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Full text of "Traces of the Indian in Piedmont North Carolina"







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Ifof)n ^prunt l^ill 

of the Class of 1889 



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TRACES OF THE INDIAN IN 



PIEDMONT NORTH CAROLINA 



By 

Douglas L. Rights - ' '*J§* 



TRACES OF THE INDIAN IN 

PIEDMONT NORTH CAROLINA 



Paper Read By Rev. Douglas L. Rights Before the Annual 

Meeting of the North Carolina Historical Society, 

in Raleigh, Deeerfber 7, 1923 



^5 



The bold pioneers who colonized 
the Carolinas, truly makers of his- 
tory, were not, with few exceptions, 
especially interested in writing his- 
tory. N'ot only did most of them 
neglect to record scrupulously tluir 
own achievements, but they failed 
also to reveal to future generations 
much that they learned of their 
aboriginal predecessors, the red men. 

We have, in a general way, learned 
of the traits of the Indian in the 
Carolinas. There are a few detailed 
accounts 'on record. The natives of 
Eastern Carolina early came in con- 
tact with the whites, and the history 
of the two races was interwoven 
from the beginning of the settle- 
ment. 

It was not thus with Piedmont 
and Western Carolina. We learn 
about the Ind:an wars, but there is 
little to study which will throw an 
intimate light upon these men, their 
habits, customs, and manner of liv- 
ing, except the scattered traces which 
they have left behind. 

Teiiitorj;. 

The territory considered in th's 
paper is the piedmont section. The 
study includes the counties from 
Orange and Chatham in the east 
to AVilkes in the west; from Cabar- 
rus in the south to the Virsinia line 
in the north. The level country of 
the east pa.sses gradually into the 
hill country of the west. Before the 
Indians were driven across the 
mountains or departed, as some did, 
to the north, this section was mainly 
forest land with pleasant valleys, 
well watered and suitable for hunt- 
ing and fishing. The fertil.ty of the 
meadow land adjacent to streams 
forded advantages for the crude 
tempts at primeval agricultuie. 
THbes. 

An estimate of the number 
aboriginal inhabitants east of 
Mississippi at the beginning 
colonization by the whites is placed 
at about 280,000. Many tribes, 
speaking different languages and 
dialects, occupied this territory. They 
were engaged in conf.nu^il warfare. 



af- 
at- 



of 

the 

of 



The Algonquin and Iroquois groups, 
each composed of various tribes 
speaking similar dialects though 
each differed from the others, were 
the most numerous. 

The Indians encountered by the 
members of Sir Walter Raleigh's 
expedit ons to our coast'and were of 
the Algonquin group. The Tuscarora 
and the Cherokee were tribes be- 
longing to the Iroquois 1 nguistic 
group. Bishop Spangenberg in 1752 
passed thru a Tuscarora town on 
the Roanoke River. Indians of this 
tribe may have roamed the piedmont 
country, but doubtiess did not have 
permanent settlements there, as 
they were at war with and feared 
the Indians of that region. The 
Cherokees held to the mountains of 
Western Carolina. Early reports 
give account of great numbers pass- 
ing thru Piedmont Carolina, but their 
stronghold was in the mount-iin 
country. The Senecas, also of the 
Ii-flquois, came this f ar south on 
hunting expeditions. 

The Siouan tribes, we know, had 
strongholds in the piedmont section. 
These included the Catawba, Cheraw, 
Saponi, Tutelo and Manocin. Of 
these, the Catawba is considered the 
most important. The SaponV. and 
Tutelo ranged from Piedmont Vir- 
ginia into Carolina, but the Catawba 
was a strong tribe of the piedmont 
region. 

Some small tribes had disappeared 
before the coming of the whites, as 
•s reported of the Sawra Indians. 

Bishop Spangenberg's diary, writ- 
ten at Edenton in 1752, records the 
following: 

"The Indians in North Carolina 
are in a bad way . The Chowan 
Indians are reduced to a few fam- 
ilies. The Tuscarora lived 35 miles 
from here, and are still in possession 
of a pretty piece of land. They are 
the remnant of that tribe with which 
Carolina was formerly at war, and 
part of them went to the Five Na- 
tions, and united with them. The 
Meherrin Indians, living further 



^ 



west, are also reduced to a mere 
handful. Still further west 1 ve the 
Catawbas, who will probably be 
our neighbors. They are still at 
war with ihf Six Nations (Iroquo s). 
Southwest from here, behind South 
Carolina, are the Cherokees, a great 
Nation." 

In a study of the aboriginal traces 
left by th s vanishing people, it is 
difficult to a.ssign to what tribe the 
relics and remains belong. Some may 
have been left by hunting parties 
and temporary sojourners. However, 
the Siouan group should claim tha 
majority. This was the r home. 
The Siii*vey. 
The trail of the Indian is ea.sy to 
discover, namely, follow the water- 
courses. The Yadkin and Catawba 
rivers, largest streams of the sec- 
tion, reveal most clearly traces of 
the Indian. Though the land adjoin- 
ing the streams has been tilled for 
years, the mark of the red man is 
stfll there. Camp and village sites 
are difficult to obliterate. Occasion- 
ally an overflow from the river per- 
forms the work of archaeologist 
and excavates with a nicety that re- 
veals the secrets of the hidden burial 
grounds. 

However, the smaller streams bear 
witness also. Choose almost any 
creek of considerable size, and ei-e 
long you will f nd the evidence of 
former habitation by the red man. 
A stream only ten miles in length, 
known as South Fork Creek, is 
situated five miles directlv south of 
Winston-Salem and flows' west. At 
no point is the creek more than 
knee deep. A careful survey reveals 
nineteen camp or village sites. A 
thousand artifacts of flint have been 
gathered in the survey. These fields 
have been cultivated for over a 
century. 

Following the watercourses up in- 
to branches and even to large springs 
reveals traces of the Indian. 

If calculations from these surveys 
are correct, the Indians in choosing 
camp s tes preferred the north bank 
of a stream flowing west, the west 
bank of a stream flowing south, thus 
securing advantages of weather. 

A partiality for sandy loam soil 
is noted, evidencing no aboriginal 
desire to become a "stick in the 
mud." 

Scenes of natural beauty and 
grandeur are often marked as haunts 
of the Indian. Peculiar rock form- 
ations, cliffs, river bends, escarp- 
ments and Other more or less spec- 
tacular natural scenes made their 
appeal. 

It is disappointing, therefore, to 
record only faint traces of the 
Indian in the immediate v cinity of 
picturesque Pilot Mountain. How- 
ever, there were large camps at no 
great distance. The same mav bo 



.--•aul ul the Sawratown Mountains, 
reputed to be named after a native 
tribe. But altho traces in the 
mountains themselves are not so 
numei-ous, or are more diff cult to 
di.sclose, yet the longest and most 
beautiful fashioned spear head yet 
exhibited from the Piedmont section 
comes from the slopes of the Sawra- 
town range. 

It may be noted that traces reveal 
that the Indian did not camp direct- 
ly on the brink of streams unless on 
a high bank. The usual camp or 
village site was located on the second 
bottom or rise from the valley. 

An iquities. 

About 7000 specimens of stone im- 
plements gathered in the Piedmont 
section have been examined during 
the prepaiation of this paper. In 
Addition, pottery formed from baked 
mud. nearly all now found only in 
fragments, has betn disf?covered in 
abundance thruout the region. Or- 
naments of she)l, stone, baked mud 
and bone have been observed. A 
few ornaments of metal have been 
reported. 

These various relics may be 
classed in gener 1 with the tyn.^ 
found along the AtlanJc seaboard 
east of the Alleghenies extending 
from Maine to Georgia. 

The search reveals no siga of 
great age. Traces of a socalled 
"primitive man" do not r.ppear. Ex- 
cept in graves or caches, where arti- 
ficial deposit is apparent, no sign 
of very ancient human life is in 
evidence. One report showed that 
an arrowhead was found seven feet 
below the surface, but further in- 
vestigation revealed that it lay in the 
ed of a running stream, where it had 
undoubtedly been carried by tlie 
water. Paleolithic traces are not 
expected. 

However, quantities of these 
specimens of the neolithic age may 
rightly be called pre-hisioric. Many 
of the artifacts have been shaped 
long before the advent of the his- 
torians. For instance, the lonely 
white hunter's cabin, which served 
as the first abode of the pioneers 
who began the Wachovia settlement, 
has entirely disappeared. Not a 
trace of the colonists' work remains 
today on the spot marked by a 
l>Iain granite monument. But the 
plow has revealed within a few yards 
of this granite block distinct traces 
of a former Indian camp. Several 
arrowheads, arrowheads' broken in 
the making, a crude tomahawk, and 
fragments of pottery reveal an an- 
cient camp site occupied before the 
coming of the whites. Thus .some 
remains may be called pre-hi.storie, 
though none of gi-eat nge. • 



Haiiditaps. 

The deplorable lack of public 
museums cr depoii^ories Invo.ves 
re ious handicaps :or the student of 
Indian Ivfe in this rogion. There 
ar a number of private collec'ions 
hardly accessible, and no large, ad- 
equate disp ay for the public, -rhou- 
ETinds and thousands of specimens 
have been gathered and lost. Many 
•of the most inter*, sting have passed 
out of the sta-fe. Su "h collections as 
we find are general'y poorly class- 
ified, described or displayed. 

Within a radius of 2j miles of 
Win~ton-£alem there were thousands 
of whole specimens of mud-baked 
pottery left by the Indians. Today 
there is only one complete specimen 
en exhibit to show the ceramic art. 
This is in the Wachovia Historical 
Society, and though clacked, s 
otherwi~e well pr. served, and hap- 
pily possesses a record of th:- camp 
site where found. 

Jia.ny farmers, whose fieds were 
examined during the past few y~ars. 
had been plowing amid Invdian relics 
for years, and knev.r not what these 
odd bit3 of stone might be. 

It is interesting to note that this 
lack of acquaintance with Indian 
relics leads som' minds to exagger- 
ation of their value. It is reported 
that a soap:;tone pot, which the large 
museums of the country exhibit in 
abundance, is being held by a certain 
man foY $100. )0. At thi- rate for 
relic: our Na ional Museum wi'l 
roon riv^l the United £tat3s Treas- 
ury. The South Carolina collector, 
who is reputed to have gath red 
twenty bushels of arrowheads in a 
single county, is ceitainly a well-to- 
ri o perscn. 

The writer of this paper has sev- 
eral hundred very good' ^specimens 
of arrowheads, speAr points, drills 
and knivs fvom the Chapel Hill 
neighborhood, which were fashioned 
long before the savage sophom©ric 
j-ell brought terror to the campus. 
He is readj' to present these to the 
University wheneve ■ that institution 
provitles adequate museum facilities. 
At present, the only exhibition of 
aboriginal remains at the University 
is confined tc the new dormitories 
recent y erected, th? mortar of which 
was mixed wi h sand from an Indian 
burying ground. 

Re'ics. 

Of what do these relics cons/st? 
By far the mo^t numerous are the 
flint chipped implements. Among 
these, ariow points, knives, and 
fpear heads rank first in number. 
Then come scr.apers, drils or 
punches, oddly shaped stones, rough- 
ly formed axes, celts, gouges and 
other rude tools. 

Less plentiful are the pecked and 
polished smooth implements, axes, 
gouges, celts, etc. The axe, or toma- 



hawk, is usually grooved, sometimes 
-n the center, sometimes toward one 
eMid, thus making a snug fit for the 
handle, which embraced the body 
of the weapon. These vary in 
length from four to eight inches, in 
weight from one to three pounds. 
The heavier ones require a s trong 
arm for manipulation. Production 
of th3se artifacts required much 
time and labor. 

Hammer stones abound. These 
were of a size to fit into the hand, 
some larger for the heavier worK, 
nearly all having two small pits, 
one in the center of each flat side. 
They are made of quartzite, "nigger- 
head rock" or flint, with preference 
-or river washed stones. 

Fi'agments of pottery are found 
widespread thruout the section. 
There are two classes; baked mud 
and steatite or soap.stone. The first 
appears to have been moulded in 
baskets cf woven grass or reeds, 
usually conical in shape, then burned. 
Most of it shows gravel and even 
small pebbles intermingled with the 
clay. It is quite encluring and stands 
weathering as well as the average 
brick. Decorations sometimes ap- 
pear, mosfy near the rim, in the 
form of incised lines, small pits ap- 
parently impressed with bone or 
twig, impressions of thumb nail at 
regular intervals, and some scrolls 
or t.acings well rounded. These 
mud pots are ordinarily one-fourth 
to one-half inch thick. The color 
ranges from brick red to dark brown 
and even black. Often holes were 
punched near the rim for fitting 
hanelle. A gallon or less was the 
capacity of the majority of these 
pots. 

Soapstone vessels, of which num- 
bers have been preserved intact, 
were made from material found 
abundantly in the piedmont area. 
Some are blocks of stone with shal- 
low basin scooped out. Others are 
as large as half-bushel measures 
with walls more than an inch thick. 
Some have two knobs to serve as 
h ndles. More delicate specimens 
resemble the modern deep dish, and 
one specimen, probably a burial urn, 
is beautifully cut down to the size 
of a pint cup, with walls about one- 
fourth inch thick, having small holes 
pierced near the rim for insertion 
of handle the size of a cord. 

There are several soapstone pestle.g 
and mortars for pounding grain. 

Piljes and Ornaments. 

Traces show plainly that the 
Pieelmont Indian was adelicted to 
the use of tobacco. Pipes were 'made 
of baked mud, but more often of 
stone, principally soapstone. A few 
sm 11 metal pipes are in existence. 
Mud pipes range in shape from the 
straight tubular to the "L" shaped. 








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The .stiiiK- iiipt-s are suiuulhly 
finished. At least fotir different 
styles have been discovered in this 
region; tubular, Southern mound 
type, monitor and .VjqwI or vase 
shaped. 

The ornaments are usually of 
shell or stone, some of baked mud 
and bone. Bits of mica have been 
discovered and a few metal orna- 
ments. 

Many sheKs have been found on 
camp sites along rivers, mostly in 
kitchen middens, where sometimes 
a bed two fe*t thick, nitngled with 
animal bone.-, charcoal and broken 
implements, mark . former f tasting 
v!ace. Some of the larger mus^Jftf 
:>helTs, still lustrous and colorful 
were found. They may have served 
aa spoons or a^ ornaments. Some 
elongated shells resembling the 
conch weYe :.rought to )ight. These 
were pierced at the end to be 
;;trung for necklace. Some shells 
are cut round like a coin with a 
smai: hcle drilled near the edge. 
£hells resemb ing sna'M shells, only 
much smaller, are found in quan- 
tities, some pierced for stringing. 
Wampum, or Indian money, has been 
found, shell beads about one-half 
inch long, half the thickness of a 
lead pencil, all pierced. 

Perforated mud beads the size of 
a marble have been found, also a 
few bone beads. 

Ornamental stones vary in shape 
and s'(ze. Some are crescent shaped 
with hole dri.led thru center. Others 
are squ.re, oval, elliptical and cir- 
cular. On some there are scratches 
Or markings, most of them with one 
or two pe-foraticns. A few objects 
re enible tiny saucers or bowls. 

Some -few copper bsads. and discs 
have been found, /, ; ;. . 

In linn W'arfai'e. • 

Graphic accounts of warfare ^j.e- 
tween Indians and . . wlyjje.. -se.ttlers 
have b e.i preseXVed',V-;."5^e. fallow .«g 
extracts from 'The' Records of the 
Moravians in North 'Carolina," cited 
by Mi3s Ade aide Fries, gives vivid 
pietuvt oj the f:tirring. times n the 
piedmont section in 1760, when the 
Indians were on the warpath: 

"This w2^s a year of fierce Indian 
war, and on he 10th of February the 
first whites were killed by tho 
Chcrokees n North Carolina. On 
the 13th of March many Indians 
we.e in our neighborhood; eight 
miles away, on the Yadkin, houses 
were burned; two men were killed 
at the bridge over the Wach (Salem 
Creek); two persons were killed on 
I he Town Fork. They had one large 
camp six miles from Bethania, and 
a smaller one less than three miles. 
Here at the mill, and at Betnana, 
there were Indian spies every night. 
M.nrch Ifith. a lifaiitif ul snow foil. 



lying for several days, and then wo 
could see the smoke from :hejr 
camps. Among our ncighboi:. more 
than fifteen people were slai'i. The 
Indians said later that they had 
tried to make prisoners here, but 
fa led; that several times thty had 
been stopped by the sound .if the 
watchman's horn and the ringing of 
the bell for morning and evening 
services. 

"On the 9th a man came, pierced 
thru and thru with an arrow. He 
related that 24 hours befor ; William 
Fish and his son had asked him to 
go with them to their farm to gel 
piov sions for the families gathei'ed 
at a certain place on the Yadkin. 
Some miles up the river they hap- 
pened upon a party of Indians, who 
fired at them and shot many arrows. 
Fish and his son fell, but this man, 
longing to reach Bethabara, for his 
soul's sake rode into the river to 
escape them. On the further .'lide 
he found more Ind/ans, but tliey 
paid no attention to him and he 
re-crossed the river, plunge.i into 
the woods, where in the darkness 
and rain he soon lost his way, and 
wounded by two arrows, wandered 
for many hours, but finally i-eached 
the Moravian town where Dr. Bonn 
took out the arrow and saved his 
life." 

Arrows. 

The arrows, such as this account 
mentions, were an important factor 
both in hunting and in warfare. 
They are the most numerous of all 
the implements still preserved and 
afford an interesting study. The 
site of a camp or lodge may be dis- 
covered by the scattered flint chips, 
broken from these implements in 
manufacture. 

Whether a flint weapon was an 
arrow, spear or knife, we can only 
conjecture from its size. Sometimes 
the shape shows distinctly that the 
implement in question is a knife and 
has been made for hafting. A large 
arrow or spear could serve also as 
knife. 

All grades of workmanship are 
found. Some of the arrow points 
are so crudely fashioned that we 
wonder if they were not so made 
to provoke a smile from some stolid 
savage. Others so delicately wrought, 
with long thin blade, symmetrical 
barbs, or so finely notched, that we 
marvel how aboriginal tools could 
accomplish the feat. 

The flint projectiles exammed 
vary in length from f)ne-half inch 
to seven inches. 

Material. 

The material from which they are 
made is largely flint of the varying 
grades. Some pure quartz arrows, 
which are transparent, are preserved. 
Beautiful white quartz arrowheads 
have been found thruout th's sec- 
tion. This is a native stone ea ily 



procured. Many tinted flints, gray, 
brown, blue, black, with streaked 
and spotted hues, form a multi- 
colored variety pleasing to the eye. 
Practically all are made of flint 
material, which represents quartz in 
d fferent degrees of purity. Thru- 
out the world this has been discov- 
ered by savages as a tractable stone, 
readily shaped by chipping. It 
breaks with a conchoidal fracture, 
that is, when struck a sharp blow 
with another hard stone, fragments 
break off leaving shallow, shell- 
shaped cavities. Attempts to use 
other grades of stone met with little 
success. 

Most of the flint was quarried at 
considerable distance from camp 
sites and was carried by the Indians 
m pieces as large as the hand and 
of the same shape. These were 
kept in supply for future use in ar- 
row making. Piles of these have 
been unearthed. 

Some of the arrowheads studied 
were apparently made of material 
brought many miles from the quarry. 
Some of the piedmont flint chips 
and implements of the f ner grade. 
It is quite probable, were brought 
from across the mountains, possioly 
some from the famous Flint Ridge 
quarries of Ohio, from which ma- 
terial has been traced six hundred 
miles. 

Classification. 
A report issued a number of years 
ago by the National Museum in- 
cluded a careful classification of 
the different shapes of Indian ar- 
rowheads as follows: 

"Division 1 — L.eaf-sh:iped — In this 
classification the leaf-shaped is 
placed at the head as being the 
oldest implement of its kind. The 
division includes all kinds, elliptical, 
oval, oblong, or lanceolate forms, 
bearing any relation to the shape of 
a leaf, and without stem, shoulder 
'or barb. 

D vision II — Triangular — All spec- 
mens in the form of a triangle, 
whether bases or edges be convex, 
concave or straight. 

Division III — Stemmed — All va- 
rieties of stems, whether straight, 
pointed, expanding, round or flat, 
and whether bases or edges are 
convex, straight or concave. 

Division IV — Peculiar Forms, such 
as have beveled edges, serrated 
edges, bifurcated stems, perforators, 
etc." 

Following this classification, the 
Piedmont Indian made a good show- 
ing. From a single camp site in 
Forsyth county, 400 arrowheads 
were gathered. Of the many pos- 
sible shapes enumerated in this 
classification, every shape mentioned 
in the list was found included in 
the 400, except the long thin arrow 
ascribed to the California Indians, 
and some peculiar forms found only 
In distant portions of our country. 



i^rrow Making-. 

The mak.ng of an Indian arrow- 
head with primitive tcols is, to many 
people, a mystery. It has been called 
a lost art. However, traces in Pied- 
mont Carolina reveal nearly every 
stage in the process of manufacture. 
While there were numerous methods 
employed, in a general way we may 
trace the implement from quarry 
to quiver. 

First, large chunks of flint were 
broken (jTf at the quarry by mean.? 
of striking with weighty boulders. 
These were reduced by blows to 
large, leaf-shaped pieces. These 
could be transported and finished 
elsewhere at leisure. Hidden stores 
of these have been uncovered in the 
piedmont region. 

When ready for fashioning, the 
flint was laid on a flat stone which 
served as anvil. We are told that 
strips of buckskm or other soft ma- 
terial were placed between flint and 
anvil to reserve force of b-ows for 
the desired portion of the flint. 

The work of striking was done 
with a hammer stone, shaped like a 
large biscuit, which fitted well into 
the hand. Nearly every hammer 
stone found has two small pits, one 
worn in the cente: of each side. 
When the flint is worked down to 
a size easily managed, it can be 
held in the hand. Buckskin strings 
were doubtless used also to protect 
the hand. The leaJ-.-haped imple- 
ment ^is now re.dy to receive the 
finishing touches, to ba pointed, 
trimmed down, stemmed and barbed. 
The many specimens broken in the 
making and flUcarded show that 
the Indian was not always success- 
ful In his efforts. 

The renowned Captain John Smith 
left a valuable light upon the subject 
of arrowma^tng when he wrote 
about the Indian of V rginia, "His 
arrowhead he quickly maketh with 
a Wttle bone, which he ever weareth 
at his bracert, of any splint of a 
stone, or fflass in the form of a 
heart, and these they glew to the end 
of their Arrowes." 

These smaller tools for the finish- 
ing touches have come to light in 
our sect on. One of these little deer 
horn tools was cut down for hafting, 
and showed signs of use. 

Holding the flint in one hand, the 
Indian, with pressure and dexterous 
turn of the hard bone or horn tool, 
soon had the small chips flying and 
presented a deftly formed weapon 
ready for attaching to arrow shaft. 
Different methods were resorted 
to, but this may be considered the 
general process. 

On village and carnp s'tes the loca- 
tion of the arrowmaker's lodge may 
be discovered. Hammer stones, 
anvils, partly finished implements, 
arrowheads broken in process and 
thickly scattered flint chips reveal 
.an ancient workshop. 



An Indian (•lavc. 

Although traces of the Indian are 
abundant, a'ter the_ lapse of cue or 
two centurts, it is difficult to 
restore in imagination a camp or 
village as it actually appeared, peo- 
pled with its inhabitants. However, 
the overflow of the rivers during 
seasons of high wat< r, have revealed 
quite clearly methods of Indf'an 
burial. Such articles as deerskin 
and feathered ornaments h.ve long 
fince disappeared, but the remains 
h f t by the receding waters present 
a:\ interesting as.'^embly of articles. 

Modes of burial diffired among 
the various tr bes, and in the same 
tribe more el borate ceremonials 
were observed for more distinguished 
peronages. Practically a'l, how- 
ever, instead of following our cus- 
t':m in which pergonal effects of 
the deceased a e bequeathed to 
dc-cenr^ants. "-ou^rht rather to en- 
tomb such possessions and in addi- 
tion to add gifts from kinsmen and 
frienu o. ine departed. I'erh .ps 
a typical grave cf an important mem- 
Iier of a tribe may be noted in the 
following di-c-osure: 

The water of the stream had 
rarr ed away the soil to a .lepth of 
four feet. Here a layer of stoneT 
was loosened. Directly una M-neaih 
were numerous implements r-nd or- 
namental articles. The disintegrated 
bones showed that the remains had 
been deposited lying horizontally 
with head to the east, the body 
flexed in a sitting po^'ture. Th^ fol- 
low ng articles were sc:itte"e1 in the 
enclosure which was nine by twelve 
feet square: 

Six conch shells, size o" thumb, 
pierced to form a necklace . 

One large, lustrous musc^ shell. 



One shell cut to size of five cent 
piece, pierced with smooch hoh^ 

Five wamijum Vieads of shell. 

A handful of small shells, souie 
pierced. 

One mud-baked bead, pierced. 

One bone bead, pierced. 

One smooth, thin stone ornament, 
])ierced at toi). 

A dozen or more sm'ill colored 
pebbles cf attractive shape. 

One tomahawK and aiiother frag- 
ment. 

One fragment of smooth celt. 

Three portions of soapstone pipes 
and one portion of a mud pipe. 

Four bone needles, broken from 
leg bone of some animal and 
smoothed down to a iioint, in length 
fiom one to four inches. 

Six hammer stones, all bearing 
marks of usage. 

One deer or goat horn, cut for 
ha ting, an arrowmaker's tool. 

Quantities of mus|*^ shells. 

Bones of deer, opossum, dog and 
other nimals and a tortoise shell. 

Large fragments of mud-baked 
pottery linning the grave. 

Two hundred twenty-five arrow- 
heads, rather small, and as many 
more fragments. 

From this we judge that the de- 
parted member of the tribe was 
plentifully supplied for his journey 
to the spirit land. 

Conclusion. 

Today the Indian has disappeared 
from Piedmont Carolina. The old 
folks remember when roving bands 
passed thru and would skillfully 
shoot their arrows with sure aim to 
strike down coins placed many feet 
awTy by the wonder ng white men. 
But' today the Indian here is a 
memory. Only the traces remain 
to tell of his departed glory. 




00030721808 



FOR USE ONLY IN 
THE NORTH CAROLINA COLLECTION 



C 



Form No. A-368, Rev. 8/95 



■in 



mW