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Township of Sandwich 

(Past and Present) 


An interesting history of the Canadian Frontier along the Detroit River, including the 
territory which now embrace the present City of Windsor, the Towns of Sandwich and 
Walkerville and the Sandwich Townships, and also a brief account of the present County 
of Essex, 





By Frederick Neal, Sandwich, Out. 


Prefaces are not yet out of date, and this little volume of mine 
calls for a few words of explanation for its production and doubtless of 
apology for its literary and other defects, of which the author trusts his 
readers will be rendered charitably oblivious by the interest he hopes to 
arouse by a recital of history that will appeal to each personally, be- 
cause of its purely local character. 

At the earnest and long-continued solicitation of many of the 
representatives (descendants) of families and former old residents along 
the Detroit River frontier, more particularly in the territory now covered 
by the present Town of Sandwich, City of Windsor and Town of Walker- 
ville, I have endeavored to present a narrative touching the civil, relig- 
ious and, to some extent, the social life of the fascinating past of this 
classic tract, teeming with stirring historic associations that appeal to the 
pride and patriotism of its residents. The value of the volume has been 
enhanced, I hope, by including photos of many of the representative 
men of a past day, as well as illustrations from old pictures and books. 
The author hopes that the interest of his readers will be equal to that of 
his own in collecting these materials, which really has been a labor of love. 

This brief announcement cannot be closed without rendering 
thanks to all who in any way, or in any degree, have assisted with mater- 
ials or information. Such help was always rendered cheerfully and 
without reserve. 

Sandwich, July I, 1909. 

To my beloved parents, Thomas and Sarah Ann Neal, 

\vhose memory I revere for their personal integrity and adherence to the cause of the 
Empire loyalists, this book is affectionately dedicated. 

The Township of Sandwich 
Past and Present. 

Early Indian History. 

While as yet no evidence has been secured to prove that this section 
of Canada was ever inhabited before the Christian Era, yet we do claim 
that, from a historical point of view, the Detroit River frontier formerly 
known as the Township of Sandwich possesses a much greater interest 
than any part of the Province of Ontario. 

At intervals for the past thirty years excavations about Sandwich have 
brought to light the contents of Indian graves. Besides the skeletons 
were found numerous hatchets (tomahawks) of stone, and scalping 
knives of bone, war clubs, pipes and numerous other relics. Some twenty- 
five years ago about 30 skeletons were discovered on lot D east Peter 
Street about 300 yards from the county buildings. The bodies were 
buried in a large circle feet inwards and beside each one were found 
buried the customary belongings of the Indian dead. Numerous dis- 
coveries of a similar nature have been found from time to time on Lot 


Founded on the site 'of the former Indian village at River Cunard, by the Rev. Father Laurent, 
in 1852, and was the first priest in charge. Rev. Father Marsailless, the present parish priest, 
has been in charge continuously for the past 49 years, he is 86 years old. There is a convent 
in connection whkh was established in 1885. The above picture is from a water color painting ; by 
the late Miss Ida F Gluns of Sandwich. The picture shows the Bizaire Road, the Cunard River 
Sid bridge! the church and C. M. B. A. Hall are shown in the distance on the opposite bank of 
the river. 

3, South Pajot Street; Lot 3, North Church Street, and in January of 
the present year (1909) remains of nine Indians were discovered on 
the property of Paul Taylor, part of the Indian reserve in this town. 
One of the bodies had been buried headless. With them were stone 
war clubs, a pipe and a copper kettle. 

These discoveries are easily accounted for from the tact 
of the Iroquois tribes occupied almost all the territory in Canada south 
of the Ottawa, between Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron ; a greater por- 
tion of the State of New York, and a part of Pennsylvania and Ohio. 

The Huron Indians occupied the Canadian portions of the territory and 
the land on the southern shores of Lake Erie and Detroit River and 
appeared to have been a distinct nation ; but their language was found 
to be identical with that of the Iroquois. The Hurons consisted of four 
smaller tribes, namely the Wyandottes, or Hurons proper, the Attioun- 
dirons, the Eries and Andastes. The two latter tribes were south of the 
lake, and claimed jurisdiction back to the domains of the Shaunees. 

About the year 1539 the Five Nations, or Iroquois proper, formed a 
confederacy composed of the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida and 
Mowhawk tribes, all occupying lands within the present state of New 
York. The great council fire of the confederation was with the Onon- 
dagas, and the metropolis or chief village was near the present city of 
Syracuse. This confederation was strong and powerful when the French 


The last chief of the Wyandotte, or Huron Nation. He was preesnt at the Town of Sarnia, 
Ont., in 1861 and was presented with a silver medal by the Prince of Wales (now King Edward 
VII), for the part he had taken in the rebellion of 1837-38. Alexander Clark^ interpreter for 
Chief White was present and read the address to the Prince on behalf of the Chief and Wym- 
dotte Nation. He was Chief of the Nation for fifty years. Mr. White died in Windsor, February 
28, 1885, at the ripe old age of 82 years, and was laid to rest with his brethren in the Indian 
burying ground at the Anderdon Reservation. 

first discovered them in 1609. They were then engaged in bloody wars 
with their kinsmen, the Wyandottes. 

In the year 1649 the Five Nations gathered all their warriors and made 
a successful invasion of the Wyandotte and Huron country (of which 
the present town of Sandwich was a part), when many Wyandottes were 
slain and taken prisoners. 

Among the relics recently found in Sandwich were the same in every 
particular as the implements of war used by the Indians at that time, 
as well as being silent reminders of the fierce tribal wars which raged 
in these parts previous to the advent of the white man. 

The Huron Indians of the Detroit River were but a small remnant of 

a once powerful nation of savages, some 20,000 souls, that dwelt on 
the shores of Lake Huron and in the Georgian Bay District, where the 
Fathers of the Society of Jesus sought them out and converted many 
of them to the Catholic faith as early as 1626. 

When the British government made a treaty with the Indians of West- 
ern Canada in 1780, it was stipulated that several denned tracts should 
be reserved in perpetuity for their use, one of these being described as 
a strip of land lying south of the Canard, extending along the Detroit 
River front six miles, and inland to the distance of about seven. The 
original plan and survey in the Bureau of Archives at Toronto is dated 
1790 and is by Sir John Johnson, Bart. 

In the vear 1790 a treaty was made with the Indians under which 


Interpreter for Chief Joseph White, of the Wyandotte or Huron Nation. He was present 
with Chief White at the Town of Sarnia, in 1861, on the occasion of the visit of the Prince oi 
Wales (now King Edward VII), and was also honored with a medal and decroations at his 
hands. Mr. Clark died April 3, 1876, aged 76 years. 

lands were transferred to the Crown out of which have been cut the 
counties of Essex and Kent and portions of Elgin, Middlesex and Lamb- 
ton. The grantees are the principle villages and chiefs of the Ottawa, 
Chippewa Vottawatomie and Huron nations around Detroit. The con- 
veyance is to King George III., and the payment of the consideration 
money 1200 Halifax currency, in valuable wares and merchandise, 
and was made by Alexander McKee, Deputy Agent of Indian Affairs. 


Son of Joseph White, and grond-son of Chief Joseph White, killed within twenty yards of 
the Boer trenches and much in advance of any other British dead, at the Battle of Paardeberf, 
South Africa, February 18, 1900. He was 19 years of age, and was color sergeant of the 21st 
Essex Fusiliers and a member of the first Canadian contingent to South Africa. 

A grand-son of Chief Slpitlog, 
Detroit to the British in 1812. Mr. 

Chippewa and Bedford streets, in the Town of Sandwich. 
in Anderdon, November 22, 1851. 


who was with Tecumseh and Brock at the surrender ot 
Splitlog at present resides with his family at the corner ol 

He was born on the Huron Reserve 

The Indian village of the River Canard was convenient to Bois Blanc 
Island, near Lake Erie, where all the lake Indians and other tribes of 
the Ottawa confederacy held their council, the Hurons alone having 
the right to light the council fire. 

About the year 1837 a part of the Wyandotte nation at Anderdon 
removed to the Western States and occupied lands upon the Neosho 
River, a chief tributory of the Arkansas. 

Something over thirty years ago a treaty was made between the Wyan- 
dotte nation and the Dominion Government whereby the Reservation at 
Anderdon was to be opened for settlement. According to the agree- 
ment arrived at the Chief was to receive 200 acres; each male member 
of the nation 100 acres, and each female 50 acres. The remainder of 


Corner of Chippawa and Bedford streets, Sandwich. He is accompanied on the lawn with 
his only daughter, Miss Julia, who is standing by the head of his favorite horse, "Black Hawk." 
Mrs. Splitlog is standing under the shade of a pine tree near the end of the veranda. 

the land to be put up at auction and sold, the interest from the monies 
thus realized to be paid equally to all members of the tribe. They 
were also granted the rights of full citizenship and the privilege to vote 
the same as their white brethren. 

The Huron graveyard was situated on the river bank below the village. 
It has been in continuous use by the tribe or its representatives for two 
hundred years from the date where the "Sastareche" fixed his seat at 
the Canard until the present generation. 

It was the burial place of Chief Splitog who was with Tecumseh and 
Brock, and one of England's most faithful allies in the war of 1812-15. 

At the death of Chief Splitlog, Joseph White was elected chief, and 
held this important position for fifty years. A few years ago he was 
also buried there and was the last chief of the Wyandotte or Huron 

The French Period. 

Before the advent of the white man in these unknown wilds the 
present site of the City of Detroit was an Iroquois Indian village, a forti- 
fied Indian town. 

That the reader may more clearly understand the changes which have 
taken place in the country's history in the past three hundred years we 
might state that it was governed by France from the year 1540 to 1775 ; 
by the fall of Quebec under Gen. Wolfe on the 13th of September, 1759, 
the capitulation of Montreal, September 3, 1760, under Gen. Amherst, 
and the surrender of Detroit to Major Roberts, of the Queen's Rangers, 
on December 29, 1760, the whole of Canada was surrendered to Great 
Britain. This was in addition to our possession of the thirteen colonies, 
now the United States, for we did not lose them till the treaty of 1783, 
after eight years of war. The first governor-general under French rule 
was Jean F. de la Rogue, Sier de Roberval in 1540, and the first governor- 
general of Canada under British rule was Gen. James Murray in the year 

Samuel De Champlain, the great French merchant, navigator, legis- 
lator and governor and for many years the Chief Lieutenant of France, 
was the first white man who ever trod the banks of the Detroit River. 
His expedition from Quebec to the Detroit River and his attack upon 
and repulse by the Iroquois of their fort at Detroit in th eautumn of 
1615 are historical facts. 

Chevalier de Callieres, then French Governor of Canada, commissioned 
M. de la Mottee Cadillac to establish a combined military and trading 
post at Detroit, which he did in 1701. The fort built by Cadillac is said 
to have been upon the site of the old Iroquois fortifications, where Cham 
plain and his allies the Hurons and Algonguins were defeated in 1615. 

Shortly after the arrival of Cadillac (in 1701) with a large following 
of settlers both banks of Detroit River became lined with small dwellings 
extending at various intervals for several miles. 

Each had its garden and orchard, and each was enclosed by a fence of 
rounded pickets. To the soldier or the trader, fresh from the marsh 
scenery and ambush perils of the surrounding wilds, the secluded settle- 
ment was welcome as an oasis in the desert. 

The Canadian of this time was usually a happy man. Life sits lightly 
upon him ; he laughs at his hardships and soon forgets its sorrows. 

A lover of roving and adventure, of the frolic and the dance, he is little 
troubled with thoughts of the past or the future, and little plagued with 
avarice or ambition. Here all his propensities found ample scope. Aloof 
from the world, the simple colonists shared none of its pleasures and 
excitements, and were free from many of its cares. Nor were luxuries 
wanting which civilization might have envied them. The forests teemed 
with game, the marshes with wild fowl, and the rivers with fish. The 
apples and pears of the old Canadian orchards are even to this day held 
in esteem. The poorer inhabitants made wine from fruit of the wild 
grape, which grew profusely in the woods, while the wealthier class 
procured a better quality from Montreal, in exchange for the canoe loads 
of furs which they sent down every year. Here, as elsewhere in 


Canada, the long winter and autumn, the traders and voyagers, the 
coureurs-de-bois, and half-breeds, gathered from the distant forests of 
the northwest, the whole settlement was alive with dancing and feasting, 
drinking, gaming, and carousing. 

Within the limits of the settlement were three large Indian villages. 
On the western shore, a little below the fort (where the new Detroit 
Postoffice now stands), were the lodges of the Pottawattomis ; nearly 
opposite, on the eastern side (now Sandwich), was the village of the 


Which took part in the Cadillac celebration at the City of Detroit. Capt. F. C. Fulmer is 
landing by the horses heads. During the week of July 21, 1901, the bi-centenary celebration was 
held in the City of Detroit, to mark the 200th annive'rsary of thhe settlement of Detroit by Cadillac. 
Sandwich was fittingly represented by a carriage- beautifully decorated with yellow chrysanthe- 
mums and drawn by a fine team of black horses. The occupants of the carriage were Miss Laura 
Girardot, Miss Elmira Marentette, Miss Isabella Spiers and Miss Marie Morand. Very com- 
plimentary notices afterwards appeared in the public press of Detroit and Windsor, saying: "The 
carriages of the Canadians were much admired. The Walkerville and Sandwich carriages were 
loudly cheered and applauded as they passed the reviewing stand." 

Wyandottes ; and on the same side, five miles further up (above what is 
now the town of Walkerville), a band of Ottawa Indians had fixed their 

Every man was a militia man in those days, and from the fort he was 
furnished with a gun, a capot, a Canadian clock, a breech clout, a cotton 
shirt, a cap, a pair of leggins, a pair of Indian shoes and a blanket. The 
old Canadian militiaman during the French regime must certainly have 
.looked more serviceable than soldierly, particularly to the critical eyes 
of those used to the prim, tight-laced soldiers of those days. But he 
showed that he could do the work required of him. 

And so for half a century the French held sway over the surrounding 
territory. They were too far removed, to be molested by the struggle 
for the supremacy of Canada, and the first news of the fall of Quebec 
and the surrender of Canada was brought to the little band by the English 

On the 12th of September, 1760, Major Robert Rodgers, at the head 
of his band of Rangers, half hunters and half woodsmen, trained in a dis- 
cipline of their own, and armed like Indians, with hatchet, knife and 
gun, was ordered to proceed to Detroit and take possession of the settle- 
ment for the British Crown, which he did December 29, 1760. 

While this country was under the French rule all laws and edicts effect- 
ing the people of L'Assomption (now Sandwich) eminated from the 
commandment of the French fort at Detroit. 

In regard to the settlement of L'Assomption we have no direct reliable 


Just a few rods east of the beautiful residence of John Davis, on Sandwich street, is situate 
the old Moy house, one of the landmarks of Windsor. It was formerly the home of Angus 
Mclntosh, who inherited the estate which belonged to the Earldom of Moy, and was a factor for 
the Hudson Bay Co. Over a century ago the Moy house was noted for the lavish hospitality 
dispensed there. The exact dates concerning the occupancy of the place by Angus Mclntesh are 
not at present known, but it is recorded that his marriage with Archange de St. Martin took 
place in 1776. The sons of this marriage returned to Scotland and the estate fell into tke hands 
f Wm. Hall, whose adopted daughter married John Davis, ex-mayor of the city and present 
owner of what is known as the Moy farm. The present laird, known as the Earl of Moy, who, by 
the way, is a cousin of R. A. Reynolds, of this city, is the twenty-fifth chief of the Mackintosh 
clan, and was born in Canada, his grandfather having been a member of the legislative council 
of Canada. Evening Record, Windsor. 

information but it is quite evident Detroit and L'Assomption were one 
community politically, religiously and socially. 

There is no doubt that the settlement here commenced very soon after 
the establishment of the post at Detroit by Cadillac. Settlement became 
very extensive in 1750 when the French adopted the plan of settling dis- 
charged or disabled soldiers in the vicinity of the frontier posts. On 
the Canadian side of the river the limit was at the foot of Lake St. Clair 
on the one hand and the River Canard on the other and were the thickest 
in the vicinity of the present town of Sandwich. 

The whole territory was laid out into lots of 200 arpents (about 180 
acres), two arpents wide and on each of these was settled a discharged 
soldier and his family. The English afterward followed out the same 

The first country beneath the sun to abolish slavery was the Province 
of Upper Canada. At the very first meeting of its Legislature, after the 
organization of the Province in 1792, the holding of the bodies of men 
as slaves was prohibited. This act was passed and became law May 31 

There were both Indian and Negro slaves, the former being known 
as Panis, or captives from the Pawnee nation. 
- The 300 acres of government land lying between the farm of Mr. 

Working at an old-fashhioned spinning wheel. She is now 76 years of age. 

Maisonville and of Mr. Labadie was granted in 1793 to Lieutenant 
Jonathan Sheiffiin and in course of time became the property of the Hon. 
Angus Mclntosh, factor of the Hudson Bay Company, who gave it the 
name of "Moy." It is now the property of Mrs. John Davis. 

The French settlement below Sandwich on the Detroit River which 
extends over six miles is known as Petite Cote. A few years ago a post- 
office was established there and was given the Indian name of Ojibwa, 
with Leo Page, a young and enterprising business man, as postmaster. 
The soil in the neighborhood of Petite Cote and vicinity is most peculiarly 
adopted for the raising of all kinds of garden produce and small fruit, 
more especially the famous Petite Cote raddish, which are eagerly sought 


after by the people of all the great centers of population in the United 
States and Canada. 

There is another very important industry in this peaceful old-fashioned 
farming community. There is conducted one of the most interesting and 
picturesque industries in America. More than three hundred French 
women, of all ages, knit thousands of pairs of mittens, gloves and socks 
each year, which are used in all parts of Canada from Sandwich to Daw- 
son City. 

These women are all in the employ of Mr. Leo Page, who also codnucts 


Who for 70 years has plied her knitting needles. She is now 82 years of age. 

a general store in connection with the postoffice at Ojibwa, who in turn 
supplies the retail trade in Canada of hand-made woolen socks and gloves. 

For several generations this hand knitting of gloves and hosiery has 
been a part of the housewife's daily work among the French settlers 
between Sandwich and Amherstburg. 

We have much pleasure in introducing to the reader three of these 
industrious old ladies who have spent almost their entire lives in spinning 
and knitting woolen goods for the citizens of Canada. 


For years afterwards when the Indian woman wanted to frighten the 
children they would threaten to have the Walk-in-the-Water come to 
carry them away. 

By kind permission of the Calvert Lithographing Co.. Detroit ' 

It will be 91 years ago, August 28, 1909, since the first steamboat which ever sailed on Lake 
Erie and up the Detroit river from Buffalo. Her name was the Walk-in-the-Water and it took 
44 hours in making the trip. The Walk-in-the-Water was wrecked Oct. 81, 1821, on Lake Erie. 
Her length was 160 feet and breadth 27 feet. 

The steamer Superior, the second boat on the lakes replaced her in 

The Township of Sandwich. 

Originally the limits of the municipality of the Township of Sandwich 
formed a quarter circle running north and west from a given point for 
a distance of twelve miles to Lake St. Clair on the one hand and the 
Detroit River on the other. These two bodies of water forming the 
north, northwest and western boundries the eastern being formed by 
the Township of Maidstone, and the southern by the Townships of Col- 
chester and Anderdon. The whole comprises a most fertile region of 
over one hundred square miles in extent and advantageously situated 
as regards commercial facilities and every adjunct of civilization. Thi<* 
section formed the old French Parish of L'Assomption. It was con- 
stituted the Township of Sandwich in carrying out the details of Lord 
Dorchester's proclamation dated July 24, 1788, dividing the Province 
of Quebec into districts this being a part of the district of Hesse. The 
surveys, however, had been made under the old French system when 
the settlement was first effected at any rate, along the water front, and 
running back three or four miles towards the interior; the balance of 
the township, constituting the southeast quarter, being laid out under 
General Simcoe's administration, 1791. 

From the original formation of a township, it remained as the Town- 
ship of Sandwich until the year 1854 when Windsor was set off as an 
independent municipality under a village charter. Four years later it 
was incorporated as a town, and at the same time (1858) Sandwich 
Town was also incorporated by special act of Parliament. Municipal 
divisions continued thus till 1861 when the township was again sub- 
divided ; and from a single municipality in 1854 it now comprises the 
Town of Sandwich, City of Windsor, Town of Walkerville, and the 
Townships of Sandwich West, Sandwich East and Sandwich South. 

The Town Hall of the late Township of Sandwich was a frame house 
one and a half stories high of about 40x30 feet and was situated at the 
corner of Dougall Avenue and Tecumseh Road on Mr. James Dougall's 
farm. This historical building was sold by auction by D. Moynahan, 
the Township Clerk of Sandwich West on March 11, 1861. 

Tlie Town of Sandwich. 

!, - h . iS u!? f the Village of San dwich really commenced in 
1788, the British Government paid to the Chiefs of the Wyandottes or 
Huron Indians, the Chippewa's and Ottawa's, the purchase price de- 
manded by the joint tribes, for the peaceable possession of a piece of 
ground one mile square. Part of the newly acquired block of land was 
immediately surveyed and plotted into one acre lots for settlement and 
the future county town was given the name of Sandwich. The town 
as at present constituted comprises about 2,000 acres (1909). 

The portion platted into lots is the east and west side of Russell the 
east and west sides of Bedford and the west side of Peter Streets from 
Detroit Street or Cowan's corner at the north end of the town to End 


Was the first gentleman to fill the office of mayor, in 1858, after the Town of Sandwich was 
incorporated. Mr. Boismier was a captain and served through the rebellion of 1837-8 under 
Col. Prince; was tax collector for the original township of Sandwich. He has also held the 
office of fishery overseer for third district and from the year 1872 to the time of his death was 
a. member of the Board of Education of the Town of Sandwich, and for most of that period of 
fourteen years he held the position of chairman. He died in 1886 at the age of 76 years. 

Street at the southerly end of the town. There are four acres to a 
block. Russell, Bedford and Peter Streets run diagonally with the river 
and the intersecting streets all lead to the water's edge. 

At the present time about 600 acres comprise the residence portion 
of the town while the remaining portion of the 2,000 acres is farm 

The municipal history of the Town of Sandwich begins with the year 
1858. An act to incorporate the Town of Sandwich was passed and 
assented to June 10, 1857. Section one of the act says that from and 
after January 1, 1858, that it shall be called and known as the Town of 
Sandwich, with a proviso that this act shall not effect the rights of the 


Sandwich and Windsor Gravel Road Company. Chap. 94, page 406, 
Statutes of Canada. 

The poll for the election of members of the first council of the newly 
incorporated Town of Sandwich was held in the old Court House, Sand- 
wich, on January 4, 1858, by John McEwan, Sheriff of Essex, presiding 
as Returning Officer. 

The poll opened at ten o'clock in the morning and closed at four in 
the afternoon. 

There were ten candidates in the field out of which the electors were 
entitled to elect five councillors. 

The five gentlemen receiving the highest number of votes and who 
were declared elected were : Edward Boismier, Joseph Mercer, Abner 
C. Ellis, Thomas Woodbridge and Pierre Marentette. 


Who has served in the council of the Township of Sandwich and was one of the original 
members-elect of the Sandwich Town Council when the town was incorporated in 1858, and has 
since served as town councillor for upwards of fifteen years at various periods of the town's 
history. He is the father of Aid. George H. Ellis, of the Detroit city council. 

The Town Council of Sandwich held its first meeting in the old Court 
Room on Monday, January 18, 1858, for the purpose of electing a Mayor 
and Reeve for the ensuing year, all the members present; the Sheriff, 
John McEvan, presiding as directed by the act of incorporation. 

Moved by Mr. Marentette, seconded by Mr. Ellis, that Edward Bois- 
mier be Mayor for the year 1858. Carried. 

The Mayor-elect, after taking oath of office, took the chair as the 
first Chief Magistrate of the Town of Sandwich. 

Moved by Mr. Ellis, seconded by Mr. Marentette, that Mr. Joseph 
Mercer be Reeve for the year 1858. Carried. 

Mr. James Woodbridge, Jr., was chosen as Town Clerk, Victor 
Ouellette, Town Treasurer, and Constance Gauthier, Tax Collector. 


Mr. Boismier served the town as its Mayor for one year and Mr 
Charles Baby was elected for the year 1859 by acclamation. For the 
year 1860 Mr. Baby had for his opponent Mr. John A. Askin as the fol- 
lowing proceedings of the nominations will show : 

"On Monday, December 19, 1859, a meeting of the electors was held 
in the Town Hall (old Court House), James Woodbridge, Town Clerk 
officiated as Returning Officer. 

"It was moved by Edward Boismier, Esq., seconded by Constance 
Gauthier, Esq., that Charles Baby be Mayor for the year 1860. 

"The Hon. John Prince proposed the name of John A. Askin, Esq., 
and Capt. John A. Wilkinson seconded the nomination. 

"Charles F. Eliot, Esq., demanded a poll on behalf of Mr. Baby while 
John A. Askin demanded a poll on. behalf of himself." 


Was Reeve in the Township of Sandwich in 1856 and 1857 and a councillor-elect of the Town 
of Sandwich when it was incorporated in 1858. He conducted a harness and saddle shop in 
Sandwich for a number of years and died February 28, 1874, aged 75 years. 

Ever since Sandwich became the county seat in 1796 until the present 
day the town has had a national reputation for being a stamping ground 
for the hottest political fights, both municipal and parliamentary elec- 
tions, in all Canada, and this election between Messrs. Baby and Askin 
was no exception to the rule. 

The election in this case was fought out on political or party lines. 
Mr. Askin was known as the candidate of the Col. Prince party, while 
Mr. Baby was of the Col. Rankin party. 

On election day Mr. Askin was too ill to leave his home but his friends 
stood loyally by him till the close of the poll that day. 

The close of the poll in the evening showed the vote to have been an 
extremely close one. Mr. Baby being declared elected by one majority. 


In the evening Mr. Baby, the successful candidate, held a public recep- 
tion at his residence, the Baby mansion, on Mill Street, at which ad- 
dresses were delivered by both the rival candidates Mr. Askin and the 
Mayor-elect, Mr. Baby. 

A brass band was engaged from the neighboring city of Detroit and 
the citizens generally turned out in large numbers and the event cele- 
brated in the good old-fashioned way. 

During the evening an impromptue procession was formed and headed 
by their band they serenaded through the streets of the town after 
which the procession proceeded to Windsor where they continued their 
celebration by marching up Sandwich Street, the band and processionists 
temporarily stopping at the various public houses to quench their thirsts 
and imbibe more "enthusiasm." 

Feeling that they had did their full duty on this important occasion 
the musicians and the serenaders dispersed to their several homes shortly 
after midnight. 


Served under Col. Prince during the rebellion of 1837-8. Was appointed ensign in Second 
Regiment Essex militia, Sept. 8, 1838; lieutenant Sept. 23, 1838, and while stationed at Amherst- 
burg was appointed a captain on the 25th of August, 1848. 

Capt. Marentette's military life was full of brave and daring deeds. 
At the battle of Windsor on the 4th of December, 1838, it was he who 
shot the man carrying the rebel flag. James Dougall, who had offered 
$25 in gold to any one who would shoot the rebel flag man, came to 
Sandwich the same afternoon and tendered the money to Mr. Maren- 
teete. Mr. Marentette declined to take the reward saying, "I am not 
fighting for money, I am fighting for my country." 

Another incident occurred during the fight with the rebels at Wind- 
sor on the morning of December 4. A wounded rebel raised his musket 
and was about to shoot Capt. Tebo, of the Essex militia ; Lieutenant 


Marentette observing the movement of the wounded man told him not 
to fire at Capt. Tebo or he would be a dead man himself. The rebel 
obeyed the warning and Capt. Tebo was saved. 

Mr. Marentette was a member of the first Sandwich Town Council 
in 1858. He died Feb. 8, 1872. 

The following are the names of the gentlemen who enjoyed the honor 
and distinction of being Mayor of the Town of Sandwich from the time 
it was incorporated in 1858 to the present: Edward Boismier, 1858: 


Was the third gentleman to fill the office of 
Chief Magistrate of the Town of Sandwich, 
which he did from 1867 to 1872. He died 
June 7, 1891. 


Was born at Arthesaus, France, Feb. 12, 
1824. Appointed to a position on the faculty 
of Assumption College and was principal of 
the school for five years, being succeeded by 
the Basillian Fathers in 1870. In 1871 he wa 
appointed public school inspector for North 
Essex, and was Mayor of Sandwich from 1873 
to 1877. He died Feb. 2, 1900. 

Charles T. Baby, 1859-1866 ; George Fellers, 1867-1872 ; Theodule Girar- 
dot, 1873-1877; Arthur C. Verner, 1878 ; Thomas McWhinney, 1879-1883; 
Arthur C. Verner, 1884-1885; Thomas McWhinney, 1886-1887; D. Willis 
Mason, 1888-1889; Ernest Girardot, Sr., 1890-1891; George W. Mason, 
1892; Ernest Girardot, Sr., 1893-1902; Clarence E. Mason, 1903-1906; 
Edward H. Donnelly, 1907, 1908 and was re-elected for the present year, 



Was born March 28, 1814, and was a decendant of a titled family in Ireland. He was a'gramrnar 
school teacher in Sandwich in the early 60s and held the office of Mayor of Sandwich during the 
years 1878. 1884 and 1885. He died April 2, 1890, aged 79 years. 


Was born in Ireland March 25, 1834. In 1873 he came ro Sandwich and built himself a home on 
the banks of the Detroit river. In 1875 he was elected a town councillor in which capacity he served 
the town until 1879, when he was elected mayor by acclamation and continued in that office till 1883, 
and was re-elected in 1886. Sold his home to A. St. George Ellis, barrister of Windsor, and moved to 
Atlanta. Ga., for his health. Died Jan. 31, 1901. Buried in St. John's graveyard, Sandwich. 


The members of the Mason family have always taken a deep interest 
in the public welfare of the county and have been honored by being 
placed in the highest office in the gift of its citizens. 

GEORGE W. MASON was born in the State of Indiana, Oct. 19, 
1836. In the 60's he moved with his family to Sandwich and engaged 
in the mercantile business. In due time he became a full-fledged natural- 
ized British subject and shortly afterwards appointed a magistrate by 


the Ontario government. He was a member of the Board of Education 
for several years and was Mayor of the town for the year 1892. 

D. WILLIS MASON, eldest son of George W. Mason, was born 
Sept. 29, 1862. At the age of 26 years he was elected Mayor of Sand- 
wich. This was in the year 1888 and was re-elected again in 1889. He 
was at that time known throughout the country as the "Kid Mayor" 
of Sandwich on account of his youth. Mr. Mason had previously served 
four years on the Sandwich Board of Education. 

CLARENCE E. MASON, the second and youngest son of George W. 
Mason, was born in Sandwich Nov. 30, 1868. jHe has faithfully served 
as Tow^n Councillor and Reeve and was elected Mayor of the town for 
the years 1903, 1904, 1905 and 1906. In January of the present year 
(1909) Mr. Mason was appointed an Emigrant Inspector by the Dominion 


The gentlemen comprising the Town Council the present year (1909) 
are Edward H. Donnelly, Mayor; Robert Maisey, Reeve; and William 
Hill, John McLean, James L. Smith, William J. Murphy and Calixte 
LeBoeuf are the Councillors. 

The town officials are Edwin R. North, Town Clerk ; Claud F. Pequeg- 
not, Town Treasurer; Albert F. Healey, Town Solicitor; William J. 
Beasley, M. D., Town Physician; Allois Master, Chief Police; George 


Row Standing Jos. D. Meloche, Jules Robinet, George E. Smeaton, town clerk; John McLean, 
and Wm. Hill. 

Row Sitting Jos. U. Piche, Clarence E. Mason, Mayor; Robert Maisley. 

W. Gray. Tax Collector; Magdel Guindon and Alexander McKee, As- 
sessors; William Gray, Water Inspector; James A. McCarnuck, W^eigh- 

The following gentlemen constitute the Board of Health for 1909: 
ExMayor C. E. Mason, Chairman ; E. R. North, Secretary ; Wm. J. Beas- 
ley, M. D., Physician; Allois Master, Inspector; Mayor E. H. Donnelly, 
Messrs. Joseph F. Ouellette and James E. Robinson. 


The following gentlemen represented the Township of Sandwich as 
Reeves m the Western District Council comprising Essex, Kent and 
Lambton were John G. Watson and Domineque Langlois from 1842 to 

:5; Domineque Langlois and William D. Baby, from 1846 to 1849- 
William D. Baby and Thomas Woodbridge in 1850. 

In the Municipal Council of the United Counties of Essex and Lambton 
the gentlemen represented the Township of Sandwich were Dominique 
Langlois and Dennis Downing in 1851; James S. Baby and Dennis 
Downing in 1852 ; Dominique Langlois and Laurent Reaume in 1853 

The first meeting of the County Council of the County of Essex was 


Was the first gentleman to fill the office of 
Reeve for the Town of Sandwich in 1858. 
He was elected Warden of Essex County and 
remained in that office for two years, 1858 
and 1859. He lost his life through an acci- 
dent on the Great Western Railway, Oct. 2, 
1862. His esteemed friend, John Paul Salter, 
was killed at the same time. Mr. Salter's re- 
mains were interred at Chatham and Mr. 
Mercer in St. John's graveyard, Sandwich. 


Was County Clerk from 1858 to 1862, and 
Reeve of the Town of Sandwich from 1864 
to 1868. Appointed Registrar of Surrogate 
in 1862. He died in August, 1870. 

held in the old Court House in the Town of Sandwich on Wednesday, 
October 26th, 1853, the union between the counties of Essex and Lamb- 
ton having been dissolved under proclamation on the 13th day of Decem- 
ber, 1853. The gentlemen who represented the Township of Sandwich 
were Dominique Langlois and Laurent Reaume 1853 to 1854; John A. 
Askin and Laurent Reaume, 1855 ; Thomas Woodbridge and Gabriel 
Bondy. 1856 and 1857. 

The Village of Sandwich became an incorporated town in 1858, Joseph 
Mercer, as Reeve, represented the town from 1858 to 1861 ; John A. Askin 


in 1862; Tames McKee in 1863; D. A. McMullen, 1864 to 1868; James 
McKee from 1869 to 1885 ; Reinhold Gluns, 1886 and 1887 ; James Mc- 
Kee, 1888 and 1889; John G. Watson, 1890 and 1891; Charles. T. Askm, 
1892 ; John G. Watson, 1893 to 1896. 

The "County Councils Act of 1896" divided the county into seven dis- 
tricts. The Townships of Sandwich East, Sandwich West and Sandwich 
Town comprised District number seven. The gentlemen who repre- 
sented District number seven in the County Council were Joseph 
Durocher and Hypolite Mailloux, 1897 and 1898 ; Joseph Durocher and 


Was born in Germany in January, 1835. Be- 
came a resident and established a tannery 
business in Sandwich in 1861. Served as a 
Town Councillor for 1880 and 1881 and 
Reeve in 1886 and 1887. Mr. Gluns is living 
retired at the corner of Bedford and Park 
streets, Sandwich. 


\v a -- b'ii at Aylesbury, P-u^kirghamshire, 
Eng., March 21, 1821. He came to Sandwich 
with his parents when quite young, and be- 
came an active business man in the commun- 
ity. In addition to filling several offices of 
trust for the municipality he served as Coun- 
cillor for a number of years. He was elected 
Reeve of Sandwich in January, 1898, and died 
August 25 of the same year. 

Noah Dufour, 1899 and 1900 ; Joseph Durocher and Alexander Reaume, 
1901 and 1902 ; Albert L. Lafferty and Alexander Reaume, 1903 and 1904; 
Albert L. Lafferty and August St. Louis, 1905 and 1906. 

The "County Council's Act" of 1906, again gave each municipality the 
privilege of choosing its own Reeve to represent them in the County 
Council. The gentlemen who represented Sandwich Town in the County 
Council as Reeve was Eugene Brecult, 1907 and 1908. Robert Maisey is 
the Reeve and representative of the Town of Sandwich in the County 
Council at the present time (1909). 



Was born in the City of Quebec in 1800. He held the position of Clerk of the First Division 
Court; was Town Clerk for the Town of Sandwich from 1869 to 1881. Died May 13, 1881, aged 
81 years. 


was born in England June 25, 1835, 
and settled in Toronto in 1841. For 
thirty-two years ne was a teacher, 
twenty-five of which were spent in Es- 
sex County. He was appointed town 
clerk of Sandwich on December 14, 1894. 
and Clerk of the First Division Court 
of Essex. Died October 19. 1903. 


The present Town Clerk, was born January 
13, 1863. He is a B. A. of the Queen's Uni- 
versity, Kingston, Ont., and has been prin- 
cipal of the Sandwich Public Schools for thir- 
teen years. Mr. North was appointed Town 
Clerk in January, 1907. His services in both 
the capacity of teacher and Town Clerk gives 
general satisfaction. 


The gentlemen who have held the responsible position of Town Clerk 
for the Corporation of the Town of Sandwich from 1858 to the present 
time (1909) are James Woodbridge, Jr., 1858 to 1866 ; Frank E. Maroon, 
1867 to and part of 1869 ; Louis J. Fluett, part of 1869 to May 13, 1881 ; 
Victor Ouellette, the remainder of 1881; Thomas McKee, 1882; James 


Was born in Mullaghfutherland, Ireland, September 15, 1829. He received part of his educa- 
tion at Dublin University, and coming to the United States, he took a two years' course at Prince- 
ton, New Jersey. In 1854 he taught school at London, Ont., and in 1857 he settled in Sandwich 
and vras at once appointed principal of the public school, which positio nhe held with much credit 
for twelve years. Many of the men and women of middle life today, of Sandwich, Windsor, 
Walkerville and the City of Detroit, including the writer, were pupils of Mr. Stuart's. 
Mr. Stuart bought the "Great Western Hotel," familiarly known as "The Dobson House," one of 
the historic landmarks of the town. In 1875 he built a large new brick hotel, which he called 
"The Stuart . .ouse," and which he moved into in 1876, where he remained until his death. 
He held the position of Clerk of the First Division Court, and also of Town Clerk from 1883 
to 1894 (with the exception of the year 1892). He was closely iedntified with the local history of 
Sandwich, and was lately a valued member of the Board of Education and a recognized authority 
on municipal law. He died December 10, 1894, at the age of 66 years. 

A. Stuart, 18883 to 1891 ; Maxfield Sheppard, 1892 ; James A. Stuart, 1893 
to December 10, 1894; Cornelius H. Ashdown, from December, 1894 to 
October 19, 1903 ; George E. Smeaton, October 23, 1903 to 1906 ; Edwin 
R. North, the present efficient Town Clerk, was appointed in January, 




A portion of which is shown in this picture. Established by R. Gluns in 1861, on the corner 
of Park and Russell Streets. This landmark was torn down and removed about two years ago. 
From a water color painting by the late Miss Ida E. Gluns. 


The present Police Magistrate of Sandwich, 
was born at St. Jean de Malka, Jolliette Co., 
Quebec, Sept. 20, 1869. Came to Essex at the 
age of 18. Served ten years in the Sandwich 
fire department. Was elected Reeve for the 
year 1907 and returned by acclamation for the 
year 1908. Appointed Justice of the Peace in 
March, 1908, and Pofice Magistrate of the 
Town of Sandwich in January, 1909. 


The present Chief of Police, was born in 
Germany in 1844, settled In Sandwich in 1857. 
In 1882 he was appointed by the Provincial 
Government a Bailiff of the First Division 
Court of the County of Essex. For upwards 
of thirty years he has served as County Con- 
stable and High Constable for Essex and for 
the past fifteen years as Chief of Police for 
the Town of Sandwich. 


The present town of Sandwich and judicial seat of the County of Essex 
is beautifully situated in the midst of a fine and well settled agricultural 
country on the Detroit River. There are many beautiful private resi- 
dences and well kept lawns, the long rows of magnificent shade trees lin- 


' Row Standing Wm. G. Wells, W. J. Beasley, M. D., David Tucker (secretary-treasurer), C. 
E. Wadge. Row Sitting Wm. J. Sparks, Francis Hurt (Chairman), and John C. Helm. 

ing the principal streets. It being an historical town many people visit 
the place each year from all parts of the American continent. 

The public improvements include one public school and one Roman 
Catholic separate school, the new postoffice'and customs building. 


Assumption College, referred to elsewhere in this volume, is located 
here and is one of the chief educational institutions of the place. 

There are four churches, Catholic, Episcopalean, Methodist and Bap- 

There is also a canning factory, a branch of the Canadian Canners ; the 
Sandwich Branch of the Pittsburg Coal Co. ; the salt-wells conducted by 
the Sa^inaw Salt & Lumber Co., and last but not least the Sandwich 

The present Mayor of Sandwich, was born at 
Hamilton, Ont., January 22, 1859. He has 
served three years as Town Councillor and 
was elected Mayor for the first time in 1907; 
elected by acclamation and had the honor of 
being the town's chief magistrate on the 50th 
anniversary of its incorporation in 1908. He 
was again elected for a third time for the 
present year, 1909. 


A son of Edward Boismier, the first 
Ma>or of Sandwich. He was an Ensign 
in Sandwich Infantry Co. No. 1 during 
the Fenian troubles in 1866 and 1870, 
and has served as Town Councillor on 
several occasions. 

Branch of the J. H. Bishop Fur Company. There is also an extensive 
brick manufacturing plant conducted by Wm. G. Curry, of Windsor. 

The citizens have all the luxuries enjoyed by their neighbors who 
live in the neighboring cities Detroit and Windsor as the town is 
supplied with water from the Windsor works ; the streets are lighted with 
electricity, and nearly twenty miles of silex walks, and a complete sys- 
tem of sewers is now being constructed through the whole town. It has 
also an efficient fire department and the hotel accommodation is excellent. 


Is a native of 'Sandwich and was elected 
to the Town Council in 19()8, and was 
again re-elected far the present year 
(1909). He is the Sandwich representa- 
tive oi tne Metropolitan Insurance Ccm- 
pony of New York. 


One of the Town Councillors for the year 
1909. He is a native of Essex County, held 
several offices of trust in connection with the 
county. For many years he successfully con- 
ducted the Royal Oak Hotel, which he sold to 
Fred Laforet in 1908. 

The present Town Treasurer. He also holds 
the office of collector of water taxes and is 
the resident customs officer in H. M. service 
at Sandwich. He was formerly engaged in 
the mercantile business in Sandwich. 


The present Tax Collector of the Town of 
Sandwich, was born in Sandwich, March 6, 
1873. He was chief of the Sandwich Fire 
Department for several years and is at pres- 
ent Chairman of the Sandwich Board of Edu- 



The present Town Solicitor, is a member of 
the law firm of Davis & Healey. He has held 
the position of Town Solicitor for Sandwich 
for the past six years; Is legal advisor of 
several other corporations and local indus- 
tries lately established in this vicinity. 


Who has acted as Chief of Police and County 
Constable at various periods from 1858 to 
1875, or thereabout, and was also caretaker of 
St. John's graveyard for many years. Al- 
though only a young lad at the time, he took 
an active part in the rebellion of 1837-8, and 
was also a member of Sandwich Infantry 
Company during the Fenian troubles of 1865 
and 1870. He died Oct. 25, 1897, aged 78 


Was born in April, 1847, spent several years 
as a teacher in the ublic, high and model 
schools of Ontario. Tn June, 1900, \vas ap- 
pointed public school inspector for North 
Essex. He is also inspector of Vilingual 
-separate schools for Western Ontario. 

Is a native of Sandwich, and has served three 
years in the Town Council and three years 
on the Board of Education, being its chair- 
man for one year. 



Peter Cadarette, Chairman ; Victor Ouellette, Secretary; Albert Marcotte, Treasurer ; Jules Robinet, 
Calixte Seguin, Zachariah Seguin and Joseph Bondy. 



The Members of the Sandwich Board of Education for 1909 are George 
W. Gray, Chairman ; David Tusker, Secretary-Treasurer ; John C. Hehn, 
Allois Master, Francis Hurt, William J. Beasley, M. D., and William 
G. Wells. 

The members of the Fire Department for 1909 are James Pillon, Chief; 
William -Piche, Assistant Chief; Emile Seguin, Second Assistant; Harry 


Row Standing Chas. Montague, F. Neal, Douglas Splitlog, James Pillon, and Judson McLean. 
2nd Row Sitting Jos. Robinet, Geo. Sparks, A. E. Bondy, Sec., W. J. Murphy, Chief, Wm. Piche. 
Front Row Harry Gignac, Dav Trombley, and Emile Seguin. 

Gignac, Secretary; Arthur Beeman, Treasurer; Albert Reaume, Gilbert 
Duchaine, Cezaire Duchaine, John McLeod, Emile Laforet, Jerry Char- 
bonnet, Samuel Dehaitre and Fred Neal. 


W. J. Burns, resident manager. 

(Scene on Detroit River) The Sandwich Plant of the Pittsburg Coal Co., Sandwich, OnL 

Of the Canadian Canneries (Limited). Established in 1899 by Malcomson & Son. Head Office 

Hamilton, Ont. 

Gcoige A. Malcoruson, resident manager. 

Resident manager of the Sandwich Branch of 
the Pittsburg Coal Company. 


Who established the Sandwich Branch of the 
Canadian Canneries in 1899. 


w ^ 

i I 

W 2- 


In the year 1810 the Western Hotel shown in the accompanying pic- 
ture, was originally built as a private residence for his own use by James 
Woods, father of the late Judge, Robert Stuart Woods, of Kent County, 
and up to 1852 was known as the "Woods Homestead," where it was 
purchased by Cyrus Dobson, and as the sign indicates, was called the 
Western Hotel. It was speedily made the headquarters for High Court 
Judges attending the Assizes. The accompanying picture was taken 
in the year 1863 by Mr. Henry, of the Royal Scott's Regiment of Mon- 
treal, stationed in Sandwich during the Fenian troubles. A few years 
later the building was purchased by James A. Stuart, the Town Clerk, 
and he changed the name to the Stuart House. Mr. Stuart moved the 
present building away and built a modern brick structure, now familiarly 
known as "The Vendome," owned and conducted by Ignace Langlois. 

In the picture is shown the Western Hotel, New Jail and Court House, 
Old Brick Jail and Court House, Registry Office and St. John's Church. 


For the past 109 years this important office has been held by six dif- 
ferent gentlemen. The first, William Hands, enjoyed the honor of being 


And home of the first Sandwich postoffice, is situate on Main Street at the northern part 
the town. Near the street at the gate was a small building or sort of "sentry box," < where the 
mail was received and delivered to the citizens of Sandwich and vicinity from li 

Sheriff, District Treasurer, Customs Officer, Judge of Surrogate, Regis- 
trar of Surrogate and Postmaster. Mr. Hands held the position of Post- 
master from 1800 to 1834. He died February 20, 1836. 



As it appears at present, after being rebuilt by its present owner and occupant, Mr. Fleming. 
It is now familiarly known as the Fleming Homestead. 


- Jf Capt. John Gentle, from 1834 to 1838, and again during tht 
Louis, from the years 1865 to 1881. 

The land on which the building stands was a part of the Indian 
Reserve. After the death of Mr. Hands the property passed into the 
possession of Mrs. James H. Wilkinson and again after the death of 
Mr. and Mrs. James H .Wilkinson, Harwood O. Fleming, druggist of 
Windsor, became the owner. 

This house was built in the year 1780. It was partially destroyed by 
fire January 1, 1900, and rebuilt by Mr. Fleming the same year. 

George Gentle was appointed in 1834. He conducted a general store 
and kept the postoffice in the same building. It is situated on lot 7, West 
Bedford Street, opposite the County Court House, is at present used as 
a barber shop and residence and is owned by James L. Smith. 

EDWARD HOLLAND was appointed in 1838 and continued in office 
until his death, February 7, 1843. He kept the postoffice at his residence, 
lot 7, on the northeast corner of Mill and Peter Streets. It was an old- 
fashioned two-story building. A few years ago this old landmark came 
into the possession of the late County Clerk, Thomas McKee, who had 


Which was the home of the postoffice for a short time during Mr. Morin's administration. It 
was afterwards owned and occupied by the late John Paul Salter, and in later years by the late 
ArtETur C. Verner. 

it removed and built a modern two-story residence in its place. After 
the death of Mr. McKee, Richard McKee purchased it and occupies it 
with his family at the present time. 

Pierre Hector Morin was appointed in 1843. During Mr. Morin's 
administration he kept the office in the W T illiam G. Hall building, lot 5, 
East Bedford Street at present occupied by Mr. Victor Quellette), and 
afterwards in another building long since removed on lot 2, West 
Bedford Street. 

Calixte St. Louis took charge of the office in 1865 and continued in 


the position until he resigned in 1881. He conducted a general store 
and had the office in the George Gentle building. 


Northwest corner of Mill and Bedford Streets. For a shirt time the home of the postoffice 
during Mr. Ouellette's administration. 

Lot 3, East Bedford Street, the home of the postoffice in 1885. 

Victor Ouellette was appointed in 1881 and resigned in 1885. During 
the regime of Mr. Oullette the location of the office was changed several 


times. The Clark Brothers' shoe store, the Miller building, the Girardot 

f MiU 3nd Bedford Streets " The hom e of the postoffice from 1885 to June 


An old landmark removed to make room for the new government building, southeast corner 
of Bedford and Mill Streets. It was purchased by Miss Jane McKee. . 

building and McKee block, east side of Bedford Street were among the 
places occupied. 


John Spiers the present incumbent of the office received his appoint- 
ment August 8, 1885. From the time of his appointment until June 1 
So? he kept the office in his general store, northeast corner of Mill and 
Bedford Streets. 

After one hundred and nine years of weary travelling around the town 
the Sandwich postoffice found a permanent home in a handsome new 
brick building built by the Dominion Government. From a sentry box 

Southeast corner Bedford and Mill Streets. 

in 1800 to a handsome structure, costing -over $15,000 in 1907, is cer- 
tainly an improvement which, our citizens welcome and heartily appre- 
ciate. The office was opened for business June 1, 1907, with Mr. Spiers in 
charge and Miss Jessie Spiers as assistant postmistress. The citizens of 
Sandwich are proud of the building which is one of the finest and best 
equipped postoffices in the Dominion, and are thankful to the Hon. R. F. 
Sutherland, K. C, M. P., for North Essex, for his untiring and faithful 
efforts in securing the construction of the same. 



The present Postmaster, appointed August 8, 1885. He was educated in the public and gram- 
mar schools of Sandwich and Windsor; speaks both the French and English languages fluently and 
is a most efficient officer. 

Postmaster from 1843 to 1865. He was Col- 
lector of Customs at Sandwich at the same 

time. He was also one of the County and r- \FTVTT? CT> 

District Auditors for twelve years. Mr. Morin CALlAIi, M. 

died February 19, 1871, at the age of sixty- Postmaster from 1865 to 1881. Died Jan. 1, 

two years. 1909. 


The second floor are apartments for Inland Revenue and Customs 

John McLeod, has been appointed janitor and himself and family oc- 
cupy the third story. 

George Proctor, of Sarnia, was the contractor and John McLean, of 
Sandwich, the inspector. 


President of the Evening American Publishing Company and publishers of the Chicago American. 
He is a former well-known Sandwich resident and on die occasion of the Old Boys' Reunion, August 
2 to 7, 1909, generously donated a large and handsome water fountain to his native town, a gift that 
will ever be held in kind remembrance by his many friends and citizens of Sandwich. This hand- 
some fountain adorns the front of the new Postoffice and Customs building. 


From Ross-Robinson's History of Free Masonry. 

Of the many men who took an interest in the work of Masonry in 
early days, probably no man was more enthusiastic than the late Bro. 
John B. Laughton, of Sandwich. He it was who in 1820 visited England, 
one of his special objects being to have matters regarding the organiza- 
tion of the craft settled, for, as we already know the craft in Canada 
was at a great disadvantage after the death of R. W. Bro. Wm. Jarvis. 


Bro. Laughton first saw the light of day in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century. An old record signed by Wm. Park, a minister of 
the Gospel, and witnessed by Ann Roe and W. Roe, gives the day of 
his birth and that of his christening. Mr. Wm. Roe will be remembered 
by many Mason's at Newmarket, Ontario, as the postmaster at that 
place. The certificate reads : 

"I do hereby certify to have christened a male child six weeks old, son of Mr Peter and 
Catherine Laughton born the twenty-ninth day -of July last. The asid child, named John Betton 
Laughton born the 20th day of July last. The said child named John B. Laughton and Walter 
Roe, of Detroit, Esq., and Mrs. Ann Roe, his god-father and god-mother. 

"Done at Detroit this sixteenth day of August, one thousand seven hundred and ninety (1790). 



Which marks the resting place of the oldest member of the Masonic fraterity in this vicinity. 

At the time of the birth of Bro. Laughton, Detroit was under British 
government. When quite a youth he removed with his father to Strom- 
ness, an island on the river St. Clair, to which his grandfather had some 
claim under a lease from the Indians. This island was also called 
Thompson's Island, but was usually called Stromness' Island until 
changed to Dickinson's Island. When 12 years of age his father died, 
and the youth was apprenticed to a trade at Amherstburg, but in 1810, 
being thus in his eighteenth year, he returned to Stromness, with a stock 
for a farm, all of which he lost in the war of 1812. He then joined the 
Canadian militia and engaged in the tarnsport between Burlington 
Heights and York. He was present at some of the frontier battles, in- 
cluding Lundy's Lane, at which he was taken prisoner, and afterwards 
retired on a small pension from the government. 

No man was better known to the people of Essex from 1810 until 1879 
than Bro. Laughton. * * * He was an interesting speaker, and with 


great glee -recounted his experiences during the war of 1812-15 at Stoney 
Creek, Grimsby and Burlington Heights. He visited England in 1820, 
armed with documents from Bro. John Dean, the Secretary of the King- 
ston Convention, and visiting the Masonic authorities in London laid 
the case of the Canadian Masons before them with such vigor that it 
had its material effect in the action of the English Grand Lodge. 

In 1841 he wrote to the Secretary of St. Andrews' Lodge, Toronto, in 
order to ascertain the proper method of securing a warrant that he de- 
sired for a lodge at Sandwich. This lodge was afterwards formed and 
was known as Rose Lodge No. 30. 

Mr. Laughton at one time took a deep interest in the welfare of St. 
John's Church, having filled the office of Church Warden with Abraham 
Unsworth for four years from 1837 to 1840. He, with his wife, after- 
wards became affiliated with the Methodist denomination in Sandwich 
and both Mr. and Mrs. Laughton were valued and consistent members 
of that religious body until their death. 

Bro. Laughton died at the family residence of Capt. Edwin Watson, 
at Sandwich, on the 26th day of December, 1879, aged 89. He was buried 
in the cemetery of St. John's Church, Sandwich, and his grave is situated 
opposite the Essex County Registry Office. It is marked with a small 
marble stone inscribed "John B. Laughton, Died Dec. 26, 1879, aged 
90 years." The christening record shows that this date is in error. 

THE WAR OF 1812. 

"Sandwich was the first place to feel the effects of the war of 1812. 
The United States Congress declared war against Great Britain on June 
18, 1812, and on July 12, General Hull crossed from Detroit with 2,300 
men and took possession of Sandwich. He at once issued a bombastic 
proclamation from his headquarters, the Baby Mansion, in forming the 
Canadians that he did not ask their aid, because he came with a force 
that must overpower all opposition, and which was only the vanguard 
of a greater one. 

From Fort George, Gen. Brock issued a counter proclamation, remind- 
ing the people of the prosperity of the colony under British rule, and 
assuring them that the mother country would defend Canada to the 
utmost ancl impressing upon them the sacred duty of .keeping their oath 
of allegiance to the British government. 

How the Essex militia, fighting in the ranks by the side of the regular 
soldierly of Britain, covered themselves with glory in the campaigns that 
followed, is a matter of common history. 

Fortunately the military in Essex had a faithful ally in Tecumseh and 
his followers and the assistance which they gave had much to do in the 
preservation of the Western Peninsular. 

At Maiden the British had erected a fort and garrison and kept sta- 
tioned there a force of regular troops. This was the military head- 
quarters of the Western Frontier, but Sandwich had also grown to a 
thriving town and was the metropolis of the border. 

After a short delay at Sandwich Gen. Hull with his whole force started 
down the military road against Fort Maiden. Col. Proctor who was in 


command at Maiden, nothing daunted, advanced with a force of about 
400 regulars, militiamen and Indians to the Canard river and there taking 
up a position on the lower side of the marsh awaited for the Americans 
to attempt a crossing. In silence they waited and as the column reached 
the bridge a volley thundered from the reeds on the further side. The 
American force was staggered and under the deadly rain of volley after 
volley broke into disorderly retreat. They retired beyond Turkey Creek 
and rallied near the present site of Chappel's hostelry. Major Semandre 
of the militia followed the invaders beyond the creek and then, care- 
fully concealing his followers and a band of Tecumseh's braves, he walked 
on almost to the American Camp. Drawing his pistol he fired point 
blank into the throng of soldiers and dashed away with a large number 
in pursuit. He led them right to the muzzles of the muskets of his men 
when a volley was poured into the pursuers. Half of them were laid 
low and the balance withdrew in confusion to their camp. 

After this reception Hull gave up any idea of attacking Maiden and 
withdrew and on learning that Gen. Brock had arrived at Fort Maiden 
with reinforcements Gen. Hull recrossed to Detroit on August 7. As the 
last of the force left Sandwich orders were given to fire the town, but 
Capt. John Collins of the American force, strongly objected to this bar- 
abrity with such good effect that the town was spared. 

The gallant Brock, who was in command of the force of Upper Canada 
very shortly arrived at Amherstburg, and following up Proctor's advan- 
tage, led the entire force, consisting of seven hundred regulars and 
militiamen and six hundred Indians, to Sandwich. Two small war ves- 
sels, the "Queen Charlotte" and the "Hunter," ascending the river at 
the same time. 

Brock placed his guns on the Canadian bank of the river and sent a 
demand to Hull to surrender Fort Detroit, which was refused. That 
night the Indians were sent across the river and in the morning made 
the forest surrounding the pallisades hideous with their unearthly yell- 
ing, until the garrison imagined there was a very large force at hand. 
The guns on the Canadian shore and from the vessels threatened the 
fort, while all morning long, the red coated soldiers of Britain could be 
seen swarming around the Baby house at Sandwich, where Brock had 
adopted the ruse of marching the force through the back door and out 
of the front, which was in plain view of the fort, and leading the head 
of the column again to the back, kept a stream of men apparently num- 
bering many hundred marching from the house. The guns outside the 
Fort enclosure had also been spiked by Maj. Semandre, who distin- 
guished himself all through the War by his reckless daring, with a small 
force, during the night. So that upon the second demand for surrender 
sent to Hull that afternoon, the fort with its garrison of 2,500, its arms 
and its stores, involving as it did the surrender of the whole State of 
Michigan, was given over to the British. The chagrin of the commander 
when he found Brock's command to number less than 1,500 soldiers and 
Indians will well be imagined. 

Proctor was placed in command of the Fort and Brock withdrew to 
lead in the grand defense of the Niagara frontier which culminated in 
the glorious victory of Queenstown heights, where unfortunately he fell. 



It was built for the northwest fur trade about the year 1790 by the 
Hon Tames Baby. The house is about 40x50 m size, two and one- 
half sS in height, with a three-foot stone wall cellar the size of the 
house The frame work of the building was fi led bricks and 
mortar- the beams and the sheating were of walnut and the sills of 
Tors and windows of walnut. In the hall was hung an iron hook, from 
which weW suspended massive scales capable of weighing 8,000 pounds 
of furs (Dr. Beasley says this hook still adorns the ceiling in the large 


This ancient homestead stands about half way up the hill on the 
corner of Russell and Mill Streets. From the front verandah one has a 
fine view of the Detroit River, as the hill slopes to the river bank. Upon 
its porches Indians traded their pelts when Detroit was but a log settle- 

ment. Through its frails have walked such men as Generals Hull, Brock, 
Harrison, Col. Proctor and the brave forest heros Chief Tecumseh and 
Split log. After the battle of the River Thames (Oct. 5, 1813), where 
Tecumseh was killed, Col. James Baby, while in command of the Kent 
militia, was taken prisoner and returned to Sandwich with Gen. Harri- 
son, who occupied this house as his headquarters. 

Although over a century has passed since it was built the house is 
nearly as good today as when it was first erected. 

The large hall was the trading room. The Indians for miles around 
brought their furs and traded them with the Baby's for small merchan- 
dise which the Northwest Company used as money. 



Was born in Detroit, 1762, built the Baby Mansion, at Sandwich, about the year 1780 He 
was a member of the Legislative Council of Hesse and Western District from 1792 to 'l833; 
appointed Judge of Surrogate Court in 1794; at the close of the War of 1812-13 he was appointed 
to the very responsible office of InspectorGeneral of Upper Canada. This later office was offered 
him because his merits had been so conspicuous during the war, his services so disinterested his 
losses so great) that the Government tendered him the position as a mark of approbation. He died 
at Little York (Toronto), February 19, 1833, in his 71st year. His remains were brought to 
Sandwich and re-interred in Assumption Church Graveyard. 


Was born in Connecticut in 1753. He rose to the rank of Major in the Continental Army, 
and was distinguished for his bravery. He was appointed Governor of the Michigan Territory in 
1805. On June 18th, 1812, the United States Congress passed a bill empowering the President to 
declare war against Great Britain. On the 12th of July, 1812, he crossed to Sandwich with 2,500 
men, took possession of the town, making the Baby Mansion his headquarters, his army camping 


on the land now occupied by the pubHc = school Bedford [ 

of the Detroit River. On the ap V***^'^ ; ben Brock followed with 700 regulars and 
re-crossed with his army to ? e , tr0 ^' f n u / e u d st H 7 ^i t o 'surrender, which he did on August 16, 1813, 
militiamen and 600 Indians and n d f el "f. n ^ adiacent territory. Gen. Hull was then taken to Mon- 
including the W fV? n T'w afterwards Exchanged for thirty British captives He wsa tried 
treatl a prisoner of war and wi * s J^ Albany, New York, during the year 1814. He was 

by court-martial for treason and cow .e at y, afterwards pardoned by the President 

Dr. W. J. Beasley purchased the property in March, 1905, and has 
since put the building in an excellent state of repair without destroying 
in any way its original appearance. The interior of the house has been 
altered to suit the requirements of modern life, such as bath rooms, 
electric light, etc. 


Was born in the Island of Guernsey o-n pet. 6th, 1769. He saw active service in Holland, 
was wounded at the battle of Egmont-of-Tee in 1799, and was second in command of the land 
forces at Lord Nelson's attack on Copenhagen in 1802. On August 16, 1812, in company with 
Tecumseh, he caused the surrender of Detroit by General Hull, with 2,500 United States troops; 
the brig Adams, 33 pieces of cannon, 2,500 stands of arms, the military chest and a lagre quantity 
of stores. The territory of Michigan also surrendered to the British. He was killed at the battle 
of Queenstown Heights, Oct. 1, 1812. 

During the month of September, 1908, the Essex County Historical 
Society has, with the consent of the present owner, caused to be placed 
on the building a bronze tablet which may be seen when passing the 

end of the building on Mill Street. 



The brave and celebrated Shawneese Indian chief, born 1770; killed at the battle of Mora- 
vin Town, Oct. 5, 1813, aged 43 years. He was with Gen. Brock, together with Splitlog, his 
brother-in-law, and other celebrated Indian chiefs, who assisted in the capture of Detroit, August 
16, 1812. 


Who once occupied the Baby Mansion, and whose troops (the Kentucky Horse), burned St. 
John's Church in 1813. He afterwards became President of the United States. He served one 
month after taking the oath of office and died April 4, 1841, at the age of sixty-eight years. 



in the Babv Mansion April 13, 1812; was first lieutenant of the Kent Volunteers during! 
ion of 1837 8 took part in the- capture of the schooner Ann at Amherstburg January 9, 
aooointed to H M. Customs at Windsor October 30, 1873; superanuated July 12, 1895; 

the eblion 

W88- was aooointed 

was auThor ^-Souvenirs of the Past; 
Assumption Church Graveyard, Sandwich. 

died at Windsor, December 9, 1897, and interred at 


The, second son of the Hon. James Baby, was born in the Baby Mansion Decebmer 21, 1807. 
Was appointed Clerk of the Peace in 1835 and held the office until the year 1871. He was elected 
Mayor of the Town of Sandwich in January, 1859, and re-elected to the same office continuously 
up to and including the year 1866. He was also a member o fthe Sandwich Board of Educaiton 
from the year 1858 to 1867, and occupied the position of Chairman of that 'body for the entire 
period of his membership of eight years. He died November 13, 1871, in the old Baby Mansion, 
in which he was born and died, he having occupied it with his family until his death and the death 
of Mrs. Baby, his wife. His family consisted of two sons, Charles T. and Eugene (both dead)), 
and three daughters (Mary), now Mrs. Wm. J. McKee; (Eliza), Mrs. J. Wallcae Askin; and 
(Josephine), Mrs. A. Phi E. Janet. After the death of Mr. and Mrs. Baby, and the death of the 
sons/ and marriage of the daughters, the old homestead passed into other hands. 



The owner of the Baby Mansion, and who occupies it with his family at the present time, 
besides attending to the many duties of his profession as a physician in the community has taken 
a deep interest in, the welfare of the town. He is a member of the Board of Education and was 
elected Chairman of that body for the year 1907. He is also a member of the Essex County Histori- 
cal Society. He is a most worthy gentleman and a valuable acquisition to the old county town. 


(From extracts from a paper written by Miss Jean Barr, with important additions by the writer.) 

Previous to the war of 1812, while yet the country was but thinly 
settled, the Detroit River presented a very different appearance from 
what it does today. True, time could not mar the beauty of the broad 
stream itself, but its shores have been completely transformed by 

This wind mill was built during the year 1803, on the McGregor Farm, Petite Cote. The 
property was afterwards owned by the late Judge Charles Eliot, and is now known as bnoi 
Acres." This picture is from a water color painting by Capt. James Van Cleve in 1881, and pub- 
lished through kindness of Miss McKee, Sandwich. 


The Canadian shore in 1812 was a beautiful land of primitive farms 
anl uncut trees where the easy-going French habitant lived blissfully 

features of the Detroit River in early days 
of the last century, were the wind mills, with their sweeping arms and 
flapping sails on the Canadian shore alone might have been counted 
eighteen mills grinding wheat at the same time. 

One of the largest and most thriving mills on the Canadian shore was 
built by "Jock" Baby some time in the year 1796 It was situated on the 
edge of the river on Lot 2, West Russell Street, Sandwich, between De- 
troit and Mill Streets. 
' Mr. Baby was a prominent man in the vicinity being one who possessed 


considerable influence over the Indians who were then very numerous 
along the frontier. 

In the opening years of the nineteenth century this windmill was 
purchased by Mr. Hypolite Lassaline, a miller of considerable skill. The 
mill was circular in form and built of masonry for the first nine or 
ten feet. Above that were double walls of timber filled in with stone 
and mortar, sided with clap-boards and surrounded by a conical shingled 

A rush of prosperity came to Miller Lassaline during the war of 1812, 
when General Hull, the American commander of Fort Detroit, crossed 


into Canada with a large body of soldiers and took up his headquarters 
in Sandwich. The general at once set about planning to secure supplies 
for his men, and to be certain to have enough flour he made arrange- 
ments with Lassaline to grind exclusively for the American Army. He 
paid the miller $100 per week and told him to grind night and day. An 
American sentry was stationed in front of the mill to see that the orders 
were carried out. Lassaline made a lot of money during the stay of the 
soldiers. This mill ground from 30 to 50 bushels of wheat in the day 
and during the war sold for 25 cents a pound. The old round mill tower 
stood for many years after its usefulness was gone. 

A small mill stood on the church property near the river above what 
is now known as Taylor's Point, Sandwich. It was said to have been 
built by Father Crevier about 1820. This had an exclusive history. In 
early days most of the inhabitants thereabouts were Roman Catholics, 
and belonged to Assumption Parish. Money was then almost unknown 
and tithes were paid to the church in wheat. To make the most of their 
perquisites the good fathers built this little mill and ground their tithes 
into flour which was consumed or sold as the urgency of the case re- 

About the year 1815 Mr. Montreuil, father of ex-Warden Luke Mon- 
treuil, built a windmill on his farm near his residence on the river bank, 
Lot 97, Sandwich East, above now the thriving town of Walkerville. Mr. 
Montreuil was a miller by trade and when his mill was completed made 
some of the best flour on the Detroit River. When the wind was steady 
it ground 100 bushels of. wheat every 24 hours. Montreuil's mill was 
in operation until 1852, and its round bulk was a land mark for many 
years afterwards. 


Planted by Jesuit missionairies over two hundred years ago, there are 
a number of pear trees in Sandwich and vicinity which have defied the 
ravages of time, and with a few exceptions, escaped the woodman's axe. 
There are really no positive means of ascertaining the age of these his- 
toric arboreal links to the past. Some antiquarians have claimed they 
are three hundred years old, but all authorities agree they have passed 
two centuries. 

These trees are found planted on the shores of Lake St. Clair, Detroit 
River and Lake Erie, which clearly defines the ground traversed by the 
first missionaries to this part of the country. 

Dr. C. F. Ferguson, ex-M. P., of Kemptville, Ont., who for many years 
represented the United Counties of Leeds and Greenville in the Dominion 
Parliament, fixes the age of the trees at 226 years. It was during the 
year 1906 when the doctor visited Sandwich, and that was the age he 
figured them at that time, which would make them 229 years old at the 
present time (1909). 

As a further proof of the age of these trees the attention of the reader 
is called to a laughable incident during the war of 1812, in which an old 
mission pear tree took a prominent part. 



General Brock, commander of the British forces, arrived at Fort Mai- 
den on the 13th of August, 1812, and acting on the advice of the intrepid 
Indian chief Tecumseh, marched with his men to Sandwich. Gen. Hull 
had returned to Detroit by that time, so Brock pushed on to the present 

This engraving is from a photo of a pear tree in blossom on the Cowan property. 

site of Windsor, where he erected a temporary fort and placed his bat- 
teries to play on Detroit. He took for a target a large French pear tree 
which stood near the corner of Woodbridge and Griswold streets, and 
so telling were the shots that a man named Miller offered to chop the 
tree down at all hazard. Just as he was speaking two-thirds of it was 
carried away by a cannon-ball. "Good for you, John Bull," shouted the 
man; "you chop a deal quicker than I can." 

The trees were said to have been propagated by seed brought from 
France by the Jesuit Fathers, and for that reason were named "The 
Mission Pear Trees." 


Two gentlemen who were lovers of trees and flowers, and who had 
spent much of their time and acquired a wide experience in the art of the 
cultivation of trees and flowers during their lives were the late James 
Dougall, proprietor of the Windsor nurseries, and the late Wm. Cowan 
of bandwich. These yentlemen, each in their own way, spent many years 
of work and worry in an endeavor to propagate the mission pear tree, but 

Loaded with fruit, on rear of lot 10 East Bedford Street, Sandwich. 

without success. Other gentlemen of this vicinity have tried to raise 
these trees by every art known to the nurserymen and horticulturists of 
this age, with the same futile results. 

Many of these trees have attained great size some seventy feet high 
and nine feet in circumference. The one at the Baby Mansion at the 
present time measures nine feet around the trunk. 


On mammoth tree, said to be the largest on the American continent, 
in March 1906 It stood on the Lewis estate, Sandwich 
iree JoThe femity of ex Mayor Lewis, now of the City of Detroit) 
and now owned b y Herbert Searle, meat merchant. Tins tree measured 
twelveTeet around and sixty-two feet high. The tree showed slight signs 
oTdecay and as Mr. Searle required the space it occu pl ed, he cut it down 
anH sold it to th writer for souvenir purposes. 

These od trees have yielded thousands of bushels of the most luscious 
pears. From thirty-five to fifty bushels have been picked in the harvest 
time from each tree. 

"Many a thrifty mission pear 
Yet overlooks the blue St. Clair, 
Like a veteran faithful warden, 
And their branches gnarled and olden. 
Still each year their blossoms dance 
Scent and bloom of sunny France. 

Died February 15, 1900, aged 75 years. 


During the year 1864-5 the oil craze struck Sandwich. Many citizens 
on different occasions observed surface indications of both oil and salt on 
the low lands around what is now known as Lagoon Park, at the south- 
erly limits of the town. Probably the most enthusiastic citizen at that 
time was John B. Gauthier. He conducted a general store, brick yard, 
manufactured potash, and was interested in other enterprises in town. 
He strongly advocated the forming of an oil company and sinking of a 


well, but no definite action was taken in this respect until the early part 
of 1866. It was at this time that the oil fever was at its height, and the 
chief topic of conversation by the citizens generally. 

Miles Cowan took the initiative, called upon the Mayor, Charles Baby 
and laid the matter before him with a view of obtaining his aid and influ- 
ence. Mr. Baby expressed his approval and entered enthusiastically into 
the project, believing that should the venture be successful, it would be 
a bnefit to the town. 

Mr. Cowan continued to use his influence amony other leading men 
and as a result a meeting of the citizens was held at the Western Hotel] 
next the Court House. The hotel was then conducted by Cyrus Dobson! 
The meeting was a large and enthusiastic one. After speeches had been 
made by many of those present a company was formed and called "The 
Sandwich Petroleum Oil Company." The officers were : George Fellers, 


President; H. C. Guillott, Vice-President ; Charles Baby, Secretary; 
Thos. H. Wright, Treasurer, with five additional directors. The capital 
stock was placed at $10,000, in shares of $100 each. The stock was all 
taken up, with 40 per cent, paid in. The majority of the business and 
professional men, as well as many private citizens, became members of 
the company. 

Arrangements were made with Mr. Gauthier by the company to sink 
the well on the proprty owned by him. An engine and well-boring 
machinery were purchased in Montreal. Peter Seeman, an experienced 
miner and well-driller, was placed in charge of the work, and th sinking 
of the well proceeded with. Operations were continued from day to day 
until a depth of over 900 feet was reached. There was no indication of 


the much-coveted oil, but to the astonishment of all, a fine flowing well 
of mineral water was struck. The water shot up in the air with terrific 
force for about thirty feet. The news of the discovery soon spread 
through town and vicinity, and in a few days thousands of people from 
the United States and Canada flocked to see this new discovery. From 
this time and for many years after it was called the Sandwich Mineral 

Then followed a boom for that portion of the town. A large brick hotel 
was erected by Mr. Gauthier near the premises. The company erected 
a commodious bath house, and lady and gentlemen attendants were 
engaged and many other improvements made. Through judicious adver- 
tising and the publicity given it by the public press, people came from 
all parts of the American continent to visit and some to take baths. The 
services of professional experts were engaged to analyze the water, who 
pronounced it the best and most valuable water of the kind in the world. 

The owners of omnibuses and hacks did a thriving business, conveying 
passengers from the Windsor ferry landing to and from the springs ; the 
minimum rate of fare was ten cents each way. 

A canal was dug from the Detroit River through the low land to 
Russell street, a few yards from the springs, and a line of boats estab- 
lished; the fare for the round trip from Woodward avenue, Detroit, to 
Sandwich and return was 25 cents. For a time Sandwich became quite 
a resort for visitors. It was a common occurrence to see from twenty to 
twenty-five thousand people here of a Sunday and on holidays. 

The reader will remember that the people of the neighboring city of 
Detroit, Windsor and Walkerville had no parks to go to. Belle Isle Park 
and Bois Blanc Island were not dreamed of as pleasure resorts in those 

Among the visitors were many afflicted who found the sulphur water 
most beneficial for the elimination from the system of such diseases as 
rheumatism, neuralgia and asthma, scrofula, and liver complications, ner- 
vous prostration and allied diseases. This class of visitors took the baths 
regularly and with such good results that many were completely cured, 
returning home without their sticks and crutches. 

After a year or two of unusual prosperity differences commenced to 
arise amony the principal members of the company. The main factors in 
the dispute were John B. Gauthier, of Sandwich, and John P. Clark, of 
Springwells. Mr. Clark, being the heaviest stockholder and possessed 
of large means, wished to run the business on an elaborate plan in his 
own way. He endeavored to buy up all the stock and get full control, 
with the above end in view. In this he was partially successful, his 
friend, Mr. Gauthier, declining to sell his interests in the company. 
Matters continued in an unsettled condition for some time until an inci- 
dent happened which resulted in a law suit. It appears that during a 
certain night eight large boulders found their way into the entrance of 
the canal. On the following day the first boat that came from Detroit 
and entered the canal with a load of passengers got fast on these rocks 
and was with some difficulty released. Shortly afterwards Mr. Gauthier 
brought action against Mr. Clark in the High Court of Justice for $1,000 
damages. It was brought out in evidence that the eight boulders had 


been loaded on two boats belonying to Mr. Clark, known as the "Twin 
Scows, on the American side, and that the crew had placed them in the 
canal under the instructions of Mr. Clark. 

| The case terminated in the jury giving a verdict in favor of Mr. 
Gauthier for one York shilling, Mr. Clark to remove the boulders from 
the canal. The boulders were afterwards removed by Mr. Clark's men 
according to the instructions of the court and to the satisfaction of Mr' 

The Sandwich Mineral Springs continued for some years to draw large 
crowds of visitors until the close of the 80's, when the boats were discon- 
tinued and the number gradually diminished. The hotel has had several 
changes in proprietors in the past forty-one years. The name of this 
historical resort has also been changed several times. It was called 
Manhattan Park for some years, but latterly, during the time when it 
was conducted by B. H. Rothwell and Gilbert Graham, it was changed 
to Lagoon Park, and bears this name at the present time. The bath- 
house has been removed but the hotel and the beautiful shade trees that 
adorn the park and canal are still patronized by a large number of visitors 
during the summer season. 

The original company wound up its affairs as a company and the 
present mineral springs property was sold back to John H. Gauthier in 
1891 and is a part of the Gauthier estate at the present time. 


Samuel Wilmot, o fNewcastle, Ont, was the first man in Canada who 
conceived the idea of hatching fish by artificial means. He first built a 
little reception house, where he cought his first salmon, and the first 
hatchery was done in his cellar at his own home. On finding that his 
experiments were successful he brought the matter before the Fisheries 
Department at Ottawa. So impressed were the officials, after hearing 
Mr. Wilmot's earnest and clever explanation of his discovery, that they 
established a hatchery at Newcastle in 1868, which proved so successful 
that the Department decided to build a second one at Tadousac and 
Gaspe, Quebec. During the year 1875, through the efforts of James 
McKee, Reeve of Sandwich, and Wm. McGregor, M. P. for Essex County, 
a fourth hatchery was established at the McKee Road, near the Detroit 
River, in the Town of Sandwich, with James Nevin as its first superin- 
tendent. Mr. Nevin resigned June 30, 1882, and Mr. Parker, of Newcastle, 
was appointed superintendent, and has been in charge of the Sandwich 
hatchery ever since. Previous to coming to Sandwich Mr. Parker had 
been in charge of the Newcastle hatchery for five years. 

Since the hatchery was established in Sandwich, similar institutions 
have from time to time been put in operation by the Government in 
various parts of Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba, British Columbia, New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Counting the hatch- 
ery just completed at Point Edward, Ont., there are at present thirty Ifish- 
breeding establishments distributed throughout the various provinces of 
the Dominion. 


The establishment at Sandwich is devoted to the hatching of whitefish 
and pickerel eggs. It is one of the best equipped and most important 
institutions of the kind in Canada. 

Mr Parker, the officer in charge, has been in the service since fish- 
hatching was first inaugurated at Newcastle and had charge of the 
hatchery there for five years before his appointment to Sandwich. He 
has been in the employ of the Government for thirty-seven years, and is 
an acknowledyed authority on fish culture. 

Albert McCoombs is another employee associated with Mr. Parker. He 
has been constantly in the service of the department since the Sandwich 
hatchery was established, and has made himself familiar with all the 

Located on the McKee Road and near the bank of the Detroit River, Sandwich, Ont. 

details of the proper running of the institution. He is always at his post 
and does all work assigned to him faithfully and well. 

Associated with Mr. Parker at Sandwich is William Hill, who is also 
a veteran in the service and was with Mr. Wilmot when the first fish 
hatchery was built at Newcastle. 

The fishermen and residents of this locality, as well as the many vis- 
itors, are loud in their praises of the work that is being done by the 
Dominion Fish Hatchery at Sandwich. 

Much credit is due Prof. Edward E. Prince, Dominion Commissioner 
of Fisheries, and his staff of able and experienced officers, for the good 
work that is being accomplished in this branch of the public service, for 
it is very largely due to their great energy and zeal that successful fish 
culture throughout Canada is made possible. 



The Superintendent of the Dominion Fish 
Hatchery at Sandwich, Ont. 


A faithful employee of the Sandwich Hatch- 
ery for the past 20 years. 


One of the Government staff in charge of the 
Sandwich Hatchery. He has been in the em- 
ploy of the Government at different times for 
31 years. 


An employee of the Hatchery for 24 years. 
Resigned his position in 1906. 


The Peace of 1815 found Canada in the same position as before the war 
-she had lost nothing, had shown that she was not as defenseless as was 
supposed, and secured the confidence and attention of Great Britain 

From 1815 to 183? a strong bond of friendship prevailed amongst the 
peaceable inhabitants generally, engendered and fostered, no doubt, by 
the difficulties, hardships and privations- surrounding them in the new 
country. Those were the days when every man's word was as good as 
his bond and crimes were seldom heard of. 

There were those, however, who, rightly or wrongly, kept up a con- 
stant aeitation ayainst the administration of the "Family Compact, and 
led by Papineau in the East and Wm. Lyon Mackenzie in the West, they 
broke into open revolt and were quickly forced to fly into the United 
States. Here all sorts of adventurers joined their banners until in 1837-8 
the Militia was called upon to defend the country and the Essex frontier 
was once more the scene of hostilities. 

A "Dr." Theller made his appearance in Detroit and with a few dis- 


Showing the covered enclosure of hewn square timber which surrounded the present school 
grounds, lot 9, southwest corner of Huron and Bedford streets. Inside of this enclosure w** a 
large itone barracks and other buildings for the sheltering of the troops and the storing of 
munitions of war. The stone barracks itself (not shown in picture) was built in 1814 and 
removed about the year 1868. 

affected ones and the off-scourings of Detroit succeeded in robbing the 
arsenal at Dearborn, Mich., of some five hundred stands of arms and two 
or three pieces of cannon, enabling him to make it lively for the frontier 
for two years. 

Early in November, 1838, it was reported, and generally believed, that 
large bodies of brigands, from all parts of the United States, were wend- 
ing their way to the State of Michigan for the purpose of invading our 
country. The point of attack was variously stated to be Maiden, Sand- 
wich and Windsor. The inhabitants of the two larger places were kept in 
a constant state of excitement and alarm by their proximity to Detroit, 
the reputed headquarters of the enemy, and the want of sufficient means 
to repel any serious invasion. To add to their anxiety and alarm, Major 
Reid of the 32nd Regulars, who held the command at Sandwich, was 


called to the London District, and that important trust devolved on Col. 
John Prince. The effective force at that time consisted of Company No. 
1 and 11 men of Company No. 2, Provincial Volunteer Militia, com- 
manded by Capt. Sparke, and four Companies of Col. Prince's Battalion, 
commanded respectively by Captains Fox, Lewis and Thebo and Elliott. 
To Captain Lewis was committed the charge of the important post of 

With so small a force it was necessary to maintain the greatest watch- 
fulness against any sudden attack ; and to ensure that vigilance so essen- 


in St. John's Churchyard, Sandwich, Ont. 

tial to our safety, nearly all the inhabitants of Sandwich, not connected 
with any of the above Companies, acted as voluntary night patrol. As 
more definite and certain information of the strength and intentions of 
the brigands was received, our situation became the more alarminy. 

During these trying times the women and children on several occasions 
had to retire to the concessions on the threatened approach of the pirates. 

The Battle of Windsor, on December 4, 1838, was the crowning event 
of the frontier troubles. At one o'clock on the morning of Tuesday, 


December 4 1838, the steamer Champlain, lying at Detroit, was seized 
by about 250 "Patriots." After raising steam the boat was cast off and 
landed the invaders at three o'clock on the farm of Alex. Pelette, about 
a mile above the present town of Walkerville. Then they marched down 
the road to Windsor, where they fired the barracks and burnt the steamer 
"Thames," belonging to Duncan McGregor, and murdered Dr. Hume, 
the staff assistant surgeon of the forces here. 

The rebels and Col. Prince's Battalion of Essex Militia, under command 
of Captains Fox, Tebo and Elliott, Capt. Bell of the 2d Company, Pro- 
vincial Volunteers, Capt. Sparke and others, from Sandwich, met, and 
the battle was fought in the Baby orchard in Windsor; the Patriots were 
^defeated and several of them shot by Col. Prince's orders. 


Judge R. S. Woods, in his work entitled "Harrison Hall and Its Asso- 
ciations," says : "Talking of Col. Prince, I cannot omit a fuller reference 


to him, for his advent in the Western District marked an epoch in its 
history. He came to Sandwich in August, 1833, with his wife, family and 
servants, and was the first man of fortune who had settled in the district. 
He was a man of fine presence and most genial manners, and one of the 
most eloquent speakers in the Province ; a great sportsman and lover of 
agriculture, and took to farming with much zeal, importiny thorough- 
bred stock and keeping the finest dogs, which he brought from England. 
In the general election of 1836, under Sir Francis Bond Head's appeal 
to the country, he was returned for Essex with Mr. Francis CaldWell, 


and his impression upon the Legislature was most favorable The rebel- 
lion broke out the following year, and the Colonel (for he was at once 
appointed such) really became not only the Prince but the KW o f the 
Western District, if not of Upper Canada, so popular was he during and 
after the rebellion. His journey through from Sandwich to Toronto was 
a continual ovation. He was admitted to the bar and enrolled as an 
attorney in 1838, made a Queen's Counsel and occupied a proud position 
at the bar and in the Province, and continued to represent Essex till he 
became a candidate for the Legislative Council in 1856, when he con- 
tested the Western District against Col. Rankin, and was returned and 
sat in the Council till his appointment to the Judgeship of the District of 
Algoma in 1860, and where he continuously, lived and died in 1870. 



Farm, Sandwich. Photo by Murdock in 1906. 

"Then there is no doubt that his summary shooting of the prisoners 
taken at the battle of Windsor, 4th December, 1838, in connection with 
Sir Allen McNab's order of the previous December to cut out the Caro- 
line, did more to put an end to the invasion of the western portion of the 
Province by the Patriots and sympathizers of that day than anything 
done by the Government or the regular forces. The act led to an im- 
portant debate in the House of Lords, with Lord Brougham criticizing, 
and the Duke of Wellington justifying the measure, in which he was 
supported by the House ; and there was also the commission of enquiry 
in Canada, whose report wholly acquitted the Colonel from the charges 



A son of the late Col. Prince, who represent- 
ed the County of Essex in the Second Pro- 
vincial Parliment from 1871 to 1875. He died 
July 8, 1875. 


Mr Steed is a mustcian and v oiin 
manufacturer of Gosficld North. The 
violin which Mr. Stoed holds in his hand 
is a handsome hand -carved one made 
from a piece of curly cherry he secured 
in 1874 from the Park Farm in Sand- 


Who took an active part in the Rebellion of 
1837-38. He was a son-in-law of the late 
Col. Charles Eliot. 


One of the old stile gates at the Park 
Farm, Sandwich. Photo by Harry C. McKee. 


made against him, founding their report upon the fact that the act was 
the determination of the inhabitants expressed at a public meetino- when 
it was determined that no prisoners should be taken. To show the state 
of feeling at that time against the Colonel, placards were posted up along 
the public streets in Detroit, offering a reward of $800 for his dead body 
and $1,000 for his living body, and to protect himself after dark, he had 
to have an advertisement in the public papers warning all persons against 
coming to 'the Park Farm' after night, as he had spring guns and man 
traps set for his protection." 

This house was built about the year 1842 by W. R. Wood, who was 


then Deputy District Treasurer. The outbuildinys of the residence were 
made from the hewed square timber which was a part of the fortified 
barracks at Sandwich, corner of Huron and Bedford streets. During the 
year 1848 Mr. Wood became a defaulter to the District, and left the 
'Country. The sale of this beautiful property on the Detroit River, to- 
gether with all his personal effects, were sold to pay his indebtedness to 
the district (which then comprised the counties of Essex, Kent and 
Lambton), and was purchased by Col. Rankin and used by himself and 
family until the year 1893. 


Was born at sea (Atlantic) in the year 1824; joined the Queen's Light Infantry at Toronto 
when it was sent to the Detroit Frontier in!838. He took a conspicuous part in the Battle ot 
Windsor and captured the flag of the so-called Patriots. He was a member of Parliament for 
Essex from 1854 to 1857, and was again returned as member for Essex from 186 3to 1867. When 
the two provinces, Upper and Lower Canada, were each divided into nine military districts, Mr. 
Rankin was placed in command of the Ninth Upper Canadian District .with the title of colonel. 
He died March 13, 1893. 


1839 saw the last of the filibustering raids of the "Patriots." The 
engagement at Windsor had taught those in the west that the militia 
were prepared to receive them in a manner they would not relish and 
they deemed it advisable to remain at home. 

In reviewing the events of the Rebellion of 1837 and '38 the fact is 
established that by its suppression this Canada of ours has been, pre- 
served to the British Crown, its brightest gem. All praise to the de- 
scendants of the U. E. Loyalists those hearts of oak the Corinthian 
pillars of Canada today. 

After the "Patriot" War peace once more smiled upon the people of 
the frontier. 

A "Sedentary" Militia was established throughout the western penin- 
sula, and four companies had their headquarters in Sandwich and vicin- 
ity. The companies were composed of veterans who had served in 1837 
and in 1812, but for nearly twenty-five years no call to arms diverted the 
energies of the Essex settlers from the task of converting their fair heri- 
tage into the "Garden of Canada." 

The great event of the year in those good old days was the celebration 
of the feast of Corpus Christi. People from far and near thronged ta 
Sandwich to take part in the ceremonies or to watch them. The proces- 
sion was always formed at L'Assumption Church and paraded to stands 
erected in different parts of the town, from which the Host was exposed, 
and drawn up around each stand the old militiamen were to be found at 
each celebration, ready to fire the customary salute. 

Uniforms were not provided them, but they had been entrusted with 
the arms and equipment which they had used in 1837. Nothing, how- 
ever, could dampen the ardor of men who had fought for home and 
country, as they and their fathers had fought, and well did they earn and 
hand down as a heritage the motto which now appears in the crest of 
our present regiment of Essex Militia "Semper Paratus." 

The last inspection of the companies was held at Sandwich on the 
twenty-fourth of May, 1856, when they paraded, with many of their num- 
ber, togged out in blanket or buckskin coats, scarfs tied tightly around 
the waists, and feet encased in shoepacks or moccasins. They were 
reviewed by Col. Askin (the grandfather of the present County Regis- 
trar) who appeared mounted, wearing the regulation blue frock coat, 
sash, sword and belt and a silk hat ! 

The company from Sandwich was commanded by Constant Gauthier, 
one of the oldest pioneers, that from Petite Cote by Maj. Semandre, who 
had spiked the outlying guns before the surrender of Detroit to Brock, 
and had taken a daring part in the defeat of the Americans at Turkey 
Creek, in the war of 1812; the company from "The Marais" was com- 
manded by Jerome Dumouchelle, but the writer is unable to ascertain 
who commanded the fourth company, which came from the vicinity of 
Sandwich East. 

No doubt, during the long winter evenings in those days, many a tale 
was told about the cheerful fireplaces of old Sandwich, many a tradition 
was recalled, of the deeds of our sturdy forefathers in the early days of 
the frontier ; no doubt, too, many a heart among the descendants of those 
same brave frontiersmen thrilled at the news of the success of the Moth- 
erland in the Crimea, of the suppression of the Indian mutiny, the charge 
of the Light Brigade, the relief of Lucknow, and the stories of the other 
grand deeds of their kin across the seas which were takiny place while 
peace was favoring the colonies in America. 

In November, 1861, Messrs. Mason and Siddell, Commissioners of the 
Southern Confederacy, were taken from the British Steamer "Trent" on 
the High Seas, in spite of the protests of her captain, by an armed body 
of marines sent from the United States man-of-war, "San Jacinto." There 
was much ill-feeling between the two countries before this incident. 
After this wanton outrage on the British flag, war appeared inevitable. 
Large numbers of troops, including some of the Regiments of the Guards, 
were dispatched from England to Canada. 

Descended as were the people of Essex, they would never lack in 
military ardor, and all were aroused to arms at once. 

Late in the fall, No. 1 Independent Company, was organized at Sand- 
wich, and W. D. Baby was appointed Captain. Many of the members 
lived several miles from town, but throughout the winter, night after 

night they drilled in the old abandoned grammar school. The enthu- 
siasm- was not confined to the new company, but as might be expected, 
the remnants of the old sedentary militia companies paraded ready to do 
their utmost should their services be required ; and some years after this, 
during the Fenian excitement, these old men voluntered and were ac- 
cepted to assist the night patrols and piquets along the river front. 

The command of No. 1 Co. fell. to Alex. Winkinson, P. L. S., in 1862, 
to Dennis Moynahan in 1864, and to Thos. H. Wright, County Treas- 
urer, in '65. 

In June, 1862, No. 2 Independent Company was organized at Sandwich 
also, and the late Senator Casgrain received the command. A mili- 
tary school had been established at London and several members of the 
companies took a course of instruction there and at La Prairie, Quebec, 
in anticipation of the events which were to follow. The same enthusiasm 
existed, and companies were organized throughout the county. In 
Leamington and in Amherstburg the staunch United Empire Loyalists 
blood asserted itself and equipments could not be obtained for the great 
numbers who volunteered. Windsor and North Ridge also sprang to 
arms and other Companies were formed in the more thinly populated 
districts. All these companies drilled constantly, soon became remark- 
ably efficient, and Essex was prepared to give a good account of itself. 
Happily the compliance of the United States with Britain's demands 
averted a conflict, but hardly had the threatened trouble blown over 
before the Fenian Raids again threatened the county with invasion. 


The first Fenian Raid, in 1866, was doubtless an outcome of the Civil 
War in the United States. The collapse of the Confederacy and the dis- 
bandment of the great armies which had been maintained on both sides 
threw a large number or more or less well drilled soldiers out of employ- 
ment. The Trent affair, the Alabama matter and several other incidents 
in connection with the late war had left an anti-British feeling among 
certain elements of the population of the United States, and a few Irish 
agitators found it safe enough to organize a force of adventurers to invade 
Canada under the pretense of striking at Britain through her loyal and 
presumably defenceless Colony. 

The excitement in Canada was naturally great, for rumor magnified 
the strength of the Fenians, and it was realized that in their ranks were 
many of the war-trained and battle-hardened veterans of the American 

In the winter of 1865, the two Sandwich companies united to form one 
strong company for active service. A meeing for the purpose was held 
in the old Goal building, which No. 1 had been using for some time as an 
armory, and Thomas H. Wright was elected Captain, F.-X. Meloche, for 
many years Paymaster of the 21st Regt., Lieutenant, and Miles Cowan, 

Throughout the winter Lieut. Meloche was drill instructor, and every- 
body stood ready to call to arms. The several independent companies 




" H 


organized throughout the county had become very efficient by this time 
and others from the interior of the provinces were garrisoned at Windsor 
nd Sandwich in the Spring of '66. The Sandwich Company was called 
out for active service in March. Col. Hames commanded the troop at 
Windsor, and at Sandwich were stationed a detachment composed of No. 
1 Co the Oxford Co., Rifles, the Embro Co., Rifles, and an Infantry Co. 
from" Port Hope. Lieut.-Col. Smith, of the 25th Kent Battalion, com- 
manded the detachment, and lieut. Meloche was Adjutant. Later Maj. 
Service was placed in command of the Sandwich detachment, and Lieut. 
Gauthier was appointed Adjutant. At Windsor there were stationed 
twelve companies of infantry, also under Col. Smith's command, and at 
Amherstburg was another force of Regulars and Militia. There were 
barracks at Windsor and Amherstburg, and at Sandwich the old brick 
college on the Huron Line was used at different times by the Port Hope 


Was photographed by a Mr. Henry, of the Royal Scotts Infantry of Montreal, in 1863, on 
the steps of the/ old college. Standing on themiddle step with hand on sword is Capt. (afterward* 
General Arthur Williams), of the Port Hope Volunteers; Lieut. James McLeod, Port Hpoe Volun- 
teers, is sitting on the front raised portion of the step, while Ensign Johnson, attached to the 
same regiment sits higher up on the raised portion near the wall. Standing alone on the ground 
is Capt. Charles E. Casgrain, of No. 2, Independent Sandwich Infantry Company. Dr. Casgrain 
was also the chief surgeon of the troops stationed at Sandwich until the close of the Fenian trou- 
bles, and for many years afterwards was one of the leading politicians of the County of Essex, and 
at his decease was a Dominion Senator. 

Infantry with Regimental Band ; a detachment of the 60th Rifles (many 
of the two last named were veterans of the Crimea War). The old jail 
was used at different periods by the Royal Scot's Light Infantry and 
Prince of Wales Rifles, Montreal ; the Sandwich Infantry Company, the 
Oxford and Embro Rifles and latterly by the Quebec Rifles. While the 
last-named detachments were billeted here, the officers and men of the 

quartered at the different i 

As might be imagined excitement was at fever heat, every civilian was 
prepared and armed to assist the militia upon the appearance of the 

<emans; the only topic of conversation was the threatening force and 
speculation as to when their invasion might be expected. The news re- 
ceived was, of course, of the most exaggerated kind, but all were filled 
with determination and confidence of being able to withstand all the 
Fenians that ever existed, should they attempt to enter the country in 
their vicinity. 

^ At night from Sandwich, picquets were posted both up and down the 
river front until they met the patrols from Amherstburg and Windsor 
1 he old members of the veteran companies patrolled the concessions and 
roads surrounding the towns, and the remainder of the volunteers and 
civilians stood ready to turn out upon a moment's notice. 


Late Quartermaster 21st Regiment, was a native of Sandwich and served as Corporal in the 
Sandwich Infantry Company during the Fenian Troubles. 

Report after report came to the anxious people that our frontier was 
to be the point of invasion, that a large force was near Detroit and ready 
to attempt a crossing near Sandwich or Windsor, and so the Spring wore 
on until Corpus Christi Sunday. 

News of the movements of the invaders had reached headquarters, and 
the military of the old eWstern District had been warned to expect an 
attack that day, with the result that everyone was in readiness. 

In the morning a ferry boat, loaded to her utmost capacity with people 
from Detroit desiring to witness the usual ceremonies of Corpus Christi, 
started for Sandwich, but these, of course, had been postponed. As the 
boat left Detroit, a message was received at Sandwich that she was really 
loaded with Fenians, intending by this subterfuye to effect a landing. 


The churches were dismissed and the whole town stood ready. The 
militia took up positions to withstand a landing, and a detachment pro- 
ceeded to the Queen's Wharf to ascertain the true character of her pas- 
sengers, and warn them off. The boat was not allowed to land, and after 
the excursionists had returned to Detroit, the inhabitants once more 
drew a sigh of relief. . 

Nothing to relieve the monotony of expectancy happened until during 
the first week of June, when the news that a force of Fenians had crossed 
the Niagara frontier, and at the battle of Ridgeway had been defeated by 
a force of the militia under Col. Booker, and that another body was 
shortly expected to attempt an entrance into the Province here, threw 
the inhabitants once more into a state of intense excitemnt. 

Before the week was out, and all were on the qui vive, one of the 

Who served with the Sandwich Infantry Company during: the Fenian Raids. 

sentries of the patrol posted near the old distillery, about the foot of 
Campbell avenue in Windsor today, observed the ferry "Union" run 
much farther down the river and nearer the Canadian shore than she 
usually did in, making her trip across the river. 

Expecting that she was in possession of the Fenians and intended 
making a landing, the sentry at once gave an alarm by firing his rifle; 
at once bugles could be heard in both Windsor and Sandwich, sounding 
the "Assembly," and every member of the garrison was satisfied that 
the foe had landed, and their opportunity to meet him was at hand. 

In Sandwich the volunteers fell in with splendid steadiness, there was 


no talking no confusion, on their part, and in almost less time than it 
takes to relate it they were in line and ready for the command to advance 
In almost as short a time another force was marshalled, whicIT no doubt 
would have been of great assistance in the event of a clash witE the 
enemy, but at the same time must have appeared rather ludicrous to 
anyone who could take time to look them over. The good townspeople 
had turned out partially clad, and had armed themselves with the most 
formidable weapons they could find. Shot-guns, pistols, axes, pitch-forks, 
scythes and even clubs had been pressed into service. The force formed 
up with a little more confusion and less discipline than the volunteers 
had done, but they were ready to defend their homes against any num- 
bers which might come against them. 

As this array prepared to advance, word came that the alarm had been 
given by mistake, and after some difficulty quiet was restored. 

The Government of the United States finally took active measures to 


As one of the 23d Light Dragoons he served at the battle of Telavera, in 1809, and at the 
battle of Waterloo, under the Duke of Wellington, June 18, 1815. He died Oct. 30, 1868 and his 
remains are interred in St. John's graveyard. 

suppress the organization of further zlibustering expeditions in the West, 
and in July all danger of invasion was over. The troops, which had been 
called out on active service, were withdrawn, loud were the manifesta- 
tions of joy on the part of the Canadian people, and from the Motherland 
came many expressions of admiration for the conduct of the militia 
through the nerve-trying period. 

In 1870 small forces of Fenians were formed and invaded Quebec from 
Maine to Vermont, but they were easily repulsed by the militia and sup- 
pressed in the United States. 

Immediately after the withdrawal of the militia in 1866 the Indepen- 
dent Companies which had been organized throughout Essex County, 
and had become very efficient during the Fenian excitement, were organ- 
ized into the 23rd Battalion, known as the "Essex" Volunteer Light 
Infantry. Col. Arthur Rankin of Sandwich was given the command of 


this corps, and on October 13th, 1866, the regiment entered camp on the 
old Wilkinson farm in Sandwich, near the present site of the residence 
.of the late Theo. Girardot, Esq., south side of Mill street. 
The first order issued by Col. Rankin is as follows : 


By Lieut.-Col. Rankin, 23rd Battalion, E. L. I. : 

No. 1. Lieut.-Col. Rankin avails himself of the earliest possible oppor- 
tunity after the assembling together of the several volunteer companies 
of this county, to conyratulate them on their having been formed into 
one body z and of stating that, while he pledges himself to use every 
effort towards bringing the Battalion to as high a state of discipline and 
efficiency as possible, he looks with confidence to the hearty co-operation 
of every individual under his command for promoting this most desirable 

No. 2. The undermentioned appointments and promotions effecting 
the Battalion having appeared in the Canada Gazette, are published for 
general information : 

To be Lieut.-Col. A. Rankin, Esq., M. P. 

To be Maj.-Capt. D. Doherty, H. P. H. M. S. 

To be Jr. Maj.-Capt. M. E. Wagstaff, M. S., temporarily. 

To be Paymaster Frank E. Marcon, E*sq. 

To be Adjutant James C. Guilot, Temp., M. S. 

To be Quartermaster Patrick McEwan, Temp., M. S. 

To be Surgeon C. E. Casgrain, E. sq., M. D. 

To be Assistant Surgeon Robert Lambert, Esq., M. B. 

By order, 
(Sgd.) JAMES C. GUILLOT, Ensign, 

Adjt. 23d Battalion, V. L. I. 

The following were the company officers : 

No. 1 Co., Windsor, Capt. Worthington, Lt. Wynn. 

No. 2 Co., Windsor, Capt. Shiel, Lt. C. R. Home, Ensign Mark Rich- 

No. 3 Co., Sandwich, Capt. F. X. Meloche, Lt. J. M. Askin, Ensign 
C. W. Gauthier. 

No. 4 Co., Leaminyton, Capt. Fox, Lt. Stockwell. 

No. 5 Co., Amherstburg, Capt. Wilkinson, Lt. Fleming, Ensign Parke. 

No. 6 Co., Northbridge, Capt. Billing, Lt. Thornton, Ensign Wigle. 

No. 7 Co., Kingsville, Capt. King, Lt. Davis. 

The first camp of the regiment proved very successful and the follow- 
ing appeared in the orders of the day of breaking camp : 

"The Commanding Officer feels much pleasure in communicating to 
the officers, non-commissioned officers and men under his command the 
pleasing fact that the D. A. G. of this District, has in addition to which 
he said on the parade ground, expressed to him his entire satisfaction at 
everything pertaining to the Battalion that came under his observation 
during his inspection this day." 

]n the spring of '67 there was still some anticipation of trouble from 
the Fenians and Nos. 1, 2 and 3 companies were authorized to drill two 
days a week throughout the summer, and in the fall their old rifles were 


returned to stores, breach loading Snider's having been substituted. 

In February, 1868, there seemed to be immediate prospect of another 
raid from across the border and the Captains of the frontier companies 
were ordered to issue arms to all members of their respective companies 
and supply each man with twenty rounds of ammunition. Preparations 
were made for a call to active service and on the 22nd day of June the 
regiment was again encamped for instruction at Windsor, which was 
extended until July 7th. 

Unfortunately for the Battalion political issues had been allowed to 
creep into the affairs of the corps. As was to be expected the regiment, 
which had but a year or two before been organized with a splendid mem- 
bership and an efficient staff of officers, and which promised to develop 
into an unusually smart corps, was rent asunder with internal discord 
immediately after the prospect of trouble from the Fenians had ceased. 

Who served with Windsor Infantry Co. No. 1 during the Fenian Raids. 

This proved to be the last camp of the Battalion. All of the companies 
except the two from Windsor and that from Lemington were disbanded 
and the two Windsor Companies were attached to "outside" Battalions 
as follows: 

No. 1 Windsor Co. to 24th Kent Batt. as No. 7 Co. 

No. 2 Windsor Co. to 25th Kent Batt. as No. 7 Co. 

And No. 4 Leamington became an Independent Co. and was attached 
to different Battalions for the annual camps of training which followed. 

For several years these companies were kept up to quite a satisfactory 
state of efficiency in spite of the disadvantage of being attached to dif- 
ferent Battalions. They were fortunate in possessing officers who wen 


enthusiastic military men and the rank and file were quite as anxious as 
their officers to show the corps from other Counties with which they 
came in contact, the stuff the men of Essex were made of. 


Modes of travel between Sandwich and Windsor. 

The early mode of public conveyance between Sandwich and Windsor 
was by stage and omnibus. The customary points of starting and getting 
off were from the Court House, Sandwich, and at the head of Brock 
street, Windsor. It was at the bottom of this street the ferries Argo, 
Gem,. Essex and Detroit crossed to Detroit. The route traveled was 
by the one and only road the river bank. This road was then controlled 
by the Sandwich & Windsor Gravel Road Company. The Company 
maintained a: toll gate near the McEwen estate, midway between the 
two towns. 

The stage represented in this picture was owned and driven by our 
old townsman, Jos. F. Ouellette, Mill street, Sandwich. The names of 
the two horses, which were familiarly known by the traveling public in 
those days, were White Dick and Black Mag. The reader will observe 
in the picture that Black Mag has a distinct white spot in the middle of 
her forhead. It will also be observed that Mr. Ouellette has just arrived 
from Sandwich and a little group of passengers are settling for their trip 
(the customary fare at that time being 12 cents each way). There were 
also other stages owned and driven on this route, among them being 
Henry Askew (mail carrier), and Henry Keys, S. Jackson, Sr., and Geo. 
Washington. When the sulphur springs opened in Sandwich, other 
stages were added from time to time by Frank and Geo. Baby, Geo. and 
Jos. Lazerus, Chas. Pratt, Zachariah Jackson, Jr., and Charles Jackson. 

The first street railway built from Sandwich to Windsor in 1873-4, 
replaced this mode of conveyance, and the old way of traveling by stage 
coach passed into history. 

This picture was taken in 1863. It shows Sandwich street, Windsor, 
looking east from near the present Davis block. Among the names that 
appear on the business places are Ashley & Gilkes, Ouellette & Langlois, 
and Cameron & Thorburn. The Exchange office was kept by William 
Holton, father of Fred J. Holton. The Windsor saloon was kept by 
Charles Devlin, and the British Commercial Hotel, by T. N. Johnson. In 
the bcakyround is the tower of the old City Hall, which still remains as 
a landmark. With the exception of the old Town Hall and a few other 
buildings, the entire block was destroyed by fire in 1871. 

Through the successful efforts of Albert Prince, member for Essex in 
the Ontario Legislature, an act was passed and assented to March 2, 
1872, and a charter obtained for a passenger railway between Sandwich 
and Windsor. 

The first directors named in the Act were James Fraser, Henry Ken- 
nedy, John B. Gauthier, Thos. H. Wright, Henry McAfee, Wm. B. 
Hirons and Wm. McGregor. 


Standing on the street is Joseph F. Ouellette's bus and his faithful horses, White Dick and 
Black Mag. This was the mode of travel between Sandwich and Windsor before the introduction 
of the horse car. 


The capital stock of the company was fixed at fifty thousand dollars. 

Another Act was passed and assented to March 24, 1874, granting an 
extension of time of two years to complete the road and to extend the 
road to Walkerville. 

When the directors of the proposed Sandwich & Windsor Passenger 
Railway were ready for the construction of the road they purchased the 
right of way from Bruce avenue, Windsor, through the fields and orch- 
ards, 100 feet wide to the Huron Church Line, near the Catholic Church 
in Sandwich, thus opening up an entirely new street for general traffic 
between the two towns. This is in reality the continuation of and is now 
commonly known as London street. The erection of substantial schools 
and churches and residences, and the planting of shade trees on both 
sides of the entire street has made it the most beautiful thoroughfare in 
this part of the country. 

The first rates of fare charged for the privilege of ridiny in a horse car 
between the two towns were six cents from any point in Sandwich to 


The first President of the first street railway between Sandwich and Windsor. Died Oct 27 
1885, aged 78 years. 

Assumption Catholic Church ; seven cents to Campbell avenue, and eight 
cents to Windsor; six tickets for twenty-five cents. 

By the introduction of this new and novel way of traveling on cars 
run by electrical motive power gave the people of Sandwich and Windsor 
the proud distinction of having the first up-to-date electric railway in 
Canada, if not in America. Hundreds of people came from the neigh- 
boring city of Detroit daily to avail themselves of the novelty of riding 
on an electric street car. 


It was during Mr. McGregor's administration that a medium-sized 
locomotive was put into service, and for some weeks the citizens of Sand- 
wich and Windsor were accorded the privilege of riding through the 
streets and avenues on a real steam railway train. The locomotive 
proved too small for the work required of it and it was finally sold to 
some lumber firm for use in the lumber woods, and the patrons of the 
road were obliged to go back to their former traveling their old friend, 
the horse car. 

In the beginning of the year 1891 the Sandwich & Windsor Passenger 
Railway was sold by Mr. McGregor to capitalists from the United States 
and a new company was formed, with the name changed to the Sandwich, 
Windsor and Amherstburg Railway. 

The road was rebuilt and "T" rails replaced the flat rails. A power 
house and other necessary buildings were built on London street near 
the M. C. R. R. bridge and the road was equipped as an electris' street 

On Saturday, August 15, 1891, precisely at five o'clock, the first electric 
cars on S., W. & A. Ry. pulled out from Windsor, loaded with invited 
guests, and made a trial trip to Sandwich and return. It was a magnifi- 
cent success, and as the cars pulled into Sandwich the citizens gave three 
hearty cheers to see their most ardent hopes of many a day realized. 

Mr. A. McVittie was the superintendent of the road during President 
Kennedy's administration, and for a short time the writer enjoyed the 
distinction of being a full-fledged street car conductor. 

In 1876 Alfred Kennedy, a nephew of the former president, took the 
control and management of the road. He continued the management 

The mode of travel between Sandwich and Windsor from 1873 to Aug. 15, 1891. 

until the year 1887, when he sold out to Wm. McGregor, M. P. 

The Town of Sandwich assisted the road by subscribing for $5,000 
in stock when the road was first started. The town, like President Ken- 
nedy, spent its money and got the experience. 

The street car barns and offices were built on a lot purchased by the 
company from John A. Asken on the east side of Bedford street, opposite 
the present Lagoon Park Hotel, Sandwich, where the horses were also 
kept. This property is now used for turning and switch purposes by the 
electric cars at the present time. 

The railway in its early days did not prove a very great money-makt 
for the stockholders. In a few years the track gradually got in very bad 
shape, and for cars to run off the track was a daily occurrence. It became 


the custom when such' misfortunes did occur for the male portion of the 
passengers to get off in the mud and help to lift the cars back on the 
track and the journey was continued. 

The one man most prominent among the stockholders who sacrificed 
his energies and means to a very large extent in an endeavor to make the 
road a success was its first President, Henry Kennedy, at one time a 
prominent liquor merchant and influential business man in the then 
Town of Windsor. Various changes took place from time to time in the 
make-up of the company. Mr. Kennedy being the heaviest investor and 
stockholder, and, in order to save what he had already put into the road, 
continued to put his money into it to keep the road running, and when 
he retired in 1876 he was $60,000 poorer than when he went into the 
venture in 1872. 

Horse cars continued to be used in the city of Detroit for a year or 

we r 

CAR NO. 104. 

m t0r cars of the Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstbur* 

, riiiihl w s<^m 

e V>" ts - Conductor Pau. Major and Motor- 

more after the Sandwich & Windsor Electric Street Railway had been 
put in operation. 

The Walkerville electric road, owned by Mr. Wm. Boomer, was pur- 
chased and became a part of the S., W, & A. Ry. system 

or Driving 


extension ws opened. 

It was while the road was under the control and management of this 
gentlemen that a right of way was, obtained and the road extended to 
Amherstburg. This extension was officially opened May 27, 1903, the 
first trial trip of the cars being made on that date. 
^ During the year 1902, when the company was conferring with the 
Sandwich Town Council for an extension of their franchise to the limits 
of the corporation, it was mainly through the efforts of Councillors C. 
E. Mason, Thomas Leboeuf and James Laidlaw, Sr., that universal trans- 
fers and other privileges were requested by the council and granted by 
the company. These privileges are being enjoyed by the patrons of the 
road at the present time. 

The Detroit United Railway purchased the road August 31, 1901, and 
(now controls the whole S., W. & A. Ry. system, as well as the new 
Tecumseh line, which was put in operation in 1907. 

The reader will thus see that rapid strides have been made the past 
few years in the mode of travel between all important points on the 
frontier from Tecumseh to Amherstburg. Cars connecting with all rail- 
ways and ferries pass the Court House door every fifteen minutes every 
day in the year. In addition to this the beautiful and finely equipped 
cars of the Amherstburg line pass over the same route every two hours 
in the winter season and every hour during the summer months. 

Kind and courteous treatment by the employees is accorded to all 
patrons of the road, and especially does this apply to the large number 
of strangers and visitors who patronize these cars during the summer 

Mr. James Anderson is the present manager of the entire Canadian 
system, while Moses Brockelbank is the superintendent. 


The county lies north of latitude 42, and is the most westerly as well as 
the most southerly in Canada. It is bounded as follows, namely : On the 
north of Lake S t.Clair, on the west by the River Detroit, on the south 
by Lake Erie and on the east by Lake Erie and the County of Kent. 

Essex County contains 420,376 acres of land, or 656 2-3 square miles, 
and is equalized at $20,826,560, exclusive of Windsor, Walkerville and 
Pelee Island. The debenture debt is $41,249.20, with permanent assets 
consisting of Court House, Jail, Reyistry office, Treasurer's office and 
House of -Refuge, valued at $111,000. 

The county as at present constituted consists of the City of Windsor, 
the Towns of Sandwich, Essex, Amherstburg, Leamington and Walker- 
ville, the incorporated Villages of Belle River and Kingsville, and the 
Townships of Anderson, Colchester North, Colchester South, Gosfield 
North, Gosfield South, Maiden, Mersea, Maidstone, Pelee Island, Roches- 
ter, Sandwich East, Sandwich West, Sandwich South, Tilbury North 
and Tilbury West. 

The City of Windsor and the Town of Walkerville are independent of 
the county for strictly municipal purposes, having withdrawn about the 
year 1881. They still retain their connection for purposes of parlia- 


mentary representation and administration of justice; and Pelee (which 
consists of the island of the same name) never belonged to theh county, 
except as at present, since its independent municipal organization in 1867. 
The Illustrated Atlas of the Dominion of Canada of 1881 says in regard 
to Essex: "The productions of the county include everything known to 
the latitude, the character of the soil and climate combining to render 
almost its entire area as fertile as the Valley of the Nile. The peach and 
the grape here flourish to an extent unrivalled in more southern localities, 
while it goes without saying that a country can nowhere be found where- 
in all fruits indigenous to the Temperate Zone can be produced in 
freater perfection or abundance. And nowhere on earth do the rich 
elds repay more generously the efforts of the husbandman. Indian corn 
is grown in all the perfection attained in the Great Mississippi Valley, 
its traditional home, while the results of the wheat, pea, oat, barley and 
tobacco are unsurpassed and unsurpassable. Vegetables oi all known 


Erected about the year 1800. During the Fenian troubles of 1866 and 1870 it was used part 
Rifles SSlJa THe S ldierS in thC PaCtUre are of V Quebec 

varieties here rival the finest productions of the world-famed Missouri 
and Sacramento "bottoms"; and to say too much of the general agricul- 
ural capabilities of the frontier country would seem impossible " 

Sandwich was made the county seat in 1796. The Act of June 3, 1796, 
called the Exodus Act, provided for the departure of British authority 
from Detroit to Sandwich. A similar provision is made as to the County 
Court which, with the Sessions by the Act just referred to? had been 

'I M u n 1794 ' and U was to be held where the Quarter Sessions 

were held, as above provided. The last Court of Quarter Sessions was 

I m Detroit in January, 1796, and the removal took place to Sandwich 

that summer and has become the permanent seat of the courts and 
continued so until the present day. 

The authorities of the Western District allowed the Sandwich officials 
to bring an old block house from Chatham, which was converted into 
their first jail. The building was afterwards destroyed by fire and the 
Chairman of the Board of Justices at once applied to the Government 
for assistance to rebuild it, in the meantime requesting the commanding 
officer at Fort Maiden to loan the Sheriff one of the unemployed vessels 
in the river, to be used as a temporary jail; a safe prison for one not 
a good swimmer. A portion of land was reserved in the heart of the 
village for Court House and Jail purposes, which accounts for the fact 
that all the different county buildings have stood on the same spot in 


^This little Brick building was used as a District and County Treasurer's office during the 
administration of Geo. Bullock, from 1851 to 1857. It did service as a saloon during the American 
War. Later it was used as a harness and saddlery shop by ex-Councillor Abner C. Ellis. The 
old gentleman at the door is Gilbert Besbois, 83 years old, and standing on the sidewalk is James 
Allen. Both gentlemen have at one time held the position of Chie fof Police of the Town of 

The first brick Court House and Jail stood on the ground now occupied 
by the present prison and jail yards. It was a square red building sur- 
rounded by a pallisade of cedar posts, which served a double purpose of 
keeping the prisoners in and the enemy out. 

The present stone Court House was built during the years 1854 and 
1855. J. A. Jordan, Detroit, was the architect, and the Mackenzie 
Brothers ofJPort Sarna were the contractors. The contract price being 
16,325, and it was completed September 1, 1855. Alexander Mackenzie, 
one of the builders, afterwards became Prime Minister of Canada. 

During the years 1870 and 1871, the old brick Jail and Court House 


was taken down and the present large block stone prison, surrounded by 
a stone wall, was built, which, with all the modern equipments that have 
been made to it from time to time, the county has now one of the most 
modern and up-to-date prisons in Canada. 



Who, with his brother, built the present County Court House at Sandwich, in 1855. 
Prime Minister of Canada from 1873 to 1878. He died April 17, 1892. 


The court house was built by the MacKenzie Bros., Sarnia, in 1855. 


Corner Huron and Bedford Streets. Standing at the entrance in doorway: G. A. Winte- 
mule, County Treasurer, and his two daughters, Miss Mintha, assistant treasurer, and Miss Bertha; 
standing on the corner is John Davis, an ex-soldier of the British army. 



The present superintendent and matron of the County House of Refuge and Industrial Home 
at Leamington. 


Born in Coventry, Warwickshire, Eng., during the year 1845, came to Canada in 1863; jomed 
the Belleville Rifles and was with them doing frontier duty at Amherstburg during the Fenian 
troubles of 1865; was appointed Chief of Police of Amherstburg in 1867 and continued in that 
position until April 1, 1884, when he was appointed to the responsible office of governor of the 
Essex County jail at Sandwich. He resigned February 1, 1907, having held the position for twenty* 
three years. 


The present governor of the Sandwich Jail, was born 

A ne sent goven 3r ot tne bandwich Jail, was born at the Town of Bothwell in the year 
18o8, came to Windsor in 1882. He served seven years as Alderman in the Windsor City Council 

^ 8510 " 1 '- ^ "" ^""^ by the Whltney Governmen ' to his 


Was born at Colchester, September 5, 1855; 
was appointed turnkey of the Sandwich Jail 
in 1884, and has faithfully served the 

County of Essex for 25 years. 


Is a son of the late Allansion Elliott of Col- 
chester; born January 10, 1859. He was ap- 
pointed turnkey February 1, 1889. He has 
already given 20 years of faithful service to 
the county. 

Completed in 1901. The building committee were George F. Cronk, chairman; Napoleon A. 
Coste, J. D. F. Deziel. Harry J. Powell was the architect; John A. Maycock, superintendent of 
works; Messrs. Carswell, Stephens and Moore were the builders. 


FROM 1842 to 1909. 
1842-1846 John Dolson. 

1847-1849 George Bullock. 
1850-1851 George Hyde. 
1852- Thomas Fisher. 
1853-1854 John Sloan. 
1855-1856 Samuel S. Macdonell 
1857- Theodore Malott. 
1858-1859 Joseph Mercer. 

1860- John O'Connor. 

1861- Solomon Wigle. 
1862-1863 John O'Connor 
1864-1866 Solomon Wigle. 




George Shipley. 
Gore Atkin. 
William McGregor. 
Theodore Wigle. 
Luke Montreuil. 
Thos. B. White. 
James McKee. 
J. C. Pattersoa. 
John C. Her. 
Wm. McCain. 
George Russell. 
Thos. Plant. 
Geo. A. Morse. 

James Selkirk resigned as Warden and County Chancellor at a special session 
on Apnl 20, 1906, and John E. Stone was elected Warden for the balance of 1906. 
James E. Brown. 
Edward J. O'Neil. 
James A. Coulter. 

Charles C. Fox. 
Henry Morand. 
N. A. Cost-. 
Israel De^iatdins. 
Peter Wright. 
Geo. A. Wirtemute. 
John A. Auld. 
Frederick P. Bouteiller. 
James S. Laird. 
Elisha McKee. 
Alfred Hairsire. 
Marwood Barrett. 
Abraham Cole. 
N. A. Coste. 
Joseph Durocher. 
T. A. Buchanan. 
T. D. A. Deziel. 
John F. Millen. 
Wm. Price. 
W. T. Wilkinson. 
Richard R. Brett. 
Albert L. Lafferty. 
James Selkirk. 


Was born in Sandwich in 1829, he hell th^; office of Reeve of Sandwich for upwards of twenty 
years. He was Warden of Essex during the year 1877 and for many years was the most influential 
politician in Essex County. He died during the year 1899 a few days before he reached the 60th 
year of his age. 


The history of the Montreuil family is a 
long one and dates back to the landing of 
the French upon this northern hemisphere. 
Mr. Montreuil always took a prominent part 
in all matters pertaining to the public wel- 
fare of his country. In 1861 he was elected 
Deputy Reeve and in 1862 Reeve of the 
Township of Sandwich East, arid in 1875 was 
elected Warden of Essex County. He was 
born March 20, 1830, in the Township of 
Sandwich East, upon the same farm where 
he now resides. 

HI I Hi 

Warden of Essex in 1895. 



Was born June 22, 1853 at Warwick, Lambton Co. He is the present proprietor and pub- 
lisher of the Amhcrstburg Echo; was a member of the County Council twelve years and Warden 
of the county in 1890. He was elected a member for South Essex to the Ontario Legislature in 
1896, 1898, 1902. He was defeated by the Geremandor if the S'. nth Riding in Jure, I90<S. He was 
a Liberal in politics and his record while in Parliament was that of a judicious and able states- 
man and was held in highest esteem. 


AYarden of Essex in 1886 and ajrain 
in 1897. 

Warden of Esse^r in 1899. 



Warden of Essex in 190U. 

Warden cf Essex in 1908. 


Was born in the East Indies in 1803, his 
.father being the British Embassador there at 
the time. He served through the Peninsular 
War as a lieutenant in the 76th Regiment 
and afterwards came to Amherstburg, where 
he took up the practice of law, and married 
Miss McGregor. He was appointed Judge in 
1832, and died on the Eliot farm. Petite Cole, 
:in 1860. 


was born in Canada in 1800 and while only a 
lad of tender years, he carried powder to the 
British troops serving in the war of 1812. He 
also served as captain of an artillery com- 
pany at Sandwich during the rebellion of 1837- 
38, and was appointed Judge of the Western 
District comprising the counties of Essex, 
Kent and Lanmtbon, May 20, 1854. He died 
at Sandwich, August 2, 1872, and his widow 
in 1878. Both are interred in St. John's 

(Western District.) 

July 9, 1794 Thomas Harffy. 

January 1, 1800 Thomas Harffy. 

January 1, 1800 Prideaux Selby. 

June 12, 1807 Robert Richardson. 

April 5, 1826 Robert Richardson and William Berczy. 

November 30, 1832 William Berczy and Charles Eliot. 

March 9, 1833 Charles Eliot. 

May 20, 1845 Alexander Chewett. 

Essex County. 

jgeo Gordon Watts Leggatt. 
1883 Charles R. Home. 
1907 Michael A. McHugh. 
1$08 George Smith. 


was born in Sorel, near Quebec. He suc- 
ceeded Judge Chewett and was Judge of the 
County of Essex from the year 1860 to Sept. 
19, 1883, the date of his death. 

Judge Leggatt was a man of great ability, 
and his long term of service on the bench 
made him favorably known. One of the mem- 
bers of his family who survive him is a son, 
G. J. Leggatt, the present police magistrate of 
the City of Windsor. His remains were in- 
terred in the family plot of St. John's grave- 


was born on the Island of St. Vincent, West 
Indies, January 22, 1835; elected mayor of 
Windsor in 1877 and held the office for three 
years. He was a member of the Windsor 
Board of Education for 21 years and appointed 
Judge of the County of Essex in 1883. 

For many years Judge Home was promi- 
nently identified with All Saints Episcopal 
Church, Windsor, and was the organizer of 
the first vested choir and the first choirmaster 
of that church. He died February 2, 1907, at 
his home, Bruce avenue, Windsor, aged 72 


was born at the Township of Alaidstone, Essex County, February 10, 1853. He re- 
ceived his education in the schools of his township and St. Michael's College, Toronto. 
He was called to the bar in 1879 and entered into partnership with the Hon. J. C. Patterson 
at Windsor. He was elevated to the bench as Junior Judge in 1891. Ater the death of 
the Senior Judge, C. R. Home, February 2, 1907, he was elevated to the position of 
Senior Judge of the County of Essex. 


The present Junior Judge of the County of Essex. 

SHERIFFS FROM 1792 TO 1908. 

On the 10th of July, 1792, Richard Pollard was appointed sheriff of 
Essex and Kent counties and on January 1, 1800, he was confirmed in 
his appointment to the same position for the Western District. On the 
7th day of June, 1802, William Hands assumed the duties of the office 
and continued to do so until the 10th of September, 1833, when Ebenezer 
Reynolds was appointed. Mr. Reynolds was followed by Robert 
Lachlan who received the appointment August 7, 1837. He continued 
as sheriff during the Rebellion to its close when on the first day of 
August, 1839, Raymond Baby was chosen for the position. Mr. Baby 
only retained the office for a little over a year. On October 23, 1840, 
George Wade was sworn in and held the position for a little over eight 
years. The last gentleman to fill the position of sheriff for the Western 
District was John Waddell. 

In 1851 Wm. Duphron Baby was made sheriff of the counties of 
Essex and Lambton, and on the llth day of January, 1851, John Wad- 
dell was appointed for Kent County. Mr. Baby died August 19, 1864, 
aged 45 years. 

On the 6th of May, 1856, John McEwan was appointed sheriff of 
Essex County and held the position until the year 1883. 

John Coatsworth Her was appointed in December, 1883, and held 
the office until he died, which was on Friday afternoon, November 13, 

J. Eugene D'Avignon, the present occupant of the office, was ap- 
pointed November 20, 1908. 


Was born at Saratoga in the year 1812, and 
was clerk of the Essex County Court from 
1849 to 1853. In 1853 he embarked in the 
lumber business at Windsor and had the honor 
of being the first G. W. R. station agent at 
Windsor. He was appointed Sheriff of Essex 
in 1856 and resigned the office in 1883. He 
died March 2, 1892. 


Was born in the Township of Colchester in 

1828. He served for ten years as clerk of 

his native township and nine years -as its 

Reeve, and in 1879 was chosen Warden of 

Essex County. He was appointed Sheriff of 

the county in December, 1883. He died at 
Sandwich, November 13, 1908. 

college. Mr. D' Avignon \vas appointed 
Sheriff November 20, 1908, and assumed the 
duties of office December 1, 1908. The ap- 
pointment was one of the most popular in the 
history of Essex County and met with the 
most hearty approval of all citizens, both Re- 
form and Conservative. 


The present Sheriff of Essex, was born June 
14, 1845, and served in the Victoria Volunteer 
Rifles of Montreal during the Fenian Troubles 
of 1866 and '70, for which he received a grant 
and medal. About 25 years ago he came to 
Windsor and purchased the large drug store 
of George H. Leslie. During his residence in 
Windsor he has always taken a deep interest 
in the welfare of the city. He served seven 
years on the Board of Education, three years 
in the City Council, and seven years on the 
Library Board, of which he is still a member. 
He has also served 13 years as a member of 
the council of Ontario College of Phar- 
macy and seven years as Examiner for the 


The present Court Crier, is the youngest son 
of the late Sheriff John McEwan, has faith- 
fully filled the office for nearly forty years, 
and is therefore the oldest court official among 
those in active service at the present time. 


Walter Roe was the first Clerk of the Peace for the Western Dis- 
trict. On the 9th day of September, 1794, he received his first appoint- 
ment and on January 1, 1800, he was reappointed and retained the 
ciffi.ce a little over a year. Wm. Hands was appointed the 29th of 
August, 1801, and on the 5th day of June, 1802, James Allan was ap- 
pointed. Geo. F. Ireland served from 1817 to 1824, when Charles 
Askin was appointed to the office. In 1835 Charles Baby assumed it 
and faithfully filled the duties of the office for over 30 years. Mr. 
Baby died November 13, 1877, aged 65 years. In 1871 Samuel Smith 
Macdonell was appointed Clerk of the Peace and the office of Crown 
Attorney was added to that of Clerk of the Peace. 

W. H. Clarke took the office in 1891 and was shortly afterwards 

made a King's Counsel. He resigned the office in 1904 in order to 

r member of the Dominion Parliament for the South Riding of 


Essex which took place November 3, 1904. In this he was successful 
and was again re-elected Oct. 26, 1908. With the added honors his 
name now reads A. H. Clarke, K. C, M. P. Mr. Clarke also holds the 
position as solicitor for Essex County. 


John H. Rodd, the present occupant of the office of Clerk of the 
Peace and County Crown Attorney, was appointed November 28, 1904. 


Richard Pollard was the first gentleman to fill this most high and 
responsible position. Judge Woods says that Mr. Pollard was an 
Englishman and came as a young man from England to the United 
States and when our people left Detroit for this side Mr. Pollard came 
too, and as we see, continued to fill different civil offices. In 1792 he 
was made Sheriff of Essex and Kent; in 1793 he was appointed reg- 
istrar of the counties of Essex and Kent, and in 1794 he was appointed 
Registrar of Surrogate Court. In 1800 he again held the same office. 
During the year 1800 he was also appointed Sheriff of the Western 
District and on August 29th, 1801, he was appointed a Judge of Sur- 
rogate. In 1802 he was made a Deacon and was ordained a priest of 
the Anglican Church in 1804 by Bishop Mountain of Quebec, to which 
place he went for his deaconate and ordination. When Mr. Pollard 
was elevated to the judgeship he resigned as Registrar of Surrogate 
and Wm. Hands was immediately appointed to that office which he 
held until 1831. Mr. Hands was followed by James Askin, who held 
the office until his death, which occurred Dec. 4, 1862. The last letters 
of probate signed by him are dated Sept. 13, 1862. 


The next letters of probate issued bear date of Dec. 22, 1862, are 
signed by Duncan A. McMullen. Mr. McMullen held the office until 

T Fnmk F Marcon was appointed County Solicitor Sept. 6, 1870; also 
Appointed DeputyC lerk of the Crown and County Court Clerk at the 


Was born in Norwich, Eng., Dec. 23, 1832. Came to Canada when a young man. Was 
paymaster of the 23rd Essex Volunteer Light Infantry in 1866. Appointed by the late Sand- 
field Macdonald to the combined offices of Clerk of the County Court and Registrar of 
Surrogate in 1870. Died Dec. 3, 1901. 

same time and held the same until Dec. 5, 1901, when he died. 

Francis Cleary was appointed his successor Dec. 11, 1901, and is 
faithfully filling the duties of this very responsible office at the present 


Richard Pollard was the first Registrar for the Counties of Essex 
and Kent from 1793 to 1825, when Wm. Hands was appointed and 
continued in office until 1831. 

On the 12th of November, 1829, John Beverly Robinson was ap- 
pointed Registrar for Kent. Col. James Askin held the office for Essex 
from 1831 to 1846 when his son, John A. Askin, received the appoint- 
ment and continued to fill the duties until 1873 when he resigned and, 
lived a retired life. He sold the old homestead, corner of Bedford and 
Chippewa Streets and moved to Windsor in May, 1898. He died De- 
cember 29, 1904. 


J. Wallace, the eldest son of the late John A. Askin, had acted as 
Deputy Registrar under his father and during his long service in that 
capacity by careful attention and applying himself industriously to 
the duties of the office, became a most valuable and efficient official. 
He was therefore appointed as Registrar in his father's stead im- 
mediately after his father's resignation had been accepted by the 
Ontario Government and is occupying this important position at the 
present time (1909). 


Was born in Detroit in 1788. He was a 
colonel of militia stationed in Sandwich some 
years previous and up to 1858. Was Regis- 
trar of Deeds for Essex from 1831 to 1846. 
He died in 1863. 


Was born March 7, 1817, at Pike Creek, 
Essex County, on the lake shore, where his 
family resided, and elected Reeve of Sand- 
wich Township in 1855, which then included 
all territory which is now the city of Wind- 
sor, Towns of Walkeryille, Sandwich East, 
Sandwich West, Sandwich South and Sand- 
wich Town; was a Justice of the Peace for 
many years and held several municipal offices. 
He was appointed Registrar of Deeds in ]S58 
and held the position until 1872. He died 
December 29, 1904. 



Was born in Sandwich, May 25, 1848. Was 
a member of the Sandwich Infantry Company 
during the Fenian troubles, and when he re- 
tired from the service he held the position of 
captain. For his services he received from 
the Government a medal and a grant of land. 
He was appointed Deputy Registrar of Essex 
in 1869 and Registrar in 1872. 


1847 x ^49 James M. Cowan. 
1854 1857 Jas. H. Wilkinson 
1 863 1 864 Dennis Moynahan 

1842 1846 John Cowan. 
1850 1853 Samuel S. Macdonell. 
18581862 Duncan A. McMullen. 
1865 1902 Thomas McKee. 

Thomas McKee died July 31, 1902, and John F. Millen, the present 
incumbent, was appointed in August, 1902. 



Was a son of the late Hon. John A. Wilkin- 
son, and was County Clerk from 1854 to 
1857; he was also editor and publisher of a 
newspaper published in an office on Lot 2, 
East Bedford street, Sandwich, from 1856 to 
^ .uary, 1858. He also took a great interest 
in military affairs and was a lieutenant in the 
1st Essex Battlion, 1856, and continued in 
active service in various branches of the ser- 
vice until the close of the Fenian troubles. He 
also served many years in the Board of Edu- 
cation and Sandwich Town Council. 


Was born in Sandwich on Lot 59, Con. 1, 
May 16, 1826. He was appointed to the office 
of County Clerk in 1865, and was also appoint- 
ed Customs Officer in 1880, and a member of 
the Board of Criminal Audit for Essex, all of 
which offices he filled until the day of his 
death, Tuly 31, 1902. 


1 The present County Clerk, was born in Gos- field North, January 5, 1864. He served as 
Township Councillor Deputy Reeve, Reeve and other offices of importance in the Gosneld 
North Council and County Council. He was a member of the County Council five years. 
Was elected Warden of the Council, 1901, and appointed County Clerk in June of ] 



William Hands was appointed Treasurer in the year 1808 and held 
the office until 1833. In November, 1833, Jean Baptists Baby was ap- 
pointed. When the County Councils Act of 1842 was passed Mr. Bab>r 
was re-appointed and continued in office till the year 1850. 

In 1850 George Bullock was appointed. In 1853 when Essex, Kent 
and Lambton ceased doing business as a district Mr. Bullock was- 


Was County Auditor from 1853 to 1858; 
County Treasurer from 1859 to 1862, and was 
also District School Inspector of the county 
in 1862. He lost his lift by a railway acci- 
dent on the Great Western Railway, near 
Chatham, October 6, 1862. 


Was County Treasurer from 1863 to 1889 in- 
all twenty-six years. He served with distinc- 
tion in the Essex Militia on the Frontier dur- 
ing the Rebellion of 1837-8, and was for a 
time captain of the Sandwich Infantry Com- 
pany during the Fenian troubles of 1865-70. 

continued in office as Treasurer for the County of Essex, resigning 
the office in 1858. 

John Paul Salter was appointed in 1859 and continued in the posi- 
tion until his death, October 6, 1862. 

Thomas H. Wright was appointed in 1863 and retained the position 
until the year 1889. Mr. Wright was succeeded in office by Henry 
Morand, who held the office until 1901, when the present occupant, 
George A. Wintemute, was appointed to the position. 


leader, was held a prisoner by Mr. Winte- 
mute s father in his own house, but he es- 
caped while Mr. Wintemute was temporarily 

The present Courty Treasurer, was born at 
Humberston, Welland County, Chit, Decem- 
ber 28, 1838, his ancestors all being United 
Empire Loyalists. Moved to Essex County 
and settled in the Township of Maidstone in 
1872; served with credit as Reeve of the 
Township of Maidstone for cloven years. He 
held the position of Warden of Essex County 
during the year 1889 and was appointed Coun- 
ty Treasurer, March 6, 1902. During the Re- 
bellion of 1837-8 William Lyon Mackenzie, the 


Was born in the Township of Sandwich East, 
Sept. 5, 1846. He held the office of Township 
Clerk for that township and was afterwards 
elected Reeve of the same municipality for the 
years 1880, 1881, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886 ana 
1888. He was Warden of the county in 1885 
and was appointed County Treasurer. Decem- 
ber 24, 1889, a-d after holding this important 
office for twelve years, he resigned in Ma'ch, 
1902. Mr. Morai d was also a member of the 
Sandwich Board of Education for several 
years. He died December 1, 1903. 


Warden of Essex for the year 1876. 


Warden of Essex for the year 19P4. 



Was born in Kings Co., New Brunswick, 
June 27, 1846, of U. E. L. stock. Served 
in the Maulstone township council from 1892 
to 1896; Deputy-Reeve, 1897 to 1899, and also 
county councellor for the sixthh district from 
1899 to 1904. Elected Warden of Essex in 


Was born in Sandwich West, June 6, 1874. 
He represented No. 7 District in the county 
council during the years 1903, 1904, 1905 and 
1906. Elected Warden of Essex for the year 
1905. He was again elected Reeve of Sand- 
wich West for 1909 and is therefore at pres- 
ent a member of the county council. 


The present jail surgeon, was born in Sand- 
wich, July 7, 1857, of one of the oldest and 
most prominent Canadian families, and is 
the_ son of the late Senator Charles E. Cas- 
grain, M. D. He is also serior surgeon of th 
21st Essex Fusiliers and has had wide ex- 
perience in medicine and surgery and has 

also an excellent military record. He was 
recently unarimously elected President of the 
Ontario Medical Association. 


Warden of Essex from April 20th to the 
end of the year 1906. 



was born June 24, 1836. He came to Windsor 
in 1861, and for many years Mr. McGregor 
was one of the important factors in business 
life. He was also well known on account of 
his prominence in public affairs. From 1868 
to 1870 he was Warden of the County of Es- 
sex and for eight years was one of the 
Reeves of Windsor. In 1874 he was elected 
to Parliament and re-elected in 1876, 1890 
and 1896. At the time of his death he was 
president of the Walkerviile Wagon Works 
and Collector of Customs at Windsor. He 
died May 14, 1908. 


Represented Essex in the Ontario Legislature 
in 1875; was warden of Essex in 1878 and was 
also first elected to the Dominion Parliament 
the same year. He was Minister of Militia 
during the regerne of John A. Macdonald. 

Near Taylor Point, Sandwich, and birthplace of the present jail surgeon, Dr. H. R. Casgrain. 


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-the youngest son of the late Thomas McKee, 
county clerk, was born in Sandwich, Decem- 
ber 10, 1850. After receiving his education 
in the public and grammar schools of his 
native town and vicinity he struck out for 
himself and has succeeded in establishing an 
extensive lumber business in the city of 
Windsor and he is now considered one of 
Windsor's most enterprising business men at 
ihe present time. Mr. McKee has always 
taken a very active part in municipal and 
political affairs. Commencing at the age of 
25, he has been for 27 years, holding an 
elective office. He has served as alderman 
and later as county councillor until the sep- 
.aration of the city of Windsor from the coun- 

ty; six years as water commissioner for the 
city of Windsor, and eight years as member 
tor .North Essex it. the Provincial Legislature 
fie has recently built himself a beautiful home 
in hisn atr/i- town, where he is at present re- 
siding and expecto to end his days. 


Charles E. Casgrain, C. M., M. D., was born 
in Quebec, August 3, 1825. He was edu- 
cated in the classics at the College of St. 
Anne, Quebec, and in medicine at McGill 
University at Montreal. In 1851 he began the 
practice of medicine in Detroit, but removed 
to Sandwich in 1856. He was appointed 
coroner and jail surgeon, and was captain of 
a Sandwich militia company and in 1861 was 
appointed surgeon to the troops stationed at 
Sandwich and Windsor. On January 12, 1887 
he was called to the senate of Canada. He 
died at Windsor, March 8, 1907. 


During the early part of this town's existence as a District or County 
seat punishment was dealt out with a liberal hand. In those days the 
law read ''Murders, horse and sheep thieves shall be hung in some 
public thoroughfare and remain in full view of passersby until the 
flsh rot from their bones." It is said that a woman and a man were 
gibbeted on the brow of the hill near Mill Street and known as Lot 
4, East Russell Street. The crime for which they are said to have 
suffered was for murder. 

During the time when the office of Sheriff was held by William 
Hands two young men, both of Chatham, (one colored and one white), 
were gibbeted on the brow of the hill on Russell Street, nearly oppo- 
site of what is known by the citizens as Cook's Canal. At that time 
Bedford Street terminated at South Street and the public thoroughfare 


continued down South Street to Russell, down Russell for a short dis- 
tance and then gradually run towards the river until the River Road 
was reached along by the Pittsburg Coal Company's dock and fish 
hatchery at the intersection of the McKee Road. 

The "Gibbots" stood on an elevation overlooking the road. This big- 
boting made a great commotion in the neighborhood, and the exposed 
remains became so offensive as to excite the strongest opposition to 
the law. "The dreadful smelling things must be cut down and buried," 
was the cry. But who was to do it? Such an action would be in 
definance of law and might bring unknown severity upon the heads 
of the people who interfered. There seem to have been few brave 
enough to attempt the noisome work. Now Sheriff Hands was a man 
of courage and decision, a conspicuous character who used to ride about 
mounted on a strikingly white horse. One dark night during the heat 
of the argument regarding the occupants of the bilboes, a white horse 
was seen in the immediate neighborhood of the gibbots, and next 

morning not a sight was to be seen of bilboes or bodies. No arrests 
were made and the worthy sheriff refused to talk on the subject and 
took no action to discover the person or persons who defied the law. 

In 1889 the property on which the bodies of these two men were 
buried was purchased by Calvin Cook and made into a gravel pit. One 
day while the laborers were engaged in digging they came upon a 
quantity of bones and iron frames. The writer hearing of the dis- 
covery visited the gravel pit and succeeded in saving and securing the 
complete skeleton of one of the men and the gibboling irons in which 

: was enclosed. The discovery and a complete history of the inci- 
dents connected therewith was published in columns of the Windsor 
Record at that time. 

A day or two afterwards Calvin Cook, the owner of the property, 

emanded possession of them and the writer very reluctantly ave 
them up. These "irons" have since passed into other hands 

The iron frame consisted of an iron bar which when placed on the 
person to be punished reached from the back of the neck to his heels; 
to this perpendicular bar was clasped an iron ring which clasped the 
neck, another encircled the waist, while two others firmly held the 

As far as can be ascertained all the executions that followed up to 
the present time (1909) took place at the Sandwich jail the con- 
demned men being hung by a rope from a scaffold. 

A man named Bird was hanged in 1834 for killing a peddler in the 
Long woods, in Kent County. Bird met his victim in Chatham and 
followed him to the place where the crime was committed When 
arrested he had the peddler's pack with him. 

In 1838 Fitzpatrick executed for committing unmentionable crime 
on a daughter of a prominent family in Amherstburg. He protested 
his innocence to the last. His spiritual advisor was the Rev. Father 


Angus McDonald, pastor of L'Assomption Church, Sandwich. Some 
years afterwards a man named Sellers confessed on his death bed 
guilt of the crime for which Fitzpatrick had suffered. 

In 1840 Huffman was hanged for murdering his daughter's illegiti- 
mate child in Kent County. Huffman was a Methodist preacher. He 
had a beautiful daughter by whom he had a child. His child was found 
drowned in the Thames River. 

Two men named Wm. Nusome and Morgan (colored) were hanged 
about 1843. Nusome for killing his wife at Amherstburg. The mur- 
derer and two women were all drinking together in a house near 
where the late Mr. Breault's house, Amherstburg, now stands, and 
Nusome cut his wife's throat with a butcher knife. The witness in 
the case was Nusome's daughter. Morgan was hanged for killing an 
old woman in Amherstburg, in 1842. 


Peter Davis was sentenced to be hung June 8, 1847. Sentence was 
suspended until June 29, 1847. The crime for which Davis was con- 
victed was for killing an old fiddler at Chatham, where he was in love 
with a colored girl. The parents refused to allo wher to marry Davis 
as she was already engaged to another man. The night of the wedding 
he shot the father through a window. The prisoner when first arrested 
was placed in jail, but shortly afterwards made his escape. He was 
captured in Kentucky, brought back, tried and sentenced to be hanged 
on the date above mentioned. He succeeded in escaping a second time 
and w r ent back to where he committed the crime, near Chatham. He 
was captured once more and immediately taken to Sandwich, arriving 
here at 4 P. M., on the day appointed for the execution and he was 
hanged at 9 P. M. 

Alfred Young was tried on the 27th day of September, 1858, and 
sentenced to be hung on the 20th day of February, 1859. Young came 
with his wife to Windsor from Paw Paw, Michigan, during the fall 
of 1858. The day of his arrival he wandered with his wife to a lonely 
back street in Windsor and there shot his wife to death. 

Before the day of his execution arrived he succeeded in making his 
escape, it is said, by burning a hole in the floor and then digging his 
way out from under the building. When he made his escape from 
prison he left a very sarcastic letter addressed to Sheriff McEwan. 
"The burnt hole in the floor" story was looked upon with grave sus- 
pision by those who were familiar with the details of this horrible 
crime. The hole in the floor would scarcely admit of a child passing 
through it, and the actions of the jailor in charge at that time were 
considered not above suspicion and it was openly hinted that he had 
a hand in the supposed escape. At any rate a change was made and 
a new jailor appointed. Young was the first man sentenced to be 
hanged after the new jail and court house had been built by the Mac- 
Kenzie brothers. 

The next one to be executed was a colored man named George Wil- 
liams, aged 38. He was a cook on a lake steamer running between 
Buffalo and Chicago. Williams, it is said killed his wife with an axe 
at Colchester while in a rage of temper because his wife persisted on 
going to a dance against his wishes. After killing her he cut his own 
throat, but was found in time to prevent his bleeding to death. Through 
the skillful treatment and constant attention of the jail surgeon, Charles 
E. Casgrain, M. D., his injuries were completely healed a"nd the man 
restored to his former health. He was tried and sentenced August 5, 
1861, to be executed January 3, 1862. It was the last public execution 
that took place in the Town of Sandwich. The Rev. Francis Gore 
Elliott, rector of St. John's, was his spiritual advisor and was with him 
on the scaffold when the drop fell. The execution took place on a 
Friday afternoon and the weather was bitter cold. People were present 
from all parts of the county to witness it. 

Austin Humphrey was executed on May 22, 1876. Humphrey killed 
a well known carpenter and contractor named Fred Apple in Windsor. 
Humphries had previously demanded a small balance of some wages 
which he claimed Apple owed him. Humphrey allowed the matter to 


prey on his mind until he had convinced himself that he was fully 
justified in taking Apple's life. 

t* L iL Phl | PS VI ex ^ cuted for the murder of his wife Tuesday, June 
17, 1884. Rev. John Gray, pastor of St. Andrew's Church, Windsor, 
was his spiritual advisor. Phipps shot his wife on the Windsor ferry 
fcoat Hope while crossing from Detroit to Windsor on August 19 
On November 20 he escaped with Greenwood. Phipps was 
arrested at Chicago and brought back, tried and hanged on the day 
above stated. 

Joseph Truskey, a Pollander, was executed Friday December 14 
1894, for the murder of William Lindsay, a county constable, in the 
Village of Comber, in May, 1894. The Rev. D. H. Hind, the rector of 
St. John s Church, was his spiritual advisor. 

^ Levi Stewart was executed February 6, 1900. The crime for which 
Stewart was hanged was for killing a well-to-do and respectable old 
colored man at a pic-mc at the Puce River in the township of Maid- 
stone on July 19, 1899. The Rev. R. A. Adams of the A. -M. E. Church 
Windsor, was his spiritual advisor. 


^ The very earliest records obtainable show that athletic sports in 
Sandwich have always received the most hearty support of the resi- 


This famous gunshot was born in Sandwich in 1849, beirg the son of Antoine Young- 
"blood, M. D., for many years a practitioner ot standing in Sandwich and vicinity. Louis is 
one of the most popular citizens of Sandwich, tar<.ling in very front rank as a good fellow 
among his townsmen. Without doubt he is one of the greatest gunshots on this continent, 
as his record shows. He has defeated many of the crack shots of the United States and 
nearly ^all of those hailing from his own side of the line; he is at home in all field games, 
preferring cricket or base ball. He has the reputation of being one of the squarest "all 
around sports" in Ontario, and being as hon-est and upright "as they make Them." To. his 
credit let it be said that the "old Sandwich sport" has been the same as he came into it. 
Without a bad mark against him, honesty and fairness having been his life-long motto. 

dents, both as regarding the necessary financial aid, as well as by 
active participation in the same, and in many instances have proved 


themselves the equal to any in the country at the various sports in 
vogue at the time, which changes much as do fashions Lacrosse 
cricket boating, shooting at the trap or in marsh or held, foot ball, 
base ball tennis, golf (we refer to the Oak Ridge Golf Club), all of 
which have been accepted as they became popular, and mastered to 

a remarkable point of proficiency in many instances even to excel as 

The accompanying picture of the Sandwich Foot Ball Team, win- 
ners of the Walker cup trophy and champions of the Western Penin- 
sular Foot Ball League for the spring and fall series of 1903 and the 
fall of 1904. 


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Sandwich, Ont. 


Holding its annual shoot at their club house near Lago-.n Park, Sandwich 1890 

Among those appearing in picture are: Richard Bangham, Thomas Reid, Jasper Revell, 

Daniel Revell, Thomas Br,, U, Albert Dmuillanl, Victor Chauvin, Frank Stotts, Robt. 

McDonald, James Purser, \V. C. Donaldson George McNally, Louis 

Youngbl >od, Adolph Prudhomme, Fred and Albert Forrest. 


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At one time owned and conducted by Capt. John Horn, corner of Bedford and End Streets, 
Sandwich. This building was removed about six years ago. 


Bedford Street, Sandwich. Norton & Burrell, Proprs. 




Although it may not be generally known that many people who 
have been identified with the stage in the past some of whom are liv- 
ing and still "in harness." Among those who have passed away was 
"Jessie Howard," this being her stage name. Miss Howard was the 
daughter of the late George Bullock, for many years treasurer of the 
County of Essex. She was a very capable actress and made a great 


Is the eldest son of the late Thomas McKee, 
County Clerk. He saw service in the Fenian 
troubles of 1865-1870, and was a member of 
the Cobours; Rifles at tat time in active ser- 
vice between Coburg, Toronto and Kingston. 
He was the youngest non-commissioned officer 
in the battalion and had the honor of being 
made corporal by Gen. Wolsely, afterwards 
Sir Garnet Wolsely. He was afterwards ap- 
pointed staff-sergeant under Col. Arthur Ran- 
kin, of the 23rd Essex Battalion. He has late- 
ly received a grant and veteran's medal. Mr. 
McKee is at present a theatrical manager and 
travels extensively, and when the opera sea- 
son is over may be found at his home on 

Bedford street, Sandwich. Mr. McKee is 
known as one of the best and most popular 
theatrical managers in America, his associa- 
tions beirg confined to the very best attrac- 
tions. He had a good master in McKee Ran- 
kin, his cousin, who was his tutor in this line 
of work. 


Th". second son of the late Col. Arthur 
Rankin is a native of Sandwich, who has 
rounded out 48 years on the stage and made 
two theatrical tours around the world. Mr. 
Rankin is still in "harness" and is considered 
to be the greatest character actor of the 
American stage and is without doubt the finest 
stage director in the profession. 

hit as Mrs. Willoughby in "The Ticket of Leave Man," a play very 
popular in her day. 

It is a remarkable coincidence that McKee-Rankin, who we all know 
hails from the old town of Sandwich was the greatest Bob Brierley 
known to the stage in the same play. 


George Stuttz, a well-know actor, also a Sandwich boy, better 

known- in the west in the profession and a great favorite in that por- 
tion of the country. 

"Jed Carleton," Jacob Stuttz, a brother of George, and like his 
brother is better known in the same locality. 

Herbert Fortier also hails from the county 'town, and a decendant of 

JACOB STUTTZ "Jed Carleton," 

one of the old families of the County of Essex, has for many years 
been associated with the best attractions. 

Thom? m s A. McKee, who was also born in Sandwich, while not an 
actor now-a-days, because as he himself says, he was such a "bad 
one" during the years he spent behind the footlights, but is now con- 
sidered one of the most capable managers in the theatrical world and 
has always been associated with the best in that capacity. 


This family the children of the late Capt. Pierre Marentette, of 
Sandwich, one daughter and seven sons, whose remarkable musical 
talents made them extremely popular a number of years ago in Western 
Canada. Their engagements becoming so numerous that they were 


co-ed to disband their musical organization in order to attend to 
the business connected with their worldly welfare. Their engage- 
ments extended from one end of the Dominion to the other and 
were always given without remuneration. One of the wonderful fea- 

tures of the brothers was their magnificent quintette composed of 
Joseph. Rudolph, James, Alexander and Thomas. Nature had endowed 
them with voices, baritone, first and second tenor, first and second 
bass, requisite to produce their most exquisite harmony, and Joseph, 
the director, had blended them together with wonderful finish of the 


musician that he was. At one time the late Col. Arthur Rankin made 
_a very flattering offer to take the quintette to Europe, so sanguine was 
he of the great success that was in store for them there. The other 
brothers Mr. Charles (of Windsor), and John, and the daughter, Mrs. 
Victor Ouellette, of Sandwich, are still living. Those who have passed 
away are Joseph, James and Thomas. 


Among the many silent reminders which still remain of the past his- 
tory of this Western Frontier are the old residences and homesteads 

which have stood the ravages of time and in some instances and look 
as if, with ordinary care, they would continue useful historical land- 
marks for very many years to come. 



Looking from the intersection of Peter street, west to the Detroit river. The two old- 
fashioned dwellings on the right of the picture are raid to be much over 100 years old and were 
silent witnesses of the War of 1812 and the Rebellion of 1837-8. 

Corner Bedford and Detroit Streets, Sandwich. 

Photo by W. B. Hamilton. 

The first is the "Hon. John A. Wilkinson Homestead" on Chippewa 
Street, built about the year 1818 or shortly after the war of 1812. The 
material for this house was brought from Montreal by Mr. Wilkinson 
It was at this house that Dr. John James Hume called professionally 
and afterwards spent the evening socially with Mr. Wilkinson and 
family the evening before he was murdered by the rebels in Windsor 
December 4, 1838. 


Was born in 1836, and was a member of the Sandwich Infantry Companies during the 
Fenian troubles and received his medal and allowance of land from the Government for 
his services. He has also been a member of the Sandwich Town Council and was affiliated 
with several Scottish societies. For upwards of forty years he conducted a customs broker's 
office in the city of Windsor and died at the Cowan Homestead, September 8, 1902, aged 
66 years. 

The next one we desire to draw the attention of the reader is the 
"Cowan Homestead" on the corner of Bedford and Detroit Streets, 
with its nice shade and fruit trees, well kept lawns and flower beds, 
and which is the admiration of all who visit the town. It was formerly 
one of the store houses of the Hudson Bay Company and until recently 
the hook and other attachments for weighing furs were in the ceiling 
of the hallway. It was also used as officers quarters during the Rebel- 
lion of 1837-8. Extensive improvements have been made to it recently 
which has greatly added to its appearance. 


A few steps further up Bedford Street we come to the "Marentette 
Homestead/' former home of Capt. Pierre Marentette. His youngest 
son, John, with his family reside there at the present time. 

Bedford Street, Sandwich. 


A pioneer of the First Concession of the Town of Sandwich. He is 87 years of age and 

still enjoys good health. 


About a half a mile further -up the road, beautifully situated on the 
river bank, we come to the "Col. Johnson Richardson Homestead," and 
has been owned and occupied at different times since by the Brewster 
family, the late ex-Mayor William Scott, of Windsor, and laterly for 

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-many years was known as the "George Feller's Homestead. " It has 
recently been purchased by a Mr. Scott of Detroit, who has made many 
additions, alterations and improvements which has completely changed 
dts appearance. 




Hnw t W ? , ^een frequently asked by visitors to Sandwich, 

How . it that Windsor is now so much larger than Sandwich while 
Sandwich has remained nearly the same in size and populatio* for 
the past fifty years?" The question is easily answered, ffistory teUs 

us that in 1846 Windsor only had a population of 300 and that the 
place did not amount to anything until the Great Western Railway 
was built in 1853. As the result of Windsor being made the terminus 
of that road (instead of Sandwich as originally intended), that place 

immediately attained excellent facilities for manufacture and commerce 
and did much towards the general prosperity of that locality, resulting in 
an increase of population and the incorporation of the town in '1858. In 
1861 the population had increased to 2,500 and in 1866 to 4,500. Three 
more trunk lines having entered the town within the past twenty-five 
years which has further assisted it materially and today it is one of the 
most progressive cities in Western Ontario with over 15,000 of popu- 

While the people of Sandwich and vicinity have been benefitted in 
various ways by Windsor becoming an important railroad centre it 
may be easily understood why the beautifully situated historic town 
of Sandwich has not kept pace with her more fortunate neighbor, the 
City of Windsor . 

Previous to the years 1851 and 1852 and afterwards until the Great 
Western Railway was built into Windsor, the fare from Chatham to 
Sandwich by stage (one way) 52 miles, was twelve shillings and six 


At the conclusion of the article on "Windmills" in another part of 
this volumn, we omitted to mention : 

There was also a steam grist mill and carder built in the early part 
of the last century on the corner of Sandwich Street and the Huron 
Church line near the Taylor Point. It was conducted at various periods 
by a Mr. Pajot, Messrs. Caldwell & Clark and before its destruction by 
fire was owned by Cyrus Reaume. The large grinding stones can be 
seen at the present time on the Murphy estate at Taylor Point, Sand- 



The City of Windsor is delightfully situated on the left bank of the 
iL? 1 - A PP slte ^e American city of that name. In the 
year 1854 Windsor (which up till that time had formed a part of the 
Township of Sandwich), was set off as an independent municipality 
under a village charter. The gentleman who composed the first village 
council were: Reeve, Samuel Macdonall; Councillors, Francis Caro & n 
James Cuthbertson, James Dougall and Charles Hunt. John Stewart 
was the Village Clerk. 

s he who suggested the name when the vil- 
lage was named Windsor in 1835. Mr. Dou- 
gall died at Windsor, April 5, 1898, and his 
remains are interred in St. John's graveyard. 


Was born in Paisley, Scotland, Sept. 23, 1810, 
and emigrated to Canada in 1828." Engaged 
in the mercantile business in Perth and To- 
ronto, and in 1830 moved to Windsor, where 
he established a general store, acting as agent 
for the Hudson Bay Company and for th 
Bank of Montreal. For a number of years. 
he^ was honored by being elected Mayor of 
Windsor, and was also a member of the Board 
of Education. During the Rebellion of 1837-8 
he contributed largely toward the support of 
the troops. Mr. Dougall's name will always 
be identified with the City of Windsor, as it 


Was District Clerk in 1850 and 1851, and waa 
Reeve of the Village of Windsor from 1854 to 
1857, and elected the first Mayor of Windsor 
in 1858, and again in the years 1864, 1865, 
1866 and 1867; Warden of the County of 
Essex for the years 1855 and 1856. In 1871 
he was appointed Crown Attorney and Clerk 
of the Peace. He died during the month of 
April, 1907. 

Windsor continued as a village for four years and was incorporated 
as a town in 1858. The first town council were composed of the fol- 
lowing gentlemen : Mayor, Samuel Smith Macdonell ; Reeve, George 
Shipley; Councillors, Benjamin Marentette, Mark Richards and John 
Turk, Sr., Alexander Bartlet was the first Town Clerk. 

A portion of the territory of what is now the City of Windsor was 
purchased by a gentleman named McDougall, a bachelor, who came 
from Little York (now Toronto). The property obtained by him 
along the river bank where the old town hall and central fire hall now 


stand and he laid it out as a village plot about the year 1830, and was 
then called South Detroit. 

During the year 1835 a public meeting was held in Hutton s tavern 
to choose a more appropriate name. "Windsor" being suggested by 
James Dougall, was selected from a score or more of others proposed. 
The proprietor of the tavern, John Hutton, who was an old resident 
at once signified his own and the public approval by naming his place 
the "Windsor Castle," by which cognoman it was known for many 
years after. A few years ago the hotel was removed to make room 
for a more substantial business block. This building was located on 
Sandwich Street, Windsor, directly opposite the present Crawford 
House block. 

The first store was opened out by James Dougall about the year 



Windsor, Ont., where a public meeting was held to choose a name for the village in 1835. The 
name of Windsor being suggested by Mr. James Dougall, was unanimously adopted. At the same 
meeting the proprietor, John Hutton, changed the name of his hotel from "Hutton's Tavern" t* 
the "Windsor Castle." It was built during the 17th century and remodeled in 1830. The photo 
was taken after the building had been abandoned as a hotel and is published through the kindness 
of John W. Drake, Ex-Mayor of the City of Windsor. 

In 1846 Windsor contained a population of only 300 and it had in- 
creased to 2,500 in 1861. It was incorporated as a city in 1892. O. E. 
Fleming had the honor of being Mayor when the town became a city. 
Windsor has been steadily increasing in population, wealth and im- 
portance and at present (1909) has a population of 15,417. It is the 
market place and shipping center for the great and far-famed fruit-belt 
of Essex county. 

The three municipalities, Sandwich Town, City of Windsor and Town 
Di Walkerville, are practically one commercially and have a joint popu- 
lation of about 25,000. From the limits of Walkerville to the limits of 
Sandwich Town is a stretch along the Detroit river of about six 
miles in distance. There are five trunk lines entering Windsor the 


3 K uT^ 1 ' Canadian Pacific ' Per e Marquette, Grand Trunk 
W abash Railways. 

The surrounding district is tapped by the Sandwich, Windsor & 
Ameherstburg Railway connecting Windsor with Amherstburg located 
at the mouth of the Detroit River; Windsor and Tecumseh Branch of 
die same line running between Windsor and Tecumseh ; the Essex 
Terminal Railway, a freight belt line connecting the railways enter- 
ing the city and looping Windsor with Walkerville and Sandwich- 
the Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Rapid Railway, running between 

Windsor, Ont., "Dode" Maisonville, Propr. 

This building was erected in the year 1855, on the northeast corner of Pitt street and Ouellette 
avenue, by Mrs. Beeman. The contractor was John Shoreland, and Thomas Gray, carpenter and 
jointer, of Sandwich, did nearly all the practical work on it while it was being constructed. On 
April 4, 1887, this building was destroyed by fire and a modern structure erected. It was named 
the "Manning House" after Thos. Manning, the then owner. It is one of the rirst-class hotels of the 
City of Windsor at the present time. Ambrose Appleton is the present owner and proprieor. 

Windsor and Leamington, the longest electric railway in Canada. The 
Detroit, Belle Isle & Windsor Ferry Company maintain a service be- 
tween Detroit and Windsor that is admittedly the finest in America. 

The hotel accommodations of the city are equal to many of our 
Canadian cities of twice the size. 

The Collegiate Institute, public and separate schools of the City of 
Windsor are of a high grade and the efficiency of their staff of teachers 
are second to none in the province. 


The city is also well supplied with churches two Anglican, All 
Saints and the Church of the Assension ; two Roman Catholic, St. 
Alphonsus and the Church of the Amaculate Conception ; one Presby- 
terian, St. Andrew's Church ; two Methodist, the Central Methodist and 
the West End Methodist Church; two Baptist, the Bruce Ave. Baptist 
and the First Baptist Church (colored) on McDougall Street. The 
colored people also have the British Methodist Episcopal and the Tan- 
ner M. E. Churches. The Jews have recently built a fine new synagoge 
on Mercer Street. 

Windsor has more miles of sewers, paved streets and silax walks 
than any other city of its size in Canada and has its municipal light and 


Mayor of Windsor from 1870 to and including 
the year 1874. During Mr. Cameron's admin- 
istration the "Holly System" of Water Works 
was established and a complete sewer system 
was installed in the Town of Windsor. In his 
task of working out the details of these im- 
portant improvements Mr. Cameron was very 
ably assisted by the Town Clerk, Alex Bart- 
et and Stephen Lusted, then editor and pub- 
lisher of the Essex Record. Previous to the 
introduction of this much-needed water sys- 
tem the inhabitants of Windsor received their 
water supply from the "Town Pump" at the 
foot of Brock street. Mr. Cameron was the 
founder of the old and well-known dry goods 

firm and general importers of British goods 
which firm has been familiarly known at vari- 
ous periods as Cameron & Thorburn; Cameron,. 
Thorburn & Gibson; Cameron & Bartlett, and 
at the present time is known as the firm of 
Bartlet, Macdonald & Gowe, Sandwich street, 


Windsor's grand old man. who retired at 
the end of 1908. after rounding out half a 
century of public service. His sterling in- 
tegrity and moral probity have made him 
one of the principal figures in Windsor's 

water plants. The banking facilities are excellent. The Canadian 
Bank of Commerce Merchants Bank of Canada, Dominion Bank and 
the Traders Bank all have branches here. 

,ar S ^.T S !f ted A ! ex> Bartlet was appointed town clerk in Feb- 
38, and served in that capacity until 1878 when he resigned to 


GO > 

H ~< g 
; 'o s- M 

o ^ ^ 

tf 1-SS 


2 bJD 

A c ^ o> 

I 12 1 

B -4J 

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a cs 

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accept the more important office of Police Magistrate for the Town of 
Windsor and North Riding of Essex. He succeeded the late Francis 
Caron who died March 4, 1878, aged 78 years. 

Charles Scadden was appointed Town Clerk to succeed Mr Bartlet 
and held the office during the year 1879. 

Stephen Lusted, the present City Clerk, was appointed in 1880. The 
work of the clerk's office has increased so rapidly of late years that the 

Mr. Fleming was again honored by being 
elected Mayor, and has therefore the record 
of being the last Mayor of the town and the 
first Mayor of the City of Windsor. 


Was born March 17, 1862, and educated in 
the public schools of Windsor. Mr. Fleming 
has always taken a prominent part in both 
political and educational affairs. He served in 
the Windsor school board and three years as 
Alderman of Windsor. In 1891 he was elect- 
ed Mayor of the Town of Windsor and in 
1892 was re-elected, and during that year the 
town was incorporated into a city. In 1893 


Was born in Anderdon and received his ed- 
ucation in the schools of that township and 
in the Town of Amherstburg. He studied 
law and was elevated to the bar in 1878, 
was elected Mayor of Windsor for the year 
1890, and was also a member of the Ontario 
Legislature for fourteen years. He is at 
present one of the leading and most pros- 
perous business men of the Town of Cobalt. 

City Council found it necessary to provide Mr. Lusted with an as- 
sistant. Miss Martha Dickinson was appointed and holds the position 
at the present time. 

The following gentlemen have filled the office of Reeve and Mayor 
from the year 1854 to the present time 1909: Reeve, Samuel Smith 
Macdonell; 1854 to 1857; as Mayor, Samuel Smith Macdonell, 1858; 
James Dougall, 1859 and 1861; Mark Richards, 1862 and 1863; Samuel 



Who for five consecutive years rilled the hon- 
orable position of Mayor of Windsor, was 
born in 1836 in Prescott, Ont. In 1863 he 
was appointed excise officer, and was advanced 
in 1867 to assistant inspector of distilleries for 
Canada. He was again promoted to Inspector 
in 1872, and in 1888 to Chief Inspector of 
the Dominion until 1895 when, at his own 
request, was placed on the superannuated list. 


The present City Clerk of the City of Wind- 
sor, was born in 1834. Re-established the 
Windsor Record after the great fire in Wind- 
sor in 1871 and conducted it for ten years, 
when he sold it in the year 1880 to accept the 
position of Clerk. After filling the office a 
short time he was appointed a Justice of the 

Commanding Essex Fusiliers from 1892 to 
1897. He was also Mayor of the City of 
Windsor from 1886 to 1888 and again in 1894. 
He died June 17, 1906, in his 76th year, and 
was buried with full military honors in St. 
John's graveyard. 


Was Mayor of the City of Windsor for the 
years 1903 and 1904, and is at present one 
of Windsor's enterprising business men. 



Water Commissioner for the City of Windsor 
In 1901 he was elected Alderman, and in 
1902 he became Mayor of the City of Wind- 
sor, and in March, 1898, he was appointed 
paymaster of the 21st Fusiliers, with the hon- 
orary rank of Captain. 


Water Commissioner for the City of Windsor. 
He is also a member of the License Board for 
Windsor, Walkcrville and Sandwich. 

Secretary-Treasurer of the 
Water Board. 


Superintendent of the City 
Water Works. 

One of the City Auditors. 



Smith Macdonell, 1864 to 1867; James Dougall, 1868 to 1869; Donald 
Cameron, 1870 to 1874; William Scott, 1875; Robert L. McGregor, 1876; 
Charles R. Home, 1877 to 1879; John Coventry, M.. D., 1880 to 1882; 
Francis Cleary, 1883 to 1885 ; Joseph H. Beattie, 1886 to 1888 ; Michael 
Twomey, 1889 ; Solomon White, 1890 ; Oscar E. Fleming, 1891 to 1893 ; 
Joseph H. Beattie, 1894; Daniel W. Mason, 1895 and 1896; John Davis, 
1897 to 1901; James F. Smyth, 1902; J. W. Drake, 1903 and 1904; Ernest 
S. Wigle, 1905 to the present 1909. 



The present postmaster of the City of 
Windsor. Mr. Wigle has been in active ser- 
vice for over 25 years. 


Assistant postmaster of the City of Windsor 
and leader of the famous band of the 21st 
Regiment, Essex Fusiliers. 


Ready to start from the Windsor Postoffice with mail for Sandwich and Amherstburg and 
intermediate points. Wm. Fox, the veteran stage driver, stands at the rear of his horse, near 
the seat. This mode of carrying the mails was discontinued June 3, 1907. The Sandwich, 
Windsor & Amherstburg Railway now carries the mail between these points. 


of Denmark on March 10, 1863. Ascended 
the throne January 22, 1901. 


Born November 9, 1841. Visited Windsor, 
Ont., September 27. 1800. Married to Prin- 
cess Alexandria Caroline Mary Charlotte 
Louise Julia, the eldest daughter of the King 


The Governor-General of the Dominion of 
Canada. lie visited Windsor, Walkerville and 
Sandwich August 24, 1908. 

The Regimental Band of the 21st Regiment, Essex Fusiliers. 

: , 


A former member for South Essex in the 
Dominion Parliament. In January, 1902, he 
was appointed Inspector of Dominion Customs. 


The present Collector of Customs of the 
of Windsor. 


City Auditor. 


The present treasurer of the City of Wind- 


The present Mayor of Windsor, has held the 
office sir re 1905. He was born March 5, 
1859, ard at the age of seventeen he entered 
the Collegiate Institute at dalt, and was 
called to the bar in 1887. He was for many 
years Captai : -> of No. 1 Co., Essex Fusiliares, 
and during the present year was promoted to 
.the rank of Major. 


Mayor of Windsor for the years 1880, 1881 
and 1882. He was Medical Health Officer, 
had been a member of the Windsor Board of 
Education for eight years, and was at one 
time president of S. W. & A. Ry. It was 
during the doctor's administration that the 
debenture debt of Windsor was consolidated 
and the town's affairs placed in an excellent 
financial condition. He died February 22. 

J. A. ASHBAUtiH, M. D. 
Medical Health Officer of the City of Windsor. 


City Physician of Windsor and a long and es- 
teemed resident of that city. 



At present commanding the 2]st Regiment, 
Essex Fusiliers. I'e received his commission 
July 18, 1908. He .enlisted in No. 1 Com- 
pany in 1873 and in 1882 was appointed En- 
sign. On the retirement of Capt. Cheyne in 
1898, Ensign Laing was appointed Captain; 
in 1901 lie was gazetted Junior Major. Col. 
Laing has been awarded a long service medal. 


Commanding the Cist Regiment, Essex} 
Fusiliers, from July 18, 1902, to July 18, 
1908, and on his retirement he was suc- 
ceeded hy Major Frederick H. Laing. Col. 
1'artlett is at present an alderman of the 
Citv of Windsor. 

J. s. LABKLLK;, M. D. 

Alderman of the City of Windsor and a Cor- 
oner for the County of Ksse x. 

11. S. FOSTER 

Who was a member of the Windsor Council for 
three years and candidate for the mayor- 
alty election of 1909. 



the present Police Magistrate for the City of 


The present Chief of Police of the City of 


Alderman of the City of Windsor and chair- 
man of the Fire Committee. He is a descend- 
ant of a pioneer family of Essex County. 


Alderman of the City of Windsor and chair- 
man of the Light Committee. 


pany disbanded he joined No. 1 Independent 
Infantry Company, of Windsor. He was re- 
cently the recipient of a land grant and 
medal for his services. 


Alderman of the City of Windsor and for- 
mer editor of The Record. He has been presi- 
dent of the Canadian Press Association, the 
Windsor Hoard of Trade and the Horticultural 


Alderman of the Cuv of Windsor for several 


The present assessment commissioner of the 
City of Windsor. He is also secretary-treas- 
urer of the board of education. Mr. Black 
was a member of the Windsor Garrison 
Artillery during the Fenian troubles, joining 
in 1864. In 1869, when the artillery com- 


the Bard of St. Andrew's Society of the City 
of Windsor. He is 82 years old. 


DR. W. S. CODY. 

Of Hamilton, formerly principal of the 
Windsor Collegiate Institute. 


The present Principal of the Windsor Col- 
legiate Institute. 

Alderman of the City of Windsor. 


Alderman for th~ City of Windsor. He is 
also a member of, ard takes a deep interest 
in, the Horticultvra 1 Society ard the Farmers' 
Institute of North Essex. 



License Inspector for the City of Windsor 
and the Towns of Walkerville and Sandwich. 


a prominent business man of Windsor and a 
member of the License Commission for Wind- 
sor, Walkerville and Sandwich. 


License Inspector for North Essex. Mr. Mor- 
and's jurisdiction embraces all the townships 
in the North Riding. 


Alderma" of the City of Windsor and former 
License Commissiorcr. 



Who has been prominent in financial and 
real estate circles in Windsor, taking rank 
as a public-spirited cit'zen ard enjoying con- 
spicuous success in his business career. He 
was born in Windror in 1^54, the same year 
that it was ircorporated as a village. 

former Alderman of Wird'or and member 
of the staff of the Inland Revenue Depart- 

Alderman of ihe City of Windsor. 


A former Windsorite who has achieved con- 
spicuous success in commercial and banking 
circles of Detroit. He was formerly private 
secretary for the late Senator McMillan, 
senior senator for Michigan, and is closely- 
allied with the McMillan interests at present. 


Alderman of the City of Windsor. 


former member of the Windsor Council and 
one of the old residents of Windsor. 

Governor General of the Dominion of Can- 
ada, who visited Windsor. Walkerville and 
Sandwich, Friday, Sept. 18. 1896. 

Ex-Councillor of the Town of Sandwich, 



Commanding 21st Regimert, F.^ex Fusiliers, from July 17, 1897, to July 18, 1902, was born in 
Sandwich October 26, 1845, and educated- there. He joined the 2d Infantry Company of his- 
native town in 1862. In 18C4 he attended the military school at .Hamilton. During the Fenian 
Raids he was in active service with his company at Sandwich and later became sergeant-major 
of the Windsor Garrison Artillery urder Capt. Worthington. Upon the organization of the old 
23d Essex Battalion under the late Col. Rankin he was appointed adjutant. On July 17, 1897, 
he was appointed to the command of the regiment. Col. Guillot earned the reputation of being 
one of the most enthusiastic ard capable officers in the Canadian militia. He was Treasurer of 
the City of Windsor for several years, which office he held until the time of his death, January 
28, 1905. He was buried with military and Masonic honors in St. John's graveyard, Sandwich. 

REV. L. S. HUG 11 SON. 

Pastor of the TVrc^ Avf-ue Baptist Church, 
Windsor, Ont. 

Manager of Ontario Asphalt Block Co. 



E. 15. MEUNIER, 

Pastor in charge of St. Alphonsus Church, 
corner Park and Goyeau, Windsor, Ont. 

REV. 1). J. DOWNEY. 

In charge of the Church of the Immaculate 
Conception. This new parish in Windsor East 
was inaugurated December 11, 1904. It was 
formed from the parishes of St. Alphonsus, 
Windsor, and Our Lady of the Lake, Walker- 
vine. The corner-stone of this new church 
was laid July 3, 1904; dedicated December 11 >. 
1904, by the Right Rev. Bishop McEvay and 
Monsignor Sbarretti, the Apostolic Delegate to 
Canada. The approximate cost of the church 
was $42,500. In 1907, a new presbytery was 
built, costing about $8,000. 


Rural Dean of Essex and present Rector 
of All Saints' Church, Windsor Ave., Wind- 
sor. He was appointed in 1903. This parish 
was originally a part cf St. John's, Sandwich 


For seventeen years the Rector of 
Saints' Church (Anglican). 




Rector of the Church of the Ascension (Anglican), London Street West, Windsor. 
This new parish was constituted a separate one from All Saints in 1905 and Rev. W. H. 
'Snelgrove was appointed the nrst rector. Both All Sairts and the Ascension are outgrowths of 
the mother church, St. John's, Sandwich. The Church of the Ascension is a handsome new brick 
building, completed in 1908, at a cost of upwards of $20,000. The corner-stone was laid August 
8, 1907, by the Most Worshipful, the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge, A. F. and A. M., of 
Canada, A. T. Freed. The church was dedicated for divine worship, by the Right Rev. David 
Williams, D. D., bishop of the diocese of Huron, on May 31, 1908. The church is situated in 
-a rapidly growing portion of the city and its usefulness is fast extending. 

Pastor of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, 
"Windsor, and chaplain of the 21st regiment, 
Essex Fusiliers. 

Former Pastor Presbyterian Church Windsor 


REV. F. 


The presert pastor of the Central Methodist 
Church, Ouellette avenue, Windsor, Ont. 


The former pastor of the Central Methodist 
Church, Windsor. 


Alderman of the City of Windsor. When a 
resident of Sandwich some years since he was 
a member of the Town Council of that munici- 


is a native of Sandwich, and a son of the 
late Thodule Girardot, Inspector of Schools 
for North Essex. He was for many years 
principal teacher of No. 2 Public School, 
Sandwich, and also served in the Town 
council for several years and also elected as 
mayor of Sandwich for eleven years. He is 
now the Commissioner of the exhibition 
branch of the Department of Agriculture. 



Previous to the year 1825 the canoe was popular as a ferry for con- 
veying passengers to and fro over the Detroit River and in 1825 Santi- 


Which ran between Windsor and Detroit, and was the first steam ferry that plyed between 
Sandwich, C. W., and Springwells, Mich., in 1865, James R. Inres was then the master. This 
photo was taken when the "Gem" was lying at the foor of Brock Street, Windsor, and also shows 
plainly the only waterworks the town ofWindsor then possessed "The old town pump." 

From this pump the citizens of Windsor were supplied through the water carriers at one shilling 
per barrel. At the present day Windsor has one of the finest equipped and best waterworks system* 
in America with Joseph Hall as the chief engineer. 

(James Forbes, Master). 

more's horseboat was put into service. In 1830 and after the steamers 
Argo, "Gem," "Essex," "Detroit," "Gen. Grant" and others followed 



Shadrach and Henry Jenking owners. Among the gentlemen represented in this picture are: 
Capt. Henry Jenking, Capt. George Jenking, Capt. Weston and Michael Manning. The two gentle- 
en sitting in the buggy on the main deck are the late Hiram Walker, the founder of the Town of 
Walkerville, and his son, E. C. Walker. 


Is well known in marine circles around Detroit and Windsor vicinity, is of Scotch 
ancestry and was born in Chatham, May 1,1844. He was master of the first steam 
ferry engaged to establish a ferry betweenSandwich, Ont., and Snringwells, Mich., and 
has served in various capacities on differentsteamers and sailing vessels for nearly 50 
years. In 1882 he was made superintendentby the Michigan Central Railroad, of their 
Windsor ferries and there are few men inthis locality so popular or ralued at the 
present time. 

and did service as ferries between Windsor and Detroit. For a shor 
time after the year 1830 we had the canoe sailboat, horseboat and 
steamer all at work. The favorite ferry landing in those days was 
where the present C. P. R. station is now built in Windsor and later 
-when the steamers came into general use it was for a long time at the 
foot of Brock Street, Windsor. The pictures which follow are of 
"boats which are still familiar to and have been considered "familiar 
friends" of many of our present citizens on both sides of the river on 
this frontier. 

4, 1838. He was then living in the immediate 
vicinity of where the battle took place and 
witnessed the fight from a window in his 

home. He died Sept. 14, 1909. 


Was born August 14, 1825, at Cape Vincent, 
N. Y. In September, 1837, he came to Wind- 
sor and for many years made his home there. 
He had a wide experience in marine affairs 
and was in command of the steamer "Lands- 
downe" of the G. T. Ry.. and was latterly 
superintendent of the car ferries. He recently 
retired, and is at nresent living in London, 
Ont. He is, as far as known, the only man 
livirp' today who was an eye-witness of the 
Battle of Windsor, which occurred December 


represented Amherstburg as Deputy Reeve, 
Reeve and as County Councillor for No. 1 
District in the Essex County Council for 
twelve years and was' Warden of the County 
in 1903. 



(By Rev. J. J. M. Aboulin.) 

A paper under the above heading was read by Francis Cleary, Presi- 
dent of the Essex County Historical Society, at a meeting in the audi- 
torium of the Public Library in the City of Windsor, on the evening 
of the 24th November, 1905. 

Before reading the paper Mr. Cleary stated that the credit for it 
was due to Rev. J. J. M. Aboulin, for many years acting parish priest 


Built in 1747; now 162 years old. Part of the building is standing at the present time. From 
an old photo by A. Phil E. Panet, Windsor. 

of the church of the Assumption and now at St. Basil's Novitiate, Deer 
Park, Toronto, and that the same had come into his hands quite recently 
through the kindness of the present parish priest, Rev. Fr. Semande. 

Mr. Cleary made some introductory remarks before and during the 
reading of the paper regarding the subject matter, among others, stat- 
ing it was evident from a close perusal of its contents that Rev. Mr. 
Aboulin had commenced his interesting history over twenty years 
ago and had written portions from time to time and finished it at 


Toronto some years after his removal there in 1893. In one paragraph 

^ ""I"? H J S ? P w W J" te ' Chi , ef f the Wyandottes, as if living, while 
the chief died at Windsor early in 1885. 

Again, the Indian reserve in Anderdon township ceased to exist as 
a reserve over twenty years ago. 

(Founded 1728.) 

The present building was erected in 1843, and opened for divine service in the beginning 
of January, 1846. 

The history of this parish is certainly unique, dating back, as we 
find, to 1767, and being in its earliest days under the jurisdiction of 
the bishop of Quebec. Cadillac built his fort on the present site of 


Detroit in 1701, so that the parish of St. Anne, frequently mentioned r 
came into existence shortly after and had a long start of Assumption 

Until the year 1803 the parish was called the Assomption of Point de- 
Montreal, or L' Assomption du Detroit. 

On September 1, 1907, Father Seamndre was appointed Treasurer 
of Assumption College, when Father A. J. Cote, late of St. Anne's- 
Church, Detroit, became the parish priest. Father Peter Challander, 
who has been assistant to Father Semandre for the past eight years,. 


Showing the elegantly carved pulpit with winding stairs, whichh was placed in the church im- 
1792 by the Rev. Father Du Faux. It is a superb piece of wood carving by the French sculptor,. 
Mr. Ferot. 

will continue to assist Father Cote in the work of the church and 

The present church is the third church erected on the historic spot. Fr. Hubert built the 
second one, a log church, in 1782, and the present church was commenced during the pastorate 
of the Rev. Angus McDonell in or about 1843 and firished a few years afterward. Fr. Aboulim 
refers to the land now owned by the church. This is, or rather, was, lo tNo. 63, in First, Second" 
and Third concession of the Township of Sardwich, containing 350 acres, and the patent subse- 
quently issued from the Crown in 1830 to Right Rev. Alexander McDonell, Rev. William John 
U Urady, of the Township of York, vicar-general; Hon. James Baby, also of the Township ot York; 
Francois Baby, Jean Baptiste Baby and Chrystome Pajot, of the Town of Sandwich, County of 




the episcopal see removed to the latter nlace i 
as a particularly handsome man, Dearly sfx 

n w 

fe" tall Com deSCr f lbed 
" ^ om ng from 

f L ndon ' 
^ own countrymen, had 

many of the old re idents 
ontreal, he was no doubt 

new one. 

The building of the bishop's palace, which it is said cost about $30 000 was considered -, 
of extravagance on his part, and in yearsafter was referred to by many as 'Tfnsonneault's FcS lv " 
He had a boat built for his use on the river which it i* -^A ^^ *1 Inn ^msonneault s I oily. 


When the Diocese of Toronto was divided in 1856, Bishop Pinsonneault obtained the removal 
of the Episcopal See from London to Sandwich. After his arrival in Sandwich in 1859 he built 
an Episcopal Palace. On October 3, 1869, the Episcopal See of the diocese was removed to 
London. The palace Was removed about the year 1896, and a handsome brick parish priest's 
residence built in its place. From a photo by A. Phil, Windsor. 

_The presbytery referred to as being still extant is no doubt the frame structure which stood 
originally on the site of the present Girardot Wine Co.'s building, and was removed a little to the 
southwest of it, where it now stands. 

Of Rev. Denis O'Connor, spoken of so fittingly in connection with the parish and college, it is 
hardly necessary to speak further. He was well and favorably known throughout the county. He 
was consecrated bishop of London in October, 1890, and archbishop of Toronto in April, 1899. 
On both occasions he received the congratulations of his mavy friends, both Catholic and Protestant. 

Extracts are also given from two other papers read by Mr. Cleary, photographic copies having 
come into his possession in 1897. These are the deed of gift from the Wyandotte nation to James 
Rankin, dated June 20, 1775, and the will of the said James Rankin, dated April 19, 1794. 

This parish is situated on the left bank of the Detroit river, in the extreme western section of 
the county of Essex. It has formed part successively of the diocese of Quebec, Kingston and 
Toronto, and is now one of the most flourishing parishes of the diocese of London. For a time, 
Sandwich was the See of the last-named diocese. In the second quarter of the 17th century, tome 
French colonists came over from Detroit to settle in that place, to which they gave the ra~ne of 
La Pointe-de-Montreal. Until its division in 1803 the parish was called the Assumption cf La 
Pointe-de-Montreal, or L' Assumption du Detroit. 



<" . 

ta - s 


Parish priest of Assumption from 1843 to 
1859. He spent the remainder of his life, 
about 25 years, in Montreal, and died Sep- 
tember, 1896, in the 95th year of his age. 


First Bishop of London, consecrated May 
13, 1856. Died at Montreal, January 30, 


of the Christians (meaning the savages), although it is seventy cubits long. Seventy cubits make 
105 feet. The letter is dated June 23, 1741. Whoever pretended that there was at that date a 
church of that size at Point of Montreal? Indeed, there are no proofs that there was a church 
then and there. 

Lastly, there is on record an agreement entered into in 1733, between Father de la Richardie 
and a certain Jean Cecile, a gunsmith, by which the latter was to do all the work in iron necessary 
for the church and the mission described as being situated in Detroit. Surely the town of Detroit 
and the neighborhood offered more advantages to a gunsmith than the embryo settlement of Point 
of Montreal. But let us resume our little narrative. 

In 1742 the Huron village was removed to Bois Blanc Island, opposite the present town of 
Amfierstburg, and in September, 1744, an assistant came to Father de la Richardie in the person of 
Father Pierre Potier. This help was indeed opportune, for in the spring of 1746 Father de la 
Richardie was attacked with paralysis and in consequence he had to retire to Montreal in July of 
the same year. 

He had scarcely left when great troubles arose, which threatened both the mission and the 
colony with complete ruin. At the instigation of the English, the Hurons, who had till then lived, 
in friendship with the French, rose in revolt against them. Chief Nicholas was at the head of 
the malcontent savages, who committed many outrages. On the 20th of May, 1747, they killed 


Frenchmen at Sandoske, or Sandusky, and contemplated nothing less than a massacre of all 
French ^oldiers and calonists of Detroit. An Indian woman having fortunately discovered the 
ooses of the rebels, revealed it to the Sieur of Longeuil, commander of the post. Thw 

Father Potier, however in order to save his life, 

vclion oroved the salvation of the colony. Father Potier, however in orer to save is ie, 
was Sed to leave the village of Bois Blanc and to seek shelter in Detroit. Longeuil was after 
T time enabled to sead to Quebec a deputation from different tribes urder the guidance of the 
Siei? de BeHestre to confeT with the governor, de la Galissoniere. Great must have been the 
Influence of Father de la Richardie ovr the Hurons, for we find the deputation pleading earnestly 

nuence o aer e , 

for his return on the ground that he alone was able to pacify the rebellious tribes The venerable 
mLionary notwithstanding his infirmities, left by order of his superior to follow Bellestre to 
Detroit where the party arrived on Oct. 20, 1747. The governor, in his instructions to M. de 
Loniuil urged on him to procure as speedily as possible the re-establishment of Father de la 
Rkhardie's mission; but, for greater safety, it was fixed at Point of Montreal, as was also the 

"""Father 3 !" la Richardie remained at Point of Montreal until Sept. 7, 1750. He then followed 
. detachment of Hurons who had left the place and went as far as the Vermilhon River. On 
Tulv 21 1751 he signed a contract with Nicholas Francois Janis, a mason in Detroit. Shortly after 
he left 'for Quebec, where he was a witness of the first vows of a scholastic, and neevr returned 
fo Detroit However, Mr. John Gilmary Shea says that in 1757 he led a party of Hurons to San- 
duskv and closed his honored and laborious career among the II mois in 1758. 

At Point of Montreal the Hurons made him a gift of a parcel of land forty arpents in length. 
and of considerable width, but without any written title. Nineteen years later, 1767, Father Pctier 


Vicar-General to Bishop Pinsonnault and to 
Bishop Walsh. 

Parish priest from 1870 to 1886. 

was forced to sell the greater part of this land to meet the debts of the mission. This he did p 
the authorization of Father de Glapion, superior at Quebec. In 1780 he sold the remainder, retain- 
ing only two small lots, which stretched from the river to the coulee. On the front lot were the 
house and garden of the missionary, as well as the church and cemetery of the mission; on the 
rear lot were the house and garden of the sexton. The land now owned by the church was donated 
by the Indian chiefs to Father Hubert, successor to Father Potier. 

This far we have spoken of the Huron village. Let us now speak of the French parish. The 
French settlers of the Point of Montreal continued after the removal of the Huron village to 
belong to St. Anne's in Detroit. Nevertheless, they were allowed to attend the Huron chapel, 
and to receive the sacraments in it. In proof of this there is a list kept year by year by the mis- 
sionary of the French, who performed their Easter duty there. In 1760 they appear to have been 
put in charge of the missionary. But in 1767 the mission, including both French and Indians, was 
erected into a parish, under the name as we have said before, of L'Assomption de la Pointe de 
Montreal, or L'Assomption du Detroit. Father Potier remained in charge of it until his death, 
which occurred on^Jiily 16, 1781. This sad event was the result of a fall by which his skull was 
broken. He was ,3 years of age, of which time he had spent 37 years in the service of the 
mission. He had won among his people the reputation of a saint, and so great was his influence 
over the Hurons that he prevented them from joining ranks with the other Indian tribes in the 
rebellion of the famous Chief Pontiac in 1763. 

Some days after the death of Father Potier, the church wardens deputized two of their mem- 
bers to wait on the Bishop of Quebec and ask for the appointment of a successor to their deceased 
pastor. The bishop accordingly sent Rev. M. Jean Francois Hubert, who had at first the care 


of t!Te two parishes, that of 


from a distance, a great relief to the se 

xton, in whose house they had 

by a portion of the church was to be set aside exclusively for the Indians 
acknowledgement of their genrous contributions towards its erection. 

This was but a just 

Secretary of the Diocese when the Episcopal 
Se was in Sandwich in 1866, and afterwards 
was parish priest of Assomption Church until 

Parish priest from 1861 to 1864. 

Where are now the six hundred Hurons, Catholics of Father de la Richardie? The nation 
has been dismembered. Somt have moved to distant places, some will occupy for some time the 
reserve of Anderdon, 14 miles below Sandwich, along the river. Deprived of special attendance, 
since there are no more Jesuits, little by little they fall away. For many years they will yet con- 
gregate at Sandwich to celebrate with great pomp the feast of the Assumption and hold their leg- 
endary picnic on the church grounds. But in less than a century scarcely any remnant of the 
Huron race will be found in Canada or elsewhere, and good old Chief White will end his days 
saying with sorrow, "Am I the last?" 

The name of Father Dufaux is sigred for the last time in the records on Sept. 8, and mxt his 
burial is recorded over the signature cf Father Levadoux, a Sulpician, parish priest of St. Anne's. 
This fact leads to the conclusion thathis death was unexpected and perhaps sudden. Rev. Edmund 
Burke, vicar-general, who resided at the Riviere aux Raisins, now Monroe, attended the mission 
until the following Christmas. On that auspicious festival the faithful of the Assumption had the 
joy of welcoming to their midst a zealous and distinguished priest, who for over 28 years was 
to exercise the holy ministry among them. This was the Rev. Jean Baptiste Marchand, priest of St. 
Sulpice and director of the college of Montreal. 

The year 1801 was rendered memorable by the visit of Mgr. Denaut, bishop of Quebec, who 
confirmed in the Church of the Assumption no fewer than five hundred persons. The largeness 
of this number is not surprising when we consider that this was the first episcopal visitation since 
that of Mgr. de Pontriband in 1755. Besides, the population was increasing. When in 1773, 
according to a census found in the Dominion archives, when it hardly reached 350, another census 


taken in 1790 gives 861. What it was at the opening of the present century no document enables 
us to tell. The parish of the Assumption was the only one in a territory now forming, several 
dioceses. The settlers were scattered all along the Detroit River, Lake St. Clair, and a few on 
the River Trenche, called since, by the English, the Thames. In 1803 two new stations were estab- 
lished, one at St. Pierre on the Thames, andthe other at Maiden or Amherstburg. The mother 
church, the Assumption of Sandwich, as we will hereafter call it, was the place of residence of the 
pastor, who for many years had to attend either in person or through his curate, whenever he 
could obtain one, the two new stations. However, St. Pierre was visited but twice in the year. 


The present parish priest of Assomption Church. 
his education at Assomption College, and war.ordained 

He was born in Anderdon, received 
June 16, 1881, by the late Bishop 


Father Gatien, of Quebec. He came to Sandwich 

vsit of Mgr. 
e "art/a SSL 

fi Father M * rc i iand 
ye3rS " 

painful inciden t of Father Marchand's pastorate. The facts 
and we shall suppress the names. Besides, the property has passed into 


ht'reser^d two Icts'rwTichtTre 'the' chuTch^' 1 " / tier / old the remnant of the mission land 
reservation was not mentioned in the deed ; however^t'he 3 b^yer^signed a^renundatio VerSight the 

of the renunciation, as about ' 8 5 years had elapsed since he sal 
tion was not opposed to the usurper, so tlt'fel S f fe|a 

them , likel y knew 

firmed in his possession. Farther Marchand is said to have foretold him that his usurpation of 
the church property would bring a curse upon his family. As a matter of fact, his descendants 
made ever since a rather poor figure, both for thrift and respectability. 

Father Marchand died on April 16, 1825. His memory was held in life-long veneration by 
those who had been his parishioners. His remains rest with those of Father Potier and Father 
Dufaux, under the nave of the church, not far from the communion table. He was succeeded by 
his curate, Father Crevier. 

Through the solicitude of the new pastor, some Grey nuns came to take charge of the girls' 
school, and there was question of building a convent, but 'the project fell to the ground, and the 


s left the parish with the exception of Sister Raizenne, who afterwards ended he 
Sandwich not without endearing herself to the population. Education in those days was v 
n^S: owing to the differences of the people. There is in the parochial archive a 

who afterwards ended her life in 
very much 

n^crlected owing to the differences ot tne peopie. j.ucrc is m nc F oiwv.. - i ;r^' v - a letter of 
BishoD MacDonll of Kingston, in which he reproved them severely for that indifference, telling 
fhemthatTn consequence they would become hewers of wood and the carriers of water. 

Rev Angus MacDonell, parish priest of St. Raphael's, Glengarry, succeeded Father Creveir in 
1831 He held the position of pastor of Sandwich for twelve years. ,Ie was however, absent for 
three years during which time he was replaced, first by Father Yvelm, and afterwards by Father 
Morin. Fathers Hay and Schneider also served in Sandwich during the pastorate of Father 

MaC The e oid church was now falling to ruins; from the time of Father Crevier the necessity had 
been felt to build a new one, and steps taken so far to that effect that the stone for the foundation 
had been procured. Father MacDonell commenced the erection of a handsome and spaciou sedifice, 
the walls of which were almost completed when he left the mission in the hands of the Jesuits. 
One of the first acts of Bishop Powers' administration was to restore to the Society of Jesus the 
field of labor won to the church by the apostolic zeal of Fathers de la Richardie and Potier a 
century before. ^ ^ .^ changed the face of things at Sandwich . They had at their head 

a man who, besides having a rare talent for organization, was possessed of an ardent zeal, a rare 
Sift of persuasive eloquence, and the heart of an apostle This was Father Pierre Point. The 
Jesuits arrived at Sandwich on July 31, 1843. Father Point had for his assistants at different times 
Father Nicholas Point, his elder brother; Fathers DuRanquet, Chazelle, Jaffre, Menet, Ferard, 

Looking from the northeast corner. 

Brimot, Conilleau and Mainguy. God alone knows the good those religious workers accomplished 
during the 16 years of their apostolate. 

The new church was now rapidly pushed to completion, the sanctuary excepted, and was opened 
for divine worship in the beginning of January, 1846. The main altar, of considerable value, was 
presented by the fishermen. Over it was placed a good copy of murillo's Immaculate Concep- 
tion, by Plamondon. Mr. Charles Baby and Col. Rankin donated an organ, the cost of which 
exceeded two thousand dollars. Near the church a modern dwelling was erected for the fathers. 

The next work to which they were eager to turn their attention was education, which had 
been, as we remarked before, wofully neglected. Besides creating elementary schools in the various 
sections of the parish, better to fight the demon of ignorance, and to give youth the facilities for 
a higher education, religious and secular, they built a college, which was opened in 1857. Five 
years before the ladies of the Sacred Heart had opened an establishment in Sandwich, under the 
superiorship of the able and saintly Mother Henriette de Kersaint. But they remained only seven 
years, leaving for London, amid the universal and indeed justified sorrow of the Sandwich people. 

In 1856 the diocese of Toronto was divided. Out of the western portion was formed the 
diocese of London. The first bishop, Mgr. Pinsonneault, obtained the removal of the Episcopal 
See from London to Sandwich, and went to reside in the latter place towards the close of the 
summer of 1859. The good people of Sandwich extended a hearty welcome to their first pastor; 
but their joy was short-lived, for the coming of the bishop was closely followed by the departure 
of the Jesuits. 

The beloved fathers tore themselves from their people, whom they never ceased to love ten- 
derly and in whose hearts their memory was never to die. Father Point spent some years in 


-Quebec, and the remainder of his life, about twenty-five years, in Montreal. He lived to celebrate 
the seventieth year of his priesthood, unable for a long time to do active service, owing chiefly to 
extreme deafness, but in the estimation of his brethren, more powerful by his prayers than they 
by their labors. The saintly father died in September, 1896, in the ninety-fifth year of his age. 

Bishop Pinsonneault appointed rector of the Cathedral Father Joseph Raynol, a post which he 
occupied two years; later on he entered thr. Society of Jesus, and died suddenly in Montreal, under 
the absolving hand of Father Point. Some of his successors were men of rare talent, such as 
Father Joseph Gerard, who died parish priest of Belle River; Father Joseph Bayard V. G., of 
London, and Mgr. Laurent, now parish priests of Lindsay. At their head was the indefatigable 
Vicar-General Bruyere, who also received in the course of time the well- deserved honor of the 

The Grey Nuns were called to Sandwich by Bishop Pinsonneault, but remained only a short 
time. The bishop himself resigned his See in December, 1866. He retired to Montreal, and died 
there in 1883. During his sojourn in Sandwich a vast amount of work was done to embellfsh the 
church grounds and to convert the parochial residence into an Episcopal Palace. Enormous sums 
of money were expended on a structure far more fantastic than substantial. It lasted thirty years. 
Afterwards it became an absolute necessity to level to the ground that leaky mass of buildings in 
order to put up in their stead the present commodious and handsome presbytery. 

The new bishop, the Rt. Rev. John Walsh, was consecrated on the 10th of December, 1867. 
After only two months' residence in Sandwich he took his departure for London, and a decree 
of the Holy See, dated Oct. 3rd, 1869, transferred again to that city the Episcopal See of the 

But the wise prelate did not fail to realize what benefit his diocese could derive from the 
college built in Sandwich by the Jesuits. The location was excellent, although the edifice was of 
small dimension. This establishment had passed through many vicissitudes. It was at that time 
conducted by Mr. Theodule Girardot, an experienced teacher possessed of a true love and a 
remarkable practical sense of education. He is yet and has been for nearly thirty years inspector 
of public schools. Bishop Walsh called upon the priests of St. Basil to take charge both of the 
parish and of the college. On the 18th of September, 1870, they assumed the direction of the 
parish, which Dean Laurent resigned into their hands, and the college was opened by them at the 
same time. 

The leader of the new staff was a young priest of great promise, and he has kept all lie prom- 
ised. This was Father Denis O'Connor. Under his superiorship the college rose to such a degree 
of prosperity that it became necessary to enlarge its builudings, first in 1875, and still more in 
1883. After twenty years of successful labor, Father O'Connor was raised to the Episcopal See 
of London, and thence to the Metropolitan See of Toronto, upon which may he be spared and 
blessed for many years. 

At the church Father O'Connor built in 1874 the tower and spire and the sanctuary. Improve- 
ments in the interior were made in 1882; stained glass windows were put in and the following 
year stations of the cross in oil paintings were acquired. In 1887 a very elaborate stone altar was 
erected. Father O'Connor was represented in the service of the parish by Father Aboulin for 23 
years, assisted for over 14 years by Father Faure, an aged and worthy priest who, when no longer 
able to perform his functions, went to end his days in France. Fathers Mazenod, Gery and G. 
Granitier collaborated also successfully in the attendance of the parish. Moreover, valuable aid 
did not cease to be given by the priests of the college. The present superior of the college is 
Father Daniel Gushing, who maintains it in a state of prosperity. The parish priest is Father 
Semande, to whose untiring zeal is due an admirable progress in piety and the reception of the 
sacraments. The first months of his service were marked by the acquisition of an excellent bell 
weighing 4,186 pounds, the largest in the diocese. It replaced a large one, also procured by Dean 
Laurent in 1870, which broke in the spring of 1893. 

From the successive divisions and sub-divisions of the mother parish of the Assumption during 
the latter half of the century many parishes have been formed, among which Windsor is by far 
the most important. The actual population of the Sandwich parish is not inferior to 2,300 souls, 
mostly of French-Canadian blood. It claims the honor of giving a large number of nuns to differ- 
-ent congregations,' and six' priests to the church. 

Sandwich, Ontario. 

The building, which up to 1875, had been large enough to supply the 
needs of the Catholics of Western Ontario for higher education, was 
erected at Sandwich by the Jesuit Fathers. Here in 1857, those world- 
famed educators of Catholic youth erected the original building of 
the regular college group, and opened classes in order to give a religious 
and classical training to the young men of the district and surround- 
ing country. Before two full years had elapsed, however, these zealous 
instructors had been called away to other more pressing work, 
college, during the next decade, passed successively through the hands 
of the Benedictines, of the Basilians, and to the late Theodule Girar- 
<Iot who afterwards filled the position of the Inspector of Public Schools 


in the County of Essex. In 1870, the late Dr. Walsh, then Bishop of 
London, seeing the need of establishing the College on a more per- 
manent basis, called upon the Priests of St. Basil to take charge once 

Sandwich, Ont. 


Superior of Assomption College from 1870 to 

more of Assumption College. The prospects of success, he felt, were 
now brighter; the Catholics of the neighborhood were prosperous; 
and this, together with the proximity of the fast growing metropolis 


Father Denis O'Connor headed the little band that came to take 
charge of Assumption College in September of 1870. That the choice 

hfrh Pe th r r 1? a WSe ne If evidenced by the splendid success with 
which the College was conducted under the new regime. Himself 
a trained scholar, a born teacher, and typical disciplinarian, Father 
O Connor possessed the happy faculty of infusing part of his own 
energy and resistless perseverance into the hearts of the small staff 
of. professors that shared his labors; and thus the College <*rew and 
prospered. Owing to the ever increasing attendance of students from 

Dedicated June 19, 1908. 

both Ontario and the adjacent States, it was found necessary in 1875 
to add to the College buildings, and still again in 1883 ; so that now 
there is ample accommodation in the Institution for some two hundred 
boarders. The Basilian Fathers have completed the buildings by the 
addition of another wing in which is a handsome Chapel and a College 


In 1890, Dr. O'Connor was called to the See of London to succeed 
the Right Rev. Bishop Walsh, who had been raised to the Archiepis- 
copal See of Toronto. The impetus for good given the College by its 
first President after the Basilians had assumed permanent charge still 
continues to keep it abreast of the times, and true to its principles of 
training youth in "Virtue and Discipline and Knowledge." 

The situation of the College on the south bank of the Detroit river, 
the salubrious climate of extreme Western Ontario, the excellent dis- 
cipline and thorough system of instruction in both the Classical and 
Commercial Courses, make Assumption College a most desirable, resi- 
dential school for boys. 

On June 16, 1908, a large and handsome Chapel was dedicated and the 
College buildings, as originally designed, are now completed. 

The present officers of the College are: President, Rev. F. Foster; 
Director of Theologians, R. F. M. Ferguson; C. S. B. and Treasurer 
and First Assistant, Rev. V. G. Murphy ; Second Assistant, Rev. W. 
T. Roach. 



When Michigan was ceded to the United States in August 1796 
many people preferring to remain loyal to the old flag, moved 'to the 
south side ot the river, Sandwich became the rendevous and known to 
these early settlers as South Detroit. Near the spot where the tower 
of St. Johns Church now stands was erected a small log building 
which was used for a place of meeting for civil purposes, a school for 
children and on Sunday for a place of worship for the Protestants of 
the community. 

On the land immediately adjoining was opened the first Anglican 
graveyard west of Niagara. In this little building, Richard Pollard 
(who was six years Registrar of Deeds for the District of Hesse), as 
a Layman, held the services of the Church of England. In the year 
1802 he was ordained and became the first rector of the parish of Sand- 

ft.-.- ^7V*X'i*? 

^fe SMI -' ffW^ 


"' " 


by General Harrison's men in September, 1813. 

wich with missionary jurisdiction over the whole Western District. 
In the records of many a family in the Western counties of Ontario 
appears the name of Richard Pollard as the faithful priest who had 
baptised, married and committed to the dust many of their members, 
w r hile over in Michigan the archieves of St. Paul's Church, Detroit, 
tells us that it was he who founded our church in 1805. As rector of 
Sandwich he was chaplain to the forces at Fort Maiden, now Amherst- 

The first church was built in 1807 and remained so until after the 
defeat of Commodore Barclay on Lake Erie in 1813 when the Ameri- 
can General Harrison, landing in Amherstburg, passed up what is now 
known as the Maiden Road in pursuit of Proctor's Army, made a short 
halt at Sandwich where the Baby House became his headquarters, and 
the little Anglican Church a stable for the Kentucky Horse. After 

the defeat of Proctor at the battle of Moraviantown and the death of 
Tecumseh the American army retreated as fast as it advanced and the 
little church that had proved a shelter for themselves and their steeds 
was now given to the flames by the Kentucky Mounted Riflemen. This 
was in the month of September, 1813. 

In 1815 efforts were made to rebuild the church. Assistance was 
obtained, not -only from England but also from the United States. 

Founded in 1803. 

Bricks were brought from Buffalo, the edifice was completed contem- 
peranous with Christ Church, Amherstburg in the year 1818. 

In reference to the burning of the church, Doctor, -afterwards Bishop 
Strachan, writes in 1814: "The enemy have twice captured the town 
since the spring of 1813, all the public buildings have been burnt, and 
nuch loss sustained by many of the inhabitants." The S. P. G. Societies 


thh T H t e v, An j eric t ns . also tool < possession of Sandwich and Niagara, 
they burnt the church there, carrying off from Sandwich the church 

George Gray, of Sandwich, who with his brother Thomas, had the 
i?9 of the woodwork and assisted in rebuilding the edifice in 
1872 says that he found several pieces of burnt wood and glass, which 
is additional evidence of the rash acts of Harrison's men in 1813 

The late Nelson Jenkins, of Walkerville, said that his father was 
married in the church and thought that it was the first marriage 
solemnized, which was July 25, 1818. 


The present steeple was built in IS 5 2 by William Bartlett, late of 
H. M. Customs and brother of the present Police Magistrate was the 
contractor; Andrew Botsford and Alanson Elliott assisted Mr. Bartlet 
in the work at the time. 

The present church was built during- the incumbency of the Rev. 
Francis Gore Elliott in 1872. The gentlemen who composed the build- 
ing committee on this occasion were the Rector Rev. Francis Gore 
Elliott, Judge Gordon Watts Leggatt, George Fellers, Louis J. Fluett, 
Abner C. Ellis, Miles Cowan and A. G. McWhinney. Mr. Fellers was 
the chairman of the building committee while Mr. McWhinney was 

It may be interesting to some of our readers to learn that the Masonic 
Order has been closely associated with the early history of St. John's 
from 1803 to the present. The firset rector, Rev. Mr. Pollard, being a 
member of this ancient and honorable order. When the church was 



'is ifoc f wtriK son 

* ers, adorn the interior of St. John's Episcopal Church, Sandwich. 

rebuilt in 1872 the corner stone was well and truly laid with Masonic 

JsJIst^H h ^ ffl W rshi P ful Master J us tice William Mercer Wilson, 
by the officers and members of Great Western Lodge No. 4?! 


A. F. & AM. Windsor. The officers of the lodge on this important 

W. M Stehe d, Chapla!"Trchi- 

The first baptism that took place after the church was rebuilt in 
1872 1 was our respected townsman, George William Gray, and the first 
marriage solemnized was that of Miss Harriet Bowers to Robert T 
Birdseye, both of the Town of Sandwich. 

The land on which the church stands was conveyed to the Right 
Rev. Dr. Stewart, Bishop of Quebec in 1834, by the Crown. 

Again referring to the first rector, Mr. Pollard, Mr. Hind has found 
an entry in the parish records which is as follows: "The Rev. Richard 

Northwest corner of Huron and Bedford Streets. Built in 1906. 

Pollard of Sandwich was absent from that place from February, 1814, 
to June, 1815, on account of the war, and was appointed and sent to 
Earnestown, on the Bay of Quinte, during that period." 

Mr. Pollard says that each visit to the garrison at Amherstburg 
from Sandwich cost him 6 and three days time, and he. received for 
his services as chaplain to the forces 100 per year. 

Mr. Pollard was followed by the Rev. Robert Short in 1814, who 
continued rector of St. John's till 1827. He was unmarried, but later 
married Miss Maria Forsythe of this town( Sandwich). He went to 
Lower Canada when, after serving in several missions, he died in 1879 
at Montmorenci. 


Then came the Rev. Edward Jukes Boswell from 1827 to 1828, when 
he was transferred to London and became the first missionary sta- 
tioned in that now Cathedral City, preceding immediately the Rev. 
Benjamin Cronin, who became the first bishop of the Diocese of Huron 
on its separation in 1857. 

The Rev. Wm. Johnson came from the West Indies to Amherst- 


The house was built during the '30's by a German named George Lawbucker, who afterwards 
sold it to the Rev. Earl Welby. Mr. Welby occupied it as a rectory until he was called home to 
England in 1842, when he left it to the parish of St. John's Church. The land on which the 
rectory stands was legally conveyed to the Church Society of the Diocese of Huron by the Ven- 
erable Archdeacon Welby in 1862. 

burg, and then to Sandwich as the teacher of the grammam school, 
1828, and later was ordained to the ministry, and continued rector till 
his death, which took place September 5, 1840. It was during his in- 
cumbency and in August, 183?, that Col. Prince and family came to 
Sandwich, and this was followed by the first square pew put in the 
church. The family consisted of six members and there was not a 


vacant pew or place to put one, except the space between the pulpit 
and the front pew, and it was arranged that Mr. Prince might have 
h IS pew built there, and this was done; quite an addition in every way 
to the 1, tie church. The family was most exemplary in its attendance 
at church, and its .nfluence was felt far and wide. Mr. Prince was one 
of the wardens from 1884 to 1836, when he became the member of 
Parliament for Essex. 

The Rev. Thomas Earl Welby came as the successor to Mr John- 
son ; he was a major in the Army, and had been an officer of the 13th 
c!fw D ^, ns ; n India - H e was an officer during the rebellion of 
1837 at Brantiord and had a fine estate and large private means Mr 
Welby was the finest type of an English officer and gentleman and 
belonged to one of the oldest families in England, antedating the Con- 


Bishop of the Island of St. Helena, who was 
rector of St. John's from 1840 to 1842. 

Rector from 1559 to 1863. 

quest. With his sense of duty as a soldier, and his great regard for 
his high office as a clergyman of the Church of England, he was soon 
an active, zealous and much-beloved pastor. Owing to circumstances 
he was called home to England, and left us in 1842, but he left to the 
church the rectory he had provided for himself on the bank of the 
Detroit River and which has been used by the different rectors who 
have since succeeded him. Not contented with the work he could do 
about town, Dr. Welby extended his efforts into the country and with 
the assistance of his late friend, Col. Sparke, he founded what after- 
church was first built on the Talbot Road, known at that time as the 
wards became the mission of St. Stephen's, Sandwich West. This 
Irish Settlement, and among those who took part in its erection were 


George Vollans, Edmund Taylor, Robert Nicholson, Richard Walker r 
John Jessop and Messrs. Robinson and Bennett. 

In 1850 Rev. Thomas Earl Welby was appointed Archdeacon of 
George in the diocese of Capetown. On Ascension Day, 1862, he was 
consecrated at Lambath Palace Chapel, Second Bishop of St. Helena. 
He was 37 years Bishop of St. Helena and died on the feast of the 
Epiphany 1899, being killed by a fall from his carriage, in the 89th 
year of his age. His diocese included the islands of St. Helana, Ascen- 
sion and Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean, and formed 
part of the ecclesistical Province of South Africa. 

In 1843 came the Rev. Wm. Ritchie, who remained till 1851, when 
he went to West Guilliambury, County of Simcoe ; he with the Rev. 
Mr. Leitch, came from the Presbyterian Church to our Communion, 

Rector from 1863 to 1879. 

Rector from 1879 to 1887. 

and was ordained by Bishop Strachan, the first Bishop of Toronto, in 
1843, and appointed at once to Sandwich. 

The Rev. E. H. Dewar came in 1853. While rector of St. John's, 

succeeded in founding a church in Windsor All Saints which has 

now a large and influential congregation, fine church buildings and a 

well-trained surplus choir, the present rector being the Rev. Rural 

Dean Chadwick. Mr. Dewar's ministry ceased at Sandwich in 185T 

levoted all his energies to the building up the parish of All Saints, 

in 1859 he resigned and became rector of Thornhill, which parish he 

hfully served until his death in the autumn of 1862. 
In addition to his other duties in 1856 the Rev. Mr. Dewar pub- 
I a monthly paper called 'The Churchmans' Friend." 




s , , 

Montreal and was ordained by Bishop sSachan H 7 fi ! * '" 

The Rev. R,chard W. Johnstone followed from 1879 t 188^ H* 
was born at Tulah, Ireland, in 1836, entered Trinity College 

The present Bishop of the Diocese of Huron. 

The present rector of St. John's. 

The Rev. John Hurst succeeded Mr. Dewar from 1859 to 1863. He 
also conducted services in All Saints, Windsor, in addition to his work 
here and in 1863 he resigned his charge at St. John's and continued as 
rector of All Saints until 1873 when he ceased his ministry in that im- 
portant parish and went to England where he became secretary of the 
Colonial and Continental Church Society. He became Vicar of St. 
Marks, Tollington Park, London, in -1881, and was appointed rector 
of St. Swithin's Church in 1892. He died February 26th, 1903. 

The Rev. Francis Gore Elliott succeeded Mr. Hurst. He was a 
native of the County of Essex, eldest son of Col. Matthew Elliott, of 


as a divinity student and ordained a deacon by Bishop Cronyn, in 
London Ont., in 1859, and a priest in 1862. Serving in various parishes 
he became rector of Sandwich where he served eight years. He was 
superanuated in 1893. He was a man of most scholarly attainments 
and genial disposition. He died at Fort Gratiot, Mich., February 24, 
1906, aged 71 years. His remains were interred in St. John's grave- 

Rev. Duncan K. Hind, the present rector, succeeded Mr. Johnstone 


Who rendered valuable services as secretary- 
treasurer of the building committee when St. 
John's Churchh was rebuilt in 1872. Some 
years after he was promoted and was ap- 
pointed Superintendent of the Government 
Mail Service for this district, with head- 
quarters at London, Ont., to which city he 
moved and took up his residence with his 
family. During the year 1905 he visited Ire- 
land for his health, but unfortunately his 
health failed him and he died at Belfast, 
Ireland. July 10, 1905. 


Also a member of the building committee 
when the church was rebuilt in 1872; was 
horn in Sandwich, March 5, 1833; appointed 
to Her Majesty's customs in 1855 and filled 
the duties of that office for 41 years. Held 
a commission as ensign in No. 1 militia com- 
pany at Sahidwich, organized during 'the 
Fenian raids in 1865 and 1870 and received 
a medal for services rendered at that time. 
He at present resides with his family in 
Windsor and conducts a custom's brokerage 
office and insurance office on Ouellette ave- 
nue, Windsor, at the present time. 

and entered upon his appointed duties August 10, 1887. Mr. Hind 
was born in Toronto June 24, 1853, and educated in King's College, 
Nova Scotia. He passed several years in the Northwest on the C. P. R. 
survey, and returning to Nova Scotia was ordained by the late Bishop 
Burney in 1879. Mr. Hind is a son of the late Professor Henry Y. 
Hind. Since assuming the rectorship of St. John's Parish he has suc- 
ceeded in making many improvements, being very ably assisted in all 
his undertakings by his parishioners. Among the improvements above 
mentioned being the new brick Church House erected in 1906. 


On Sunday, September 20, 1903, was celebrated the one hundredth 
anmversary-or the centenary-of St. John's Church, Sandwich For 
one hundred years the Episcopalians of Sandwich have been loyal to 
their little church, and well they might be, for it was established by 

heroes and supported from the affections of the people when money 
was scarce and ministerial talent difficult to secure. 

A large number from Windsor, Sandwich and vicinity were present 
to hear the address of Judge Robt. S. Woods, of Chatham, which ad- 


dress was a clear and succinc htistory of the Essex frontier, as well 
as the story of the early struggles and later triumphs of St. John's 
church. The old church abounds in historic interest. The church yard, 
which forms a fitting background for the sacred edifice, is as -worthy 
of commemoration. Among those who sleep, "each in his narrow cell," 
are makers of history, as well as the "rude forefathers" who struggled 
with foes of flesh and blood in addition to the giants of the forest, for 
the land along the Detroit river is historic ground, the scene of the 
war of 1812. Inside the quaint old church are marble tablets which 
serve to refresh the names of men and women of past generations in 


1 -miking from the southeast corner, near Bedford Street. It is one of the oldest Protestant 
Parish Graveyards in the Niagara District. 

the memories of the present. The church has recently been 'renovated 
and provided with a new pipe organ, the latter being dedicated to the 
memory of the late Richard Pollard, the first rector of the church. It 
may be fittingly mentioned here that the mural decorations, the tinting 
of the walls, is the work of James Rosier, who gave his services free. 
Some changes have been made, notably in the position occupied by 
the choir. The new organ is rich in tone and is an instrument that is 
a credit to the venerable surroundings. 


The following is a list of the gentlemen who have filled the position 
of Church Wardens from 1821 to the present 1909 : 

1834 Charl 

--,-_ and James Little. 
AA/ McGregor and Joseph Hamilton. 
-Wm. Elliott and J. W. Little. 
1824 Wm. Hands and J. W Little ' 

1825 James Woods and J. W. Little 
182G George Jacob and Charles Eliot. 
:}I~~ eorge J acoh and Robert Wrist 
828 George Jacob and Charles Askin 
1829 George Jacob and Joseph Woods 
1830 George Jacob and Charles Askin' 
1831 George Jacob and James Woods 
and J. L. Williams 

;e Jacob and John A. Wilkinson. 

2S Ehot and John Prince. 

Unsworth and John Prince 
Unsworth and Tohn Prince 
Jifc~"^K ra t am Unsworth and J. B. Laughton. 
Jflo~~^ ra ? am Unsworth and J. B. Laughton. 
ifJn~i ra J am U ns rth and J. B. Laughton. 
1840 Abraham Unsworth and J. B Laughton 
Jfi? brab ^ n Unsworth and J. B. Laughton.' 
1841 Wm. R. Wood and Louis T Fluett 
1842 Wm. R. Wood and Thos. Woodbridge 
lfJ3-Wm. R. Wood and Thos. Woodbridge.' 
1844 Wm. R. Wood and J. B. Laughton. 
1845 Wm. R. Wood and A. K. Dewson 
1846 Wm. R. Wood and A. K. Dewson' 
1847 Wm. R. Wood and W. P. Vidal 
1848 Wm. R. Wood and W. P. Vidal 

1850 Paul J. Salter and George Bullock 
1851 Paul J. Salter and George Bullock. 
1852 Paul J. Salter and George Bullock. 
1853 Paul J. Salter and Thos. Woodbridge 
1854 Paul J. Salter and Thos. Woodbridge 
1855 Paul J. Salter and Thos. Woodbridge. 
1856 Thos. Woodbridge and John Adley 
1857 Thos. Woodbridge and John Adley. 
1858 "Thomas Woodbridge and John Adley. 
1859 Paul J. Salter and John Adley. 
1860 Paul J. Salter and Joseph Miller. 
1860 Paul J. Salter and Joseph Miller. 
1661 Paul J. Salter and J. H. Wilkinson. 
1862 Paul J. Salter and J. H. Wilkinson. 
1863 James Woodbridge and J. H. Wilkinson. 


Miles Cowan and 

J. H. Wilkinson. 
J. H. 

John Green. 

C. Ellis and George Jessop. 
C. Ellwand J. H. Wilkinson. 

G. McWhinney and A. C. Ellis. 

G. McWhinney and A. C. Ellis. 

M. Goddard and John Wright. 

O'C. Leech and Frank E. Marcon. 
io~r~V e ,- 9' C ' Leech and Frank E. Marcon. 
1877 John^ Spiers and A. C. Vernor. 
1878 A. C. Vernor and John Spiers 
^A"? 110 , 3 , 5 McWhinney and C. H. Ashdown. 
1880 Fred Neal and A. C. Vernor 
1881 Fred Neal and A. C. Vernor 
1881 Fred Neal and A. C. Vernor 
1882 Fred Neal and A C Verne r 
1883 A. H. Nilson and A. C Vernor 
1884 A. H. Nielsen and Fred Neal 
1885 A. W. Phillips and Arthur Manser 
1886 A. W. Phillips and John Spiers. 
1887 A. W. Phillips and John Spiers. 
1888 G. W. Mason and John Spiers 
1889 G. W. Mason and John Spiers. 
1890 Joseph Leggatt and G. R. M. Pentland. 
1891 Joseph Leggatt and G. R. M. Pentland. 
1892 Fred Neal and G. R. M. Pentland. 
1893 John V. Gray and G. R. M. Pentland. 
1894 Norris McWhinney and G. R. M. Pentland 
1895 Norris McWhinney and G. R. M. Pentland. 
1896 David Tasker and G. R. M. Pentland. 
1897 David L. Carley and G. R. M. Pentland. 
1898 Orlando Pickard and G. R. M. Pentland. 
1899 W. H. Gray and G. R. M. Pentland. 
1900 W. H. Gray and G. R. M. Pentland. 
1901 Percy T. Sunley and David Tasker. 
1902 William Hill and David Tasker. 
1903 William Hill and David Tasker. 
1904 William Hill and David Tasker. 
1905 William Hill and David Tasker. 
1906 William Hill and David Tasker. 
1907 William Hill and David Tasker. 
1908 William Hill and David Tasker. 
1909 William Hill and David Tasker. 


The first religious service conducted by a minister of the Methodist 
communion in this part of Canada was on Wednesday, August 15, 
1804, in the old Court Room, Sandwich, by a well-known and able 
missionary worker, the Rev. Nathan Bangs. 

The first Methodist Chapel was built on Mill Street, Sandwich, in 
the year 1838, the ground for the site of the building being donated 
by Mrs. John B. Laughton. And the first regular services were com- 
menced in the beginning of 1839. 

From 1839 and for many years after the Methodist Church of Sand- 
wich was an important institution ; it was the principle church of that 
denomination in the country and the circuit of this part of Essex was 
known as Sandwich circuit with the Windsor Methodist Church as 
one of the points of call. In time Windsor increased in importance, 


and the circuit was called the Sandwich and Windsor circuit. Sand- 
wich, however, like many other towns in Canada has had its dull 
periods, and it was during one of these that the little company of 
Methodists became so small they decided to throw in their lot with 
the Windsor Church. The Chapel which they had erected was turned 
over to the Windsor congregation who in turn sold it to the munici- 
pality of the Town of Sandwich for a council chamber and other pur- 
poses in April, 1879. The building is being used for a council cham- 
ber and fire hall at the present time. The addition to the side of the 
building and the hose tower was built after the purchase was made 
by the town.' 

Built on Mill Street in 1838. Now used for municipal purposes by the Town of Sandwich. 

The new Methodist Church is a handsome brick structure erected 
about two hundred yards south of the Court House in 1906. The 
s illuminated in the day time by two handsome stained glass 
and a number of smaller windows, and at night by the latest appli- 
ances in gas illumination. In the front of the church are five square 
stones that have been set in the brick work as land marks of the 
iberal donations of the various societies and friends of the congrega- 
These stones bear the inscriptions: "The Building Committee," 
Ladies' Aid," "Hon. R. F. Sutherland, M. P.," "A. H. Clarke 
M. P.," and "J. E. Stone, County Warden in 1906." 

The Thompson Bros., of Windsor, were the contractors of the stone 
ck work, and Frank B. Tofflemire, Walkerville, the woodwork. 



Built in 1906. Dedicated May 12, 1907. Thompson, contractor. 

Building Committee D L. Wigle, chairman: J. \. McCormick, secr^tary-trcasuier- R, |, t 
Maisey, J. E. Millen, C. E. Wadge, Win. Wright, W. D. Yaney. and Rev. Robert Hicks. 

The present pastor in charge. 

The first pastor of the new church was the Rev. Robert Hicks. The 
edifice was dedicated to the service of God May 12, 1907, by the Rev. 
Jasper Wilson, of Leamington, Chairman of the District. Mr. Wilson 




s ablv assisted in the services by the pastor and several other minis- 


Fa-tor of the new church, before and after it 
was built in 1906. 


A prominent worker in the early days of Chairman of the Building Committee of 

Methodism in this District. the present Church. 

Some of the ministers who were in charge of the first church in 
Sandwich were the Revs. Ames, Edward White, William Williams, 
Tucker, Clewworthy, Claire, Manley Benson and R. H. Fyfe. 



As early as the year 1843 regular Sabbath services were held under 
the auspices of the Baptist Communion in Sandwich. During the year 
1851 a brick edifice was erected on Lot 22 West Peter Street, the cor- 
ner stone being laid the first day of August of that year. 

Erected in 1851. 


Who was a deacon of the First Baptist Church 
and also a member of the town council at 
the tfme of his death. He died August 14, 

Some of the pastors and deacons who have labored among the people 
of this denomination in tfiis vicinity and who have been in charge of 
the church here from 1843 to the present are: Major Stevens, Henry 
Brent, James Madison Lightfoot, Wilson Carter, Elder Wilson, Jushua 
Thornton, Rev. Charles Brown, Rev. Wesley Redd, John Hubbs r 
Anthony Bingey, Elder Wilts, Arthur Williams, William Watkins and 
Robert Jackson. The present pastor in charge is the Rev. Charles L. 


This society was organized at the City of Windsor, in the County of 
Essex, on January 19, 1904, when the following officers were elected: 


Was born November 9, 1840, near the Town 
of Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Ireland, 
and came to Canada with his parents when 
but a year old. After receiving a thorough 
education he was admitted to the practice of 
law in 1867. He was a member of the Wind- 
sor council four years, three of which he 
occupied the mayor's chair, succeeding the 
late Dr. John Coventry. He has been Presi- 
dent of the Essex County Historical Society 
since its organization in 1904, and has taken a 
very deep interest in its welfare since the 
first day it was organized, in fact, it may be 
safely said that a great deal of the practical 
work accomplished by the society has been 
mainly due to the enthusiastic and sacri- 
ficing effortss of its president. 

Mr. Cleary is the present local Registrar of 

the High Court of Justice, Registrar of Sur- 
rogate Court and Clerk of the County Court 
of Essex. 


was the first vice-president of the Essex Coun- 
ty Historical Society when it was organized, 
and takes a deep interest in the affairs at 
the present time. He is also the librarian of 
the Essex Law Association. 

Francis Cleary, President; A. Phie Pauet, Vice-President; A. J. E. 
Belleparche, Secretary-Treasurer, and Miss Jean D. Barr, as Corre- 
sponding Secretary. 


The aims and objects of the Society may be briefly stated as follows- 
To invite all persons who are interested in the natural, civil or ecclesias- 
tical history of the Province to become members. To request all 
pioneers or their representatives to co-operate with the Society in pro- 
curing, collecting or donating contributions of incidents, papers pamph- 
lets, books, maps, portraits, Indian relics, natural curiosities and ancient 
records bearing on the early history of the country. 

At the first regular meeting of the Society a paper was read by the 
President, "Notes on the Early History of the County of Essex " 

On June 1st and 2nd, 1904, the Ontario Historical Society held their 

magazines and journals. Her work is prin- 
cipally along historical lines. 


the corresponding secretary of the Essex 
County Historical Society, comes of a news- 
paper family and is the youngest sister of 
Robert Barr, the well-known author, who was 
for years a staff writer on the Detroit Free 
Press. She has contributed short stories to 


Secretary-Treasurer of The Echo Printing 
Co., is an ardent student of Essex historical 
affairs. His paper, "The Place Names of 
Essex County," has been published and is 
considered a valuable addition to the county 

annual meeting at Windsor, which was considered a most successful 
one. During these days the visiting members were escorted by local 
members to Sandwich and Amherstburg where many historical places 
of interest were visited. In the evenings meetings were held at which 
many historical papers were read by the members of the Ontario 
Society and members of the local Society. 

Since the organization of the Society meetings have been annually 
held at which papers connected with historical places and events of the 
county have been contributed and read by members. 

The Society had also caused three mural bronze tablets to be placed, 
two in Windsor commemorating the Battle of Windsor, December 4, 
1838, and one in Sandwich on the "Baby Mansion," erected about 1790. 


ft * 


A reference to the counties of Essex and Kent would not be complete without mention 
of the late Robert Stuart Woods, Junior Judge of the County Court of Kent, and who 
died at Chatham, November 20, 1906, aged 87 years. The late judge was born, in the Town 
of Sandwich in 1819 and was educated in the 'Hstrict urammar schools under the Rev. David 
Robertson and the late William Johnson at Sandwith. In 1837 came the rebellion and" 
the young student went to the relief of To- rorto under Col. McNab, as one of the 
famous fifty-six men of "Gore," in the steamer "Gore," by means of whom, on the first day 
of the rebellion, the city was saved from McKerzie's forces. He continued with Col. 
McNab throughout the campaign, and of one of the exploits of that force, the cutting out 
of the "Caroline," Judge Woods has written an interesting account. He was called to the 
bar in 1842 and was solicitor of the county courcil of the Western District from 1846 to 
1849 and was the oldest municipal officer in Kent. He was a prominent figure in the 
history of what was known as the Western District. His publication in 1896 of "Har- 
rison Hall and its Associations" is a most valuable contribution to the early history of 
that district. 


Walkerville, a town known throughout the civilized world, because 
of its many and varied industries, and most of all from its world's famous 
distillery, is beautifully situated on the Detroit Riven, touching Windsor 
on its eastern boundary. 

Walkerville is one of the most complete and self-contained muni- 
cipalities in the Dominion, and might be called a city in epitome. It has 
a system of sewerage covering every street and all it's highways are 
paved with the dost modern materials. 

At the very beginning of its career it began to build for the future 
and its shade trees, lawns and other topographical features are the 
admiration of all visitors. 

Educationally it is quite in the ban with more pretentious places,, 
and one of its institutions is a public library. 



It is well supplied with breathing spots in the shape of parks and 
bowling greens, and its latest addition to the means or recreation is a 
splendid boat club house, to replace the old one destroyed by fire in 1908. 

Its three churches, Anglican, Methodist and Presbyterian, are 
among the first in the Province, with charming surroundings. 

Its Government from the beginning has throughout been of the 
most efficient character, being drawn always from the cream of the 
business men and to this fact may be ascribed in a great measure the 


The founder of the Town of Walkerville, 
and also the founder of the great firm of 
Hiram Walker & Sons, Limited. He was 
born in East Douglass, Massachusetts, July 4 
181 6. In 1858 he came to Walkerville, where 
in a small way he commenced the distillery 
business. As time passed he was joined In 
the business by his three sons, and the part- 
nership was known as Hiram Walker & Sons 
until 1890, when the firm was incorporated as 
Hiram Walker & Sons, Limited. Either per- 
sonally, or in conjunction with his sons, he 

assisted in starting several new industries in 
Walkerville. He also did much to encour- 
age good farming and stock raising in this 
vicinity. He died January iz, 1899, and was 
roted for his great energy, intelligence and 


Mayor of the Town of Walkerville for the 
years 1890, 1891, and 1892. 

phenominal development of the town, industrially, educationally and 

Two chartered banks Commerce and Home are well represented 
with branches domiciled in buildings that would be a credit to any city. 

Walkerville's shipping facilities are of the best. It is traversed by 
the trains of three trunk lines Pere Marquette, Grand Trunk and 
Wabash, while its ample docks are the constant calling place of all the 
Great Canadian passenger and freight lines of steamers, among these 
Deino the palatial steamers of the Northern Navigation Company and 
of the Merchants Line. 


Another prime convenience is its ferrv service running to Detroit 
every twenty rmnutes in summer and every 'half hour in winir 

The town of Walkerville was incorporated by a special Act of 

Mayor for the years 1903 and 1904. 

Mayor for the year 1896. 

Mayor for the years 1897 and 1898. 

Mayor for the years 1899 to 1900. 

Parliament, May 5, 1890, Hiram A. Walker, a nephew of the late 
founder was its first mayor and held the office for the years 1890, 1891 
and 1S92. The gentlemen who succeeded him were Thomas Smith, in 


Mayor for the years 1901, 1902 and 1903. 


Mayor of the Town of Walkerville for the 
years 1904 and 1905. He is at present the 
editor and publisher of the WalkerviUe Herald 
which was established in 1897. 


Mayor for the year 1906. 


Mayor for years 1907 and 1908. 



1901, 1903 and 1903 ; John E. Dobie, 1904 and 1905 ;W C 


The present Mayor of the Town of Walker- 


E. C. Russell, 1907 and 1908. The present mayor is Charles L. Chilvers. 
Cecil H. Robinson, the present efficient and obliging town clerk 
has filled the office since the town's incorporation in 1890. 


The following narrative is copied from an old newspaper clipping 
in the possession of Miss E. Mears, a decendant of one of the original 
English families who settled in Sandwich about the year 1776. 

"As early as 1788, the town had laid out and designated as the 
county seat of the Western Division, comprising the present counties of 
Essex, Kent and Lambton." 

An amusing, incident is related of the election of the first member 
of the Provincial Parliament from this district. 


A writ was issued and sent to the sheriff, William Hands, notifying 
him of the election, the day on which it was to be held and directing 
that proper notice be given to the citizens of the district, that they 
might have an opportunity to exercise their legitimate right of franchise. 
The appointed day came, the sheriff, either from negligence or a want of 
due appreciation of the force of the writ, had neglected to give the 
requisite notice. The day brought with it a remembrance of the neglected 
duty, however, and the sheriff hastened to the inn kept by Forsyth, and 
there found in company with that gentleman, John Cornwell and Wm. 


Who was Member for Nor Essex in the 
Dominion Parliament, and appointed a Judge 
of the High Court Oct. 22, 1909. 


The present member for South Essex in the 
Dominion Parliament. 

McCray, two names well remembered by those who are familiar with the 
early history of the place. 

"Gentlemen" said the sheriff, "this is election day, come with me." 
They proceeded together to the Court room, when the sheriff commanded 
them to choose their member. Cornwell moved that McCray be the 
member, but before the motion could be seconded, McCray moved that 
Cornwell should represent the district, which was seconded, and John 
Cornwell, by the hearty response of both voice, was elected to represent 


the Western District in the Provincial Parliament for the ensuing four 

However, informal this transaction may seem, there was certainly 
simple-hearted disinterestedness of purpose that modern politicians 
would do well to imitate." 


Minister of Public Works and Member for 

North Essex in the Ontario Legislature. 


The present Member for South Essex in the 

Ontario Legislature. 

In 1842 the elections for member of Parliament were held and the 
poll was open from nine o'clock Monday morning until the following 
Saturday night at six o'clock. There was only one polling place and 
all electors came to Sandwich to vote. 



The land comprising the site of old Fort Maiden, around which so 
much of Canadian interest centres, with at least two bastions of the 
old fort in fairly well preserved condition, is now owned by but three 
individuals and might be purchased at a figure which would be merely 
nominal, when compared with its value as a national park, for which 
purpose it should ever have been retained. 

On the evacuation of Detroit in 1796 a British military post was 
established in the township of Maiden, known as Fort Amberstburg or 
Fort Maiden, which thus became the chief southwestern headquarters 
of the new province of Upper Canada. 

This fort at Amberstburg became a most important military and civil 
post about which, especially during the wars of 1812-14 and 1837-38, 
there were carried on military operations of great moment in the history 
of Canada, in which the service of both British regulars and Canadian 
militia were enlisted. 

\VM. I-l. McEVOY. 

Deputy Reeve of Amherstburg in 188S and 
a member of the County Council. He was 
also Mayor of the town of Amherstburg for 
six years. Mr. McEvoy died suddenly De- 
cember 29, 1908. 


Mayor of the Town of Amherstburg for 
the years 1908 and 1909, who has made strong 
ei'forts to have Fort Maiden made a national 
park. He is being ably supported in his 
efforts by the Essex County Council, the 
Essex County Historical Society and the On- 
tario Historical Society. 

In 1812, from here the force went, by command of Col. St. George, 

that repelled General Cass at the Canard bridge : from here by direction 

Proctor, the intercepting parties under Col. St. George and Chief 

umseh, crossed the river and by the engagements at Brownstown on 

i and Maguaga Aug. 13 cut off the train of supplies intended 


for the Kentucky, Ohio and Michigan forces at Fort Detroit, also cap- 
turing despatches from Gen. Hull; from here Gen. Sir Isaac Brock, 
who assumed command on Aug. 1st of the same year, took up the 
victorious march against Detroit; from here also, and from Fort 
Detroit after its capture were directed the operations on the Raisin 
and Maumee and before Fort Stephenson in Ohio ; and from the govern- 
ment docks here Admiral Barclay stood out to give honorable battle 
to Commodore Perry on Lake Erie on Sept. 8th, 1813. 

In 1838 it was at this point the American schooner Anne was taken; 
from here Major Townsend marched with a detachment of the 32nd 
Regiment of Foot, in company with Capt. Glasgow's artillery corps, 
and dislodged the insurgents from Fighting island on 24th February; 
from here five companies of regulars and two hundred militia and 
Indians under Gen. Maitland crossed over to Pelee Island and drove 
out the self-styled patriots, capturing the notorious "General" Suther- 
land; and from here Col. Broderick marched to the relief of Essex 
militia already on the ground and routed the last of the "brigands and 
pirates" in the Battle of Windsor. 

The American general, Harrison, ii\ command of the forces who 
drove out our troops, effected a temporary occupation towards the close 
of the war of 1812-14, thus making old Fort Maiden the only fortified 
post ever held by the Americans in Canada. 



The County of Essex did not have the distinction of issuing the first 
paper in the Province of Ontario, but this county was among the first 
municipalities to be the proud possessor of a newspaper. 

Nova Scotia led all the provinces of the Dominion in the establish- 
ment of a paper, the Halifax Gazette. This was in the year 1752, three 
years after the town was founded. It was of American origin, the 
founder being Bartholomew Green, whose father before him established 
the first paper in the United States, and whose grandfather is recog- 
nized as the father of printing on the continent. The Halifax Gazette 
is to-day the oldest living paper in America. 

In Ontario the Upper Canada Gazette or American Oracle, was the 
first attempt in 1793, by Louis Roy, a Frenchman, at Niagara, but as 
far as can be learned this publication had a very short history. 

In other parts of the Province papers were published in Hamilton 
and Toronto. The first in Toronto was the Telegraph, in 184C 
Globe was issued in 1843. 

It was in the thirties that newspaperdom began to blossom in this 
province and this Western District, of which Sandwich was the most 
important point, can lay claim to be, if not the first, among the very 
first to support a newspaper. 

The Sandwich Emigrant was started in 1830 by John Cowan and 
continued, until 1837. It was followed by the Canadian Emigrant and 
edited by James M. Cowan, a brother of Miles and the late William 


Cowan. This was published about three years. It was followed by the 
Western Herald published by H. C. Grant in 1838. In 1844 Col. Arthur 
Rankin issued a paper called the Standard. 

The British Canadian was the name of another short-lived publica- 
tion in 1857 and the Western Mercury saw the light of day in 1858 but 

Mr. Ewan was appointed sheriff in May, 1856, and relinquished the 
editorial chair, the paper being purchased by Robinson & Wade, printers 
and publishers. 

The Herald, it would appear, was not a shining success under the 
new proprietors, for in 1860 the plant was quietly moved over the river 
when the creditors weren't looking. Alexander Bartlet and Pat Con- 



The Western Mercury, of April 2, 1859; The Essex Record (tri-weekly), of April 24 
^" 11 ^ 13> 18?2: Tke ESSCX J Urnal ' f January 13 ' 1872; T' 

way were among the heavy mourners. 

The Canada Oak was published at Sandwich by D. A. McMullen. 
In the issue of May 13, 1853, the motto under the head line read, "Hold 
Fast the Mother Sod/' 

In 1844 Thomas Ireland published a paper in Sandwich but its name 
is not remembered by the old residents. 

In 1856 The Churchman was published monthly by the Rev E H 
Dewar, rector of St. John's Sandwich. 

The Maple Leaf was published in Sandwich by James H. Wilkinson 
to 1858 in a brick office on lot 2, east Bedford street. 


The Dominion was established in Windsor by Messrs. Richmond & 
Wh.te about the early part of WO. After running a short time it was 
purchased by Messrs. McKee & Murdock who moved the plant to 
Sandwich and for a short time published it in a building on Lot 5 
West Bedford street. Robert Timms, ex-Alderman of Windsor worked 
as a journey man printer in the office at that time and the writer was 

i? M 7 v The Paper continued Publication only a few months 
when Mr. McKee retired and sold his interest in the paper to John L 
Murdock, who moved the plant further down the street to a buildine 
on lot 8, West Bedford, where the St. John's Church now stands. About 

Essex at a bye-election in 1882 and was re- 
elected at four general elections and made 
Provincial Secretary in 1896. He died in 
August of the same year after filling the 
omce only one month. 


came to Essex County in November, 1874, 
and established the "Amherstburg Echo" with 
Mr. John A. Auld. He afterwards became 
president of the Amherstburg Echo Printing 
Co. He was Reeve of Amherstburg from 
1878 to 1882. Was elected to represent South 


Was the publisher and proprietor of the 
last newspaper published in Sandwich The 
Dominion 1872 to 1874. Mr. Murdoch died 
November 30, 1879. 

the year 1874 the plant was again moved back to Windsor and run as 
a weekly and daily for a short time by James C. Murdock and Brothers 
and then ceased publication. 

In several issues of the paper when it was printed in Sandwich a 
special notice was published in the paper in the fall of the year which 
read, "Subscribers wishing to pay their subscription in wood, will please 
bring it while the roads are good." 

A Franch paper called the L'Etole Canadian (Canadian Star), was 
established in Sandwich . by an old French writer named Mr. Truax 
about the year 1871. 

It was printed for a time at the Dominion office when Joseph A. 
Ouellette, an attorney-at-law, assumed charge and published it in a 
building directly opposite the present court house. It was a neat, well- 
edited little paper. The last time the writer heard of it the paper had 
changed proprietors several times and who printed its last edition from 
the Free Press office in Detroit. 

The Essex Times was the name of a well-printed and edited paper 
published in a building opposite the present Evening Record office, 
Sandwich street, Windsor, by Major John Lewis. It was run in the 
Conservative interests from 1876 to 1878 whan it went into liquidation, 
leaving many heavy creditors. 

The next most important publication in the Conservative interests, 
after the Times had ceased publication, was the Windsor Review estab- 
lished by C. Cliff, now a resident of the Northwest. It was afterwards 
purchased by the late T. M. White, who successfully conducted it until 
failing health compelled him to retire. Mr. F. H. Macpherson took 
the management and conducted the paper until he became a chartered 


In common use for printing newspapers in the early days. 

accountant and retired from the newspaper business. After several 
changes in proprietors it ceased publication. 

The plant was secured by Joseph McKee and Charles L. Barker, 
who moved it to another building and The Standard was started. ^ A 
few months after this publications business was formed into a joint 
stock company, in which Oscar E. Fleming became the largest share- 
holder. Mr. George M. Winn, of Toronto, succeeded Mr. Barker as 
editor and manager, which position is now held by F. J. Hughes. 

The French paper, Le Progress was first issued on June 1, 1881, and 
has been published continuously ever since. Gaspard Pacaud, the pres- 
ent License Inspector, was in the editorial chair from the commence- 
ment till the time of his appointment by the Government to his posi- 

tion in 1892. His brother. Aurele Pacaud has been the continuous 

Newspapers in the town of Amherstburg have had their varied and 
short-lived experiences the same as Sandwich and Windsor. As far 
as can be ascertained the first paper published in that historical town 
was the Amherstburg Courier and Western District Advertiser, pub- 
lished every Saturday, by James A. Reeves, printer and published with 
its office on Dalhousie street, opposite the British North American 
Hotel. It was a six column, four page paper, neatly printed and well 
edited. In its description and advertising notice it notifies its sub- 
scribers that "All kinds of produce or cord wood would be taken in ex- 
change for the paper, at the market price." James A. Reeves, the pub- 


Quartermaster of the 21st Regiment, Essex 
Fusiliers. His business education was obtained 
in the office of the Woodstock Sentinel-Review. 
In 1890 he purchased a half-interest in the 
Evening Record, Windsor, and is at present 
the proprietor and publisher of that paper. 


Formerly editor and publisher of the Wind- 
sor Rerieu'. Tie is now an expert accountant 
in the Citv of Detroit. 

lisher was afterwards identified with different newspapers in Sand- 
wich Windsor and Detroit and was the father of ex-Alderman Stephen 
T. Reeves, of Windsor. Calixte Sequin, of Sandwich, has a well-pre- 
served copy dated July 14, 1849. 

The present paper published in that town, The Amherstburg Echo 
was established on November 20, 1874, by the Hon. Win. D. Half our 
and John A. Auld, ex-M. L. A., and has been the only paper, in the 
many attempts, to make a successful living. It has always been and is 
to-dav a model country weekly. 

The Town of Walkerville has had excellent success so far in the 
newspaper world. The Walkerville Herald was established by S. 
Stephenson, of Chatham, on April 19th, 1890, and is now being very 
ably edited and published by ex-Mayor John E. Dobie. 

The Windsor Record. 

The Windsor Record was founded by P. G. Lowrie. A letter some 
time ago to the compiler of these facts from Mr. Laurie who was living 
at Battleford and who, by the way, is since deceased, tells his connec- 
tion with this paper. He says : "In 1860 there were two papers the 
Maple Leaf, Sandwich, and the Herald, Windsor. The publication of 
the former ceased and I bought the plant and moved it to Windsor, 
where I established the Record. Shortly after Mr. Robenson moved 
the Herald to Detroit leaving the Record the only paper in the county. 
It must have been four or five years after that John Richmond, of 
Colchester, started a paper called The Dominion, which is all I can re- 
member of that. James Woodbridge of Sandwich, next started the 
Essex Journal in Windsor, and after running it for a short time sold 
the plant to me, and I then changed the name of my paper to the 
Record and Journal. I published that until 1869 when I moved to the 
Northwest and shortly after the office was sold to Alexander Cameron 
or Cameron and Stephen Lusted." 

In the great fire of 1870 the office was burned. Then Mr. Lusted, 


Windsor's present City Clerk, re-established it and continued its pub- 
lisher until 1882. In 1877 Mr. Lusted started a daily, which, after two 
months experience, finding the undertaking unprofitable, he abondoned 
and put his whole energies in the weekly, which was then the leading 
paper in the county. 

Mr. Robert Barr, Sr., of Windsor, purchased the business from Mr. 
Lusted and it was run by his sons William, John and James, who after 
a few years were succeeded by Mr. Wallace Graham. 

Archibald McNee came down from Winnipeg in 1888 and purchased 
the plant and business from Mr. Graham, and he established The Even- 


ing Record in April, 1890. In the fall of the same year he took into 
partnership John A. McKay, formerly of the Woodstock Sentinel Re- 
view. These two gentlemen successfully conducted the Evening Record 
and the weekly until 1906 when Mr. McNee sold out his interests to 
Mr. McKay and retired. 


SANDWICH, 1837-8. 

Mr. Francis Cleary has the first two volumes of this interesting pub- 
lication neatly bound. It was issued January 3, 1838, by Henry C. 
Grant, at Sandwich, and was a well printed weekly of eight oages 8x11 
inches about one-quarter of which was devoted to agriculture. It was 
just the beginning of the Rebellion and the other three-quarters for 
the whole year were nearly all given over to the discussion of the 
"Patriots" and their movements. 

In the first number the editor notes "Well founded rumors being 
afloat of an intended invasion of our peaceful shore by a party ot 
refugees and American Volunteers, now in the City of Detroit with a 
certain Dr. Theller at their head." It then says that next day a corps 
of two or three hundred armed men was formed "to defend our prop-- t 
erty from plunder and our families from violence." 

In another article the editor says: "We have just learned that there 
is close at hand a numerous and determined band of Potawatomas and 
other Indians who left in disgust the American territory and sought an 
asylum in our Province ; and which Indians abhor the very name of 
American, so much so that no one saying he was such, would for a 
moment be safe among them. There is also a force consisting of 1,000 
black people in the vicinity of Amherstburg equally hostile to the 
American name. Both forces could instantly be brought into operation. 
But Heaven forbid they should be required. May the harmony exist- 
ing between the two snores never be disturbed for the sake of a few 
worthless beings, but who supply a space in the world that might be 
better filled were they out of it." 

The Fight at Bois Blanc. 

These were certainly stirring times. Tuesday, January 23, 1838, was 
the second issue of The Herald and editorially it said : "Since our last 
issue we have been in a state of excitement never before equalled in 
consequence of the thratening attitude assumed ^by the rebel blood 
hounds and their associates the loafers of Detroit." 

A further extract from the same issue says: "On the morning of 
January 6th, between nine and ten o'clock the steamer Erie was seen 
to leave the dock at Detroit, crowded with people, with the ostensible 
intention of proceeding to Cleveland, but which we afterwards ascer- 
tained, only went to land a cargo of rebels and American Volunteers 
at Gibraltar on the American side, she was immediately followed by a 
schooner rigged vessel called the Ann, filled with armed men and mount- 


ing- three pieces of cannon and other munitions and appointments, with 
the expressed intention of commencing an attack on our shores. We 
obtained the information that the rebels had stolen "the cannon, powder 
and balls from a United States arsenal, and 500 or 600 small arms 
they had feloneously extracted from the City Hall, when the inhabitants 
were all 'asleep,' we presume." 

That same night about twelve o'clock about 150 volunteers headed 
by John Prince, 'left Sandwich in the United for Bois Blanc, where the 
rebels it seems, proposed to establish a post. At three o'clock on the 
afternoon of Monday the 8th, just as the militia had been dismissed 
from their parade in the garrison, an alarm was given by the sentries 
at Bois Blanc that the brigands and pirates, about 400 in number, were 
leaving Sugar Island in schooner, scows and boats, with a view of in- 
vading Bois Blanc instanter, and they would reach the shore in half 
an hour. As soon as the alarm was given the militia hurried to the 
boats at Amherstburg and expeditiously as possible the island was 
invested with 300 well armed men. The brigand forces were arrayed 
as follows: The schooner Geo. Strong with a sloop, hovered at the 
lower end of the island a mile below the lighthouse, sometimes lying 
to and sometimes hugging the shore off Elliot's Point, as is inclined to 
land her men there. Their main body was being towed in scows up 
the river towards Grosse Isle, taking care not to come within musket 
shot of Bois Blanc. They fired two cannon of grape and cannister at 
us which did no injury. This was the first hostile shot fired on this 
frontier, and after that there was no mistake in their intentions. After 
waiting for the pirates for about two hours and perceiving that so far 
from attempting to attack us, they pulled in their scows far above Bois 
Blanc and the schooner and her tender made sail for Elliot's Point. The 
officers held a consultation and it was deemed not improbable that the 
brigands object was to effect a landing and to force Amherstburg, 
which had not 100 effective men left to defend it. Orders were given 
to return to Amherstburg. The men were all landed in an hour, leav- 
ing the island undefended. Everything was removed from the house 
of the lighthouse keeper, Capt. Hackett, except some trunks and clothes 
of his and Mrs. Hackett's. An hour afterwards the pirate schooner 
sailed up the channel between Bois Blanc and the town. Her consort 
lay under Bois Blanc Island. The militia kept up a consent firing at 
her with their rifles, but as the distance was not less than 400 yards. 
it had but little effect. It was, however, afterwards ascertained that 
upon this occasion one man was killed and several slightly wounded; she 
fired and occasional cannon shot and she was fairly beaten off and 
sailed as was supposed, for the scows and boats, which had disappeared 
and were conjectured to have returned to Sugar Island." 

"On the following morning the sloop was made to come to without 
a shot being fired and she was made a prisoner. The schooner hovered 
about the island and occasionally fired cannister and grape into the 
town. They carried off the whole of Capt. Hackett's wearing apparel. 
Our men followed her and as she neared Elliott's Point a rifle ball killed 
the helmsman and the wind blowing very strong the schooner came 
ashore. They were called on to surrender and take their colors down, 
but they declined and several shots being exchanged, two of the pirates 


being killed after she had stranded. Our men then plunged into the 
water and boarded her and a jolly little man of the name of Heighten 
climbed up the mast and hauled the colors down. 

"The prisoners were brought to shore and treated with every kind- 
ness humanity and consideration. The capture consisted of a schooner 
Ine Ann, of Detroit, 21 prisoners, most of them Americans, three pieces 
of cannon and upwards of 200 stands of arms and a large quantity of 
ammunition, besides stores and provisions. The militia engaged in 
this capture were, all volunteers and behaved most galantly." 

Thomas Sutherland was Brigadier General of the Patriot army at this 

From in front of the Cowan Homestead. From a photo by Mr. Hamilton. 

Presentation of Regimental Colors. 

The Herald had some room for news, besides the war reports, and 
the volume contains many interesting items. On January 23, 1838, a 
splendid Regimenal color was presented to the 2d Regt. Essex Militia 
by the ladies of Sandwich. The regiment on the occasion was attired 
in "a neat and becoming uniform." Miss Mary Findlay presented the 

Attacked by a Wolf. 

"On Thursday last as a man was on his way to town he was beset 
by a large wolf, who very unceremoniously and evidently with malign 
intention, jumped into the man's sleigh and would undoubtedly have 

destroyed him, had he not most fortunately been provided with an axe 

with which he managed to overcome the ferocious monster." 


Robbery of Military Supplies. 

In the issue of February 17, 1838, it is noted that the commissarit 
department at Amherstburg had been robbed of ninety barrels of flour. 
Van Renselaer, the commander of a "thousand highwaymen scoundrels" 
camping in Michigan, gets the credit for it. 

Killed by a Sentinel. 

"A son of James Askin was killed by a colored sentinel on duty at 


North side of Mill street, Sandwich, Ont. Parts of this building is said to be much older 
than the Baby Mansion. It was originally the McGregor Homstead, and for many years after the 
home of Col. Wm. Elliott. Albert P. Salter, P. L. S., and family, occupied it in the '70's, and it is 
now known as the Reid Homestead. Mr. George E. Smeaton resides there at the present time. 

The Rebels Invade Fighting Island. 

In the issue of February 28, 1838, the paper contains an account of 
the attempt of the rebels to come over by way of Fighting Island. 
Three hundred of them spent the night on the island but were driven 
off next day by the men of Essex and Kent and much of their stores 
confiscated. This was the second attack on this frontier. 

Sentenced to be Hanged. 

The issue of March 28, 1838, reports that Chief Justice Robinson had 
sentenced to death Samuel Lount and Peter Mathews for high treason. 


Burned in Effigy. 

A report is published from Kingston of the burning in effigy of the 
Uncle Sam ^ McKenzie > Papineau, Molesworth, Grote, Lerder and 

The editor also expresses his indignation at the notorious Gens 
Montgomery and Theller, who were sentenced to be hanged for high 
treason being reprieved. 

Postal Arrangements Bad. 

Under date of June 19th, 1838, the Herald says: "Lord Durham 

has made a demand on the British Government for 12,000 more troops " 

t also appears at this time that there was no post route direct to 

Editor of The Evening Record 

News Editor of The Evening Record. 

this Province from Michigan. A letter posted in Detroit for Sand- 
wich had to go around by Lewiston, thence via Toronto, which took 
two weeks, making a tour of 700 miles. 

The Editor Had His Troubles. 

The editor apparently had troubles of his own. In his issue of Oc- 
tober 16, 1838, he made the following appeal: "We have toiled unceas- 
ingly ever since we had the misfortune to cast our lot among a com- 
munity of idlers, under the most trying and discouraging circumstances 
in the hope that our assiduity, economy and perseverance would, at no 

distant period, meet with their accustomed reward, viz., patronage 
and suitable remuneration, but, alas! We have reckoned "without our 
hosts." Tell it not in Gath publish it not in the streets of Askalon 
"that we have printed the Western Herald for 33 months for barely 
150 subscribers. Can it be supposed that we can or will be fool enough 
to waste our time, health, peace of mind and bodily labor for another 
year in the manner we have done for so contemptible a number of sub- 

The writer then digs into the Treasurer of the Western District, 
from whom he has warrants to the amount of 32 but for which he 
can get no pay. He advertised these for sale at a discount of twelve 

and grandfather, in Sandwich East, the pres- 
ent residence having been erected by his 
father in 1840. He is much known and re- 


an old-time civil engineer, who was one of 
the surveyors for the route of the Great West- 
ern Railroad, is a descendant of one of the 
pioneer families of the County of Essex. He 
was born at Sandwich, March 25, 1831. Mr. 
Askin was an officer of the 13th Battalion, 
Hamilton, and was present at the affair of 
Ridgeway, June 2, 1866. He still resides at 
the old home (called Strahane) of his father 


Councillor for the Town of Sandwich in 190T 
and the present year 1909. 

per cent. He says he needs the money for wood, paper and ink. ''This 
very day," he says, "the postmaster brought in a bill for postage of 
10. Where shall we find the means to pay it? Echo answers where." 

The Battle of Windsor. 

The battle of Windsor took place on December 4, 1838, and The 
Herald contains a full account of it, the editor himself, being in the 
thick of the fray. "Of the brigands and pirates," writes Col. Prince, 


the officers in command, "21 were killed and four taken prisoners, all 
of whom 1 ordered to be shot upon the spot and which was done accord- 

Two Canadian volunteers were burned to death in a house the 
Patriots set lire to, one volunteer was shot and Dr. Hume was foully 
murdered. This was our total loss. Subsequently 26 more prisoners 
were taken m and jailed at Sandwich, most of whom, the report says 
were citizens of the United States. The "Patriot's" general, Col. Prince 
said, was a Yankee, and their second in command, a man named Pul- 
man, from London. The invaders, 450 in number, crossed the river 
opposite Belle Isle, and immediately upon landing burned the steam 
barge Thames. 


In Sandwich East (above Walkerville), now the home of Alexander H. Askin, the grandson 
of John Askin, who did heroic service during the Pontiac War in 1762. In 1796, When Detroit 
was formally made a part of the Union, John Askin, through his steadfast loyalty to Great Britain, 
lost his property in Detroit, now worth nearly six million dollars, and moved to the site of the 
present homestead. In 1843 the original building was removed and the present home erected. 

Gen. Theler's Fierce Declaration. 

Gen. Theller of the Patriots is said to have declared at a meeting in 
Detroit, his intention of raising 2,000 men and to lay waste to our towns 
and villages along the frontier, that he hoped to have the satisfaction 
of washing his hands in the blood of Col. John Prince. A premium of 


$2 000, the paper says, was subscribed by merchants of Detroit for the 
party 'who would take Col. Prince alive to Detroit or $1,500 for his 
dead body. 

The Herald Stands by Col. Prince. 

Col. Prince's action in having the four prisoners shot did not wholly 
meet with the approval of all the citizens of Sandwich The Herald 
vigorously defended him, however, and for so doing lost nine of its 
150 subscribers. These gentlemen were: Capt. Bell, Charles Askin, 
James Dougall, Charles Baby, Col. Wm. Elliott, W. R. Wood, Francis 
Baby, Robert Mercer and J. G. Watson. 

duty while in charge of the Colchester Light- 
ship, when it foundered at he anchorage in 
Lake Erie during a terrific storm November 
, 11, 1883. 


For many years a resident of Sandwich. 
He lost his life while in discharge of his 

Inspector of Inland Revenue, Windsor, Ont. 

Fought a Duel. 

The Western Herald of February 14, 1839, refers to the duel which 
took place between Col. Prince and the Assistant District Treasurer, 
W. R. Wood. "A hostile meeting took place at an early hour Monday 
morning in a field, about two miles back of the town, between Col. 
Prince and W. R. Wood, Esq. Col. Prince was attended by H. Rud- 
yard, Esq., and Mr. Wood by Lieut. Cameron of the Provincial Volun- 
teer Militia. At the first shot Col. Prince's pistol missed fire, Mr. Wood 
fired without effect; at the second Mr. Wood received the Colonel's 


ball in his right jaw, and we have been informed, discharged his pistol 
in the air. The parties then left the ground, the wounded gentleman 
being conveyed home in Col. Prince's sleigh." 


Mr. James P. McEwan has two years of the Windsor Herald, founded 
and edited by his father, the late John McEwan, who was afterwards 
sheriff of the county. The Herald was established in January, 1855, 
and was a well printed and well edited seven column, four page paper. 
The editor appeared to have a splendid grasp of the political situation 
of the time and while he gave his support to the Reform party, there 
was an independent vein to be seen in many of his articles. He was 
an ardent friend and supporter of Col. Arthur Rankin, who was mem- 
ber for the county in the Legislature which then met in Quebec. 

The heading of the paper contained the words The Herald and a 
cut of a dog in his kennel on the watch, together with an engraving 
of a ship at sea and a cow and the words, "Ever Watchful Over Com- 
merce and Agriculture." In his prospectus the editor said "that the 
village after many years of inactivity and dullness had become a place 
of considerable importance." 

"The terminus of the Great Western Railway is permanently located 
here ; at this place also telegraphic communication ends, etc., etc., there- 
fore the establishing of a newspaper was an absolute necessity, par- 
ticularly when the fact is taken into consideration that the entire country 
is unrepresented by the press." 

Six columns in the second edition are devoted to a speech by Wm. 
Lyon McKenzie on the voting of a parting address to Lord Elgin, in 
which Mr. McKenzie severely critizises His Excellency. 

Were Patriotic Then, Too. 

In the second edition is also published a letter from Col. Arthur 
Rankin, member of the county, to His Excellency, Lord Elgin, offering 
to raise a regiment of Canadian Volunteers to proceed to the Crimea. 
Mr. Rankin said he would be proud to devote his life and energy to 
the noble cause, and it would be, he thought, "the best proof of the 
fact that a strong feeling of attachment to the mother country still 
exists in this portion of Her Majesty's Dominion." 

The same offer, the paper notes, was previously made by Col. Prince, 
the late member for the county. 

A school board was in evidence at the time and was composed of 
John O'Connor, Jr., Francis Caron, Joseph Strong, Mark Richards, 
Dennis Ouellette and John McEwan. 

The steamer Mohawk was plying between Windsor and Detroit. 

A notice appeared announcing that the governor-general, Sir Edmund 
Head, had issued a proclamation changing the "Port of Sandwich" to 
the "Port of Windsor." 


John David Askin was appointed landing waiter and searcher in 
Her Majesty's Customs. 

A Congregational Church was opened. 

Alexander Bartlet was Secretary of the Agricultural Society. 

A Mechanics Institute was formed February 23d 

The Canada Southern Railway was being projected and Engineer 
Scott was advocating the tunnelling of the Detroit and Niagara Rivers. 

Laying of the Corner Stone of the Court House. 

The issue of May 26, LS55, contained an account of the laying of 
the corner stone of the new jail and court house at Sandwich. Justice 


Governor of the Sandwich Tail from 1868 
to 1862. 


Governor of the county jail from 1862 to 
the time of his death which was March 16, 

McLean laid the stone, and besides a history of the county, coins, etc. 
the names of the persons holding offices were put in. These were: 
Col. John Prince, ex-member ; Arthur Rankin, member ; Alexander 
Chewett, Judge County Court ; Samuel S. Macdonell, Warden ; Wm. 
D. Baby, Sheriff; Col" James Askin, Registrar; John A. Wilkinson, 
Judge of the Surrogate Court; George Bullock, County Treasurer; 
Charles Baby, Clerk'of the Peace; P. H. Morin, Deputy Clerk of the 
Crown; Paul John Salter and Pierre H. Morin, Auditors; James H. 
Wilkinson, Gpunty Clerk. 



(From The Montreal Standard. ) 

"It was on one of the attacks on Amberstburg," writes Walter R 
Mursey in The Story of Isaac Brock/' that the first scalp in the war 
of 1812 was taken not by one of Brock's terrible Indians, but by a 
captain of Hull's spies. This officer one hates to describe him as a 
white man wrote his wife, he 'had the pleasure of tearing a scalp from 
the head of a British redskin/ and related at length the brutal details 
of the method. A few days later Tecumseh and his Indians cut off one 
of Hull s provision trains and captured a batch of despatches. In that 
fight Hull's captain of spies met the fate he had inflicted on "the British 

At the head of Brock Street, Windsor, Ont., firing on Fort Shelby, Detroit, Mich. 

Shortly after Brock's arrival at Amherstburg, Tecumseh was pre- 
sented to him. "The contrast presented by the two men was striking," 
writes Brock's biographer, Mursey. "The old world and the new, face 
to face a scene for the brush of an impressionist Brock, tall, fair, big- 
limbed, a blue-eyed giant, imposing in scarlet coat and blue-white riding 
trousers, tasselled Hessian boots and cocked-hat in hand. On his bene- 
volent face was an irresistible smile. 

"The Indian, though of middle height, was of most perfect pro- 
portions ; an athlete in bronze, lithe and supple as a panther." 

The Chief promised that he and his braves would follow Brock and 
"maintain an honorable warfare." Taking a roll of elm-bark, Tecumseh, 
with the point of his sc.alping-knife, traced on its white inner surface 
a map of the district. 


That night a council Avas held. Brock seems to have gone to it with 
his course pretty well decided upon. He knew that "now or never" 
was the time to strike. Almost 400 United States mounted troops were 
pressing close upon his rear; before him was a superior force and he 
was in danger of being out-flanked or cut off from the interior of 
Canada. And that would mean disaster to the entire Province whose 
safety depended on the destruction or defeat of Hull's force. The 
difficulties and dangers of an offensive movement were pointed out at 
the council. Finally, Brock spoke. "Gentlemen," said he, "I have 
definitely decided on crossing the river and attacking Fort Detroit. 
Instead of further advice, I must beg of you to give me your hearty 

Hull had withdrawn from Sandwich, and Brock now moved up and 
occupied the place, sending from there a written demand for the sur- 
render of Detroit, to which Hull replied that he was "prepared to meet 
any force brought againts him." Upon receipt of this reply Brock 
ordered his batteries to fire upon the fort. "Through the irony of fate, 
the first shot fired under Brock's personal orders killed a United States 
officer,. an intimate friend of the British artilleryman who had trained 
the gun." 

On the following morning, August 16, Brock's little force in bateaux 
and canoes crossed over to the Michigan shore, the .movement being 
covered by the fire of the batteries and of the guns of two vessels 
anchored above the little village that has since grown into the town 
of Windsor. Brock's entire force consisted of 330 regulars 400 militia, 
and about oOO Indians, supported by six pieces of artillery. A number 
of the militia wore discarded uniforms of the 41st Regiment in order 
to make the regular force appear stronger than it really was. 

The landing effected, Brock drew up his men in battle array, ready 
to attack Hull's army of 2,000 men occuping the rising ground before 
the fort, and across which ran a road commended by artillery, around 
which gunners stood with burning fuses. But the fuses were not 
applied to the guns, although Brock's column was now coming on in 
battle array. The sight struck fear into the heart of Hull, and ordering 
his men right-about-face, he marched them back within the walls of 
the fort. 

Approaching, Brock ordered up his artillery, the battery at Sandwich 
in the meantime throwing shells into the United States fortifications. 
Brock had given the order to "prepare for assault" when an officer 
bearing a flag of truce amerged from the fort. The message he bore 
asked for a cessation of hostilities for an hour in order that negotiations 
might be entered into for the surrender of Detroit. Before the hour 
had expired Brock was in possession of the place. Hull surrendered 
2,500 men of all ranks, an equal number of muskets, 33 pieces of cannon, 
a brig-of-war, a large quantity of stores and munitions valued at 239,000, 
besides the fort, the town of Detroit, and 59,700 square miles of United 
States territory. 

The almost bloodless victory was complete, but in less than two 
months the victor lay dead on Queenston Heights and Canada had 
lost her best soldier. 



Peach Island or (Isle aux Peches) used to be prominent in early 
days as the summer home of the great chief and conspirator, Pontiat. 
It is a Canadian Island and until recently was owned by Mr. Hiram 
Walker, whose fine residence added much to its beauty. It is now 
owned by the Detroit, Belle Isle and Windsor Ferry Company who 
are making extensive improvements upon it. 

Belle Isle has changed its name four times. First, it was called Isle 
Ste. Claire; second, Rattlesnake Island from the number of snakes 
which invested it ; third, Hog Island Isle Aux Cochous by the French 
from the number of animals put there to destroy the snakes; fourthly, 
on July 4, 1845, the name was changed to Belle Isle, after Miss Bella 
Cass, daughter of General Cass, afterwards the wife of Baron Von 
Limburg. The island contains 704 acres. On the first day of August, 
1768, it was purchased from the Indians of the Ottawa and Chippewa 
nations in council (under direction of His Majesty's comtnander-in- 
chief) and conveyed to St. George McDougall, Lieutenant of the Six- 
tieth Regiment British troops for a sum amounting to 190 ten shill- 
ings York money. A few years ago the City of Detroit, at an expense 
of over $2,000,000, has converted it into 'a park and for splendar and 
beauty is without a rival on the American continent at the present time. 
It was surveyed by Mr. Boyd in 1771. 

Grosse Isle was granted by Governor Simcoe to William Macomb 
on July 5, 1793, who was one of the two first members elected to the 
Upper Canada Parliament for this country. He had previously been 
allowed by Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton to occupy it. 

Mr. Macomb changed his allegiance and remained on his island home. 
It is an American Island. Mr. Macomb's granddaughter was married 
to the late Hon. W. D. Balfour, who represented South Essex in the 
Ontario Legislature. 

Bois Blanc Island, the seat of the Huron Mission in 1772 and for 
some years thereafter, was ceded to the British. It contains 220 acres 
and was patented to the late Col. Arthur Rankin in 1874. It is now 
used as a park by the Detroit, Windsor and Belle Isle Ferry Company. 

Wa-we-a-tu-nong Indian name for Detroit River. 

Erie in the Huron language signifies cat. 


(By Robert Stuart Woods.) 

Having had our chat about the islands of the river let us ask when 
we first heard of the navigation of it. As to vessels, the Gnfin must 
be first named and for the following particulars I am indebted to 
Farmer's valuable history of Detroit. Her tonnage is variously stated 
at forty-five to sixty tons. She carried five cannon and was built by 
LaSalle at the mouth of the Cayuga Creek near Niagara in the spring 
of 1679. After several short trial trips on the 7th August with Cheva- 
lier LaSalle, Father Louis Hennepin and some others, thirty-two in 

all, she started on her first real voyage, arriving at the mouth of the 
Detroit on August 10, 1679. 

Two days after, on the festival of Sainte Claire, she entered the little 
lake which was christened Lake Ste. Clair, in honor of the founder of 
the Franciscan nuns. Two centuries later a gathering at Grosse Pointe 
rechristened the lake with various exercises, including poems by D. B. 
Duffield and Judge Campbell, and an" address by Belle Hubbard. On 
her return trip the Griffin left Washington Island in Lake Michigan 
on the 18th September, 1679. Two days after a storm arose and she 
was lost. Prior to this in 1669, Joliet was the first Frenchman to 
descend Lake Erie from Detroit. In 1721 Charlevoix, the great pioneer 
came up Lake Erie on his way to the Mississippi. 

After this no sailing vessels are known to have passed Detroit for 
nearly half a century. The first we hear of were those engaged in con- 
veying troops, provisions and furs between Detroit and Niagara. 

In 1763 and 1764 the schooners Beaver, Gladwin and Charlotte went 
to and fro constantly, the trip varying from six to nine days. 

The first vessel known to have been built at Detroit was the Enter- 
prise. She. was launched in 1769. 

In 1778 the British brig of war, General Gage, arrived, making a 
trip from Buffalo in four days. On accuont of the Revolutionary war, 
none but government vessels were then allowed upon the lakes. 

In 1780 the captains and crews of nine vessels were under pay at 
Detroit and a large dock-yard was maintained. The names of the ves- 
sels were the Gage, Dunmore, Faith, Angelica, Hope, Welcome, Felicity 
and Wyandotte. 

On August 1st, 1782, the following named vessels all in good orde> 
and all built in Detroit were on duty in Lake Erie, Huron and Michi- 
gan : Brig Gage, 27 men on board with 14 guns, built in 1772; Schooner 
Hope, 11 men, built in 1772; Sloop Anglican, 7 men, built in 1771; Sloop 
Felicity, 6 men, built in 1774 ; Schooner Faith, 48 men, 10 guns, built in 
1774; Schooner Wyandotte, 7 men, built in 1779; Sloop Adventure, 8 
men, built in 1776 ; Gun Boat, 11 men, 1 gun. 

In the spring of 1793, four government vessels were lying in front 
of the town. Of these the Chippewa and the Ottawa were new brigs 
of about 200 tons each and carrying eight guns ; another was the Dun- 
more, an old brig of the same size with six guns; the fourth was the 
sloop Felicity armed with two swivels. All of these were under com- 
mand of Commodore Grant. There were also several sloops and 
schooners owned by trading firms. 

Three years later in 1796. twelve merchant vessels were owned in 
Detroit; also several brigs, sloops and schoones from fifty to one hun- 
dred tons each. After the surrender to the United States (July, 1796), 
the schooner Swan, then owned by James May, was hired to convey 
the first United States troops to Detroit, and was the first vessel on 
the lakes to bear the United States flag. The second to convey tha 
United States flag was probably the Detroit, she was purchased by the 
Government of the Northwest Fur Company. 

The first steamboat that sailed Lake Erie, the Walk-in-the-Water, 
after the chief of the Wyandotte Indians reached Detroit from Buf- 
falo, August 17, 1818, leaving those on the 23d and taking in sailing 


about 44 hours and 10 minutes. In 1825 there was still but one steamer 
on the lakes. The first steamer that we had on the lakes was built here 
(Chatham) by Duncan McGregor called the "Western," a vessel of 
some fifty tons and twenty-five horse power which McGregor had con- 
verted out of the Rob Ray, on the river flats immediately below Jud-e 
Bell's residence, about the year 1830-1, and which was put on the rou*te 
between Chatham and Amherstburg. The next year was built at the 
same place the steamer Thamas of about 200 tons and fifty horse power, 
and was run as a leading boat between Port Stanley and Buffalo until 
burned by the rebels and Patriots at Windsor, on the 4th December, 
1838. At the same time was also built the "Cynthia McGregor," called 
after the wife of the late Duncan McGregor, who with Henry Van Allen, 
his brother-in-law, built her and she ran between Chatham and Detroit 
She was a 100-ton vessel and forty-horse power and ran on the Chat- 
ham route till she was unfortunately burned ; and then came the 
Brothers by the Eberts' brothers, the first of their long line of steam 
and sailing vessels. 


Volume 5 of The Anercana describes the Detroit River as a a river 
or strait which connects Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie, and forms part 
of the boundry between the United States and Canada. Detroit is the 
French word for strait; and the name was given by the French, the 
first white men who settled here. Its course is nearly south, with slow 
current, and sufficient depth of water for the navigation of large vessels. 
It is 25 miles long and three-fourths of a mile wide opposite the city 
of Detroit, where it forms an excellent harbor. The tonnage passing 
through this river exceeds in volume that passing through any other 
river in the world." 

The Detroit News-Tribune of a recent date says: By an ingenious 
mathematical formula it has been ascertained by the government engi- 
neers that the volume of water discharged by the river is 200,274 gal- 
lons every second. This means 12,016,440 gallons every minute, 720,- 
986,400 gallons every hour, and the vast volume of 17,303,773,600 gal- 
lons every 24 hours. 

More tonage passes Detroit than any other city in the world; more 
ships carrying greater cargoes pass through the Detroit river than ply 
any other river on the globe. In 1907 the season opened on April 9 and 
closed Dec. 9, a duration of 245 days. In this length of time 26,890 
boats steamed or sailed through the waters of the river, which gives an 
average of one vessel every 13 minutes. Suppose each of these vessels 
was no more than 250 feet in length, which is a conservative average, 
and the entire number, if placed end to end, would reach one-third of 
the distance around the world, or would form an axis for the earth. 

When deduction has been made for the pleasure craft, which carry 
little freight, it has been determined by the Lake Carriers' association 
that 75,000,000 tons of freight passed through the river last season. 
This gives an average tonnage of 3,500 tons per vessel, and shows that 

an average of 2lO tons passed Detroit every minute in every one of 
the 24 hours in every day of the season of navigation. When one stops 
to consider the value of this freight, and how many hundreds of millions 
of dollars it must amount to, he can gleam some idea of what the com- 
merce of the great lakes means. 

But, leaving behind the value of the river to commerce and to tha 
city from a commercial standpoint, and considering it from a stand- 
point of the pleasure that may be had on its surface, its value is at 
least doubled. Think of the hundreds of tiny pleasure craft that con- 
stantly dot its surface in summer; think of thousands of persons who 
avail themselves of the delights of sailing, of launching, of rowing, of 
canoeing that are afforded. Everything that any other river possesses 
the Detroit river has. It lacks nothing. It is the finest stream in exist- 


Dr. W. H. Drummond, the noted writer of French-Canadian dialect 
poems, who died in Cobalt April 6, 1907. One of his most popular poems 
was "The Wreck of the Julie Plante." Believing that it will prove both 
amusing and interesting to the reader we publish it in full : 

'Twas one dark night on Lac St. Clair, 

De wind was "blow," "blow," "blow," 
When de crew on de wood skow "Julie Plante" 

Got scare and run below. 

For de wind she blow like hurricane, 

Bineby she blow some more 
When de skow buss up just off Grosee Pointe 

Ten acres from the shore. 

The captain she's walk on the front deck, 

She's walk on the hind deck, too, 
She's call the crew from up the hole, 

She's call the cook also. 

De cook his name was Rosa 

He come from Montreal, 
Was a chambermaid on a lumber barge 

On dat big Lachine Canal. 

De wind he's blow from nor' eass' wess' 

De sou' wind he's blow too, 
When Rosa say, "Oh, Captain, 

Whatever shall I do." 

De captain she's throw the hank, 

But still that skow she drif, 
And de crew he can't pass on dat shore 

Because he loose dat skiff. 


toe night was dark like one black cat, 

De wave ran high and fass 
When the Captain took poor Rosa 

And lash her to the mass. 

When the Captain put on de life preserve 

And he jump into the lac, 
And he say, "Good-by, my Rosa dear, 

I go down for your sak. 

Next morning vary hearly, 

About half-past two, three, four, 

De Captain, cook and wood skow 
Lay corpses on dat shore. 

For the wind she blow like hurricane, 

Bimeby she blow some more, 
For dat skow buss up just hoff Grosee Pointe 

Ten hacres from de shore. 


Now all good wood skow sailor mans, 

Take lesson by that storm 
And go and marry nice French gal 

And live on Grosee Pointe farm. 

Den the wind may blow like hurricane 
And spose she's blow some more, 

You can't get drowned on Lac St. Clair 
So long you stop on shore. 


Major Farnham Close, of the 65th Foot, was the Commandant of the 
Garrison at Detroit, and held office by virture of his military position. 

William Dummer Powell, was of Welsh descent, born at Boston in 
1755. His grandfather came from England as Secretary to Lieutenant- 
Governor Dummer. The future Chief Justice of Upper Canada was 


Knitting in the old-fashioned way, in an old-fashioned kitchen, sitting by an 
old-fashioned stove. She is about 82 years old. 

sent to England to be educatad and he returned to Boston in 1772. 
After a brief residence in Lower Canada he settled in Detroit in 1789. 
The journey occupied a long time, taking ten days from Montreal to 
Kingstone, four, from Kingston to Niagara. Mr. Powell was the first 
judge who presided over the Court in the District of Hesse, and was a 
member of the Land Board. Subsequently he settled in Toronto and 


retired from the bench in 1825. He had a high reputation as a judge 
and bore a conspicuous part in the civil life of his time 

It is generally accepted that M. Duperon Baby was the M. Babee who 
m 1760 negotiated for Bellestre with Roger's representative, as to the 
surrender of Detroit to the British. He was of an- old French family 
grandson of Jacques Baby de Rainville who came to Canada from 
Gumne with the Carignau regiment." Duperon Baby was born in 
1738, was made a justice of the Court of Common Pleas in 1788, and 
died at Sandwich in 1796. (James). 

Col. Alexander McKee was Indian Agent at Pittsburo- before the 
Revolutionary War, after the outbreak -of which he was imprisoned 
by the revolutionists at Pittsburg. He effected his escape and co- 
operated with Sir John Johnson among the Indians, becoming Deputy 
Superintendent-General. In 1778 he travelled through the Indian 
territory to Detroit, and greatly assisted in maintaining friendly relations 
between the tribes and the British Crown. He was a Justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas at Detroit. His services were greatly appre- 
ciated by Lord Dorchester, and in his death on the 14th January, 1799, 
the, service lost an able and devoted officer. 

Alexander Grant was the fourth son of Grant of Glenmoriston, In- 
vernessshire. He served in the Royal Navy as a midshipman. He was 
present with Amherst in the Lake Champlain expedition and was after- 
wards placed in command of the lake vessels from Niagara to Mackinaw 
with headquarters, at Detroit. Hence his title of commodore. He was 
a member of the Land Board of Hesse, of Simcoe's Executive Council, 
and Administrator of Upper Canada in 1805, during the interval be- 
tween Lt. -Governor Hunter and Lti-Governor Gore. He died in 1813. 
The late Jtrdge Woods, of Chatham, Ont., was a grandson. 

William Robertson was one of the most active members of the Land 
Board. He settled at Detroit in 1782, engaging in general business as a 
merchant. He was appointed one of the Justices of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas in 1788. He appeared before the Council in Quebec in that 
year on behalf of the inhabitants of Detroit who memorialized the 
Governor-General on matters touching the administration of justice. 
He was appointed a member of Simcoe's first Executive Council, but 
had by that time settled in England and does not appear to have re- 
turned to Canada again. 

The name of Lieut. Adhemar St. Martin is among those of the 
Justices of the Peace for Hesse on the list for 1788, and in the year 
following he appears as a member of the Land Board of Hesse, being 
then a resident at St. Vincent. He had been for many years prominent 
in the affairs of the Western settlement, gave valuable service as 
Commissary and interpreter in the Pontiac affair, and suffered severe 
loss of property. His name is associated with the famous Cass House 
which came into his possession about 1750, and was the birthplace of 
Major-General Macomb and at one time the home of the Anthons of 
whom Charles was the distinguished classical author and Editor. 
Changes began son to take place in the personell of the Board and one 
of the most prominent of the new members was Col. John Askin. 


The Askin family attained influence in the Detroit district at an early 
period. The name was originally the Scottish "Erskine" and was 
changed to conceal identity after the Jacobite defeat in 1715. One of 
the old family removed to Ireland and had a son, John Askin who 
settled in America and at the time of the Conquest of Canada was a 
merchant at Albany.. In the Pontiac outbreak he transported the supplies 
from Albany by Lake Erie to Detroit and received, as a reward, grants 
of land at Detroit. In 1764 he went as Commissary to Michilimackinac, 
returning in 1780 to Detroit as a trader. He was successful in business 
and amassed much property, which he abandoned to the States at the 
close of the Revolutionary War. He then settled in Canada on the 
east side of the Detroit river. He was appointed a Captain of Militia 
in 1787 by Lord Dorchester and in 1796 was promoted to be Lieut- 
Colonel and Colonel in 1801. 




Askin Family 104232 

Askin, Alexander H 218 

Assumption Parish l fi* j~g 

Athletic Sports 1 1 ^ j j g 

Baby Mansion 48 e 2 

Bartlet, Alexander ^g 

Battle of Windsor 21 8 220 

Beeman House 

Brock's Battery 56 

Cameron, Donald 

Casgrain Homestead 109 

Clerks of Peace 100 

County of Essex 85 97 

Court House . . 86 222 

Cowan Homestead 128 

Detroit River 227 228; 

Detroit in 1 820 1 1 

Detroit River Navigation 225 227 

District and County Clerks 104 

District and County Treasurers 106 107 

District of Hesse 230 232 

Dougall, James , 135 

Essex Historical Society 196 198 

Executions in Sandwich 1 1 1 1 1 5 

Fellers, George 17 

Fellers Homestead 131 

Fenian Raids 72 80 

Ferry Boats 161 163 

First Baptist Church 195196 

First I >comotive 1 34 

Fish H tchery 61 63 

Fort M alden 206207 

Frei ch Period . 6 1 1 

INDEX Continued. 

Gignac, Mrs. Pierre 10 

Girardot, Ernest 160 

Girardot, Theodule I/ 

Grist Mill 134 

Guillot, Lt.-Col. J. C 157 

Hands' Homestead 37 3$ 

Harrison, Gen. W. H 51 

Historial Landmarks 127 131 

House of Refuge.. 92 

Indian History i 5 

Islands of Detroit River.. , 225 

Judges of Essex 96 98 

MacDonell, S, S 135 

McGregor Homestead , 216 

McKee Homestead 41 

Marentette Family 1 125 127 

Methodist Church 191 194 

Mission House 164 

Mission Pear Trees 55 

Moy House. 8 

Newspapers 207 218. 221 

Oldest Free Mason 44 46 

Parliamentary Representaties 109 1 1 1, 203 205 

Past and Present , 8085 

Prince, Col. John 66 69 

Rankin, Col 69 70 

Rebellion of 1837-8 64 66 

Registrars of County 101 104 

St. John's Church 179 191 

St. Joseph's Church I 

Sandwich Township 12 

Hotels 119 123 

Infantry 73 

Petroleum Oil Co 58 61 

Postmasters 37 

Stage Notables 124 125 

Town 1344 

INDEX Continued, 

Sheriffs of the County 98 TOO 

Sullivan, Capt. John D 163 

Surrender of Detroit 233 234 

Tecumseh .... 51 

Trent Affair 70 72 

Walker, Hiram . 200 

Walkerville 198 203 

War of 1 8 1 2 46 47 

Wardens of Essex 92 95 

White, Chief Joseph 2 

Wilkinson Homestead 127 

Windsor 81, 135160 

Windsor Barracks 1 39 

Windsor Castle . 137 

Woods, Judge 198 



iterv!. T ne tcvvnsh 
present) an i 
Canadian Frontij 
including the ter 

the present City 
Sandwich and \i 
Due Date: 28/1 


University of Toronto 








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