclusion, that 
the Irish language is a compound of some ancient Cuthite dialect with the 
Celtic. It is that most of the words which I call Cuthite compounds have 
the adjective prefixed to the noun. In this respect the idiom agrees with 
that of the Sanscrit : whereas, according to the idiom of the modern Irish, 
the adjective generally comes after the noun : for example FEAR-MOH, a 
good man, compounded of FEAR, a man, and MOH (spelled MAITH), good. 
But words, which I would ascribe to Cuthite origin, in most cases have the 
adjective preceding the noun. Thus in the name ARDFEAR, the tall man 
.an ancient Scythian hero of Irish history. Almost all Irish words com- 
pounded of SHAN (old) have this adjective as a prefix, instead of its following 
the noun. For example SANCHONIATHOR, ancient historian ; SHANDRUM, 
the ancient hill ; and SHAN-VAN, an old woman. But VAN-CREENA also signifies 
an old woman the adjective (CREENA, old) coming after the noun ; whence 
I infer that the SHAN, old, is from the Cuthite, and CREENA, old, is from the 
Celtic language. The Cuthite compound words, having been generally 
retained in the Celtic language as proper names, were thus preserved to the 
present day. I also infer that, as a general rule, the adjective was prefixed 
to the noun, in which respect it differed from the modern Irish idiom. 

Objection has been made to my interpretations generally, on the ground 
that the prefixing of the adjective is contrary to the usage of modern Irish. 
To such objection I offer these explanatory remarks, leaving the reader to 
judge whether or not the reply is satisfactory. I would further remark that 
the learned Bryant, without any knowledge of the Irish language, enumerates 
several Cuthite radicals, the exact interpretation of which, corresponding 
with his, may be found in our ordinary Irish dictionaries. 


An objection has been made to my frequent use of Bryant's authority in 
questions connected with ancient mythology. This objection is grounded 
on the fact, that Bryant himself was ignorant of much that has since been 
learned on this subject respecting India, Egypt, etc. This is so far quite 
true : Bryant's knowledge was to a great extent confined to what might be 
learned from ancient Greek classics. But here he stands without a rival. 
He seems to have been entirely ignorant of the nature of the Cuthite 
religion, though he frequently refers to it. When writing of Cuthite Towers, 
which existed wherever that people settled, he suggests that their use was 
to assist the Cuthites in navigation ; but he did not treat them as temples 
for religion, much less did he regard them as emblematic devices constructed 
to represent the Budh, or habitation of divinity. However, his ignorance 
of matters outside the Greek classics greatly enhances his value as an 
authority; for if he had known as much as others of the language, history, 
and legends of Ireland, the numerous coincidences which his work furnishes 
would not deserve the respect and attention, which, from his ignorance of 
Ireland, they are now entitled to command. Involuntary testimony is 
always without bias. 

I know of no language in which euphony and facility of expression were 
more studied than in the Irish, as Archbishop Usher terms it " elegant in 
expression and rich in primitives." Euphonisms and grammatical inflections 
not only vary the terminations of words, but often destroy altogether the 
sounds of consonants, so that the words should be read without the proper 
sounds of such consonants. When the language is written in English cha- 
racters this effect is usually expressed by the introduction of the letter " h" 
after such consonants. 

Since the introduction of the English language, words were sometimes 
written without the suppressed consonants, according to the sound. This 
led, as one would naturally expect, to a word being sometimes, improperly, 
spelled as it should be pronounced : and, at other times, a word is found to 
be, improperly, sounded as it should be spelled. This should be borne in 


mind as accounting for varieties in the spelling of words and names to be 
found in the following pages. Vowels also are sometimes changed for the 
sake of euphony. These euphonisms seem strange to some ; but to the Irish 
scholar, with whom they are in constant use, nothing seems more easy and 

Bearing this in mind, any person acquainted with the idiom and usages 
of the Irish language will at once perceive the appropriateness of many of 
the roots to which I have assigned names in the following pages. I would 
not ground any argument on names and their roots, as affording positive 
proofs ; and I only submit my notes upon them, as offering curious corrobora- 
tion of what may be inferred from -other proofs. 

If the heathen origin and foundation of the names could be proved from 
other sources, the names themselves could not reasonably be expected to 
have preserved internal evidence of their heathen origin through so long a 
period more correctly than they have done. When any religious creed is 
exploded, the words and names peculiar to it become obsolete, unless when 
preserved in some secondary sense, or appropriated by a subsequent religious 
system. This remark I believe to be applicable to many words still in use 
in the Irish language. I may further add, that this purity of Irish names 
has heretofore been preserved by traditional stories among the Irish-speaking 
peasantry called " Shanachus," but this means of conservation is fast coming 
to an end. 

The Irish language is now so rapidly dying out as a vernacular tongue, 
that at this day there is not one Irish-speaking person for every hundred 
there were fifty years ago. The legends, having ceased to be told in the 
Irish, are, except when committed to writing, fast becoming forgotten and 
lost ; and the names of places, as well as of the people themselves, are 
undergoing changes both in sound and orthography suited to the idioms of 
the English language, which will soon be the vernacular for all classes. 

It is an important fact, accounting for the care with which ancient names 
and words were preserved, that the peasantry always committed these 


legends to memory, repeating the stories verbatim, as handed down from 
one generation to another. Thus they came to use many obsolete words, 
which they were most careful to repeat unaltered ; and, stopping in the story 
to interpret such words was not the least interesting part of the entertainment. 

These circumstances account for the fact, that the intelligent Irish 
Ecclesiastics found it impossible to erase from their Calendar such names as 
Dagan and Molach the heathen origin of which they could not fail to 
observe. All that remained was to give them aliases, such as Dagens and 
Molaise, or else to alter the orthography so as in some measure to conceal 
the derivation. The written language was almost exclusively in the custody 
of the clergy, but the original sound of the names was preserved with 
wonderful correctness in the oral traditions of the peasantry, and could not 
be very much altered. 

A remarkable example of this is found in the name of the Devil which 
in Irish is " Dia Bal" (literally, the God Baal), but sounded Diul ; and 
accordingly we find " Saint Di(ch)ul" was introduced ; it is pronounced as if 
the bracketted letters were omitted exactly like the Irish name of Satan, 
" Diul."- -This is one of the names in which sanctity seemed to be inherent, as 
twelve Saints are said to have borne it " Saint Devil" in Irish ! 


Irish Ecclesiastical History may be considered under two heads Firstly, 
the early portion, which I believe to be mythological, and grounded on 
legends of heathen divinities retained among the peasantry from time 
immemorial, and collected by credulous Ecclesiastics in the eighth and 
following centuries. Secondly, the real history of the founding of Monas- 
teries, and of the bishops and abbots who presided over them. These 
different subjects are so interwoven with each other, that it is sometimes 
difficult to conjecture whether events related of the fifth, sixth, or seventh 


century belong to the historical or mythological class. No one credits one- 
tenth of what is told as the history of the Saints, but as there really is some 
truth in the information given, the student of such matters must to a great 
extent exercise his own judgment as to what he should receive, or reject. 
I believe we do not get into the reliable Church History of Ireland until the 
ninth and tenth centuries ; but I have no doubt that there is much real 
historical matter in the supposed histories of preceding times. All the names 
of the Saints, which I would derive from those of the Cuthite divinities, may 
be found in abundance in the " Martyrology of Donegal," a valuable MS. 
of the year 1636, recently translated for, and published by, the Irish 
Archaeological and Celtic Society : but I have seldom referred to it, inasmuch 
as the work is little more than a catalogue of names and register of numerous 
miracles of the Saints without dates or references to the places with which 
they were associated. 

In the following detailed notice of the early Ecclesiastical Foundations 
of Ireland, and the names of Saints associated with them, abbreviations are 
used, viz. : 

" D" for " Martyrology of Donegal." 

" A" for " Archdall's Monasticon Hibernicum." 

" A 4 M" for " Annals of the Four Masters." 

" M" for " Mears' Monasticon Hibernicum." 

" P" for " Dr. Petrie's Essay." 

" L" for " Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland." 

" F" for " Eraser's Hand-book of Ireland." 

" Top." for " Topography." 

" I" for " Introduction." 

" Loc. Trad." for " Local Tradition. 

" Coll." for " Collectanea de rebus Hibernicis." 

[ 55 ] 


The first name to which I would direct the reader's attention (as asso- 
ciating the Irish mythical Saints with the divinities of the Cuthite races) 
is that of Budh himself. We find that the name of Saint Budhe variously 
spelled, as the reader will perceive is associated with about forty ancient 
Ecclesiastical Establishments. These, with a few exceptions including some 
of doubtful date, are foundations ascribed to the fifth and sixth centuries. I 
have added a consecutive number to each locality for the purpose of future 

i MONASTERBOICE, Louth, St. Buithe, 6th cent, (A. 4 M., A. 490). 

2 DUNBO, Derry, St. Beoad, 5th cent., (A. 91). 

The name Dunbo may be rendered " the Stronghold of Budh." 

3 ARDCHARN, Roscommon, St. Beoaid, 6th cent, (A. 705). 

4 KILNABOY, Clare, St. Baoith, (A. 4 M.). 

5 ANTRIM, Antrim, St. Aodh, alias Mochay, St. Cronan, (L. 37, A. 2), 

6 KILBOEDAIN, Antrim, St. Boedain, 6th cent, (A. 8). 

7 RATHREGENDEN, Derry, St. Boedan, 6th cent, (A. 93). 

8 CLONTHUSKERT, Galway, St. Boadan, St. Fathlec, (M. 90, A. 282). 

9 INCHYMORY, Longford, St. Boadan, 5th cent, ( A. 439). 
10 TAUGHBOYNE, Donegal, St. Baithen, 6th cent, (A. 105). 
1 1 TIBOTHIN, Roscommon, St. Baithen, 7th cent, (A. 623). 
Tibothin, may be interpreted " the house of Bothin." 
12 INISBOYNE, alias INIS-BAOITHIN, Wicklow, St. Baithen, (A. 776). 
13 INISBOFIN, Mayo, St. Colman, St. Beothan, (A. 497). 
14 TEMPLE BOODIN, Wicklow, St. Boodin, (F. 129). 
15 CASHEL, Sligo, St. Biteus, 6th cent, (A. 629). 

Throughout the Catalogue of Saints and their foundations, several 
Authorities are referred to only for the purpose of assisting the reader to 
obtain further information respecting the different localities. 

I find the name of Saint Mochudee connected with several Ecclesiastical 



Establishments. He was the reputed founder of Monasteries situated in 
three different provinces of Ireland, viz., in Munster, Leinster, and Ulster. 
This Saint was also called Carthage, I suppose from the place whence he 
was imported. We read that he founded the Monastery of Lismore, 
formerly called " Lismore Mahood," or " the great Mound of Mochudee" 
and also that of Rahan, of which Dr. Petrie gives us the beautiful illustra- 
tions of what he calls " Norman " Architecture. This Saint with his nine 
hundred monks lived at Rathen on herbs and roots. I believe this 
Mochudee to be identical with the Mahody of Elephanta, described by 
Capt. Pyke as the Divinity who created the universe. (Coll., vol. 4, p. 212). 
Both names may be translated into the English words " the good God 
Budh," thus " the good God Budh" would be written in Irish " Mai[t]h- 
[B]udh[D]ie," but would be sounded as if the bracketted letters were 
omitted " Maihudie." 

So likewise Mochua the founder of Baal, No. 41, may be explained to 
mean " The good Budh." 

Cronan, of which name there are no fewer than thirty Saints (M. Int. ) 
is an Irish alias of the last mentioned, St. Mochua, and has his counterpart 
in the god Cronos, the Titan (Saturn), whom Faber represents as an alias 
of the Indian Boodh (see Faber, vol. i, p. 447, also Franklin, p. 42). 

The Irish word " Moh" (written maith?) so often prefixed to the names 
of Irish Saints and Hindoo Divinities, means, in English, " Good." 

The following Ecclesiastical Establishments are associated with one or 
other of the various aliases of Budh 

1 6 LISMORE, Waterford, St. Mochudee, 6th cent, (L. 283, M. 374). 

17 RATHYNE, King's Co., St. Mochudee, 6th cent, (A. 727, M. 374). 

1 8 KILCHARTAICH, Donegal, St. Carthach, 6th cent, (A. 101). 

19 CLONDALKIN, Dublin, St. Mochua, alias Cronan, 6th cent, (M. 8). 

20 INIS MOCHUA, Down, St. Mochue, (Ulster your., vol. 4, p. 138). 

21 TIMAHOE, Queen's Co., St. Mochoe, alias Cronan, 5th cent, (L. 625). 


22 ROSCREA, Tipperary, St. Cronan, 6th cent, (A. 672, M. 375). 

23 LUSK, Dublin, St. Macculind, 5th cent., (A. 251, L. 324). 

24 IXISPUIXC, Cork, St. Mochuda, St. Cobban, and St. Lasren, (A. 71). 

25 IXCHICROXAX, Clare, St. Cronan, (Loc. Trad, and Top). 

26 TEMPLE CROXAX, Clare, St. Cronan, (Loc. Trad, and Top.) 

2 7 CLUAINDAIMH, Down, St. Mochoemoc, (A. 1 1 2). 

28 DRUMBOE, Down, St. Mochumma, 5th cent, (A. 119). 

29 MOVILLE, Down, St. Cronan and St. Senell, 6th cent, (A. 124). 

30 IXISCAOIN, Leitrim, St. Mochaimoc, son of Endeus, 6th cent, (A. 262). 

31 LIETHMORE, Tipperary, St. Mochoemoc, (A. 402). 

32 GLENDALOUGH, Wicklow, St. Kevin, St. Mochuorog, 5th cent, (A. 765). 

33 INNISFEAL, Wexford, St. Mochonoc, 5th cent, (A. 747). 

Mochonoc may be interpreted " The Hill of the good Budh," or, more 
probably, " The Spirit of the good Budh/' from NEACH, a spirit, or 

34 KILKENNY, St. Canice, alias Canic, alias Cainnech, (L. 109, M. 374). 

Canoe is an alias of MOCHONOC (M. 30), and out of this name another 
Saint is forged. The genitive case of CANOC makes CANUICE ; and 
as in the case of St. Molaise who was manufactured from the 
genitive of Molach, St. Canice is made out of CANOC or MOCHONOC. 
-Thus we have the origin of the celebrated St. Canice, the reputed 
founder of the beautiful Round Tower of Kilkenny. The name 
Canice is still further altered in modern times into the name Kenny 
(M. 374), from which comes Kilkenny. 

35 TAGHADOE, alias TAPTOO, Kildare, (L. 585). 

This name may be interpreted " The high House of Budh." 

Derg, Donegal, St. Dabeoc, 5th cent, (L. 603, M. 375). 
The name " Dabeoc" may be interpreted " the god Budh," as the 
word "BEOC" is a well-known inflection of the Irish word Budh. In 
fact, "BEOC" is the verb of which " BUDH" is the noun. I spell the 


words as they are pronounced, to make them intelligible to the 
English reader. The names of Croebeach, in Kerry, No. 48, Belbec, 
in Meath (M. 182), as well as of Balbec in Syria seem to be com- 
pounds of the word BEOC. 

37 ROSCOMMON, St. Aodan, etc. 6th cent, (A. 618). 

38 TEMPLESHANBO, alias SEAMBOTHA, Wexford, St. Colman, 6th cent, (L. 
614, M. 15). This name " Temple Sham Botha" maybe translated, 
" The Temple of the ancient Budh," as " BOTHA" is a well-known 
substitute for the Irish word " BUDH." The use of the alias " BO" or 
" BOE" for " BOTHA" in this name confirms my interpretation of " BOE," 
which, as I have elsewhere suggested, was used as an abbreviation 
of the Irish word " BUDH."* 

39 RAPHOE, alias RATHBOTH, Donegal, St. Columb, St. Eunan, (L. 484). 

40 RATTOO, Kerry, (L. 509). 

Rathboth alias Raphoe, and Rattoo, are compounds of the name of 
" Budh," Rathboth, " the mound of Budh :" Rattoo alias Rathuig, 
" the mound of Budh." These inflections are easily accounted for, and 
are consistent with the usages of the Irish language. The change 
from Rathboth to Raphoe will account for the fact, that in the East 
the name of " Fo" is often found as an alias of Budh. The use of 
Boo for Budh in compound words is frequent in India and Egypt. 
Thus, Mount Aboo, etc. There is another Rathaodha in Westmeath, 
founded by St. Aid [quere, Budh ?] (A. 727), and a church called 
Ratoath in Meath, (A. 568). 

41 BAAL, Mayo, St. Mochua, alias Cronan, 6th cent, (L. 102, M. 91, 375). 
Baal, alias Bel, alias Ballagh, alias Ball, alias Balenses (M. 91), is 
manifestly the god, whom Jehu destroyed out of Israel, (2 Kings, x. 
28). At this place is a Round Tower, a " High Place of Baal." I 

* We learn from that ancient authority The Martyrology of Donegal, that St. Buite (or St. 
Buide) of Monasterboice was also called St. Beo and Buide, each signifying Fire. (See p. 329). 
This authority would seem to place my interpretation of Beo beyond doubt. 


believe the same Heathen divinity to have been the foundation of 
the names of other ancient ecclesiastical establishments, viz., 

42 CONGBAIL, Donegal, St. Fiacre, 6th cent, (L. 395, M. 106). 

43 CORBAL, alias MONAINCHA, Tipp., St. Donan, ;th cent., (L. 399, M. 70). 

Bryant remarks : " Bel, Bal, or Baal, is a Babylonish title, appropriated 
to the Sun ; and made use of by the Amonians in other countries ; particularly 
in Syria and Canaan. It signified Kv/ou>c, or Lord, and is often compounded 
with other terms as in Bel-Adon, Belorus, Bal-hamon, Belochus, Bel-on ; 
(from which last came Bellona of the Romans) and also Baal-shamaim, the 
great Lord of the Heavens." Antient Mythology, vol. i, pp. 54, 55. 


The next heathen divinity, which I would bring under notice, is 
St. Luan, alias Molua, alias Euan, alias Lugidus, alias Lugad, and 
Moling, &c. The foundations, with which this Saint under some of his 
aliases is connected, extend over eight counties in the provinces of Ulster, 
Leinster, and Munster. Luan is to this day the common Irish word for 
The Moon. We read that the Saint " might more readily obey some 
orders he had received from St. Congal, he handled a red-hot iron without 
being burnt." " He founded many Monasteries to the number of one 
hundred, as St. Bernard reports he was told by the Irish." " Having laid 
himself prostrate along the sea shore, . . . the water rising with the flood 
did not cover the place where he lay" (M. Inf.). We read that there were 
fifteen Saints of the name of Lugadius, and as Lugidus was one of Luan's 
aliases, I have set them all down as representing the Moon in the several 
places where that Planet was worshipped as the symbol of Female nature. 

44 TIMOLIN ; MOONE, St. Moling, Kildare, (L. 626). 

This name may be interpreted " The House of the Good Luan"- 
the Moon. This interpretation is confirmed by the fact that the 
adjoining parish is called " Moone," in which is " Moone Abbey." 


45 TRIM ; RATHOSSAIN, Meath, St. Lunan, St. Ossan, 5th cent., (M. 32, 

A. 575, L. 643, D. 53). 

46 CLUAIN FINCHOL, Armagh, St. Lugadius, 6th cent, (M. no). 
47 CLONFERT MOLUA, alias KYLE, Queen's Co., St. Luan, alias Molua, 6th 

cent, (A. 379, M. 31, Kil. Arch. Jour., vol. 2, p. 52). 
48 CROEBHEACH, Kerry, St. Daluan, 5th cent, (A. 301). 
49 KILLALOE, Clare, St. Molua, 6th cent, (A. 52). 
50 DRUMESKIN (Druimineascluinn), Louth, St. Lugad, (A. 461). 
51 DRUMFINCHOL, Meath, St. Lugad, St. Columb, (A. 532). 
52 TIR DA CROEB, Meath, St. Lugad, St. Columb, (A. 574). 
53 CONNOR, Antrim, St. Lugadius, St. Dima Dubh, (A. 4). 

The following foundations have associated with them the names of St. 
Brigid, St. Declan, St. Moctee, and St. Rioch : 

54 BRITWAY, Cork, St. Brigid, 5th cent, (Loc. Tra. and Top.). 

55 KILDARE, Kildare, St. Brigid, 5th cent., (A. 322). 

The name of Brigid is associated with religious foundations in almost 
every county in Ireland, but they are (except Kildare) either places 
of no great importance, or else they are ascribed to St. Patrick or 
other Saints, after whom St. Brigid comes in a second place. 
St. Brigid was the founder of Kildare. There were twelve Saints of 
that name. The custom of carrying about an image of that Saint on 
the eve of the first of February, is evidently derived from heathenism. 
Her name in Irish is sounded as if it were written " Breedh," and 
answers to Brida, the Scandinavian name for Venus. Among the 
Tuath-de-Danaans, Breedh was the goddess of Poets and Smiths. 

56 OUGHTERARD, Kildare, St. Bridgid, 6th cent, (P. 403). 

57 ARMAGH, St. Patrick, St. Bridgid, 5th cent, (L. 66, M. no). 

The ancient name of this place was Ard-Macha, which means " the 
High Place of Macha." In Keating s Ireland, vol. i, p. 78, we have 


the name of Macha, as that of a divinity worshipped by the Tuath- 


Bryant remarks on the name " MACAR" " This was a sacred title 

given by the Amonians to their gods ; which often occurs in the 

Orphic hymns when any Deity is invoked It was 

certainly an Amonian sacred term. The inland city Oasis stood in 
an Egyptian province, which had the same name ; so that the mean- 
ing must not be sought for in Greece. ... It was certainly an 
ancient word, and related to their theology ; but was grown so obso- 
lete that the original purport could not be retrieved." Antient 
Mythology, vol. i, pp. 83, 85. 

58 ARDIMORE, Waterford, St. Declan, 5th cent, (L. 54, M. 55). 

The Irish word "ARD" means High, or High place, and is found 
to form part of the name of many localities of Round Towers. 
Ardmore, anciently Ardimore, is " The High place of the great 

59 CASHEL, Tipperary, St. Patrick and St. Declan, 5th cent. 

The name of St. Declan may be literally translated " the God of 
generativeness," from " DE," God, and " CLAIN," to engender or beget. 
He is described as one of the most ancient and celebrated of Irish 
Saints, and a predecessor of St. Patrick. Ardmore, the " High place 
of the great God," was his principal seat. 

60 KILMORE EADAN, Armagh, St. Moctee, St. Eodan, 6th cent, (L. 184, 
M. no). 

Moctee may be translated " Son of God," and answers to Thor the 
Scandinavian divinity, who, according to Faber, is represented as the 
" First-born of the Supreme God." The name also answers to the 
Irish " Tor," the mystical Bull, the Apis or Osiris of Egypt else- 
where referred to. 

6 1 INISBOFINE, Longford (Lough Ree), St. Rioch, 5th cent, (M. 47). 

The name Rioch, as representing an evil spirit, is well known in the 


west of Clare, and is commonly used as an Irish curse, " May the 
Rioch take you." 

The Deity of the Ark, Rhoia, which signified a pomegranate, is 
mentioned by Bryant (vol. 3, p. 237). I therefore conclude, that the 
Irish word Rioch was one of the Cuthite appellations of the Ark, or 
emblem of Female nature. St. Rioch is said to have been the son 
of Darerca the Oak of the Ark. 


The names of St. Abban and St. Gobban occupy a conspicuous place in 
connection with ecclesiastical foundations of Ireland. Believing both names 
to represent the ancient Irish Gobban Saer, I have classed them together. 
A future chapter will be devoted to the consideration of Gobban Saer, as 
the reputed builder of Round Towers. 

The foundations with which the name of Gobban is connected, either as 
Saint or builder, extend into the four provinces of Ireland. The name 
Gobban-Saer is known in every parish in Ireland, where the native language 
is still spoken. His reputation is that of a builder and artizan of extra- 
ordinary skill. Several of the Round Towers are ascribed to him as the 
builder. The name Gobban-Saer may be interpreted " the Free-Mason 
Smith," and as such he may answer to Vulcan of the Romans and to Tubal- 
Cain of the Scriptures " an instructer of every artificer in iron and brass." 

The identity of St. Abban with the celebrated Gobban-Saer seems placed 
beyond all doubt by the following facts. First, that the Abbey of Brigoon 
(Cork) founded by St. Abban, was anciently called Bal-Gobban and Brigh- 
Gobban. Secondly, St. Abban himself, like Gobban-Saer, had an extraor- 
dinary reputation for building ; for we read that, " the same Saint [Abban] 
was a great builder, and founder of regular houses, for he erected fifteen in 
several parts of Ireland, if we may believe Colgan." (M. p. 59). 

If the usual prefix MOCH, " good," were used with Gobban, the sound of 



the G would be lost, and the name would sound " Moch Abban." The 
Good Gobban. St. Abban is described as a contemporary of St. Patrick. 
(M., pp. 57, 372, and Int.). I therefore assign his foundations to the 5th 

The following are among the foundations ascribed to St. Gobban, St. 
Abban, or to Gobban Saer : 

62 BRIGOON, alias BAL-GOBAN, St. Abban, Cork, 5th cent., (M. 59). 

63 KINSALE, Cork, St. Gobban, 5th cent, (M. 57). 

64 DAR INIS, Wexford, St. Gobban, (A. 735). 

65 KILLAMERY (Killamruidhe), Kilkenny, St. Gobban, (A. 366, L. 123). 

St. Gobban is said to have presided at Killamery over a thousand 
Monks. There is a beautifully sculptured Cross at this place. 

66 KILABAIN, King's Co., St. Abban, 5th cent., (M. 30, A. 398). 

67 FETHARD, Wexford, St. Abban, 5th cent., (M. 18). 

68 Ross, Wexford, St. Abban, 5th cent, (M. 16). 

69 LEIGHLIN, Carlow, St. Gobban, (A. 36, L. 249). 

70 TEGHDAGOBHA, Down, St. Gobhan, (A. 129). 

71 KILCRUIMTHIR, Cork, St. Abban, (A. 73). 

72 CAMROS, Wexford, St. Abban, (A. 733). 

73 KILCULLEN, Kildare, St. Abban, 5th cent, (M. Int.). 

74 CORCOMROE, Clare, Gobban-Saer, and Sheela (Loc. Trad, and Top.). 

75 KNOCKMOY, Galway, Gobban-Saer, (Loc. Trad, and Top.). 

76 KILLALA, Mayo, Gobban-Saer, and St. Patrick, (Loc. Trad). 

77 TUROUGH, Mayo, Gobban-Saer, and St. Patrick, (Loc. Trad.). 

78 BALLYVARNEY, Cork, St. Abban, St. Gobnata, (L. 169, A. 57). 


St. Bolcan is stated to have flourished in the 5th century. His mother 
died about the year 440. After her interment a noise was heard in the 
grave, which being immediately opened, the child (St. Bolcan) was provi- 


dentially taken out alive (A. 13). I think it probable, that this Saint 
Bolcan was Vulcan himself. The Irish letters B and V being interchange- 
able, the name of Bolcan may answer to either the Vulcan of the Romans 
or to Tubalcain of the Bible (Gen. iv. 22). The foundations with which the 
name of St. Bolcan is associated are 

79 BOITH BOLCAIN, Antrim, St. Bolcain, 5th cent, (A. 3). 

80 KILASPUIC BOLCAIN, Antrim, St. Bolcain, 5th cent, (A. 8). 

8 1 KILMORMOYLE, Mayo, St. Bolcan, 5th cent, (A. 503). 

82 ARTHUR MIGHE (ARMOY), Antrim, St. Bolcain, 5th cent, (A. 13). 

83 KILCHULE, Roscommon, St. Bolcain, (A. 612, L. 63). 


The name of the Canaanitish divinity Molach is associated with 
numerous ancient ecclesiastical establishments throughout ten counties of 
Ireland. The names which I identify with Molach are divided by the 
biographers of the Saints into two classes, the first that of Molach, with 
his aliases, Molagga, and Mochellog. The second class is that of Molaise, 
with his aliases, Molassus and Laserine. I unite the names of Molach and 
Molaise with their numerous aliases under one head for the following reason. 
The Irish word " Molach" in the genitive case makes " Molaice," pronounced 
" Molicca," so that " The Temple of Molach" would therefore be written 

Bryant says (Antient Mythology, vol. i, p. 87) : " Melech, or, as it was 
sometimes expressed, Malech, and Moloch, betokens a king ; as does 
Malecha, a queen. It was a title, of old, given to many deities in Greece ; 
but, in after times, grew obsolete and misunderstood." 

There is in the west of Clare a very ancient religious establishment 
called Mullogh by the peasantry, although in the ecclesiastical registers it 
is called Kilmurry-Ibricane. I believe the origin of the name " Murry" to 


be as ancient as. Molach himself, and that it meant the Muidhr the stone 
of the Sun, of which we shall have much to say in a subsequent chapter. In 
the first name among the ecclesiastical establishments, with which the name 
of Molach is associated, we find the name Murry connected with it, viz. 

84 INIS MUIDHR, alias INIS MURRY, Sligo, St. Molasse, 6th cent, (A. 635). 

85 KILMALLOCK, Limerick, St. Molach, 6th cent, (L. 171, M. 63). 

86 TULLY-GRAIN (The Hill of the Sun), Cork. 

87 DEVENISH, Fermanagh, St. Molaise, 6th cent, (L. 458, M. 107). 

88 EGHROIS, Sligo, St. Molaise, 6th cent, (M. 88). 

89 ARDMACNASCA (quere, Ram Island?), Antrim, St. Laisrean, (A. 2). 

90 KILMELCHEDOR, alias KILMALKEADER, Kerry, St. Brandon, (L. 178). 

At this place is a beautiful Ruin Temple Melchedor interpreted, 
" the Temple of the Golden Molach." See notice thereof in a subse- 
quent part of this work. 

91 TULACH-MHIN, alias TULLAMAIN, Kilkenny, St. Molac, (A. 80, M. 58). 
Archdall has erroneously mentioned this establishment as of Cork 
County, adding that " the place is unknown." 

92 KENNITH, Cork, St. Mocolmoge, (L. 229). 

93 TEMPLE MOLLOGA, Cork, St. Mologga, 6th cent, (L. 607). 

The last named place is literally translated The Temple of Moloch. 
Laserine is one of this Saint's aliases, and therefore the several Irish 
churches dedicated to the forty-three Saints, who are said to have 
borne that name, may be properly set down as Temples of Molach. 
There are several other ecclesiastical foundations throughout Ireland, 
with the names of which the god Molach is associated, viz. 

TEMOLOG, alias TYMOLOGA, Cork, (L. 625, M. 267); MULLAGH, 

Cavan ; also MULLOGH, in Clare ; KILMOLAG, in Wexford. I would 
add to the list of Molach's temples in Ireland the several places 
called by the name of TALLAGH, alias TAMLAGHT, alias TAVELAGH. 
There are several places of this name (besides the well-known 


foundation in the neighbourhood of Dublin), viz. in the. counties of 
Londonderry, Tyrone, and Waterford and, judging from the remains 
of heathenism found at each place, as well as from the other names 
of heathen divinities associated with these localities, I would assign 
them all to the idol Molach. TAMLAGHTARD in Londonderry is said 
to have been founded by St. Columban in the 6th cent. If the name 
were written Tam(o)laghard introducing the letter o, it would be 
fairly interpreted " The High House of Molach," and if so written, 
it would be properly pronounced TAMLAGHARD, according to the idiom 
of the Irish language. 

In the Roman Catholic parochial union of Tamlaghtard (London- 
derry), where there is said to have been a Round Tower, part of the 
district is called Drumboe the Hill of Budh the Sun; and Aghanloo 
the ford of Luan the Moon. 


The next heathen divinity, which I would notice, as a supposed Irish 
Saint, is Dagon (M. I), alias Dagan, alias Dagain, alias Dagens. He 
seems not to have occupied so important a position in Ireland as he did 
among the Philistines, for we are told he was smith to the celebrated St. 
Kieran [alias Chiron, the Centaur], His name is associated with the 
following foundations, all of the 6th cent. 

94 INNISKEEN, Monaghan, St. Dagens, 6th cent, (L. 22). . 
95 -IMBERDAOILE, Wicklow, St. Dagan, (M. 15). 
96 BALLYKINE, Wicklow, St. Dagan, (A. 760). 


The most extraordinary names which we find among the supposed Irish 
Saints are those of " The Devil," and " Satan." The Irish name for the 
Devil is DIA-BAAL literally, " The god Baal." This name is sounded in 


Irish as if it were written DIUL, and accordingly when the early Ecclesiastics 
were engaged in Christianising the legends of the Irish, finding the name of 
Diul associated with numerous stone-roofed Temples, which they supposed 
to have been ancient Christian Churches, they recorded the name as that of 
a Saint. Its sound however being in the custody of an Irish-speaking popu- 
lation, they could not alter ; but, to conceal the identity of the supposed 
Saint with the Devil, two silent letters were introduced in the writing. 
Thus Dia-Baal is sounded as if written Diul ; the name of the Saint 
Di[ch]ul is also sounded, as if the bracketted letters were omitted Diul. 
Nothing less than absolute necessity would have induced the early Ecclesias- 
tics to permit so suspicious a name to remain in their calendars of Saints. 
Having the custody of all written matter, they could alter the letters used in 
the spelling of the name, and they could also add a few aliases, which they 
did ; but the original sound of the name, whether Saint, or Devil, was 
stereotyped from infancy in the memories of an Irish-speaking people, as 
attached to the locality, and therefore could not be changed. The name 
Di[ch]ul is associated with Ecclesiastical Foundations in eight counties of 
Ireland, but (except in a few instances) it occupies only a secondary place. 
It is mentioned in Mears Monasticon, as one of the names in which sanctity 
seemed to be inherent, for twelve Saints are said to have borne it. If trans- 
lated into English, it would read " Saint Devil ;" but this is not more singular 
than the name of " Saint Satan the son of Archuir," whose name was per- 
petuated by a festival held to his memory on the I5th of May at the Great 
Island, Cove, Cork, (see Archdall, page 70). 

The Irish name Dia-Baal (the Devil) is generally supposed to be derived 
from the Greek AtajSoAoe, which is said to be compounded of &a, through, and 
fSaXAw to throw. This may be so ; but to me it seems forced and unreason- 
able, especially when a simpler and more suitable interpretation is traceable 
to a Cuthite source. Dia-Baal was the chief deity among the Cuthites, 
meaning literally The Lord God, and was probably the name, under which 
God was known to Noah and his predecessors. 


The Pelasgi, as we shall afterwards see, were among the conquerors of 
the Cuthites; therefore Baal, or Dia-Baal, never was recognised as a god 
among the Greeks (nor were the other Cuthite divinities, Molach, Dagon, 
etc.), and inasmuch as Giants, Titans, and Demons, were the names by 
which the more ancient Cuthites were known to the Greeks, it is but reason- 
able to suppose that their divinity (under his proper name of Dia-Baal) 
should be regarded as the chief Demon, or Devil. It is quite possible that 
the term )3aXAw, to throw, may have arisen from the ancient Cuthite game 
of Ball-playing an account of which, as a religious ceremony among the 
ancient Americans, may be seen in Stephens Travels in Yucatan, vol. 2, p. 
306.. The spherical Ball was an emblem of the Sun ; and ball-playing will be 
found to have been a very ancient amusement. The assemblies for dancing 
at the festival of Baal have left this name at the present day to Almack's 
fashionable gatherings. This appears to me another of the many instances 
of how an ancient custom, with its very name, has survived the memory of 
the religious rite by which it was introduced. 

The following are among the foundations, with which the names of Diul 
and Satan are associated. Di[ch]ul, the son of Nessan (quere, the Centaur 
Nessus ?) is the first Abbot on record as presiding over the Monastery of 
Inisfallen, in the island of that name on the Lake of Killarney; but St. 
Finian is honoured there as the founder. 

97 INISFALLEN, and AGHADOE, Kerry, St. Dichul, St. Fineain, 6th cent, 

(A. 301, M. 60). 

98 CLUAIN BRAOIN, Louth, St. Dichull, (A. 452). 
99 LOUTH, Louth, St. Moctee, St. Dichull, (M. 10, A. 469). 
100 CLUAIN BROANAGH, Longford, St. Sathanna, (M. 346). 
101 GREAT ISLAND (Inis McCaille), Cove, Cork, St. Satan, (A. 70). 
102 CLUAIN EOARIS, Monaghan, St. Dichul, (M. 112). 
103 CLONES (CLUAINEOIS), Monaghan, St. Tigernac, St. Dichul, (M. in, 
A- 583). 


104 CLUAIN DICHOLLA CLUAN MORE, Wexford, (M. 14, A. 734). 
105 TALLOW, Dublin, St. Dichul, (A. 257). 

1 06 ST. DOULOUGH'S, Dublin, St. Dulech, son of Amalgad, son of Sinell, 
(A. 255). 

The modern word CLUAIN (now usually spelled " Clon," as in the 
name " Clondalkin") is translated "a fine level pasture :" but it seems to me 
to have been derived from " Clo(ch)ain," the stone of ANA, the Mother of 
the Gods, the Moon, and that it may have been so called from the Pillar- 
stones and Crosses used in ancient heathen worship : the field, or " green," 
retaining its name CLUAIN after the Pillar was removed, and thence it 
became a general term for such fields. It is impossible otherwise than upon 
this hypothesis to account for the fact, that the word CLUAIN or CLON forms 
part of the names of more than ninety ancient Irish Ecclesiastical Establish- 
ments or parishes. 

In one instance, that of CLUAIN MORE in the parish of Mullogh, Co. 
Clare, the pillar-stone still remains in its original position. The field in 
which it stands is called Cluain More, by which is understood The Great 
Meadow. " The Great Stone of Ana " would in my opinion be a more 
proper interpretation. 

A similar pillar-stone may be found standing in the church-yard on the 
Hill of Tara. The only device upon it is a sculptured figure in relievo of 
what I believe to represent the Irish " Sheela-na-gig," which there is reason 
to believe was sacred to the goddess Ana, as the mother of the gods. 
Figures of the same character may have existence on other pillar-stones 
also, until effaced by the early Christians. 



" AINE," " AIN," or " ANA" (pronounced " AWNAGH"), was the name of a 
celebrated Irish goddess the mother of the Tuath-de-Danaan gods, the 
divinity of the rivers, the representative of female nature, answering to Venus, 


Diana, Cybele, &c. The Serpent was also an emblem of female nature. 
(See O'Brien, p. 505). One of the names of Scattery Island was " Inis- 
Cathiana" the Island of the Serpent Ana ; and the southern point of the 
Island still retains the name, "Rinana," the Point of Ana. The emblem of 
eternity among the ancients was a serpent with its tail in its mouth, forming 
a circle. Thence a circle was expressed in Irish by the word AIN as 
in the Irish BLIAIN, a year i. e., the circle of Baal, the Sun. AINE or 
ANA, was one of the names of the Moon, the goddess of Lunacy, answering 
to " DIANA," literally the goddess ANA. The Moon's manifest connection 
with the tides may have given rise to the goddess AINE (the Moon) being 
also assigned as the divinity of rivers. 

Bryant informs us that " AIN" was a Cuthite radical signifying a fountain; 
and that the term was applied to subordinate deities. He adds : " They 
[the Cuthites] introduced the worship of the Sun, that great fountain of light ; 
and paid the like reverence to the Stars and all the host of heaven. They 
looked upon them as fountains, from whence were derived the most salutary 
emanations. This worship was styled the fountain worship." (Antient 
Mythology, vol. 4, p. 194). 

" The ancient Cuthites, and the Persians after them, had a great venera- 
tion for fountains and streams ; which also prevailed among other nations, 
so as to have been at one time almost universal. Of this regard among the 
Persians, Herodotus takes notice ' Of all things in nature they reverence 
rivers most.'" (Antient Mythology, vol. i, pp. 238-9). 

We read (M. Int.} of twenty-five Saints of the name of Shanaun " the 
ancient Ana." I spell the name of the Saint as the peasantry pronounce it 
with the accent on the last syllable, although it is usually written " St. Senan." 
The word literally means " the ancient Ana" (the Shannon), or rather, the 
ancient AINE the Cybele of the Irish, the divinity of rivers. Hence the 
word AINE, the name of such divinity, became used as the common Irish 
term for river.'"" Although hagiology represents Shanaun as a male Saint, 
* The Irish word for river is Abhun pronounced Aune. 


the legends of the peasantry ascribe to the name a more ancient origin. 
From these we learn, that a lady named Sionan, being cursed with a desire 
for knowledge, was tempted to eat of the salmon of knowledge. She was 
enraptured by the taste of the first morsel, but immediately the fountain, 
from which the salmon had been taken, burst forth in such abundance as to 
form the river, which now bears the lady's name the Shannon. She was of 
course carried off in the flood. (See Kennedy s Legends, p. 284). This legend 
is evidently a corruption of the traditional account of the history of Eve and 
the Tree of Knowledge. 

The identity of the goddess Ana (the Mother of the Gods, according to 
Irish Mythology) with the great Babylonian Mother of the Gods, Diana of 
the Ephesians (A/art/itc), will be still further proved in a subsequent chapter. 
The following are among the ancient Churches, with which the name of 
Shanaun is associated. 

107 SCATTERY, Clare, St. Shanaun, 5th cent, (M. 63). 

108 CONEY ISLAND (Inis Cunla), Clare, St. Shanaun, 5th cent., (A. 47). 

109 TEMPLE SHANAUN, Wexford, St. Senan, 6th cent, (L. 615). 

no ACHADHCAOIL, Down, St. Senan, 5th cent., (A. 106). 

in INISCARA, Cork, St. Senan, 6th cent, (A. 71). 

112 KILSHANNY, Clare, St. Senan, (A. 53, Top., Loc. Tra.). 

(See an interesting article on the Goddess Aine or Anna, etc., by Mr. 
Nicholas O'Kearney, in the Kit. Arch. Journal, vol. 2, p. 32, ist series). 


Hiarlath I believe to be identical with Gobban-Saer, the celebrated mason 
of the ancient Irish. I find the name of Suairleach elsewhere. This name 
I interpret the Freemason of pillar-stones, or the architect of Crosses, from 
LEAC, a great stone, and SAER, a freemason. The ordinary prefix of MOCH, 
which has changed Gobban into Abban, has probably also altered the sound 

" Suairleach" into Hiarlath. 



The names of St. Hiarlath and St. Ere are ascribed to the 6th century, 
but the monasteries assigned to them are very few. 

113 TUAM, Galway, St. Hiarlath, 6th cent, (A. 297). 

114 CLUAIN Fois, CLUAIN FEIS (Tuam), Galway, St. Hiarlath, (M. 79). 

The ancient name of Tuam, or rather the name of the most ancient 
Ecclesiastical Establishment of the seven churches in that parish, was 
CLUAINFEIS which I interpret, The goddess AINE, pillar of marriage. I 
believe the name CLUAIN Eois (Clones) is only a modification of the original 
CLUAIN-FOIS. But this is only surmise, as every effort has been used to 
conceal the origin of these Canaanitish names. 

115 SLANE, Meath, St. Earc, 6th cent, (L. 561, D. 293). 

The word Ere is translated Heaven (see Glossary) from ERCOL, 
" the Sun" (O'Brien^ p. 195), from which is Hercules, the Phoenician 
name of the Sun. Also the Irish word ERCAELLAN, a pole or stake, 
the Maypole, or miniature Round Tower ; and ERCALOIN, the Arkite 
Ell (Cronus), or Hercules. 

With regard to the name EARC as an Irish word, I would remark that 
Irish Dictionaries often give a variety of the most heterogeneous meanings 
for the same term. Perhaps a better acquaintance with Cuthite Mythology 
would tend to explain some of these anomalies. For example, the word in 
question, EARC, is translated in O'Reilly's Dictionary as " The Sun," 
" Heaven," " A Bee," " A Salmon," " any animal of the Cow kind," and 
" speckled." Now it is remarkable, that everyone of these meanings points 
to the Sun as an object of Cuthite worship. 

In a subsequent chapter on " The Ox and the Centaur," it will be 
shown that the Ox or Cow was the most important emblem of the Divinity 
among the Cuthites, and was also an object of worship among the ancient 
inhabitants of Ireland. The Fish was likewise an emblem of Divinity, and 
an object of worship both among the Cuthites (as Dagon), the Hindoos, and 



the Irish. (See chapter on " The Fish"). Osiris, the Sun, is depicted as 
clothed from head to foot in a " speckled" garment, which no doubt was 
intended to represent the starry heavens, and this accounts for the word 
" speckled" being given as a translation of EARC. It is probable also, that 
the "Salmon" was chosen among fishes, on account of his speckled skin, to 
be the supernatural fish of Ireland, into which St. Fintan, the antediluvian, 
was transformed. 

The Bee too was used among the ancients as a representation of the 
Divinity the Divine Emanation the Word of God. There is an ancient 
hieroglyphic exhibiting the Divinity as a Lion with a Bee issuing from his 
mouth, which Mr. Hislop explains by observing that the Babylonish term 
for Bee, Dabar, answers to the Hebrew term translated " Word ;" and 
indeed this derivation is very significantly implied in the Irish language, 
DABAR being literally translated, The Son of God. ( Two Baby Ions, p. 284). 
In fine, we have here six emblems of Cuthite Divinity, the Cow, the Fish, 
the Bee, the Heavens, the Sun, and the speckled garment, all represented 
by one Irish word EARC ; and a traditional veneration for the term is 
preserved in the name of the mythical Saint Earc of Slane, Co. Meath, 
supposed to be the site of an ancient Round Tower. 


In a subsequent chapter, I hope to furnish ample evidence of the fact, 
that the first Centaur was identical with Cronos (Saturn), and that both 
were identical with Nimrod, the mighty hunter the head of the Cuthite 
families, and their first King, whose capital was Babel or Babylon. As the 
heathen divinities, with whom I would identify the supposed Irish Saints, 
are those of ancient Babylon and Hindostan, we might reasonably expect to 
find the Centaur occupying some conspicuous place in Irish Mythology ; and 
this we may conclude to have been the case from the fact of our finding 
figures of Centaurs on the doorway of Cormac's Chapel, and on the Cross of 


Kells, hereafter to be noticed under the heads of " Centaurs" " Cuthites," 
etc. I make this brief allusion here to the subject of Centaurs (which shall 
afterwards be examined at greater length), to account for the almost identical 
names of Centaurs appearing among our Irish Saints, viz. : Saint CRONAN, 
alias MOCHUA, for CRONOS, alias BUDH, Saint CIARAN, for the Centaur 
CHIRON, Saint NESSAN, for the Centaur NESSUS. These are among the 
most ancient, as well as the most celebrated, Irish Saints ; and they will be 
found to be purely mythological. 

I have already noticed some of the Religious foundations ascribed to 
Cronan Mochua. The following are associated with Ciaran and Nessan, 

116 ERIGOL KIRAN, Tyrone, St. Kieran (Chieran), 5th century, (L. 609). 
117 CLONMACNOISE, King's County, St. Ciaran, 5th century, (L. 367, M. 41). 
n8 SEIRG-KEIRAN, alias DESERT KIERAN, King's County, St. Ciaran, 5th 

century, (L. 549, M. 25). 

119 IRELAND'S EYE, Dublin, St. Nessan, 6th century, (M. 8). 
120 MOUNT-GARRETT, Wexford, St. Nessan, 6th century, (M. 380). 
121 CORK, St. Nessan, St. Finbar, 6th cent, (A. 63). 
122 MUNGRET, Limerick, St. Nessan, 5th century, (A. 434). 
123 CAPE CLEAR, Cork, St. Kieran, and St. Comgall, (A. 60). 
124 INK KIERAN, Cork, St. Kieran, (A. 71). 
125 ARANMORE, Galway, St. Kieran, (A. 271, Loc. Tra.). 
126 KILKIERAN, Kilkenny, St. Kieran, (Loc. Trad.). 
127 FARTAGH, Kilkenny, St. Kiaran, (A. 350). 
128 TEMPLE KIERAN, King's Co., St Kieran, (Loc. Trad.). 
129 SAINT'S ISLAND, Longford (Lough Ree), St. Kieran, (A. 441, M. 49). 


In my researches I have been led to form conclusions grounded upon a 
combination of evidence too desultory to be offered as positive proofs. 
I therefore submit these opinions to the reader, as suggestions only 


trusting that the study of the subject generally will satisfy him of their 

The Irish Saints are classed as male and female. I have classed the 
same names under the heads of male or female divinities, not always 
adopting the sex which hagiologists have chosen. Thus, St. Mell is some- 
times referred to as a female Saint, but generally the Saint is described as the 
nephew of St. Patrick. The name is manifestly an abbreviated form of 
Melissa, or the Ark, the Cuthite female divinity. St. Shanaun is always 
represented as a man, while the name really signifies a female divinity, the 
ancient Ana, mother of the gods. 

There seems no doubt of Juno's having been worshipped in Ireland by 
the Cuthites as Damater, the mother of the gods. Her Irish name was 
Una, or Eunan, or lun, the dove like the Hebrew ; and this name is still 
preserved in lona, the island of West Scotland, sacred to St. Columb 
(the dove also). lun is also to be found as part of compound names in 
many localities throughout Ireland. The divine Incarnation, as her son, 
was styled Maclun, or MacOwen, we have therefore many places called 
Kil-MacOwen or Temple-MacOwen ; and St. Keledeus tells us, that there 
were fifty-eight Saints of the name of Mochuan. The name Una is frequently 
introduced in ancient Irish poetry. It is translated into the English name 
Winefred, a Saint celebrated for her Holy Wells. The name of the mother 
Saint, Una or lun (with which many of the Holy Wells of Ireland were 
associated), has fallen into oblivion, and that of St. John has been substituted 
for it, both names being nearly identical in the Irish. Therefore it is, that 
so many St. John's wells are found throughout Ireland, while I believe no 
one has ever heard of St. Luke's well. 

Another name of Irish hagiology which I associate with Damater, or 
female nature, is DAIRE, the Oak. We find several compounds of this name, 
presenting her as female, and her son as called from her. Thus 

St. Dairbile, of Belmullet, Co. Mayo the Oak-tree. St. Darerca the 
Oak of the Ark. " St. Derinilla of the four paps," the mother of several Irish 


Saints. We have her son likewise called MacDaire, or MacDara, the son 
of Daire, the Oak. Diarmaid, the oaktwig or sapling, answering to the 
Branch of Juno of Cuthite mythology ; as well as fifty-eight St. Mochuans 
the son of the Dove. We have also the name Daire in compound names 
of places, such as Ballasodare Baal, the offspring of Daire, the Oak, etc. 

St. DARERCA is clearly derived from the Sacred Oak, or Oak of the Ark. 
The Irish word DAIR is translated the Oak, and ARC, or ARG, an Ark " a 
large chest in the form of a ship" answering to Bryant's interpretation of 
Argus, the ark. St. Darerca is said to have lived 180 years. 

St. DIAR-MAID has the same origin. The word DIAR-MAID may be 
literally translated the Oak-stick. The Irish word MAIDE is translated a 
stick wood timber. The name Diarmaid is associated with that of 
ODuine (Odui(bh)ne) in the Irish legend already noticed as corresponding 
in so many important particulars with the Phoenician legend of Adonis. 
The Irish hero is, like Adonis, killed by a mystic boar. " They are both 
cautioned against hunting the wild boar ; both are slain by that animal ; and 
in both cases the wild boar is a rational ^being, metamorphosed into the 
shape for the express purpose of effecting the destruction of the hunter. 
Add to this, that the corpse of both is sought for with loud mourning, and 
both are again raised to life." The Classic story is a Phoenician legend, the 
Irish story is a Tuath-de-Danaan legend. The lady-love in the one case is 
the goddess Venus, and in the Irish legend she is called GRAINNE, answering 
to the name of a Tuath-de-Danaan divinity. The Irish hero is sometimes 
called Diarmuid-na-m-ban Diarmuid of the White Woman. This gives 
significance to the literal translation of Dair-maide, and makes it read, the Oak 
sapling of the White Woman, answering to the branch of Juno, (Columban, 
the White Dove) elsewhere referred to. ( Ulster Journal^ vol. 7, p. 340). 

The name of Diarmaid is one of note among the Finian legends of 

Leaving the others for the present, I would notice the following founda- 
tions as associated with the name of Daire and its compounds. 


130 LINN, alias GLYNN, Antrim, St. Darerca, (A. 9, L. 664). 

131 KILLEVEY-MEAGH, Armagh, St. Darerca, (A. 34, L. 365). 

132 McDARA's ISLAND, Galway, St. McDara, (Loc. Trad.). 

133 DAIRMELLE, 1 (Lough-Melvin) Leitrim, St. Sinell, St. Mella, (A. 408, 

134 KlLDARIS, I L. 336). 

135 CLUAIN DARA, CLONE, Longford, (A. 438, Top.). 

136 DISERT DERMIT, alias CASTLE DERMOT, Kildare, St. Diermit, 5th cent, 
(A. 310, L. 295). 

137 INIS CLORAN, (Lough Ree) Longford, St. Diarmit, 4th cent, (A. 440, 
M. 52). 

138 FOCHART, Louth, St. Darerca, St. Monenna, (A. 464, M. 343). 

139 DAIRBILE'S CHURCH, Mayo, St. Dairbile, (Loc. Trad.). 

140 KILESHEN, (quere Glan-Ussan?) Queen's Co., St. Diarmit, and St. 
Comgan, (A. 398, M. 32, L. 143). 

141 KILMACOWEN, Sligo, St. Diermit, (A. 636). 

142 DAIRINIS, Waterford, St. Molanfide, St. Gobhan, St. Breccan, and 
Fechnan the hairy, (A. 695). 

143 DAIRMACH, alias DURROW, King's Co., St. Colan, St. Aengus-Laimh- 
lodhan, (A. 393, M. 27). 

144 DERMACH, alias DURROW, Queen's Co., St. Fintan, (A. 349). 

145 DURA, alias BUNOWN, alias BALLAGHBOY, Clare, (Top.). 

These three names are significant BUNOWN may be translated the 
Branch of Juno. DOORA seems to be a corruption of either DEROE 
the reddish god, or DAIRMAH the good Dair, the Oak : the latter 
interpretation is the more probable. The two ancient (Cuthite) foun- 
dations bearing this name (DURROW) already noticed, the one in the 
King's County and the other in the Queen's County, had the ancient 
names of DURROG alias DEARMACH (M. 27). Both of these names 
correspond with my suggested interpretation. The other name of 
the foundation in Clare, BALLAGHBOY, may be rendered the House of 



It would seem that, after the worship of Juno or lun was interdicted, the 
name as that of a goddess became obsolete. But that lun was worshipped 
as Damater, we may infer from the meaning of several Irish words of which 
lun forms a compound. Thus, in O'Brien's Dictionary we read that, 
Ion in compound words denotes maturity lon-fhir, and lon-mhna, mar- 
riageable, etc., etc. The term Dia-Mathair itself may, as Irish, be trans- 
lated the mother of the gods. Columb, the Dove, seems to have been 
the favorite name for the Irish Damater, or mother of the gods. The name 
as that of a male Saint is well known in more than half the counties of 

More than three hundred religious houses are ascribed to the names of 
Columb and Colman. Although I have no doubt that many real personages 
Christian Bishops were so called in the later days of the Irish Church, I 
must ascribe the origin of these names (with the others already mentioned) 
to Paganism. The numerous legends told of Columban and Colman in the 
most extreme counties of -Ireland attest their Pagan origin, but the founda- 
tion of the names is to be sought for in Babylonian Mythology. 

Mr. Hislop writes (Two Babylons, page 112) : " In Babylon the title of 
the goddess mother, as the dwelling-place of God, was Sacca, or in the 
emphatic form, Sacta, that is, ' The Tabernacle/ . . . Every quality of 
gentleness and mercy was regarded as centred in her ; and when death had 
closed her career, while she was fabled to have been deified and changed 
into a pigeon, to express the celestial benignity of her nature, she was called 
by the name of ' D'luneV or ' The Dove,' or, without the article, ' Juno/ the 
name of the Roman ' queen of Heaven/ which has the very same meaning ; 
and under the form of a dove, as well as her own, she was worshipped by 
the Babylonians. The Dove, the chosen symbol of this deified queen, is 
commonly represented with an olive branch in her mouth, as she herself in 
her human form also is seen bearing the olive branch in her hand (Fig. 12, 


from Bryant, vol. 3, p. 84) ; and from this form of representing her, it is 
highly probable that she derived the name by which she is commonly 
known, for ' Z'emir-amit' means ' The Branch- Bearer.' When the goddess 
was thus represented as the Dove with the olive branch, there can be no 
doubt that the symbol had partly reference to the story of the Flood ; but 
there was much more in the symbol than a mere memorial of that great 
event . . . For, in the Sculptures at Nineveh, as we have seen, the 
wings and tail of the dove represented the third member of the idolatrous 
Assyrian trinity. In confirmation of this view, it must be stated, that the 
Assyrian ' Juno/ or ' The Virgin Venus,' as she was called, was identified 
with the air. Thus Julius Firmicus says : ' The Assyrians and part of the 
Africans wish the air to have the supremacy of the elements, for they have 
consecrated this same (element) under the name of Juno, or the Virgin, 
Venus.' Why this air thus identified with Juno, whose symbol was that of 
the third person of the Assyrian trinity ? Why, but because in Chaldee the 
same word which signifies the air signifies also the ' Holy Ghost.' The 
knowledge of this entirely accounts for the statement of Proclus, that ' Juno 
imports the generation of soul' Whence could the soul the spirit of man 
be supposed to have its origin, but from the Spirit of God." 

Now this quotation, in connection with the fact that so many other 
unmistakably Babylonish divinities are found among the names of Irish 
Saints, is sufficient to account for the two hundred Saints named Colmban, or 
Colman, which we find scattered over Ireland. The name Colmban literally 
means " The white dove," from COLM dove, and BAN white. The name 
Colman also may be rendered " the swift dove," or, " the human dove." I 
think it probable that Colman is the name Colmban, only spelled as usually 
pronounced in the South of Ireland, the B not being sounded, and conse- 
quently we find Colmban, as a distinguished Saint, in connection with 
numerous ancient Ecclesiastical Establishments throughout the Northern 
and Middle Counties of Ireland : while the name of Colman given to 200 
Saints is generally confined to the Southern and Western counties. St. 


Colmban's religious foundations are said by Colgan to be no fewer than 
three hundred. ( Ulster Jour, vol. i , p. 2 7). I am confirmed in the opinion 
that Colman and Columb represent the same heathen divinity (Juno, the 
Dove,) by the fact that Columbanus, Colman, and Mocholmog, are in the 
Marty rology of Donegal identified as the same individual. (See p. 149). 
And again, the same authority informs us (p. 56) that Columnan was called 

The names of Finean, Finan, or Fin, occupy an important place both in 
the Hagiology of Ireland, and in the legendary history of its Finian heroes 
of antiquity. 

The name of Cuile is frequently connected with that of Fin as in Fin- 
MacCuile. My examination of the subject has led me to conclude that 
Cuile was originally intended to represent the parent divinity ; and Fin, 
Finan, or Finean, the divine emanation the branch of Juno the Son of 
God the Seed of the woman, etc. The Irish Finian hero, Fin-MacCuile, 
like several mythical Irish Saints, is said to have had a mighty and successful 
contest with a monstrous Dragon : all such legends, as elsewhere remarked, 
I believe to be corruptions of the primeval prophecy of our Saviour's contest 
with the Devil. 

The name of Fin-MacCuile, with his wonderful exploits as chief of the 
Finian heroes, was too familiar. to the Irish peasantry to permit of its ever 
being canonized in its original form. It was therefore left to the Finian 
legends, and the names of Finan and Finean alone recorded as Saints. 

Every effort was at the same time made to render obsolete the name of 
Cuile in connection with the ancient ecclesiastical establishments to which it 
belonged, and by some slight alteration of a name, with an ingenious expla- 
nation, attention was directed to a different source of derivation from the real 
one ; but sufficient records of the most ancient names of such places remain 
to prove the connection of Cuile with the ancient heathen worship. The 
ancient name of Kilmacduach, County Galway, was Kilmacuile; and as the 
term AY//, or Cille, was the ordinary Christian substitute for the Irish word 


TEAMPULL which was too manifestly connected with heathenism to be tole- 
rated, we may interpret the ancient name as the Temple of Cuile. 

Although the names of the parishes were changed from Temple to Kill 
or Cille, the ancient buildings themselves have in most cases retained to this 
day the name of Temple, as Temple Kieran Temple Cronan, etc. The 
ancient name of the Great Island, the Cove of Cork, at which St. Satan was 
worshipped, was Inis McCaille the Island of the son of Cuile. The ancient 
name of Kells, county Meath, was Dun-Chuile-Sibhrinne. We have also in 
the County of Cork the names of Coole Abbey and Kilchuile the Temple 
of Cuile. We find in Queen's County, Leam Cuile The Leap of Cuile, St. 
Fintan. In Roscommon, Kilchuile the Temple of Cuile, St. Bolcan: in 
Down, Achadcaoil, St. Senan. The celebrated Cuthite College or Christian 
Seminary of Clonard, County Meath, at which most of the 6th century 
Saints or heathen divinities were said to have been trained under St. Finian 
(quere Fin-MacCuile himself?) was anciently called Ross-Fin-Chuill. In 
this name we find the identity with the Finian hero Fin-MacCuile Fin the 
son of Cuile concealed only by the omission of Mac, the son of, otherwise 
it would be complete. So also in the name Drum-Fin-Choil, County Meath, 
St. Luan. We have also Cluain Finchol, County Armagh, St. Luan. The 
similarity of such names as Fin-Chuill to that of the Irish hero of romance 
being still too great to be above suspicion of their identity with each other, 
a further"change in the orthography was made at Cluain-Finchol, alias Feacul, 
Armagh, by changing the letter "n" into "a," by which the name was turned 
into the Irish word FIACUL, a tooth ; and, to give significance to the altered 
name, one of St. Patrick's teeth was said to have been preserved at that 
Monastery. Another of St. Patrick's teeth was procured for Cluain-Feacle, 
or Kilfeacle (the Temple of Cuile) in the County of Cork. The name is 
likewise found amongst the Saints, but, as a person could not be called after 
one of St. Patrick's teeth, other modes of altering the orthography were 
adopted. We find therefore a celebrated character, St. Maccaille, in the fifth 
century; and St. Fin-Chuo died at Bangor, County Down, in the year 60 1. 





It will afterwards be shown that the several sculptures on the Irish stone 
Crosses represent the suspension of Fin-MacCuile, and not, as is generally 
supposed, the Bible Crucifixion scene. 

It is significant that, unlike other ancient 
names of ecclesiastical foundations, Cuile should 
in almost every instance have had some other 
name substituted for it. And so completely was 
this substitution effected, that in several cases, as 
those of Kilmacduach, Kells, and Clonard, the 
original name is all but lost. In how many other 
instances may similar substitutions have been 
made for the name of Cuile, of which all traces 
are lost. It is probable that the name of Michael 
the Archangel associated with so many Irish pa- 
rishes (St. Michael's) may be only a corruption of 
Machuilleor Fin-Machuile. One is almost forced 
to suspect, that the ancient ecclesiastics perceiv- 
ed the identity of the names of their Christian 
establishments with the admittedly heathen name 
of Fin-MacCuile, and therefore took so much 
pains to obliterate what they could not explain. 

The Irish word FINE is translated a tribe, or 
stock, or family. I should suppose the name 
Fin-MacCuile was applied to the Finian hero, 
as the stock, or offspring of Cuile. 

The word FINUINE also I believe expresses the 
offspring of lun Juno, the Dove, the mother 
divinity. We find the offspring of Juno the 
seed of the woman represented in the hiero- 
glyphic of a vine-branch in the hand of that god- 


4ess (see fig. 12), and, corresponding with it, we co. CLARE. 




find the vine expressed in the Irish language by the words FINE AMHAIN (pro- 
nounced Fin- U in). I believe the hieroglyphic of the vine branch the Branch 
of Juno to be the origin of the Irish term for the vine-tree. The vine-branch 
itself, the hieroglyph of the offspring of Juno, is found in many Irish sculp- 
tures. It may be seen in the same form in the hand of the goddess herself 
on the Crosses of Clonmacnoise, Monasterboice, Durrow, etc. It is also 
found in sculptures at Rath, (fig. 13), and at Inchicronan, (fig. 14), as well 
as on numerous pillar-stones throughout Ireland. 

The origin of the hieroglyphic of the Branch in the hand of Juno, or in 
the mouth of the Dove, has been explained in preceding pages. 

The subject of the Babylonish divinity, Juno, the Dove, and her branch, 
is treated of at length in Hislop's Two Baby Ions, pp. 105-140. 

The Dove and the Branch in ancient worship seem, as Hislop suggests, 
to have had some connection with the deluge and the incident of the Dove 
returning to Noah with the Branch in her mouth, though some deeper 
mystical meaning led to the divine worship, which this dove and branch 
appear to have received under the names of Juno in the East, and Columb 
and Finian in Ireland. 

The following are a few of the religious foundations associated with the 
names of Colman, Columb, Finian, Chuile, etc., besides several others 
previously noticed : 

146 MOYNOE, Clare, St. Colman, (D. 135, L. 405). 

147 DUNGIVEN, Derry, St. Colmb, 6th cent., (L. 581). 

148 LONDONDERRY, Derry, St. Colmb, 6th cent, (L. 296, M. 102). 

149 TAMLAGHTARD, Derry, St. Colmb, 6th cent, (L. 590). 

150 ERIGOL-GARVAGH, Derry, St. Colmb, 6th cent, (L. 608). 

151 SOURD, alias SWORDS, Dublin, St. Colmb, 6th cent, (M. 9). 


Kenan, 6th cent, (L. 36, M. 38, A 4 M. 3991). 
153 DRUMCLIFFE, Sligo, St. Colmb, (L. 513, A. 631). 


154 BALLYMOTE, Sligo, St. Colmb, (L. 599, A. 627). 
155 CLOYNE, Cork, St. Colman, (L. 381, A. 61). 
!^6 KILMACDUACH, Galway, St. Colman, 6th cent, (L. 162, M. 76). 
157 MUCKAMORE, Antrim, St. Colman Elo, 6th cent, (A. 10, L. 407). 
!^8 KILMORE, Cavan, St. Columb, (A. 42, L. 184). 
!59 GLAN-CULM-KILL, Donegal, St. Columb, (L. 659). 
!6o GLAN-CULM-KILL, Clare, St. Columb, (A. 46). 
161 OUGHTMAMA, Clare, St. Colman, (P. 178, L. 452). 
162 DESERT TOHIL, Derry, St. Columb, (A. 91, L. 457). 
163 TORY ISLAND, Donegal, St. Columba, (A. 105, Uls. Jour. vol. i, p. 146) 
164 FINGLAS, Dublin, St. Foelchu, St. Noe, 5th cent, (A. 215, L. 629). 
165 INISCALTRA, (Lough Derg) Galway, St. Colaim, 6th cent., (A 4 M. 548) 
1 66 ARDBOE, Tyrone, St. Colman, (A. 678). 
167 DONOUGHMORE, Tyrone, St. Columb, (A. 682). 
1 68 KILLONE, (The Temple of Oin, St. John), Clare, (L. 151). 
169 CURRANES, Kerry, St. Finian, (L. 506, Top.). 
170 MOVILLE, Donegal, St. Finian, St. Siollan, (A. 103). 
171 CLONARD (Ross-FiNN-CnuiLL), Meath, St. Finian, St. Kiaran, (A. 519, 
M. 35, L. 349). 


The primeval religion of Noah and the Patriarchs being Monotheism, 
we should expect to find some evidence of such creed in the early apostacy 
of Noah's descendants. Accordingly we find The One God venerated in 
ancient Ireland under the name of the supposed Saint Endee or Endeus, 
which name may be literally translated The One God. Next, primeval 
religion seems from the Fall of man to have recognised the fact, that the 
Seed of the woman, the Saviour of mankind, should be the Son of God ; 
and accordingly we recognise the worship of the Son of the One God in 
the name of the supposed Irish Saint Barindeus Bar-en- De, translated 
The Son of the One God. The term Bar, a son, has the same signification 


in the Irish and in the Hebrew languages. We have in the preceding pages 
suggested, that this Son of God was worshipped in Ireland under the names 
Fin and Finian, whose identity with Barende is confirmed by the fact, that 
one of the names of Barende was Fin- Bar. Fintan also seems to have been 
a variety of the same name. The term Fintan may be translated the country 
of Fin ; and it is probable that, after its original signification became obsolete, 
the name was adopted as that of a supposed Saint. Comparatively few 
ecclesiastical establishments are assigned to St. Fintan, and of these several 
are introduced into the catalogues of foundations of other associated Saints. 
Nevertheless twenty-seven Saints are said to have borne the name of Fintan, 
and wonderful stories are recorded of him in the ancient Annals of Ireland. 
We read that he was an antediluvian who escaped drowning in the Deluge 
by being transformed into a Salmon, and that afterwards, in his natural form, 
his life was prolonged to the days of St. Patrick, by whom he was converted 
to Christianity. (Hanmers Chronicle 2d. vol. Irish Historians, p. 5, Edn. 
Dublin, 1809). 

This story is seriously told in Irish History as an ancient record. In 
my opinion the legend is the Irish version of the first Indian Avatar, wherein 
Vishnu became incarnate in the form of a fish, to recover the Sacred Books 
lost in the Deluge. (See Maurices India, vol. i, plate 7). 

The figure of the Divine Fish, with men kneeling in adoration may be 
found sculptured on the Cross of Kells. (See Henry O'Neill's Irish Crosses, 
plate 29). 

" Ancient Manuscripts" inform us, that Fiontan was one of the four men 
who lived before and after the Deluge ; who (in accordance with the Budhist 
account of the cosmogony) afterwards divided, and possessed themselves of 
the four parts of the world. (Keating, vol. i , page 34). 

St. Neasan also lost his wonderful book during his contest with the 
" Evil One," but it was recovered from the bottom of the sea, " without a 
spot or stain upon it." This legend also seems to point to the same origin, 
the great Deluge. 


The following are among the foundations with which the names of 
Endee or Bar-Ende are associated : 

172 ARANMORE, Galway, St. Endee, 5th cent, (M. 76, A. 271). 

!73 KILLEEN, Meath, St. Endeus, 6th cent, (A. 550). 

174 DRUMCULLEN, King's County, St. Barindeus, 6th cent, (A. 709, M. 373, 

L. 514). 

175 GOOGANE BARA, Cork, St. Finbar, alias Barindeus, (L. 15-2). 
176 KILBARRON, Donegal, St. Finbar, (A. 100, L. 49). 
177 KILTARTAN, Galway, (L. 211). 

178 TARMON BARRY, Roscommon, St. Barry, (L. 597, Loc. Trad.). 
1 79 DERINANE ABBEY (Aghamore), Kerry, St. Finbar, (A. 299). 


It has already been remarked, that the term ACHAD was one applied by 
the Cuthites to their Deity. (Bryant, vol. i, p. 104.) The sun was styled 
ACHAD ; (vol. 2, p. 451.) The name of Accad, as one of Nimrod's cities in the 
land of Shinar, is noticed, Gen. x. 10. The word ACHAD is found in all our 
Irish Dictionaries, and translated " a field," for which I would thus account : 
Like many other cases to be found throughout Ireland, the original meaning 
of the term became obsolete, when the ancient religion with which it was 
connected was proscribed ; but the name itself still remained in connection 
with some localities where the worship had been carried on. The name 
Achad is frequently found in Irish Topography, but scarcely ever except 
in places of ancient religious renown ; and therefore it is unreasonable to 
suppose, that its primary meaning should have been simply "a field ;" though 
such interpretation is sufficiently probable as a secondary signification, after 
the original use of the word was lost. 

AGHA is the modern word, into which the ancient term ACHAD is rendered. 
AGHA is also used to express the Irish word AITH, a ford; therefore hundreds 

ACHAD. g/ 

of Townlands in Ireland, which have no ecclesiastical associations, bear the 
name of AGHA in their compounds. But I think it will be found that 
all the compounds of AGHA in modern names, which represent the Irish term 
ACHAD, are of ecclesiastical origin. 

Assuming ACHAD to have been a Cuthite term applied to the Sun. I 
would now notice a few of the ancient Ecclesiastical foundations which are 
compounds of that word : 

1 80 ACHADE-DAGAIN, Waterford, St. Dagan, (M. 15, A. 684). 

181 ACHAD-UR (Freshford), Kilkenny, St. Lactan, 6th cent.,(M. 68). 

182 ACHAD-GARBAIN, alias DUNGARVAN, Waterford, St. Garban, St. Finbar 

(M. 116, A. 687). 

183 AcHADH-BiOROiR, alias AUGHAVILLER, Kilkenny, (A 4 M. 896, L. 94). 
184 ACHADH-FABHAIR, alias AcHAGOWER, Mayo, St. Patrick, St. Senach, 

5th century, (A 4 M. 1094, L. 92). 
185 AcHADH-Bo-CAixxiGH, alias AGHABO, Queen's Co., St. Canice, 6th cent., 

(A 4 M. 598, L. ii.). 
1 86 ACHADH-CHAOIN, (The gentle Achad), alias ACHONRY, Sligo, St. Finian, 

St. Nathi, 6th cent, (A 4 M., L. 6, D. 215). 

187 AcHEADH-FiNGLAis, alias AGHA, Carlow, St. Fintan, (A 4 M., L. n). 
1 88 ACHADH-ABHALL, alias AGHOLD, Wicklow, St. Lazerian (Molach), 

(A 4 M. 1017, L. 20). 
189 ACHADH-MONA, alias AGHAWONEY, Donegal, parish of Kilmacrennan, 

St. Columb, (L. 167, A4M. 1343). 
190 ARD-ACHADH, alias ARDAGH, Longford, St. Mel, 5th cent., (A 4 M. 

191 ACHADH-ALDAI (New Grange), Meath, (A 4 M. 86 1). 

The Note to this name in the A 4 M. translates it " The field of 

Aldai, the ancestor of the Tuath-de-Danaan Kings of Ireland." It 

proceeds " It is highly probable if not certain, that Achadh- Aldai 

is the ancient name of New Grange in the County Meath." 




There are upwards of twenty ancient Ecclesiastical foundations in 
Ireland bearing the name of DISART, DYSART, or DESART, which I interpret 
thus DI-ES-ARD, The High place of the God Ees. Bryant devotes a 
chapter to the term Ees, pointing it out as a Cuthite radical, denoting light 
and fire, and one of the titles of the Sun, (Antient Mythology, vol. i, p. 31). 
In the Irish language the word is also found, and is also translated Ess, a 
ship ; Ess, death ; also EASGA, and EASCAN, the Moon. Ancient ruins are 
found at several places of this name. The following are a few of these, at 
three of which Round Towers exist, viz., at Dysart O'Dea, Co. Clare ; 
Disart Carregin, Co. Limerick ; and at. Dysart in Queen's County. 

192 DYSART and RATH, Clare, St. Maunawla, St. Blawfugh, (L. 593, Loc. 


193 DISART CARREGIN, Co. Limerick, (L. 462). 
194 DYSART CHURLIN, Queen's County, St. Lasren, (Knight's Map of 

Ireland, A. 593). 

195 DESERT (Church Town), Waterford, (L. 592). 
196 DYSART, Westmeath, St. Colman, (L. 592). 
197 RATHASS (the Rath of Ees), near Tralee, Kerry, (Top.). 


I shall conclude this catalogue with a brief notice of a few other names 
of celebrated Irish Saints. The heathen origin of some of these names is 
manifest. Others I would maintain to be heathen only on the assumption that 
the names already noticed are admitted to be such, and therefore I submit the 
interpretations merely as suggestions, leaving the reader to judge of their 

St. OISSENE, alias OSSAN, alias USSEN, derived from Oceanus the Titan 


(Bryant, vol. 4, p. 339), also answering to OISSEN or OISHIN, the Finian hero, 
and the father of Irish bards. 

St. CIANAN, alias CENAN, (A 4 M., M. 35), the name of another Finian 
hero of Irish romance, answering to Canaan, or Cnaan, the Cuthite progenitor 
of the Canaanites. 

St. DIMMA, or DIMO, interpreted " the Good God," and DIMA DUBH, " the 
good black divinity." This Saint is said to have been the preceptor of St. 
Declan [the God of generativeness]. St. Dimma has left his name to 
several localities of Ecclesiastical note in Ireland, now known by the name 
of Kildima. 

St. DANAN seems to have its derivation from Danan the Almoner, else- 
where noticed as the origin of the name Tuath-de-Danaan, and answers 
to Danaus the Arkite of ancient mythology and to Dhanus, the Centaur of 
Hindoo mythology. 

St. STELLAIN, from STALAN, a male horse (Irish), answering to Hippos, 
the Sun of Cuthite mythology, and to the horses that fed upon the flesh of 
strangers the priests of Hippius. (Bryant, vol. 2, pp. 293, 295). Hippa 
is described as the daughter of Danaus above mentioned. (Bryant, vol. 2, p. 
293). Ceres had the title' of Hippia, as had also Minerva and the Amonian 
Juno. (Bryant, vol. 2, p. 290). See fig. of Hippa of Mount Arcadia. 

St. COCCA, the nurse of St. Ciaran, answering to CACA, a name of Cuthite 
priestesses, who were styled the nurses of the Gods. CACA was supposed to 
have been a goddess, who was made a deity for having betrayed her brother 
to Hercules. (Bryant, vol. i, p. 222 ; vol. 2, p. 283). 

The names of COEMGENE, alias KEIVIN, and of COMGALL, occupy a con- 
spicuous place in the calendar of Irish Saints. They are variously spelled, 
viz : Coemgene alias Coengen alias Keivin ; and Comgall alias Congall 
alias Comgan. The names have also been variously interpreted The 
beautiful born The first begotten, and The summit of brightness. If such 
names were adopted by the Irish Saints because of their personal or moral 
qualities, why did not Saints MOLACH, DAGAN, LUAN, SATAN, and DIUL adopt 


some names more appropriate to Christianity than their own ? I believe the 
names of Comgall, etc., were originally represented by one word used as a. 
surname, to express the excellent quality of the Divine Man of primeval 
tradition. Finding no particular significance in the names themselves, as 
connected with Cuthite mythology, I have arranged most of the religious 
establishments, assigned to these supposed Saints, under the heads of Ciaran 
and other associated names. 

St. FECHIN, of Belli Fechin or Bilefechin (M. 376), I believe to represent 
Baal in humiliation, afterwards frequently referred to in the Sculptures as 
the Shepherd devoured by wolves, and the crucified King. The Irish word 
FEC is translated feebleness, and weakness ; and I believe the name Baal- 
Fechin was formed from a compound of this word with Baal. The original 
meaning having become obsolete, the name was changed by the Ecclesiastics 
to Belli Fechin, and ultimately to Fechin, as the name of the Saint, and Bile, 
the name of the place. The same idea of the Mighty One in humiliation is 
expressed in the name Baile-Fhobhair (Fore of Fechan in Westmeath) and 
in Achad Fobhair, the ancient name of Aghagower, County Mayo. Fobhair 
is translated sick, infirm, weak thus answering to Baal Fechan Baal, or 
Achad, under infirmity, or in humiliation. 

St. LACTAN. I can offer no decided opinion upon the derivation of this 
name. It may have been derived from LEACHT, a monumental mound or 
heap of stones, with its diminutive Leachtan ; or more probably, it was formed 
out of one of the compounds of Molach. 

St. BREANAINN, now usually spelled BRENDAN, is amongst the Irish Saints 
of remote antiquity. He is said to have lived to a great age, and the Annals 
of the Four Masters, the most authentic source of information respecting 
these ancient Irish Saints, inform us, that in the year 553 A. D., he (St. 
Breanainn) was seen ascending in a chariot into the sky ! ! ! I can offer no 
opinion on the derivation of this name. With a slight alteration it would 
answer to Brammon, the first-born man the eldest of the four sons of the 
first-created man on whom, according to the legends of Budhist Mythology 


the priesthood was conferred on account of his grave and melancholy dispo- 
sition. Bran also is the name given to a dog of supernatural qualities, said 
to have been a constant attendant on Fin-MacCuile. 

St. MAODHOG, alias MAEDHOG, alias MAIDOC, alias AIDAN, alias EDAN. 
This Saint's name, Maedhog, answers exactly to MAIDEOG the Irish word 
for the Concha Veneris ; and again the Irish word MAIDINEOG means the 
Morning Star (the planet Venus). 

St. MEL, and MAELISA, I believe to have been formed out of the Cuthite 
term Melissa. Damater was styled Melissa, and was looked upon as the 
" Venus of the East" (Bryant, vol. 3, p. 231). Natalus Comes quotes the 
following fragment of Orphic poetry " Let us celebrate the hive of Venus 
who rose from the sea, that hive of many names, the mighty fountain from 
whence all kings are descended, from whence all the winged and immortal 
Loves were again produced" (Bryant, vol. 3, p. 230). The Ark was styled 
Damater (vol. 3, p. 233). "When the Shepherd Comates was inclosed in an 
Ark, bees were supposed to have fed him. Jove also upon Mount Ida was 
said to have been nourished by bees. When the temple at Delphi was a 
second time erected, it was built by bees, who composed it of wax and 
feathers brought by Apollo from the Hyperboreans," (Bryant, vol. 3, p. 
232). " By Melissa was meant the Deity of the Ark," (vol. 3, p. 233). 
" The Melissse were certainly female attendants in the Arkite temples," 
(vol. 3, p. 234).* 

From these quotations which are only detached scraps of what Bryant 
has written, or extracted from ancient heathen sources, I conclude that St. 
MEL, who has left his name to Mellifont, and St. Maelisa, are, like others 
already mentioned, derived from Amonian or Cuthite Mythology, and 
originally represented the female Deity of the Ark not Irish saints. 

Authors are not agreed as to the sex of St. Mel. By some he is repre- 

* The name of Maelisa, as that of an Irish male Saint, may be found in the Mariyrology of 
Donegal, page 19. A feast in his honour was celebrated on the i6th of January, and he is said 
to have composed a poem for Michael the Archangel ! 


sented as the nephew of St. Patrick. Others maintain that the supposed 
Saint was a female, and the mother of St. Canice, whom I have endeavoured 
to identify with Mochue (the good Budh). Others again describe the Saint 
(Melle) as mother of St. Tigernagh (the Lord). These facts afford addi- 
tional evidence in confirmation of the identity of St. Mel with the Cuthite 
Melissa The Ark the Mother of the gods, (See Archdall, p. 409, 
Ledwich, p. 497, and Hanmers Chronicle). 

St. SINELL may be interpreted " the Ancient God." He is said to have 
been Bell-founder to St. Patrick, and to have died in the 5th century at the 
advanced age of 330 ! 

These interpretations may be better understood by the reader after he 
has perused the subsequent chapters, but they are necessarily introduced 
here in order to complete the catalogue of Irish Saints. 

The following are among the ecclesiastical foundations, with which the 
names of these supposed Saints are associated : 

198 ANNAGHDOWN, Galway, St. Brendan or Brenaun, 6th century, (A. 

284, L. 29). 

199 CLONFERT, Galway, St. Brendan, 6th century, (A. 278, L. 362). 
200 ARDFERT, Kerry, St. Brendan, 6th century, (A. 299, L. 48). 
20 1 Ross TURK, Queen's Co. (quere Mayo ?), St. Brendan, (A. 596). 
202 KILASPUIC BRONE, Sligo, St. Bronus, (P. 178). 
203 KILBRONY, Down, St. Bronus, (Top., L. 58). 
204 INIS-GLORY, Mayo, St. Branan, (Loc. Trad.). 
205 FORE, alias BAILE-FHOBHAIR, Westmeath, St. Fechan, St. Brendan, St. 

Suairleach, (M. 43, D. 23, A. 711, L. 616). 

206 TERMON FECHAN, Louth, St. Fechan, (A. 491, L. 618, Top). 
207 CONG, Mayo, St. Fechin, (A. 498, L. 391). 
208 BALL-ASODARE, Sligo, St. Fechin, (A. 627, L. 163). 
209 BELLI-FECHIN, alias Bile, (quere Boyle, Roscommon ?) St. Fechan, 

(A. 628, M. 87). 



210 KILFENORA, Clare, St. Fechnan, (L. 92, A. 52). 

211 ROSSCARBERY, Cork, St. Fechnan, (A. 77, L. 534). 

212 ARAN SOUTH, Galway, St. Fechin, (A. 272). 

213 ROSSBEENCHOIR, Clare, St. Cocca or Coca, (A. 54, L. 48). 

214 KILCOCK, Kildare, St. Cocha, (A. 321). 

215 DULEEK, Meath, St. Cienan, 5th century, (A. 533, L. 565, M. 35). 

216 KELLS, alias KENLIS, Kilkenny, St. Keran, (M. 19, L. 35). 

217 KILDIMA, alias KILDEEMO, Limerick, St. Dimma, 5th cent., (A. 423, 

L. 87). 
218 TIRDAGLAS, alias TERRYGLASS, Tipperary, St. Colman-Stellain, St. 

Columban, (A. 676, M. 154, L. 620). 

219 FERNS, Wexford, St. Maodhog, 6th cent, (A. 742, M. 14). 
220 ARDLADHRANN, Wexford, St. Maidoc, 5th cent, (A. 732, M. 16). 
221 DRUMLANE, Cavan, St. Maidoc, 6th cent, (M. 112, A. 41, L. 517). 
222 CLUAN CAGH, Limerick, St. Maidoc, (A. 420). 
223 BANGOR, Down, St. Comgall, 6th cent, (A. 106, L. 181). 
224 CLUAIN INIS, Fermanagh, St. Synell, (A. 258). 
225 KILLEGUE, Kerry, St. Sinell, (A. 304, M. 381). 


I shall conclude this catalogue by noticing a few localities which are 
interesting on account of their architectural relics, although all record of the 
heathen divinities worshipped at these ancient temples has disappeared. 
There are names of ancient Saints associated with some, but these are not 
traceable to a heathen origin. The similarity of architecture, as well as the 
topography of many of the names, prove them to have belonged to the same 
age and people as those who founded the other temples already noticed. I 
have also added a few foundations, which have been omitted from their 
proper places in the earlier part of the catalogue. 


226 TOMGRANEY, TUAIM GREINE, (The mound of the Sun), Clare, St. 

Cronan, St. Colman, (L. 636, D. 279). 
227 DROMCLIFFE, Clare near Ennis, (L. 504). 

228 MAHARA-MORE BANAHER, Deny, St. Patrick, 5th cent, (L. 176). 
229 DRUMHOME, Donegal, St. Ernan, (L. 516). 

It is probable that the name Ernan was a corruption of Eunan, already 

noticed as one of the names of Juno in the Irish. 
230 KILBANNAN, Galway, St. Banaun, (L. 52). See No. 145. 
231 ROSCOM, Galway, St. Patrick, (Loc. Tra.). 
232 ANNAGH, Kerry, near Tralee, (L. 29, Top.). 
233 KILLOSSY, alias KILLUS-AILLE, Kildare, St. Patrick, (L. 150). 
234 JERPOINT, (Abbey Jerpoint), Kilkenny, (L. 2). 
235 TULLOWHERIN, Kilkenny, (L. 655). 
236 KILREE, Kilkenny, (L. 201). 
237 MEELICK, Mayo, (L. 365). 

I consider it probable that the places called Meelick, at two of which 

Round Towers are reported to have existed, derived that designation 

from the celebrated Molach, or Melach, of Cuthite Mythology. 
238 DONOUGHMORE, Meath, St. Patrick, 5th cent., (A. 529). 

Ancient name Bile tor-Tain, meaning The fire-tower of Baal. 
239 ORAN, Roscommon, St. Patrick, (L. 450.) 

240 BALTINGLASS, Wicklow, translated The fire of the green Baal, (L. 173). 
241 CLUAINKEEN, Limerick, St. Dimmog, (D. in). 
242 CHRIST CHURCH, Dublin, St. Patrick, 5th cent, (M. 6). 


The reader may be interested in knowing something of the relationships 
and family connections said to have existed among the most celebrated of 
our ancient Irish Saints. This circumstance seems to have arisen, as in the 
Phoenician and Babylonian Mythology, from Hero-worship being super- 



induced upon ancient divinity. It reminds one of the great family party, 
"which, according to Homer, used occasionally to assemble on Mount Olympus 
during the Siege of Troy. 

First, St. BRENDAN, one of the oldest and greatest of our Irish Saints, 
from whom the mountain of Brandon in Kerry has its name, was the son of 
NEIM [the heavens], (A. 377). COLMAN was the son of Brandon (A. 380). 
BAITHEN [the lesser Budh] was the son of BRENDAN, a kinsman of St. 
Columb's (A. 105), [his brother, if Colman and Columb are identical, 
as I believe them to be]. BRIGID was sister to COLMAN. MOCHAIMOC 
[alias MOCHUEMOC, alias MOCHUMNA, alias CANOC, alias CANICE] was 
the son of ENDEE [the One God], (A. 262). DABEOC [the God Budh] 
was brother to CANOC (A. 102), and therefore also the son of ENDEE, the 
One God. 

DERINILLA of the four Paps [to whom I shall afterwards refer as the Cow 
of Eastern Mythology] was the mother of Saints MOCHUMA of Drumbo [the 
good Budh of the Hill of Budh] and of St. MURAS, St. AEDAN, and St. 
DOUARD. I suppose that Derinilla of the foiir Paps was the wife of ENDEE 
[the one God], as we find the latter was the father of MOCHAIMOC, whom I 
would identify with MOCHUMA, above the son of Derinilla. 

MocHOE-MiNUS, [alias MOCHOE MIN, the tender good Budh], was brother 
to St. KEVIN alias COMGENE [the beautiful born], (A. 676). DAGAIN also 
was brother to COMGENE (A. 747) ; so that we have the three brothers 
DAGAIN, KEVIN, and MOCHOE-MINUS, all celebrated Saints. They were 
probably sons of St. ENDEE [the one God,] who, we find above, was the 
father of MOCHAIMOC. DAGAIN we are told (A. 465) was smith to Saint 
CIARAN [Chiron the Centaur], and was probably identical with BOLCAN, 
whose name answers to the Vulcan of the Ancients. In the Irish language, 
the letters B and V are interchangeable therefore BOLCAN may be either the 
Vulcan of Classic Mythology, or the Tubalcain of the Bible, " an instructor 
of every artificer in brass and iron" (Gen. iv. 22). We have also many 
different Colmans. 


I have suggested The Ancient God as the probable interpretation of the 
name Sinel or Senel ; in confirmation of which, we find St. Sinel is made the 
father vr ancestor vt numerous other Saints, viz. : Dulech, Maedhog, Columb, 
Colman, Cronan, Molua, Comgan, etc. These, with their aliases and relatives, 
comprise most of the Saints named in the foregoing catalogue. 

We have also COEMGAL the brother of CELE CHRISTUS (A. 95). CUANNAN 
[the name of a celebrated Saint, as well as a hero of Irish romance] was the 
brother of CARTHAG \alias MOCHUDEE the good God Budh], (A. 290). 
We find St. GAR, the son of COLMAN, and another St. GAR, the son of 
LASRENN, [Molach], (A. i). Again we have LASREN the brother of Gobban 
(A. 71), and LAISREAN the son of NEASCA, (A. 2). Also DICHULL the son of 
NESSAN [Nessus the Centaur], (A. 301), and finally, we have SATAN the son 
of Archuir (A. 70). 

The names in this family party comprise nine-tenths of the reputed 
founders of the most ancient ecclesiastical establishments of Ireland always 
excepting St. Patrick, who was a genuine Irish Saint, and zealous missionary. 
His biographers nevertheless have ascribed to him much of the legendary 
history, which originated in heathen mythology. 

Such a subject as this cannot be treated of dogmatically. Men like St. 
Bernard, with sincere and pious intentions, collected the accredited Irish 
stories of the supposed Saints ; and Colgan compiled these stories, and 
published them in a very large work, the "Acta Sanctorum," which now 
sells for more than twenty guineas. The thoughtful reader will have to 
form his own opinion freely, as to whether these biographies are to be 
received as genuine history, or not. If they are entitled to be regarded as 
historical, then my deductions from them must be regarded as visionary. But 
if, as I believe, the whole early history of the Irish Church, so far as I have 
referred to it, is legendary, then the coincidence of the names in the remotest 
parts of Ireland proves, that the legends did not result from the imaginations 
of writers of fiction, but were connected with some extensive system of 
ancient Mythology. This system we find to be, not the Mythology of 


Greece, but that of the Cuthites or Babylonians of the days of Nimrod and 
his successors, and of the Canaanites, who were of the same race. Much of 
the ancient religion of this race is still found in the Sanscrit legends, though 
probably all the existing religions of Hindostan differ widely from that, 
which gave names to the Babylonian divinities. 


If then the Irish supposed Saints belonged to one great system of 
Mythology, we would naturally expect to find traditions of different gods of 
the same system preserved in the same locality. This accordingly we find 
to be the case. There is no important ancient establishment, which has not 
from three to five of the names of the supposed Saints connected with it. 
In arranging these legends into a Christian system, one Saint is made 
Founder another the first Abbot, who in time is changed for another. 
Then there are Visitors, and finally Saints are born at one place found a 
Monastery at another, and are buried at a third. St. Shanaun founded the 
Monastery of Inniscattery. St. Kieran came from the Isle of Arran, and 
was by St. Shanaun made providore for strangers. St. Odian [Budhan, 
Budh] was St. Shanaun's immediate successor (A. 49). At Inispuinc, near 
Cape Clear Island, Cork, St. Carthage Mochuda [the good God Budh] built 
a Monastery, and placed therein the three brothers St. Gobban, St. Stephen, 
and St. Lasren (A. 71). The names of Molasse, Colmb, and Ducholla are 
found in connection with Inis-Murry, county Sligo (A. 634) : and at Bangor 
alone we find the names of no fewer than ten celebrated Saints, who are said 
either to have been Abbots of the Monastery, to have been educated there, 
or died there, viz. ; Fin-Chuo (quere Fin-MacCuile ?) ; Fintan ; Columb ; 
Laisre(Molach); Baoithin ; Mochua ; Lunus, or Molua ; Carthagus (Mochu- 
dee) ; Comgall, and Colman. (See Archdall, p. 106, Lewis, p. 181, and 
Ulster Journal, vol. i , p. 1 69) : and so in relation to numerous other places. 

I conclude, that in former times all these gods were known and wor- 


shipped at each locality, but that only a few of their names survived the 
lapse of time (the period of heathen Celtic dominion), which must have inter- 
vened between the date of their worship as gods, and the time of their 
introduction into the Christian system. As in ancient Greece and Rome, 
one divinity was particularly honoured at a certain place to wit, Diana at 
Ephesus ; so, each Irish Temple is ascribed to one Saint in particular, as 
founder. I believe Ecclesiastics had much to do with the making of these 
selections, and therefore St. Columb and St. Colman, the least heathenish 
names in the catalogue, are said to have founded more Churches than all 
other Saints put together. 

If some of my suggested interpretations stood alone, they might reason- 
ably be regarded as forced ; but, taken together, and looked upon as a system 
of interpretation, the arguments and proofs seem unanswerable. If my 
general system of interpretation be objected to, the objector ought to inform 
us how it came to pass, that more than one hundred Saints (dividing them 
as their biographers have done) have borne the very questionable names of 
Dagan, Molach, Diul, Satan, Budh, Mochue, Endee, and Mochtee, while no 
King or Chieftain of the Celtic Irish had any of these names. That genuine 
Saints and Bishops have borne some of these names, I have more than once 
acknowledged, but only because they were venerated names derived from 
ancient Ecclesiastical traditions, which would be the innocent and natural 
result, if the traditions were derived from Heathenism. 


The author of Mears Monasticon informs us in his Introduction, that 
" Dr. Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, in his history of the Antiquities of 
the British Churches mentions a certain Authentic Manuscript, wherein it 
appears that the first Irish Saints were from the beginning divided into three 

regular orders In fine, this manuscript informs us that the first order 

was Most Holy, the second Holier, the third Holy. The first like the rising 


Sun, tJie second like the Moon, the third like the Stars" These orders came 
in succession, each systematically occupying the reigns of four Irish Monarchs, 
till the year 664, when the last was superseded by the regular Canons of 
St. Augustine, &c. I cannot help repeating my conviction that these three 
orders, compared to the Sun, Moon, and Stars (the ancient Cuthite divinities), 
had their origin in ancient Cuthite Mythology, and that the period assigned 
to them, namely, the reigns of twelve Irish Monarchs, viz., four reigns to 
each order ending A.D. 664, may very justly be designated the fabulous age 
of the Irish Church. That there was a Christian Church in Ireland for 
more than two centuries before, there can be no doubt, but its true history, 
like that of the Apostles and Evangelists of the first century, is to a great 
extent buried in oblivion so far as this world's records are concerned. 

Saint Patrick is excepted by some from these three classes in a remark- 
able manner. While ten of the Saints, to which I have referred as heathen 
divinities, have had the undisputed reputation of being founders of particular 
orders, it is said of St. Patrick that " All authors do not own St. Patrick to 
have been the founder of a particular order." * (M. Int.}. Colgan however 
makes up for it by informing us that he, St. Patrick, " with his own hand, 
ordained 150 Bishops and 5,000 Priests, and founded 700 Churches." Is 
this authentic history ? 

In reviewing this catalogue of Irish Saints, with their supposed founda- 
tions, it will be seen, that numerous names are traceable to BUDH under 
some of his aliases, viz : Buithe, Baoith, Boodin, Botha, Mochudee (the 
good god Budh), and Mochue (the good Budh), alias Cronon. A few names 
are identified with St. Luan, " the Moon." Some are identified with 
Molach. Others of the names, if translated into English, would read St. 
Bridget, " the goddess of Poets and Smiths ;" St. Ana, " the ancient 
Ana, mother of the gods," the Shannon ; St. Endee, "the one-god," 
St. Moch Tee " the son of god ;" St. Declan, " the god of generativeness ;" 
St. Colum, " the Dove" (Juno) ; St. Dagan ; St. Satanna, St. Satan ; and 
,St. Dichul, the Devil ; Saints Ciaran and Nessan, the Centaurs Chiron and 


Nessus. The foundations ascribed to these names comprise the localities 
of most of our Irish Round Towers, and, where such are not found, there 
are generally to be met with at the places referred to some architectural 
remains of the Cuthite character, as will be afterwards shown. 


The number of aliases given to Irish Saints is another remarkable 
feature. There are very few without a second name, and some have more 
than four. This was the result of repeated efforts to conceal names of a 
heathenish character, the original sounds of which were notwithstanding 
preserved in the legends of the Irish-speaking people. Yet another feature 
deserving of notice in the history of Irish Saints is the great number of 
Churches or monasteries each is said to have founded. St. Luan (the Moon) 
is said to have founded one hundred Monasteries ; and to St. Colm (the Dove 
Juno), are ascribed three hundred foundations. All this is said to have 
been done, when Ireland was not only divided into five kingdoms, but into 
ten times that number of petty independent governments, as Irish Chieftains 
in the 6th century exercised absolute dominion over their vassals, and were 
so constantly at war with their neighbours, that their end generally was a 
violent and untimely death ; and if the reader will examine a few pages of 
the Annals of the Four Masters, he will find its secular matters are little 
more than an account of butcheries committed by the Irish upon each other. 


While Ireland was in this state of anarchy, the influence of these sup- 
posed Irish Saints seems (according to the best authorities, such as Colgan) 
to have been as great and as extensive, as if they and their monks were 
the only inhabitants of the country. " St. Congal was the father of 
4,000 monks. Colgan says all these monks were in the Abbey of Banchor; 
nay, he gives 4,000 to it "at one and the same time." (M. p. 96). St. 


Brendan was the father of 3,000 monks (M. p. 73). St. Finian educated 
3,000 Saints at Clonard, including the twelve apostles of Ireland, St. 
Fechin presided over 3,000 monks at the Abbey of Fore alone ; St. Molaise 
governed 1,500; and St. Gobban 1,000 monks; in all 12,500 monks 
governed by five Saints, and all about the same time, to say nothing of 
St. Patrick's 5,000 priests, and all the monks of the numerous other Monas- 
teries founded or governed by the multitude of other Saints. St. Moc 
Tee (the son of God) had 100 bishops and 300 priests for his disciples (M. 
p. 10). St. Luan (the Moon) founded 100 Monasteries "as St. Bernard 
reports he was told by the Irish' (M. In). This remark reveals to us 
the real source of all the information recorded respecting these mytholo- 
gical Saints St. Bernard as well as Colgan, was too credulous. St. Abban 
(or Gobban) founded thirteen Monasteries, which are particularly named ; 
they were spread over the provinces of Leinster, Munster and Connaught 
(M. Int.], besides many others not named. " Several Irish authors pretend 
that St. Ciaran the Great [the Centaur Chiron] lived 300 years " (M. p. 
27) ; but this statement, though so numerously authenticated, outstripped 
even Colgan's credulity " He does not believe it, though he labours to 
prove that it is not impossible." 


The ubiquity of these Saints is the next point. We find associated with 
the County of Cork alone the names of ten Saints, viz. : St. Colman, St. 
Molaise (Molach), St. Gobban, St. Abban, St. Brendan, St. Ciaran, St. 
Nessan, St. Mochudee, St. Satan the son of Archuir, and St. Senan. St. 
Senan's burial place is shown at Kinsale, as well as at Iniscattery. All 
these Saints appear as active in other counties, as if they had never been at 
Cork ; and several of them are found in three out of four of our Irish pro- 
vinces. I have already (p. 97) named ten Saints at Bangor, Co. Down. 



There are several compound names in the calendar of Irish Saints, which 
have no derivative significance whatever except in connection with primeval 
Cuthite mythology. The first I shall notice is Barindeus, for which I read 
Bar-en-De The Son of the one God. Then we have St. Dima Dubh 
translated, The good black divinity, answering to the black divinity of the 
Cuthites elsewhere noticed. Next we have St. Aengus Laimh lodhan 
translated, The mysterious hand of Bzidh. Also St. Molanfide The good 
and bountiful B^ldh, or Fedh, viz : MAH, good, LAIN, fulness, etc., FIDH, Budh. 
(See chapter on " Fidh Nemphed.") Finally we have St. Sathanna, the 
daughter of Dyamranus. For the latter name I would read Dia-mor-ana, 
and translate it, The great goddess Ana. I am myself fully satisfied as to 
the correctness of the above interpretations ; but I offer them only as sugges- 
tions for the reader's consideration. 

The several names of these Saints etc., may be found in Archdall, pp. 4, 
393, 438 and 709 ; and in Mears Mon. Hib., pp. 55, 346. 


The next remarkable characteristic is the aristocratic character of Irish 
mythical saintship. Colgan pretends to have found out all about them, and 
claims Royal descent for most of them. There is a singularity connected 
with the biographies of these Saints, which has no parallel in the history of 
ordinary mortals. " Derinilla of the four paps" was the mother of several 
Saints. Among her sons was St. Mochuma of Drumbo, and St. Mura of 
Fahan, of whom there is much to be said hereafter. I cannot avoid con- 
necting her with the bovine emblem of divinity worshipped in the East. 
The Annals of the Four Masters (Anno 669) inform us, that the mother of 
St. Camin of Inis-Caltra had, besides the Saint, seventy-six other children ! 
It is only of a Saint's mother, that historians would venture such a statement. 


I fear even the Irish Annals are not to be relied on in their records respect- 
ing ancient Irish Saints and their families. 

I have already alluded to the incredible number of Saints of the same 
name, of which Ireland boasts. The credulity of even the pious author of 
Mears' Monasticon is too far taxed on this subject. After telling of forty- 
three Saints Molaise (Molach), fifty-eight Saints Mochuan (The Son of lun, 
the Dove Juno), and two hundred Colmans, he says (Intro.) : " But that 
which most amazes all readers is, that the Irish historians pretend to decide 
the difference between all those Saints of the same name, by their several 
genealogies, and the diversity of the time and place of their birth, an under- 
taking so bold that it does not seem likely." On the whole I am led to the 
conclusion, that Irish history in this respect is incredible, and utterly unde- 
serving of attention, save as a key to ancient mythology. 


The longevity ascribed to many of the Irish Saints is another remarkable 
circumstance. We read in the Annals of tJie Four Masters, that Saint 
Sincheall [Senel, the Ancient God] lived to the age of 330 years St. Mochta 
lived to the age of 300 years St. Dairerca to the age of 180 years The 
mermaid, St. Liban, also lived to the age of at least 470 years 404 years 
was the length of Saint Ibhar's life. This name, Ibhar, I believe to be 
a corruption of Elbar, Son of God. The Irish word BAR, a son, has the 
same signification in the Irish and Hebrew languages. 

Other authorities inform us that St. Molaise (Molach) lived 160 years 
St. Fechin 180 years. (A. 722). St. Ciaran lived to the age of 300 years 
(Mon. 27). St. Brendan also, having lived to the age of 300 years was seen 
ascending in a chariot to the sky ! The ascent of St. Brendan was probably 
a Cuthite tradition of the Translation of Enoch : traditions of Boodh's 
ascension to heaven are preserved in many places throughout India. The 
great age assigned to the other Saints, I suppose to have been the means 


used to reconcile the existence of these individuals in Christian times with 
well-known traditions of their having flourished in heathen times, long 
anterior to St. Patrick's days. 


Among the singular circumstances connected with the mythical Irish 
Saints, their susceptibility to the plague and to leprosy, should not be left 
unnoticed. Several of the most conspicuous among them are said to have 
died of these diseases. In the year A. D. 548, St. Finian of Clonard, St. 
Mactalius of Old Kilcullen, and St. Sincheall or Senel (the Ancient God) 
are said to have died of the plague. The last named is the Saint, who 
lived to the age of 330 years. One would think, that old age would have 
been sufficient to account for his death, without the additional visitation of a 
plague. St. Colam of Iniscaltra died of the plague about the same time, 
and St. Comgan of Bangor died of the plague in the year 660. St. Finean 
of Inisfallen, St. Colman of Moynoe, and St. Manchin, were each surnamed 
Lobhair, or the leper. St. Molua (Luan, the Moon) of Killaloe was also 
surnamed Lobhair, all having been afflicted with leprosy. St. Senan was 
afflicted with thirty diseases 1 (Martyrology of Donegal, p. 69). - There are 
others also, to whom I cannot now refer. The name of the plague, by 
which these good people were afflicted, is itself significant : it was called 
Cruim Conail, and sometimes Budh ConaiL 


We have thus far noticed the peculiar characteristics of fictitious Irish 
Saints. A chapter on this subject might have been considerably extended ; 
but what has been said is probably sufficient to prove the mythological 
character of these imaginary beings. Irish records furnish us with the 
names of ten Saints, the sum total of whose ages amounts to 3090 years, 
giving an average of 309 years for the life of each Saint. Eleven of the 


Saints, referred to in the Annals, are said to have been afflicted with the 
plague or with leprosy. All would seem to have been of aristocratic 
descent, and to have been related to one another. All the names appear in 
numerous counties. The name of Budh, or of its compounds Mochua, and 
Mochuda, is found in twenty-three counties. Molach, under the name of 
one or other of the aliases to which I have referred, is found in fourteen 
counties Luan in eight counties Endee, Barende, or Finbar, in eight 
counties Colman, or Columb, in twenty counties Gobban, or Abban, in 
eleven counties and so on for the others. 

I shall now notice a few of the miracles, or rather incredible stories, 
ascribed to these personages, omitting the numerous legends preserved only 
by local tradition, and shall therefore confine myself to noticing only those, 
which are narrated on the authority of what learned men of the modern 
school have classed as a portion of historical literature, and have styled 
authentic records, leaving it to the reader's judgment to decide how far these 
stories deserve to be so designated. 

St. CIARAN, (Chiron, the Centaur.) " Liuen was the name of his mother, 
according to his own Life, chap. 21. Countless were the signs and miracles 
which God performed on earth through him. It was he that used to order 
the stones to kindle with a puff of his breath. It was he also that made fish, 
honey, and oil, of the little bit of meat in the time of the fast, when Brenainn 
of Birr and Ciaran of Cluain came on a visit to him, as appears from his 
Life ; together with many other miracles. He used to be often immersed in 
a vat of cold water for the love of the Lord, whom he served. It is he that 
used to go to the sea rock that was far distant in the sea, (where his nurse, 
i.e., Coca, was), without ship or boat, and used to return again, as appears 
from his own Life, chap. 19. Sixty years and three hundred was his age 
when he yielded his spirit." (Mar tyro logy of Donegal, p. 65). 

St. SENAN, (Shanaun, the Ancient Ana, the mother of the gods). " He 
[St. Patrick] foretold that Senan would occupy the island, as was afterwards 
fulfilled ; for it was Senan that blessed Inis-Cathaigh, and expelled from it 


the monster, from which the island was named, i. e., Cathach, and this 
monster used to injure people and cattle, so that it durst not be inhabited or 
occupied until Senan came, as is said in his Life. Cuimin, of Coindeire, 
states that Senan loved to have sickness upon him, so that there were thirty 
diseases on his body." (Martyrology of Donegal, p. 69). 

St. ENDA, (Endee, the One God) " Thrice fifty was his congregation. 
The test and proof which he used to put upon them every evening to clear 
them of sins, was to put every man of them in turn into a curach [a canoe] 
without any hide upon it at all, out upon the sea ; and the salt water would 
get into the curach, if there was any crime or sin upon the man who was in 
it. It would not get in if he was free from sins ; and Enda, the abbot, was 
the last who entered the curach. There was not found any man, of the one 
hundred and fifty, who did not escape the wetting from the curach, excepting 
only Gigniat, the cook of Enda. ' What hast thou done, O Gigniat,' said 
Enda. He said that he did nothing but put a little addition to his own 
share from the share of Ciaran, son of the artificer. Enda ordered him to 
leave the island." (Martyrology of Donegal, p. 83). 

St. MOCHUDA, (alias Mochudee, Mahody, the Divinity of Elephanta). 
"It was he, that had the famous congregation consisting of seven hundred 
and ten persons, when he was abbot at Raithin ; an angel used to address 
every third 'man of them." (Martyrology of Donegal, p. 127). 

St. BRENAINN, (St. Brendan of Kerry). " He saw a wonderful bird 
coming in at the window, so that it perched on the altar, and Brenainn was 
not able to look at it in consequence of the sun-like radiance that was around 
it. ' Salute us, O Cleric,' said the bird. ' May God salute thee,' said 
Brenainn. ' Who art thou ?' said the Cleric. ' I am Michael, the Archangel, 
whom God hath sent to thee, to address thee and to make harmony for 
thee.' ' Thanks be to him,' said Brenainn, ' thou art welcome to me.' The 
bird placed its bill behind the feathers of its wing, and sweeter than the 
music of the world was the music which it made. Brenainn was listening 
to it for twenty-four hours, and the angel took his leave of him afterwards." 


(Martyrology of Donegal, p. 129). We have elsewhere noticed, how St. 
Brenainn was, according to the Four Masters, seen in the year 553 "ascend- 
ing in a chariot into the sky" 

St. BAOITHIN, (quere Buite son of Bronaig, son of Balor, A 4 M. 529 ?). 
"It was to this Baoithin, it was permitted to see the three grand chairs in 
heaven empty, awaiting some of the saints of Erin, viz., a chair of gold, and 
a chair of silver, and a chair of glass, and he told Colum Cille at I [lona] 
the vision which was shown unto him ; for he used to be always along with 
Colum Cille, for they were close in consanguinity and friendship, i. e., they 
were the sons of two brothers. It was then Colum Cille gave the interpre- 
tation to him of the thing which he had seen, for he was a famous prophet, 
so that he said then : The chair of gold which thou hast seen, is the chair 
of Ciaran, son of the carpenter, the reward of his sanctity, and hospitality, 
and charity. The chair of silver which thou hast seen is thine own chair, 
for the brightness and effulgence of thy piety. The chair of glass is my own 
chair, for although I am pure and bright, I am brittle and fragile, in conse- 
quence of the battles which were fought on my account." (Martyrology of 
Donegal, p. 163). 

ST. MOCHAOI, (Mochua of Nedrum). " He went with seven score 
young men to cut wattles to make a chiirch. He himself was engaged at the 
work, and cutting timber like the rest. He had his load ready before the 
others, and he kept it by his side. As he was so, he heard a bright bird 
singing on the blackthorn near him. He was more beautiful than the birds 
of the world. And the bird said : ' This is diligent work, O Cleric,' said he. 
' This is required of us in building a church of God,' said Mochaoi. ' Who 
is addressing me ?' said Mochaoi. ' A man of the people of my Lord is 
here,' said he, i.e., an angel of God from Heaven. ' Hail to thee,' said 
Mochaoi, ' and wherefore has thou come hither ?' ' To address thee from 
thy Lord, and to amuse thee for a while.' ' I like this,' said Mochaoi. He 
afterwards fixed his beak in the feathers of his wing. Three hundred years 
did Mochaoi remain listening to him, having his bundle of sticks by his side 


in the middle of the wood, and the wood was not more withered, and the 
time did not seem to him longer than one hour of the day." (Martyrology 
of Donegal, p. 177). 

ST. DECLAN, (Declan, the God of generativeness). " On one occasion, 
as he was coming from Rome, he forgot a bell (which had been sent him from 
Heaven) upon a rock which was in the port, and the rock swam after him, 
so that it arrived before the ship in Erin, and Declan said that where the 
rock should touch land, there God would permit him to erect a church, and 
this was afterwards fulfilled." (Martyrology of Donegal, p. 201). 

ST. MAEDHOG, (Maideog, the shell called Concha Veneris}. " He was of 
the race of Colla Uais, monarch of Erinn. Eithne was the name of his 
mother, of the race of Amhalghaidh. . . . Among his first miracles was 
the flag-stone upon which he was brought to be baptized, upon which people 
used to be ferried out and in, just as in every other boat, to the island in the 
lake, on which he was born. Of his miracles also was that the spinster's distaff 
which was in the hand of Maedhog's mother, Eithne,* when she was bringing 
him forth, which was a withered hard stick of hazel, grew up with leaves and 
blossoms, and afterwards with goodly fruit; and this hazel is still in existence 
as a green tree without decay or withering, producing nuts every year in 
Inis-Breachmhaighe," etc. (Martyrology of Donegal, p. 33). 

These legends might be multiplied ; but I have said enough to instruct 
the reader as to the amount of credence, he should attach to the authentic 
Annals of Ireland, respecting saints. 

I shall conclude these remarks upon Irish Hagiology, by observing that 
I have no doubt of the zeal and piety of the first Founders of Christianity 
in Ireland ; but I believe them to have been very unlike the characters 

* I would remind the reader, that the Goddess Athene, Minerva, was celebrated for her skill 
in the use of the spinster's distaff, Arachne having been transformed into a spider for presuming 
to challenge the Goddess's skill in the art of spinning. We have elsewhere noticed that Minerva, 
Venus, Juno, etc., all represented the same imaginary personage. I therefore conclude, that 
the distaff of Eithne and the branch of Juno were identical. 


ascribed to them in the Lives of the Saints. It is an unquestionable fact, 
that the Irish Church was for many centuries not only a renowned seat of 
learning, but also the great redeeming point of Ireland's history during a 
time when comparative barbarism had overspread the country. The Monas- 
teries were then hospitals and asylums for the poor, the sick, and the perse- 
cuted ; and the Irish peasantry have still a lively impression of the benefits 
their forefathers once enjoyed from those institutions. 

I feel assured of the fact that, inasmuch as many persons are even at this 
day called after these mythical Saints, so, many genuine Saints and Mission- 
aries may innocently have borne the names of some of these Heathen 
Divinities. The foundation of the names being Heathen is all I maintain. 
If this be admitted, it is enough for my purpose ; the rest I leave to the 
reader's judgment. 

I also believe, that Cuthite worship may have extended itself from Ireland 
into England, Scotland, and elsewhere ; as I find the names of many of the 
most celebrated of the Irish mythical Saints mentioned as Missionaries to 
Scotland, England, France, and Switzerland, although the labours ascribed 
to them in Ireland would seem to be more than sufficient to occupy any 
single life. Shanaun, Molach, Budh, and Columb, are found among these 
Missionaries, under the names of Senan, Molaise, Bute, and Columb. 

If it be asked, why no vestiges of Round Towers are found in England, 
and the North of France? I answer The Romans and other comparatively 
civilized Nations removed all vestiges of such edifices to make way for their 
own buildings ; and the Roman influence never extended to Ireland. While 
the Celts who conquered Ireland, having no stone buildings of their own, and 
despising those who had, regarded these stone houses (Cloich Teach) with 
as much indifference as they did the piles of rocks, which Providence had 
heaped upon their mountains : and thus they were allowed to remain. Again 
if it be asked, why the other European Nations did not, like the Irish, adopt 
the Heathen Divinities, Jupiter, Neptune, etc., as names of their Saints ? I 
answer that in Ireland the religion of the Cuthites, to which these names 


and legends appertained, seems to have been held in utter abhorrence by their 
successors, the Celts ; although the names and legends remained among the 
peasantry but nowise associated with religion until adopted into Chris- 
tianity. In this respect, the circumstances of Ireland, still retaining its 
ancient language and not brought under Roman dominion, were very 
different from those of other European Nations. 



^HOSE, who are not well-informed as to the Sculptured details of 
-L ancient Heathen Temples in India, Egypt, and Central America, 
very naturally regard the existence of a Cross wherever they find one, as 
conclusive evidence of a date within the Christian Era. This conclusion 
however, does not at all follow ; on the contrary, there is abundant evidence 
of the veneration entertained for the Cross in the most remote ages of 
Paganism. And this fact being attested beyond a doubt by the proofs which 
I shall adduce, it can to my mind be accounted for only on the following 
hypothesis : 

That larger revelations of God's future dealings with the Earth were 
given to the Patriarchal Saints, Noah and his predecessors, than we are 
informed of in the brief record of such revelations contained in the Book of 
Genesis ; and that these communications having been entrusted to the care 
of oral tradition, or in other words, entrusted to the keeping of Man without 
a written record, became corrupted by an ungodly race, and their original 
sacredness only tended to increase the people's veneration for the false 
systems of religion, which originated in the corrupted traditions of such pri- 
meval revelations. 

About four thousand years after the creation of Adam according to the 
Septuagint Chronology THE LORD communicated to Moses another and 
more enduring system of Revelation, not to be left to the care of oral tradi- 
tion, or man's keeping, but to be written in a book The Word of God ; and 
this latter contained all the information as to previous events, which God in 
His infinite wisdom considered necessary for man's spiritual instruction. 




Those patriarchal revelations, which were previously communicated, 
became in due time corrupted into the myths now associated with such names 
as Vishnu, Budh, Hercules, Apollo, &c., whose mythological exploits must, 
in my opinion, be construed as corrupted forms of primeval tradition, rather 
than absolutely human inventions. 

Numerous quotations from different authors have led me to conclude 
beyond any question or doubt, that most ancient Heathen nations not only 
venerated the Cross long before the Advent of CHRIST ; but also must have 
been instructed, through the traditions of Patriarchal revelations on many 
other subjects, such as The Incarnation of the Son of God His Birth of a 
Virgin Infants being slain at his Birth Christ's contest with the Mystical 
Snake His Death by Crucifixion The Doctrines of the Trinity and of 
Regeneration Christ's second coming on a White Horse to execute 
Judgment, &c. 

I am aware that this is a wide subject, the due consideration of which 
would occupy more time and space than I purpose to give it, and one upon 
which we should write and speculate with modesty and reverence. It is not 
however my object to enter at any length upon it this being a task, for 
which I do not feel myself competent. I shall therefore but briefly notice 
the well-authenticated evidence of these Traditions as corroborative of the 
fact, that there must have been a primeval prophecy of our Saviour's Cruci- 
fixion, the tradition of which was the origin of the veneration entertained for 
the Cross in the ages of remote antiquity ; and I do so because of its direct 
connection with the Hagiology and Ancient Architecture of Ireland, the 
main subjects of this work : otherwise, such notice would be irrelevant. 

The Holy Scriptures seem to confirm this view of such former revelations. 
St. Paul says of the Gentile nations, " When they knew God, they glorified 
him not as God, neither were thankful, but became vain in their imaginations, 
and changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image 
made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and 
creeping things." Rom. i. 21, 23. The reader will here observe, that the 


images worshipped by the Heathen were not the result of Man's imagination 
alone, but had their foundation in the "Glory of the uncorruptible God." A 
reference to Acts xvii. 28, 29, and to Jude, verse 14, will, I think, throw 
further light upon this point. 


I shall commence with quotations from the Rev. Thomas Maurice's 
History of Hindostan, (vol. i, page 232-236). 

" Of this venerated symbol [the Cross], when considering the theology 
of Hindostan, whose principal temples, I mean those of Benares and 
Mattra, are absolutely erected in the form of vast crosses, I have already 
given an account, which, as I could only repeat the same information, I beg 
leave to insert in the same words. ' Let not,' I there observed, ' the piety 
of the devout Christian be offended at the preceding assertion, that the 
Cross was one of the most usual symbols among the hieroglyphics of Egypt 
and India. Equally honoured in the Gentile and the Christian world, this 
emblem, among the former, of universal nature, of that world, towards whose 
four quarters its diverging radii pointed, decorated the hands of most of the 
sculptured images in Egypt ; and in India, stamped its form upon the most 
majestic of the shrines of their deities. It repeatedly occurs on the Pam- 
phylian and other obelisks ; and the antiquaries, Kircher and Montfaucon, 
have both honoured it with particular notice.' ' " ' All these figures [Osiris, 
Isis, and others, copied from the Barberini Obelisk], which are highly 
worthy a minute examination, bear the hallowed Cross with its circular 
handle, by which they were collectively and strikingly represented.' It 
appears to be incontestibly evident, that as by a CIRCLE the ancient Egyp- 
tians universally pourtrayed the solar disk, so by this addition of the CIRCLE 
invariably joined to the Cross, they meant to describe the invigorating power 
of the Sun acting upon dead matter." 

" The reader, who may choose to consult the large and genuine collection 


of the most ancient hieroglyphics of Egypt, in the gallery of the British 
Museum, will find nearly every sculpture adorned with it [the Hermetic 
Cross], and almost every statue bearing it in his hand. Mr. Bruce in his 
Travels into Abyssinia, found the same symbol at this day universally 
pourtrayed amidst the ruins of Axum. He rejects, indeed, I conceive too 
fastidiously and precipitately, the hieroglyphic explanation of a symbol, the 
form of which we have seen impressed on the sacred edifices of India, and 
insists upon its being only the initial letter of Thoth, the name of an Egyp- 
tian Almanac ; but the arguments adduced remain rather confirmed, than 
shaken by his assertion." 

" In the very same manner, in their [the Hindoos'] characteristic designa- 
tions of the several Planets, the Cross constantly affixed, though in different 
directions, to the circular designation of the Sun, and the semicircular one of 
the Moon, by one or other of which marks they are all denoted, seems 
intended to point out the solar or lunar influence of which the Planet partook, 
and having partaken, diffused together with its own, upon the various 
elements of fire, air, earth and water." 



" The hieroglyphic symbol of Saturn, therefore, is evidently formed of 
the lunar character, with the addition of the Hermetic Cross placed upon 
the superior point of the semicircle. 

"Jupiter is designated by the lunar character, with the same cross placed 
horizontally upon the inferior part of the semicircle. 

" Mars is distinguished by the solar character, and the same mysterious 
symbol placed in a different manner. 


" Venus is likewise denoted by the astronomical character of the sun, 
whose rising and setting she attends as the morning and evening star, with 
the elementary symbol depending from the circle. 

" Mercury unites in the character of his orb, both the solar and lunar 
designation, together with the mystic symbol of the elements. It is very 
remarkable that this artificial combination of characters evidently presents 
to our view the famous caduceus, by which that deity was so universally 
decorated in the ancient world." " The Indian name of the planet Mercury 
is BUDDHA, or, as it is more generally written BOODH." (p. 229). 

In Skelton's " Appeal to Common Sense" (page 45), quoted by O'Brien, 
page 289, he writes : " How it came to pass that the Egyptians, Arabians, 
and Indians, before Christ came among us, and the inhabitants of the 
extreme northern parts of the world, ere they had so much as heard of Him, 
paid a remarkable veneration to the sign of the cross, is to me unknown, but the 
fact itself is known. In some places this sign was given to men accused of a 
crime, but acquitted : and in Egypt it stood for the signification of eternal life" 

Berthoud says respecting a Cross found sculptured among the ruins of 
Palenque, in Central America : " Upon one point, however, it is deemed 
essentially necessary to lay a stress, which is, the representation of a Greek 
cross, in the largest plate illustrative of the present work, from whence the 
casual observer might be prompted to infer that the Palencian city flourished 
at a period subsequent to the Christian era ; whereas it imperfectly well known 
to all those conversant with the mythology of the Ancients, that the figure of 
a Cross constituted the leading symbol of their religious worship : for instance, 
the Augural Staff or wand of the Romans was an exact resemblance of a 
cross, being borne as the ensign of authority by the community of the augurs 
of Rome, where they were held in such high veneration that, although guilty 
of flagrant crimes, they could not be deposed from their offices ; and with 
the Egyptians the Staff of Bootes or Osiris is similar to the crosier of the 
Catholic bishops, which terminated at the top with a cross." (Quoted by 
O'Brien, page 489). 


" ' The Druids,' adds Schedius (De Morib. German, xxiv.), ' seek 
studiously for an Oak tree large and handsome, growing up with TWO PRIN- 
CIPAL ARMS, IN FORM OF A CROSS, beside the main stem upright. If the two 
HORIZONTAL ARMS are not sufficiently adapted to the figure, they fasten a 
cross-beam to it. This tree they consecrate in this manner. Upon the 
right branch they cut in the bark, in fair characters, the word Hesus ; upon 
the middle or upright stem, the word Taramis ; upon the left branch, 
Belenus ; over this, above the going off of the arms, they cut the name of 
God, Thau ; under all, the same repeated TJiau" (Quoted by O'Brien, 
page 289). 

In Ezekiel, chap. 9, verse 6, we read : " Slay utterly old and young, 
both maids and little children, and women ; but COME NOT NEAR ANY MAN 
UPON WHOM is THE MARK, and begin at my sanctuary." On which O'Brien 
remarks (page 313) : " Now this 'mark,' in the ancient Hebrew original, 
was the cross X. St. Jerom, the most learned by far of those fathers has 
admitted the circumstance." 

The following quotations relate to the Tradition of the prophecy of the 
Crucifixion among the Budhists, etc. 

" 'Though the punishment of the cross,' (say the Asiatic Researches} 'be 
unknown to the Hindus, yet the followers of Buddha have some knowledge 
of it, when they represent Deva THOT (that is, the god THOT) crucified upon 
an instrument resembling a cross, according to the accounts of some travel- 
lers to Siam.' ' (O'Brien, p. 343). 

"The Cross," says Colonel Wilford, in the Asiatic Researches, "though 
not an object of worship among the Baud'has or Buddhists, is a favourite 
emblem and device among them. It is exactly the cross of the Manicheans, 
with leaves and flowers springing from it. This cross, putting forth leaves 
and flowers (and fruit also, as I am told,) is called the divine tree, the tree 
of the gods, the tree of life and knowledge, and productive of whatever is 
good and desirable, and is placed in the terrestrial paradise. Asiatic 
Researcfas, vol. 10, p. 124. (Two Babylons, page 292). 




The black one in the middle (fig. 18) represents " The Sacred Egyptian 
Tau, or Sign of Life," from Wilkinson, vol. 5, p. 283. The two others are 
Buddhist Crosses, from Asiatic Researches, vol. 10, p. 241. (Two Baby Ions, 
page 292). 

The Cross "was worshipped in Mexico for ages before the Roman 
Catholic Missionaries set foot there, large stone crosses being erected, pro- 
bably to the 'god of rain.' (Conquest of Mexico, vol. i, page 242). The 
cross thus widely worshipped, or regarded as a sacred emblem, was the 
unequivocal symbol of Bacchus, the Babylonian Messiah, for he was repre- 
sented with a head-band covered with crosses (fig. 19). This symbol of the 
Babylonian god is reverenced at this day in all the wide wastes of Tartary 
where Buddhism prevails." (Two Baby Ions, page 291). 





Faber identifies Bacchus with the Indian Boodh, and consequently 
we find, at the Rock Temple of Carli (see fig. 3), the Pillar which was 
emblematic of Boodh is surrounded with a band of crosses, precisely like 
those above on the head of Bacchus. 

Fig. 20 is another representation of the Egyptian Tau, of which Mr. 
C. W. King writes " In the demolition of the Serapeum, this cross was 
discovered cut upon the stones of the Adytum, placed there, said those skilled 
in hieroglyphics, as the symbol of eternal life, a discovery affording great 
matter of triumph to Sozomen, who takes for granted it had been hallowed 
there in a spirit of prophecy." And again : " This cross seems to be the 
Egyptian Tau, that ancient symbol of the generative power, and therefore 
transferred into the Bacchic mysteries. Such a cross is found on the wall of 
a house in Pompeii in juxtaposition with the Phallus, both symbols embodying 
the same idea." (See The Gnostics and tJieir Remains, p. 214, plate 6). 

The reader may be interested in examining the following specimens of 
Heathen Crosses, found among the Sculptures of Palenque and Copan, irt 
Central America, copied from Stephens, vol. 2, p. 345. They seem to 
comprise all the varieties of our Christian Mediaeval Crosses. (See fig. 21). 


On the subject of the " Crucifixion" in Eastern Mythology, O'Brien 
writes " SULLIVAHANA is the name which they [the Hindoo Puranas] give 

Q " 


to the deity there represented, [as crucified]. The meaning of the word is 
TREE-BORNE, or, who suffered death upon a tree. He was otherwise called 
DHANANDHARA, that is, the SACRED ALMONER. And his fame, say the Puranas, 
reached even to the Sacred Island, in the sea of MILK, that is, of DOGHDA, 
which signifies milk, and which was the title of the tutelar goddess of Ireland." 
(O'Brien, p. 339). 

The name of this Budhist Incarnation of Divinity Sullivahana is 
strikingly like the Irish name "Suillavan." The latter maybe interpreted 
" The seed of the Woman," from " Siol" seed, and " a-vari' of the woman a 
most appropriate designation for Him, who, it was prophesied to Adam, 
should bruise the serpent's head. (Gen. iii. 15). Under this name also 
the Saviour seems to have been referred to in Jacob's prophecy, " The 
sceptre shall not depart from Judah until Shiloh come." (Gen. xlix. 10). 
Suit is also one of the Irish names for the Sun. It is probable that the Sun 
was first worshipped as symbolical of the Divine Incarnation, SIOL-A-VAN, 
the seed of the woman, who it was prophesied should bruise the head of the 
Evil One. 

A very singular prophecy derived from primeval tradition is preserved 
in the ancient records of Persia. It is referred to by Faber (vol. 2, pp. 96, 
97), who says " Oschen is palpably the same as Oshander-begha. But 
Oshander-begha is said to have been foretold by Zeradusht in the Zend- 
Avesta as a just man, who should appear in the latter days to bless the world 
by the introduction of holiness and religion. In his time there was likewise 
to appear a malignant demon, who should oppose his plans and trouble his 

empire for the space of twenty years But, if we advance 

yet further, and observe how this personage is additionally decorated in a 
more explicit prophecy also ascribed to Zeradusht, we shall probably be 
obliged to conclude, that, in whatever light Oschen* might have been origin- 
ally viewed, the character of the Messiah was in him, at some time or other, 

* This name corresponds with either that of the Irish Saint Ossan, or with that of the heathen 
bard and hero of Finian legends. 


superadded to that of the great father. According to Abulpharagius, Zera- 
dusht, the preceptor of the Magi, taught the Persians concerning the manifesta- 
tion of Christ ; and ordered them to bring gifts to him, in token of their 
reverence and submission. He declared, that in the latter days a pure virgin 
would conceive ; and that, as soon as the child was born, a star would appear, 
blazing even at noon-day with undiminished lustre. ' Yoti, my sons', exclaimed 
the seer, ' 'will perceive its rising before any other nation. As soon therefore 
as you shall behold the star, follow it whithersoever it shall lead you; and adore 
that mysterious child offering your gifts to him with profound humility. He is 
the Almighty WORD, which created the heavens." (Abulp. apud Hyde de 
rel. vet. Pers. c. 31.) 

I should remark that Faber regards this prophecy as a plagiarism by the 
second Zoroaster, or Zeradusht, of the prophecy of Balaam, (Numb. xxiv. 
17): " There shall come a Star out of Jacob and a Sceptre shall arise out of 
Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab." But the reader may at once 
perceive that Faber's opinion must be without foundation, as the Star of 
Balaam is described as a .person who shall smite the corners of Moab; and no 
one could fairly infer the circumstance of the visit of the Magi to Jerusalem, 
related in Matt. ch. ii., as the result of the prophecy of Balaam, as recorded 
in Numbers xxiv. 17. Modern writers have laboured much to establish 
that such prophecies and legends of primeval tradition should be assigned to 
any source but the right one. Plagiarisms apostate Jews Christian 
interpolations, etc., are suggested as having effected some of the most ancient 
traditions of Oriental Mythology. Whereas, we should remember that true 
religion has been essentially the same from the beginning, succeeding revela- 
tions having only developed its aspects to after generations ; and even the 
New Testament affords ample evidence to prove that the Patriarchs possessed 
more knowledge of the promised Messiah than could now be learned from 
the books of Moses alone. The Lord Jesus says to the Jews "Your father 
Abraham rejoiced to see my day and he saw it and was glad," (John viii. 
56). This was a fact in Abraham's time although it did not become a 


Scripture record until St. John's Gospel was written. Enoch, an antediluvian, 
prophesied of the Lord's coming "with ten thousands of his saints," (Jude 
14). This was a matter of fact before the Deluge, but did not become a 
Scripture record until St. Jude wrote his Epistle. Job says, (chap. xix. 25), 
" I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day 
upon the earth." Here is the doctrine of Christianity itself expressed in 
such a manner as to indicate that Job's knowledge on the subject was only 
the common belief of the patriarchs of the age in which he lived, and if so it 
would lead to the inference that primeval tradition of the religion of the 
patriarchs was the foundation of those rites, customs, and traditions of 
Heathenism, which, from their similarity to Christian truths, have been a 
puzzle to so many mythologists of modern times. 

Faber refers to Sullivahana, the crucified " seed of the woman" above 
mentioned. He calls him (vol. 2, p. 103,) " the virgin-born Buddha or 
Salivahana" As the " virgin-born' he is identified with the divinely-born 
man whose birth was heralded by a star, as recorded in the Persian prophecy 
ascribed to Zeradusht. As Buddha he is identified with the crucified Toth 
or Buddha of Siam ; and it is very singular that all these legends have their 
parallels in the legends of ancient Ireland. It is mentioned in the Martyr- 
ology of Donegal ($. 329), of St. BUITE, who is evidently the same as the 
Oriental Buddha, " that a star manifested his birth, as it manifested the birth 
of Christ." Again, the resurrection of the same individual is made the sub- 
ject of record in the Martyrology of Donegal ; in page 333 of which we read 
" The elevation of Buite. The elevation of Boetius the bishop in the body 
by angels, and his return to the earth; but it was at Elaidh Indaraidh at the 
Relic Eoghain this happened ; and there the alliance of Colum-cille and Buti 
took place, in the thirtieth year after the death of Buti and of the age of 
Columba." I need scarcely add that although interpreters of this curious 
passage would lead us to believe that it means nothing more than the 
" disinterring and enshrining the saint's remains' by Colum-cille, the text 
itself enforces a different conclusion, " The elevation of Boetius the bishop in 


the body by angels and his return to the earth!' I myself have no doubt that 
this legend, like that of the resurrection of Osiris, Adonis, and other Cuthite 
divinities, was the corruption of a primeval prophecy of the resurrection of 
the Son of God. 

Other extraordinary legends on the same subject will be noticed during 
the progress of this work. 

Mr. Hislop writes at some length, satisfactorily proving the identity of 
the elder Zoroaster with Nimrod, who, as the introducer [or reviver] of Sun- 
worship, personated the promised "Seed of the woman" (Gen. iii. 15). He 
identifies "Zeroashta the seed of the woman," in the Chaldee language with 
the name Zoroaster, and accounts for the difference of spelling on the same 
principle as the Hebrew Zerubbabel is changed to Zorobabel. (See Two 
Baby Ions, p. 84). 

" The Chaldean version of the story of the great Zoroaster is, that he 
prayed to the Supreme God of Heaven to take away his life, that his prayer 
was heard, and that he expired." (Suidas, torn, i, p. 1133). "Belus," says 
Berosus, "commanded one of the gods to cut off his head, that from the 
blood thus shed by his own command, and with his own consent, when 
mingled with the earth, new creatures might be formed, the first creation 
being represented as a sort of a failure (Berosus, apud Bunsen, vol. i, p. 
709). Thus the death of Belus, who was Nimrod, like that attributed to 
Zoroaster, was represented as entirely voluntary, and as submitted to for 
the benefit of the world." (Two Baby Ions, p. 89). 

O'Brien, in page 293, describes another divine incarnation Chanakya 
Sacha, the reputed son of a powerful Eastern King. The child was born of 
his mother without any mortal father. He closed his existence in this life 
by being crucified. The name of this divine being, " Sacha," he compares 
with the Irish Tuath-de-Danaan divinity Macha, elsewhere referred to as the 
foundation of the name "Ard Macha," in Ulster. 

Hislop writes: "In India, under the name of Vishnu, the Preserver, or 
Saviour of Men, though a god, he [Tammuz or Adonis quere, derived 


from the Adonai of Scripture ?] was worshipped as the great " Victim-Man," 
who, before the worlds were, because there was nothing else to offer, offered 
himself as a sacrifice. The Hindoo sacred writings teach that this mys- 
terious offering before all creation is the foundation of all the sacrifices, that 
have ever been offered since. (Colonel Kennedy s Hindoo Mythology, pp. 
221 and 247 ; also Two Baby Ions, p. 101). 

Such traditions as these seem to demonstrate beyond a doubt the fact 
of a primeval prophecy of our Saviour's voluntary offering of Himself, and 
the manner of His death. They also elucidate St. Paul's statement as to the 
Gentiles having known God, and having afterwards changed His glory for 
images. (See Rom. i. 21, 23). Here we have Vishnu, the " Victim-Man," 
offering himself anterior to the creation ; also Zoroaster, the " Seed of the 
Woman," and Belus (elsewhere identified as the same personage) offering 
themselves for the benefit of the .world the former having got one of the 
Gods to cut off his head. We have Deva-Thot (the god Budh) crucified, 
and we have (fig. 18) the instrument upon which he was crucified the 
Budhist Cross. 

From the foregoing authorities I am induced to conclude, that the tradi- 
tional prophecy of our Saviour's crucifixion was the origin of these legends 
of the several Budhist crucifixions, that thence the figure of the cross 
became the monogram or hieroglyphic of Budh thence the Phoenician 
Thuath, and the Egyptian Thau, from which was derived the Greek Tail 
the origin of our letter T. 

With such a mass of evidence to prove the veneration for the Cross 
entertained in the ancient days of Heathenism, and the primeval tradition of 
the crucifixion itself, it is not to be wondered at that Crosses should be found 
in Ireland, to which Christianity can lay no claim. Such Heathen Crosses 
abound in Ireland. They are even more numerous than the Round Towers, 
and, among all, this peculiarity may be observed that there is not on one 
of these ancient Crosses any unquestionably Christian device, which would 
prove it to have been made within the Christian era. An examination of 


Henry O'Neill's splendid work on Ancient Irish Crosses will prove all to 
have been essentially Pagan, and such as never could have been fabricated 
for the purpose of commemorating the scenes recorded in the New 

It is true, that some scenes recorded in the Old Testament are repre- 
sented on these Crosses, but only those, which we learn from other sources 
to have been founded on primeval tradition, preserved among the legends 
of Heathen Nations such as the Fall of Man, the Deluge, &c., while, on 
the other hand, the sculptures abound with Heathen devices which no one 
has ever explained to be consistent with Bible History. Serpents in every 
variety of contortion, Centaurs, Winged Quadrupeds, War Chariots, Fishes, 
and Bulls presented as objects of worship, besides a number of other devices, 
abound such as never would have entered into the imagination of any one 
acquainted with the New Testament account of the Crucifixion of Our 
Blessed Lord, as consistent with Sacred History. 



While we look in vain for an explanation of these grotesque devices in 
the Bible, we find many of them clearly explained by Heathen legends. I 
shall notice a few of these, in the hope that persons better acquainted than I 
am with Heathen mythology, may be able to add to the collection. I shall 
begin with the Fish. 

I have elsewhere noticed the fact that, in the Matsya Avatar, the god 
Vishnu is described as " incarnate in the form of a Fish to recover the 
sacred books lost in the Deluge." Fig. 23 in which he is so represented 
with a book in his right hand, is from Maurice's History of India, vol. i, 
plate 7. Dagon, the god of the Philistines, was sometimes represented in 



the same form. In Hindoo legends, the god Brahma also is said to have 
appeared to Menu [Noah] in the form of a fish for the purpose of instruct- 
ing him as to the approaching Deluge. In this form the god conducted the 
ship of Menu through the waters of the Deluge to a place of safety at the 
summit of the Himalaya. The legend respecting Vishnu and the sacred 
books would seem to indicate that the myth was invented at a very remote 





period of the world's history, probably to justify the restoration of some 
antediluvian idolatry ; but the figure of the human fish, or mermaid, will be 
found to have been used as a hieroglyphic of the Ark of Noah. 

The Irish stories respecting the Fish, having been adapted to early 
Christian notions, are of course very different from the oriental myths ; but 


the origin of all may be traced to the same source. According to Irish 
authorities, Fintan, having come to Ireland before the Deluge, was saved 
from it by being transformed into a fish. He afterwards lived in his 
natural form, or rather in that of the Assyrian Dagon, as represented in fig. 
22, until the days of St. Patrick, by whom he was converted to Christianity, 
and he ultimately died in a good old age. St. Fintan was associated with 
so many religious establishments that I suppose for sake of the consistency 
of ecclesiastical history twenty-seven Saints are said to have borne his 
name. There were also other reputed Saints of the name of Dagan, all of 
whom I have no doubt represented the divine Fish of Cuthite mythology. 
Fig 25 is photographed from O'Neill's Crosses, view of one of the Crosses 
at Kells, Co. Meath. The reader will observe that several men are repre- 
sented as kneeling in adoration around the figure of the Fish. The same 
accompaniment is found in the representation of Vishnu above referred to 
(fig. 23) ; whence it would appear that the originators of the design dreaded 
lest the divine character of their subject might not be perceived; and so they 
introduced the figures of worshippers as symbols of the divinity which 
they wished to establish. 

The figure of a Fish is said to have been used in ancient times as an 
emblem of our Blessed Lord the Greek word signifying Fish (tx^c) forming 
an acrostic for our Lord's name, and one of his titles. However such an 
argument has, to my mind, no more weight as an excuse for this idolatry, 
than has the burning of fires, on the eve of the Pagan festival of Tammuz 
or Adonis, in honour of John the Baptist, because Scripture says " He was 
a burning and a shining light." The devisers of such pretexts for grafting 
Heathen customs upon Christianity exercised some ingenuity ; but their 
flimsy excuses have not concealed the heathen origin of these customs. 

I think it probable that the antediluvian Fish was the origin of the 
numerous fables preserved in Ireland respecting Mermaids. There is a 
small sculpture of the Mermaid at the Cathedral of Clonfert, Co. Galway 
(see fig. 24). She holds in her right hand a book ; thus far answering 



to Vishnu as represented in the Matsya Avatar above mentioned 

(% 23). 

Fintan's appearance at the Royal Assembly of Tara, before his conversion 

to Christianity in the days of St. Patrick, is described in an Irish legend as 
that of " a strange Druidin flowered garments, with a two-pointed ornamented 
birredh [head-dress] on his head, and bearing in one hand a book" (Kennedy, 
p. 295). The reader will perceive that this description of the heathen Druid 
Fintan corresponds remarkably with either the Vishnu of India, the Oannes of 
Babylon, the Dagon of Canaan, or the Mermaid of Ireland. The head-dress 
of Fintan is the mitre of Dagon (see fig. 22, from Layard's Nineveh and 
Babylon) ; and the book carried in one hand answers to the representations 
of Vishnu, (fig. 23), and the Irish Mermaid (fig. 24). I therefore assume the 
identity of the Irish Saint Fintan with the Irish Saint Dagan, and the identity 
of both with the Irish Mermaid, and the Fish-god of India, Babylon, and 

We read in the Annals of the Four Masters, " In this year [558] was 
taken the mermaid, i.e., Liban the daughter of Eochaidh." A note informs 
us that "Liban is set down in the Irish Calendar of O'Clery, at i8th 
December, as a Saint. Her capture as a mermaid is set down in the 
Annals of Ulster under the year 571." .... "According to a wild 
legend in Leabhar-na-h Uidhri, this Liban was the daughter of Eocaidh, 
from whom Loch Eathach, or Lough Neagh, was named, and who was 
drowned in its eruption (A. D. 90), together with all his children except his 
daughter Liban, and his sons Conaing and Curnan. The lady, Liban, was 
preserved from the waters of Lough Neagh for a full year, in }\&r grianan 
[or CAVE] under the lake. After this, at her own desire, she was changed 
into a salmon, and continued to traverse the seas till the time of St. Comh- 
gall of Bangor. It happened that St. Comhgall despatched Beoan son of 
Innli of T'each-Debeog to Rome, on a message to Pope Gregory," etc. 

The legend proceeds to inform us, that the mermaid, or saint, or salmon, 
addressed the messenger, and stated that she had been 300 years under the 


sea ; adding, that she would attend at Larne on that day twelve months. 
She fulfilled her promise, and nets having been set, she was caught. Crowds 
came to witness the sight. The next day two wild oxen came to the spot, 
and, being yoked to the chariot on which she was placed, they bore her to 
Teach-Debeog, where she was baptized by Comhgall, with the name Muirgen, 
i.e., born of the sea. 

It is a curious coincidence, and confirms my interpretation of such eccle- 
siastical legends, that the name chosen by St. Comhgall for this mermaid- 
saint should correspond to that of a Tuath-de-Danaan goddess. Keating 
informs us (vol. i, p. 78), that Moriogan was one of the three female 
Deities worshipped by the Tuath-de-Danaans. 

It will presently be shown, that the figure of a mermaid was used as a 
hieroglyph of the Ark. We might therefore expect to find some references 
to the name of the Irish Mermaid, Liban, among Arkite legends and tradi- 
tions. Such is indeed the fact. The ancient name of Mount Ararat, on 
which the Ark rested after the Deluge, was Luban. The crescent moon, 
used as a type of the Ark, was called Labana. Bryant describes the 
goddess Labana as the same as Cybele and Damater, which I have elsewhere 
shown were used to represent the Ark : and Laban was one of the Arkite 
names for the moon itself.* (Bryant, vol. 3, pp. 320 to 322 ; vol. 4, p. 28). 

The Syrian Goddess Dercetus or Atargatis " was esteemed by her 
votaries the same as Venus or Cupris." " She was worshipped by the 
Phigalians in Arcadia by the name of Eurunome. Her statue was of great 
antiquity, and represented a woman as far as the middle but from thence had 
the figure of a fish. She was denominated by the natives Eurunome, 
Diana." " Macrobius makes Atargatis the mother of the Gods ; giving her 
the same department as is attributed to Gaia, Rhea, and Cybele." Bryant 
concludes that this mermaid-figure was a hieroglyphic of the Ark. He 

* According to ancient rules of the Irish language the names Laban and Liban might be 
spelled respectively Laban, Loban, or Luban, Liban, or Leban. (See Remarks on vowels, 
O'Brien's Dictionary). 


quotes from Simplicius on Aristotle " The people of the country called 
the Syrian Atargatis the place or receptacle of the Gods ; and the Egyptians 
esteem their Isis in the same light, as containing the identity of each Deity." 
This quotation Bryant explains " The original history was plain and literal. 
The machine, which was figured by the Atargatis, did really contain the 
persons alluded to ; all those who were styled Qeoi KUI Sai/mov^ those reputed 
Gods, the Baalim of the first ages. The Grecians, not knowing that their 
mythology arose from hieroglyphics, formed out of every circumstance 
personages. They supposed that Semiramis was the daughter of Dercetus ; 
and that the latter was changed to a fish, as the former was to a pigeon." 
(See Bryants Antient Mythology, vol. 3, pp. 150, 151, 152. Also Simplicius 
in Arist. de A^lscult. Physic, 1. 4, p. 150; Ovid Metamorph., 1. 4, v. 44; 
Diodorus, 1. 2, p. 92 ; Pausan, 1. 8, p. 684). 

All these quotations respecting the Syrian Mermaid correspond in a 
remarkable manner with our Irish legends, sculptures, and hagiology. 
Bryant informs us (vol. 3, p. 153) that the Ark was styled Cetus (KIJI-OC), which 
with the prefix Der (the Oak) makes the goddess Dercetus identical with 
our Irish Saint Darerca the Oak of the Ark. The figure of the Arcadian 
Mermaid, Eurunome Diana, corresponds exactly with the Mermaid of 
Clonfert (fig. 24) " a woman as far as the middle, but from thence had the 
figure of a fish." In the metamorphoses of Dercetus into a fish, and of her 
daughter Semiramis into a pigeon, we have the Arkite tradition correspond- 
ing with the stories of the Irish Saints Culm, Dagan, Fintan, Liban, and 
Shanaun (The Ancient Ana, the mother of the gods) the same heathen 
legends preserved though in a different form. It seems to my mind very 
clear, that the Cuthite hieroglyphics of ancient historical facts were made the 
foundation of a corrupt mythology ; and subsequently all of the mythology, 
which here survived the lapse of ages, was metamorphosed into what we 
now call Irish hagiology. 

In summing up the foregoing quotations and observations, we find 
evidence that the figure of a Mermaid was anciently used as a hieroglyphic 


of the Ark of Noah. Bryant notices several emblematic devices both male 
and female, which refer to the Deluge and its attendant circumstances. 
The female in his opinion represents the Ship, the Ark, the Mother of the 
gods, under various names ; and the male, the man, Noah, etc. The Ox 
and Cow, as well as the Mermaid and Merman, are thus interpreted by 
him. We find the Irish Mermaid Saint known by two names, the first, 
Liban, answering to the name of the crescent moon, a type of the Ark, the 
same as Cybele and Damater, etc. Next, we have her name Muirgen 
answering to Moriogan, a female Tuath-de-Danaan divinity of Ireland. 
Then we have Fintan the antediluvian, whose appearance as a heathen 
Irish Druid answers exactly to the representation of the Assyrian Dagon 
(fig. 22) ; and we have his connection with the great Deluge a matter of 
record in Irish historical legend. We have the supposed Saint Darerca 
corresponding with Derceto the Syrian goddess and mermaid both names 
signifying The Oak of the Ark. The Mermaid Liban answering to the 
goddess Labana, the Moon, Cybele, or Damater, and the Goddess Derceto 
being the same as Damater, we may reasonably conclude, that the Irish 
Saints Liban and Darerca represented the same original i.e., the Mermaid, 
as a hieroglyphic of the Ark, whose emblem was the crescent moon. 

On the Cross at Kells we find the sculpture of a Fish presented as an 
object of worship (see fig. 25), in the same manner as is Vishnu, fig. 23. 
We have a sculptured Mermaid at the ancient temple of Clonfert, a figure 
corresponding exactly with the description left us of the heathen goddess 
Derceto. The more deeply our researches are carried into remote antiquity, 
the greater similarity do we find between the language, legends, and tradi- 
tions of different countries ; and the very ancient character of Irish names 
and Irish legends is to my mind clearly proved by the parallels existing 
between them and those noticed in the earliest records of profane litera- 




There are three conspicuous designs, each of which occurs frequently on 
Irish Sculptures, and, from the light thrown upon them by Heathen legends 
of other countries, I am induced to class them together, as a symbolic repre- 






sentation of some corrupted traditional prophecy of our Saviour's humiliation, 
and subsequent victory over the Evil One. The first design is that of two 



wolves devouring a human face. It is to be found on two Crosses at Kells, 
one of which is here represented (fig. 26). The figure is also to be found 
on the capital of the arch at Dysart Church, county Clare, (fig. 27), where 
the wolves are small in proportion to the size of the face ; however the 
symbolic idea is the same. Another (fig. 28) is to be found on the Cross 
of Monasterboice ; fig. 29 is from the Cross of Moone Abbey represented at 
fig. 16; a fifth (fig. 30) is from the Cross of Arboe, county Tyrone, photo- 
graphed from O'Neill's Irish Crosses. The figure of the wolves devouring 
a human face occurs more than once among the Ruins of Glendalough, 
and figures 31 and 32 are from Petrie's work. The wolves are in this case 
represented in a horizontal position. The device elsewhere occurs on 
numerous Irish Crosses and sculptures not here noticed. 



The second design represents the man as victor over the wolf, with his 
hand in the wolfs mouth. Figures 33 and 34 are from the Crosses of Kells, 
copied from O'Neill's work. It is also found repeated on the Crosses of 
Monasterboice (fig. 35), and Kilcullen (fig. 36), and elsewhere on numerous 



sculptures. The design is in every case the same, and it is therefore un- 
necessary to multiply engravings. 

The third design is that of the hand within a circle, which hand, according 
to the Indian and German Legends, was cut, or bitten off, by the wolf. 






This (fig. 37) is found on the Cross of Monasterboice ; and again (fig. 38) 
on the Cross of Clonmacnoise. 

The same designs, with such considerable varieties, being carried out in 
these several figures, fully proves that the work was not the result of the 
Artist's fancy, but that it was some emblematic device of a sacred character 
well understood by the makers. This device is explained by the myth of 
the ancient Germans representing Tyr, the "Son of the Supreme God"- 
answering to the Indian Savatar, or Golden-handed Sun "placing his hand 



as a wedge into the mouth of the wolf." This, to my mind, is only another 
symbolic representation of some primeval prophecy of the contest of our 
Saviour as the Good Shepherd with the Evil One, who is generally repre- 
sented as a Serpent, but here as a Wolf. Fig. 32 seems intended to 
represent both the Wolf and the Serpent It has the head and fore feet of 
the one, and the tail of the other. 

In Professor Max Mutters learned work on the Science of Language, p. 
378, we read : " Thus we see that in the Veda-Savatar, one of the names 
of the Sun is ' Golden- Handed.' Certain it is that the early Theological 
Treatises of the Brahmins tell of the Sun as having cut his hand at a 
Sacrifice, and of the Priests having replaced it by an artificial hand made of 



Gold. Nay, in later times, the Sun, under the name of Savatar, became 
himself a Priest ; and a legend is told how, at a Sacrifice, he cut off his hand, 
and how the other priests made a Golden hand for him." And again (p. 
379) he says : " If the German god, Tyr, whom Grimm identifies with the 
Sanscrit Sun-God, is spoken of as one-handed, it is because the name of the 
Golden-handed Sun had led to the conception of the Sun with one artificial 
hand ; and, afterwards, by a strictly logical conclusion, to a Sun with but one 
hand. Each nation invented its own story how Savatar, or Tyr, came to 
lose his hand, and, while the priests of India imagined that Savatar hurt his 


hand at a sacrifice, the sportsmen of the north told how Tyr placed his hand 
as a wedge ~into the mouth of the wolf, and how the wolf bit it off" 

We have, elsewhere, ample evidence that the Sun was worshipped as the 
emblem of the divinely born man " The Seed of the woman," who was to 
bruise the Serpent's head. At Babylon, under the name of Zoroaster, or 
Zeroashta, " The Seed of the woman," the Sun was the real object of 
worship. Zoroaster was also called Zerdost, which, in the Persian language, 
signifies "Golden or Silver-handed." (Coll. vol. 4, p. 192). Thus we have 
Zoroaster identified with Savatar the Indian Sun-god with the golden 
hand, and with Tyr, the one-handed son of Odin. 

These legends, and the replacing of the lost limb with a golden-hand, 
seem to have their parallel in the legends of Ireland. The " LAMH DEARG 
ERIN" the " Red Hand of Ireland," is well-known, and may be seen as the 
monogram of the " Ulster Journal of Archaeology," in the illuminated title- 
page of each volume. NUDHA AIRGIOD LAMH, or Nudh of the precious 
metal hand the first Tuath-de-Danaan King, having lost his hand in battle, 
laid aside his kingdom for seven years, until a hand of precious metal was 
made for him, when he resumed his authority. (Keating, vol. i, p. 65.) I 
have elsewhere said that I believe the Irish history of Tuath-de-Danaan 
times, contemporaneous with the Judges of Israel, to be altogether mytholo- 
gical, and utterly undeserving of the name of history. I therefore look upon 
the story of Nudh, with his precious metal hand, to be the Irish version of 
the Indian Savatar, or Sun-god with the golden hand. 

It appears to me that the design on the Cross of Moone Abbey (fig. 
1 6) was intended to represent the Golden-handed Sun ; but this I leave to 
the reader's own judgment. 

The Red Hand is particularly noticed in Stephens Yucatan. In vol. I, 
p. 177, he writes : " Over the cavity left in the mortar by the removal of 
the stone were two conspicuous marks which afterwards stared us in the face 
in all the ruined buildings of the country. They were the prints of a Red 
hand with the thumb and fingers extended, not drawn or painted, but 



stamped by the living hand, the pressure of the palm upon the stone." The 
Hand also forms a conspicuous object among the hieroglyphics of Central 

Collecting these facts together, we have Zoroaster, or Zerdost, the 
Golden-handed; Savatar, the Golden-handed Sun, of India; Tyr, the 
one-handed Son of the Supreme God, of Germany ; the Red hand 
imprinted on American buildings; the Hand in American hieroglyphics; 
the Red-hand of Erin ; the precious metal Hand of the first Tuath-de- 
Danaan King ; the hand within the circle of the Sun, on the Crosses of 
Monasterboice and Clonmacnoise; and the figure of Tyr himself with his 
hand in the mouth of the wolf, on the Crosses of Kells, Kilcullen, and 
Monasterboice, (figs. 33, 34, 35 and 36). 

From these facts I conclude, that all the legends alluded to had one 
common origin, and that probably dating as far back as the days of Cain, 
who, as the first born into the world, is supposed to have assumed to himself 
the promise respecting the Seed of the woman. As many learned men have 
assigned the first worship of the Sun to the time of Cain; I would venture 
to suggest that the mark set upon Cain (Gen. iv. 15), was a Red-hand, and 
that, after his decease, those who worshipped him as the " Seed of the 
woman," under the emblem of the Sun, perpetuated his memory by the 
Golden-hand. Such a mark (if my surmise be correct) would have reminded 
Cain of the crime he had committed in slaying his innocent brother, and it 
would account for the Golden or Red-hand being connected with the legends 
of the Sun the promised Seed of the woman or the wolf, in the remote 
extremes of India, Germany, America, and Ireland. 


Historical Notices of the " Crosier" and the " Shepherd King" are 
intimately connected with the subject of the " Wolf and the Red-hand." 

The Rev. Mr. Hislop furnishes ample authority for tracing the origin of 


the use of the Crosier by Roman Catholic Bishops to the Roman Augurs, 
and through them to the Etruscans and Assyrians. He writes (Two 
Baby Ions, p. 317) : "Now, so manifestly was the ' lituusj or crooked rod 
of the Roman augurs, identical with the pontifical Crosier, that Roman 
Catholic writers themselves, writing in the dark ages, at a time when 
disguise was thought unnecessary, did not hesitate to use the term ' litims* 
as a synonyme for the ' Croiser' (See Gradus ad Pamassum compiled by 
G. PYPER, a Member of the Society of Jesus, sub vocibus Lituus Episcopus 
et pedum, pp. 372, 464). Thus a Papal writer describes a certain Pope or 
Papal bishop as ' mitra lituoque decorus,' ' adorned with the mitre and the 
augur's rod,' meaning thereby that he was ' adorned with the mitre and 
the Crosier! Now this litims, or divining rod, of the Roman augurs, was, 
as is well known, borrowed from the Etruscans, who, again had derived it, 
along with their religion, from the Assyrians." ..." This magic crook 
can be traced up directly to the first King of Babylon, that is, Nimrod, who, 
as stated by BEROSUS was the first that bore the title of a Shepherd King. 
(BEROSUS apud ABYDENUS in CORY'S Fragments, p. 32. See also EUSEB. Chron. 
Pars i, pp. 46, 47). In Hebrew, or the Chaldee of the days of Abraham, 
' Nimrod the shepherd' is just Nimrod ' He-Roe ;' and from this title of the 
' Mighty hunter before the Lord' have no doubt been derived both the name 
of Hero itself, and all the Hero-worship which has since overspread the 
world. Certain it is that Nimrod's deified successors have generally been 
represented with the Crook or Crosier. This was the case in Babylon and 

Nineveh as the extant monuments show." " This was 

the case in Egypt, after the Babylonian power was established there, as 
the statues of Osiris with his crosier bear witness. Osiris himself being 
frequently represented as a Crosier with an eye above it (PLUTARCH, vol. ii. 
p. 354, F.). This is the case among the negroes of Africa, whose God, 
called the Fetiche, is represented in the form of a Crosier, as is evident from 
the following words of HURD ' They place Fetiches before their doors, 
and these titular deities are made in the form of grapples or hooks, which we 



generally make use of to shake our fruit trees '(HuRD, p. 374, col. 2). This 
is the case at this hour in Thibet, where the Lamas or Theros bear, as stated 
by the Jesuit Hue, a Crosier, as the ensign of their office. This is the case 
even in the far distant Japan, where, in a description of the idols of the 
great temple of Miaco, the spiritual capital, we find this statement : ' Their 
heads are adorned with rays of glory, and some of them have shepherds 
crooks in their hands, pointing out that they are the guardians of mankind 
against all the machinations of evil spirits.' (HuRD, p. 104, col. 2)." 

Bryant, quoting Eusebius, says that " The first king of this country 
[Chaldea] was Alorus, who gave out a report that he was appointed by God 
to be the Shepherd of his people." (Vol. 4, p. 123). 

" It is remarkable (says Bryanf] that the first tyrant upon earth masked 
his villainy under the meek title of a Shepherd. If we may credit the 
Gentile writers, it was under this pretext that Nimrod framed his opposition, 
and gained an undue sovereignty over his brethren. He took to himself the 
name of Orion, and Alorus ; but subjoined the other above mentioned : and 
gave out that he was born to be a protector and guardian : or, as it is 
related from Berosus ; ' He spread a report abroad, that God had marked 
him out for a Shepherd to his people.' ' (Vol. 4, p. 305). 

These authorities account for the frequent appearance of the Crosier in 
ancient Irish heathen sculptures. It may be found in some part of most of 
the Sculptures represented on the plates of CfNeilfs Irish Crosses. I believe 
many of the relics of antiquity still preserved in Irish Museums, and said to 
have been the Crosiers of wonder-working Saints, are, like the Saints them- 
selves, genuine relics of heathenism ; but, which are really antique and 
which are medieval imitations, it is at this day very difficult to determine. 
Among the genuine relics of heathenism, I reckon the Crosier (fig. 39) 
found in the Sarcophagus at Cashel (fig. 4), about 100 years since, and 
now in the late Dr. Petrie's Museum. 

This crosier is itself made in the form of a serpent, not a very Christian- 
like emblem, but rather adapted to represent the African god Fetiche, who 


was worshipped in the form of a crosier. On it may be seen the figure of 
the Fish, elsewhere used to represent Vishnu in his first Avatar. This 


serpent-crosier has also got a double face, and thus far it corresponds both 
with the mystical snake of Hindostan slain by Creeshna, and with the 


serpent who is said to have ruled in Scattery Island before the time of St. 
Shanaun. " Within the curve is a human figure, standing, with one leg 
placed on the neck of the serpent, and the other on the back of a double- 
faced wingless dragon, which he has pierced in the back with a spear, which 
the dragon bites." The piercing of the dragon with a spear answers to 
Wilkinson's illustration of an Egyptian goddess piercing the serpent with a 
spear. (Two Baby Ions, p. 86). The modern interpretation of the design of 
this crosier is, that it represents " Michael the Archangel" contending with 
the Red-dragon of the Book of the Revelation, chap. xii. verse 7. But if 
the authors of the design had any such object, they would have represented 
the dragon as he is described in the Bible, with " seven heads and ten 
horns " (Rev. xii. 3), instead of making him answer to the heathen device of 
a Snake with two countenances. These are the reasons which induce me 
to conclude, that the crosiers appearing on the Irish sculptures are of 
heathen origin, and that this crosier of Cashel in particular is a genuine relic 
of heathenism. 

I refer the reader to Hislop's proofs of the identity of the first Centaur 
with Kronos or Saturn, and of both, with Nimrod the mighty hunter. (Two 
Babylons, pp. 58, 60). Mr. Hislop says elsewhere (p. 47) : " The meaning 
of this name Kronos, ' the Horned One,' as applied to Nimrod, fully explains 
the origin of the remarkable symbol, so frequently occurring among the 
Nineveh Sculptures, the gigantic HORNED man-bull, as representing the 
great divinities in Assyria. The same word that signified a dull, signified 
also a ruler or prince. Hence the ' horned bull ' signified ' The mighty 
Prince,' thereby pointing back to the first of those ' Mighty Ones ' who, 
under the name of Guebres, Gabrs, or Cabiri, occupied so conspicuous a 
place in the ancient world, and to whom the deified Assyrian monarchs 
covertly traced back the origin of their greatness and might." Mr. Hislop's 
arguments seem to me conclusive as proving the identity of Nimrod with the 
first Centaur with the horned Kronos, or Saturn with the Shepherd 
King and his crosier. All these identities are corroborated and greatly 


strengthened by the sculptures and legends of heathen Ireland. One of the 
Centaurs on the Cross of Kells (see chapter on " The Ox and the Centaur") 
is represented with two horns, thus identifying Kronos, the " Horned-one," 
with Nimrod, the Centaur. 

The Shepherd devoured by the wolves (same Cross, fig. 26) is represented 
with two horns identifying Nimrod, the ' Shepherd King" in his humilia- 
tion, with Kronos, and the Centaur. The legend told at Cashel identifies 
the celebrated and miraculous builder of the Temple with the Centaur 
represented over the doorway. (See chapter on " The Ox and the Centaur"). 
The name of Kronos (Cronus), the "Horned-one" himself, is found in almost 
every county throughout Ireland, in the numerous religious foundations 
ascribed to one or other of the thirty mythical Saints Cronan, whose alias 
was Mochua, translated " the good Budh." All these legends are inter- 
woven, and take us back to the time of Nimrod, but I would assign the origin 
of them to an earlier date than that of Nimrod, namely, to a primeval prophecy 
of our Saviour in the character of the " Good Shepherd" 

I shall conclude this notice of " The Crosier and the Shepherd King" 
by referring the reader to an interesting article on " Ancient Irish Crosiers," 
by Mr. James O'Laverty, published in the Ulster Journal, vol. 9, p. 51. 
The reader cannot fail to be convinced that the Irish Crosiers, of which more 
than a dozen are noticed, are as ancient at least as the 5th and 6th century 
Saints, with whose names they are associated. Some archaeologists ascribe 
these Crosiers and their ornamentation to the 1 2th and subsequent centuries : 
nevertheless, not only is history silent on the subject of their construction, 
but, so early as the I2th century, Giraldus Cambrensis " accuses the Irish of 
venerating the Crosiers of the ancient Saints more than the books of the 
Gospels." (Ulst. Jour. vol. 9, p. 54). 



When Nimrod assumed the name and attributes of the promised " Seed 
of the woman," he came to be worshipped as Zoroaster, Zeroashta, or 
Sulivahana, " the Seed of the woman"- as Kronos, the " Horned-one," 
emblematic of strength and power of rule and as the " Royal Shepherd," or 
" Shepherd King." Nimrod came to a violent death {Bryant, vol. 4, p. 62), 
as did also Belus, Bacchus, Osiris, Hercules, etc., but, as raised again, these 
were afterwards worshipped as gods. Here we see a primeval tradition of 
the Saviour's Resurrection applied to this great apostate Nimrod. Even the 
circumstance of his violent death is used to identify him with the promised 
"Seed of the woman." We have before noticed (p. 123) how Belus got one 
of the gods to cut off his head. " Belus," says Berosus, "commanded one of 
the gods to cut off his head, that from the blood thus shed by his own 
command, and with his own consent, when mingled with the earth, new 
creatures might be formed, the first creation being represented as a sort of a 
failure." (Berosus, apud Bunsen, vol. i, p. 709). "Thus the death of Belus, 
who was Nimrod, like that attributed to Zoroaster, was represented as 
entirely voluntary, and submitted to for the benefit of the world." (Two 
Babylons, p. 89). 

Mr. Hislop in explaining the heathen origin of the Christmas festival, 
with the custom of burning the Yule-Log on Christmas-eve, and the Palm- 
tree springing up on Christmas-day, writes (p. 140) : " The divine child, 
born at the winter solstice, was born as a new incarnation of the great god 
(after that god had been cut in pieces), on purpose to revenge his death upon 
his murderers. Now the great god, cut off in the midst of his power and 
glory, was symbolized as a huge tree, stripped of all its branches, and cut 
down almost to the ground. But the great serpent, the symbol of the life- 
restoring yEsculapius, twists itself around the dead stock, (see fig. 41), and 
lo, at its side up sprouts a young tree a tree of an entirely different kind, 

that is destined never to be cut down by hostile power, even \hzpalm-tree, 








the well-known symbol of victory. The Christmas tree, as has been stated, 
was generally at Rome a different tree, even the fir ; but the very same idea 
as was implied in the palm tree was implied in the Christmas fir ; for that 
covertly symbolized the new-born god as Baal-berith, ' Lord of the Covenant,' 
and thus shadowed forth the perpetuity and everlasting nature of his power, 
now that, after having fallen before his enemies, he had risen triumphant 
over them all. Therefore, the 25th of December, the day that was observed 
at Rome as the day when the victorious god reappeared on earth, was 
held as the Natalis invicti Solis, ' The birth-day of the unconquered Sun.' 
(GIESELER, p. 42, Note). Now, the Yule Log is the dead stock of Nimrod, 
deified as the sun-god, but cut doivn by his enemies ; the Christmas-tree is 
A' i in rod rcdivivus the slain god come to life again" (See Two Baby Ions, 
p. 141 : also fig. 41, The Yule-log and Palm, from Maurice's Indian Antiqui- 
ties, vol. 6, p. 368). 

Now our Irish sculptures tell us the same story. We have on the Cross 
of Kilclispeen, on the left panel of the base, the god Beltts himself with his 
head cut off, and, in the adjoining panel, we have the young Palm-tree, at the 
head of the new creation, represented by a variety of animals. (See figs. 40 
and 42 from O 1 Neill's Crosses). 

I need not stop to observe that there is no incident in Scripture history 
to which this representation of the carcase of Belus stretched upon an ass 
can reasonably be applied ; and that there was no knowledge among tl\g 
Celtic Irish of the Palm-tree here represented on the Cross of Kilclispeen 
save what they may have learned of the name only from Scripture. I shall 
conclude this subject by remarking that, this Cross of Kilclispeen, with 
several others, are stated by local tradition to have been supernaturally 
erected in one night to commemorate the murder of seven Bishops. The 
like remark, as to being erected in one night, applies to almost every Round 
Tower and sculptured Cross in Ireland, of which there exists any local 
tradition. Even those ascribed to the celebrated Cobban Saer are said to 
have been the work of one night. 



The Ox, both male and female, seems to have been one of the most 
conspicuous emblems of Divinity in ancient mythology. This emblem as 
the male was used to represent the Creator, and as the female, the Universe. 
The male Ox represented mind the female, matter. Again the male Ox 
signified the Great Father Adam, and the female the great mother, Eve, 
or the earth the worship of great ancestors having been combined with 
that of the Deity. 

Noah, as the father of the new world, being regarded, not as a separate 
personage, but as a revival of the Great Father, the male Ox was used to 
represent him, and the female was emblematic of the Ark, or great mother, 
in which he was enclosed. Again the Sun and Moon are each depicted 
under the figure of an Ox either male or female ; and finally, all the heroes 
of remote antiquity to whom divine honours were paid had this emblem 
associated with their worship. I have already observed how that all the 
emblems of the Ark are represented as both male and female the female 
representing the ship, and the male, the man. This was only the superin- 
ducing of the Arkite worship upon the more comprehensive mythology the 
corrupted forms of Patriarchal religion, which seem to have been comprised 
in it. " The sun was reckoned sometimes male and sometimes female, and 
there was a god moon no less than a goddess moon" (Fader, vol. i, p. 38). 

The Fish-god also was represented sometimes male (as Dagon), and 
sometimes female (as Derceto Damater the Mermaid). The same was 
the case respecting the Arkite Dove, as well as the Ox, now under con- 

Bryant represents both the Ox and the Centaur as devices specially 
connected with the Arkite worship ; and afterwards, when people came to 
be represented by the symbols of their worship, these emblems were asso- 
ciated with the Cuthites, by whom the Arkite worship was introduced. I 
have elsewhere noticed that this worship was not a separate system of 


idolatry, but that the Ark was an important emblem in the Phallic worship 
of the Cuthites. 

The ancient legends of Greece were the result of misconception with 
respect to Cuthite hieroglyphics. Bryant has written at considerable length 
on the subject of the Ox, the Horse, and the Centaur, as connected with 
Cuthite Mythology, for the particulars of which the reader is referred to his 
work. He says, " In short every personage that had any connection with 
the ark was described with some reference to this hieroglyphic," (the Bull). 
He proceeds to say " The Bull's head was esteemed a princely hierogly- 
phic, wherefrom it is said by Sanchoniathon of Astarte, ' The Goddess 
placed the head of the Bull upon her own head as a royal emblem' " (vol. 3, 
PP- 3 J 3> 3 Z 4)- Coupling this with what we learn elsewhere, that it was 
customary among the Cuthites to place over the architrave of their temples, 
some emblem of the divinity there worshipped we see why it is that the 
head of an Ox was sculptured in high relief over the doorway of Temple 
Melchedor (the Temple of the golden Molach) in Kerry, hereafter introduced. 
He also remarks " From these hieroglyphics misinterpreted, came the 
stories of Europa and Pasiphae ; also the fable about Argus and lo. They 
all related to the same event ; and to the machine styled /3ouc, and Taurus, 
wherein Osiris was inclosed. For, it is said of Isis, that during the rage of 

Typhon, she preserved Osiris in an Ark of this denomination 

She inclosed him in a bull of wood : by which is meant the ark, Theba. 
The Syrians understood it so. A Bull or Cow among the Syrians signified 
an Ark or Theba. . . The city Theba in Greece so renowned for its 
seven gates, was denominated from the Sacred Cow, by which Cadmus was 
directed." (Bryant, vol. 3, pp. 303-4). 

I think it probable that the Irish Mythical Saints, Dairbile, the Oak- 
tree ; Darerca, the Oak of the Ark ; Mell (Melissa, the divinity of the Ark) ; 
and " Derinilla of the four paps," the mother of Saints, had their origin in 
this sacred Cow, the Ark, and if so, the figure of an Ox or Cow, as repre- 
sented in an arch called the South Doorway of Cormac's Chapel (fig. 43) 


appears to me to be a most appropriate ornament of it as a Cuthite Temple. 
In Maurice's History of India, vol. i, p. 38, may be found an illustration, 
taken from the Temple of Meaco, Japan, in which the Golden Bull is made 
to represent the Creator butting with his horns against the Egg of Chaos. 
The Indian Siva is worshipped as an Ox. The Ox and Cow were emblems 
of Divinity in ancient Egypt, under which forms Osiris and I sis were 


worshipped. The Israelites in the Wilderness worshipped the Ox (the 
Golden Calf), and one of the names by which Stephen refers to this worship 
(Acts vii. 43) is Moloch, which answers to the Irish mythical Saint Molach, 
and to the Golden Molach of Kilmelchedor. 

In Keating's History of Ireland (vol. i, p. 429), we read that the 



Golden Calf was one of the Divinities worshipped by the Ancient Irish. 
Ireland abounds with legends of the miraculous Ox, several of which are 
recorded in the Kil. Arch. Joiir. (vol. 2, p. 311), by William Hacket, Esq., 
and there contrasted with similar legends of Hindostan, shewing an extraor- 
dinary parallel only to be accounted for by tracing both to the same origin. 

Under the names of Boru and Bofine, the Ox is associated with the 
topography of several ancient Ecclesiastical establishments. One of these 
is Ball Boru Baal, the red Cow at Killaloe, (see Kil. Arch, your., vol. 




2, p. 318). The Ox is also to be found associated with the Round Tower 
of Devenish, in the ancient name of the place, which was DAIMHINIS the 
Island of the Ox. In Parker's illustration of Ardmore (Gent. Mag., p. 276, 
Sept., 1864), the figure of the Ox is also to be seen (fig. 44) before which a 


man is represented as kneeling in adoration. Another of the figures on this 
ancient sculpture is explained to be a representation of " Solomon's Judg- 
ment :" but it answers much better to the account which Maurice gives us 
in the Life of Creeshna, of the tyrant Cansa slaying the child of his sister 
with his own hand, supposing him to be the infant Creeshna, who, it was 
prophesied, should be his destroyer. I refer the reader for further particulars 
to Maurices History of India, vol. 2, p. 263. The legend, with all its 
attendant circumstances, presents to my mind evidence of a primeval 
prophecy of infants being slain by a tyrant after the birth of our Saviour. 

The figure of the Ox is also to be found on two of the Crosses at Kells, 
in one of which sculptures a man is represented as engaged in worship as at 
Ardmore (figs. 45 and 46). 

The Horse in symbolical representations was also associated with 
this Arkite worship. Bryant says (vol. 3, pp. 276, 277), " Dionusus 


was supposed to have been twice born; and thence was styled g^urjc. 
Sometimes the intermediate state is taken into account ; and he is repre- 
sented as having experienced three different lives. His last birth was from 
Hippa, at which time nature itself was renewed. Hippa was certainly the 
Ark, into which the Patriarch retired ; and from which he was afterwards 


released, to enjoy a new life, and another world. Hence arose the many 
symbols of a Horse. Damater near the Olive Mount in Arcadia was wor- 
shipped by the Phigalians in a dark cavern. She was described as a woman, 
but with the head of a horse, and hieroglyphical representations of serpents 
and other animals. She sat upon a rock, clothed to her feet ; with a dolphin 
in one hand, and a dove in the other (see fig. 47). Marus Balus, an antient 
Deity of Italy, was represented under an hieroglyphic, as a person with the 
face of a man before, and of a horse behind, and was said to have lived three 
times. The history of Pegasus, the winged horse, is probably of the same 
purport." He elsewhere says of Hippa (vol. 2, p. 293-295), " It was a title 
of Apollo, or the sun, and often compounded Hippa-on, and contracted 

Hippon ; of which name places occur in Africa near Carthage 

As it was a title of the sun, it was sometimes expressed in the masculine 
gender Hippos. . . . These horses, which fed upon the flesh of 
strangers, were the priests of Hippa, and of Dionusus, styled Hippus, or 
more properly Hippius." 

Bryant suggests that the name Centaur was derived from the Cuthite 
hieroglyphic of a Bull or a Bull's head, which is corroborated by the fact 
that in the Irish language the term CEAN TOR might be interpreted a Bull's 
head. CEAN is translated head, and TOR, a bull (see Glossary). I repeat 
from Bryant : "In short every personage that had any connection with the 
ark was described with some reference to this hieroglyphic," (the Bull). He 
proceeds to say "The Bull's head was esteemed a princely hieroglyphic, 
wherefrom it is said by Sanchoniathon of Astarte, ' The Goddess placed the 
head of the Bull upon her own head as a royal emblem.' And it is said of 
I sis, whom I just now mentioned, that she was not only described with a 
lunette ; but like 1 6 of the Greeks with the real head of a Bull or Cow. 
Such was the figure of the Minotaurus, which Pausanias styles the Bull 

called Mino The Ark seems to have been sometimes called 

Centaurus ; from whence many of the Arkites had the name of Centauri : 

and were reputed of the Nephelim race. Chiron was said to have been the 




son of the Centaur Cronus : but the rest were the offspring of Ixion and 
Nephele. They are described by Nonnus as horned, and as inseparable 
companions of Dionusus." (Vol. 3, pp. 3 13- 315). 

Mr. Hislop, writing upon Babylonish divinities, identifies the god Kronos 
(Saturn) " the horned one," with Nimrod the hunter, and both with the 
first Centaur. He also identifies Nimrod with the first Grand Master of 
the Masonic Art " the god of fortifications." He further identifies the 


Egyptian Osiris with Kronos and Nimrod. (See Two Babylons, pp. 59, 
60). These identities are confirmed by our Irish sculptures and legends, 
and they explain the figures of two Centaurs on the Cross of Kells. The 
first is Kronos, the horned one i. e., Osiris, and the second, " Sagittarius, 
the armour-bearer of Osiris. It is noticed above how Nonnus has 
described the Centaurs as horned ; but I am not acquainted with any 
representation of the horned Centaur, except that sculptured on the 
Cross of Kells (fig. 49). It is possible that Kronos alone, as being the 


head of the family, was so represented. The local tradition about the 
Centaur on the Northern Doorway of Cormac's Temple (fig. 48) is, that it 
represented the Master Mason who built the Temple ; that all the work 
which the builder erected by day the Lion (also represented in the figure) 
destroyed by night ; that the Centaur undertook to encounter the Lion 
apparently at great disadvantage but succeeded in wounding him with an 
arrow, after which the building experienced no further interruption. This 
legend is illustrated by the reputation of Nimrod and the Cyclopeans for 
skill in the art of building. The probable identity of Cronos the Centaur 
with the Irish Saint Cronan, alias Mochue the Good Budh, has already 
been noticed (p. 56), Cronos and Budh representing the same personage, 
according to the opinion of the learned Faber. 


The Centaur is found among the Hindoo signs of the Zodiac, from which 
our Sagittarius is derived (Maiirice, vol. i, p. 294). The Centaur is also 
found in the Egyptian Zodiac, where he is described as the Armour-Bearer 
of Osiris. (Maurice, vol. i, p. 304). The Greek legend about the Centaurs 
is, that they were a tribe of the Lapithae, descendants of Apollo, who, having 
been guilty of some great crimes, were forced into a sanguinary war, and the 
survivors compelled to leave the country. The poets pretend that the 
Centaurs were the sons of Ixion and a cloud. This answers to the Irish 
legend about the Tuath-de-Danaans, who are said (Keating, vol. i, p. 75), 
to have concealed themselves (on landing in Ireland) in a cloud, so that they 
were not discovered until they reached the interior. I believe the legend 
of the Mason and the Centaur, like many other Irish, Grecian, and Indian 


legends, to refer to the primeval and traditional prophecy of our Saviour's 
contest with the Evil One. 

Combining these facts with the existence of the figure of a Centaur in 
a conspicuous position on the Cross of Kells (fig. 49), I think it more than 
probable that the Centaur was used as a Sacred Emblem by the Cuthites, 
and that the Greek legend referred to their expulsion as Lingajas, by the 
Yonijas, of which we shall treat in a subsequent chapter. 

I am confirmed in this opinion by the fact that the name of the Hindoo 
Centaur is Dhanus, answering to the Irish Danaans a Cuthite Colony. (See 
Maurice, vol. i, p. 294). 

There is a curious coincidence respecting this name Danaan, which I 
cannot avoid noticing. Bryant writes ; " In treating of Danaus and Danae, 
I surmised that they were not the names of persons, but ancient terms 
which related to the Sacred Ship. . . . The fifty daughters of Danaus 
were fifty priestesses of the Argo, who bore the sacred vessels in the 
festivals. . . . The Danaides are said to have been sent in quest of 
water to have brought water to Argos to have invented vessels for water, 
and lastly were supposed to have been doomed in the shades below to 
draw water in buckets which were full of holes. . . . The Acropolis 
at Argos was supposed to have been founded by Danaus the Arkite. . . . 
The Acropolis was certainly an Arkite Temple, where the women styled 
Danaidae officiated, who were priestesses of the Argus." (Vol. 3, pp. 70, 71, 

183, 33i)- 

Now it is at least curious that our most ancient Irish records should 
notice as history a legend agreeing closely with the fable of Danaus. Fintan 
(the antediluvian fish, and celebrated Irish Saint) is said to have come to 
Ireland before the Deluge with Ceasar the daughter of Bith. She was 
nursed by Sabhuil. They were accompanied by fifty women, the wives of 
Fintan and his two male companions. The women set out " to make dis- 
coveries" in the Island, and they travelled together till they came " to the 
fountain head" of three rivers, etc. 


Keating gives three different accounts of this migration, from ancient 
poets. He says " I shall transcribe what is observed by the old antiquaries 
concerning the first invasion of Ireland before the flood. Not that I would 
be thought to give credit to such chimerical tradition." (Ke,ating, vol. i, 
pp. 28-34). 

There are several coincidences observable in these stories, which have 
led me to the conclusion that, both are different versions of Cuthite legends 
relating to the Deluge. 

The name Danaus, as presented by the Greeks, answers to the Danaan 
of Irish history. The fifty daughters of Danaus answer to the fifty wives 
of Fintan. The Danaidae are sent in quest of water : the fifty Irish women 
set out " to make discoveries," and reach " the fountain head" of three rivers. 
-The Irish women die all of a certain distemper in a week. By another 
account, Ceasar is said to have died of a broken heart : the account in the 
Psalter of Cashel concludes (Keating, vol. i, p. 34) 

" And thus they died, as Fate decreed they should, 
Six days before the rising of the Flood." 

This sudden doom accords with the punishment inflicted on the Danaidae, 
who were compelled to " draw water in the shades below ;" which would 
seem to point out that they were of the Cuthite or Titanic race, who, accord- 
ing to the Grecian account, were consigned to Tartarus. Such coincidences, 
are, at the least, interesting and curious. 

In summing up these observations and quotations, we learn that the Ox 
was an emblem of divinity highly honoured among the Cuthites. That the 
Ox's head was regarded as a princely hieroglyphic. That the term Centaur 
was probably derived from the hieroglyphic of an Ox's head (CEAN TOR in 
Irish). That the Ox was originally intended to represent the Ark. That 
the term Centaur had the same signification. That Sun-worship was 
interwoven with the Arkite worship. That the legends of the Greeks (who 
were not Cuthites) concerning the Ox, the Horse, and the Centaur, were the 


result of misconception with respect to Cuthite hieroglyphics ; and further 
we learn that, substantial evidence is found in the legends, sculptures, and 
topography of Ireland, of the ancient worship of the Ox, either as the 
Golden Calf, or as the Golden Molach the red Cow or the white Cow. 
That the Centaur is also found connected with the sculptures and legends 
of Ireland. We may observe striking parallels between the Irish Danaan, 
and the Hindoo Centaur Dhanus ; the Arkite Danaus with his fifty 
daughters and the Irish legend of the fifty wives of Fintan, the antediluvian 
Fish and Irish Saint. All these coincidences taken together lead me to 
believe that the ancient Cuthite worship once prevailed in Ireland ; but to 
enter fully into details as to the nature of this worship is a task for which I 
do not feel myself competent ; and therefore, with these brief remarks, I 
must leave the subject to the learned reader for his further investigation. 

I may conclude by mentioning that, while the name " Centaur" may 
have been derived from the hieroglyphic of an Ox's head, it is suggested by 
Faber that the figure itself of the Centaur represented the notion which the 
Ancients entertained of one of the Cherubim of Paradise Gen. iii. 24. 
(See Faber ; vol. i, pp. 420-422). 


There is no figure more conspicuous on Irish Sculpture, or more fre- 
quently met with, than that of the Serpent. 

They are found everywhere, sculptured profusely on Crosses, Temple 
doorways, etc. The country abounds also with legends of contests between 
Serpents and the heroes or the Saints of Ireland. 

These circumstances strongly corroborate the supposed identity of the 
ancient Irish with the Cuthites of antiquity. There is much to be found 
throughout Bryant's Mythology to prove, that Serpent-worship originated 
among the Cuthites. The legends, describing the contests of Apollo, 
Chreeshna, Thor, and numerous other heroes of antiquity, with Serpents 



and Dragons, seem all to have had their 
foundation in the primeval promise " The 
seed of the woman shall bruise the serpent's 
head." Such legends abound everywhere 
in Ireland different Saints being made the 
heroes in different localities. St. Patrick, 
St. Shanaun, St. Finian, and St. Nessan, 
are among those who derived glory from 
their victories over the serpent. 

The Cuthites, who are said to have 
possessed all the knowledge derived from 
the sons of Noah, soon corrupted this great 
primeval tradition, ascribing to the heroes 
of their own race, and as past events, the 
victory of the Promised Seed over the Great 
Serpent; and they completed their apostacy 
by making the serpent an object of worship. 
This idolatry seems to have prevailed in 
every country where the Cuthites estab- 
lished their authority. But the subject is 
so well known that I need not enlarge 
upon it. 

Bryant says " It is remarkable, that 
wherever the Amonians founded any places 
of worship, and introduced their rites, there 
was generally some story of a serpent. 
There was a legend about a serpent at 
Colchis, at Thebes, and at Delphi ; likewise 
in other places" (vol. i, p. 59). And again 
(vol. 2, p. 145) " No colony could settle 
anywhere and build an Ophite temple, but 



there was supposed to have been a contention between a hero and a dragon. 
Cadmus, was described in conflict with such an one near Thebes, whose teeth 
he sowed in the earth. Serpents are said to have infested Cyprus, when 
it 'was occupied by its first inhabitants ; and there was a fearful dragon in the 
isle of Salamis. The Python of Parnassus is well known, which Apollo was 
supposed to have slain, when he was very young ; a story finely told by 

There is a curious notice respecting serpents in Harcourt's Doctrine of 
the Deluge. He says (vol. i, p. 399) "Mahadeo is the name of a mountain 
in that country [Cashmeer] and there is a fable, that every place from whence 
it can be seen is free from snakes, and yet in that same country there are no 
less than 700 carved figures of snakes, which are worshipped." 

Is it not a singular coincidence that in Ireland also, where no living 
serpent exists, such numerous legends of serpents should abound, and that 
figures of serpents should be so profusely used to ornament Irish sculpture ? 
There is scarcely a Cross, or a handsome piece of ancient Irish ornamental 
work, which has not got its serpent or dragon. Fig. 50 represents the Cross 
of Killamery, on which Serpents are the most conspicuous figures. 


If an author, writing upon a subject like that under consideration, 
supports the views generally entertained, and, in doing so, furnishes facts 
and additional matter of general interest, his work will be popular ; but if, 
on the other hand, he ventures to give expression to a new theory, his argu- 
ments and proofs must be very strong to save him from condemnation 
by the reading world as a mere enthusiast unless indeed his work be 
overlooked as utterly unworthy of notice. But if such new theory be 
contrary to the preconceived opinions of the majority of readers, the 
difficulties are greatly increased, as sound logical arguments are not in such 
case sure to carry speedy conviction against the influence of prejudice ; 


although in the long run truth is found to prevail. These remarks apply to 
the subject of this whole work, but especially to the subject of Irish Cruci- 
fixions, to which I now direct the reader's attention. 

On several ancient Irish Crosses there is a design generally supposed to 
represent the Crucifixion scene as described in Scripture ; but I am of 
opinion, that the real origin of the device is that primeval tradition of a 
crucifixion before referred to. There are certain points of similarity of design 
in all the ancient Irish crucifixion scenes and these points of similarity are 
in direct contrast with the Bible account of that scene. 

I shall submit facts and arguments in support of my view, as they have 
presented themselves to my own mind ; and I expect they will be found 
sufficiently strong to carry conviction to the mind of every careful student, 
who enters upon the consideration of the subject with an unprejudiced mind. 

I would first observe, that the figures of Centaurs, War-chariots, Serpents, 
Fishes, and Bulls, presented as objects of worship and the variety of other 
devices, already explained as consistent with ancient Heathen Mythology- 
are prirna facie evidence of the Heathen origin of all these Crosses. 

We have already adduced abundant evidence to sustain the assumption, 
that the Crucifixion of our Blessed Saviour was made the subject of primeval 
traditional Prophecy. The veneration entertained for the Cross in the most 
remote ages of the world's history the numerous figures of the Cross in 
every variety of form found on ancient Heathen Sculptures all over the 
world and the tradition among the Budhists of the God Thot having been 
crucified on an instrument resembling a cross (p. 1 1 7) all confirm the fact of 
this primeval Prophecy of the Crucifixion. The Irish Tuath-de-Danaan 
Sculptures on the Crosses furnish the pictorial design of the scene, to which 
the legends of other countries refer; only the Cuthite Irish, when the Crosses 
were made, seem to have preserved a more correct version of the primeval 
Prophecy than other nations had done in their traditions. Even Ireland 
itself is not without its tradition of a Royal Crucifixion. Simon Breac, a 

Celtic king who lived 900 years before the Christian Era according to the 




chronology of the Four Masters, is 
stated, in G? Flaherty s Ogygia, vol. 2, 
p. 1 20, to have been crucified. In 
my opinion this tradition of a Royal 
Crucifixion was plagiarised by the 
Celts, according to their usual policy, 
from Tuath-de-Danaan legends of 
the great primeval prophecy of a 

After the foregoing sentence was 
in print, the opinion expressed in it 
was confirmed by my finding the 
identical name, Simon Breac, in Irish 
History, 1230 years earlier, i.e., 2130 
years before Christ. He is described 
as of the family of Neimhidli already 
noticed as a Cuthite Colony (see 
Keating, vol. I, p. 57). 

The name Simon Breac itself 
may fairly be interpreted " The 
speckled Sun, or Heavens, " from 
SAMEN,the Sun, and BRACK speckled. 
Philo Byblius informs us that the 
Syrians and Canaanites lifted up 
their hands to Baal-Samen, The 
Lord of the Heaven, under which 
title they honoured the Sun (Bryant, 
vol. i, p. 80). The term Baal-Samen 
is quite familiar to every student of 
Irish mythology. SAM AN in Irish 
mythology signified the Divinity, 




who presided at the judgment of departed Souls (Coll., vol. 4, p. 232). 
Osiris, as the Sun, was depicted as clothed in a speckled garment, so also 






was Hercules ; the speckled garment representing the heavenly clothing 
of stars. See remarks on EARC, pp. 72 and 73, ante. 

We may therefore conclude with reason, that Simon Breac, the speckled 
Sun of the Heavens the crucified King of remote antiquity, represented 
the divine seed of the woman, who, according to primeval tradition, was to 
make atonement for mankind. 

The Crucifixion Scene, as represented on the ancient Irish Sculptures, 
has some peculiarities common to them all ; but these peculiarities stand in 
contrast with the Bible account, and with the ordinary modern representation 
of our Saviour's Crucifixion. 


The first peculiarity is, that no ancient Irish Sculpture conveys the idea 
of the body of the crucified one being suspended by the hands. The arms 
never rise above a right angle ; but, in most cases, the angles under the arms 
are acute ; from which it would appear, that the idea of the victim being 
nailed to the cross by the hands was not entertained by the designers of the 
Irish Sculptures, as in such case the arms would be uplifted ; but, on the 
contrary, in the Irish designs, the crucified one is represented with the arms 
inclining downwards, and the legs bound to the cross with cords at the ankles. 
These ankle-cords are plainly to be seen on Crosses at Monasterboice, Clonmac- 
noise, Durrow, Duleek, etc. (See figs. 52, 53, 54, 55). On one of the Crosses 
at Monasterboice (fig. 53) may also be observed the cord, by which the cruci- 
fied one is bound to the cross, placed around the chest and under the arms, 
so that the hands are allowed to hang. Such a mode of representing the 
Crucifixion never could have occurred to the early Irish Christian Missionaries 
and Bishops, who are universally allowed to have made the Scriptures their 
chief study, and who consequently could not be unacquainted with the 
distinctive particulars of that solemn event. 

Fig. 5 1 represents the large Cross at Monasterboice, the most perfect 
in Ireland, in which the Crucifixion (fig. 52) is seen. All the other Cruci- 
fixion designs referred to bear nearly the same proportion to the Crosses, 
upon which they are respectively found, as that represented in fig. 51. 

I might add representations of the Irish Crucifixion scene from the 
sculptured Crosses of Durrow, King's County ; Duleek, Co. Meath ; Tarmon 
Fechen, Co. Louth ; and Castle Dermot, Co. Kildare, as well as from many 
others, but it is unnecessary to multiply illustrations. They all exhibit the 
same peculiarities of ankle cords, with the arms inclining downwards. 

These peculiarities are the more remarkable, and tend to prove the 
heathen origin of the sculptured Crosses, inasmuch as the most ancient relics 
of unmistakeably Christian times represent the Saviour as suspended by 
the arms, and fastened to the Cross with nails. I shall notice three well- 
known Christian relics, upon which the Crucifixion scene is so represented. 



The first is a brazen box supposed to have been used for preserving a por- 
tion of the Holy Scriptures. It is called " Meeshac" by Sir W. Betham, 
and bears on it the date " CCCCCI 1 1." The other is the case called " Caah," 
in which St. Columb's copy of the Psalms was preserved. It is a box of the 
same style as the former, but is probably more modern. The third is called 
" St. Dimma's box." 

These ancient relics, which are richly embossed, are all of an age centu- 
turies anterior to the use of sculpture in relief on stone, either in England 
or France : yet these Irish antiquities represent the Crucifixion scene 
according to the Scriptural account ; while upon every ancient stone Cross 
in Ireland on which the design appears, it is represented as shown in figures 
51 to 55; that is to say, with fastenings of ankle-cords, and without 
suspension from the hands. This would seem to prove, that the device on 
the stone Crosses was not grounded on the Scripture narrative, and therefore 
must have had its origin in that traditional prophecy of a Crucifixion fre- 
quently noticed elsewhere. 





There is an Irish ecclesiastical legend, which throws some light on the 
Crucifixion scenes of Irish Crosses. 

I have endeavoured before to prove that Saint Fionnchu was identical 
with the Irish Finian hero Fin MacChuile, and that both represented the 


Branch of Juno the Seed of the Woman of primeval tradition. The 
Martyrology of Donegal informs us (p. 319), that St. Fionnchu " used to be 
often in a stone prison not higher than his own length, and a stone over his 
head, and a stone under his feet . . . and he used to rest both his 
arms on staples, so that his head might not touch the stone above, nor his 
feet the stone below. The proof of this is what Cuimin of Coindeire said : 

' Fionnchu, of Bri Gobhaun, loves the blessing of Jesus on his soul. 
Seven years was fte on his hooks, without his touching the ground/ 

" Comhghall, of Bennchor, came to him on one occasion, and commanded 
him to come out of the prison, and he obeyed kirn, though with reluctance, 
etc. It was he that used to lie the first night in the same grave with every 
corpse, which used to be buried in his Church, etc." 

It would seem that the primeval traditional prophecy of a Crucified 
Saviour was the origin not only of this legend, but also of the numerous 
crucial sculptures found on our ancient Irish Crosses. The period of 
Fionnchu's suspension (for seven years) is the same as that of the humilia- 
tion of Nudh of the precious metal hand already noticed ; and his spending 
one night in the grave seems to be founded on some traditional prophecy of 
Christ's entering into death for the salvation of his people. But I do not 
want to dogmatize, and therefore confine myself to a statement of my opinion 
and of the bases upon which it is formed. 

I have already referred to the crucifixion of the god Thot, whom learned 
men have identified with Bacchus, and Budh, alias Salivahana the Virgin- 
born Seed of the Woman ; and, in confirmation of the Asiatic traditions, we 
read in the Martyrology of Donegal, p. 329 (already noticed), of the mythical 
Saint Buide, alias Buite, alias Beo, " that a star manifested his birth, as it 
manifested the birth of Christ" Now the reader should bear in mind, that 
the star referred to in Matt, ii., as having guided the wise men from the East 
to Bethlehem, was not a subject of Scriptural but rather of traditional 
prophecy. I therefore conclude that traditional prophecy, not Scripture, 
was the origin of the star of the Irish mythical Saint Buide. 


The next peculiarity of Irish Stone Crosses is the absence in every 
instance of the two thieves crucified with our Lord. This cannot be 
accounted for by want of space to introduce them, as there is in every case 
a number of heterogeneous figures introduced, entirely out of character with 
the scene recorded in the Bible. Besides a variety of human figures, the 
sculptors have depicted dogs, and monsters of various forms. In one case 
a man is represented standing on his head (Cross, Street of Kells) in the 
space, which might have been appropriated to one of the two thieves. 

Another feature in Irish Crucifixion scenes, in contrast with the Scripture 
record, is the Irish Mural Crown decorating the head of the crucified one, 
as seen on the Cross of Tuam (fig. 5 7). 

The King, or Prelate, who could afford to erect this beautifully sculptured 
Cross (estimated from the fragments remaining at thirty feet in height), 
could not, if a Christian, have been so ignorant of the Scriptural account of 
our Saviour's Crucifixion as to represent Him wearing an Irish Mural Crown 
when upon the cross, instead of the crown of thorns usually portrayed. 
There are strong reasons for supposing that all those Irish Crucifixion 
figures were originally adorned with the like Mural Crown, and that the 
Christianizing of the figures, by defacing or rubbing away the Crown, was 
among the alterations effected after the introduction of Christianity. All 
these stone Crosses exhibit marks of rough handling about the head of the 
crucified figure, which makes that portion of the sculpture appear rude in 
comparison with other sculptures on the same stone. 

I would refer the reader to another Heathen Crucifixion scene from 
ruins in Nubia (fig. 58), concerning which Mr. O'Brien says (p. 337) : " I 
copy this image from a work of great value, lately published in Paris by 
Monsieur Rifaud, which he designates by the title of ' Voyage en Egypte et 
en Nubie et lieux circonvoisins.' The plate under notice is but part of a 
larger one, which he describes as ' Faade du petit temple de Kalabche (en 
Nubie) et ses details interieurs.' ' This Nubian figure tends to confirm the 
interpretation suggested as to the various other figures of the Irish Cruci- 

1 66 


fixions. Here may be observed a Mural Crown in the exact form of that 
worn by the crucified figure on the Cross of Tuam (fig. 57) also the horns, 
which may be noticed in figures 20 and 26. 

There is a relic noticed by Vallancey, O'Brien, and others a gilt bronze 
representation of the Crucifixion, on which the same Irish Mural Crown is 
represented (fig. 59). I believe it to be a genuine relic of the ancient 




Cuthite times, and that it represents the Cuthite Crucifixion of primeval 
tradition. The hands, though extended, convey no idea of suspension as if 
the body hung from them. Again, ankle cords are used to fasten the figure 
to the cross instead of nails ; and I would remark in particular, that the 
dress worn about the loins corresponds with the dress of Creehna, as 
represented in his crushing of the Serpent's head (see fig. 60, from Maurice, 
vol. 2). 




It may be interesting to trace the origin of the Mural Crown represented 
on the Cross of Tuam (fig. 57), and on the ancient Irish relic (fig. 59). I have 
before remarked upon the monstrous figures of winged quadrupeds found on 



several of the Irish Crosses. They occur on Crosses at Clonmacnoise, 
Duleek, Monasterboice, and Kells (figures 63, 64, 65, and 66). I can form no 
opinion as to the meaning of these winged figures, except that they were 
intended to represent the Cherubim of Paradise ; but I shall venture to 
suggest whence they were derived. Like figures are found as supporters of 
the head of Diana of the Ephesians, (fig. 62, from Kit to s Illus. Comnten., 


vol. 5, p. 205). Of whom Hislop writes (p. 42) : " In general Diana was 
depicted as a virgin, and the patroness of virginity; but the Ephesian Diana 
was quite different. She was represented with all the attributes of the 
Mother of the gods, and, as the Mother of the Gods, she wore a turreted 
Crown, such as no one can contemplate without being forcibly reminded of 
the tower of Babel. Now, this tower-bearing Diana is by an ancient 
scholiast expressly identified with Semiramis. When, therefore, we remember 
that Rhea, or Cybele, the tower-bearing goddess, was, in point of fact, 
a Babylonian goddess, and that Semiramis, when deified, was worshipped 
under the name of Rhea, there will remain, I think, no doubt as to the per- 
sonal identity of the " goddess of fortifications." 

We have before noticed this Diana as answering to the Irish "DE-ANA," 
" the goddess Ana," the mother of the gods according to the ancient Irish 
mythology. The identity of Diana of the Ephesians (Apr^tc) with the Irish 
goddess is marked by her double mural or turreted crown, the same as the 
crown surmounting the ancient arms of Ireland, which may be seen to this 
day as the monogram of the Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ireland. The 
ancient arms of Ireland, as certified by Sir William Betham, consisted of a 
Harp in a Shield, surmounted by the double turreted crown, with a stag, 
couchant, in a doorway. Fig. 61 represents this turreted crown or double 


Before leaving the subject of the Budhist or traditional Crucifixion, I 
would direct attention to a design from a Persian monument referred to by 
Hislop as " Baal-berith," " the Lord of the Covenant," of whom we read 
(Judges viii. 33) : " And it came to pass, as soon as Gideon was dead, that 
the children of Israel turned again, and went a whoring after Baalim, and 
made Baal-berith their god." Hislop writes (p. 101) : " As Christ, in the 
Hebrew of the Old Testament, was called Adonai, the Lord, so Tammuz 








FIG. 66. KELLS, 



was called Adon or Adonis. Under the name of Mithras he was worshipped 
as the 'Mediator.' As Mediator, and head of the covenant of grace, he was 
styled Baal-berith, Lord of the Covenant. In this character he is represented 
in Persian monuments as seated on the rainbow, the well-known symbol of 
the Covenant. Fig. 67 is from Thevenofs Voyages, Partie 2, Cap. 7, p. 514." 
This figure alone presents to my mind a full chapter of primeval tradition. 
It seems to symbolize a large communication of God's ways made known to 
Noah after the Deluge. It unfolds the fact that Noah had been taught the 


typical character of the Deluge itself, as explained in i Peter iii. 21, where 
the Apostle says concerning the eight persons saved from the deluge, " The 
like figure whereunto baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away 
of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God), 
by the resurrection of Jesus Christ." The figure of Baal-berith, or Lord of 


the Covenant with the crucified persons underneath would seem to imply, 
that God then unfolded to Noah the great Covenant in Christ, the resur- 
rection-man, whereby the remnant of a ruined world was saved, but saved 
through death. Or, as Paul expresses it, " I am crucified with Christ : 
nevertheless I live ; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me." (Gal. ii. 20). 

I am fully satisfied that the Rainbow Covenant was the origin of Baal- 
berith, and of the Pagan notion of Regeneration and Baptism. Mr. Hislop 
informs us that " The Brahmins make it their distinguishing boast, that they 
are 'twice-born' men (see Asiatic Researches, vol. vii., p. 271), and that, as 
such, they are sure of eternal happiness. Now the same was the case 

in Babylon, and there the new birth was conferred by baptism 

' In certain sacred rites of the heathen,' says Tertullian, especially referring 
to the worship of Isis and Mithra, ' the mode of initiation is by baptism/ 
(TERTULL., De Baptismo, vol. i, p. 1,204). They who were thus baptized, 
were, as Tertullian assures us, promised, as the consequence, REGENERATION, 
the pardon of all their perjuries.' ... In Mexico, the same doctrine of 
baptismal regeneration was found in full vigour among the natives, when 
Cortez and his warriors landed on their shores. (HUMBOLDT'S Mexican 
Researches, vol. i, p. 185"). After describing the process of Baptism, Mr. 
Hislop goes on to tell us (quoting from Humboldt), that the Mexican 
operator uttered a benediction, in which the following sentence occurs : 
" ' Whencesoever thou comest, thou that art hurtful to this child, leave him 
and depart from him, for he now liveth anew, and is BORN ANEW.' ' (Two 
Baby Ions, pp. 191, 192). 

We have noticed at p. 150 how Dionusus is represented as having been 
twice born, his last birth being from the Goddess Hippa, when nature itself 
was renewed. 

Mr. Brash, writing in the Gentleman s Magazine, Dec., 1864, says : 
" This notion of regeneration, or the new birth, by passing through an 
artificial orifice, is prevalent among the Hindoos, as we shall show by-and-by. 
Tohnens of this class are found in Ireland ; one lies on the strand of Ardmore 


Bay, County Waterford, which now is called Cloch Deglain."* He proceeds 
to inform us (quoting from the Asiatic Researches, vol. 6, p. 502, etc.), how 
a Hindoo, who has lost caste, is restored by being regenerated ; in the per- 
formance of which process " an image of the sacred Yoni" is used, " through 
which the person to be regenerated is to pass." 

Here we have the corruption of all the leading facts of the doctrine of 
Christian baptism ; and the Apostle Peter's connecting the subject with the 
Deluge as a type of it, coupled with the figure of Baal-berith, induce me to 
believe that the tradition, on which the heathen baptism was grounded, had 
been derived from a communication to Noah at the making of the Rainbow 

Coupling the fact of a heathen doctrine of Regeneration by baptism, with 
the fact that in the Arkite mysteries Death and Resurrection formed a very 
prominent feature, one is led to conjecture that those mysteries were derived 
from obscure and corrupted traditions of the typical character of the deluge, 
at the first revealed to Noah, and which St. Peter in the apostolic age so 
forcibly explains in that remarkable passage of his first Epistle. But this con- 
clusion is only admissible on the assumption, that baptism was instituted 
immediately after the deluge, which event, with its attendant circumstances, 
was then used to communicate to Noah a typical explanation of baptism 
itself. Certainly there is nothing to indicate the Death and Resurrection of 
the survivors (an idea pervading the Arkite mysteries) in the bare fact of 
having been saved from the deluge by being enclosed in the Ark. 

Phallic rites also are supposed to have abounded in these Arkite mys- 
teries, to which cause I attribute the presence of the miniature Round Tower 
or Phallic emblem in the Persian Sculpture, Baal-Berith (fig. 67). 

The denunciation against the Israelites, because " they joined themselves 
also unto Baal-Peor and ate the sacrifices of the dead" (Ps. cvi. 28, in allusion 

* This is the stone which is mentioned in the legend, p. 108, as having " swam" on the sea 
from Rome to Ireland after St. Declan. 


to Numbers xxv. 2, 3), would seem to confirm the idea of death in its mys- 
terious sense being associated with these abominable mystic rites. 

The consideration of Eastern mythology connected with Irish Sculptures, 
and particularly with the Crucifixion Scene, has led me to conclude that 
abundant revelations were made by God to the Patriarchs, Noah and his 
predecessors ; and that all the subsequent abominations of heathenism were 
founded upon the perversion of such revelations. As men grew in years 
and in wickedness their religion became more and more corrupted, until 
after the days of Abraham, when the intelligent nations of the earth, who 
knew most of the origin of these traditions and had done most to corrupt 
them, began to be cut off by God's Providential decree, leaving the other 
descendants of Noah in darkness and ignorance, but in a condition to learn 
the newly-revealed truths, if they would, from Abraham and his descendants. 


The Calci, or Tenth Avatar of Vishnu, yet future, appears to have had 
its origin in a primeval prophecy of our Saviour's second coming on a White 
Horse, as described in the Revelation, chap, xix., verses 1 1 to 16 " And I 
saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse, and he that sat upon him was 
called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war. 
And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood : and his name 
is called The Word of God. . . . And out of his mouth goeth a sharp 
sword, that with it he should smite the nations." In the Calci Avatar, 
Vishnu is represented as becoming "incarnate as an armed warrior for the 
purpose of dissolving the universe, bearing aloft a scimitar . . . for the 
destruction of all the impure." The Calci hero " appears leading a white 
horse, furnished with wings." I quote this legend from Maurices India, 
vol. 2, p. 25 ; vol. 3, p. 121. 

It may be observed that in several respects the account of this Avatar 
bears striking analogy to the prophecy in the Book of Revelation. The 


white horse is found in both. Compare the " sharp sword that with it he 
should smite the nations," with the scimitar "for the destruction of the 
impure." The LORD in Revelation comes to " make war." The Calci hero 
is an " Armed Warrior." Even our Saviour's name, " The Word of God," 
seems to have been a subject of primeval prophecy. See the prophecy 
ascribed to Zeradusht, p. 121, ante. 

In my opinion this Indian Avatar was the subject of the numerous figures 
of a man on horseback, represented among the sacred sculptures of Ireland. 

The design is represented on a sculpture at Annagh (fig. 68), and again 
on the Cross of Arboe (fig. 69). It is also to be found on the Cross of 
Banagher, which Mr. Cooke, of Parsonstown, informs us (Kilk. Arch. 
Journal, vol. 2, p. 278), was probably erected in memory of a certain Bishop 
Duffy, who was killed by a fall from his horse in the year 1297 ; but Mr. 
Cooke's own description of the Cross is sufficient to satisfy me as to the heathen 
origin of the devices. He says (Kilk. Arch. Jour., vol. 2, p. 178) : "The 




sculpture on it consists of three compartments. On the uppermost of these 
we find a lion passant, three-tailed, or guived, as a herald would express it. 
Beneath the lion I have mentioned, and on the same compartment 
with it, is the figure of a bishop on horseback, and bearing his pastoral staff 
as emblematic of his sacred office. The crosier is of that plain form which 
indicates antiquity. . . . The lowest compartment consists of four naked 


and ill-proportioned male human figures, arranged around the central part of 
the compartment, after the manner of spokes in a wheel. Their legs are 
hooked together, and the left hand of each figure grasps the hair of the figure ' 
immediately preceding it. Their respective right hands hold the beard of 
the figure immediately in rere. The sides of the stone are ornamented with 
an interlaced tracery, some of which resembles serpents. This tracery it 

would be difficult, if not wholly impossible, to describe in words 

The most remarkable object on the back of the stone is some sort of mythic 
combination shaped like an animal with a nondescript head, but rudely 
resembling that of a hawk. The ears seem to be represented by the heads 
of two serpents, whose bodies are twined into trinodal and circular forms of 
curve. The serpent, I need scarcely observe, was at all times acknowledged 
an emblem in religious rites. I do not remember to have met with anything 
like to this, excepting the figure on the little brazen talisman from Hindostan, 
which I forwarded for inspection of the members of our useful society. 
As to the carving on the lowest compartment, I own that I can form no 
certain conjecture respecting its meaning. I have met with the same sort 
of symbolic representation only once elsewhere namely on an exceedingly 
curious stone cover of a coffin in the ancient burial ground at Kilcorban, 
Co. of Gal way." 

I would remark here, that the figure of four men in a circle united at the 
feet may be seen on the Cross of Kells. The stone coffin, such as Mr. Cooke 
describes, I believe to be a Cuthite relic. Such coffins are found at Devenish 
and Clones, and at numerous other Cuthite sites in Ireland. The "mythic 
combination," which Mr. Cooke describes as like nothing that he had ever 
seen, except the figure on a talisman from Hindostan, certainly does not 
indicate that the sculptures are of the date of the i3th century. Banagher 
Cross is now standing in Mr. Cooke's garden at Parsonstown. 

The figure of a man on horseback also occurs sculptured on a highly 
venerated stone in the ancient Church of Annagh, County Kerry (fig. 68). 
Richard Hitchcock, Esq., in writing on the subject (Kilk. Arch. Journal, 


vol, 2, p. 240) says: "On the face of this stone is rudely sculptured in bold 
relief, the figure of a man on horseback, holding in his right hand something 
* like a sword or dagger. What the other hand holds I cannot exactly say, 
as it, as well as the greater part of the sculpture, particularly the two heads, 
is evidently unfinished. The hand, however, seems to be extended at full 
length, and not holding the horse's bridle. I think the leading idea that of 
a warrior pointing forwards as if to encourage his followers to action. . . . 
A sort of saddle or saddle-cloth appears under the horseman, but I can see 
no trace of stirrups, though I do a little of a bridle and mouthpiece." . . . 
" The people have a foolish legend that if the stone were removed, it would 
be brought back again by supernatural means, but there is no real history 
attached to it that I could ever learn." The like "foolish legend" is associ- 
ated with numerous Cuthite remains throughout Ireland, which superstition 
accounts for the fact of these relics of antiquity having been allowed to 
remain for so long a period undisturbed. A remarkable instance of this 
occurs in the case of Tempi e-Cronan. It is a well-known fact, that fuel and 
timber are nowhere in Ireland more scarce than in the Barony of Burren, 
County Clare, of which Ludlow has said " there was not water enough to 
drown a man, wood enough to hang one, nor earth enough to bury him." 
At this place, Temple-Cronan Church-yard, there are several trees, some of 
considerable size, and bearing evident marks of great age. One, an uncom- 
monly large Ash-tree, has, from very age, fallen to decay. The branches 
are rotting where they fell ; and the peasantry in the neighbourhood inform 
me, that though they suffer much from want of fuel, there is no one 
in the parish courageous enough to take away the smallest fragment of this, 
or of any tree, in that sacred spot. 

The figure of a man on horseback is to be found in the sculpture at 
Ardmore, fig. 44 ; also on the left side of the doorway at Freshford Church. 
If the figure of a man on horseback on Banagher Cross was made to 
commemorate the death of a Bishop by a fall from his horse, should we not 
expect similar stories of deaths by falls from horses, to account for like 


figures on Monasterboice and Arboe Crosses, as well as for the Sculptures 
at Ardmore, Annagh, and Freshford Churches ? 

I shall conclude this subject with a few general remarks on ancient 
sculptured Crosses. 

They are not, and seem never to have been, venerated among the 
peasantry in Christian times, and Mr. O'Brien informs us, p. 491, on the 
authority of Borlase, p. 162, "that the Pope has actually excommunicated 
all such as revered them, and has otherwise disowned all participation in 
them, by fulminating of Bulls and Anathemas." They seem to have been 
not only ancient, but also despised, in the days of Giraldus Cambrensis, who 
writes : -" Near the road at a place called Margan [probably Margam, in 
Wales] is an old cross, bearing an inscription, which has been doomed to 
serve as a bridge for foot passengers over a little rivulet, and in the village 
are fragments of a most beautiful cross richly decorated with fretwork."* 
Compare this statement of Giraldus Cambrensis with the following observa- 
tion of Mr. Parker, in Gent. Mag., February, 1864, p. 161, where he says 
" We have no sculpture of raised figures, deeply cut, which can be proved by 
any good evidence, to be earlier than the twelfth century, or the end of the 
eleventh, either in England or France :" yet sculptured Crosses were ancient 
and despised in the i2th century in the days of Giraldus Cambrensis. 
There is no record or evidence of the time of the erection of one of these 
Crosses throughout Ireland, which could scarcely have been the case, if they 
were erected since the introduction of Christianity. The traditions on the 
subject are invariably connected with supernatural agency. Those at 

* Quoted from Giraldus Cambrensis by O'Brien (Round Towers, p. 425). I have already 
said, p. 29, " that if the Cuthites be assumed to have inhabited Ireland [a question which the 
perusal of this work is intended to assist the reader in settling], it may be proved that they had 
settlements also in England, Scotland, France, and Switzerland ; and vestiges of their buildings 
[and I may add sculptures also] may have remained so long after as to suggest designs for 
Norman Architecture ; however these countries are beyond the range of the subject of this 
work." To these Cuthite colonists I would ascribe the Crosses at Margan referred to by 


Kilclispeen (figs. 40 and 42, etc.) are stated to have been erected in one night ; 
and the like story is related of the Crosses at Monasterboice. Devenish 
Tower also is said to have been built in one night by St. Molaise ; and, what 
is equally marvellous, the Saint being one day pursued by a Monster made 
his escape by leaping in one spring from the main land into the island. On 
fables like this of St. Molaise the very existence of many of our mythical 
Irish Saints is founded. The argument, grounded on the fact of the little 
progress the Irish had made in the art of building (much less of sculpture) 
before the arrival of the English, applies more strongly in this case than in 
that of the Round Towers. And judging from such Ancient Crosses as 
have survived the wreck of ages " These costly specimens of art, whereof 
some are at least 18 feet in height, composed of a single stone, and chiselled 
with devices of the most elaborate mysteries," must have been executed by 
artisans, whose skill as a class has since been rarely, if ever, excelled. 
Whence, I ask, did these sculptures come to Christian Ireland ? Where did 
the makers learn their art ; and where did they acquire their designs and 
patterns ? 

I think I have said enough to prove, that the Ancient Crosses of Ireland 
have no more to do with Christianity than the Crosses, which the Rev. Mr. 
Maurice and others inform us were so much venerated in heathen India, 
Egypt and America ; and if so, they must be ascribed to ages of remote 
antiquity even to the Cuthite inhabitants of Ireland, who preceded the 


THE ancient architecture of Ireland has heretofore been a puzzle to 
every one who has attempted to master the subject ; and I believe, it 
will ever continue to be such, if it be not assigned to that early age which I 
have suggested namely, to a date anterior to the reign of Solomon. Men 
of great literary and archaeological attainments, and profound students of 
architecture, have written upon it ; but, having started with the erroneous 
assumption that Irish Architecture was Norman, their learned investigations 
could not lead to a correct solution of the difficulties with which the subject 
is replete, though their works are of great value on account of the facts they 
have collected. All the churches erected about the time of, and immediately 
after, the English Invasion, whether by the English or the native Irish, 
appear to have been built in the Gothic or pointed style. Mr. Brash informs 
us (Ulst. Jour., April, 1859) that "from the year 1200 to 1260 were erected 
the following extensive monastic houses Drogheda, Newtown, Lorha, Kil- 
kenny, Youghal, Trim, Ballybeg, Buttevant, Athenry, and Kildare. These 
buildings were erected in the first pointed style." Numerous other churches, 
built about the same time in the Gothic style, might be added to this list. 

It is therefore evident that the stone-roofed Churches or Temples were 
not built by the English. The evidence adduced in the early part of this 
work, showing the little progress made by the Irish in architecture before 
the coming of the English, is sufficient to prove that the Irish nation, whose 
kings had not provided themselves with stone-houses, even of the ruder 


kind, were not the artificers of the Cyclopean walls and doorways which 
abound in Ireland ; or of such temples as Cormac's Chapel, in the construc- 
tion of which real artistic skill of a high order had been exercised. Mr. 
Parker reasons soundly on the superiority of the English to the Irish of the 
twelfth century in the art of building ; and justly concludes that therefore 
buildings of the same class must, in general, be later in date in Ireland than 
in England. But, as he proceeds in his work, he seems rather puzzled in 
the application of this unquestionably sound principle to the facts which met 
his acute observation. He accounts for the fact that Cormac's Chapel and 
the Church for the Nuns at Clonmacnoise are examples of the " same style 
of ornament being used in Ireland as in England and France, at the same 
dates," by suggesting, that " this style was probably introduced into Ireland 
by the French monks." (Gent. Mag., February, 1864). If this were so, 
such French monks would be needed to account for ruins in every County in 
Ireland. Mr. Parker, however, with his usual intelligence and quickness of 
perception, having observed the dilemma, candidly acknowledges it when he 
declares that Irish architecture " is a new field and but little understood, and 
it requires time and labour and an earnest desire after the truth in order to 
work out its history correctly." (Gent. Mag., February, 1864, p. 157). The 
last sentence of Mr. Parker's series of papers on this subject (already noticed) 
is to the same effect : " The study of Irish Architecture is only com- 
menced, and will require the labour of many heads and hands to work it out 
as it ought to be." (Gent. Mag., March, 1865, p. 285). In this I fully agree 
with him, and I believe there is no one more capable of investigating the 
subject than Mr. Parker himself, if he will only apply the right key to its 

It is an important circumstance, that the richest specimens and greatest 
variety of ancient Irish architectural ornaments are to be found at Glenda- 
lough, County Wicklow ; and this circumstance is significant coupled with 
the fact, that the place had begun to decay long before the arrival of the 
English; for, in 1152, the See of Glendalough with most of its wealth was 


transferred to the Archiepiscopal See of Dublin, and the valley itself 
continued to be held by the O'Tooles " who maintained possession of it with 
uncontrolled authority until the seventeenth century." (Lewis, 659). It, 
notwithstanding, abounds with vestiges of what Archaeologists designate 
" Norman Architecture," an irreconcileable anomaly upon any other hypothesis 
than that, which I have been endeavouring to establish. The inferences to 
be adduced from these facts may be applied to all the more ancient ruins of 
Ireland. But there appears abundant proof, that the Irish ancient style of 
Architecture was not derived from either France or England, in the fact that 
the former presents certain features of marked contrast, in comparison with 
that of the adjacent kingdoms, and these distinctive features identify it with 
the architectural remains of the most remote antiquity ; that is to say there 
are peculiar and prevailing features of the ancient Irish style, which have 
their parallels in the Cyclopean remains of Greece and Italy, the Rock 
Temples of India, and the ancient monuments of Central America; and these 
are totally dissimilar to the English and French styles of Norman Architec- 
ture. The most prominent of these features, which I would notice, is the 
Cyclopean style of Architecture, connected with sloping jambs of doorways. 
By Cyclopean Architecture I mean the building with massive stones, laid in 
irregular courses ; but the exactness with which the irregularity of the joints 
is met, and the superior finish of the curves and external surface prove that 
this tedious and difficult method of construction was not adopted from want 
of architectural skill, but for the purpose of imparting strength and durability. 
Not only are the Irish Round Towers generally built in this Cyclopean 
style at the base, but also numerous ancient ruins of so-called Churches or 

Mr. Parker says of Aghadoe Round Tower "It is built of large pieces 
of sandstone in irregular courses, but accurately fitted together, with the 
joints sometimes perpendicular, and sometimes oblique, without regard to 
regular courses or parallel beds the usual characteristics of the earlier ex- 
amples of Round Towers." (Gent. Mag., April, 1864, p. 412). 






I shall commence by noticing a few cases of the combination of sloping 
jambs with Cyclopean Architecture, which abound in Ireland, comparing 
them with vestiges of that ancient architecture called Cyclopean found in 
Greece and Italy. 

Fig. 70 represents a doorway at Kilmacduagh, County Gal way. It 
measures in height six feet six inches, and in width two feet six inches at 
the top, and three feet two inches at the bottom. It is found in the ancient 
portion of what is called the Cathedral, which stands within about twenty 
yards of the Round Tower. Kilmacduagh is noticed at No. 156 in the 
catalogue of supposed Saints, and foundations associated with their names. 


Fig. 71 is a doorway at Alatrium, Italy, from Dodwelts Cychpcan and 
Pelasgic Remains, plate 96. The style of masonry as well as the form of the 
doorway itself is strikingly like that at Kilmacduagh. 

A A 

1 84 


Fig. 72 is the doorway of Banagher Church, near Dungiven, in the 
County of Londonderry. It measures in height six feet seven inches, by two 
feet eight inches in width at the top, and three feet five inches at the bottom. 
The style of this doorway on the outside is not unlike the Egyptian, but on 
the inside it is formed of a plain well-constructed semi-circular arch. The por- 
tion of the soffit stone that is visible measures six feet in length, by one foot 
ten inches in height, and extends through the whole thickness of the wall. 
The windows of the building are of the style called " Norman, with Irish 
peculiarities ;" but their workmanship is unmistakeably the same as that of the 
doorway here represented. The fragments of the ancient Temple which 



remain show it to have been a building of the richer class, all wrought in 
ashlar; but the greater part of the building as it now stands consists of rude 
medieval masonry. An inscription is cut in plain Roman characters on the 
jamb of the doorway immediately under the lintel " This Church was built 
in the year of God, 474." It must have been engraved since the English 
Conquest, probably at the end of the i4th century, when the neighbouring 
Church of Dungiven was restored. If this inscription proves anything, it is 
that, in early English times, the Church had the reputation of having been 
built in St. Patrick's days, which would not have been the case if it had 
belonged to the Norman age. 

Fig- 73 is the doorway of St. Fechin's Church, Fore, Co. Westmeath 
(No. 205 in Catalogue), of which Dr. Petrie says : " This magnificent door- 
way, the late eminent antiquarian traveller, Mr. Edward Dodwell, declared 
to me, was as perfectly Cyclopean in character as any specimen he had seen 
in Greece." The stones are all of the thickness of the wall, which is three 


1 86 


We learn from Dr. Petrie, "that though this doorway, like hundreds of 'the 
same kind in Ireland, has attracted no attention in modern times, the singularity 




i8 7 



of its massive structure was a matter of surprise" to Sir Henry Piers, who, in 
1682, recorded the tradition of its miraculous erection by St. Fechin. He 
tells how " the saint himself alone, without either engine, or any other help," 
lifted the enormous lintel (weighing more than two tons) into its place over 
the door. The exact counterpart of the Cross over the doorway may be 
found sculptured among the Pagan ruins of Palenque. (See fig. 21). 

Fig. 74 is designated a " subterraneous gate at Alatrium," Italy, from 
Dodwcll, plate 92. 

Fig. 75 is the doorway of the ancient Church at Rattas near Tralee, Co. 
Kerry (No. 197 in Catalogue), of which Dr. Petrie says (p. 168) : "This 
doorway, like the whole of the Church, is built in a style of masonry perfectly 
Cyclopean, except in the use of lime cement." The height of the doorway 
is five feet six inches, the width at the base three feet one inch, and at the 




top two feet eight inches. The lintel is seven feet six inches in length, two 
feet in height, and extends through the whole thickness of the wall. This 
stone probably weighs about three and a half tons. 

Fig. 76 is the doorway of the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae, Greece. 
The ancient massive structures at Mycense, Argos, etc., were ascribed by 
Grecian Historians to the Cyclopeans, or giants of Heathen Mythology; and 
hence the name Cyclopean. 

Fig. 77 is the doorway of our Lady's Church at Glendalough, Co. Wicklow, 
(No. 32 in Catalogue), which Dr. Petrie describes as having "even a more 
striking resemblance to Greek architecture than Rattas." The dimensions of 
this doorway are about the same as those of the door at Rattas, being in 





height six feet, and in width two feet six inches at the top, and three feet at 
the bottom. It consists of seven stones all of the thickness of the wall, and, 
as Petrie observes, "admirably well-chiselled." The plinth, the sloping jambs, 
and the Cyclopean character of the whole, identify the style of these door- 
ways with that of the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae and other Cyclopean 
ruins of Greece and Etrufia. 

Fig. 78 is the doorway of Tomgraney Church, County Clare, No. 226 in 
Catalogue. The drawing is by Gordon M. Hills, Esq. This doorway is 
one of the finest specimens of the Cyclopean style to be found in Ireland. It 
measures six feet three inches in height, three feet one inch in width at the 
top, and three feet five inches at the bottom. 

i go 



Fig. 79 is called the " Gate of the Lions" at Mycenae, from Dodwell, 
plate 6. 

Fig. 80 is the Cyclopean doorway of Gallerus Oratory in the parish of 
Kilmelchedor (No. 90 in Catalogue), in the west of Kerry. It measures in 
height five feet seven inches, and in width two feet four inches at the base, 
and one foot nine inches at the top. The Church, though very small, 
has a wall four feet thick, and some of the stones of the building are found 
to extend through the whole thickness of the wall. I think Dr. Petrie is 
wrong in supposing that this building was made without cement; but it is no 
part of my subject to discuss this question. Its erection is assigned by Dr. 
Petrie to an age probably anterior to the mission of the great apostle St. 
Patrick. The Doctor appears to me to be so far right, but incorrect in sup- 
posing it to have been a Christian Church. 

The window of this building shall hereafter be referred to, as furnishing 
evidence that the building itself was the work of the people by whom Cormac's 
Chapel was erected, and that it is about the same age. 




B B 




If the Irish before the days of St. Patrick could build in the Cyclopean 
style, the question naturally suggests itself Whence did they acquire that 
style? Not from the few missionaries who first preached Christianity; these 
would naturally have introduced the style of the countries from which they 
had themselves come. Again, if the style was of purely Irish origin, how 
came it that the Irish should have invented the peculiarities of Cyclopean 
architecture without possessing any model to copy from ? The only reason- 
able solution of the difficulty is to assign all these buildings to the Cuthites, 
or Tuath-de-Danaans of antiquity as the architects of those Cyclopean 
remains in Greece and Italy, with which, as the foregoing illustrations prove, 
the Irish Ruins so strikingly correspond. This hypothesis entirely removes 
the difficulty. 




Fig. 8 1 represents the Cyclopean masonry of the base of Cashel Round 
Tower, No. 59 in Catalogue. The style gradually changes, as the work 
ascends, to the regular Ashlar, in which Cormac's Chapel is built. It is un- 
necessary to multiply specimens of this style, as most of the Round Towers 
are so built at the base ; but they gradually change, as they ascend, to the 
style of regular horizontal courses. 

Fig. 82 is a pier standing at what is called the Great Gate at Norba, 
Italy, from Dodwell, plate 75. 

Fig. 83 is a portion of the Cyclopean wall at Roselle, now called 
Grossetto, in Italy, from Sir Wm. Betham's Etruria Celtica, vol. 2, p. 251. 

Fig. 84 is the base of Kilmacduagh Round Tower, County Galway, 
drawn by Mr. Henry O'Neill from a Photograph. The style of the masonry, 




and jointing is strikingly like that of the wall at Grossetto ; but the stones 
of the Cyclopean specimens of Italy and Greece seem larger, although one 
stone of Kilmacduagh Tower measures eight feet six inches in length. The 
scale of feet on fig. 84 applies only to the central upright section of the 
building, which being round, the sides are reduced to the eye by the 

Fig. 85 represents a gateway at Ferentinum, Italy, from Dodwell, plate 
99. This drawing exhibits the combination of the Arch with the Cyclopean 
characteristics of sloping jambs and irregular jointing, as seen in fig. 86. 

Fig. 86 is the doorway of the Church of St. Dairbile in Erris, County 
Mayo, which, like other Irish buildings, I believe to be a Cuthite ruin. It is 
four feet ten inches in height, two feet four inches in width at the base, nar- 
rowing upwards to two feet at the spring of the arch. I look upon St. Dair- 
bile, the reputed founder, to be the Oak tree already noticed as an object of 
ancient heathen worship The Great Mother The Ark. In the Irish 
DAIR means an Oak, and BILE a tree. 




This Saint was a female, and, like most of these Irish mythical Saints, 
was of Royal descent. Dr. Petrie (p. 3 1 9) argues to prove that St. Dairbile 
" unquestionably flourished " in the sixth century. He tells us, on the 
authority of Colgan, that " her name is included in the list of illustrious 
religious persons, who assembled at Ballysadare to meet St. Columbkille 
immediately after the great Council of Druim Ceat, in 590 ; but, as some of 
the persons there enumerated were dead, and others not born at the time, 
this statement must be regarded as of no authority, except as referring her 


existence to the sixth century." Now I submit to the intelligent reader, that 
Colgan's statement is of no authority whatever, as proving that the Saint 
lived either in the sixth or any other century. Colgan in this instance 
assembling, in 590, some who were dead, and others not born at the 
time, only proves one fact viz., that Colgan's statements are utterly unde- 
serving of credit ; as settling any question of biography or history. That he 
himself believed the fables, which he had collected with so much industry, I 
have no doubt. 

As my purpose is not to give a description of Irish ruins, the few examples 
I have submitted to the reader, which, to quote Dr. Petrie's words, "are 
only like hundreds of the same kind in Ireland," sufficiently prove the 
complete identity of the style of ancient Irish Architecture with that known 
as the Cyclopean of ancient Greece and Etruria. The combination of massive 
stones built in irregular courses, yet perfectly jointed, with sloping jambs of 
doorways and plinths of the like character in both, demonstrates this identity 
of architectural detail. To my mind it is beyond a doubt certain, that the 
"Cyclopean" was the style of all religious building before the Confusion of 
Tongues, and that each nation after the Dispersion soon began to acquire 
architectural peculiarities of its own : and there is ample evidence, from the 
ancient Churches and Round Towers, to show, that what are called the 
"Norman" architectural remains of Ireland, with the Irish peculiarities of 
style, were the work of the people, whose style is in other respects identical 
with that of ancient Greece and Etruria. 


ARCHES of this construction abound in the most ancient ruins of 
Ireland. There is scarcely a specimen of the Cyclopean doorway, 
with its massive material and inclining jambs, that has not got windows of 
the same building constructed with the semi-circular arch. 

The contrast between the ancient Irish structures, and buildings of the 
genuine Norman style, with which they are confounded, has been made the 
subject of a former chapter. (See p. 1 7). 

So inseparably connected is the " Cyclopean" doorway of Ireland with 
the semi-circular arch, that it is impossible to conclude the doorway of such 
construction to be the ancient Cuthite, without assigning the semi-circular 
arch to the same remote origin : and, inasmuch as an erroneous opinion is 
commonly entertained, that the invention of arches of this construction dates 
no farther back than a few centuries before the Christian era, it may be ex- 
pedient to adduce evidence in proof of the fact, that the semi-circular arch 
belongs to the very earliest historical period of building in stone. 

Conclusive evidence of the use of the Arch among the Cuthite races of 
remote antiquity is afforded by the fact, that semi-circular arches are found 
in the most ancient specimens of buildings in the "Giant Cities of Bashan." 

A few quotations on the subject of these wonderful ruins, from the valu- 
able work of the Rev. J. L. Porter, cannot fail to be interesting to the reader. 

In his chapter on "The Scenery of Bashan," Mr. Porter (p. 30) thus 
describes the country in the vicinity of Hit. " For an hour or more I sat 
wrapped in the contemplation of the wide and wondrous panorama. At least 
a thousand square miles of Og's ancient kingdom were spread out before me. 
There was the country, whose 'giant' (Rephaim, Gen. xiv.) inhabitants the 


eastern kings smote before they descended into the plain of Sodom. There 
were those ' three score great cities' of Argob, whose ' walls, and gates, and 
brazen bars/ were noted with surprise by Moses and the Israelites, and 
whose Cyclopean architecture and massive stone gates even now fill the 
western traveller with amazement, and give his simplest descriptions much 
of the charm and strangeness of romance." 

Describing a house in the town of Burak, Mr. Porter says (p. 26): "The 
walls were perfect, nearly five feet thick, built of large blocks of hewn stones, 
without lime or cement of any kind. The roof was formed of large slabs of 
the same black basalt, lying as regularly and jointed as closely, as if the 
workmen had only just completed them. They measured twelve feet in 
length, eighteen inches in breadth, and six inches in thickness. The ends 
rested on a plain stone cornice, projecting about a foot from each side wall. 
The chamber was twenty feet long, twelve wide, and ten high. The outer 
door was a slab of stone four and a half feet high, four wide, and eight inches 
thick. It hung upon pivots, formed of projecting parts of the slab, working 
in sockets on the lintel and threshold ; and though so massive, I was able to 
open and shut it with ease. At one end of the room was a small window 
with a stone shutter. An inner door, also of stone, but of finer workmanship, 
and not quite so heavy as the other, admitted to a chamber of the same size 
and appearance. From it a much larger door communicated with a third 
chamber, to which there was a descent by a flight of stone steps. This was 
a spacious hall, equal in width to the two rooms, and about twenty-five feet 
long by twenty high. A SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH was thrown across it, support- 
ing the stone roof ; and a gate so large that camels could pass in and out, 
opened on the street. The gate was of stone, and in its place ; but some 
rubbish had accumulated on the threshold, and it appeared to have been 
open for ages. Here our horses were comfortably installed. Such were the 
internal arrangements of this strange old mansion. It had only one story ; 
and its simple massive style of architecture gave evidence of a very remote 
antiquity." This is the description of the house Mr. Porter himself occupied 



at Burak, and he assures us that " the houses were all like the one we 
occupied, only some smaller, and a few larger, and that there were no large 

Fig. 87 represents the interior of a large room in one of these giant- 
houses, showing how the ponderous roof is supported by a double semi- 
circular arch resting on a pillar. 


Mr. Porter proceeds (p. 84) " They are the memorials of a race of giant 
warriors, that has been extinct for more than three thousand years, and of 
which Og, king of Bashan, was one of the last representatives ; and they are, 
I believe, the only specimens in the world of the ordinary private dwellings 
of remote antiquity. The monuments designed by the genius and reared by 
the wealth of imperial Rome are fast mouldering to ruin in this land ; tem- 
ples, palaces, tombs, fortresses, are all shattered, or prostrate in the dust, 
but the simple, massive houses of the Rephaim are in many cases perfect as if 
only completed yesterday." 

" It is worthy of note here, as tending to prove the truth of my statements, 
and to illustrate the words of the sacred writers, that the towns of Bashan 

were considered ancient even in the days of the Roman historian Ammianus 



Marcellinus, who says regarding this country : * Fortresses and strong castles 
have been erected by the ancient inhabitants among the retired mountains 
and forests. Here in the midst of numerous towns are some great cities such 
as Bostra and Gerasa, encompassed by massive walls'" (p. 85). 

Again, in p. 67, Mr. Porter writes " In one spot (at Bozrah), deep down 
beneath the accumulated remains of more ancient buildings, I saw the simple, 
massive, primitive dwellings of the aborigines, with their stone doors and 
stone roofs. These were built and inhabited by the gigantic Emim and 
Repkaim long before the Chaldean shepherd migrated from Ur to Canaan 
(Gen. xiv. 5). High above them rose the classic portico of a Roman temple, 
shattered and tottering, but still grand in its ruins. Passing between the 
columns I saw over its beautifully sculptured doorway a Greek inscription, 
telling how in the fourth century, the temple became a church, and was 
dedicated to St. John. On entering the building the record of still another 
change appeared on the cracked plaster of the walls. Upon it was traced 
in huge Arabic characters the well-known motto of Islamism ' There is no 
God but God, and Mohammed is the prophet of God!" 

Summing up these quotations from Mr. Porter's most interesting work, 
we have evidence that many of the ancient habitations of the Giants still 
exist in the precise locality described by Moses as "a land of Giants." Next 
we may observe, that these habitations stand in marked contrast to the 
architecture of the Jews, the Romans, the early Christians and the modern 
Mahometans, the nations who in turn succeeded the Giant Aborigines, and 
whose monuments are in ruins, while the imperishable character of these 
primeval structures has left them a standing monument of the truth of the 
Bible. Again, we find the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus noticing 
in his day the architectural works of the " Ancient inhabitants." But my 
principal reason for introducing these quotations is because of the evidence 
which the ruins of the Giant Cities furnish of the use of the semi-circular arch 
in the first ages of the world's history. 

I have quoted from Mr. Porter at some length, because it is necessary to 


prove, not only that the arch is found in the most ancient houses in Bashan, 
but also, that these houses were the habitations of the aborigines, whose last 
king (in the time of Moses) was the Giant Og : that the cities are in fact 
properly designated "The Giant Cities of Bashan." 

The semi-circular arch appears also in fig. 47 a recess for the image of 
the Goddess in the cavern temple of Hippa in Arcadia (from Mythologia 
Natalis Comes, Ed. 1637). " Now the Arcadians vaunted their antiquity 
above all other nations, and valued themselves much on their assumed name 
of Aborigines. Everywhere they boasted, that they were in possession of 
their land before the birth of Jupiter." (Harcourt's Doctrine of the Deluge, 
vol. i, p. 311). It is not credible that the rock-temples belonging to this 
ancient people were excavated and dedicated to the Goddess Hippa after 
the introduction of the Arch into Grecian architecture; and, if it existed 
before, it must be assigned to the remote ages of the world's history. 

Dr. Davis, in describing some plain semi-circular arches among the Ruins 
of Carthage, says (Carthage audits Remains, p. 55): "At one period the 
existence of the Arch would have been sufficient evidence to fix the date of 
this building; but this opinion is now exploded, since Sir Gardiner Wilkinson 
informs us that 'innumerable vaults and arches exist in Thebes, of early date/ 
and Mr. Layard found the same constructions at Nineveh also. Arched gate- 
ways are moreover often represented in the bas-reliefs from that place." 

I believe the semi-circular arch to have been an emblematic device con- 
nected with the mysteries of the Cuthites or Lingajas, and that to this 
circumstance is to be ascribed its absence from the buildings of ancient 
Egypt, and Greece. The writer of an article in the London Encyclopedia on 
" Architecture" (No. 59) informs us, as accounting for the superiority of 
Grecian to Egyptian architectural taste, that " in Egypt, and we may add in 
Judea also, law and religion both were exerted to depress and restrain the 
progress of art." It is impossible otherwise than upon this hypothesis to 
account for the absence of the arch from most of the Egyptian Temples. The 
architect, who could erect even one of such temples as now exist in ruins in 


Egypt, must have been very stupid indeed (at least he would be considered 
so in our day), if, during the progress of such a work, he had not discovered 
the principle of the arch even supposing him to have never heard of it 
before. It may also be a question worthy of consideration, whether the 
knowledge of the principle, upon which a semi-circular arch is supported, 
may not be proved to have existed among those who constructed the pointed 
arch found in Egyptian and American ruins : although, for some reason con- 
nected with religion, the other form had been avoided, until, in process of 
time, the pointed arch came to be the established style in these countries. 
The same writer (London Encyclopedia) informs us (No. 79) " that in the 
most ancient specimens of this [the Etruscan] school we find abundant use 
made of the arch, the construction of which was evidently well known to 
their architects." We are told elsewhere, that the Etruscans were a branch 
of the Pelasgi, who, according to Dionysius, emigrated into Europe not many 
years after the Dispersion. " The high, and indeed almost incredible 
antiquity of the Etruscan language and alphabet has been clearly evinced 
in two dissertations printed at Oxford in the year 1746." (Lond. Ency., 
article, " Etruscans"). 

Mrs. Gray informs us (p. 238) that " the Cyclopean walls are the remains 
of some most ancient people, who bore sway in Italy at a period even more 
remote than the national existence of Etruria" To this most ancient people 
I ascribe the arches found in the " most ancient specimens" of the Etruscan 

It is evident that the Etruscans, or Pelasgi, were, in race and religion, 
distinct from the primitive Cuthites the fact being that the Divinities of the 
latter were represented as black, with Negro features as shall afterwards be 
shown ; whereas the Divinites of the Etruscans were depicted as fair, their 
Furies and Demons only being represented as black. See Mrs. Hamilton 
Grays Sepulchres of Etruria, pp. 16 and 266. 

I shall notice one other proof of arches being found in Temples of eastern 
Europe, which unmistakeably belonged to the ancient Cyclopeans. The 
country at the north of the Black Sea, about the river Tanais and the Maeotis, 


is frequently referred to by Bryant, Faber, and others, as well as in the 
ancient Irish Records (Keating, vol. i, p. 113), as having been formerly in- 
habited by Cuthites, under the names of Scythians, Hyperboreans, etc. Of 
this identical locality Faber writes: ''Similar excavations of amazing extent 
may be seen near Inkerman in the Crimea, which was one of the chief 
western settlements of the old Scythae or Chusas. They are hewn out of 
the rocks which tower above the bay, and they are visible at a considerable 
distance. ' Upon examination,' says Dr. Clarke, 'they proved to be chambers 
with arched windows, cut in the solid rock with great care and art'" (Clarke s 
Trav., vol. i, c. 20, p. 491-493 ; also Faber, vol. 3, p. 257). I have stated 
my opinion that the arch was an abomination to the Pelasgi (the conquerors 
of the Cuthites), and as such I believe they destroyed every vestige of it 
which came within their reach. Windows and arched doorways have there- 
fore disappeared from the Cyclopean remains of Greece and Italy, and the 
arched form was never revived in Grecian and Egyptian architecture until, 
by the lapse of time, all knowledge of the Cuthites and their religion had 
passed away. The arched windows at Inkerman being excavations, not 
buildings, may account for their existence at the present day. 

I trust, that what has been adduced on this subject is sufficient to prove 
the remote antiquity of the semi-circular arch. I myself am of opinion, that 
the interior roof of the Ark of Noah was of this construction, and that there- 
fore the design was introduced into the arkite temples of the first apostates 
from the patriarchal religion. See the Rock Temple of Carli, fig. 3. 


HAVING made such frequent mention of the Cuthites as the artificers 
of our ancient Irish ruins, it is expedient that I should make a 
few general remarks upon the nations, to whom I have assigned this 
name. The period of their dominion as the Scythian empire I believe 
to have been from the time of Nimrod to that of Abraham. They after- 
wards existed in partial subjection until the days of Samuel the prophet. 
Learned men of different ages have written numerous volumes on this 
comprehensive subject, upon which I mean only to touch very briefly. 
Notwithstanding all that has been written, the subject still remains one of 
doubt and uncertainty at every point : I do not pretend to settle any of 
these points, upon which men of profound learning and research have 
disagreed so widely. I shall only quote a few passages, selecting what 
seem to me the most correct views, and leave the reader to judge for 

It is probable that the apostacy of Sun-worship commenced with Cain, 
who " brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the Lord " (Gen. 
iv. 3). Colonel Greenwood writing in the Athenceum of 23rd July, 1864, 
says : "Sun-worship had many names and modifications. It is the Sabiism 
(from Tsabu Hesemin, the heavenly Host) of Job and the Bible. Bishop 
Cumberland and Bishop Warburton, I think, agree that Cain, the first man 
born on earth, and his descendants were Sabaeans. Abraham and Moses 
were Sabaeans till Jehovah revealed himself to them. Sun-worship is 
serpent-worship, since a glory of serpents with their tails outward designated 



the sun's rays ; a serpent with its tail in its mouth the sun's disc, his orbit, 
and eternity ; a serpent extended and serpentine the sun's apparent course 
through the stars. Hence, ' Ob El, the origin of obelisk, is Pytho Sol, 
the serpent sun.'" We learn from the Shaster and other Sanscrit books, 
which the Budhists, as the predecessors of the Brahmins in India, claim 
as their own, that they the ancient Budhists (like Cain) offered only 
the fruits of the ground their worship was without sacrifice of blood, 
save perhaps human sacrifices their righteousness of works, prayers and 
penances they did not believe in an universal propitiatory sacrifice, or in 
the eternal punishment of the wicked. The policy of the first apostates 
from the patriarchal religion seems to have been to convert the primeval 
prophecies of a future Redeemer into fables of past incarnations of Divinity, 
preserving the facts communicated by God, but so distorting them as to 
render them wholly useless for the purpose for which they were revealed. 
From the schisms, which arose out of this apostacy, sprang (after the building 
of the Tow r er of Babel) the widely-spread and diversified legends of 

The religion of the ancient Cuthites seems to have been the worship of 
God, as the source of life and generativeness : the worship of the Sun and 
Moon as the visible emblems of the Divinity followed, and hence the 
worship of the Lingam, the Ark, etc. ; all of which superstitions became 
ultimately combined with hero-worship, etc. 

The cursed race of Ham, who were prophesied (Gen. ix. 25) to become 
the servants of servants, seem notwithstanding to have exercised the chief 
dominion in the earth from the days of Nimrod the first king mentioned in 
history until about the time of Abraham. Judgment was delayed until 
their iniquity was full (Gen. xv. 16). Thenceforth they seem to have 
become everywhere a proscribed race ; and the religion which they had 
made corrupt became expunged, leaving only slight traditional legends, and 
ruins of magnificent edifices, to attest their former greatness. This period 
of Cuthite rule may be reckoned an era of the world's history, followed by 


a dark age, out of which arose the literature and civilization, which are 
usually denominated " ancient." The Cuthites dealt in mysteries the facts 
of the past were concealed by them under symbols and words of double 
meaning out of which, when the Cuthites themselves had passed away, 
arose all the absurd mythology of the so-called ancient world which succeeded 

Numerous facts relating to this ancient people were collected by the late 
Jacob Bryant, Esq., and published in 1774, under the title of "Analysis of 
Antient Mythology." It is a large work ; and Bryant himself informs us that 
the history of the Cuthites, the descendants of Ham, is the principal subject 
of his investigation therein. Asa scholar, the learned Bryant was eminently 
qualified for such a work. It is said of him that, "in point of classical erudi- 
tion he was, perhaps, without an equal in the world Nothing in 

the ancient Greek and Roman literature, however recondite, or wherever 
dispersed, could escape his sagacity and patient investigation." (See Life of 
Bryant appended to the 3rd Edition). The chief sources whence Bryant 
derived his information respecting the Cuthites were the Doric hymns, 
written originally in the Amonian or Cuthite language, the fragments of 
Berosus, of Sanchoniathon, and of the Sibylline poetry preserved in the 
ancient classics. (Bryant, vol. i, p. 202 ; vol. 4, p. 99). I do not mean to 
enter into any dissertation upon the correctness of all Mr. Bryant's views, 
as it would extend this work beyond its intended limits ; but I shall confine 
myself to the statement of certain conclusions to which his researches have 
led him, leaving the reader to examine Bryant's work itself for the proofs, 
upon which such conclusions are founded. I would however direct particular 
attention to the fact that, while the writings of Bryant, and the language, 
legends, history and hagiology of Ireland mutually confirm each other in 
hundreds of instances, the learned Bryant himself seems to have been 
ignorant on all these subjects of Irish knowledge. These circumstances 
make the quotations from Bryant the more valuable in the present inquiry, 
inasmuch as his testimony is disinterested and unintentional. 


Bryant, elsewhere throughout his work, refers to the Cuthites as noticed 
by classic authors, under the designations of Giants, Titans, Centaurs, 
Cyclopians, lapitiae, Phoenicians, Scythians or Scuthi, Hyperboreans, Iberians, 
Indi, Idaei-Dactyli, Formians, Lamiae, Ethiopians, Daemons, Cabiri, and 
Shepherds or Shepherd Kings. To these several names I shall have occa- 
sion to refer separately. Their history and identity, as being all of the 
Cuthite stock, are the subjects of Bryant's valuable work. 

In his preface to the third Edition of his Analysis of Antient Mythology, 
p. xxviii, Bryant says " It has been observed, by many of the learned, that 
some particular family betook themselves very early to different parts of the 
world, in all which they introduced their rites and religion, together with the 
customs of their country. They represent them as very knowing and enter- 
prising ; and with good reason. They were the first who ventured upon 
the seas, and undertook long voyages. They showed their superiority 
and address in the numberless expeditions which they made, and the 
difficulties which they surmounted. Many have thought that they were 
colonies from Egypt, or from Phenicia, having a regard only to the settlements 
which they made in the west. But I shall show hereafter, that colonies of 
the same people are to be found in the most extreme parts of the east; where 
we may observe the same rites and ceremonies, and the same traditional 
histories, as are to be met with in their other settlements. The country called 
Phenicia could not have sufficed for the effecting all that is attributed to 
these mighty adventurers. It is necessary for me to acquaint the Reader, that 
the wonderful people, to whom I allude, were the descendants of Chus, and 
called Cuthites and Cuseans. They stood their ground at the general 
migration of families ; but were at last scattered over the face of the earth. 
They were the first apostates from the truth, yet great in worldly wisdom. 
They introduced, wherever they came, many useful arts, and were looked up 
to as a superior order of beings : hence they were styled Heroes, Daemons, 
Helidae, Macarians. They were joined in their expeditions by other nations, 

especially by the collateral branches of their family, the Mizraim, Caphtorim, 

D D 


and the sons of Canaan. These were all of the line of Ham, who was held 
by his posterity in the highest veneration. They called him Amon : and 
having in process of time raised him to a divinity, they worshipped him as 
the Sun ; and from this worship they were styled Amonians." . . . And 
again in p. xxxi, Bryant says: "They were a people who carefully preserved 
memorials of their ancestors, and of those great events which had preceded their 
dispersion. These were described in hieroglyphics upon pillars and obelisks : 
and when they arrived at the knowledge of letters, the same accounts were 
religiously maintained both in their sacred archives, and popular records. It 
is mentioned of Sanchoniathon, the most ancient of Gentile writers, that he 
obtained all his knowledge from some writings of the Amonians. ' It was 
the good fortune of Sanchoniathon/ says Philo Biblius, ' to light upon some 
antient Amonian records, which had been preserved in the innermost part of 
a temple, and known to very few.' ' Bryant's Antient Mythology, 3rd 
Edition, Preface, pp. xxviii to xxxii. 


The accompanying brief outline of the history of the Cuthites, as gleaned 
from the writings of Bryant, Faber, and others, may assist the reader in 
examining the several quotations which follow. 

It would appear from History that an ingenious and powerful race of the 
descendants of Ham ruled the world for many centuries after the Deluge. 
They are frequently referred to under the name of Cuthites. Their kingdom 
was established by the first king of Babylon Nimrod, Belus, or Elorus. 
They were known as Scythians ; and their dominion was antecedent to the 
Assyrian Empire. 

During the period of Cuthite dominion the Phallic worship extended from 
Babylon to India ; for we find that it was introduced into India from the 
banks of the Euphrates, where " the mighty Lord Belus" was thus 


The first King of Babylon having assumed to himself the title of " the 
Royal Shepherd," the Cuthite conquerors of Egypt were there known by the 
name of Shepherds, or Shepherd Kings. It is probable that some antedilu- 
vian prophecy existed, in which the promised " Seed of the woman " was 
represented under the character of the Good Shepherd. If so, it would 
account for Nimrod's having adopted such name, when he assumed the 
character of the " Promised Seed." 

The Cuthites were also known under the names of Indi, Ethiopes, 
Phoenicae, Scythians or Scuthi, Hyperboreans, Cyclopeans, Centaurs, Giants, 
Titans, and Demons. The original Indus was the Tigris in Babylonia, 
whence the Cuthites brought with them the name of Indi to their settlements 
in the East 

Human sacrifices prevailed among the Cuthites ; which custom probably 
arose from their abuse of the superior knowledge they possessed, by offering 
a man as a more literal exhibition of the Divine Man, whose sacrifice was 
intended to be typified. 

Bryant, in tracing the downfall of the Cuthite empire, refers to two great 
wars. The first was that for dominion, which lasted ten years, and ended in 
the defeat of the Cuthites, who were expelled from Babylonia and driven to 
Tartarus, i.e., to the West : others of them were at the same time made tribu- 
taries in the localities where they had founded settlements. This was the war 
referred to by the ancients as that between the Gods and the Giants the 
Greeks and the Centaurs ; and the war of the sexes, to which I shall allude, 
as recorded by Wilford and Faber, from Hindoo mythology. This first 
Titanic war is treated of at considerable length by Bryant, who quotes full 
accounts of it from the Sibylline verses. Some of the events of this war are 
referred to in the account of the " Dispersion" (Gen. xi. 8, 9). The second 
Titanic war was one of extirpation, and, according to Bryant, it is also 
referred to in the Bible (Gen. xiv). After the " Dispersion," and the over- 
throw of Cuthite dominion, the scattered settlements of that race, which 
remained in Italy, Sicily, and on the borders of the Euxine Sea, rendered 


themselves odious to their neighbours by their religious rites, particularly 
their continued custom of human sacrifices a custom, which, in their 
weakened social condition, they exercised only on such strangers as fortune 
placed in their power. These unfortunates they offered as victims, and thus 
it was, that, as common enemies of mankind, the Cuthites became, as to 
national existence, utterly extirpated. Their great knowledge and skill in 
the arts also perished with them : nothing remained save what still continued 
to be preserved in " the Mysteries," the introduction of which, instead of the 
open exercise of the Cuthites' worship seems to have been the result of their 
national degradation. These mysteries in time became very popular in 
Greece and Egypt; but the knowledge contained in them was a mere shadow 
of the wisdom and skill possessed by the ancient Cuthites, in the days of their 
power " the Golden Age." 

The Cuthites expelled from Babylonia, were banished to Tartarus, that 
is to say to the West, to the abyss of the Atlantic Ocean, and the unknown 
regions beyond. This emigration was probably the first colonization of 
America, and then also for the first time, Ireland may have been peopled. 
In ancient Irish records there are several accounts of the immigrations of the 
Scythians. One represents them as coming from the banks of the Teth-Gris 
(Tigris) to Spain, and thence to Ireland. Another account brings them from 
Egypt to Spain, and thence to Ireland. It is singular that these should 
correspond with the accounts of the Cuthite migrations adduced by Bryant 
from the ancient Classics; the first, that from Babylon after the "Dispersion;" 
the second, the expulsion of the Shepherd Kings from Egypt, after having 
ruled that country for 500 years. 

The voyages of the Irish, described as Scythians, or Gadelians the 
descendants of Gad-el-glas [the Green Snake God] before their first arrival 
in Ireland, are epitomized by Keating (vol. i, p. 118, and preceding pages). 
Their journeyings were first from Scythia the country about the river 
Tanais on the Euxine. They travel backwards and forwards between 
Scythia, Crete, Egypt, Thrace, and Gothland [Guthia or Sicily], thence to 


Spain, and ultimately to Ireland. Keating tells us, that the source whence 
he derived his information was "the Book of Invasions, upon whose authority 
we may depend ; for the whole account is faithfully collected and transcribed, 
from the most valuable and authentic chronicles of the Irish affairs, particu- 
larly from that choice volume, called Leabhar dhroma sneachta, or the White 
book, that was written before St. Patrick first arrived in Ireland to propagate 
Christianity in the country." (Keating, vol. i, p. 83). 

About a thousand years are said to have been occupied in these voyages. 
Wars and dangers of various kinds are assigned as the causes of the several 


It is not possible for us to regard these ancient Irish records as History. 
They are only the systematizing of ancient traditions respecting the settle- 
ments, which the Cuthite Scythians the Irish and their brethren had 
established at different places in former times. One fact however is worthy 
of special notice that the several localities, Scythia on the borders of the 
Euxine, Crete, Sicily, Egypt, and Spain, are each noticed at considerable 
length by Bryant, as places where the Cuthites after the Dispersion had 
founded colonies. It is probable, that the classical literature whence Bryant 
derived his information was wholly unknown to Keating, and it is certain, 
that the several Annals written in the Irish language, on the authority of 
which Keating delineated his plan of the wanderings of the Cuthite colonies 
until they reached Ireland, were never heard of by Bryant. Therefore, the 
numerous coincidences in the writings of these learned men prove, that a 
substratum of truth lay at the foundation of the authorities, from which each 
extracted his information. Bryant mentions Greece and the northern coast 
of Africa, as having been once occupied by Cuthites, and corresponding 
accounts respecting these countries are found in Irish records as places whence 
the Irish have come. 

Although modern writers of history have as yet scarcely begun to recog- 
nise the fact, that a great empire once existed bearing the name of Scythian, 
yet Faber has drawn attention to this fact, and to the evidence on which it is 


sustained. This he does in apparent ignorance that any reference is made 
to such an empire in Irish records : but there it is notwithstanding. We 
have been accustomed to regard the early portions of Irish history as 
mythical, and as little entitled to be called History as the stories told in the 
" Arabian Nights." Yet in the most ancient Irish Annals, we have records 
of the Scythian empire, the great monarch of which, Nion the son of Pelus 
[Nin, Ninus, or Nimrod of ancient history], the ancestor of the Irish 
Scythians, is described as the "Sovereign of the Universe." See Faber, vol. 
3 PP- 377-379, 39*~399; Keating, vol. i, p. 95. 

With these few introductory observations, I now proceed to quotations 
in support and confirmation of my statements on this interesting and curious 
historical question. 

In vol. i, p. 7, of his Antient Mythology, Bryant remarks: " Chus 
was the father of all those nations, styled Ethiopians, who were more truly 
called Cuthites and Cuseans. They were more in number, and far more 
widely extended, than has been imagined. The history of this family will be 
the principal part of my enquiry." 

" The first great commotion among men was described by the poets as 
the war of the Giants ; who raised mountains upon mountains in order that 
they might scale heaven. The sons of Chus were the aggressors in these 
acts of rebellion. They have been represented under the character both of 
Giants and Titanians : and are said to have been dissipated into different 
parts of the world. . . . But the most prevailing notion about the 
Titanians was, that after their war against heaven, they were banished to 
Tartarus, at the extremities of the earth. The antient Grecians knew very 
little of the western parts of the world. They therefore represent the 
Titans, as in a state of darkness ; and Tartarus as an infernal region." 
(Bryant, vol. 4, pp. 73,74). Again p. 77, he further says: "The 
mythologists adjudged the Titans to the realms of night ; and conse- 
quently to a most uncomfortable climate ; merely from not attending to the 
purport of the term o0oe. It is to be observed, that this word had two 



significations. First, it denoted the west, or place of the setting sun. . . . 
It signified also darkness; and from this secondary acceptation the Titans of 
the west were consigned to the realms of night ; being situated in respect to 
Greece towards the regions of the setting sun. The vast unfathomable abyss, 
spoken of by the poets, is the great Atlantic Ocean ; upon the borders of which 
Homer also places the gloomy mansions where the Titans resided." 

"Another name for Tartarus, to which the poets condemned the Titans 
and Giants, was Erebus. This, like o<oc, was a term of twofold meaning. 
For Ereb [Hebrew] signified both the west, and also darkness." (Bryant, 
vol. 4, p. 80). 

" This mighty pool [Tartarus] was the ocean above mentioned [the 
Atlantic] ; and these extreme parts of the earth were Mauritania and Iberia 
[Spain] : for in each of these countries the Titans resided." (Vol. 4, p. 78). 

Bryant also tells us (vol. 4, p. 106 :) " Phallus takes notice of the 
Assyrian monarch Belus ; likewise of Cronus and Titan : and he says, that 
Belus and the Titans made war upon Jupiter and the Gods ; and that Gyges 
being worsted in battle fled from those parts to Tartessus." 

Bryant, quoting from Josephus, says : " After the ruin of the Tower, the 
' priests, who escaped from that calamity, saved the implements of their 
idolatry, and whatever related to the worship of their Deity, and brought 
them to the city Senaar in Babylonia. But they were again driven from 
hence by a second dispersion' " (vol. 4, p. 95). 


Treating of " The buildings and other great operations" of the Cuthite 
race, Mr. Bryant quotes the following from Strabo. " He mentions ' Xo^o/, 
high altars of raised earth, and strong walls and battlements of various cities, 
together with subterraneous passages of communication.' .... The 
buildings, which the Cuthites erected, were in many places styled Cyclopian 
from a title given to the architects. . . . They erected many temples ; 


and likewise high towers upon the sea-coast ; and founded many cities. The 
ruins of some of them are still extant; and haVe been taken notice of by 
Fazellus, who speaks of them as exhibiting a most magnificent appearance. 
They consist of stones which are of great size : such as are continually to be 
found in the structures erected by this people." (Bryanf,vQ\. 5, pp. 190, 210, 
21 1). 

Again : " The Cyclopians were the same as the Minyae, who built the 
treasury at Orchomenus. This building is by Pausanias joined with the 
walls of Tiryns for magnificence ; and he speaks of them as equal in work- 
manship to the pyramids of Egypt. The walls of Mycene were said to 
have been erected by the same persons. . . . Such were the mighty 
works of old, which promised to last for ever : but have long since been 
subverted ; and their names and history oftentimes forgotten." (Bryant, vol. 
5, pp. 212, 213.) 

" It is generally agreed by writers upon the subject, that the Cyclopians 
were of a size superior to the common race of mankind. . . . They 
were particularly famous for architecture ; which they introduced into Greece, 
as we are told by Herodotus : and in all parts, whither they came, they 
erected noble structures, which were remarkable for their height and beauty ; 
and were often dedicated to the chief Diety, the Sun, under the name of 
Elorus and Pelorus." (Bryant, vol. 2, p. 225). 

In vol. 4, pp. 41, 42, Bryant quotes the following from Eupolemus : 
" ' The city of Babel was first founded, and afterwards the celebrated tower; 
both which were built by some of those people who had escaped the Deluge. 
They were the same who in after times were recorded under the character 
of Giants. The Tower was at length by the hand of the Almighty ruined : 
and these giants were scattered over the whole earth. . . . The Giants 
whom Abydenus makes the builders of Babel are, by other writers, repre- 
sented as the Titans. . . . Hesiod gives an account of the dispersion 
of the Titans, and of the feuds which preceded : and he says, that the Deity 
at last interposed, and put the Titans to flight, and condemned them to 


reside in Tartarus at the extremities of the earth." {Bryant, vol. 4, pp. 
64, 70). 

" Magic and incantation," says Bryant, " are attributed to Chus, as the 

inventor ; and they were certainly first practised among his sons 

He was, however, esteemed a great benefactor; and many salutary inventions 
were ascribed to him. He had particularly the credit of being the first who 
ventured upon the seas." (Vol. 2, p. 61). 

" These evidences (says Mr. Bryant) I thought proper to collect, in order 
that I might shew the great superiority, which this people once maintained 
above others in their works and enterprises ; and in every branch of science. 
In consequence of this they were looked upon as general benefactors to 
mankind. But this noble character was greatly tarnished by their cruelty ; 
for which they seem to have been infamous in all parts." (Antient Mytho- 
logy, vol 5, p. 214). 


" This character of the Cyclopians [cruelty] arose from the cruel custom 
of sacrificing strangers, whom fortune brought upon their coast. This was 
practised in many parts of the world, but especially here [Sicily], and upon 
the coast of the Lamii in Italy ; and among all the Scythic nations upon the 
Euxine Sea : into all which regions it was introduced from Egypt and 
Canaan." (Bryant, vol. 2, p. 224). 

In his chapter on " Temple Rites in the First Ages," vol. 2 of his Antient 
Mythology, Bryant states (pp. 270-273) : "In the island of Chios it was a reli- 
gious custom to tear a man limb from limb by way of sacrifice to Dionusus. 
The same obtained in Tenedos. It is Porphyry who gives the account. . . . 
From all which we may learn one sad truth, that there is scarce anything so 
impious and unnatural, as not a't times to have prevailed. We need not 

wonder then at the character given of the Lestrygones, Lamiae, and Cyclopians, 

E E 


who were inhabitants of Sicily, and lived nearly in the same part of the island. 
They seem to have been the priests and priestesses of the Leontini, who 
resided at Pelorus, and in the Cyclopian towers : on which account the 
Lamiae are by Lucilius termed Turricolae. They are supposed to have 
delighted in human blood, like the Cyclopians. . . . That they were 
Amonians, and came originally from Babylonia, is pretty evident from the 
history of the Erythrean Sibyl, who was no other than a Lamian priestess. 
The Lamise were not only to be found in Italy, and Sicily, but 
Greece, Pontus, and Libya. And however widely they may have been 
separated, they are still represented in the same unfavourable light. Euripides 
says that their very name was detestable. "* 

" One of the principal places in Italy where the Lamia seated themselves, 

was about Formiae They undoubtedly sacrificed children here ; 

and probably the same custom was common among the Lamii as prevailed 
among the Lacedsemonians, who used to whip their children round the altar 
of Diana Orthia. . . . Here [the coast of Campania] the Sirens 
inhabited, who are represented as the bane of all who navigated those seas. 
They like the Lamii were the Cuthite, and Canaanitish priests, who had 

founded temples in these parts They used hymns in their 

temples, accompanied with the music of their country : which must have 
been very enchanting, as we may judge from the traditions handed down of 
its efficacy." (Bryant, vol. 2, pp. 274, 275, 276). 

" When the Spaniards got access to the Western World," says Bryant, 
11 there were to be observed many rites, and many terms similar to those, 
which were so common among the sons of Ham. Among others was the 
particular custom of making the person, who was designed for a victim, 
engage in a fight with a priest of the temple. In this manner he was 

* The name Lamise seems to have been applied generally (like other names) to people of the 
Cuthite race and religion. I think it probable it may have been derived from the Irish or 
Cuthite term LAMH, a hand the Red Hand, treated of in the section commencing at page 132, 


slaughtered : and this procedure was esteemed a proper method of 

" The histories of which I have been speaking were founded in truth 
though the personages are not real. Such customs did prevail in the first 
ages ; and in consequence of these customs we find those beggarly attributes 
of wrestling and boxing conferred upon some of the chief Divinities." (Vol. 
2, p. 316). 

I have no doubt of the custom of human sacrifice having prevailed in 
Ireland also. Several writers upon Ireland have asserted the fact ; and the 
Celtic Druids are stated to have sacrificed children at Meagh Sleacth, in 
Cavan, shortly before the coming of St. Patrick. I believe this charge to be 
an anachronism, so far as the Druids are concerned, as no such sanguinary 
rites could have prevailed during the age immediately preceding the intro- 
duction of Christianity, without receiving more particular notice from the 
early Christian writers. But the slight notices of such sacrificial rites, which 
have survived, I believe to be due to traditions of the antecedent Cuthites. 
Traditions linger unchanged among a superstitious peasantry for centuries, 
and are never perhaps totally extinguished by lapse of time, and change of 
habits and religion : but no reliance whatever ought to be placed on tradi- 
tional chronology. 

In reference to the custom of wrestling with human victims before 
offering them in sacrifice, which Bryant notices as general among the Cuthites, 
I would observe that a curious tradition exists among the peasantry of Kerry 
of a wonderful wrestler named Deargan O' Dunne, who lived in ancient times 
at Kilmelchedor in the peninsula of Dingle, and who was gifted with super- 
natural power from the evil one ; so that, although a small man, he never 
failed to overcome those whom he engaged in wrestling, and he invariably 
killed every man whom he overcame. The high antiquity of this tradition 
may be inferred from the fact that several townlands and ancient monuments 
are called after the name of this celebrated wrestler. There can be, I think, 
no doubt but that the significance of the tradition refers to the period when 


human sacrifices were offered to the Golden Molach at his temple of Mel- 

Bryant says, " I have shewn at large, that human victims were very 
common among the Phenicians: andPAt'fo Byblius tells us from Sanchoniatho, 
that in some of these sacrifices there was a particular mystery : ' they, who 
were devoted for this purpose, were offered mystically:' that is, under a 
mystical representation. And he proceeds to inform us that ' it was in con- 
sequence of an example, which had been set this people by the god Kronus who 
in a time of distress offered up his only son' . . There is something in the 
account very extraordinary, which I think deserves our particular notice" 
(Antient Mythology, vol. 6, p. 323). 

The early introduction of human sacrifice among the Cuthites is easily 
accounted for. Being the repositories of " all the knowledge derived from 
the sons of Noah," these early apostates from the truth corrupted the tra- 
ditional prophecy of the future sacrifice of the Son of God, referred to so often 
throughout the former part of this work as the foundation of the veneration 
entertained for the Cross, etc. Judging themselves wiser than God, they, in 
pride and wickedness, departed from God's institution of offering animals of 
the brute creation, and offered human sacrifice, as being a more literal ex- 
hibition of the Divine Man, whose mysterious sacrifice was intended to be 

The offering up, by the god Kronus, of his only son, seems to me to 
throw much light upon this mystery. 


Bryant furnishes us with numerous quotations from classic authors to 
prove that the original name of Indi, and of the nations who bore it, was 
Cuthic. " The Cuthites, styled yEthiopes, were the original Indi: they gave 
name to the river upon which they settled ; and to the country which they 


They "came under the title of Shepherds into Egypt. . . . 'About 
this time,' says Eusebius, ' some Ethiopians, taking leave of their country 
upon the river Indus, came and settled in Egypt.' .... This is the 
country to which Phylarcus alluded, when he said that Bacchus first brought 
the worship of the two bulls, which were called Apis and Osiris, from India 
into Egypt. ... It was of too early date to have been brought from 
the country near the Ganges : and was introduced from Chaldea, and the 
Tigris, the original Indus. . . . As some of the family settled in Iberia 

Hispaniae, we find there too an Indie city Nilus the Egyptian 

tells Apollonius Tyanaeus, that the Indi, of all the people in the world, were 
the most knowing; and that the Ethiopians were a colony from them, and 
resembled them greatly." (Bryant, vol. 4, pp. 272-281). 

Mr. Bryant concludes by saying : " Thus I have endeavoured to shew, 
from the names of places, and of men, but more particularly from various 
parts of ancient history, that the Scythic Indians were in reality Cuthic ; as 
were all people of that denomination." (Vol. 4, p. 279). 

I have collected these notices of the Cuthite origin of that great nation, who 
first gave name to India, as accounting for the similarity of names, language, 
legends, and architecture, elsewhere so often noticed as existing between Ire- 
land and India. The buildings of Ireland are indeed puny and insignificant 
when compared with the magnificent Rock Temples of India, or even with 
the Cyclopean remains of Greece and Italy ; but this may be accounted for by 
supposing that the works of India, Greece, and Italy, were executed during 
the centuries of Cuthite dominion; whereas those in Ireland would seem not 
to have been commenced until after the Dispersion. It is probable that 
Ireland for a long time continued to be a safe asylum for Cuthites expelled 
from other countries, and that the several colonizations to which Irish history 
alludes, prior to the Celtic invasion, were successive migrations from Shinar, 
Egypt, Canaan, etc. From these circumstances, the Cuthite ruins of Ireland 
may be of very different dates, and also manifest some decided difference of 
style. Be this as it may, it is an undeniable fact, that there exist throughout 


Ireland numerous ruins manifesting as much of the characteristic Cyclopean 
sloping jambs, irregular courses of masonry, etc., as if they had been built by 
the very persons who constructed the more magnificent edifices of Greece 
and Italy. 

We learn from Colonel Franklin's work on the Jeynes and Boodhists, 
that Hindoo topography and legends connect the Rock Temples, and their 
colossal idols of negro physiognomy, with the names of Jeyne and Boodh. 
In my opinion the term Budh, as a title of Divinity, related to the Phallic 
character of the worship ; but I have no reason to believe that the ancient 
Indo-Cuthites, who constructed these temples, were ever known by the name 
of Budhists ; or that modern Budhism has any better claim to them than has 
its cotemporary, Brahminism. There is however no doubt but that Budh was 
a title of the Indo-Cuthite Divinity. Several learned men have identified the 
Indian Budh with Cronos, Bacchus, and other names of Cuthite origin. 

The Rock Temples are at present unused, and, as places of worship, are 
despised by the inhabitants of India. Like all Cuthite monuments throughout 
the world, their true history is forgotten. 


Thus far we have traced, according to the best existing authorities, the 
history of the Cuthites as migrating from Babylon, after the building of the 
Tower, to the western parts of the world ; viz., to Iberia Hispanise (Spain), 
to the Atlantic Ocean, and the unknown regions beyond. This migration I 
look upon as that by which America was first peopled. Much evidence 
exists, grounded on ancient customs and vestiges of architecture and sculpture, 
which proves the Cuthite origin of the aboriginal Americans. The first 
Cuthite migration to Ireland I would also refer to this date. I have mentioned 
that in the ancient records of Ireland there exist accounts of different 
migrations. One, under the conduct of Macaar and Daire and Ard-fear, 
was from eastern countries on the banks of the Teth-gris to Iber (Spain), 


and thence to Ireland. This migration is the subject of Eolus's narrative, 
recorded in the " Chronicles of Eri." Other migrations are recorded by 
Keating on the authority of the Leabhar na Gabhala "the book of Invasions," 
to which he frequently refers. One of these represents the Scythians as 
residing in Egypt, migrating thence through different countries to Spain, 
and finally to Ireland. This migration may relate to the expulsion of the 
Shepherd Kings. Such records have no claim to be regarded as historical, 
for, at best, they are plagiarisms by the Celts ; who ascribed to their ancestors, 
under the name of Scythians, the migrations of their Cuthite predecessors, 
though these, as we shall afterwards see, were the genuine Scythians. All 
ancient Irish authorities agree in giving to the nations, who were the subject 
of these migrations, the name of Scythian (Scuthi, whence Scotia and Scoti), 
which name Bryant clearly proves to have been originally applied to the 
Cuthites, and to have properly belonged to them only. 

" ' The Titan language,' says Wise, ' was . . . the vehicle of 
all the knowledge which dawned in Europe. The Titans, masters of 
all the knowledge derived from the sons of Noah.' And who these 
Titans were, he repeatedly shows, by saying, that they were the first 
civilizers of mankind, and Scythians. The true Scuthai, or Scythians, 
were undoubtedly a very learned and intelligent people ; but their origin is 
not to be looked for in the north of Asia, and the deserts of Tartary." 
(Bryant, vol. 4, p. 1 75). 

In the above quotation, it will be seen that Bryant dissents from Wise 
respecting the origin of the Scythians, and on other points also; but he 
adopts his remarks as to their superior knowledge, and their identity with 
the Titans. 

Treating of the Scythians, Bryant remarks that " they went under the 
name of Colchians, Iberians, Cimmerians, Hyperboreans," etc. (Bryant, vol. 
4, p. 1 86). Again (pp. 190, 191) he quotes from Eusebius " ' Those nations, 
which reach southward from that part of the world, where the two great 
continents of Europe and Asia incline to each other, and are connected, were 


universally styled Scythae, according to an appellation of long standing. 
These were of that family who of old erected the great tower (called Babel) 
and who built the city Babylon.' This is the plain purport of the history, 
from whence we learn expressly that the Scythians were the Cuthians, and 
came from Babylonia. The works in which they were engaged, and the 
person from whom they were denominated, in short the whole of their history, 
past all controversy, prove it. They were the same as the Chaldaic lonim 
under a different name. 'The I ones were the leaders of this people accord- 
ing to the best information. They were descendants of one Ion or lonah, 
who was concerned in the building of the tower when the language of 
mankind was confounded.' (Chron. Paschale., p. 49. Eusebii Chron., p. 7). 
Thus we may observe what light the histories of different nations, if duly 
compared, reflect upon each other. Like evidence may be obtained from 
other parts of Epiphanius, where it is manifest that the term Scuthic is a 
misnomer for Cuthic. In describing the first ages of the world he tells us 
that, to the time of Serug the seventh from Noah, there continued a Scythian 
succession, and that the Scythian name was prevalent ; meaning that this 
period was esteemed the Scythian age. The same piece of history is to be 
found in Eusebius, and other writers, some of whom were prior to Epipha- 
nius. Now I think it cannot be doubted, but that in the original history, 
whence this was taken, it was ' a Cuthic succession, and it was the Cuthic 
name by which that period was marked.' ' Scuthism,' says this author in 
another place, 'prevailed from the deluge to the erecting of the tower.' This 
notation is perhaps carried too far back ; but the meaning is plain ; and what 
he alludes to is certainly Cuthismus, Kuflto-^oe. The purport of the passage 
teaches, that from the time of the deluge to the construction of the tower was 
esteemed the Cuthic age. It was for the most part a period of usurpation 
and tyranny under the sons of Chus, which was in a great degree put a stop 
to at the dispersion ; at least the intention of keeping mankind together, and 
constituting one great empire was prevented : for this seems to have been 
the design of the Cuthians and their leader." 



Bryant, quoting Eusebius, says that, " ' The first king of this country 
(Chaldea) was Alorus, who gave out a report that he was appointed by God 
to be the Shepherd of his people.' " (Antient Mythology, vol. 4, p. 123). 

" It is remarkable that the first tyrant upon earth masked his villainy 
under the meek title of a Shepherd. If we may credit the Gentile writers, it 
was under this pretext that Nimrod framed his opposition, and gained an 
undue sovereignity over his brethren. He took to himself the name of 
Orion, and Alorus; but subjoined the other above mentioned: and gave out 
that he was born to be a protector and guardian ; or, as it is related from 
Berosus ; ' He spread a report abroad, that God had marked him out for a 
Shepherd to his people.' ' (Antient Mythology, vol. 4, p. 305). 

Bryant quotes the following from Herodotus. " ' The Scythae, or 
Cuthseans of Colchis, are a colony from Egypt. Hence they are represented 
as of a very dark complexion. They deal in flax, of which they make linen 
after the manner of the Egyptians.' Under the name of Indi (observes 
Bryant) they are spoken of by Socrates ; who seems to allude to more nations 
than one of this denomination. Some of them were called Sindi, and 
Sindones." (Vol. 5, p. 105). 

" We are informed by Manetho" says Mr. Bryant, " that after a long 
series of tyranny and oppression the Cuseans [or Shepherd Kings] were at 
last opposed by the joint forces of Egypt, and were forced to retreat before 
them. . . . The only terms, which the enemy would allow them, were 
that they should be permitted to retire unmolested, if they would immediately 
quit the country. They acceded to the terms ; and forthwith evacuated the 
land of Egypt, which according to Manetho they had been in possession of 
above 500 years." (Vol. 6, pp. 209, 211). 

" Africanus styles the Shepherds that were in Egypt, Phenicians." 

(Bryant, vol. 6, p. 227). 

F F 


In these quotations we have the Indi, the Scythians, the Shepherd Kings, 
and the Phenicians identified as Cuthites. Comparing these names with 
what we learn of Ireland, we find that by the name Scythian (or Scuthi) the 
ancient Irish Nation is constantly referred to in history, while the name 
Phenicians (or, of Phenice) was confined to their heroes or men of extraor- 
dinary powers. This fact corroborates Mr. Bryant's account of the origin of 
the term. 

" The title of Phoinic," observes Bryant, " seems at first to have been 
given to persons of great stature : but in process of time, it was conferred 
upon people of power and eminence, like ava and avaitreg among the Greeks. 
The Cuthites in Egypt were styled Royal Shepherds, and had therefore the 
title of Phcenices. A colony of them went from thence to Tyre and Syria ; 
hence it is said by many writers that Phoenix came from Egypt to Tyre." 
(Vol. 2, p. 6). 

The word is, in the Irish language, spelled with an F, and sounded 
Foenice. The letter P was not in the original Irish alphabet, but was intro- 
duced with the Latin by St. Patrick. All the .legendary heroes of Irish 
romance are said to have belonged to the Foenic, alias Fian, alias Finian 
race. Every stupendous or wonderful work is ascribed to them, or to one 
of their heroes. Every marvellous or incredible story is to this day expressed 
among the Irish by the term " Skiol Foenice" by which is understood a 
Finian legend. The gigantic Fiun MacCuill, Ossian, and Cnaan, were 
heroes of this race. These are all names of Cuthite origin. The first name, 
Fiun MacCuill, I believe to have been in one sense, applicable to the 
whole race the Fiun or Fini, the son (or sons) of Cuill, a Tuath-de-Danaan 
divinity. (See Keating, vol. r, p. 81). Ossian, to whom are ascribed the 
poetry and music of Ireland, answers to Oceanus the Titan of Cuthite 
Mythology ; Cnaan answers to Canaan the son of Ham. Bryant tells us 
that the name "Canaan seems by the Egyptians and Syrians to have been pro- 
nounced Cnaan." This is the precise pronunciation of the Finian hero's name 
among the Irish at this day. These names, though universally known among 


the peasantry as belonging to heroes of romance, have not been honoured with 
a place in Irish history ; as in reality their origin is more remote than the 
historic period. However, in some legends these heroes are mentioned as 
having lived in the reign of Con, the son of Art; on the same principle as 
the giants of Cornwall are ascribed to the age of the good King Arthur. 


The first interruption to Cuthite dominion seems to have been occasioned 
by a schism in religion. The first apostates regarded the Divinity as plural, 
of the male and female sex. They adapted the Lingam as the emblem of 
their chief Divinity male nature, whence they were called Lingajas : the 
schismatics, asserting the superiority of female nature, got the name of 
Yonijas, or Yavanas. Sir William Wilford writing on this subject says : 
" Many Pundits insist the Yavanas were so named from their obstinate as- 
sertion of a superior influence in fat female over the lingam or male nature. 
It may seem strange that a question of mere physiology should have occa- 
sioned not only a vehement religious contest, but even a bloody war; yet the 
fact appears to be historically true, though the Hindu writers have dressed 
it up, as usual, in a veil of historical allegories and mysteries, which we 
should call obscene, but which they consider as awfully sacred. There is a 
legend in the Servarasa, of which the figurative meaning is more obvious." 
Wilford then proceeds to record this legend, describing the occasion and 
result of the war, which may be seen at length in O Brien, page 260. 

The learned Faber has written fully on the subject of this first great 
schism, the commencement of which he assigns to a date anterior to the 
"great dispersion." He points it out as the Scythism and Hellenism 
referred to by Epiphanius, Eusebius, and the writer of the Paschal Chronicle. 
The original apostacy was represented as Scythism, or Budhism, and the 
creed of the Schismatics as Yonism, lonism, Hellenism, and Brahminism. 
Faber (vol. 3, p. 408) defines Scythism, or Budhism, as " idolatry in its 


incipient and more simple state;" but the Scythic superstition became exchanged 
for " that intricate modification of idolatry, which from one of its leading 
principles received the name of lonism or Yonism. This principle was the 
worship of the great mother from whom all things were said to be produced, 
. . . The leading Scuths adhered to the more ancient superstition, 
which gave preeminence to the great father." Faber further informs us, that 
the Budhists, who adhered to the more ancient superstition, had shown their 
hearty contempt for the literal worship of idols by demolishing the images, 
and slaying the sacred Bull of the Ionic theology. He proceeds (p. 409) 
" I am much mistaken, if some dissention on these points did not prevail at 
Babel itself; and I think there is reason for believing, that the altercation 
between the rival sects aided the confusion of languages in producing the 
dispersion. . . . The former (the followers of Scythism), from the object 
of their worship, were called Lingajas or adorers of the male principle : the 
latter, similarly from the object of their veneration, were denominated Yonijas 
or adorers of the female principle. A furious contest ensued between them ; 
and the Lingajas were defeated in battle." As the combatants in this bloody 
war are supposed by some to have comprised all the inhabitants of the earth 
at the time, I look upon it as the foundation of the legends, of which we read 
respecting the wars of the Gods and Giants, and of the Greeks and 
Centaurs also. The Confusion of Tongues and the scattering of Nations 
were probably simultaneous with this war of the sexes ; and the result was 
the utter extinction of all the knowledge of the ancients save only such 
distorted vestiges as were preserved in the " mysteries." The original Lin- 
gajas, or Cuthites, to whom this knowledge and learning appertained, are 
represented as the vanquished party. The religion of both the victors and 
the vanquished was Phallic, only differing as to whether the symbol of male 
or female nature should receive the greater honour in worship. Mr. O'Brien 
ascribes the pyramids of Egypt to the Yonijas, and accounts for their peculiar 
shape as a religious device. 

From these data I conclude, that the Scythic or Budhist sect comprised 


the Shepherd Kings of Egypt, an4 all those colonists of southern and western 
Europe, whom Bryant denominates Cyclopeans, Phenicians, Hyperboreans, 
Titans, etc., including the ancient inhabitants of Ireland; and that the religion 
of their conquerors was that of the Egyptians, to whom a shepherd was an 
abomination. The same also was the religion of the Hellenes, the Pelasgi, 
and the Etruscans. 


I have already said, that I believe the learning of the ancients was in a 
great measure confined to the Cuthites or Lingajas, and that, on their being 
destroyed, the world was left in a state of comparative ignorance, particularly 
on the subjects of history and religion, which the Cuthites seem to have 
shrouded under a veil of mystery and symbol. Primitive governments 
from being patriarchal became sacerdotal, and as such the repositories of all 
knowledge; therefore, the overthrow of the government in a religious war of 
extermination resulted in the extinction of knowledge. 

Such is the opinion of some writers, and it seems to be confirmed by the 
fact of the ignorance of the Greeks, and even of the Egyptians, on the nature 
and origin of the Divinities which they worshipped. Mr. O'Brien, quoting 
the authority of Herodotus on this subject, writes as follows " Even the 
father of history himself, the great Colossus of the Greeks, whilst claiming 
for his countrymen the honour of instituting their own theogony, evinces in 
the attempt more of misgiving and doubt than was consistent with the 
possession of authentic information. His words are these : 'As for the gods, 
whence each of them was descended, or whether they were always in being, 
or under what shape or form they existed, tfie Greeks knew nothing till very 
lately. Hesiod and Homer were, I believe, about four hundred years older 
than myself, and no more, and these are the men who made a theogony for 
the Greeks ; who gave the gods their appellations, defined their qualities, 
appointed their honours, and described their forms; as for the poets, who are 


said to have lived before these men, I am of opinion they came after them.'" 
O'Brien proceeds on the subject. He says (p. 458): "Indeed, their priests 
very frankly acknowledged the fact to Herodotus, when, in his thirst for in- 
formation, he waited upon them at Dodona ' We do not,' said they, ' know 
even the names of the deities to whom we make our offerings we distinguish 
them, it is true, by titles and designations; but these are all adventitious and 
modern in comparison of the worship, which is of great antiquity.' Upon 
which the historian very truly concludes, ' that their nature and origin had 
been always a secret; and that even the Pelasgi, who first introduced them and 
their rites, had been equally unacquainted with their history' ' Mr. O'Brien 
continues respecting Egypt (p. 280) : " Now Strabo assures us that the 
Egyptians of his day were as ignorant as he was himself, of the origin of their 
religion, of the import of their symbols, and of their national history. They 
pretended to retain some evanescent traces thereof in the time of Diodorus ; 
but so scrupulously exact were they in the concealment of their tenour, that 
to pry into them profanely was morally impossible. 

" Herodotus himself, who neglected no channel of information, found it 
no easy matter to glean a few initiatory scraps from them. And even these 
were accompanied with such solemn denunciations, that his embarrassment 
is betrayed when but alluding to their tendency." 

Now Mr. O'Brien furnishes many proofs that these nations, the Egyptians, 
and the Pelasgi, were of the Yonijas, who conquered the Cuthites. I con- 
clude that the Etruscans also, a branch of the Pelasgi, were of the same 
stock; their demons and furies were represented as Negroes, in contrast with 
the Cuthites, whose divinities and heroes were so represented. 


The worship of the God of nature, as the source of life and happiness, 
under the emblem of the Lingam and the Yoni, seems to have pervaded the 
world during the period of Cuthite dominion. The Arkite worship is gen- 



erally regarded as a distinct idolatry ; but a closer examination of the subject 
is sufficient to show that the Ark was used only as an emblem, in the deeper 
mysteries of the Lingajas and Yonijas. This Phallic worship was introduced 
into India from the Banks of the Euphrates by Baleswara. Mr. Harcourt 
says, "At Mohabalipoor the city of the great Bali [quere, "the good Baal 
Peor?"] i.e., Hercules Belus, the towers are pyramidical; one very old temple, 
stands immediately on the brink of the sea, and midst the dash of the spray, 
a tall pillar is conspicuous. It is indeed called by some, a Linga : but, then, 
in the opinion of those who compiled the Puranas this emblem was first 
publicly worshipped by the name of Baleswara-linga on the banks of the 
Cumud-vati or Euphrates. Now Baleswara means the mighty Lord Belus, 
Bali, or Baal; for Iswara is lord, and it is a title of Mahedeva, whose emblems 
are the crescent and all obelisks or pillars, whatever be their shape." And 
again he says, " As the phallic worship was attributed by the Hindoos to 
Bales- wara i.e., to Belus, so it was by the Greeks, to Dionysius." (Harcourt, 
vol. i, pp. 283, 284, 285). 

The origin of this idolatry in connection with the worship of Siva, in India, 
is preserved in a legend, translated from the Persic, and read before the 
Oriental Society in India. It may be found copied at length in O'Brien, p. 
100. The introduction of this hateful idolatry into Egypt in connection with 
the worship of Osiris is recorded by Plutarch (de Isi et Osiri), and copied by 
O 1 Bricn, p. 106. I mention these authorities to establish the fact of the very 
ancient and wide-spread influence of this idolatry so much being necessary 
to the subject in hand ; but I have no desire to penetrate further into the 
mysteries of this apostacy ; some evidence of its true character may be 
gathered from the Scripture notices of the Canaanites their idolatry and 

Colonel Franklin, writing on the Jeynes and Boodhists, says " The 
Cuthites or descendants of Chus, after being broken and dispersed from 
Shinar, the just punishment for their impious attempt to erect the Tower of 
Babel, wandered, in detached masses, to many different regions of the earth. 


It will be seen hereafter that wherever they migrated, this singular 
race carried with them their arts and sciences ; and they appear, according 
to the learned Bryant, in various parts of the globe, always great and always 
learned. . . . The great works of antiquity observable in various parts 
of Asia, but particularly in the widely extended peninsula of Hindoostan, are 
undoubtedly of Cuthic origin ; i.e., according to the learned Bryant, of Indo- 
Cuthites, who came into India at a very early period after quitting their 
native country of Ethiopia." " The vicissitude which nature was constantly 
undergoing, according to the Hindoo Mythology, made therefore these 
obscene symbols [the Cuthite emblems of the god of Nature] be regarded in 
a sublime and spiritual sense ; which soon degenerated into Bacchanalian 
revels when transplanted into other climes ; gradually subverting all traces of 
the original doctrines of regeneration, until ending in the licentious feast of 
the Saturnalia, or the still more degrading mysteries of Eleusis. Such scenes 
of moral debasement never polluted the caves of Salsette or Elephanta ; and 
offerings to the Lingam and Yoni, the types of creative power, are still made 
in these hallowed sanctuaries, freed from sensual ideas or impure emotions. 
The unadorned fabric of Boodhism, combined with the worship of the solar 
orb, I believe to have been the first heresy, and that the complicated worship 
of Siva, with all the monstrous attributes and meretricious ramifications which 
accompany it, are of more recent introduction." 


In the countries whither the reputation of the Cuthites extended and their 
worship prevailed, such as Ireland, China, and India, and very ancient Egypt, 
the Hero of the peoples' worship was represented as black. Hislop informs 
us (pp. 62 and 82), that "the great god Buddh is generally represented in 
China as a Negro" and that Plutarch records a tradition that " Osiris was 
black" These names Hislop identifies with Nimrod. So also in Ireland 
" Gobban Saer," the Tuath-de-Danaan Hero of building celebrity, is repre- 


sented as a " rusty black youth" but their conquerors the Yonijas, among 
whom I reckon the Egyptians, the Pelasgi, and the Etruscans, represented 
the matter differently. " The Furies are represented in the tombs [of 
EtruriaJ as Negroes, with the features and complexions of that race" (Mrs. 
Gray's Sepulchres of Etruria, p. 16). The same author also mentions (p. 
266), that the evil Genii are represented with Negro features ; from which I 
infer that the Etruscans, who have left us the painted tombs, were of the 
race who conquered the Cuthites. I think it probable also that monuments 
of both the victors and the vanquished are to be found among the ruins of 
Egypt, Greece, and Etruria. Mrs. Gray informs us (p. 238) that "the 
Cyclopean walls are the remains of some most ancient people, who bore sway 
in Italy at a period even more remote than the national existence of Etruria." 
Both the learned Faber and O'Brien identify the religion of the Mahabadian 
dynasty of Persia with that of the Cuthites or Budhists of India, with 
whom also the latter identifies the Tuath-de-Danaans of Ireland. The suc- 
cessors of the Mahabadian dynasty of Persia were the Pish-da-dan dynasty. 
Mr. O'Brien explains the distinction between the names of Pish-da-dan or 
Pish-de-Danaan, and Tuath-de-Danaan, to be the same as that between Lin- 
gajas and Yonijas. He informs us of the signification of both terms ; and 
although I am of opinion that his conclusions are sound, I am not prepared 
to defend his whole argument on the subject, and shall therefore confine 
myself to referring the reader to pages 113, 249, and 256, of his work. He 
interprets the name Tuath-de-Danaan as distributors of the benefits of Toth 
or Budh. 


Both Bryant and Faber have laid down distinct systems of chronology, 
defining the duration of the Cuthite or Scythic empire, the first great monarchy, 
which arose after the Deluge and before the Assyrian empire. These 

learned authors differ in some important particulars but nothing of certainty 

G G 


can be attached to the question ; and I believe at best the conclusions upon 
it should be regarded only as surmises. I shall therefore briefly submit my 
own opinion on the subject, with the reasons upon which it is grounded. 
Eusebius and the writer of the Paschal Chronicle state, that " Scythism 
lasted from the Flood to the building of the Tower, and that then Hellenism 
or lonism commenced" (Fader, vol. 3, p. 407). Epiphanius informs us, that 
the " Scythic heresy prevailed from the Flood to the Tower" of Babel, and 
adds "that the Scythic succession and Scythic name terminated in the days of 
Serug." (Epiph. adv. hcer., lib. i, p. 8; Faber, vol. 3, p. 411). 

First ; the Scythic heresy, being but the corruption of the patriarchal 
religion, its supporters must have claimed for it the same antiquity as that 
which attached to the patriarchal religion itself, although its commencement 
should perhaps be more accurately limited to the era of Nimrod. Next ; 
Bryant suggests, that the dividing of the earth (Gen. x. 25) was a different 
event from, and antecedent to, the "Dispersion" and "the Confusion of 
tongues ;" in which opinion I concur. He has written at considerable length 
in the first two chapters of his fourth volume, to prove that these events (so 
commonly regarded as the same) occurred at different periods the first, the 
Dividing, having been an amicable arrangement, determined by lot, or by 
Divine decree ; whereas the Dispersion was the result of the usurpation of 
the sons of Ham. Bryant furnishes numerous quotations from Heathen 
Authors, Sibylline verses, etc., in support of his views, for the particulars of 
which I refer the reader to his work. 

The dividing of the earth would seem to have taken place at the birth of 
Peleg; for in Peleg's days (that is to say, at his birth, when he received his 
name) the earth was divided (Gen. x. 25). When at a subsequent period 
steps began to be taken to carry this division of the earth into effect, the sons 
of Cush would not submit to the divine dispensation; and Nimrod, who first 
took upon himself regal state, drove Asshur from his dominions, and estab- 
lished the Cuthite or Scythic kingdom at Babel, and subsequently at Nineveh, 
which was terminated in the days of Serug. If we calculate from the birth 


of Peleg to the death of Serug (when the Scythic succession terminated), we 
shall find, according to the Septuagint Chronology, a period of 592 years, 
within which the Scythic empire arose and was extinguished. The successive 
events comprised within this period may be regarded as, first, the dividing 
of the earth by lot or by divine decree ; next, the migration from the upper 
regions of Armenia to the plain of Shinar; then in succession, the usurpation 
of Nimrod, and the establishment of his kingdom ; the building of the city and 
Tower of Babel, and probably of Nineveh at a subsequent period ; the Con- 
fusion of tongues ; the great schism in religion ; the consequent war the war 
of the sexes ; and finally, the expulsion, and dispersion of the Cuthites from 
Shinar. These events seem all to have been terminated before the death of 
Serug that is to say, about 50 years before the birth of Abraham. The 
expulsion of the Cuthites from Egypt, Greece, Canaan, Italy, etc., must be 
assigned to dates considerably later than that of their expulsion from the 
plains of Shinar. The dates of these migrations correspond, as nearly as 
could be expected, with those assigned by Irish chronology to the events 
which I have designated the Cuthite colonization of Ireland. 

The Cuthite or Scythian Empire is generally confounded with the Assyrian, 
as Nineveh was the capital of both : whereas the first was Hamite, established 
under Nimrod, and the Assyrian was Shemite, established after the expulsion 
of the Scythians from Nineveh and Iran. Faber informs us quoting Ctesias 
and Dr. Hales as authorities that there were three distinct dynasties 
commonly called " Assyrian." He proceeds to show, that the founders of 
the last two assumed the name of Ninus, because of the veneration in which 
it was held that name properly belonging only to Nimrod, the founder of 
the first or Scythian Empire. (See Faber, vol. 3, p. 391). 


Bryant informs us that Zeuth, Dionusus, and Osiris (the black divinity), 
were three titles out of many relating to the same person. " He, and some 


of his principal descendants, were deified by an ill-judging posterity, and 
named Baal and Baalim. By the Greeks he was called Cronus ; and these 
his descendants Cronidse, who were also peculiarly styled Adavaroi cat Am/*ove, 
Gods and Daemons." (Bryant, vol. 3, p. 119) He further quotes from 
Hesiod, vol. 4, p. 210 : 

" ' The Immortals first a Golden race produced : 

These lived when Saturn held the realms of heaven ; 

And passed their time like gods, without a care. 

No toil they knew, nor felt solicitude ; 

Not e'en the infirmities of age 

Soon as this race was sunk beneath the grave ; 

Jove raised them to be Daemons of the air.' " 

He quotes also from Plutarch : " ' Plato mentions the Daemons as a race of 
Beings, by .whom many things are discovered, and many good offices done 
to men : and he describes them as an order between men and Gods.'" And 
again from Hesiod : " ' They [the Daemons] lived in the time of Cronus ; in 
whose reign was the golden age, when the life of man was at its greatest 
extent." (Bryant, vol. 3, p. no). Cronus himself has been frequently 
referred to as among the conquered Titans, who were expelled to Tartarus. 
Hence I gather that by " Daemons" were meant the Titans, or Giants, and 
their predecessors. 

Much similarity exists between the legendary notices of the Tuath-de- 
Danaans the Irish Cuthites, and the Classic notices of the Daemons. One 
writer says, that the Tuath-de-Danaan race "are always referred to as supe- 
rior to the Scoti in knowledge of the arts." "We learn that, in the traditions 
of the Irish, the Tuath-de-Danaans were no less distinguished from their 
conquerors in their personal than in their mental characteristics" (Petrie, p. 
384). Another writer says " Aonghus [the patron of Dairmuid O'Duibhne, 
who was killed by a green boar]j was one of the Tuath-de-Danaan, a tribe 
who play a very mysterious part in Irish traditions. They are said to have 
been an ancient colony ; but, as soon as they were subdued by the natives, 


they seem to have become beings of a superior order, enjoying a sort of 
shadowy existence, haunting the mountains and other desolate places, and 
exempt from all common laws of mortality." ( Ulster Journal, vol. 7, p. 341, 
Note). Keating tells us that some of the Tuath-de-Danaans were so famous 
for their great skill in necromancy as to be styled gods. (See vol. i, p. 2). 

The only historical references made to the colour of the Tuath-de-Danaans 
describe them as black, " The rusty large black youth" Gobban Saer and 
his " black race," thus far answering to the black divinity of the Chinese 
Budhists, and to Osiris, above mentioned. 


Bryant notices several localities remote from one another, in which he 
traces colonies of Cuthites known under the name of Hyperboreans. They 
are described as on the Mseotis at the north of the Euxine Sea, and on the 
coast of the Adriatic. Their name is associated with the Mons Palatinus of 
Rome. They had settlements in Mauritania, Iberia (Spain), and extended 
themselves to islands at the western extremity of the habitable world. I copy 
a few brief notices of the Hyperboreans from a chapter of Bryant's on the 
subject, vol. 5, pages 146 to 170. 

"Another name by which the antients distinguished this people, was that 

of Hyperboreans They were of the Titanic race, and called 

Sindi; a name, as I have shewn, common among the Cuthites. We learn 
from Pherenicus, that 'the Hyperboreans were of Titanic original.' 'The 
Sindi are one family of those, who live upon the Mseotis.' Strabo speaks of 
them as called, among other names, Sauromatae. 'Those who live above the 
Euxine, Ister, and Adriatic, were formerly called Hyperboreans, and Sauro- 
matae, and Arimaspians.' .... 

"This people were esteemed very sacred:"" and, it is said that Apollo 

* With regard to the term " Sacred" applied to the Hyperboreans, I would remark that Faber 
informs us that the original Scythic or Cuthic empire, founded by Nimrod (which comprised the 


when he was exiled from Heaven, and had his offspring slain, retired to their 
country. It seems, he wept; and there was a tradition, that every tear was 
amber." Quoting from Apollon ArgonaiU, L. 4, v. 6u, Bryant says: 

" The Celtic sages a tradition hold, 
That every drop of amber was a tear, 
Shed by Apollo, when he fled from heaven. 
For sorely did he weep ; and sorrowing pass'd 
Through many a doleful region, //// he reacKd 
The sacred Hyperboreans "\ 

" They are sometimes represented as Arimaspians ; and their chief priest- 
esses were named Oupis, Loxo, and Hecaerge; by whom the Hyperborean rites 
are said to have been brought to Delos. They never returned, but took up their 
residence, and officiated in the island. People from the same quarter are said 
to have come to Delphi in Phocis ; and to have found out the oracular seat of 
Apollo. Pausanias produces for this the evidence of the antient priestess 
Bseo. She makes mention of Olen the Hyperborean, as the Jirst prophet of 
Delphi; and further says, that the first temple of the Deity was founded by 

Babylonian, Assyrian, and Medo-Persic Empire within its limits) was denominated Iran, and that 
the region is still known by that name among the inhabitants. (Falter, vol. 3, p. 377). 

Ireland had the names of Irin and Sacred Island, long before our Lord's Advent. Diodorus 
Siculus calls it by the name of Irin ; and Avienus, copying from Hamilco and the remote annals 
of the Phoenicians, calls it "Sacra Insula," "as so denominated by the men of old." (O'Brien, 
pp. 117 and 120). Sir John Malcolm informs us that "Iran has, from the most ancient times to 
the present day, been the term by which the Persians call their country." Eer is a Pehlivi word 
which signifies a believer; from which Mr. O'Brien makes Eirin or Irin the Sacred Island, Ireland, 
and Iran, the Sacred Land, Persia. (Hist, of Persia, vol. i, pp. 2 and 258. O'Brien, p. 128). 

From these notices I conclude, that the original Cuthic or Scythic region was so called (Iran 
the Sacred country) from the Ark having rested upon its mountain, as well as from its reputation 
as the site of Paradise; and that when some of the Cuthite Scythians emigrated to Ireland, they 
brought with them the name of Iran, only changing it to Irin to express the insular character 
of their new settlement. 

t I regard Apollo's weeping on account of his exile, and the destruction of his offspring, as 
a reference to the expulsion of the Cuthites, the tradition of which was learned by the Greeks 
from the Hyperboreans. 


him in conjunction with Pagasus and Agyieus. . . . The Mons Palatinus 
at Rome was supposed to have been occupied by Hyperboreans. 

There was also an Hyperborean of great fame, called Abaris, who is 
mentioned by Herodotus. He was the son of Zeuth, styled Seuthes : and is 
represented as very knowing in the art of divination, and gifted with super- 
natural powers." 

Bryant quotes from Pherenicus (Scholia in Pind. Olymp. Od. 3, v. 28). 
" ' He sang also of the Hyperboreans, who live at the extremities of the world, 
under the temple of Apollo, far removed from the din of war. They are 
celebrated as being of the ancient blood of the Titans : and were a colony 
placed in this wintry climate by the Arimaspian monarch, the son of Boreas.' 
The two most distant colonies of this family westward were upon the Atlantic 
Ocean : the one in Europe to t/ie north ; the other opposite at the extreme part 
of Africa. The country of the latter was Mauritania ; whose inhabitants 
were the Atlantic Ethiopians. They looked upon themselves, as of the 
same family as the Gods ; and they were certainly descended from some of the 
first deified mortals. Those who occupied the provinces of Iberia [Spain] and 
Baetica, on the other side, went under the same titles, and preserved the same 
histories as those who have been mentioned before" 

Although Ireland seems never to have entered into Bryant's mind as con- 
nected with Cuthite history, every sentence in these quotations respecting the 
Hyperboreans when taken in connection with Irish records seems to point 
to Ireland as the home of that people, to whom ancient Greek authors refer 
as the Hyperboreans. I must however direct the reader to other notices 
respecting the Insula Hyperborca of the Classic writers, about which Mr. 
O'Brien has written at some length in his Round Towers. He quotes Mr. 
Booth's translation of the notice respecting it by Diodorus Siculus, as follows : 
'"Amongst them that have written old stories, much like fables, Hecataeus 
and some others say, that there is an island in the ocean, over against Gaul, 
as big as Sicily, under the arctic pole, where the Hyperboreans inhabit, so 
called because they lie beyond the breezes of the north wind. That the soil 


here is very rich and fruitful, and the climate temperate, insomuch as there are 
two crops in the year. ' They say that Latona was born there, and, therefore, 
that they worship Apollo above all other gods ; and because they are daily 
singing songs in praise of this god, and ascribing to him the highest honours, 
they say that these inhabitants demean themselves as if they were Apollo s 
priests, who has here a stately grove and renowned temple of round form, beau- 
tiful with many rich gifts. That there is a city likewise consecrated to this 
god, whose citizens are most of them harpers, who, playing on the harp, chant 
sacred hymns to Apollo in the temples, setting forth his glorious acts. The 
Hyperboreans use their natural language, but, of long and ancient time, have 
had a special kindness for the Grecians ; and more especially for the Athenians 
and them of Delos; and that some of the Grecians passed over to the Hyper- 
boreans, and left them divers presents, inscribed with Greek characters ; and 
that Abaris formerly travelled thence into Greece, and renewed the ancient 
league of friendship with the Delians. . . . The sovereignty of this 
city and the care of the temple, they say, belong to the Boreades, the posterity 
of Boreas, who hold the principality by descent, in the direct line from that 
ancestor.'' (O'Brien, pp. 396, 397). 

This short passage appears to me to present many striking coincidences, 
which go far towards identifying the Hyperborean Island of antiquity with 
Ireland. I shall notice them in order : 

i. The situation of the Hyperborean Island according to Hecatseus 
"over against Gaul." 

- The actual situation of Ireland. 

2. The size of the Hyperborean Island " as big as Sicily." 

- The actual size of Ireland. 

3. The soil of the Hyperborean Island " Rich and fruitful." 

- The soil of Ireland. 

4. The climate of the Hyperborean Island " Temperate." 
The climate of Ireland. 


5.- ' They [the Hyperboreans] worshipped Apollo [the Sun], above all 

other gods." 

The Irish worshipped the Sun under the name of Baal, etc. 
6- The Hyperboreans were "daily singing songs in praise of this god" 


- The Irish word BAILLED a song (probably a compound of BAAL and ODH, 
or OIDH, Music, A and O being indifferently written in the Irish) answers 
to these songs in praise of the god. 
7. ' The inhabitants [Hyperboreans] demeaned themselves as if they were 

Apollo's priests." 

The name TUATH-DE-DANAAN has elsewhere been explained to signify 
Distributors of the benefits of Toth or Budh, i.e., Baal the Sun. 
8. The Hyperborean " renowned temple of round form " 

Answers to the Irish Round Tower. 

9- The citizens are most of them harpers, "who playing on the harp chant 
Hymns to Apollo." 

The Harp is the national emblem of Ireland. The Irish music is so 

well known as to need no comment. Giraldus Cambrensis, describing the 
Irish music of his day, says, "I find it worthy of commendation, their skill 
in which is beyond comparison superior to that of any nation I have seen." 

Bryant ascribes the melancholy character of Cuthite music to the calami- 
ties which this people experienced, which (he says) " were so severe and 
accumulated, that they were held in remembrance for ages. The memorials 
of them made a principal part in their sacred rites, and they preserved them 
also in their hymns. These were generally in a melancholy style, and their 
music was adapted to them." (Vol. 4, p. 35). This remark may account for 
the very melancholy character of Irish national music. 

10. The Hyperboreans "of long and ancient time have had a special 
kindness for the Athenians." 

Keating informs- us (vol. i, p. 68), that a colony of the Danaans came 

from Athens to Ireland. 

n H 


1 1. The Hyperboreans bore a special favour also "for them of Delos." 

The oracle of Delos, as well as that at Delphi, is said to have been 

founded by Priestesses of the Hyperboreans. (Bryant, vol. 5, p. 151). 

12. The sovereignty of the Hyperboreans and the care of their temples, 

they say, belonged to the Boreades, who hold the principality by 

descent in a direct line from Boreas. 

The Irish BARDS were probably the hereditary rulers, before they were 

reduced to the condition of poets and musicians to their Celtic conquerors. 

The Irish word BARD is translated "a Poet" "a corporation." It is not 
likely that these characters were united as classes, since the hereditary Boreades 
ruled the Hyperborean Island. 

13. Bryant writes "There was also an Hyperborean of great fame called 
Abaris .... represented as very knowing in the art of divina- 
tion, and gifted with supernatural powers." Diodorus Siculus, quoting 
Hecataeus, says, "Abaris formerly travelled thence [from the Hyper- 
borean Island] into Greece, and renewed the ancient league of friend- 
ship with the Delians." 

A mission or journey of certain Tuath-de-Danaans from Ireland to 

Greece is a fact mentioned in the most ancient records of Ireland, and the 
reputation of these Tuath-de-Danaans for science and magic corresponds ex- 
actly with that ascribed by Grecian authors to Abaris the Hyperborean. In 
the "Book of Invasions" it is said, that these Tuath-de-Danaans after leaving 

Ireland " went to the northern Islands of Greece They were 

scientific, learned, and well-skilled in their sorceries. For the greatness of 
their skill in every science they got the name of Tuatha-de." (See Leabhar 
na Gabhala, p. 21). This Tuath-de-Danaan mission from Ireland to Greece 
is also referred to in the Book of Lecan, folio 278, and in the Book of 
Ballymote, folio 146, in all of which accounts circumstances are mentioned, 
which (as might be expected) we cannot explain : but the main point of 
coincidence is remarkable viz., that the Irish records mention a mission of 
Tuath-de-Danaans from Ireland to the northern Islands of Greece, and that 


ancient Greek authors make mention of a journey to Delos of certain Hyper- 
boreans ; the reputation of the messengers in both accounts being, that they 
were wonderfully skilled in magic and the sciences. We must therefore 
conclude, that the events referred to by the Grecian and the Irish authors are 
one and the same, and consequently that the Hyperborean Island of Grecian 
authors, and Ireland the abode of Tuath-de-Danaan sages, are identical. 

The subject of the Insiila Hyperborea of Hecateus has for nearly a 
century been a subject of warm dispute among Irish antiquaries; but I do not 
attach much importance to the matter, as those arguments founded on simi- 
larity of architectural remains, and the traditions of Irish Hagiology, afford 
certainly much stronger proofs of the Cuthite origin of the ancient inhabitants 
of Ireland, than any testimony founded on incidental notices in ancient Classic 
authors. However I regard the numerous coincidences enumerated above 
as too important to remain unnoticed, and therefore submit these quotations 
and remarks to the judgment of the reader. 

The first question suggesting itself on this subject is Whether there 
ever was such a place as that described as the Hyperborean Island. The fact 
that there was is proved by the frequent mention of it by ancient Classic 
authors, which would be most unlikely if the Island were a mere myth. 

The next question is If there was a Hyperborean Island, what country 
of Northern Europe can it have been. The answer must be, that no other 
country than Ireland can lay any well-grounded claim to identity with that 
described as the Hyperborean Island. 

It should be borne in mind, that Diodorus Siculus only quoted the report 
(which he did not believe) of Hecatseus, who wrote 400 years B. c. ; and the 
latter could know nothing of what the country had been except by tradition, 
as the ancient Hyperborean, or Cuthic, glory of the country had passed away 
long before his time. Probably we are indebted to the visit of Abaris to 
Greece, for such mention of the Hyperboreans, as is made by Classic authors. 

There is ample evidence that the Hyperboreans were Cuthites; therefore 
all the proofs, already adduced to show the Cuthic origin of the Tuath-de- 


Danaan Irish, tend to confirm the conclusion that Ireland was the Hyper- 
borean Island of the Ancients. 

The mission of Abaris to Greece is noticed by many of the Classic writers. 
He is called by Himerius a Scythian. All these notices of the Hyperboreans 
and their island point to the Cuthites and their visionary history, which we 
have been endeavouring to elucidate. 

The various names, applied by Bryant and others to the Cuthites such 
as Hyperboreans, Arimaspians, Cyclopeans, Centauri, &c., &c. did not (as 
I believe) originally belong to that ancient race, but were subsequently in- 
vented by the Classic poets and historians, who framed these appellations 
from the geographical sites of the Cuthite colonies, from their conceptions of 
Cuthite hieroglyphics, or from the primitive traditions of their Hero-worship, 
which was in fact incorporated with the mythology of Greece and Rome. 


I shall briefly recapitulate a few striking coincidences, between the 
historical accounts of the Cuthites and corresponding circumstances relating 
to Ireland. 

First, I have already noticed several Irish accounts of Scythian migra- 
tions to Ireland, as coinciding with the accounts of Cuthite migrations from 
Babylonia and Egypt, etc. 

Next, Bryant shows that the ancient term Scythian (Scuthi), was ori- 
ginally, and properly, applied only to Cuthites. The names of Scythians and 
Scuthi are the historical names given to the Irish, in all accounts of their 
migrations from Babylonia, Egypt, and Spain, to Ireland. 

The ancient Irish historians describe their Scythian ancestor, Nion the 
son of Pelus, as the sole sovereign and monarch of the Universe. (Keating, 
vol. i, p. 95). Classic writers refer to Nimrod under the name of Nin, or 
Ninus, and describe his dominions (the Scythian empire), as comprising the 
Babylonian, Assyrian, and Medo- Persian realms within their limits. (Fader, 


vol. 3, pp. 377-391). I believe the Irish account to be so far true, that all 
the inhabitants of the world at the time acknowledged the sway of Nion - 
(Nin, Minus, or Nimrod). Irish historians trace their Scythian ancestors as 
migrating from the north of the Black Sea, and from Egypt, Crete, and Sicily, 
through Spain, to Ireland. Classic writers, without any knowledge of Irish 
history, affirm the Cuthites to have been inhabitants of these several regions. 

Again Bryant tells us, that the name Phenice was an ancient term, at 
first applied only to men of great stature, but that afterwards it became more 
generally conferred upon people of power and eminence. In Ireland the 
name " Fenice" is well known, but, like the original Cuthite term, it is still 
confined in its application to men of great stature men of renown that is 
to say, to the Finian heroes of antiquity, whose captain was the celebrated 
and gigantic Fiun MacCuill. 

The great works, which History and Tradition ascribe to the Cuthites of 
antiquity, consist of high altars of raised earth, High Towers, Temples, 
Strong walls styled cyclopean, and subterraneous passages of communication. 
All these have their counterparts in Ireland. The great mounds, such as 
that at New Grange, correspond to the " high altars of raised earth." The 
Round Towers of Ireland answer to the Cuthite " High Towers." Numerous 
Temples are also to be found in Ireland, built by the artificers of the Towers; 
and, although subterranean passages of communication are not now known 
to exist to any great extent, it is singular that there are traditional accounts 
of such having existed in connection with numerous Round Towers through- 
out Ireland. 

That these accounts are fabulous does not alter the inference respecting 
their Cuthite origin. The supposed subterraneous passages of the Cuthites, 
mentioned by Bryant, may have been fabulous too. The Round Tower of 
Scattery is said to have had a subterraneous passage of communication with 
that on the island of Iniscaltra in Lough Derg; and the Round Tower of 
Kells also is said to have had a passage under ground to the interior of St. 
Columb's stone -roofed Church. I have elsewhere directed attention to 


numerous examples of buildings, proving the identity of the Cyclopean style 
of architecture with the ancient architecture of Ireland. The characteristics 
are the same in both viz., massive stones laid in irregular courses, and 
doorways having sloping or inclining jambs. 

The Irish buildings, it is true, appear puny and insignificant, compared 
with buildings of the same style in Greece and Italy., But this we should 
reasonably expect from all the circumstances, grounded on the fact that 
Ireland was probably not peopled by the Cuthites until after the Dispersion 
the destruction of primitive Cuthite dominion. 

Bryant informs us, that the Cuthites carefully preserved memorials of their 
ancestors, and of the events which preceded their dispersion. In this respect 
Ireland is unlike all other nations of Western Europe. Her pretensions to 
antiquity have long been a subject of ridicule to many, who very reasonably 
could not understand what claim to ancient greatness the Irish should possess 
above other neighbouring nations. Ancient historical records exist never- 
theless in a variety of forms, and pedigrees of certain families also extending 
back to the Deluge ; and I may add, that several events are recorded which 
are said to have preceded the Deluge. These accounts have come to us, 
not merely as legendary tales, but as solemn historical records. The theory 
of the Cuthite origin of the Irish nation will best account for these pretended 
histories and pedigrees, the existence of which would otherwise be inexpli- 
cable. But, as I have elsewhere observed, the special value of Irish records, 
as relics of antiquity, is lost in consequence of the Celts, when conquerors, 
having untruly ascribed to their own ancestors the traditions and pedigrees, 
which properly belonged to their vanquished Cuthite predecessors, the 

The Celts however never interfered with the claims of their predecessors 
to superior knowledge of the arts. In particular the magic art, and the art of 
building in stone, were accomplishments, to the honours of which the Celts 
appear to have resigned all pretension. They not only despised the art of 
building, but they despised the ends and objects for which that art was 


cultivated. Their royal palaces were made of wood until the English taught 
them the value of a better material. I shall in a subsequent section refer to 
Gobban Saer, the celebrated Irish builder in stone, and shall endeavour to 
show, that all the historical notices recorded of him go to prove him to have 
been a Tuath-de-Danaan. His reputation for supernatural or magical skill, 
according to the legends of the Irish peasantry, is additional evidence of his 
Tuath-de-Danaan extraction. The Celts resigned to the Tuath-de-Danaans 
all claim to superiority in magical arts. The Celts despised magic, having 
had practical experience of the superiority (as an engine of destruction) of a 
Celtic sword-blade to the incantations of a Tuath-de-Danaan Wizard. Magical 
charms are however still accredited among the Irish peasantry, and they 
are always referred to the Tuath-de-Danaans as the original contrivers. 
Some families in Ireland, who are believed to be of Tuath-de-Danaan ex- 
traction, are even now regarded with superstitious awe, because of "the Evil 
Eye" they are supposed to possess. Magic has been practised all over the 
world, but the Cuthites have got the credit of being the inventors of it. 

I have noticed many Cuthite terms still existing in the Irish language 
and Topography. The unnoticed matter on this subject alone would be 
sufficient to fill a large volume. 

I shall conclude these remarks upon the history of the Cuthites by an 
appeal to the reader's candid judgment asking him how it is possible to 
account for the multitude of coincidences between the historical notices of 
the Cuthites, and the history, legends, and language of Ancient Ireland, on 
any other hypothesis than that of Ireland having been at an early period a 
Cuthite colony ? And, if once inhabited by this race of building celebrity, 
is it not reasonable to suppose, that vestiges of their works should still remain 
in Ireland? Again If buildings are found in Ireland possessing the charac- 
teristics of Cuthite (or Cyclopean) architecture, and which cannot be assigned 
with any degree of probability to any particular race or nation, that existed 
since the Christian Era, is it not reasonable to suppose, that such buildings 
are the works of that Cuthite or Cyclopean race, whose peculiarities of style 


they so strikingly exhibit ? Add to this the important fact, that the names 
of the supposed Saints of Ireland the only names connected as founders 
with any of these buildings have a striking affinity to, if not actual identity 
with, the names of heathen or Cuthite Divinities. 

If the conclusions inferred throughout this work are considered unsound 
or visionary, the facts are, notwithstanding, substantially correct ; and these 
cannot fail to present many remarkable coincidences, an examination of which 
will amply repay the reader. But if the conclusions, as well as the facts, are 
pronounced correct, the Irish Cuthite Ruins, of which hundreds still exist 
many of them being at least three thousand years old will furnish the 
archaeologist and the antiquary with interesting objects for further investi- 
gation, corroborating my views on this very important branch of the ancient 
History of Ireland. 


FIG. 88 represents the beautiful doorway still existing in a very perfect 
state at Clonkeen in the County of Limerick. The name of St. 
Dimmoge [The Good God] is associated with this temple ; and it is particu- 
larly interesting from the fact, that the western wall to the height of the 
doorway stands in its original condition, and has not been altered by any 
subsequent reconstruction or repair. Like all other such -like ancient 
doorways, it exhibits the Cyclopean peculiarity of inclining jambs, being two 
and a half inches wider at the bottom than at the spring of the arch ; but I have 
observed, that in general this inclination of the jambs is less in the highly 
ornamented and round-headed doorways, than in the plain quadrangular 
specimens. It would seem as if the artists had desired to introduce into the 
ornamented doorways only as much inclination of the jambs as was necessary 
for conformity to some old established principle of Cuthite architecture. The 
Buttresses at the west end are ancient, as is also a small window in the 
north wall. 

The most uncommon ornament exhibited in this doorway consists of the 
spirals about the outer circle of the arch. These are also seen on the semi- 
detached pillars ; and the inner arch of the small window in the north wall is 
decorated with a double band of the same ornament. The reader will perceive, 
that this ornament is almost identical with that exhibited in fig. 90 the frag- 
ment of a pillar found at the entrance of an excavation in the rock a chamber 
within the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae. It is worthy of special notice, 
that Ferguson in his History of Architecture, vol.-i, p. 213, remarks, that this 

ornament is ''very unlike any thing found subsequent to this period in Greece" - 

1 1 







that is to say, the original ornament here represented belongs to the pre- 
historic or fabulous period antecedent to Grecian civilization. Other 
architectural features of the Treasury of Atreus, where this ornament is 
found (among which is a doorway four inches narrower at the top than at 
the bottom), identify its style with that of the ruins still found in Ireland, and 
in the pre-historic buildings of Italy. 

At Avantipore in Cashmere also, a fragment of a pillar has been disco- 
vered by Mr. Cowie in the course of his excavations, the decorations on 
which bear in some respects a more striking similarity than even that at 
the Treasury of Atreus to the Irish spiral ornament. (See fig. 91, from 
Ferguson, vol. 2, p. 71 1). Mr. Ferguson, writing of this pillar, says : " The 
annexed fragment of one of its columns is as elegant in itself, and almost 
as interesting historically, as the Doric of the examples quoted above, inas- 
much as if it is compared with the pillars of the tomb of Mycene it seems 
difficult to escape the conviction that the two forms were derived from some 
common source." I fully agree with Mr. Ferguson in this conclusion ; and 
for the same reason I would refer the Irish specimens, which so strikingly 
resemble both, to the same common origin as those of Mycene and Avanti- 

This spiral ornament is also found on the semi-detached pillars of the 
doorway of Dysert, the arch of which is represented at fig. 89 ; also on the 
doorway of Aghadoe (fig. 92), as well as in a beautiful ancient window at 
the temple called St. Peter's Church at Ferns, Co. Wexford. 

Fig. 89 is the arch of a very handsome doorway at Dysert, Co. Clare ; 
but, unlike that of Dimmoge's temple, the Dysert specimen is a re-setting, 
removed from its original position ; and that this re-setting was executed by 
unskilled artists is proved by the fact, that the base stones of the second 
outer arch are misplaced that which should have been at the left is now at 
the right side, and vice versa. The design of two animals devouring a 
human face appears on two capitals of this doorway, one of which is 
represented at fig. 2 7, ante. 


Fig. 92 represents details of ornament on the western doorway of the 
Cathedral of Aghadoe, Co. Kerry, on which may be seen the spiral ornament 
similar to that found at the Treasury of Atreus and at Avantipore. Mr. 
Parker, writing of the Cathedral of Aghadoe, remarks (Gent. Mag., April 
1864, p. 412), " A portion of the original masonry, which consisted of large 


blocks of stone with oblique joints and not regularly squared, similar to that 
of the round tower, still remains on the northern portion of the west end, 
and is continued on the north side." . . . ' " On the jamb of this arch, 
the ornament is changed into the double embattled ornament mentioned 
before at Glendalough. It is very singular, and seems to be almost peculiarly 
Irish, though some specimens very similar occur among the fragments of the 
Norman buildings at Windsor Castle." The following is from Mr. Parker's 
article on Glendalough just referred to. (Gent. Mag., March 1864, p. 282). 
" The peculiar embattled ornament found in this Church, and given by Dr. 
Petrie (in p. 260), is doubtless from the jamb of an arch. A similar ornament 
occurs on the jambs of the west doorway of the Church of Aghadoe, known 


to be of the twelfth century ; and a very similar one on the door of Freshford 
Church, which Dr. Petrie illustrates, is of that date. It exhibits the same 
idea as the peculiar Irish battlement."- The authority upon which the date 
of the doorway of Freshford Church is fixed as of the twelfth century shall 
presently be examined. The authority for fixing the date of Aghadoe 
Church as of the same century is a statement by Dr. Lanigan that, " in 1 158 
the great Church of Aghadoe in the County of Kerry was FINISHED." 

I would here direct attention to the word "finished? so often used by 
the translators of Irish Annals. To my mind it means nothing more, and 
proves nothing more, than that in the 1 2th century (in reference to which 
period the term frequently occurs), certain ancient ruins of heathen temples, 
then supposed to be Churches, were found to exist, and the taste for buildings 
in stone though of a very rude kind having at the time been prevalent, 
such ruins were enlarged to suit the requirements of Christian worship, coarse 
rubble masonry being used. Also roofs were put on after the fashion of 
the day, instead of the ancient stone roofs of the heathen temples, which in 
most cases had fallen down. The Church thus became recorded in the 
Annals as " finished." This explanation of the use of the term " finished" 
seems to me to be confirmed by what is recorded of the great Round Tower 
of Clonmacnoise. The Annals of the Four Masters inform us that " the 
great Cloich-teach of Clonmacnoise was FINISHED in the year 1124." This 
finishing seems to me to apply to the belfry story, which is built of " rough 
stone' with eight openings in it. The tower thenceforth became a Cloich- 
teach, or Bell-house instead of being, as it was before, a Cloich-teach, or 
Stone-house. * The tower is now without a roof, and thus far answers to the 
record of 1135, which informs us that "lightning struck off the head of the 
Cloich-teach of Clonmacnoise" leaving the top story of rough stone with 
its eight windows still to be seen. The lower part of the tower, and of 
necessity the oldest part, has its doorway " round headed with a regular arch 

of Ashlar, and sloping sides formed of six stones on each side 

* See Article on the term " Cloich Teach" Post. 


The material is the hard limestone, which is very difficult to cut, and requires 

excellent tools for the purpose The character of the masonry 

and construction of this tower is decidedly later than that of the Castle, built 
by the English in 1212." (Gent, Mag., February 1864, p. 149). These 
remarks of Mr. Parker's are most correct, and evince his sound judgment 
on the subject of Norman Architecture. Yet we are asked to believe that 
this tower, with its superior masonry and Ashlar doorway, " decidedly later 
in style than the Castle built by the English in 1212," was built by the Celts 
in 1 1 24, because the Annals inform us that it was " finished" in that year. 

The explanation before offered is the only one capable of solving the 
difficulty namely, that the tower was built by the early Cuthite inhabitants 
of Ireland ; that having been partially broken down by time, the top was 
rebuilt for a belfry in 1 124, with "rough stone" and eight windows, the better 
to emit sound, when it became recorded as " finished ;" that eleven years 
after, viz., 1 135, the roof was struck off by lightning, since which time it has 
remained as it now is a ruin. 

There is another instance of the use of the word "finished" which is 
particularly worthy of attention, as some Archaeologists, who hold to the 
theory of the Christian origin of the Round Towers, rely upon it as conclusive 
evidence in support of their opinions. The case is that of the Church of 
the Nuns at Clonmacnoise, which the Four Masters, as translated by Dr. 
O' Donovan, inform us was "finished" in the year 1 167. The Rev. J. Graves, 
Secretary to the Kilkenny Archaeological Society, argues from this that, 
whereas the masonry and general style of Architecture of the Nuns' Church 
is similar to that of Finian's Church, into which a Round Tower is bonded 
forming a part of the same original edifice, therefore (says Mr. Graves), " we 
have proof that this Round Tower, at all events, was built after the middle 
of the twelfth century." Such is the substance of Mr. Graves's argument, as 
expressed in his letter to Saunderss Neu's-Letter of 26th May, 1865. 
Now I beg to submit, that there is not a shadow of support for the state- 
ment of Mr. Graves, that "we have proof that this Round Tower at all events 


was built after the middle of the the twelfth century." The Irish word used 
by the Four Masters is FORBADH, which the translator renders into the English 
word "finished." This word is a verb grounded on the noun FOR, which 
signifies literally a protection, or defence ; and the word FORBADH should 
never be used to express the building, but rather the repair or restoration, 
of an edifice already built. This interpretation is confirmed by O'Brien's 
and O'Reilly's Dictionaries. The passage in the Four Masters is thus trans- 
lated by Dr. O'Donovan, " 1 167 The Church of the Nuns at Clonmacnoise 

was finished by Dearbhforgaill A Church was erected at 

Clonmacnoise in the place of the Dearthach (Wooden Church) by Conchoblear 
Ua Ceallaigh." Now we have in the second clause of this passage a different 
word, DENAMH, used to express the biiilding of another Church in the same 
year, and at the same place. If both these Churches were built in the year 
1 167, why not express the fact by the same Irish word? The Nuns' Church 
is, in the Irish, said to have been protected, or defended, or decorated what, 
in modern language, we would call embellished, or restored perhaps treated 
in the same manner as Mr. Graves, and the Kilkenny Archaeological Society 
have been lately treating the doorway of this same Church : whereas the 
building of the other Church, which really was built in the place of a wooden 
Church, is expressed by the Irish word DO DENAMH that is, was erected, was 
made. The passage in the Four Masters may be accepted as historical 
evidence, that the Church of the Nuns was repaired in the year 1 167, that 
is to say, by some work being done for its protection, or defence, or embel- 
lishment. Dr. O'Donovan, in his translation of the Four Masters, renders 
the Irish word FORBADH, which expresses this repair or restoration, into the 
English word " finished" a most equivocal term in a controversy as to the 
date of the foundation of a building ; though fair enough, if it were intended 
to express that nothing more was left to be done. Mr. Graves has improved 
upon this; for the word "restored," which Dr. O'Donovan has turned into 
the word " finished," Mr. Graves has further improved into the word "built." 
These mistakes, I have no doubt, have been innocent and unintentional ; 



but I have enlarged on the subject to show, that we must search for the 
probable dates of such ancient edifices, as the Church of the Nuns and 
Finian's Round Tower, to other evidences besides the Annals and their 

Again, Mr. Graves refers to the introduction of the pointed Architecture, 
as a transition period from the Norman to the Pointed Gothic style. I 
should rather call it a transition from building in wood to the first intro- 
duction of rude stone mason-work. The notice in the Annals just quoted, 
of the building of a stone Church at Clonmacnoise in place of a wooden Church, 
would seem to support this conclusion. The site of Ceallaigh's (O' Kelly's) 
Church, above referred to as " erected " in 1157, is still recognisable; but, 
as we should reasonably expect from the rude work of the 1 2th century, the 
edifice itself has disappeared to the foundations. 


Fig. 93 is the doorway of Ardmore Round Tower, of which Mr. Parker 
writes: " The doorway likewise is surrounded by a moulding equally 
Norman, but there is an Irish peculiarity in the moulding being carried 
under the sill as well as round the arch." (Gent. Mag., September, 1864.) 
I have, at page 149, referred to the sculpture at the Cathedral of Ardmore, 
representing the Ox as an object of worship. 

K K. 




Fig. 94 is a curious lintel from the Ruins of Glendalough, of which 
Dr. Petrie says (p. 251) : " This is the only example of a pedimented lintel, 

---" ">^* 


which I have met with in Ireland, nor do I know of any other of the middle 



age architecture, either in England or France, except one in the latter 
country, namely, over the Byzantine portal of the Church of Notre Dame du 
Port at Clermont-Ferrand, and which is supposed to be of the eleventh 

Fig- 95 is the doorway and part of the Cyclopean wall of Britway Church, 
County Cork, which Dr. Petrie describes as one of the most interesting 


remains in that county. He also notices the curious figure in which the 
architrave terminates at the keystone, which I would ask the reader to 
compare with the like figure, adorning numerous semicircular arches in the 
Rock Temple at Carli, fig. 3. Dr. Petrie tells us, that this building was 
dedicated to St. Bridget, whom we have before identified with the Irish 
Goddess of poets and smiths, and the Scandinavian Venus. 



Fig. 96 is the doorway of the Round Tower of Kildare, with details of 
ornament thereon. Of this doorway Dr. Petrie says it will at once be seen 





that, " in its general character, as well as in the style of its ornaments, 
notwithstanding the chevron or zigzag moulding on one of the cornices, it 



presents features not to be found on any decidedly ascertained Anglo- 
Norman remains." 

Fig. 97 is the doorway of Timahoe Round Tower, which, Dr. Petrie 
says, " like that of Kildare, exhibits many peculiarities that I do not recollect 
to have found in buildings of the Norman times, either in England or Ire- 
land." Fig. 98 is one of the capitals of this doorway. The only example 
of Norman or Romanesque Architecture, not Irish, which I find in Dr. 



Petrie's work, is that of the capital of a pillar at St. Ottmar's Chapel, 
Nurnberg (fig. 99), which he compares with those of Timahoe. The 
comparison speaks for itself. Mr. Parker says (Gent. Mag., March, 1864, p. 
283) : " The custom or fashion of introducing human heads at the angles of 


the capitals, where in English or Continental work the ornaments generally 
exhibit more or less of a volute, is very prevalent in Ireland." 

Fig. 100 represents the capitals of the porch of Freshford Church, County 


Kilkenny, of which Dr. Petrie writes (p. 282) : " And I should also notice, as 
characteristic of Irish Architecture of this period at least (the close of the 
eleventh or commencement of the twelfth century), the grotesque lions' heads 
which are sculptured on the soffit of the external arch." 

The porch of Freshford Church, County Kilkenny (fig. 101), is the 
only instance save that of Cormac's Chapel already noticed, in which Dr. 
Petrie has attempted to furnish historical evidence as fixing the date of any 
(so-called) Norman ruin throughout Ireland ; it therefore becomes important 
to investigate the Doctor's proofs. He informs us, that the entrance porch 
or doorway of Freshford Church is an example of one of these Irish structures, 
which "we know from historical evidence to have been erected in the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries" (p. 282). The Doctor's " historical evidence" in this case 
is as devoid of foundation as his " most satisfactory historical evidence" 
respecting Cormac's Chapel, already examined. He tells us the Church was 
" originally erected by St. Lachtin in the seventh century, but rebuilt towards 
the close of tlie eleventh, or commencement of the twelfth, as a perfectly legible 
inscription on its doorway clearly proves. This inscription is contained in two 
bands, encircling the external face of the inner arch, the letters, as is usual in 
all ancient inscriptions, being indented and is as follows : - 

1. In the lower band : 




2. In the upper band : 


(Petrie, p. 283). The Doctor proceeds : " It is to be regretted, that neither 
our annals, nor genealogical books, preserve the names of any of the persons 
recorded in this inscription." 

Now I would ask the reader's attention to the fact, that this inscription, 


instead of being historical evidence clearly proving the date of this porch, 
proves absolutely nothing about the matter. 

Dr. Petrie reasons upon the use of surnames in the inscription, as proving 
the date of the Church to be the close of the nth or the commencement 
of the 1 2th century, because surnames came into general use in the nth 
century. But an examination of Irish Annals will convince the reader, that 
surnames or second names were in use from the 6th century among families 
who had pedigrees to preserve. Instances of such surnames will be found 
under the years 550 681 790 885 975 1002, and in multitudes of 
other instances throughout the Four Masters, and other Annalists. 

Tradition ascribes the original structure to St. Lachtin, from which I 
conclude that an ancient edifice existed there as early as the seventh century. 
All that now remains of this ancient building is the porch or doorway, the 
rest of the Church being the construction of a long subsequent age, in the 
pointed Gothic style, known to have come into use in the 1 2th century. 

A glance at the building is sufficient to show, that the inscription refers 
to the comparatively modern Church in the background, and that the beau- 
tifully-ornamented porch belonged to a building of a different date in fact, 
to an ancient stone-roofed temple like Cormac's Chapel. At the right side 
of this doorway are seen Adam and Eve, the first scene in Man's History ; 
and at the left, the future incarnation of Vishnu referred to at page 173 ante. 
But as the porch or doorway of the Church, which is one of the richest speci- 
mens of (so-called) Norman Architecture in Ireland, stands in marked 
contrast with the rest of/the building, we must conclude that it existed in some 
previous structure ; and the builder (or, as Dr. Petrie suggests, rebuilder) of 
the Church may well be excused for soliciting the prayers of the faithful, he 
having built all the edifice except the entrance door. The inscription is a 
rude scratch of indented letters entirely out of character with the beautiful 
sculpture of the porch itself, all the figures upon which are in relief. This, 
and another specimen hereafter to be noticed, are the only (so-called) Norman 
doorways existing throughout Ireland, upon which an inscription occurs; and 


that fact alone is sufficient to prove, that the inscription refers to the Christian 
Church, not to the Cuthite doorway ; for, had it been customary to make in- 
scriptions on such doorways, they would be found on others besides that of 

If we turn our attention to the buildings at Killaloe, they may serve to 
throw light on the subject of the ancient Architecture of Ireland. Killaloe 
is, as I before observed, a religious foundation ascribed to St. Luan (the 
Moon), and as such, I assume it to be a Cuthite foundation. The buildings 
found there perfectly correspond with this conclusion. Writing on this 
subject Dr. Pe^trie says : " At Killaloe, then, we have two ancient buildings, 
'namely, the Cathedral and a small stone-roofed church, situated immediately 
to the north of it, of which the wood-cut on next page represents the west 
front. That the cathedral church is not of Brian's time is, however, sufficiently 
obvious from its architectural details, which clearly belong to the close of the 
twelfth century; and its re-erection is attributed, with every appearance of 
truth, to Donnell More O'Brien, king of Limerick, who died in the year 1 194. 
Yet, that a more ancient church, and one of considerable splendour y had pre- 
viously existed on its site, is evident from a semicircular archway in the south 
wall of the nave, now built up, and which is remarkable for the richness of 
its embellishments in the Romanesque or Norman style." 

I believe Dr. Petrie to be quite correct in the date he assigns to the 
Cathedral of Killaloe, which in its architectural features corresponds with 
other Churches known to be of the I2th century. But it will be remarked, 
that the Temple of St. Luan (the Moon), which preceded it, was reduced to 
utter ruin before the building of this Cathedral was commenced. The Roman- 
esque or rather Cuthite doorway, to which Dr. Petrie refers, is the handsomest 
specimen of architecture I have seen in Ireland. The Cathedral is not built 
precisely on the site of the former temple, which must have stood to the south 
of the present edifice. The north doorway of the ancient temple (which is all 
that remains of it) has its outward side opening into the nave of the Cathedral. 
This doorway is a much richer specimen of sculpture than either Freshford 



doorway or the northern doorway of Cormac's Chapel, but is precisely of the 
same character. Its existence at Killaloe proves that an ancient Cuthite 
temple, more splendid than Cormac's Chapel, with its arched roof and other 
appendages, once existed at Killaloe; and the reader may judge for himself 
how many centuries must have elapsed, before it fell into such ruinous decay 
as to be removed altogether (save the doorway) to make room for Donnell 
More O'Brien's Cathedral, built in the I2th century. 

The coign stones of the ancient Cuthite temple may still be seen built 
into the present Cathedral at the east end to the height of about ten or twelve 
feet, and from that to the eave appear other coigns of inferior workmanship 
and pattern, but in imitation of the ancient ones. Such coigns are noticed as a 
peculiarly Irish characteristic. The mouldings project outside the angle of 
the wall as at the Cuthite Temple of Monahinch, near Roscrea ; also at the 
Cuthite Temple the middle Church of Ardfert, County Kerry. 

There are certain rules laid down by Archaeologists in tracing the ages 
of different buildings. One of these is that the more ancient is the more 
rude, and that as time advanced, the knowledge of the art improved ; so 
that the better specimens of architecture are found to be the more modern. 
This as a general rule is correct, and in accordance with fact; but as applied 
to the ancient Architecture of Ireland, it is found to be reversed in every 
case. The most ancient Churches, or rather Temples, in Ireland, having 
the walls in a tolerably perfect state, such as Cormac's Chapel, are the 
richest and most perfect specimens of architecture in the country. As a 
few examples of this class, I would instance Cormac's Chapel at Cashel 
the nave of Temple Melchedor (the Temple of the Golden Molach, in the 
parish of Kilmelchedor, County Kerry) the Church of Iniscaltra that of 
Monahinch, near Roscrea Tomgraney Church (the mound of the Sun), in 
the east of Clare Clonfert Cathedral, County Galway and the Temple of 
Dimmoge at Clonkeen, County Limerick. 

The ancient Christian Churches are generally found to be rudely-built 
structures, into the walls of which are worked richly sculptured stones, 


26 5 

evidently belonging to still more ancient buildings of a very superior style 
of architecture. Several specimens of such building may be found at 
Glendalough, and indeed in every county of Ireland; incontestably proving 
the existence of an architectural culture superior and antecedent to the 
earliest Christian foundation. 

One of the most interesting ruins of the (so-called) Norman style in Ireland 
is Temple Melchedor, [alias, the Temple of the Golden Molach,] in the wilds 
of Kerry, at the extreme west of Ireland, thirty-six miles beyond Tralee. The 
Glen in which the temple is situated is separated from the interior by a ridge 
of mountains, inaccessible to wheeled vehicles until about thirty years since, 
when the Board of Works commenced their beneficial operations. 

The building is ascribed by the peasantry neither to the English, nor to 
the Spaniards, nor yet to the Irish, but to supernatural agency the work of 
one night. The legend of being built in one night is common to numerous 
Round Towers of Ireland, and also to many of the ancient Temples, or 
Churches. The topography of the Glen, in which Temple Melchedor is 




situated, abounds with names of Cuthite origin. You may there find 
Dunurlin, the Fort of the golden Luan, Ardmore, the High Place of the 
Great God. Bovine legends of extraordinary character are also told, and 
still believed, among the peasantry. The Temple of the Golden Molach, to 
which I have referred, is a beautiful building about the size and in the style 

-,. .! v _ 


of Cormac's Chapel. The stone roof has fallen, the chancel is a re-building, 
but the nave is ancient. One side of each of the ancient chancel windows 
is still seen. On the inside of the soffit stone of a very rich doorway is 
sculptured, in relief, the head of an Ox the Golden Molach himself. One 
of the legends relates the supernatural powers in wrestling exercised by an 
ancient inhabitant of the Glen. See page 217, ante. 



Fig. 1 02 represents the arch of the doonvay of Temple Melchedor, save 
that the Ox's head, which appears on the outside of the soffit stone, occupies 
a similar position on the inside of the same stone in the actual building. It 
is introduced in the sketch, as the best way of showing its position on the 
inner surface of the stone. 

Fig. 103 is the doorway of the Temple of Mochudee at Rahen, King's 
County. I have identified the reputed founder, St. Mochudee, with Mahody, 
the sacred name of God as worshipped at the Caves of Elephanta. The 
doorway is an interesting specimen, for, although not highly ornamented, it is 
very perfect, and one of the few ancient Irish doorways, which have not been 
disturbed by reconstruction. 


Fig. 104, is a plainer specimen of the ancient style not uncommon 
throughout Ireland. It represents the doorway of a temple at Sheeptown 
near Knocktopher, Co. Kilkenny, of which Dr. Petrie says (p. 177) : "This 
doorway, which, as usual, is placed in the centre of the west wall, is 
composed of sandstone, well chiselled, and measures seven feet in height, or 
five feet six inches to the top of the impost, and one foot six inches thence 
to the vertex of the arch ; in width it is three feet immediately below the 


imposts, and three feet three inches at the bottom ; and the jambs are three 
feet in thickness. As the ancient name of the church is wholly forgotten in 
the locality, as well as the name of its patron or founder, it is out of my power 
to trace its ancient history." 

I shall now make a few remarks upon peculiarities of ancient windows, 
which have come under my own observation. 

Every one well acquainted with ancient Irish ruins must have perceived, 
that there are two systems of architecture combined in our most ancient 
Churches. The distinction between these systems with respect to windows I 
nowproceed to notice. The first is the window with square jambs, and grooves 
provided for frames or glass. These windows are of various widths, and 
generally pointed at the top. They are rude, and, as specimens of architec- 
ture, inferior to the other class, which I shall afterwards notice. Cut-stone 
is used in them very sparingly, generally only at the jambs, the splay of the 
wall being made of rubble masonry and plastered work. Such windows I 
shall for the present refer to by the term "modern," to distinguish them from 
those of the other class, afterwards described as the "ancient." 

The " modern" are common in many of the ruined Churches throughout 
Ireland; but (save in the large Cathedrals built at places of importance since 
the Conquest by the English) the remarks made respecting their vast 
inferiority in workmanship and material to those of the older class will be 
found to be correct. 

The class of windows which I call " ancient" is strikingly distinguished 
from the others, not only by superiority of workmanship and material, but 
also by certain peculiarities in construction. 

The ordinary specimens of ancient windows are generally about six inches 
in width at the top, and somewhat wider at the bottom ; the splay of such 
windows, when not reconstructed, is always of cut-stone, worked and jointed 
in an artistic manner ; the semicircular splay being continued round the head 
of the arch to correspond with the top of the window, which is always semi- 
circular. The greater number are perfectly plain, though so well executed ; 



but some are highly ornamented, either with grooved mouldings, as in fig. 
105, or with sculptured tracery of various devices, as in fig. 107 ; and all are 
remarkable for having no provision made for glass or frames in their original 
construction. Here I would remark a fact which has not hitherto been noticed, 
that all ancient Irish doorways are constructed without any provision for 





hangings, or bolts, although such are often found to have been afterwards rudely 
added in a manner altogether incompatible with the original design. The 
other features observable in these ancient windows are, that they are all 
splayed downwards on the inner side, and the ornaments (where such exist) 
are continued all round ; whereas in the English or true Norman style they 
terminate at the foot of the jamb. 

Fig. 105 is the beautiful window of ''Temple lun" at Kilmacduagh, 
County Galway, the most perfect example of the ancient double window in 
Ireland, and exhibiting numerous specimens of that curious style of jointing, 
afterwards to be noticed as a peculiarity of Cuthite architecture. The 
section of the window (fig. 106) shews the ornamented mouldings. The 


openings are eight feet high by six inches wide at top, and a little wider at 
the bottom. 

There is a beautiful ancient window at Annaghdown, Co. Galway 


embellished with the ornaments represented in fig. 107. The window has 
been made two feet nine inches wide in process of re-construction, whereas 
I believe its original width to have been only six or seven inches. There 
are so many evidences to the experienced eye of this remodelling, or recon- 
struction, as to leave no doubt of the fact. These evidences are apparent, 
first, in the chisel edges of the arch, proving that they were so cut in order to 
meet the sides of one large stone, out of which the original outer arch was 
framed, and which stone is absent in the structure now under our notice. 
There are also other evidences in the imperfect style of jointing, and in 
the displacement of the sill-stones, proving that the window, as it now stands, 
was constructed out of fragments of two ancient windows of similar dimen- 
sions and ornamental details. I have represented one of the windows of 
Annaghdown in fig. 107, as I believe it originally appeared, but its 
present aspect may shortly be seen on an enlarged scale in a beautifully 
illustrated work on Irish Architecture, which Mr. Gordon M. Hills, of 
London, is preparing for publication. I am indebted to Mr. Hills for very 
accurate drawings of the ornaments on the Annaghdown window as repre- 
sented in fig. 107. This class of window, whether ornamented or plain, I 
have elsewhere referred to as the ancient window of " wide splay," to dis- 
tinguish it from another and a differently constructed class, to be afterwards 
noticed as that of " narrow splay." 

I have seen more than one hundred ancient windows of wide splay 
throughout Ireland, but not one perfect specimen in the ornamented style, 
and scarcely one in the plain ; I have therefore been obliged to make a res- 
toration for an illustration. Some specimens have one side perfect and in 
the original position, with the other side broken away : some, in their original 
positions, are rudely widened on the outside, so as to admit more light ; others 
are found only in fragments; but these remains are sufficiently characteristic 
to enable the Archaeologist to delineate the original structure in all its perfec- 
tion of architecture. 

Fig. 1 08 represents a " modern" window in the ruined Church of Rath, 

M M 







County Clare, as seen from the inside. It is nine inches wide, and square - 
jambed. The sill-stone, A B, which is three feet long, seems to have 
once served the place of sill-stone to an ancient window. The stone 


^- , 

r.. _ .- .- _ 



was turned one quarter round, so that the place which was once outside is 
now the top on which the jambs of the modern window rest, and the former 
top-side was turned inside where the cutting of the ancient moulding (now 
visible) was concealed by the inner mason-work of the window, now broken 
away. The Church of Rath is a complete ruin, and has been so from time 
immemorial. It is a rude structure, yet it has several evidences of having 
been built upon the ruins of a beautiful edifice still more ancient 

Fig. 109 is the fragment of an ancient window built into the inside of the 
south wall of Rath Church. It seems to have been a portion of the outer 
ornament of a double ancient window, which in its perfect state must have 
been a most beautiful specimen of Cuthite sculpture. 

The humiliation figure, treated of in the section headed " The Wolf and 
the Red-hand" (see p. 132), may be seen on the Rath sculpture. The 
opening of this window seems to have been about seven inches wide at the 
bottom. The doorway, represented at fig. 89, probably belonged to the 
original temple, which was embellished by this beautiful window. 

Fig. no represents an ancient window, which formerly stood at the 
east end of the Cathedral of Glendalough, from a drawing made for Colonel 
Conyngham, in the year 1779. 

Fig. in is an enlarged representation of the sculpture on the frieze. 
Not a vestige of this beautiful window remains. The outline and aperture 
may have been correctly depicted ; but I have no doubt, that these " Irish 
(or Cuthite) peculiarities" were as little understood as appreciated by Colonel 
Conyngham's artist. 

There is another variety of this ancient window, which, though in point 
of size and ornament the least interesting, yet for other reasons is deserving 
of particular attention. Specimens of this variety seldom exceed three feet 
in height. They are generally used in very small temples, or in the chancels 
of larger ones, and were intended to give light where space did not admit of 
the introduction of the widely-splayed window of the larger variety. The 
distinguishing characteristics of these windows, besides their inferiority in 





length and want of ornament, are these the splay is much less wide than 
that of windows already noticed, but the loss of light thus occasioned is 
compensated for by greater width on the outside, some of them being as much 
as ten inches broad at the sill-stone. But they exhibit the common character- 
istics of ancient windows; the jambs incline inwards as they ascend the'head- 
stones of all are semicircular, they are all made of well-cut stone for the 
whole depth of the splay, and they present that peculiarity of jointing already 
so frequently noticed. The whole arch is sometimes constructed out of one 
stone. Their external ornament, where any such exists, is generally a plain 
moulding carried all round, as shown in fig. 113, which represents the outside of 
a window of this variety at Iniscaltra, Lough Derg; and fig. 1 16 is a window at 
Cruach MacDara, as seen from the inside. These examples may be taken 
as representing the largest specimens of such windows. 

Smaller ones of precisely the same character are frequently met with 
throughout Ireland. Fig. 112 represents a window of this class at Mochu- 
arog's temple, Glendalough. There is also one in the chancel of Finian's 
Church, Clonmacnoise the Church already noticed as having a Round 
Tower bonded into it. The date of this Church, according to the Rev. James 
Graves, Secretary to the Kilkenny Archaeological Society, is the 1 2th century, 
but I have shown (p. 253) that his argument on the subject has no weight 

Another specimen of such window is found in the chancel of Cormac's 
Chapel, Cashel (fig. 1 1 5). This building, as already remarked, is stated by Dr. 
Petrie, on what he calls " the most satisfactory historical evidence" to be of 
the 1 2th century, viz., 1127. But I trust I have satisfactorily proved (p. 4) 
that no such evidence exists to sustain Dr. Petrie's statement. The 
finding two windows of nearly the same size, shape, and character of 
workmanship, in Finian's Church and Cormac's Chapel, is much stronger 
evidence of the proximity of the date of both buildings, than any similarity 
that may otherwise exist in their ornamental details but as to what this 
approximate date may be, we learn absolutely nothing from either Dr. Petrie, 



or Mr. Graves. The reader will be surprised to learn, that a window of pre- 
cisely the same character is found at the stone-roofed Temple, called Gallerus 
Oratory (figs. 114 and 117), in the parish of Kilmelchedor, Co. Kerry, which 
Dr. Petrie pronounces to be probably one of the oldest Christian buildings 
in Ireland. Its probable date is placed by him as anterior to the supposed 
age of St. Patrick, the Apostle of Ireland (Petrie, p. 132.) Dr. Petrie has given 

\. - 

\ , 

\ , 


^ . . . ~ -^^-.-rjF*^ 

-*l - 





a drawing (fig. 1 14) of the outside of this window, rude, damaged, and greatly 
weather-worn, like the whole building, which is constantly exposed to the 
Atlantic spray ; but he has not informed us, that the interior splay and arch, 
wrought in irregular ashlar work, with all the peculiarities noticed as existing 
in ancient windows of the smaller variety, furnish substantial evidence of the 
probability, that Cormac's Chapel and Kilmelchedor Oratory were works of the 
same people. The existence of these windows in my opinion proves identity, 
or at least proximity, of date in Dr. Petrie's two examples, the one his 
earliest specimen of the Irish Christian style, and the other his latest specimen 
of the (so-called) Norman style of architecture. 

I would ascribe the contrast between the general plainness of the one 
(Kilmelchedor Oratory), and the richness of ornamental details of Cormac's 
Chapel, to some ancient formula respecting the distinctive character of the 
temples dedicated to different Heathen Divinities, rather than regard it as any 
mark of progress in the art of building and decoration. The least ornamented 
specimen of these ancient buildings evinces the same skilled workmanship, 
and the same carefulness and peculiarity of jointing, observable in the more 
richly decorated varieties witness the ashlar work of the Round Tower of 
Cloyne (fig. 122), and that of the beautifully ornamented window of Kilmac- 
duagh (fig. 105). At the same time, I do not deny the possibility of these 
distinctive styles having been introduced by different Cuthite colonies, and 
consequently there may have been some difference of age between them. 

Fig. 1 1 7 is a sketch of the interior of the window of Kilmelchedor Oratory. 
The material is the hard green sandstone of the district the old red sand- 
stone formation which, though far superior to the corresponding rock in 
England, has nevertheless been much injured by time and the action of the 
atmosphere, being subject to perhaps the very wettest climate of any 
throughout Ireland. It still, however, displays ample evidence of superior 
workmanship. The outline of the stone-cutting and the curve of the arch 
etc., are perfect, and prove the unquestionable skill of the architect who 
designed, and the mason who executed, the work. 


The window is about fifteen inches high on the outside, ten inches broad 
at the bottom, and nine inches at the top; but it appears to me, that the 
original dimensions were at least one inch less every way, as the outer edge 
seems to have been intentionally broken away perhaps to admit more light 
for Christian worship. The lateral splay, and down splay common 
characteristics of such ancient windows as I have described may be observed 
in both the inside and outside sill-stones. 

Two thorough stones are found in this small window, each extending 
through the whole thickness of the wall, which is three feet four inches. 
One of these stones measures three feet in length, three feet four inches in 
depth, and eleven inches in thickness; so that it cannot weigh much less than 
three-quarters of a ton. 

The window in the chancel of Cormac's Chapel (fig. 1 1 5), which I have 
compared with that of Kilmelchedor, is three feet four inches in height, and one 
foot eight inches in breadth on the inside, by thirty inches in height on the 
outside, eight inches broad at the top, and ten inches at the bottom. One 
side of this window was at some time broken away on the outside, and 
subsequently restored ; but the side still in its perfect state shows, that a differ- 
ence of two inches originally existed between the width at the top and bottom. 

The interior of the window shows no inclination of the jambs, as the 
window itself was constructed to fill the space of one of a series of arches of 
uniform size, with which the chancel is ornamented. The inclining of the 
outside jamb, where the inside one could not be so inclined, proves the 
exercise of considerable artistic skill for the purpose of carrying out an 
established characteristic feature. 

There are two other varieties of ancient windows that ought to be 
noticed. One is represented at fig. 1 1 8 the window of an ancient temple 
on the middle island of Aran, County Galway. Similar specimens are found 
at Glendalough and elsewhere, and are described as the "pointed window." 
Fig. 119 is a circular window by which the upper chamber of the chancel of 
Cormac's Chapel is lighted Fig. 1 20 depicts a window of the same charac- 







ter, and used for a similar purpose. It consists of four circular orifices, and 
served to light the upper chamber of the chancel at Rahen Temple, King's 
County, which is now used as the parish Church. A window of like cha- 
racter is also used to light the lower floor of the Round Tower of Baal, Co. 










I have elsewhere noticed a peculiar style of jointing frequently found 
throughout the Ashlar work of ancient Irish buildings, which I have ascribed 
to the Cuthites. The following are among the most curious and uncommon 
specimens, which have come under my notice. 

Fig. 121 represents the jointing of the buttress of Coole Abbey, County 
Cork. See observations on the name Coole, pp. 80 to 82, ante. 

Fig. 122 is the jointing of a jamb of an upper window at Cloyne Round 
Tower, Co. Cork. 

Fig. 123 represents the jointing of a jamb at the doorway of the same 

Fig. 1 24 represents three examples of jointing in the piers of the large 
window at Corcomroe Abbey, Co. Clare. The centre specimen is seen on 
the outside of one of the piers, and the two others on the inside splays of 
piers of the same window. 

Fig. 125 shows the jointing of a jamb of Lusk Round Tower, Co. Dublin. 

Fig. 126 is a specimen of jointing in the splay of an ancient window at 
Iniscaltra, Co. Gal way the same as represented at fig. 113. 

The principle of this system of jointing is the same, whether found in 
the rectangular specimens of Irish Ashlar, or in the irregular specimens of 
massive masonry in the bases of Round Towers. It seems to have been 
adopted for the purpose of offering resistance to shocks of lightning, the 
modern safeguards of lightning-conductors not being then understood : and 
experience proves, that it has served admirably for this purpose. 

The tower of Kilmacduagh, Co. Galway (fig. 84), was at some time struck 
by lightning with such force, that it would inevitably have been thrown down, 
if constructed with any other system of jointing ; but the partial yielding, 
notwithstanding the resistance presented by the irregularity of the courses, 
suffered it to be cast nearly two feet out of the perpendicular without 
separating the courses. The inclination of the tower may be observed 
commencing some ten feet above the ground. We cannot estimate the 
power of the shock itself; but that it was enormous is proved by the 


crushing force which numerous stones of the building have sustained ; and 
the lightning-stroke would probably have prostrated a portion of the tower, 
even if the building had consisted of one stone ; for in that case its total 
powers of resistance would have been presented to an instantaneous shock, 
the slightest yielding to which must have resulted in the fracture and 
demolition of that part first struck by the lightning. This object also 
accounts for the use of comparatively small stones in the ashlar work of 
ancient buildings. A handsome ashlar window at Temple Kieran in 
Aranmore island, Co. Galway, also seems to have been struck by lightning. 
The gable of the building yielded a little to the shock, and fractures took 
place at several angular joints of the stone work, which probably saved the 
whole window from being thrown down. I have no doubt, that considerable 
power of resistance to lateral pressure is imparted by this system of irregular 
jointing, so commonly used by the most ancient architects of the world. 



WE have already noticed that a handsome ornament, not known in 
what is called " Grecian Architecture," is found in the Treasury of 
Atreus at Mycenae a building belonging to the pre-historic period, and 
that the same ornament is found at Avantipore in Cashmere. We have 
shewn (p. 250) that several specimens of this ancient ornament are still 
to be seen in temples throughout Ireland. In page 21 it was remarked, that 
the zig-zag ornament, used so profusely in buildings of the Norman age, is 
also found in building of the age of Diocletian. If we pursue the inquiry 
further, we shall find, that almost every architectural ornament of the ancient 
Irish edifices has its counterpart in buildings of the most remote antiquity 
throughout the world ; so that I am induced to assign these several 
ornaments to the system of architecture prevailing before that Dispersion of 
mankind, which took place at the " Confusion of Tongues." 

Fig. 127 is a compound picture, representing several ancient American 
ornaments taken from different illustrations of Stephens' " Yucatan." 

A. The chevron, or zigzag ornament, abounds among the ruins in 
America, as it does also in those of Ireland. It is found both straight and 
curved at Cormac's Chapel, and is the commonest, as well as the richest, 
ornament of Irish doorways. This ornament is also found among the 
sculptures in the cavern of New Grange, Co. Meath. (See fig. 128). 

B. The pellet ornament (or balls) is also found adorning several buildings, 
from the plain specimens upon the most ancient Churches, such as that of 
Temple Cronan, Co. Clare, to the richly ornamented Arch, such as the 


doorway of Aghadoe (fig. 92). This may be 
seen also adorning the stone doors in "the Giant 
Cities of Bashan." 

C. The curved spiral an imitation of a 
twisted rope is found on several ancient Irish 
Crosses (see figs. 40, 42, 50, and 51). 

D. Animals are frequently sculptured on the 
bases of Irish Crosses. 

E. The lozenge is also a common ornament, 
sometimes formed of a double chevron. It is 
found on the doorway of Dysert Church, Co. 
Clare (fig. 89), and is also to be seen among 
the New Grange sculptures (fig. 128). 

F. The circular semi-column abounds in the 
detail of Cuthite ornamental Architecture in 
Ireland, as distinguished from the detached 
column of Anglo-Norman Architecture, which 
is rarely (if ever ?) observed in these ancient 

G. The miniature semicircular arch is found 
in several ancient Irish ruins, such as Ardmore 
Cathedral, and Cormac's Chapel, Cashel. 

H. The peculiarly Irish (Cuthite) embattled 
ornament has been already mentioned as existing 
at Glendalough, Aghadoe, and Freshford. (See 
figs. 92, 101). 

M. This ornamental design is common in 
Ireland. It is found on the doorway of Dysert, 
Co. Clare, and on the window of Ardfert, Co. 
Kerry (fig. 130). It is also represented by 



Grose as a conspicuous 

ornament on the beautiful doorway of a temple standing in his time 



near the Round Tower of old Kilcullen, every vestige of which has 
since disappeared. 

If the discovery of similar ornaments among the ruins of American and 
Irish ancient buildings does not prove a common origin for both, surely the 
finding of similar ornaments in England and Ireland by no means proves, 
that the style of the latter country was derived from that of the former. In 
my opinion, the English and French Norman style (as contrasted with the 
Roman) was derived, either from the Cuthite ruins in England or France, 





long since mouldered away, or from the Irish ruins, of which an abundance 
of specimens must have existed in the nth and i2th centuries. 

The rich variety of details, combined with similarity of design, is a remark- 


able feature in Irish sculpture. Although ornamented capitals of pillars, 
ornamented arches, and sculptured Crosses abound in Ireland, I believe 
there are no two of such capitals, arches, or Crosses exactly alike throughout 
the whole kingdom. Such taste in the art of sculpture is utterly inconsistent 
with the condition of the country during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. 

Fig. 128 represents various sculptures from the cave of New Grange, 
an earthen mound near Slane in the County of Meath. Such monuments 
are by tradition ascribed to the Tuath-de-Danaans [or Cuthite inhabitants of 
Ireland]. This was the opinion of Dr. Petrie ; yet the sculptures at one of 
them (New Grange) exhibit the most common style of ornament of (so-called) 
Norman Architecture. 

Fig. 129 is the centre ornament of one of the Crosses at Kells, Co. Meath. 
The balls are similar to those in the sculptures at New Grange, fig. 128. 

In fig. 130 may be seen a small portion of the ornament of a beautiful 
ancient window at Ardfert, Co. Kerry. The inner arch is surrounded with 
a band of square panels, on each of which is a different device. Each panel 
is about 7 inches square : about twenty-five of them still remain, four of 
which are here depicted. The illustration is taken from a drawing by 
Gordon M. Hills, Esq. 


There is one name, and only one, which can properly be said to be 
associated with the building of Round Towers in Ireland. The name is 
that of Gobban Saer, familiar to every Irish-speaking peasant from the 
Giant's Causeway to Cape Clear. He is celebrated both in the oral and 
written traditions of the country, as a supposed builder and artisan of the 
first order. Several Round Towers are said to have been erected by him ; 
of which three are noticed by Dr. Petrie, viz: the Towers of Kilmacduagh, 
Killala, and Antrim. It therefore becomes important in this enquiry, to 
ascertain what light the Irish Records throw upon this celebrated name. 

o o 


The written notices respecting him are very scanty, but still I think sufficient 
to justify us in ascribing his name to the Tuath-de-Danaan race and age. I 
believe the name to have been that of a class, not of an individual man, as 
more work is ascribed to him and that in the remotest extremities of 
Ireland, than any single individual of any age could have accomplished. 

Doctor Petrie writes (pp. 382-384) : "Nor can I think the popular tradition 
of the country is of little value, which ascribes the erection of several of the 
existing Towers to the celebrated Architect, Gobban, or, as he is popularly 
called, Gobban Saer, who flourished early in the seventh century ; for it is 
remarkable that such a tradition never exists in connexion with any Towers 
but those, in which the architecture is in perfect harmony with the churches 
of that period, as in the Towers of Kilmacduagh, Killala, and Antrim. And 
it is further remarkable, that the age assigned to the first buildings at Kil- 
macduagh, about the year 620, is exactly that in which this celebrated Irish 
architect flourished." 

I think Dr. Petrie's own quotations, which follow, are sufficient to prove, 
that he would have been nearer to the truth, if he had assigned Gobban 
Saer to an age two thousand years earlier than that which he has fixed 
A.D. 620. 

Dr. Petrie furnishes us with the following translation of a very ancient 
authority, namely : " Dinnsenchus, preserved in the Books of Lecan and 
Ballymote," " corrected from the two copies," from which he infers that Gob- 
ban Saer was the son of a skilful artisan in wood, if not in stone also. The Irish 
quotation here follows, and it is thus translated by Dr. Petrie : " ' Traigh 
Tuirbi, whence was it named ? Not difficult. Tuirbi Traghmar, the father 
of Gobban Saer, was he who had possession in that land. He was used to 
throw casts of his hatchet from Tulach in bhiail (i. e. the hill of the hatchet), 
in the direction of the flood, so that the sea stopped, and did not come 
.beyond it. His exact pedigree is not known, unless he was one of those 
missing people, who went off with the polytechnic Sad, who is in the Diamars 
(Diamor, in Meath) of Bregia. Unde Traigh Tuirbe dicitur. 


' Traigh Tuirbi, whence the name, 
According to authors I resolve ; 

Tuirbi of the strand, (which is) superior to every strand, 
The affectionate keen father of Gobban. 

' His hatchet was used to be cast after ceasing (from work) ; 
By this rusty large black youth, 
From the yellow hill of the hatchet, 
Which the mighty flood touches. 

' The distance he used to send his hatchet from him, 
The sea flowed not over it ; 

Though Tuirbi was southwards in his district mighty, 
It is not known of what stock his race ; 

' L'nfess he was of the goodly dark racs, 

Who went from Tara with the heroic Lugh, 

Not known the race, by God's decree, 

Of the man of the feats from Traigh Tuirbi.' 

11 In the copy preserved in the book of Lecan, fol. 260, b, b, RIAS AN SAB 
N-IDANACH, reads LA LUG LAMFADA, i. e. with Lugh of the Long Hand. He 
was a Tuatha De Danaan monarch, A. M. 2764, according to O'Flaherty's 
chronology ; but the story of his going away from Tara, with a number of 
his people, has not yet been discovered. \-Note to Petrie, p. 382]. 

" It is not, of course, intended to offer the preceding extract as strictly 
historical : in such ancient documents we must be content to look for a 
substratum of truth beneath the covering of fable with which it is usually 
encumbered, and not reject the one on account of the improbability of the 
other ; and, viewed in this way, the passage may be regarded as in many 
respects of interest and value, for it shows that the artist spoken of was not 
one of the Scotic, or dominant race in Ireland, who are always referred to 
as light-haired ; and further, from the supposition, grounded on the blackness 
of his hair and his skill in arts, that he might have been of the race of the 
people that went with Lughaidh LamJif/iada from Tara, that is, of the 
Tuatha De Danaan race, who arc always referred to as superior to the Scoti 


in the knowledge of the arts, we learn that in the traditions of the Irish, the 
Tuatlia De Danaans were no less distinguished from their conquerors in 
their personal than in their mental characteristics. The probability, however, 
is, that Turvy was a foreigner, or descendant of one, who brought into the 
country a knowledge of art not then known, or at least prevalent." 

I think the Doctor would have been more correct if, instead of " the 
blackness of his hair," he had used the words " the blackness or darkness 
of his Skin" The Irish poem refers not only to the colour of Gobban him- 
self, " the rusty large black youth," but to " the goodly dark race" the 
Tuath-de-Danaans, who, as descendants of Ham, may be supposed to have 
been dark-skinned. The darkness of the race referred to in this ancient 
poem is corroborative of the other evidence before adduced to prove the 
Cuthite origin of the Tuath-de-Danaans. 

I shall next notice a quotation from Dr. Petrie, which, to my mind, 
proves satisfactorily the time when this Gobban Saer lived. The Doctor 
refers to what he calls, " the sepulchral monuments of the Tuatha de Dan- 
aans," one of which is referred to in the Annals of Ulster (A. D. 862), as 
" the cave of the wife of Gobban," now the mound called The Fort of 

" As examples of the sepulchral monuments of this Tuatha De Danaan 
race most familiar to the majority of my readers, I may point to the magni- 
ficent mounds situated on the Boyne at Drogheda, Dowth, Knowth, and New 
Grange, which last has lain open to the inspection of the curious during the 
last hundred and fifty years. And in connection with these monuments I 
may observe, that the occasional absence of articles of value within them, 
when opened in modern times, by no means proves that such had not been 
deposited there originally, as the plundering of these very sepulchres by the 
Danes is recorded in the Annals of Ulster, at the year 862." (Petrie, p. 103). 

Here follows the Irish quotation, with which it is not necessary to trouble 
the reader. Dr. Petrie translates it as follows: " ' A. D. 862. The cave 
of Achadh Aldai [New Grange, Co. Meath] and of Cnodhba [Knowth], 


and the cave of the sepulchre of Boadan over Dubhad [Dowth], and the 
cave of the wife of Gobhan, were searched by the Danes, quod antea non 
perfection est, on one occasion that the three kings Amlaff, I mar, and Auisle, 
were plundering the territory of Flann, the son of Conaing.' ' 

I submit to the common sense of the reader the improbability of the wife 
of Gobban, the Tuath-de-Danaan, having been interred after the fashion of 
her ancestors, and having her name associated with one of the Tuathan 
mounds, if that interment did not take place until A.D. 600, that is to say, 
about two thousand years after the Tuath-de-Danaans had become a conquer- 
ed and despised race, according to the chronology of the Four Masters. In 
the absence of all evidence to prove Dr. Petrie's assumption that Gobban 
lived in the 7th century (and I submit that there is not a particle of evidence 
worthy of credit to prove that statement), the inferences to be drawn from 
the notices in the Annals of Gobban and his wife are simple and reasonable 
-That, if Gobban Saer was the proper name of a man, he not only was a 
Tuath-de-Danaan, but lived in the days of that nation's power, and left his 
name associated not only with the Round Towers, but also with the mounds 
above referred to. 

From the fact, that the name of Gobban Saer is familiar to the peasantry 
of every village where the Irish language is spoken, I am of opinion with 
Mr. O'Brien, whose proofs will be found in the following pages, that Gobban 
Saer is not the proper name of any individual, but the name of a class, or 
perhaps the title of some office such as High Priest, or Grand-master 
among the Tuath-de-Danaans ; but that in course of time the traditions of 
the class became ascribed to an individual. 

I am confirmed in this opinion by the Irish names of the localities con- 
nected with Gobban Saer in the Book of Ballymote, quoted from Petrie. 
" TUIRBI" is said to have been the father of Gobban, and to have left his 
name to the strand called " Traigh Tuirbi." Now the name " Tuirbi" is, 
literally, " the living Lord or Sovereign." The Irish word " Bi" is applied 
to God in the name " DE-BI" the living God. Another name of a locality 


mentioned in the same passage is " DIAMOR," which may be translated 
"The Great God." From these names I conclude, that the Cobban Saer 
pretended, like the Centaurs, to Divine ancestry. 

Mr. O'Brien writes as follows, quoting from the Book of Ballymote just 
referred to : "I shall now give you, from the Book of Ballymote, my proof 
of the assertion before advanced as to Gobban Saer having been a member 
of the Tuath-de-Danaans, viz : 

" ' Ro gabsat sartain Eirin Tuatha Dadann is deb ro badar na prem 
ealadhnaigh : Luchtand saer credne ceard : Dian ceachd liargh etan dan a 
hingeinsidhe : buime na filedh Goibneadh Gobha lug Mac Eithe Occai ; ro 
badar na huile dana Daghadae in Righ : oghma brathair in Righ, is e ar 
arainic litri no Scot.' That is, The Tuath-de-danaans then ruled in Eirin. 
They were first in all sciences. Credne Ceard was of this people ; and his 
daughter Dean Ceachd, who presided over physic : she nursed the poet 
Gohne Gobha, the Free-mason (hig is the same as Saer] son of Occai Esthne. 
Daghdae the king was skilled in all sciences : his brother Ogmus taught the 
Scythians the use of letters." (O'Brien, p. 493). 

The statement of Gobban Saer having lived in the 7th century is ground- 
ed on one of Colgan's fables of Irish Saints. Mr. O'Brien translates it as 
follows (p. 382) : " Once iipon a time, there lived in Erin a man most 
celebrated for his universal mastery over wood and stone ; and whose fame, 
accordingly, will live therein, as long as grass shall grow or purling streams 
flow in its enchanting scenery. This good man's name was Gobhan, who, 
wallowing in wealth from the meritorious exertions of his abilities, yet 
incapacitated from enjoying it by the deprivation of his sight, was summoned 
before St. Abhan, who had already healed the rest of the world by his 
miraculous gifts, and who thus addresses him : ' I wish to build a house to 
the honour of God; and set you about it'. 'How can I' says Gobhan, 'seeing 
that I am blind f ' O very well,' says Abhan, ' I will settle that ; long as 
ever you are engaged in the business, you shall have the use of your eyes; 
but I make no promises afterwards !' And verily it was so, for long as ever 


he did work with the saint, he had the use of his sight, but soon as ever the 
work was done, he relapsed into his former blindness !" Is it not strange that 
the Saint, " who had already healed the rest of the world by his miraculous 
gifts," did not continue his gift of sight to the man to whom he was under 
such obligations ! 

This story is no better authority to prove that Gobban Saer lived in the 
7th century, than another legend, before alluded to, is to prove that 
Fintan the antediluvian lived to converse with St. Patrick ! I believe that 
St. Abhan himself was, like St. Shanaun, a myth. Such also were the ten 
St. Cobbans recorded in Mon. Hid. 

I have already observed that the identity of St. Abban with the celebrated 
Gobban Saer is, to my mind, placed beyond all question of doubt, by the 
following facts. First, that the Abbey of Brigoon (Cork), founded by St. 
Abban, was anciently called Bal-Gobban, and Brigh Gobban. Secondly, St. 
Abban himself, like Gobban Saer, had an extraordinary reputation for build- 
ing ; for we read that, " the same Saint [Abban] was a great builder, and 
founder of regular houses, for he erected fifteen in several parts of Ireland, 
if we believe Colgan." (Mon. p. 59). 

Mr. O'Brien, in noticing the analogy' between the fables of St. Abhan and 
St. Fintan, writes as follows (p. 385): "Well, 'to make a long story short, 
this same Fintan, who was converted into a salmon, for the sole purpose of 
accounting for his appearance on the same theatre with St. Patrick, is intro- 
duced to the saint. The anachronism committed in the instance of the 
Gobban Saer was precisely of the same character ! and the very name assign- 
ed him, which is that of a class, not of an individual, exposes the counterfeit ! 
Gobban Saer means, the Sacred Poet, or the Freemason Sage, one of the 
Guabhres, or Cabiri, such as you have seen him represented upon the Tuath- 
de-Danaan Cross at Clonmacnoise." Mr. O'Brien says elsewhere "To this 
colony, therefore, must he have belonged, and therefore the Towers, tradition- 
ally associated with his erection, must have been constructed anterior to the 
Scythian influx. 


"The first name ever given to this body [Freemasons] was Saer, which 
has three significations firstly, free; secondly, mason; and thirdly, Son of 
God. In no language could those several imports be united but in the 
original one, viz., the Irish. The Hebrews express only one branch of it by 
aliben; while the English join together the other two." 

These authorities seem to me to afford conclusive evidence, that the 
Round Towers were built by the " Gobban Saer' of the Tuath-de-Danaans, 
during the time of Tuath-de-Danaan dominion. I consider Mr. O'Brien's 
quotations and arguments satisfactory upon the point; and they are confirmed 
and greatly strengthened by the quotations of Dr. Petrie from the " Dinn- 
senchus" respecting the " dark race" (the Danaans), and from the " Annals 
of Ulster," respecting the cave of Cobban's wife. I might enlarge upon this 
subject by calling in question the opinions, that the supposed wife of Gobban 
was a woman, and that such artificial caves as those of New Grange and the 
" cave of the wife of Gobban" were made for sepulchral purposes ; but I 
think it more probable, that they were formed for the celebration of the 
mysterious rites of the goddess Aine the Cybele of the Irish, who is still 
spoken of as haunting the neighbourhood of New Grange. 

The site of Gobban Saer's abode, or Castle, is still pointed out in various 
parts of Ireland, viz : in the vale of Glenshirk, Co. Antrim; in the County of 
Mayo, about three miles west of Killala, on the road to Belmullet ; and again 
in the County of Kilkenny near the boundary of the liberties of Waterford, 
on the road from Waterford to New Ross. 

The name of Gobban is associated by tradition or history with seventeen 
localities, either as saint, or builder. All, except one, have been referred to 
in the preceding pages as sites of Cuthite Ruins, viz., No. 32, Glendalough ; 
No. 76, Killala; No. 5, Antrim; No. 156, Kilmacduagh ; No. 77, Turlough; 
No. 231, Roscom; No. 230, Kilbannon; No. 62, Bal-Gobban; No. 63, Kinsale; 
No. 64, Dar-Inis; No. 65, Kilamery; No. 69, Old Leighlin; No. 70, Teghda- 
Gobba; No. 74, Corcomroe; No. 75, Knockmoy; No. 92, Kinneth; and finally, 
with Holy-Cross. 


In conclusion, I would remark, that there is ample evidence whereon to 
ground my assertion that the name of Gobban Saer was connected with the 
Tuath-de-Danaans, or Cuthite inhabitants of Ireland. It is suggested in 
the Book of Ballymote above quoted, that he was of the " dark race," who 
left Tara with Lugh, the Tuath-de-Danaan King ; from which Dr. Petrie 
assumes, that he was probably of Tuath-de-Danaan descent. 

Combining this fact with another that one of the admittedly Tuath-de- 
Danaan mounds is called the " cave of the wife of Gobban," there seems to 
be no doubt that the name properly belonged only to Cuthite Mythology, 
and that the association of this name with certain localities affords strong 
evidence, that such places were once the sites of Cuthite temples, many of 
which are still to be seen in ruins, and presenting the distinctive features of 
that primitive architecture. 


I beg to refer the reader for the origin of this name " Cloich Teach " to 
an article in the Ulster Journal, vol. 7, p. 160, by Mr. Brash, of Cork, whose 
writings are of great value to the student of Irish Antiquities. Mr. Brash 
has clearly proved the etymology of this word to be a " stone house," from 
CLOICH " a stone," and TEACH " a house ;" a very suitable designation for 
the Round Towers and other Cuthite Temples, which, during the first 
thousand years of Celtic rule, were the only " Stone Houses " to be found 
in Ireland. 

When large bells began to be used for Christian purposes, the Round 
Towers were frequently found convenient for suspending them, and were 
appropriated to that purpose, and hence arose great confusion in the use of 
the name " Cloich Teach." 

The ancient Irish Bell was COELAN. The ancient Irish Pyramid was 
CLOGAD or CLOG. (See Ulster Journal, vol. 7, p. 157). The first Christian 
Bells being made in the form of the ancient Clog or Pyramid, the venerated 

p P 


name of the Pyramid, Clogad, was given to the Bell ; hence our common Irish 
word CLOG, Bell, and the English word " clock." 

When stone houses began to be built all over the country, whether as 
Churches, or for defensive purposes, the name CLOICH TEACH [stone house], 
as applied to the towers on account of the material with which they were 
built, became inappropriate as a distinctive appellation. However they 
still retained the name among the peasantry from ancient usage, and the 
occasional use of some of these towers for Bells led to all Bell-houses being 
called by the name Cloich Teach, whether built of stone, or wood. Thus 
some Round Towers were called Cloich Teach, whether used for Bells, or 
not, and some Bell-houses also were so called, whether made of wood, or 

I believe, that the Cloich Teach of Slane, which, the Annals inform us, 
was burnt to the ground A. D. 949, with all the bells, and a number of 
individuals therein, was a wooden Bell-house, made after the fashion of the 
day ; also, that the Cloich Teach of Tuam Green, erected 964, as well as 
the thirty-two Cloich Teaches, said by one of his biographers to have been 
provided by King Brian Boru, were all Bell-houses of wood. (See Ulster 
Journal, vol. 2, p. 67). To suppose that King Brien, who has not left us 
a vestige of any of his palaces either at Tara, or Killaloe, should have 
built thirty-two Round Towers, is simply absurd ! 


Mr. O'Brien thus explains this term : " FIDH is the plural of Budh, i. e. 
Lingam ; the initial F of the former being only the aspirate of the initial B 
of the latter, and commutable with it ; and NEMPHED is an adjective signifying 
divine or consecrated, from Nemph, the Heavens ; so that FIDH NEMPHED 
taken together will import the consecrated Lingams, or the Budhist conse- 
crations" (O'Brien, p. 105). 

This term FIDH NEMPHED is frequently used by the ancient Irish Annal- 


ists ; and Mr. O'Brien insists that the Round Towers are intended to be 
expressed by it in its original use. If not the Round Tower, I believe it 
was some symbol or ordinary appendage to the Round Tower worship, 
answering to the Grove of Scripture, which is associated with Baal. 

The Hebrew word Asherah, in the authorised version of the Scriptures 
translated " Grove," is another instance of the secondary meaning of an 
original word being preserved in use after the primary meaning became 
obsolete. I believe the word Asherah represented Female Nature, as Baal, 
the Sun, represented Male Nature. Bagster's Bible defines Asherah as a 
wooden Image dedicated to Astarte, or Venus (2 Kings xxi. 3), answering 
to ASTHORE or ASTORETH (pronounced AsthorecJi), a common Irish term of 
endearment, meaning, literally, my treasure, or my love. 

This interpretation simplifies the passage in i Kings xviii. 19. "The 
prophets of Baal four hundred and fifty, and the prophets of the Groves four 
hundred." Baal and the Grove are constantly connected throughout the Old 
Testament. We read of a Grove in the House of the Lord : " And he 
brought out the Grove from the House of the Lord" (2 Kings xxiii. 6), and 
again, 4th verse " all the vessels that were made for Baal and for the Grove." 

Both these passages prove, that the word " Grove" did not express a plan- 
tation of consecrated trees for the worship of an Idol, but the Idol itself. 

Two different words are in the Old Testament translated Grove. "Abra- 
ham planted a Grove in Beersheba" (Gen. xxi. 33). The word here trans- 
lated Grove is a different one from the others before mentioned. 

The Irish term Astoreth, or Asthorech, corresponds so exactly with 
Astoreth, the Phoenician Venus, as to leave no doubt of both terms having 
had the same origin. See remarks on these words in Glossary Post. 

The word FIDH also means " Trees," or "Wood," in its secondary sense; 
but this latter translation will not be often found appropriate. Lewis says 
of the name Fethard, on the sea-coast of Wexford, that it is " supposed to 
have derived its ancient name, Fiodhard, from the abundance of wood in the 
neighbourhood, though at present no part of the country is more destitute of 


timber." If the term be translated " the High Place of Budh, or Fidh," it 
will be found a most appropriate name for an ancient Religious Establishment 
deriving its name from Heathenism. 

Doctor Petrie treats at some length upon the meaning of this term FIDH 
NEMPHED. He says it means " Holy Wood;" and so far he confirms Mr. 
O'Brien's interpretation as to its secondary or modern meaning, the primary 
and religious signification having become obsolete, when the religion which 
gave rise to it ceased to be known. But Dr. Petrie furnishes an Irish quota- 
tion from an ancient account of the Siege of Troy, which strongly bears out 
Mr. O'Brien's interpretation. The passage is copied from a manuscript in 
Trinity College Library (H. 2. 17, p. 123). 

the quotation, are translated by Dr. Petrie "There was a FIDH NEMHEDH of 
difficult passage in the mountain." 

The whole quotation is thus translated by the Doctor: "This is the time 
and hour that the heroes of the Island of Lemnos were returning from the siege 
of great Troy. There was a Fidhnemhedh of difficult passage in the mountain 
next to them, and the women of the Island of Lemnos went into it to ask a 
response from the gods, and red-mouthed ravens came thither from the city 
of Infernusto disturb them; for Venus the woman-powerful and Eni (Bellona) 
the furious, the sister of Mars, goddess of war, were inflicting evils upon 
those women." 

Now observe, there is nothing in this quotation to prove that the FIDH 
NEMHEDH at Lemnos was not a Round Tower. The Irish words may be 
translated " There was a Fidh Nemhedh difficult to get into, or of difficult 
access," which, if it were a Round Tower containing an oracle, would be 
most appropriate. 

But the quotation itself is evidence, that the term FIDH NEMHEDH expressed 
some appendage to a heathen Oracle, and not anything belonging to Christian 
worship, unless it be pretended that Christianity existed at Lemnos during 
the Trojan war. 


The destruction of Armagh by lightning is recorded in the Annals of the 
Four Masters, A. D. 995 : thus translated " Ard-Macha was burned by 
lightning both Houses, Churches, and Cloich Teaches, and its Fidth 
Nemhedh with all destruction." Now in my opinion it is not improbable, 
that in this passage a Round Tower was intended to be expressed by the 
term FIDH NEMHEDH, and that such name had been associated with the 
Tower of Ard-Macha in the year 995, perhaps only as a name traditionally 
retained amongst the peasantry without any intelligence as to its original 
meaning. I think it very likely too, that the Four Masters, when two 
hundred and thirty years since copying from some more ancient records of 
the event, were themselves ignorant of the original meaning of the term 
FIDH NEMHEDH. It certainly is and has for a long time been obsolete, and 
must have belonged originally to some bygone pagan worship, of which we 
now know very little. 

I do not think that the notices in the Annals of either this term or CLOICH 
TEACH are of sufficient importance, or afford such substantial proof, as 
materially to affect the Round Tower controversy in any way. 


I must anticipate an objection likely to be made to my theory, on the 
ground of the inscriptions on a few of our Irish Crosses and doorways. 
To my mind this objection is scarcely worthy of notice, as all the inscriptions 
are, as to style, in marked contrast with the other workmanship about them. 
The inscriptions are all made with indented letters, while all the sculptures 
are in relief. An inscription might have been sculptured at any time 
subsequent to the making of the Crosses, etc. ; and the Christian Irish were 
evidently not very particular as to limitation in their use of the terms 
"erected" and " made," as we sometimes find on the same sculpture the 
honour of being the maker claimed by more than one individual, such as 



Pray for A. B., who made this Church. Pray for C. D., who made it. 
An inscription on the Cross of Kells informs us, that it was erected at the 
charge of Robert Bellew of Kells, in 1688, from which, if we had not 
substantial proof to the contrary in the character of the work itself, we might 
infer, that the Cross was the work of the seventeenth century. 


Fig. 131 represents an inscription on the base of the beautiful Cross at 
Monasterboice, the richest and most perfect specimen to be found in Ireland. 
Several Archaeologists have fortunately discovered in this inscription 
" sufficiently decisive evidence" that the Cross was made by Muiredach, Bishop 
of Monasterboice, who died in 924. Let the reader examine this beautifully 
sculptured Cross (fig. 51), and then let him reflect on the evidence of the 
learned Mr. Parker, who informs us that, " We have no sculpture of raised 
figures deeply cut, which can be proved, by any good evidence, to be earlier 
than the twelfth century or the end of the eleventh, either in England or 
France." Yet we are asked to believe, that the grotesque inscription on 
Monasterboice Cross is " decisive evidence" that the Cross was sculptured by 
the Irish shortly before the birth of King Brian Boru. The inscription 
affords strong evidence of the existence of the Cross in the days of Bishop 
Muiredach, who died A. D. 924, but of nothing more. The local tradition 
gives more probable information on the subject, though mixed with fable. 
It is said that the Cross was made by supernatural agency (with the others), 
in one night, and that the Angels, who made it, deposited it under ground in 
an adjoining field, which is still pointed out. There it was discovered in the 



morning, and at once brought to be erected in its present position. I think 
it probable, that Bishop Muiredach was the fortunate discoverer, and that its 
present perfect condition is to be ascribed to its having been for perhaps 2,000 
years buried in the earth. It certainly is less weather-worn than any other 
Irish Cross that I have seen. The portions least exposed to the weather are 
the sculptures under the arms of the Cross, which are still beautifully perfect, 
and shew the elaborate and elegant style in which the whole was originally 
executed (see fig. 132). 


It will be perceived, that the good Bishop's single name is cut up and 
subdivided into three portions by the heads of two nondescript animals. 
The verb " Dernad," " was made," and the word " Chrossa," " cross," are 
each also divided into three parts by the bodies of these animals ; thus Mu 
ire dach for Muiredach, D ern ad for Dernad, and Ch ro ssa for 
Chrossa. I know nothing to compare with this inscription, except Mr. 
Dickens's story of " Bil Stumps, his mark" as related in Pickwick. In other 
instances of inscriptions the Irish Christians acted differently, for they 


removed the Pagan Sculptures to make way for their rude inscriptions. If 
the author of this clumsy inscription were the Artist of the beautiful sculp- 
tures, it is difficult to understand what significance the two nondescript 
animals could have had to his mind he being a Christian that he should 
have introduced them into the space, where he intended to record his 
memorial, and solicit a prayer ; when it is evident, that he might easily have 
prepared a suitable tablet for his inscription. I have only to say in conclusion, 
that I believe the inscription to be Christian, and the Cross itself a pagan 

The only inscriptions that I have seen on ancient temples are that on 
Freshford Church, noticed at p. 261 ante, and another (an illegible inscrip- 
tion) on the beautiful doorway of Killeshin, in Queen's County. See Post. 
With these remarks I leave the arguments drawn from the inscriptions 
to the judgment of the impartial reader. 

Another objection I would anticipate is that grounded on the fact of the 
rich variety of illuminated ornament of ancient manuscripts, for which the 
Christian Irish were so justly celebrated, and the similarity of these illuminated 
devices to the ornamented sculptures found on the Crosses. For these I 
account by the fact, that the Irish Ecclesiastics, though neither builders nor 
sculptors, were scholars and well skilled in the use of the pen ; and having 
the ancient sculptured Crosses, with all their beautiful devices perpetually 
under their observation, it led to the taste for the illuminating of books in 
which, having only to imitate the devices left them by the ancients, they so 
far excelled any other nation of the Middle Ages. The variety and beauty 
of ancient Irish illuminated books however great by no means exceeds 
the beauty and variety found on ancient Irish sculptures ; and I venture to 
say, that O'Neill's beautiful and authentic work on ancient Crosses will 
furnish patterns of almost every device to be met with among the illuminated 
volumes of Medieval Ireland. 


THE examination of numerous ruins has led me to regard certain archi- 
tectural features as indicating Cuthite workmanship. It is unnecessary 
to trouble the reader with the course of reasoning, upon which my conclusions 
are based ; their correctness will be best tested by an examination of the 
ruins themselves. I shall describe each of these features very briefly, 
furnishing such general illustrations as will serve for future reference. The 
architecture of ancient Irish ruins presents such little variety of outline, 
that the illustrated representation of one doorway or window will answer for 
a great many others, thus avoiding the necessity of multiplying engravings. 

I shall notice in succession Round Towers, Stone-roofed Temples, Coigns, 
Buttresses, Semicircular Doorways, Cyclopean Doorways, Windows of wide, 
and of narrow splay, Sculptured Crosses, Plain Crosses, Pillar Stones, Holed 
Stones, Rock Basins, Holy Wells, Saints' Beds, Stone Coffins, Shrines,_and 
various other relics. 


I have from the beginning of this treatise aimed at assisting to throw 
light upon the subject of Irish Round Towers, but heretofore have alluded 
to them only incidentally, as remnants of ancient Irish architecture. A few 
general remarks upon such edifices may therefore not be inappropriate. I 
agree with Mr. O'Brien, in believing that they were Phallic Temples erected 
by the Tuath-de-Danaans, and their predecessors the Cuthite inhabitants of 
Ireland. Buildings answering to the descriptions of our Round Towers 





have been noticed by several writers, as existing in different parts of the 
world ; but everywhere despised, and to a great extent unused the memo- 
rials of a race whose name and religion have been lost and forgotten. The 
specimens of such Towers to be met with in eastern Europe and Asia are 
comparatively few and far between, because the conquerors of the race for 
whose religion they were erected left no vestiges of either the Towers or 
the other Temples of their predecessors, except sjuch indestructible Rock 
Temples as defied their efforts to destroy. The circumstances of Ireland in 
this respect were different. The Celts who conquered the Cuthites of 
Ireland had no stone buildings of their own, either for temples or palaces, 
and they seem to have utterly despised the stone works of their predecessors, 
and so allowed them to remain. In later times their superstitious venera- 
tion for these ruins was the means of preserving them to the present day, 
uninjured save by time. The English and Scotch " plantation farmers," 








however, having neither superstition nor a taste for Archaeology, have 
caused much destruction among the Irish ruins, wherever they have settled, 
and, in some cases, have removed all vestiges of them, leaving only the 
names to mark the sites of ancient ecclesiastical establishments. 

The only unquestionably Celtic remains of Ireland seem to me to be 
Cromlechs for the worship of the Sun in the open air, some circular mounds, 
known by the names " Cahir" or " Liss," probably used for the occasional 
protection of their cattle ; and the erections called Bee-hive huts, found near 
the sea-coasts, where timber (the ordinary building material) could not be 
obtained. To the exceptional character of the conquerors then, we are 
indebted for the fact, that the Temples of the conquered have been per- 
mitted to remain for 3,000 years to puzzle Archaeologists of the nineteenth 

Lists of Irish Round Towers have been made to the number of one 
hundred and twenty ; of these the remains of about sixty-six are traceable. 
Fig. 133 represents the Round Tower of Devenish, the best specimen at 



present existing in Ireland. Fig. 134 represents the beautiful cornice of this 
Tower, ornamented with four sculptured heads. 

The finest specimen of the heavy or Cyclopean architecture is to be seen 
in the base of the Round Tower of Kilmacduagh, alias Kilmachuile, a sketch 
of which is given at fig. 84. 


The best specimen of the close-jointed ashlar work of Round Towers may 
be seen in the base of Drumlane Tower (fig. 135). Fig. 136 is the doorway 
of this Tower. The worst specimen of Round Tower mason-work may 
be seen in the upper portion of this building (fig. 135), which is evidently an 
addition made in Christian times. 

As to the doorways of Irish Round Towers, of the sixty-six Towers 



which remain, only forty-six have got doorways, the others being reduced to 
their foundations, or else having otherwise lost their original entrances. 

Of these forty-six doorways, thirty-four are round-headed, what is com- 
monly called " Norman." Sketches of several of these will be found through- 
out this work, viz: Fig. 96, the doorway of Kildare Round Tower; fig. 97, 
that of Timahoe ; fig. 136, of Drumlane ; fig. 137, of Roscrea ; fig. 138, of 



Donoughmore ; fig. 139, of Monasterboice ; fig. "140, of Dysert, Co. Limerick ; 
fig. 141, of Clonmacnoise ; fig. 142, of Dysert, Co. Clare ; fig. 143, of Kilmac- 
duagh ; and fig. 144, of Glendalough. 

















The remaining twelve doorways are square-headed or quadrangular; three 
specimens of which are here represented, viz: Fig. 145, the doorway of 
Antrim Round Tower, (the ornament over which is more correctly exhibited 
in fig. 146). Fig. 147 is the doorway of Swords; and fig. 148 of Roscom 
Round Tower. Round-headed doorways generally exhibit a better style of 
workmanship and materials than are found in the quadrangular specimens. 
This is significant. 

It is often unsafe to ground a theory upon one fact, because there may be 
some unknown circumstance that might alter the inference to be deduced 
from it : but, where we find a combination of facts all pointing towards the 
same result, the argument grounded thereon is all but irresistible. 

We find all respectable authorities unanimous in stating that the Celtic 
Irish, who preceded the English, had no architecture whatever in stone and 


mortar. See page 7, ante. Next, we find that nearly three-fourths of the 
existing Round Tower doorways are round-headed, or in the (so-called) 
" Norman" style. We must therefore assign the Round Towers of Ireland 
to the 1 2th and subsequent centuries, unless we are disposed to ascribe them, 
and the order of Architecture which produced them (as I believe we should), 
to Cuthite colonies who preceded the Celts. But the fact that more than 
eighty of the supposed sites of towers are places associated with the names 
of 5th and 6th century Saints, or heathen divinities, affords in itself substan- 
tial grounds for concluding that these edifices existed before the Norman 
Conquest, and if so, before the Christian era. Added to this there is the 
negative proof arising from the silence of History as to the erection of any 
one of them. 

Giraldus Cambrensis alludes to them as existing in his day and peculiar 
to the country, not as in course of erection by his countrymen. He calls them 
" Ecclesiastical Towers, which, in a style or fashion peculiar to the country, 
are narrow, high, and round." (" Turres ecclesiasticse quae more patrio arctae 
sunt et altse necnon et rotundse"). (Topog. p. 720). 

The windows of Irish Round Towers exhibit striking peculiarities. 


FIG. 149. CASH EL, 

FIG. 150. DYSERT, 


QUEEN'S co. 
R R 





Figs. 149 to 156 represent eight of them, which comprise almost every 
variety of Round Tower window to be found in Ireland. There seems to 
have been a symbolism which we do not understand in the construction of 
these apertures, as they are unlike any windows found in the other ancient 
Temples or Churches of Ireland. 



Figs. 157 to 162 are sketches of Irish Round Towers, which are only valu- 
able as affording some idea of the progress that decay and dilapidation have 
made upon these structures. The more perfect specimens (not here repre- 




'>,-".'V'V'f v '"' ' 





sented) are those of Killala, Turough, Scattery, Rattoo, Kildare, and Cloyne. 
These all presenting the same general outline, though varying in height 
and in details are sufficiently shown in fig. 133, the Tower of Devenish. 
The conical top appears on all the specimens that are perfect, but the summits 
of the towers of Kildare, Cloyne, and Kilrea are castellated, this being the 
mode in which restorations were executed in medieval times. 

Of Round Towers found elsewhere than in Ireland, I shall notice a few. 

Fig. 164 is a Tower described by Hanway, as found at the Ruins of 
Jorjan, near Asterabad in Persia. The conical top is exactly like that of 
Irish Round Towers. See fig. 163, Antrim Round Tower. 

Fig. 165 represents a Round Tower in Hindostan described by Lord 
Valentia. He says of such buildings : " It is singular that there is no tradi- 
tion concerning them, nor are they held in any respect by the Hindoos of 
this country." In this latter particular, as well as in their general form, and 
their having the doorway not on the ground Jevel, they resemble our Irish 
Round Towers. 










Fig. 1 66 is the Tower of Coel, near Allyghur, in India, as described by 
Captain Smith, late 44th Regiment. (See Bethams Etruria Celtica, vol. 2, 
p. 200). I would ask the reader's attention to the name COEL, that of the 
place where this Round Tower is found. The name frequently occurs in 
association with Irish topography and legends. (See pp. 80-82, ante], 
The coincidence is singular and worthy of attention. 

Fig. 167 is from Markhawis Travels in Peru. It represents a sepulchral 
tower on the borders of the lake of Umayu. He writes (p. 1 10) : "A 
very ancient civilization existed on the shores of Titicaca, long before the 
appearance of the first Incas of Peru." The author contrasts these ruins 
with buildings erected during the dominion of the Incas, noticing " the minute 
detail in the carving on the stones, while the chief characteristic in the build- 
ings of the Incas consists in the grand simplicity of the masonry" Describing 
ruins of the same character at Sillustani, Mr. Markham mentions " Towers 
of finely-cut masonry, equal to that of Cuzco, with the sides of the stones 
dovetailing into each other." 

The tower represented (fig. 167) is " thirty-six feet high, and built of 
the same well-cut masonry, with a cornice and vaulted roof." 

We have here portrayed four specimens of towers, found respectively in 
India, Persia, and Peru. The intelligent observer will find no difficulty in 
perceiving certain features of peculiarity, which identify them with Irish 
Round Towers. In one we have a succession of rings or offsets, such as 
appear on some of the Irish towers Ardmore and Dysert, for instance. 
In another we have the conical top, exactly the same as that of all Round 
Towers throughout Ireland which remain perfect. And in the masonry of 
the Peruvian specimen, we have several instances of what has been else- 
where noticed as jointing peculiar to Cuthite masonry, illustrations of which 
are found in figs. 122 to 126, as well as in other representations of ancient 
Irish masonry throughout this work. 

The names of these places are also worthy of note as bearing resem- 
blance to, and connection with, Irish topography. Titi-caca, Aster-abad, 



and Coel have all their counterparts in Ireland ; where Coca is only another 
reading for Cocca, the nurse of St. Kieran ; -Asthore (love, in Irish) 
becomes Aster for euphony, when used as a compound; and Coel is 
literally represented (as before observed) in Coole Abbey, Co. Cork, and 
Kilmacoole, alias Kilmacduagh, Co. Galway, etc. 


I annex Stephens' illustration of two ancient American Towers. Of the 
first (fig. 1 68) he writes (p. 135, vol. i, Travels in Yucatan) : 

" The mounds were all of the same general character, and the buildings 
had entirely disappeared on all except one ; but this was different from any 
we had at that time seen, though we afterwards found others like it. It stood 

on a ruined mound about thirty feet high The exterior is of 

plain stone, ten feet high to the top of the lower cornice, and fourteen more 
to that of the upper one. The door faces the west, and over it is a lintel of 
stone. The outer wall is five feet thick ; the door opens into a circular 
passage three feet wide, and in the centre is a cylindrical solid mass of stone, 
without any doorway or opening of any kind. The whole diameter of the 
building is twenty-five feet, so that, deducting the double width of the wall 

and passage, this centre mass must be nine feet in thickness." 



Of the second Tower (fig. 169) he says (vol. 2, p. 298): " It is circular 
in form, and is known by the name of the Caracol, or winding staircase, on 
account of its interior arrangements. It stands on the upper of two terraces. 

A grand staircase forty-five feet wide, and containing twenty 

steps, rises to the platform of the terrace. On each side of this staircase, 
forming a sort of balustrade, were the entwined bodies of two gigantic Serpents, 
three feet wide, portions of which are still in place; and among the ruins of 
the staircase we saw a gigantic head, which had terminated at one side the 
foot of the steps. . . . . On the platform, fifteen feet from the last step 
stands the building. It is twenty-two feet in diameter, and has four small 
doorways facing the cardinal points. A great portion of the upper part and 
one of the sides have fallen. Above the cornice the roof sloped so as almost 
to form an apex. The height, including the terraces, is little short of sixty 
feet, and when entire, even among the great buildings around, this structure 
must have presented a striking appearance. The doorways give entrance to 
a circular corridor five feet wide. The inner wall has also four doorways, 
smaller than the others, and standing at intermediate points of the compass, 
facing northeast, northwest, southwest, and southeast. These doors give 
entrance to a second circular corridor, four feet wide, and in the centre is a 
circular mass, apparently of solid stone, seven feet six inches in diameter; 
but in one place, at the height of eight feet from the ground, was a small 
square opening^ choked up with stones, which I endeavoured to clear out, 
but the stones falling into the narrow corridor made it dangerous to continue. 
The roof was so tottering that I could not discover to what this opening led. 
It was about large enough to admit the figure of a man in a standing position, 
to look out from the top. The walls of both corridors were plastered and 
ornamented with paintings, and both were covered with the triangular arch. 
The plan of the building was new; but instead of unfolding secrets, it drew 
closer the curtain that already shrouded with almost impenetrable folds these 
mysterious structures." 

The opening, " large enough to admit the figure of a man in a standing 


position to look out from the top," seems to have been provided for the 
purpose which O'Brien describes. He says : " In Hieropolis, or the 'Holy 
City,' in Syria, a Temple with a Tower was erected to Astarte. .... 
Twice a year a man went up to the top of the Priap, and there remained 

seven days On these occasions crowds used to come with 

offerings," etc. (See O'Brien, p. 168. Also Lucian De Dea Syria). 

All these Towers exhibit the same characteristics, with only such varieties 
as the pircumstances of the time and taste might be supposed to produce in 
nations so far separated from each other by distance, as well as by the fact 
of their probable ignorance of each other's existence. These characteristics 
seem to be, circular shape conical or truncated tops having four heads 
sculptured as on the Round Tower of Devenish (fig. 1 34), and on the pillar 
at the Temple of Carli (fig. 2) or, four windows or openings at the top, as 
in our Irish towers, as well as on one specimen in America. 

Mr. O'Brien, in page 229, referring to a relic of Eastern idolatry, presented 
by Colonel Ogg to the Museum of the East India Company, describes as 
thereon a Lingam with four heads near the top. " Those four heads," he 
adds, "represent the four gods of the Budhist Theology, who have appeared 
in the present world, and already obtained the perfect state of Nirwana; viz: 
Charchasan, Gonagon, Gaspa, and Goutama." In page 248, he refers to what 
he calls an enigmatical declaration of the Budhists themselves, viz : -" that 
the Pyramids, in which the sacred relics are deposited, ''be their shape what it 
will, are an imitation of the worldly temple of the Supreme Being' ' Mr. 
O'Brien also says, in a note (p. 122), "This Farragh, otherwise Phearragh [the 
old Irish war-cry, and also a phrase still in use among the peasantry expres- 
sive of the utmost contempt], is the Peor of the Scriptures and the Priapus 
of the Greeks." " Priapus, sepkysice consideretur idem est ac sol; ejusque 
lux promogenia, unde vis omnis seminatrix" Diod. Sic., lib. i. See also 
Num. xxv. ver. 4, where you will see that 'Peor remotely meant the sun." 

Such a combination of numerous facts as are here noticed has left no 
doubt upon my mind as to the Cuthite origin of all these edifices : however, 



the subject is one upon which no man has a right to dogmatize, and therefore 
the reader must be left freely to form his own opinion on what is said in 
defence of each theory. 



All the ancient temples of Ireland had, I believe, stone roofs ; but, as 
such a roof is the first part of a building likely to give way, we find only a 
few specimens of Temples still retaining their original coverings. The first 
of these that I shall notice is the Temple called Cormac's Chapel at Cashel 
a highly-ornamented structure, built with cut-stone within and without. 
Several illustrations of the ornamental work of this Temple may be seen 


throughout the preceding pages. The Temple itself is represented at fig. 1 70. 
The upper portion of the square tower of this temple is a reconstruction. 
The original top was probably pyramidal. The other temples which I now 
remember as retaining their stone roofs are Kilmelchedor Oratory, County 
Kerry ; St. Columb's Oratory at Kells, Co. Meath ; Louth Oratory ; the 
Chancel of the parish church at Rahen, King's County ; and the Ruin at 
St. Doulough's, Co. Dublin ; but each of these is either quite plain, or has 
undergone so many repairs and alterations, as to have retained little more of 
its original character than the general outlines and stone roof. 

The smallest stone-roofed temples consisted of only one room ; the next 
in size had a nave and chancel ; and the largest a nave, chancel, and aisles, 
with a roof supported by massive stone pillars. The pitch of the roof was 
always very steep, and in the highly-ornamented temples such as Cormac's 
Chapel the first roof was a semicircular arch, having a chamber over it 
with pointed roof. Where no second roof was introduced, a pointed arch 
formed the interior covering. Of the temples, which have any portion of 
the original edifice standing, nearly all have been altered and enlarged in 
early Christian times. This enlargement was generally effected at the east 
end, as it was usually found more easy to remove the eastern windows out 
of their places than the massive western doorways ; but in some instances 
both doorways and windows are found to be re-settings. 


The ordinary size of ancient Irish temples was small in comparison with 
the Christian edifices that succeeded them, yet there is every probability 
that the religion, with which these temples were associated, required larger 
buildings in central situations. We accordingly find a few such, which, 
though built on a larger scale and in some respects in a different form, are 
proved beyond doubt by the style of workmanship, the details of ornament, 
and other analogous characteristics, to have been constructed by the same 


people as those who erected the smaller temples. There is one circum- 
stance which I have observed with regard to the larger temples : they seem 
never to have acquired ecclesiastical importance during the early Christian 
period, and they do not appear to have been used as Christian Churches 
until the end of the i2th century. This remarkable circumstance is easily 
explained ; for, while the other roofless ruins were sufficiently small to be 
covered in after the fashion of early Christian architecture and incorporated 
with the monasteries, the larger ones were altogether unsuited to any 
such assimilation ; and although they might have attracted the wonder 
of Irish ecclesiastics, it required more architectural skill to roof one of these 
lofty structures, even with thatch and rushes, than Irish builders possessed 
prior to the close of the i2th century. The ruins of large-sized ancient 
temples were therefore left to the legends of the peasantry, who ascribed to 
them a supernatural origin. However, when architectural skill improved, these 
also were brought into use and made parts of abbeys or monasteries. Thus 
it is that remains of Cuthite architecture are distinctly observable at 
Corcomroe Abbey, built by Donald O'Brien in the year 1 198, and at Knock- 
moy Abbey, built about the same period by Cathal O'Connor : but the 
neighbouring peasantry have a curious legend, that Corcomroe was erected 
in one night by the " Fian of Eirin" under the direction of Gobban Saer, and 
a somewhat similar story is related of Knockmoy. Each of these buildings 
exhibits two styles of workmanship as different as possible from each other. 
At Corcomroe we find the chancel, and other works about the chancel, of the 
most perfect and beautiful workmanship in cut-stone, while the remainder of 
the building (about three-fourths of the whole) is of the rudest workmanship, 
in the ordinary style of the 1 2th century, with subsequent alterations and 
additions. The windows of the chancel have inclining jambs and are built 
in first-class ashlar, jointed in that style which abounds in the Irish Cuthite 
architecture. Fig. 124 represents three specimens of the ashlar work of the 
piers of this window. Not only is this building itself ascribed to Gobban 
Saer, but the holy well at the place is associated with the pagan name of 


Sheela a dedication which it undoubtedly received in heathen times, long 
anterior to the I2th century. 

The Abbey of Boyle is another ancient temple converted into a Christian 
building in the I2th century. The place is called Bile by the peasantry, and 
is probably identical with the ancient foundation called Bile-Fechan, or Bile 
ascribed to St. Fechan. The temple of Boyle retains more of its ancient 
outline and is more perfect, than either of those just mentioned. The ancient 
wall about the western doorway is still standing, and, judging from appear- 
ance is about eight feet thick, built in that style of ashlar with irregular 
joints elsewhere described as Cuthite masonry. There is a stair-case built in 
the thickness of this wall, the lower part of which to the height of about 
eighteen feet is formed of skilfully-cut stone steps with a well-executed centre 
pillar or newel, while the remainder of the stair-case to the top consists of 
rudely-cut steps, each ending with an angle such as was used in all the early 
Castles and Monasteries of Ireland. If the ruder style of workmanship were 
at the foundation and the better towards the top, we should at once pronounce 
the former to be the antique of the I2th century, and the latter the improved 
work of a subsequent period : but the facts being as they are, we can only 
account for the most ancient part being beyond comparison the more excel- 
lent, by supposing the structure to have been originally a Cuthite Temple, of 
which the foundations and the lower portions remained at the close of the 
1 2th century, when they were appropriated to Christian uses, and the ruder 
superstructure added by architects of that period. The case is exactly 
similar to that of the Round Tower of Drumlane (fig. 135), the foundation of 
which to the height of 22 feet, including the doorway, " is constructed of 
carefully wrought sand-stone, and is equal in execution to the Tower of 
Devenish itself;" but from this point " a change takes place in the material and 
workmanship, the remainder of the Tower being built of coarse rubble work 
of the meanest description." {Ulster Journal, vol. 5, p. 1 14). That is to say, 
the foundation of the Tower remained intact from the era of Cuthite occupa- 
tion until the i ith or 1 2th century, when the upper portion was added to adapt 


it for use as a Bell-tower, and, if the reader will take the trouble to examine 
all the Irish Annals of the i2th century, it is probable he will 'find some 
record informing him that Drumlane CLOICH TEACH was "finished" about 
that period. 

The transept walls of Boyle at each side of the chancel arch are also 
ancient to the height of the springing of the arch, but from that point to the 
top the work is of coarse rubble. The same remark is applicable to all these 
buildings. The skilful masonry being recognised in the ancient work, and 
coarse rubble in the comparatively modern superstructure. There is much 
reconstruction with the old materials in all these buildings, and it is some- 
times so well executed as to render it difficult, except for a practised eye, to 
distinguish the ancient from the modern. The Cuthite characteristics are 
however clear and unmistakeable. 

Baltinglas and Jerpoint Abbeys are also built on the ruins of ancient 
temples ; but we shall not stop now to describe these buildings, as they shall 
be afterwards noticed in detail. All appear to have had originally massive 
stone roofs supported by rows of pillars at each side. 

The general style of the ancient Temples at Jerpoint, Boyle, Baltinglas, 
etc., with their pillars and aisles, explains the sculpture in the interior of 
Cormac's Chapel and Kilmelchedor Temple. All these temples were 
probably designed after the pattern of some great original temple perhaps 
Noah's Ark itself, and therefore, in small buildings like Cormac's Chapel 
and Temple Melchedor, where no pillars or aisles existed, the miniature 
representation of them is exhibited in the stone-cutting of the walls, in which 
semi-detached pillars and arches abound. Each side-wall of Kilmelchedor 
is divided into six panels or spaces, separated by semi-detached semi-circular 
pillars, each about four feet high from their bases to their capitals. The ex- 
ternal surface of the south wall of Cormac's Chapel is divided in its ornamenta- 
tion into representations of three stories, cut in the stone, and answering to 
the Bible description of the Ark "With lower, second and third stories shalt 
thou make it." (Gen. vi. 16). This idea also accounts for some peculiarities 



found in the Rock Temples of India, which an Archaeologist, who wished 
to prove them of comparatively recent date, said, were in many respects 
constructed in imitation of well-wrought carpenter's work. He inferred from 
this fact, that the Indian Temples must be comparatively modern, whereas 
I infer from the same fact, that they are the most ancient temples in the world, 
and made in imitation of the Ark of Noah itself. 

I have before quoted Thevenot's description of a Rock Temple in Persia, 
consisting of three chambers, one over the other, one only of which (I suppose 
the upper one) has got an arched roof, the others being flat (see p. 16). This 
description confirms my opinion, that all these temples Irish as well as 
Persian- were made in imitation of the great primitive model, the Ark of 



Many of the ancient Irish temples present the peculiarity of the side- 
walls extending from 10 to 1 8 inches beyond the gable, as shown in fig. 171, 
which represents the temple of St. MacDara, Co. Galway. The object of 

T T 


these buttresses seems to have been to lighten the lateral pressure of the 
roof on the gables, by a supplemental support for its centre of gravity. 
MacDara's Temple is the most perfect in Ireland, that exhibits this peculiarity 
of buttress. Numbers of Irish ruins exist, in which one or more buttresses 
appear near the foundation, but they are not continued to the eave in the 
alterations made for Christian worship. I know of no ancient buttresses 
now to be found in any part of Ireland, except at places associated by 
hagiology or topography with the name of some heathen divinity. My 
observations upon the numerous specimens I have seen have induced me 
to regard the existence of a buttress, at an ancient foundation associated 
with the name of some Cuthite divinity, as prima facie evidence that a 
portion of the ancient temple is still in its original position. It should, 
however, be noticed that, although buttresses are frequently found, they were 
by no means an indispensable appendage to ancient temples, as, in numerous 
instances, they do not appear to have ever existed. MacDara's Temple 
is particularly interesting as the only existing example of buttresses with a 
stone roof; and the perfect outline which this temple presents, enables us to 
complete in imagination twenty-four temples that still retain their buttresses, 
but from which the stone roofs have disappeared. 


Many of the ornamented temples of Ireland have their outer angles 
protected by coigns, cut like a circular pillar in form, and in ordinary size 
similar to the newel of a stone stair-case. Some specimens do not project 
beyond the line of the side wall, others project from the wall to the extent of 
half the diameter of the pillar; and a third class are found to project still 
further. Different specimens are found from three to eight inches in diameter. 
This moulding is introduced profusely in all the ornamental work of what is 
called the " Irish Norman." It is found on doorways of Round Towers, 
windows and doorways of temples, and on several ancient Crosses. Its 


purpose manifestly was to protect the angles from casual damage, by presenting 
a rounded instead of a sharp edge, a very ingenious and efficient contrivance. 
I would here remark that all the Cuthite ornamental architecture found in 
Ireland is of the most solid and durable description, as if adapted to a people 
whose lives were prolonged beyond the ordinary limits of our generation. 
All ornaments within the reach of casual damage are worked in low relief, 
with rounded projections, and consequently not so liable to injury from an 
accidental knock as the ornaments of modern architecture : they are even 
more indestructible than the common rectangular edge. Such is the style of 
ancient Irish ornament; but, in positions out of the reach of accidental damage, 
as on lofty capitals, and the roofs of chancels, we sometimes observe orna- 
ments cut in higher relief; fine specimens of which are still to be seen in their 
original perfection at Kilmacduagh, Co. Galway, and at Corcomroe, Co. Clare. 


There are several varieties of doorways with semicircular arches in 
Ireland. Some are highly ornamented ; as, for example, Clonkeen, County 
Limerick (fig. 88) ; Dysert, Co. Clare (fig. 89) ; Freshford, Co. Kilkenny 
(fig. 101). Others, such as Rahen Church, King's County (fig. 103), are less 
ornamented ; and many are found without any decoration whatever, as at 
Sheeptown (Knocktopher), Co. Kilkenny (fig. 104). Some elaborate 
specimens seem to have been constructed with a porch in front ; the door- 
way of Freshford, just mentioned, is an example of this style. There is 
first the ornamented inner doorway, with its semicircular head and sculp- 
tures. About two feet in front is a semicircular arch, presenting a jamb of 
about one foot in width ; and outside of this is a larger arch, ornamented in 
the same style as the inner arch, with a rich variety of sculpture. 

The ornaments (fig. 9) are found on the capitals of the arch of the porch 
at Cashel Temple. The roofs of porches of this style form a very acute 
angle, which may be observed in the direction of the outer lines of fig. 101. 


In a few instances ancient doorways have arches slightly pointed ; from 
which fact, as well as from several specimens of ancient double windows 
with pointed tops, I conclude that both the pointed and the semicircular arch 
was in use among the Cuthites. 


Flat-headed doorways are of frequent occurrence in ancient Irish temples. 
They have all the characteristics of those which, in Greece and Italy, are 
called Cyclopean. The material is generally massive, and the jambs always 
incline inwards from the base. Numerous fine examples of this style are to 
be found in the illustrations of this work. See figs. 70, 72, 73, 75, 77, and 
78. I have myself examined forty-eight specimens of this style throughout 


I have described the different varieties of ancient windows in preceding 
pages (268 to 280), and therefore need only repeat here that windows of 
wide splay are narrower in the outer than inner opening, being generally 
from six to eight inches wide on the outside, and about sixty inches on the 
inside, while the windows of narrow splay are usually ten inches wide on the 
outside, and about thirty inches wide on the inside. 

The windows of narrow splay are always single, while those of the wide 
are often double, as in fig. 105, and sometimes triple. The heads of windows 
of wide splay are always formed of several stones wedged together into a 
semicircular arch, while the whole arch of a window of narrow splay is some- 
times found to consist of only one stone reaching through the full thickness 
of the wall. The narrow are almost always quite plain the wide are some- 
times highly ornamented, as in the case of the Church of Annaghdown, Co. 
Galway, fig. 107. This window (as already shown) has been widened in its 


reconstruction. Windows of wide splay are introduced in temples of the 
largest class ; and in such buildings the opening is larger in proportion to the 
building itself. The largest ancient window in Corcomroe Temple is fourteen 
inches wide in the outer opening. In most instances, windows of wide splay 
are found to be reconstructions removed from their original positions, the fine 
stone-cutting and close jointing being however usually preserved with much 
care. The reason seems to be, that most of these ancient temples were 
increased in length to adapt them to Christian uses, and the enlargement was 
generally made at the East end, the windows (as I before mentioned) being 
more easily removed and re-set than the massive doorways. 


There are numerous specimens of Crosses, both sculptured and plain, to 
be found in Ireland. The sculptured Crosses with the ornaments upon 
them have been fully treated of in a preceding chapter. (See figs. 15, 
1 6, 50, and 51, ante). There is also another class of Crosses, of which many 
examples still exist. The Cross is sculptured in relief without arms and 
within a circle on pillar-stones. These are now chiefly used at Holy Wells 
as stations for prayer. Many of the pillar-stones are of doubtful date, but 
I believe all that have the Cross skilfully sculptured within the circle are 
ancient. Seven of such Crosses are to be found at Glencolumbkill, Co. 


Holy Wells exist, or have existed, at most of the places to which I have 
referred as Cuthite foundations, and we have strong grounds for inferring 
that the worship at such wells had its origin in heathenism. Indeed, this 
conclusion is confirmed by the concurrence of high ecclesiastical authority, 
the veneration for such Wells, and the religious services called Patterns 


performed at them on certain Saints' days, having been of late years 
discountenanced by the Roman Catholic hierarchy. The wells are generally 
connected with the names of St. Columb, St. John, St. Colman, St. Bridget, 
St. Senan, St. Kieran, or St. Patrick, and some others. 

I have in a former chapter endeavoured to show, that the wells now 
dedicated to St. John (Tubber Ion) had the origin of their worship from 
Damater Juno under the name of lun, the Dove. 


I would direct the reader's attention to the cylindrical mass of stone which 
Stephens tells us he found in the centre of the American Round Towers. (See 
p. 319, ante). This I suppose to be the same as the Mahody of Elephanta, the 
Mui(dh)r of Ireland, and the Lingam of all the Rock Temples of Hindostan. 

I annex, from General Vallancey's Collectanea, a description given of this 
Idol by Captain Pyke in his account of the Cave of Elephanta, and also 
Vallancey's own account of a similar stone on the Island called Innis 
Mui(dh)r, now Inis Mura, or the Holy Island, near Sligo. 

The General writes as follows (vol. 4, p. 212) : " Innis Mui(dh)r 
now Inis Mura and the Holy Island, or Island of Saints, is about nine 
miles distant from Sligo. Here, not only the ruins of the caves are to be 
seen, but the Cloich Greine, sun stone, or Muidhr, from whence the island 
takes its name, is still remaining in its most perfect state, being a conical 
pillar of stone (fig. 1 74), placed on a pedestal, surrounded by a wall to pre- 
serve it from profanation. This is the /uuS/ooc of the Greeks (fig. 172), and 
the Mahody of the Gentoos. Apud Emissenos solis simulacrum erat grande 
saxum conicum nigrum, quod jactabant a Cselo fuise delapsum. (Herodian). 

" Captain Pyke landed in the island of Elephanta, near Bombay. In 
the midst of a Gentoo temple he found a low altar, on which was placed a 
large polished stone of a cylindrical form, standing on its base, but the top 
was rounded or convex. The Gentoos, says he, call this the stone of 


Mahody, a name they give to the original of all things. And this hierogly- 
phic of the Supreme Being is intended to shew, that it is beyond the limited 
comprehension of man to form to himself any just idea of Him that made 
the world." 

Captain Pyke was informed by the worshippers " That this sacred 
stone is dedicated to the honour of Mahody, who created the universe, and 
his name is placed under it, and therefore that stone, which defends the 
name of the great and inconceivable God from all pollution, is itself a holy 
memorial and monument of what cannot be described ; but is not itself a 
God, yet being thus placed, though a stone, no profane or polluted man 
ought to touch it." (See fig. 173). 

Vallancey proceeds : " This is certainly the stone Herodian saw at 
Emissa, in Phoenicia, where, says he, they worship Heliogabalus ; but he 
saw no image fashioned by men's hands, but only a great stone round at 
bottom, and diminishing towards the top in a conic form. Our Mui(dh)r 
and the Mahoody of the Gentoos are not conical, but only columns of circu- 
lar bases rounded at the tops (fig. 1 74). Muidhr in Irish, in the ancient 
glosses, is written for Midhr, which is explained by the ray of the sun." 

The Muidhr enclosed within a wall, as above described, is not unlike 
the accounts of similar stones found by Stephens among the Ruins called 
"Cassadel Gobernador," Yucatan. I copy from him (vol. i,p. 181): " Near 
the centre of the platform, at a distance of eighty feet from the foot of the 
steps, is a square enclosure, consisting of two layers of stones, in which stands, 
in an oblique position, as if falling, or, perhaps, as if an effort had been made 
to throw it down, a large round stone, measuring eight feet above the ground 
and five feet in diameter. This stone is striking for its uncouth and irregu- 
lar proportions, and wants conformity with the regularity and symmetry of 
all around. From its conspicuous position, it doubtless had some important 
use, and in connexion with other monuments found at this place induces the 
belief that it was connected with the ceremonial rites of ancient worship 
known to have existed among all Eastern nations." 



Fig. 175 represents a Pillar-stone now standing on the Hill of Tara. It 
was found buried in the ground on a part of the hill called Bel- Pear, 
and was removed after the year 1 798 to mark the grave in which a number 
of "Croppies" were buried, who had been shot by the king's troops. The 
name of the place (Bel-Pear), from which the stone had been removed, is 






significant. I believe it to be identical with Baal-peor of the Scriptures ; 
which, like the Priapus, Muidhr, and Mahody, was the emblem of the Sun as 
the source of generative life. 

Another Pillar-stone, square in form, stands on the Hill of Tara in the 


Church-yard. On ft is sculptured the well-known figure of the Irish Sheela- 
na-gig, from the original name of which I believe the Irish word CLUAIN the 
Stone of Ana, was derived. 

In the foregoing, the reader will observe that the stone of Bel-Pear at Tara 
is a conical pillar (the stone called Cloich Kieran at Cape Clear is precisely of 
the same form) ; and that Herodian describes the sun as worshipped in Phoenicia 
under the form of a conical stone. Diodorus Siculus identifies " sol" with 
" Priapus:" at Inis-Muidhr, County Sligo, a stone of a similar form is by the 
people called " Cloich Greine," literally, " the stone of the Sun" (fig. 1 74) : 
the " Mudros" of the Phoenicians is also represented as a " conical stone" 
(fig. 172) : at the temple of Elephanta, the Divinity who created the universe 
is worshipped under the form of a similar stone (fig. 1 73), and under the name 
Mahody, answering to our St. Mochudee of Lismore. The name of the Island 
near Sligo, at which the Cloich Greine, or Stone of the Sun, is described 
to be, is Inis-Muidhr " Muidhr, in the ancient glosses, is written for Midhr, 
which is explained by the ray of the sun." The modern name of this Island 
is Inis-Mura, the name of the celebrated, but mythical Saint Mura. Thi: 
Saint is thus far identified with the Mahody of Elephanta, and St. Mochudee 
of Lismore, one of the names of Cuthite divinity. The patron Saint of Inis- 
Mura, or Inis-Muidhr, is St. Molaise, another Cuthite derivation, which I 
have elsewhere shewn to be nearly identical with Molaice, Molach in the 
genetive case. 

From the facts just mentioned, I am further disposed to conclude that, 
with the ancient Cuthites Budh was never the proper name of their divinity, 
except in a secondary sense. The simple English of the Irish word "Budh' 
is a house or tabernacle, from which is the Irish word "Bothan" (pronouncet! 
Bohaun), a tent, a small house, or cabin. The invisible God of nature, beinp;, 
by the Cuthites, supposed to reside in this Tabernacle, the form of it becam 
venerated accordingly as the emblem of the Divinity. This remark is con 
sistent with all I have before said about the god Budh. I believe the existin. 
Budhists of India to be, like the other heathen religions, only a sect of com- 

u u 


paratively late introduction, knowing very little of the real character of the 
ancient Lingajas. I have sometimes applied the name Budhists to this ancient 
sect the first apostates from truth to mark the Phallic character of their 
worship (others have done so before me), though I think it probable such 
name was never borne by the Lingajas themselves, when existing in power. 
The Irish word TEAMPOLL, a Temple, is worthy of attention, as bearing 
upon this subject. The original temple having been round in form, the 
name of the temple began to be used as an adjective, and we have accordingly 
the Irish word Timp(cJi)ioll^ round, i. e. Temple-shaped. We have also the 
common phrase " Rienca Timpioll"-to dance around, alias the Temple 
dance. When in time the religious connection between the name "Temple," 
and the peculiar circular form of the temple became lost, the original word 
became separated into two words, and the letters were slightly altered to 
mark their distinction, two silent letters " ch" being introduced. Thus we 
have, at this day, the word TEAMPOLL, a Church, a Temple, and TIMP(CH)IOLL 
round, cr a circuit. 


In treating of the term Dia-Baal (p. 67), I ventured to suggest, that the 
Greek word AmjSoXoc was derived from the name of the Cuthite divinity 
Baal. To illustrate the theory suggested respecting Holed Stones, it may 
not be amiss to repeat that Dia-Baal was the chief Deity among the Cuthites. 
It means, literally, The Lord God, and was probably the name under which 
God was known to Noah and his predecessors. 

The Pelasgi were among the conquerors of the Cuthites ; therefore Baal, 
or Dia-Baal, never was recognised as a god among the Greeks (nor were 
the other Cuthite divinities, Molach, Dagan, etc.), and inasmuch as Giants, 
Titans, and Demons, were the names by which the Cuthites were known 
to the Greeks, it is but reasonable to suppose, that their divinity (under 
his proper name of Dia-Baal) should be regarded as the chief Demon or 
Devil. It is quite possible that the term j3aXXo>, to throw, may have arisen 



from the ancient Cuthite game of Ball-playing an account of which, as a 
religious ceremony among the ancient Americans, may be seen in Stephens 
Yiicatan, vol. 2, p. 306. The spherical Ball was an emblem of the Sun ; and 
Ball-playing will be found to have been a very ancient amusement, frequent 
mention being made of it in the Finian legends of Ireland. The American 
game, according to Stephens' authority, was played on a grand scale in 
honour of the divinity of the Ball, in a large open area between two walls of 
great thickness. A Holed Stone was set in each wall (fig. 176), and the 
fortunate player who succeeded in passing the Ball through the hole was the 
winner of the game. I transcribe the account of this ancient American 
Ball-playing from the description of the Ruins of Chichenitza in Stephens 
Yucatan, vol. 2, p. 306. 

"In the centre of the great stone walls, exactly opposite each other, and 
at the height of twenty feet from the ground, are two massive stone rings, 
four feet in diameter, and one foot one inch thick ; the diameter of the hole 
is one foot seven inches. On the rim and border were two sculptured 
entwined serpents, represented in the engraving below. 



" These walls, at the first glance, we considered identical in their uses 
and purposes with the parallel structures supporting the rings at Uxmal, of 
which I have already expressed the opinion, that they were intended for the 
celebration of some public games. 

" In the account of the diversions of Montezuma, given by Herrera, we 
have the following : ' The place where they played was a ground room, 
long, narrow, and high, but wider above than below, and higher on the sides 
than at the ends, and they kept it very well plastered and smooth, both the 
walls and the floor. On the side walls they fixed certain stones, like those 
of a mill, with a hole quite through the middle, just as big as the Ball, and 
he that could strike it through there won the game ; and in token of its 
being an extraordinary success, which rarely happened, he had a right to 
the cloaks of all the lookers-on, by antient custom, and law amongst 
gamesters ; and it was very pleasant to see, that as soon as ever the Ball 
was in the hole, the standers-by took to their heels, running away with all 
their might to save their cloaks, laughing and rejoicing ; others scouring 
after them to secure their cloaks for the winner, who was obliged to offer 
some sacrifice to the idol of the tennis-court, and the stone through whose 
hole the Ball had passed. Every tennis-court was a temple, having two 
idols, the one of gaming, and the other of the Ball. On a lucky day, at 
midnight, they performed certain ceremonies and enchantments on the two 
lower walls and on the midst of the floor, singing certain songs or ballads ; 
after which a priest of the great temple went with some of their religious 
men to bless it ; he uttered some words, threw the ball about the tennis- 
court four times, and then it was consecrated, and might be played in, but 
not before. The owner of the tennis-court) who was always a Lord, never 
played without making some offering and performing certain ceremonies to 
the idol of gaming, which shews how superstitious they were, since they had 
such regard to their idols, even in their diversions.' " 

The use of the Holed Stones found in Ireland and elsewhere has never 
been determined. Might not some of them have been used for games 


of the same character as those above described, considering the game as 
combining amusement with religion ; and which, like the Maypole sports, 
survived the race by which they were first introduced ? 

Holed Stones are numerous in Ireland, and are generally connected with 
ancient superstitions. Young children are passed through them, also wearing 
apparel and bed-clothes, for preservation from diseases or for their cure. 
Several Holed Stones shall be noticed in the description of places where they 
are found ; but, for more complete information on the subject, the reader is 
referred to an article on Holed Stones by R. R. Brash, Esq., of Cork, in the 
Gent. Mag,, Dec. 1864. 


Fig. 177 represents a Holed Stone standing in the Church-yard of Castle- 
dermot, Co. Kildare ; where are also found a Round Tower, several ancient 
Crosses, and other ruins of Heathen times. 

These abound in Ireland ; and many of which no trace now remains are 


said to have existed at the localities referred to in the following pages, as 
Cuthite foundations. Several specimens still existing are noticed in the 
latter part of this work. 


At numerous localities to which I have ascribed a Cuthite origin basins 
are found, excavated in large rocks. They vary in size, the largest being 
about fifteen inches in diameter, by about ten inches deep. At some of these 
places only one basin is to be seen ; at others (Kilmelchedor, for instance) 
several are excavated out of one rock. All are invariably connected with 
superstitious legends. The miraculous cow at Kilmelchedor is said to have 
deposited her milk in these basins each day, in such abundance as to supply 
Fin-MacCuile and his army. The 3,000 pupils of St. Finian of Clonard 
(whom I have endeavoured to identify with Fin-MacCuile, see p. 81) were, 
in the same miraculous manner, supplied with milk by one cow. The basin 
at Glendalough is said to have been filled with milk by a wild deer, sent by 
God to feed an orphan : and at other places the rain water deposited in the 
basins is resorted to as a cure for sore eyes and other maladies. Mr. T. L. 
Cooke, in the Transactions of the Kilk. Arch. Association, vol. 2, pp. 53, 54, 
describes two Rock Basins at Kyle, or Clonfert Molua, in the King's County. 
He says : " About one hundred yards south-west of the grave is a large 
rock in its rough and natural state. Its upper surface contains two hemi- 
spherical or bowl-shaped cavities, each of which is somewhat more than a 
foot in diameter. This is called CLOICH-MOLUA, i.e. Molua's stone. In my 
opinion it was either an emblem of God, or an altar, and served for the pur- 
pose of religious worship in Pagan times. It closely resembles several rocks 
undoubtedly used in Pagan rites in various parts of the country. One of 
these is in the King's County, and bears the name of AN-MORA, the great 
Ana. This deity was the earth, the Pagan Irish magna Mater, or Mater 
deorum. AN also signifies a ring or circle, or cup, a bowl or round vessel. 


The hemispherical hollows in the rock at Kyle were, therefore, probably 
emblems of Ana. Until about sixty years ago a meeting used to be held 
annually at this so-called stone of St. Molua. This meeting was celebrated 
for dancing, merriment, and matchmaking. It was distinguished from the 
day dedicated to St. Molua by its having been held on the first of August, 
the day of the tournament instituted by Louis, called the long-handed. The 
anniversary of St. Molua was \hzfourth of August." 

The following quotation from Bryant respecting the origin of the name 
Titan may throw some further light on this subject. 

" The Giants, whom Abydenus makes the builders of Babel, are, by other 
writers, represented as the Titans. They are said to have received their 
name from their mother Titaea. Kotvwc St iravrag airo TTJC wrpog ovo^a^o/ucvovc 
TtTTjvac : by which we are to understand, that they were all denominated from 
their religion and place of worship. I have taken notice of some of the 
antient altars, which consisted of a conical hill of earth, styled oftentimes from 
its figure, Xo^oc /uaoroEtSrjc, a mound, or hill, in the shape of a woman's breast. 
Titsea (rtram) was one of these. It is a term compounded of Tit-aia, and 
signifies literally a breast of earth, analogous to Tirfloc amc of the Greeks. 
These altars were also called Tit-an, and Tit-anis, from the great fountain of 
light, styled An, and Anis. Hence many places were called Titanis and 
Titana, where the worship of the Sun prevailed." (Bryant, vol. 4, pp. 
64, 65). 

I shall not trouble the reader with a detailed statement of the inferences 
deducible from this quotation in connection with the matter on hand. It is 
enough to state that mounds, such as Bryant describes, abound in different 
parts of Ireland, and are still recognized as monuments of the Tuath-de- 
Danaans. Bryant's remarks may account for their shape, as well as the shape 
of the Rock Basins, being that of a woman's breast; but, whatever may have 
been the original use or intention of the Rock Basins, I have no doubt of 
their having been connected with Cuthite worship, and have therefore noticed 
them as Cuthite relics. 




Those who are acquainted with the ancient ruins of Ireland are aware, 
that at most of them the Bed of the Saint, the Stone Coffin, or the Shrine, 
is held in high veneration. Some particular spot is pointed out as the Bed 
of the Saint, sometimes the Grave, but generally the Bed ; and credulous 




people are still found, who lie in it with the hope of finding a husband or a 
wife within a stated time, or expecting thereby to be cured of certain com- 
plaints, for which the process is believed to be an infallible remedy. St. 
Finian's Bed at Inisfallen, out of hundreds of instances, is one well known 
to tourists visiting the Lakes of Killarney. St. Kevin's Bed at Glenda- 
lough is also well known. Almost all the other Saints enumerated in the 
Catalogue, commencing at p. 53, are said to have had their "Beds" at 
some one or other of the places connected with their names. 

A few specimens of the Stone Coffin are still to be seen. One is at the 
island of Devenish, Co. Fermanagh, the cover of which I have not been 


able to find. The coffin is cut out of one stone, and shaped like an 
Egyptian mummy-case. People lie down in it as a cure for rheumatism. 
Another of them is at Clones, in the County Monaghan, shaped like the 
Shrine or Ark represented at fig. 178. Several other specimens of these 
Stone Coffins are incidentally mentioned by archaeologists as existing at 
different localities throughout Ireland. My own opinion is that a Stone 

x x 


Coffin once stood at each place now called the Saint's Bed, and that, 
while time or mischievous hands led to the removal or destruction of 
the coffin itself, traditional veneration for its original site is still retained 
among the peasantry. 

Another relic connected with this division of our subject is the Shrine of 
the Saint. I know but one specimen of this relic now in existence. It is 
called the Shrine of St. Manchin, and is preserved in the Roman Catholic 
Church of Prospect, close to the station of that name on the Midland Rail- 
way, a few miles from Athlone. Fig. 1 78 represents a restored model of 
this ancient relic, made by Sir William Wilde, M. D., and which he was 
kind enough to place at my service. For further elucidation of the use of 
these relics, we must refer to the ancient Mysteries. I have already 
observed (see Section commencing at p. 168), that the notion of Death 
and Resurrection was invariably connected with the ancient Mysteries. The 
Ark was the emblem of Death to Noah and those enclosed in it, and their 
release from it was celebrated as a Resurrection. We know but little of 
these Cuthic or Arkite rites, save what may be gathered from the ancient 
authors, who have written, and often very obscurely, on their nature and 
practice. We cannot, therefore, speak dogmatically on the subject, but as I 
have remarked elsewhere, these Mysteries were probably an effort to revive 
(under the obligation of secrecy) the religion and superstitions of the 
Cuthite race long after their humiliation, and when the open profession of 
their religion would have exposed men to persecution from the ruling 
hierarchy. All the gross idolatry of Greece and ancient Egypt was set 
aside by the Mysteries for a corrupted system of Monotheism, and for cor- 
rupted forms of primeval doctrines respecting the Ark, Death, Resurrection, 
etc. Therefore it was that a miniature Ark such as the "Shrine" (fig. 1 78) 
was carried about in a boat on men's shoulders. A Stone Coffin also was 
provided, in which the hierophant was placed as a type of his death ; and 
his entrance into it was described as " descending into the Bed." The 
figures fastened to the Ark or " Shrine," as seen on fig. 1 78, or sculptured 


on the Arkite Rock Temples (fig. 67), represented the inmates as abiding 
in Death, until Born again by deliverance from the Ark. 

I have already stated, that all these superstitious ceremonies, as well as 
the numerous legends and traditions connected therewith, are corruptions of 
the true religion believed in by Noah, and I now offer a few quotations from 
a learned and reliable authority in support of my views. 

The following is Faber's testimony: " Ancient authors unanimously 
represent a certain sacred Ark, as being of prime importance in the due cele- 
bration of the Mysteries. . . Apuleius mentions the ark of Isis ; and de- 
scribes it as containing the secret symbols, which were used in the Mysteries. 
Plutarch, in treating of the rites of Osiris, speaks of the sacred ark ; 
which his long-robed priests were wont to carry, and which contained within 
it a small golden boat. Pausanias notices an ancient ark, which was said to 
have been brought by Eurypylus from Troy, and within which the sacred 
image or symbol of Bacchus-Esymnetes was inclosed : he likewise mentions 
certain arks, as being ordinarily dedicated to Ceres, who was worshipped 
in conjunction with Bacchus, just as Isis was in conjunction with Osiris. 
Eusebius informs us, that, in celebrating the Mysteries of the Cabin', the 
Phenicians used a consecrated ark. Clemens says, that a similar ark was 
employed in Orgies of the same Corybantic Cabiri, who were venerated in 
mount Olympus ; that it contained a symbol of Bacchus ; and that it was 
conveyed by the Cabiric brethren themselves into Etruria, where the mystic 

use of it was likewise adopted Celius Rhodiginus, on the 

authority of ancient writers, informs us, that in the Babylonian temple of 
Apollo, or Belus, there was a golden ark of wonderful antiquity. Pausanias 
very largely describes a cedar ark, which was placed in the magnificent 
temple of Juno at Elis, and within which Cypselus is said to have been 
inclosed by his mother when the Bacchidae sought his life. Every writer, 
who treats of Indian Mythology, notices the Argha or sacred Ark of the god 
Siva or Isa. . . . Thus it appears, that, in the due celebration of their 
kindred Mysteries, a certain holy ark has been equally used by the Greeks, 


the Italians, the Celts, the Goths, the Phenicians, the Egyptians, the Baby- 
lonians, the Hindoos, the Mexicans, the northern Americans, and the 
islanders of the Pacific Ocean." (Fader, vol. 3, pp. 118, 119, 120). 

Further on Mr. Faber continues " Various terms are employed by the 
Greeks to describe this mysterious ark : and they severally, according to 
their literal import, convey to us the idea of a chest, a coffer, a boat, a coffin, 
or a navicular ark such as that in which Deucalion and Pyrrha were pre- 
served at the time of the deluge. The phraseology of the Latins exactly 
corresponds with that of the Greeks ; leading us to view the mystic ark 
either as a chest, a boat, or a coffin. We may easily collect, that such also 
was the case with the language used by the old Egyptians and Syrians. 

This singular uniformity of expression can scarcely be attributed to 
mere accident ; so that, even if we had nothing further to adduce, we should 
be naturally led to believe, that the ark of the Mysteries was, for some 
reason or other, viewed in the double light of a boat and a coffin. 
The mysteries of Adonis or Baal-Peor were of precisely the same nature as 
those of Osiris, and referred to the very, same event. He was first bewailed 
as dead ; but after a proper time, his votaries forgot their former grief, and 
with loud acclamations celebrated his supposed revival." (Vol. 3, pp. 121, 
122, 127). 

" The sacred ark was a necessary instrument in the due celebration of the 
Eleusinian Mysteries. It was borne in solemn procession on the back of 
an ass ; because an ass was deemed a symbol of Typhon or the ocean, 
which sustained upon its waters the Ark of the deluge : and its contents, 
according to Clemens Alexandrinus, were certain conical pyramids, cakes 
formed so as to exhibit the semblance of navels, pomegranates, and the 
hieroglyphic of the female principle. These were all significant emblems, 
employed universally by the ancient idolaters." (P. 130). 

" This succession of deaths and revivals, of dissolutions and regenerations, 

was equally taught and shadowed out in the Mysteries The 

image of the great father was occasionally committed to a soros or stone 


coffin, instead of a wooden ark or floating coffin. . . Among the Romans 
an island in the Tiber was converted into a temple for Esculapius, who was 
one of the eight Phenician Cabiri, by being so faced with stone -work as to 
exhibit the figure of a large ship : and hence a notion prevailed that the 
ship of Bacchus was once changed into stone. . . . And thus the soros 
or stone coffin of Osiris, which has so often been mistaken for the literal 
coffin of some really deceased king, may still be seen deposited in the central 
chamber or artificial grotto of the great pyramid." (Pp. 135, 137, 138). 

Again in p. 181, vol. 3, Faber remarks: "It is remarkable, that they 
[the aspirants to initiation into the orgies of Mithras] were not only caused 
to be figuratively born out of a grotto ; but likewise that they went through 
the ceremony of a sort of baptismal immersion, which represented the death 
and resurrection of the votary or (what was considered as synonymous) his 
death and regeneration. Tertullian imagines that this was a diabolical imi- 
tation of the Christian rite of baptism ; but it existed long before the promul- 
gation of Christianity, and equally constituted a part of the Mysteries of I sis 
and Cybele." 

Mr. Faber sums up his whole chapter on the subject as follows : " The 
Mysteries being a scenical representation of the actions and sufferings of the 
chief hero-god, we may now perceive the reason, why a sacred bed formed 
an important part of their apparatus ; Clement of Alexandria tells us, that, 
in the formula used by one who had been initiated, he was taught to say, ' I 
have descended into the bed-chamber.' The ceremony here alluded to was 
doubtless the same as the descent into Hades ; and I am inclined to think 
that, when the aspirant entered into the mystic cell, he was directed to lay 
himself down upon the bed, which shadowed out the tomb or coffin of the 
great father. This process was equivalent to his entering into the infernal 
ship : and, while stretched out upon the holy couch in imitation of his figura- 
tively deceased prototype, he was said to be wrapped in the deep sleep of 
death. His resurrection from this bed was his restoration to life, or his re- 
generation into a new world." (Faber, vol. 3, pp. 311, 312). 


These quotations abundantly prove how the Miniature Ark, the Stone 
Coffin, and the Bed, were inseparably connected with the Mysteries. Faber 
tells us, that " for some reason or other" such were the facts ; and I have 
ventured to suggest, that these mysterious ceremonies were corruptions of 
the religion of Noah ; and that the worship of Baal-berith, or Baal-peor (of 
which the Mysteries were a revival), had its origin in the great facts of 
primeval religion. Undoubtedly this derivation of the mysteries must have 
for a long period strengthened their hold upon the minds of the ancient 
Cuthites and their descendants ; but corruptions gradually crept in, until at 
length the Arkite symbols lost all their primitive spiritual significance, and 
became themselves the objects of a debased materialistic worship. 

Having throughout endeavoured to prove that the first apostacy of the 
post-diluvian world Scythism or Cuthism was the religion of the ancient 
Irish, we now see how very appropriate it is, that the Shrine or Ark, the 
Stone Coffin, " the Image of the great father," and the Saint's Mysterious 
Bed, should be found in Ireland in connection with names so clearly proved 
to be those of Cuthite divinities. The Shrine is represented at fig. 1 78. 
Stone Coffins are to be seen at Devenish, and elsewhere throughout Ireland. 
The wooden Image of St. Molaise is at Inis-Murry, and that of St. Brenaun 
at Inis-glory ; and Saint's Beds are frequently met with. 

Fig. 1 79 represents the ceremony of carrying about an ark in a boat, in the 
Mysteries of Isis. The ark was called the Shrine of Ammon, and is copied 
by Dr. Pocock from certain Egyptian sculptures, of which Bryant says (vol. 
i, p. 312): " It may be worth while observing, that the originals, whence 
these copies were taken, were of the highest antiquity ; and probably the 
most early specimens of sculpture in the world. Diodorus mentions that the 
Shrine of Ammon had eighty persons to attend it ; but Dr. Pocock, when he 
took these copies, had not time to be precisely accurate in this article." The 
reader may infer from fig. 1 79 for what purpose the so-called Shrine of St. 
Manchin (fig. 1 78) was used in former times. 

The crucified figures in the sculpture depicted at fig 67, from a Persian 



Rock Temple, may assist in explaining the mummy-like figures on the 
Irish Shrine. The similarity of the design would seem to confirm the idea, 
that the figures were intended to signify the inmates of the Ark, under- 
going the process of mysterious death, which was supposed to be exhibited 
in Arkite ceremonies. 


Among the fragments of Cuthite architecture which remain in Ireland, 
Chancel Arches should be noticed, as in some instances they are found in 
their original positions when every other vestige of the temples to which they 


had belonged has been removed or reconstructed. The most perfect as well 
as the most beautiful specimen of this class of Arch is to be seen in Tuam 
Cathedral. It consists of five concentric semicircles, elaborately ornamented 



in low relief. The devices on the capitals and at the springing of the arch on 
one side are given in fig. 180. 

A new Cathedral is now in course of erection at Tuam, and when completed 
it will be a very handsome edifice. The only portion of the former building 
deemed worthy of a place in the new structure is the Chancel Arch here 
noticed ; which, like the ancient doorway of Kilmore Cathedral (referred to 
p. 27), is beyond comparison superior to any portion of the Church in which 
it now appears. 

Another very beautiful specimen of the ancient Chancel Arch is that at 
the building called the Cathedral of Iniscaltra, Co. Gal way, which, with the 
left hand jamb of the western doorway (all that now remains of it), is repre- 
sented at fig. 1 8 1. 




_ > 


A plain specimen of the same kind of Arch is that of Mochuarog's temple 
at Glendalough, fig. 182. 

The Chancel Arches of ancient Irish temples, like the doorways and 
windows, have the prevailing characteristic of slightly inclining jambs, and 
the material and workmanship with which they are constructed exhibit that 
closely-jointed and finely-wrought masonry that identifies them with the other 
fragments of architecture, which throughout this work I have designated as 
Cuthite remains. 



On the day that the above page was sent me by the printer, I received 
a copy of Sir William Wilde's most interesting work, " Lough Corrib," which 
had just been published. His intimate knowledge of the locality has 

Y V * 


enabled him to furnish interesting drawings of several ancient buildings that 
had escaped my notice. How many others there may be in the remote and 
little known districts of Ireland, presenting like objects of interest to the 
Archaeologist, it is difficult to conjecture. 

Sir William Wilde's opinions are altogether different from mine as to 
the date of these buildings, and the purposes for which they were erected. 
Following Dr. Petrie's theory, he supposes them to have been Christian 
Churches of the 5th and following centuries; while my endeavour has been 
to show that such edifices were built as temples for pagan worship many cen- 
turies before the Christian era. 

At page 79 of Lough Corrib, we find an illustration of the base of a 
Round Tower (situated in the parish of Kilcoona, and four miles N. N. E. 
from Annaghdown), the stones of which are in some instances " cut into each 
other after the manner of the ancient Cyclopean masonry." And although 
Sir William expresses himself as " inclined to believe it is that referred to 
by the annalists as having been erected in 1238," he acknowledges that the 
site is associated with the name of St. Coona, of the yth century. This 
Saint is also called St. Cuannan, and described as the maternal brother of 
St. Carthag, and brother to St. Endee [the one God] of Aranmore. The 
reader may remember that Cianan, Endee, and Carthage alias Mochudee, 
have been mentioned by me as names of Cuthite patriarchs or divinities. 
See pp. 56, 84, and 89. 

At p. 142, Sir William Wilde furnishes us with illustrations and descrip- 
tions of two very ancient Churches on the island of Inchangoill, Lough 
Corrib. As usual, one of these is plain or Cyclopean, and the other highly 
ornamented, with a doorway not unlike that of Dysart (fig. 89, ante.} In 
discussing the probable ages of these buildings, Sir William assigns one (the 
plain or Cyclopean) to the very early age of the Irish Church the time of 
St. Patrick, with whose name it is associated ; while the other he supposes to 
be " decidedly anterior to the date of the Anglo-Norman conquest," though 
between the erection of this and the former "some centuries must have elapsed." 


But it is difficult to reconcile this opinion with the fact that, in one important 
particular, both these doorways resemble each other : each of them has got 
slightly inclining jambs, being some two inches wider at the bottom than at 
the top. Portions of the walls of both Churches are also built in the style 
which Sir William Wilde defines as " usually called Cyclopean." My opinion 
on the age and use of both these Churches may be gathered from all that has 
been written in the preceding part of this book ; viz : that both buildings 
were Cuthite temples, erected neither in the 5th nor in the I2th century, but 
long before our era. The difference of style between the two is owing to 
their dedication to different divinities. What was there, we may enquire, to 
induce the use of Cyclopean architecture in the 5th century in Ireland alone, 
and in no other country of Europe ? Why should the Normans of the I2th 
century have chosen, almost invariably, a site associated with 5th or 6th 
century Saints (or heathen deities) for their buildings ? And why should they, 
in the 1 2th century, have relapsed into the Cyclopean peculiarity of sloping 
jambs, which never was in use in the real Norman architecture of England 
or France ? 

Several other ancient and very interesting ruins that I have not noticed 
are described in Sir William Wilde's book, and, although I may dissent from 
the conclusions he has suggested in respect to the age and uses of these 
structures, I consider his work a most valuable contribution to our national 
literature, which every one desirous of making himself acquainted with Irish 
antiquities should possess and study. 


" I ^HE following is a brief notice of more than 200 Temples or sites of 
i Temples, at which some Cuthite Remains, such as are referred to in 
the preceding pages, are still to be found. 

I have not contemplated an exhaustive description of these numerous 
remains of Cuthite worship. Such a work would need a more minute local 
knowledge than a cursory inspection enabled me to acquire, and a higher 
degree of artistic skill with a greater command of language than I can boast. 
I therefore resign such a task to other and more competent hands. Mean- 
while the following brief particulars will enable the tourist to find the exact 
locality and characteristic features of each example adduced. And this will 
obviate inconvenience and disappointment ; for experience has taught me 
how much time, trouble, and money are lost in archaeological investigations, 
by the want of such information as is here supplied. 

With respect to the occasional mention of certain interesting features 
that attracted my attention, the reader is warned not to presume from the 
absence of such descriptions, that objects of interest do not exist. Many of 
the localities have been visited by me twice, and oftener, but seldom without 
my discovering some remarkable feature that had previously escaped my 

The Maps referred to throughout the following pages are the sheets of 
what is called the " General Map of Ireland," published by the Ordnance 
department, and laid down on a scale of one inch to a statute mile. The 
whole of Ireland is comprised in 205 Maps or sheets, each of which com- 
prises an area of 180 square miles. They used to be sold for sixpence each, 

ANTRIM. 355 

but the price has recently been raised to one shilling per sheet. Any Map 
required can be had from the agents, Messrs. Hodges, Smith & Co. 

The places here described are among those mentioned in the Catalogue 
commencing at page 55, reference to the number in which is annexed to the 
name at the head of each description. 


No. 5. ANTRIM. 

The Round Tower is the only relic of ancient building at Antrim. It is 
situated in the demesne of G. J. Clarke, Esq., and within five minutes walk 
of the Railway Station, (Map 28). The tower is in excellent preservation, 
being one of the most perfect in Ireland. It is only ninety-two feet in height, 
and in size is one of the smaller class. An accurate section of this tower 
may be seen in the Ulster Journal of Archeology, vol. 3, p. 15. 

Fig. 145 is the doorway as represented by Doctor Petrie. The Cross 
over the doorway, which is more accurately represented in fig. 146, has been 
relied on by some as affording proof of the Christian origin of this building ; 
but in my opinion it furnishes no such evidence, inasmuch as the doorway 
itself is manifestly a reconstruction in which much of the old materials were 
used. The work was well executed on the outside, but no effort seems to 
have been made to conceal the patch-work on the inside ; and the Cross 
itself is like the design which so often appears in heathen sculptures. It 
therefore affords no evidence of having been executed within the Christian 

Interesting notices of all the Round Towers of Ulster may be found in 
the Ulster Journal of Archeology, to which I shall occasionally refer. For 
the articles on the Round Towers of Antrim see vol. 4, p. 131. " In a garden 
adjoining the tower is a large detached mass of basalt, having nearly a level 
surface, in which are two cavities or basins, evidently the work of art, of 


which the larger is nineteen inches in length, sixteen inches wide, and nine 
inches deep" (Lewis, p. 39). 

Antrim is a foundation ascribed to the 5th century. It is associated with 
the names of St. Oadh, alias Mochay, and St. Cronan. 


Is situated about ten miles N. E. from Ballymoney Railway Station, and less 
than one mile E. from the town of Armoy (Map 14). It is described as a 
foundation of the 5th century, by St. Patrick for St. Bolcan (or Volcan), of 
whom we read : " The mother of St. Bolcan died about the year 440. 
After her interment a noise was heard in the grave, which being immediately 
opened, the child was providentially taken out alive. St. Patrick received 
this infant of birth so extraordinary, baptized and educated him," etc., 
(Archdall, p. 13). The Round Tower is the only vestige of antiquity which 
now appears at Armoy. About forty feet of this Tower are still standing : 
it has been much altered by repairs, but the doorway presents a fine specimen 
of the semicircular and plain style. For further particulars, see Ulster 
Journal of Archceology, vol. 4, p. 174. 

No. 157. MUCKAMORE, 

Situated about two miles S. E. by S. from Antrim Railway Station (Map 
28). The only vestiges of the Abbey which remain are now patches of a 
garden-wall, and possess no special interest for the Archaeologist. Lewis 
describes " a rude pillar consisting of a single stone now called the hole 
stone, or old stone," but this also has disappeared, although the tradition of 
it is preserved there in the name of " Old-stone Hill." Muckamore is a 
foundation of the 6th century, ascribed to Colman-Elo. The ancient name 
was Machairimor, for which I would read Machair-di-mor the great god or 


goddess Machar. See remarks on the Cuthite terms MACHAR, and MACHA, 
pages 60 and 61, ante. 

I cannot certify the existence of a single example of the ancient Cuthite 
doorway or window in the County of Antrim, save such as are found in 
Round Towers. However I do not mean to assert that specimens may not 
exist. Antrim and other northern counties afford in this respect a very 
different result to Archaeological investigations from what may be found in 
other counties. Antiquities seem to have disappeared in proportion to 
the spread of civilization. Flax-mills and bleach-greens have in the north 
taken the place of the ancient Cuthite temples with their appendages, which 
are still found in the southern and western counties. 


No. 57. ARMAGH. 

The only vestiges of unquestionable antiquity which I have observed at 
Armagh (Map 47) are the fragments of a large sculptured Cross, which, 
judging from the size of the portions that now remain, must have been at 
least twenty-six feet in height when perfect. Armagh is a foundation 
of the 5th century, ascribed to St. Patrick. The names of St. Lasre 
[Molach], and St. Bridgid are also associated with it. 

The ancient name, Ard-Macha, may be interpreted, The high place of 
Macha a goddess worshipped by the Tuath-de-Danaans. See p. 60, ante. 

Armagh is the chief town of the County of the same name, and may be 
reached by train. It is about 27 miles from Dundalk. 


The modern Clonfeacle is a town situated (Map 47) on the boundary of 
the Counties Armagh and Tyrone, five miles N. W. from Armagh. The 


foundation is ascribed to St. Lugad [Luan, The Moon] in the 6th century. 
I have suggested (pp. 80 and 81), that this place derived its name from the 
celebrated Fin-MacCuille of Irish tradition. Ancient Hagiologists assert, 
that it was so named from one of St. Patrick's teeth preserved as a relic at 
the Monastery. The Church-yard or burying ground of Clonfeacle is an 
immense mound of earth, which appears to have been formed by the accu- 
mulation of centuries of interments. One ancient Cross, without sculpture 
or inscription, stands as the head-stone of a grave, about eight yards from 
the west wall of the Chapel. There are no other interesting relics of 


The Ruin of Kilsleive was dedicated to St. Darerca a supposed Saint of 
the 5th century. It is situated (Map 59) at the foot of Sleive Guillen 
Mountain, and about four miles W. S. W. from the town of Newry. The 
Ruin itself is very interesting, as there are still to be seen a small ancient 
window and an ancient Cyclopean doorway ; but even these seem to have 
been re-settings in Christian times. The buildings now consist of one 
quadrangle no feet long, divided in the centre by a wall. The ancient 
window is placed in the cross-wall dividing the building. There are some 
portions of the ancient masonry remaining, but the greater part of the building, 
as it now stands, seems to be the work of early Christian times. The 
locality abounds with superstitious legends and heathen traditions, in all of 
which Fin-MacCuille, his dog Bran, Tuath-de-Danaan witches, and Finian 
heroes, are prominent actors. 

Sleive Guillen mountain is the scene of the beautiful Ossianic poem of 
" The Chase," translated by Miss Brooke, on which account the locality has 
long been regarded with interest by the antiquary. See article " Folk Lore," 
Kilk. Arch. Journal, vol. 2, p. 32. 




Situated less than three miles to the east of Leighlin Bridge, and three 
miles N. E. by N. from the Railway Station of Bagenalstown (Map 137). 
Here is a most interesting ruin an ancient Cuthite temple, which underwent 
less alteration in Christian times than is usual in buildings of this class. The 
west end is of ancient work, but the eastern portion seems to have been 
rebuilt with the old materials and enlarged. At the west end is a Cyclopean 
doorway in a tolerably perfect state. There is an ancient window re-set in 
the eastern wall, and the head-stone of a window of narrow splay has been 
built into the northern boundary wall of the church-yard. This temple was 
associated with the name of St. Fintan, the antediluvian fish already noticed, 
p. 127, etc. It is built of granite, which seems to have been originally well- 
cut and squared, but it is much weather-worn. Ancient Buttresses are still 
to be seen at the western end. There are some other relics of antiquity 
about the church-yard, which will be found worthy of notice. 


Situated less than three miles W. from Leighlin Bridge (Map 137). 
This place acquired considerable importance in early Christian times ; and, 
as in numerous other similar instances, the ruins of the ancient temple were 
altogether removed to make way for buildings more appropriate to the worship 
of the day. Such complete removal has taken place almost invariably in the 
case of ancient temples, which, like Old Leighlin, have ultimately become 
the sites of Protestant Churches. The only fragments of unquestionable 
antiquity that I have been able to discover here are the outer stones of one 
ancient window re-set in the western wall of the north transept of the Church. 
There is also the base of an ancient Cross standing in the church-yard, and 
sundry fragments of architecture of a doubtful character which I shall not now 

z z 



notice. The foundation is associated with the names of St. Laserian 
[Molach] and St. Gobban. There is no trace of the Holy Well " famous for- 
miracles," which Ledwich informs us had been on the west side of the Church. 
The ancient Cross (save the base already noticed) has disappeared. 


No. 221. DRUMLANE, 

Situated eight miles N. W. from Cavan (Map 68). I have already ex- 
pressed my opinion (p. 325) that the lower twenty feet are all that remain of 
the ancient Tower, and that the upper portion has been an addition made in 
Christian times to adapt the Tower to the purposes of a Belfry. The ancient 
part is described in the Ulster Journal of Archeology, vol. 5, p. 113, as 
" carefully wrought sand-stone, equal in execution to the tower of Devenish 
itself ;" but the upper part, the modern structure of the Christian period is 
described as " coarse rubble-work of the meanest description." This is quite 
in accordance with the views advocated in this work of the immigration into 
Ireland many centuries before Christ, of a highly civilized Heathen (Cuthite) 
people, well skilled in Architecture ; and the long relapse of that art, which 
succeeded their expulsion, extending even to the eleventh century of our era. 
Figs. 135 and 136 represent the doorway of this tower and the style of 
masonry in the ancient portion. 

No. 158. KILMORE, 

Situated (Map 68) three miles W. S. W. from Cavan. The foundation is 
ascribed to St. Columb in the 6th century. 

The only relic of antiquity now remaining is a beautiful doorway of the 
Cuthite style already described (see page 2 7), where I stated and now repeat, 
that " This relic of ancient times owes its preservation to the fact of Bishop 
Bedell's having been imprisoned during the wars of Charles the First's time 
in the island of Cloher-Oughter. He there saw this beautiful doorway, which, 


on being restored to his See, he got transferred to the Cathedral of Kilmore." 
The island of Cloher-Oughter (also called Trinity Island) is in the lake near 
the Cathedral of Kilmore. The doorway is perhaps the most perfect specimen 
of the Cuthite (misnamed " Norman") style, and one of the richest in sculpture 
of any in Ireland. 


No. 145. BALLAGHBOY, alias DOORA, alias BUNOUN. 

The ancient temple of Ballaghboy is situated half a mile to the east of 
Ennis Railway Station (Map 133). Like most of the ancient temples, it is 
a modern re-construction on the old temple site. 

There are remains tf four ancient windows, two of which, at the eastern 
end, are in their original positions. Two others in the south wall seem to 
be re-settings. A small Cyclopean doorway in the north wall, has been 
built up, and another of the early Christian style opened in the south wall. 
Two ancient sculptured heads, one like that of a dog, are built into the 
south wall. Most of the stones of the eastern window have been taken 
away by the mechanics .of Ennis, to be used as whet-stones, but the top- 
stone and sill of each window still remain to attest the character of the 
original structure, which seems to have been a building of the plainer style. 

The base of the northern wall is a very fine piece of masonry, and 
evidently ancient. 



Several ancient religious foundations of the 5th century, associated with 
the names of St. Senan, St. Bridget, St. Fineen, or St. Moronoc, are said to 
have existed on the Islands at the confluence of the Shannon and Fergus 


rivers. But I have not been able to discover any architectural vestige of 
remote antiquity on any of them, except one small Church or temple on 
Coney Island ; and even of this building the only interesting portion remain- 
ing is a small Cyclopean doorway, neither a good nor a perfect specimen. 
It is situated (Map 142) ten miles south from Ennis. 

The ruins of a Monastery of the i2th century are still to be seen on 
Canon Island, for the building of which it is probable the materials of the 
ancient temples on the adjoining islands were removed. 


Situated (Map 114) twenty miles N. by W. from Ennis, and four miles E. 
from Ballyvaughan. 

I must refer the reader to p. 323 for evidence of the heathen origin of the 
first ax\& finest temple erected at Corcomroe, one of the stone-roofed temples 
of the larger size. The Monastery is said to have been founded by Donald 
O'Brien, before the year A. D. 1198 ; and about three-fourths of the present 
building exhibits the style of workmanship of his time with subsequent altera- 
tions and additions. In and around the chancel, however, are portions of the 
genuine artistic work of ancient Cuthite architecture, which, for beauty and 
skill in workmanship, has rarely been equalled by any modern Irish work. 

The Chancel window consists of three openings, having inclining jambs, 
and divided by massive piers built in first-class ashlar, and jointed in that 
joggled style, which appears so frequently in the ancient Cuthite architecture 
of Ireland. Fig. 1 24 represents three specimens of the jointing in these piers. 
Not only is the erection of the original edifice ascribed by the peasantry to 
Gobban Saer, but the Holy Well on the spot is associated with the Pagan 
name of Sheela, a dedication which it undoubtedly received in remote heathen 
times. Corcomroe Abbey was occupied as a Monastery for four hundred years 
from its erection in the 1 2th century, during which interval the science of 
architecture made great progress in Ireland, and consequently so many 


re-constructions and alterations of the ancient portions took place, that it is 
impossible to distinguish between all that is ancient and all that is modern in 
the ruins that now remain. 


Is situated two miles N. W. from Ennis (Map 132). Here are the 
remains of a Round Tower, the masonry of which is massive, but neither 
doorway nor window now exist. 

The only vestige of ancient work, which I have been able to discover 
about the Church adjoining the Tower, is the inner arch of the doorway. 
This seems to have belonged to the original (Cuthite) temple. The 
superiority of the stone-cutting and the style of jointing found in this fragment 
exhibit a decided contrast to the remainder of the building. 

There is no record, written or traditional, respecting the supposed 
foundation of this ancient religious establishment, although it gives its name 
to the parish, in which the town of Ennis is situated. Probably it has not 
been used as a Church since the building of the Monastery at Ennis, in the 
early part of the i4th century. 


Dysart is situated (Map 123) six miles N. W. from Ennis, and Rath is 
one mile N. W. from Dysart. These probably belonged originally to the 
same religious establishment, as the same fictitious Saints and legends are 
associated with both places. 

There is a Round Tower at Dysart, of which fifty feet are standing, 
including the doorway, which is larger than ordinary, having inclining jambs 
and a semicircular top. See fig. 142. 

The Church is for the most part an early Christian building, with some 
materials of the ancient temple worked into it. The southern window is 
ancient and of wide splay, of the class represented in fig. 107, but without 


ornament, the upper portions of its arch being a rude re-construction. The 
foundations beneath this window, and at the east end, are ancient. 

The most striking feature is the beautiful doorway, the arch of which is 
represented in fig. 89. There is undoubted evidence in the work itself, that 
this doorway is a re-construction executed by unskilful hands. The stones 
of the abutments of the second outward band of ornament have been mis- 
placed, those at the right hand having been originally at the left, and vice 
versa. There are other evidences too of re-construction, one of which is, that 
the jambs of the doorway are perpendicular instead of being slightly inclined 
as in all the ancient doorways throughout Ireland, which still remain undis- 
turbed in their original positions. 

There are also the ruins of a Cross, fragments of which are lying upon 
the ground at a short distance to the east of the Church. It seems to have 
been richly sculptured, but is now much weather-worn and otherwise greatly 

The Holy Well at Dysart is not now held in much veneration. 

The old Church at Rath is also a very interesting ruin. Like Dysart it 
is for the most part an early Christian structure, but the south-east angle of 
the nave is ancient, having coign stones adorned with a semicircular moulding. 
A fragment of a highly ornamented and very uncommon window-sill (re- 
presented in fig. 109) is built into the south wall on the inside. There are 
several other fragments of ornamental cut-stone, which manifestly belonged to 
the ancient temple, some of which are built into the enclosing wall of the 
burial ground, others into the wall of the Church itself. 

I have at p. 271 noticed the fact of a portion of the sill-stone of a Cuthite 
window being used as the sill of a rude early Christian window in this ancient 
Church. See fig. 108. 

There is a legend among the peasantry of the neighbourhood, that the 
Saint of Dysart, St. Mawnaula, carried away from Rath the tower which now 
stands at Dysart, whereupon Blawfugh, the Saint of Rath, retaliated by con- 
veying to Rath some other building which had stood at Dysart. 


The ruins of a Round Tower to the height of eight feet, and without door 
or window, are said to have stood at Rath until the year 1838, when the 
materials were removed for the building of the Church-yard wall. 


Glan-culm-kill, situated (Map 123) 14 miles N. from Ennis and 7 miles 
N. by E. from Corofin, is an early Christian structure at which I discovered 
nothing of unquestionable antiquity, save one ancient window of wide splay, 
of the class represented in fig. 107, but without ornament. 

It is a re-setting, and appears to have been more than six feet high, but 
only six inches in width. The top-stone and north jamb have been removed, 
but the sill-stone and south jamb, from which the dimensions of the window 
may be inferred, remain intact. 

Near the site of this Church are the base of a Cross, and a Holy Well. 
There are also two Rock Basins on the hill adjoining, affirmed to be the print 
of St. Culmkill's knees. The Saint is said to have distinguished himself at 
this Church before he went to reside in the north of Ireland, whither he was 
called in a miraculous manner. 


Situated in the valley of Glan-culm-kill (Map 123), and about four miles 
N. E. from Culmkill's Church, and 17 miles N. from Ennis. 

This Church is built at the south-eastern side of a lofty and precipitous 
limestone cliff, called the Eagle Rock of Carran, which attains the height of 
about a thousand feet above the level of the sea. The situation and sur- 
rounding scenery afford such a prospect as is rarely to be seen elsewhere ; 
but the Church itself is a small early Christian structure, erected upon the 
ruins of an ancient temple. It does not exhibit any architectural feature 
indicating remote antiquity, save the sill-stone, and two of the lower side 


stones of a very small window ; but these fragments are sufficient to prove 
that the window, when perfect, was round-headed, and of the class repre- 
sented in fig. 112. 

Close by this ruin are St. MacDuach's Holy Well, a natural cave in 
the cliff-side called the Saint's Bed, and a Rock Basin, the print of the Saint's 
knees. Another Holy Well on the same townland is dedicated to St. 


Situated (Map 124) seven miles N. E. by N. from Ennis, and about one 
mile from the intended Railway Station of Crusheen, on the road from Ennis 
to Gort. 

This building, like most of those mentioned as sites of ancient temples, 
is a rude early Christian structure, no vestige of remote antiquity remaining, 
except one tolerably perfect window of wide splay, having an ornament 
representing the Branch of Juno on the outside of the head stone, which 
may be seen in fig. 14. 

A legend is told among the peasantry about St. Cronan's Well and its 
removal by miracle to another site, because it had been desecrated by 
Cromwell's soldiers. 

The site of this Ruin is a very picturesque spot, well worthy of a visit. 



Kilfenora is situated (Map 123) sixteen miles N. W. from Ennis. The 
present Cathedral is built upon the site of an ancient temple of the larger size, 
the only vestige of which now standing in its original position is a large and 
handsome window, having three openings to admit light. There are besides 
two small windows of narrow splay re-set in the walls of the early Christian 
ruins. These have been slightly altered in the process of re-construction. 


It is stated that seven Crosses once stood at Kilfenora, remains of five 
of which may still be traced. One fine sculptured specimen stands to the 
west of the Cathedral, but having no base. About four feet of the" shaft are 
supposed to be under ground, the portion above ground measuring fifteen 
feet in height The whole length of the shaft a single stone is therefore 
about twenty feet. The heads of two other ancient Crosses stand in the 
Churchyard. The fragments of a fourth are scattered upon the ground 
about half-a-mile to the north of the Cathedral ; and the fifth may be seen 
in the Bishop's demesne at Killaloe, whither it was removed some years since. 

The ancient foundation at Kilfenora is associated with the name of St. 
Fechnan, or Fechin. The ancient name was Cill-Fionnabhrach, which I 
interpret The Temple of the speckled Finn. The Abbey was burnt in 
1055, and at no period since has the place been of much importance. 

The style and workmanship of the large window, to which I have refer- 
red, are different from the architecture of the neighbouring Cathedral, and 
excel not only it in artistic skill, but probably also any other Cathedral or 
ecclesiastical building in Ireland, of a date ascertained to be between the 
nth and i7th centuries. There is no record of the building of the struc- 
ture, of which this handsome window formed a portion, nor of its destruction 
before the building of the modern Church. Taking all the circumstances 
into account, it is inconsistent with the facts, to assign any later date to this 
beautiful window than the eriod of the Cuthite occupation of Ireland. 


There are four other very interesting ancient ruins in the neighbourhood 
of Kilfenora, which have not been introduced into the catalogue, as I have 
not found any written notices of them in ecclesiastical records. Their anti- 
quity is, however, undoubted, and the names associated with them are those 
commonly found in connection with other Cuthite remains. 

A A A 


The first of these is Noughaval, situated about two miles N. E. from 
Kilfenora (Map 123). Here is an ancient Temple, the chancel arch of 
which (similar to that represented at fig. 182), with the work about it, is still 
in its original position. There is an ancient window in the east wall, and 
another in the south wall, both of which are re-constructions. The whole 
building exhibits fragments of ancient work combined with rude modern 
masonry. The ancient doorway at the west end has been removed, and a 
doorway of uncommon construction has been opened in the south wall. It 
seems (like the doorways of Drum-Mochua in Galway, and Cong in Mayo) 
to have been a re-construction out of arches, and other portions of a highly 
ornamented ancient temple ; and, as there is nothing else about the site to 
indicate that any such temple had stood at Noughaval, I am inclined to 
suppose that the materials for this doorway were brought from the ruins of 
the handsome temple at Corcomroe in the same neighbourhood, before that 
building was first used as a Christian Church or abbey. The ornamental 
stone-cutting is similar to that found about the ancient portion of Corcom- 
roe Abbey. The Holy Well at Noughaval is dedicated to St. Mochue 
or Moghue, and at it is an extraordinary ash-tree which is well worthy of 
attention. It exhibits evidence of very great age. 


Are situated close to each other (Map 123), about two miles N. E. from 
Noughaval. At Kilcolman, only a few feet of the foundation of the ancient 
building is now to be seen, but the material consists of finely-wrought 
blocks of plain stone. There is neither doorway nor window remaining. 

Kilcorney is a more interesting ruin. The greater part of the chancel is 
ancient, and portions of two ancient windows are still to be seen in it one in 
the east, and the other in the south wall. Near the latter, and lying on the 
ground outside the wall, is a curious head-stone of an ancient window, having 


sculptured devices for its outside ornament, in design not unlike that repre- 
sented in fig 14. All the western portion of this ruin is of modern work, 
and there is no doorway remaining. 


Is situated about two miles S. E. from Kilcorney, and two miles N. from 
Leamaneh Castle (Map 123). The Church is a quadrangular building 
erected on the ruins of an ancient temple. The lower part and sides of 
the eastern window are ancient, and portions of two windows re-set in the 
south wall are also ancient. The original doorway has disappeared. The 
Holy Well near the site is dedicated to Mac-Reagh. Veneration for these 
ruins has been for a long time on the decline. Very few descendants of the 
inhabitants are now to be found in the barony of Burren, which is chiefly 
occupied by graziers who reside in other parts of the county, and use their 
Burren lands only for the winter feeding of cattle. 

The remark elsewhere made about the decline of the Irish language 
leading to the loss of local traditions is exemplified in this district. There 
are several names of Saints and Holy Wells throughout the barony of Burren, 
which, if not recorded in the Maps of the Ordnance Survey, would by this time 
have been lost, as the grazing farmers and their temporary herds have very 
little interest in them. 


Situated on the river Shannon, twelve miles N. E. by N. from the city of 
Limerick, and at the Killaloe Railway Station (Map 134). 

At this place are vestiges of three ancient temples, the most important 
and beautiful of which stood at the south side of the present Cathedral. In 
its southern wall may still be seen the northern doorway of the ancient 
temple, one of the richest and most beautiful specimens of sculpture now 
remaining in Ireland. 


The late Sir Matthew Barrington got &fac simile of this doorway made 
at his splendid mansion, Glenstal Castle. The only discrepancy I have ob- 
served between the original and Sir Matthew Barrington's imitation is, that 
the inclining jambs of the former have not been reproduced in the latter. I 
presume the modern artists regarded this peculiarity as a defect, and there- 
fore abstained from imitating it. 

Several other fragments of cut-stone belonging to the ancient temple have 
been preserved in the modern Cathedral, among which I reckon the eastern 
coigns to the height of about six feet at one angle, and ten feet at the oppo- 
site angle. There is also a band of cut-stone round the interior of the 
eastern window, which seems to have belonged to the ancient temple. The 
stone-cutting of this band of ornament is vastly superior to, and entirely out 
of character with, the building of the Cathedral in which it is now found; and 
therefore, like the ornamental doorway just noticed, I presume that it belonged 
to the former structure, which must have fallen into an utterly ruinous 
condition before the latter end of the i2th century, when the present Cathe- 
dral was built. I may here remark, that so many architectural improvements 
have taken place in this Cathedral since the 1 2th century, that but little now 
remains of the rudeness which one might expect to see in an Irish building 
of that date. 

Other fragments of this ruin (several beautifully cut stones) were found 
by the workmen of the Shannon Commissioners when deepening the bed of 
the river at this place, and are now to be seen in the Bishop's demesne at the 
foot of the ancient Cross, which I have mentioned as having been removed 
from Kilfenora. 

The second ancient temple at Killaloe is that commonly called the stone- 
roofed Church, situated within twenty yards of the Cathedral. It still retains 
its ancient outline, and many of its original features, although having under- 
gone considerable alteration in the repairs to which it has been subjected. 
The western doorway, represented fig. 183, is still perfect. The ancient 


characteristic of inclining jambs may be observed in it, as also in one of the 

=:--'" 'UULT" 


The third ancient temple is situated on a small island in the Shannon, 
opposite the Bishop's palace. The ancient nave has been almost wholly re- 
moved, but the chancel is nearly perfect, with its stone roof of a high pitch. 


It is one of the smallest in Ireland, measuring only about eight feet in length 
by five in width. The window in its eastern wall is a very perfect specimen 
of the ancient window of narrow splay ; such as are represented in figs. 
1 1 6 and 117. 

There is also an ancient doorway Cyclopean, with sloping jambs, in the 
Chancel of this little temple ; but this seems to be a re-setting. 

I beg to refer the reader to page 263, ante, for evidence, that the ancient 
temple at Killaloe was a Cuthite structure, dedicated to Luan the Moon, 
who in Hagiology is turned into St. Luan, or St. Molua the good Moon. 


Situated (Map 123) ten miles N. N. W. from Ennis, and two miles N. W. 
from Corofin. 

The most interesting object at this place is about twelve feet of the base 
of a Round Tower, having neither door nor window. The angles at the 
western end of the Church exhibit the buttresses so common in ancient Irish 
temples ; but the wall between these buttresses, in which the ancient doorway 
had stood, is a rebuilding. 

The modern doorway is in the south wall, over which is a sculptured 
figure, not unlike the design called the Sheela-na-gig. St. Bathan, whose 
Holy Well is near this ruin, is supposed by the peasantry to have been a 
female. Fig. 184 represents a curious ancient Cross, which stood some 
distance to the north-west of the Church, but it has been removed within 
the past year, whither I have been unable to discover. It is described by 
Lewis as follows : " At a short distance to the north-west, and at the 
boundary of the lands formerly attached to the church, is a remarkable stone 
Cross, fixed in a rock, and consisting of a shaft with two arms curving 
upwards ; on each of which, near the top, is a head carved in relief, and in 



the centre two hands clasped ; it is said to have been erected in memory of 
the reconciliation of two persons, who had been long at violent enmity." 
(Lewis, p. 195.) 

I have no doubt that the " two hands clasped" upon this Cross (fig. 184) 
is a Cuthite device, and I am confirmed in this opinion by finding a similar 



figure among the Cuthite designs represented by Bryant (vol. 3, p. 339. 
See fig. 185). I have elsewhere suggested that the Cross of the heathen 
world was derived from primeval religion. Such being the case (and I 
presume it has been proved), the hands of reconciliation upon it would 
seem to be a most appropriate device, the real parties reconciled being God 
and man ; as St. Paul expresses it (Col. i. 20), " Having made peace 
through the blood of His Cross, by Him to reconcile all things unto Him- 


No. 1 68. KILLONE, 

Situated (Map 132) three miles S. W. from Ennis, on the demesne of 
New Hall, the seat of Major Armstrong-MacDonnell. 

The ancient portion of this building may be traced in the eastern window 
and gable, but the whole seems to be a re-construction, never used as a 
Christian Church before the I2th century, when the Nunnery was founded 
by Donagh O'Brien. 

The wall, in which the eastern window is placed, is unusually thick ; and 
the window, though large and having two openings, is constructed on the 
principle of those of narrow splay, and ornamented at the top. 

The cut and squared stones of the ancient temple are worked into this 
gable, but the whole building has, notwithstanding, the rude aspect of 1 2th 
century work. The Holy Well is dedicated to St. John, or as I suppose, to 
lun the Dove of Arkite Mythology. 

There is one sculptured head built into the angle of the ancient gable, 
which is said from the head-dress to be that of a Nun; but the design is ex- 
tremely like one of those figures that abound in ancient Egyptian sculptures. 

No. 1 1 2. KILSHANNY 

Is situated (Map 123) three miles W. by S. from Kilfenora, and three miles 
N. from Ennistymon. 

It is a rude structure of the I2th century. The only vestige of Shanaun's 
ancient temple incorporated into this Church is a round-headed doorway in 
the north wall, like that represented in fig. 104. St. Shanaun's, or Senan's 
Holy Well is in the vicinity of the Church to the south, on the townland of 


No. 146. MOYNOE 

Is situated about three miles N. E. from Tomgraney (Map 125). The 
greater part of this Church is an early Christian building, but fragments of 
the superior ashlar of the original temple are easily recognised in the walls. 

There is however one ancient window of wide splay and plain construction 
in the south wall, but it is totally devoid of ornament, and a very imperfect 
specimen of the class represented in fig. 107. 

This place is associated with the names of St. Colman the Leper, and St. 
Mochunna, and has its Holy Well dedicated to the latter. 

Iniscaltra (No. 165 in Catalogue), in the County Galway, is situated in 
Lough Derg two miles east from Moynoe, from which it may easily be visited. 

No. 1 6 1. OUGHTMAMA 

Is situated less than one mile to the south-east of Corcomroe Abbey 
(Map 114). 

This is a very interesting spot. The archaeological remains consist of 
the ruins of three ancient temples, which have fewer marks of modern resto- 
ration than such buildings generally exhibit. In the most western of these 
appears a very fine specimen of the Cyclopean style of doorway. It consists 
of ten stones, all of them thorough. The doorway is six feet four inches in 
height, two feet eleven inches wide at the bottom, and two feet seven inches 
at the top. In the south wall are two ancient windows of wide splay, but 
without ornament, of the class represented in fig. 107 ; one of these is nearly 
perfect, the other much damaged and altered by repairs. The ancient chancel 
arch is perfect, but the chancel itself has been altogether removed. A portion 
of the north wall is a fine specimen of Cyclopean masonry. A fragment of 
ancient sculptured stone has been inserted in the south-western angle of the 
Church, and formed into a holy water basin. 

Lying on the ground near the door of the Temple is the head-stone of an 

B B B 


ancient window of narrow splay, such as is represented in fig. 1 1 6. The 
whole arch for the full thickness of the wall was formed out of one stone, 
which, when perfect, probably weighed more than two tons : I suppose it to 
have been over the chancel window of the Church or temple. It is now used 
by the peasantry as a cure for headache, the patient being supposed to be 
benefitted by lying on the ground, and putting his head into the opening of 
the arch, which is ten inches wide at the narrow end. 

The second or middle temple has a round-headed doorway, not unlike 
that represented in fig. 104 ; also two plain windows of wide splay, one in the 
east and the other in the south wall. 

Of the third or eastern temple, only a fragment remains, viz : one piece 
of the eastern gable, in which is seen a tolerably perfect specimen of an 
ancient window of wide splay, but very small, measuring only two feet four 
inches in height, by five inches wide at the top, and seven at bottom. These 
Churches are associated with the name of St. Colman. The name Ought- 
mama may be translated the eight paps, and was probably so called from 
the number of lime-stone hills that surround the Glen. 


Situated about twelve miles W. S. W. from Kilkee, and within a few 
hundred yards of the celebrated Natural Bridges of Ross (Map 140). 

This ruin presents no interesting architectural features. There is neither 
ancient doorway, nor window, remaining. Portions of the foundations are 
probably Cuthite, but the upper courses manifestly belong to an early Christian 
structure of very small dimensions. In Irish hagiology the names of Ciaran 
and his nurse Cocca are associated with this place. In p. 105 we have noticed 
the legend of St. Ciaran, who " used to go to the sea-rock that was far distant 
in the sea (where his nurse, i. e., Cocca, was), without ship or boat, and used 
to return again as appears from his own Life" (Martyrology of Donegal, p. 
65). A somewhat different version of this legend is still traditionally pre- 



served in the locality, and a flag-stone in Kiltrellig Church-yard, near the 
shore of Kilbaha Bay, is pointed out as that, on which the Saint used to sail 
round Loop Head to or from Ross, as evidence of his superior sanctity. 


In the river Shannon, two miles from the town of Kilrush (Map 141). 

Here is a fine Round Tower of more than one hundred feet in height, 
and apparently perfect to the conical top ; but it has undergone such frequent 
and extensive repairs, that it has lost much of its original architectural cha- 
racter. The ancient doorway is gone, and the place which it occupied (about 
twenty-six feet from the ground) was built up with good masonry about 
twelve years since. Several stones of the ancient doorway seem to have 
been used in the construction of a modern doorway opened on the ground 
level, before the dissolution of the Monastery. Although these renovations 
and alterations have contributed to the preservation of this structure, they 
have deprived it of all the characteristics (save form and outlines), which 
distinguish Irish Round Towers from modern buildings. 

The most interesting object on the Island is the western wall of the 
temple, called St. Senan's Church, within a dozen yards of the Round Tower. 
This wall to the height of about ten feet is a fine specimen of Cyclopean 
architecture, with the characteristic feature of buttresses, used, when perfect, 
to support a stone roof; and between these buttresses is a very fine Cyclopean 
doorway (like that represented in fig. 75), having sloping jambs and a 
massive lintel. We can recognize traces of the original masonry in this ruin, 
but the upper courses of the walls are all of early Christian workmanship, 
with fragments of the ancient stone-cutting and sculpture introduced. 

In a small Church about one hundred yards to the west of the Tower is 
an ancient window of wide splay a re-setting. All the other buildings 
on the Island, which is said to have had seven Churches, are early Christian 


There is a Holy Well near the Tower ; and tradition affirms that a sub- 
terraneous passage once existed between the tower on this Island and that 
on Iniscaltra in Lough Derg. 


In the parish of Carran, is about sixteen miles N. by W. from Ennis, and 
eight miles from Corofin (Map 123). It is an interesting little ruin, and, 
as in numerous other instances in the West of Ireland, exhibits three distinct 
stages of architecture. There are, first, the foundations of the ancient hea- 
then temple, having a small Cyclopean doorway at the western end, and an 
ancient window of narrow splay in the eastern gable. 

This temple must have fallen entirely to ruin before the time of its first 
restoration in the early ages of Christianity, for we find that a considerable 
portion of the walls have been rebuilt in the rude style of early Christian 
work, with ancient sculptured heads introduced irregularly. The upper por- 
tion of the doorway also appears to have been constructed from the materials 
of the original building ; and the top of the ancient window is rudely rebuilt. 
Further alterations were subsequently made the ancient doorway was 
walled up, and a modern Gothic doorway opened at the north side. 

A rude Cross exists at Temple Cronan, and a Holy Well dedicated to 
St. Cronan, whom I suppose to have had his origin in Cronos, the Titan. I 
have elsewhere noticed the veneration in which this Temple, and everything 
belonging to it, are held by the peasantry of the neighbourhood. 


Is situated eight miles N. W. by N. from Killaloe (Map 134). It is said 
that a Round Tower once existed here ; but no vestige of any such is now 
to be found. 

The modern parish Church occupies the site of the ancient Temple, the 


Cyclopean doorway of which is represented in fig. 78, ante. The coigns at 
the eastern end are ancient, as are also several windows, which are orna- 
mented in the style represented in fig. 107, but widened on the outside to 
adapt them to modern uses. 

There seem to have been two Cuthite temples at this place one of the 
plain, the other of the ornamented style. Fragments of both are incor- 
porated in the modern Church. 

The western doorway is in its original position, and portions of the wall 
have unmistakeable marks of remote antiquity. 



Is situated (Map 185) ten miles W. N. W. from Macroom, on the road to 
Killarney. The ancient Temple at this place, dedicated to Abban and Gob- 
nata, has disappeared. The ruined Church which occupies the site presents 
no appearance of remote antiquity. There is however one stone set over a 
window in the south wall, on which a small figure is sculptured that I believe 
to be ancient. There is also a Holy Well, much resorted to by pilgrims at 
all seasons of the year, where a Pattern is held on Whit-Sunday. The frag- 
ments of five Rock Basins are to be seen on a mound in the Church-yard. 
These all seem to have been intentionally mutilated ; probably in. Reforma- 
tion zeal. The Protestant Church stands close by the ruins. 

No. 62. BRIGOON, 

Situated half-a-mile S. E. from Mitchelstown (Map 165). The western end 
of the old Church is a portion of the ancient temple ; the eastern end is 
altogether a re-building in modern times, an enlargement of the ancient 
structure. The lower portion of the south wall of the nave is a fine piece of 


ancient ashlar; and the buttress at the S. W. angle is an excellent specimen. 
The upper courses are of modern reconstruction, not in accordance with 
ancient design. 

The lower portion of a very uncommon specimen of the ancient narrow 
splay window appears in the south wall of the nave. The head-stone of 
another ancient window is re-set in the chancel. The western wall and 
ancient doorway have been altogether removed. Some fragments of cut- 
stone, which belonged to the ancient temple, may be found, in the Church- 
yard. The Holy Well with its trees are said to have been removed from 
the original site by a miracle. 

An ancient I^ound Tower formerly stood at Brigoon, about thirty yards 
south-west of the temple. It was blown down in 1704, and not a vestige of 
it now remains. 

No. 54. BRITWAY, 

Situated eight miles S. E. by S. from Fermoy, (Map 1 76). Here is a most 
interesting Cuthite temple, dedicated to St. Bridget, of which one ancient 
window, one doorway, and a considerable portion of the ancient wall with its 
buttresses, still remain in tolerable preservation. The doorway is represen- 
ted at fig. 95 ante. 


Situated four miles from the most southern point of the coast of Ireland, and 
twelve miles S. W. from Skibbereen (Map 204). There is a Church in 
ruins at Cape Clear Island, but it is a rude early Christian building, having no 
marks whatever of remote antiquity. The most ancient object of interest about 
this venerated site is a Pillar Stone, similar to that represented at fig. 175. It 
is still held in great esteem by the peasantry, and is dedicated to St. Kieran. 
There is also the Saint's Holy Well. 


No. 155. CLOYNE 

Is situated five miles S. by E. from Middleton Railway Station (Map 
187). The Round Tower is the only ancient building to be seen at Cloyne. 
Its doorway is quadrangular. The upper portion of the tower is a modern 
addition, and the whole is in good preservation. The specimens of curious 
jointing (figs. 122 and 123) are from the sides of the doorway, and from one 
of the upper windows of the tower. The people of the neighbourhood have 
a legend that St. Colman leaped from the summit of this tower to a spot 
pointed out at some distance to the east. There is also a legend of this 
tower, as well as that of Cork, having been each built in one night. 

No. 121 CORK, 

The capital of the County (Map 187), was once famous as the site of a 
temple dedicated to St. Fin- Bar, or Barindeus [the Son of the one God]. 
More than one building has successively occupied the ancient site, and even 
the last vestiges of the medieval structure have lately been removed to make 
way for a modern Cathedral, now in course of erection. An ancient Round 
Tower had stood near the Church of St. Finbar, but the base of it has been 
removed for many years. I am not aware that any remains of antiquity are 
now to be found about the site ; but from Mrs. S. C. Hall's description of 
the ornament of a doorway, which had stood in the building recently pulled 
down, I am disposed to think that, like the doorway of Kilmore Cathedral, it 
was an ancient relic, altered and re-set in the modern Cathedral. 

At page 84, I have traced the origin of this name Barindeus, the Son 
of the one God. He is commonly called St. Barre, or Barry. And I may 
remark in confirmation of the interpretation suggested, that BAR was one of 
the names by which Nin, the Chaldean Fish-god, was known to the Ancients. 
See Sir Henry Rawlinson's Five Ancient Monarchies of the World, vol. i, 
p. 1 66, where may be seen a representation of this god, very similar to the. 
Dagon exhibited in fig 22, ante. 



Situated (Map 193) 18 miles W. by S. from Macroom, on the Killarney road. 
The place is held in the highest veneration as the site of the first temple of 
Barindeus [the Son of the one God] ; but the buildings which remain 
exhibit nothing better than the rudest early Christian work. The romantic 
wildness of the glen, surrounded by high mountains, has made it the 
subject of numerous notices in guide-books, etc. The Churches and Holy 
Well are on an island in a small lake, the approach to which is by a cause- 
way. Many trees are lying dead from age upon the island, but like other 
cases already noticed, they are considered too sacred to be removed from 
the spot. 

Here (we are told) St. Barindeus began his great contest with the 
dragon or serpent, whom he pursued through the waters of the river Lee, 
and ultimately vanquished at the spot where St. Finbar's Church at Cork 
was afterwards built. This story is plainly only a version of the great 
primeval prophecy of the final victory of the Promised Seed [The Son of 
God] over the Evil One. 


An island situated between Cape Clear Island and the shore, less than one 
mile from the main land. Here are the ruins of a Christian Abbey, which, 
from a few fragments, viz. : two pillars, and some stones of a well-cut 
newel staircase, I conclude was built on the site of an ancient temple of the 
larger size. The site was dedicated to St. Kieran. 


Is situated seven miles N. E. by E. from the Railway Station of Dun- 
manway (Map 193). Here is a very fine Round Tower exhibiting some 


peculiarities, that may possibly be the effect of well-executed reconstruction 
in modern times. Some interesting subterranean passages have been dis- 
covered about this site, and there are also several Rock Basins well worthy 
of examination. 

No. 63. KINSALE, 

Situated (Map 195) 16 miles S. from Cork, whence it may be reached by 
rail. The oldest buildings at Kinsale are said to be the Abbey, and the Pro- 
testant Church. The only vestige of Cuthite antiquity that remains at the 
former is a Rock Basin, standing by the side of a small fragment of the ruin- 
ed Church. The north doorway of the Protestant Church is a reconstruction 
of an ancient one, several stones both of the jambs and the arch being un- 
mistakeably of Cuthite workmanship. The outer stones of an ancient window 
are also used in the north wall, and there are besides other fragments of 
antique masonry throughout the building, but so interspersed with modern 
work as to make it difficult to distinguish precisely between all that is ancient 
and that which belongs to Christian times. The names of St. Gobban and 
St. Senan (the latter of whom is said to have been buried here) are associated 
in ancient records with Kinsale. But the modern inhabitants know nothing 
of these traditions. 

At pp. 69-71, I interpreted the name of this Saint, Senan or Shanaun, 
to signify the Ancient Ana, the mother of the Tuath-de-Danaan gods. Since 
those pages were printed, I have had strong confirmation of this idea in the 
fact stated by that eminent authority, Sir Henry Rawlinson, that one of the 
chief divinities of ^the first or Cushite monarchy of Chaldea was Ana, also 
called " The old Ana," answering literally to our St. Senan, and the name 
of the Shannon, which in English means simply the old or ancient Ana. 

See TJie Five Ancient Monarchies of the World, vol. i, p. 75. 

c c c 



33 miles S. W. from Cork, and 12 miles S. by E. from Dunmanway Railway 
Station (Map 200). The only vestiges of antiquity now remaining at this 
place are the lower portions of the north and south walls of an old Church. 
These exhibit some excellent specimens of ancient mason-work ; but the doors 
and windows of the building are all insertions made in Christian times. A 
Pattern has been held here from time immemorial, but some years since the 
object of religious veneration was changed from the ancient Saint, to Father 
John Power, a Roman Catholic Clergyman, who .was interred in the Cemetery 
about the year 1831, and at whose tomb miracles are now believed to be 
performed. A peasant on the spot informed me that the ancient Holy Well 
had been on the spot where Father John's tomb now stands, but that it was 
removed some yards to the south. There is however no indication about 
the site of the tomb of a well having ever been on or near the spot. The 
Pattern is held on the 24th of June, and attended by thousands of people 
from the surrounding country. 

The beautiful bay of Rosscarbery is said to have been once a safe anchor- 
age for large ships, but to have been filled with mud in one night in 
consequence of an offence committed by some sailors. The monastery at 
this place is associated in the Irish Annals with the names of St. Fechnan 
the Hairy, St. Conall, and St. Brendan ; but no tradition of any of these names 
is now preserved in the locality, although the Irish language is still a good 
deal spoken throughout the County of Cork. I have been surprised to find 
so few ancient ruins in this county, and the ancient traditions so little known. 
This fact is to be attributed to the removal or complete subjugation of the Irish 
population, which took place in Cromwell's time ; and customs and traditions 
that once died out could never be revived. The same remark applies to 
the County of Kerry. There is little of ecclesiastical tradition to be gleaned 
in either county, save what has been for the past two centuries a matter 
of written record. 




The religious foundation at Derry (Map n) is ascribed to St. Columb 
of the 6th century, but all evidences of Cuthite structures have disappeared, 
except a well-authenticated tradition that a Round Tower (all trace of which 
has long since been obliterated) once stood near the Cathedral. 


A foundation ascribed to St Columb of the 6th century. It is situated (Map 
19) about one mile S. E. from the town of Garvagh. There is nothing of 
particular interest about the Ruin itself, all that remains being rude early 
Christian work. 

This Saint (like St. Colman of Cloyne, and others) is described as having 
leaped from the top of this building upon a large stone that once stood in 
a meadow near the Church. The impression made by his knees on -alight- 
ing formed one of the Rock Basins in the stone, which on that account was 
in former times much venerated. Such numbers of pilgrims used to come 
from a distance to get cured of sore eyes and other ailments, by washing in 
the rain-water deposited in the basin, that the farmer on whose ground it 
stood, to avoid the trespass done to his meadow, had the stone removed 
and hidden for some time. It is, however, now to be seen in a field near 
the Church-yard wall. 

Lewis informs us that, " in the adjoining field is an artificial cave of 
considerable extent, having three chambers or galleries ;" but whatever 
remained of this in the year 1837 has since been destroyed. 

No. 147. DUNGIVEN. 

Here are the ruins of a Church, founded it is said by St. Columb in the 
6th century. It is situated about one mile S. from the town of the same 


name (Map 18), and presents some very remarkable remains of Cuthite 
architecture. The original work was of skilfully wrought ashlar with some 
ornament, fragments of which are still observable in the north wall, at the 
junction of the nave and chancel. The semicircular arch of the chancel also 
appears to be Cuthite in character. The other ancient portions which I 
observed are the double east window, and two small windows, one in the 
south wall of the nave, of narrow splay and wide opening ; the other in the 
chancel, of wider splay and narrow opening. Both these windows have 
been re-set in Christian times. Several portions of the ancient temple are 
distinctly traceable ; but the alterations and reconstructions have been so 
well executed, as to render it difficult to distinguish the Cuthite from the 
early Christian portions of the structure. The abutments of the roof and 
groining appear to be part of the ancient work. Small Cuthite buttresses 
appear on the outside at the junction of the nave and chancel. We read in 
Lewis that " This place was a seat of the O'Cahans, and was called Dun- 
y-even, or Doon-yeven ; and here on the summit of a rock, on the eastern 
bank of the Roe, Domnach O'Cahen, or O'Cathan, founded, in noo, an 
abbey for Augustinian canons, which, being shortly afterwards polluted by 
a cruel massacre, lay for a long time in ruins, but was restored with much 
solemnity by the Archbishop of Armagh." (Lewis, p. 581). This restora- 
tion took place in the year 1397, from which period may be dated the 
greater part of the alterations apparent in the ruin as it now stands. A 
large Pillar Stone still remains on the hill near the Church, and a single 
stone stands in the bed of the river Roe, around which the people used to 
assemble on certain days. The ruins of Dungiven occupy a remarkably 
picturesque position on the summit of a rock above the river Roe. 


Is situated two miles W. by S. from the town of Garvagh, and 1 1 miles S. E. 
from Newtownlimavacjy (Map 19). 


Lewis describes Ballintemple " as a very interesting ruin," but on going 
to search for it, I could with difficulty discover the marks of the foundation 
in the burying-ground, which still retains this name. The stones of the ruin, 
such as it was, have been removed by the farmers since Lewis wrote. On 
making inquiry of an inhabitant of the house nearest to the site, I was in- 
formed that the old Church never was finished, " for all that was built by 
day would be thrown down at night." Thus we find in Derry the tradition 
common to numerous Cuthite ruins found in Irish-speaking districts of the 
South and West. 


Is situated (Map 18) about two miles S. W. from the ruins of Dungiven. 
Here are found the remains of two ancient temples ; the larger one, like 
Dungiven, being built of cut-stone. The doorway, still in its original posi- 
tion at the west end, is a splendid specimen of the Cyclopean or quadrilateral 
style (see fig. 72). On the upper stone of the left-hand jamb is a plain inscrip- 
tion in Roman characters " This Church was built in the year of God 474." 
Here, as at Dungiven, are two small ancient windows, one in the south 
wall of the nave, the other in the south wall of the chancel. These windows, 
together with the doorway, are first-class specimens of the ancient Cuthite 
architecture of Ireland. The smaller temple is also a genuine Cuthite relic, 
as is the Shrine or tomb of the Saint. But there are many alterations and 
reconstructions in all the buildings ; and careful examination is necessary to 
eliminate from these the characteristic features of the original Cuthite tem- 
ples. The wall about the grand doorway seems to have been entirely re- 
built, some of the old materials being used ; and it is possible, that both the 
south windows may have been re-set. 

Maheramore and Dungiven afford remarkable and (in the North of Ire- 
land) unusual examples of fragments of ancient buildings still remaining 
uninjured in their original positions. Their comparative preservation is 
to be accounted for by the exceptional fact, that the localities are still 


venerated and used as burying-places by numerous families of the O'Cahans 
and other Roman Catholic descendants of the ancient inhabitants : and 
these are perhaps the only places in Ulster at the present time, where 
the peasantry would interfere to prevent the destruction or removal of 
ancient ruins for the sake of modern improvements. Elsewhere in this 
province, ancient monuments have been mercilessly demolished, and even 
their foundations effaced, with the exception of Round Towers, which have 
been preserved as much by the difficulty, danger, and expense attendant upon 
the removal of their materials, as by the zeal of enthusiastic Archaeologists. 

The foundation of Maheramore is ascribed to Saint Patrick and Saint 
Murrough O'Hainey, both of the 5th century. I might suggest an inter- 
pretation of the latter name, but my chief object in this part of the work is 
to adduce facts in support of my Cuthite theory. Legends of former times 
are still carefully retained among the peasantry. The story, so often refer- 
red to, of the great primeval tradition is here preserved. It is related, that 
the hill where the Church stands used in ancient times to be guarded by a 
monstrous serpent, who surrounded it with his folds having his tail in his 
mouth, thus forming a great circle. The Saint (Patrick) having bound this 
monster with three bands of rushes (which became transformed immediately 
into three bands of iron) cast him into a lake, now called Lac Na-Peastha, 
where he still remains imprisoned. The name of the serpent was Luinga 
Peastha. This story is only the local version of the Cuthite legend fre- 
quently alluded to in former pages. 

The site of the Church is said to have been pointed out by miracle. The 
Saint having commenced to build upon another site, an eagle descended, and 
taking up one stone deposited it at Mahermore. This was recognised by 
the Saint as an indication that he should there build his Church. Earth 
scraped from the grave of this Saint, and sprinkled on race-horses, 
righting cocks, etc., is believed to secure success in their contests ; and it is 
thrown on the coffins of deceased persons to insure their speedy entrance into 
the eternal mansions of bliss. 



A foundation ascribed to St. Columb of the 6th century, is situated about six 
miles N. from Newtownlimavady (Map 12). It is said to have been the site 
of a Round Tower, but no vestige of that edifice now remains. Lewis informs 
us that the tomb of St. Aidan, built of hewn stone, " still exists near the 
eastern window of the old church." This eastern window seems to have been 
a reconstruction from an ancient Cuthite window, which was widened from 
seven to eighteen inches by cutting away the sides. Near the Church is a 
Holy Well dedicated to St. Aidan. The site is interesting on account of its 
associations and natural beauties, but there is not much to engage the atten- 
tion of the antiquary, whose object is the examination of Cuthite remains. 

I have elsewhere remarked that all the localities bearing the names of 
Tamlaght and Tamlaghtard, of which there are dozens in Ireland, were 
probably houses of Molach. See definition of Tamlaghtard, p. 66. 



The ruins of the old Church are situated about two miles W. from Letter- 
kenny (Map 16). There is in the Church-yard the socket stone of an ancient 
Cross. Near Letterkenny is a large Pillar Stone, standing close by the 
bridge leading into the town, not far from which is also an ancient Rock Basin. 

No. 170. MOVILLE 

Is beautifully situated (Map 6) at the entrance of Lough Foyle, 15 miles N. 
N.E. from Londonderry. 

The site, like those of other Cuthite temples throughout Ireland, was 
beautifully chosen for the fine prospect it affords. The buildings now remain- 


ing are not particularly interesting. No decidedly Cyclopean architecture, no 
ancient window or doorway, is here to be found, and the same may be said 
of all the ancient foundations which I have visited in* this county. The 
civilization introduced by the plantation of King James the First has led 
to the removal of all the ancient buildings, as well as to the loss of the 
traditional legends connected with them. 

The most interesting object at Moville is an ancient Cross with a hole in 
the top of the shaft. There is also a hole in the stone which now supports 
the shaft of the Cross. Lewis writes (p. 399) : " In the adjoining cemetery 
is a very ancient tomb, said to be that of St. Finian, and outside the walls 
stands a very handsome stone Cross, hewn out of one block, and in good 
preservation. Not far from Dring are eight upright stones, near which are 
several lying down, the remains of an ancient Cromlech." 

No. 163. TORY ISLAND, 

Situated about eight miles from Horn Head off the N. W. coast of the County 
Donegal (Map 3), is interesting to the antiquary, as there are still to be seen 
a Round Tower, several Crosses, and some ancient ruins, for a particular 
description of which I beg to refer the reader to the Ulster Journal of 
Archeology, vol. i, pp. 27, 106, 142. The three articles referred to are 
embellished with several interesting illustrations. The foundation is ascribed 
to St. Columb, but the names of several other Saints and heroes are associated 
with it, all belonging to the remotest period of Irish legendary history. One 
of the most conspicuous of these names is that of Balore (The Golden Baal), 
who by the direful influence of his single eye, placed in the back of his head, 
had caused the destruction of multitudes, until (like an incident in the story 
of Perseus), he was himself killed by his own grandson. This legend has 
been already noticed, p. 40. It is related at length in the Ulster Journal 
of Archczology, vol. 7, p. 342. 



No. 28. DRUMBOE, 

Situated seven miles S. by W. from Belfast (Map 36). The only interesting 
relic now remaining at Drumboe is the base of an ancient Round Tower, 
having a quadrangular doorway with slightly inclining sides, the usual 
characteristic of the Cuthite style. The reader is referred to the Ulster 
Joiirnal of Archczology, vol. 3, p. no, for a full account of this Tower. The 
place was dedicated to St. Mochumma, whose mother was " Derinilla of the 
four paps," elsewhere noticed. 


An Island within half-a-mile of the western shore of Strangford Lough, and 
five miles S. E. from Comber Railway Station (Map 37). It is now called 
Mahee Island. On it was an ancient foundation ascribed to St. Mochoe of 
the 5th century. A few feet of the base of an ancient Round Tower are 
still standing there, for particulars of which the reader is referred to the 
Ulster Journal of Archeology, vol. 4, p. 136. Mochoe of Oendrium or 
Noendrum is the Saint about whom the legend is recorded at p. 107, ante. 
The names of Coclan, Colman, and Finian are also associated in the Annals 
with this ancient establishment. St. Mochoe is said to have lived to the age 
of 300 years. 


Is situated (Map 71) one mile north from the town of Rostrevor. The 
Church is an early Christian structure in ruins. The only vestige of genuine 
antiquity discoverable on the site is a sculptured Cross of granite, curiously 
wrought in square panels, but without any symbolic devices. The situation 

is beautiful and commands an extensive prospect. 



No. 70. MAGHERA, 

Situated about three miles W. S. W. from the town of Dundrum (Map 61). 
About twenty feet of the base of the Round Tower are still standing. In 
the great storm of 1 704, the upper part was blown down, and lay like a 
huge gun at length and entire upon the ground for a number of years, until 
it was broken up and removed to effect modern improvements. There are, 
however, men still living, who have seen it as above described. Lewis 
writes of Maghera : " Near the Church are the ruins of the ancient Church, 
of which the western gable and the south wall remain. The beautiful 
Norman arch at the western entrance is in good preservation ; the windows 
in the south wall are narrow, and of elegant design." But the ruins do not 
now answer to this description. The specimens of ancient Cuthite archi- 
tecture, which Lewis describes as " the beautiful Norman doorway" and 
" the windows of elegant design," as well as the stones which formed the 
doorway of the Round Tower, have all been removed. 

I cannot positively identify Maghera with any ancient foundation 
recorded in Irish Annals. I suppose it to be the same as Teghdagobha 
mentioned by Archdall (p. 129), and described as in the Barony of Iveagh, 
and on the river Bann. Maghera is in the same Barony and on the river 
Bally- Bannan ; but this coincidence may not be sufficient to establish the 
identity of both places. 


Situated (Map 37) 10 miles E. from Belfast, at the head of Strangford 
Lough, and less than one mile from the town of Newtownards. Sundry 
stones of ancient windows have been worked into the east and west windows 
of this ruined Church. Save these, and a portion of the wall of the Church 
on the road side, I have not discovered any vestiges of genuine antiquity 
about the ruins of the once celebrated Movilla. 



Situated about eight miles from Downpatrick (Map 61). The Cuthite struc- 
ture at St. John's Point is the most interesting I have seen in the province 
of Ulster, for here we find the north, south, and west walls of the ancient 
temple still standing to the height of the lintel of the doorway, and the 
doorway itself in its original position. It is quadrangular, with the 
usual sloping jambs, being six inches wider at the ground level than at 
the top. The foundation is ascribed to St. Patrick ; but I cannot help 
thinking that it should be identified with Achad-Cuile, described by Arch- 
dall as an ancient foundation associated with the name of St. Senan, and 
situated in the same district as this ancient temple at St. John's Point 
namely, in Lecale, near the Bay of Dundrum. 



This ancient establishment is so much under the notice of men skilled in 
antiquities, that I shall for the present decline to make a full report upon it. 
Its identity as the site of an ancient heathen temple is proved by the record, 
that " the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity [Christ Church] is so ancient that 
all authors agree it had been built under ground by Ostmans, or Danes, before 
the coming of St. Patrick to Ireland that is, before the 5th century. They 
also tell us that the same Saint celebrated Mass in one of its subterraneous 
vaults," etc. (Mon. p. 6). I conclude that the "subterraneous vaults" here 
noticed were one or more stone-roofed temples, such as the Cuthites had 
erected throughout Ireland. The important point sought to be proved in 
the preceding pages is, that the only stone buildings with arches, which ex- 
isted in Ireland in the 6th century, had existed there since the time when 
the rulers of the country were the Cuthites. 


We read in Archdall that the Black Book of Christ Church informs us, 
that about the year 1038, "Sitric, the Danish prince of Dublin, gave Donot, 
Bishop of that See, a place where the arches or vaults were founded to erect 
a Church to the honour of the Blessed Trinity." Here we have evidence of 
the arches of Christ Church so early as 1038, nearly a century and a half 
before Henry the Second's palace of " smoothe wattles " was constructed ; 
and I believe these arches are still to be seen in the building, though now 
probably as reconstructions. 

Christ Church is noticed as having been the site of a Round Tower, which 
is further proof of the Cuthite origin of its foundation. 


Situated (Map 1 1 1) about one mile S. of the Railway Station of Clondalkin, 
and four miles from the City of Dublin. The Round Tower is the most 
interesting object at this place. It is perfect to the conical top, but has 
undergone much reparation at different times. " Nearly adjacent to the 
present Church, are the almost shapeless ruins of the old conventual Church 
of the Monastery, which was afterwards the parochial Church, and among 
them is an ancient Cross of Granite nine feet, high." (Lewis). Clondalkin 
was burnt or otherwise destroyed in the years 806, 832, 1071 and 1076; 
"since which last date there is no further record of its history." (Lewis). 

No. 164. FINGLAS, 

Situated (Map 112) 3 miles N. E. from Dublin, is an ancient foundation 
ascribed to St. Columb. The only fragment of remote antiquity now remain- 
ing at the place is an ancient Cross, well cut, but without ornament. When 
I visited the locality an old woman pointed out a spot near the present 
Church, where (she informed me) the base of a Round Tower had stood, 
which was removed about forty years since. 


No. 119. IRELAND'S EYE, 

An Island on the coast near Howth, one mile N. of Howth Lighthouse 
(Map 112), and nine miles from Dublin. Not a vestige of the ancient 
Temple of Nessan, or of the Round Tower, is now to be found; the 
materials are said to have been removed some years since to build the 
Roman Catholic Chapel at Howth. The late Dr. Petrie in his Essay 
promised to describe the ruins (such as they had been) of the Church and 
Round Tower of Ireland's Eye, in his "third part" of the work on Irish 
Architecture, which has never been published. It is to be hoped that the 
public will soon have the benefit of examining the valuable drawings of this 
eminent Artist. 

No. 23. LUSK, 

Situated (Map 102) 13 miles N. by E. from Dublin, and one mile from the 
Railway Station of Rush. The most interesting object at Lusk is its Round 
Tower ; but, like that at Clondalkin, it has undergone much reparation. The 
doorway is a fine example of massive Cyclopean masonry. One of the 
specimens of irregular jointing in it is represented in fig. 125, ante. The 
wall of the Tower is four feet three inches in thickness, and the upper portion 
seems to be a re-building. 

No. 1 06. ST. DOULOUGH'S, 

Situated (Map 102) 5 miles N. E. from Dublin. The Church at St. 
Doulough's is an ancient structure, but all the doorways and windows as 
well as the square tower seem to be reconstructions. They are, however, so 
well contrived as imitations of the ancient fabrics, as to make it impossible 
to discriminate between all that is new and all that is ancient. The wall 
and general construction of the Church afford evidence of its antiquity. The 
name of the Saint, Doulough, I believe to be a variety of the name Dichul 


(The Devil), elsewhere noticed. His pedigree as described by Archdall 
places the heathen origin of the name beyond a doubt. He is called Dulech, 
the son of Amelgad [The Divine Serpent Am, or Om], the son of Sinel 
[The ancient God]. The Cuthite origin of St. Doulough's is still further 
proved by the Saint's Bed or grave, the Holy Well, and the ancient Cross 
on the road side. 

No. 151. SWORDS, 

Situated (Map 102) seven miles N. from Dublin. The Round Tower is all that 
is now left of its ancient buildings, and even of this only the lower portion of 
the original structure remains, the upper portions being a restoration or re- 
construction. The ancient name was Sourd, which I interpret Sum-ARD 
The high place of the Mermaid. See Chapter on the Fish God, p. 125 ; 
also Glossary ; and fig. 147, which is a representation of the doorway of the 
Round Tower. 



Is an Island, situated (Map 45) one mile N. from Enniskillen, in Lough 
Erne. The Round Tower is the most perfect, as well as the most highly 
finished, specimen in Ireland. It is ascribed to St. Molaise [Molach], of 
the 6th century. 

The ancient stone-roofed temple which once stood near the Round Tower 
has disappeared ; but drawings of it in different stages of its decay may be 
seen in LedwicKs Antiquities, and in the Ulster Joiirnal of Archceology, vol. 
4, p. 1 86. There is also to be seen the ancient Stone Coffin, called the Bed 
of the Saint. "It is believed that any one who can lie within it will be cured 
of rheumatism and similar complaints." The Round Tower is represented 
at fig. 133. 




Situated (Map 105) on the banks of Lough Corrib, eight miles N. from Gal way. 
It presents several objects of interest, particularly three ancient windows, one 
of which is represented in its restored condition at fig. 107 ; and a beautiful 
illustration of it as it now appears may be seen in Sir William Wilde's Lough 
Corrib, p. 72. Most of the buildings however are remains of early Christian 
structures. The place is mentioned as one of the sites of an ancient Round 
Tower, and an irregular mound was pointed out to me as the spot on which 
the Tower had stood. But in Lough Corrib (p. 79), the author gives a 
sketch of the ruins of a Round Tower, of which he was the fortunate disco- 
verer, situated about four miles N. N. E. from Annaghdown ; and this he 
supposes to be the tower mentioned by the Annalists as that of Annaghdown. 
Some remarks upon this tower will be found in the Postscript at page 352, 

There are, in the neighbourhood of Lough Corrib and Lough Mask, the 
ruins of no less than ten ancient temples which have not been mentioned in 
this book. For a detailed description and for very beautiful drawings of 
many of these ruins, I must therefore refer the reader to Sir William Wilde's 
most interesting work, "Lough Corrib," etc. And though Sir William's views 
differ altogether from mine as to the origin and uses of these structures, I think 
the reader will find that most of the arguments he uses tend only to the 
support of the theory advocated in the preceding pages the Cuthite origin 
of these ancient temples. The following names are mentioned by Sir Wil- 
liam Wilde in connection with these localities Columb, Brendan, Cuannan, 
Endeus, Fintan, Carthag [Mochudee], Keiran, Cronin, Annin, Fechin, Cor- 
mac, Brecan, and Lugnad ; all of which it may be remembered are noticed, 
with some trifling varieties of spelling, in the foregoing pages as Cuthite 


The places referred to and described by Sir William Wilde, where ruins, 
such as those I have designated Cuthite remains, are still to be found, are 

- INCHANGOILL, an island in Lough Corrib (Map 95), four miles S. by W. 
from Cong, at which are two very interesting ancient temples, noticed at 
page 352, ante. 

- TEMPLE BRENDAN, situated (Map 95) four miles W. by N. from Cong. 

KILLURSA, situated (Map 95) two miles W. from Headford. 

- KILCOONA, situated (Map 95) four miles S. E. by E. from Headford. 
Here is the " stump" of a Round Tower, to which I have referred at page 

35 2 - 


(the little Church of the Saint St. Annin) are all within a radius of one mile, 
near the northern shore of Ross lake, and about eleven miles from Galway 
on the road to Oughterard. See Map 105. 

KILCATHAIL, situated (Map 106) four miles N. by E. from Clare-Gal way 
on the road to Tuam. 

All these are in the County Galway. The others to which Sir William 
Wilde has directed attention shall be noticed under the heading of CONG, in 
Mayo County. 

Nos. 125, 172 AND 212 ARAN ISLANDS. 

The south Island of Aran is situated (Map 122) 5 miles W. N. W. from 
Doolin on the coast of the County Clare, and about 1 1 miles from the coast 
of Galway. There are upon it two very interesting ancient temples, one of 
which is associated with the name of Kevan, and the other with that of 
Gobban-et [The spirit of Gobban]. There is a good specimen of a Cyclo- 
pean doorway, and an ancient window of narrow splay, in each of these 
buildings ; there is also in St. Kevan's Church a curious ancient window 
with pointed top. Several other interesting relics of antiquity, including 
two Holy Wells, are to be found on the Island. The masonry of the 


Churches is of the fine massive ancient style, but a great portion of the 
foundation of Kevan's Church is buried in the sands. So much venerated 
are these buildings by the peasantry, that I was reproved for entering the 
roofless walls of one of them with my hat on, and was obliged to divest 
myself of the covering it afforded while I remained within the sacred pre- 
cincts. On getting into the Island I accommodated a returned American 
emigrant with a passage in my boat. He had come from America on 
account of sore eyes, and was proceeding from a distant part of Galway to 
be cured of his affliction at the Holy Well of Aran. 

The middle Island (Maps 113, 122) affords very little of interesting 
matter for the antiquary. One of the ancient Churches is comprised within 
the building of a modern Roman Catholic Chapel, and I was not able to 
ascertain that any archaeological remains are still visible within it. Another 
Church, St. Canaugh's or St. Canaan's, is a rude early Christian building 
erected on the ancient site, without a vestige of genuine antiquity, save the 
four stones of an ancient pointed window (fig. 118) re-set in the modern 
structure. I disagree altogether with Dr. Petrie's description of this building. 
He says (p. 187): "This little Church, which would be in perfect preserva- 
tion if its stone roof remained," etc. I believe that it never had, and never 
could have borne, a stone roof, and that in other respects it has the marks 
of a very rude early Christian building : but I leave the intelligent tourist to 
examine and decide for himself. There are a great fort and other Celtic 
monuments on this Island as well as on the great Island. These will be 
found deserving of inspection ; but such antiquities are not within the limit 
of my enquiries. 

The great Island of Aran is situated (Map 122) to the N. W. of the 
middle Island, and six miles from the coast of Galway. It is rich in ancient 
remains, the principal of which, with their distances and directions from the 
quay or landing place, are as follow : 
TEMPLE ENDEE, two miles S. E. 

The ROUND TOWER, less than two miles S. S. E. 



TEMPLE BUNAUN, close to the Round Tower. 

TEMPLE CIARAN, one mile N.W. 

TEMPLE COLMAN, three miles W. 

TEMPLE BRECCAN, five miles W. by N. 

Cyclopean doorways and ancient windows, commonly called Norman, 
exist at Temple Bunaun, Temple Ciaran, and Temple Colman. Similar 
ancient windows are also to be found at Temple Breccan, and Temple 
Endee. Of the Round Tower only about ten feet of the base remain, and a 
great part of this is concealed by the heap of debris which surrounds it. So 
much of the masonry as exists exhibits all the characteristics usually observ- 
able at the bases of Irish Round Towers ; but doorway and windows have 
disappeared. See fig. 157. 


Called also Teg-lagh-Enda The Stone- House of the One God has 
got only one ancient window that in the chancel, the arch of which is 
formed of two stones. It is much damaged and re-built underneath. No 
vestige of the ancient doorway remains. The wall at the north side is a 
fine specimen of the Cyclopean ; the greater part of the other wall is a re- 
building. The ancient buttresses remain at the chancel end. 


Is a very curious little building, only seven feet in width by about eleven 
feet in length. The masonry of the east gable on the inside, one stone of 
which runs through its whole length, exhibits uncommon specimens of 
ancient work. The walls incline inwards from the foundation, so as the better 
to support the stone roof which once covered the building. The window in 
the north wall is a very small pointed specimen. 



Has undergone much alteration in Christian times. The east window is a 
fine specimen of the ancient style of wide splay, but it has been damaged 
and somewhat fractured by a stroke of lightning. The ancient Cyclopean 
doorway in the west wall has been built up. A second ancient window has 
been re-set rudely in the sidewall. There is an ancient Holed Stone in the 
east of the Church having some antique sculpture, on which the design called 
the Branch (such as figs. 12, 13, 14) appears. 


The south wall of the nave is a remarkably fine specimen of Cyclopean 
masonry. The west door is ancient, and square-headed. The chancel seems 
to be a re-building enlarged from the ancient plan. The windows are 
re-settings. Close to this Church is Temple Murry, of which a small 
portion of the ancient wall only now remains. 


Called the Seven Churches. The greater part of the buildings at this place 
are early Christian, but there are some remains of genuine antiquity. Two 
of the windows are altered and re-set ; the chancel arch seems ancient. 
The whole structure appears to have been enlarged in re-building ; and the 
ancient windows at the east and south re-set. There is no vestige of the 
ancient doorway. 

The Islands of A ran have a special interest for the antiquary who hopes 
to find vestiges of Cuthite architecture. The number of ancient temples is 
greater here than he will find in the same extent of country elsewhere 
throughout Ireland ; and, although there is no temple at Aran which has 
not been altered more or less, or reconstructed in Christian times, it will 
be found that the proportion of ancient to early Christian work is greater 


here than in other districts. The style of all the ancient buildings, however, 
is plain, and no rich architecture or sculpture is to be seen. These holy 
places could therefore have been of only second-rate importance compared 
with the ordinary Cuthite temples of Ireland. 

No. 199. CLONFERT, 

Situated (Map 117) 13 miles S. by W. from Athlone, and five miles N. W. 
from Banagher. A considerable portion of the present Cathedral formed a 
part of the ancient heathen temple. The doorway was a porch entrance to 
the temple. It is a beautiful specimen of the arched style, measuring in 
height to the spring of the arch six feet, in width five feet one inch at the 
base, narrowing to four feet nine inches at the capitals. The large window 
at the east end is ancient, as is also the chancel arch. The Mermaid, repre- 
sented at fig. 24, is a sculpture built into one of the side piers of the chancel 
arch. A beautiful drawing of the doorway of Clonfert may be seen in 
Robert O'Callaghan Newenham's " Views of the Antiquities of Ireland," 
but I have not introduced it, as neither the perspective nor the proportions 
are quite correct. The doorway is much smaller than it would appear to be 
from Mr. Newenham's picture. The skill of a first-class artist would be re- 
quired to represent it fully and faithfully ; and it is to be hoped that such a 
person will be found to illustrate this handsome specimen of sculpture, with 
numerous others throughout Ireland, proper sketches of which have never 
been made. 


Situated three miles S. from Ballinasloe (Map 107). Here are the ruins of 
a Christian Abbey, in the north transept of which two small ancient windows 
have been re-set ; another ancient window has been re-set in the western 
wall, and there are other fragments of antiquity about the ruin, some of which 


are of a doubtful character. The Holy Well of St. Boadan is situated at a 
little distance from the Church. 

No. 114. CLUAIN FOIS, 

Situated (Map 96) three miles W. from Tuam. The ruined Church at this 
place is a rude early Christian building, and no vestige of antiquity is to be 
found about the site save a Rock Basin, in which is the impression of " one 
of St. Patrick's knees where he knelt to pray." 


Is an island in Lough Derg, (Map 125) eight miles N. from Killaloe, and 
within less than one mile of the shore at the point of junction of the Counties 
of Clare and Galway. The Round Tower wants its conical top, but is other- 
wise nearly perfect. The doorway is of the ordinary style, round-headed, 
with inclining jambs. The building called the Cathedral is a reconstruction 
of the ancient heathen temple, which, judging from the chancel arch and one 
side of the ancient doorway (fig. 181), must have been a highly-finished and 
finely ornamented building. It seems to have been built wholly of ashlar, 
but the greater part of the work as it now stands is rude masonry of the early 
Christian period. 

The doorway, one side of which all that remains is represented in fig. 
1 8 1 , was two feet seven inches in width at the spring of the innermost arch, 
and two feet nine inches at the base ; in height to the spring of the arch five 
feet two inches, and to its vertex six feet six inches. Sundry fragments of 
ancient stone work may be seen worked into other buildings upon the Island^; 
but the most interesting objects are the Round Tower and the Cathedral. 
In the latter may be seen the small window which has been represented in 
fig. 113, in the jamb of which is the specimen of curious jointing exhibited 
in fig. 121. 


I have not before noticed that St. Camin or Caimin (whose name, as well 
as that of St. Columb, is associated with Iniscaltra) is, like all the others, 
derived from heathen mythology. The identical name is found to represent 
Ham or Cham (the Sun) of Cuthite mythology. The Egyptian Crocodile is 
called "Caimin" (Bryant, vol. 2, p. 18). Ham as a Deity was esteemed the 
Sun, and his priests were styled Chamin (vol. i, p. 4). Chamin is a term 
used in the Hebrew to express an image of Ham, the Sun. For we read of 
King Josiah (2 Chron. xxxiv. 4), that " he broke down the altars of Baalim 
in his presence ; and the Chaminim [the images of Cham] that were on high 
above them he cut down." Chaminim in the singular number would be 
Chamin, like the Egyptian Caimin, the identical name of the Saint of Iniscal- 
tra and other places in Ireland ; and, according to the usual interpretation, 
the Sun was the real object of worship. Therefore as his images were ex- 
pressed by the term Chaminim, the word itself was evidently the name of 
Cham or Ham the son of Noah, who early became an object of worship 
among his descendants. It is curious to find the word Caiman among the 
aborigines of Central America as their name for the Crocodile or Alligator, 
which would leave us to infer that before the Dispersion this animal had 
been regarded as sacred. (See Imperial Dictionary]. 

The names St. Comman and St. Cummin I believe to be varieties of 
this word Caimin, the vowels a, i, and o being used indifferently in ancient 
Irish MSS. 

No. 230. KILBANNON, 

Sometimes called Ballygaddy, which is the name of the townland and bridge 
adjoining the site, is situated (Map 96) two miles N. W. from Tuam Railway 
Station. The Round Tower still remains, to the height of about forty-five 
feet. It is broken away on one side, but the doorway is nearly perfect, being 
of the ordinary form, round-headed, and with inclining jambs. The Church 
adjoining is a rude early Christian building. No vestiges of genuine anti- 
quity have come under my observation, save the Round Tower, which is 


associated with the name of St. Bunaun one of three brothers ; another, St. 
Bernaun, being the reputed founder of Knockmoy. A view of the Round 
Tower is given at fig. 158, ante. 


Situated (Map 124) about one mile from the boundary of the County of Clare 
and two miles S. W. from the town of Gort. It must have been a place of con- 
siderable importance in ancient times, as vestiges of five different temples 
still remain there, at each of which fragments of ancient work may be seen ; 
but four-fifths of the existing buildings are early Christian structures. Fig. 
84 is the base of the Round Tower of Kilmacduagh one of the finest 
specimens of Cyclopean masonry in Ireland. Fig. 105 is a handsome ancient 
window in a Church called Temple lun interpreted to mean Hynes's Church 
by the people in the neighbourhood, but I should interpret the name the 
Temple of lun the Dove, Juno, the Great Mother. Fig. 70 is a fine speci- 
men of doorway of the Cyclopean style situated near the Round Tower, in 
the ancient portion of a building called the Cathedral. There are sundry 
other remains of ancient buildings at this place, which will repay the tourist 
for a close inspection. 



The district north of the town of Gort is a very interesting one to the 
Archaeologist. Here, within a distance of eight English miles, are portions 
of five small parishes, in which five very interesting Cuthite ruins still remain. 
They are to be found on Sheet 1 15 of the general Map of Ireland. I have 
not introduced these several places in the Catalogue under the head of any 
particular Cuthite divinities, for although numerous supposed Saints, and 
other names traceable to Cuthite Mythology, are associated with those build- 


ings, there is no written record of any interest in existence, and there is much 
confusion in the arrangement of what still remains of oral tradition. 

This district is traversed by the Mail-Coach road from Ennis to Galway, 
and for a long period English as well as Irish has been spoken by the 
inhabitants. In Ireland one of the first results that may be observed after 
the introduction of the English language is, that the people lose their faith 
in and respect for ancient local traditions. Such legends in consequence 
soon die out ; and little more of them remains than what may have been 
committed to writing in former times, and such corroborative evidence as 
topography may continue to afford. 

The people of this district inform us, that there were many Saints of 
note connected with the different Churches, but they say that the names 
of several have been lost ; and much of the superstitious regard by which 
ancient traditions were perpetuated has died out with the decline of the Irish 
language. The little that is still left of the traditions, and the names of the 
places themselves, are sufficient to identify these foundations with other sites 
to which a Cuthite origin has been assigned ; but the similarity of style in 
the ruins with that of others described as Cuthite remains leaves no doubt 
of both having been the work of the same people. 

I would here observe as a general remark, that the ecclesiastical records 
relating to the west of Ireland are very scanty compared with those of Lein- 
ster. This may be accounted for by the fact, that the native Irish placed much 
reliance upon oral tradition for the preservation of their ancient lore. And 
therefore we find that, the written matter concerning the English- Irish districts 
(the places peopled by English before the Reformation) is far more copious 
than what relates to localities, which have ever remained in the occupation 
of an exclusively Irish race. That is to say, we have more of ecclesiastical 
record committed to writing, with less of oral tradition and less of ancient 
remains, in Leinster, than in the counties of Clare and Galway ; though quite 
enough of evidence exists to identify the ancient ruins of the west with 
names associated with sites in the east of Ireland. 



Is situated two miles N. from Gort, and within 100 yards of Mr. Gregory's 
demesne of Coole. The ruin is a large quadrangular building, into which 
the massive stones of the ancient temple have been worked. Large stones, 
finely cut and squared may be seen re-set amidst rubble work in different 
parts of this ruin. The centre and lower courses of the north wall seem to 
be ancient. The building has been enlarged ; and ancient coigns re-set at 
the angles. One ancient window has been re-set in the north wall. The 
doorway has disappeared, and a modern one has been inserted in the north 
wall. The Church is dedicated to St. Deelan (the mother of MacDuagh, 
alias MacCuille, about whose birth and baptism some strange legends are 
told). Poul-Deelan, near this temple and within the demesne of Coole, is 
pointed out as a place into which St. Deelan was three times thrown by her 
wicked eldest son, Gurah. A stone five feet long, still pointed out standing 
in the grave-yard, was bound round her neck, but each time she escaped by 


Is situated less than four miles N. by E. from Kiltartan Church, on the road 
to Gal way. It is the site of a Round Tower, of which a few feet are still 
standing at the south-west corner of the Church-yard. Near the tower is a 
subterraneous passage, several yards of which have been cleared of rubbish. 
The ancient name of Ardrahan was Ard-Rath-Ain. 


In the parish of Kilcolgan, less than two miles N. W. by N. from Ardrahan, 
and about 300 yards to the east of the Mail-Coach road. Here is a very 

interesting Cuthite temple, with so much of the ancient work remaining and 

F F F 



so little of the modern as is rarely found. The north, south, and west walls 
of the building are standing to the height of more than ten feet ; and they 
exhibit some excellent specimens of Cyclopean masonry. The doorway 
in the west wall is perfect, and is one of the finest specimens of the plain 
style. The temple has been enlarged at the east end from about 25 feet to 
40 feet in length, to suit the purposes of Christian worship. The contrast 
between the mason-work of the heathen temple and that in the Christian 
Church is very striking. The side walls of the ancient portion are forty-one 
inches in thickness. There is one pointed window in the south wall like that 
represented at fig. 1 1 8. The buttresses at the east end are perfect, being 
partially concealed and protected by the extending wall the modern addition ; 
but those at the west end have been mischievously broken away. The stones 
forming the side walls are too massive to be easily removed, or they would 
probably have shared the same fate. The upper courses of the whole build- 
ing seem to have been reconstructed in early Christian times. 


Is a ruin less than two miles N. W. by N. from Temple Tiernan. Portions 
of the north and south walls are ancient ; the former, a fine specimen of 
Cyclopean masonry. The building has been enlarged at the west end, and 
a modern doorway introduced in the south wall. Ancient coigns have been 
built into the modern work. An ancient window is re-set in the north wall, 
and a double window at the east end. The head-stone of another window 
may be seen, turned upside down, and built into the north wall. There is a 
Rock Basin inside the doorway of the Church. 


Situated less than two miles W. by S. from the village of Kilcolgan, and on 
the left-hand side of the Galway road. This is one of the most interesting 


ruins in Ireland. The building as it now stands consists of fragments of two 
ancient temples, one plain and small, the other large and highly ornamented. 
A very fine and perfect specimen of Cyclopean doorway stands in the west 
wall, about which, and along the north wall, some ancient masonry may be 
seen. All the rest of the building is reconstruction, in which several frag- 
ments of the ancient temple have been used. A beautiful doorway has been 
opened in the south wall, consisting of portions of a highly ornamented 
Chancel Arch. An examination of the inside of this doorway will show its 
patch-work character. The jambs are formed out of the piers of a Chancel 
Arch, and are unlike anything ever found in a genuine ancient doorway. 
Similar specimens of reconstruction shall afterwards be noticed as existing 
at the Cathedral of Cong, Co. Mayo, where two beautiful orifices, called 
doorways, have been constructed out of chancel or transept arches. Ancient 
windows have been re-set in the north and south walls of Drum-Mochua, and 
a double window, also a re-setting, in the east wall. That in the south wall 
is perfect on the outside, and is a very beautiful specimen. The lower 
portion of the window in the north wall is ancient ; the inner angles of the 
sides are constructed out of the chancel arch, which furnished the south 
doorway. There are other evidences of patch-work about this ruin, which 
the experienced eye may detect. There is nothing to mark the site upon 
which the handsome temple had stood, but the fragments of its beautiful 
stone-cutting which abound throughout the present ruin. 

A subterraneous passage (now closed up) exists inside the Church-yard 
gate. There is also a Holy Well, at which miraculous cures are said to have 
been performed. 

Tradition has preserved the names of Saints Brecan, Suirney [Suir, a 
Mermaid], Rushann, Colgan, MacDuach (also called MacCuille), and Deelan, 
in connection with this, or some of the neighbouring temples, besides which, 
the topography of the ruins supplies us with several other names of heathen 
origin, such as Mochua, Tiernan, Ard-Rath-Ain, Coole, Tor-tin, etc. ; all of 
which will be found of significance, if the principle of interpretation put forth 


in this work be admitted. However this may be, there are very few 
specimens of ancient Irish ruins better worth examination than the Temples 
of Drum-Mochua and Kiltiernan. 


Situated (Map 96) seven miles S. E. by S. from Tuam Railway Station. This 
building has already been noticed at p. 324 as one of the Cuthite Temples 
of larger size, which never came into use as a Christian Church until the 
end of the twelfth century. The reader is requested to examine the general 
remarks made upon ancient temples of the larger class for evidence that the 
oldest and finest portions of Knockmoy Abbey belonged to a Cuthite temple. 
The lower part of the Chancel is ancient, but the upper part exhibits 
marks of reconstruction. The same may be said of other portions of the 
existing ruin : but four-fifths of the whole is of the style of the twelfth and 
following centuries, which, from its rudeness and the use of punched stone, 
may be easily distinguished from the fragments of ancient work incorporated 
with it. Knockmoy continued to be used as a Christian monastery for nearly 
400 years, during which time the art of building had made considerable pro- 
gress in Ireland; and consequently, so many well-executed reconstructions 
and alterations of the ancient portions took place, as to make it difficult to 
distinguish between all that is ancient and all that is modern or reconstructed. 
The foundation of the Abbey is ascribed in the ecclesiastical records to the 
1 2th century; but the peasantry on the spot have a legend very like that told 
respecting Cdrcomroe in the County of Clare, viz., That Knockmoy was built 
by Gobban Saer and the Fian of Eirin in one night, and thrown down on the 
following night. But my informant added apologetically, that this was not 
truth, but only a story told by the old people. The names of the three Saints 
Bernaun, Bunaun, and Garraun, are said to have been associated with Knock- 
moy, the Round Tower of Kilbannon, and a third religious house in the 
same neighbourhood. 


No. 231. ROSCOM 

Is situated (Map 106) three miles E. from the town of Gal way. The Round 
Tower is the most interesting object at this place, though not one of the best 
specimens. The doorway (fig. 148) is square-headed, and seems to have been 
re-set. The wall of the Tower is four feet four inches in thickness. The 
name of St. Patrick is associated with it. A rude early Christian Church 
stands near the Round Tower, but in the inner angles of its windows are 
several stones of ancient windows of wide splay. A large stone containing 
several Rock Basins is to be seen close to the Church. It is broken into two 
parts with basins in each. See notes on Rock Basins, page 340. 


Is on a small island named Cruach MacDara (Map 103), 12 miles N. W. from 
Aran-more, and two miles from the coast of Galway. This ruin is in some 
respects the most interesting Cuthite temple now existing in Ireland, because 
it is the only one which, while still preserving its original outline, does not 
exhibit the additions, alterations, or reparations of modern times. While 
others that have been noticed are Christian Churches, built on the sites of 
heathen temples, Temple MacDara is still what it originally was a heathen 
temple and nothing else. 

I have met with dozens of buttresses in ruins throughout Ireland, varying 
in height from four to twelve feet; but I should never have understood their 
use if I had not seen Temple MacDara. For in no instance save this one, 
do the buttresses rise even to the course above the eave. From the example 
of Temple MacDara we can understand how buttresses became useful in 
some stone-roofed temples, namely, to counter-balance the pressure on the 
centre by throwing a portion of the weight outside the gables. The Cyclopean 
doorway of Temple MacDara measures in height five feet one inch, in width 


two feet four inches at the base, narrowing to two feet two inches at the top. 
Fig. 171 represents this Temple with its west end ; and at fig. 1 16, we have 
exhibited the beautiful east end window. The Saint's Festival is observed 
on the 1 6th of July a day esteemed as sacred as Sunday, and the Pattern 
is still resorted to by thousands. 

No. 113 TUAM, 

A Railway Station, situated (Map 96) fifteen miles W. from the Railway 
Station of Athenry. The Chancel Arch of the Cathedral is all that remains 
of the ancient heathen temple, which must have been a splendid edifice. 
The chancel with its round-headed windows existed when Dr. Petrie wrote 
his Essay ; but as that portion of the building has since been removed I shall 
describe the whole in Dr. Petrie's words. He says (pp. 314, 315) "Of the 
ancient church of Tuam the chancel only remains ; but, fortunately, this is 
sufficient to make us acquainted with its general style of architecture, and to 
show that it was not only a larger, but a more splendid structure than Cor- 
mac's Church at Cashel, and not unworthy of the powerful monarch to whom 
it chiefly owed its erection. This chancel is a square of twenty-six feet in 
external measurement, and the walls are four feet in thickness. Its east end 
is perforated by three round-headed windows, each five feet in height and 
eighteen inches in width externally, but splaying on the inside to the width 
of five feet. These windows are ornamented with the zig-zag and other 
mouldings, both externally and internally, and they are connected with each 
other by label, or string-course mouldings, of which the external one is en- 
riched with paterae. In the south wall there is a window similarly ornamen- 
ted, but of smaller size. 

" But the great feature of this chancel is its triumphal arch, now erro- 
neously supposed to have been a doorway, which is, perhaps, the most 
magnificent specimen of its kind remaining in Ireland. It is composed 
externally of six semicircular, concentric, and recessed arches, of which the 

TUAM. 413 

outer is twenty feet six inches in width at its base, and nineteen feet five 
inches in height; and the inner, fifteen feet eight inches in width, and sixteen 
feet in height." 

Fig. 1 80 represents one base of this beautiful chancel arch. The sculp- 
tures are all in low relief, and the material is hard red sandstone. 

Dr. Petrie says of the Cross of Tuam, the head of which is represented 
at fig. 57 : "The cross of Tuam, however, is of far greater magnificence and 
interest, and may justly rank as the finest monument of its class and age 
remaining in Ireland ; and yet, to the disgrace of the inhabitants of that 
ancient city, its shaft, head, and base, though all remaining, are allowed to be 
in different localities detached from each other." 

The foundation of Tuam Cathedral is ascribed to St. Hiarlath, who has 
been noticed among the mythical Saints at p. 71 ; but Dr. Petrie informs us 
(p. 31 1), that " according to Ware the Cathedral was re-built about the year 
1152 by the Archbishop Edan O'Hoisin, by the aid and assistance of Turlogh 
O'Connor king of Ireland." All the facts which we have noticed respecting 
the antiquities of Tuam only tend to confirm the heathen origin of its temple. 
First, we have the magnificent Cross, estimated at thirty feet in original 
height, with a mural crown on the crucified figure (see p. 166, ante), proved 
to have been in existence so early as 1 152, at which time sculpture of raised 
figures in stone had made very little progress even in England and France. 
Then we have the Chancel Arch (see p. 350, ante), one of the most beautiful 
specimens of richly sculptured architecture to be found in the United Kingdom, 
and which far surpasses any modern work in Ireland. This arch, and the 
magnificent building of which it formed a part, are assumed to have been 
erected in 1152, about twenty years before King Henry the Second had his 
royal palace built for him in Dublin, "of smoothe wattles after the fashion of 
the Irish." Where were the architects and sculptors of King Turlogh 
O'Connor ? or how came it that Ireland's architectural taste had so far de- 
generated within the short space of twenty years ? But Ware's notice of 
Tuam reveals the truth. The structure of 1152 was only a re-building; and 


the foundation is associated with the name of St. Hiarlath of the 5th century. 
The truth is therefore apparent, notwithstanding the erroneous inferences 
which have been formed on the facts. The chancel is described by Dr. Petrie, 
and the chancel arch as it stands to-day existed in the earliest ages of Chris- 
tianity, being the fragments of an ancient Cuthite temple of the most beautiful 
style. The Archbishop and King Turlogh O'Connor took possession of 
the ruins at some time before 1152, and added some very rude structure, 
which, if it had not since been removed to make way for more substantial 
buildings, would at this day exhibit that contrast between the ancient and 
beautiful fragments of Cuthite architecture, and the rude work of the i2th 
century, of which examples may be found in every county in the south and 
west of Ireland. The chancel arch exhibits one of those Irish peculiarities, 
which tend to confirm my opinion on the heathen origin of this Temple : 
the pillars that support the capitals of the arch are not perpendicular, but 
have a slight inward inclination as they rise the space being wider at the 
base than at the capitals. This is a common characteristic of all ancient 
Irish doorways and arches, which have not undergone the process of recon- 


No. 97. AGHADOE 

Is situated on an eminence three miles N. W. from the town of Killarney 
(Map 1 73), and two miles N. from the island of Inisfallen, with which religious 
establishment I suppose it to have been originally incorporated, the same 
patron, St. Finian, having presided over both. The Round Tower to the 
height of about twelve feet still remains. It is a fine piece of ancient mason- 
work, but the door and windows have disappeared. The Cathedral adjoining 
is a rude early Christian building, still exhibiting, however, some portions of 
the ancient heathen temple, which seems to have been built in the ornamented 

A great portion of the building is a reconstruction, with enlargement in 


Christian times, probably effected in 1158, when Aghadoe was said to have 
been "finished" The doorway, a portion of die ornament of which is repre- 
sented at fig. 92, is the most interesting object in this Ruin. 

There are two ancient windows re-set in this building, both of which are 
in the nave one in the north, the other in the south wall. The outer stones 
of each have been removed. The Chancel is altogether a modern addition, 
probably an enlargement of the ancient structure as some ancient stones have 
been used in the modern portions. A Rock Basin may be seen on the out- 
side of the north wall of the nave ; and a subterraneous passage has been 
discovered to the south of the building in the direction of Inisfallen, whither 
tradition says that it once extended under the lake. 

No. 200. ARDFERT, 

Situated (Map 162) six miles N. W. from Tralee. Here are the ruins of two 
ancient temples, exhibiting some varieties of ornament that I have not found 
elsewhere. Fragments of one temple of the style of Cormac's Chapel are 
built into the old Cathedral. The other temple is in a more perfect state, 
and smaller. Fig. 1 30 is a specimen of the ornament which surrounds the 
inside of one of its windows. Here are found several sculptured heads, a 
handsome chancel arch, projecting coigns, a round-headed doorway, and several 
other evidences of the remote antiquity to which the buildings belong; but 
these I shall leave the tourist to examine for himself as I cannot properly 
describe them. An ancient Round Tower once stood near the Cathedral, 
but the exact site is now unknown. 

No. 232. ANNAGH 

Is situated (Map 162) three miles S. W. from Tralee, on the road to Dingle. 
This Church is altogether a rude early Christian building, having no vestige 

of antiquity that I could discover, except the sculpture representing a man on 



horseback (fig. 68), and one stone of an ancient window built into the side of 
the present window. 


An island in a lake of the same name, situated two miles N. E. from the 
Hotel of Waterville (Map 191). Here may be seen the ruins of an ancient 
temple, the round-headed doorway of which has been greatly damaged, the 
outer ornaments save one capital having been removed. One ancient window 
is re-set in the south wall. The Chancel is a modern addition, with an 
ancient window (a re-setting) in the eastern wall. The side walls of the nave 
are a re-building, but the foundations are ancient. 

No. I 79- DERINANE, alias AGHAMORE, 

A small island situated (Map 191) five miles S. by E. from Waterville Hotel, 
on the demesne of the late Daniel O'Connell, Esq. The name Aghamore, 
and the description of the situation as defined by Archdall, have led me to 
identify it as the Church of St. Finbar, or with Derinane Abbey. Several 
fragments of the ancient temple may be found among the ruins of the Abbey. 
Among these are portions of the windows, and an ancient round-headed 
doorway, only a few stones of which latter now remain. 


A beautiful island in the Lower Lake of Killarney (Map 173), two miles 
W. S. W. from the town. There is much to interest the tourist in this 
lovely spot, but the only object now remaining to associate the place with 
remote antiquity is a small temple a few yards to the right of the landing 
place. The bed of the Saint is also pointed out, respecting which the guides 
inform us, that whoever stretches himself in it is certain, if unmarried, to find 


a partner within twelve months. The other buildings on the island are all 
of the very rudest early Christian style, from which it would appear, that 
although greatly venerated as an ancient religious foundation, and highly 
esteemed as a burying-place, it never acquired any ecclesiastical importance 
since the English Conquest. The ancient temple referred to has a hand- 
some round-headed doorway at the west end, and an ancient window in 
the eastern wall. This has been much lengthened in reconstruction. A 
few feet of the ancient walls remain at the north side ; all the rest of the 
building is a restoration. 

No. 225. KILLAGUE, 

Situated three miles S. by E. from Killarney (Map 173), and within five 
minutes walk of the Muckross Hotel. The small east window is the only 
vestige of architecture in this little Church still bearing marks of genuine 
antiquity ; all the rest seems to be Christian work. 


Situated (Map 171) four miles N. W. from Dingle, is to the antiquary one 
of the most interesting localities in Ireland. Modern civilization has not yet 
extended into this remote district ; and superstition has done much to cause 
monuments of antiquity to remain untouched for thousands of years. The 
Irish language is still spoken here by all, and numerous ancient legends are 
preserved in the memories of old people of the Celtic race. I have already 
stated that my object in this part of the work is to inform the reader, as 
briefly as possible, where he may find the several localities to which I have 
referred as Cuthite foundations. I might have added considerably to every 
page in respect to descriptive particulars ; but all such matter is outside the 
object of this part of my work. I have written to establish a theory respect- 
ing Irish History and Architecture. If the theory be rejected, every word 
that I have written in this part of the work, beyond the statement of the 



exact situation of each place, must be regarded as superfluous : but if, on the 
other hand, my theory be adopted, it will require a work of four times the 
size of the present to describe, as it ought to be done, the several localities 
referred to. I shall therefore for the present dismiss the subject of Kilmel- 
chedor by stating briefly, that two ancient heathen temples are still to be seen 
there. One is built in the handsome or ornamented style, the other is as plain 
as possible; the first is called Kilmelchedor Church, which in Irish is Temple 
Melchedor that is, the Temple of the Golden Molach. The other is called 
Gallerus Oratory, which name I believe it received from a Castle built 
close by. 


Kilmelchedor, like numerous other Cuthite ruins throughout Ireland, is 
said to have been built in one night. Fig. 102 represents the arch of the 
doorway of this temple, save that the Ox's head is on the inside instead of 
the outside of the soffit or lintel, as stated at page 266. A figure of some 


kind, defaced so as not to be discernable, is in the same manner raised in 
relief or used for the soffit stone of the doorway of Banagher Church, fig. 72. 

There are four ancient windows to be seen in this temple, two of which 
are in the nave and two in the chancel ; but this part of the building having 
been thrown down in Christian times and replaced by a chancel of larger 
dimensions, the two sides only of the ancient windows remain. The nave, 
which is the only ancient portion now in existence (except the sides of the 
chancel windows), exhibits evidence of having had an arched roof of stone. 

The smaller Church, called Gallerus, is rude in architecture, or rather 
plain, compared with the other. The building itself is represented at fig. 186, 
and its only window is to be seen at figs. 114 and 117. The style of the 
window being like hundreds of others found throughout Ireland identifies it, 
as I have remarked at page 277, with the Irish style of building commonly 
called "Norman with Irish peculiarities." I shall leave the tourist to 
enquire for himself respecting the Rock Basin, into which the Finian cow 
deposited her milk in sufficient quantity for the whole of Fin-MacCuile's 
army. Also for Dunurlin, Caher Canaan, Ardmore (the valley of slaughter), 
Coom, Eribul, and Sybil Head, all of which I associate with Cuthite 

No. 1 9 7- RATTAS, 

Situated one mile E. from the town of Tralee (Map 162). Dr. Petrie's 
drawing of the Cyclopean doorway of this little temple is represented at fig. 
75, including a fine pair of ancient buttresses. This doorway, and the whole 
gable in which it stands, deserve special attention as one of the finest speci- 
mens of Cyclopean architecture to be found in Ireland. 

No. 40. RATTO, 

Situated (Map 151) twelve miles N. by E. from Tralee, and five miles S. 
by E. from Ballybunnion. The only object of particular interest at Ratto is 


the Round Tower, which is very perfect, the loftiest, and one of the least 
injured by repairs of any in Ireland. The doorway is of the ordinary style, 
round-headed, with inclining jambs, which exhibit some curious specimens of 
jointing. The ruined Church adjoining is a well-executed medieval building, 
but without any traces of Cuthite remains. Ratto is said to have been former- 
ly a place of great importance to have had a town, and seven Churches ; 
but it is now the well-preserved demesne of Wilson Gunn, Esq. 



Situated (Map 128) eight miles S. E. from Athy. Several interesting relics 
of antiquity are to be seen at Castledermot, among which are the Round 
Tower, two ancient Crosses, the arched doorway of an ancient Temple, and 
the Holed Stone represented at fig. 177. The site is ascribed to St. Diarmit 
of the 5th century. 



Is situated (Map 120) ten miles S. S. W. from the Railway Station of Naas, 
and seven miles E. S. E.from Kildare. The Round Tower is the most interest- 
ing object to be seen here. It is standing to the height of about forty feet, 
having a doorway of the usual style, round-headed. Portions of two ancient 
Crosses also remain. One was of the larger size, and is much weather-worn ; 
the other is represented in Ledwich (p. 75), from which fig. 36 is copied. The 
beautiful arched doorway of the ancient Temple is represented in Grose's 
Antiquities. This picture is of special value as the magnificent doorway, 
together with every vestige of the Temple to which it belonged have 


No. 55. KILDARE 

Is a Railway Station (Map 119), thirty miles W. by S. from Dublin. The 
Round Tower is one of the finest specimens, as well as the most highly 
ornamented, in Ireland; its doorway is represented at fig. 96. The castel- 
lated top of the tower is modern. 

There are sundry vestiges of ancient work about the site at Kildare; but 
they are so incorporated with buildings of Christian times, that it is diffi- 
cult to distinguish them. A large ancient Cross stands in the Church-yard, 
and fragments of a second ; but they are not very interesting specimens. 


Is situated (Map 1 1 1) about two miles S. S. E. from Straffan Railway Station 
on the Great Southern and Western Railway. Here is a Round Tower 
with the doorway of the usual style round-headed, with inclining jambs. 
The foundation is associated with the name of St. Bridget. 

No. 35. TEGHADOE, 

Situated (Map in) about two miles S. by W. from Maynooth Railway Sta- 
tion. Near the Church is an ancient Round Tower about sixty feet high, in 
excellent preservation, having a round-headed doorway. The name Teg- 
hadoe may be interpreted The high house of Budh. 


Situated close to each other (Map 129) eight miles E. from Athy. The 
handsome Cross, represented at fig. 16, stands in the Church-yard of Moone 
Abbey, where fragments of other Crosses are also to be seen. The ruins of 
the Church of Timolin stand at a short distance to the east of Moone Abbey. 


I would interpret Timolin to mean The house of the Good Luan, or the 
Good Moon ; and I assume that Moone Abbey and Timolin were originally 
the same establishment. Save the Crosses noticed there are no objects of 
interest about these ruins. 




Situated (Map 156) six miles S. W. from Thomastown Railway Station. 
The Round Tower is all that now remains of the ancient buildings. Its 
ancient doorway which is of the usual form round-headed, with inclining 
jambs, and about ten feet above the ground, is still perfect, but built up ; 
and a modern doorway has been opened on the ground level. The ancient 
name ACHADH-BIOROIR is a compound of the Cuthite term Acad, The solar 

No. 127. FERTAGH, 

Situated (Map 136) nine miles S. S. E. from the Roscrea Junction at Bally- 
brophy, and about two miles N. from Johnstown. The Round Tower is all 
that is now left of the ancient buildings. This is one of the loftiest in Ireland, 
and nearly perfect to the top, but the doorway, which was placed about 
twenty feet from the ground, has been altogether removed. The Church 
adjoining is a rude early Christian building. 

No. 1 8 1. FRESHFORD, 

Situated eight miles N. E. from Kilkenny (Map 136). All that remains of 
the ancient buildings at Freshford is the handsome porch, represented at fig. 
101. The ancient name ACHAD-UR may be interpreted The Green Acad 
the Sun. 


No. 234. JERPOINT, 

Situated (Map 157) about one mile S. from the Railway Station of Thomas- 

The Abbey of Jerpoint seems to have been built on the ruins of an ancient 
temple of the larger size. For general remarks upon temples of this class, 
I beg to refer the reader to pp. 323-327, ante. It does not seem to have 
acquired ecclesiastical importance connected with Christianity before the 1 2th 

The original temple consisted of a nave, aisles, and transepts, covered with 
a stone roof, which was supported by a row of pillars at each side of the nave. 
Those at one side only now remain. Like many of such buildings, the well- 
executed reconstruction in Christian times makes it difficult to distinguish all 
that is ancient from the modern work ; but the antiquity of several features 
in the building is unmistakeable. Among the most interesting portions are 
the pillars, the capitals of which are ornamented with devices not unlike those 
found in the ancient temple at Glendalough called the Priest's house. 

There is no reliable history on which the date of the first use of Jerpoint 
as a Christian Church can be based. It is said to have been founded in 1 180 
for Cistercian Monks ; but the Author of Mear's Monasticon (published in 
1722) concludes that, " Ware is mistaken when he places this foundation in 
the year 1180, when King John was living, and therefore that King of 
Ossory could only much improve this house, which it is likely had been 
founded long before, as sufficiently appears by the foresaid charter of King 
John taking notice of donations made this Abbey by several private persons." 
(See Mear's Mon., p. 179). 

But there is still stronger evidence to prove that A. D. 1 1 80 was not the 
date of these pillars, in the fact, that it is absurd to suppose that the Cister- 
cians, though a wealthy community, should have used at Jerpoint such rich 
ornament as now exists, at the time when royal palaces in Ireland still 

continued to be rudely constructed of " wattles."- -The ancient name of 

H H H 


Jerpoint is lost, and the traditions with which, like Corcomroe and Knockmoy, 
it was once associated are forgotten, or perhaps were never heard of by the 
Norman or Saxon race, who for centuries have occupied the neighbouring 


Is situated (Map 156) five miles S.W. by S.,from Callan, and nine miles N. 
by W. from the town of Carrick-on-Suir. The handsome Cross, represented 
at fig. 50, is the only vestige of antiquity which has come under my notice at 
Killamery once so celebrated for its thousand monks under the direction of 
St. Gobban ! 

No. 34. KILKENNY, 

The chief town of the County of the same name, at which is a Railway Station 
(Map 147). The Round Tower of St. Canice, standing close by the Cathedral, 
is the most interesting object. It wants only the conical top to be perfect, 
and is a fine specimen of ancient masonry. The present handsome Cathedral 
appears to have been built on the ruins of a Cuthite temple, as several beau- 
tifully sculptured stones of the style commonly called " Norman" have been 
discovered in excavations about the Church-yard : and, although each of these 
stones can be identified as a portion of a temple of the style of Cormac's 
Chapel, no vestige of the ancient building itself can be traced. There are 
numerous objects of interest about the town of Kilkenny, which I have not 
had an opportunity of examining fully. 


Is situated (Map 156) four miles N. N. E. from Carrick-on-Suir. The only 
objects of interest at this place are three ancient Crosses one of which is 
represented in Mr. Henry O'Neill's beautiful work on Ancient Irish Crosses. 


No. 236. KILREA, 

Situated (Map 156) two miles S. from Kells. The most interesting object 
of antiquity here is a fine Round Tower nearly perfect. " Among the ruins 
of the Church is a very handsome and perfect Cross, formed of a single block 
of free-stone about eight feet high, ornamented with interlaced rings" (Lewis, 
p. 201). A portion of the ancient Temple is still standing and incorporated 
with the early Christian Church. Part of the nave with its Buttresses is 
ancient ; also the Chancel Arch, but the chancel has been rebuilt and en- 
larged to double its original size. Some inner stones of a Cyclopean door- 
way are also to be seen on the inside of the west wall. The buildings at 
Kilrea are by tradition and topography associated with St. Bridget. 


Situated (Map 147) about four miles N. from Thomastown. The ancient 
Round Tower still stands, but the upper courses seem to be modern that 
is to say, they were " finished" in modern times. The stones of the ancient 
doorway have been removed. The Church adjoining is built on the site of 
the ancient temple ; the foundations of the north and south walls at the 
east end, including the bases of the buttresses, appear to be ancient. 



Situated eight miles S. by W. from Athlone (Map 108). Here are numerous 
ancient ruins, which afford abundance of matter to engage the interest of the 
archaeologist. First, there are two fine specimens of Round Towers, one of 
which is incorporated with the temple called St. Finian's Church ; the other 
is considerably larger, having the lower part, including the doorway, ancient; 
but the top was " finished" in the i2th century, as has been already men- 
tioned (page 254). 


There are sundry fragments of ancient temples incorporated with the 
several Churches. But the most beautiful and interesting building is the 
temple called the Church of the Nuns (noticed at page 254 as having been 
" finished" in the year 1167 by Deirvorgila, the wife of O'Rourke). I have 
argued to prove that the finishing referred to was only a repair or restoration, 
executed in the style of workmanship usual in the i2th century, and that the 
original building was a Cuthite temple of the most beautiful class. The 
other relics of antiquity are two fine Crosses, one of which is represented in 
O'Neill's work on Irish Crosses. 

The ancient name of Clonmacnoise was Drum Tibraid the hill of the 
house of Bridget. I have elsewhere observed how that no locality of the 
King's County has been so constantly and completely in the occupation of 
people of the Irish race, or so little under the control of the Normans, as 
Clonmacnoise ; and I have assigned this as a reason, paradoxical as it may 
seem, why so many specimens of so-called " Norman" Architecture have been 
preserved at this place to the present day. 


Situated seven miles E. from Parsonstown (Map 117), and one mile N. W. 
from Kinnity. The most interesting objects here are an artificial Mound or 
Rath, and a curious specimen of Holed Stone. A tradition is current that 
a subterraneous passage once extended from the Rath in the direction of 
the Church, but that it was miraculously closed in one night. The ruined 
Church is a rude early Christian building, but sundry ancient stones are to 
be seen some built into the Church, and others used as head-stones for 
graves in the Church-yard. 

No. 143. BURROW, 
Situated (Map 109) four miles N. by W. from Tullamore, near the residence 


of Lord Norbury ; the ancient temple is supposed to have stood close to 
the site of the Castle. The beautiful Cross, represented at fig. 15, now 
stands in the ancient burial-ground near the Castle. The drawing is from a 
photograph made for Captain George Garvey, R. N., by Captain Charles 
Rollestone, of Frankfort Castle. Captain Garvey has kindly favoured me 
with a copy of this photograph. The subject was a difficult one, the Cross 
being surrounded by a dense grove of trees, but Captain Rollestone's skill 
as an amateur photographer has produced a most perfect picture. The only 
other vestige of antiquity to be found at Durrow is the outer arch or head- 
stone of an ancient window built into the wall a few yards from the Cross. 

No. 17 RAHEN 

Is situated (Map 109) five miles W. from Tullamore. Two ancient temples 
are to be seen here. One is still used as a Church, a great part of which 
has been re-built ; but the chancel arch and a portion of the chancel are 
ancient, and in it is to be seen a curious circular window (fig. 1 20). The 
second Church is a ruin ; but it still retains more of its ancient character than 
the other. The doorway is the most interesting portion of the building, and 
a fine specimen of the comparatively plain round-headed style. It is one of 
the few of this class still standing in its original position, and therefore the 
inclination of the jambs is perceptible. This building, like the other, has 
been subjected to alterations in modern times. There is one good specimen 
of the ancient window. 

Rahen is said to have been much celebrated at a very early period as the 
Seminary of St. Mochudee, before he came to reside at Lismore. I have 
suggested the identity of this individual with Mahody, the divinity of 

Situated six miles W. by S. from Parsonstown (Map 126). No interesting 


remains are now to be seen at Seirgkeiran. It is mentioned as the site of 
a Round Tower ; but the edifice which bears that name, though of the 
ordinary form and size of such buildings, has been so subjected to changes in 
reparation as to have lost its characteristic features. All vestiges of the 
other ancient buildings have disappeared. The contractor who built the 
present Church, having become owner of the material of the old edifice, is 
said to have removed a number of sculptured stones and other fragments, 
which, if left, might have attested the antiquity of the site. The seven 
Churches which are said to have stood at this place are assigned to St. 
Kieran, who, with the help of Gobban Saer, is stated to have built them all 
in one night. 

*. No. 128. TEMPLE KIERAN, 

Situated three miles N. W. from Tullamore (Map 109). The only vestiges 
of antiquity that now remain are the fragments of a sculptured Cross. The 
ancient name, though marked on the Ordnance Maps, is almost unknown to 
the people residing on the spot. The modern name of Coleraine-Mill has 
superseded the ancient one. 



Are ancient sites, associated with the names of Saint Sinel, Melle, and 
Tigernagh, situated on Lough Melvin (Maps 43 and 44). There are three 
ruined Churches one at the northern, another at the southern extremity of 
that Lake, and a third on an island in the Lake, but their identity with 
the ancient foundations is lost. One is called Lough Inver, and the others 
have no particular names. I believe the present edifices to be early Chris- 
tian Churches built on the ruins of the ancient temples ; and, although there 


are stones and fragments of buildings to be found which may have belonged 
to the ancient structures, there is nothing about the existing ruins of a 
character decisive enough to identify them as undoubtedly of the ancient 



Is six miles E. S. E. from Limerick (Map 144) on the road to Glenstal. The 
beautiful doorway, represented at fig. 88, still remains in a very perfect con- 
dition. There are also ancient buttresses, and one small ancient window, the 
latter much damaged at one side. It is ornamented on the inner angle with 
a double band of the peculiar and very rare pattern, which appears on the 
outer arch of the doorway. Figs. 90 and 91 exhibit specimens of this orna- 
ment found among Cyclopean ruins in Greece, and in excavations at Avan- 
tipore in Cashmere. See pp. 247-250. 

The greater part of the Church is rude early Christian work. 


Situated (Map 153) four miles S. E. by S. from Adare Railway Station. 
An ancient Round Tower to the height of about forty feet is still standing, 
the doorway of which has more ornament than is usual in such buildings. 
It is of the ordinary form round-headed, with inclining jambs (fig. 140). 
The Church adjoining is for the most part an early Christian building, with 
one fragment of the ancient temple on the site of which the present Church 
was built, viz : one side of an ancient Cyclopean doorway ; the other side is 
a re-setting. In this neighbourhood are the beautiful ruins of Adare, well 
worth a visit, but they do not come within the scope of this work. 



Situated (Map 153) about one mile from Kilmallock Railway Station, and 
eighteen miles S. from Limerick. 

The ruins of numerous ecclesiastical buildings (some of which are very 
fine) are to be seen here, but the only vestige of remote antiquity is the 
Round Tower. Even this building has been so much affected by reparation 
at different times as to have lost many of its characteristic features. 

No. 122. ST. MUNGRET'S, 

Situated (Map 143) three miles S.W. from the city of Limerick. Among the 
ecclesiastical buildings at this place, I was able to discover only one fragment 
of remote antiquity a fine Cyclopean doorway, on the boundary of the 
burial-ground : it is now walled up. The ancient wall in which this doorway 
appears forms part of a cow-house or barn. 



Situated six miles S. E. from Longford (Map 88), is a most interesting ruin. 
The Cuthite temple which stood here (unlike most other ruins in Ireland) 
seems never to have been restored in early Christian times. The walls are 
of massive material, with four buttresses still remaining. There is also a 
Cyclopean doorway ; but the upper courses of the walls including the windows 
have disappeared. 

No. 135. CLUAIN DARA, 
Situated five miles W. from Longford, and on the banks of the Shannon 


(Map 88). Here are the ruins of a temple re-built for the purposes of Chris- 
tian worship. Portions of the walls are ancient ; two ancient windows are 
re-set in the side walls, and a head-stone of a third is built into the outside 
of the north wall. There are also a few other fragments of antiquity to be 
found about the ruin. 


An island situated in Lough Ree eight miles N. from Athlone (Map 98). 
Here are vestiges of two ancient temples, but both have been so altered and 
added to in modern times, as to have lost to a great extent their original 
character. In one Church, there is one side of an ornamented ancient window ; 
the chancel of the second appears to be ancient. The doorways have all 
been removed from the temples upon this and every other island in Lough 
Ree, which (I have been informed) was done by the inhabitants of the adjoin- 
ing country, who took them away for building materials, the stones being 
large and well squared. 


Situated twelve miles N. by W. from Athlone on Lough Ree (Map 98). 
Here are fragments of three ancient temples, some windows only of which 
remain to attest the antiquity of the ruins. The buildings have been con- 
siderably altered in reconstruction, and the doorways have all been removed. 
One ancient window is found in the eastern wall of the northern Church in 
its original position ; the sides and arch are nearly perfect, but the under part 
has been broken away. Several fragments of antiquity may be found about 
each of the three Churches amid much reconstruction and alteration. Build- 
ings are found on other islands in Lough Ree, each of which is dedicated to 
some early Saint or Cuthite divinity ; but none of these is of a decidedly 

ancient character. 

1 1 1 



Situated on Lough Gown twelve miles N.E. from Longford (Map 79). 
Here are fragments of an ancient temple, in which are three ancient windows, 
but they appear to have been all re-set. There is also a small Cyclopean 
doorway, with inclining jambs ; it is not, however, a fine specimen. A 
stone is shown near the water's edge in which the Saint (Boadan, or Columb) 
is said to have left the marks of his knees. 



Situated six miles S. from Dundalk (Map 81). Here is an ancient Round 
Tower, repaired throughout, but particularly so towards the top. The 
doorway is of the ordinary form round-headed. An ancient sculptured 
Cross is used as a head-stone in the burying-ground. All the ancient 
buildings (except the Round Tower) have been removed, and a Protestant 
Church now occupies their former position. In fig. 160 we have a sketch 
of the tower as it now appears. 


Situated five miles N. W. from Drogheda (Map 81). The objects of interest 
to be seen here are a fine Round Tower, and three large sculptured Crosses, 
one of which is the finest specimen existing in Ireland. It is represented 
at fig. 51, and in fig. 132 we have a detail of the sculpture under the arms 
of this Cross. These Crosses are traditionally reported to have been erected 
by supernatural agency in one night. For remarks on the inscription upon 
the large Cross, see p. 300, ante. The site is dedicated to St. Buithe [or 



Situated four miles E. by N. from Drogheda (Map 82). The only object of 
particular interest now remaining at this place is a sculptured Cross of the 
usual form. A beautiful illustration of it may be seen in O'Neill's work on 
Ancient Irish Crosses. 



Is situated four miles S. S. E. from Westport (Map 74). The principal 
object of interest to be seen here is an ancient Round Tower, the doorway of 
which is of the usual form round-headed. The ruined Church adjoining 
is a rude early Christian building, but the head-stone of an ancient window 
may be seen built into the south wall. See remarks on the meaning of 
AcHAD-FoBHAiR the ancient name of Aghagower, p. 90, ante. 

No. 41. BAAL, 

Situated eight miles E.S. E. from Castlebar (Map 75). About forty feet of 
the ancient Round Tower of Baal are still standing, a fine specimen of ancient 
masonry. The doorway, which is round-headed, appears to have been re- 
moved from its original position, and is now set on the ground level. There 
is an uncommon specimen of window in the ground floor of this Tower. On 
the outside it is a hole about eight inches in diameter, but the inside widens to 
a semicircular arch. Patterns are still held at Baal. The site is dedicated to 
Cronan alias Mochua, whose name is also associated with Clondalkin in the 
County of Dublin. 


No. 207. CONG, 

Situated (Map 95) at the upper end of Lough Corrib, 22 miles N.W. by N. 
from Galway, whence it may be reached by steam-boat. 

An ancient temple of the larger size appears to have formerly existed at 
Cong, but not a vestige of the original design can now be traced. Numerous 
and very fine specimens of ancient Cuthite stone-cutting may be seen through- 
out the ruin ; but all is reconstruction, the handsome cut-stone having been 
introduced into the Christian Abbey more for ornament than use. The 
work seems to have been executed with more taste than is usually exhibited 
in the architectural remains of the I2th century. There are three openings 
called doorways, and two windows supported by pillars (of the same design 
as in fig. 5), all introduced into one piece of wall. Two of the so-called 
doorways I believe never to have been used as such, but that they were 
reconstructions out of portions of Chancel or Transept arches of the ancient 
temple, placed in their present positions only for ornament. The mouldings 
are of the design of ancient chancel arches, and unlike those of any Cuthite 
doorways that I have seen. The two " windows" I believe to have been 
constructed out of arches used as niches at the sides of the ancient Chancel. 
There is much work of an uncertain character throughout the ruin ; and the 
difficulty of distinguishing all that is ancient from what is modern, or wrought 
within the four or five centuries during which Cong was celebrated as a 
Christian Abbey, may be estimated from the fact that restorations have within 
the past few years been carried on for Sir Benjamin Lee Guinness, the present 
proprietor ; and so well has the ancient stone-cutting been imitated in the 
new work (executed by Peter Foy, of Cong), that save by a slight difference 
of colour, it is almost impossible to distinguish between Foy's work of only 
a few years old, and the well-executed stone-cutting of remote antiquity. If 
such skilful artisans as Foy had been employed to execute the reconstructions 
of the monastic ages throughout Ireland, modern archaeologists would be 


sadly puzzled in endeavouring to settle questions which now present no 

In Sir William Wilde's very interesting work on "Lough Corrib," he has 
noticed several ruins that escaped my researches in that neighbourhood. 
Several of these I have mentioned under the heading of Annaghdown, in 
Galway County. The following are in the County Mayo ; and from his 
notice of the ruins I conclude that the remains are those of Cuthite temples : 
but Sir William's descriptions are so complete and interesting, that I confine 
myself merely to a statement of the situation of each on the General Map of 
Ireland to assist the tourist in his search. 

KILLARSAGE, situated (Map 95) somewhat more than two miles E. from 
Cong, to the south of the village of Cross. 

KILFRANGHANN, situated (Map 95) not far from the former, a little to the 
north of the village of Cross. 

INISMAIN, situated (Map 85) on the eastern border of Lough Mask, about 
four miles N. from Cong. 


Situated in the Mullet (Map 62) eleven miles S. S. W. from Belmullet, is a 
very interesting little ruin, the doorway of which is represented at fig. 86. 
The western end in which the doorway stands is ancient, but the eastern 
portion is all re-built an enlargement of the ancient temple. An ancient 
window of wide splay is re-set in the eastern wall. The only other vestige 
of antiquity that I discovered about the site is a Rock Basin, which stands 
in the burying-ground near the western gable. 

No. 1 3. INISBOFIN, 

Situated (Map 83) twelve miles W. from the mouth of Killery harbour, and 
six miles from the pier of Cleggan the nearest landing place from the Islands. 


Here are two islands Inissark and Inisbofin, close to each other. I be- 
lieve the name Inissark to be a corruption of Inis-Erc, the sound of both 
being the same. (See remarks on the word Earc, p. 72, ante). . Saints 
Beothan and Colman are venerated at Inisbofin, and St. Lua [Luan, the 
Moon] at Inissark. Fragments of ancient temples exist in both islands, 
viz: an ancient window of wide splay, of the style represented at fig. 105, 
but without ornament, is found in each. That at Inissark is a good speci- 
men, the arch being almost perfect : that at Inisbofin has had all the outer 
stones removed, and only twelve stones of the inner angles of the window 
remain. The tradition of the inhabitants is, that the finely wrought stones 
of this temple were in former times removed in boats for the building of the 
Abbey of Clare-Gal way. The ruins at Inisbofin and Inissark are rude 
early Christian buildings without doorways ; and are only interesting on 
account of ancient windows of the mis-called Norman style being found here 
in connection with 6th century Saints, and on sites of which it is probable 
Normans never were in occupation perhaps never set foot on before the 
days of Cromwell ! 

No. 204. INISGLORY. 

There are several islands situated three miles off the west coast of the 
peninsula of Mayo called the Mullet (Map 51). The principal of these are 
Iniskea north, Iniskea south, and Inisglory. They are all associated with 
the names of 6th century Saints. St. Columb is venerated at Iniskea, and 
St. Brenaun at Inisglory and Cross Abbey. At Iniskea north, is a ruined 
temple of which the ancient doorway still remains. It is an uncommon speci- 
men of the Cyclopean style the right-hand jamb consisting of only one stone. 
The doorway is thirty inches in width at the bottom, and twenty-six inches 
at the top, by five feet nine inches in height. There is nothing else worthy 
of attention save St. Columb's Holy Well. At Iniskea south is an ancient 
Mound, on which is a large sculptured flag-stone, among the most conspicuous 


designs upon which is a large circle ornamented with the device represented 
at figs. 13 and 14, and there referred to as the " Branch of Juno." At Inis- 
glory are fragments of the ancient temple of St. Brenaun, still held in high 
veneration. The north and south walls are ancient, but the eastern and 
western walls have been removed. There is therefore neither ancient door- 
way nor window. A modern doorway was opened at the north side. At 
Cross Abbey, the landing place from Inisglory, it was customary formerly to 
store the coffins intended for interment on the island, until the weather on 
this wild coast was sufficiently calm to permit of their being conveyed across 
the channel from the mainland. The ecclesiastics seem finally to have settled 
on the mainland at Cross Abbey, for here is found the inner arch and angle 
of an ancient window, which I believe to have been brought from the ruin 
on Inisglory. 

The most interesting object to be seen at Inisglory is a wooden image 
of St. Brendan, which is held in great veneration. A similar one of St. 
Molaise is still preserved at Inismurry on the coast of the Co. Sligo. Faber 
informs us (vol. 3, p. 137, etc.), that such images were used in the Arkite 
ceremonies of the ancients. " The image of the Great Father" was deposited 
in a Stone Coffin, as emblematic of his death. It was afterwards taken out 
and carried about in triumph, as emblematic of his resurrection or release 
from the Ark. Consequently we find in Ireland both Stone Coffins, and 
Wooden Images, though their original uses are now unknown to the 
inhabitants. See remarks on the Stone Coffin, the Wooden Image, &c ; , pp. 
342-349, ante. 

At Inisglory are several Bee-hive huts, which I believe to be the earliest 
of Christian structures. They are generally found on islands off the coast, 
where wood (the ordinary material for house building in those early times) 
was not to be obtained. 

This island is remarkable as the spot whence St. Brenaun started on his 
wonderful voyage, one of the incidents of which was, that the Saint and his 
party " landed " on the back of a fish, mistaking it for an island ; but on 


lighting a fire to cook their food the fish manifested so much dissatisfaction 
as greatly to endanger the lives of the navigators. The incident is exactly 
the same as that recorded of Sinbad the sailor in the " Arabian Nights. "- 
The well of St. Brendan at Inisglory, like that of St. Barindeus at Tarmon- 
Barry, Co. Roscommon, is never approached by a woman for the purpose of 
drawing water a rule most strictly observed to the present day. 

No. 76. KILLALA, 

Situated seven miles N. by W. from Ballina (Map 53). The Round Tower, 
" built by Gobban Saer for St. Patrick," is the only vestige of remote anti- 
quity now remaining here. It is a good specimen in excellent preservation, 
and the reparations made upon it have been well executed. The doorway 
is of the usual form round-headed. 


Situated one mile N. from the town of Ballina (Map 53). Here is a Cuthite 
temple, the lower courses of the western wall of which are ancient, including 
a Cyclopean doorway with the usual inclining jambs. The remainder of the 
building is rude early Christian work. There is a Rock Basin with holes 
made for St. Patrick's knees. The temple is said to have been built in one 
night. The name of St. Bolcan is associated with it. 

No. 237. MEELICK, 

Situated 13 miles E.N.E.from Castlebar (Map 75). The Round Tower is 
the only vestige of remote antiquity to be seen here. The lower portion of 
it, including a round-headed doorway, is in good preservation ; but the upper 
part and top windows are gone. No traditions are related in connection 
with this ruin, nor is any superstitious veneration accorded to the site. 


No. 77- TURLOUGH, 

Situated five miles E. N. E. from Castlebar (Map 75). The Round Tower 
of Turlough is a good specimen, and perfect to the conical top, but it has 
undergone some changes in reconstruction. The ancient doorway is round- 
headed, and a second doorway has been broken out on the ground level. 
There are no other ancient buildings. St. Patrick is the only Saint now named 
in connection with this Tower, but Gobban Saer is said to have built it. 


No. 171. CLONARD, 

Situated two miles S. from the Hill of Down Station on the Midland Great 
Western Railway (Map 100), was once the most celebrated of Ireland's 
ancient foundations. The names of- almost all the celebrated Irish Saints 
(or Cuthite divinities) are associated with the place ; but alas ! every frag- 
ment of ancient buildings has long since disappeared. A large artificial 
Mound, called the Moat of Clonard, and one fragment of sculpture are all that 
remain of the works of antiquity. 

Clonard has been in the occupation of Normans ever since that race 
established a footing in Ireland ; and therefore, as in similar cases, all ancient 
("Norman") architecture has disappeared. Tradition says that a subterra- 
neous passage once extended from the ancient Church to the Mound, but it 
has been frequently searched for in vain. The fragment of sculpture men- 
tioned is a head built into the wall of the belfry of the Church high over the 
doorway. St. Finian, the greatest of Irish mythical Saints, is said to have 
educated no fewer than 3000 Saints at his school at Clonard, among whom were 
the twelve apostles of Ireland, Columbkille, Ciaran, etc. I suggested at page 

8 1, that the supposed St. Finian was identical with the Finian hero Fin- 

K K K 


MacCuile, and I there stated the grounds upon which this opinion was 
formed. I mentioned the fact that the ancient name of Clonard was Ross- 
Fin-Chuill. There is one other fact which seems to place the identity of St. 
Finian and Fin-MacCuile beyond all doubt, viz : at Kilmelchedor in Kerry 
a legend is told of a wonderful cow which supplied the whole of Fin-Mac- 
Cuile's army with milk : a similar story is told at Clonard, where St. Finian's 
cow is made to feed his 3000 saints or pupils. I therefore conclude that the 
Clonard legend of saints or pupils is the christianized version of the ancient 
Cuthite legend told in the wilds of Kerry, respecting the admittedly heathen 
warrior Fin- MacCuile. I may mention that I did not hear of the Clonard 
legend of St. Finian's cow for some months after the final proof of page 81 (in 
which the identity is suggested) was struck off by the printer. 

No. 215. DULEEK, 

Situated five miles S. E. by S. from Drogheda (Map 91). A handsomely 
sculptured Cross is still standing in the Church-yard, one of the devices upon 
which is represented at fig. 66. There are some fragments of an ancient ruin 
near the Cross, which are said to be the remains of the oldest Church in Ire- 
land, but all characteristic marks of its antiquity have disappeared. I may 
here remark that in examining the sites of Cuthite ruins in Ireland, I have 
been told by the people on the spot of each of perhaps a dozen different places 
that it was the "oldest Church in Ireland." 


Situated one mile N.E. from Navan (Map 91). The Round Tower is all 
that remains of the ancient buildings. It is a fine specimen, but wants the 
upper courses. The doorway is round-headed, and has a sculptured figure 
on its lintel with extended arms, not unlike some Irish crucifixion designs. 
St. Patrick is the only Saint's name now associated with the building : but 


the ancient name of the site was Bile-tortain, which I have interpreted the 
Fire Tower of Baal. See fig. 1 38. 

No. 152. KELLS, 

A Railway Station nine miles N.W. from Navan (Map 90), is a most interest- 
ing spot to the antiquary, as he will here find three beautiful specimens of 
the ancient Irish Cross, from sculptures upon which figs. 25, 26, 33, 34, 45, 
46, 49, 65 and 129 have been taken. There is also a Round Tower in 
excellent preservation, unaltered by repairs : and lastly, there is an ancient 
stone-roofed Temple, which, though venerated as the house of Gobban Saer 
and the Church of Columbkille, has undergone such alterations as to have 
retained but few of the characteristic features which might have marked its 
antiquity. The stones appear to have been removed in former times from 
the outside of the wall of this ruin, and the masonry used in replacing them 
is very rude. There are two ancient windows repaired ; but the ancient door- 
way is gone, and in its place a rude contrivance for a chimney has been opened. 
A subterraneous passage is said to have extended from this temple to the 
Round Tower, but no vestige of it has been discovered in modern times 
although it has been sought for. The temple is said to have been built in 
one night by Gobban Saer. 

No. 191. NEW GRANGE, 

Situated five miles S. W. by W. from Drogheda, and four miles from Slane 
(Map 91). Here is a large artificial Mound, and one of the very few of this 
class which have been opened to the inspection of the curious. It contains a 
cruciform chamber in the centre, which is entered by a narrow passage of sixty 
feet in length from the side of the Mound. I shall not here attempt to describe 
the objects of interest which this strange relic of remote antiquity presents, but 
I beg to refer the reader to articles on the subject in the Dublin Penny Jonr- 

K K K. """ 


nal, vol. i, p. 305, etc., and the Gentleman's Magazine, June, 1865. This 
Mound is estimated to have covered two acres of ground, and was originally 
about 100 feet high, but it is now much smaller owing to the material having 
been removed for ages for the purpose of road-making, etc. A Pillar Stone 
stood on the summit about a century since, and this also has disappeared. Fig. 
1 28 represents sculptures found on the stones of this cavern, all of which will 
be seen to correspond with some devices of what is called " Norman" Archi- 
tecture. I have elsewhere (p. 290) shown that all such mounds found 
throughout Ireland are ascribed by history or tradition to the Tuath-de- 
Danaans, by which are to be understood the Cuthite inhabitants of Ireland 
the predecessors of the Celts. 

No. 115 SLANE. 

The Abbey and Hermitage of Slane are situated in the beautiful demesne 
of the Marquis of Conyngham near the banks of the river Boyne, eight miles 
W. by S. from Drogheda (Map 91). The ruins are picturesque, and the site 
commands a beautiful and extensive prospect; but the only vestiges of Cuthite 
architecture that I have discovered are a few stones of two buttresses of 
the ancient temple, between which the tower of the Abbey now stands. The 
remainder of the building and the other ruins at Slane are all wrought in the 
style of 1 2th century architecture, several stones of the ancient temple having 
been used. 

The records of ancient foundations in Meath are more numerous than 
those of any other county in Ireland : but almost all the ancient (improperly 
called "Norman") buildings have disappeared, owing to its early and complete 
colonization by the Normans. To such an extent is this the case, that I have 
discovered no remnant of unmistakeably ancient architecture in the County 
of Meath except the buttresses at Slane, and the ruins at Kells and 
Donoughmore where ancient Round Towers are found. 



No. 103. CLONES, 

Situated at the Railway Station of the same name (Map 58). The antiqui- 
ties of Clones are fully described in the Ulster Journal of Arcficeology, vol. 4, 
p. 62. They consist of an ancient Round Tower with a quadrangular doorway 
opening to the east, a handsome sculptured Cross, a Stone Coffin, an artificial 
earthen Mound, and a fragment of an ancient wall. The Cross is similar to 
others which have been represented in this work, but the sculptures upon it 
are much defaced and weather-worn. The Tower is not a remarkably fine 
specimen, as time and frequent reparations have obliterated many character- 
istic features found in other specimens. The stone coffin has in modern times 
been converted into a place of interment for the Mac Donnell's chieftains of 
a neighbouring estate. See remarks on Stone Coffins, p. 344, ante. 


Is situated (Map 70) at the Railway Station of that name, seven miles W. 
from Dundalk. 

Here is a portion of an ancient Round Tower, about forty-two feet in 
height. The doorway is about fourteen feet from the ground level, but 
the only ancient part remaining is the sill-stone. A Holed Stone, the 
orifice in which is about four inches in diameter, was found during excava- 
tions carried on at the foot of the Tower. The foundation of Iniskeen is 
ascribed to St. Dagan, who is said to have lived in the 6th century. 


;No. 185. AGHABOE, 

Situated four miles E. N. E. from the Roscrea- and Parsonstown Junction 
(Map 127). The only remnant of ancient building remaining is the base of 


a tower, adjoining the modern Church. The under courses, including the 
lower steps of the stair-case, seem to be ancient and never to have been dis- 
turbed ; the upper courses are a modern restoration, in which ancient steps 
with a newel of six inches in diameter are used. The north side of this tower, 
including its doorway, is a reconstruction. The shape of the tower is semi- 
octagonal, but the south side seems to have been incorporated with the temple 
to which it formed an appendage. A few fragments of ancient sculpture and 
stone-cutting are found, either built into the ancient Church or scattered 
about the burying-ground. A fine specimen of Holed Stone is still standing 
to the south-east of the Church, and near it is a fragment of a pillar, which 
seems to have belonged to the niche of an ancient Chancel. There is also a 
large artificial Mound, and tradition affirms that three subterraneous passages 
existed near the site ; two between the ancient temples and the Mound, and 
a third is said to have extended to a place called Gortnaclare, some miles dis- 
tant from the spot. Judging from the ruins which remain, I think that 
Aghaboe was formerly the site of one of the temples of the larger size. There 
is not a vestige indicating remote antiquity to be found among the ruins 
called the Abbey, which was a rude early Christian building. 

No. 47. CLONFERT MOLUA, alias KYLE, 

Situated two miles N.N.W. from Borris-in-Ossory (Map 127). The buildings 
of this ancient foundation have all disappeared, and I notice the site only 
because of the Rock Basin, called Molua's Stone, referred to at p. 340, ante, 
which is to be seen here. 

No. 140. KILLESHIN, 

Situated three miles W. by N. from Carlow (Map 137). Here is one of the 
most interesting fragments of ancient architecture in the province of Leinster 
a Cuthite Temple, the western wall of which, including a highly ornamented 


doorway and one of the buttresses, is still in good preservation. The doorway 
consists of four concentric arches, receding one within the other, besides the 
outer band of moulding which projects from the wall. The ornament is 
peculiar and not found elsewhere throughout Ireland on doonvays; it consists 
of a variety of raised patterns executed in low relief. The doorway measures 
two feet ten inches in width at the base, two feet eight inches at the spring 
of the arch, and six feet in height to the same point ; but the height to the top 
of the inner arch is about seven feet four inches. The remainder of this ruin 
is a reconstruction, the temple having been enlarged at the eastern end to 
about double its original size. There is one small ancient window re-set in 
the northern wall, and a Rock Basin stands to the east of the building. 

No. 21. TIMAHOE, 

Situated (Map 1 28) seven miles S. E. from Maryborough, and four miles S. 
W. by S. from Stradbally. The only interesting object to be found here is 
the ancient Round Tower, which, to the height of about fifty feet, is still in 
a very perfect state, and exhibits the most beautiful specimen of Round Tower 
architecture to be found in Ireland. The doorway of this tower is represented 
at fig. 97. Several notices respecting the Abbots of Timahoe during the 
loth and nth centuries occur in the Annals ; but the last record (by the Four 
Masters) mentions the burning of Tech-Mochua in the year 1 142, from which 
time it seems to have had no existence as a Monastery. When therefore 
could this beautiful doorway (one of the richest specimens in Ireland) have 
been erected ? The record of this burning and the subsequent silence of the 
Annals on the subject of the Monastery are significant, and tend to disprove 
the notion that Timahoe and other buildings of the same class were erected 
at any time since the Christian era. 




Situated four miles E. from Boyle (Map 66). The fragments of antiquity at 
Ardcairne are not particularly interesting, but sufficient remains to corroborate 
the assumption of its Cuthite origin as the site of the temple of Beoaid. A 
few stones of the interior angle of an ancient window may be seen built into 
a rude modern window, in the eastern wall of the Monastery a very rude 
early Christian structure. There is a tradition that a subterraneous passage 
extended from this building to an artificial Mound, at which in former times 
was a temple dedicated to St. Bridget. The Mound stands in Lord Lorton's 
demesne of Rockingham, more than two miles from the Monastery, and about 
midway between Ardcairne and Boyle. There is a Holy Well at Ardcairne, 
but all veneration for it has ceased, and the name of St. Beoaid, recorded in 
ecclesiastical history, is wholly unknown in the neighbourhood. 

No. 209. BOYLE, 

A considerable town, at which is a Station of the Mullingar and Sligo Rail- 
way, about twenty-four miles S. by E. from Sligo (Map 66). I believe Boyle 
to be the Bile-Fechin of St. Fechin (see p. 90, ante), noticed in ancient 
ecclesiastical records, but no tradition of ancient times is now preserved among 
the people on the spot I have elsewhere referred to Boyle as containing 
the most perfect specimen of a Cuthite temple of the larger class in Ireland. 
It is the only one which has in any degree preserved its outline, but there is 
nevertheless a quantity of medieval work about the building, which renders 
it difficult to mark the lines between the ancient, the reconstructed, and the 
modern portions. I shall not here attempt any description of the ruins, my 
object being only to direct the attention of tourists to the spot. Among the 
ancient portions will be found, first fragments of well-wrought walls of 


ashlar, abounding in specimens of jointing such as are treated of at pp. 281, 
282 ; secondly massive pillars with their capitals, many of which are ancient; 
thirdly ancient windows, most of which are reconstructions or much altered 
by reparation ; fourthly a stair-case at the west end, the newel portion of 
which is ancient, and the pointed steps modern. The reader is referred to 
pp. 323-327, for further notices of the temple at Boyle and others of the same 

No. 239. ORAN, 

Situated seven miles N.W. from Roscommon (Map 87). Here is a small 
portion (about twelve feet) of the base of a fine Round Tower, which seems 
to have been when perfect one of the largest in Ireland. The internal 
diameter exceeds twelve feet, and the wall is more than four feet in thickness. 
Both doorways and windows have disappeared. There is no other vestige 
of antiquity save a Holy Well dedicated to St. Patrick. 


Situated six miles N. W. by W. from Longford (Map 78). Peculiar circum- 
stances have tended to render Tarmon- Barry a place of considerable interest 
to the antiquary. The parish lies on the western bank of the Shannon, and 
the land being poor and to a great extent waste and moor, it has always been 
occupied by an exclusively Irish population ; therefore the ancient tradi- 
tions are preserved, the Irish language being still spoken, and the ancient 
ruins venerated in the highest degree. 

Remains of two ancient temples are still to be seen. In the smaller one 
is a well-wrought Cyclopean doorway, under the threshold of which St. Barry 
is said to have been buried, and earth is constantly taken from this supposed 
grave for the cure of various diseases. The larger temple seems to have 
been originally built in the ornamented style, as several cut-stone coigns are 



to be found at the western end ; but the ancient doorway has been removed 
and the aperture built up. The building has been considerably enlarged in 
reconstruction, and three ancient windows have been inserted, but they are 
imperfect specimens. Each of the Churches af Tarmon- Barry is said to have 
been the work of one night, wrought by St. Barry, alias Fin-Bar, alias Bar- 
indeus [the Son of the one God]. Among the legends told by the people 
and still believed is one, that St. Barry and St. Kieran having had a dispute 
as to which was the most holy, the matter was decided by St. Barry's causing 
the flag-stone upon which he was then standing to float like a boat to the 
opposite side of the Shannon, on seeing which St. Kieran yielded to his 
superior sanctity. The stone which in this instance was so useful to St. 
Barry became fastened to the ground at the spot where the Saint landed, and 
so firmly was it fixed that the workmen of the Shannon Commissioners found 
it impossible to remove it with the means at their disposal, and it is therefore 
still to be seen under the water at a spot near St. Barry's Church. Lunacy 
is believed to be cured without fail by drinking of the water of the Holy 
Well, but no woman ventures to approach the spot, as the Saint has forbidden 
it. The people also believe that no earth-worm has been seen in the Church- 
yard since it received St. Barry's blessing, and that no such creature could 
possibly live in the soil. Faith in such legends is always accompanied with 
veneration for the sites of temples connected with them, to such an extent as 
to prevent effectually that wanton demolition of ancient edifices so common 
throughout the more civilized districts of Ireland. 



Situated five miles S. S. W. from Sligo (Map 55). Here is an ancient temple, 
or, more properly, a Church into which sundry portions of an ancient tem- 
ple have been built, for the whole is a reconstruction. A round-headed 


doorway of the same class as that at Dysart, Co. Clare (fig. 89), but much 
plainer in ornament, is re-set in the side wall. There are two ancient win- 
dows also considerably altered in reconstruction. Ancient coigns with 
semicircular mouldings are found at three angles of the building, those on the 
fourth angle are plain. The fragments of ancient work still remaining 
show that the original temple at Ballasodare was a highly ornamented 


Situated four miles N. by W. from Sligo (Map 43). The Round Tower is 
not an interesting specimen, as it retains very little of the characteristic 
features of such edifices. The doorway seems to be a rude reconstruction, 
and is square-headed with parallel jambs. There is a handsomely sculptured 
Cross close by the tower, a beautiful lithographed illustration of which may 
be seen in O'Neill's work, " The Fine Arts of ancient Ireland," p. 32. I am 
not aware that any other vestiges of antiquity are to be found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Drumcliffe. 


Situated eleven miles W. from Sligo, and two miles N.W. from Skreen on 
the road to Ballina (Map 54). Here is a rude early Christian Church, incor- 
porated with which are several fragments of an ancient temple. One side 
of a Cyclopean doorway remains, the other side is removed and the space 
built up. There are also two ancient windows, both reconstructions effected 
rudely and without artistic skill. Several stones having a semicircular 
moulding are scattered about. They probably formed part of the Chancel 
Arch of the ancient Temple. 



An island situated thirteen miles N. N. W. from Sligo, and about five miles 
from the nearest landing place on the coast (Map 42). Here are numerous 
early Christian buildings, consisting of Bee-hive huts and other erections 
on the sites of Cuthite ruins. The most ancient structures are portions of 
two Temples dedicated to St. Molaise and St. Columb, in each of which small 
ancient windows are to be seen. Both these windows are reconstructions : 
the arch of that at St. Columb's Church consists of two stones, the outer of 
which seems to have belonged to a window of wide splay, the other to one 
of narrow splay. The doorway of this Church is a good specimen of the plain 
Cyclopean style. The window in the Temple of Molaise is more perfect, and 
also of narrow splay, but both are re-settings, the greater part of the buildings 
in which they appear being reconstructions. The wooden image of St. 
Molaise (referred to in the notice of Inisglory, Co. Mayo) is still preserved 
and greatly venerated. The Pillar Stone, represented in Grose's " Antiqui- 
ties" and particularly described by Vallancey, is not now to be found. It 
seems probable that the heathen origin of this relic was long since discovered, 
and therefore every effort was made by the more intelligent Roman Catholics 
to undermine the veneration in which it was held, until at length it came to 
be lost or destroyed. The quadrangular wall which surrounded the Pillar 
Stone (according to Grose) is still perfect, but the square pedestal on the 
centre of which it is represented to have stood (fig. 1 74) has been rudely re- 
built in the modern style. A large stone, such as the Pillar is described to 
have been, is said to have remained on the wall near the enclosure for a long 
time, but it is supposed to have fallen into the sea, on the verge of which the 
wall was built. 

The other relics of antiquity to be found at Inismurry consist of numerous 
stones, sculptured with devices forming a combination of the Circle and the 
Cross with the " Branch of Juno :" these I suppose to be ancient. There is 
on the island much, besides what is here noticed, of interest to the antiquary, 


in remains of the earliest specimens of Christian architecture ; but such do 
not come within the limit of my investigations in the present work. 


Situated five miles W. by N. from Sligo (Map 54), is an ancient temple 
which has been enlarged at the west end the ancient doorway having been 
placed at the southern side. This doorway has been described as round- 
headed : it is illustrated in Dr. Petrie's work, but all vestiges of it have been 
removed, save a few stones at each side. It seems to have been similar to 
the doorway of Sheeptown, Co. Kilkenny, represented at fig. 104, ante. A 
very perfect specimen of an ancient window is to be seen in the eastern wall, 
but it appears to be a re-setting skilfully executed. 


No. 59 CASHEL 

Is situated six miles S.S. E. from Goold's Cross Railway Station (Map 155). 

The beautiful ruins at the " Rock of Cashel" have been frequently 
referred to throughout this work. Figs, i, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, u, 39, 43, and 48, 
are illustrations of sculptures and relics found at Cashel. Besides "Cormac's 
Chapel" (fig. 1 70), the most perfect Cuthite temple in Ireland, other architec- 
tural remains exist, which induce me to believe that a second ancient temple, 
probably of larger size, once stood on the celebrated Rock of Cashel. 
There is an ancient Cross of uncommon form in the burying-ground, but 
it is so much weather-worn as to be less interesting than other specimens. 

In fig. 8 1 is exhibited a portion of the base of the Round Tower, a fine 
specimen of Cyclopean masonry. 

No. 43. CORBAL, alias MONAHINCH, 
Situated two miles E. from Roscrea (Map 126). Here is a most interesting 


fragment of ancient architecture a very small but beautiful temple, having a 
handsome round-headed doorway (illustrated in Ledwich's " Antiquities") ; 
also a very fine chancel arch, a lithograph of which may be seen in Ne wen- 
ham's "Antiquities." There are besides three ancient windows, and some 
handsomely wrought coigns, which exhibit peculiarities not found on other 
specimens of the same style. They are formed of semicircular mouldings, 
projecting from the angles of the building. I shall not attempt any further 
description of the ruin at Corbal, of which Ledwich says (p. 1 15): "Sculpture 
seems here to have exhausted her treasures," and again (p. 113) " Giraldus 
Cambrensis, who came here with King John in 1 185, thus speaks of it ' In 
North Munster is a lake containing two isles : in the greater is a church of the 
ancient style, and in the lesser, a chapel, wherein a few monks, called Culdees, 
devoutly serve God. In the greater, no woman or any animal of the feminine 
gender ever enters, but it immediately dies. This has been proved by many 
experiments. In the lesser isle, no one can die, hence it is called " Insula 
viventum," or the island of the living. Often people are afflicted with 
diseases in it, and are almost in the agonies of death : when all hopes of life 
are at an end, and that the sick would rather quit the world than lead longer 
a life of misery, they are put into a little boat and wafted over to the larger 
isle, where, as soon as they land, they expire.' ' 

It appears from the illustrations of Ledwich's work, that a second Church 
or Temple existed in A. D. 1 804, also a sculptured Cross ; but these have since 
disappeared. One of the ancient names of this interesting spot was Inis-na- 
beo, interpreted The island of the living; but I think it probable that the origi- 
nal term meant The island of the Cow, and that such interpretation became 
obsolete after " the Cow" had ceased to be an object of religious veneration. 

No. 22. ROSCREA, 

A Railway Station on a branch of the Great Southern and Western Railway 
(Map 126). Here is an ancient Round Tower, and near it is one fragment 


of an ancient and highly ornamented temple, which now forms the entrance 
gateway of the Church-yard and part of the wall. Several of the handsome 
ornaments of what is commonly called Norman architecture are found in the 
ruins of the wall. 

No. 218. TIR-DA-GLAS, alias TERRYGLASS, 

Situated on the shores of Lough Derg three miles S. by E. from Portumna 
(Map 125). The ruins consist of a large pile of very rude early Christian 
buildings, probably the work of the 1 2th century. There is however one frag- 
ment of the ancient temple namely, a fine Cyclopean doorway standing under 
the gable in which a bell is hung. Most of the stones which compose this 
doorway extend through the whole thickness of the wall. It measures at the 
bottom three feet four inches in width, at the top three feet one inch, and in 
height five feet eleven inches. This ancient foundation is associated with 
the names of St. Mochoeminus, St. Colman Stellain, and St. Columba; the 
latter of whom is said to have died of the plague in A. D. 548. The ancient 
name, Tir-da-Glas, I believe to be a corruption of Tor-de-Glass the Tower 
of the Green God. (See pp. 42 and 43, ante). 


No. 1 66. ARDBOE, 

Situated near the western bank of Lough Neagh (Map 35), nine miles E. 
from Cookstown Railway Station. The only interesting relic of antiquity to 
be found here is a sculptured Cross about twenty feet in height, beautiful 
illustrations of which may be seen in O'Neill's "Ancient Irish Crosses," plates 
31 and 32. Figs. 30 and 69, ante, are illustrations of sculpture found upon 
this Cross. 


No. 1 1 6. ERIGOL KIERAN, 

Situated twelve miles W. S. W. from Donoughmore, and three miles W. by S. 
from Ballygawley (Map 46). The only object of special interest to be found 
here is an ancient sculptured Cross, which seems never to have been finished. 
It is a plain specimen, and there are no devices upon it of much significance. 



Situated at the Railway Station of the same name (Map 34). The only 
relic of antiquity here is a sculptured Cross, which, judging from the 
portions of the shaft that remain, must when perfect have measured about 
twenty-six feet in height. The shaft is of the largest size, measuring near 
the base two feet four inches in width by one foot seven inches in depth. 
The sculptures upon it are not very interesting, as they are greatly weather- 


No. 58. ARDMORE, 

Situated five miles E. from Youghal Railway Station (Map 188). The relics 
of antiquity at Ardmore are particularly interesting. The Round Tower, 
built wholly of ashlar, is in a very perfect state ; its doorway is represented 
at fig. 93. There is a small ancient building called the Oratory of St. Declan. 
That called the Cathedral has several fragments of ancient masonry incor- 
porated with it, among which is a sculpture on the gable wall, a portion of 
which may be seen in fig. 44. Over this piece of sculpture is an ancient 
window, re-set in the gable. The stone called Cloch Declan, or Declan's 
stone, may be seen on the strand ; it is referred to at pp. 108 and 172, ante. 
With these brief notices I leave the tourist himself to search for the various 



objects of interest to be found at the ancient temple of Ardmore, a name 

that I interpret The high place of the Great God. 


The ancient temple of St. Garban, or, as he (or she) is called in the local- 
ity, St. Gobban-et, is situated (Map 1 78) at the foot of a mountain about two 
miles N. by W. from the town of Dungarvan. Small portions of the eastern 
and western walls of an ancient temple about eighteen feet long are still to 
be seen. A large and rude addition has been erected at the western end, 
and the doorway removed, whereby the ancient temple was converted into a 
Chancel to the modern building. Part of an ancient window still remains 
in its place at the eastern end of the Church, but it has been altered in recon- 
struction. Some coigns of the ancient building have been removed and re-set 
in the western end of the new addition. Sundry fragments of sculptured stone, 
which seem to have belonged to some other ancient temple that once stood 
in the burying-ground, are incorporated with the rude modern work. The 
whole building is a complete ruin, the most interesting portions being a few 
fragments of the ancient walls that still remain undisturbed in their original 
positions, and which are fine specimens of well-squared mason-work. The 
Roman Catholic Church stands close by the ruin, about forty yards to the 
north of which is a Holy Well. Some Lives of Saints and traditions 
inform us that St. Gobban-et was a woman, and the sister of St. Barindeus. 
As such the Saint is venerated at Ballyvorney in the County of Cork. We 
also find St. Gobban-et's name at the islands of Aran off the coast of the 
County Galway. See page 398, ante. 

No. 1 6. LISMORE. 

The only vestige of the ancient temple of Mochudee now remaining at 
Lismore (Map 177) is the archway leading into the court-yard of the Castle, 

M M M 



a residence belonging to the Duke of Devonshire ; and, although a great 
part of this fragment is ancient, it is a reconstruction of what appears to 
me to have been the chancel arch of a small ornamented temple. The 
Holy Well of the Saint is supposed to have been in an angle of the garden 
of the Devonshire Arms Hotel ; but it has been closed up and the site 
concealed, to prevent the annoyance caused by the numbers of pilgrims that 
resorted to it. 

Lismore may be reached by car from the Railway Station of Fermoy, 
from which it is distant fifteen miles E. 


No. 205. FORE 

Is a village situated (Map 90) 15 miles W. by S. from Kells and three miles 
E. from the town of Castle- Pollard. Here is a very interesting ancient 
temple, the doorway of which is represented at fig. 73. It measures in width 
at bottom three feet two inches, at the top three feet, and in height five feet, 
but the ground being raised, its real height from the threshold is more than 
it seems. This fine doorway has been greatly injured in medieval times by 
a ruthless destruction of its inner portions to effect contrivances for hinges 
and other fastenings. Many other buildings in Ireland have been injured 
in the same manner ; but it is in every case manifest that such contrivances 
for hinges and bolts never formed a part of the original design. The western 
wall in which this doorway appears is the most interesting portion of the 
building. Two fine buttresses still remain to the height of about five feet ; 
the remainder of the building is either a reconstruction, or has lost its original 
characteristics by frequent reparation. Tradition informs us that both this 
temple and the Mill adjoining were built by St. Fechin in one night, but the 
latter has not got a single feature indicating remote antiquity : it is probably 
a modern structure erected on the site of some ancient building There are 


sundry fragments of cut-stone in the vicinity, which indicate that some 
handsome structure once stood in the locality. The ancient name of Fore 
was BAILE-FHOBHAIR. See remarks on the names Bile Fechin and Fhobhair, 
at p. 90, ante. 



Situated four miles S. E. from Gorey Railway Station (Map 149). Here is 
to be seen a large artificial Mound within a few perches of Ardamine Church. 
All other vestiges of remote antiquity have disappeared, as is generally the 
case in every locality throughout Ireland where the Normans or English 
settlers established an early footing. A particular interest, however, attaches 
to this Mound, as it is supposed to be the grave of the first man who died on 
Irish soil. The first entry in the "Annals of the Four Masters" relates to 
this man and to this place : " The age of the world to this year of the Deluge, 
2242. Forty days before the Deluge, Ceasair came to Ireland with fifty girls 
and three men ; Bith, Ladhra, and Fintain, their names. Ladhra died at 
Ard-Ladhrann, and from him it is named. He was the first that died in 
Ireland." Dr. O'Donovan in his note upon this passage says : "This was the 
name of a place on the sea-coast, in the east of the present County of Wex- 
ford. The name is now obselete, but the Editor thinks that it was applied 
originally to Ardamine, in the east of the County of Wexford, where there is 
a curious moat near the sea-coast." Bith died and was buried at Slieve 
Beatha ; but Fintain, having been transformed into a salmon (to account for 
his escaping the Deluge), survived in his natural form until the days of St. 
Patrick, by whose instrumentality he was converted to Christianity, and he 
ultimately died in a good old age. See pp. 85 and 125 etc., ante. 


No. 219. FERNS, 

A market town and Railway Station on the Dublin and Wexford Railway 
(Map 148). Here are the most interesting Cuthite remains existing in the 
County of Wexford. In fact those found elsewhere throughout that County 
are mere fragments, noticed only because they corroborate the other evidences 
adduced of the Cuthite origin of the several places where they exist. In 
St. Peter's Church at Ferns is a beautiful little window ornamented with 
spirals such as are described at p. 247, ante, and illustrated in figs. 88, 90 and 
91. There is nothing else of interest about this building, which is a rude 
early Christian structure. At the opposite side of the river and adjoining 
the town is St. Maidoc's Church and burying-ground, about which several 
interesting relics are to be seen. The head of an ancient sculptured Cross 
is half buried in the ground at the gate of the Church-yard. The heads of 
two others are built into the wall near the Church. The shaft of a fourth is 
used as the head-stone of a grave in the burial-ground. The Round Tower 
seems to be wholly a modern structure, with a few stones of some ancient 
building used in the opening of apertures. But near it are two small ancient 
temples, with one ancient window in each, and with arched niches in the sides. 
In one of these ruins is a small spiral staircase that I believe to be ancient, the 
steps of which are twenty inches broad with a newel of twelve inches in 
diameter. Fragments of ancient cut-stone too numerous for special notice 
are used in the monastic buildings of Ferns, which seem to have been very 
extensive. There is as usual much well-executed reconstruction even in the 
earliest of the medieval portions, which makes it difficult to discriminate 
between all that is modern and all that is ancient. Some fragments of 
antique masonry are used in the construction of the very modern building 
that covers the Holy Well. 

The ancient Church of Clone is situated less than two miles S. from Ferns, 
which (as is the case at the Seven Churches of Glendalotigh) I have no 


doubt originally formed a part of the same establishment. The western wall 
of this temple (which is four feet thick) is ancient, and in it we find a doorway 
similar to that of Banagher, represented at fig. 72. I have seen only three 
specimens of this style of doorway throughout Ireland at Banagher, at this 
place, and the third at Achad-abhall (Aghold), Co. Wicklow, which shall be 
noticed in its place. This doonvay, like that described at Fore, has been 
greatly damaged on the inside, apparently for the purpose of providing for 
hangings and bolts. The rest of the building seems to be rude early 
Christian work. 


Situated seven miles N. W. from Enniscorthy (Map 148). There is only one 
fragment of antiquity to be found here, viz : a round-headed doorway, of 
which all the outer and ornamental stones have been removed. There are 
many signs of reparation about the portion that remains, but enough is left 
to prove it to have been originally what is called a " Norman" doorway, with 
the " Irish peculiarities" of sloping or inclining jambs. 


Situated within the town of Enniscorthy (Map 158). This is a rude early 
Christian Church, with which the name of St. Senan is associated. Only one 
fragment of antiquity is to be discovered about it, viz : a small ancient win- 
dow built into the south wall, about ten feet from the ground. Although the 
parish still retains the name of Temple Shannon [The temple of the ancient 
Ana], the Church and Holy Well are now connected with the name of St. 
Mary by the modern inhabitants. 


No. 1 88. ACHADH ABHALL, alias AGHOLD, 

Situated four miles W. by N. from Shillelagh Railway Station (Map 138). 
Here is the most interesting temple (for a single edifice) to be found in the 
County of Wicklow. The doorway in the western wall is quadrangular, with 
sloping jambs, and of the peculiar style of that at Banagher (fig. 72), but that of 
Aghold is more ornamented the angles nearest to the jambs being decorated 
with a well-executed band of pellets or balls, which gives the whole doorway 
a rich appearance. In the eastern wall are two small ancient windows of 
very uncommon style, finished on the outside with semi-detached pillars and 
arches presenting the appearance of miniature doorways of the handsome 
round-headed style ; a third window also very small is set in the northern 
wall. There is nothing else deserving of particular notice about this ruin as 
it has evidently undergone much alteration in the course of frequent repairs. 
There is an ancient Cross in the burying-ground, but it is much weather- 


Situated twelve miles W. by S. from Athy (Map 129). A few pillars, which 
seem to have belonged to a temple of the larger size, are all that remain here 
of ancient architecture, and as they are not of the decorated style they are 
not particularly worthy of attention. Some fragments of ancient sculpture 
are scattered about in the neighbourhood of the Church, which are sufficient 
to prove that a handsomely ornamented temple once stood at Baltinglass. 


Is a hillock near the sea-coast four miles S. from the town of Wicklow, at a 
place now called Three-mile-water (Map 130). I have observed only one 


fragment of antiquity at this site namely, the outer arch or top-stone of an 
ancient window, standing as head-stone of a grave between the gate of the 
burying-ground and the ruins of the Church. The ruins themselves have 
nothing interesting about them. 


Situated four miles N. E. from the town of Arklow (Map 139). Every ves- 
tige of ancient architecture has disappeared from this ruin, the only frag- 
ment remaining of ancient times being a Rock Basin, which now lies outside 
the gate of the field in which the ancient Church-yard stands. No supersti- 
tious veneration attaches to it among the peasantry in the neighbourhood. 


Situated 23 miles S. from Dublin and seven miles N. W. from the Railway 
Station of Rathdrum (Map 130). This is the most interesting spot in 
Ireland to the antiquary who desires to examine relics of ancient Irish 
architecture and sculpture. I have noticed Round Towers, Sculptured 
Crosses, round-headed Doorways, Cyclopean Doorways, Ancient Windows, 
Chancel Arches, fragments of richly Sculptured stones, Subterranean 
Passages, Saints' beds, and Rock Basins, as Cuthite relics, examples of every 
one of which may be seen at Glendalough within the limits of half-an-hour's 

Starting from Ralph Jordan's most comfortable Hotel at Glendalough, 
the tourist may, within a few minutes, examine a very perfect Round Tower 
with its round-headed doorway, near which is the Cathedral exhibiting 
a fine pair of ancient Buttresses and a Cyclopean doorway. To the south 
of the Cathedral is St. Kevin's kitchen, with a square-headed doorway and 
one ancient window now walled up, the under part having been broken 
away to make room for a modern Chancel arch. There is much of a doubtful 
character about the other portions of this building. 


A subterranean passage may be seen leading from the Cathedral to St. 
Kevin's kitchen, but it has not been fully explored. Though the handsome 
window represented at fig. no once stood at the east end of the Cathedral, 
I believe it did not originally belong to that building, but was removed from 
the ruins of some ancient ornamented temple and re-set in the Cathedral. 
There is an uniformity of style observable in the several parts of all these 
ancient buildings when seen in their original positions, and I have not seen 
a single instance of an ornamented ancient window in a temple the door of 
which was quadrangular or Cyclopean, although windows of plain style and 
precisely the same form are found in them. The eastern portion of the 
Cathedral has been all reconstructed and enlarged; the upper courses of the 
north, south, and west walls are also modern. 

The ancient part of " Our Lady's Church" (in which St. Kevin is said to 
have been buried) is the beautiful Cyclopean doorway represented at fig. 77, 

Refert Church, situated about one mile S. W. from the Hotel, has got a 
fine Cyclopean doorway. Close to the ruins are two stones which once 
formed the outer and inner arches of an ancient window. 

St. Mochuarog's Temple is situated a quarter of a mile east from the 
Hotel. A Cyclopean doorway stands at the west end of the nave, and at 
the east end of the Chancel is a small ancient window, round-headed and of 
narrow splay, represented at fig. 112. There are two other ancient windows, 
but they are re-settings one, a pointed specimen, is in the south wall of the 
nave; the other, round-headed, in the north wall of a modern or reconstructed 
edifice near the western end, over which building a Round Tower is said to 
have stood ; but this must have been a structure of Christian origin. In fig. 
182, we have a picture of the Chancel Arch of this temple, which Dr. Petrie 
describes as " Trinity Church." 

The ruin called " St. Saviour's Church," or " the Priest's House," stands 
about one mile to the S. E. of the Hotel. Here are the remains of a highly 
ornamented temple, portions of which (including one pier of the Chancel 


arch) are still in their original position. Numerous illustrations of the sculp- 
tures of this ruin are to be found in Dr. Petrie's valuable work. Some of 
these fragments are still to be seen on the spot, others have been removed, 
or buried in the heap of debris within and about the walls of the temple. 

Almost all of these buildings are surrounded with heaps of rubbish, which 
if cleared away would (by the fragments of stone-cutting and sculpture likely 
to be brought to light) amply compensate for the trouble and expense of such 
an undertaking. Several Rock Basins may be seen within a hundred yards 
of the Hotel, near the northern bank of the Glendashin river. There is also 
one specimen near the road side beyond the river and due south from the 

The preservation of the ruins at Glendalough, and the existence of so 
many specimens of (misnamed) " Norman " architecture, are due to the fact, 
that tJie Normans or early English colonists never established a footing in this 
neighbourhood, the country all round the Valley having remained in the 
possession of Irish chieftains until the end of the i6th century. The poor 
and sterile quality of the land in this part of the country may account for the 
fact, that up to the present day the descendants of the original Celtic inha- 
bitants have been permitted to occupy the Valley, and by them the ruins 
continue to be venerated. The same cause which accounts for so many 
ancient buildings remaining at Glendalough has tended also to the preserva- 
tion of the ancient traditions. Numerous names which I have elsewhere 
traced to Cuthite mythology are associated with Glendalough and its temples. 
St. Kevin or Cuan (whose temple is also found at the south island of Aran !) 
was the patron Saint of Glendalough, where it is said he was born and 
brought up (Ledwich, 173). He was baptized by St. Cronan [Cronos the 
Centaur], and ordained by St. Lugidus [Luan, the Moon]. He was brother 
to St. Dagan [Dagon, the Fish God]. The common alias for Kevin is 
Coemgene [t/ie beautiful born, or the first begotten], and Coemghin being the 
original name of Mochaemhog, who is stated in the " Annals of the Four 
Masters" to have lived to the age of 413 years, I identify the two, not as 

N N N 


the 'same individual Saint, but as the same Cuthite divinity. The father of 
Coemghin was Beoan [by Beoan's services the Mermaid Liban was captured]. 
His mother's name was Nessa[Nessus the Centaur all the Cuthite divinities 
were of doubtful sex], sister to Ita [alias Ida, the goddess or mountain of 
Arkite mythology]. The patron of Kevin and the chieftain of the country, 
who supplied him with sites for his Churches, was Dymma [De-mah, The 
Good God]. The name of Oisin [Oceanus, the Titan] is also preserved in 
the topography of Glendalough. The northern Glen and the river near the 
Hotel which unites with the stream from the lake are called Glendashin. 

Among the Saints associated with Kevin as having had temples at Glen- 
dalough is St. Ciaran [Chiron the Centaur], whose Churches existed at the 
furthest extremities of Ireland, at Aran in the west, at Cape Clear in the 
south, at Armoy in Antrim, and at intermediate localities too numerous to 
mention. There were also temples at Glendalough dedicated to Sinchell 
[Sinell, The Ancient God], and Mochuarog [the red Mochua]. An ancient 
site in the valley was called Desart Cevin, which I believe to have been the 
great Round Tower itself [Di-eas-ard, the high place of the God of death]. 
The Cuthite term Cluain [the stone of Ana] was also connected with the 
locality, but many of these names have now fallen into disuse. The common 
Cuthite legend of the Saint's contest with and victory over the Serpent is 
told at Glendalough, and the ancient name of the lake, Lough-na-Peasta 
the lake of the Serpent, is also the name of a lake near Banagher in Derry, 
where St. Patrick's serpent was imprisoned and " still abides, bound with 
three green rushes !" 

I have elsewhere mentioned as a Cuthite legend the supplying of St. 
Finian's 3000 scholars at Clonard, Co. Meath, with milk all from one cow ; 
and also how Fin-MacCuile's army was supplied by one cow at Kilmelchedor, 
in Kerry, in which case the milk was deposited in a Rock Basin (see pp. 439, 
440). A similar legend is told at Glendalough : a deer used to come daily 
from the mountain, and at St. Kevin's command deposit her milk in a Rock 
Basin to supply the wants of an orphan who was placed under his charge ! 


All such legends I believe to have had one origin, and that derived from 
Cuthite traditions, different versions being produced in various localities 
according to the taste and religious prejudices of those in whose custody the 
traditions were preserved. 

The order of alphabetical arrangement of Counties which has been 
adopted throughout these notes has led to Glendalough being placed last 
on the list ; but I would recommend the reader who desires to inspect the 
Cuthite remains of Ireland to begin his researches by a minute examination 
of the antiquities at Glendalough; he will thus obtain such practical knowledge 
as will assist him much in making further investigations at other and less 
interesting localities. 

The task I have undertaken has now ended. In the " Introductory 
Remarks" it has been stated, that the main object of the work was to prove 
(as far as proof was possible on a subject of such remote antiquity) the 
Cuthite origin of our Irish Round Towers and their contemporary architectural 
remains. This has I trust been accomplished. Ample evidence has been 
adduced from Irish Authorities, from Classic authors, and from the Ruins 
themselves ; but it must be confessed that all such evidence is scanty compared 
with what might have been collected. Further proofs might be adduced to 
sustain every argument, and, in several instances, amplification would have 
corroborated my conclusions. The work is thus far, as well as in other respects, 
incomplete; but if the main points of the advocated theory be sustained, the 
labours of others, better qualified for the task, will be found to supply all 
deficiencies. My own convictions, formed at an early period, on the subject 
discussed in this work have been confirmed from every source of information 
to which my investigations have led me ; and I have not, during the progress 
of this work, encountered any adverse arguments or facts which a more careful 


examination has not been sufficient to reconcile or remove. My sole object 
in publishing has been the elucidation of truth on a question of interest and 
importance, especially to Irishmen; and having performed all that circum- 
stances and opportunities permitted, without regard to trouble or expense, I 
submit the result of my labours to the consideration of the Historian and 
Archaeologist as an humble contribution to the solution of that long debated 
problem, the origin of the Round Towers and contemporary Architecture of 

[46 7 ] 


A GLOSSARY of several Irish, Cuthite, and other ancient terms used in the 
foregoing work, with the authorities for the meanings attached to them, 
is annexed for the purpose of assisting the reader to understand more readily 
the quotations in which such terms appear. The following abbreviations 
have been made, viz : 

A. 4 M. for "Annals of the Four Masters." 

Bry. for Bryant's " Analysis of Antient Mythology." 

Cru. for " Cruden's Concordance." 

Fab. for Faber's "Origin of Pagan Idolatry." 

Har. for Harcourt's "Doctrine of the Deluge." 

His. for Hislop's "Two Babylons." 

M'C.D. for MacCurtin's Irish Dictionary. 

Mar. for " Martyrology of Donegal." 

O'B. D. for O'Brien's Irish Dictionary. 

O'B.R.T. for O'Brien's Round Towers. 

O'R. D. for O'Reilly's Irish Dictionary. 

Raw. for Rawlinson's " Five Ancient Monarchies of the World." 

Val. for Vallancey's " Collectanea de rebus Hibernicis." 

ABHAX or AM HAN (Irish) (pronounced Aoun), 
a river. . . O'R. D. and O'B. D. 
ACCAD, the name of one of Nimrod's Cities. 

Gen. x. 10. 

ACCAD (Hebrew}, a vessel. . . Cru. 
ACHAD, a name associated with the localities 
of numerous ancient Ecclesiastical esta- 
blishments in Ireland. 

ACHADH (Irish), a field. . . O'B. D. 
ACHAD (Cuthite), a term applied to Deity. 

Bry. i. 104. 
ACHAD (Cuthite}, a name of the Sun. 

Bry. ii. 451. 

ACHAD-FOBHAIR (Irisfi), the Divine One in 
weakness; the ancient name of Agha- 
gower ; answering to BAILE-FOBHAIR, 
the ancient name of Fore of Feichin 
in Meath, and to BILE-FECHIN Baal in 

AINE (Irish), the Moon ; pleasure ; the sea. 


AIN (Cuthite), a fountain ; an object of 
worship. . . Bry. i. 62. iv. 194. 

AIN (Irish), a great circle. O'B. D. 

AITH (Irish), a ford. O'B. D. 

AN (Irish}, swift. - O'B. D. 



AN or AON (Irish), one. . O'B. D. 

ANA (Irish], the mother of the Tuath-de- 
Danaan gods. . . O'R. D. 

ARC and ARG (Irish}, a large chest in the 
form of a ship. , O'B. D. 

ARGO (Cuthite), the ship Argo; the Ark. 

Bry. iii. 384, 415. 

ASTAR (Hebrew), to store up. 

ASTOR (Irish) (pronounced Ashthore), an ex- 
clamation of endearment in common use 
among the Irish. 

ASTAROTH, the city of Og king of Bashan. 

Deut. i. 4. 

ASHTORETH, Venus ; a goddess of Sidon. 

i Kings xi. 5, 33. 

ASTORETH (Cuthite), the Phoenician Astarte 
or Venus. . Fab. iii. 42, 75, 224. 

ASTORETH (Irish) (pronounced Ashthorech), 
a term in common use among the Irish, 
signifying " My love or treasure." 

ASHTOROTH (Hebrew), riches ; treasures. 

BAAL (Cuthite), a divinity worshipped by the 
Canaanites ; the Sun. . Bry. i. 54. 

BAN (Irish), white. . . . O'B. D. 

BAR (Cuthite), the same as Saturn, and as 
Nin the Chaldean Fish-god. Raw. i. 166. 

BAR (Irish), a son. . . O'B. D. 

BAR (Hebrew), a son. . . Cru. 

BAR-EN-DEE (Irish), the Son of the one God. 
(See BAR ; EN ; and DEE). 

BARINDEUS, the name of an Irish Saint, who 
is also called Bar, Finbar, and Barry. 

BAILLED (Irish), music; a ballad; a song. 
[Probable interpretation. An ode to Baal, 
i.e., A religious song to the Sun. See 
BAAL, and OIDH or ODH]. O'R. D. 

BEAN or BEN (Irish), a woman. O'B. D. 

BEL (Irish), Belus ; the Sun. 

O'B. D., word AINN. 
BELAIN (Irish), the year; the great circle of 

the Sun. . O'B. D., word AINN. 
BEARNA (Irish), a gap; a breach. O'R. D. 
BEARNAN-BEILTINE (Irish), the plant called 

marsh-marigold. . . O'R. D. 

(Irish), the herb called Dandelion. 

O'R. D. 

Bi (Irish), living ; applied to the living God. 

O'B. D. 

BILE (Irish), a tree. . . O'B. D. 

BIREAD (Irish), a cap ; a bonnet. O'R. D. 
BOTH or BOTHAN (Irish), a hut or tabernacle. 

O'B. D. 

BUINNE (Irish), a branch or twig. O'B. D. 
BUNOUN and BENAUN, interpreted the Branch 

of Juno, from BUINNE, a branch, and 

IUN, the Dove, Juno. 
BUN AUN and BENAN, Irish Saints at Aran, etc. 

CAOIN (Irish), gentle; mild [Achad-chaoin 
(Achonry), the gentle Achad]. O'B. D. 

CEOL (Irish), music ; melody. . O'B. D. 

CEOLAN (Irish), a little bell ; [contemptible 
music] O'B. D. 

CEAN (Irish), a head. . . M'C. D. 

CEAN-TOR (Irish), a Bull's head. (See 
the words CEAN, and TOR). 

CLAIN (Irish), to engender; to beget. O'B. D. 

CLOCK (Irish), a stone. . . O'B. D. 

CLOG (Irish), a bell ; the head. 

O'R. D. and O'B. D. 

CLOGAD (Irish), a helmet ; a cone or pyramid. 
O'R. D. and O'B. D- 

CLOGAN (Irish), CLOG-CHEANN, the skull. 

O'R. D. 



CLUAIN (Irish], a plain ; a lawn. 

O'R. D. and O'B. D. 

CLUAIN, probably a compound word, the 
Stone of Ana. (See CLOCH, and ANA). 

CLUAINIRE (Irish), a seducer ; a deceiver. 

O'R. D. and O'B. D. 

CNOC (Irish), a hill. . . O'B. D. 

COLUM or COLM (Irish), a Dove. O'B. D. 

COLUMAN (Irish), a pillar. . O'B. D. 

COLUM B, an Irish Saint. 

COLMAN, an Irish Saint. 

COR (Irish), music. . . O'B. D. 

C RON AN, an Irish Saint. 

CRONOS, the name of a Titan king ; Saturn ; 
Time ; the first Centaur. 

CRON (Irish), time. . . O'B. D. 

CROAN (Irish), witchcraft. . O'R. D. 

CRONAIM (Irish), to bewitch. . O'B. D. 

CRUM (Irish), bowed ; crooked (CRUM-NA- 
THAIR, crooked snake). . O'B. D. 

CUMHDACH (Irish), defence ; protection; a 
veil or covering. . . O'B. D. 

CUMHDACH (Irish), the cover of a book. 

O'B. D. 

CEILE (Irish), a sen-ant. . O'R. D. 

CALLA (Hebrew), a servant. . O'R. D. 

CEILE-DE (Irish), a servant of God ; a Culdee. 

O'R. D. 

CULDEE, or CALDEE a name given to (sup- 
posed) missionaries of Ancient Ireland, 
interpreted to mean the servants of 
God. A and U are indifferently used 
in Ancient Irish MSS. 

CHALDEE, the name of the early Cuthite 
inhabitants of Babylon, the seat of Nim- 
rod's empire. 

DABAR (Chaldee), a bee. 
DABAR (Hel>ren.>), the Word. 

His. 284. 

DABAR (Irish), the Son of God. (See DIA, 

and BAR). 

DAIR (Irish), the oak-tree. . O'B. D. 
DAIR-BILE (Irish), the oak-tree. (See DAIR, 

and BILE). 

DAIRBILE, or DARBILE, an Irish Saint. 
DAIR-MAIDE (Irish), the oak sapling. (See 

DAIR, and MAIDE). 

DIARMAID, an Irish Saint of the 5th century. 
DIARMAID (Irish), an Irish Finian hero. 
DARARCA (Irish), the oak of the Ark ; an 

object of Cuthite worship. (See the 

words DAIR, and ARC) ; also Faber iii. 


DARERCA, the name of an Irish female Saint. 
DAIREADH (Irish), to be in season ; BO-AR- 

DAIREADH, a cow in season. O'B. D. 
DEARG (Irish), red ; crimson. . O'B. D. 
DE, DIA, DIE (Irish), the sacred name of 

God O'B. D. 

DIABAL (Irish), the Devil [literally, " the god 

Baal " of Cuthite mythology]. O'R D. 
DE-CLAIN (Irish), the god of generativeness. 

(See the words DE, and CLAIN). 
DECLAN, an Irish Saint at Ardmore, etc. 
DIMOC (Irish), the good God. (See DIE, 

and MAITH). This word is pronounced 

DIMOC and DIMMA, names of an Irish Saint. 

EARC (Irish), the Sun ; heaven. 
EARC (Irish), any beast") Four em - 

... i j I blem 

Of the COW kind. I Sun, 
..-, / r \ i I j 

EARC (Irish), a salmon. J- 

ms of the 
as anob- 


O'R. D. 

O'R. D. 
O'R. D. 
O'R. D. 

EARC (Irish), speckled. ) 7 *' ^O'R. D. 

ERC (Irish), heaven ; any beast of the cow 
kind. . O'R. D. 

ERC or EIRC, an Irish Saint at Slane. 

EARC (Irish), a bee. 1 *&-, 



EAN and EN (Irish}, one. . O'B. D. 

ENDEE, the name of an Irish Saint. 
ENDEE (Irish), the one God. (See EN, and 

ERCHOL (Irish), the Sun. O'B. R. T. 195. 

ERCEALLAN (Irish), a pole or stake [prob- 
ably the May-pole or miniature Round 
Tower]. . . . O'B. D. 

EARCOLOIN, the Arkite El ; Cronos ; or Her- 
cules. . . Har. i. 493. 

EARCHAILL (Irish), a post or pillar. O'B. D. 

EASCONN (Irish), an Eel. . O'R. D. 

EASCONN (Irish), the Moon. . O'B. D. 

EASGA (Irish), the Moon ; an eel. O'R. D. 

EASCAR (Irish), shooting into ear. O'B. D. 

EASBOC (Irish), an order among the Fire- 
worshippers ; a bishop. . O'R. D. 

Ess (Irish), death ; a ship. . O'R. D. 

FEART (Irish), a miracle. . O'B. D. 

FEC (Irish), weakness. . . O'B. D. 

FEIS (Irish), carnal communication. O'B. D. 

FIADH (Irish) a deer. . . O'B. D. 

FIADHA (Irish), a lord. . . O'B. D. 

FIADHA (Irish), testimony ; witnessing. 

O'B. D. 

FIADHAC (Irish), detesting ; hating. O'B. D. 

FIAN-BHOTH (Irish), a tent. . O'B. D. 

FIONN-MAC-CUIL, the Finian hero. O'B. D. 

FINE (Irish), a tribe or stock. . O'B. D. 

FINEAMHAIN (Irish) (pronounced Finuin), 
a twig ; a vine [probably the Branch of 
Juno, the Dove, and identical with 
BUNOUN, also interpreted The Branch 
of Juno, the possible ^foundation for the 
Saint Bunaun or Benan]. 

FINEAN, an Irish Saint. 

FIONACH (Irish), ancient ; old. O'B. D. 

FOIRGNIGHIM (Irish), to build. O'B. D. 

FOR (Irish), protection ; defence. O'B. D. 
FOR (Irish), enlightening ; illumination. 

O'B. D. 

FORBA (Irish), land-tax. . . O'B. D. 
FORBADH (Irish), finishing ; ending. O'R. D. 
FOBHAIR (Irish), sick ; weak ; infirm. O'B. D. 

GAD (Irish), a twisted twig (NATHAIR-GAD, a 
writhing serpent). . . O'B. D. 
GEALACH (Irish), the Moon ; lunacy. O'B. D. 
GLAS (Irish), green ; pale ; grey. O'B. D. 
GOBHA (Irish), a. smith. . . O'B. D. 

ION (Irish), the Sun ; a circle. O'R. D. 

ION (Irish), denotes maturity in compound 
words .... O'B. D. 
ION-FHIR ; ION-MHNA (Irish), marriageable. 

O'B. D. 
IONDUILE (Irish), desirable. . O'B. D. 

LEAC (Irish), a great stone. . O'B. D. 

LEACHT (Irish), a pile of stones in memory 

of the dead. . . . O'B. D. 

LUAN (Irish), the Moon. . . O'B. D. 

MAIDE (Irish), a stick ; wood. O'B. D. 

MABOG, the same as Mulita, the mother of 
the Gods, worshipped at Hieropolis. 

Raw. i. 15 1. 

MOBEOC, or DABOEC, an Irish Saint at Pa- 
trick's Purgatory. . Archdall, 102. 

MAIDEOG (Irish), the Concha Veneris 
maiden-head. . . . O'B. D. 

MAIDINEOG (Irish), the morning star [the 
planet Venus]. . . O'R. D. 

MANN (Irish), food ; bread. . O'B. D. 



NATHAIR (Irish}, a snake; a viper. O'B. D. 
NATALIS, the name of an Irish Saint. 
NEACH (Irish), a spirit or apparition. O'B. D. 
NEI.M or NEIMH (Irish), brightness. O'B. D. 

NEAMH (Irish), heaven. 
NEIMHEADH (Irish), science. 
NEIMH (Irish), poison. 
NEIMHEDH (Irish), filth or dirt. 

OIDH and ODH (Irish), music. 

O'B. D. 
O'B. D. 
O'B. D. 
O'B. D. 

O'B. D. 

RE (Irish), the Moon. . . O'B. D. 

RHEA (C nth tie), the divinity of the Ark, the 
same as Rhoia and Rimmon, the pome- 
granate. . . . Bry. iii. 238. 

RIM, the mother as well as sister (/.') of St 
Caimmin. . . Mar. 305. 

RIACH, an Irish Saint. 

RENADH (Irish), a club or stake. O'B. D. 

RUADH (Irish), strong or valiant. O'B. D. 

RUADH (Irish), reddish. . . O'B. D. 

RUADH,' the name of Doghdha, a divinity of 
the Tuath-de-Danaans. . O'R. D. 

RUADAN, an Irish Saint. 

SAB (Irish), death. . . O'B. D. 

SAEBHDHOLBHA (Tra^), enchantment. O'B. D. 
SAM MAIN (Irish), All Saints' tide. 
SAMAN (Irish), the Judge of departed souls. 

Val. iv. 232. 
SAER (Irish), a mason. . . O'B. D. 

SAOR (Irish), free ; also noble. . O'B. D. 
SIOL (Irish), seed. . . . Q'B. D. 
STAL or STAIL (Irish), a male horse. O'B. D. 

STOR (Irish), treasure. 
SUIL (Irish), the Sun. 
Sum (Irish), a mermaid. 

O'B. D. 
O'B. D. 
O'B. D. 

TEAMPULL (Irish), a temple. . O'B. D. 

TIMPCHIOLL (Irish), a circuit or compass ; 
round about. . . . O'B. D. 

TERMON (Irish), the food country. (See TIR, 
and MANN). 

TIR (Irish), a country ; land. . O'B. D. 

TOR (Irish), a tower. . . O'B. D. 

TOR (Cuthtie), a tower. . Bry. i. 118. 

TOR NEAMH-RUADH (Irish), Nimrod's 

tower O'B. D- 

TOR (Irish), a bull. . . . O'R. D. 

TAUR and TUR (Cuthtie), a Bull. The word 
is found in compound names of ancient 
mythology, as Mino-taur of Crete, an 
emblematic representation of the Deity, 
Menes (the same as Osiris) having the 
head of a Bull on the body of a man. 
(See Bry. ii. 109, and iii. 302-304). 

TuiR (Irish), a Lord or Sovereign. O'B. D. 

TUIRBI (Irish), the living Lord or Sovereign. 
(See TUIR, and Bi). 

UA (Irish), any male descendants. O'B. D. 
UR (Irish), fire. . . . O'B. D. 



Abaris (the Hyperborean), 240, 242. 

Abhun (a river), 70. 

Abrahan, 204, 297. 

Abydenus, 341. 

Achad (a Cuthite word applied to the Sun or 

Deity), 43, 86, 87, 422. 
Achad-Abhall (Aghold), 87, 459, 460. 
Achadhcaoil, 71, 393. 
Achad Finglas (Agha), 87, 359. 
Achad Fobhair alias Aghagower, 87, 90, 433. 
Achonry, 87. 
Acta Sanctorum, 48. 
Adonis, 76, 346. 
^Ethiopes, 218. 
Aghaboe, 87, 443, 444. 
Aghadoe, 68, 250, 251, 252, 285, 414, 
Aghamore, 416. 
Aghanloo, 66. 
Aghavillar, 87, 422. 
Aghamoney (Achadh-Mona), 87. 
Alatrium, 182. 

Alfred, King, educated at Baal, 29. 
Allyghur, 317, 318. 
Alorus, 223. 
Amalgad, 69, 396. 
America, Aborigines of, 220, 404, 
Am or Om, 396. 
Ammianus Marcellinus, 200. 
Ammon, shrine of, 343, 348. 

Amonians (Cuthites), 23, 61, 206, 208. 
Amonians, Mythology of, 91, 208, 
Angel, the, 31'. 
a heathen design (appropriated to 

St. Matthew), 31. 
Annagh, 94, 174, 175, 415. 
Annaghdown, 92, 270, 271, 330, 352, 397. 
Annals of the Four Masters, 3, 54, 90, 103, 

128, 160, 252, 253, 262, 291, 299, 457, 


Munster (Annals of Innisfallen), 3. 

Ulster, 290, 294. 

Antrim, 55, 294. 

County of, Ancient Irish ruins in, 355, 

356, 357- 

Apollo, 91, 156, 235, 236, 238, 345. 
Apuleius, 345. 
Aran Islands, 26, 279, 280, 398, 399, 400, 

4i> 45 5 463, 464- 

Aranmore, 74, 86, 283, 313, 352, 399, 
Arcadians, 201. 

Arch, the semi-circular, 197, et seq. 
Archdall's Monasticon Hibernicum, 54 67,356, 

39 2 > 394, 39 6 ' 
Archaeological Journal, 20. 
of Kilkenny, 71, 149, 

Society of Kilkenny, 253, 276. 

Arches of Chancels, 349, 350, 351. 



Architecture, Ancient Irish, 179, et seq. 

Peculiarities of, 

247 and seq., 274, 281. 

Sites of, 354 to 


Cyclopean (Cuthite), 18, 19, 179 

etseq., 196, 213, 352, 353. 
Ardagh (Ard-Achadh), 87, 430. 
Ardboe, 84, 453. 
Ardcharn (or Ardcairne), 55, 446. 
Ard-fear, 220. 

Ardfert, 92, 264, 285, 286, 287, 415, 
Ardladhram (Ardamine), 457. 
Ardmacnasca, 65. 
Ardmore (the High place of the Great God), 

61, 149, 171, 176, 255, 266, 285, 419, 


Ardrahan, 405, 407. 
Argus, 76. 
Ark, the, 62, 75, 76, 91, 129, 147, 155, 326, 

327, 343. 344, 345> 346, 348, 349, 437. 
Armagh, 60, 298, 357. 

County of, Ancient Irish Ruins in, 
357, 358. 

Arthur Mighe (Armoy), 64, 356, 464. 
Asherah (the Hebrew word), 297. 
Assyrians, 138, 208. 

Deities of, 79. 

- Empire of, 231, 233. 
Astarte, 147, 297, 321. 
Asterabad, 316, 319. 
Asthore, 297, 319. 
Astoreth, 297. 

Atargatis alias Dercetus (Venus), 129. 
Athenaeum, 204. 
Atreus, Treasury of Mycenae, 247, 249, 250, 

251, 284. 
Avantipore, Cashmere, 249, 250, 251, 284, 

Avatar, Indian, 85, 173, 174. 

Baal, (County of Mayo), 58, 281, 433. 

Baal (Bel or Belus), 42, 58, 59, 68, 143, 145, 
213, 229, 2 34, 297, 390, 404, 441. 

Baal-berith (Lord of the Covenant), 170, 172, 

Baal-peor, 172, 334, 346, 348. 

Babel, 214, 219, 232, 233. 

Babylon, 73, 222, 346. 

Divinities of, 78, 79, 94. 

Bacchus, 219, 220, 345, 347. 

Bagster's Bible, 297. 

Bailled, (Baal-odh) 239. 

Ball-Playing, 68, 337, 338. 

Ballaghboy, 77, 361. 

Ballasadare, 76, 92, 195, 448. 

Ball Boru, 149. 

Ball Gobban, 62, 294. 

Ballintemple, 386, 387. 

Ballygaddy, 404. 
Ballykine, 66. 
Ballymote, 84. 

- Book of, 36, 240 
Ballyvarney, 63, 379, 455. 
Baltinglass, 42, 94, 326, 460. 
Banagher, 174, 176, 183, 387, 459, 460,464. 
Bangor (Benchor), 93. 

Church of, n. 

Baptism, Heathen rite of, 168, 171, 347. 
Bar, 381. 
Bards, 36, 240. 
Barrington, Sir Matthew, 370. 
Barry, .St., 86. 
Basins, square, 16. 
Bedell, Bishop, 27, 360. 
Bedford, C. D., Esq., 15. 
Bedford, F. Jun. 

Chart of Anglican Church orna- 
ment, 31. 

Beds of Saints, 342, 343, 348, 416. 
Bee, the (Earc), 72, 73, 91. 



Bee-hive Huts, 437, 450. 

Bell or Belus (see Baal), 345. 

Bellew, Robert, 300. 

Belli Fechin, 90, 92, 325. 

Bel-peor, 334, 335. 

Bernard, St., n, 59. 

Berosus, 138, 143, 206, 223. 

Betham, Sir W., 163, 168", 193, 318. 

Beugnot, M. de, 30. 

Bile-Fechan, 325, 446. 

Bile-tor-Tain (the fire-tower of Baal), 94, 

Bith, 457. 

Black Divinity, the, 230, 233, 235. 
Boith Bolcain, 64. 
Bolcan, Saint (Vulcan), 63, 64. 
Book of Invasions, 211, 221, 240. 
- White, 211. 
of Ballymote, 36, 240, 288, 295. 

of Lecan, 240, 288, 289. 

Boreas, 238, 240. 
Borlase, 177. 

Bo than, (a tent or cabin), 335. 
Boyle, Abbey of, 325, 326. 
Boyle, 446, 447. 
Brahma, 126. 
Brahminism, 225. 
Bran, 91, 358. 

Branch of Juno, 77, 82, 83, 164, 401. 
Brash, R. R., Esq., 171, 179, 295, 339. 
Breas (first King of the Danaans), 41. 
Bridget, St., 47, 60. 
Brien Boru, 296, 300. 
Brigh Gobban, 293. 
Brigoon, 62, 63, 293, 379, 380. 
Britway, 60, 256, 380. 
Brooke, Miss, 358. 
Bruce's Travels, 115. 

Bryant, Jacob, 23, 50, 51, 59, 61, 62, 76, 206. 
231, 232, 234, 236, 237, 239. 

Bryant, Jacob, Antient Mythology, 16, 64, 70, 
79, 86, 88, 89, 91, 129, 130, 139, i 47 , 
*S, i5 J > i5 6 > 157, 160, 203, 206, 207, 

208, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 2l8, 221, 
223, 224, 230, 234, 235, 2 4 0, 2 4 2, 243, 

2 44, 34i, 348, 373- 
Budh, 46, 55, 56, 57, 58, 74, 77, 95, 9 6, 122, 

!42, 153, 164, 205, 220, 230, 296, 321, 

335> 421. 

Budhist Mythology, 91, 335, 336. 
Bull, the sacred, 226. 

- winged, (appropriated to St. Luke), 31. 
Bunown (the Branch), 77, 361. 
Burren, Barony of, 369. 
Buttresses, Cuthite, 303, 327, 328, 359, 372, 

377> 3 86 > 4o8, 411, 425, 429, 430, 461. 

Cabin, the, (Guabhres), 293, 345, 347. 

Cadmus, 158. 

Cahir, 305. 

Caimin, (the Crocodile), 404. 

Campbell, Dr., 10. 

Camros, 63. 

Canaan, 208, 399. 

Canara, Rock Temple of, 15. 

Canon Island, 362. 

Cape Clear, 74, 335, 380, 464. 

Carran, 361, 366, 368. 

Carli, Rock Temple of, 15, 33, 203, 257, 321. 

Carlow, County of, ancient Irish ruins in, 359, 

360, 361. 
Carthage, 201. 
Cashel, Sligo, 55. 
Cashel, Rock of, 23, 31, 32, 33, 34, 61, 311, 

329. 45 1 - 

Cashel, Cormac's Chapel, 2, 3, 73, 148, 152, 
180, 193, 261, 262, 264, 276, 277, 278, 
279, 280, 285, 322, 323, 326. 


Cashel, Cormac's Chapel, a Cuthite Temple, 

5. 12, J 3- 

built of cut-stone, within, without and 

beautifully ornamented, 12. 

roofed with semi-circular arch of cut- 
stone, 13. 

Doorway and chancel arch of, 13, 152. 

Interior of, 15, 17. 

Font at, 15, 1 6. 

Cashmere, 249, 250. 

Cassa del Gobernador, 333. 

Castledermot, 339, 420. 

Catalogue of Saints, 53 etseq., 343, 354 et seq. 

Cathac (the serpent), 39. 

Cean Tor (the Bull's Head, the Centaur), 151. 

Ceasair, 457. 

Celius Rhodiginus, 345. 

Celts, the, 35, 37, 38, 39, 42, 109, 244, 245, 

34, 35> 3". 346, 417, 442. 
Centaur, the, 66, 72, 89, 142, 146, 150, 152, 


Ceres, 89, 345. 
Chaldea, 223. 

Chancel Arches, 349, 350, 351. 
Charchasan, 321. 
Chichenitza, 337. 
Chiron, the Centaur, 66, 95. 
Churches, stone-roofed, Cuthite Temples, 56, 


early Christian, of wood, 7. 

Christ's Church, 8, 22, 99, 393. 

Black Book of, 394. 

Cimmerians (Cuthites), 221. 

Cistercian Monks, 423. 

Clare, County of, ancient Cuthite ruins in, 

361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 

3 6 9, 37, 37i, 372, 373. 374, 375, 376, 

377, 378, 379- 
Clarke, Dr., 203. 
Clemens Alexandrinus, 345, 346, 347. 

Cloch Deglain, 108, 172, 454. 

Cloher Oughter, Island of, 27, 360. 

Cloich Greine (Sun-stone or Mui(dh)r), 332, 


Cloich Kieran, 335. 
Cloich Teach, 252, 295, 296. 
Clonard, 81, 82, 84, 340, 439, 464. 
Clondalkin, 56, 69, 394, 433. 
Clone, Church of, 458. 
Clones, 68, 72, 175, 343, 443. 
Clonfert, 25, 60, 92, 264, 402. 

Molua, 340, 341, 444. 
Clonkeen, 247, (see Cluainkeen), 248, 264, 

Clonmacnoise, 8, 21, 74, 252, 253, 254, 255, 

276, 425. 

- Cross of, 134, 135, 161, 162, 

167, 169. 

Clonthuskert, 55, 402. 
Cloyne, 84, 381. 
Cluain (Clo(ch)ain, the stone of Ana), 69, 

335, 464- 
Cluain Braoin, 68. 
Cluain Broanagh, 68. 
Cluaindaimh, 57. 
Cluain Dara, 77, 430, 
Cluaine Dicholla, 69. 
Cluain Eoaris, 68. 

Cluain Finchol (Clonfeacle), 60, 81, 357. 
Cluain Fois, 72, 403. 
Cluain Inis, 93. 
Cluainkeen, 94, 247, 422. 
Cluain Cagh, 93. 
Cluain More, 69. 
Coel, 318, 319. 
Coffins of stone, 175, 303, 342, 343, 344, 346, 

347, 348, 39 6 > 437, 443- 
Coigns, Cuthite, 303, 328, 329, 407, 408, 415. 
Colchians, 221. 
Colman-Elo, 356. 



Colman's Hindu Mythology, 42. 

Colgan, 47, 62, 96, 195, 196, 292, 293. 

Con the son of art, 225. 

Coney Island, 71, 361. 

Confusion of Tongues, 226. 

Cong, 368, 398, 409, 434, 435. 

Congbail, (alias Conwall), 59, 389. 

Conloch (son of Cuchullin), 39. 

Connor, 60. 

Conyngham, Col., 274. 

Cooke, Mr. T. L., of Parsonstown, 174, 175, 

Coole Abbey, 81, 281, 282. 

Coom, 419. 

Copan, 119. 

Corbal, 59, 451, 452. 

Corcomroe, 63, 281, 282, 294, 324, 329, 362, 

Cork, 74, 381. 

, County of, ancient Cuthite ruins in, 

379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384. 

, Cove of, 8 1. 

Cormac's Chapel (see Cashel). 
Corrib, Lough, 351, 352, 397, 398. 
Cow, the (or Ox), 95, 131, 147, 452. 
- red, 149, 156. 

speckled (Earc), 72. 

Comie, Mr., 250. 

Creeshna, 140, 150, 156, 166, 167. 

Crocodile, 404. 

Croebheach, 60. 

Cromlechs, 42, 305, 390. 

Cromwell, 366, 384, 436. 

Cronus (Kronos the Centaur Saturn), 72, 142, 

i5 2 234- 

Cross Abbey, 436, 437. 
Crosses, ancient Irish, 5, 12, 82, in, 144, 

J 45 J 5 6 , i57 J 59> l6o > l6j , iVl,etseq. 

287, 33, 33 1 , 339, 357, 35 8 , 359, 3^4, 

365, 3 6 7, 372, 373, 378, 389, 390, 39 1 - 

394, 396, 421, 424, 425, 426, 432, 443 , 

45i, 454, 458, 460. 
Crosses, inscriptions on ancient Irish, 299, 

3, 301, 32- 

early Christian designs of, 163. 

Budhist and Egyptian, 117, n8. 

Mexican, 118. 

- Heathen of Palenque and Copan, 119. 

veneration for, in all ages, 114, et seq. 

of Ardboe, 132, 174, 453. 

of Banagher, 174, 175, 176. 

of Castledermot, 162, 420. 

-- of Clonmacnoise, 134, 135, 161, 162, 

167, 169, 293. 
of Duleek, 162, 167, 169, 440. 

of Durrow, 112, 162, 427. 

of Kells, 74, 82, 85, 126, 127, 131, 

132, 134, 142, 149, T 53> *54, 165, 167, 
169, 175, 286, 287, 300, 441. 

Kilclispeen, 144, 145, 178. 

Kilcullen, 133, 134, 420. 

Killamery, 157, 424. 

Kilmacduagh, 82. 

Monasterboice, 132, 134, 135, 100, 

161, 162, 167, 169, 178, 300, 432. 

- Moone, 112, 132. 
Tarmon Fechen, 162, 433. 

Tuam, 165, 166, 167, 413. 

Croziers of Cuthite origin, 17, 137, 138, 139, 

140, et seq. 

Cruach Mac Dara, 276, 411. 
Crucifixion, the, ankle cords to, 163. 

- scenes of, Irish, 158 et seq., 440. 
early Christian designs of, 163. 
Ctesias, 233. 
Cuchullin, 39. 

Guile, 80, 8 1, 82, 83, 318, 409. 
Culdees, 452. 
Curranes, 84, 416. 
Cuthite architecture^, 17, 25 etseq., 274,353. 



Cuthite architecture, stability of, compared 
with English or true Norman, 17 et 

seq> 353- 

commonly known as Cyclopean, 18, 

178 et seq, 213. 

characteristics of, 19, 178, 181, 274. 
College, 8 1, 439. 

Colonies, 278, 311. 

Dominion, 204, 231 .et seq. 

History, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 


Mythology, 91, 147, 233^295, 335. 

Remains of Ireland, 303 et seq. 354 

to end. 
Cuthites, the (Amonians, Cyclopians, Phosni- 

cians, Hyperboreans, Centaurs, etc.,) 2, 

5> 7 2 > J 57> 201, 204, 207, 212, 213, 223. 
Descendants of Chus or Cush the 

son of Ham, 40, 207, 290. 
Cuzco, 318. 

Cybele, 70, 82, 129, 168, 347. 
Cyclopians, 18, 178, 179, 207, 213, 215, (see 

Cuthites), 352, 353. 
Cypselus, 345. 

Dabeoc (the God Budh), 57. 

Dagan, St. (Dagon), 66,^72, 125,^126, 381. 

Dairbile's Temple, 77, 435. 

Dairbile, 74, 75, 77, 147. 

Daire (the oak), 23, 74, 75, 76, 220. 

Dairinis, 77. 

Dairmach, 77. 

Dairmelle, 77, 428. 

Danaans, the (Cuthites), 37,4i, 154, (see 

Tuath-de-Danaans) . 

Damater, 146 (and see Catalogue of Saints). 
Danans, 89, 154, 155. 
Danish settlements, 9, 393. 

Darerca (the oak of the Ark), 62, 75, 147. 

Dar-Inis, 63, 294. 

Dark race, the (Tuath-de-Danaan Cuthites,) 

289 et seq. 
Davis, Dr. (" Carthage and its Remains,") 


Davis, Sir J., 8, 10, 49. 
Deirvorgila, 426. 
Delos, 236, 240. 
Delphi, Temple of, 91, 236. 
Deluge, tradition of, 85, 457. 
Demons (Cuthites) 68, 233, 234, 336. 
Derceto alias Dercetus (Atargatis), 129, 146. 
Derg, Lough (see Lough Derg.) 
Derinane Abbey, 86, 416. 
Derinilla of the four paps, 75, 95, 147. 
Dermach, 77. 

Derry, County of, ancient ruins in, 385. 
Desert, 88. 

Desert Tohil, 84, 385. 
Deucalion, 346. 

Devenish, 165, 175, 343, 348, 396. 
Dia Baal (the God Baal, Devil), 66, 336. 
Diamor (the Great God), 292. 
Diana, 70, 129, 130, 168. 
Diarmid (alias Diarmaid), 47, 76. 
Dinnsenchus, 288, 294. 
Diocletian, 21, 284. 

Diodorus Siculus, 130, 237, 241, 335, 348. 
Dionusus, 152, 203. 
Dionysius, 202, 229. 

Disart (the high place of the God Ees), 88. 
Disart Carregin, 88, 429. 
Disert Dermit (Castledermot), 77. 
Dispersion, the, 202, 209, 232, 284. 
Divination, the art of, 235, 237. 
Dodwell's "Cyclopean and Pelasgic Remains," 

183, 185, 190, 193. 
Donegal, County of, ancient Cuthite ruins in, 

3 8 9 39- 



Donoughmore, 84, 94, 307, 440, 442, 454. 

Doora, 77, 361, 

Doorways, Cyclopean, 182 et seg., 303, 306, 

37> 3 8 > 39> 3 IO > 33- 

Semicircular, 303, 329. 

Doulough's, St., Church, 323, 395. 

Dove, the, (lun, Juno), 75, 76, 78, 79, 82, 

146, 332, 374, 405. 
Down, County of, ancient Cuthite Ruins in, 

39 1 , 392, 393- 
Dowth, 290, 291. 
Drogheda, the fort of, 290. 
Dromcliffe, 94, 363. 
Druids, Celtic, 217. 
Druim Ceat, Council of, 195. 
Drumacoo, 408. 
Drumboe, 57, 66, 391. 
Drumcliffe, 83, 449. 
Drumcullen, 86, 426. 
Drumeskin, 60, 432. 
Drumfinchol, 60. 
Drumhome, 27. 
Drumlane, 93, 306, 360. 
Drum-Mochua, 368, 408. 
Dublin, County of, Ancient Cuthite Ruins in, 

393, 394, 395, 39 6 - 
Dublin Penny Journal, 441, 442. 
Duleek, 93, 440. 
Dunboe, 55. 

Dungarvan (alias Achad-Garbain), 87, 455. 
Dungiven, 83, 385, 386. 
Dunurlin, (the fort of the Golden Luan), 266, 


Dura, 77. 
Durrog, 77. 
Durrow, 77, 426. 
Dysart (or Dysert), 88, 132, 133, 249, 250, 

307, 308, 311, 329, 352, 363. 
Doorway of Church of, 249, 250, 285, 


Dysart, Window of Church of, 363. 

Churlin, 88. 

Eagle, the, a heathen emblem appropriated 

to St. John, 31. 
Earc or Ere, 71, 72, 
Earcaellan, the May-pole, 72. 
Eghrois, 65, 449. 
Egypt, 224, 226, 227, 346. 
Elephanta, 230, 267, 332, 335, 427, 
Eleusinian Mysteries, 346. 
Elis, 345. 
Emissa, 332, 333. 
Encyclopedia, London, 201. 
English language, introduction of into Ireland, 


Erii (Bellona), 298. 
Epiphanius, 222, 225. 232. 
Eribul, 419. 

Eri, Chronicles of, 37, 39, 221. 
Erigol Garvagh, 83, 386, 
Erigol Kiran, 74, 454. 
Esculapius, 347. 
Ess (Ees, Easga, Eascan), 88. 
Ethiopians (Cuthites), 207, 219, 237. 
Etruria, 19, 138, 189, 196, 345. 

Celtica, 318. 

Cyclopean Architecture of, 19, 189. 

Etruscans, 202. 

Eurypylus, 345, 

Eusebius, 138, 219, 221, 222, 225, 232, 345. 

Evangelists, the four, 31. 

Faber, G. S., (Origin of Pagan Idolatry), 56, 
61, 120, 146, 203, 211, 225, 231, 233, 
242, 345, 346, 347, 348, 437- 

Farentinum, 194. 

Farragh, 321. 

Fartagh, 74, 422. 

Fechin, St., Church of, 185. 

p V P 



Ferguson's History of Architecture, 247, 250. 
Fermanagh, County of, Ancient Cuthite Ruins 

in, 396. 

Ferns, 93, 250, 458. 
Fethard, 63, 297. 
Fiacul (a tooth), 81. 
Fian of Eirin, (See Fin MacCuile), 410. 
Fiedh Nemadh (alias Fidh Nemphed), 33, 

296, 297, 298, 299. 
Fine, (a Tribe, Irish), 82. 
Finean (Phoinic), 80, 224, 
Finglas, 84, 394. 
Finian Legends, 76, 224, 337. 
Finian Heroes (converted into Irish Saints), 

Fin MacCuile, 80, 81, 91, 163, 224, 243, 340, 

35 8 > 409, 464- 
Fintan, 47, 457, (and see catalogue of Cuthite 


Fintan's Island, (<?//#.? Patrick's Purgatory), 57. 
Fish, the Divine, 85. 
Fish God, the, 125, 126, 146, 381, 396. 
Fo (Budh), 41. 

Foenice (Phoinic, Finian), 224, 243. 
Fomoerians (Mariners of Fo), 36, 41, 44. 
Fore (Fhobhair), 92, 456, 459. 
Foundations, Irish Ecclesiastical, lists of, with 

associated Saints, 54, et seq. 
Fountains (Ain, Ana,) 70. 
Foy, Peter, of Cong, 434. 
Franklin, Colonel, 14, 15, 220, 229. 
Fraser's Handbook of Ireland, 54. 
Freshford, Church of, 25, 43, 176, 252, 259, 

260, 261, 285, 302, 329, 422. 
Freemasons, 294. 
Freemason Smith (Cobban Saer), 62, 71, 292. 

Gad-el-glas (the Green God snake), 38, 42, 
43, 210. 

Gadelians (Scythians, Cuthites), 41, 210. 

Gallerus, Oratory of, 277, 418, 419. 

Galls, stone houses of the, 10. 

Galway, County of, ancient Cuthite ruins in, 
397, 39 8 > 399> 4, 4i, 402, 403, 404, 
405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 

413, 414- 
Ganges, 219. 
Garvey, Capt. G., 427. 
Gaspa, 321. 
Gathelus, 38. 
Gentleman's Magazine, 7, 171, 177, 1 80, 251, 

2 53> 260, 339, 442. 
Gentoos, the, 332. 
Giants, 336, 341. 
Giraldus Cambrensis, 8, 10, 142, 177, 311, 


Glan-culm-kill, 84, 365. 
Glass, Cuthite Temple windows, not suitable 

for, 12, 17, 19. 
Glendalough, 57, 133, 180, 187, 256, 273, 

274, 275, 276, 277, 279, 285, 294, 307, 

38, 340, 343, 351, 423, 461, 462, 463, 

464, 465. 
Glenshirk, 294. 
Gnostics, the, 119. 
Cobban Saer, 47, 62, 71, 145, 230, 235, 287, 

et seq. 324, 362, 410, 428, 438, 439, 441. 
Cave of the wife of, 290, 291, 

294, 295. 

God, the Green, 39, 42, 43, 94. 
Googane Bara, 86, 382. 
Gonagon, 321. 

Gothic or pointed style, 20, 21. 
Goths, the, 346, 
Goutama, 321. 
Gown, Lough, 432. 
Graine, 42, 76. 

Graves, Rev. J., 253, 254, 255, 276, 277. 
Graves of Saints, 342. 



Gray, Mrs. (Sepulchres of Etruria], 231. 

Great Island, Cove of Cork, 68. 

Greenwood, Col., 204. 

" Grose's Antiquities," 334, 420, 450. 

Grove, of Scripture, the, 33, 297. 

Guinness, Sir B. L., 434. 

Gundulph, keep of, 8. 

Gurah. son of St. Deelan, 407. 

Hades, 347. 

Hales, Dr., 233. 

Hall, Mrs. S. C., 381. 

Ham, or Cham, 41, 403. 

Hamilco, 236. 

Hand, the red, 132. 

Hands, two clasped, 373. 

Hanmer's Chronicle, 85. 

Han way, Mr., 316. 

Harcourt's Doctrine of the Deluge, 158, 201, 


Harp, the, 36, 239, 
Heber, 36. 
Hecateeus, 237. 
Heliogabalus, 333. 
Hellenism, 225. 
Henry II., Palace of, in Dublin, of smooth 

wattles, 8, 9, 10, 394, 413. 
Hercules, 72, 89, 143, 161. 
Heremon, 36. 
Herodian, 332, 333, 335. 
Herodotus, 214, 223, 227, 237. 
He-Roe, 138. 
Herrera, 338. 
Hieropolis, 321. 
Hilarion, St., 30. 

Hills, G. M., Esq., 189, 271, 287. 
Hindoos, the, 72, 230, 316, 346. 
Hindostan, 140, 175, 316, 317, 332. 
Hippa, 8, 9. 

Hippos, 89. 

Hislop, Mr. (Tii'o Babylans), 73, 78, 82, 83, 

I2 3> !37> 141, i45> l6 8, 171, 230. 
Hitchcock, R., Esq., 175. 
Holed Stones, 303, 336, 337, 338, 339, 401, 

420, 426, 443, 444. 
Holy Cross, 294. 
Holy Wells, called after Una, lun (St. John), 


Horned Man-Bull (Kronos), 141. 
Horse, the white, 173. 
Howth, 365. 
Hue, the Jesuit, 139. 
Humbolt's Mexican Researches, 171. 
Human sacrifices of the Cuthites, 215. 
Hyde, Dr., 334. 
Hyperboreans (Cuthites), 91, 207, 221, 235. 

Jambs, sloping, characteristic of Cuthite 
Architecture, 19, 181, 247, 353, 370, 


lapitiae (Cuthites), 207. 
lapetus, 49. 
Ida or Ita, 469. 
Ida, Mount, 91, 464. 
Jerpoint, 94, 326, 423. 
Image, wooden, 342, 348, 437, 450. 
Imherdaoile (Enorelly), 66, 461. 
Inchangoill, 352, 398. 
Inchicronan, 57, 82, 366. 
Inchymory, 55, 432. 
India, 219. 

Indo-Cuthites, 218, 220, 230. 
Inis-bofin, 55, 435, 43 6 - 
Inis-bofine, 61, 431. 
Inisboyne, 55, 460. 
Iniscaltra, 26, 84, 243, 264, 275, 276, 281, 

282, 350, 378, 403. 
Iniscaoin, 57, 428. 



Iniscara, 71. 

Iniscloran, 77, 431. 

Inisfallen, 4, 68, 343, 414, 416. 

Inis-glory, 92, 348, 436, 437, 438, 450. 

Iniskea, 436. 

Inis Kieran, 74, 382. 

Inismain, 435. 

Inis-mochua, 56, 391. 

Inismore, (see Inchymory). 

Inis Muidhr (Inis Murry, alias Inis Mura), 

65> 33 2 > 333, 334, 335, 348, 437, 450. 
Inis-puinc, 57. 
Inis-sark, 436. 
Innisfeal, 57. 
Inniskeen, 66, 443. 
Inscriptions on Crosses and Temples, 261, 

299 et seq. 

Insula, Hyperborea (Ireland), 237, 2$&etseq, 
Jointing, peculiar style of, 281, 317, 318, 381, 


Jorjan, 316. 
Josephus, 213. 
Jove, 91. 
Iran, 236. 

Ireland's Eye, 74, 395- 
Irish, the ancient, 179. 

History, corruption of, 36, 40. 

Isis, 345,347, 348. 

Juno, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 332, (see the Dove), 

345, 405- 
Branch of, 77, 82, 83, 164, 366, 437, 


Kandeish, Rock Temple of, 14. 
Keatinge, Dr., (History of Ireland], 37, 38, 41, 
60, 85, 129, 136, 148, 153, 155, 160, 203, 

210, 211, 224, 234, 239, 242. 

Keledius, St., 47. 

Kells, 74, 81, 83, 93, (see Cross of Kells), 

323, 441, 442. 
Kennedy's Legends, 7 1 . 
Kennith, 65, 294, 382. 
Kerry, County of, Cuthite Ruins in, 414, 415, 

416, 417, 418, 419, 420. 
Kill or Cille, (a Church, a Temple), 80. 
Killala, 63. 
Killaspuic Bolcain, 64. 

Brone, 92, 451. 

Kilbannon, 94, 294, 404, 410. 
Kilbarron, 86. 
Kilboedain, 55. 

Kilbrony, 92, 391. 
Kilcathail, 398. 
Kilchartaich, 56. 
Kilchule, 64, 8 1. 
Kilcock, 93. 

Kilcolman-Vara, 366, 368. 
Kilcoona, 352, 398. 
Kilcorban, 175. 
Kilcorney, 366, 368. 
Kilcullen, 63, 286, 420. 
Kilcruimthir, 63. 
Kildare, 60, 257, 307, 421. 

County of, Ancient Cuthite Ruins 

in, 420, 421, 422. 

Kildaris, 77, 428. 

Kildima, 89, 93. 

Kileshen, 77. 

Kilfeacle, 81. 

Kilfenora, 93, 366, 367, 370. 

Kilfranghann, 435. 

Kilkenny, 57, 424. 

Archaeological Association of, 253, 


actions of, 340. 

County of, Ancient Cuthite Ruins 

in, 422, 423, 424, 425. 



Kilkieran, 74, 424. 

Killala, 63, 294, 438. 

Killaloe, 263, 264, 296, 369, 370, 371, 372. 

Killamery, 68, 294, 424. 

Kilannin, 398. 

Killaraey, 343. 

Killarsage, 435. 

Killeely, 408. 

Killeen, 86. 

Killegue, 93, 417. 

Killeshin, 302, 444, 445. 

Killevey-Meagh, 77, 358. 

Killossy, 94. 

Killone, 84, 374. 

Killursa, 398. 

Kilmacduagh (alias Kilmacuille), 18, 19, 24, 
80, 82, 84, 182, 183, 193, 269, 270, 278, 
282, 294, 307, 309, 329, 405. 

Kilmacowen, 77. 

Kilmallock, 65, 430. 

Kilmelchedor, Church of, 23, 65, 148, 190, 
217, 264, 265, 266, 275, 277, 278, 279, 

3 2 3> 3 2 6, 34, 4i7 440, 464- 
Kilmore, 27, 84, 350, 360. 

Eadan, 61. 

Kilmormoyle, 64, 438. 

Kilmurry-Ibricane, 64. 

Kilnaboy, 55, 372, 373. 

Kilree, 94. 

Kilshanny, 71, 374. 

Kiltartan, 86, 405, 407. 

Kiltiernan, 407. 

Kiltrellig, 377. 

Kinailea, 365. 

King, the Shepherd, 137, 209. 

King's County, Ancient Cuthite Ruins in, 

425, 426, 427, 428. 
King, C. W., Mr., (The Gnostics and their 

Remains), 119. 
Kinneth, (See Kennith), 382. 

Kinsale, 63, 294, 383. 
Knockmoy, 63, 294, 324, 405, 410. 
Knowth, 290. 

Kronos, 218, 220, (see Cronus). 
Kyle, 340, 341. 

Labhradh-Loing-Seach, the Irish King, 39. 

Ladhra, 457. 

Laic Feal (Lafail, the stone of Destiny), 37. 

Lamia (Cuthites), 215, 216. 

Lamh Dearg Erin, 136. 

Lanigan, Dr., 252. 

Lasserene (Molach), 47 (and see Catalogue 

of Irish Saints). 
Latona, 238. 

Layard's Nineveh and Babylon, 128, 201. 
Leccan, the book of, 41. 
Ledwich, Dr., 8, 360, 396, 420, 452. 
Leighlin, 63, 294, 359. 
Leitrim, County of, ancient Cuthite ruins in, 


Lemnos, Island of, 298. 
Lestrygones (Cuthites), 215. 
Letterkenny, 389. 
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 

54, 297, 356, 372, 385, 386, 387, 389. 

390, 392, 394, 425, 463- 
Liban (the Mermaid), 128, 464. 
Liethmore, 57. 
Limerick, County of, ancient Cuthite ruins 

in, 429, 430. 
Lingajas, 154, 201, 336. 
Lingam, the, 225, 226, 296, 321, 332. 
Linn, 77. 
Lion, the winged. 
a heathen emblem "(appropriated to St. 

Mark), 31. 
Lismore, 3, 56, 335, 455- 

4 8 4 


Liss, 305. 

Localities connected with the names of 

Cuthite Saints, Lists of, 54 et seq. 
Londonderry, 83, 385. 
London Encyclopedia, 201. 
Longford, County of, Cuthite ruins in, 430, 

43 1 , 432. 

Lough Derg, 28, 243, 275, 276, 350, 403. 

Louth, 68, 323. 

Louth, County of, ancient Cuthite ruins in, 

432, 433- 

Lua.n (the Moon), 59, 422 (see St. Luan). 

Lucian, 321. 

Lugad, the third King of the Danaans, 41, 


Lugadus, 47. 

Lugh of the long hand, 289, 295. 
Lusk, 57, 395. 

Macar, 6, 220, 356. 

Macha, 60, 61, 356. 

M'Curtin's Irish Dictionary, 4. 

McDara's Island, 77, 276, 327, 328. 

Machuile, St. Michael, 82. 

Mac-Reagh, 369. 

Maghera, 392. 

Magic, 36, 215, 235, 241, 245. 

Mahara-more-Banagher, 94, 387. 

Mahody of Elephanta, 46, 56, 267, 332, 333, 

334, 335, 427- 
Malachi, Saint, n. 
Malcolm, Sir J., 236. 
Manetho, 223. 

Markham's Travels in Peru, 318. 
Mars, 298. 
Martyrology of Donegal, 23, 54, 80, 91, 164, 

Mask, Lough, 397. 

Maurice's History of Hindostan, 43, 85, 114, 

125, 146, 150, 153, 166, 173, 178. 
Max Miiller, Professor, 135. 
Mayo, County of, ancient Cuthite ruins in, 

433> 434, 435, 43 6 , 437, 43 8 > 439- 
Maypole Sports, 339. 
Meath, County of, ancient Cuthite ruins in, 

439, 44, 441? 442. 
Mears' Monasticon Hibernicum, 54, 67, 98, 


Meelick, 94, 438. 
Mel or Mellissa, 91, (see list of Cuthite 

Melchedor, Temple of, 147, 264, (see Kilmel- 


Melvin, Lough, 77, 428. 
Mermaid, 125, et seq. 146, 396, 409. 
Mexico, 171, 346. 

Conquest of, 118. 

Michael, Saint, 82, 141. 

Milad, the Fomcerian, 41. 

Miracles of the Saints, 104. 

Mithras, 170, 347. 

Molach, Temple of, 65. 

Mochuan, 47, 48. 

Monaghan, County of, ancient Cuthite ruins 

in, 443. 

Monahinch, Temple of, 264, 452. 
Monasterboice, 55, 300, 301, 307, 308. 
Monasticon Hibernicum, 47, 54, 293, 393. 
Montezuma, 338. 
Moon, the, 131 (see Luan). 
Moone Abbey, 112, 136, 421. 
Mount Garrett, 74. 
Moville, 57, 84, 389, 392. 
Moynoe, 83, 375. 
Muckamore, 84, 356. 
Mudros, the Greek, 332, 334, 335. 
Muidhr (the stone of the Sun), 64, 65, 332, 

333, 334, 335- 



Muiredach, Bp. of Monasterboice, 300, 301. 

Mullogh (Molach), 65. 

Mungret, 74, 43- 

Mural Crown, 165, 166, 167 et seq. 

Mycenas, 19, 186, 189, 190, 249, 250, 284. 

Natalis Comes, 91. 

Nedrum, 391. 

Negro features, 202, 228, 230. 

Nemedians (Cuthites), 36, 41, 42. 

Nessan (Nessus the Centaur), 68, 395. 

Newenham's, R. O'C, " Views of the Antiqtti- 

ties of Ireland" 402. 

New Grange, 243, 284, 285, 286, 287, 441. 
Nimrod, 73, 138, 142, 204, 212, 223, 233, 242. 
Nineveh, 31, 32, 233. 
Nin or Nion, 242, 243, (See Nimrod), 381. 
Nirwana, state of, 321. 
Noah, 41, 126, 146, 170, 172, 221, 327, 344, 

345, 348. 

Norman style, 2, 3, 5, 251, 436, 439, 442. 
contrasted with Irish archirecture, 17, 

ctseq., 353,439- 
Noughaval, 366, 367. 
Nubia, ruins in, 165, 166. 

Oak-tree, the, 75. 

O'Brien's Dictionary, 4, 78, 129, 254. 

O'Brien, Donald, 324, 362, 374. 

Henry, Esq., 36, 41, 44, 70, 72, 1 19, 

165, 177, 225, 227, 228, 229, 236, 237, 
238, 291, 292, 293, 294, 296, 298, 303, 

O'Cahen, or O'Cathan, Domnach, 386. 

Oceanus the Titan (Ossian), 88, 224, 464. 

O'Clery, 128. 

O'Connor, Cathal, 324. 

O'Connor, Dr , 8, 9, 37. 

O'Connor, Turlough, 413, 414. 

Odin, 136. 

O : Donovan, Dr., 253, 254, 457. 

O'Dunne, Deargan, 217. 

O'Flaherty, Mr., 39, 41, 160. 

Ogg. Col., 321. 

Ogmus (the Tuath-de-Danaan), 36, 292. 

Ogygia Vindicated, 38, 41, see O'Flaherty, Mr. 

O'Hainey, St. Murrough, 388. 

O'Hoisin, Archbishop Edan, 413. 

O'Kearney, Mr. N., 71. 

Olam Fodla, 37. 

O'Laverty, Mr., " Comparison of Eastern and 

Irish legends? 39, 142. 
Olympus, Mount, 345. 
O'Neill, Mr. Henry, "Ancient Irish Crosses," 

85, 125, 127, 133, 139, 145, 193, 424, 

426, 433, 449, 453. 
Oran, 94,447- 

O'Reilly's Dictionary, 72, 254. 
Orion, 139, 223. 

Ornaments, Ancient American, 284, 285, etseq. 
Architectural (Cuthite). 

the spiral, 247, et seq. 

the zig zag, 284. 

the pellet, 284. 

the lozenge, 285. 

the embattled, 285. 

the semi-column, 285. 

O?' .an (Oceanus), 39, 40, 88, 224, 464. 
Osiris, 61, 73, 138, 143, 147, 152, 161, 219, 

229, 230, 233, 235, 345, 346, 347. 
Ottmar, St., Chapel of, 260. 
Otway, Rev. C, 28. 
Oughterard, 60, 421. 
Oughtmama, 84, 375. 
Ox, the, 72, 131, 149, i55 2 55- 

- Head of, 23, 266, 418. 
and Centaur, 140, 146, et seq. 



Palenque, 119, 187. 

Palm Tree, 143 et seq. 

Parker, J. H., Esq., 7, 8, 20, 28, 35, i49> 
177, 1 80, 251, 253, 255, 260. 

Passages, Subterranean, 339, 34* 37 8 3 8 3 
407, 415, 426, 439, 441. 

Patrick's Purgatory, 28, 57. 

Patrick, Saint, 94, 96, 99, 127, 192, 211, 217, 
224, 277, 293, 332, 352, 356, 357, 358, 
3 88 > 393> 403, 4H, 438, 439> 44, 447> 
457. 464- 

Pausanias, 345. 

Palasgi, the, 68, 202, 336. 

Peleg, 232, 233. 

Perseus, 40, 390. 

Persia, 317. 

Persia, the Pish-da-dan dynasty of, 231. 

Persians, 70. 

Peru, 317, 318. 

Petrie, Dr., 2, 4, 6, 12, 13, 16, 56, 139, 185, 
186, 187, 189, 190, 195, 252, 256, 257, 
258, 259, 261, 262, 263, 267, 276, 277, 
278, 287, 288, 289, 291, 294, 298, 352, 

355> 395> 399> 412, 413, 414. 4i9> 461, 

462, 463. 

, Essay of, 54. 
Petty, Sir W., 8, 10. 
Phallic rites, 172. 
worship, 42, 147, 208, 220, 226, 228, 

229, 336. 

Philo Byblius, 218. 

Phoenician Mythology, 94, 333, 335, 347. 
Phoenicians (Cuthites), 207, 218, 223, 224, 

2 36, 345 346. 
Piers, Sir H., 187. 
Pillar Stones, 303, 332, 333, 334, 335, 380, 

386, 389, 442, 450. 
Planets, Hindoo Monograms of, 115. 
Plunket's Dictionary, 4. 
Plutarch, 138, 230, 345. 

Pocock, Dr., 348. 

Porphyry, 215. 

Porter, Rev. J. L. (Giant City of Bashari), 

196 et seq., 285. 
Poul-Deelan, 407. 
Proclus, 79. 
Priapus, 321, 334, 335. 
Prospect, 344. 

Pyke, Captain, 56, 332, 333. 
Pyramid, ancient Irish (Clog), 295, 321. 
Pyrrha, 346. 
Python, the, 158. 

Queen's County, 'ancient Cuthite ruins in, 

443 444 445- 
Quin Abbey, 6. 

Randown Church, 21. 

Raphoe, 58. 

Rath, 82, 88, 271, 272, 274, 363, 364. 

Rathen, Rahen (or Rahan), 56, 267, 281, 

3 2 3> 329> 427- 

Rathregenden, 55. 

Rathyne, 56, 267. 

Rattass, 86, 186, 187, 419. 

Rattoo, 58, 419. 

Rawlinson, George, Five Ancient Monarchies 
of the World, 381, 383. 

Records, Ecclesiastical, 407. 

Red Hand, the, 132, et seq., 274. 

Ree, Lough, 431. 

Reeves, Dr. n. 

Refert, Church, 462. 

Reim Riogra, the, (or Royal Calender of Ire- 
land), 40. 

Reformation, the, 407. 

Relics, Ancient, 303. 

Resurrection, 344, 347. 


Rickman's Gothic Architecture, 20, 21. 
Rock Basins, 303, 340, 341, 365, 366, 379, 

3 8 3> 3 8 5> 3 8 9> 43- 43 8 > 444, 445> 4^1, 

463, 464. 

Rollestone, Capt. C., 427, 408,411, 415,419. 
Ross, 63. 

Rossbeenchoir, 93, 376. 
Rosscarbery, 93, 384. 
Roscom, 94, 294, 310, 411. 
Roscommon, 58. 
- County of, Ancient Cuthite 

Ruins in, 446, 447, 448. 
Roscrea, 307, 452. 

Ross-fin-chuill, alias Clonard, 81, 84, 440. 
Ross Turk, 92. 
Round Towers, 5, 7, 145, 178, 243, 282, 287, 

295, 297, 298, 299, 303 et sey., 372, 382, 

392, 394, 399> 4> 43> 47, 4" 4*5' 
420, 421, 422, 424, 425, 430, 433, 443, 

447, 45 8 - 
-- of Aghadoe, 181, 414. 

- of Antrim, 287, 309, 317, 355. 

of Ardmore, 255, 318, 454. 

of Aranmore, 313. 

- of Baal, 281, 433. 

- of Cashel, 191, 193, 311, 313. 

- of Castledermot, 339, 420. 

- of Clonraacnoise, 253, 276, 


of Cloyne, 278, 281, 282, 316, 


of Devenish, 149, 178, 304, 

35> 3 l6 > 321, 3 2 5, 39 6 - 

of Disart Carregin, 88, 429. 

of Donoughmore, 307, 440. 

of Drumcliffe, 315, 449. 

of Drumeskin, 315, 432. 

of Drumlane, 306, 307, 325. 
of Dysart, 88, 307, 308, 311, 

3 l8 > 363- 


Round Tower of Dysart O'Dea, 88. 

of Glendalough, 307, 309, 461, 

462, 464. 

of Kells, 243, 312, 441. 

- of Kilbannon, 314, 404. 
of Kildare, 257, 258, 259, 307, 

316, 421. 

of Killala, 287, 316, 438. 

- of Killashee, 316. 

- of Kilmacduagh, 1 8, 182, 183, 
!93 287, 307, 309, 405. 

of Kilrea, 316, 425. 

- of Lusk, 281, 282, 395. 
of Meelick, 94, 438. 

of Monasterboice, 307, 308, 


of Rathmichael, 314. 

of Rattoo, 316, 420. 

of Roscom, 310. . 

of Roscrea, 307, 312. 

of Scattery, 243, 316, 377. 

of Slane, 73. 

of Swords, 310, 396. 

of Timahoe, 258,307,311.445. 

- of Turough, 316, 439. 

of Central America, 319, 320, 

of Hindostan, 316, 317. 
of Persia, 170, 172, 317. 
of Peru, 317, 318. 

Rustam, Persian Legend of, 39 

Sabaeans, 204. 

Saints' Beds, 303, 342, 343, 396. 

Saint's Island, 74- 

Saints, Irish, Characteristics of, 94 et stq. 

Aristocratic descent of, 102. 

Compound names of, 102. 

Cuthite origin of, 93. 


Saints, Irish, aliases of, 100. 

Heavenly Bodies, 98. 

Longevity of, 103, 463. 

Miracles of, 104 et seq. 

- Ubiquity of, 97, 101. 

Plague and Leprosy of, 104. 

Saints of Ireland, (of Cuthite origin). 

- List of, 46, 47. 

names of, 

St.Abban, 62,292, 293, 379. 
Aedan, 91, 95, 389. 
Aengus-Laimh-Iodhan, 77. 
Ana or Aine, 69, 70, 75, 335, 340, 

34i> 3$3> 459, 464- 
Annin, 397, 398. 
Baithen, 55, 95, 372, (see St. Boadan 

or Buithe). 
Banaun, 94. 
Barindeus (the son of the one God), 

84, 85, 381, 382, 438, 448, 455. 
Barry, 381, 447, 448. 
Bernaun, 405, 410. 
Blawfugh, 88, 364. 
Boadan, 55, 403, 432, 464. 
Bolcain (or Volcan), 46, 63, 64, 95, 

356, 438. 
Buithe, 46, 55, 58, 74, 95, 109, 432, 

436, (alias Boodin, Beothan, etc.), 

446, 460. 

Breccan, 77, 397, 409. 
Breedh, 46, 60, (see St. Bridget). 
Brenaun, 348, 436, 437. 
Brendan, alias Breanainn, 90, 384, 

397, 437, 43 8 - 
Bridget or Bridgid (Breedh), 47, 60, 

95, 2 57, 33 2 357, 361, 380, 421, 

425, 426, 446. 
Bunaun, 405, 410. 
,, Camin or Caimin, 404. 
Cainan (or Cenan), 47, 89, 399. 

Saints of Ireland, names of continued. 
St. Canice, 57, 92, 95, 424. 
Canoe, 57, 95. 
Carthag, 96, 352, 397. 
Cianan, 89, 352. 

Ciaran or Kieran (Chiron the Cen- 
taur), 44, 66, 73, 74, 84, 93, 95, 

376, 439, 464- 

Cocca (or Caca), 47, 89, 93, 319, 376. 

Coelan, 391. 

Coemgene, Coengen, Comgall, Con- 
gall or Congan alias Kievin or 
Kevin, 57, 59, 77, 89, 93, 95, 96, 
128, 164,463. 

Colgan, 409. 

Colomb, Colman or Columban (the 
white dove), 47, 55, 60, 78, 79, 83, 
93, 94, 95, 9 6 , I0 9, 2 43, 3 2 3, 33 2 , 
375, 376, 3 8l 3 8 5, 389, 39, 39 1 , 
394, 397, 432, 436, 45- 

Columba, 453. 

Columb-kille, 107, 195, 365, 439, 441. 

Conall, 384. 

Coona (see Cuannan), 352. 

Cronan (Cronos the Titan, Saturn), 

46, 47, 55, 5 6 , 74, 141, i53> 35 6 , 
366, 378, 397, 433, 463. 

Cuanuan, 96, 352, 397. 

Cummin, 404. 

Dabeoc, 57, 95. 

Dagan, 46, 66, 89, 95, 127, 128, 
130, 146, 336, 381, 443, 461, 

Dairbile (the Oak Tree), 47, 74, 75, 

i47, 194, i95, 435- 
Damater (the mother of the Gods), 

75, 78, 91, 129, 146. 
,, Danan, 89. 
,, Darerca (the oak of the Ark), 47, 62 

75, 7 6 , 77, 13, r 47, 35 8 - 



Saints of Ireland, names of continued. 

St. Declan (the God of generativeness), 

46, 60, 61, 89, 454. 
Deelan, 407, 409. 
Derinella (of the four paps), 75, 95, 

i47, 39 1 - 

Diarmaid, 47, 76, 77, 420. 
Dichul (Dia-Baal, Devil), 46, 47, 66, 

68, 89, 96, 395. 
Dima, Dubh-Dimma (the good black 

God), or Dimo (the good God), 46, 

60, 89, 93, 464. 
Dimmog, 94, 264. 
Donan, 59. 

Dulech, 69, 96, 323, 395. 
Earc or Ere, 46, 71, 72, 73, 161, 436. 
Endee (the one God), 46, 84, 95, 

35 2 , 397- 
Eodan, 61. 
Ernan, 94. 
Fechin, 90, 92, 187, 325, 367, 384, 

397, 446, 45 6 - 
Fechnan, 77, 367. 
Fiacre, 59. 
Finbar, 74, 85, 86, 381, 382, "416, 


,, Finchor, 81, 163, 164. 
,, Finian, 68, 78, 81, 83, 84, 159, 276, 

340, 343, 3 6l > 39, 39i> 4i4, 425, 

439. 44, 464- 
Fintan, 77, 85, 127, 128, 130, 154, 

293, 359, 3 8l > 397, 457- 
Foelchu, 84. 
Gar, 96. 
Garban, 455. 
,, Garraun, 410, 
Cobban, 62, 360, 383, 398. 
Gobbanet, 455. 
,, Gobnata, 63, 379. 
Hiarlath, 71, 72, 413, 414. 

Saints of Ireland, names o{-~rcontinued. 

St. Kevin (see Coemgene), 57, 95, 343, 

398, 461, 462, 463, 464. 
Kieran (see Ciaran), 66, 73, 74, 319, 

332, 335, 3 66 > 3 8 , 382, 397, 428, 


Lactan, 90, 261, 262. 
Laserine, 64, 88, 96, 357, 360. 
Liban, 130. 
Luan, 46, 59, 89, 263, 358, 372, 422, 

43 6 , 463- 

Lugad, 59, 358, 397. 

Maccaille, 81, 407. 

Mac-Duach, 366, 407, 409. 

Maedog, 47, 91, 93, 96, 458. 

Maelisa, or Mell, or Mellissa, 47, 75, 

91, 147, 428. 

Manchin, Shrine of, 344, 348. 

,, Mawnaula, 364. 

,, Mochaimoc or Mochumma, 57, 95 

375, 39 1 , 463- 
Mochay, 356. 

Mochoe, Minus, 95, 391, 453- 
Moclmarog, 464. 
- - Temple of, 276, 351, 462. 

Mochudee or Mochua, 46, 55, 5 6, 57, 

74, 75, 76, 9 2 , I0 7, 153, 26 7> 335, 

352, 3 68 39 1 . 397, 427, 433, 445, 

455, 464- 

Mochuma, 95, 375, 391- 
Mochellog, 64. 
Mocholmog, 80. 
Moctee, 61. 
Molach, 64, 147, *5 6 , 335, 33 6 > 357, 

360, 3 6 9, 39 6 , 4i8, 
Molaise, 64, 109, 178, 335, 348, 396, 

437, 45- 

Molanfide, 77. 

Moling, 59. 

Molua, 340, 34i, 372, 444- 



Saints of Ireland, names of continued. 
St. Moronoc, 361. 
Mura, 335. 
Muras, 95. 
Nessan, 46, 68, 73, 74, 85, 157, 395, 


Noe, 84. 
Oadh, 356. 
Ossan or Oissene (Ossian, Oceanus), 

60, 88, 89, 120, 464. 
,, Rioch, 60, 6 1, 62. 
Rushann, 409. 
,, Satan, 46, 66, 81, 89. 
Shanaun or Senan, 39, 46, 47, 69, 70, 

7S> I0 9> i3 '41. J 57> 293, 332, 

3 6 *> 374,377. 3 8 3> 393> 459- 
,, Sinell or Senell, 46, 69, 77, 92, 93, 

96, 39 6 > 428, 464- 

,, Siollan, 84. 

Stellain or Colman-Stellain, (see St. 
Columb), 89, 93, 453. 

,, Suairleach, 92. 

Suirney, 409. 

,, Tigernagh, 68, 92, 428. 
St. John's Point, 393. 
St. John's Wells, 75, (See Wells). 
Salmon, the, (Earc), 72, 73, 293, 457. 

of Knowledge, 7 1 . 

Salsette, Island of, 15. 

Salt, Henry, 15. 

Sanconiathon, 147, 206, 208, 218. 

Sanconiathor, (Ancient Historian), 5'o. 

Scattery, Island of, 26, 39, 70, 71, 141, 377. 

Scots, ancient buildings of the, 9, 1 1 . 

Scythians, the, (Scuthi, Cuthites), 36, 203, 

207, 208, 209, 220, 221, 348. 
- Empire of, 204 et seq. 

Migrations of 233, 242. 

Seirg-Kieran, 74, 427, 428. 
Selby Abbey, 3 1 . 

Semiramis, 130, 168. 

Serpents, 39, 135, 136, 156 et seq., 175, 205, 

388, 396. 464. 

Entwined, 15, 320, 

Serug, 232, 233. 

Shan, as a prefix, (Old), 50. 

Shannon, 70. 

Sheela-na-gig, 69, 325, 335, 362, 372. 

Sheeptown, 267, 329, 451. 

Shepherd Kings, 138, 139, 207, 209, 210, 

219, 223. 

Shrines, 303, 329, 342, 343, 344, 348. 
Sicily, 216. 
Sillustani, 318. 
Simon Breac, 38, 159, 160. 
Simplicius, 130. 
Sinell, 69. 
Sirens, the, 216. 
Sites of Ancient Irish Ruins, Descriptive 

Particulars of, 354 to end. 
Sitric, 394. 
Siva or Isa, 345. 
Slane, 72, 73, 296, 442. 
Sligo, 332, 335. 
- Abbey, 6. 
County of, Ancient Cuthite Ruins in, 

448, 449, 450, 451. 
Smith, Captain, 318. 
Socrates, 223. 

Sourd alias Swords, 83, 310, 396. 
Spain, 210, 220, 237. 
Strabo, 228. 
Stephens's Travels in Yucatan, 68, 119, 136, 

284, 285, 319, 320, 332, 333, 337, 338. 
Stewart, Sir W., 28. 
Sullivahana, 119, 120, 122, 164. 
Sun Worship, 204. 
Sybil Head, 419. 
Syria, 321, 346. 
Scythian Invasions, (see Scuthi or Scots), 293. 



Tallaght, 65. 
Tallow, 69. 

Tamlaghtard, 66, 83, 389. 
Taptoo alias Taghadoe, 57, 421. 
Tara, 37, 69, 296, 334. 

- Taltine Games at, 37. 
Tarmon-Barry, 438, 447, 448. 
Tartarus, 210, 213. 
Tau, Egyptian, 118, 124. 
Taughboyne, 55. 
Teghadoe, (see Taptoo). 
Teghdagobha, 63, 294, 392. 
Temolog, 65. 

Temple, (Teampull), 81, 336. 
Temples, Cuthite, 81, 264, 277, 295, 303. 
- sites of, 354 to end. 
stone-roofed, (see Cuthite Temples), 
322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327. 

Egyptian, 206. 

. Rock, of Hindostan, 13, 14, 15. 18, 

220, 304, 327, 332. 

of Persia, 16, 170, 327, 345, 349. 

Temple, Boodin, 55. 

- Brecan, 398, 400, 401. 

- Brendan, 398. 
Bunaun, 400. 

-"Ciaran, 400, 401. 
Colman, 400, 401. 
Cronan, 57, 284, 378. 

Endee, 399, 400. 

lun, 405. 

Kieran, 74, 81, 283, 428. 

- MacDara, 411, (see MacDara's 

- MacOwen, 75. 
Molloga, 65. 

- Murry, 401. 

Shambo, 58, 459. 

Shanaun, 71, 459. 

Templecarne, 57. 

Termon Fechin, 92, 433. 

Tertullian, 171, 347. 

Terryglass, 43, 93, 453. 

Theodoret, 31. 

Thevenot's Voyages, 16, 170, 327. 

Thor, 6 1. 

Tiber, 347. 

Tigris, (Teth-gris), 210. 

Timahoe, 56, 258, 259, 307, 311, 445. 

Timolin, 59, 421. 

Tipperary, County of, Ancient Cuthite Ruins 

in > 45 ii 45 2 > 453- 
Tir-da-Croeb, 60. 
Titaea, 341, 
Titans, the, (Cuthites), 46, 68, 155, 207, 209, 

212, 213, 224, 234, 235, 336, 341. 
Titicaca, 318, 319. 
Tolmens, 171. 

Tomgraney, 94, 188, 189, 264, 378,379. 
Tor-de-Glass, (the tower of the Green God 

See Terryglass), 453. 
Tory Island, 84, 390. 

Traditions of Budhist Crucifixions, 116, 117. 
Trim, 60. 

Troy, Siege of, 298, 345. 
Tuam, 72, 349, 350, 412. 
Tuam Green (see Tomgraney), 296. 
Tuath, (Tau, Boodh), 124. 
Tuath-de-Danaans, (Cuthites), 35, 36, 37, 40, 

41, 61, 69, 76, 89, 129, 153, 159, 224, 

234, 239, 240, 245, 287, 288, 289, 290, 

291, 294, 303, 341, 442. 

black color of, 235, 289. 

Tubal-Cain, 62. 

Tulach-Mhin, 65. 

Tuirbi Traghmar, (father of Gobban Saer), 

z88, r 29i. 

Tullowherin, 94, 425. 
Tully Grain, 65. 
Turgesius, 8. 



Turough, 63, 294, 316, 439. 
Tymologa, 65. 
Typhon, 346. 

Tyrone, County of, Ancient Cuthite Ruins in, 
453) 454- 

Ulster Journal of Archseology, u, 76, 80, 
136, 142, 179, 295, 296, 325, 355, 356, 

3 6o >39, 39 1 * 39 6 J 443- 
Umayu, Lake, 318. 
Una, (lun, Juno), 75. 
Uxmal, 338. 

Valentia, Lord, 316. 

Vallancey, General, 40, 332, 333, 450. 

Venus, 69, 79, 91, 257, 297, 298. 

Vine Branch, the, 82, 83. 

Vishnu, 85, 125, 131, 262. 

Vulcan (Bolcain), 62, 63, 64. 

Walshe's Irish Dictionary, 4. 

War of the Sexes, 225. 

Ware's ''Antiquities of Ireland" 413, 423. 

Warrior, armed, the, 173. 

Waterford, County of, ancient Cuthite Ruins 
in, 454, 455- 

Wells, Holy, (generally called by the name of 
St. John, lun), 75, 303, 331, 332, 360, 
364, 3 6 5> 366, 368, 369, 372, 374, 375, 
378, 379> 380, 382, 389, 396, 398, 403, 
409, 43 6 446, 447? 448, 455> 45 6 > 45 8 , 

Westmeath, County of, ancient Cuthite Ruins 

in > 45 6 , 457- 
Wexford, County of, ancient Cuthite Ruins 

in, 457, 458, 459- 
Wicklow, County of, ancient Cuthite Ruins 

in, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465. 
Wilde, Sir W., 344, 351, 352, 353, 397, 398, 

399> 435- 

Wilford, Sir W., 225. 
Wilkinson, Sir Gardiner, 201. 
Winged Quadruped, 167. 
Windows not suitable for glass, 12, 17, 19, 


- Ancient Irish (Cuthite), 268, 269, 

274, 275, 276, 279. 
lar), 279, 280, 281. 

(pointed and circu- 

(of wide and narrow 
splay), 303, 330, 331, 372, 377, 398, 401, 

45 - 
Windows, modern, 268. 

of Round Towers, 311, et seq. 

Wolf, the, 132, 137, 274. 

Yoni, the sacred, 172. 

Yonijas, the, 225. 

Yucatan, 68, 136, 284, 285, 333, 337. 

Yule-Log, 143 et seq. 

Zig-zag ornament, 21, 284, 285, 412. 
Zoroaster (Nimrod, seed of the woman), 123, 

136, 137- 
Zeradusht, 120, 121, 136, 174. 


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