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AV O R K S ISSUED BY 



Cl)f ?|afeliigt 0ocitt^. 



EOBEET HUES' 
TRACTATUS DE GLOBIS. 



SAILING DIRECTIONS 

rOK THE 

CIECUMNAYIGATIO^^ OF ENGLAND. 



No. LXXIX. 




THE MOLYNEUX CELESTIAL GLOBE, 

One of a Pair at the Middle Temple Library. 

(after a photograph.) 



TEACTATUS DE GLOBIS 



ET EOEUM USU. 



A TEEATISE 

DESCRIPTIVE OF THE GLOBES CONSTRUCTED BY 

EMERY MOLYNEUX, AXD PUBLISHED 

IN 1592. 



ROBERT HUES. 



EtiitEti, bttfj 'Snnotatcti Cntiicrs anti an Entrotiuctton. 



CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM, C.B., F.R.S. 




CL 

LONDON : 
PRINTED FOR THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY, 

4, LIXCOLN'S INN FIELDS, W.C. 

M.DCCC.LXSXIX. 






LONDON: 
WBtTIIfG AND COMPANY, SARDINIA 3TKBET, Lincoln's INN FIELDS. 



COUNCIL 



THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY. 



SiE HENRY YULE, K.C.S.I., LL.D., Pbesidknt. 

Majob-Geneeal Sie HENRY RAWLINSON, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 
AssociE Etbangeb de L'Institut de Feance, Vicb-Pbbsidbnt. 

LoED ABERDARE, G.C.B., F.R.S. , late Fees. R.G.S. 

W. AMHURST T. AilHERST, Esq., M.P. 

JOHN BARROW, KsQ., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

WALTER DE GRAY BIRCH, Esq., F.S.A. 

Reab-Admieal LINDESAY BRINE. 

EDWARD BURNE-JONES, Esq., A. R. A., D.C.L. 

CECIL G. S. FOLJAMBE, Esq., il.P. 

The Right Hox. Sie MOUNTSTUART E. GRANT DUKF, G. C.S.I. 

ALBERT GRAY, Esq. 

R. H. MAJOR, Esq., F.S.A. 

CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM, Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 

Admibal Sie F. W. RICHARDS, K.C.B. 

LoBD ARTHUR RUSSELL. 

ERNEST SATOW, Esq., C-M.G., Mi^jisiee RKsiDiiNT in Ueuguay. 

S. W. SILVER, Esq. 

COUTTS TROTTER, Esq. 

Sib CHARLES WIL30X, R.E., K.C.B.. K.C.M.G., F.R.S., D.C.L.,and LL.D. 

E. DELMAR MORGAN, Homokaby Skcketabv, 



107239 



CONTENTS. 



Table of Contents 

Introduction 

Latin Title ... 

English Title 

Table of Contents from Edition of lo'J-i 



PAGE 

vii 
xi 

li 

liii 

Iv 



Dedicatory Epistle to Sir Walter Raleigh 
Preface .... 



First Part. 

Of those things which are common both to the Coelestiall and 

Terrestriall Globe . . .19 

Chap. I. What a Globe is, with the parts thereof, and of 

the Circles of the Globe . . .19 

Chap. II. Of the Circles which are described upon the Super- 
ficies of the Globe . . . .23 

Chap. III. Of the three positions of Spheres : Right, Parallel, 

and Oblique . . . .33 

Chap. IV. Of the Zones . . . .37 

Chap. V. Of the Amphiscii, Heteroscii, and Periscii . 39 

Chap. VI. Of the Periseci, Antseci, and Antipodes . . 40 

Chap. VII. Of Climates and Parallels . . .42 

Second Part. 

Chap. I. Of such things as are proper to the Ccelestiall 

Globe ; and first of the Planets . . 44 

Chap. II. Of the Fixed Stars and their Constellations . 47 

Chap. III. Of the Constellations of the Xorthcrnc Hemisphere 50 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Chap. IV. Of the Northerne Signes of the Zodiaque , 55 

Chap. V. Of the Constellations of the Southerne Hemisphere 

and first of those in the Zodiaque . . 57 

Chap. VI. Of the Constellations of the Southerne Hemisphere, 

which are without the Zodiaque , . 59 

Chap. VII. Of the Starres which are not expressed in the Globe 62 

Third Part. 

Chap. I. Of the Geographicall description of the Terrestriall 

Globe ; and the parts of the world yet knowne . 68 

Chap. II. Of the Circumference of the Earth, or of a Greater 

Circle ; and of the Measure of a Degree . 80 



Fourth Part. 
Of the Use of Globes . . . . .95 

Chap. I. How to finde the Longitude, Latitude, Distance, and 
Angle of Position, or situation of any place ex- 
pressed in the Terrestriall Globe . . 9G 

Chap. II. How to finde the Latitude of any place . . 98 

Chap. III. How to find the distance of two places, and angle of 

position, or situation . . .99 

Chap. IV. To finde the altitude of the Sunae, or other Starre 100 

Chap. V. To finde the place and declination of the Sunne for 

any day given .... 100 

Chap. VI. How to finde the latitude of any place by observing 
the Meridian Altitude of the Sunne or other 
Starre . . . . .102 

Chap. VII. How to find the Right and Oblique Ascension of 
the Sunne and Starres for any Latitude of place 
and time assigned . . . .104 

Chap. VIII. How to finde out the Horizontall difference betwixt 
the Meridian and Verticall circle of the Sunne or 
any other Starre (which they call the Azimuth), 
for any time or place assigned . .106 

Chap. IX. How to finde the houre of the day, as also the Am- 
plitude, of rising and setting of the Sunne and 
Starres, for any time or latitude of place . 107 



CONTENTS. IX 

Chap. X. Of the threefold rising and sotting of Stars . 109 

Chap. XI. How to finde the beginning and end of Twilight for 

any time, and Latitude of Place . .IK) 

Chap. XII. How to find the length of the Artificiall Day or 
Night, or quantity of the Sunne's Parallel that 
remaines above the Horizon, and that is hid be- 
neath it, for any Latitude of place and time 
assigned. As also to find the same of any other 
Starres . . . . .114 

Chap. XIII. How to finde out the houre of the Day or Night, both 
equall and unequall, for any time or Latitude of 
place . . . . .117 

Chap. XIV. To finde out the Longitude, Latitude, and Declina- 
tion of any fixed Starre as it is expressed in the 
Globe . . . . .1.18 

Chap. XV. To finde the variation of the Compasse for any Lati- 
tude of place . . . .119 

Chap. XVI. How to make a Sunne Diall by the Globe for any 

Latitude of place . . . .123 



Fifth Part. 

Of the Rombes that are described in the Terrestriall Globe, and 

their use . . . • .127 

Of the use of Eumbes in the Terrestriall Globe . . 134 

I. The difference of Longitude and Latitude of two places 
being knowne, how to find out the Rumbe and Distance 
of the same ..... 139 

II. The Rumbe being known, and difference of Longitude ; how 

to find the difference of latitude and distance . . 143 

III. The difference of Longitude and distance being given, how to 

find the Rumbe and difference of Latitude . .144 

IV. The difference of latitude and Rumbe being given, how to 

find the difference of longitude and distance . .144 

V. The difference of latitude and distance being given, the 

Rumbe and difference of longitude may be found . 145 

VI. The Rumbe and difference being given, the difference of 

Loijgiludc and Latitude may also be found . • 146 



X CONTENTS. 

Index Geogkaphicus ..... 149 

Biographical Index of Names . . . .176 

Index of Names of Stars given by Hues in his "Tract.\tus 

DE Globis", with Re.marks . . . 206 

Index of Places Mentioned .... 222 

Index to Subjects ..... 226 



ILLUSTRATION. 

The Molyneux Celestial Globe (after a photograph, by kind 
permission of the Ti'easurer and Benchers of the Middle 
Temple) .... Frontispiece 



INTRODUCTION. 



At the time when Enghsh sailors began to make 
the reign of the great Queen ilkistrious by daring- 
voyages and famous discoveries, it was natural that 
these deeds should be worthily recorded. When 
Drake and Cavendish had circumnavigated the globe, 
when Raleigh had planted Virginia, Davis had dis- 
covered his Straits, and Lancaster had found his 
way to India, the time had come for Hakluyt to 
publish his Principal Navigations, and for Moly- 
neux to construct his Globes. 

Englishmen were coming to the front rank as 
discoverers and explorers, and it naturally followed 
that maps and globes should be prepared by their 
countrymen at home, which should alike record the 
work already achieved and be useful for the guid- 
ance of future navigators. But the construction of 
globes entailed considerable expense, and there was 
need for liberal patronage to enable scientific men 
to enter upon such undertakings. 

In the days of Queen Elizabeth the merchants of 
England \^'ere ever ready to encourage enterprises 
having for their objects the improvement of naviga- 
tion and the advancement of the prosperity of 
their country. While the constructor of the first 



XU INTRODUCTION. 

globes ever made in this country received liolp and 
advice from navigators and mathematicians, he was 
liberally supplied with funds by one of the most 
munificent of our merchant princes. The appear- 
ance of the globes naturally created a great sensa- 
tion, and much interest was taken in appliances 
which were equally useful to the student and to 
the practical navigator. Two treatises intended to 
describe these new appliances, and to serve as guides 
for their use, were published very soon after their 
completion. One of these, the Tractatus de Glohis 
of the celebrated mathematician, Robert Hues, has 
been selected for republication by the Hakluyt 
Society. Before describing the Molyneux Globes, 
and the contents of the Guide to their use, it will 
be well to pass in review the celestial and terres- 
trial globes which preceded, or were contemporaneous 
with, the first that was made in England, so far as 
a knowledge of them has come down to us. 

The celestial preceded the terrestrial globes by 
many centuries. The ancients appear to have adojDted 
this method of representing the heavenly bodies 
and their movements at a very early period. Dio- 
dorus Siculus asserts that the use of the globe was 
first discovered by Atlas of Libya, whence originated 
the fable of his bearing up the heavens on his 
shoulders. Others attribute the invention to Thales ; 
and subsequent geographers, such as Archimedes, 
Crates, and Proclus, are said to have improved 
upon it. Posidonius, who fiourished 150 B.C., and 
is often quoted by Strabo, constructed a revolving 



INTRODUCTIOX. XIU 

sphere to exhibit the motions of the heavenly bodies ; 
and three Imndred years afterwards Ptolemy laid 
down rules for the construction of globes. There 
are some other allusions to the use of globes among 
ancient \yriters ; the last being contained in a passage 
of Leontius Mechanicus, who flourished in the time 
of Justinian. He constructed a celestial globe in 
accordance Avith the rules of Ptolemy, and after the 
description of stars and constellations given by 
Aratus. Globes frequently occur on Poman coins. 
Generally the globe is merely used to denote univer- 
sal dominion. But in some instances, especially on 
a well-known medallion of the Emperor Commodus, 
a celestial globe, copied, no doubt, from those in use 
at the time, is clearly represented. No Greek or 
Poman globes have, however, come down to us. The 
oldest in existence are those made by the Arabian 
astronomers. 

The earliest form appears to have been the armil- 
lary sphere, consisting of metal rings fixed round a 
centre, and crossing each other on various planes, 
intended to represent the orbits of heavenly bodies. 
The Arab globes were of metal, and had the con- 
stellations and fixed stars engraved upon them. 
At least five dating from the thirteenth century 
have been preserved. One is in the National Museum 
at Naples, with the date 1225. Another, dated 
1275, belongs to the Asiatic Society of London; 
and a third, dated 1 289, is at Dresden. There are 
two others, without date, but probably to be re- 
ferred to the same period, one belonging to the 



XIV ryTKODrcTiox. 

Astronomical Society of London, the other to t 
National Library of Paris. 

But the most ancient celestial globe is at Florew 
and has been described by Professor Meucci.^ 
belongs to the eleventh century. 

The astronomical knowledge of the Arabs in t 
East was communicated to their countrymen in Spa 
and the schools of Cordova became so famous tl 
they were frequented by students from Christi 
Europe ; among whom was the celebrated matl 
matician. Gerbert d'Auvergne. afterwards Pope S 
vester IL Valencia was one of the most flonri; 
ing centres of Arabian culture in Spain, at Sii 
under the KhaliHahs of Cordova, and frY»m 1031 
1094 as the capital of a small, independent kin 
dom. It was in Valenda that the celestial glol 
now at Florence, was const ructed, in the year 10 
A.D.* It is r.S inches in diameter. All the fori 
seven consteUatioiis of Ptolemy are engraved up 

* II Ol«h^ C^efSf Arahi<e» del Semio XI emMemte meS ^a&*J 
c- i' «s£roMMRM^ di Jisitoa^ e di matemm 

€■ - ^ •" nrfTi-oTi t"w*'raf<> da F. JUfvai i'Fiitei 

on ti,: ^ ^ :: :;' ■^: fror;; iLt s-:^ ^C I 

Pt-olemy, in 140 a.©-, gave tiiis distaDee as 2° 30'. Acoc»niiv . 
X" - 'vr si^rfutces V in sixty-^ax years. It 

t 140 A.B.. ^rhic^ 'T-.Tsli g-:ve 1070 ss r 

the d&te of the gic*»f . 

by Ibrahim ibn Sa;9d-as-^b'li, uttd his son Mnhammad, in 
year 473 of the He^lra, eqiiivxlent to lO'^ • - ''.' ^as c 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

it, except the ''Cup\ and 1,015 stars are shown, 
with the different magnitudes well indicated. It is 
a very precious reHc of the civihsation of the Span- 
ish Arabs, and is specially interesting as the oldest 
crlobe in existence, and as showing the care with 
which the Arabian astronomers preserved and handed 
down to posterity the system of Ptolemy. The globe 
possessed by the Emperor Frederick II, with pearls 
to indicate the stars, doubtless resembled those 
of the same period which have come down to us. 

The oldest terrestrial globe in existence is that 
constructed by Martin Behaim, at Nuremburg, in 
1492. It is made of pasteboard covered with parch- 
ment, and is 21 mches in diameter. The only lines 
drawn upon it are the equator, tropics, and polar 
circles, and the first meridian, which passes through 
Madeira. The meridian is of iron, and a brass 
horizon was added in 1.500. The globe is illumi- 
nated and ornamented, and is rich in leg-ends of 
interest and in geographical details. The author of 
this famous globe was bom at Nuremburg of a good 
familr. He had studied under Regiomontanus. He 
settled and married at Horta, the capital of Fayal, 
in the Azores, had made numerous voyages, and 
had been in the exploring expedition with Diogo 
Cam when that Portuguese navigator discovered 
the mouth of the Congo. Behaim had the reputa- 
tion of being a good astronomer, and is said by 

stmcted for Abu Isa ibn LsJ>buii, a personage of note in the 
political :uid literarr historr of Mtisiira Spain dnrm^ tfea* eew- 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

Astronomical Society of London, tlie other to the 
National Library of Paris. 

But the most ancient celestial globe is at Florence, 
and has been described by Professor Meucci.^ It 
belongs to the eleventh century. 

The astronomical knowledo-e of the Arabs in the 
East was communicated to their countrymen in Spain, 
and the schools of Cordova became so famous that 
they were frequented by students from Christian 
Europe ; among whom was the celebrated mathe- 
matician, Gerbert dAuvergne, afterwards Pope Sil- 
vester II. Valencia was one of the most flourish- 
ing centres of Arabian culture in Spain, at first 
under the Khalifahs of Cordova, and from 1031 to 
1094 as the capital of a small, independent king- 
dom. It was in Valencia that the celestial globe, 
now at Florence, was constructed, in the year 1070 
A.D.^ It is 7.8 inches in diameter. All the forty- 
seven constellations of Ptolemy are engraved upon 

^ II Gloho Celeste Arahico del Secolo XI esistente nel gabineto 
degli struvienti antichi di astronomia, di Jinca, e di matematica 
del R. Instituto diStudi Superiori illustrato da F. Meucci (Firenze, 
1878). 

2 Professor Meiicci observed that the star liegidns was placed 
on the globe at a distance of 16° 40' from the sign of Leo. 
Ptolemy, in 140 a.d., gave this distance as 2" 30'. According to 
Albategnius, the star advances 1° iu sixty-six years. It had 
moved 14° 10' since 140 a.d., which would give 1070 as about 
the date of the globe. 

The Arabic inscription on the globe coincides i-emarkably with 
this calculation. It states that the globe was made at Valencia 
by Ibrahim ibn Said-as-Sahli, and his son Muhammad, in the 
year 473 of the Hegira, equivalent to 1080 a.d. It was con- 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

it, except the '' Cup\ and 1,015 stars are shown, 
with the different magnitudes well indicated. It is 
a very precious rehc of the civilisation of the Span- 
ish Arabs, and is specially interesting as the oldest 
o'lobe in existence, and as showino- the care with 
which the Arabian astronomers preserved and handed 
down to posterity the system of Ptolemy. The globe 
possessed by the Emperor Frederick II, with pearls 
to indicate the stars, doubtless resembled those 
of the same period which have come down to us. 

The oldest terrestrial globe in existence is that 
constructed by Martin Behaim, at Nuremburg, in 
1492. It is made of pasteboard covered with parch- 
ment, and is 21 inches in diameter. The only lines 
drawn upon it are the equator, tropics, and polar 
circles, and the first meridian, which passes through 
Madeira. The meridian is of iron, and a brass 
horizon was added in 1500. The globe is illumi- 
nated and ornamented, and is rich in legends of 
interest and in geographical details. The author of 
this famous globe was born at Nuremburg of a good 
family. He had studied under Regiomontanus. He 
settled and married at Horta, the capital of Fa3'al, 
in the Azores, had made numerous voyages, and 
had been in the exploring expedition with Diogo 
Cam when that Portuguese navigator discovered 
the mouth of the Congo. Behaim had the reputa- 
tion of being a good astronomer, and is said by 

structed for Abii Isa ibu Labbun, a personage of note in the 
political and litcrarj- history of Muslim Spain during tliat cen- 
tury. 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

Barros^ to liave invented a ^^ractical instrument for 
taking the altitude of the sun at sea. 

Baron Nordenskiold considers that the globe of 
Behaim is, without comparison, the most important 
geographical document that saw the light since the 
atlas of Ptolemy had been produced in about 150 
A.D. He points out that it is the first which un- 
reservedly adopts the existence of antipodes, the 
first which clearly shows that there is a passage 
from Europe to India, the first which attempts to 
deal with the discoveries of Marco Polo. It is an 
exact representation of geographical knowledge im- 
mediately previous to the first voyage of Columbus. 

The terrestrial globe next in antiquity to that of 
Behaim is dated 1493. It was found in a shop at 
Laon, in 1860, by M. Leon Leroux, of the Adminis- 
tration de la Marine at Paris. It is of copper-gilt, 
engraved, with a first meridian passing through 
Madeira, meridian-lines on the northern hemisphere 
at every fifteen degrees, crossed by parallels corre- 
sponding to the seven climates of Ptolemy. There 
are no lines on the southern hemisphere. The 
author is unknown, but M. D'Avezac considered 
that this globe represented geographical knowledge 
current at Lisbon in about 1486. It appears to 
have been part of an astronomical clock, or of an 
armillary sphere, for it is only 6^ inches in diameter." 

Baron Nordenskiold was the first to point out 

' Dec. I, lib. iv, cap. 2. 

" D'Avezac gives a projection of the Laon globe in the Bulletin 
de la Societe de Geographie de Paris, 4me Seric, viii (18G0). 



INTRODUCTION. XVll 

that a globe constructed by John Cabot is men- 
tioned in a letter from Kaimondo di Soncino to the 
Duke of Milan, dated December 18th, 1497. But 
it does not now exist. 

The earliest post-Columbian globe in existence 
dates from about a. D, 1510 or 1512. It was bought 
in Paris by Mr. E,. M. Hunt, the architect, in 1855, 
and was presented by him to Mr. Lenox of New 
York ; it is now in the Lenox Library. This globe 
is a spherical copper box A^ inches in diameter, and 
is pierced for an axis. It opens on the line of the 
equator, and may have been used as a ciboriiim. 
The outline of land and the names are engraved on 
it, but there is no graduation. The author is un- 
known. 

Among the papers of Leonardo da Vinci at AVind- 
sor Castle there is a map of the world drawn on 
eight gores, which appears to have been intended 
for a globe. It is interesting as one of the first 
maps on which the name America appears. Mr. 
Major has fully described this map in a paper in 
the ArxhcBologia,^ and he believes that it was actually 
drawn by Leonardo da Vinci himself But Baron 
Nordenskiold gives reasons for the conclusion that 
it was copied from some earlier globe by an ignorant 
though careful draughtsman. 

In 1881 some ancient gores were brought to 

^ " A Memoir on a Mappemonde by Leonardo da Vinci, being 
the earliest map hitherto known containing the name of America ; 
now in the royal collection at Windsor." By R. H, Major, Esq., 
F.S.A. {Archceologia, vol. xl, 1865). 

h 



XVlll INTRODUCTION. 

light by M. Tross, in a copy of the Cosmograpliice 
Introductio of Waldseemliller, printed at Lyons in 
1514 or 1518. They are from engravings on copper 
by Ludovicus Boulenger. 

A globe was constructed at Bamberg in 1520, 
by Johann Schoner of Carlstadt, which is now in 
the town library at Nuremburg ; it consists of 
twelve gores. There is a copy of the Schoner 
globe, 10^ inches in diameter, at Frankfort,^ and 
two others in the Military Library at Weimar. On 
the Schoner globe, North America is broken up into 
islands, but South America is shown as a continu- 
ous coast-line, with the word America written along 
it, as on the gores attributed to Leonardo da Yinci.'^ 
Florida appears on it, and the Moluccas are in their 
true positions. A line shows the track of Magel- 
lan's ships ; and the globe may be looked upon as 
illustrating the history of the first circumnaviga- 
tion. 

A beautiful globe was presented to the church at 
Nancy by Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, where it 
was used as a cihorhim. It is now in the Nancy 
public library. It is of chased silver-gilt and blue 
enamel, 6 inches in diameter.^ 

^ The Frankfort globe is given by Jomard in his Mnmiments 
de la Geographie ; see also J. R. G. S., xviii, 45. 

2 Johann Schoner, Professor of Mathematics at N^uremhurg . A 
reproduction of his Globe of 1523, long lost. By Henry Stevens 
of Vermont ; edited, with an Introduction and Bibliography, by 
C. H. Coote (London, 1888). 

^ First described by M. Blau, Memoires de la Societe Royale de 
Nancy, 1825, p. 97. 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

There Is a globe in the National Library at Paris 
very like that of Schoner, which has been believed 
to be of Spanish origin. Another globe in the 
same library, with the place of manufacture — "Rhoto- 
magi" (Rouen) — marked upon it, but no date, is 
supposed to have been made in 1540. It belonged 
to Canon L'Ecuy of Premontre. This globe was 
the first to show North America disconnected with 
Asia. 

In 1541 Gerard Mercator completed his terres- 
trial globe at Louvain, dedicating it to Cardinal 
Granvelle. Its celestial companion was finished 
ten years afterwards. These globes were 16 inches 
in diameter. Many replicas were produced, and 
Blundeville^ alludes to them as in common use in 
England in 1594. Yet only two sets now exist. 
In May 1868 the twelve gores for one of these was 
bought by the Royal Library of Brussels, at the 
sale of M. Benoni-Verelst of Ghent. The other 
was found in 1875 at the Imperial Court Library 
of Vienna. The terrestrial globe has rhumb lines, 
which had hitherto only been shown on plane- 
charts. The celestial globe has fifty-one constella- 
tions, containing 934 fixed stars. 

1 Thomas Blundeville was a country gentleman, born in 1568. 
He succeeded to Newton Flotman, in Norfolk, in 1571 ; and was 
an enthusiastic student of astronomy and navigation. In 1589 
he published his Description of luiiversal mappes and cardes, and 
his Exercises appeared in 1594. This work was very pojjular 
among the navigators of the period, and went through at least 
seven editions. Blundeville also wrote on horsemanship. His 
only son was slain in the Low Countries. 

62 



XVlll INTRODUCTION. 

light by M. Tross, in a copy of the Cosmographice 
Introductio of Waldseemtiller, printed at Lyons in 
1514 or 1518. They are from engravings on copper 
by Ludovicus Boulenger. 

A globe was constructed at Bamberg in 1520, 
by Johann Schoner of Carlstadt, which is now in 
the town library at Nuremburg ; it consists of 
twelve gores. There is a copy of the Schoner 
globe, 10^ inches in diameter, at Frankfort,^ and 
two others in the Military Library at Weimar. On 
the Schoner globe, North America is broken up into 
islands, but South America is shown as a continu- 
ous coast-line, with the word America written along 
it, as on the gores attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. ^ 
Florida appears on it, and the Moluccas are in their 
true positions. A line shows the track of Magel- 
lan's ships ; and the globe may be looked upon as 
illustrating the history of the first circumnaviga- 
tion. 

A beautiful globe was presented to the church at 
Nancy by Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, where it 
was used as a cihorium. It is now in the Nancy 
public library. It is of chased silver-gilt and blue 
enamel, 6 inches in diameter.^ 

^ The Frankfort globe is given by Jomard in his Mnnnments 
de la Geographie ; see also J. R. G. S., xviii, 45. 

2 Johann Schoner, Professor of Mathematics at Nuremhurg . A 
reproduction of his Globe of 1.523, long lost. By Henry Stevens 
of Vermont ; edited, with an Introduction and Bibliography, by 
C. H. Coote (London, 1888). 

^ First described by i\I. Blau, Memoires de la Socicte Royale de 
Nannj, 1825, p. 97. 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

There Is a globe in the National Library at Paris 
very like that of Schoner, which has been believed 
to be of Spanish origin. Another globe in the 
same library, with the place of manufacture — "E,hoto- 
magi" (Rouen) — marked upon it, but no date, is 
supposed to have been made in 1540. It belonged 
to Canon L'Ecuy of Premontre. This globe was 
the first to show North America disconnected with 
Asia. 

In 1.541 Gerard Mercator completed his terres- 
trial globe at Lou vain, dedicating it to Cardinal 
Granvelle. Its celestial companion was finished 
ten years afterwards. These globes were 16 inches 
in diameter. Many replicas were produced, and 
Blundeville^ alludes to them as in common use in 
England in 1594. Yet only two sets now exist. 
In May 1868 the twelve gores for one of these was 
bought by the Poyal Library of Brussels, at the 
sale of M. Benoni-Yerelst of Ghent. The other 
was found in 1875 at the Imperial Court Library 
of Vienna. The terrestrial globe has rhumb lines, 
which had hitherto only been shown on plane- 
charts. The celestial globe has fifty-one constella- 
tions, containing 934 fixed stars. 

1 Thomas Blunrleville was a countiy gentleman, born in 1568. 
He succeeded to Newton Flotman, in. Norfolk, in 1571 ; and was 
an enthusiastic student of astronomy and navigation. In 1589 
he published his Description of universal majipes and cardes, and 
his Exercises appeared in 1594. This work was very popular 
among the navigators of the period, and went through at least 
seven editions. Blundeville also wrote on horsemanship. His 
only son was slain in the Low Countries. 

h 2 



XX • INTRODUCTION. 

A cojiper globe was constructed at Kome by 
Euphrosinus Ulpius in 1542, and dedicated to Pope 
Marcellus II when be was a cardinal. It was 
bought in Spain in 1859, and is now in the library 
of the New York Historical Society. It is 15^ 
inches in diameter, divided in the line of the equa- 
tor, and fastened by iron pins, and it has an iron 
cross on the North Pole. Its height, with the 
stand, is 3 feet 8 inches. The meridian-lines are at 
distances of 30°, the first one passing through the 
Canaries. Prominence is also given to the line of 
demarcation between Spain and Portugal, laid down 
by Pope Alexander VI. There is another globe, 
found at Grenoble in 1855, and now in the National 
Library at Paris, by A. F. von Langeren, which 
may possibly antedate the Molyneux globes.^ 

In the Oldnorske Museum at Copenhagen there 
is a small globe of 1543, mounted as an armillary 
sphere, with eleven brass rings. It was constructed 
by Caspar Yopell, and is believed to have belonged 
to .Tycho Brahe. A small silver globe is part of 
the Swedish regalia, and was made in 1561 for the 
coronation of Eric XIV. Similar globes, forming- 
goblets or ciboires, are preserved in the Rosenborg 
Palace at Copenhagen and in the Museum at Stock- 
holm. They are merely specimens of goldsmiths' 

^ After the globes of Molyneux followed those of Blaew and 
Hondius. Langeren and Hondius were i-ivals. They announced 
their intention of bringing out two globes in 1597, but no copies 
are known to exist. The globes of W. Janssen Blaew^ (1571- 
1638) were of wood, the largest being '27 inches in diameter, the 
smallest 7.1 inches. 



1^;TR0DUCT10N. XXI 

work, useful only if other maps of the same period 
were wanting. 

Counting the gores of Tross and of Leonardo da 
Vinci, there are thus twelve terrestrial globes now 
in existence which preceded the first that was con- 
structed in England. 

The preparation of celestial globes and armillary 
spheres received an impetus from the labours of the 
great astronomers who flourished for two centuries, 
from the time of Copernicus to that of Galileo. 

Nicolaus Copernicus was born at Thorn on the 
Vistula in 1473, and was educated at the Univer- 
sity of Cracow, studying medicine and painting, as 
well as mathematics. After passing some years at 
the University of Bologna and at Kome, he returned 
to his native country. The uncle of Copernicus 
was Bishop of Warmia or Warmland, on the Baltic, 
near Danzig ; with a cathedral at Frauenburg, on 
the shores of the Friske HafF. Here the great 
astronomer became a canon ; here he passed the 
remainder of his life ; and here he wrote his great 
work, De Revolutionihus Orhium Ccelestium. It 
was completed in 1530, but over ten more years 
were devoted to the work of correcting and alter- 
ing, and when, at last, it was printed at Nurem- 
berg, Copernicus was on his death-bed. He died 
on M.ay 23rd, 1543, having just lived long enough 
to rest his hand on a printed copy of his work. It 
is not known that a sphere was ever constructed 
in his lifetime to illustrate his system. Tycho 
Brahe was born at Knudstrup, in December 1546, 



XXll INTRODUCTION. 

three years after the death of Copernicus. The 
one was a quiet ecclesiastic ; the other a man of 
noble birth, whose career was surrounded by diffi- 
culties, owing to the family prejudices, which were 
irreconcilable with the studies and occupations of 
his choice. The family of Tycho Brahe believed 
that the career of arms was the only one suited for 
a gentleman. He became a student at Copenhagen 
and at Wittenberg, and still further offended his 
relations by marrying a beautiful peasant girl of 
Knudstrup. The accident of his birth made it im- 
possible for him to avoid strife. At Rostock he 
felt bound to ficrht a duel with a Dane named 
Pasberg, to decide the question as to which was 
the best mathematician. Tycho Brahe had half 
his nose cut off, and ever afterwards he wore a 
golden nose. But, in spite of obstacles, he rose to 
eminence as an astronomer. He discovered errors 
in the Alphonsine Tables, and observed a new star 
in Cassiopeia in 1572. King Frederick II of Den- 
mark recognised the great merits of Tyclio Brahe. 
He granted him the island of Hveen in 1576, 
where the illustrious astronomer built his chateau 
of LTranienberg and his observatories.^ Here he 
made his catalogue of stars, and here he lived and 
observed for many years ; but, on the death of 
Frederick in l."588, the enemies of the great man 
poisoned the mind of Christian IV against him. 
His pension and all his allowances were withdrawn, 

^ The iut-tnmients of Tj-cho Bmhe and u plan of Uranienberg 
are given in vol. i of the AtliOi Major of Blacw (Blasius). 



INTEODUCTION. XXIU 

and he was nearly ruined. In 1597 he left the 
island, and set sail, with his wife and children, for 
Holstein. In 1599 he accepted a cordial invitation 
from the Emperor Kudolph II to come to Bohemia, 
and was established in the Castle of Beneteck, five 
miles from Prague. He died at Prague in 1601, 
aged 55. 

The celestial globe constructed by Tycho Brahe 
is described by his pupil Pontanus. It was made 
of wood covered with plates of copper, and -was six 
feet in diameter. It was considered to be a mag- 
nificent piece of work, and many strangers came to 
the island of Hveen on purpose to see it. But 
when Tycho Brahe was obliged to leave Denmark, 
he took the globe with him, and it was eventually 
deposited in the imperial castle at Prague. Of 
about the same date is the celestial globe at the 
South Kensington Museum, made for the Emperor 
Rudolph II at Augsburg in 1584. It is of copper- 
gilt, and is 7^ inches in diameter. 

John Kepler, who was born at Weil in Wlirtem- 
berg in 1571, is also said to have been of noble 
parentage ; but his father was so poor that he was ' 
obliged to keep a public-house. A weak and sickly 
child, Kepler became a student at Tubingen, and 
devoted himself to astronomical studies. He visited 
Tycho Brahe at Prague in 1600, and succeeded him 
as principal mathematician to the Emperor Budolph 
II. But he was always in pecuniary clifliculties, 
and was irritable and quick-tempered, owing to ill- 
health and poverty. Nevertheless, he made great 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

advances in the science of astronomy. He com- 
pleted the Kudolphine Tables in 1627, being the first 
calculated on the supposition that the planets move 
in elliptical orbits. Kepler's laws relate to the 
elliptic form of orbits, the equable description of 
areas, and to the projDosition that the squares of 
the periodic times are proportional to the cubes of 
the mean distances from the sun. His work on the 
motions of the planet Mars was published in 1609. 
Kepler died in November 1630, aged 58. 

The great Italian astronomer was his contempo- 
rary. Galileo Galilei was born at Pisa in 1564, 
and was educated at the university of his native 
town. Here he discovered the isochronism of the 
vibrations of the pendulum; and in 1592, when 
professor at Padua, he became a convert to the 
doctrines of Copernicus. His telescope, completed 
in 1609, enabled him to discover the ring of Saturn 
and the satellites of Jupiter ; while the latter dis- 
covery revealed another method of finding the lon- 
gitude. The latter years of the life of Galileo were 
clouded by persecution and misfortune. The Con- 
vent of Minerva at Home, where stupid bigots 
forced him to recant, and w'here he whispered " e 
pur se muove", is now the Ministry of Public In- 
struction of an enlightened government. His trial 
before the Inquisition was in 1632 ; he lost his 
dauirhter in 1634 : and in 1636 he became blind. 
Galileo died in the arms of his pupil Viviani, in 
January 1642. There can be no more fitting monu- 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

ment to the great astronomer than the " Tribinia" 
which has been erected to his honour at Florence. 
Frescoes of the chief events in his Ufe adorn the 
walls, while his instruments, and those of his pupils 
Viviani and Torricelli, illustrate his labours and 
successes. 

Pontanus, who was a disciple of Tycho Brahe, 
mentions that Ferdinand I of Tuscany had two 
large globes, one terrestrial, and the other an armil- 
lary sphere with circles and orbs, both existing in 
the time of Galileo. The latter, which was designed 
by the cosmographer Antonio Santucci between 
1588 and 1593, is still preserved, and has been 
described by Professor Meucci.^ It is constructed 
on the Ptolemaic system, and consists of nine con- 
centric spheres, the outer one being 7 feet in dia- 
meter, and the earth being in the centre. The frame 
rests on a pedestal consisting of four caryatides, 
which represent the four cardinal points ; and it 
stands near the entrance to the "Tribuna" of Galileo. 
It is the last and most sumptuous illustration of 
the old Ptolemaic system, and a monument of the 
skill and ingenuity of the scientitic artists of 
Florence. 

The celestial globe of Tycho Brahe and the armil- 
lary sphere of Santucci cannot have been seen byMoly- 
neux. Their construction was nearly contemporane- 
ous with that of the first English globes. But all the 

•^ La Sfera Armillare dl Tulomeo, construita da Antonio San- 
tucci (Firenze, 1876). 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

other globes that have been enumerated preceded the 
kindred work of our own countrymen ; and m their 
more complete development, under the able hands of 
Mercator, they served as the pattern on which our 
mathematician built up his own enlarged and im- 
proved globes. 

We find very little recorded of Emery Molyneux, 
beyond the fact that he was a mathematician resid- 
ing in Lambeth. He was known to Sir Walter 
Haleigh, to Hakluyt, and to Edward AVright, and 
was a friend of John Davis the Navigator. The 
words of one of the legends on his globe give some 
reason for the belief that Molyneux accompanied 
Cavendish in his voyage round the world. The 
construction of the globes appears to have been 
suggested by learned men to Mr. William Sander- 
son, one of the most munificent and patriotic of the 
merchant-princes of London, in the days of the 
great Queen. He fitted out the Arctic expeditions 
of Davis ; and the same liberal patron readily under- 
took to defray the expenses connected with the 
construction of the globes. There are grounds for 
thinking that it was Davis who suggested to Mr. 
Sanderson the employment of Emery Molyneux. 
The approaching publication of the globes was an- 
nounced at the end of the preface to the first edition 
of Hakluyt's Voyages, which saw the light in 1589. 
There was some delay before they were quite com- 
pleted, but they were actually published in the end 
of 1592. 

The Molyneux globes are 2 feet 2 inches in 



INTRODUCTION. XXVll 

diameter/ and are fixed on stands. They have 
graduated brass meridians, and on that of the terres- 
trial globe a dial circle or "Horarius" is fixed. The 
broad wooden equator, forming the upper part of 
the stand, is painted with the zodiac signs, the 
months, the Roman calendar, the points of the 
compass, and the same in Latin, in concentric 
circles. Rhumb lines are drawn from numerous 
centres over the surface of the terrestrial globe. 
The equator, ecliptic, and polar circles are painted 
boldly ; while the parallels of latitude and meridians, 
at every ten degrees, are very faint lines. 

The globe received additions, 'including the dis- 
coveries of Barents in Novaya Zemlya, and the date 
hA.s been altered with a pen from 1592 to 1G03. 
The constellations and fixed stars on the celestial 
globe are the same as those on the globe of Mer- 
cator, except that the Southern Cross has been 
added. On both the celestial and terrestrial globes 
of Molyneux there is a square label with this inscrip- 
tion : — 



" This globe belonging to the Middle Temple -was 
repaired in the year 1818 by J. and W. Newton, 
Globe Makers, Chancery Lane." 



1 The largest that had been made up to the time of their pub- 
lication. Tiie Behaim globe was 21 inches, the Mercator globes 
16 inches, the Ulpius globe loh inches, and the Schoner globe 
10|^ inches in diameter. The others, which are older than the 
Molyneux globes, are very small. The diameter of the Laon 



XXVlll INTEODUCTIOX. 

Over North America are the arms of France and 
England quarterly ; supporters, a lion and dragon ; 
motto of" the garter ; crown, crest, and baldrequin ; 
standing on a label, with a long dedication to 
Queen Elizabeth, 

The achievement of Mr. William Sanderson is 
painted on the imaginary southern continent to the 
south of Africa, The crest is a globe with the sun's 
rays behind. It stands on a squire's helmet with 
baldrequin. The shield is quarterly : 1st, j?:>o^^ of 
six azure and argent, over all a hend sable for Sander- 
son ; 2nd, gules, lions., and castles in the quarters for 
Skirne alias Castition ; 3rd, or, a chevron between 3 
eagles displayed sable, in chief a label of three points 
sable for Wall ; 4:th., quarterly , or and azure, over all a 
bend gules for Langston. Beneath there is an address 
from William Sanderson to the gentle reader, English 
and Latin, in parallel columns. 

In the north polar regions there are several new 
additions, delineating the discoveries of English and 
Dutch explorers for the first time, John Davis 
wrote, in his World's Ilydrograpjhical Discovery : 
" How far I proceeded doth appear on the globe 
made by Master Emerie Molyneux," Davis Strait 
is shown with all the names on its shores which were 
given by its discoverer, and the following legend : 
"'Joannes Davis Anglus anno 1585-8G-87 littora 
Americce circuni spectantia. a quinquagesimo quinto 
grado ad 73 sub polarem scutando perlegit." On 

globe is Go inclies, of the Nancy globe G inches, and of the Lenox 
globe unl}' ih inches. 



IXTRODUCTIOX. XXIX 

another legend we have, " Additions in the north 
'parts to 1G03"; and below it are the discoveries of 
Barents, with his Novaya Zemlya winter quarters — 
" Het hehouden huis." Between Xovaya Zemlya 
and Greenland there is an island called " *SV?' Hugo 
Willoghhi his IcnuV'. This insertion arose from a great 
error in longitude, Willoughby having sighted the 
coast of Novaya Zemlya ; and the island, of course, 
had no existence, though it long remained on the 
maps. To the north of Siberia there are two 
legends— " i?t7. Cancelarius et Stephanus Burrow 
Angli La.ppicB et Corelice oras marinas et Simm. S. 
Xicolai rulgo dictum anno 1553 raenso Augusto 
exploraverunf; and "Joannes Mandevillanus eques 
Anglius ex Anglia anno 1322 Cathaice et Tartari 
regiones penetrarit." 

Many imaginary islands, in the Atlantic, are 
retained on the Globe : includinof " Frisland'\ 
" Buss Ins", " Brasil", " Maidas\ " HepAapolis"", 
" St. Brandon'. On the eastern side of North 
America are the countries of Florida, Virginia, and 
Norumbega ; and also a large town of Norumbega 
up a gulf full of islands. The learned Dr. Dee had 
composed a treatise on the title of Queen Elizabeth 
to Norumbega ; and in modern times Professor Hors- 
forth has written a memoir to identify Norumbega 
with a site up the Charles river, near Boston. On 
the Atlantic, near the American coast, is the follow- 
ing legend : " Virginia priniuni lustrata, hahitata, 
et cult.a ah Anglis inpensis D. Gualteri de Ralegh 
Equitis Anrati anrnenfi Elizahethce In Anghce 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

RegincE.'' On the western side of North America 
are California and Quiriua of the Spaniards, and 
Nova Albion discovered by Drake. 

A legend in the Pacific Ocean furnishes direct 
evidence that information, for compiling the Globe, 
was furnished by Sir Walter E-aleigh. It is in 
Spanish : " Islas estas descuhrio Pedro Sarmiento de 
Gamhoa por la corona de Cast ilia y Leon desde el 
ano 1568 llamolas Islas de Jesus aunque vidgarmente 
las llaman Islas de Salomon." Pedro de Sarmiento 
was the officer who was sent to fortify the Straits of 
Magellan after Drake had passed through. He was 
taken prisoner by an English ship on his way to 
Spain, and was the guest of Paleigh in London for 
several weeks, so that it must have been on informa- 
tion communicated by Paleigh that the statement 
respecting Sarmiento on this legend was based. 

Besides " Insulce Salomonis" there are two islands 
in the Pacific — " Y Sequenda de los Tuharones' and 
" San Pedro', as well as the north coast of New 
Guinea, with tlie names as given on Mercator's map. 

Cavendish also appears to have given assistance, 
or possibly Molyneux himself accompanied that 
circumnavigator in his voyage of 1587. The words 
of a leo^end ofi" the Patagfonian coast seem to counten- 
ance this idea. They are : " Thomas Caundish 
18 Dec. 1587 h?ec terra sub nostris oculis primum 
obtulit sub latitud 47 cujus seu admodum salubris 
Incolse maturi ex parte proceri sunt gigantes et 
vasti magnitudinis." The great southern continent 
is made to include Tierra del Fuego and the south 



INTRODUCTION. XXXI 

coast of Mafrellan's Strait, and extends over the 
greater part of the south frigid zone. 

S. Matheo, an island in tlie Atlantic, south of the 
line, was visited by the Spanish ships under Loaysa 
and Sebastian del Cano, but has never been seen 
since. It appears on the Globe. In the south 
Atlantic there are painted a sea-serpent, a whale, 
Orpheus riding on a dolphin, and ships under full 
sail — fore and main courses and topsails, a sprit 
sail, and the mizzen with a long lateen yard. 

The tracks of the voyages of Sir Francis Drake 
and Master Thomas Cavendish round the world are 
shown, the one by a red and the other by a blue 
line. That these tracks were put on when the 
Globe was first made is proved by the reference 
to them in Blundeville's Exercises. 

The name of the author of the Globe is thus 
given : " Emeruin Mullineux Angl. sumptibus 
Gulielm Sanderson Lojidinensis descripsit." 

On the Celestial Globe there are the same arms of 
Sanderson, the same label by Newton, 1818, a briefer 
dedication to the Queen, date 1592, and " Judocus 
Hondius Fon Sc^ It would appear, therefore, that, 
when Molyneux had prepared the manuscript gores, 
they were entrusted to Hondius, the celebrated en- 
graver and cartographer at Amsterdam, to print. 
A number of the globes were manufactured and 
sold ; and some were made on a smaller scale, to 
serve for a cheaper edition.^ Yet only one set has 
been preserved. It is in the library of the Middle 
^ See page 16. 



XX XU IXTRODUCTTOX. 

Temple, and is the property of the Benchei-s of thai 
Inn. This is certaiDlj a sti"ange depository foi 
geogi"aphical documents of such interest and import 
ance ; and it becomes a curious question how thes< 
gloljes, which would l3e so valuable to geographica 
and naval students, have found a final resting-pki.c< 
among the lawyers. 

It is probable that they once belonged to Roberl 
Asliley, who left his books to the Middle Temple 
and whose portrait hangs in the library. ThL 
gentleman was descended from those of his nam( 
settled at Nashill, in Wih shire. His father 
Anthony Ashley/ married Dorothy Lyte, of Lytei 
Carey, in Somersetshire ; and Robert was bom ai 
Damerhanij seven miles from Salisbury, in 1565 
He was at school at Southampton, under the well 
known Master, Hadrian Saiuvia ; and, as a boy, h( 
had res^dBeciS of Hampton^ Gui/ of Warwick, Valen 
tine and Orsonf Arthur and the Knights of th 
Round Table. AVhen i-ather older, he perused thi 
Decameron, and the Septameron of the Queen o 
NavaiTe. In 1580 he went to Oxford, and in du( 
time became a Barrister of the Middle Temple 
Robert Ashley was an ardent geogi-apher, and i 
very likely man to be the possessor of a set of th* 
Molyneux Globes. Hr studied languages, and wa 

* Xot to be confounded with Sir Anthony Ashley, who was a 
the sack of Cadiz, under the Earl of Essex, was Clerk to the Priir 
Council, and transhited the yfariiuri Mirror of Lucas Jans 
Wagenaar into English in 1588. This Sir Anthony is the ancesto 
of the Earls of Sbaftesbnrv. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXlll 

master of French, Spanish, ItaUan, and Dutch. 
Fond of history and topography, he travelled over a 
great part of Europe, making the chambers in the 
Middle Temple his head-quarters. Ashley was an 
indefatigable collector, and made several transla- 
tions.^ 

He lived amongst his books in the Temple almost 
entirely during the latter years of his long life. 
Ashley reached the age of seventy-six, dying in 
October 1641. He was buried in the Temple 
Church, and, by his will, the old Templar left all his 
books to the Inn in which he had dwelt so long. In 
April 1642 there was an order from the Benchers 
that the books left by Master Ashley should be 
kept under lock and key until a library was built. 
Thus Ashley's library formed the original nucleus of 
that of the Middle Temple. It contained a number 
of w^orks on cosmography, including copies of two 
editions of the Tractatus on the Molyneux Globes 
by Hues. It is, therefore, highly probable that the 
globes themselves w^ere included in Ashley's library, 
and that it was in this way that they found a last 
resting-place — one may almost say a burial-place — in 
the library of the Middle Temple. 

' Eelation of the Kingdom of Cochin China (1633, Bodleian, 
4to.), from an Italian relation by Chr. Borri. Uranie, or the 
Celestial Muse, translated from the French of Bartas (1589). 
Almanso?', the Learned and Victoi'iotis King that Conquered Spain 
(1627), from the edition printed at Salamanca in 1603. The 
Arabic original was in the Escurial, "nhere Ashley saw it. A 
translation from the Italian of // Davide Persequitate of Malvezzi 
(1637). 



XXXIV IXTRODUCTTOX. 

Almost as soon as the globes made their appear- 
ance, a manual for their use was published by Dr. 
Hood, of Trinity College, Cambridge, who gave 
lectures on navigation at Sir Thomas Smith's house 
in Philpot Lane/ In 1594 they were describecl by 
Blundeville in his Exercises, and in the same year a 
manual for their use was published in Latin by 
Robert Hues. The Tractatus de Globis of Hues 
passed through several editions, and as it has now 
been decided that it shall form one of the volumes 
of the Hakluyt Society, it will be well that a bio- 
graphical notice of the author should precede the 
enumeration of former editions of his work. 

Robert Hues (or Husius) was born in 1553, in a 
village called Little Hereford (pronounced Harford), 
in Herefordshire, eight miles north-east of Leomin- 
ster. The parish is separated from Worcestershire 
by the ri%er Teme. The church, dedicated to St. 
Mary Magdalene, is an ancient stone building in the 
Norman transition style, but unfortunately the 
registers only commence in 1697, and throw no light 
on the parentage of the great mathematician. He 
was well grounded at some local school, before he 
was sent up to Brasenose College at Oxford in 
1571, where he was among the Servitors — "Pauperes 
Scholares". Here he continued for some time, as a 
very sober and serious student, but afterwards 

1 " The Use of both the Globes, Celestial and TeiTestrial, most 
plainly delivered in form of a dialogue. D. Hood, Mathematical 
Lecturer in the Citi/ of London, Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 
h'idge." (London, 1592, not [)aged. Bound up with Hues.) 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

removed to St. Mary Hall, taking Ins degree in 
about 1578. He was then noted for a good Greek 
scholar, and he is mentioned by Chapman as his 
learned and valued friend, to whose advice he was 
beholden in his translation of Homer. ^ 

Hues appears to have travelled on the Continent 
soon after he took his degree, and on his return he 
devoted himself to the study of geography and 
mathematics, becoming well skilled in those sciences. 
He also made at least two voyages across the 
Atlantic, both probably with Thomas Cavendish. 
He mentions having observed for variation off the 
coast of North America^ ; so that he may have been 
with Cavendish when that navigator went with Sir 
Richard Grenville to Virginia. We learn from his 
epitaph that he accompanied Cavendish, and he 
himself says that he was sailing in the southern 
hemisphere in the years 1591 and 1592.^ He must, 
therefore, have been on board the Leicester in the 
last voyage of Cavendish. It was a rough experi- 
ence — gales of wind and wild weather in the Straits 
of Magellan, privations and hardships of all kinds, 
and on the passage home Cavendish died, and was 
buried at sea. Hues twice refers to the observations 
he made in this voyage in his Treatise on the Globes.'^ 
He must have returned to England just at the time 
when the Molyneux Globes were published, and 

1 Warton, History of English Poetry, iii, p. 442. 

2 Seep. 121. 
' See p. 66. 

* Pp. 66, 67, 121. 

C 2 



XXXvi INTRODUCTION. 

his manual was written in the following year, and 
puhHshed in 1594. 

The Oxford student had now added practical ex- 
perience at sea to his theoretical knowledge. He 
had seen and observed the Southern Cross and the 
other stars of the Southern Hemisphere. He had 
ascertained the variation of the compass in the north, 
on the equator, and in the far south. He had 
acquired a knowledge of the requirements of naviga- 
tors, and his Tractatus cle Glohis was intended to 
supply them with practically useful information. His 
Bveviarhim Totius Orhis was designed with the 
same object, and also went through several editions. 

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, granted a 
yearly pension to Robert Hues for the encourage- 
ment of his studies ; and the accomplished scholar 
acted, for a year or two, as tutor to the Earl's son, 
Algernon, at Christ Church. During Northumber- 
land's long and unjust imprisonment in the Tower he 
was solaced .by the companionship of learned men, 
among whom were Thomas Heriot and Robert Hues ; 
who also imparted their knowledge to Sir Walter 
Raleigh. Hues was one of Raleigh's executors. 
During the last years of his life Robert Hues resided 
almost entirely at Oxford, and there he died, in his 
eightieth year, on the 24th of May 1632, in the 
"Stone House", then belonging to John Smith, M.A., 
son of J. Smith, the cook of Christ Church. He was 
buried in Christ Church Cathedral, and a brass plate 
was put up to his memory, with the following in- 
scrii)tion : — 



INTRODUCTION. XXXVll 

"Deposituni viri litcratissiini, moruui ac religioiiis integer- 
rimi, 1-Joberti Husia, ob ernditioiiein omnigenem, Theologicaiu 
tuin Historicam, turn Scholasticam, Pliilologicam, Philosophi- 
am, praesertim vero Matheraaticam (cujus insigne monumen- 
tuiu in typis reliquit) Primum ThoniDe Candisliio conjunctis- 
sinii, cnjus in consortio, explorabundis velis ambivit orbem : 
deinde Domino Baroni Gray ; cui solator accessit in area 
Londineusi. Quo defuncto, ad studia Henrici Comitis 
Nortliumbriensis ibidem vocatus est, cujus filio instruendo 
cum aliquot aunorum operam in hac Ecclesia dedisset, et 
Academiie coutinium locum valetudinarire senectuti commo- 
dum censuisset ; in ;edibus Joliannis Smith, corpore exhaus- 
tus, sed auimo vividus, expiravit die Maii 24, anno reparatie 
salutis 1632, ajtatis suaB 79."-^ 

The first edition of the Manual for the Globes, by 
Kobert Hues, is in the British Museum, and also at 
the Inner Temple. Tractatus de Glohis et eorioii 
usu, accomodatus its <]ui Londini editi sunt anno 
1593 (London, T. Dawson, 1594, 8vo.). 

The second was a Dutch translation, printed at 
Antwerp. Tractaut of te handebingen van het 
gebruych der hemel siker ende aertscher globe. 

1 Wood's History and Antiquities of Oxford was written in Eng- 
lish ; bought by the University, in 1670, for £100, and published 
in Latin under the superintendence of Dr. Fell and the Curators 
of the Printing Office. ]\Iany things were altered, and there were 
some additions. Historia et Antiquitatis UiiivtrsilaiinOxom- 
eiisis duohiis voluminihus co/iipn-henscc' (Oxon., 1674), fulio. Trans- 
lation, 1786, 4to. The inscription is in the Latin edition (ii, p. o34). 
Under St. Mary Hall there is a notice of the death of Hues : — 
" Oxonii in parochia Sancti Aldati, inque Domicilio speciatim la- 
pides, e regione insignis Afri cseruki, fatis concessit, et in ecclesia 
^Edis Christi Cathedrali humatus fuit an : dom : ciodxxxii (ii, p. 
361) In lamina oenea, eidem pariati impacta taleui cernis iuscrip- 
tionem" (h, p. 288). 



XXXvi INTRODUCTION. 

his manual was written in the following year, and 
published in 1594. 

The Oxford student had now added practical ex- 
perience at sea to his theoretical knowledge. He 
had seen and observed the Southern Cross and the 
other stars of the Southern Hemisphere. He had 
ascertained the variation of the compass in the north, 
on the equator, and in the far south. He had 
acquired a knowledge of the requirements of naviga- 
tors, and his Tractatus de Glohis was intended to 
supply them with practically useful information. His 
Bveviarium Totius Orbis was designed with the 
same object, and also went through several editions. 

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, granted a 
yearly pension to Robert Hues for the encourage- 
ment of his studies ; and the accomplished scholar 
acted, for a year or two, as tutor to the Earl's son, 
Algernon, at Christ Church. During Northumber- 
land's long and unjust imprisonment in the Tower he 
was solaced .by the companionship of learned men, 
among whom were Thomas Heriot and Itobert Hues ; 
who also imparted their knowledge to Sir Walter 
Raleigh. Hues was one of Raleigh's executors. 
During the last years of his life Robert Hues resided 
almost entirely at Oxford, and there he died, in his 
eightieth year, on the 24tli of May 1632, in the 
"Stone House", then belonging to John Smith, M.A., 
son of J. Smith, the cook of Christ Church. He was 
buried in Christ Church Cathedral, and a brass plate 
was put up to his memory, with the following in- 
scription : — 



INTRODUCTION". XXX Vll 

"Deposituni viri litoratissimi, monmi ac religionis inLeger- 
rimi, Koberti Husia, ob eruclitioiieiu oinnigenem, Theologicaiu 
turn Historicam, turn Scholasticam, Philologicam, Philosophi- 
aui, pnesertiui vero Matheraaticani (cujus insigne monumen- 
tuiii in typis reliqnit) Primum ThomEe Candisliio conjiinctis- 
simi, cujus in consortio, explorabundis velis ambivit orbeni : 
deinde Domino Baroni Gray ; cui solator accessit in area 
Londineusi. Quo defuncto, ad studia Henrici Comitis 
Northumbriensis ibidem vocatus est, cujus lilio instruendo 
cum aliquot annuruni operam in hac Ecclesia dedisset, et 
AcademicB continium locum valetudinarias seuectuti commo- 
dum ceusuisset ; in ;edibus Joliannis Smith, corpore exhaus- 
tus, sed animo vividus, expiravit die Mail 24:, anno reparatie 
salutis 1632, aetatis sme 79."^ 

The £rst edition of the Manual for the Globes, by 
Ptobert Hues, is in the British Museum, and also at 
the Inner Temple. Tractatus de Glohis et eorioii 
usu, accoynodatus lis qui Londini editi sunt anno 
1593 (London, T. Dawson, 1594, 8vo.). 

The second was a Dutch translation, printed at 
Antwerp. Tractaut of te handehingen van liet 
gehruych der hemel siker ende aertscher globe. 

1 Wood's History and Antiquities of Oxford was written in Eng- 
lish ; bought by the University, in 1670, for £100, and published 
ill Latin under the superintendence of Dr. Fell and the Curators 
of the Printing Office. Many things were altered, and there were 
some additions. Historia et Antiqtdtatis Univeri^iiaiisOxoni- 
eiisis duohus voliiminihus coinprehensce (Oxon., 1674), fulio. Trans- 
lation, 1786, 4to. The inscription is in the Latin edition (ii, p. 534). 
Under St. Mary Hall there is a notice of the death of Hues : — 
" Oxonii in parochia Sancti Aldati, inque Domicilio speciatim la- 
pides, e regione insignis Afri cterulei, fatis concessit, et in ecclesiii 
J^^dis Christi Cathedral! huraatus fuit an : dom : ciodxxxii (ii, j). 
361) In lamina oenea, eidem pariati impacta taleni cernis inscrip- 
tionem" (ii, p. 288). 



XXXVIU INTRODUCTION. 

(Amb., 1597, 4to.). There are copies at the Univer- 
sities of Louvain and Ghent. 

The third is a reprint of the first edition, published 
at Amsterdam in 1 6 1 1 {luclocusHondius, 8vo.). There 
are copies in the British Miisemn and Inner Temple. 

The fourth reprint was in Dutch, also published at 
Amsterdam, Tractaet of te handehingen van het ge- 
hruych der hemelsiJce ende aertscher globe (Amstelo- 
dami, 1613, 4to.). A copy exists in the Royal 
Library at Brussels. 

The fifth reprint appeared at Heidelberg in 1613, 
and contains the Index Geographicus. There are 
copies at the British Museum and in the Temple 
Library. 

The sixth appeared at Amsterdam. Tractatus de 
glohis coslesti et terrestri ceorumque vsu (Amst., lu- 
docus Uondius, 1G17, 4to.). There are copies at 
Louvain, Ghent, and Liege. 

The seventh reprint \^'as in a French translation 
by M. Haurion — Traite des globes et de leur usage, 
traduit par Haurion (Paris, 1618, Svo.). There are 
copies in the Library of the Middle Temple, and at 
Louvain, Ghent, and Namur. 

Of the eighth edition, published by Hondius at 
Amsterdam in 1624, in 4to., there are copies in the 
British Museum and at the Temple. 

The ninth edition was published at Frankfort in 
1627, in 12mo. There is a copy in the Musee 
Plantin at Antwerp. 

The tenth edition is an English translation. A 
Learned Treatise of Globes, both Calleslial and Terres- 



INTllODUCTION. XXXIX 

triall, written Jirst in Latin .... afterwards illustrated 
ivith notes hij I. I. Pontanus, and now made English 
hy J. Chilmead (London, 1638). Copies at the Bri- 
tish Museum and in the Temple. The translator, 
John Chilmead, was of Christ Church College at 
Oxford. It is generally supposed that the name 
John was printed on the title-page in error, and that 
the translator was really Edmund Chilmead, who 
was horn at Stow-in-the-Wold in Gloucestershire in 
1610. This Edmund graduated in 1628, and was a 
Chaplain of Christ Church. Having been ejected in 
1648 as a Royalist, he got his living in London by 
making translations and teaching music. He died 
in 1653, and was buried in the churchyard of St. 
Boltoph's Without, Aldersgate. Among his transla- 
tions were the Erotomania of Ferrand, and a work 
on the Jews by Leo Modena; and he assisted in the 
translation of Procopius by Sir Henry Holbrooke. 
He also wrote a treatise on the music of the Greeks, 
w^hich was printed at the end of the Oxford edition 
of Aratus, of 1672 ; and another on sound, which 
was never published. 

The translation of the Tractatus de Globis of Hues 
certainly has John Chilmead on the title-page ; but 
it is usually attributed to Edmund, and, as no John 
Chilmead, who was a translator and man of letters, 
is known to have lived at that time, the attribution 
is probably correct. But it is certainly a strange 
error to have made. 

A Latin version of the Tractatus de Glohis of 
Hues, by Jod. Hondius and I. I. Pontanus, ajj- 



Xl INTRODUCTION. 

peared in London in 1659 (8vo.). There is a copy- 
in the British Museum. 

The twelfth edition of the work, and the second 
of the EngUsh version, with the notes of Pontanus, 
appeared in London in 1659 (8vo.). There is a copy 
in the Library of Si on College. 

The last edition of the Latin version was pub- 
lished at Oxford in 1663. There is a copy in the 
Bodleian Library. 

I. Isaac Pontanus, who annotated the Amsterdam 
editions of the Tractatus de Glohis, and whose notes 
were translated for the English editions, was a 
cosraographer and historian of great eminence. He 
was the son of a merchant originally from Haarlem, 
wdio was Consul at Elsinore for the States-General. 
Pontanus was born while his parents were residing 
at Elsinore, on the 21st of January 1571. For three 
years he was the pupil of Tycho Brahe, on the Island 
of Hveen, and he always retained a feeling of pro- 
found veneration for his illustrious master. He 
afterwards studied at Basle and Montpellier. On 
his return to Holland he was appointed Professor of 
Philosophy and History in the College of Harder- 
wyck, a post wliich he retained until his death, and 
in 1620 he was nominated Historiographer to the 
King of Denmark. He wrote many learned works, in- 
cluding a ponderous Danish history^; but his most 
valuable contribution to geographical literature was 
his History of Amsterdam.^ Pontanus was a constant 

■^ Reram Danicarum Ilistoria (Amst., 1631). 

" IJistoria urbis el rerum Amdclodamcnsium (Amst , 1611). 



INTRODUCTION. xll 

advocate of exploring enterprise, and gave much 
assistance to the cartographer Hondius in his 
arduous undertakmgs. Owing to his profound 
learning, the deep interest he took in the science of 
navigation, and his knowledge of mathematics, no 
better editor of .the Dutch editions of the work of 
Plues could have been found than Isaac Pontanus. 
He died at Harderwyck on the 6th of October 1639, 
aged 68. 

Hues opened his work with an epistle dedicatory 
to his intimate friend, Sir Walter Kaleigh^; in which 
he recapitulated the discoveries made by English- 
men during the reign of the great Queen ; and 
urged that his countrymen would already have sur- 
passed the Spaniards and Portuguese, if they had 
taken more pains to acquire a complete knowledge 
of geometry and astronomy. The efforts of English- 
men, he believed, had been rendered less effective, 
owing to their ignorance of the sciences, a know- 
ledge of which is essential to a successful navigator. 
He concluded by saying that he had composed his 
treatise m the hope that it might be useful in ad- 
vancing a study of the seaman's art. In his Preface, 
Master Hues went to the root of the matter, and 
proceeded to prove the sphericity of the earth ; first 
advancing the usual arguments, and then refuting 
the theories of those who disputed them. He 
devoted some space to those who argued that the 
mountains prevented the earth's surface from being 

^ The opening lines of the address, and the name of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, are omitted in the English translations. 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

peared in London in 1659 (8vo.). There is a copy 
in the British Museum. 

The twelfth edition of the work, and the second 
of the English version, with the notes of Pontanus, 
appeared in London in 1659 (8vo.). There is a copy 
in the Library of Si on College. 

The last edition of the Latin version was pub- 
lished at Oxford in 1663. There is a copy in the 
Bodleian Library. 

I. Isaac Pontanus, who annotated the Amsterdam 
editions of the l^ractatus de Glohis, and whose notes 
were translated for the English editions, was a 
cosraographer and historian of great eminence. He 
Avas the son of a merchant originally from Haarlem, 
wdio was Consul at Elsinore for the States-General. 
Pontanus was born while his parents were residing 
at Elsinore, on the 21st of January 1571. For three 
years he was the pupil of Tycho Brahe, on the Island 
of Hveen, and he always retained a feeling of pro- 
found veneration for his illustrious master. He 
afterwards studied at Basle and Montpellier. On 
his return to Holland he was appointed Professor of 
Philosophy and History in the College of Harder- 
wyck, a post which he retained until his death, and 
in 1620 he was nominated Historiographer to the 
King of Denmark. He wrote many learned works, in- 
cluding a ponderous Danish history'; but his most 
valuable contribution to geographical literature was 
his History of Amsterdam.'^ Pontanus was a constant 

^ Eernm Danicarum IlUtoria (Amst., 1631). 

^ llistoria urbis ct rerum AmsieloJamensiuin (Amst , 1011). 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

advocate of exploring enterprise, and gave much 
assistance to the cartographer Hondius in his 
arduous undertakings. Owing to his profound 
learning, the deep interest he took in the science of 
navigation, and his knowledge of mathematics, no 
better editor of the Dutch editions of the work of 
Hues could have been found than Isaac Pontanus. 
He died at Harderwyck on the 6th of October 1639, 
aged 68. 

Hues opened his work with an epistle dedicatory 
to his intimate friend. Sir Walter Kaleigh^; in which 
he recapitulated the discoveries made by English- 
men during the reign of the great Queen ; and 
urged that his countrymen would already have sur- 
passed the Spaniards and Portuguese, if they had 
taken more pains to acquire a complete knowledge 
of geometry and astronomy. The eiforts of English- 
men, he believed, had been rendered less effective, 
owing to their ignorance of the sciences, a know- 
ledge of which is essential to a successful navigator. 
He concluded by saying that he had composed his 
treatise in the hope that it might be useful in ad- 
vancing a study of the seaman's art. In his Preface, 
Master Hues went to the root of the matter, and 
proceeded to prove the sphericity of the earth ; first 
advancing the usual arguments, and then refuting 
the theories of those who disputed them. He 
devoted some space to those mIio argued that the 
mountains prevented the earth's surface from being 

^ The opening lines of the address, and the name of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, are omitted in the English translations. 



xlii INTRODUCTION. 

round ; and to others who maintamed that a liquid 
surface is flat and not concave. Having estabhshed 
his points, the conclusion that a globe is the best 
form by which to represent a spherical body was 
inevitable. He concluded w-ith some remarks in 
commendation of the Molyneux Globes, constructed 
through the liberality of Master Sanderson. They 
are more than twice the size ot Mercator's globes, 
which is a great advantage ; and they contained all 
the most recent discoveries. 

The treatise itself is divided into five parts, the 
first treating of things which are common to both 
globes ; the second devoted to the planets, fixed 
stars, and their constellations ; the third to a de- 
scription of land and sea portrayed on the Terres- 
trial Globe, and to a discussion respecting the cir- 
cumference of the earth ; and the fourth explains 
the use of tlie globes. The fifth part consists of a 
learned treatise by Master Herriot on the rhumb 
lines and their uses. 

In the first part the frame is described, on which 
the globe is set ; the broad wooden horizon, with 
its various divisions; and the brass meridian at 
right angles to it, on the poles of which the globe 
itself is fixed. The Horarius is a small circle of 
brass, divided into twenty-four equal parts, to be 
fixed on one of the poles of the meridian with a pin, 
called the Index Horarius, made to point to each 
of the twenty-four divisions as the globe turns on 
its axis. Having described these accessories of the 
globe, Hues next turns to the circles and lines 



INTRODUCTION. xliil 

drawn on the globe itself, discussing questions relat- 
ing to them in very full detail, and also treating of 
the zones and climates. His frequent references to 
the theories and calculations both of the ancients 
and of his contemporaries give that kind of bio- 
graphical interest to his dissertations which serves, 
better than any other method, to impress scientific 
facts on the memory. 

The second part treats of the celestial globe 
and of the Ptolemaic constellations and stars, with 
the stories of the origin of their Greek names, and 
of those adopted, in later days, by the Arabian 
astronomers. Pontanus, in his foot-notes, brings 
our thoughts back to the supposed double origin of 
the constellations in the remotest antiquity.^ He 
suggests that the ideas were conceived, and the 
names given, by two classes of men, the sailors of 
the Phoenician coasts and the husbandmen of the 
Chaldean plains. It was a more modern theory 
that some of the constellations, derived from the 
Phoenicians, represented the figure-heads of ships, 
or the emblematic replicas of them hung up in the 
temples ; such as Aries, Taurus, Pegasus, Cygnus, 
Hydra, Cetus, DeljDhinus. Taurus and Pegasus 
are actually represented as half figures, just as 
figure-heads would be. The most ancient constella- 
tions, the Geniculator, or man doomed to labour on 
his knee (converted by the Greeks into Hercules), 
the Nimrod or Orion, the Centaur, and the Ser- 
pentarius were, it is supposed, of Chaldean origin. 
^ Notes, pp. 49 and 59. 



xliv INTRODUCTION. 

Sometimes both the names given by the sailors and 
those of the shepherds were continued, as in the case 
of the Bear, also known as the Waggon or Chariot. 
Pontanus, in his foot-notes, twice refers to the pas- 
sages in the book of Job where certain Hebrew words 
are translated as stars — Arcturus, Orion, the Pleiades, 
and Mazzaroth ; but the idea that the equivalent 
Hebrew words have any allusion to stars is a mere 
conjecture, and, it would seem, an improbable one.^ 
The immense antiquity of the names for constel- 
lations is proved by the lines in Homer : 

" The Pleiads, Hjads, with the northern team, 
And gi'eat Orion's more effulgent beam, 
To whicli, around the axle of the sk}', 
The Bear revolving, points his golden e^-e, 
Still shines exalted in the ethereal plain, 
Xor bathes his blazing forehead in the main." 

(Pope's Iliad.) 

1 "Which maketh Arcturus {Ash), Orion (Kesil), and Pleiades 
(Kimah), and the chambers of the south." (Job ix, 9.) 

" Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades (Kimah) or 
loose the bands of Orion (Kesil). Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth 
in his season or canst thou guide Arcturus (Ash) with his sons'?" 
(Job xxxviii, 31, 32.) 

"Seek him that maketh the seven stars and Orion, and turn- 
eth the shadow of death into the morning." (Amos v, 8.) 

In a foot-note (p. 52), Pontanus discusses the name of Arc- 
turus, and mentions that the word which is given as Arcturus in 
the Sejjtuagint is Anh in Hebrew, from the root Gnisch — " con- 
gregabit". Ash is also translated as "vapour", Kesil as "cold" 
or "snow" ("rage" or "madness", according to Pontanus), and 
Kimah as "rain". Mazzaroth, a periodical pestilential wind. No 
similar words are used for stars by the Arabian astronomers ; 
and it is supposed, by some authorities, that no reference to 
stars was intended either in Job or Amos. 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

This passage shows that the constellations in the 
days of Homer were the same as those enumerated 
in the poem of Aratus, who is constantly referred 
to by Hues. Ptolemy adopted the names in Aratus, 
and thus they have been transmitted, through the 
Arabs, to modern times. In this second part our 
author passes them all in review, with their Arabic 
names, here and there noticing the assertions and 
theories of later or contemporaneous writers, such 
as Cardan, Patricius, and Corsalius. In correcting the 
errors of some of these authors, based on the vague 
narrative of Amerigo Vespucci, Hues takes occasion 
to give his impressions of the stars in the southern 
hemisphere, derived from a severe service of more 
than a year in those seas, on board the Leicester, 
with Cavendish.^ The second part of the Tractatus 
supplied an admirable explanatory guide to the 
Celestial Globe. 

In the third part Hues undertook to describe the 
lands and seas delineated on the Terrestrial Globe. 
He begins by explaining the ideas respecting the 
three continents of the old world which were enter- 
tained by the ancients, and shows how these early 
speculations were corrected by eubsequent dis- 
coveries. He then reviews the bounds of the know- 
ledge of his own times, wdien the northern limits had 
been extended to 73°, with fair hopes that the ocean 
bounds the northern shores of America; and the south 
had been made known as far as the Straits of Ma- 
gellan. He evidently inclined to a belief in a vast 
1 Pp. (j(j, (S7. 



xlvi INTRODUCTION. 

southern continent, such as is dehneated on the 
globe. Next, he enumerates the countries contained 
in the four continents ; and refers to the unknown 
regions of AustraUa to the south of New Guinea, 
and to the vast tracts in the far north, which then, 
as now, remain to he discovered. But this jDart of 
his work is confessedly incomplete, and in his pre- 
face he refers his readers to the more detailed in- 
formation given hy Ortelius and Mercator. 

In a second chapter of his third part Hues dis- 
cusses the various methods that had been adopted 
to ascertain the circumference of the earth and the 
length of a degree. Hp gives an interesting account 
of the labours of Eratosthenes and Posidonius ; and 
as the great diiferences in the results of various 
ancient authorities were partly due to the standards 
of measurement, he devotes some space to a discus- 
sion of the various lengths given to a degree. 

The fourth part of the Tractatus, in which the 
practical uses to which the Globe may be put by the 
navigator are described, was the most important in 
the eyes of the author, and the one by means of 
which he hoped to be of most service to his country- 
men. Previous to the discovery of logarithms, the 
problems of nautical astronomy could only be 
worked out with the help of very prolix mathema- 
tical calculations by practical scholars. But the 
globe supplied methods of finding the place of the 
sun, latitude, course, and distance, amplitudes and 
azimuths, time and declination, by inspection. This 
was a great boon to navigation, and the globe 



INTRODUCTION. xlvii 

came into very general use on board ship. As a 
practical guide to its use the treatise of Hues became 
a most valuable book to sailors ; so that it played 
no unimportant part in furthering the exploring en- 
terprises of Englishmen in the seventeenth century. 
The fourth part opens wit-h a definition of longi- 
tude, and the various ways of finding it. Observa- 
tions of eclipses of the moon are pronounced to be 
the most accurate method, but one very seldom 
used. As to proposals for finding longitude by 
observations of difi;erences of time, with clocks or 
hour-glasses, Hues scouts the idea, which had 
been rejected by all learned men ; the clocks of 
that period being altogether unable to perform 
that which was required over them. Navigators 
would have to wait for nearly two centuries 
before mechanical skill had reached to the height of 
constructing a chronometer. Meanv/hile, the sub- 
stitutes were worthless, and those who sold them 
were impostors. " Away," cried Mr. Hues, " with 
all such trifling, cheating rascals !" As regards lati- 
tude Hues reminds his readers that it is always the 
same as the height of the pole above the horizon, 
a measurement which was easily made. He then 
explains the methods of using the globe for finding 
the altitude of a heavenly body, its place and 
declination, the latitude by meridian altitude, the 
right ascension of heavenly bodies, their azimuths 
and amplitudes, the time and duration of twilight, 
the variation of the compass, and how to make a 
sun-dial by the globe. 



xlvi INTRODUCTIOiSr. 

southern continent, such as is deUneated on the 
globe. Next, he enumerates the countries contained 
in the four continents ; and refers to the unknown 
regions of Austraha to the south of New Guinea, 
and to the vast tracts in the far north, which then, 
as now, remain to be discovered. But this part of 
his work is confessedly incomplete, and in his pre- 
face he refers his readers to the more detailed in- 
formation given by Ortelius and Mercator. 

In a second chapter of his third part Hues dis- 
cusses the various metliods that had been adopted 
to ascertain the circumference of the earth and the 
length of a degree. Hp gives an interesting account 
of the labours of Eratosthenes and Posidonius ; and 
as the great differences in the results of various 
ancient authorities were partly due to the standards 
of measurement, he devotes some space to a discus- 
sion of the various lengths given to a degree. 

The fourth part of the Tractatus, in which the 
practical uses to which the Globe may be put by the 
navigator are described, was the most important in 
the eyes of the author, and the one by means of 
which he hoped to be of most service to his country- 
men. Previous to the discovery of logarithms, the 
problems of nautical astronomy could only be 
worked out with the help of very prolix mathema- 
tical calculations by practical scholars. But the 
globe supplied methods of finding the place of the 
sun, latitude, course, and distance, amplitudes and 
azimuths, time and declination, by inspection. This 
was a great boon to navigation, and the globe 



INTRODUCTION. xl 



Vll 



came into very general use on board ship. As a 
practical guide to its use the treatise of Hues became 
a most valuable book to sailors ; so that it played 
no unimportant part in furthering the exploring en- 
terprises of Englishmen in the seventeenth century. 
The fourth part opens with a definition of longi- 
tude, and the various ways of finding it. Observa- 
tions of eclipses of the moon are pronounced to be 
the most accurate method, but one very seldom 
used. As to proposals for finding longitude by 
observations of difl:erences of time, with clocks or 
hour-glasses. Hues scouts the idea, which had 
been rejected by all learned men ; the clocks of 
that period being altogether unable to perform 
that which was required over them. Navigators 
would have to wait for nearly two centuries 
before mechanical skill had reached to the height of 
constructing: a chronometer. Meanwhile, the sub- 
stitutes were worthless, and those who sold them 
w^ere impostors. " Away," cried Mr. Hues, " with 
all such trifling, cheating rascals !" As regards lati- 
tude Hues reminds his readers that it is always the 
same as the height of the pole above the horizon, 
a measurement which was easily made. He then 
explains the methods of using the globe for finding 
the altitude of a heavenly body, its place and 
declination, the latitude by meridian altitude, the 
right ascension of heavenly bodies, their azimuths 
and amplitudes, the time and duration of twilight, 
the variation of the compass, and how to make a 
sun-dial by the globe. 



Xlvill INTliODUCTION. 

The fifth part is a valuable treatise by Thomas 
Herrlot,' another emuient mathematician, on the 

1 Thomas Herriot was born at Oxford in 1560, was a Commoner of 
St.Maiy Hall, and took his M.A. degree in 1579. He wasanexcellent 
mathematician, and was employed by Sir Walter Raleigh to instruct 
him in that science, becoming a member of his family for some time. 
When Raleigh fitted out the expedition to Virginia, under Sir 
Richard Greville, in 1585, young Herriot became a member of it, 
and made a map of the country. On his return he published a 
Brief and True Report of the newfound land of Virginia which 
■was repi'inted by Hakluyt. Herriot devoted himself to mathema- 
tical studies, especially to algebra, and was also an astronomer 
and a practical navigator. Raleigh introduced hini to the Earl of 
Northumberland, who gave him a pension of £120 a year, and he 
resided for some time at Sion College. When Northumberland 
was committed to the Tower, Thomas Herriot, with his learned 
friends, Robert Hues and Waller Warner, solaced his long 
imprisonment by their conversation. They were called the Earl's 
three Magi. Herriot corresponded with Kepler on the theory of 
the rainbow. He died on July 2nd, 1621, of a cancer on the lip ; 
and was buried in St. Christopher's Church, where there was a 
monument to his memory, with the following inscription : 

" Siste viator, leviter preme, 

Jacet hie juxta quod mortale fuit 

C. V. 

Thomoe Harrioti 

Hie fuit doctissimus ille Harriotus 

de Syon ad flu men Thamesin 

Patria et education e 

Oxoniensis 

Qui omnes scientias calluit 

Qui in omnibus excelluit 

Matbematicis, Philosophicis, Theologicis 

Veritatis indagator studiosissimus 

Dei Trini unius cultor piissimus 

Sexagenarius aut eo circiter 
Mortalitati valedixit, Non vitee 
Anno Christi mhcxxi, Julii 2." 



INTRODUCTION. xl 



IX 



rhumb lines described on the Terrestrial Globe, and 
their uses. Herriot shows that five nautical problems 
may be solved by the rhumb lines, and that if any 
two of the four elements — course, distance, diff. 
long., and diff. lat. — are known, the other two can be 
found. Each of these five problems is given, with a 
practical example ; and the only one which presented 
serious difficulty is that in which it is required to 
find the course and difi:". lat. when dift'. long, and 
distance are given. This cannot be puzzled out on 
the globe without long and tedious calculation, and 
even then the result is useless. 

The Index Geographicus is only given in one or 
two editions. It is a long and very complete list of 
places, with their latitudes and longitudes as shown 
on the globe. The list may often be useful to geo- 
graphical students, as a help towards the identifica- 
tion of old names, or of names made obscure by 
peculiar spellings, and it has, therefore, been thought 
desirable that it should be reprinted. 

The only foot-notes to the text are those referring 
to the annotations of Pontanus in the Amsterdam 
editions. Information respecting the names of astro- 
nomers and others mentioned in the text, the stars 
and constellations, the names of places, and scientific 
terms will be found in the Indices. The Biographical 
Index contains short notices of astronomers and 
mathematicians, as well as references to the places 
in the text where their names occur. The Astrono- 
mical Index, for most valuable help in the prepara- 
tion of which I am indebted to Professor Pobertson 

d 



1 INTRODUCTION. 

Smith of Cambridge, lias been prepared on the same 
plan. The Index of Names of Places, and that of 
Scientific Terms, are merely intended for furnishing 
references to the pages in the text. 



(Latin Title.) 



TRACTATVS DE GLOBIS 

ET EORVM VSV, 

Accoviodatvs Us qui Londini cditi svnt anno i^gj, 

Sumptibus Guglielmi Sanderson! 
Ciuis Londinensis, 

Conscriptvs a 
ROBERTO HUES. 



Londini 

In sedibvs Thomse Dawson. 

1594- 



(English Title.) 



A LEARNED 

TREATISE OF 

Globes, 

Both Ccelestiall and 
Terrestrial! : witli their 

feveral ufes. 

Written first in Latine, by 

M" Robert Hues : and by him 

fo Published. 

Afterward Illustrated with Notes, by 

lo. lia. PONTANUS. 

And now lastly made English, for the 
benefit of the Vnlearned. 

By John Chilmead M'A. of 

Christ-Church in Oxon. 

LONDON, 

Printed by the Affigne of T. P. for P. 

Stephens and C. Meredith, and are 
to be sold at their Shop at the Gold [en Li]on in 
' Pauls-Church-yard. i[638.] 



N.B. — Letters ■unthin brackets tor,n out of original ; the dale, 
also torn out, is given at the end of the work. 



THE CONTENTS OF THE CHAPTERS OF 
THIS- TREATISE. 



The Preface : wherein is shewed the Antiquity an 1 excellency of 
Globes, in comparison of all other instruments, as being of a forme 
most apt to expresse the figure of the Heavens and Earth. — The round- 
ness of the Earth is defended against Patricius. — The height of Hilles, 
how much it may detract from the roundnesse of the Earth. 



THE FIRST PART. 

CHAPTER I. 

What a Globe is, with the parts thereof ; and the circles without the 
Globe. — What the Horizon is, with the things described thereon in a 
Materiall Globe. — What the Meridian is, the Poles and Axis ; as also 
the Houre-circle and Index. 

CHAPTER II. 

Of the circles which are described on the superficies of the Globes. 
— Of the Equator or ^quinoctiall circle.— What a day is, both naturall 
and artificiall ; as also of Houres, both Equall and Unequall. — Of the 
Zodiackeand Eccliptick. — What a Yeare is, and the indeterminate limits 
thereof ; together with the diverse opinions of Authors concerning the 
same ; as also many of their errours. — What the ^Equiuoctium and 
Solstices are, with changing of their places, and Anticipation in the 
Calendar, confirmed by many observations. — The errour of Sosigenes 
and lulius Caesar in designing the place of the -^quinoctium. — Of the 
Colures. — The Longitude and latitude of the fixed Starres are proved 
by observations to have beene altered. — A place of Ptolomy, lib. 1, 
cap. 7. Geograph., is vindicated from the injury of his interpreters, 
and confirmed by the authority of Strabo. — Of the Tropickes : with 
the changing of their declination. — What the Arcticke and Antarck- 
ticke Circles aie. — Of the Verticall Circles, and Quadrant of Altitude. 

CHAPTER III. 

Of the three positions of Sphere: Right, Parallel, and Oblique : with 
their severall affections. 



Ivi THE CONTENTS OF THE CHAPTERS 

CHAPTER IV. 

Of the Zones and their number. — The vaine opinions of the Ancients, 
concerning the temperature of the Zones, are rejected ; both by the 
Testimonies of some of the Ancients themselves, as also by the expe- 
rience of later times. 

CHAPTER V. 

Of the Amphiscij, Periscij, and Heteroscij. 

CHAPTEK YI. 

Of the Periseci, Ant^ci, and Antipodes compared to each other. 

CHAPTER vir. 
Of Climates and Parallels. 



THE SECOND PART. 



CHAPTER I. 



Of such things as are proper to the Coelestiall Globe ; as namely of 
the Stars. And first of the Planets, or Wandering Stars. 

CHAPTER II. 

Of the fixed Starres and their Constellations. 

CHAPTER III. 

Of the Constellations o£ the Northerne Hemisphaere. 

CHAPTER IV. 

The signes of the Zodiacke ; and first of the Northerne. 

CHAPTER V. 

The Constellations of the Southerne Hemisphgere ; and first of those 
in the Zodiacke. 

CHAPTER VI. 

Of the rest of the Constellations of the Southerne Hemisphfere. 

CHAPTER VII. 

Of the other Stars which are not' expressed in Globes. — Why the 
Stars appeare sometimes in greater numbers than at other times, -and 
sometimes greater and at other times lesse ; with the confutation of 
some vain opinions concerning the same. — The idle relations of 
Americus Vespasius, Cardan, and Patricius concerning the extraordin- 
ary greatnesse of the Stars about the South Pole are refuted out of 
the Author's own experience. 



OF TPIIS TREATISE. Ivil 

THE THIRD PART. 

CHAPTER I. 

The Geographicall description of the Terrestriall Globe, with the 
parts of the world that are yet knowne. The errours of Ptolomy 
concerning the Southerne bounds of Africa and Asia, as also of the 
Northerne limits of Europe, are condemned out of the writings of the 
Ancients and various experience of later Writers. 

CHAPTER II. 

Of the compasse of the Earth and the measure of a degree : with 
diverse opinions concerning the fame of the Greeks ; as namely, 
Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Posidonius, Cleomedes, and Ptolomy ; as 
also of the Arabians, Italians, Germans, English, and Spanish. — 
Posidonius and Eratosthenes are confuted out of their owne observa- 
tions and propositions. Ptolomyes opinion is preferred before the 
rest, and he freed from the calumnies of Maurolycus ; who is also 
taxed in that without cause favouring Posidonius he unjustly con- 
demns Ptolomy. 

THE FOURTH PART. 

CHAPTER I. 

How to finde out the longitude, latitude, distance and angle of posi- 
tion or situation of any places expressed in the Terrestriall Globe. 

CHAPTER II. 

Of the Latitude of any place. 

CHAPTER III. 

How to finde the distance and angle of position of any two places. 

CHAPTER IV. 

To finde the Altitude of the Sunne or Starres. 

CHAPTER V. 

To finde the place and declination of the Sunne for any day 
given. 

CHAPTER VI. 

To finde the Latitude of any place by observing the Meridian alti- 
tude of the Sunne or Stari'es. 

CHAPTER VII. 

How to finde the Right and Oblique Ascension of the Sunne and 
Starres for any latitude of Place and Time. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

How to finde the Horizontall difference betwixt the Meridian and 
the verticall circle of the Sunne or any other Starre which they call 
the Azimuth, for any time or place assigned. 

e 



Ivill THE CONTENTS OF THE CHAPTERS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

To find the Houre of the day, as also the amplitude of rising and 
setting of the Sunne and Starres at any time and latitude of place. 

CHAPTER X. 

Of the threefold rising and setting of Starres. 

CHAPTER XI. 

How to finde the beginning and end of the Twilight for any lati- 
tude of place and time. 

CHAPTER XII. 

To finde for any latitude of place and time the length of the Arti- 
ficiall day or night, or the quantity of the Sunnes Parallel that remaines 
above the Horizon and that is hid beneath it ; and to perform the 
same by any other Starre. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

To finde the houre of the Day and Night both Equall and Unequall 
for any time and latitude of place. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

To finde the longitude, latitude, and declination of the fixed Stars, 
as they are expressed in the Globe. 

CHAPTER XV. 

To finde the declination of the needle from the true ]\Ieridian,'-which 
they commonly call the Variation of the Compasse, for any latitude 
assigned : where the errours of those are discovered, who assigne to the 
Magneticall Needle a certain Meridian and fixed point which it 
alwayes respects ; and that affirm this change of variation to be regu 
lar. All which vaine conjectures of theirs, and ungrounded Hypo- 
theses, are refuted both by more certaine observations of others, as 
also of the Author himselfe. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

How to make a Sun Diall by the helpe of the Globe, for any lati- 
tude of Place, 



THE FIFTH AND LAST PART. 

Of the Rumbes that are described upon the Terrestrial! Globe ; 
wherein their nature, original!, and use in Navigation is declared. 



MEMORANDUM. 



rosTEEJio est tabula Geograplnca in qua Kegionum, Insu- 
larum, fluviorii, Promontoriorum, Sinnum, Montium & reli- 
quarum qute in Terrestri Globo exprimuntur, noniina omnia 
ordine Alphabetico digesta est: adjecta singulis sua longi- 
tudine & latitudine. 




To the most illustrious and honourable Sir Walter 

Ealeigh, Knight, Captain of the Queen's Guard, Lord 

Warden of the Stannaries in the Counties of Cornwall and 

Devon, Vice-Admiral of Devon, Robert Hues wishes 

lasting happiness. 



Most illustrious Sir, 

That nothing is at once brought forth, and perfected, 
is an observation wee may make as from other things, so in a 
more especial manner from Arts and Sciences. For (not to 
spealce anything of the rest which yet have all of them in 
succession of times had their accessions of perfection), if wee 
but talvc the astronomicall writings of Aratus, or of Eudoxus 
(according to whose observations Aratus is reported by Leon- 
tius Mechanicus to have composed his Phasnomena), and 
compare the same with the later writings of Ptolomy : what 
erroui's and imperfections shall we meet withall ? 

And in the Geographicall workes of the Ancients, wliether 
we compare them among themselves, the later with the 
former ; or either of them with the more accurate descrip- 
tions of our Moderne Geographers : how many things shall 
we meet withall therein, that need either to be corrected as 
erroneous, or else supplied as defective ? Tliere shall wee 
finde Strabo everywhere harshly censuring the extravagances 
of Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Polybius, and Posidonius : 
Authors among the Ancients of very high esteem. For as for 
Pytheas, Euthemeres, Antiphanes, and those Indian Histo- 

B 



2 EPISTOLA. 

riographers Megasthenes, Nearchus, and Daimachus, whose 
writings are stuffed with so many fabulous idle relations, he 
accounts them unworthy of his censure. In like manner 
Marinus Tyrius, however a most diligent writer, is yet hardly 
dealt withall by Ptolomy. And even Ptolomy himselfe, a 
man that for his great knowledge and experience may seem 
to have excelled all those that went before him ; yet, if a 
man shall but compare his Geograpliicall Tables with the 
more perfect discoveries of our later times, what defects and 
imperfections shall hee there discover ? 

Who sees not his errours in the bounds he sets to the 
Southern parts of Asia and Africa ? How imperfect are his 
descriptions of the Northern coasts of Europe ? These 
errours of Ptolomy and of the Ancient Geographers have 
now at length been discovered by the late Sea voyages of 
the Portugalls and English ; the Southern coasts of Africa 
and Asia having beene most diligently searched into by the 
Portugalls as the North erne parts of Europe have in like 
manner beene by our owne Country-men. Among whom the 
first that adventured on the discovery of these parts were. 
Sir Hugh Willoughby and Eichard Chanceler, after them 
Stephen Borough. And further yet then either of these, 
did Arthur Pet and Charles lackman discover these parts. 
And these voyages w^ere all taken by the instigation of 
Sebastian Cabot ; that so, if it were possible, there might be 
found out a nearer passage to Cathay and China : yet all in 
vaine ; save only that by this meanes a course of trafficke was 
confirmed betwixt us and the JMoscovite. 

When their attempts succeeded not tliis way, their next 
designe was then to try what might be done on the North erne 
coasts of America ; and the first undertaker of these voyages 
was Mr. Martin Frobisher : who was afterwards seconded by 
Mr. lohn Davis. By means of all which Navigation many 



EPISTOLA. 3 

eiTours of the Ancients, and their great ignorance, was dis- 
covered. 

But now that all these their endeavours succeeded not, our 
Kingdome at that time being well furnished in ships and 
impatient of idlenesse, they resolved at length to adventure 
upon other parts. And first Sir Humphrey Gilbert with 
great courage and Forces attempted to make a discovery of 
those parts of America which were yet unknowne to the 
Spaniard, but the successe was not answerable. Which 
attempt of his was afterward more prosperously prosecuted 
by Sir Walter Eawleigh ; by whose mcaues Virginia M'as 
first discovered unto us ; the Genert^U of his forces being Sir 
Eichard Greenvile ; which Countrey was afterwards very 
exactly surveighed and described by Mr. Thomas Hariot. 

Neither have our country-men within these limits bounded 
their Navigations. Tor Sir Francis Drake, passing through 
the Straites of Magellane, and bearing up along the Westerne 
Coasts of America, discovered as farre as 50 degrees of 
Northerne Latitude. After whom Mr. Thomas Candish, 
tracing the same steps, hath purchased himselfe as large a 
monument of his fame with all succeeding ages. I shall not 
need to reckon with these our Countryman, Sirlohn Man- 
devil, who almost 300 years since in a 33 years voyage by 
land took a strict view of all India, China, Tartary, and 
Persia, with the Eegions adjoyning. 

By these and the like expeditions by Sea, the matter is 
brought to that passe that our English Nation may seeme 
to contend even with the Spaniard and Portugall himselfe 
for the glory of navigation. And without all doubt, had 
they but taken along with them a very reasonable com- 
petency of skill in Geometry and Astronomy, they had 
by this gotten themselves a farre more honourable name at 
Sea than they. And, indeed, it is the opinion of many 

B 2 



4 EPISTOLA. 

understanding men that their endeavours have taken the 
lesse effect meerely through ignorance in. these Sciences. 
That, therefore, there might be some small accrument to 
their study and paines that take delight in these Arts, I 
have composed this small treatise, which that it may be for 
their profit I earnestly desire. 

Fareivell. 



THE PREFACE. 



There are two kinds of Instruments by which Artificers 
have conceived that the figure of this so beautiful! and 
various fabricke of the whole Universe might most aptly 
be expressed, and as it were at once presented to the view. 
The one exhibiting this Idea in a round solid is called a 
Globe, or Sphcere. The other, expressing the same in a 
Plaine, they tearme a Planisphere, or Map. Both of which 
having been long since invented by the Ancients have yet 
even to our times in a continued succession received still 
more ripenesse and perfection. The Sphtere or Globe, and 
the use thereof, is reported by Diodorus Siculus to have been 
first found out by Atlas of Libya : whence afterward sprung 
the Fable of his bearing up the Heavens with his Shoulders. 
Others attribute the invention of the same to Thales. And 
it was afterward brought to perfection by Crates (of whom 
Strabo makes mention), Archimedes, and Proclus ; but most 
of all by Ptolomy ; according to whose rules, and observa- 
tions especially, succeeding times composed their Globes, as 
Leontius Mechanicus affirm es. And now there hath been 
much perfection added to the same in these our later times 
by the industry and diligence of Gemma Frisius and Gerardus 
Mercator ; as it may appear by those Globes that were set 
forth at London, Anno 1593, so that now there seemes not to 
be anything that may be added to them. The PlanisphEere, 
indeed, is a fine invention, and hath in it wonderfull varietie 
of workmanship, if so be that the composition of it be rightly 
deduced out of Geometricall and Opticall principles ; and it 
wants not its great delightfulriess and beauty also. But yet 



6 THE PEEFACE. 

that Other, beiug the more ancient, hath also the priority in 
Nature, and is of the most convenient forme ; and therefore 
more aptly accomodated for the understanding and fancy 
(not to speake any of the beauty and gracefulnesse of it), for 
it representeth the things themselves in proper genuine 
figures. 

For as concerning the figure of the Heavens whether it 
was round was scarcely ever questioned by any. So like- 
wise touching the figure of the earth, notwithstanding many 
and sundry opinions have been broached among the ancient 
Philosophers, some of them contending for a plaine, others an 
hollow, others a cubicall, and some a pyramidall forme ; 
yet the opinion of its roundnesse with greatest consent of 
reason at length prevailed, the rest being all exploded. Now 
wee assume it to be round, yet so as that wee also admit of 
its inequalities, by reason of those so great eminences of 
hilles and depression of vallies. Eratosthenes, as he is cited 
by Strabo in his first books, saith that the fashion of the 
Earth is like that of a Globe, not so exactly round as an 
artificiall Globe is, but that it hath certain inequalities. 
The earth cannot be said to be of an exact orbicular forme, 
by reason of so many hilles and low plaines, as Pliny rightly 
observes. And Strabo, also, in his first book of his Geography, 
saith that the earth and the water together make up one 
sphfericall body, not of so exact a forme as that of the 
Heavens, although not much unlike it. This assertion of the 
roundnesse of the Earth with the intervening Sea is con- 
firmed also by these reasons. For, first, that it is round from 
East to West is proved by the Sun, Moon, and the other 
Starres, which are seen to rise and set first with those that 
inhabite more Eastwardly, and afterward with them that are 
farther ^Yest. The Sun riseth with the Persians that dwell 
in the Easterne parts foure hours sooner than it doth with 
those that dwell in Spaine, more Westward, as Cleomedes 
affirms. The same is also proved by the observing of Eclipses, 



THE PREFACE. 7 

especially those of the Moon, which, although they happen 
at the same time, are not yet observed in all places at the 
same houre of the clay or night, but the houre of their ap- 
pearing is later with them that inhabite Eastward then it is 
with the more Westerne people. An Eclipse of the Moon, 
which Ptolomy repoi'ts, lib. 1, Geogr., Cap. 4, to have been ptoiomy. 
in Arbela (a towne in Assyria) at the lift hour of the night, 
the same was observed at Carthage at the second houre. 
In like manner an Eclipse of the Sun, which was observed 
in Campania to be betwixt 7 and 8 of the clock, was seen 
by Corbulo, a Captain in Armenia, betwixt 10 and 11, as it 
is related by Pliny. Now that it is also of a sphericall figure 
from North to South may be clearly demonstrated by the 
risings, settings, elevations, and depressions of the Starres and 
Poles. The bright Starre that shines so resplendently in the 
upper part of the stern e of the Ship Argo, and is called by the 
Greeks «;ai^(w/3, is scarcely to be seen at all in Ehodes, unlesse 
it be from some eminent high place ; yet the same is seen very 
plainly in Alexandria, as being elevated above the Horizon 
about the fourth part of a signe, as Proclus affirmes in the end Procius. 
of his book, de Splicera. For I read it Conspicue cernitur, not 
as it is commonly, Prorsus non Cernitur ; notwithstanding 
that both the Greek text and also the Latine translation are 
against it. Another argument may be taken from the figure 
of the shadow in the Eclipse of the Moon, caused by the in- 
terposition of the Earth's opacous body ; which shadow being 
sphiericall, cannot proceed from any other than a round 
globular body, as it is demonstrated unto us out of opticall 
principles. But this one reason is beyond all exception, 
that those that make toward the land at Sea shall first 
decry the tops of the hilles onely, and afterward, as they 
draw nearer to shore, they see the lower parts of the same 
by little and little, which cannot proceed from any other 
cause than the gibbositie of the Earth's superficies. 

As for those other opinions of the hollow, cubicall, 



8 THE PREFACE. 

pyramidall, and plaine figure of the Earth, you have them 
all largely examined both in Theon (Ptolomies Interpreter), 
Cleomedes, and almost in all our ordinary authors of the 
Sphere, together with the reasons why they are rejected. 
Yet that old conceit of the plainuesse of the Earth's super- 
ficies is againe now at last, tanqtcam Crainhe recocta, set 
forth in a new dresse, and thrust upon us by Franciscus 
Patricius, who, by some few cold arguments and misunder- 
stood experiments, endeavours to confirme his owne, and, 
consequently, to overthrow that other received opinion of 
the sphsericall figure of the Earth. I shall onely lightly 
touch at his chiefest arguments; my present purpose and 
intention suffering me not to insist long on the Confutation 
of them. And first of all the great height of hilles, and the 
depression of vallies, so much disagreeing from the evennesse 
of the plain parts of the Earth, seem to make very much 
against the rouudnesse of the Earth. Who can heare with 
patience, saith he, that those huge high mountaines of 
Norway, or the mountain Slotus which lies under the Pole, 
and is the highest in the world, should yet be thought to 
have the same superficies with the Sea lying beneath it ? 
This, therefore, being the chiefest reason that may seem to 
overthrow the opinion of the Earth and Seas making up one 
sphsericall body, let us examine it a little more nearly, and 
consider how great this inequality may be, that seemes to 
make so much against the evennesse of this Terrestriall 
Globe. Many strange and almost incredible things are re- 
ported by Aristotle, Mela, Pliny, and Solinus, of the unusuall 
height of Athos, an hill in Macedonia, and of Casius in Syria, 
as also of another of the same name in Arabia, and of the 
mountaine Caucasus. And among the rest one of the most 
miiaculous things which they have discovered of the moun- 
taine Athos is, that whereas it is situate in Macedony, it 
casts a shadow into the market-place at Myrrhina, a towne 
in the Island Lemnos, from whence Athos is distant 80 



THE PKEFACE. 9 

miles. But for as much as Athos lies westward from 
Leranos, as may appeare out of Ptolomies Tables, no mar- 
vaile that it casts so large a shadow, seeing that wee may 
observe by daily experience, that as well when the Sun riseth 
as when it sets, the shadowes are always extraordinary long. 
But that which Pliny and Solinus report of the same 
Mountaine I should rather account among the rest of their 
fabulous Stories, where as they affirme it to be so high that 
it is thought to be above that region of the Aire whence the 
rain is wont to fall. And this opinion (say they) was first 
grounded upon a report that there goes, that the ashes which 
are left upon tlie Altars on the top of this hill are never 
washed away, but are found remaining in heapes upon the 
same. To this may be added another testimony out of the 
Excerpts of the seventh book of Strabo, where it is said that 
those that inhabite the top of this Mountaine doe see the 
Sun three houres sooner than those that live near the Sea 
side. The height of the Mountaine Caucasus is in like 
manner celebrated by Aristotle, the top whereof is enlightened 
by the Sunnes beames the third part of the night, both 
morning and evening. No lesse fabulous is that which is re- 
ported by Pliny and Solinus of Casius, in Syria, from whose 
top the Sun rising is discovered about the fourth watch of 
the night ; which is also related by Mela of that other Casius 
in Arabia. But that all these relations are no other than 
mere fables is acutely and solidly proved by Petrus Nonius p^g^uagf" 
out of the very principles of Geometry. As for that which 
Eustathius writes, that Hercules Pillars, called by the Greeks Eustathius. 
Calpe and Abenna, are celebrated by Dionysius Periegetes 
for their miraculous height, is plainly absurd and ridiculous. 
For these arise not above an hundred elles in height, which 
is but a fuiioDg ; whereas the Pyramids of Egypt are reported 
by Strabo to equall that height ; and some trees in India are f^l'if,' 
found to exceed it, if wee may credit the relations of those 
Writers who, in the same Strabo, afiirme that there grows a 



10 THE PREFACE. 

treQ by the river Hyarotis that casteth a shadow at noon five 
furlongs long. 

Those fabulous narrations of the Ancients are seconded 
by as vaine reports of our moderne times. And first of all 
Scaliger writes from other men's relations that Tenariff, one 
of the Canary Islands, riseth in height fif teene leagues, which 

contni^^ amount to above sixtie miles. But Patricius, not content 
with this measure, stretcheth it to seventie miles. There are 
other hilles in like manner cryed up for their great height, 
as, namely, the Mountaine Audi, in Peru, and another in the 
Isle Pico, among the Azores Islands ; but yet both these fall 
short of Tenariff. What credit these relations may deserve 
we will now examine. And first for Tenariff, ic is reported 
by many writers to be of so great height tliat it is probable 
the whole world atfordes not a more eminent place ; not ex- 
cepting the Mountaine Slotu's itself, wdiich, whether ever any 
other mortall man hath seen, beside that Monke of Oxford 
(who, by his skill in Magicke, conveighed himselfe into the 
utmost Northerne regions and tooke a view of all the places 
about the Pole, as the Story hath it), is more than I am able 
to determine. Yet that this Isle cannot be so hiwh as Scaliger 
would have it we may be the more bold to believe, because 
that the tops of it are scarcely ever free from snow, so that 
you shall have them covered all over with snow all the year 
long, save onely one, or, at the most, two months in the 
midst of summer, as may appeare out of the Spanish Writers. 
Now that any snow is generated 60 or 70 miles above the 
plaine superficies of the Earth and Water is more then they 
will ever persuade us, seeing that the highest vapours never 
rise above 48 miles above the Earth, according to Eratos- 
thenes his measure ; but according to Ptolomy they ascend 

Card, de not abovc 41 milcs. Notwithstanding, Cardan and some 

Subt. ° 

Thpod.win., other profest ]\Iathematicians are bold to raise them up to 

par. 2, J- i 

uonem!^"*"'" ^88 milcs ; but with no small staine of their name have 
thev mixed those trifles with their other wiitings. Solinus 



THE PREFACE. 11 

reports that the tops of the Mouutaine Atlas reacheth very 
neare as high as the circle of the Moon ; but he betrayeth 
his own errour in that he confesseth that the top of it is 
covered with snow, and shineth with fires in the Night. Not 
unlike to this are those things which are reported of the 
same mountaine and its height by Herodotus, Dionysius 
Afer, and his scholiast Eustathius ; whence it is called in 
Authours, Coelorum Columen, the pillar that bears up the 
Heavens. But to let passe these vaine relations, let us come 
to those things that seem to carry a greater show of truth. 
Eratosthenes found by Dioptricall instruments, and measur- Theon. i, 

"^ ■■- ' com. in. 

ing the distances betwixt the places of his observation, that ^'°'- 
a perpendicular drawn from the top of the highest moun- 
taine down to the lowest bottome or vally, did not exceed 
ten furlongs. Cleomedes saith that there is no hill found to 
be above fifteene furlongs in height, and so high as this was 
that vast steepe rocke in Bactriana, which is called Sisimitra? 
Petra, mentioned by Strabo in his II booke of his Geography. 
The toppes of the Thessalian Mountaines are raised to a 
greater height by Solinus then ever it is possible for any 
hill to reach. Yet, if we may believe Pliny, Dictearchus l. i, c. 63. 
being employed by the king's command in the same busi- 
nesse, found that the height of Pelion, which is the highest 
of all, exceeded not 1,250 pases, which is but ten furlongs. 
But to proceed yet a little further, lest we should seem too 
sparing herein, and to restraine them within narrower limits 
than wee ought, wee will adde to the height of hilles the 
depth also of the Sea. Of which the illustrious lulius 
Scaliger, in his 38 exercitations against Cardan, writeth 
thus : The depth of the Sea (saith he) is not very great, for 
it seldome exceeds 80 pases, in most places it is not 20 pases, 
and in many places not above 6 ; in few places it reacheth 
100 pases, and very seldome, or never, exceeds this number. 
But because this falles very short of the truth, as is testified 
by the daily experieiice of those that passe the Sea, let us 



' .12 THE PREFACE. 

make tbe depth of the Sea equall to the height of Moun- 
taines : so that suppose the depth thereof to be 10 furlongs, 
which is the measure of the Sardinian Sea in the deej)est 
places, as Posidonius in Strabo afiirnies. Or, if you please, 
let it be 15 furlongs, as Cleomedes and Fabianus, cited by 
Pliny, lib. 2, c. 102, will have it. (For Georg. Valla, in his 
interpretation of Cleomedes, deales not fairely with his 
Authour, where he makes him assigne 30 furlongs to be the 
measure of the Sea's depth.) These grounds being thus laid, 
let us now see what proportion the height of hilles may bear 
to the Diameter of the whole Earth ; that so we may hence 
gather that the extuberancy of hilles are able to detract 
little or nothing from the roundnesse of the Earth, but that 
this excrescency will be but like a little knob or dust upon a 
ball, as Cleomedes saith. For if wee suppose the circum- 
ference of the whole Earth to be 180,000 furlongs, according 
to Ptolomies account (neither did ever any of the Ancients 
assigne a lesse measure than this, as Strabo witnesseth), the 
Diameter therefore will be (according to the proportion be- 
twixt a circle and its diameter found out by Archimedes) 
above 57,272 furlongs. If, then, we grant the highest hilles 
to be ten furlongs high, according to Eratosthenes and 
Diccearchus, they will beare the same proportion to the 
Diameter of the Earth that is betwixt 1 and 5,727. (Peu- 
cerus mistakes himselfe when he saith that the Diameter of 
the Earth to the perpendicular of ten furlongs is as 18,000 
to 1, for this is the proportion it beareth to the whole cir- 
cumference, and not the diameter. Or suppose the toppes 
of the highest hilles to ascend to the perpendicular of fifteene 
furlongs, as Cleomedes would have it, the proportion then 
will be of one to 3,818. Or if you please let it be thirtie 
furlongs, of which height is a certain rock in Sogdiana 
spoken of by Strabo in the eleventh Booke of his Geography 
(notwithstanding Cleomedes is of opinion that a perpen- 
dicular drawne from the top of the highest hill to the 



THE PREFACE. 13 

bottom of the deepest Sea exceeds not this measure), the 
proportion will be no greater than of one to 1,908. Or let 
us extend it yet further if you will to foure miles, or 
thirty-two furlongs (of which height the mountaine Casius, 
in Syria, is reported by Pliny to be), the proportion will yet 
be somewhat lesse then of one to 1,789. I am therefore so Lib. 2, c. es. 
farre from giving any credit to Patricius, his relations of 
Tenariffes being seventy-two miles high (unlesse it be 
measured by many oblique and crooked turnings and wind- 
ings, in which manner Pliny measureth the height of the 
Alpes also to be fiftie miles), so that I cannot assent to Alhazan, ^- ''^ ^re- 

■■- ' ' puse. 

an Arabian, who would have the toppes of the highest hilles 
to reach to eight Arabian miles, or eighty furlongs, as I 
thinke ; neither yet to Pliny, who, in his quarto lib., cap. ii, 
affirmes the mountaine Haemus to be six miles in height, and 
I can scarcely yield to the same Pliny when as he speaks of 
other hilles foure miles in height. And whoever should 
affirme any hill to be higher than this, though it were 
Mercury himselfe, I should hardly believe him. Thus much 
of the height of hilles which seemed to derogate from the 
roundnesse of the Terrestriall Globe. Patricius proceeds, 
and goes about to prove that the water also is not round or 
sphfericall. And he borroweth his argument from the 
observations of those that conveigh or levell waters, who 
find by their Dioptricall Instruments that waters have all an 
equall and plaine superficies, except they be troubled by the 
violence of windes. On the contrary side, Eratosthenes, in 
Strabo, affirmes that the superficies of the Sea is in sorae 
places higher then it is in other. And he also produceth as 
assertors of his ignorance those Water-levellers, who, being 
employed by Demetrius about the cutting away of the 
Isthmus, or necke of land betwixt Peloponessus and Greece, 
returned him answere that they found by their Instruments 
that that part of the Sea which was on Corinth's side was 
higher than it was at CenchrcTe. The like is also storied of 



14 THE PREFACE. 

Sesostris, one of the kings of Egypt, who, going about to 
make a passage out of the IMediterraueau into the Arabian 
Gulfe, is said to have desisted from his purpose because he 
found that the superficies of the Arabian Gulfe was higher 
than was the Mediterranean, as it is reported by Aristotle in 
the end of his first booke of Meteors. The like is also said 
in the same place by the same Authour to have happened 
afterward to Darius. Now whether the Architects or 
Water-levellers employed by Demetrius, Sesostris, and 
Darius deserve more credit than those whom Patricius 
nameth I shall not much trouble my selfe to examine. Yet 
Strabo inveigheth against Eratosthenes for attributing any 
such eminences and depressions to the superficies of the Sea. 
And Archimedes his doctrine is that every humid body 
standing still and without disturbance hath a sphaericall 
superficies whose centre is the same with that of the Earth. 
So that wee have just cause to regret the opinions, both of 
those that contend that the superficies of the Sea is plaine, 
as also of those that will have it to be in some places higher 
than in other. Although wee cannot in reason but confesse that 
so small a portion of the whole Terrestriall Globe as may be 
comprehended within the reach of our sight, cannot be dis- 
tinguished by the helpe of any Instruments from a plaine 
superficies. So that we may conclude Patricius his argument, 
which he alleadgeth from the experience of Water-con- 
veighers, to be of no weight at all. 

But hee goes on and labours to prove his assertion from 
the elevation and depression, rising and setting of the Poles 
and Starres, which were observed daily by those that traverse 
tlie Seas ; all which he saith may come to passe, although the 
surface of the water were plaine. Eor if any Starre be 
observed that is in the verticall point of any place, 
which way soever you travell from that place, the same 
Starre will seeme to be depressed, and abate something of 
its elevation, though it were on a plaine superficies. But 



THE PREFACE. 15 

there is something more in it than Patriciiis takes notice of. 
For if wee goe an equall measure of miles, either toward the 
North or toward the Soiitli, the elevation or depression of 
the Starre will always bee found to be equall : which that 
it can possibly bee so in a plaine superficies is more than 
hee will ever be able to demonstrate. If wee take any 
Starre situate neare the Equator, the same, when you have 
removed thence 60 English miles, will be elevated about a 
degree higher above the Horizon, whether the Starre be 
directly over your head, or whether you depart thence that 
so it may bee depressed from your Zenith for 30 or 50 or 
any other number of degrees. Which that it cannot thus 
be on a plaine superficies may bee demonstrated out of the 
principles of Geometry. But yet methinks this one thing 
might have persuaded Patricius (being so well versed in the 
Histories of the Spanish Navigations, as his writings suffi- 
ciently testifie) that the superficies of the Sea is not plaine, 
because that the Ship called the Victory, wherein Ferdinand 
Magellane, losing from Spaine and directing his course to- 
\vard the South-west parts, passed through the Straits, 
called since by his name, and so touching upon the Cape of 
Good Hope, having encompassed the whole world about, 
returned again into Spaine. And here I shall not need to 
mention the famous voyages of our owne countriemen, Sir 
Francis Drake and Master Thomas Candish, not so well 
knowne perhaps abroad, which yet convince Patricius of the 
same errour. And thvis have we lightly touched the chiefe 
foundations that his cause is built upon ; but as for those ill- 
understood experiments which he brings for the confirmation 
of the same, T shall let them passe, for that they seeme 
rather to subvert his opinion than confirme it. 

Thus, having proved the Globe of the Earth to be of a 
Sphericall figure, seeing that the eminency of the highest 
hills hath scarcely the same proportion to the semidiameter 
of the Earth that there is betwixt 1 and 1,000, which how 



16 THE PREFACE. 

small it is any one may easily perceive ; I hold it veiy 
superfluous to goe about to prove that a Globe is of a figure 
most proper and apt to expresse the fashion of the Heavens 
and Earth as being most agreeable to nature, easiest to he 
understood, and also very beautif uU to behold. 

Now in Materiall Globes, besides the true and exact 
description of places, which is, indeed, the chiefest matter 
to be considered, there are two things especially required. 
The first whereof is the magnitude and capacity of them, 
that so there may be convenient space for the description of 
each particular place or region. The second is the light- 
nesse of them, that so their weight be not cumbersome. 
Strabo, in his eleventh booke, would have a Globe to have 
tenne foot in Diameter, that so it might in some reasonable 
manner admit the description of particular places. But this 
bulke is too vast to bee conveniently dealt withall. And in this 
regard I think that these Globes, of which I intend to speak 
in this ensuing discourse, may justly bee preferred before all 
other that have been set before them, as beinge more capa- 
cious than any other ; for they are in Diameter two foot and 
two inches, whereas Mercator's Globes (which are bigger than 
any other ever set before him) are scarcely sixteene inches 
Diameter. The proportion therefore of the superficies of 
these Globes to Mercator's will be as 1 to 2|, and somewhat 
more. Every country, therefore, in these Globes will be 
above twice as large as it is in Mercator's, so that each par- 
ticular place may the more easily bee described. And this 
I would have to bee understood of those great Globes made 
by William Saunderson of London ; concerning the use of 
which especially we have written this discourse. For he 
hath set forth other smaller Globes, also, which as they are 
of a lesser bulke and magnitude, so are they of a cheaper 
price, that so the meaner Students might herein also be 
provided for. Now concerning the geographicall part of 
them, seeing that it is taken out of the newest Charts and 



THE PREFACE. 17 

descriptions ; I am bold to think them more perfect than 
any other : however they want not their erronrs. And I 
thinke it may bee the authors glory to have performed thus 
much in the edition of these Globes. One thing by the 
way you are to take notice of, which is that the descrip- 
tions of particular places are to be sought for elsewhere, 
for this is not to be expected in a Globe. And for these 
descriptions of particular countries, you may have recourse 
to the Geographicall Tables of Abrahamus Ortelius,^ whose 
diligence and industry in this regard seemes to exceed all 
other before him. To him, therefore, we referre you.^ 

^ In the edition of 1659 the name of Gerardus Mercator is substi- 
tuted for that of Abrahamus Ortelius. 

^ In the Dutch editions here follows a long note by Pontanus, 
describing the globe of Tycho Brahe at Prague, and those of the 
Duke of Tuscany ; and giving the definitions of Euclid. 



THE FIRST PART. 

Of those things which are common both to the 

Coelestiall and Terrestriall Globe. 



CHAPTEE I. 



What a Globe is, v:ith the parts thereof, and of the Circles of 
the Globe. 

A Globe, in relation to onr present purpose, we define to be Globus 
an Analogicall representation either of the Heavens or the 
Earth. And we call it Analogicall, not only in regard of its 
forme expressing the Sphaericall figure as well of the 
Heavens, as also of the Terrestriall Globe, consisting of the 
Earth itselfe, together with the interflowing Seas ; but rather 
because that it representeth unto us in a just proportion and 
distance each particular constellation in the Heavens, and 
every severall region and tract of ground in the Earth ; 
together with certaine circles, both greater and lesser, in- 
vented by Artificers for the more ready compvitation of the 
same. The greater Circles we call those which divide the 
whole superficies of the Globe into two equall parts or halves ; 
and those the lesser which divide the same into two unequall 
parts.^ 

Besides the body of the Globe itselfe, and those things 
which we have said to be thereon inscribed, there is also 
annexed a certain frame with necessary instruments thereto 
belonging, which we shall declare in order. 

1 Here Pontanus inserts another long note, in the Dutch edition, 
respecting a discussion between Tycho Braye and Peter Ramus, on 
the method of astronomical computation in use among the ancient 
Egyptians, 

C 2 



20 A TREATISE OF THE 

The fabricke of the frame is thus : First of all there is a 
Base, or foot to rest upon, on which there are raised perpen- 
dicularly sixe Columnes or Pillars of equall length and dis- 
tance ; upon the top of which there is fastened to a levell 
and parallel to the Base a round plate or circle of wood, of a 
sufficient breadth and thicknesse, which they call the Hori- 
zon, because that the uppermost superficies thereof performeth 
the office of the true Horizon. For it is so placed that it 
divideth the whole Globe into two equall parts. Whereof 
that which is uppermost representeth unto us the visible 
Hemisphaere, and the other that which is hid from us. So 
likewise that Circle which divides that part of the world 
which wee see from that other which wee see not, is called the 
Horizon. And that point which is directly over our heads 
in our Hemisphere, and is on every side equidistant from the 
Horizon, is commonly called Zenith ; but the Arabians name 
it Semith. But yet the former corrupted name hath prevailed, 
so that it is always used among Writers generally. And that 
point which is opposite to it in the lower Hemisphtere the 
Arabians call Nathir; but it is commonly written JSTadir. 
These two points are called also the Poles of the Horizon. 

Furthermore, upon the superficies of the Horizon in a 
Materiall Globe, there are described, first, the twelve Signes 
of the Zodiaque, and each of these is again divided into 
thirty lesser portions ; so that the whole Horizon is divided 
into 360 parts, which they also call degrees. And if every 
degree be divided into sixtie parts also, each of them is then 
called a Scruple or Minute ; and so by the like subdivision 
of minutes into sixtie parts will arise Seconds, and of these 
Thirds, and likewise Fourths and Fifths, etc., by the like 
partition still of each into sixtie parts.^ 

There is also described upon the Horizon the Eoman 

1 Pontanus adds, in a note, that the days of the month, and the 
Roman Kalends, Nones, and Ides, are also marked on the modern 
horizon. 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 21 

Calendar, and that three severall ways ; to wit, the ancient 
way, which is still in use with us here in England ; and the 
new way appointed by Pope Gregory 13, wherein the Equi- 
noxes and Solstices were restored to the same places wherein 
they were at the time of the celebration of the Councell of Nice ; 
in the third, the said Equinoctiall and Solsticiall points are 
restored to the places that they were in at the time of our 
Saviour Christ's nativity. The months in the Calendar are 
divided into dayes and weekes, to which are annexed, as 
their peculiar characters, the seven first letters of the Latine 
Alphabet. Which manner of designing the dayes of the 
Monetli was first brought in by Dionysius Exiguus, a Eomane 
Abbot, after the Councell of Nice. 

The innermost border of the Horizon is divided into 32 
parts, according to the number of the Wiudes, which are 
observed by our moderne Sea-faring men in their Naviga- 
tions ; by which also they are wont to designe forth the quar- 
ters of the Heavens and the coasts of Countries. For the 
Ancients observed but foure winds only, to which were 
after added foure more ; but after ages, not content with this 
number, increased it to twelve, and at length they brouglit it 
to twenty-foure, as Vitruvius notes. And now these later 
times have made them up thirty-two, the names whereof 
both in English and Latine are set down in the Horizon of 
Materiall Globes.-^ 

There is also let into this Horizon two notches opposite 
one to the other, a circle of brasse, making right angles with 
the said Horizon, and placed so that it may be moved at 
pleasure both up and downe by those notches, as neede shall 
require. This Circle is called the Meridian, because that Meridianus, 
one side of it, which is in like manner divided into 360 
degrees, supplyeth the office of the true Meridian. Now the 
meridian is one of the greater circles passing through the 
Poles of the World and also of the Horizon ; to which, when 
1 Pontanus here inserts a note on the uses of the horizon. 



22 



A TREATISE OF THE 



the Sunne in his daily revohition is arrived in the upper Hemi- 
spheere, it is midday ; and when it toucheth the same in the 
lower Hemisphsere it is midnight at that place whose Meri- 
dian it is. 

These two Circles, the Horizon and Meridian, are various 
and mutable in the Heavens and Earth, according as the 
place is changed. But in the Materiall Globe they are made 
fixed and constant; and the earth is made moveable, that so the 
Meridian may be applied to the Verticall point of any place.^ 
In two opposite poynts of this Meridian are fastened the 
Poll. Boreus two cuds of an iron pinne passing through the body of the 

and Aus- 

trinus. Globe and its center. One of which ends is called the Arc- 
ticke or Xorth Pole of the World ; and the other the Antarc- 
ticke or South Pole ; and the pinne itself e is called the Axis. 
For the Axis of the World is the Diameter about which it is 
turned; and the extreme ends of the Axis are called the Poles. 
To either of these Poles, when need shall require, there is 
a certain brasse circle or ring of a reasonable strong making 
to be fastened, which circle is divided into 24 equall parts, 
according to the number of the houres of the day and night ; 
and it is therefore called the Houre circle. And this circle 
is to be applied to either of the Poles in such sort as that the 
Section where 12 is described may precisely agree with the 
points of mid-day and mid-night in the superficies of the true 
Meridian. 

There is also another little pinne or stile to be fastened to 
the end of the Axis, and in the very center of the Houre 
circle ; and this pinne is called in Latine, Index Horarius, 
and so made as that it turnes about and pointeth to every of 
the 24 sections in the Houre Circle, according as the Globe 
it selfe is moved about ; so that you may place the point of 
it to what houre you please.^ 



Horarius. 



Index 
Horarius. 



1 Pontauus here has a note on the uses of the meridian. 

2 Here Pontanus has a note on using the hour circle, meridian, and 
quadrant of altitude. 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE, 23 



CHAPTEE II. 

Of the Circles which arc described u]pon the Siiperjicies of the 

Globe. 

And now in the next place M^e will shew what Circles are 
described upon the Globe it selfe. And first of all there is 
drawue a circle in an equall distance from both the Poles, 
that is 90 degrees, which is called the ^qiiinoctiall or Equa- Equator 
tor ; because that when the Sunne is in this Circle days and 
nights are of equall length in all places. By the revolution 
of Circle is defined a naturall day, which the Greeks call 
vv^Qriixepov. For a day is twofold : Naturall and Artificiall. rails: 
A Naturall day is defined to be the space of time wherein 
the whole ^Equator makes a full revolution ; and this is done 
in 24 houres. An Artificiall day is the space wherein 
the Sunne is passing through our upper Hemisphsere ; to 
which is opposed the Artificiall night, while the Sunne is 
carried about in the lower Hemisphsere. So that an Artificiall 
day and night are comprehended within a Naturall day. 

The Parts of a day are called houres; wdiich are either equall ^quaies. 
or unequall. An Equall houre is the 24th part of a Naturall 
day, in which space 15 degrees of the Equator doe always 
rise, and as many are depressed on the opposite part. An inreciuaie; 
Unequall houre is the 12th part of an Artificiall day, betwixt 
the time of the Suns rising and setting againe. These 
Houres are againe divided into Minutes. Now a minute is 
the 60th part of an houre ; in which space of time a quarter 
of a degree in the ^Equator, that is 15 minutes, doe rise and 
as many set.^ 

The Equator is crossed or cut in two opposite points by 
an oblique Circle, which is called the Zodiack. The obli- zodiacus 
quity of tliis Circle is said to have beene first observed by 
^ Here Pontanus has a note on the uses of the equator. 



24 A TREATISE OF THE 

Anaximander Milesius, in the 58 Olympiad^ as Pliny writetli 
in his lib. 2, cap. 8. Who also in the same place affirmes 
that it was first divided into 12 parts which they call Signes 
by Cleostratus Tenedius, in like manner as we see it at this 
day. Each of these Signes is again subdivided into 30 Parts, 
so that the whole Zodiack is divided in all into 360 parts, 
like as the other circles are. The first twelfth part whereof, 
beginning at the Vernall Intersection, where the vEqnator 
and Zodiack crosse each other, is assigned to Aries, the 
second to Taurus, etc., reckoning from West to East. But 
here a young beginner in Astronomy may justly doubt what 
is the reason that the first 30 degrees or 12th part of the 
Zodiack is attributed to Aries, whereas the first Starre of 
Aries falls short of the Intersection of the ^quinoctiall and 
Zodiacke no less than 27 degrees. The reason of this is 
because that in the time of the Ancient Greeks, wdio first of 
all observed the places and situation of the fixed Starres and 
expressed the same by Asterismes and Constellations, the 
first Starre of Aries was then a very small space distant from 
the very Intersection. For in Thales Milesius his time it 
was two degrees before the Intersection ; in the time of 
Meton the Athenian, it was in the very Intersection. In 
Timocharis his time it came two degrees after the Intersec- 
tion. And so by reason of its vicinity the Ancients assigned 
the first part of the Zodiack to Aries, the second to Taurus, 
and so the rest in their order ; as it is observed by succeed- 
ing ages even to this very day.^ 

Under this Circle the Sunne and the rest of the Planets 
finish their severall courses and periods in their severall 
manner and time. The Sunne keepes his course in the 
middest of the Zodiack, and therewith describeth the Eclip- 
tick circle. But the rest have all of them their latitude 
and deviations from the Suns course or Ecliptick. By 
reason of which their digressions and extravagancies the 
1 Pontanus here gives a note on Tliales and Meton. 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 25 

Ancients assigned the Zodiaqne 12 degrees of latitude. Bnt 
our moderne Astronomers, by reason of the Evagations of 
Mars and Venus, have added on each side two degrees more ; 
so that the whole hititude of the Zodiack is confined within 
16 degrees. But the Ecliptick onely is described on the 
Globe, and is divided in like manner as the other Circles into 
360 degrees.^ 

The Sunne runneth thorough this Circle in his yearly 
motion, finishing every day in tlie yeare almost a degree by 
his Meane motion, that is 59 min. 8 seconds. And in this 
space he twice crosseth the Equator in two poynts equally 
distant from each other. So that when he passeth over the 
Equator at the beginnings of Aries and Libra, the dayes and 
nights are then of equall length. And so likewise when the 
Sunne is now at the farthest distance from the Equator, and 
is gotten to the beginning of Cancer or Capricorne, he then 
causeth the Winter and Summer Solstices. I am not ignorant 
thatVitruvius, Pliny, Theon Alexandrinus,Censorinus, and Co- 
lumella, are of another opinion (but they are upon another 
ground) ; when as they say that the Equinoxes are, when as 
the Sunne passeth through the eighth degree of Aries and 
Libra, and then it was the midst of Summer and Winter, 
when the Sun entered the same degree of Cancer and Capri- 
corne. But all these authors defined the Solstices by the 
returning of the shadow of dials : which shadow cannot bee 
perceived to returne backe againe, as Theon saith, till tlie quod''Snsor 
Sunne is entered into the eighth degree of Libra and Aries.^ admnguur. 

The Space wherein the Sunne is finishing his course 
through the Zodiack is defined to be a Yeare, which consists Annus. 
of 365 dayes, and almost 6 houres. But they that think to find 
the exact measure of this period will find themselves frus- 
trate ; for it is finished in an unequall time. It hath beene 
alwayes a controversie very much agitated among the 

1 Pontanus here has a note on the ecliptic and zodiac. 

2 Here Pontanus inserts a note on the uses of the zodiac. 



26 



A TREATISE OF THE 



Joseph. 
Seal, de 
Em, temp. 



Ad C. 15. 
Alfrag. 



Ancient Astronomers, and not yet determined. Philolaus, a 
Pythagorean, determines it to be 365 dayes ; but all the rest 
have added something more to this number. Harpalus 
would have it to be 365 dayes and a halfe ; Democritus 365 
dayes and a quarter, adding beside the 164 part of a day. 
Q^nopides would have it to be 365 dayes 6 houres, and almost 
9 houres. Meton the Athenian determined it to be 365 dayes, 
6 houres and almost 19 minutes. After him Calippus reduced 
it to 365 dayes and 6 houres, which account of his was fol- 
lowed by Aristarchus of Samos, and Archimedes of Syracusa. 
And according to this determination of theirs Julius Cesar 
defined the measure of his Civile year, having first consulted 
fas the report goes) with one Sosigenes, a Peripateticke and a 
great Mathematician. But all these, except Philolaus (who 
came short of the just measure), assigned too much to the 
quantity of a yeare. For that it is somewhat lesse than 365 
dayes 6 houres is a truth confirmed by the most accurate 
observations of all times, and the skilfullest artists in Astro- 
nomicall affaires. But how much this space exceedeth the just 
quantity of a yeare is not so easy a matter to determine. Hip- 
parchus, and after him Ptolomy, would have the 300 part of 
a day subtracted from this measure (for Jacobus Christ- 
mannus was mistaken when he affirmed that a Tropicall 
yeare, according to the opinions of Hipparchus and Ptolomy, 
did consist of 365 dayes and the 300 part of a day). For 
they doe not say so, but that the just quantity of a yeare is 
365 dayes and 6 houres, abating the 300 part of a day, as 
may be plainely gathered out of Ptolomy, Almagest., lib. 3, 
cap. 2, and as Christmaunus himself e hath elsewhere rightly 
observed. Xow, Ptolomy would have this to be the just 
quantity of a yeare perpetually and immutably ; neither 
would he be perswaded to the contrary, notwithstanding the 
observations of Hipparchus concerning the inequallity of the 
Sunnes periodicall revolution. But yet the observations of 
succeeding times, compared with those of Hipparchus and 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 27 

Ptoloniy, doe evince the contrary. The Indians and Jewes 
subtract the 120 part of a day ; Albategnius, the 600 part ; 
the Persians, the 115 part, according to whose account Mes- 
sahalah and Albumazar wrote their tables of the Meane 
Motion of the Sunne. Azaphius Avarius and Arzachel 
affirmed that the quantity assigned was too mucli by the 136 
part of a day ; Alphonsus abate tli the 122 part of a day ; 
some others^ the 128 part of a day; and some, the 180 part 
of a day. Those that were lately employed in the restitu- 
tion of the Eomane Calendar would have almost the 133 
part of a day to be subtracted, which they conceived in 400 
years would come to three whole dayes. But Copernicus 
observed that this quantity fell short by tlie 115 part of a 
day. Most true therefore was that conclusion of Censorinus, censo. c. 
that a yeare consisted of 365 dayes, and I know not what 
certain e portion, not yet discovered by Astrologers. 

By these divers opinions here alledged is manifestly dis- 
covered the error of Dion, which is indeed a very ridiculous Dion, i. 4; 
one. For he had conceit that in the space of 1461 Julian 
yeares there would be wanting a whole day for the just 
measure of a yeare ; which he would have to be intercaled, 
and so the Civile Julian Yeare would accurately agree with 
the revolution of the Sunne. And Galen also, the Prince of J^- ^. «• ^■ 

Progn. 

Physitians, was grossly deceived when he thought that the 
yeare consisted of 365 dayes 6 houres, and besides almost the 
100 part of a day ; so that at every hundred yeares end there 
must be a new intercalation of a whole day. 

Now, because the Julian yeare (which was instituted by 
Julius Caesar, and afterwards received and is still in use) 
was somewhat longer than it ought to have beene, hence it 
is that the Equinoxes and Solstices have gotten before their St\s°°' 
Ancient situation in the Calendar. For abo\it 432 yeares 
before the incarnation of our Saviour Christ, the Vernall 
^quinoxe was observed by Meton and Euctemon to fall on 
the 8 of the Kalends of Aprill, which is the 25 of March 



28 A TREATISE OF THE 

according to the Computation of tlie Julian Yeare. In the 
yeare 146 before Christ it appeares, by the observation of 
Hipparchus, that it is to be placed on the 24 of the same 
moneth, that is the 9 of the Kalends of Aprill. 8o tliat 
from hence we may observe the error of Sosigeues (notwith- 
standing he was a great Mathematician), in that above 100 
yeares after Hipparchus, in instituting the Julian Calendar, 
he assigned the Equinoxes to be on the 25 of March or the 
8 of the Kalends of Aprill, which is the place it ought to 
have had almost 400 years before his time. This error of 
Sosigenes was derived to succeeding ages also ; insomuch 
that in Galens time, which was almost 200 yeares after 
Julius Ctesar, the J^quinoxes were wont to be placed on the 
Ment Mtic ^■^ ^^^' °^ March and September, as Theodorus Gaza reports. 
In the yeare of our Saviours Incarnation it happened on the 
10 of the Kalends of April or the 23 of March. And 140 
years after, Ptolomy observed it to fall on the II of the 
Kalends. And in the time of the Councell of Nice, about 
the yeare of our Lord 328, it was found to be on the 21 of 
March, or the 12 of the Kalends of Aprill. In the yeare 831 
Thebit Ben Chorah observed the Vernall ^quinoxe to fall 
on the 17 day of March : in Alfraganus his time it came to 
the 16 of March. Arzachel, a Spaniard, in the yeare 1090, 
observed to fall on the Ides of INIarch, that is the 15 day. 
In the yeare 1316 it was observed to be on 13 day of March. 
And in our times it has come to be on the 11 and 10 of tlie 
same moneth. So that in the space of 1020 yeares, or there- 
about, the ^quinoctiall points are gotten forward no lesse 
then 14 dayes. The time of the Solstice also, about 388 
yeares before Christ, was observed by Meton and Euctemon 
to fall upon the 18 day of June, as Joseph Scaliger and 
Jacobus Christmannus have observed. But the same in our 
time is found to be on the 12 of the same moneth. 

The Eclipticke and Equator are crossed by two great 
Circles also, which are called Colures ; botli which are 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTUIALL GLOBE. 29 

drawne tlirou"!! the Poles of the work!, and cut the Equator coiuriSois- 

o ' ■>■ titiorum et 

at right Angles. The one of them passing through the fio"um°' 
points of both the Intersections, and is called the Eqinoc- 
tiall Colure ; the other passing through the points of the 
greatest distance of the Zodiack from the ^Equator, is there- 
fore called the Solsticiall Colure.^ 

Now that both the colures, as also the ^quinoctiall points 
have left the places where they were anciently found to be 
in the Heavens, is a matter agreed upon by all those that 
have applyed themselves to the observations of the Ccelestiall 
motions ; only the doubt is whether lixed Starres have gone 
forward unto the preceding Signes, as Ptolomy would have 
it, or else whether the ^quinoctiall and Solsticiall points 
have gone back to the subsequent Signes, according to the 
Series of the Zodiack, as Copernicus opinion is,'^ 

The first Starre of Aries, which in the time of Meton the steiiarum 

flxerum 

Athenian, was in the very Vernall Intersection, in the time Jfig M^utats 
of Thales Milesius was two degrees before the Intersection. 
The same in Timochares his time, was behind it two degrees 
24 minutes ; in Hipparchus time, 4 degrees 40 minutes ; in 
Albumazars time, 17 degrees 50 minutes ; in Albarenus his 
time, 18 degrees 10 minutes ; in Arzachels time, 19 gr. 37 
minutes ; in Alphonsus his time, 23 degrees 48 minutes ; in 
Copernicus and Ehceticus his time, 27 degrees 21 minutes, i^ ^eronis 

^ ° Geodesiani. 

Whence Franciscus Baroccius is convinced of manifest error 
in that he afhrmes that the first Starre of Aries, at the time 
of our Saviours Nativity, was in the very Vernall Intersec- 
tion, especially contending to prove it, as he doth, out of 
Ptolemy's observations, out of which it plainly appears that 
it was behind in no lesse then 5 degrees. 

In like manner the places of the Solstices are also changed, 
as being alwayes equally distant from the -^quinoctiall 

1 Pontanus here inserts a note on the office of the colures. 

2 Pontanus, in a long note, here gives the opinions of Scaliger and 
Tycho Brahe on the precession of the equinoxes. 



30 A TREATISE OF THE 

points. This motion is finished upon the Poles of the Eclip- 
tick, as is agreed upon both by Hipparchus and Ptolomy, 
and all the rest that have come after them. Which is the 
reason that the fixed Starres have always kept the same 
latitude though they have changed their declination. For 
Mutata confirmation whereof many testimonies may be brought out 

declivat, "^ J o 

flxarum °^ Ptolouiy, lib. 7, Cap. 3 Almag. I will only alleadge one 
more notable then the rest out of Ptolomies Geogr. lib. 1 , 
cap. 7. The Starre which we call the Polar Starre, and is 
the last in the taile of the Beare, is certainely knowne in our 
time to be scarce three degrees distant from the Pole, Avhich 
very Starre in Hipparchus his time was above 12 degrees 
distant from the Pole, as Marinus in Ptolomy aflirmes. I 
will produce the whole passage which is thus. In the Torrid 
Zone (saith he) the whole Zodiacke passeth over it, and 
therefore the shadowes are cast both wayes, and all Starres 
there are seen to rise and set. Onely the little Beare 
begins to appeare above the Horizon in those places that are 
500 furlongs northward from Ocele. For the Parallel that 
passeth through Ocele is distant from the Equator 11 gra. 
|. And Hipparchus affirmes that the Starre in the end 
of the little Beares taile, which is the most Southward of 
that Constellation, is distant from the Pole 12 gr. |. This 
excellent testimony of his, the Interpreters have, in their 
translating, the place most strangely corrupted (as both 
Johannes Wernerus and after him P. Nonius have observed), 
setting down instead of 500 Quinque Mille 5000, and for 
Australissimam, the most Southerne, Borealissimam, the most 
Northerly : being led into this error perhaps, because that 
this Starre is indeed in our times the most Northerly. 
But if these testimonies of Marinus and Ptolomy in 

strabo. this poiut be suspected, Strabo in his lib. 2, Geogr., 
shall acquit them of this crime. And he writes thus. 
It is affirmed by Hipparchus (saith he) that those that 
inhabit under the Parallel that runneth thorough the Coun- 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 31 

trey called Cinnamomitera (which is distant from Meroe, 
Southward 3000 furlongs, and from the ^quinoctiall 8800), 
are situated almost in the midst betwixt the J^^quator and 
the Summer Tropicke, which passeth through Syene (which 
is distant from Meroe 5000 furlongs), and these that dwell 
here are the first that have the Constellation of the little 
Beare inclosed within their Arcticke Circle, so that it never 
sets with them, for the bright Starre that is seen in the end 
of the taile (which is also the most Southward of all) is so 
placed in the very Circle itselfe, that it doth touch the Hori- 
zon. This is the testimony of Strabo, which is the very 
same that Ptolomy and Marin us affirme, saving that both in 
this place and elsewhere he alwayes assignes 700 furlongs in * 
the Earth to a degree in the Heavens, according to the doc- 
trine of Eratosthenes, whereas both Marinus and Ptolomy 
allow but 500 onely ; of which we shall speak more hereafter. 
Let us now come to the lesser circles which are described 
in the Globe. And these are all parallel to tlie Equator ; as 
first of all the Tropickes, which are Circles drawn through 
the points of the greatest declination of the Eclipticke on 
each side of the Equator. Of which, that which looks 
toward the North Pole is called the Tropicke of Cancer ; and Tropid 

i ' Oancen et 

the other, bordering on tlie South, the Tropicke of Capricorne. *^'^p"'^°'"°'- 
For the Sunne in his yearely motion through the Eclipticke 
arriveing at these points, as his utmost bounds, returneth 
againe toward the Equator. This Eetrocession is called by 
the Greeks rpoirrj, and the parallel circles drawiie through the 
same points are likewise called Tropickes.^ 

The distance of the Tropickes from the iEquator is 
diversely altered, as it may plainely appear, by comparing ^Jj^fdecii 
the observations of later times with these of the Ancients. °''*'° ^"°' 
For not to speake anything of Strabo, Proclus, and Leontius 
Mechanicus, who all assigned the distance of either Tropicke 
from the Equator to be 24 degrees (for these seeme to have 
^ Pontaniis here adds a note on the uses of the tropics. 



32 A TREATISE OF THE 

handled the matter but carelessly) we may observe the same 
from the more accurate observations of the greatest Artists. 
For Ptolomy found the distance of either Tropicke to be 
23 gr. 51 min. and i just as great as Eratosthenes and 
Hipparchus had found it before him ; and therefore he con- 
ceived it to be immutable. Machomethes Aratensis observed 
this distance to be 23 degrees 35 minutes, right as Almamon, 
King of Arabia, had done before him. Arzahel, the Spaniard, 
found it to be in his time 23 degrees 34 minutes ; Almehon 
the Sonne of Almuhazar, 23 degrees 33 minutes and halfe a 
minute ; Prophatius, a Jew, 23 degrees 32 minutes ; Pur- 
bachius and Eegiomontanus, 25 degrees 28 minutes ; Johan 
Wernerus, 23 degrees 28 minutes and an halfe ; and Coper- 
nicus found it in his time to be just as mucli.^ 

There are two other lesser circles described in an equall 
distance from the Poles to that of the Tropickes from the 
Equator, which circles take their denomination from the 
Pole on which they border. So that one of them is called 
ArcTet ^^^^ Arcticke or Xorth Circle, and the opposite Circle the 
Antarct. Autarcticko or Southerne. In these Circles the Poles of the 
Eclipticke are fixed, the Solsticiall Colure crossing them in 
the same place. Strabo, Proclus, Cleomedes, all Greeke 
Authors, and some of the Latines also, assigne no certaine 
distance to these circles from the Poles ; but make them 
various and mutable, according to the diversity of the eleva- 
tion of the Pole or diverse position of the Sphfere ; so that 
one of them must be conceived to be described round about 
that Pole whicli is elevated, and to touch the very Horizon, 
and is therefore the greatest of all the parallels that are 
always in sight ; and the other must be imagined as drawne 
in an equall distance from the opposite Pole ; and this is the 
greatest of those parallels that are always hidden. 

1 Pontanus here inserts a table of the distances of the tropics from 
the equator, at various epochs, as calculated by the astronomers men- 
tioned in the text, adding remarks by Tycho Brahe on the subject. 



COILESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 33 

Besides the circles expressed in the Globe there are also 
some certaiue other circles in familiar use with the Practicall 
Astronomers, which they call verticall circles. These are circuii 

Vesticules. 

greater circles drawne from the verticall point through the 
Horizon, in what number you please ; and they are called by 
the Arabians Azimuth, which appellation is also in common 
use among our Astronomers. The Ofhce of these circles is 
supplied by the helpe of a quadrant of Altitude, which is a Amfudta! 
thin plate of brasse divided into 90 degrees. This quadrant 
must bee applied to the vertex of any place when you desire 
to use it, so that the lowest end of it, noted with the number 
of 90, may just touch the horizon in every place. The 
quadrant is made moveable, tliat so it may be fasteued to 
the verticall point of any place. 



CHAPTER III. 



Of the three jwsitions of Sph ceres : Eight, Parallel, and 
OUique. 

According to the diverse habitude of the Equator to the 
Horizon (which is either parallel to it, or cutteth it, and that 
either in oblique or else in right angles) there is a three- |p|f^'',^ 
fold position or situation of Spheres. The first is of those p°*'''°- 
tliat have either Pole for their verticall point, for with these 
the Equator and Horizon are Parallel to each other, or 
indeed rather make but one circle betwixt them both. The 
2d is of those whose Zenith is under the Equator. The 
third agreeth to all other places else. The first of these 
situations is called a Parallel Sphere ; the second, a Plight ; p^J'^^Sa 
and the third an Oblique Sphere. Of these severall kindes owiqua. 
of position the two first are simple, but the third is manifold 
and divers, according to the diversity of the latitude of places. 
Each of these have their peculiar properties. 



34 A TREATISE OF THE 

Those that inhabite iu a Parallel Sphaere see not the Sun 
sph Paraii. q^. other Stavs either rising or settincf, or hioher or lower, in 

accidentia. o o' o ' 

the cliurnall revolution. Besides, seeing that the Sun in his 
yearely motion traverseth the Zodiaque which is divided by 
the ^^quator into 2 equall parts ; one whereof lieth toward 
tlie North, and the other toward the South ; by this means 
it comes to passe, that while the sun is in his course through 
those figures that are nearest the Verticall Pole, all this 
wdiile hee never setteth, and so maketh but one continued 
artificiall day, which is about the space of sixe moneths. 
And so contrariwise, while he runneth over the other remoter 
figures lying toward the Opposite Pole, hee maketh a long 
continuall night of the like space of time or thereabout. 
Xow at such time as the Sun iu his diurnall revolution shall 
come to touch the very Equator, he is carried about in such 
sort as that he is not wholly apparent above the Horizon, nor 
yet wholly hidden under it, but as it were halfe cut off. 
sphK* Rec?: The affections of a Eight Sphere are these. All the Stars 
are observed to rise and set in an equall space of time, and 
continue as long above the Horizon as they doe under it. So 
that the day and night here is always of equall length.^ 
^p^.^-^p An Oblique Sphsere hath these properties. Their dayes 

conuenient. gometimes arc longer then their nigbts, sometimes shorter, 
and sometimes of equall length. For when the Sun is placed 
in the ^Equinoctiall points, which (as wee have said) hap- 
peneth twice in the yeare, the dales and nights are then 
equall. But as he draweth nearer to the elevated Pole the 
dayes are observed to increase and the nights to decrease, till 
such time as liee comes to the Tropique, when as he there 
maketh the longest dayes and the shortest nights in the 
yeare. But when he returneth toward the Opposite Pole 

^ Pontanus, in a note, doubts whether this does not agree with the 
rational or intelligible rather than with the sensible horizon : because, 
even in a right sphere, the sight can hardly reach both the Poles, by- 
reason of the exuberancy of the earth. 



CCELESTIALL AND TEHEESTRIALL GLOBE. 35 

the dayes then decrease till he toiicheth the Tropique that 
lieth nearer the same Pole, at which time the nights are at 
the longest and the dayes shortest. In this position of 
Spha?re also some Starres are never seene to set ; such as are 
all those that lie within the compasse of a Circle described 
about the Elevated Pole and touching the Horizon ; and 
some in like manner are never observed to appeare above 
the Horizon ; and these are all such Starres as are circum- 
scribed within the like Circle drawne about the Opposite 
Pole. These Parallel Circles (as wee have said) are those 
which the Greekes, and some of the Latines also, call the 
Arctique and Antarctique Circles, the one alwayes appearing 
and the other always lying hid. All the other Starres which 
are not comprehended within these two Circles have their 
rising and settings by course. Of which those that are 
placed between the Equator and this always apparent 
Circle, continue a longer space in the upper Hemisphsere and 
a lesse. while in the lower. So, on the contrary, those that 
are nearer to the Opposite Circle are longer under the 
Horizon, and the lesse while above it. Of all which affec- 
tion this is the cause. The Sunne being placed in the iEqua- 
tor (or any other Starre) in his daily revolution describeth 
the vEquinoctiall circle ; but being without the Equator he 
describeth a greater or lesser Parallel, according to the 
diversity of his declination from the ^Equator. All which 
Parallels, together with the Equator itselfe, are cut by the 
Horizon in a Eight Sphasre to right angles. For when 
the Poles lie both in the very Horizon, and the Zenith in 
the Equator, it must needs follow that the Horizon must 
cut the Equator in right angles, because it passeth through 
its i^oles. Now, because it cutteth the Equator at right 
angles, it must also necessarily cut all other circles that are 
Parallel to it in right angles ; and, therefore, it must needs 
divide them into two equall parts. So that if halfe of all these 
Parallels, as also of the ^Equator, be above the Horizon, and 

D 2 



36 A TREATISE OF THE 

the other halfe lye hid under it, it must necessarily follow 
that the Sunne, and other Starres, must be as long in pass- 
ing through tho Upper Hemisphaere as through the lower. 
And so the dales must be as long as the nights, as all the 
Starres in like manner will be 12 houres above the Horizon, 
and so many under it. But in an Oblique Sphsere, because 
one of the Poles is elevated above the Horizon and the other 
is depressed under it, all things happen cleane otherwise. 
For seeing that the Horizon dotli not passe through the 
Poles of the Equator, it will not tlierefore cut the Parallels 
in the same manner as it doth the Equator ; but those 
Parallels that are nearest to the elevated Pole will have the 
greatest portion of them above the Horizon and the least 
under. But those that are nearest the opposite Pole will 
have the least part of them seene, and the greatest part hid ; 
only the Equator is still divided into two equall parts, so 
that the conspicuous part is equall to that which is not seene. 
And hence it is that in all kinds of Obliquitie of Sphiere, when 
the Sun is in the Equator, the day and night is alwayes of 
equall length. And as he approacheth towards the elevated 
Pole the dayes encrease ; because the greater Arch or por- 
tion of the Parallels is seene. But when he is nearer the 
hidden Pole the nights are then the longest, because the 
greatest segment of those Parallels are under the Horizon. 
And by how much Higher either Pole is elevated above the 
Horizon of any Place, by so much the dayes are the longer 
in Summer and the nights in Winter.^ 

1 Pontanus here explains the errors of Clavius and Sacrobosco 
respecting the spheres, while expressing concurrence with our author. 



CdLESTIALL AND TERRESTKIALL GLOl'-E. 37 

CHAPTEE nil. 

Of the Zones. 

Tlie foure lesser Circles which are Parallel to the ^•E(-|ua- 
tor divide the whole Earth into 5 partes, called, by the 
Greekes, Zones. Which appellation hath also beene received 
and is still in use among our Latine Writers ; notwithstand- 
ing they sometimes also use the Latine word, Flaga, in the 
same signification. But the Greekes do sometimes apply 
the word Zona to the Orbes of the Planets (in a different sense 
than is ever used by our Authors), as may appear by that pass- 
age of Tbeon Alexandrinus in his commentaries upon Aratus 
— e;^ei 7a/0 6 ovpai>o<; ^ ^cova<; ovk evTi-v^au^ycra? r(o ^(oSta/cco cov 
Tico fi, TrpcoTico e^et 6 Kpovo<i ra^ he Sevrepav o Zev<; ;^ that is : 
There are also in the Heavens seven Zones which are not 
contiguous to the Zodiaque ; the first whereof is assigned 
to Saturne, the second to Jupiter, etc. 

Of these five Zones three were accounted by the Ancient zone 

"^ tres in- 

Philosophers and Geographers to bee inhabitable and in- ^mperata. 
temperate. One of them by reason of the Sunnes beanies vna^stu. 
continually beating upon the same, and this they called the 
Torrid Zone, and is terminated by the Tropiques on each side, 
and the other two, by reason of extreme cold, they thought ^ua frigere. 
could not be inhabited, as being so remote from the heat of 
the Sunnes beames ; whereof one was compreliended within 
the Arctique Circle, and the other within the Antarctique. 
But the other two were accounted temperate, and therefore 
habitable, the one of them lying betwixt the Arctique Circle 
and the Tropique of Cancer ; and the other betwixt the Ant- 
arctique and the Tropique of Capricorn. 

Neither did this opinion (although in a manner generally 

1 APATOY 20AEQ2 ^ad/o/tei'a koI AtofjjLieta : Qtu'vo^ "2x0X111 
{U.conii, 1672), p. 57. 



38 A TKEATISE OF THE 

received among the Ancients) concerning the number and 
bounds of the Zones, even then want its opposition. For 
strabo,!. 2. Pamieuides would have that Zone, which they call the Tor- 
rid, to be extended far beyond the Tropiques ; so that he 
made it almost as large againe as it ought to have beene ; 
but is withall reprehended for it by Posidonius, because 
he knew that above half of that space which is contained 
betwixt our Summer Tropiques and the Equator was in- 
habited. So likewise Aristotle terminated the Torrid Zone 
betwixt the Tropiques, and the Temperate Zones with the 
Tropiques and the Arctique and Antarctique Circles. But 
he is also taxed by the same Posidonius in that he appoints 
the Arctique Circles, wliicli the Greekes will have to be 
mutable, to be the limits of the Zones. 

Poly bins makes five Zones by dividing the Torrid into two 
parts, and reckoning one of them w4th the Winter Tropique 
to the iEquinoctiall, and the otlier from thence to the Sum- 
mer Tropique. Others, following Eratosthenes, would have 
a certaine narrow Zone which should be temperate and fit 
for habitation under the ^quinoctiall line ; of which opinion 
was Avicen the Arabian. And some of our Moderne 
Writers (as Mcolaus Lyronus, Thomas Aquinas, and Cam- 
panus), I know not upon what grounds, will have the Ter- 
restriall Paradise, spoken of in the beginning of Genesis, to 
be placed under the ^quinoctiall Line. And so likewise, 
Eratosthenes and Polybius would have all that which they 
call the Torrid Zone to be temperate. In like manner 
cieomedes. Posidouius coutradictcd the received opinion of the Ancient 
Philosophers, because he knew that both Lyene, which place 
lieth under the Tropic of Cancer, andalso^Ethiopia, which lieth 
more inward, and over whose heads the Sun lieth longer then 
it doth upon theirs under the ^Equator, are notwithstanding 
inhabited. Whence he concluded that the parts under the 
iEquinoctiall are not inhabited, because he saw that those 
under the Tropique wanted not inhabitants. Yet Ptolomy, 
in his 2d booke and sixe chapter of his Almagest conceiveth 



CGELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 39 

all those things which are reported of the temperatenesse 
under the line, to be rather conjecture then truth of story ; 
and yet in tlie last chapter of the fifth booke of his Geo- 
graphy, he describes us a country in Ethiopia which he 
calleth Agisymba, and placeth farre beyond the JEquiuoctiall 
(not\vithstanding some of our Moderne Geographers sticke 
not to place it Northward from the Equator contrary to 
Ptolomies mind). This inconsistency of Ptolomy has given Jacob, chri. 
occasion to some to suspect that the Almagest and Cosmo- 
graphy were not the same Author's Works.^ 

Now, as concerning these conceits of the Ancients about 
the number of the intemperate Zones, if they were not sufii- 
ciently proved to be vaine and idle, by the authority of 
Eratosthenes and Polybius ; yet certainely it is very evidently 
demonstrated by the Navigations both of the Portugalls, and 
also of our own Countrymen, that not only that tract of land 
which the Ancients called the Torrid Zone is fully inhabited, 
but also that within the Arctique Circle, above 70 degrees 
from the Equator, all places are full of inhabitants. So that 
now no man needs to doubt any further of the truth of this ; 
unless he had rather erre with Sacred and Venerable Anti- 
quity, then be better informed by the experience of Moderne 
Ages, though never so strongly backed with undeniable 
proofes and testimonies. 



CHAPTER V. 

Of the Aiiiphiscii, Hderoscii, and Periscii. 

The inhabitants of these Zones, in respect of the diversity Amphiseii. 
of their noon shadowes, are divided into three kinds, Am- 
j)hiscii, Heteroscii, and Periscii. Those that inhabite 
betwixt the two Tropics are called Amphiseii, because tliat 
their noun shadowes are diversely cast, sometime toward the 
^ Poiilauus here points out similiir incoiisislencics in Pliny. 



40 A TREATISE OF THE 

South, as when the Sunne is more Northward then their 
Verticall point, and sometimes more toward the North, as 
when the Sun declines Southward from their Zenith. 

Those that live betwixt the Tropiques and Arctique circles, 

Heteroscii. are Called Heteroscii, because the shadowes at noone are cast 
onely one way, and that either North or South. For the 
Sunne never comes farther North then our Summer Tropick, 
nor more Southward then the Winter Tropicke. So that 
those that inhabite Northward of the Summer Tropique have 
their shadowes cast alwayes toward the North ; as in like 
manner those that dwell more Southward then the Winter 
Tropick have their Noone Shadowes cast alwayes toward the 
South. Those that inhabite betwixt the Arctiqae or Ant- 

Periscii. arctiquc Circles and the Poles, are called Periscii, because 
that the Gnomons doe cast their shadowes circularly ; and 
the reason hereof is, for that the Sun is caried round about 
above their Horizon in his whole Diurnall Revolution. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Of the PeriiBci, Antseci, and Antipodes. 

The inhabitants of the temperate Zones have by the 
Ancient Geographers beene divided in respect either of the 
same Meridian, or Parallel, or else equall situation in respect 
of divers parts of the ^Equator, in such sort as that to every 
habitation in tliese severall parts they have added three 
other different in position whose inhabitants they called 
Perireci, Antseci, and Antipodes. 

PeriKci. Periaeci are those that live under the same Meridian, and 

and the same Parallel also, yet equally distant from the 
Equator but in two opposite points of the same Parallel. 

Auiajci. AntcTci are such lias have the same Meridian, but live in 



CCELESTIALL AND TEHRESTRIALL GLOBE. 41 

diverse Parallels, yet equally distant from the ^^quator 
though in diverse parts. 

Antipodes (which are called Antichthones) are such as Antipodes, 
iuhabite under one Meridian, but under two diverse Parallels, 
which are equally distant from the Equator, and in oppo- 
site points of the same ; or else wee may define them to be 
such as inhabite two places of the earth, which are Diame- 
trically opposite. 

They, therefore, which are PericTci in respect of us, are 
Antpeci in respect to our Antipodes ; and those that are 
AntiBci to us are Periieci to our Antipodes, and our Perieeci 
are Antipodes to those which are Antseci to us. 

We have also many accidents common to our Periteci. Eorum 

'' Compara- 

For we both inhabite the same temperate Zone : and have fo^es. 
Summer, Winter, increase and decrease of daies and nights 
at the same time. Only this difference is betwixt us, that 
when it is noon with us it is midnight with them. Those 
Authors that have added this difference also, that when the 
Sun rises with us it setteth with those that are our Periteci, 
have betrayed their own ignorance. For, if this were so, it 
would then follow, that, when the day is longest with us, it 
should be at the shortest with them ; but this is most false. 
They have committed the like errour concerning our Antteci 
also, when as they will have the Sun to rise with us and them 
at the same time. The ground of which their errour perhaps 
may be in that they conceived us and our Antseci to have 
the same Horizon, but that ours was the uppermost 
Hemisplutre and theirs the lower ; the like tliey conceived 
of our Peri;eci. But this is an errour unworthy of those 
that are but meanely versed in Astronomy. 

We agree with our Anteeci in this, that we have midday 
and midiiight both at the same time. But herein we difler 
that the seasons of the yeare are cleane contrary. For when 
wee have Summer they have Winter, and our longest day is 
the shortest witli them. We also inhabite temperate Zones 



42 A TREATISE OF THE 

both of US, though ditferent from each other in the times and 
seasons. 

But with our Antipodes all things are quite contrary, 
both dayes and nights with their beginnings and endings, as 
also the seasons of the Yeare. For at what time we, through 
the benefit of the Sunne, enjoy our Summer and the longest 
day, then is it winter with them, and the dayes at the 
shortest. So likewise when the Sun riseth with us it setteth 
with them ; and so contrariwise, when it setteth with us it 
riseth with them. For we inhabite the upper Hemisphsere, 
and they the lower divided by the same Horizon. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Of Climates and Parallels. 



According to the different quantity of the longest dayes. 
Geographers have divided the whole earth, on each side of 
the Equator to the Poles, into Climates and Parallels. A 
Climate they define to be a space of earth comprehended 
betwixt any two places whose longest dayes differ in quan- 
tity halfe an houre. And a Parallel is a space wherein the 
dayes increase in length a quarter of an houre ; so that 
every Climate containeth two Parallels. Those Climates, as 
also the Parallels themselves, are not all of equall quantity. 
For the first Clime (as also the Parallel) beginning at the 
^Equator is larger than the second, and the second is like- 
wise greater than the third. Only herein they all agree that 
they differ equally in the quantity of the longest day. 

The Ancients reckoned but 7 Climates at the first ; to 
which number were afterward added two more, so that in 
the first of these numbers were comprehended 14 Parallels, 
but in the later 18. Ptolomy accointing the Parallels by 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 4o 

the difference of a quarter of an houre, reckoneth in all 24 ; 
by whole houres difference, 4 ; by whole moneths, 6. So 
that besides the iEquator, reckoning the whole number of 
Parallels on each side, they amount to 38. 

In the Meridian of a Materiall Globe there are described 
nine Climates differing from each other by the quantity of 
halfe an houre. After these there are other also set accord- 
ing to the difference of an whole houre ; and last of all those 
that differ in whole months are continued to the very Pole, 
each of them expressed in their severall latitudes. 



THE SECOND PART. 



CHAPTER I. 

Of such thinfjs as are ijroper to the Ccelcstiall Globe; and first 
of the Planets. 

Hitherto hatli our discourse beene concerning those things 
which are common to both Globes ; we will now descend to 
speak of those that properly belong to each of them in par- 
ticular. And first of those things that only concerue the 
Ccelestiall Globe ; as namely the Stars, with their severall 
configurations. 

The whole number of Starres hath been divided by the 
Ancient Astronomers, who first applied themselves to the 
diligent observing of the same, into two kinds. The first is 
of the Planets or waiidring Starres ; the other of the fixed. 
The first of which they therefore called Planets or Wanderers, 
because they observe no constant distance or situation, 
neither in respect of each other, nor in respect of those that 
are called fixed Starres. And these were so called because 
that they were observed alwayes to keep the same situation 
and distance from one another as is at large proved by 
Ptolomy in his Almagest, lib. 7, cap. 1, out of his owne 
observations, diligently compared with those delivered by 
Hipparchus. 

The Planets (excepting those two greater lights, the Sunne 
and ]\[oone) are five in number. All which, beside the 
Diurnale motion, by which they are carried about from East 
to We.st by the Ptapture of the first Movable, have also a free 
proper motion of their owne, which they finish from West to 



A TRFATISR OF THE CxLOBE. 45 

East, according to the succession of the Signes upon the 
Poles of the Zodiaque, each of them in a severall manner 
and space of time ; their order in the Heavens and period 
of their motions being such as followeth. 

Saturne, called in Greeke Kpovo^ or cjiatvojv (and by Tj 
Julius Higinus, Stella Solis, the Starre of the Sunne), is the 
highest of all the Planets, and goeth about the greatest 
circuit, but doth not therefore appeare to be the least of all 
the Planets, as Pliny thence conjectured. He finisheth his 
Periodicall course in twenty-nine yeares, five nionetlis, fifteen 
days, according to Alfraganns. 

Jupiter, in Greek Sef? and (paeOwv, moveth through the 14- 
Zodiaque in the space of eleven years, tenne moneths, and 
almost 16 dayes. 

Mars, 'A/3779 and TruT/ooecri? (which is also called by some J 
Hercules his Star), finishes his course in two yeares. 

Sol, the Sunne, in Greek HA,io<?, performeth his course in Q 
a yeare, that is to say, three liundred sixtie five dayes and 
almost sixe houres. 

Venus, A(f)poStTi] (called by some Juno's Starre, by others p 
Isis, and by others the JMother of the Gods), when it goeth 
before the Sunne it is called (f)0)a(J)opo<i, the day Starre, 
appearing like another lesser Sunne, and as it were matural- 
ing the day. But when it followeth the Sunne in the Even- 
ing, protracting the light after the Sunne is set, and sup- 
plying the place of the Moone, it is then called Eo-7re/309, the 
Evening Starre. The nature of which Starre, Pythagoras 
Samius is said first to have observed about the thirtie 2d 
Olympiad, as Pliny relates, lib. 2, cap. 8. It performeth its 
course in a yeares space or thereabout, and is never distant 
from the Sunne above fortie sixe degrees, according to 
Timceus his computation. Notwithstanding our later Astro- 
nomers, herein much more liberall than hee, allow it two 
whole signes or 60 degrees, which is the utmost limit of its 
deviation from the Sunne. 



46 A TREATISE OF THE 

Mercury, iu Greeke Epfiy]^; and XriX/Swv (called by some 
Apollos Starre), finislieth his course through the Zodiaque in 
a yeare also. And, according to the opinion of Timoeus and 
Sosigenes, is never distant from the Sunne above 25 gr., or 
as our later writers will have it, not above a whole signe, or 
30 degrees. 

P Luna, SekrjvT], the Moone, is the lowest of all the Planets, 
and finisheth her course in twentie seven dayes and almost 
eight houres. The various shapes and appearances of which 
planet (seeming sometimes to bee horned, sometimes equally 
divided into two halves, sometimes figured like an imperfect 
circle, and sometimes in a perfect circular forme), together 
with the other diversities of this Starre, were first of all 
observed by Endymion, as it is related by Pliny ; whence 
sprung that poetical fiction of his being in love with, the 
Moone. 

All the Planets are carried in Orbes which are Eccentrical 
to the Earth ; that is, which have not the same center with 
the Earth. The Semidiameter of which Orbes, compared to 
the Semidiameter of the Earth, have this proportion as is here 
set downe in this table : 

Of what parts the Semi- -.t 



diameter of the Earth 
is 1. j 4^ , 

Of the same the Semi- > - - 
diameter of the Orbe 
of— 



Venus 



Mars 
Jupiter 



48 


56 m. 


116 


3 m. 


641 


45 m. 


1165 


23 m. 


5032 


4 m. 


11611 


31 m. 


17225 


16 m. 



(^ Saturne j 

The Eccentricities of the Orbes compared with the Orbes 
themselves have this proportion. 

f Luna 1 f 12 28 m. 30 sec. 

Of what parts the Semi- | Mercury | | 2 m. 

diameter of the Defer- j Venus | j 1 8 m. 

ent is 60. <[ Sol ^ is <j 2 16 m. 6 sec. 

Of the same the Eccen- j Mars | j 6 m. 

tricity of^ — j Jupiter | j 2 45 m. 

l^ Saturne J 1^ 3 25 m. 

The Eccentricities of some of the Planets (especially of 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 47 

the Sunne) are found to have decreased and grown lesse 
since Ptolomies time. For Ptolomy sets downe the Eccen- 
tricity of the Moone to be 12 gr. 36 m., but by Alphonsus it 
was found to be but 13 gr. 28 ni. and a halfe. Ptolomy 
assigned Eccentricity to Venus 1 gr. 14 m., Alphonsus 1 gr. 
8 m. Ptolomy found by his owne observations, and also by 
those that Hipparchus had made, that the Eccentricity of 
the Sun was 2 gr. 30 m. Alphonsus observed it in his time Fixis. 
to be but 2 gr. 16 m. and 10th part of a minute. In the 
year of our Lord 1312, it was found to be 2 gr. 2 m. 18 sec. 
Copernicus found it to be lesse than that, and to be but 
1 gr. 56 m. 11 sec. So that without just cause did the illus- 
trious Julius Scaliger think Copernicus his wTitings to de- 
serve the sponge, and the Author himselfe the bastinado ; 
herein dealing more hardly with Copernicus then he deserves. 



CHAPTER II. 

Of the Fixed Stars and their Constellations. 

And here in the next place we intend to speake of the 
Fixed Stars, and their Asterismes or Constellations, which 
Pliny calls Signa? and Sidera Signes. Concerning the num- 
ber of which Constellations, as also their figure, names, and 
number of the Stars they consist of, there is diversity of 
opinion among Authors. For Pliny, in his 2d book, 41 chap., 
reckoneth tlie whole number of the figure to be 72. But 
Ptolomy, Alfraganus, and those which follow them, acknow- 
ledge but 48 for the most part ; notwithstanding some have 
added to this number one or two more, as Berenice's Haire, 
and Antinous. Germanicus Ciesar, and Festus Avienus Eufus, 
following Aratus, make the number lesse. Julius Higinus 
will have them to be but 42, reckoning the Serpent, and The 
Man that holdeth it for one Sign ; and he omitteth the little 
Horse, and doth not numlier Libra amonf? the Siones ; but 



48 A TREATISE OF THE 

he divideth Scorpio into two Signes, as many others also doe. 
Neither doth hee reckon the Crow, the Wolfe, nor tlie South 
Crowne among his Constellations, but only names them by 
the way. The Bull also, which was described to appeare but 
lialfe by Pliny and Hipparchus, and Ptolomy and those that 
follow them ; the same is made to be wholly apparent both 
by Vitruvius and Pliny, and also before them by Nicander, 
if we may believe Theon, Aratus his Scholiast, who also 
place the Pleiades in his backe. 

Concerning the number also of the Starres that goe to the 
making up of each Constellation, Authors doe very much 
differ from Ptolomy, as namely Julius Higinus, the Com- 
mentator upon Germanicus (whether it be P>assus, as Phi- 
lander calls him, or whether those Commentaries were 
written by Germanicus himselfe, as some desire to prove out 
of Lactantius), and sometimes also Theon in his Commen- 
taries upon Aratus, and Alfraganus very often. 

Now, if you desire to know what other reason there is 
A\hy these Constellations have beene called by these names, 
save onely that the position of the Starres doth in some sort 
seeme to expresse the formes of the things signified by the 
same ; you may read Bassus and Julius Higinus, abundantly 
discoursing of this argument out of the fables of the Greekes. 
Pliny assures us (if at least we may believe him) that Hip- 
parchus vv-as the man that first delivered to posterity the 
names, magnitude, and places of the Starres. But they 
were called the same names before Hipparchus his time by 
Timochares, Aratus, and Eudoxus. Neither is Hipparchus 
ancienter than Aratus, as Theon would have him to be. 
For the one flourished about the 420 yeare from the begin- 
ning of the Olympiads, as appeareth plainely out of his life, 
written by a Greeke Author. But Hipparchus lived about 
600 yeares after the beginning of the Olympiads, as his 
observations delivered unto us by Ptolomy doe sufficiently 
testifie. Besides that there are extant certaiue Com- 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 49 

mentaries upon the Phenomena of Eudoxus and Aratus 
which goe under Hipparcliiis his name ; unlesse perhaps 
they were written by Eratosthenes (as some rather thinke), 
who yet was before Hipparchus.^ 

Pliny, in his 2 booke, 41 chapter, affirmeth (though I know 
not upon whose authority or credit) that there are reckoned 
1600 fixed Starres, which are of notable effect and vertue. 
Whereas Ptolomy reckoneth but 1022 in all, accounting in 
those which they call Sporades, being scattered here and 
there and reduced to no Asterisme. All which, according to 
their degrees of light, he hath divided into 6 orders. So 
that of the first Magnitude he reckoneth 15 ; of the second, 
45 ; of the third, 208 ; of the fourth, 474 ; of the fifth, 217 ; 
of the sixth, 49 ; to which we must add the 9 obscure ones, 
and 5 other which the Latines called Nebuloste, cloudy 
Starres. All which Starres expressed in their severall Con- 
stellations, IMagnitudes, and Names, both in Latine and 
Greeke (and some also with the names by which they are 
called in Arabique), you may see described in the Globe. 

All these Constellations (together with their names in 
Arabique, as we find them partly set downe by Alfraganus, 
partly by Scaliger in his Commentaries upon Manilius, and 
Grotius his notes upon Aratus his Asterismes, but especially 
Jacobus Christmannus hath delivered them unto us out of 
the Arabique epitome of the Almagest) we will set downe 
in their order. And if any desire a more copious declara- 
tion of the same, we must refer him to the 7 and 8 booke of 
Ptolomies Almagest, and Copernicus his Revolutions, and the 
Prutenicke Tables digested by Erasmus Eeinholt ; where 
every one of these Starres is reckoned up, with his due 
longitude, latitude, and magnitude annexed.^ 

1 Pontanus refers to the conjecture that the stars were reduced into 
constellations by two kinds of men, husbandmen and mariners ; and 
to the names of stars in the translations of Job. 

^ Pontanus also refers the reader to the commentary on Sacrobosco 
by Clavius, and above all to Tycho Brahe. 

E 



50 A TREATISE OF THE 

But here you are to observe by the way Copernicus and 

Erasmus Eeinholt doe reckon the longitude of all the 

Starres from the first star in Aries ; but Ptolomy from 

the very intersection of the iEquinoctiall and Eclipticke. 

strig. de gQ ^Yiat Victorinus Strio-elius was in an error when he said 

prmiomotu o 

parte tenia. ^|^^^ Ptolomy also did number the longitude of Starres from 
the first Starre, the head of Aries. 



Asterismi 
enumerati. 



CHAPTER III. 

Of the Constellations of the Northcrne Hemisphere. 

The first is called in Latine Ursa Minor, and in Arabique 
Dub Alasgar, that is to say, the lesser Beare, and Alrucaba, 
which signifieth a Wagon or Chariot ; yet this name is 
given also to the hinder most Starre in the taile which in 
our time is called the Pole Starre, because it is the nearest 
to the Pole of any other. Those other two in the taile are 
called by the Greekes 'x^opevrac, that is to say, Saltatores, 
Dancers. The two bright Starres in the fore part of the body 
the Arabians call Alferkathan, as Alfraganus writeth, who 
also reckoneth up seven Starres in this Constellation, and 
one unformed neare unto it. This Constellation is said to 
have been first invented by Thales, who called it the Dog, as 
Theon upon Aratus affirmeth. 

The second is Ursa Major, the Great Beare; in Arabic, 
Dub Alacber. The first Starre in the backe of it, M'hich is 
the 16 in number, is called Dub, Kare^oxi^o, and that which 
is in the flanke, 17 in number, is called Mirae, or rather, as 
Scaliger would have it, Mizar, which signifieth (saith he) 
locum prcecinctionis, the girthing place. The first in the 
taile, which is the 25 in number, is called by the Alfonsines 
Aliare, and by Scaliger Aliath. This Asterisme is said to 
have beene first invented by Naplius, as Theon aflfirmeth. 



CGELESTIALL AND TERKESTRIALL GLOBE. 51 

It hath in all 27 Starres, but as Theon reckoneth them, but 
24. Both the Beares are called by the Greekes, according 
to Aratiis, afxa^a, which signifieth a Wagon or Chariot. 
But this name doth properly appertaine to those seven 
bright Starres in the Great Beare which doe something 
resemble the forme of a wagon. These are called by the 
Arabians Beneth-As, i.e., Filiae Feretri, as Christmannus 
testifieth. They are called by some, though corruptly, 
Benenas, and placed at the end of the taile. Some will 
rather read it Benethasch, which signifies Filiae Urs£e. The 
Grecians in their Navigations were wont alwayes to observe 
the Great Beare, whence Homer gives them the Epithete 
eXt/cwTTa? as Theon observeth, for the Greekes call the Great 
Bear ekcKr). But the Phoenicians alwayes observed the lesser 
Beare, as Aratus affirmeth. 

The third is called the Dragon, in Arabique Alanin, and it 
is often called Aben ; but Scaliger readeth it Taben ; whence 
hee called that Starre which is in the Dragons head, and is 
5 in number, Rastaben, though it be vulgarly written Rasa- 
ben. In this Constellation there are reckoned 31 Starres. 

The fourth is Cepheus, in Arabique Alredaf. To this 
Constellation, besides those two unformed Starres which are 
hard by his Tiara, they reckon in all 11, among which that 
which is in number the 4 is called in Arabique Alderaimin, 
which signifieth the right Arme. This Constellation is called 
by the Phoenicians Phicares, which is interpreted Flammiger, 
which appellation peradventure they have borrowed from the 
Greeke word irvpKaei'i. 

The fifth is Bootes, Bo(>)rr]<;, which signifieth in Greeke an 
Heardsman, or one that driveth Oxen. But the Arabians 
mistaking the word, as if it had been written ^oaTq<i of 
ySoao), which signifies Clamator, a Cryer, call it also Al- 
hava, that is to say, Vociferator. one that maketh a great 
Noyse or Clamor; and Alsamech Alramech, that is, the 

E 2 



52 A TREATISE OF THE 

Launce bearer. Betwixt the legs of this Constellation there 
stands an unformed star of the first magnitude, which is called 
both in Grecke and Latine Arcturus and in Arabique 
Alramech, or the brightest Starre, Samech haramach. This 
Starre Theon placeth in the midst of Bootes his belt or 
girdle. The whole Constellation consisteth of 22 Starres.^ 

The sixth Constellation is Corona Borea, the North 
Crowne, called by the Arabians Aclilaschemali, and that 
bright Starre which is placed wdicre it seemeth to be 
fastened together, and which is the first in number, is called 
in Arabique Alphecca, which signifieth Solutio, an untying 
or unloosing. It is also called Munic ; but this name is 
common to all bright Starres. The whole Constellation 
consisteth of eight Starres. 

The seventh is Hercules, in Arabique Alcheti hale recha- 
batch, that is, one falling upon knees, and sometimes abso- 
lutely Alcheti, for it resembles one that is weary with 
labour (as Aratus conceives), whence it is also called in 
Latine Nisus or Nixus (which in Yitruvius is corrupted into 
Nesses), and the Greeks call it ev^jovaai, that is to say. One 
on his knees. The Starre which is first in number in the 
head of this Constellation is called in Arabique Easacheti, 
not Easaben, as the Alfonsines corruptly have it ; and the 
4 Starre is called Marsic, or jMarfic BecHnatoriuvi, that part 
of the Arme on which we leane. The eight Starre, which is 
the last of the three, in his Arme, is called Mazim, or Maa- 
sim, which signifieth Strength. This Constellation hath 
eight Starres, besides that which is in the end of his right 
foote, which is betwixt him and Bootes, and one unformed 
Starre at his right Arme. 

The eight is the Harpe, called in Latine Lyra, in Ara- 
bique Schaliaf and Alvakah, i.e., Cadens, sc. Yultur, the 

1 Pontanus discusses the word Arcturus, and mentions that the 
word in Job, which is given as Arcturus in the Septuagint, is Ash in 
Hebrew, from the root Gnnsch {^'■cornp-egahW). 



CCELESTIALL AND TEKRESTEIALL GLOBE. 53 

falling Vulture. It consistetli of ten Starves, according to 
Hipparchus and Ptolomy ; but Timochares attributed to it 
but 8, as Theon affirmeth, and Alfraoanus 11. The bright, 
Starre in this Constellation, being the first in number, 
Alfonsus calleth Yega. 

The ninth is Gallina or Cygnus, the Hen or Swan, and is 
called in Arabique Aldigaga and Altayr, that is, the flying 
Vulture. To this Asterisme they attribute, besides those two 
unformed neare the left wing, 17 Starres, the 5 of which is 
called in Arabique Deneb Adigege, the taile of the hen, and 
by a peculiar name Arided, which they interpret quasi reclo- 
lens liliuni, smelling as it were of lilies.^ 

The 10th is Cassiopeia, in Arabique Dhath Alcursi, the 
Ladye in the Chayre ; and it consistetli of 13 Starres, among 
which the 2d in number Alfonsus calleth Scheder, Scaliger 
Seder, which signifieth a breast.^ 

The 11th is Perseus, Chaniil Ras Algol, that is to say, 
bearing the head of Medusa ; for that Starre which is on the 
top of his left hand is called in Arabic Eas Algol, and in 
Hebrew Eoscli hasaitan, the Divels Head. This Constella- 
tion hath, besides those three unformed, 26 other Starres ; of 
which that which is the seventh in number Alfonsus calleth 
Alchcemb for Alchenib, or Algeneb, according to Scaliger, 
which signifieth a side. 

The 12th is Auriga the Wagoner, in Arabique Eoha, and 
Memassich Alhanam. That is one holding the raines of a 
bridle in his hand. This Asterisme hath 14 Stars ; of which 
that bright one in the left shoulder, which is also the third 
in number, is called in Greeke ai^, Capra, a Goate ; and in 
Arabique Alhaisk, or, as Scaliger saitli, Alatod, which signi- 

1 Pontanus here mentions the appearance of a new star in the 
breast of the swan, in 1600, which was observed by Kepler and 
others. 

2 A new star which appeared in Cassiopeia, in 1572, is here referred 
to by Pontanus. 



54 A TREATISE OF THE 

fieth a He Goate ; and the two which are in Ids left hand, 
and are 8th and 9th, are called ept^oi, Hoedi, Kids ; and in 
Arabique, as Alfonsus hath it, Saclateni ; but according to 
Scaliger, Sadat eui, the hindmost arme. This Configuratiou 
of these Starres was first observed by Cleostratus Tenedius, 
as Higinus reporteth. 

The 13th is Aquila, Alhakkah, the Eagle ; the moderne 
Astronomers call it the flying Vulture, in Arabique Altayr ; 
but Alfraganus is of a contrary opinion, for he calleth the 
Swanne by this name, as we have already said. They 
reckon in this Asterisme 9 Starres, besides 6 unformed, 
which the Emperor Hadrian caused to be called Antinous, in 
memory of Antinous his minion. 

The 14th is the Dolphin, in Arabique Aldelphin, and it 
hath in it 10 Stars. 

The loth is called in Latiue Sagitta or Telum, the Arrow 
or Dart, in Arabic Alsoham ; it is also called Istuse, which 
word Grotius thinkes is derived from the Greeke word oLao<;, 
signifying an arrow. It containeth 5 Stars in all. 

The 16th is Serpentarius, the Serpent bearer, in Arabic 
Alhava and Hasalangue. It consisteth of 24 Starres, and 5 
other unformed. The first Starre of these is called in Ara- 
bique Easalangue.^ 

The 17th is Serpens, the Serpent, in Arabique Alhasa ; 
it consisteth of 18 Starres. 

The 18th is Equiculus, the little Horse, and in Arabique 
Katarat Alfaras, that is in Greeke Trpora/ir} itttto*,', as it were 
the fore part of a Horse cut ofi". It consisteth of 4 obscure 
Starres. 

The 19th is Pegasus, the Great Horse, in Arabique 
Alfaras Alathem ; and it hath in it 10 Stars. The Starre on 
the right shoulder, which is called Almenkeh, and is the 
third in number, is also called Seat Alfaras, Brachium Equi. 

1 In 1605 a new star was discovered in the foot of Serpentarius, 
which disappeared in 1606. Kepler wrote a treatise on it. 



I 



CCELESTULL AND TEKRESTKIALL GLOBi:. 55 

And that which is in the opening of his mouth, and is nuni- 
bei^d the 17th, is called in Arabii^j^ue Enif Alfaras, the nose 
of tne Horse. 

The 20th is Andromeda, in Arabiqne Almara Almasulsela, 
thai is, the Chained Woman ; Alt'raganus interprets it 
Fitminam qufe non est experta virum : A Woman that hath 
not knowen a man. This Constellation containeth in it 23 
Stars ; thereof that which is the 12th in number, and is in the 
ginlling place, is commonly called in Arabiqne Mirach, or, 
according to Scaliger, Moza ; and that which is the fifth is 
called Alamec, or rather Almaac, which signifies a socke or 
buskin. 

The 21st is the Triangle, in Arabique Almutaleh ^and 
Mutlathun, which signifies Triplicity. It consisteth of 4 
Starres.^ 



CHAPTEE IV 
0/ the Northeme Si^nes of the Zodiaque. 

The first is Aries, the Eam, in Arabique Alhamel ; this 
Constellation hath 13 Starres, according to Ptolomies ac- 
count. Yet Alfraganus reckoneth but 12, beside the other 5 
unformed ones that belong to it. 

The 2d is Taurus, the Bull, in Arabique Alter or Ataur ; 
in the eve of this Constellation there is a very bright Star, 
called by the Ancient Eomans Palilicium, and by the 
Arabians Aldebaram, which is to say, a very bright Star, 
and also Hain Altor, that is, the Bull's Eye. And those five 
Stars that are in his forehead, and are called in Latine 
Sucula?, the Grecians call uaSe?, because, as Theon and Hero Tb«>nia 

^ Ponxanus says that the whole number of stars in the northern 
part of the heaven is 360, of which only thre« are of the first magni- 
tude. Capella. Vega, and Arcturus. 



56 A TREATISE OF THE 

Mechanicus conceive, they represent the forme of the letter 
T ; although perhaps it is rather because they usually cause 
raine and stormy weather. Thales Milesius said that tliere 
were two of these Hyades, one in the Northerne Hemisphere 
and one in the South ; Euripides will liave them to be 3, 
Aclipeus 4, Hippias and Pherecides 7. Those other 6, or 
rather 7 Stars that appeare on the back of the Bull, the 
Greekes call Pleiades ("perhaps from their multitude) ; the 
Latines Yergiliee ; the Arabians Atauriffi, quasi Taunnse, be- 
longing to the Bull. Nicander, and after him Vitruvius, and 
Pliny place these Stars in the taile of the Bull ; and Hip- 
parchus quite out of the Bull, in the left foot of Perseus. 
These Stars are reported by Pliny and Solinus to be never 
scene at all in the Isle Taprobana ; but this is ridiculous, and 
fit to bee reported by none but such as Pliny and Solinus. 
For those that inhabite that Isle have them almost over their 
heads. This Constellation hath 33 Stars in it, besides the 
unformed Stars belonging to it, which are 11 in number.^ 

The third is Gemini, the Twinnes, in Arabique Algeuze. 
These some will have to bee Castor and Pollux, and others 
Apollo and Hercules ; whence, with the Arabians, the one is 
called Aj)ellor or Apheleon, and the other Abracaleus, for Grac- 
leus, as Scaliger conceiveth. It containeth in it (beside the 
7 unformed) 18 Stars, amongst which that which is in their 
head is called in Arabique Easalgeuze. 

The fourth is Cancer, the Crab, in Arabique Alsartan ; 
consisting of 9 Stars, beside 4 unformed ; of which that 
cloudy one which is in the breast, and is the first of all, is 
called Mellef in Arabique, which, as Scaliger saith, signifieth 
thicke or well compact. 

The fifth is Leo, the lion, in Arabique Alased, in the 
breast whereof there is a very bright Starre, being the 8th 
in number, and is called in Arabique Kale Alased, the 

^ Pontanus says that the words of Pliny do not convey the sense 
attributed to them in the text 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 57 

heart of the Lion, in Greeke ^a<riXiOKO<;, because those that 
are borne under this Starre have a Kingly Nativity, saith 
Produs. And that which is in the end of the taile, and is the Procius de 

Sph»ra. 

last of all in number, is named Deneb Alased, that is, the 
taile of the Lion ; Alfragauus calleth it Asurapha. This 
Constellation containeth in it 27 Stars, besides 8 unformed. 
Of the unformed Stars, which are betwixt the hinder parts 
of the Lion and the Great Beare (according to Ptolomies 
account, although Theon, following Aratus, reckons the 
same as belonging to A'^irgo), they have made a new Constel- 
lation, which Couon the JNIathematician, in favour of 
Ptolomy and Berenice, would have to bee called Berenice's 
Haire ; which story is also celebrated by the Poet Callimachus 
in his verses. 

The sixth is Virgo, the Virgin, in Arabique Eladari ; but 
it is more frequently called Sunbale, which signifieth an 
Eare of Come ; and that bright Starre which she hath in her 
left hand is called in Greeke (Ta-)(y<;, an Eare of Corne, and 
in Arabique Hazimeth Alhacel, which signifieth an handfull 
of Corne. This Star is wrongly placed by Vitruvius and 
Higinus in her right hand. The whole Constellation con- 
sisteth of 26 Stars, besides the 6 unformed. 



CHAPTER V. 



Of the Constellations of the Southerne Hemisphere: and first 
of those in the Zodiaque. 

And first of Libra, which is the 7 in order of the Signes. 
That part of this Constellation which is called the Southerne 
Ballance, the Arabians call Mizan Aliemin, that is to say, 
Libra dextra vel meridioualis, the Eight hand or Southerne 
Ballance. But Libra was not reckoned anciently among the 



58 A TREATISE OF THE 

Signes ; till that the later Astronomers, robbing the Scorpion 
of his Clawes, translated the same to Libra, and made up the 
number of the Signes, whence the Arabians call the Northerne 
Ballance Zubeneschi j\Iali, that is in Greeke, X'i^V /^opet^', 
the North Clawe ; and the other part of it that looks South- 
ward they call Zubenalgenubi, XH^V vonov, the South Claw. 
This Constellation containeth in it 8 Starres, besides 9 other 
unformed, belonging unto it. 

The Eight is Scorpio, the Scorpion, in Arabique com- 
monly called Alatrah, but more rightly Alacrah ; whence 
the Starre in the breast of it, which is the 8 in number, is 
called Kelebalacrah, that is, the Heart of the Scorpion ; and 
that in the end of his taile, which is the second in number, 
they call Leschat, but more truly Lesath, which signifieth the 
sting of any venomous creature ; and by this word they under- 
stand the Scorpions sting. It is also called Schomlek, which 
Scaliger thinks is read by transposition of the letters for 
Moselek, which signifieth the bending of the taile. This 
Constellation consisteth of 21 Starres, besides 3 unformed. 

The ninth is Sagittarius, the Archer, in Arabique Elcusu 
or Elcausu, which signifieth a Bow ; it hath in it 31 Starres. 

The tenth is Capricornus, the Goat, in Arabique Algedi. 
To this Constellation they attribute 28 Starres, among which 
that which is in number the 23 is called in Arabique Deneb 
Algedi, the taile of the Goat. 

The eleventh is Aquarius, the Waterman, in Arabique 
Eldelis, which signifieth a bucket to draw water. The 10 
Starre of this Constellation is called in Arabique Seat, which 
signifieth an Arme. It containeth in all 42 Stars. 

The Twelfth is Pisces, the Fishes, in Arabique Alsemcha. 
It containeth 34 Starres, and 4 unformed.^ 

1 Pontanus reckons the number of zodiacal stars at 346, of which 
only five are of the first magnitude — Aldebaran, Regulus, Cauda 
Leonis, Spica, and a star near the mouth of the southern fish. 



CCELESTIALL AND TEERESTRIALL GLOBE. 59 



CHAPTER VI. 

Of ihe Constellations of the SoiUherne Hemisphcere, which are 
without the Zodiaque. 

The first is Cetus, the Whale, called in Arabique Elkai- 
tos, consisting of 22 Starres. That which is in number the 
second is commonly called Menkar, but more rightly, as 
Scaliger saith, Monkar Elkaitos, the nose or snout of the 
Whale ; and the 14, Boten Elkaitos, the belly of the Whale ; 
and the last of all save one, Deneb Elkaitos, the taile of the 
Whale. 

The second is Orion, which the Arabians call sometimes 
Asugia, the Mad Man ; which name is also applied to Hydra, 
and sometimes to Elgeuze. Now, Geuze signifieth a walnut, 
and perhaps they allude herein to the Latine word Ingula, 
by which name Festus calleth Orion ; because he is greater 
then any other of the Constellations, as a walnut is bigger 
than any other kinde of nut. The name Elgeuze is also 
given to Gemini. This Constellation is also called in 
Arabique Algibbar, which signifies a strong man or Gyant. 
It consisteth of 38 Starres, among which that which is the 
second, and is placed in his right shoulder, is called Jed 
Algeuze, that is, Orion's Hand, as Christmannus thinketh : 
but more commonly Bed Elgeuze, and perhaps it should 
rather be Ben Elgeuze, that is, the bright Starre in Orion. 
The third Starre is called by the Alfonsines Bellatrix, the 
Warrior. That which is in his left foote, and is the 35 in num- 
ber, Eigel Algeuze or Algibbar, that is to say, Orion's foote.^ 

The third is Eridanus, in Arabique Alvahar, that is to say, 
the Eiver ; whence Ear, the name of a Eiver in Hetruria, is 
conceived by some to have been contracted. It hath in it 

1 Pontanus here again alludes to the mention of Orion in the trans- 
lations of Job. The Hebrew word is Kesil, which means rage or 
madness, answering to the Arabic Asugia. 



GO A TREATISE OF THE 

34 Starres; among which that which is the 19 is commonly 
called in Arabique Augetenar, but Scaliger rather thinks it 
should be read Anchenetenar, which signifieth the winding 
or crooking of a Eiver. The 29 Starre is also called Beemim, 
or rather Theemim, which signifieth any two things joyned 
together, so that it is to be doubted whether or no this name 
may not be as Avell ajDplied to any two Starres standing close 
by one another. And the last bright Starre in the end of it 
is called Acharnahar, as if you should say Behinde the Eiver, 
or in the end of the Eiver, and it is commonly called 
Acarnar. 

The fourth is Lepns, the Hare, in Arabique Alaruebet 
and it containeth in all 22 Stars. 

The fifth is Canis, the Dogge ; Alcheleb, Alachbar, in 
Arabique, the great Dog ; and Alsahare aliemalija, that is to 
say, the Eight hand or Southerne Dog. "Which name Alsa- 
hare, which is also sometime written Scera, Scaliger thinkes 
is derived from an Arabique word which signifieth the same 
that vSpo(})o^ta in Greeke, a disease that mad dogs are 
troubled with, when as they cannot endure to come neare 
any water. Notwithstanding, Grotius is in doubt whether or 
no it should not rather be Elseiri, and so derived from the 
Greeke word aeipto<i. For by this name is that notable 
bright Starre called which is in the Dogs mouth, and is 
called in Arabique Gibbar or Ecber, and by corruption 
Habor. This Constellation hath in it 11 Stars. 

The sixth is the little Dog, called in Greeke Procyon, and 
in Latine Antecanis, because it riseth before the great Dog. 
The Arabians call it Alcheleb Alasgar, that is to say, the 
lesser Dog, and Alsahare Alsemalija, and commonly though 
corruptly Algomeiza, the left hand or Northerne Dog. This 
Asterisme consisteth of two Stars onely. 

The seventh is Argo, the Shippe, in Arabique Alsephina ; 
now Sephina signifieth a Ship. It is also called Merkeb, 
which signifieth a Chariot ; according as the Poets also 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 61 

usually cal it apixa OaXaaar}^, as if one should say a Sea 
chariot instead of a Ship. But the Alphonsines give this 
appellation to that Star which is the 6 in number. The 
whole Asterisme containeth in it 45 Stars, of all which that 
which is the last save one is called in Arabique Sohel or 
Syliel, which signifieth ponderous or weighty, which apella- 
tion they perhaps have given it for the same reason that 
Bassus hath another like it, which is Terrestris, because it 
alwayes appeareth to them very low, and neare the earth. 
The Greeks call this Star Kavco/So^;, the Hebrewes Chesil, as 
Christmannus is of opinion. Which, if it be so, then Arias 
Montanus is in an errour in taking it for Orion in his 
translation of the Itinerary of Beniamin Tudelensis. The 
inhabitants of Azania called it an Horse, as Ptolomy affirmes 
in his Geogr., lib. 5, cap. 7. Geograpii. 

The eight is Hydra, in Arabique Alsugahh or Asuta, 
which signifieth strong or furious. The Egyptians call it 
Nilus, as Thecal writeth in his Commentaries upon Aratus. 
It hath in it 25 Starres, besides two unformed ; the 12 of 
which the Alfonsines call Alphart. 

The ninth is Crater, the Cup, in Arabique Albatina and 
Elkis, which signifieth a Goblet or standing Cup. It hath in 
it 7 Stars. 

The tenth is Corvus, the Crow ; Algorab in Arabique, con- 
sisting of 7 Starres. 

The eleventh is Centaurus, the Centaur; called by the 
same name in Arabique. It containeth 37 Stars ; among 
which those that are in his hinder feete are the Stars that 
make up the Crosse, so much celebrated in the Spanish 
Navigations. 

The twelfth is Fera, the Wild beast, called in Arabique 
Asida, signifying a Lionesse ; and Alsubahh, which also is 
taken for a Wolfe or other ravenous beast. To this Constel- 
lation they reckon 19 Stars. 

The Thirteeutli is Ara or Thuribulum, the Altar or Censer, 



62 A TREATISE OF THE 

in Arabique Almiigamra ; Bassus calls it Sacrarium. It 
contaiueth 7 Stars. 

The foureteeuth is Corona Aiistralis, or South Crowne, in 
Arabique Alachil Algenubi. It consisteth of 13 Stars, 
making up a double wreath, according to Alfraganus ; yet 
Theon reckoneth but 12 iu it. 

The fifteenth is Piscis Austrinus, the South Fish ; Ahaut 
Algenubi, in Arabique. It containeth in it 12 Starres in 
Ptolemies account, but 11 onely according to Alfraganus. 
Among which the bright one that is in his mouth is called 
Phom Abut, that is to say, the mouth of the Fish ; and com- 
monly by corruption Fomahaut. There is also described in 
the Coelestiall Globe a certaine broad Zone or circle of the 
colour of milke, which representeth that which appeareth in 
the Heavens, and is commonly called Via Lactea, the Milky 
Way. Which Zone or circle is not drawne regularly or 
equally either in respect of latitude, colour, or frequency of 
Stars ; but is different and various both in forme and situa- 
tion, in some places appearing but as a single circle, and 
againe in others seeming as it were dividing in two parts. 
The delineation whereof you may see in the Globe, and the 
description more largely set down by Ptolomy in his Alma- 
gest, lib. 8, cap. 2} 



CHAPTER VII. 

Of the Starres tvhich are not eo:pressecl in the Globe. 

Besides those Starres which we have here reckoned up 
out of Ptolomy, there are yet many other to bee scene some- 
time, especially in the winter time in a clears night, when as 

1 Pontanus gives 316 as the number of stars in the southern heaven, 
those of the first magnitude being Betelguese, Rigel, Achenar, 
Sirius, Procyon, Canopus, and a star in the right foot of the 
Centaur. 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTEIALL GLOBE. 63 

there are both many more Stars to be seene then at any- 
other times, and those that are seene appeare by mucli 
greater. Now, if you expect . that we should assigne the 
cause of this, we might answer that it is beside the inten- 
tion of our present purpose. Yet for your satisfaction, and 
because that some authors have very much erred from the 
right in setting downe the true reason of the same, we doe 
therefore the more willingly make this digression. For some 
there are who (out of the extraordinary knowledge they 
have in Philosophy and Optickes) would very willingly per- 
swade us that either we conceive them to be more then 
indeed they are, and that our sense onely is deceived, or else 
(which is altogether as ridiculous) that the ayre being in 
winter more pure and thin, maketh them more conspicuous, 
which otherwise in the summer, when the ayre is more grosse, 
doe altogether lye hid. And this is an error which I doe 
not so much blame in others, as I wonder at it in Johannes 
Benedictis, that so great a Mathematician as he is held to be 
should be led away with so grosse an error. For the reason 
of this is altogether otherwise and cleane contrary. For that 
very cause that the ayre is more grosse and thicke, the Stars 
therefore doe appeare more and greater. Which opinion of 
ours is confirmed, both out of principles of the Optickes, and 
also by the sense of it selfe, experience, and authority of 
learned writers. 

For first, that the raies being refracted through a grosse 
Medium, and diffused as it were into certaine Canales, doe 
represent the image of the object greater then indeed it is, 
is plainely affirmed (and that according to the doctrine of the 
Optickes) by Strabo himselfe out of Posidonius. And that l. 3. 
through Perspicills or Spectacles things appear more and 
greater then otherwise they would, is a thing well known to 
the most Ignorant. Cleomedes also saith, that the Sunne cjeomedes, 
being seene by any in the bottome of a deepe well seenies 
greater then when he is seene from above : and that by 

V^^c THE 



64 A TREATISE OF THE 

reason of the movstnes and grossenesse of the ayre in the 
bottome of the Well. And if it were possible to see the 
Sunue through stone walles or other solid bodies (as the 
old Poets fabulously report of Lynceus), he would seeme 
much bigger then he is, as Posidonius rightly teacheth. And 
hence is it, saith Strabo, that we see the Sunne alwayes 
greater at his rising and setting, especially to those that are 
at Sea. Yet we doe not say that he appeares ten times 
greater then he is, as it is reported he doth in India, out of 
the excerpts of Etesias his Indian Histories ; much lesse 
that he seemes to be an hundred times greater then he is in 
other places, as he is feigned by Artemidorus to be at his 
setting, to those that inhaliit a Promontory in the outmost 
vincens. parts of Spaiue, which he calls Promontorium Sacrum ; but 
Aifrag.. c. 2. is justly taxcd for the same by Posidonius. Alfraganus 
would have the cause of tliis to be, for that the vapours 
which are exhaled Odt of the earth, and elevated into the ayre,. 
and SO interposed betwixt our sight and the Sunne at his 
rising or setting, doe make him appear greater then he really 
is. The same is the opinion of Strabo and Cleomedes, also 
out of Posidonius ; neither doth this differ much from the 
opinion of the best of our Opticall writers. But of this 
enough. 

There are also observed many Stars in the Southerne 
parts of the World, which, because they could not be seene 
by our Artists in this part of the world, we have therefore no 
certaine knowledge left us concerning the same. So in like 
manner among those which we have hitherto spoken of, 
many of them cannot be seene by those that inhabite any 
whit nearer the North Pole. But concerning those Stars 
that appeare about the South Pole of the world, I will here 
set you downe a very admirable story which Franciscus 
Patricias. Patricius Seueusis relateth in the end of his Nova Philosophia, 
out of the Navigationes of Americus Vespuccius. And it is 
thus : Coelum decentissime exornatur, etc. The Heavens 



Varie Eela- 
tiones stel. 
Aust. 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. Go 

(saitli he, meaning about the Antarctique Pole) is variously 
adorned with diverse Constellations which cannot be scene 
here with us ; among which I doe very well remember that 
I reckoned very neare twenty which were as faire and bright 
as Venus and Jupiter here with us. And a little after he 
saith : I was certaine, therefore, that these Stars were of 
greater Magnitude then any man can conceive ; and especi- 
ally three Canobi, wliich I saw and observed ; two whereof 
were very bright ones, but the third was somewhat obscured, 
and nothing like the rest. 

And a little after he proceeds : But the Pole it selfe is 
encompassed about with three Stars, which represent the 
figure of a right angled Triangle ; among which that which 
is in the midst is in circumference 9 gr. and a halfe ; and 
when tliese rise there appeares on the left hand of them 
another bright Canobus of notable magnitude. 

And a little after he saith : After these there follow three 
other very faire Stars, the middlemost of which hath in 
Diameter 1 2 degrees and an halfe ; and in the midst among 
these is seen another Canobus. After this there follow 6 
other bright Stars which excel all the otlier Stars in the 
eighth Sphere for brightnesse ; the middlemost of- tlieni 
having 32 gr. in Diameter. These Stars were accompanied 
by another great but darker Canobus ; all which Stars are 
observed in the Milky Way. 

To this he addeth out of Corsalius that which followeth : 
Andreas Corsalius also affirmeth that there are two clouds, of 
a reasonable brightnesse, appeareing near the Pole ; betwixt 
which there is a Star, distant from the Pole about 11 gr., 
over which he saith there is seene a very admirable figure of 
a Crosse standing in the midst of 5 Stars that compasse it 
about, with some certaine others that move round about with 
it, being distant from the Pole about 30 degrees ; which are 
of so great brightnesse as that no Signe in the Heavens may 
be compared with them. 

F 



66 A TREATISE OF THE 

And now that you have heard this so strange and admir- 
able relation of the Stars about the Antarctique Pole, Audi- 
turn aduiissi risum teneatis ? For Yespuccius here hath 
forged three Canobi, whereas Ptolomy and all the Ancient 
Greekes never knew but one, and that is it which is placed 
in the sterne of the ship Argo. And here it is very well 
worth our noting, that Patricius (as fari'e as I am able to 
gather out of his writings), out of Yespuccius his ill-expressed 
language, and by him worse understood, hath very excellently 
framed to himselfe a strange kinde of Star that hath in 
apparent Diameter 32 degrees ; whereas the Diameter of the 
Sunne itselfe hardly attaineth to 32 ndnutes. 

But those things which out of our owne certaine know- 
ledge and experience in above a yeares voyage in the yeares 
1591 and 1592, we have observed beyond the ^Equator and 
about the Southerne parts of the world, we will here set 
downe. 

Xow, therefore, there are but three Stars of the first 
magnitude that I could perceive in all those parts which are 
never seene here in England. The first of these is that 
bright Star in the sterne of Argo which they call Canobus. 
The second is in the end of Eridanus. The tliird is in the 
riglit foote of the Centaure. To which if you will add for a 
fourtli that which is fixed on the Centaures left knee, I shall 
not much stand against it. But other stars of the first 
magnitude then those which I have named that part of tlie 
world cannot shew us. Neither is there to be found scarcely 
two or three at the most of the second magnitude but what 
Ptolomy had seene. And, indeed, there is no part of the 
wliole Heavens that hath so few Stars in it, and those of so 
small light, as this near about the Antarctique Pole. "\Ve 
had a sight also of those clouds Andreas Corsalius speakes 
of, one of them being almost twice or thrice as big as the 
other, and in colour something like the Yia Lactea, and 
neither of them verv far distant from the Pole. Our mari- 



CCELESTIALL AND TERUESTiaALL GLOBE. 67 

ners used to call them Magellanes Clouds. And we saw 
also that strange and admirable Crosse that he talkes of, 
which the Spaniards call Crusero and our Countrimen the 
Crusiers. And the Stars of which this Crosse consists were 
not unknowne to Ptolomy also ; for they are no other then 
the brighter Stars which are in the Centaures feete. And 
which thing I did the more diligently and oftener observe, 
for that I remembered that I had read in Cardan also strange card, ae 

subtil. 

relations of the wonderfull magnitude of the Stars about the 
South Pole, not unlike the stories we have now alleadged out 
of Patricius. 



f2 



THE THIRD PART. 



CHAPTER I. 



Of tlie Gcograpliicall description of the Terrestricdl Globe ; and 
the parts of the world yet Tcnoivne. 

Geograi)hia DiQNYSius AfePi, ill the beoiiiiiiiio; of his Perieqesis, saith 

Olobi Ter- o o cd > 

restris. j.|^^|. ^Y\q whole Earth may be said to be as it were a cer- 
taine vast island encompassed about on every side by the 
Ocean. The same was the opinion of Homer also before 
him, and of Eratosthenes (whom Dionysius is observed by 
Eustathius his Scholiast to follow in many things), as is 
witnessed by Strabo. The same is affirmed by Mela also 
after him. This vast Hand of the whole earth they would 
have to be terminated on the North side with the frozen Sea, 
which is called by Dionysius IMare Saturninum, and jNIor- 
tuura ; on the East with the Easterne Sea, which is also 
called Mare Sericum ; on the South with the Eed Sea (which 
Ptolomy calleth the Indian Sea) and the ^Ethiopian ; and on 
the West with the Atlanticke Ocean. But of this Ocean 
also there are foure principall Gulfes (as the Ancient Geo- 
graphers conceived) which embosomed themselves into the 
Maine land. Two of which derived their course out of the 
Erythraean or Eed Sea, to wit, the Persian and Arabian 
Gulfes. Erom the West there is sent out of the Atlanticke 
Ocean a vast gulfe, which is called the Mediterranean Sea. 
And out of the North they would have the Scythian Ocean 
to send in the Caspian Sea, which is shut in almost on 
every side with high craggy rockes, from whence the 
streames flow with such violence that when they are come 



C("ELESTIALL AND TERRESTKIALL GLOBE. 69 

to the very fall they cast forth their water so farre into the 
Sea, without so much as once touching upon the Shore, that 
the ground is left dry and passeable for whole Armies under 
the bankes ; the streames in the meane time being carried 
over their heads, as it is reported by Eudoxus in Strabo. This 
Sea, both Strabo, Pliny, Mela, and Solinus will have to come 
out of the Scythian Ocean (as we have said). But this 
errour of theirs, besides the experience of these later times, 
is manifestly convinced by this one testimony of Antiquity, 
which is that the water of this Sea is found to bee fresh and 
sweet, as was first observed by Alexander the Great and 
afterwards by Pompey, as M. Varro in Solinus testifieth, who 
at that time served under Pompey in his Warres. And this 
is the chiefest reason which Polycletus in Strabo alleadged 
for the proofe of the same. 

Now all this tract of land the Ancients divided into two 
parts onely, namely, Asia and Europe, to which succeeding 
times added a third, which they called Africa, and sometimes 
also Libya. And of these Asia is the greatest, Africa the 
next, but Europe least of all ; according as Ptolomy deter- 
mines it in the 7 booke of his Geography. 

Europe is divided on the East from Asia by the ^gean Sea Europa. 
(which is now called the Archipelago) and the Euxine Sea, 
which was at first (as Strato in Strabo thought) encompassed 
about on all sides in manner of a great lake, till at last by the 
great accession of other Eivers and waters it so far encreased 
as that the bankes being unable to containe it, it violently made 
its way into the Propontis and the Hellespont. The Euxine 
Sea is now called Mare Maggiore. It is also bound on the 
same side by the lake of Moeotis (now called Mare delle 
Zabacche), the river Tanais, now called Don, and the Meri- 
dian, which extends it selfe from thence to the Scythian or 
Frozen Sea. On all other sides it is encompassed with the 
Sea. For toward the South it is divided from Africa by the 
Straits of Gibraltar and part of the Mediterranean Sea. 



70 A TREATISE OF THE 

The length of tliese Straits is, according to Strabo and Pliny, 
120 furlongs,, and the breadth of it, according to the same 
Strabo, 70 furlongs. But Mela would have it to be 10 miles, 
that is to say, 80 furlongs. T. Livius and Cornelius Nepos 
make the latitude of it to be iu the broadest place 10 miles 
or 80 furlongs ; and where it is narrowest, 7 miles or 56 fur- 
longs. But Turannius Graccula, who, as Pliny reports, was 
born about those parts, accounted it to be from Mellaria, a 
towne in Spaine, unto that promontory in Africa, which is 
called Promontorium Album, but 5 miles in all, that is, 40 
furlongs. Eratosthenes was of opinion that Europe was 
sometime joyned to the Continent of Africa. And it is 
reported by Pliny that the inliabitants of those parts have a 
tradition that the Isthmus, or necke of the lande by which 
Europe and Asia were joyned together, was cut through by 
Hercules. 

Europe is terminated on the West with the Atlanticke 
Ocean ; and on the ISTorth with the British, Germane, and 
frozen Seas. 

Africa is divided from Asia (according to Dionysius and 
Mela) l)y the Eiver Nilus, and a Meridian drawne through it 
to the >^thiopian Ocean. But Ptolomy would rather have 
its limits on this part to be the Arabian gulfe (which he not 
so rightly called the Eed Sea), and a ^Meridian which should 
be drawne from thence to the Mediterranean Sea, over tliat 
necke of land which lyeth betwixt the two Seas, and which 
joyneth ^gypt to the Continent of Arabia and Indiiea. 
Neither doth he thinke it congruous that /Egypt should be 
divided into two parts, one whereof should be reckoned to 
Africke, and the other to Asia ; which must needs be if the 
river Nilus be set for the bounds of the same. Neither doth 
Strabo conceive this to be any whit improper, since that the 
length of the Isthmus wdiicli divideth the two Seas is not 
above a 1000 furlongs. And he seemeth to have said very 
rightly that it is not above a 1000 furlongs. Eor however 



CtELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 71 

Posidoniiis reckoneth it to be veiy neere 1500 furlongs ; yet 
Pliny would have it to be no more than 115 miles, that is to 
say, 920 furlongs. And Strabo also reckoneth the distance 
betwixt Pelusium and the Heroes city, which is situate close 
by the highest part of the Arabian gulfe, to be but 900 fur- 
longs. But if we will give any credit to Plutarch, at the 
narrowest part of the Isthmus the two Seas will be found 
distant not above 300 furlongs. And that (when Anthony 
was overthrowne by Augustus in a Sea fight, and all his 
forces cleane broken) Cleopatra, seeking to avoid the servi- 
tude of the Eomans, went about to transport her Navie this 
way over the firme land, that so she might finde some new 
place of habitation as farre remote from the Eomans as she 
might ; as it is reported by the same author, in the life of 
Anthony. But what should move Copernicus, in his 1 booke, 
3 chap., to say that these two seas are scarcely 15 furlongs 
distant, I cannot conjecture ; unlesse I should thinke the place 
to be corrupted through the negligence of the Transcribers 
or Printers. And yet I could wish that this (though it be a 
very great one) were all the errours that were to bee found 
in the writings of that most excellent man. 

This Isthmus, as Eratosthenes conceived, was anciently 
covered all over with waters, till such time as the Atlanticke 
Ocean had intercourse with the Mediterranean. And some 
of the old Grammarians, Scholiasts on Homer, doe affirme 
(as Strabo testifieth) tliat it was this way that Menelaus in 
Homer sailed to the ^thyopians. I will therefore here set 
downe some few things which may seeme to make for the 
confirmation of this relation (whether you will call it an 
History or rather a Fable, or Conjecture) of Eratosthenes. 

First, therefore, that Egypt (if not all of it, yet at least 
that part of it which is situated beneath Delta, and is called 
Egyptus Inferior, the lower Egypt, and is accounted to be 
the Gift of Nilus, or rather of the Sea) was made by the 
aa'sestion and gathering together of mud and sand ; which 



72 A TREATISE OF THE 

was the conjecture of Herodotus long before Strabo. In 
like manner that the Hand Pharos, which in Plinies time was 
joyned to Alexandria by a bridge, as himselfe testifieth, lib. o, 
cap. 31 (and therefore for this reason may seeme to have 
been called a Peninsula by Strabo), was anciently distant 
from Egypt a whole day and nights saile, is reported both by 
Pliny and Soliuus out of Homer. And this is the reason, 
as Strabo conjectures, that Homer (whereas he makes often 
mention of Thebes in Egypt) yet speakes not one word of 
Memphis ; and that either because at that time it was a very 
small place, or else perhaps it was not as yet in being, the 
land being in Homers time covered all over with water 
where Mem])his was afterwards built. And this seemes also 
to be confirmed by the great depression and lownesse of the 
intermediate shore betwixt the two Seas, which is so great 
that when Sesostris first had an intent of cutting a channell 
betwixt the two Seas, as was afterwards intended also by 
Darius, and lastly by Ptolomy, they were all forced by this 
reason to desist from their enterprise. And, indeed, Strabo 
reports that himselfe saw the Egyptian shore in his time all 
overflowed beyond the Mountaine Cassias. Besides, the great 
retiring of the waters at an ebbe, as well in the Arabian 
gulfe as in the Persian, seemes somewhat to confirme this con- 
jecture of Eratosthenes. For the tides withdraw themselves 
so farre back in the Arabian gulf that Julius Scaliger makes 
mention of some cavillers that, for this very reason, went 
about to derogate from the miraculous passage of the Children 
of Israel for the space of above 600 miles through the Eed 
Sea, as if they had watched their time when the tide gave 
way, and that when it returned againe the Egyptians were 
overtaken therewith and all drowned.^ 

And it is reported by Pliny that Numenius, generall to 
Antiochus, fighting against the Persians near the mouth of 

1 This sea, says Pontanus, is always rendered Erythrjeum in the 
Septuagint, and Rubrum by St. Jerome. 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTlilALL GLOBE. 73 

the Persian Gnlfe, not far from the promontory called Maca- 
vum, got the victory twice in one day, first by a sea combat 
and afterward (the water having left the place dry) on hors- 
backe, as is related by him in his 6 booke, 28 cap. 

And thus much concerning Eratosthenes his conjecture. 
Let us now returue to the bounds of Africa, which is divided 
(as we have already said) on the East from Asia by a Meri- 
dian drawne through the Arabian gulfe to the Mediterranean 
Sea. On all the other sides it is encompassed about with the 
Sea ; as on the West with the Atlauticke ; on the South with 
the Ethiopian Ocean ; and on the North by the Mediter- 
ranean, which is also the Southerne bound of Europe. 

Now as concerning Ptolomies ignorance of the Southerne 
parts of Africa, making it a continent and contiguous to Asia 
by a certaine unknowne land, which he would have to encom- 
passe about the South side of the Indian Sea and the Ethio- 
pian gulfe ; if it be not sufficiently evinced out of the 
relations of the Ancients, as namely of Herodotus, who 
reporteth that certaine men were sent forth by Darius by 
Sea, who sailed all about this tract ; nor yet of Heraclides 
Ponticus, who relates a story of a certaine Magician who said 
that he had compassed about all these coasts, because Posi- 
donius accounteth not these relations of credit enough to 
conclude anything against Polybius ; neither doth he approve 
of that story of one Eudoxus Cyzicenus, reported by Strabo, 
Pliny, and ]Mela, out of Cornelius Nepos, an Author of very 
good esteeme (and that because Strabo thought this relation 
to deserve no more credit then those fabulous relations of 
Pytheas, Evemerus, and Antiphanes), nor lastly those tradi- 
tions of King Juba concerning the same matter related by 
Solinus. Howsoever, I say that these traditions of the 
Ancients doe not convince Ptolomy of ignorance ; yet cer- 
tainely the late navigation of the Portugals most evidently 
demonstrate the same, who, touching upon the most outward 
point of all Africa, which they now call the Cape of Good 



74 A TEEATISE OF THE 

Hope, passe on as farre as the East Indies. I shall not in 
the meane time neede to speake at all of that other story 
which Pliny hath, that at what time C. Cfesar, sonne to 
Angustus, was proconsul in Arabia, there were certaine 
Ensigues found in the Arabian gulfe which were knowne to 
be some of those that were cast away in a shipwracke of the 
Spanish Navy; and that Carthage being at that time in her 
height of power, Hanno, a Carthaginian, sailed about from 
Gades as farre as Arabia, who also afterward himselfe wrote 
the story of that navigation. 

Asia lyeth Eastward both from Euroj)e and Africa, and is 
divided from them by these bounds and limits which we 
have already set downe. In all other parts it is kept in by 
the Ocean. On the Xorth by the Hyperborean or Frozen 
Sea ; on the East by the Tartarian and Easterne Ocean ; on 
the South by the Indian and Eed Sea. But Ptolomy would 
have the Northerne parts of Asia, as also of Europe, to be 
encompassed not with any Sea, but with a certaine unknowne 
land ; which is still the opinion of some of our later writers, 
who think that country which we call Greenland to be a 
part of the Indian Continent. But we have very good 
reason to sus^^ect the truth of this their opinion ; since that 
so many Sea-voyages of our own country-men, who have gone 
farre within the Arcticke circle, beyond the utmost parts of 
Norway, and into that cold frozen Channell that divides 
Nova Zembla from Russia, doe sufficiently testifie that all 
those parts are encompassed by the Sea. Not to speake 
anything of that which Mela alleadgeth out of Cornelius 
Nepos, how that when Q. Metellus Celer was Proconsul in 
Gallia there were presented him by the King of Suevia cer- 
taine Indians, who having beene severed by force of tempests 
from the Indian shore, had been brought about, by the 
violence of windes, as farre as Germany. Neither will I 
here mention that other relation of Patrocles in Strabo, who 
affirmed that it was possible to saile to India all along the 



C(ELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 75 

Sea shore a great deale more Northward than the Bactrians, 
Hircaiiia, and the Caspian Sea. Now Patrocles was made 
governour of these places. Nor lastly that which Pliny 
hiniselfe reporteth, how that all this Eastern coast, from 
India as farre as to the Caspian Sea, was sailed through by 
the Macedonian Armies in the raigne of Seleiicus and 
Antiochus. 

Concerning the quantity of the Earth which was inhabited, 
there was great diversity of opinion among the Ancients. 
Ptolomy defined the longitude of it to be, from West to 
East, beginning at the Meridian which passeth through the 
Fortunate Islands, and ending at that which is drawne through 
the Metropolis of the Sinse or Chineans countrey. So that it 
should containe halfe the Equator, which is 180 degrees and 
12 ^quinoctiall houres, or 90,000 furlongs measured by the 
Equator. And he determined the bounds of the latitude to 
be, toward the South, that Parallel which lyeth 16 gr. 25 m. 
Southward of the Equator ; and the Northerne limits to be 
made that Parallel which passeth through Thule or Iseland, 
being distant from the Equinoctial 63 degrees. So that 
the whole latitude of it contained in all 79 gr. 25 m., or 
80 whole degrees, which is neare upton 40,000 furlongs. Tlie 
extent of it, therefore, from East to West, is longer then it is 
from North to South, under the /Equinoctiall something more 
then by halfe as much, and under the most Northerne 
I'arallel almost by a fiftieth part. Good reason, therefore, 
had the Ancient Geographers, as Ptolomy in his lib. 1, Cap. 
6, Geograph., to call the extent of it from West to East the 
Longitude of it, and from North to South the Latitude. 
Strabo also acknowledgeth the Latitude with Ptolomy to be 
180 degrees in the Equator, as likewise Hipparchus doth 
also ; notv.-ithstanding there is some difference betwixt them 
in the number of the furlongs. For these last have set downe 
the Longitude to be 126,000 furlongs under the Equator : 
herein following Eratosthenes, who reckoneth 700 furlongs to 



76 • A TREATISE OF THE 

a degree. But Strabo maketh the latitude a great deal lesse, 
that is, something lesse then 30,000 furlongs ; and hee 
boundeth it on the South with the Parallel drawue through 
Cinnamomifera, which is distant Northward from the 
Equator 8800 furlongs, and on the North with that Parallel 
which passeth through those parts, which are 4000 furlongs 
or thereabouts more Northward then Britaine. And this 
Parallel that passeth through the Eegion called Cinnamomi- 
fera, Strabo makes to be more Southward then Taprobane, or 
at least to pass through the most Southerne parts of the same. 
But herein he betrayeth his owne notable ignorance, for as 
much as the most Southerne part of this Hand is extended 
farre beyond the ^Equator ; as both Ptolomy aftirmeth in his 
Geography, lib. 7, Cap. 4, and is further confirmed by the late 
Navigations of the Portugals. But Dionysius Afer is much 
farther out of the way than so, for he placeth Taprobane 
under the tropicke of Cancer. 

And these were the bounds wherewith the Ancient 
Geographers terminated the then inhabited parts of the 
World. But in these riper times of ours, by the industry at 
Sea both of the Spaniards, English, and others, the Mari- 
time coasts of Africa have beene more thoroughly discovered, 
to above 35 gr. of Southerne Latitude ; and the Northerue 
limits of Europe have now been searched into as farre as the 
73 degree of Northerne Latitude, farre w^ithin the Articke 
circle ; besides all that which hath at length beene discovered 
in the New World, beyond the hope or opinion of any of the 
Ancients, the name of it being not so much as knowne to 
them. 

America, which for its spaciousnesse may well be called 
the other World, extending itselfe beyond 52 gr. of Southerne 
Latitude, is there bounded with the Straits of Magellane; 
and toward the North it runneth farre within the Arcticke 
circle ; on which side also that it is bounded by the Sea, the 
many Navigations of our Countrey-men into those parts doe 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOF.E. 77 

give strong arguments of liope. I shal not here speak of 
those Sea coasts which are beyond that Sea tliat encompass- 
eth about the most Northerne parts of Europe and Asia, as 
having beene but only seene afarre off as yet, and not 
throughly discovered. Nor yet those other which are more 
Southerne then the Indian and Eed Seas ; which as yet we 
have not any experience to the contrary, but that wee may 
beleeve to bee one continent with those other Southerne 
Lands tliat lye beyond the Straits of Magellane. 

Europe (whether so called from Europa Tyria, daughter to 
Agenor, as some tliinke ; or Phoenix, as Herodotus will have 
it ; or else from Europa, a Sea ISTymph, according to the opinion 
of Hippias in Eustatliius ; or else from Europus, as Nicias in 
the same Eustatliius would have it to be) containeth in it 
these principal regions, to wit, Spaine, France, Italy, Ger- 
many, Bohemia, Prussia, Ehoetia, Livonia, Sclavonia, Greece, 
Hungary, Polonia, Moscovia or Kussia, Norway, Sweden, and 
Denmarke. To these wee may add the principall Islands, as 
namely those of Great Britaine, the chief of which is Eng- 
land and Scotland, ennobled chiefly by being united to the 
English Crowne ; as also Ireland, which is in like manner 
subject to the same. Besides the Azores and many other 
Islands scattered up and downe in the Mediterranean Sea, as 
Sicily, Sardinia, Crete, etc. 

Africa (whether it be so called from Aplier, one of Her- 
cules his companions in his expedition against Gerion, 
according to Eustatliius ; or else from one Iphricus, a cer- 
taine king of the Arabians, whence also it is called in 
Arabique Iphricia, as Johannes Leo testifieth ; or lastly from 
its scorching heat, as if it should be called aj>pLK7], quasi 
sine f rigor e, as some are pleased to derive it) hath in it these 
principall regions. First of all, next to the Straits of Gib- 
raltar (anciently called Fretuni Gaditanuni) there lyeth 
Barbary, heretofore called Mauritania, which containeth in it 
the kingdomes of Morocco, Fez, Tunis, and Algier. Next to 



78 A TREATISE OF THE 

Barbary lyetli Egypt, which also bordereth upon the Medi- 
terranean Sea. Xow within Barbary toward the continent 
there lyeth Biledulgerid, known to the Ancients by the name 
of Nuraidia. The 3d is that part which is called by the 
Greekes and Latines Libya ; but the Arabians name it 
Sarra. After this followes the countrey of the Negroes, so 
called because they border upon the river Niger, or else from 
their colour. This countrey is now called Senega, and it 
hath in it many petty kingdomes, as, namely, Gualata, Guinea, 
Melli, Tombutum, Gagos, Guberis, Agodes, Canos, Casena, 
Zegzega, Zanfaran, Burnum, Gaoga, Nubia, etc. Next to 
these is the spacious territory of the King of the Ethiopians 
(who is also called Pretegiani, and corruptly Prester John), 
which kingdome is famous for the long continuance of the 
Christian Religion in it, which hath been kept amongst them 
in a continuall succession ever since the Apostles time. 
These Christians are called Abyssines, but more rightly 
Habassines, as Arius Montanus observeth in the itinerary of 
Benjamin Tudelensis. Their dominion was anciently ex- 
tended very farre through Asia also. These have bordering 
on the West some few obscure kingdomes, as Manicongo and 
D' Angola ; and toward the East and South, Melinde, Quiloa, 
Mozambique, Benamatapa. The chiefe Islands that are 
situate neare it are Madagascur, the Canary Islands, the Isles 
of Cape Verd, and St. Thomas Island, lying direct under the 
Equator. 

Asia (so called from Asia, the mother of Prometheus, as 
the common received opinion is ; or else from a certaine 
Hero of that name, as Hippias in Eustathius wil have it), at 
this day wholly in subjection to the Great Turke and the 
Persians as farre as to the East Indies, the greatest part 
whereof is under the kings of China and Pegu. But the 
more Northerne parts of Asia are possessed by the jNIusco- 
vites, Tartarians, and those that inhabit the regions of Cathaia. 
The principall Islands appertaining unto it are Cyprus and 



CCELESTIALL AND TERKESTKIALL GLOBE. 79 

Ehodes in the Mediterranean ; and on the South side Suma- 
tra, Zeilam, Java Major and Minor, the Moluccan and 
Philippine Islands, besides Borneo, and almost an infinite 
company of others. And on the East of it there lye the 
Japonian Islands. 

America (so called from Americus Vespucciu.s, who first 
discovering it, gave it both name and bounds) is terminated 
on the East .side (on which it lookes toward Europe and 
Africa) by the Atlanticke Ocean ; on the West with the 
Sea which they call del Zur, or the South Sea ; on the South 
it is bounded with the Straits of Magellane. But as for the 
Northerne parts of it, they are not yet thoroughly discovered, 
or the limits thereof knowne, notwithstanding many adven- 
tures by Sea of our Countrymen, Mr. Martin Erobisher and 
Mr. John Davis, have given strong arguments of hope that 
it is on that side bounded by the frozen Sea. It containeth 
in it these jjrincipall regions. Eirst on the North, that 
country which the Spaniards call Tierra de Labrador. 
After which followeth that which they call Baccalearum 
Eegio, then Nova Erancia, after this Virginia, then Elorida. 
Next to this Nova Hispania, famous especially for the City of 
Mexico; and last of all the kiugdomes of Brazilia and Peru, 
which are the most Southerne parts of all. There are also 
many adiacent Islands, most of which lye in the Bay of 
Mexico, eastward from America ; the most notable of which 
are Cuba and Hispaniola, besides many others of lesse note. 

There are also many other parts of the world not vet Terra incog 
thoroughly knowne or discovered, as, namely, those Southerne 
coasts wherein stands Nova Guinea, lying beyond the Indian 
Sea, which, whether it be an Island or part of the Maine 
Continent, is not yet discovered ; and likewise that other 
tract of the Southerne unknown e Continent which is called 
Magellanica ; as also those Northerne parts of Europe, Asia, 
and America which have beene but lately detected by many 
of our English Navigators, but not as yet fully searched into. 



80 



A TREATISE OF THE 



De ambitu 
terra. 



CHAPTER II. 

Of the Circumference of the Earth, or of a Greater Circle ; 
and of the Measure of a Degree. 

It remaineth now that we speake somewhat of the circum- 
ference of the Earth, or of the greatest Circle in it, the 
knowledge whereof is very necessary, both for the study of 
Geography as also for the easier attaining to the Art of 
Navigation. And therefore I hope I shall not seeme imper- 
tinent, if I insist something the longer on this argument, 
especially seeing that there is great diversity of opinion 
among tlie most learned Authors that are extant, concerning 
this matter ; insomuch that it is not yet determined which 
of them we are to follow. 

Aristotle, in the end of his 2d booke, de Coelos, afhrmes 
(and that according to tlie doctrine of the Mathematicians, as 
himselfe saith) that the circumference of the Earth is 
400,000 furlongs. Cleomedes, lib. 1, reckons it to be 300,000, 
for he saith that the Vertical Points of Lysimachia and 
Syene were observed by Sciotericall Instruments to be 
distant from each other the loth part of the same Meridian. 
Now the distance between these two places hee sets downe 
to be 20,000 furlongs. So that if 20,000 be multiplied by 
15, the whole will arise to 300,000. Eratosthenes (if we may 
beleeve Strabo, Vitruvius, Pliny, and Censorinus) would have 
Vitr.,ub. 1, ^j^Q whole compasse of the Earth to containe 252,000 fur- 
piin.. hb. 2, jQj^^gg^ r^Q wliicli numbcr Hipparchus, as Pliny testifieth, 
added very near 25,000 more. Yet Strabo, as well in the 
end of his 2d booke of his Geography, as elsewhere, affirmeth 
that he used the same measure that Eratosthenes did ; where 
he saith that, according to the opinion of Hipparchus, the 
wdiole quantity of the Earth containeth 252,000 furlongs ; 
which was the measure delivered also by Eratosthenes. 



Arist 



Cleom. 



Strabo 
passim. 



c. idS. 
Censor., 
C. 13. 



CffiLESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 81 

Wliicli opinion of Eratosthenes is seconded also by that 
fabulous relation of Dionysiodorus, recorded by Winy, lib. 2, 
Cap. ult., where he saith that there was found in the sepul- 
chre of Dionysiodorus an epistle written to the Gods ; 
wherein was testified that the semidiameter of the Earth 
contains 4200 furlongs, which number being multiplied 
by 6 the product will bee 252,000. 

Cleomedes, relating the observations of Eratosthenes, and cieom..i. 2. 
Posidonius maketh it to be somewhat lesse, and that accord- 
ing to the doctrine of Eratosthenes, to wit, 250,000 furlongs. 
For he placeth Alexandria and Syene under the same JNIeri- 
dian. Now Syene being situate direct under the Tropicke, 
the Sunne being then in the Summer Solstice, the gnomons 
cast no shadow at all. For confirmation of which, the experi- 
ment was made by digging a deepe well, which at that time 
of the yeare was wholly enlightened on every part, as it is 
reported both by Pliny, and also by Strabo before him. But 
at Alexandria, when the Sunne is in the Summer Tropicke, the 
gnomon is observed to cast a shadow to the fiftieth part of 
the circumference, on which it is erected to right angles, so 
that the top of the same is the center of the circumference. 
Now the distance between Syene and Alexandria, is com- 
monly set downe by Eratosthenes, Pliny, and Strabo to be Lib. 2, c. 73 
5000 furlongs. If, therefore, 5000 be multiplied by 50, the 
whole will arise to 250,000, which is the number of furlongs 
assigned to the circumference of the whole earth by Eratos- 
thenes. Posidonius, proceeding by another method, though 
not unlike this, labours to prove the whole circuit of tlie 
Earth to containe 240,000 furlongs. And first hee taketh for 
granted (which is also acknowledged by Ptolomy, lib. 5, 
cap. 3. Almagest) that Ehode and Alexandria are situate 
under the same Meridian. Now that bright Star in the 
sterne of Argo (which they call Canobus, and which never 
appeareth in Greece, which seemes to be the reason why 
Aratus maketh no mention of it), first beginneth to appeare 

G 



82 A TREATISE OF THE 

above the Horizon at Ehodes ; but it doth but .stringcre 
HoHzontem, just touch the Horizon, and so upon the least 
circumvolution of the Heavens setteth againe, or else, as 

L. de spbae. Proclus saith, is very harcUy seene unlesse it be from some 
eminent place. But when you are at Alexandria you may 
see it very cleare above the Horizon. For when it is in the 
Meridian, that is at the highest elevation above the Horizon, 
it is elevated above the Horizon about the fourth part of a 
Signe ; that is to say tlie forty eighth part of the Meridian 
that passeth through Rhodes and Alexandria. The same is 
affirmed also by Proclus, if you read him thus : " Cano- 
bum in Alexandria conspicue cerni quarta circiter Signi 
portione supra Horizontem extante"'", as it ought to be, and 
not as it is corruptly read in Alexandria, " prorsus non cerni." 
• It is not seene at all", instead of: " It is seene very plainely . 
a(bavT}<i being crept into the text perhaps instead of ev^avrj^. 
Xow the distance betwixt Ehodes and Alexandria is set 

L 2, c. 70. downe both by him and Pliny to be 5,000 furlongs, which 

being multiplied by forty-eight, the product will be 240,000, 

~ the number of furlongs agreeing to the measure of the 

Earths circumference, according to the opinion of Posi- 

donius. 

Ptolomy everywhere in his Geography, as also Marinus 
Tyrias before him, have allowed but 500 furlongs to a 
degree in the greatest circle on the earth, of which the 
whole circumference containeth 360, so that the whole com- 
*passe of the Earth, after this account, containeth but 180,000 
furlongs. And yet Strabo affirmetli in his lib. 2, Geograph., 
that this measure of the Earths circumference set downe by 
Ptolomy was both received by the Ancients, and also 
approved by Posidonius himselfe. 

Strabo pa So great is the difference of opinions concerning the com- 
passe of the earth ; and yet is every one of these opinions 
grounded on the authority of great men. In this so great 
diversitv therefore it is doubtfull whom we should follow. 



CCELESTIALL AND TERKESTRIALL GLOBE. So 

And if you should desire to know tlie cause of all these dis- 
sensions, even that also is altogether as uncertaiue. Xonius crTpuscul. 

PuCG. (^G 

and Pucerus would perswade us that certaiuely the furlongs dim. terra;, 
they used were not of the same quantity. Maurolycus and ^^j^j^ ^ - 
Philander conceive the difference of furlongs to rise out of phiUn^""- 
the diverse measure of Pases. And therefore Maurolycus 
takes great paines to reconcile them ; but iu value, for they 
seeme not capable of any reconcilement. They tell us of 
diverse kinds of Pases among the Ancients. It is true; wee 
assent to them herein ; but withal desire to hear of some 
diversitie of furlongs also, or at least of feet. The Greekes 
(as I conceive) measured not their furlongs by Pases, but by 
feet, or rather Tai<; opyfjLai<;. Xow opyfia is the measure of 
the extension of both hands, together with the breast betwixt, 
containing six feet, wdiich we commonly call a fadome, and is 
a measui-e in continual use with our Mariners in sounding 
the depth of the sea or other waters. The word, notwith- 
standing, i-s translated by many a Pase, but how rightly I leave 
it to learned men to judge. Xylander, in his translation of 
Strabo, alwayes rendereth it an Ell. In like manner a fur- 
long is defined by Herodotus, a very Ancient Greeke Author, 
to consist of 600 feet ; the same also is affirmed by Suidas^, 
by much later than hee. Yet Hero Mechanicus (or at the 
least his Scholiast, one as I conceive of the lowest ranke 
of Ancient Writers), will have a furlong to containe 100 
fadomes ; a fadome foure cubits ; a cubit a foote and a lialfe, 
or twenty foure digits. But you will say, perhaps, that 
Censorinus proposeth three severall kindes of furlongs ; the 
first of which is the Italian, consisting of 625 feet, which he 
would have us to understand to be that which is commonly 
used in measuring the Earth. The second is the Olympiaji," 
containing 600 feet ; and the third and last is the Pythean^ ■ 
consisting of 1,000 feet. But to let passe this later, if wee . 
<loe but looke more nearly into the matter we shall find the 
dulien and 01yni))ian furlongs, however they differ in name?;. 



84 A TREATISE OF THE 

yet to be no other but the selfe same thing. For the Italian 
furlong, which containeth 625 Eomane feete (according as 
Pliny testifieth in his second booke and twentie third Chap- 
ter), will be found to be equall to the Olympian, consisting 
of 600 Grecian feete. For 600 Grecian feet are equall to 
625 Eomane ; for as such as the Grecian foote exceeds the 
Roman by a twenty-fourth part, as much is the difierence 
betwixt 600 and 625. 

Amongst these so great diversities of opinions, let us give 
our conjecture also, both what may be the cause of so great 
disagreement, and also which of them we may most safely 
follow. We will therefore pass by Aristotle, whose assertion 
is only defended by a great name. And for Cleomedes his 
opinion of the earths being in compasse 200,000 furlongs, 
we should scarce vouchsafe to mention it, but that Archi- 
medes also had taken notice of the same, as of a position not 
altogether disallowed in his time. Let us therefore examine 
PusiTexe'- Eratosthenes and Posidonius, whose opinions seeme to be 
grounded on more certaine foundations. The cause therefore 
of their disagreement I conceive to bee in that neither of 
them had measured exactly the distances of those places 
which they layd downe to work on, but tooke them on trust 
f]-om the common received report of Travailers ; save only 
that of the two, Posidonius is the more extravagant. Whereas 
on the contrary Ptolomy grounded his opinion on the dis- 
tances of places exactly measured, as himself e affirmeth, 
when he saith that the latitude of the knowne parts of the 
world is 79 degrees, 45 minutes. Or supposing it to be full 
80 degrees, it v/ill then containe 40,000 furlongs, allowing 
for every degree live hundred furlongs ; as by measuring the 
distances of places exactly wee have found it to be. 

But Eratosthenes is much taxed by Hipparchus for his 
strange mistakes and grosse ignorance in setting downe the 
distances of places, as Strabo testifieth in his first booke. For 
hce reckons betwixt Alexandria and r'artliage above 13,000 



cutiuntur. 



taratur. 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 85 

furlongs, whereas, saith Strabo it is not above 9000. So 
likewise Posidonius is to bee blamed for setting downe the 
distance betwixt Ehodes and Alexandria to bee 5000 fur- 
longs, and that from the relations of Mariners, whereas some 
of them would have it to bee but 4000 and others 5000, as 
Eratosthenes confesseth in Strabo ; but addeth moreover 
that he himselfe had found by sciotericall instruments, that 
it was but 3,750. And Strabo would have it to bee something 
lesse than that, namely, 3,640 furlongs. So that hence wee 
may safely conclude that Ptolomies opinion being grounded 
upon the more exact and accurate dimensions of distances 
(as liimselfe professeth), must necessarily come nearer the 
truth then the rest. 

But Franciscus Maurolycus, Abbot of Messava, while he 
goes about to defend Posidonius against Ptolomy, is over- Pos'doni'um 
taken himselfe in an errour, before hee is aware. For he Maurorycue 
suspecteth tlie truth of Ptolomies assignement of the lati- 
tude of Pihodes, which he sets downe to be thirty-sixe 
degrees, and hee advertiseth us, that certainely the numbers 
in his geographicall tables are corrupted, which we confesse 
is most certaine. But in the meane time let us see how he 
proves them to be so in tliis latitude of Ehodes. Posidonius 
(saith he) out of his owne observations, setteth downe the 
latitude of it to be thirtie-eight degrees and an halfe ; 
unlesse that Ptolomy bee out also in designing the latitude 
of Alexandria, which Maurolycus thinks cannot possibly be. 
But we aftirme on the contrary side that Ptolomy himselfe 
is against the latitude, not only in his Geographicall bookes, 
but also in diverse places throughout the Almagest also, and 
especially in the lib. 2, cap. 6, where he sets downe the 
same latitude for Pthodes that he hath in his Geography ; 
adding moreover the quantity of the longest day, and also 
what manner of shadowes the gnomons cast, both when the 
Sun is in the ^quinoctiale, as also in the Tropicke, all 
which doe plainly prove the same. He also very often hath 



86 A TKEATISE OF THE 

the same latitude of it in his Planisphere ; unlesse yon will 
say that either Masses the Arabian, in translating it into 
Arabique, or else Eudolphus Brugensis, who translated the 
same againe out of Arabicke into Latine, have deceived us. 
Hitherto therefore wee stand on equall tearmes. But he 
proceeds and saith that this opinion of Posidonius is favoured 
also by Proclus, and the observations of Eudoxus Cnidus 

p. •->. ' ' ' delivered by Strabo. Let us therefore see what all this is. 
Posidonius (saith Strabo) reports that himselfe being some- 
time in a city distant from the Gaditane Straits 400 fur- 
longs, saw from the top of an high house a certaine Starre, 
which hee tooke to bee Canobus, and those that went thence 
more southward from Spaine confesse that they saw it also 
plainely. Now the Tower Cnidus, out of which Eudoxus 
is said to have seene Canobus, is not much higher than the 
other buildings. But Cnidus is on the same Climate with 
Ehodes, as is also the Gades, with the sea coasts adjoyning. 
Thus Strabo. 

But what doth he conclude hence against Ptolomy ? That 
Canobus may be seene in Cnidus ? Wee deny it not. Or 
that Cnidus is in the Ehodian Climate ? Ptolomy acknow- 
ledgeth as much, for hee makes it to have not above 39 sir. 
15 m. of latitude, in the fifth booke of his Geography, But 
is not Ptolomy out also in assigning the latitude of (Jnidus ? 
That the latitude of Rhodes is no greater than Ptolomy 

sfi,w°» hath set it, may be proved even out of Proclus himselfe; 
for hee makes the longest day at Ehodes to be fourteene 
houres and an hali'e. And Ptolomy w^ill have the same to 
be equall both at Ehodes and at Cnidus. And to this 
assenteth Strabo likewise, save onely that in one place lie 
sets it downe to be but fourteen houres bare ; so that by this 
reckoning it should have lesse latitude. Now Proclus his 
words are these. In the Horizon of Ehodes (saith hee) the 
Summer Tropicke is divided by the Horizon, in such sort 
as that if the whole circle bee divided into forty-eight parts, 



SphKra. 



CCELESTIALL AND TKltKHSTKIALL GLOBE. 87 

twenty-iniie of the same doe appeare above the Horizon 
and nineteen lye liid under the Earth. Out of which divi- 
sion it followes that the longest day at llhodes must be four- 
teen ^quinoctiall hours and an halfe, and tbe shortest night 
nine and a half, thus hee saithe. I do not deny, but that Posi- 
donius, his setting downe of the quantity of the portion of the 
Meridian intercepted betwixt the verticall point of lihodes and 
Alexandria, might deceive Pliny, Proclus, and others. Yet 
Alfraganus draweth his second Climate through Cyprus and 
Pihodes, and maketh it to have tlie longest day of fourteen 
houres and an halfe, and in latitude 36 gr. two-thirds. So that 
here is very little difference betwixt him and Ptolomy. And 
even Maurolycus himselfe, wlien in Iiis Cosmographicall Dia- 
logues he numljereth up the Parallels, maketh that which pas- 
seth through Eliodes to have 36 gr. and a twelfth of latitude ; 
herein differing, something with the most, from Posidonius. 
Eratosthenes his observations also doe very much contradict 
Posidonius. For Eratosthenes saith that hee found by scio- 
tericall gnomons, that the distance betwixt Ehodes and 
Alexandria was 3750 furlongs. But let us examine this a 
little better. The difference of Latitude betwixt these two 
places he found scioterically, after his manner, to be some- 
thing more than 5 degrees. And to this difference (accord- 
ing to his assumed measure of the compasse of the Earth, 
wherein he allows 700 furlongs to a degree) he attributes 
3650 furlongs. ISTeither is there any other way of working 
by sciotericall instruments (that I know) in finding out tlie 
distance of furlongs betwixt two places ; unlesse we first 
know the number of furlongs agreeing either to the whole 
circumference of the Earth, or else to the part of it assigned. 
Let us now see if we can prove out of the observations of 
Eratosthenes himselfe, that neither Posidonius, his opinion 
concerning the measure of the Earths circumference, mucli 
lesse Eratosthenes his owne can l)e defended. And here 
we shall not examine his observation of the difference of 



88 A TUKA'I'ISK OF TIIK 

];ititu(lc betwixt Alexandria and Syene, that so we might 
l)r()vo out of his own assumption that the whole compasse 
of the l^arth cannot be al)Ove 241,010 furlongs, as it is 
demonstrated by Petrus Nonius, in his lib. 2, cap. 18, De 
Narigcdionc. Neither doe we enquire, how truly hee hath 
set downe the distance of the places to be 5000 furlongs ; 
whereas Solinus reckoneth not from tlie very Ocean to 
Meroe, above G20 miles, which are but 49G0 furlongs. 
Now Meroe is a great deal farther than Syene. Neither will 
we question him at all, concerning the small difference that 
is betwixt him and Pliny, who reckons from the Island 
Elephantina (which is 3 miles below the last Cataract, and 
16 miles above Syene) to Alexandria, but 486 miles ; so 
that by this reckoning betwixt Syene and Alexandria, there 
will not be above 4560 furlongs. But we will proceed a 
contrary way to prove our assertion. This one thing, there- 
fore, we require to be granted ns ; Which is, that looke how- 
great a space the Sunne Diameter taketh up in his Orbe, 
for the like space on the Terrestriall Globe shall the 
Gnomons be without any shadow at all, while the Sunne 
is in their Zenith. Which if it be granted (as it is fi-eely 
confessed by Posidonius in Cleomedes) we have then gotten 
the victory. 

Now it is affirmed by Eratosthenes that the Sunne being 
in the beginning of Cancer, and so directly in the verticall 
point at Syene ; both there and for 400 furlongs round 
about the gnomons cast no shadow at all. Let us now 
therefore, see how great a part of his orbe the Sunnes 
diameter doth subtend. For by this meanes if this posi- 
tion of Eratosthenes, which wee have now set downe, bee 
true ; we may easily finde out by it the whole circuit of 
the Earth. Firmicus Maternus makes the diameter both 
of the Sun and Moone to be no lesse then a whole degree. 
But he is too farre from the truth, and assigneth a greater 
quantity, either than hee ought or wee desire. The Egyptians 



(;(KL1<:STIALL AND TMHliKSTKIALL GLOIiK. 89 

fouiul by liydroscopicall iiisinnnouis tliut the (li!U(i(;tor of 
the Suniie takes up the seven hundred and fiftieth part 
of his Orbe. So that if 300 furlongs on Eartli, answer to 
the seven hundred and fiftietli part of the whole circum- 
ference of the same, the whtjle circuit of it tlien will 
be but 225,000 furlongs. The fabricke and use of this 
instrument is set downe by Proclus in his cap. 3, Desifjna- 
tion. Astronovii. And Theon also speaks much of it in 
his Commentaries upon the 5 lib., Almage.st Ptolom., as also c. la. 
does Maurolycus in his third Dialog. Cosmograph. But 
these kindes of observation are not approved of by Ptolomy. 
And Theon also, and Proclus demonstrate them to bee 
obnoxious to much errour. And tharefore we examine the 
matter yet a little further. 

Aristarchus Samius (as he is cited by Archimedes) affirmed 
that the Sunnes apparent diameter taketh up the seven 
hundred and fiftieth part of the Zodiaque, that is to say 30 
minutes, and is equall to the apparent diameter of the 
Moone ; as he hath it (as I remember) in the 7 and 8 pro- 
positions of his booke De Magnitud. ct distant. Soils et 
Lun^. The same was the opinion also of Archimedes him- 
selfe. But in the meane time I cannot free myselfe of a certaine 
scruple cast in my way by another supposition of the same 
Aristarchus in the very same bouke, where hee would have 
the diameter of the Moone to bee 2- degrees. Archimedes 
also, out of his owne observations by dioptricall instruments, 
hath defined the Suns diameter to bee greater then the 200th 
part of a right angle, that is to say 27 minutes, yet lesse then 
the 164th part of a right angle, which is 33 minutes. But 
he himselfe confesseth that there is no great credit to be 
given to such like observations as are made by these 
dioptricall instruments, as by them to bee able exactly to 
find out the diameter of the Sunne or Moone, seeing that 
neither the sight nor the hand, nor yet the instruments them- 
selves, by A^liich the observations are to be made, can be 



90 A TREA.TISH OF THE 

every way so exact and sure as not to faile. Ptolomy, by 
the same dioptricall instruments, as also by the manner of 
Eclipses, found the diameter of the Sun to containe 30 min. 
20 sec, and to be equall to the apparent diameter of the 
Moone when she is at the greatest distance from the Earth, 
which is at the full Moone, and in conjunction with the 
Sunne. Nor wdiereas he would have this magnitude to bee 
constantly the same, and invariable : Proclus approves not 
of him herein, as appeares in the 3 Cap. Dcsifjiiation. 
Astronom., being hereto induced by the authority of Sosigenes, 
a Peripatetic, who in these bookes of his which he entituleth, 
De rcvolutionihus, hath observed in the Eclipses of the Sun 
there is sometimes a certaine little ring or circle of the Sun 
to be perceived enlightened, and appearing plainely on 
all sides round about the body of the Moone. Which if it 
be true, it is impossible then that the apparent magnitude 
of the Sunne should be at all times equall to that of the 
Moone in their conjunctions and oppositions. And this is 
the cause, perhaps, that those that have come after I'tolomy 
have endeavoured to examine these things more accurately. 

And first of all Albateni found the diameter of the Sunne, 
when he was in the Apogteum of his Eccentricke, to be 31 
nun. 20 sec, which is the same with Ptolomies observation ; 
but in the Perigseum to be 33 min. 40 sec. But Copernicus 
went yet further, and found the diameter of the Sunne, 
wlieu he was in his greatest distance from the Earth, to be 
31 min. 48 sec, and when he is nearest of all, to be 33 min. 
54 sec. Now if we worke upon this ground here laid before 
us, and take the diameter to be 32 min., it will then follow 
that if 300 furlongs answer to 32 min., the wliole circuit of 
the Earth will bee but 202,500 furlongs : which falls short 
of that measure wliich Posidonius hath set downe, but much 
more of that which Eratosthenes hath delivered. And tlius 
nnich have we thought good to sa}^ (with all due reverence 
to the judgments of learned Authoi's) in examination of 



I 



CCELESTIALL AND TEKKESTKIALL GLOBE. 91 

those tilings which have been delivered by the Greekes 
concerning the measure of the Earths circumference. 

The way of measuring used here with us is by Miles and 
Leagues ; of the former whereof 60, and of the latter 20 
answering to a degree. So that the circumference of the . 
Earth containeth 21,600 English Miles, which also agrees 
exactly with that of Ptolomy. For Ave find our English foot 
to be just equall with the Grecian, by comparing it with the 
Grecian foot, which Agricola and others have delivered unto 
us out of their monumeiits of antiquity. Now one of our 
Miles containeth 5000 feet of our English measure, and a 
furlong 600 Grecian feet. Now if you multiply the measure 
of a furlong by 500 (for so many furlongs doth Ptolomy allot 
to a degree), and so likewise the measure of a Mile, which is 
oOOO-^eet by 60, which is also the number of miles that we 
reckon to a degree, they will both produce the same number 
of feet, viz., 300,000. So that from these grounds we may 
safely conclude that the common computation received 
among our Mariners doth agree most exactly with that of 
Ptolomy. 

The Italians also make 60 miles to be the measure of 
a degree ; but their measure is something less than Ptolomies. 
The Germans reckon 15 miles to a degree ; one of their Miles 
containing 4 Italian, so that this reckoning of theirs falls just 
as much short of Ptolomies as the Italian doth ; for according 
to their computation, a degree containeth not above 480 fur- app'*" jq 

'- ° Cosmog. 

longs, every Italian Mile consisting but of 8 furlongs 
(unlesse perhaps you ratlier approve of Polybius his opinion, 
who (as he is cited by Strabo) over and above 8 furlongs 
will have 2 Plethra, which is the third part of a furlong, to be 
added to every mile, which is the just measure of our English 
Mile). Yet Appian saith that 15 Germane Miles are as 
much as 60 Italian ; and 60 Italian Miles containe 480 
furlongs, which is less than Ptolomies measure by 20 fur- 
longs, which make up two Italian miles and an halfe. 



92 



A TREATISE OF THE 



Cap. 2, lib. 1. 

Jie Naviga- 
tione. 



Christ, in 
Alfrag. 



The Spaniards reckon to a degree, some of them 16 leagues 
and two third parts, and some seventeene and a halfe. But 
how their measure stands, compared with the Grecian fur- 
longs, or with the English, Italian, or Germane miles, I have 
not yet certainely learned. Yet Nonius seemeth to equall 
the Spanish league with the Schcenus or Parasanga, which 
if it be so, then those that allow 16 leagues and 2 thirds 
to a degree have the same measure that Pcolomy hath 
delivered ; but those that alio we 17 and an halfe make it 
somewhat too large. 

It only now remaineth to see what is the doctrine of the 
Arabians concerning this matter. Of which the most ancient 
have assigned to the whole circumference of the E;irth 24,000 
miles or 8000 Parasanga, so that after this computation a 
degree must containe 66 miles with two third Parts. And 
this measure is used by Alhazeuus in the end of his booke ■ 
de Crcjmsculis. Alfraganus, and some of the later Arabicke 
writers since Almamons time, do generally account 20,400 
miles to be the just measure of the Terrestriall Globe. So 
that one degree containeth by this reckoning 56 miles and a 
third part. And it is reported ])j Abulfeda, in the beginning 
of his Geography, how that by the command of Almamon, 
King of the Arabians, or Caliph of Babylon, there were cer- 
taine men employed who should observe in the plaine field 
of Singar and the adjoyning sea coasts (meaning the places 
in a direct line toward the Pole) how many miles answered 
to a degree ; and tliat they found by a just computation, that 
in going the space of one degree there were spent full 56 
miles M-ithout any fractions, and sometime 6Q miles and a 
third part, which make up 1333 cubits with two thirds. 
But now what proportion the Arabian mile beareth to ours, 
or the Italian or Germane mile, is not so easie to determine. 
Yet I conjecture it cannot be lesse than tenne furlongs. The 
Parasang.e, as Jacob Christmannus tells us out of Abulfeda, 
that great Arabian Geographer, containeth three Arabian 



C(t:lestiall axd terrestriall globe. 9':! 

miles, according to the doctrine of the ancient and 
moderne writers among them. Now a Parasanga (as it 
appeareth plainely out of Herodotus, Xenophon, and others) 
containeth thirtie furlongs ; so that by this account every 
mile must comprehend tenne furlongs. And for confirma- 
tion of this we may observe that among the Greekes there 
were two kindes of cubits in use;, the one, the common 
or ordinary cubit, which contained two foot and an lialfe of 
Grecian measure, or twenty-foure digits, of which sixteene 
went to a foot. The other was the Kings Cubit, in use 
among the Persians ; which was greater than the common 
Cubit by three fingers breadth. Now Alfraganus affirmeth 
that the Arabian mile contained 4000 Cubits according to 
the ordinary measure. So that if this Cubitt be equall to 
the Grecian Cubit one of their miles will then containe 
6000 Grecian feet, which make up tenne furlongs. Now 
whereas the Parasanga is reckoned by some to containe 40 
furlongs, and by others GO, yet no body alloteth to it lesse 
then 30. With which later account, if we should with 
Herodotus, Xenophon, and others, rest ourselves contented, Agrieoia. 
neither indeed is it our intention to stand long in disputing 
whether or no in diverse places the measure of the Parasanga 
was also different, as Strabo seenies to thinke, who observed 
the very same difference in the Egyptian Schcenus, when as 
being conveighed on the Eiver Nilus, from one City to 
another, he observed that the Egyptians in diverse places 
used diverse measures of their Schoenus : I say if we should 
rest upon their determination, who assign but 30 furlongs to 
a Parasanga, then one of the Arabian miles will containe 
tenne furlongs at the least. Which conjectures, if they be 
true, we cannot then assent to those learned men, P. Non- ^°'^°\"f ^^° 

' ' Crep. 19. 

nius and Jacobus Christmannus, who will have the Arabian c Aifra"!*'' 
mile to be all one with the Italian. 

In this so great diversity of opinions concerning the true 
measure of the earths circumference, let it be free for every 



94 



A TREATISE OF THE GLOBE. 



man to follow whomsoever he please. Yet were it not that 
the later Arabians cloe countermand us, by proposing to us 
their Positions, which they averre to have beene grounded 
upon most certaine and exact mensurations of the distances 
of places, we should not doubt to prefer Ptolomies opinion 
before the rest. And for your better satisfaction I will here 
propose unto your view a list of all those opinions which 
carry in them any shew of probability. 



Authors. 

rri, • •. £ r Strabo and Hippai'chus 
1 he circuit of t^, , , , ' ^ 

,, ,] , Eratosthenes 

,, , • Posidonius and the Ancient Arabians 

earth contain- - t-,, , , ^ tt' i- i 

Ptolomy and Our Englishmen 

, , The Moderne Arabians 

*>■ The Italians and Grennans . 



eth, according 



Furlongs. 

252,000 
250,000 
240,000 
180,000 
204,000 
172,800 



The Measure 

of a degree, 

according to — 



Authors. Furlongs. 

r Strabo and Hipparchus . . 700 

j Eratosthenes . . . 694| 

J Posidonius and the Ancieat Arabians Q^Iq'^ 

j Ptolomy and our Englishmen . 500 

I The later Arabian. . . 5(JGf 

'^ Italians and Gerraanes . . 480 



The 



f Italian 
J English 
I Arabian 
*- German 



Miles. 



containeth 



Furlongs. 
8 

H 
10 

a2 



THE FOURTH PART. 



Of the Use of Globes. 

Hitherto wee have spoken of the Globe itselfe, together 
■with its dimensions, circles, and other instruments neces- 
sarily belonging thereto. It remaineth now that we come 
to the practise of it, and declare its several! uses. And 
first of all it is very necessary for the practise, both of Astro- 
nomy, Geography, and also the Art of Navigation. For by 
it there is an easie and ready way laid downe, for the 
finding out both of the place of the Sun, the Longitudes, 
Latitudes, and Positions of places, the length of dayes and 
houres ; as also for the finding of the Longitude, Latitude, 
Declination, Ascension both Eight and Oblique, the Ampli- 
tude of the rising and setting of the Snnne and Starres, 
together with almost an infinite number of other like things. 
Of the Chiefe of all which wee intend here briefely to 
discourse, ondtting the enumeration of them all, as being- 
tedious and not suitable to the brevity we intend. Now 
that all these things may be performed farre more accu- 
rately by the helpe of numl^ers, and the doctrine of Tri- 
angles, Plaines, and Spha^ricall bodies, is a thing very well 
knowne to those that are acquainted with the IMathema- 
tickes. But this way of proceeding, besides that it is very 
tedious and prolixe, so likewise doth it require great practise 
in the Mathematickes. 

But the same things may be found out readily and easily 
by the helpe of the Globe with little or no knowledge of the 
Matliematickes at all. 



96 A TREATISE OF THE 



CHAPTER T. 

How to finde the Longitude, Latitude, Distance, and. Angle of 
Position, or situation of any 'pla.ce expressed in the Ter- 
rcstriall Glohe. 

The Ancient Geographers, from Ptolomies time downe- 
ward, reckon the longitude of places from the Meridian 
wliich passes through the Portunate Islands ; which are 
the same that are now called the Canary Islands, as the 
most men doe generally beleeve ; but how rightly, I will 
not stand here to examine. I shall only here advertise 
the reader by the way that the latitude assigned by 
Ptolomy to the Fortunate Islands falleth soiuetliing 
of the widest of the Canary Islands, and agreeth a great 
deale nearer with the latitude of those Islands which 
Insula de are kuowne bv the name of Cabo Yerde. For Ptolomy 

Capo Verde. "" 

placed all the Fortunate Islands within the 10 gr. 30 m., 

and the 16 gr. of Northerne latitude. But the Canary Islands 

Ferro(w ^rc fouud to be distant from the Equator at least 27 degrees. 

Pt.), 27, 44. ^ ° 

The Aral:)ians began to reckon their longitude at that place 
where the Atlanticke Ocean drivetli farthest into the maine 
land, which place is tenne degrees distant eastward from 
the Fortunate Islands, as Jacobus Christmanuus hath 
observed out of Abulfeda. Our Moderne Geographers for 
the most part beginne to reckon the longitude of places from 
these Canary Islands. Yet some beginne at those Islands 
which they call Azores ; and from these bounds are the 
longitudes of places to be reckoned in these Globes whereof 
we speake. 

Now the longitude of any place is defined to be an Arch, 
or portion of the ^Equator intercepted betwixt the Meridian 
of any place assigned and the Meridian that passeth through 
Saint Michaels Island (which is one of the Azores), or of any 



C(ELEST[ALL AND TEREESTRIALL GLOBE. 97 

other place from whence the longitude of places is wont to 
be determined. 

Now if you desire to know the longitude of any place 
expressed in the Globe you must apply the same place to 
the Meridian, and observing at what place the Meridian 
cutteth the Equator, reckon the degree of the ^Equator from 
the Meridian of Saint Michael's Island to that place ; for so f '■ Michael 

£^ ' (Delgo lie.) 

many are the degrees of longitude to the place you looke for. 25! li'.^so.w! 

In the same manner may you measure the difference of 
longitude betwixt any other two places that are described on 
the Globe. For the difference of longitude is nothing else 
but an Arch of the J^^quator intercepted betwixt the Meri- 
dians of the same Places. Which difference of longitude 
many have endeavoured to set downe diverse ways how to 
finde by observation. But the most certaine way of all for 
this purpose is confessed by all writers to be by Eclipses of 
the Moone. But now these Eclipses happen but seldome, 
but are more seldom scene, yet most seldome, and in very 
few places, observed by the skilfull Artists in this Science. 
So that there are but few longitudes of places designed out 
by this meaues. 

Orontius Finseus, and Johannes Wernerus before him, con- 
ceived that the difference of longitude might be assigned 
by the known (as they presuppose it) motion of the 
Moone, and the passing of the same through the Meri- 
dian of any place. But this is an uucertaine and ticklish 
way, and subject to many difficulties. Others have gone 
other ways to worke ; as, namely, by observing the space of 
the ^quinoctiall lioures betwixt the Meridians of two places, 
which they conceive may be taken by the helpe of suune 
dials, or clocks, or houre glasses, either with water or sand, 
or the like. But all these conceits long since devised, having 
beene more strictly and accurately examined, have beene 
disallowed and rejected by all learned men (at least those of 
riper judgments) as being altogether unable to performe that 

H 



98 A TREATISE OF THE 

which is required of them. But yet for all this there are a 
kind of trifling Impostors that make public sale of these toys 
or worse, and that with great ostentation and boasting ; to 
the great abuse and expense of some men of good note and 
quality, who are perhaps better stored with money then 
either learning and judgment. But I shall not stand here to 
discover the erroures and uncertaineties of these instruments. 
Only I admonish these men by the way that they beware of 
these fellowes, least when their noses are wiped (as we say) 
of their money, they too late repent them of their ill-bought 
bargaines. Away with all such triHing, cheating rascals.^ 



CHAPTER II. 

How to Jiiidc the Latitude of any place. 
Latitude The latitude of a place is tlie distance of the Zenith, or 

quid. 

the verticall point thereof from the Equator. Now if you 
desire to finde out the latitude of any place expressed in the 
Globe, you must apply the same to the Meridian, and 
reckon the number of degrees that it is distant from the 
-Equator ; for so much is the Latitude of that place. And 
this also you may observe, that the latitude of every place 
is alwayes equall to the elevation of the same place. For 
look how many degrees the verticall point of any place is 
distant from the Equator, just so many is the Pole elevated 
above the Horizon ; as you may prove by the Globe if you 
so order it as that the Zenith of the place be 90 degrees 
distant every way from the Horizon.^ 



' Here Pontanus has a note, describing the method of finding the 
longitude by eclipses of the moon. 

'-^ Pontanus gives a note here, explaining how to find the latitude 
by observation of circumpolar stars. 



G(Ji;LKSTI.VLL AND TKRRE.'^TRTALL riLORE. 9!) 



CHAPTEE III. 

Hoiv to find the distance of two places, and angle of position, or 

sitnation. 

If you set your Globe iu such sort as that the Zenith of 
one of the places be 90 gr. distant every way from the 
Horizon, and then fasten the quadrant of Altitude to the 
Verticall j)oint, and so move it up and dovvne untill it passe 
through the Vertex of the other place ; the number of degrees 
intercepted in the quadrant betwixt the two places, being 
resolved into furlongs, miles, or leagues (as you please), will 
shew the true distance of the places assigned. And the 
other end of the quadrant that toucheth upon the Horizon 
will shew on what wind, or quarter of the world, the one 
place is in respect of the other, or what Angle of Position (as 
they call it) it hath. For the Angle of Position is tliat Anguiu=. 

" ° position! s 

which is comprehended betwixt the Meridian of any place, i^^*^- 
and a greater circle passing through the Zeniths of any two 
places assigned ; and the quantity of it is to bee numbred in 
the Horizon. 

As for example, the Longitude of London is twentie sixe Esempium. 
degrees, and it hath in Northerne Latitude 51 degrees and a 
halfe. Now if it be demanded what distance and angle of 
position it beareth to Saint Michaels Island, which is one 
of the Azores : we must proceed thus to find it. First, let 
the North Pole be elevated 51^ degrees, which is the latitude 
of London. Then, fastning the quadrant of Altitude to the 
Zenith of it, that is to say, fiftie-one degrees and an halfe 
Northward from the Equator, we must turne it about till it 
passe through Saint Michaels Island, and we shall finde the 
distance intercepted betwixt these two places to he 11 gr. 
40 min., or thereabouts, which is 280 of our leagues. And if we 
observe in what part of the Horizon tlie end of the quadrant 

n 2 



100 A TKEATISE OF THE 

restetli, we shall find the Angle of Position to fall neare 
upon 50 gr. betwixt Soutli west and by west. And this is 
the situation of this Island in respect of London. 



CHAPTER IV. 

To finde the altitude of the Sunne, or other Starre. 
Altitude j\^Q Altitude of the Sunne, or other Starre, is the distance 

quid. ' ' 

of the same, reckoned in a greater Circle, passing the Zenith 
of any place and the body of the Sunne or Starre. Xow that 
the manner of observing the same is to be performed either 
by the crosse staffe, quadrant, or other like Instrument, is 
a thing so well knowne, as that it were vaine to repeat it. 
Gemma Prisius teacheth a way how to observe the Altitude 
of the Sunne by a Sphiericall Gnomon. But this way of 
proceeding is not so well liked, as being subject to many 
difficulties and errours ; as whosoever proveth it shall easily 
find. 



CHAPTER V. 



To finde the place and declination of the Sunne for any 
day given. 

Having first learned the day of the moneth, you must 
looke for the same in the Calendar described on the Horizon 
of your Globe. Over against which, in the same Horizon, 
you shall find the Signe of the Zodiaque, and the degree of 
the same, that the Sunne is in at that time. But if it be 
leape yeare, then, for the next day after the 28th of February, 
you must take that degree of the Signe which is ascribed to 
the day following it. As for example, if you desire to know 
what degree of the Zodiaque the Sunne is in the 29th of 






CCELESTIALL AND TEKIIESTIUALL GL01]E. 101 

Februaiy, you must take that degree wliich is assigned for 
the 1st of March, and for the first of March take the degree 
of the second, and so forward. Yet I should rather counsell, 
if the place of the Sunne be accurately to be knowue, that 
you woukl have recourse to some Ephemerides where you 
may have the place of the Sunne exactly calcuhated for every 
day in the yeare. Neither indeed can tlie practise by the 
Globe in this case bee so accurate as often times it is required 
to bee. 

Now when you have found the place of the Sunne, apply 
the same to the Meridian, and reckon thereon how many 
degrees the Sunne is distant from the ^Equator, for so many 
will the degrees be of the Sunne's declination for the day 
assigned. For the Declination of the Sunne or any other Quw decH- 

° ^ _ '' natio. 

Starre is nothing else but the distance of the same from the 
Equator reckoned on the Meridian. But tlie Sunnes Decli- 
nation may be much more exactly found out of those tables 
which Mariners use, in which the Meridian Altitude, or 
Declination of the Sunne for every day in the yeare, and the 
quantity of it is expressed. One thing I shall give you 
notice of by the way, and that is, that you make use of those 
that are latest made as neare as you can. For all of them, 
after some certaine space of time, will have their errours. 
And I give this advertisement the rather for that I have 
seen some, that having some of these tables that were very 
ancient, and written out with great care and diligence (which 
notwithstanding would differ from the later Tables, and 
indeed from the truth itselfe, oftentimes at least 10 min., and 
sometimes more), yet would they alwayes use them very 
constantly, and with a kinde of religion. But these men 
take a great deale of paines and care to bring upon them- 
selves no small errors. 



102 A TREATISE OF THE 



CHAPTEK VI. 

How to finde the latitude of any placehy ohscrving the Meridian 
Altitude of the Sunne or other Starre. 

Observe the Meridian Altitude of the Suune with the 
crosse staffe, quadrant, or other like instrument ; and ha\dng 
also found the place of the Sunne in the Eclipticke, apply the 
same to the Meridian, and so move the Meridian up and 
dovvne, through the notches it stands in, untill the place of 
the Sunne be elevated so many degrees above the Horizon 
as the Sunnes altitude is. And the Globe standing in this 
position, the elevation of either of the Poles will show the 
Latitude of the place wherein you are, an example whereof 
may bee this. 
Exempium. On the 12th of June, according to the old Julian account, 
the Sunne is in the first degree of Cancer, and hath his 
greatest declination 23| degrees. And on the same day sup- 
pose the Meridian Altitude of the Sunne to be 50 degrees, 
we enquire, therefore, now what is the Latitude of the place 
where this observation was made ? And this wee finde out 
after this manner. "We apply the first degree of the Cancer 
to the Meridian, which we move up and downe, till the same 
degree be elevated above the Horizon 50 degrees : which is 
the Meridian altitude of the Sunne observed. Now in this 
position of the Globe we find the North Pole to be elevated 
63 gr. and an halfe ; so that we conclude this to be the lati- 
tude of the place where our observation was made. 

The like way of proceeding doe Mariners also use for the 
finding out of the Latitude of places by the Meridian Altitude 
of the Sunne and their Tables of Declinations. But I sha^^ 
not here speake any further of this, as well for that the 
explication thereof doth not so properl}' concerne our proper 
intention : as also because it is so well knowne to evervbodv, 



CCELESTIALL AND TEKRESTUIALL GLOBE. 103 

as that the handling of it in this place would be needlesse 
and superfluous. 

The like effect may be brought by observing the Meridian 
Altitude of any other Starre expressed in the Globe. For if 
you set your Globe, so as tliat the Starre you meane to 
observe be so much elevated above the Horizon as the 
jMeridian Altitude of it is observed to be, the elevation of 
the Pole above the Horizon will shew the Latitude of the 
place. But here I should advise that the latitude of places 
bee rather enquired after by the Meridian altitude of the 
Sunne, then of the fixed Starres ; because the Declinations, 
as wee have already showed, are very much changed, unlesse 
they be restored to their proper places by later observations. 

Some there are that undertake to performe the same, not 
only by the Meridian Altitude of the Sunne or Starre, but 
also by observing it at tw^o severall times, and knowing the 
space of time or horizontall distance betwixt the two obser- 
vations. But the practice hereof is prolix and doubtful : 
besides that, by reason of the multitude of observations that 
must be made, it is also subject to many errours and difficul- 
ties. Notwithstanding, the easiest way of proceeding that I 
know in this kind is this that folio weth. 

To finde out the Latitude of any place, by knowing the 

place of the Sunne or other Starre, and observing 

the Altitude of it two severall times, with 

the space of time betwixt the 

two observations. 

First having taken with your Compasses the complement ^/^",^g 
of the Altitude of your first Observation (now the comple- 
ment of the Altitude is nothing else but the difference of 
degrees by which the Altitude is found to be lesse then 90 
degrees), you must set one of the feet of your Compasses in 
that degree of the Ecliptique that the Sunne is in at that 
time ; and with the other describe a circle upon the super- 



lO-t A TKEATISK OF THE 

ficies of the Globe, tending somewhat toward the West, if the 
observation be taken before noone, bnt toward the East if it 
be made in tlie afternoone. Then having made your second 
observation, and observed the space of time betwixt it and 
the former, apply the place of the Sunne to the Meridian, 
turning the Globe to the East untill that so many degrees of 
the Equator have passed by the Meridian, as answer to the 
space of time that passed betwixt your observations, allowing 
for every houre fifteeue degrees in the Equator, and mark- 
ing the place in the Parallel of the Sunnes declination that 
the Meridian crosseth after this turning about of the Globe. 
And then setting the foot of your Compasses in this very 
intersection, describe an Arch of a Circle with the other foot 
of the Compasse extended to the complement of the second 
observation, which Arch must cut the former circle. And 
the common intersection of these two circles will shew the 
verticall point of the place wherein you are : so that having 
reckoned the distance of it from the Equator, you shall 
presently have the latitude of the same. 

The same may be effected, if you take any Starre, and 
work by it after the same manner ; or if you describe two 
circles mutually crossing each otlier to the complements of 
any two Starres. 



CHAPTEE VII. 



Hoio to find the Bight and Oblique Ascension of the Sunne and 
Starves for any Latitude of 'plaee and time assigned. 

Aseensio Tlic Asccusion of tlic Suu Or Starrcs is the degree of the 

et descensio . "^ 

quid. ^Equator that riseth with the same above the Horizon. And 

the Descension of it is the degree of the JEquator that goes 
under the Horizon with the same. Both these is either Eight 

rectu. or Oblique. The Eight Ascension or Descension is the degree 



C(ELESTIALL AND TEKRESTllIALL GLOBE. 105 

of the v-Eqiiator that ascendeth or descendeth with the 
Simiie or other Starre in a Eight Sphrere ; and the Oblique is owique. 
the decree that ascendeth or descendeth with the same in an 
Oblique. The former of these is simple, and of one kind 
only : because there can be but one position of a Eight 
Sphere. But the later is various and manifold, according to 
the diverse inclination of the same. 

Now if you desire to know the Eight Ascension and 
Descension of any Starre for any time and place assigned, 
apply the same Star to the Meridian of your Globe : and that 
degree of the Equator that the Meridian crossetli at the 
situation of the Globe will shew the Eight Ascension and 
Descension of the same, and also divideth each Hemisphere 
in the midst at the same time with it. 

And if you would know the Oblique Ascension or Descen- 
sion of any Starre, you must first set the Globe to the lati- 
tude of the place, and then place the Starre at the extreme 
part of the Horizon ; and the Horizon will shew in the Equa- 
tor the degree Oblique Ascension. And if you turn it about 
to the West side of the Horizon, the same will also shew in 
the u^quator the oblique descension of that Starre. In like 
manner you may find out the Oblique Ascension of the 
Sunne, or any degree of the Eclipticke, having first found 
out, in the manner wee have formerly shewed, the place 
of the Sunne. And hence also may bee found the difference 
of the Eight and Oblique Ascension, whence ariseth the 
diverse length of dayes. 

As for example, the Sunne entreth unto Capricorne on the Exempium. 
eleventh day of December, according to the old account. I 
would now, therefore, know the Eight and Oblique Ascension 
of the degree of the Eclipticke for the latitude of fiftie-two 
degrees. First, therefore, I apply the first degree of Capri- 
corne to the Meridian, where I find tlie same to cut the 
Equator at 270 gr., which is the degree of the Eight Ascen- 
sion. But if you set the Globe to the latitude of fiftie-two 



106 



A TREATISE OF THE 



degrees, and apply the same degree of Capricorne to the 
Horizon, you shall find the 303 gr. 50 min. to rise with the 
same. So that the difference of the Eight Ascension 270 
and the Oblique 303 gr. 50 min., will be found to be 33 gr. 
50 min. 



CHAPTEE VIIT. 



Hovj to finde out the Horizontall difference hetwixt the Meridian 
and the Verticall circle of the Siinne or any other Starre 
(which they call the Azimuth), for any time or iilace 
aligned. 

Having first observed the Altitude of the Sunne or Starre 
that you desire to know, set your Globe to the latitude of 
the place you are in : wdiich done, turne it about, till the 
place of the Sunne or Starre, which you have observed, be 
elevated so much above the Horizon as the Altitude of the 
same you before observed. Now you shall find that you 
desire if you take the Quadrant of Altitude, and fasten it to 
the Verticall point of the place you are in, and so move it 
together with the place of Sunne or Starre up and downe, 
untill it fall upon that which you have set downe in your 
instrument at your observation. Now in this situation of the 
Quadrant, that end of it that toucheth the Horizon will shew 
the distance of the Verticall circle in which you have 
observed the Sunne or Starre to be from the Meridian. As 
for example. 
Exempium. In tlic Xorthcme latitude of 51 gr., on the 11th of March 
after the old account, at what time the Sunne entreth into 
Aries, suppose the Altitude of the Sunne before noone to be 
observed to be thirtie gr. above the Horizon. And it is 
demanded what is the Azimuth or distance of the Sunne 
from the Meridian. First, therefore, having set the Globe to 
the latitude of 51 gr., and fastning the Quadrant of Altitude 



C(ELESTIALL ANH TKERESTKIALL GLOBE. 107 

to the Zenith, I turne the Globe about till I fiiide the first 
degree of Aries to be 30 gr. above the Horizon. And then the 
Quadrant of Altitude being also applied to the same degree 
of Aries, will shew upon the Horizon the Azimuth of the 
Sunne, or distance of it from the Meridian, to bee about fortie 
five degrees. 



CHAPTEE IX. 

Hoio to findc the houre of the day, as also the Amplitude, of 
rising and setting of the Sunne and Starves, for any time 
or latitiide of place. 

The Sunne, we see, doth rise and set at severall seasons 
of the yeare, in diverse parts of the Horizon. But among 
the rest it hath three more notable places of rising and 
setting. The first wdiereof is in the Equator, and this is 
called his ^quinoctiall rising and setting. The second is 
in the Sunnner Solstice when he is in the Tropique of Cancer, 
and the third is in the Winter Solstice when hee is in the 
Tropique of Capricorne. Now the ^quinoctiall rising of 
the Sun is one and the same in every Climate. For the 
Equator alwayes cuttetli the Horizon in the same points, 
which are alwaies just 90 gr. distant on each side from the 
Meridian. But the rest are variable, and change according 
to the diverse inclination of the Sphaere, and therefore the 
houres are unequall also. 

Now if you desire to know the houre, or distance of time, 
betwixt the rising and setting of the Sunne when he is 
in either of the Solstices, or in any other intermediate 
place, and that for any time or latitude of place, you shall 
work thus : First set your Globe to the latitude of your 
place, then having found out the place of the Sunne for the 
time assigned, place the same to the Meridian, and withall 



108 A TllEATISE OF THE 

you must set the point of the Houre Index at the figure 
twelve in the Houre circle. And having thus done, you 
must turne about the Globe toward the Plast part, till the 
place of the Sunne touch the Horizon ; w^hich done, you 
shall have the Amplitude of the Sunnes rising also in the 
i^quator, which you must reckon, as we have said, from the 
East point or place of intersection betwixt the Equator 
and Horizon. And then if you but turne the Globe about 
to the West side of the Horizon, you shall in like man- 
ner have the houre of the setting and Occidentall Ampli- 
tude. 

And if at the same time, and for the same latitude of 
place, you desire to know the houre and Amplitude of rising 
and setting, or the greatest elevation of any other Starre 
expressed in the Globe, you must turne about the Globe 
(the Index remaining still in the same position and situa- 
tion of the Index as before) till the said Starre come to the 
Horizon, eitlier to the East or West. And so shall you have 
plainely the houre and latitude that the Starre risetli and 
setteth in, in like manner as you had in the Sunne. And 
then if you apply the same to the Meridian, you shall also 
have the Meridian Altitude of the same Starre. An ex- 
ample of the Suns rising and setting may be this : 
Exempiuni. When the Sunne enters into Taurus (which in our time 
happens about the eleventh of Aprill, according to the Julian 
account), I desire to know the houre and Amplitude of the 
Sunnes rising, for the Northerne latitude of fiftie-one degrees. 
Now to finde out this, I set my Globe so that the North 
Pole is elevated above the Horizon fiftie-one degrees. Then 
I apply the first degree of Taurus to the Meridian, and the 
Houre Index to the twelfth houre in the Houre circle. Which 
done, I turn about the Globe toward the East till that the 
first degree of Taurus touch the Horizon, and then I find 
that this point toucheth the Horizon about the twentie-fifth 
degree Northward from the East point. Therefore I con- 



CCELESTIALL AND TEURESTRIALL GLOP-E. 109 

elude that to bee the Amplitude of the Suniie for that day. 
In the meantime the Index strikes upon halfe an houre 
after foure ; which I take to be the time of the Sunnes 
risino'. 



CHAPTER X. 

Of tlic threefold rising and setting of Stars. 

Besides the ordinary emersion and depression of the 
Starres in regard of the Horizon, by reason of the circum- 
volution of the Heavens, there is also observed a threefold 
rising and setting of the Starres. The first of these is called 
in Latine, Ortus Matutinus sive Cosmicus, the morning or 
Cosmicall rising ; the second, Ves^Jcrtiniis sive Acronychus, 
the Evening or Achronychall ; and the last, Hcliachus vel 
Solaris, Heliacal or Solar. The Cosmicall or morning rising 
of a Starre is when as it riseth above the Horizon together 
with the Sunne. And the Cosmicall, or morning setting of a 
Starre, is when it setteth at the Opposite part of Heaven 
when the Sunne riseth. The Acronychall or Evening rising 
of a Starre is when it riseth on the Opposite part when the 
Sunne setteth. And the Acronychall setting of a Starre is 
when it setteth at the same time with the Sun. The Helia- 
cal rising of a Starre (which you may properly call the 
emersion of it) is when a Starre that was hid before by the 
Sunne beams beginneth now to have recovered itselfe out of 
the same and to appeare. And so likewise the setting of 
such a Starre (which may also fitly be called the occulta- 
tion of the same) is, when the Starre by his own proper 
motion overtaketh any Starre, so that by the brightnesse 
of his beams it can no more be seene. 

Now, as touching the last of these kinds, many authors are 
of opinion that the fixed Stars of the first magnitude do 
be^in to shew themselves after their emersion out of the 



110 A TREATISE OF THE 

Suiine beames, when they are as yet in the upper Hemispliaere, 
and the Sunne is gone downe twelve degrees under the 
Horizon. But these of the second magnitude require that 
the Sunne is depressed 13 gr., and those of the third require 
fourteene, and of the fourth fifteene, of the fifth sixteene, of 
the sixth seventeen, and the cloudy and obscure Starres 
require eighteene degrees of the Suns depression. But 
Ptolomy hath determined nothing at all in this case, and 
withall very rightly gives this admonishment, lib. 8, cap. alt., 
Almag., that it is a very hard matter to set downe any deter- 
mination thereof. For as he there well noteth, by reason of 
the unequall disposition of the Air, this distance also of the 
Sunne for the Occultation and Emersion of the Starres must 
needs be nnequall. And one thing more we have to increase 
our suspition of the incertainty of this received opinion, and 
that is that VitelHo reqviires nineteene degrees of the Suns 
depression under the Horizon before the Evening twilight 
be ended. Is ow that the obscure and cloudy Starres should 
appeare ever before the twilight be downe I shall very hardly 
be persuaded to beleeve. Notwithstanding however the 
truth of the matter may be, we will follow the common 
opinion. 

Now, therefore, if you desire to know at what time of the 
yeare any Starre riseth or setteth in the Morning or the 
Evening, in any climate wliatsoever, you may find it out 
thus : First set your Globe to the latitude of tlie place you 
are in, and then apply the Starre you enquire after to the 
Easterne part of the Horizon, and you shall have that degree 
of the Eclipticke with which the said Starre rises Cosmic - 
ally and setteth Acronyclially ; and on the opposite side on 
the West, the Horizon will shew the degree of the Eclipticke 
with which the said Starre riseth Acronychally and settetli 
Cosmically. For the Cosniicall rising and Acronychall set- 
ting, and so likewise Acronvchall rising and Cosmicall 



C(ELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. Ill 

setting of a Starre are all one, according to those old 
verses : 

" Cosmice descendit signum, quod 
Acronyche surgit 
Chronyche desceadit signum, quod 
Cosmice surgit." 

But these things are to be explained more fully. For a 
Starre doth not alwayes rise and set with the same degree of 
the Eclipticke. For the Southerne Starres doe anticipate the 
degree with which they rise at their setting ; but the 
Northerue Starres come after it : that is, if the elevation be 
of the Articke Pole. Otherwise it is quite contrary if the 
South Pole be elevated. Now having found the degree of 
the Eclipticke with which the Starre you enquire after doth 
rise and set, if you seeke for the same degree of the signe in 
the Horizon of your Globe, you shall presently have the 
moneth and day expressed wherein the Sunne commeth to the 
same degree and signe. 

And as for the Heliacal rising and setting of a Starre, you 
may find it thus. Having set your Globe to the latitude of 
your place, you must turne about the Starre proposed to the 
West side of the Horizon, and withall on the opposite East 
part, observe what degree of the Eclipticke is elevated above 
the Horizon 12, 18, 14, or any other number of degrees 
that the magnitude of your Starre shall require for distance 
from the Sunne. And when the Sunne shall be in the 
Opposite degree to this, then that Star will set Heliacaly, 
that is to say, it will be quite taken out of our sight by the 
brightnesse of the Sunne beames. Now, if on the other 
side you apply the same Starre to the East, and find out the 
Opposite degree in the Eclipticke on the West part, that is, 
the same number of degrees above the Horizon when the 
Sunne commeth to this place, the same Starre will rise 
Heliacaly, or recover itselfe out of the Sunne beames. And 
so if you but find tlie same degrees of the P^clipticke among 



112 A TREATISE OF THE 

the Signes on the Horizon of your Globe, you have the 
nioneth and the day when the Sunne will be in those degrees. 
And the same also is the time of the emersion and occulta- 
tion of the Starre you enquire after. But we will here 
Esempium, propose an example of the occultation of some fixed Starre 
of the first magnitude, which done, the emersion of the 
same is also found by the contrary way of working. 

And the Starre we propose shall be that bright Starre in 
the mouth of the Great Dog, which is called Sirius, whose 
occultation we desire to know for the latitude of 51 gr. 
Northward. Now this Starre, being of the first magnitude, 
beginnes to bee hid when as it toucheth the Horizon in tlie 
upper Hemisphfere and the Sunne is at the same time 
depressed under the Horizon but 12 degrees. If, therefore, 
you apply this Starre to the AVest part of the Horizon 
(having first set your Globe to the latitude of 51 degrees), 
and on the Opposite East side observe what degree of 
Eclipticke is just 12 degrees above the Horizon (now this 
degree is very neare the 11 gr. of Scorpius), when the Sunne 
shall come to the OjDposite degree in the Eclipticke, which is 
the 11 of Taurus, that Starre will set Heliacaly, and be hid 
by the Sunne beames. But the Sun comes to this degree of 
Taurus about the 22 of Aprill; therefore we conclude that 
the Dogge Starre sets Heliacaly about that time. And if 
you worke in the same manner, applying the Starre to the 
East part of the Horizon, you shall have the time of its 
Heliacal rising or emersion out of the Suns beames.^ 

Not unlike this is the manner of proceeding also in finding 
the beginning and ending of the twilights ; of which we shall 
speake in the next chapter. 



1 Pontanns here inserts an interesting note on the references to 
these kinds of rising and setting of stars, in the Georgics of Yirgil. 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 113 



CHAPTER XI. 

Hoiv to fincU the beginning and end of the Twilight for any 
time, and Latitude of Place. 

The Twilight is defined to bee a kind of imperfect light 
betwixt the day and the Night, both after the setting and 
before the rising of the Sunne ; of which the first is called 
Evening Twilight and the other the IMorning. Now the 
beginning of the one, and the ending of the other, are per- 
ceived at the same eqnall space of time from the rising and 
setting of the Sun : notwithstanding, the continuance of each 
of them is sometime QTeater and sometime lesse. For in 
Summer the Twiliglits are much longer then in the Winter. 
The measure of them they commonly make to be, when as 
the Sunne is depressed, 18 degrees under the Horizon. But, 
as P. Nonius rightly observeth, there cannot be any certaine 
measure or tearme assigned to them, by reason of the various 
disposition of the aire, and the elevation of the vapours that 
are exhaled out of the earth ; which the same Author saith 
he findes to be also diverse, sometimes higher and some- 
times lower. Vitellio, and Alhazenus before him, would 
have it to bee, when the Sun is depressed under the Horizon, 
nineteen degrees. But however the truth be, we shall follow 
the common received opinion herein. Now, therefore, if you 
desire to know upon these grounds here laid downe, at what 
houre the Twilight begins and endeth at any time or latitude 
of place, you must doe thus : First set your Globe to the 
latitude of that place, and apply that degree of the Eclipticke 
wherein the Sunne is in at that time to the Meridian, and 
withall direct the point of the Index to twelve in the Houre 
circle ; then making the degree of the Eclipticke, that is 
directly opposite to the place of the Sunne, turne about your 
Globe, till such time as the opposite degree of the Sunne be 

I 



114 A TREATISE OF THE 

elevated eigliteene gr. above the Horizon toward the West 
part of it ; and forthwith the Index will shew in the Houre 
circle the beginning of the Morning Twilight. And if you 
turne about your Globe in like manner to the East, you 
shall also have the Houre when the Evening Twilight 
endeth. 



CHAPTEE XII. 



Hoiu to find the length of the Artificiall Day or Night, or 
quantity of the Sunne's Parallel that remaines above the 
Horizon, and that is hid beneath it, for any Latitude 
of place and time assigned. As also to find the same of 
any other Star res. 

The day we have already showed to be twofold, either 
naturall or artificiall. The natural day is defined by the 
whole revolution of the ^Equator, with that portion also of 
the same that answereth to such an Arch of the Eclipticke 
which the Suune passeth over in one day. Xow the whole 
revolution of the ^Equator (besides that portion which 
answereth to the Sunne's proper motion) is divided into 
twentie foure equall parts, which they call equall houres, 
because they are all of equall length, fifteen e degrees of the 
Equator rising, and as many setting every houre's space. 
Now the beginning of this day being diverse, according to 
the diversity of countries, some beginning at Sunset, as the 
Athenians and Jewes, some at midnight, Egyptians and 
Eomanes ; others at Sunne rising, as the Chaldeans ; or at 
Noone, as the Umbrians, and commonly our Astronomers 
doe at this day ; this being not a thing suitable to our pre- 
sent purpose, I shall not proceed any further in the explana- 
tion of the same. 

The artificiall day is defined to bee that space of time 
that the Sunne is in our Upper Hemisplipere, to which is 



CCELESTIALL AND TEKRESTPJALL GLOBE. 115 

opposed the artificiall night, while the Sun remaineth in 
the lower Hemisphtere. The artificiall day, as also the 
night, are divided each of them into 12 parts, which they 
call unequall houres ; because that according to the different 
seasons of the yeare they are greater or lesse, and are never 
always of the same length. 

The length of the artificiall day is thus found out. The 
Globe being set to the latitude of the place, you must find 
out the degree of the Eclipticke that the Sun is in at that 
time, and apply the same to the Meridian, and direct the 
Houre Index to the number of 12 in the Circle. And then 
turning about the Globe, till that the place of the Sun touch 
the Horizon at the Easterne part, the Index will Shew the 
houre in the Circle of the rising of the Sun; and if you but 
turne it about again e to the West, you shall in like manner 
have the houre of the setting, and so by this meanes find out 
the length of the artificiall day. Now if you multiply the 
number of the houres by 15 (for so many degrees, as we 
have already often said, are allowed to one equall ^quinoc- 
tiall Houre), you shall presently have the number of degrees 
of the Sun^s Parallel that appeare.s above the Horizon : 
which if you substract out of 360, the remainder will be the 
quantity of that part of the same Parallel that alwaies is hid 
under the Horizon ; or else you may proceed the contrary 
way, and first finde out the quantity of the Diurnall Arch, 
and afterward by the same you may gather the number of 
the houres also. For the Globe being set to the latitude of 
the place, and the degree of the Eclipticke that the Sunne 
is in beinge knowne, you may finde out, in the manner now 
set downe, the difference of the Eight and Oblique Ascen- 
sions of the same degree of the Eclipticke for the latitude of 
that place. For this difference will be the halfe of that 
wherein the Artificiall day, for that time and place, is either 
deficient or exceeds the length of our ^quinoctiall day ; and 
therefore you must adde it, when the dales are longer then 

I 2 



116 



A TREATISE OF THE 



the nights (which is from the 11th of March to the 12th of 
September), but substract all other times of the yeare,. 
when as the nights are longer then the dayes. 
Exempium. As for example. On the 12 clay of June, according to 
the old account, the Sunne enters into Cancer ; the Eight 
Ascension of which degree of the Eclipticke is 90 degrees. 
But if in the latitude of 52 gr. the first degree of Cancer 
bee applied to the Horizon, wee shall finde the Oblique 
Ascension of it to bee fiftie sixe gr. and about tenne m. So 
that the difference betwixt them is 33 gr. 50 min., which if 
you adde to ninetie gr., the halfe of the ^quinoctiall day, 
the length of the artificiall day will then bee 123 gr. fiftie 
min., and the whole Diuruall Arch 247 gr. 40 min., which 
if you. divide by fifteene, the quotient will be sixteene and 
almost an halfe; which is the number of houres in the 
artificiall day on the twelfth of June for the latitude of 
fiftie two degrees. 

And by this meanes may you also finde out the quantity 
of the longest or shortest, or any other intermediate day, 
together with the increase or decrease of the same, for any 
time or latitude of place. 

Cleomedes would have the quantity of the dayes to 
increase and diminish after this manner ; that the month 
immediately before, and also after the ^quinoxe, the daies 
should increase and decrease the fourth part of the whole 
difference betwixt the length of the longest and the shortest 
dayes of the whole yeare ; and the second moneth they should 
differ a sixth part ; and the third a twelfth part : that is if 
the whole difference betwixt the longest and the shortest 
day bee sixe houres. So that the moneth goeth immediately 
before, and after the ^quinoxe, the dayes increase and 
decrease an houre and a halfe, that is to say the fourth part 
of sixe houres ; the second month an whole houre ; and the 
third halfe an houre. But suppose we this to be exactly 
agreeable to some certaine determinate latitude, j^et it is 



Oleom. 1. 



CCELESTIALL AND TEKEESTRIALL GLOBE. 117 

not generally so in all places. For according to the diverse 
Inclination of the Sphaere, the daies also are observed to 
increase and decrease diversly. For seeing that the Parallels 
in every severall latitude are cut by the Equator in a dif- 
ferent manner, it must needs follow that the proportion 
of the increase and decrease of the dayes must also be dif- 
ferent. 

I shall not here need to set downe the manner how to 
find the apparent Arch of the Parallel of any Star, seeing 
that it is found out in the same manner as the Diurnall 
Arch of the Sunnes Parallel is. 



CHAPTEE XIII. 



How to finde out the lioure of the Day and Night, hoth equall 
and t('}iequaIl,for any time 07' latitude of place. 

If you desire to finde out the equall houre of the day, first 
set your Globe to the latitude of the place you are in, and 
also observe the latitude of the Sunne ; which done, apply 
the place of the Sunne to the Meridian, and set the Index 
to the twelfth houre in the Circle, and then turne about the 
Globe either to the East or West, as your observation shall 
require, untill that the place of the Sunne be elevated so 
many degrees above the Horizon as shall agree with your 
observation, as hath been already shewed in declaring how 
to find the Azimuth. And the Globe standing in this situa- 
tion, the Index will point in the Houre circle the houre of 
the day wherein your observation was made. After the 
same manner also you may finde the houre of the night, by 
observing the Altitude of any knowne Starre that is exprest 
in the Globe. For the Index must stand still as it did 
before, when it was fitted to the place of the Sunne, and tlie 
Globe must bee turned about till the Starre be observed to 



118 A TKEATISE OF THE 

have the same Elevation above the Horizon of the Globe as 
it had in the Heavens, and then the Index will shew the 
houre of the night. 

Now the manner how to find out the nnequall houre of 
the day is this. First you are to find out, as we have 
already shewed, the quantity or number of the houres of the 
artificiall day, and also the equall houre of the same ; 
whence, by the rule of proportion, you may come to the 
knowledge of the unequall houre. 
Excmpium. In thc latitude of 49 degrees the longest day containeth 
16 houres. Now, therefore, when it is 10 of the clocke before 
Noone, or the sixth houre after Sun rising on this day, I 
desire to know what unequall houre of the day it is, I there- 
fore divide my proportionall tearmes thus : 16 give 6, there- 
fore 12 (which is the number of equall houres in every day 
or night) give 4 and an halfe. 

And if wee desire to know how many degrees of the 
Equator doe answer to one unequall houre, we may doe it 
thus, namely, by dividing the whole number of degrees of the 
Diurnall Arch by 12. As if the Artificiall day bee 16 
equall houres in length, then the Arch of the Diurnall 
Parallel will be 240 degrees, which if we divide by 12, the 
quotient, which is 20, w411 shew the number of degrees in 
the Jj^quator that answer to one unequall houre. The like 
method also is to be observed in finding out the length of 
the unequall houre of the night. 



CHAl'TER XIV. 



To Jinde oitt the Longitude, Latitude, and Declination of any 
fixed Starve as it is expressed in the Globe. 

i.ongitudo The Longitude of a Starre is an Arch of Eclipticke inter- 

stelle quid. . rt- ^ ^ • ^ t 

cepted betwixt two or tlie greater Circles which are drawne 
through the Poles of the Eclipticke, the one of which passeth 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTHIALL GLOBE. 119 

through the intersection of the Equator and Eclipticke, and 
the other through the Center of the Starre. 

The Latitude of a Starre is the distance of it from the ^^i^*'^^" 
Eclipticke ; which is also to be reckoned in that circle which 
passeth through the Center thereof. 

Now, if you desire to find out either of these, you must 
take the quadrant of Altitude, or any other quadrant of 
a Circle that is but exactly divided into 90 parts, and 
lay one end of it on either Pole of the Eclipticke, either 
Northerne or Southerne, as the latitude of the Starre shall 
require. Then let it passe through the Center of the Starre 
to the very Eclipticke, and there the other end will shew the 
degree of longitude of the same, which you must reckon 
from the beginning of Aries, and so that portion of the 
Quadrant that is contained betwixt the Starre it selfe and 
the Eclipticke will also shew the latitude of the Starre. 

The Declination of a Starre is the distance of it from the i^^ciinatio 

quid. 

Equator ; which distance must bee reckoned on a greater 
circle passing through the Poles of the Equator. And 
therefore if you but apply any Starre to the Meridian, you 
shall presently have the Declination of it, if you account the 
degrees and minutes of the Meridian (if there be any) that 
are contained betwixt the Center of the Starre and the 
^-Equator. 



CHAPTEPt XV. 



To Jlnde the variation of the Gompasse for any Latitude 
of place. 

That the Needle touched with the Loadstone doth decline 
in diverse places from the Intersection of the Meridian and 
Horizon is a thing most certaine, and confirmed by daily 
experience. Neither is this a meere forgery of Mariners, 
intended by them for a cloake of their own errours, as P. De 



120 A TREATISE OF THE 

Medina, Grand Pilot to the King of Spaiue, was of opinion. 
Neither yet doth it come to passe, by reason that the vertue 
of the Magnet by long use and exercise is weakened, as P. 
Nonius conceived, or else because it was not originally 
endued with sufficient vertue, as some others coldly conjec- 
ture; but this motion proceeds from its owne naturall 
inclination. The cause of this deflexion, although hitherto 
in vaine sought after by many, hath yet beene found by 
none. In this, as in all other of Nature's hidden and 
abstruse mysteries, we are quite blind. There have beene 
some that have endeavoured to prescribe some certaine 
Canon or rule for this Deflexion, as if it had beene regular 
and governed by some certaine order, but all in vaine. For 
that it is not inordinate and irregular is testified by daily 
experience, not only such as is taken from the dull conjec- 
ture of the common sort of Mariners, which ofttimes falls 
farre wide of the truth, but from the farre more accurate 
observations of skilful Navigatours. 

At the Isles which they call Azores it declineth not at all 
from the true Meridian, as the common opinion of Mariners 
is. And I dare bee bold to affirme that at those more 
Western Islands also it varieth very little, or nothing at all. 
But if you saile Eastward from those Islands, you shall 
observe that point of the Needle that respects the North to 
incline somewhat toward the East. At Antwerp, in Brabant, 
it varieth about nine degrees ; and neare London it declineth 
from the true Meridian about eleven degrees. And if you 
saile Westward from those Islands, the Needle also will 
incline toward the West. About the Sea Coasts of America, 
in the latitude of tliirtie five or tliirtie sixe degrees, it 
declineth above eleven degrees from the true Meridian. 
Beyond the .Equator it happens cleane otherwise. Neare 
the outwardmost Promontory of Brazile, looking Eastward, 
which is commonly called C. Frio, it varieth from tlie true 
Meridian above twelve degrees. Within the most Eastward 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTEIALL GLOBE. 121 

parts of the Straits of Magellane it declineth five or 
sixe gr. And if you saile from tliat Promontory we now 
spoke of toward Africke Eastward, the variation still 
encreaseth, as farre as to 17 or 18 degrees, which (as farre as 
we can conjecture) happens in a Meridian not farre from 
that which passeth through the Azores. From thence the 
deflexion decreaseth to nine or tenne degrees, which hap- 
peneth neare the Isle of Saint Helen, bearing somewhat 
toward the West. And from hence they say it decreaseth 
till you are past the Cape of Good Hope, where they will 
have it to lye in the just situation of the true Meridian, 
neare to a certaine Eiver, which for this cause is called by 
the Portugalls Piio de las Agulias. And all this deviation is 
toward the East. 

All this wee have had certaine proofe and experience of, 
and that by as accurate observations as those instruments 
which are used in Navigation would afford, and the same 
examined and calculated according to the doctrine of Sphferi- 
call Triangles. So that we have just cause to suspect the 
truth of many of these traditions, which are commonly 
delivered, concerning the deflexion of the Needle. And, 
namely, wdiereas they report that under that Meridian, wd:iicli 
passeth through the Azores, it exactly respects the true 
Meridian, and that about the Sea Coasts of Brazilia the 
North point of the Needle declineth toward the West (as 
some aftirme), wee have found this to bee false. And whereas 
they report that at New^-found land it declineth toward the 
West above 22 degrees, we very much suspect the truth 
hereof, because that this seemes not at al to agree with the 
observation we have made concerning the variation about 11 
degrees neare upon the Coast of America, of the truth of 
which I am so confident as of nothing more. It therefore 
appeares to be an idle fancy of theirs, who look to find some 
certaine point which the Needle should always respect ; and 
that either on the Earth (as, namely, some certaine Magneti- 



122 A TREATISE OF THE 

call Moimtaines, not far distant from the Arcticke Pole), or 
else ill the Heavens (as, namely, the taile of the little Bear, 
as Cardan thought), or else that it is situate in that very- 
Meridian that passeth through the Azores, and about six- 
teene degrees and an halfe beyond the North Pole, as Mer- 
cator would have it. And therefore there is no need to be 
taken to them either, who conceive that there might be 
some certaine way found out of calculating the longitudes of 
places by means of this deflexion of the Needle, which I 
could wish they were able to performe ; and, indeed, it might 
bee done, were there any certain point it should alwayes 
respect. 

But to leave this discourse, let us now see how the 
quantity of this declination of the Needle may be found out 
by the use of the Globe, for any place of knowne latitude. 
And first you must provide you of some instrument by which 
you may observe the distance of the Suns Azimuth from the 
situation of a Needle. Our Mariners commonly use a 
Nautical Compasse, which is divided into three hundred and 
sixtie degrees, having a thread placed cross wise over the 
center of the Instrument to cast the shade wes of the Sunne 
upon the center of the same. This instrument is called by 
our Mariners the Compasse of variation ; and this seemeth to 
be a very convenient instrument for the same use. But yet 
I could wish it were made with some more care and 
accuratenesse then Commonly it is. With this, or the like 
instrument, you must observe the distance of the Sunnes 
Azimuth, for any time or place, from the projection of the 
Magneticall Needle. Now we have before shewed how to 
find out how much the verticall circle of the Sunne is dis- 
tant from the true Meridian. And the difference that there 
is betwixt the distance of the Sunne from the true Meridian, 
and from the situation of the Needle, is the variation of the 
Compasse. Besides, we have already shewed how the 
Amplitude of the rising and the setting of the Sunne may 



CCELESTIALL AND TERllESTKIALL GLOBE. 123 

be found. If, therefore, by the helpe of this or the like 
instrument, it be observed (as we have said) how many 
degrees the Sunne riseth or setteth from those points in the 
Compasse that answer to the East or West, you shall in like 
manner have the deviation of the Needle from the true 
Meridian, if it have any at all. 



CHAPTEE XVI. 



How to mahe a Sunne Diall hy the Globe for any Latitude 
or Place. 

We do not here promise the whole Art of Dialling ; as 
being a matter too prolixe to be handled in this place, and 
not so properly concerning our present businesse in hand. 
And therefore it shall suffice us to have touched lightly, and, 
as it were, pointed out only some few grounds of this Art, 
being such as may very easily bee understood by the use of 
the Globe. 

And here in this place wee shall shew you only two, the 
most common sorts of Dialls ; one whereof is called an Hori- 
zontall Diall, because it is described on a plaine or flat 
which is Parallel to the Horizon ; and the other is called a 
Murall, as being erected for the most part on a Wall perpen- 
dicular to the Horizon, and looking directly either toward 
the North or South. But both these may not unfitly bee 
called Horizontall ; not in respect of the same place indeed, 
but of diverse. And, therefore, whether it be a Flat Hori- 
zontall, or Erect, or else Inclining any way, there will be 
but one kind of Artifice in making of the same. 

Let us therefore now see in what manner a plaine Hori- 
zontall Diall maybe made for any place. Having therefore first 
prepared your flat Diall ground Parallel to the Horizon, draw 



124 A TKEATISE OF THE 

a Meridian on it, as exactly North and South as you possibly 
can. Which done, draw another East and West, which must 
crosse it at right angles. The first of which lines will shew 
twelve, and the other sixe of the Clocke, both morning and 
evening. Then making a Center in the Intersection of these 
two lines, describe a circle on your Diall ground to what 
distance you please, and then divide (as all other circles 
usually are) into 360 parts. And it will not be amisse to 
subdivide each of these into lesser parts, if it may con- 
veniently be done. And now it only remaines to finde out 
the distances of the Houre lines in this circle for any latitude 
of place. Wliich that wee may doe by the use of the 
Globe, let it first be set to the latitude of the place assigned. 
And then make choice of some of the greater circles in the 
Globe, that passe through the Poles of the world (as for 
example the yEquinoctiall Colure, if you please) : and apply 
the same to the Meridian, in which situation it sheweth ]\Iid- 
day, or twelve of the Clocke. Then turning about the Globe 
toward the West (if you will), till that fifteene degrees of the 
Equator have passed through the Meridian, you must marke 
the degree of the Horizon that the same Colure Crosseth in 
the Horizon. For that point will shew the distance of tlie 
first and eleventh houres from the Meridian. Both of which 
are distant an houres space from the Meridian or line of 
Mid-day. Then turning again the Globe forward, till other 
fifteene degrees are past the ]\Ieridian, the same Colure 
will point out the distance of the tenth houre, which is two 
houres before Noone, and of the second houre after Noone. 
And in the same manner you may finde out the distance of 
all the rest in the Horizon, allotting to each of them fifteene 
degrees in the Equator crossing the Meridian. But here 
you must take notice by the way, that the beginning of this 
account of the distances must bee taken from that part of 
the Horizon on which the Pole is elevated ; to wit, from the 
North part of the Horizon, if the North Pole bee elevated, 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTEIALL GLOBE. 125 

and so likewise from the South part if the Antarcticke be 
elevated. 

These distances of the Houres being thus noted in the 
Horizon of the Globe, you must afterward translate them 
into }our Plaine allotted for your Diall Ground, reckoning in 
the circumference of it so many degrees to each houre as are 
answerable to those pointed out by the Colure in the Hori- 
zon. And lastly, having thus done, the Gnomon or Stile 
must bee erected. Where you are to observe this one thing 
(which is indeed in a manner the chiefe and onely thing in 
this Art to bee carefully looked into), namely, that that edge 
or line of the Gnomon, which is to show the houres by the 
shadow, in all kinds of Dials, must be set Parallel to the 
Axis of the World ; that so it may make an Angle of Incli- 
nation with its plaine ground equall to that which the Axis 
of the World makes with the Horizon. Now that the Stile is 
to stand directly to the North and South, or in the Meridian 
line, is a thing so commonly knowne, that it were to no 
purpose to mention it. And this is the manner of making 
a Diall on a plaine Horizoutall Ground. 

Now if you would make a plaine Erect Diall perpendicular 
to the Horizon (which is commonly called a Murall), and 
respecting either the North or South, you must remember 
this one thing (the ignorance whereof hath driven those that 
commonly professe the Art of Dialling into many troubles 
and difficulties) ; this one thing I say is to be observed, that 
that which is an Erect Diall in one place will be an Hori- 
zoutall in another place, whose Zenith is distant from that 
place 90 degrees, either Northward or Southward. 

As for example : Let there be an Erect Diall made for any 
place whose latitude is 52 gr.^ This is nothing else but to 
make an Horizontall Diall for the latitude of 38 degrees. 
And if there be an Erect Diall made for the latitude of 27 gr. 
the same will be an Horizontall Diall for the latitude of 63 

1 The 1659 edition has 25 gr. 



126 A TREATISE OF THE GLOBE. 

degrees. The same proportion is to bee observed in the 
rest. And hence it manifestly appeares that an Horizontall 
Diall and a Verticall are the same at the latitudes of 45 
degrees. 

And so likewise by this rule may be made any manner of 
Inclining Diall, if so be that the quantity of the Inclination 
be but knowne. As, for example, if a Diall be to be made on a 
plaine ground, whose Inclination is 10 degrees from the Hori- 
zon Southward, and for a place whose latitude is 52 gr. North- 
ward, you must describe in that plaine an Horizontall Diall 
for the latitude of 62 degrees Northward, And if in the 
same latitude the Diall Ground doe incline toward the 
North 16 gr. you must make an Horizontall DiaU for the 
Northerue latitude of 36 gr. 

And thus much shall suffice to have beene spoken of 
the making of Dialls by the Globe. 



THE FIFTH AND LAST PAET. 



Of the Rombes that are described in the Terrestriall 
Globe, and tlieir use. 

Those lines which a Ship, following the direction of the 
Magneticall Needle, describeth on the surface of the Sea, 
Petrus Nonius calleth in the Latine Eumbos, borrowing 
the Appellation of his Countrymen the Portugals ; which 
word, since it is now generally received by learned writers 
to expresse them by, we also will use the same. 

These Eumbes are described in the Globe either by greater 
or lesser circles, or by certaine crooked winding lines. But 
Seamen are wont to expresse the same in their Nauticall 
Charts by right lines. But this practice of theirs is cleane 
repugnant to the truth of the thing, neither can it by any 
meanes be defended from errours. The invention of Rumbes, 
and practice of describing the same upon the Globe is some- 
what ancient. Petrus Nonius hath written much concerning 
the use of them, in two bookes, which he intituleth de 
Navigandi ratione. And Mercator hath also expressed them 
in his Globes. But the use of them is not so well known to 
every body ; and therefore I think it not unfit to be the 
more large in the explication of the same. 

Beginning, therefore, with the nature and originall of them, 
we shall afterwards descend to the use there is to be made 
of them in the Art of Navigation. And first we will begin 
with the originall, and nature of the Nautical Index or 
Compasse ; which is very well knowne to be of the fashion 
of a plaine rounde Boxe, the circumference whereof is 



128 A TREATISE OF THE 

divided into 32 equall parts distinguished by certaine right 
lines passing through the center thereof. One point of it, 
which that end of the Needle that is touched with the 
Magnet alwaies respects, is directed toward the Nortli, so 
that consequently the Opposite point must necessarily 
respect the South. And so likewise all the other parts in it 
have respect unto some certaine fixed points in the Horizon 
(for the Compasse must alwayes be placed Parallel to the 
Horizon). Now I call these points fixed onely for doctrine 
sake, not forgetting in the meane time that the Magneticall 
Needle, besides that it doth of its owne nature decline in 
divers places from the situation of the true Meridian (which 
is commonly called the variation of the Compasse), according 
to the custome of divers Countries, is also placed after a 
divers manner in the Compasse. For some there are that 
place it 5 gr. 37 m. more Eastward then that point that 
answereth to the ISorth quarter of the world, as doe the 
Spaniards and our Englishmen. Some place it 3 gr. and 
almost 18 m. declining from the North ; and some set it at 
11 gr. 15 m. distance from that point. All which, notwith- 
standing, let us suppose the Needle alwayes to look directly 
North and South. Now these lines thus expressed in the 
Mariners Compasse are the common Intersections of the 
Horizon and Verticall circles, or rather Parallel to these. 
Among which, that wherein the Needle is situate, is the 
common Intersection of the Horizon or Meridian. And that 
which crosseth this at right angles is the common section of 
the Horizon, and a verticall circle drawn through the ^qui- 
noctiall East and West. And thus we have the 4 Cardinall 
winds or quarters of the World, and the whole Horizon 
divided into 4 equall parts, each of them containing 90 
degrees. Now if you divide again each of these into 8 
parts by 7 Verticall circles, drawne on each side of the 
Meridian through the Zenith, the whole Horizon will be 
parted into 32 equall sections, each which shall containe 



CCELESTIALL AND TEKEESTRIALL GLOBE. 129 

11 gr, 15 m. These are the severall quarters of the world 
observed by IMariners in their voyages ; but as for auy lesser 
parts or divisions then these they look not after them. And 
this is the originall of the Nauticall Compasse by which Sea- 
men are guided in their Voyages. 

Let us now, in the next place, consider what manner of 
lines a Ship, following the direction of the Compasse, doth 
describe in her course. For the better understanding 
whereof I think it fit to premise these few Propositions ; 
which being rightly and thoroughly considered, will make 
the whole businesse facile and perspicuous. 

1. All Meridians of all places doe passe through both the corai. 
Poles, and therefore they crosse the ^Equator, and all Circles 
Parallel to it, at right angles. 

2. If wee direct our course any other way then toward one 
of the Poles, we change ever and anon both our Horizon and 
Meridian. 

3. The Needle being touched with the Loadstone pointeth 
out the common Intersection of the Horizon and the Meri- 
dian, and one end of it alwayes respecteth the North, in a 
manner, and the other the South. And here I cannot but 
take notice of a great errour of Gemma Frisius, who, in his 
Corollary to the fifteene Chapter of P. Appianus Cosmography, 
afifirmes that the Magneticall Needle respects the North Pole 
on this side of the ^quinoctiall line, but on the other side 
of the yEquinoctiall it pointeth to the South Pole. Which 
opinion of his is contradicted by the experience both of 
my selfe and others. And therefore I believe his too much 
credulity deceived him, giving credit perhaps to the fabulous 
relations of some vaine heads. But howsoever it be, the 
errour is a fowle one, and unworthy so great an Author. 
This frivolous conceit hath also beene justly condemned 
before by the Illustrious Jul. Scaliger, instructed hereto out Exer., isi, 
of the navigations of Ludovicus Vertomannus and Ferdinand 
Magellane. 



130 A TREATISE OF THE 

4. The same Eumbe cutteth all the Meridians of all 
places at equall Angles, and respecteth the same quarters of 
the world in every Horizon. 

5. A great circle drawne through the vertex of any place 
that is any whit distant from the Equator cannot cut 
diverse Meridians at equall Angles. And therefore I cannot 
assent to Pet. N"onius, who would have the Rumbes to con- 
sist of portions of great circles. For, seeing that the por-' 
tion of a great circle, being intercepted betwixt diverse 
Meridians, though never so little distant from each other, 
maketh unequall angles with the same, a Kumbe cannot 
consist of them by the precedent proposition. But this 
inequality of Angles is not perceived (saith he) by the sense, 
unlesse it bee in Meridians somewhat farre remote from one 
another. Be it so. Notwithstanding, the errour of this 
position is discoverable by art and demonstration. Neither 
doth it become so great a Mathematician to examine rules of 
art by the judgement of the sense. 

6. A great circle drawne through the Verticall point of 
any place, and inclining to the Meridian, maketh greater 
Angles with all other Meridians then it doth with that from 
whence it was first drawne. It therefore behoveth that a 
line which maketh equall angles with diverse Meridians (as 
the Rumbes doe) be bowed and turne in toward the Meri- 
dian. And hence it is that when a Ship saileth according 
to one and the same Rumbe (except it be one of the foure 
Principal and Cardinall Rumbes) it is a crooked and Spirall 
line, such as wee expressed in the Terrestriall Globe. 

7. The portions of the same Rumbe, intercepted betwixt 
any two Parallels, whose difference of latitude is the same, 
are also equall to each other. Therefore an equall segment 
of the same Rumbe equally changeth the difference of lati- 
tude in all places. And therefore that common rule of Sea 
men is true : that in an equall space passed in one and the 
same Rumbe, one of the Poles is equally elevated and the 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTIIIALL GLOBE, 131 

other depressed. So that Michael Coignet is found to be in c. n. 
an errour, who, out of some certaine ill grounded positions, 
endeavoured to prove the contrary. 

Out of the 4th Proposition there ariseth this Consectary, 
namely, that Pamibes, though continued never so farre, doe 
not passe through the Poles. For seeing that the same 
Eumbe is equally inclined to all Meridians — and all Meri- 
dians doe passe through the Poles — it would then follow 
that if a Paimbe should passe through the Poles, the same 
line in the same point would crosse infinite other lines ; 
which is impossible, because that a part of any Angle cannot 
bee equall to the whole. Neither doth that which we 
delivered in the last Proposition make anything against this 
Consectary ; to wit, that betwixt any two Parallels of equall 
distance, equall portions of the same Eumbe may be inter- 
cepted, that so it should thence follow that the segment of 
any Eumbe intercepted betwixt the Parallel of 80 gr. 
of latitude and the Pole is equall to a segment of the 
same Eumbe, intercepted betwixt the Equator and the 
Parallel of tenne gr. of latitude : and the reason is, because 
the Pole is no Parallel. And therefore it was a true Position 
of Nonius that the Eumbes doe not enter the Poles, although 
it was not demonstrated with the like happy successe. For 
hee assumes foundations contrary to the truth, as wee said 
before. And Gemma Frisius also was mistaken when he 
affirmed, in his Append, ad 15 Cap. Appian, Cosmogr., that l. 2, c. 24. 
the Eumbes doe concurre in the Poles, which was the 
opinion also of some others, who are therefore justly taxed c. 17. 
by Michael Coignet. 

These things being well considered, it will be easie to 
understand what manner of lines a ship, following the direc- 
tion of the Magnet, doth describe in the Sea. If the fore- 
part of the Ship be directed toward the North or South, 
which are the quarters that the Magneticall Needle alwayes 
pointeth at, your course will be alwayes under the same 

K 2 



132 A TREATISE OF THE 

Meridian : because, as wee shewed in our third Proposition, 
the Needle alwayes respecteth the Intersections of the Hori- 
zon and Meridian, and is situate in the phiine of the same 
Meridian. If the forepart of the Ship be directed to that 
quarter that the East and West Eumbe pointeth out, in your 
course you wil then describe either the Equator or a circle 
Parallel to it. For if at the beginning of your setting forth 
your Zenith be under the ^-Equator, your Ship will describe 
an Arch or segment of the vEquator. But if your Verticall 
point be distant from the Equator, either Northward or 
Southward, your course will tJien describe a Parallel, as farre 
distant from the ^Equator as the latitude of the place is 
whence you set forward at first. As suppose our intended 
course to bee from some place lying under the Equator, by 
the Kumbe of the East and West, we shall goe forward still 
under the Equator. For by this nieanes, as we goe on, we 
always meet with a new Meridian, which the line of our 
course crosses at right angles. Now no other line besides 
the vEquator can doe this ; as appeares manifestly out of 
the Corollary of the first proposition, and therefore in this 
course our Ship must describe a portion of the Equator, 
But if we steere our course by the East and West Eumbe 
from any place that lyeth besides the ^Equator, we shall be 
alwayes under the same Parallel. For all circles parallel to 
the Equator doe cut all the Meridians at right Angles, by 
the Corollary of the first proposition. And although the 
forepart of the Ship alwayes respecteth the ^quinoctiall 
East or West, or intersection of the -Equator and Horizon, 
yet in our progresse we shall never come neare the .(^Equator, 
but shall keepe alwayes an equall distance from it. Neither 
shall we come at all thither, whether the forepart of our 
Ship looketh, but shall keepe such a course, wherein we 
shall have ever and anon a new Meridian arising, which we 
shall crosse at equall Angles, and so necessarily describe a 
Parallel. But if our Voyage be to be made under the Paimbe 



CGELESTIALL AND TEREESTEIALL GLOBE. 133 

which iiiclineth to the Meridian, our course will then be 
neither in a greater nor lesser circle, but we shall describe 
a kind of crooked spirall line. For if you draw any Greater 
circle through the Vertex of any place, inclining to the 
Meridian, the same circle will crosse the next Meridian at a 
greater angle than it did the former, by the 6 proposition. 
And therefore it cannot make any Eumbe, because the same 
Eumbes cutteth all Meridians at equall Angles, by the fourth 
proposition. And all the Parallels, or lesser circles, doe 
crosse the Meridians at right Angles, by the Corollary of the 
1 proposition ; and, therefore, they do not incline to the 
Meridian. 

Concerning those lines which are made in sea voyages 
by the direction of the Compasse and Magneticall Needle. 
Gemma Frisius, in his Appendix to the fifteene Chapter of 
Appian's Cosmogra'pliy, part 1, speaks thus : Verum hoc 
obiter annotandum, etc. And (saith he) I think it not amisse 
to note this by the way that the voyages on land doe differ 
very much from those that are performed at sea. For those 
are understood to be performed by the great circles of the 
Sphseres, as it is rightly demonstrated by Wernerus, in his 
Commentaries upon Ptolomy. But the voyages by sea are 
for the most part crooked, because they are seldome taken 
in a great circle, but sometimes under one of the Parallels 
when the Ship steers her course toward East or West, and 
sometimes also in a great circle, as when it saileth from 
North to South, or contrariwise, or else under the Equator, 
either direct East or West. But in all other kinds of Navi- 
gations the journeyes are crooked, although guided by the 
Magnet, and are neither like to great circles, nor yet to 
Parallels : nor, indeed, are circles at all, but onely a kind of 
crooked lines, all of them at length concurring in one of 
the Poles. Thus hee, and, indeed, very rightly in all the rest, 
save onely that he will have these lines to meet in the Pole, 
which, as wee have already proved, is altogether repugnant 
to the nature of Kumbcs. 



134 A TREATISE OF THE 

Hitherto we have spoken of the originall and nature of 
Eumbes ; let us now see what use there is of them in the 
Tenestriall Globe. 



Of the use of Rumles in the Terrestricdl Globe. 

In the Art of Navigation, which teacheth the way and 
manner how a Ship is to be directed in sayling from one 
place to another, there are some things especially to be con- 
sidered. These are the longitudes of places, the latitudes, 
or differences of the same, the Eumbes, and the space or 
distance betwixt any two places, measured according to the 
practice used in Sea voyages. For the distances of places 
are measured by the Geographer one way, and by the 
Mariner another. For the former measureth the distance 
of places alwayes by great circles, as after Wernerus, Pen- 
cerus hath also demonstrated in his booke. Be Dimcnsione 
Terrse. But the Mariners course being made up somtimes 
of portions of great circles, and sometimes of lesser, but 
for the most part of crooked lines, it is good reason that 
hee should measure the distances of places also by the same. 
Which, and how many of these are to be known e before- 
hand, that the rest may be found out, comes in the next 
place to be considered. Now the places betwixt which our 
voyage is to bee performed doe differ either in longitude 
onely, or in latitude onely, or in both. 

If they differ only in latitude they are both under the 
same Meridian, and therefore it is the North or South 
Eumbe that the course is to be directed by. And there 
only then remaineth to know the difference of latitude, 
and distance betwixt these two places : one of which being 
knowne, the other is easily found out. For if the difference 
of Latitude be given in degrees and minutes, as Sea men 
are wont to doe, the number of degrees and minutes being 



CCELESTIALL AND TEERESTEIALL GLOBE. 135 

multiply ed by 60 (which is the number of English miles 
that we commonly allow to a degree, and that according to 
Ptolomies opinion, as we have already demonstrated), the 
whole number of miles made in the voyage betwixt these 
places will appeare. And if you multiply the same number 
of degrees by seventeene and an halfe, you have the same 
distance in Spanish leagues. And so contrariwise if the 
distance in miles or leagues be knowne, and you divide the 
same by 60, or seventeene and a halfe^ the quotient will 
shew the number of degrees and minutes that answer to 
the differences of latitude betwixt the two places assigned. 
As for example. If a man were to saile from the Lizard 
(which is the outmost point of land in Cornewall) South 
ward^ till he come to the Promontory of Spaine, which is 
called C. Ortegall, the difference of latitude of which places 
is 6 gr. 10 minutes ; if you desire to know the distance of 
miles betwixt these places, multiply sixe gr. tenne m. by 60, 
and the product will be 370, the number of English miles 
betwixt the two places assigned. And this account may be 
much more truely and readily made by our English miles, 
in as much as 60 of them are equivalent to a degree, so 
that one mile answereth to one minute, by which means all 
tedious and prolixe computation by fractions is avoided. 

In the next place let us consider those places that differ 
only in longitude, which if they lye directly under the 
-3^quinoctiall, the distance betwixt them being knowne, the 
difference of longitude will also bee found, or contrariwise, 
by multiplication or division in like manner as the difference 
of latitude is found. But if they be situate without the 
Equator, we must then goe another way to worke. For seeing 
that the Parallels are all of them lesse then the Equator, 
all of them decreasing in quantity proportionably till you 
come to the Pole, where they are least of all ; hence it comes 
to passe that there can be no one certaine determinate 
measure assigned to all the Parallels. And therefore the 



136 



A TKEATISE OF THE 



common sort of Mariners doe greatly erre in attributing 
to each degree of every Parallel an equall measure Avith a 
degree of the ^Equator, by which means there have been 
very many errors committed in Navigation, and many whole 
Countryes also removed out of their owne proper situation 
and transferred into the places of others. 

That therefore there might bee provision made in this 
behalfe, for those that are not so well acquainted with the 
Mathematiques, I have added a table, which sheweth what 
portion a degree in every Parallel beareth to a degree in the 
Equator, whence the proper measure of every Parallel may 
be found. In which Table the first Colume proposeth the 
severall Parallels, each of them differing from other one degree 
of latitude. The Second sheweth the minutes and seconds 
in the Equator, that answer to a degree in each Parallel ; 
which if you convert into miles you shall know how many 
miles answer to a degree in every Parallel. 





M. 


p_ 




M. 


p. 




M. 


s. 




M. 


s. 




M. S. 


1 


59 


59 


27 


53 


27 


50 


38 


34 


71 


19 


31 


90 





2 


59 


57 


28 


52 


58 


51 


37 


46 


72 


18 


31 






3 


59 


55 


29 


52 


28 


52 


36 


56 


73 


17 


31 






4 


59 


51 


30 


51 


57 


53 


36 


6 


74 


16 


31 






5 


59 


46 


31 


51 


25 


54 


35 


16 


75 


15 


30 






6 


59 


40 


32 


50 


52 


55 


34 


24 


76 


14 


28 






7 


59 


33 


33 


50 


18 


56 


33 


31 


77 


13 


26 






8 


59 


25 


34 


49 


44 


57 


32 


40 


78 


12 


24 






9 


59 


15 


35 


49 


8 


58 


31 


47 


79 


11 


22 






10 


59 


5 


36 


48 


32 


59 


30 


53 


80 


10 


20 






11 


58 


53 


37 


47 


55 


60 


29 


59 


81 


9 


18 






12 


58 


41 


38 


47 


17 


61 


29 


5 


82 


8 


16 






13 


58 


27 


39 


46 


38 


62 


28 


10 


83 


7 


14 






14 


58 


13 


40 


45 


58 


63 


27 


14 


84 


6 


12 






15 


57 


57 


41 


45 


17 


64 


26 


18 


85 


5 


10 






1() 


57 


40 


42 


44 


35 


65 


25 


22 


86 


4 


8 






17 


57 


22 


43 


43 


52 


66 


24 


24 


87 


3 


6 






18 


57 


3 


44 


43 


8 


67 


23 


26 


88 


2 


4 






I'J 


56 


43 


45 


42 


24 


68 


22 


28 


89 


1 


2 






20 


56 


20 


46 


41 


40 


69 


21 


30 












21 


56 





47 


40 


55 


70 


20 


31 












22 


55 


37 


48 


40 


9 


















23 


55 


13 


49 


39 


22 


















24 


54 


48 
























25 


54 


22 
























2() 


53 


55 

























CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTKIALL GLOBE. 137 

By the use of this Table, if a Ship have sailed under any 
Parallel, and the space be knowne how fane this ship hath 
gone, the difference of Longitude may be found by the rule 
of proportion ; and so contrary wise, if the difference of Longi- 
tude bee given, the distance in like manner will bee knowne. 
As for example ; suppose a Shippe to have set forth from capeoeer. 
C. Dalguer, (which is a Promontory on the West part 0^^^^^^'^^°! 
Africke) and sailed Westward 200 English leagues, that is qj Qfo^" *"" 
to say 600 miles. We desire now to know the difference ^^^ ^^' 
of Longitude betwixt these two places. That Promontory 
hath in Xortherne latitvide 30 degrees, now to one degree 
in that Parallel answer 51 m. 57 sec, that is to say 51 miles, 
and fifty-seven sixtieth parts of a mile. Thus, therefore, we 
dispose our proportionall tearms, for the finding of the 
difference of Longitude 51 miles 57 miu. (or suppose 52 full 
miles, because the difference is so small) give one degree : 
therefore 600 give llf| gr. wliich is the difference of Longi- 
tude betwixt the place whence the Ship set forth, and that 
where it arrived. But the tearmes are to be inverted if the 
difference of Longitude be given, and the distance be to be 
sought. But this is not so congruous. For we never use by 
the knowne Longitude to take the distance ; but the con- 
trary. Neither indeed have we as yet any certaine way of 
observing the difference of Longitudes ; however some great 
boasters make us large promises of the same. But " Expec- ^r'crop dis- 
tata seges vanis deludet avenis." w'lth'worth- 

It remaineth now to speake of those places that differ both 
in Longitude and Latitude ; wherein there is great variety 
and many kinds of differences. Of all which there are foure 
(as we have already said) especially to be considered ; and 
these are the differences of longitude, and of latitude, and the 
distance, and Eumbe by which the voiage is performed. 
Two of which being knowne, the rest may readily be found 
out. Now the transmutation of the things to be granted for 



138 



A TREATISE OF THE 



knowne, and to be enquired after in these foiire tearmes, 
may be proposed sixe manner of wayes, as foUoweth. 



The 

Difference 

of 

The 

Difference 

of 

The 

Difference 

of 

The 

Difference 

of 

The 

Difference 

of 

The 



{Longitude "i being C Rumbe "| 

and V known < and > 

Latitude J The (^ Distance J 

} being C Difference ') 

known < of Latitude V 

The ( and Distance ) 

} being f Difference ') 

known < of Latitude > 

The I and Rumbe ) 



Longitude 

and 
Latitude 

Longitude 
and the 
Rumbe 

Longitude 

and 
Distance 

Latitude 

and 
Rumbe 

Latitude 

and 
Distance 

Rumbe 

and 
Distance 



{Latitude ") being C 

and > known <. 

Rumbe J The ( 

{Latitude ^ being f 

and > known < 

Distance J The ( 

{Rumbe ") being known f 

and > the < 

Distance J difference of ( 



Rumbe 

and 
Distance 

Difference 
of Latitude 
and Distance 

Difference 
of Latitude 
and Rumbe 

Difference 
of Longitude ^ 
and Distance ) 

Rumbe and 

Difference 

of Longitude 



may 
also bo 
found. 

may 

be 

found. 

may 

be 

found. 

may 

be 

found. 

may 

be 

found. 

Longitude ^ may 
and >• be 

Latitude. ) found. 






Thus you see that any two of these being knowne, the 
other two may also be found out. Now most of these (yea 
all of them that are of any use at all) may be performed by 
the Globe. And let it suffice to have here given this generall 
advertisement once for all. 

Now beside these things here already to be knowne, it is 
also necessary that we know the latitude of the place whence 
we set forth, and the quarter of the world that our course 
is directed unto : for otherwise we shall never be able rightly 
to satisfy these demands. And the reason is because that 
the difference of longitude and latitude is alwayes wont to 
be reckoned unto the two parts of the world : some of them 
to the North and South, and the rest to the East and West. 
And especially because from all parts of the Meridian, and 
from each side thereof, there are Eumbes drawne that are 
all of equall angles or inclinations. So that unlesse the 
quarter of the world be knowne, whereto our course tendeth, 
there can be no certainty at all in our conclusions. As 
if the difference of latitude be to be enquired after, the 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 139 

same may indeed be found out ; but yet we cannot deter- 
mine to wlncli quarter of the world it is to be reckoned, 
whether North or South ; and if we seeke for the difference of 
longitude, this may be found ; but in the meane time we 
shall not know, whether it be to be reckoned toward the East 
or West. And so likewise when the Rumbe is sought for, 
we may perhaps find what inclination it hath to this Meridian, 
but yet we cannot give it its true denomination, except we 
know toward what quarter of the world one place is dis- 
tant from the other. For from each particular part of 
the ]\Ieridian, the Eumbes have equall inclinations. These 
grounds being thus laid, let us now proceed to the exami- 
nation of each particular. 



/. The difference of Longitude and Latitude of tioo i^laces 
heing hnoivne, Jioiv to find out the Rurtibe and Dis- 
tance of the same. 

Turne about the Globe, until that some Rumbe or other 
do crosse the Meridian, at the latitude of the place whence 
you set forth. Then again turne about either toward the 
East or West, as the matter shall require, untill that an 
equall number of degrees in the Equator to the differ- 
ence of longitude of the two places do passe the Meridian. 
Then afterward looke whether or no the aforesaid Rumbe 
doe crosse the Meridian at the latitude of the place where 
you are, for if it does so you may then conclude that it is 
the Rumbe you have gone liy ; but if otherwise, you must 
take another, and try it in like manner, till you light upon 
one that will do it. 

As for example. Serra Leona is a Promontory of Africke, 
having in longitude 15 gr. 20 min., and in Northerne Lati- 13. is Long 
tude 7 gr. 30 m. Suppose that we are to saile to the Isle 
of Saint Helen, which hath in longitude 24 gr. 30 m. and * ■>. 41. 



140 A TREATISE OF THE 

15. 65. N. ill Soutlierne latitude 15 gr. 30 m., I now demand what 
Eumbe we are to saile by ; and this we find in this manner. 
I first apply to the Meridian the 356 gr. 40 m. of longitude, 
and withall observe what Eumbe the Meridian doth crosse 
at the latitude Northerne of 7 gr. 30 m. (which is the 
latitude of the place, whence we are to set forth) : and 
I finde it to be the North norwest, and South south- 
east Eumbe. Then I turne about the Globe toward the 
West, (because Saint Helens is more Eastward than Serra 
Leona untill that 9 gr. 10 m. in the ^Equator, which is the 
difference of longitude betwixt these two places) do crosse the 
Meridian. And in this position of the Globe, I finde that 
the same Eumbe is crossed by the JMeridian in the Soutlierne 
latitude of 15 gr. 30 m., which is the latitude of Saint Helens 
Isle. Therefore I conclude that this is the Eumbe that we 
are to go by, from Serra Leona to Saint Helens. And in 
this manner you may find the Eumbe betwixt any two 
places either expressed in the Globe, or otherwise ; so that 
the difference of longitude and latitude be but knowne. 

If the places be expressed in the Globe betwixt which 
you seeke the Eumbe ; you must then with your Compasses 
take the distance betwixt the two places assigned, and apply 
the same to any Eumbe that you please (but only in those 
places where they crosse the Earallels of latitude of the said 
places) til you finde Eumbe whose portion intercepted 
betwixt the Parallels of the two places shal agree to the 
distance intercepted by the Compasses. As for example. 
If you would know what a Eumbe leadeth us from C. Cantin, 
a Promontory in the West part of Africke, having in lati- 
tude 32 gr. 20 m. to the Canary Isles, which are in the 28 gr. 
of latitude. First you must apply the distance intercepted 
betwixt the two places to any Eumbe that lyetli betwixt the 
28 gr. and 32 gr. 30 m. of latitude, which are the 
latitudes of the places assigned: and you shall find that 
this distance being applyed to the South Southwest Eumbe, 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTKIALL GLOBE. 141 

SO that one foot of the compasses he set in the latitude of 
30 gr. 20 m. the other will fall on the 28 gr. of latitude in 
the same Eunihe. Whence you may conclude, that you 
must saile from C. Cantin to the Canary Islands by the 
South South-west Eumbe. There are some that affirme 
that if this distance intercepted betwixt two places be 
applyed to any Eumbe where they all meet together at the 
Equator the same may be performed. But these men have 
delivered unto us their owne errours, instead of certaine 
rules. For suppose it be granted that the portions of the 
same Eumbe intercepted betwixt two Parallels equidistant 
from each other, are also equall in any part of the Globe : 
yet notwithstanding they are not to be measured by such 
a maimer of extension. For the Eumbes that lye neare the 
Equator differ but little from greater circles, but as they are 
farther distant from it, so they are still more crooked and 
inclining to the Meridian. 

The Eumbe being found, wee are next to seeke the 
distance betwixt the two places. Nonius teacheth a way to 
doe this in any Eumbe, by taking with your Compasses 
the space of 10 leagues, or halfe a degree. Others take 20 
degrees, or an v/hole degree. But I approve of neither of 
these, nor yet regret either. Only I give this advertisement 
by the way, that according the greater or lesse distance 
from the Equator, a greater or lesse measure may be taken. 
For neare the Equator where (as we have said) the Eumbes 
are little different from greater circles, you may take a 
greater measure to goe by. But when you are farre from the 
Equator you must then take as small a distance as you 
can, because that here the Eumbes are very crooked. And 
yet the distance of places may be much more accurately 
measured, (so that the Eumbe and difference of latitude 
of the same bee but knowne) by this table here set downe ; 
which is thus : 



142 



A TREATISE OF THE 





Rnmbes. 


Degr. 


Min. 


Sec. 






First 




1 


10 






Second 




4 


56 




a> 

j3 


Third 




12 


9 


Answer to a degree 


•+= 


Fourth 




24 


51 


in the Equator or 


S3 


Fifth 




47 


59 


Meridian. 




Sixth' 


2 


36 


47 






Seventh 


5 


7 


33 





In this Table you have here set downe how many degrees, 
minutes, and seconds in every Eumbe do answer to a degree 
in the Meridian, or ^quinoctiall. Now a degree (as we 
have often said) containeth 60 miles ; so that each mile 
answereth to a minute and the sixtieth part of a mile, or 
seventeen pases, to every second. So that by the helpe of 
this Table, and the rule of proportion, the distance of any 
two places in any Eumbe assigned (if so be that their 
latitude be knowne) may easily be measured ; and so on the 
contrary if the distance be knowne, the difference of latitude 
may be found. As for example. If a ship have sailed from 
C. Verde in Africke, lying in the 14 gr. 30 m. of Xortherne 
latitude, to C. Saint Augustine in Brazill, having in Southerne 
latitude, 8 gr. 30 m., by the Eumbe of Southwest and by 
South, and it be demanded what is the distance or space 
betwixt these two places. Tor the finding of this we dis- 
pose our tearmes of proportion after this manner, 1 gr. of 
latitude in this Eumbe (which is the third from the Meri- 
dian), hath 1 gr. 12 m. 9 sec, that is to say, 72^^^ miles ; 
therefore, 23 gr. (which is the difference of latitude C. Verde, 
and C. Saint Augustine) require 1659 miles, and almost an 
halfe, or something more than 553 English leagues. So 
that this is the distance betwixt C. Verde and C. Saint 
Augustine, being measured in the third Eumbe from the 
Meridian. 



CGELESTIALL AND TERKESTRIALL GLOBE. 143 



//. The Ruiiibe being knoion, and difference of Longitude ; 
hoiv to find the difference of latitude and distance. 

To find out this you must turn the Globe till you meet 
with some place where the said Eumbe crosseth the Meri- 
dian at the same latitude that the place is of where you set 
forth. And then turning the Globe either Eastward or 
Westward, as you see cause, untill that so many degrees of 
the Equator have passed the Meridian, as are answerable 
to the difference of longitude betwixt the two places ; you 
must marke what degree in the Meridian the same Eumbe 
cutteth. For that degree sheweth the latitude of the place 
you are arived. 

As for example the Isle of Saint Helen, hath in longitude Exempium. 
24 gr. 20 m., and in Southerne latitude 15 gr. 30 m. Suppose 
therefore a Shippe to have sailed West Xorth-west, to a 
place that lyetli West from it 24 degrees. We demand what 
is the latitude of this place. First, therefore, we set the 
Globe in such sort, as that this Rumbe may crosse the Meri- 
dian at the 15 gr. 30 m. Southerne latitude, which is the 
latitude of Saint Helen, and this will happen to be so, if 
you apply the 37 gr. of longitude to the Meridian. Then 
we turne about the Globe Eastward, till that 24 gr. of the 
-Equator have passed under the Meridian. And then mark- 
ing the degree of the Meridian, that the same Rumbe 
crosseth, we finde it to be about the 15 gr. 30 m. of Southerne 
latitude. This, therefore, we conclude to be the latitude of 
the place where we are arived. 

And by this means also the distance may easily be found, 
if the Rumbe and difference of latitude be first knowne. 



144 A TREATISE OF THE 



///. The difference of Longitude and distance being given, lioio 
to find the Rumhe and differ enx^e of Latitude. 

There is not any thing in all this Art more difficult and 
hard to hee found than the Kumbe out of the distance 
and difference of Longitude given. Neither can it be done 
on the Globe without long and tedious practise, and many- 
repetitions and mensuration. The practise hereof being 
therefore so prolixe, and requiring so much labour, 
it is the lesse necessary, or, indeed, rather of no 
use at all. And the reason is because the difference of 
Longitude, as wee have already shewed, is so hard to bee 
found out. The invention whereof I could wish our great 
boasters would at length performe, that so wee might expect 
from them something else besides bare words, vaine pro- 
mises, and empty hope. 

Some of these conclusions also which wee have here set 
downe are, I confesse, of no great use or necessity, out of the 
like supposition of the difference of latitude. Notwith- 
standing, for as much as the practise of them is easie and 
facile, I have willingly taken the paines, for exercise sake 
onely, to propose them. 



IV. The difference of latitude and Rumhe hcing given, how to 
finde the difference of longitude and distance. 

First set your Globe so, as that the Eumbe assigned may 
crosse the Meridian at the same latitude that the place is of 
whence you set forth, and then turne about the Globe toward 
the East or West, as neede shall require, till that the same 
Eumbe shall crosse the ]\Ieridian at the equall latitude of 
that place whither you have come ; and so marking both 
places, reckon the nunilici' of degrees in the Equator inter- 



CCELESTIALL AND TEKRESTRIALL GLOBE. 145 

cepted betwixt both their Meridians. And this shall be the 
difference of longitude betwixt the same places. As for 
example, C. Dalguer in Africke hath about 30 gr. of Nor- Exempium. 
therne latitude. From whence suppose a ship to have sailed 
North-AVest and by West to the thirtie-eight gr. of Northerne 
latitude also. Xow wee demand what is the difference of 
longitude betwixt these two places ? Turning therefore the 
Globe till the Meridian crosse the said Eumbe at the thirtieth 
gr. of Northerne latitude (which will bee when the seventh 
gr. of longitude toucheth the Meridian), I turne it againe 
toward the East, untill such time as the Lleridian crosseth 
the same Rumbe in the thirtie-eighth gr. of Northern lati- 
tude, which will happen when the three hundred fiftie-second 
gr. of longitude commeth to the Meridian. Whence we 
conclude that the place where the ship is arived is Westward 
from C. Dalguer about fifteene degrees, and the Meridian 
of that place passeth through the Easterne part of Saint 
Michaels Islands, one of the Azores. Now how the distance 
may be found, the Rumbe and difference of latitude being 
knowne, hath beene declared already in the first propo- 
sition. 



F. The difference of latitude and distance Tjcing given, the 
Mumbe and difference of lo7igitude may he found. 

The Rumbe may easily be found out by the table which 
we have before set downe ; but an Example will make the 
matter more cleare. If a ship liave sailed from the most 
Westerne point of Africke, commonly called C. Blanco 
(which lyeth in the 10 gr. 30 m. of Northerne latitude) 
betwixt North and West, for the space of 1080 miles, and to 
the 20 gr. 30 m. of Northerne latitude also ; and if it be 
demanded by what Rumbe this course was directed, for 
answer hereof we proceed thus : The difference of latitude is 

L 



146 A TREATISE OF THE 

10 gr., and the distance betwixt these places is 1080 miles, 
we therefore dispose our tearmes thus, 10 gr. containe 1080 
miles, therefore 1 gr. coutaineth 108 miles, which, if we 
divide by 60, we shall finde in the quotient 1 gr. 48 m., which 
number if you seeke in the table you shall finde it answering 
the fifth Eumbe. Neither is the difference betwixt that 
number in the Table and this here of ours above one second 
scruple. So that we may safely pronounce that this voyage 
was performed by the fifth Kumbe from the Meridian, which 
is North west and by West. Now the Eumbe being found, 
and the difference of latitude knowne, 3'ou may find out the 
difference of longitude by the second proposition. 



VI. The Rumhc and difference heing given, the difference of 
Longitude and Latitude may also he found. 

This also may easily be performed by the help of the 
former Table, and therefore wee will only shew an example 
how it is to bee done. From the Cape of Good Hope, which 
is the most Soutbernly point of Africa, and hath in Southerne 
latitude about 35 degrees, a ship is supposed to have sailed 
North North-west (which is the second Eumbe from the 
Meridian) above 642 miles, or if you will, let it be full 650 
miles. Now we demand the difference of latitude betwixt 
these two places, and this is found after this manner. First, 
we take the degrees and minutes that answer to a degree of 
latitude in the second Eumbe, and turne them into miles, 
and then we finde the number of these to be 64 miles 65 
miniites, for which let us take full 65 miles. Now, there- 
fore, our tearmes are thus to be disposed, 65 miles answer 
to 1 degree of latitude, therefore 650 will be equivalent to 
ten degrees of latitude, which if you substract from 35 
(which is the latitude of the place whence the Sbippe set 



CCELESTIALL AND TERRESTRIALL GLOBE. 147 

forth) because the course tends toward the ^^quator, the 
remainder will be 25 gr. of Southerne latitude, which is the 
latitude of the place where the Ship is arived. 

Now the Eumbe being knowne, and the difference of lati- 
tude also found, the difference of longitude must be found 
out by the second proposition. 



INDEX GEOGEAPHICUS. 



Aiuari 

Aansia 

Abba Dalcuria 

Abbagarima 

Aberdeni 

Abest ... 

Abiami 

Abiolho 

Abo ... 

Abragama 

el Abrigo 

Abriojo 

Acapulco 

Acartij Ins. 

Acbul 

Accha 

Acchaguas 

Achas 

Achbaluch 

Achelech Magi 

Achem 

Acisera 

Achilk 

Acna 

Azores Ins. 

Aczu 

Aden 

Adia 

Adu 

^Egyptus 

Africa op. 

Africa Reg. 

Agades. r. op. 

Agisymba r. 

Agoch 

Agonara 

Agragam 

Agro 

Aguadd 

aguada segura 

Aguada de posos 

Aham 

Ahamara 

Aharach 

Almys 

Aianirisama 

Aiaz ... 

Arazza 





Long. 


Lat. 




303 10 


2 20 a. 




71 


43 20 




8Q 30 


13 




70 30 


8 




22 20 


57 20 




68 40 


7 30 




57 


7 40 




93 10 


5 30 a. 




47 50 


61 




156 


32 40 




187 10 


3 30 a. 




309 30 


21 30 




276 


18 




329 


52 




154 20 


49 




18 30 


27 40 




101 30 


5 30 a. 




74 30 


50 40 




158 40 


50 20 




146 40 


45 




132 30 


3 40 




166 


46 30 




12 40 


53 40 




77 50 


49 




357 


39 




123 10 


49 20 




82 


13 50 




50 10 


25 Oa. 




105 40 


5 40 a. 




64 


30 




42 


33 20 




40 


10 




38 20 


25 30 




24 


7 




68 20 


13 




162 20 


38 




144 30 


8 20 a. 




68 50 


6 20 




173 50 


7 50 a. 




253 30 


24 




245 20 


28 




14 30 


24 30 




14 15 


25 30 




27 10 


13 30 




41 


56 50 




314 30 


2 40 a. 




83 20 


16 




72 20 


39 40 





Long. 


Lat. 


Ainoedo 


42 40 


2 20 


Alaclii 


70 


20 30 


Alani mou. 


98 40 


54 20 


Alacranes 


283 


22 


Alagoa 


58 40 


29 40 a. 


Alaxar 


83 40 


26 


Alar ... 


81 30 


38 40 


Albaijadi 


55 


17 40 


noua Albion 


235 


50 


Albiron 


109 30 


25 30 


Albasera 


37 20 


8 


Alboram 


25 30 


35 30 


Alepo 


72 30 


38 


Alcada 


33 


40 30 


Aldea de Arboledas 


323 30 


4 50 


Alerandria 


65 


31 20 


Alexandria 


106 50 


36 20 


Algasin 


16 


29 


Algieri 


33 


35 20 


Algnecet 


63 40 


26 50 


Alicante 


28 40 


39 


Alicoa 


76 40 


13 20 a. 


Alicur 


44 20 


38 30 


Alima 


108 50 


31 


Allarch 


83 30 


38 


Alletuia 


70 20 


10 


Almedina 


34 


33 40 


Almeria 


272 15 


20 


Almiria 


26 10 


37 20 


Alpes Mon 


41 30 


47 30 


Algnos 


78 


9 40 a. 


Alsigubas 


147 10 


38 40 


Amau 


74 


38 


Amara 


63 30 


5 


Amara 


60 10 


19 20 a. 


Amostro 


66 30 


44 30 


Amazon 


45 30 


12 40 


Amazones Reg. ... 


323 


13 


las Amazonas 


312 30 


12 30 a. 


Ambastu Q.. 


167 30 


50 


Ambion Cantria ... 


56 


5 20 


Ambomo 


162 50 


4 20 a 


Ambon 


164 30 


3 40 a. 


Ambrun 


35 20 


44 30 


Amioane 


75 20 


12 40 a 


Ammon 


59 40 


27 10 


Ammonis 


45 30 


28 50 


Amodabat 


109 50 


23 10 



150 



INDEX GEOGKAPHICUS. 



Amsterdam 

Amu 

Amuncla 

Anaclon 

Anasi 

Anarei Montes 

Anazaie 

Ancon 

Ancona 

Ancona 

Anda 

Andemaou 

S. Ander 

S. Anderos 

Andernopoli 

S. Audra 

S. Andre 

Andre 

S. Andreas 

Andremiri 

Las Anegadas 

Augan 

Anglesei 

Anglia r. 

Angolesiue 

Angolia 

Angos 

Angote r. 

Angiie 

Angiig 

angugui 

auua 

S. Anna 

annibi reg. 

anossa 

anslo 

autigua 

antiochia 

antiochia 

antiosecta 

antipara 

antwerpen 

apamia 

apola 

aqua 

aqualega 

aquilastro 

aquile 

ara 

arabia felix 

arabia deserta 

aracam reg. 

aracam op. 

arami 

arangiis mons 

arboledas 

arcos 

ardagui 

ardanat 



Long. 

33 
143 50 

47 
112 10 

19 15 
116 

88 
321 

63 10 

43 30 

66 
129 30 

22 10 
222 10 

58 10 
170 30 

22 10 
105 40 

62 10 
60 10 

296 
87 30 
19 50 

23 
27 

45 10 
69 10 

67 
301 10 

63 

68 40 
80 20 

318 10 

134 10 
29 50 
36 30 

320 
72 30 

300 50 
68 30 
74 20 
31 20 
66 30 
93 

350 30 
86 40 
39 40 
42 50 
14 20 
83 
77 

132 

129 10 

64 10 

46 n 
272 30 

79 30 
136 20 
110 50 



Lat. 
51 30 
35 50 

29 10 
41 30 
33 
54 30 
15 Oa. 

6 20 
1 10 

43 50 

8 10 a. 
13 

43 10 
10 50 

44 40 
12 
56 20 

50 a. 
61 10 
43 10 
50 Oa. 

30 30 

54 
53 
46 

7 10 a. 

15 50 a. 

1 6 
50 30 

30 
6 

29 40 
27 30 a. 
63 
12 20 
59 20 

16 10 
39 

6 40 

39 30 
25 20 a. 
50 30 
43 40 
21 30 
63 

9 50 a. 

40 
46 40 

55 10 
21 

30 
25 

24 10 

17 20 

8 

25 30 
19 Ort. 

5 10 a. 
25 



ardoc f3. 

aredonda 

aremogan 

aren 

argel 

argin 

arglas 

ariaden 

ariander 

arica 

arissa 

aries 

arma 

armach 

armenia r. 

armeta 

armiro 

arnaltas mons 

aracifes 

arsenga 

artawiseha fl. 

arnaga 

arzen 

arsila 

asanad desertum 

asauad puteus 

ascencion 

La Ascension 

ascention 

aschnachua 

ascer 

asia reg. 

asiot 

asmelech 

asmerei motes ., 

asna 

aspeza 

aspezi montes 

aspicia 

assets Imaus 

assuan 

Assyria reg. 

asta 

asta 

astapus fl. 

Asuga 

asum 

atacama 

atalaia 

atalaia 

atalaia 

atansa 

atanalo 

athene 

ana 

andegen 

anegada 

anero 

angela 



Long. 


104 10 


331 20 


118 


76 10 


84 30 


11 10 


16 30 


76 50 


109 20 


300 30 


29 10 


32 40 


299 20 


14 50 


76 


57 


53 10 


35 


169 


75 30 


108 20 


137 50 


86 20 


21 10 


20 


18 40 


353 20 


15 30 


293 30 


62 


65 70 


130 6 


67 


158 10 


137 


66 30 


52 15 


100 


164 40 


94 30 


69 


85 


88 40 


66 50 


64 


66 40 


83 10 


303 30 


283 


291 


27 50 


159 40 


298 10 


56 10 


142 30 


120 30 


316 20 


17 30 


56 50 



48 


43 


14 10 


5 10 


15 


10 20 


54 20 


20 30 


39 10 


20 a 


8 30 


44 20 


4 40 


54 


41 


17 


42 30 


11 30 


10 30 


40 40 


61 


32 30 


33 30 


35 


18 


21 


18 50 a. 


8 Oa. 


29 30 


10 10 a. 


27 


55 


26 50 


47 


50 


23 


44 20 


50 40 


47 20 


3 30 a. 


22 20 


30 


18 20 


15 10 a. 


4 


7 20 


8 30 


32 Oa. 


20 10 


29 40 


6 20 


7 30 a. 


1 30 a. 


40 


27 50 


48 20 


19 


41 10 


27 10 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 



151 





Long. 


Lat. 1 




angesa 


53 50 


18 40 a. 


B. S. Lunaire 


augustin 


293 


29 50 


Ba. deS. Migell... 


auiaprari 


317 


5 


B. Orsmora 


avignon 


32 40 


44 40 


B. de Pinos 


aiilona 


51 20 


41 30 


Baia de placeles . . . 


auociam 


146 50 


34 


B. de Raphael ... 


auriata 


66 10 


9 20 a. 


B. de Salvad 


ausburg 


38 40 


48 30 


Baia de S.Sebastian 


ausun 


130 30 


32 10 


Baiburt 


aux 


27 40 


43 40 


Baicondel 


auzichi 


18 40 


26 30 j 


Baida Reg. 


axa ... 


244 30 


38 50 


Baiona 


ayaman Reg. 


82 20 


25 


Baioue 


ayqiie cheuonda . . . 


31 '9 30 


49 50 


Balaghna 


ayavire 


306 10 


18 40 a. 


Balch 


azabar 


75 30 


51 20 


Balgada 


azamor 


18 30 


32 40 


Balsera 


azaphir 


78 30 


33 20 


Bamberg 


azai'i 


17 15 


32 10 


Bamplacot 


azaiit 


68 50 


28 20 


Bancare fl. 


azur mons 


59 


22 40 


Banda 


azzel 


62 40 


1 30 a. 


Banda 
Bandu 


B. 






Barbacua 


Babelcut 


107 50 


20 10 


Barbada 


Babel madeb 


80 


12 50 


la Barbada 


Babylon 


82 20 


33 


Barbado 


Bachauti 


86 


47 


Barbados 


Bachu 


28 50 


42 


Barbara 


Bachiiapa 


72 


4 Oa. 


Barca 


Bactriana Reg. ... 


115 


38 30 


Barcena palus 


Badaios 


19 40 


38 30 


Bari ... 


Badalech 


125 


37 


Baricia 


Bacca 


303 30 


1 


Barko 


Bacruchi 


74 10 


50 10 


Barlingas 


Bazar 


52 20 


21 40 a. 


Barnagasso r. 


bagamiddi 


59 30 


5 a. 


Barquis 


Bagainidri 


61 30 


6 


Base Bartit 


Bagano 


214 15 


13 40 


S. Bartholome ... 


Baglan 


111 50 


28 20 


Barua 


Baglanca 


114 30 


28 


Barua 


bagosas lacus 


77 10 


50 40 


Basel 


Baha 


88 40 


24 30 


Barodesertum 


Baliam 


176 30 


11 10 


Batachina 


Bahama 


296 30 


27 


Baticalla 


Baharam Ins. & Op. 


87 20 


27 30 


Batimasa 


B. anegada 


319 50 


40 20 a. 


Batnan 


B. debaxos anega- 


321 30 


39 50 a. 


Batombar 


dos 






Baxos de Abreojo 


buena Baia 


190 20 


4 40 a. 


Baxos do Cbapar . 


B. de los condes ... 


320 20 


43 


Bax. de India 


B. de Culato 


282 


30 30 


Bax. de los Pargos 


Baia dalagoa 


56 10 


32 10 a. 


Baxos de Patiano . 


B. de fumos 


240 20 


36 


Baxos de VUlalobo 


Ba. sui fundo 


318 40 


41 30 a. 


Baycis 


Baia de gente 


303 


54 Oa. 


Baye 


grande 






Bazipir 


B. Hermosa 


54 20 


32 40 a. 


Beciasa 


Ba. S. Johan 


309 40 


40 30 


Becolicus mos 



Long. 

321 30 

39 30 

312 30 

233 

349 30 

72 8 

344 

83 20 

74 40 

131 20 

126 

17 20 

25 30 

78 30 

111 50 

69 30 

82 40 
39 15 

138 40 
48 20 
164 
111 20 
173 30 

II 10 
320 15 
192 50 
322 
210 10 

83 10 
62 15 
65 20 
47 30 
60 40 
47 50 
16 20 
70 

161 20 
326 40 
194 30 
59 40 
73 50 
37 10 
49 

157 30 

III 30 
12 30 

158 30 
157 50 
350 
148 30 

66 
345 30 

78 30 
198 10 
140 

77 50 
140 40 

65 

56 



Lat. 

49 20 

8 40 a. 

41 
40 30 

I 50 a. 
7 20 a. 

20 Oa, 

13 20 a. 

42 30 

34 40 
65 
42 10 
44 
57 

35 50 
5 

31 10 

50 10 

12 40 

4 Oa. 

4 50 a. 
15 30 
30 

14 30 
19 50 

1 50 a. 

13 

8 50 

II 
11 10 a. 

1 Oa. 
41 

4 40 a. 

46 10 
39 30 

13 
35 10 
70 30 

14 
3 

9 50 

47 50 
19 Oa. 

3 Oa. 

12 40 

13 
9 

5 20 a. 
18 Oa. 





Oa. 

Oa. 

Oa. 





35 40 
65 
37 20 
10 30 
20 30 



152 



INDEX GEOGEAPHICUS. 



Beif ... 

Beigun 

BeU ... 

Belef 

Belle Isle 

Belisle 

Beler 

Belet 

Balis 

Belloos r. 

Belor desertu 

Belt ... 

Belugaras 

Benamataxa r. op. 

Benezueta 

Bengala r. 

Bengala op. 

Beniclias 

Benigorai 

Benigumi 

Benni r. op. 

Benisabeh 

Benzerti 

Bepyrus mos. 

Bepyrus fl. 

Bera 

Berdend 

Berdoa r. 

Berdoa op. 

Bereou 

Bereswa fl. 

Berga 

Bergen 

Bermicho 

Bernicho 

Berwick 

Besegario 

Beslam 

Bethle 

Bexima 

Biaf ar reg. 

Biafar op. 

Bialigrod 

Biauza 

Bichest 

Bichieri 

Bicipuri 

Biela 

Bielo 

Bigul 

Bilau 

Bilbao 

Bileas 

Biledulgerid r. ... 

Bilior 

Bima 

Bingiram 

Bingiron 

Bir ... 



Long. 
60 20 

313 15 
76 15 
69 

334 
21 40 
75 15 
58 
23 40 
72 

125 
52 30 
57 10 
55 

306 50 

126 
105 10 
136 



26 
25 

41 

21 2 
38 50 

143 

138 20 

56 50 

6110 

47 

51 10 
87 

104 40 
40 10 
30 30 

52 20 
47 20 

22 50 
11 
98 

138 50 
85 30 
50 

42 30 
58 20 

150 
32 30 
65 30 

141 10 
64 50 
60 20 

109 10 
100 40 

23 30 
298 30 

37 
138 40 

151 20 
118 10 

110 20 
76 10 



Lat. 
18 20 a. 
17 10 

27 10 

51 40 

52 20 
47 

8 30 

1 10 a. 
34 20 
17 
44 

50 

28 30 a. 
26 Oa. 

7 40 
26 30 
21 20 

3 50 

28 30 
30 

7 40 
30 40 
30 30 
34 

34 

17 50 a. 

29 
26 
24 

24 50 
60 
62 50 
60 50 

30 40 
44 50 

55 50 
10 20 
37 

25 40 

51 40 

4 
6 10 

47 30 

2 50 a. 
32 40 

31 20 

18 40 

56 30 
60 10 

40 20 

41 30 
43 
13 20 a. 
29 

1 50 a. 

8 20 a. 
16 
24 30 

35 40 



Biraen 

Bi.siuagar op. 

Bisinagar reg. 

Bitoniu 

Blaskey 

Blanes 

Blanet 

Bloe... 

Bobruesco 

Bodon 

Boetha 

Boinare 

Bole ... 

Bolcan 

Bolcan 

Bolcanes 

Bompruo Bepyrus 

Ptolom. 
Bon ... 
Bona 
Borchi 
Borgi 
Borgse 
Borno R. op. 
! Bornholm 
Botwije 
Boueuberg 
bouincas 
brandenberg 
brasil 

brasilia reg. 
braiia 
breid 
brema 
brema r. op. 
bremen 
brest 
brest 
breton 
brius fl. 
brod 

brousen-sko 
brosta 
bruage 
bruges 
buarcos 
buatili 
buda 
budis 
budomel 
buenen 
bilge 
bugia 
buguli 
bulga 
bunace 
buque 
burdeiix 
burariam 



Long. 


131 40 


114 20 


116 


19 


12 


31 10 


21 15 


5 30 


78 50 


52 30 


176 20 


309 40 


67 30 


192 30 


164 .30 


178 40 


138 30 


34 20 


37 10 


43 30 


35 20 


40 30 


48 30 


40 50 


37 50 


34 20 


296 50 


42 30 


5 10 


345 


74 30 


12 30 


167 


138 20 


35 10 


20 


331 


61 


142 40 


43 40 


77 50 


52 30 


25 30 


29 


17 30 


61 30 


48 


38 20 


10 20 


29 30 


71 20 


34 30 


15 


88 30 


6n 30 


138 


26 


105 50 



Lat. 

2 

14 10 

13 

8 10 

51 40 
42 
47 50 
67 
60 40 
45 30 
II 30 
11 20 

44 20 

3 40 a. 
27 
24 30 
33 

54 40 
35 40 

3 20^ 

30 10 
64 
17 10 

55 30 
64 

56 30 

15 50 

52 50 
51 20 
10 Oa. 

30 
67 

47 10 
17 30 

53 20 

48 50 

53 

31 10 

49 
49 30 
60 20 
51 50 

45 50 
47 10 
40 10 

7 30 a. 
47 20 
30 

14 30 
49 50 
21 
35 10 

9 15 

54 30 
5 20 
5 50 

45 10 
37 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 



153 





Long. 


Lat. 




Long. 


Lat. 


biirien 


18 50 


50 20 


C. desperance 


324 30 


51 


burneo 


145 40 


4 50 


C. Doesmo 


326 


44 30 


burnesi 


147 


4 


C. de S. Domingo . 


315 20 


46 4U a. 


buro 


60 40 


24 Oa. 


C. Drosey 


13 


51 10 


burro 


160 30 


3 20 a. 


C. Del Engano ... 


158 


19 20 


busdachsan 


110 


38 


C. de los Estanos . 


340 50 


1 Oa. 


butuhar 


154 


7 30 a. 


C. Falcahad 


88 20 


16 30 








C. Falso 


49 


34 30 a. 


C. 






C. Feare 


305 10 


32 30 . 


Caba 


61 40 


9 30 a. 


C. Felix 


84 30 


14 10 


Cabac 


59 30 


5 


C. del iierro 


112 40 


7 20 a. 


Cabaru 


350 40 


63 


C. Finis terrae ... 


16 


43 10 


C. de bax de Ab- 


347 40 


18 30 a. 


C.de Florida ... 


293 20 


25 30 


reojo 






C. de Folcos 


21 20 


35 50 


C. de alinde 


346 50 


1 Oa. 


C. Formoso 


236 


33 30 


C. de Saluise ... 


324 40 


51 30 


C. Formoso 


28 


5 


C. del Ambar 


83 30 


2 Oa. 


C.deS. Franc ... 


291 40 


1 20 


C. de S. Antonio... 


289 15 


22 50 


C. de S. Fire ... 


335 30 


47 50 


C. de S. Antonio... 


74 30 


17 Oa. 


C. Frio 


341 15 


24 Oa. 


C. de Areas 


44 30 


16 20 a. 


C. Fro ward 


302 40 


53 20fi. 


C. S. Augustin ... 


162 


6 30 


C. del Gado 


71 10 


13 30 a. 


C de S. Augustino 


354 


8 30 a. 


C. de gardafui ... 


86 20 


12 30 


C. de las bals 


44 50 


18 30 a. 


C. de Gato 


26 40 


36 50 


C. baxo 


328 


4 20 


C. de Lopo Gonsu- 


41 20 


() 10 a. 


C. de las baxas ... 


19 40 


15 30 


ales 






C. bedfort 


320 


65 30 


C. de gratias a dios 


289 20 


14 20 


C. de berica 


284 20 


7 40 


C. de la Guija ... 


290 20 


5 40 a. 


C. bianco 


273 20 


25 20 


C. Guasco 


300 10 


27 10 a. 


C. bianco 


281 20 


10 30 


C. de S. Hele ... 


338 30 


43 Oa. 


C. bianco 


330 10 


1 Oa. 


C. de S. Hele ... 


294 


30 40 


C. bianco 


331 20 


4 30 


C. de S. Helena, 


326 10 


36 10 a. 


C. bianco 


334 20 


52 


vel C. bianco 






C. bianco 


9 30 


20 30 


C. Heregua 


177 


16 


C. bianco 


289 40 


2 20 a. 


C. Henchua gregua 


178 


19 20 


C. bianco 


151 


22 40 


C. Hoa 


163 15 


3 


C. bonet 


348 30 


62 40 


C. Santiago 


294 30 


50 40 a. 


C. brava 


275 


27 30 


C. de Santiago, vel 


323 30 


49 10 


C. de breton 


331 


45 40 


de Orleans 






C. Cameron 


287 20 


25 40 


C. de Satiago 


309 


37 30 


Cap cantin 


17 


32 10 


C. S. Joan 


323 30 


48 30 


C. de S. Catarina . 


41 


1 Oa. 


C. S. John 


62 30 


67 30 


C. Catoche 


285 40 


20 20 


C. del Isteo 


42 10 


4 


C. Chikn 


96 30 


41 30 


C. de Isoletti 


92 10 


19 20 


C. Chili 


297 40 


35 40 a. 


C. de las Islas .. 


314 


40 20 


C. de collo 


118 40 


12 30 


C. de Krin 


13 


53 40 


C. Comori 


115 


6 30 


C. Lacodera 


311 40 


9 30 


C. de Cocrita 


45 30 


21 40 a. 


C. Ledo 


45 


9 20 a. 


C. de correntes ... 


261 30 


20 20 


C. de Lexus 


318 20 


41 20 


c. de corintes 


344 40 


20 a. 


C. de Lobos 


45 20 


14 50 a. 


C. de corrientes . . . 


65 40 


23 40 a. 


C. de Mabre 


311 30 


50 


C. de Cro 


31 30 


42 10 


C de Maio 


82 50 


15 50 a. 


C. croce 


65 20 


48 20 


C.deS. Maria ... 


77 30 


24 Oa. 


C. de crus 


296 


28 


C. de S. Maria ... 


327 20 


35 10 a. 


C. de crux 


296 40 


9 40 


C. de S. Maria ... 


9 40 


21 40 


C. cur 


135 20 


5 40 a. 


C. Mendocino 


23 40 


42 


C. Dalguer 


15 50 


30 


C. de la Mola 


36 50 


6 30 


C. Demeicij 


301 30 


10 


C. dez Montes ... 


293 40 


48 30 a. 


C. Derecho 


71 30 


11 20 a. 


C. Morro Hermoso 


301 


11 


C. desierto 


281 20 


29 20 


C. Nasca 


296 1(1 


15 10 a. 



154 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 





Long. 


Lat. 




Long. 


C. Negro 


44 30 


17 40 a. 


cacamba moute ... 


79 


C. Neuado 


232 20 


41 


cachoberio 


63 30 


Cabo de nombre de 


308 10 


53 Oa. 


cachuchina r. op. . 


140 30 


Jesus 






caciansu 


149 20 


c. Ortegal 


18 30 


44 10 


cacos 


270 30 


c. de Pales 


28 30 


38 


cacubay 


27 20 


c. de Palmas 


348 10 


1 20 a. 


cadi 


77 30 


c. de Palmas 


350 50 


1 50 a. 


cadir 


105 30 


c. de las Palmas ... 


22 40 


4 


cachobach 


135 


c. de quatro Pal- 


34 10 


6 


cael 


115 40 


mas 






case 


17 30 


c. Passaro 


46 30 


36 50 


caffa 


68 50 


c. de S. Paulo ... 


32 


5 50 


cahol 


148 20 


c. de Pennas 


20 50 


43 40 


cahors 


28 20 


c. de Peseadores ... 


277 40 


28 


carcolam 


114 30 


c. del Platei 


352 50 


5 a. 


caidu 


163 40 


c. de due pote 


90 20 


18 


caigra 


60 40 


c. de Precile 


89 


42 30 


caijem 


86 20 


c. primero 


353 20 


6 10 a. 


cairn 


154 15 


c. primero 


293 40 


47 50 a. 


caimana 


192 50 


c. primero 


42 


2 20 a. 


caiman grande ... 


293 40 


c. de 3 puntas ... 


28 30 


5 20 


caimanes 


294 40 


c. de puntas 


315 20 


10 40 


cain 


98 32 


c. Rasalgate 


96 20 


22 20 


canam Sabadibe . . . 


167 30 


c. Raso 


317 40 


8 


camdu reg. 


136 


c. de Raso 


334 30 


46 20 


caindu op. 


137 30 


c. Real 


327 10 


47 50 


caingu 


147 40 


c. de Roman 


308 10 


10 50 


Cairo 


67 30 


c. S. Roman 


296 40 


31 40 


calaian 


148 50 


c. de S. Roque ... 


76 50 


25 10 a. 


calaiate 


95 30 


c. Roxent 


16 30 


38 50 


calaimanes 


149 


c. Roxo 


311 


17 40 


calamate 


98 10 


c. Roxo 


11 


12 


calamita 


67 40 


c. Salida 


74 


26 10 a. 


calam 


110 40 


c. Spagia 


349 40 


63 40 


calantan 


138 30 


c. bonse spei 


50 30 


35 Oa. 


calara 


96 50 


c. de Spichel 


17 


38 40 


calatia 


95 30 


c. de Spiegel 


353 20 


7 20 a. 


calbaca 


136 10 


c. de S. spirito ... 


295 20 


52 20 


calba 


118 30 


c. del Sp. Santo ... 


161 10 


13 10 


calburas mos 


50 


c. de Stanolo 


12 20 


54 


calco 


269 40 


c. deTriburones ... 


302 


17 


caldaran 


83 


c. Tienot 


329 40 


52 30 


caldy 


20 


c. de Torijga 


11 30 


18 20 


calecora 


121 20 


c. de las vacas 


53 


33 40 a. 


calecut 


112 40 


c. la Vela 


305 10 


11 50 


cales 


29 10 


c. S. Vincet 


302 20 


53 40 a. 


caleture 


118 10 


c. S. Vincent 


17 


37 


calgada 


63 


c. de virgin Maria . 


308 


52 10 a. 


calhat 


90 30 


c. Viride 


9 50 


14 30 


calibia r. 


42 10 


c. de bona Vista . 


334 20 


49 10 


California 


245 


c. de vittoria 


297 30 


52 Oa. 


calinagam 


119 30 


c. del rosador 


155 50 


19 30 


caliz 


20 50 


c. Walsingham ... 


321 


63 40 


cally 


298 15 


c. Tocheo 


311 20 


29 


Calmar 


42 30 


cabra 


10 15 


14 40 


camanar 


300 20 


cabul 


112 20 


31 


camandu 


103 20 


caburz 


84 50 


22 30 


camareo 


294 20 


cacagiam 


68 


47 


cambaba 


150 



INDEX GEOGKAPIIICUS. 



155 





Long. 


Lat. 




cambalu 


161 10 


51 46 


carfur 


camboa 


19 20 


8 30 


carf ga 


camboya r. op. ... 


142 20 


11 40 


cargii-t 


cambriaut 


308 40 


48 


cariaco 


camburi 


137 20 


8 40 


cariai 


oamenty 


50 20 


52 40 


caiibana reg. 


camp r. op. 


143 40 


12 


caribana 


campa 


351 40 


62 50 


caribes 


camjjar 


134 30 


10 


carcora 


campion 


148 


57 30 


carcoran 


campu 


162 20 


39 40 


carma 


camul 


136 40 


58 


Cartagena 


camultan 


105 


32 


cartageua 


camur 


62 20 


17 10 a. 


cartago 


cana 


68 


25 40 


carpart 


Canada ... 


305 10 


50 20 


carsi 


canaga rio 


11 


15 


carua 


canagadi 


290 40 


33 30 


carut 


canagora 


134 30 


32 40 


casam 


canal del f rayle . . . 


160 40 


8 20 


casena r. op. 


cananoa 


328 40 


24 50 a. 


casma 


cananor 


112 30 


11 


cassar reg. 


canaria 


9.30 


27 20 


cassar 


candahar 


110 40 


33 40 


cassec 


candia 


59 30 


35 30 


cassina fl. 


candnigor 


160 50 


5 20 


cassor 


candua 


114 10 


6 30 a. 


castrone 


cane 


25 50 


53 50 


castrum 


caufa 


118 30 


27 


castrum Portugal 


cangre 


67 20 


42 40 


Use 


cauicol 


276 15 


15 


catabathmus 


caniem 


99 


62 40 


catadubba 


caninos 


62 30 


69 10 


cataio reg. 


cannaneral 


292 50 


27 10 


cataisaset 


cano 


31 30 


17 


catarain 


cant 


104 


46 51) 


catigam 


canta fl 


149 


25 


catigora 


cantu olim Gauge . 


149 40 


25 


catiselchebir 


cannea 


19 10 


15 20 


catnes 


cannia 


20 


16 


catwik 


caona 


259 40 


31 


caubasi 


capilan 


130 10 


14 10 


cauas 


capiapa 


304 50 


34 Oa. 


caneo desertu 


capilamba 


138 


21 20 


canit 


capis 


42 10 


31 


canona 


capsa 


40 


27 10 


caxamalca 


carabach 


115 


34 


caxines nunc Tru 


carocarau 


154 


35 


gillo 


carocol 


108 40 


48 50 


cayneca 


caraiam reg. 


136 50 


41 


cazar 


oaraiam op. 


139 50 


41 


cazelis 


carambis 


68 20 


44 50 


cazir 


caranganor 


113 10 


9 40 


cazirmufc 


carao 


85 40 


42 40 


cebaco 


carapetam 


109 40 


16 10 


cecicone 


carasan 


130 40 


42 10 


cedu 


carcham 


131 


49 


cembuagan 


carchi 


143 20 


16 10 


cemeniar 


caie desertu 


115 


54 


cendergisia 



Long. 


85 20 


78 40 


106 20 


314 


288 20 


310 


298 50 


316 10 


53 


153 10 


51 50 


300 


28 20 


299 30 


76 


148 10 


70 


91 30 


96 10 


38 20 


295 10 


132 


119 30 


37 40 


121 40 


106 30 


73 50 


165 10 


57 10 


58 15 


64 20 


150 


115 


156 15 


128 


173 50 


39 


22 9 


4110 


95 20 


308 10 


47 


155 30 


134 


298 30 


287 10 


49 10 


86 20 


59 40 


21 


86 30 


288 20 


60 40 


105 


155 20 


59 6 


1 115 30 



Lat. 
11 10 

20 40 

35 10 

9 

10 20 

5 
8 30 
7 

29 40 
61 30 
15 10 a. 
20 10 
38 20 
3 10 
38 20 
35 50 

11 50 
22 40 
35 10 
17 10 
11 Oa. 
47 
45 30 
51 20 
61 

1 50 
58 
60 40 
20 20 a. 

31 30 

10 
53 
35 10 
14 10 
22 40 
58 

24 10 
58 30 
69 10 

47 
17 20 a, 

25 Oo, 
7 

66 

11 30 a. 
14 20 

32 Oa. 
56 30 

1 40 
34 
19 50 
13 

48 10 

1 20 a. 

6 30 

10 

11 40 



156 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 





Long. 


Lat. 




Long. 


cenu 


298 40 


7 20 


chimines 


302 


cerabaro 


290 


8 50 


chimis 


87 40 


ceraso 


73 


44 40 


chincha 


302 40 


cerotigu 


274 40 


15 40 


chincheo 


154 20 


ceris 


87 50 


38 40 


chinchitalis 


139 20 


chaberis fl. 


128 


26 


chinsingan 


12 40 


chaga 


50 


6 20 a. 


chio 


50 30 


chain 


86 


55 30 


chiguisamba 


305 30 


chalis 


43 10 


66 30 


chira 


282 20 


chalon 


31 30 


48 50 


chira 


296 30 


chalon 


32 30 


46 30 


chirmam r. 


97 


champaton 


281 10 


10 40 


chirmam op. 


98 30 


chansu fl. 


55 10 


14 Oa. 


chirman r. 


95 


charaugui 


299 


2 40 a. 


chirmos 


321 30 


charcas m. 


310 


24 30 a. 


chonel 


78 30 


charcuon 


70 


8 40 


choe 


96 


chasehaer 


91 30 


57 30 


chuli 


300 


chasteaux 


335 


53 


chuquito 


307 30 


chaul 


109 40 


17 30 


chur 


37 


chaysare 


100 50 


46 50 


cioca 


134 10 


cheapanok 


307 


35 50 


ciangorid 


167 


chela 


173 


37 


ciarainicin 


147 40 


chelm 


51 30 


51 


ciartiam op. 


133 50 


chelonides paludes 


51 30 


21 30 


ciartiam reg. ' 


136 30 


chenchi 


147 10 


22 20 


cibelrian - 


80 30 


chencran 


131 10 


20 50 


cible 


66 


chendi 


88 40 


32 30 


cibuqueira 


314 20 


cheng 


113 10 


39 30 


cignatan 


268 40 


chepecen 


99 10 


41 40 


cignateo 


302 


chequeam 


160 


33 40 


cilia 


44 15 


cheremandel 


115 20 


22 30 


cincapura 


136 40 


chesel fl. 


106 10 


46 50 


cingui 


156 


chesimur' reg. 


115 


29 


ciuna 


67 


chesimur' op. 


115 10 


3 


cintaeola 


111 20 


chesolitis 


106 10 


47 30 


cintagni 


146 40 


chesapink 


308 


38 


cipista 


310 10 


Chester 


21 30 


51 50 . 


cipribus 


136 10 


cheteal 


279 40 


14 40 


cirene 


53 30 


chiagri 


83 10 


41 


cirote 


130 40 


chialis 


129 40 


54 30 


cirut 


62 40 


chialo 


56 20 


7 oa. 


citrochaa 


86 


chiamay lac 


135 


24 


cini 


47 10 


chiametlan 


260 


25 40 


claudia 


318 30 


chianea 


172 


55 30 


cleartis palus 


37 


chiansu 


147 30 


27 


clermont 


30 15 


chichane 


303 50 


14 


coale 


65 


chichester 


26 10 


51 


coagueto 


65 10 


chidleies cap. 


326 40 


67 30 


coar 


132 40 


chigi 


28 40 


11 30 


cobina 


102 50 


chila 


271 10 


21 30 


cocas mons 


79 


chilaban 


117 40 


7 10 


cochia 


•20 10 


chilachi 


313 40 


21 30 a. 


cochin 


114 


chilan op. 


96 20 


41 10 


cochinan 


85 


chilchut 


68 10 


11 


cofla 


62 30 


chileusin 


153 50 


42 20 


cogigamri 


118 20 


chili reg. 


305 


30 Oa. 


coi 


88 40 


chili op. 


299 


36 30 a. 


coiandu 


119 40 


chilimazata 


294 30 


6 30 a. 


coigansa 


157 50 


chilue 


226 20 


43 29 1 


coila 


48 20 



Lat. 

11 Oa. 
48 

28 50 a. 

25 40 
54 30 
15 

40 30 
17 Oa. 
10 40 

7 40 a. 

26 30 

27 30 

36 

4 30 a. 

26 50 

37 10 

17 30 a. 
19 30 
47 

1 30 
54 

29 50 
51 30 

51 
19 10 

18 Oa. 

17 10 

18 50 

27 

47 20 
1 20 

42 30 

41 20 
13 50 

40 10 

19 30 a. 
29 
32 

22 
15 30 a. 

48 
66 30 

41 20 
25 
45 50 
21 30 

12 

23 
29 
47 30 
12 10 

9 40 
39 40 

5 Oa. 

52 
39 

43 10 
43 20 

3 10 a. 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 



157 



colgoyne 

colima 

colipo 

Collao reg. 

collo 

colmogari 

colmucho 

coin 

coloatan 

colochi 

coloma 

colosna 

una coluna 

com 

comahagne 

comania reg. 

comania 

comatay 

combalich 

Comoro op. 

comas 

concritan desertum 

condu 

congi 

congu 

coniga fl. 

congangui 

coninxberg 

connulaa 

constantinopolis . . . 

copa 

copaiopo 

copheo fl. 

copini 

copenhage 

coquimbo 

cor 

cora 

corasan reg. 

corazam 

corck 

corcora 

corcoral 

cordoba 

corea 

Corfu Ins. 

choricho 

Corinto 

corniam 

Corel 

Coromoran fl, 

Coronades 

Corongo 

Corpo santo 

Corrigue 

Corsean 

Corsica 

Cortad 

Cornco 



Long. 


Lat. 


68 40 


69 20 


257 20 


19 50 


69 20 


44 40 


SIO 


16 Oa. 


35 10 


35 30 


62 40 


63 40 


117 30 


6 40 


34 


51 50 


269 


25 20 


312 


21 20 a. 


138 20 


28 


52 


46 40 


179 40 


30 


95 20 


35 40 


85 30 


31 


86 


51 


68 


50 


131 40 


22 20 


115 20 


56 40 


115 10 


7 10 


286 


32 10 


47 


23 Oa. 


116 50 


36 


141 20 


5130 


147 20 


49 10 


55 40 


14 Oa. 


152 40 


44 


49 10 


55 30 


152 20 


26 30 


61 20 


44 40 


73 


48 40 


301 20 


26 40 a. 


118 


35 


129 10 


20 


38 30 


55 50 


301 20 


29 40 a. 


19 20 


18 40 


85 10 


19 20 


108 


37 


74 10 


34 40 


15 40 


51 40 


67 50 


5 


64 


1 40 


316 20 


33 Oa. 


31 20 


7 20 


22 


39 30 


42 30 


1 


54 20 


39 


155 


10 Oa. 


141 40 


9 10 


153 


51 


295 30 


45 Oa. 


302 40 


14 20 a. 


84 10 


7 30 a. 


94 50 


21 40 


90 50 


25 


38 10 


42 


56 50 


30 Oa. 


290 20 


32 10 



Coruna 

Corus 

Corx 

Corzali 

Cosacan 

Cosbas 

Cosmai 

Cosmaledo 

Cosmin fl. 

Cospetir 

Cossin op. 

Cossin fl. 

Cossir 

Costagne 

Costa duoyt 

Costa poblada 

Costa Sana 

Costnitz 

Cotam reg. 

Cotam op. 

Cotam 

Cotan 

Cotenitz 

Cotia 

Conga 

Coulam 

Cousa 

Cowno 

Cozumel 

Cracow 

cremuch 

crissa 

croatamuug 

croatoan 

ci-oix blance 

cuaba 

cuama fl. 

cuara 

cubene 

Cuba 

cuchia 

cuchiao 

cucliibachoa 

cucho 

cudobe 

cuerno 

cui 

cuitachi 

culauropa 

culiacan 

culias 

cumana 

cumissa 

E. cumb. Isles 

cumuca 

cunasien 

curamba 

curacoa 

curate 



Long. 

16 50 

106 10 

85 40 
32 20 

89 
77 30 

90 10 

79 50 
135 30 
124 

113 20 
116 40 

69 50 
83 20 

315 
247 30 
242 20 

36 15 
130 
130 20 
145 30 
119 30 

88 30 
32 
81 20 

114 30 
66 20 
53 10 

286 30 

48 30 

81 10 

53 20 

308 50 

308 

335 29 

307 30 
64 30 
72 40 

86 30 
290 
127 20 
311 40 
306 30 
250 10 
129 30 
253 50 
138 10 

89 15 

80 
256 30 
270 15 
313 30 

50 20 

316 
119 40 
119 30 
304 30 

308 30 
109 40 



Lat. 
43 20 
42 

18 30 
35 
37 20 
40 20 

46 40 

16 50 a. 

20 

33 
64 
63 

24 50 

27 20 
51 30 

26 50 
29 20 

47 50 
51 
50 15 
14 50 
46 
59 

9 40 

28 30 

7 40 

25 30 
55 

19 
50 
44 50 
40 
35 40 

34 30 
54 40 

21 30 

20 Oa. 
23 40 a. 
46 30 
31 40 
53 10 

19 20 a. 

11 10 

39 40 

17 40 

40 10 

8 20 
40 50 
44 

27 

26 40 
7 

27 30 a. 
63 20 

20 20 

19 30 

12 50 a. 
11 30 

20 10 



158 



INDEX GEOGKAPHICUS. 





Long. 


Lat. 


1 


Long. 


Lat. 


cuiati 


105 50 


21 


Dembia 


56 


3 Oa 


curch 


90 40 


32 


Dembra 


61 10 


13 40 


curco 


69 50 


39 40 


Denia 


29 20 


39 20 


curiacuri 


153 50 


2 40 a. 


Derbeut 


84 50 


42 20 


curia miiria 


90 


18 


Derwind 


47 50 


57 30 


curiana 


308 


10 


Deseada 


320 


15 20 


curiat 


93 50 


20 40 


Destor 


59 


46 40 


curm 


120 50 


31 


Deventer 


33 25 


51 50 


curdem 


117 20 


35 


Densen 


31 20 


31 20 


cusistan reg. 


87 


32 


Dsina 


74 30 


62 20 


custra 


89 40 


33 30 


Dia 


68 


24 30 


cuza 


47 20 


43 50 


Diamuch 


109 30 


41 30 


cuzco r. op. 


297 20 


13 30 a. 


Diamuna fl. 


131 


36 


cuzco op. 


301 40 


17 40 a. 


Diepe 


28 40 


49 30 


cwareook 


304 


33 40 


Diers cape 


321 30 


64 50 


Cyprus 


68 40 


37 30 


Digir 


40 


20 50 


czercesi 


64 50 


51 10 


Dijon 


32 


47 


czochloma 


81 20 


58 40 


Diram 


79 30 


12 10 








Diu 


108 


20 50 


D. 






Diulfar 


87 30 


16 40 


Dabul 


110 


16 40 


Doam 


89 40 


27 20 


Dacati 


69 50 


26 


Doara 


81 


8 


Dagaoda 


18 20 


7 


Dobalia 


63 20 


19 


Dager 


56 20 


22 10 a. 


Dobarea 


69 50 


15 40 


Dager port 


48 40 


59 40 


Dobretan 


332 40 


43 10 


Dagma 


92 40 


20 30 


Dobrowna 


61 30 


54 


Dalaccia 


77 


14 20 


Docono 


78 20 


12 30 


Damascus 


74 30 


35 


Dofarso 


65 30 


2 30 


Dambili fl. 


57 


13 10 a. 


Doldel 


52 30 


18 Oa. 


Damiata 


69 


32 40 


Domas caienhas ... 


84 10 


22 Oa. 


Damut 


51 


1120 


Dominica 


319 40 


14 


Damute 


65 


13 


Domnes 


50 30 


51 50 


Dangala 


66 15 


17 30 


Don fl. 


75 


53 20 


Dangali r. 


78 


11 


Donatal 


80 


18 40a 


Dangara 


53 50 


10 50 a. 


Done 


160 50 


36 


Dantzic 


46 


55 


Donecz fl. 


71 


51 


Dara r. op. 


21 30 


29 40 


Donko 


74 30 


53 20 


Dara 


66 50 


12 


Dornate 


137 50 


7 30 


Daram 


115 20 


37 50 


Dorow 


58 


51 30 


Darate 


146 50 


50 30 


Dosa 


59 


27 10 a. 


L. Darcies Island . 


327 50 


68 20 


Dosime 


86 


21 Oa. 


Darga 


60 20 


11 40 


Dover 


28 10 


51 


Darien 


295 40 


5 30 


Drin 


50 


45 


Darut 


65 40 


18 50 


Drogebusch 


64 40 


55 20 


Daflou 


63 


48 40 


Droger 


332 


57 30 


Data 


131 20 


2 40 


Drongenes 


4 30 


66 30 


Dauagul 


57 15 


27 Qa. 


Dronts 


24 50 


63 40 


Dauasi 


98 50 


49 40 


Druzech 


59 20 


54 40 


Dauma r. op. 


34 20 


8 


Dubdu 


25 


32 50 


Debsau 


52 10 


13 80 a. 


Dubino 


35 20 


54 


Decan 


113 20 


14 


Dublin 


16 40 


53 10 


Dedma 


56 30 


56 30 


Duda 


67 40 


13 40 a 


Degme 


60 30 


22 40 a. 


Dumarau 


150 


8 40 


Dehebet 


93 30 


32 50 


Duy 


34 30 


59 20 


Deitam 


142 50 


20 


Duyhl 


56 30 


50 30 


Delgoy 


74 30 


67 20 








La Desgraciada ... 


211 20 


20 


E. 






Delli reg. 


114 


8 30 


Ebaida 


60 


25 30 


Delli op. 


114 


9 50 


Ecsonen 


30 15 


58 10 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 



159 





Long. 


Lat. 




Edenburg 


22 


55 50 


Fayal 


Eillach 


109 


46 40 


Feghig 


Einacen 


73 


11 


Feia 


Elbuchi ara 


65 20 


29 30 


Felicur 


Elcama 


41 20 


37 30 


Fernando bueo ... 


Elisia 


52 


14 20 a. 


Fessa r. and op. ... 


Elisia 


53 30 


11 40 a. 


Fierro 


Elgent 


80 


17 20 


Finmark 


Elie 


25 20 


52 40 


Flamborough head 


Eliobon 


72 


27 


Flensborg 


Elior 


26 20 


10 10 


Floreutia 


Reg. Elizabet for- 


337 


61 30 


Flores 


laud 






Florida reg. 


Eloacat 


65 20 


27 40 


Focen 


Embden 


34 10 


53 10 


la Formanos 


Emil 


122 40 


51 20 


Formentera 


Endersockee 


306 50 


33 40 


Fortenentura 


Enggi 


55 10 


24 30 a. 


Foyl 


Ens 


43 


48 30 


Frayles 


Ens 


74 10 


37 30 


Francf ort 


Ephesus 


60 30 


39 40 


Franca gromes ... 


Ercoas 


65 20 


18 


Frason 


Erex 


87 40 


40 50 


Fretum Gibraltar . 


Ergas 


86 


38 


Fretum Davis ... 


Ergimiil reg. 


145 


59 1 


Frislant 


Ergimul op. 


150 


58 20 


Frobishers straits . 


Erminio 


151 50 


23 40 


Fugio 


Espainulies 


110 40 


40 50 


Fugui 


Esser 


66 50 


13 


A Furious overfall 


Estade 


305 10 


47 40 


Fussum 


Estahe atteradus 


324 10 


45 20 


Fungi 


Brettones 








Estazia 


318 10 


17 10 


G. 


Estrecho de Megal- 


305 


53 20 a. 


Gabacha 


lenes 






Gacha 


Euboia 


56 10 


41 


Gademes 


Euphrates fl. 


76 40 


40 


Gaga 


Euchor 


93 20 


36 50 


Gago reg. 


Euro pa reg. 


55 


50 


Gaida 


Exceter 


22 10 


51 


Gainu r. 


Ezerim 


77 


42 


Galata 


Ezina 


146 50 


60 20 


Gale 
Galiota 


F. 






Galle 


Fababien 


67 30 


3 20 a. 


Gallila 


Falazi 


61 20 


15 30 a. 


Gamba 


Falczin 


57 20 


47 


Gambra rio. 


Falsterhode 


40 


56 


Gant 


Famagosta 


69 20 


37 30 


Garagoli 


Famaluco 


106 10 


50 a. 


Garamantica vallis 


Farallones 


294 20 


11 40 a. 


Gargiza 


Farallones 


333 20 


20 a. 


Garma 


Fargaue 


114 40 


46 


Garnsey 


Farre 


16 20 


61 30 


j Gaoga 


Fartache 


86 40 


16 10 


Ganta 


C. Fartache 


86 50 


15 40 


Gaza 


Faso 


75 50 


45 40 


Gazabele fl. 


Fatigar 


74 


2 40 


Gebage 


Fatnasa 


38 10 


30 10 


Gedmec 



Long. 

350 
25 30 
85 20 
43 30 

351 40 
21 50 

6 20 

47 

25 20 

36 40 

41 10 

353 40 

292 

38 40 

310 30 

31 10 

11 

15 50 

314 30 

36 30 

161 

172 20 

21 30 

324 

351 30 

331 20 

159 40 

158 20 

322 30 

161 40 

60 15 



80 50 
74 50 
41 10 
57 
25 
56 20 
72 
37 20 

50 20 
44 50 

117 40 
52 15 
64 40 
12 
30 20 
14 15 

51 30 
62 40 

52 20 
22 29 

55 
145 50 

70 50 
62 30 

56 30 
362 



Lat. 


38 40 


31 


21 10 


38 30 


9 20 a. 


32 50 


26 30 


69 30 


54 


55 


43 40 


39 20 


31 


66 30 


40 40 


38 50 


28 


55 30 


11 20 


50 


12 40 


34 15 


35 30 


64 


62 


64 


45 10 


35 


60 


37 10 


11 Oa. 


39 10 


24 20 


26 30 


1 


8 30 


5 40 a. 


4 


37 


26 20 a. 


45 


6 


16 Oa. 


17 30a. 


13 10 


50 40 


29 20 


16 


12 Oo. 


26 Oa. 


49 40 


22 


56 50 


33 10 


12 Oa. 


19 46 a 


61 40 



160 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 





Long. 


Lat. 




Long. 


Lat. 


Gelfeten 


121 20 


32 50 


Goram 


58 15 


28 30 


Gemanacota 


118 40 


6 


Gorgona 


295 10 


3 20 


Genaba 


65 10 


10 50 a. 


Gorides 


81 20 


43 


Geneva 


33 40 


46 20 


Gotlant 


45 20 


57 30 


Gengorde 


315 15 


18 20 


Goto 


75 30 


46 30 


Genna 


37 50 


45 


Gousa 


160 30 


50 40 


Genna 


15 20 


16 


Gozen 


17 10 


31 30 


Geogan 


58 10 


21 


Gozo 


58 20 


34 40 


Georgia 


64 


4 30 a. 


Granada 


318 20 


11 


Gerbala fl. 


54 10 


14 Oa. 


Granata 


250 50 


36 30 


Gerbo 


42 


32 


Granata 


23 30 


38 


Gerguth reg. 


153 


57 


Grtecia reg. 


54 


40 


Germauareo 


40 


51 


Gratiosa 


357 30 


39 30 


Gerseluin 


24 30 


32 20 


Grenested 


5 30 


66 40 • 


Gesch 


94 40 


25 30 


Greip 


31 40 


63 30 


Gest reg. 


106 30 


26 


Grodek 


56 30 


51 30 


Gest op. 


107 30 


26 30 


Grodno 


52 10 


53 50 


Gesta 


43 20 


60 50 


Groeningen 


32 10 


53 


Genes 


314 4U 


18 10 


Greenland 





75 


Ghez 


21 


6 30 


Groye 


21 


47 20 


Ghir fluvius 


25 30 


22 


Guachacal 


303 10 


10 50 


Ghir desertum . . . 


24 


22 


Guachabamba ... 


297 20 


8 40 a 


Giabel 


71 20 


15 40 


Guachde 


24 


30 


Giamber 


81 


33 40 


Guaden 


21 20 


28 30 


Giero 


58 15 


21 Oa. ! 


Guaham 


176 30 


12 40 


Gieza 


159 


36 40 i 


Guaian Cacus 


147 30 


45 20 


Gilan 


94 C 


39 20 


Guaiaguil rel. S. 


294 30 


2 30 a 


Gilberts sound ... 


326 50 


67 


lago 






Gilolo In. op. 


161 80 


1 10 


Guadalguibil 


282 20 


31 


Gindagu 


157 30 


48 10 


Gulabamba 


294 5 


10 


Gindu 


157 


49 


Gualata 


13 30 


23 30 


Ginduzi 


138 


25 10 


Guanaba 


303 


8 40 


Giralo 


56 40 


5 40 a. 


Giianape 


294 50 


8 10a 


Giras fl. 


41 20 


20 10 


Guauaxas 


284 


15 30 


Girat 


61 10 


10 Oa. 


Guangai-i r. op. . . . 


44 


13 40 


Girgian 


104 


40 20 


Guanima 


303 


24 20 


Goa 


112 20 


14 40 


Guadalupe 


319 20 


15 20 


Godia 


22 30 


18 10 


Guargala 


37 30 


25 50 


Goga 


109 20 


21 30 


Guber r. 


27 


9 


Glogau 


43 50 


51 25 


Guber op. 


29 20 


10 40 


Glosgon 


29 


57 


Gubu 


87 20 


16 


Goozin rio 


74 30 


72 20 


Gudan 


48 20 


8 50 


Goiame 


57 


14 Oa. 


Guegeue 


22 50 


14 


Goiasancigo 


269 10 


24 


Gues 


87 40 


29 10 


Gol. de S. Antonio 


46 20 


26 Oa. 


Guenonda 


302 40 


46 10 


Golfo de Bengala . 


125 


15 


Guerde 


95 10 


33 


Gol. de Cayneca ... 


49 


32 30 a. 


Guignam 


178 


16 40 


Gol. de Chalur ... 


322 


50 30 


Nova Guinea 


180 


5 Oa 


Go. Frio 


45 30 


20 Oa. 


Guinea reg. 


18 


9 


G. de S. Helena... 


48 40 


33 30 a. 


Gulye 


33 30 


50 40 


Golfo de la India . 


44 20 


3 40 a. 


Gunagona 


67 30 


6 


Gol. de los Negros 


350 30 


2 Oa. 


Gustina 


109 30 


56 10 


Golfo de Papagaios 


278 30 


12 30 


Guzuta 


18 40 


29 20 


Gol. de Pichel ... 


65 


22 Oa. 








Golfo del Key ... 


40 40 


5 30 


H. 






Golfo de todos san- 


345 30 


1 40 a. 


Haba 


60 40 


2 50a 


tos 






Hacari 


298 15 


15 40 a 


Genera 


7 30 


26 30 


Hagala 


59 20 


21 20 o. 


Gorage r. 


69 


2 


Hales Island 


337 50 


63 



INDEX GEOGKArillCUS. 



IGl 





Long. 


Lat. 




Long. 


Lat. 


Haliber 


78 40 


20 10 


lacnbi fl. 


93 


48 


Halla 


77 40 


37 50 


ladie 


58 20 


11 40 


Hallicz 


52 50 


48 40 


lafuf 


77 


19 30 


Hamacliaric 


68 10 


30 30 


Jamaica 


298 30 


17 


Hamburg 


37 10 


53 20 


lambut 


72 30 


26 30 


Ham mar 


31 40 


60 30 


lameri 


125 50 


23 50 


Hanguedo 


310 30 


52 


lanaluiz 


339 30 


43 40 


Haroda 


54 40 


5 Ort. 


I an at hay 


156 


44 30 


Hartel[;ole 


24 


55 20 


lanco 


98 40 


45 40 


Harutio 


304 


25 30 


langio 


163 10 


47 10 


Harwich 


27 30 


52 


lapara 


141 20 


7 40 a 


Hatoras 


8ti8 50 


34 40 


larchem op. 


117 30 


44 30 


Hanana 


292 10 


20 


larchem reg. 


117 30 


44 


Hebrides 


15 20 


58 


lapones 


169 


36 


Heidelberg 


36 


49 


lardiues 


189 30 


9 30 


Heist 


23 30 


46 30 


larsey 


23 


49 20 


Heisant 


19 30 


48 40 


lastitem 


42 50 


28 


Heit 


79 40 


22 40 


latim 


151 10 


34 


Helel 


23 50 


31 40 


lana maior 


140 


9 Oa 


Heprapolis 


324 30 


25 20 


lana minor 


150 


9 Oa. 


Hercules 


69 20 


32 10 


lazui 


77 30 


20 30 


dos Hermanos ... 


182 40 


25 


Idita mous 


164 


54 40 


Heti 


99 50 


30 


lepdip 


30 


58 40 


Heylichland 


33 50 


66 


lericho 


73 


33 


Hibeleset 


69 10 


27 30 


lerom 


100 10 


55 


Hiere 


63 20 


12 40 a. 


lerusalem 


72 20 


33 


Hibernia 


16 


53 30 


lesd 


94 40 


32 


Hifuret 


15 10 


26 30 


Ighidi 


32 50 


25 


Hiubedesex 


14 15 


27 


Iguas 


288 


32 


Hippodromus 


12 30 


17 20 


Iherud 


58 20 


1 


Ethiopia 






Iliere 


61 10 


21 Oa. 


Hircaiiia reg. 


100 


40 


Hmont fl. 


105 


27 


Hispania reg. 


25 


40 


Imaus mons 


128 


39 


Hispaiiia noua reg. 


280 


13 30 


India orientalis ... 


135 


26 


Hispaniola 


306 


18 30 


Indion 


105 40 


38 


Hochelaga 


300 50 


44 10 


Indus fl. 


115 30 


26 


Hoden 


18 


19 30 


Inspurg 


40 40 


47 50 


Hof 


12 40 


68 


Tres lusultc 


169 20 


2 Oa. 


Holindal 


36 10 


61 


In de Aiman 


146 30 


19 


Homey 


61 30 


52 50 


Islas de donAlfonso 


202 


8 


Homi 


169 20 


37 


de Aluares 






Hormar 


165 30 


35 10 


[. de Assumptione. 


324 


52 30 


Honts Oort 


48 30 


59 


I. de Atel 


334 20 


55 40 


Horno 


12 10 


66 10 


I. de Aues 


310 30 


11 20 


Horo 


178 20 


21 10 


I. de Anes 


173 50 


4 30 


Hugero 


52 10 


53 40 a. 


I. de Bastinado ... 


293 30 


10 30 


Hul 


25 20 


6 40 0. 


I. de Benjaga 


149 50 


22 


Humos 


330 30 


7 13 a. 


I. Blanca 


316 50 


14 40 


Hunedo 


324 


51 30 


I. Brava 


1 20 


14 20 


Hungaria 


50 


48 


I, del Canno 


282 15 


8 20 


Hurma 


68 40 


18 30 


I. de S. Cateliua... 


334 10 


27 30 a. 


Hydaspes fl. 


124 


33 20 


I. de Cedros 


240 30 


29 50 


Hyi^asis fl. 


124 


33 


I. de S. Colunas... 


178 50 


30 30 








Islas de Corales ... 


194 40 


9 50 








I. deserta 


178 


31 


I. 






Ilhas despera 


335 


46 40 


labague 


303 15 


17 15 


I. de Enganno ... 


130 40 


5 40 a. 


labo 


306 10 


22 10 


I. Falconum 


142 30 


68 20 


laci 


135 


40 30 


I. de Fernandi ... 


41 


4 



162 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 



I. de Fernan Sar- 

onno 
I. del Fuego 
I. del Fuego 
I. Gallao 
I. del Galo 
I. de don Galopes. 
I. de los Galopegos 

Maiores 
I. de los Galopegos 

miuores 
I. de Galparico ... 
I. de Garno 
I. de Garcea 
I. de Gonzalo Al- 

veres 
I. de Gratia 
I.deHombresBlan- 

cos 
I. de S. lago 
I. de S. Ilefonso... 
I. S. Joannis 
I. S. Joan 
I. S. Juan 
I. S. Juan de Lisboa 
I. de Juan Miz 
I. de Juan de Maua 
I. de S. Julian ... 
I. de los Ladroues. 



I. de Langviiu 

I. de Lima 

I. de Lobos 

I. de Lobos 

I. de Manglares ... 

I. de S. Maria 

I. de Martin Vaz . 

I. de los Martires . 

I. de los Martires . 

I. de Maio 

I. de Micao 

L S. Michael ... 

Islas des Minuaes . 

I. de los Nadados . 

I. de Negros 

Islas Negras 

I. de Giseaux 

I. de Orleans 

I. do ouro 

I. do ouro 

I. de Paiaros 

I. de Palmos 

I. de Paxaros 

I. de Paxaros 

I. de Perlas 

I. de Pinos 

I. del Poso 

I. del Principe ... 

I. de Rees 

Islas de Reyes ... 



Long. 


Lat. 


354 20 


2 20 a. 


2 30 


14 20 


181 30 


27 40 


296 20 


14 Oa. 


294 


1 50 


94 30 


18 30 a. 


281 10 


4 


277 30 


1 


204 20 


14 40 


105 40 


3 40 a. 


162 20 


2 Oa. 


30 30 


38 40 «. 


97 20 


6 30 a. 


169 20 


5 40 a. 


158 20 


8 Oa. 


175 


8 


312 


18 


325 30 


42 30 


164 30 


6 


84 20 


26 40 a. 


74 


21 10 a. 


71 50 


17 10 a. 


333 


51 40 


177 20 


15 


158 30 


27 


295 10 


22 30 a. 


307 40 


40 20 


290 20 


7 a. 


288 40 


12 


296 30 


37 20 a. 


10 40 


21 40 a. 


181 20 


22 50 


175 15 


5 


4 30 


14 30 


173 30 


39 40 





29 30 


358 


20 20 a. 


194 30 


5 50 


155 30 


10 30 


281 10 


23 30 


334 


50 


312 


50 30 


128 40 


1 20 


125 40 


1 30 


314 


12 40 


163 20 


6 


198 50 


8 50 


234 20 


28 


293 10 


7 


292 20 


21 30 


343 30 


22 30 a. 


39 40 


2 


162 


25 20 


199 40 


9 





Long. 


Lat. 


I. de Sal 


4 10 


16 30 


I. Salomon 


204 


10 Oa. 


Islas seccas 


46 20 


29 30 


I. de Sembriro ... 


130 


9 50 


I. de buenas sen- 


161 


9 30 


nales 






I. de serranilla ... 


294 40 


15 30 


L Solis 


347 40 


10 30 


I. S. Thomaj 


38 





I. de S. Thomas... 


252 


20 10 


I. Tinhosa 


146 


18 10 


I. de Tristan de 


26 30 


36 Oa. 


Acuna 






I. Verde 


353 50 


45 30 


I. de los dos Vezinos 


195 30 


6 30 


I. de S. Vincent... 


73 20 


20 30 a. 


I. de St. Vincent . 


175 50 


8 


loam 


135 


7 30 


loloso r. 


24 30 


6 


lontros 


154 10 


26 40 a. 


loppe 


71 20 


34 


lorgowtz 


76 30 


57 40 


lormau 


89 20 


56 30 


lotama 


57 30 


35 30 a. 


Ipadra 


293 30 


30 30 


Iquares 


53 


8 10 a. 


Isabella 


305 20 


18 50 


Island 


8 


66 


Istigias 


110 30 


39 40 


Italia reg. 


42 30 


43 


Ithra 


57 30 


4 50 a. 


luca 


134 30 


8 


lucatan i-eg. 


283 


18 


I'ugor 


138 


7 50 


I'uica 


31 20 


39 30 


lulibella 


61 


1 30 


lumbi 


312 40 


6 30 


K. 






Kalmuchi Tartari . 


95 


51 


Kama 11. 


86 


60 


Kanion 


63 40 


51 10 


Karakithah Reg.... 


119 


51 


Karatzet 


67 10 


53 


Kargapole 


66 30 


61 50 


Kasakki Tartari... 


103 


51 


Kenaner 


56 10 


61 30 


Kiow 


62 20 


51 20 


Kiro 


46 40 


64 40 


Kirgessi 


125 


45 


Kithias reg. 


110 


57 


Kithay lacus 


123 30 


53 


Kola 


54 50 


69 


Kolenig 


4 10 


65 10 


Kolunna 


71 40 


54 20 


Kondori 


93 20 


61 50 


Kosor fl. 


96 40 


49 


Kossera 


71 


53 40 


Konloay 


65 20 


64 10 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 



163 



Lacari 

Laciema 

Le lac de Goulesme 

Lacus Annibus . . . 

Lacus Maracayba . 

Lacus salsus 

Ladena 

Ladoga 

Ladrios 

Laghi 

Ijagnes 

Lagos de los Coro- 
uades 

Laia 

Larnou 

Lampesa 

Lampurad 

Laucerota 

Laugot 
Langow 
Lanos fl. 
Lapusna 
Laquille 
Lai- 
Laredo 
Larissa 
Larta 
Leghe 
Leekenes 
Legula 
Lempa 
Lempta 
Leon 
Leon 
Leopolis 
Lepin 

Legnior maior . 
Legior min. 
Lerida 
Lestei-point 
Leuma 
Lezer 
Lichi 
Liek 
Lima op. 
Limahorbaz 
Limana 
Limonia 
Limosa 
Linog 
Linga 
Liompo 
Lion 

Lion mons. 
Liorne 
Lipai 
Lisboa 
Lizard 



Long. 

74 10 

24 50 

306 40 

131 

306 30 

137 40 

50 30 
62 10 

155 20 
81 40 
11 40 

295 

45 30 
70 30 
36 20 

138 50 
11 40 

141 15 

51 10 
169 40 

60 30 
310 20 
91 10 
22 50 
70 
53 

62 40 

29 30 

55 
247 10 

30 50 
21 10 

283 40 

52 50 
98 

165 

158 40 

28 20 

335 

63 30 
87 30 

145 30 
50 20 

296 40 
85 30 

305 50 
72 10 
43 30 

56 10 

139 50 
160 20 

32 40 
77 
40 20 
45 30 

17 30 

18 30 



Lat. 

16 20 
39 30 

48 

60 10 
9 

47 30 
41 30 

61 40 
14 
14 50 
68 10 
44 Oa. 

64 10 

1 50 a. 
33 
38 30 
29 30 
11 20 
52 20 

49 
47 40 
49 



21 20 a. 
58 

10 10 a. 
16 50 
24 30 

42 15 

11 20 
49 
58 40 

28 

22 
41 30 
62 

14 40a. 
24 40 

23 
53 50 

23 30 a. 
27 10 

24 40 

44 20 
34 50 

1 a. 
3 30 a. 
34 40 

45 40 

29 

43 30 

38 40 

39 11 

15 10 



Loest 

LofFoet 

Loglie 

Lomf ara 

Loubiero 

London 

London coast 

Longur 

Lop op. 

Lop desertum .. 

Lopeso 

Loron 

Losa 

Losaun 

Loyrest 

Loxa 

Lubec 

Lucaio 

Lucho 

Lucka 

Lugana 

Luki 

L. Lumleis inlet.., 

Lunaa Moutes 

Luuo 

Lundi 

Liitzko 

Luso Ins. 

Lybia Palus 

Lioceniedes Palus . 

M. 

Maas 

Maarazia 

Maboga 

Macara 

Macare 

Maceria 

Machian 

Macblunaria 

Machoenta 

Machon 

Macin 

Macopa 

Macra 

Macsin of Hands . 

Macyra Ins. 

Madagascar 

La Madalena 

Madera 

Madinga 

Madura 

Ma;atis palus 

Magadaxo 

Magalo 

Magora 

Magurada 

Mahag 

Mahambaua 



Long. 
30 40 

38 10 
113 

39 40 
318 20 

25 50 
326 20 
134 20 

134 20 

135 
74 
91 20 
62 10 
34 20 
24 40 

293 30 
38 30 

299 
57 20 
42 10 
79 40 
64 

320 
60 
64 50 
19 30 
54 

156 
33 
62 



178 20 
118 30 

62 40 
32 20 

76 20 

43 10 
160 40 
111 40 

39 50 

65 20 

85 30 

132 50 

63 40 
62 30 
93 

77 

44 40 
8 10 

32 50 

146 30 

71 30 

78 
71 20 
77 50 
13 

64 20 
54 



Lat. 
50 



18 40 

51 40 
72 
10 50 
53 
55 

49 40 
28 20 
18 40 a. 

46 50 

47 40 

3 50 a. 
53 50 
27 30 
31 30 

52 
25 40 
38 20 
61 

16 Oa. 
44 20 
51 

50 20 

17 

23 30 

24 20 



20 20 
22 20 
13 30 

30 10 
20 50 

1 20 a, 

30 
26 30 
33 50 

8 30 
25 50 

1 10 a. 
39 20 
75 30 
19 40 
19 

7 

31 30 
13 

6 50 a. 
49 30 
5 10 

9 30 a. 
18 40 

9 30 
4 30 

32 Oa. 



164 



INDEX GEOGliAPHICUS. 





Long. 


Lat. 




Long. 


Maiaguaiia 


306 


23 40 


Ma rubrum 


75 


Maidas 


2 40 


46 30 


Ma Vermejo 


255 


Maima 


47 20 


10 40 


Ma del Zur 


270 


Maiorica In. 


39 50 


33 


Maregui 


134 30 


Maitagasi 
Maisaro 
Malabrigo 
Malaca r. op. 


48 20 
152 30 
178 50 
136 30 


11 20 

28 30 

26 

2 50 


Marei 
Margarita 
Margus fl. 
Las Marias 


52 
314 10 
111 30 
260 


Malaga 


23 50 


37 20 


Maril 


86 30 


Malati 
Malana 


78 
75 


32 40 

38 20 


Maricalperapo Ins. 
Marigalaute 


130 40 

320 


Maldivar Insulce... 


113 


3 


i\Iarino3 


326 20 


Malha 


93 30 


11 0«. 


Marocco 


20 


Maliapor 


118 


13 20 


Marseille 


33 50 


Malines 


279 40 


13 40 


Martaban 


134 30 


Malor 


82 40 


10 20 


Martiniuo 


320 


Malorca op. 


39 50 


32 50 


Maru 


105 40 


Malpelo 
Malta 


290 20 
46 


4 
35 30 


Masalig 
Masaniz 


23 30 
96 20 


Mamora 


155 40 


40 


Mascalat 


86 40 


Man 


19 


54 50 


Masia 


280 40 


Manado 


147 20 


6 30 


Ma.^ta 


47 10 


IVIanadu 


157 50 


30 


Masta 


63 40 


Manaiba 


77 10 


22 20 a. 


Ma.stagau 


30 20 


Manapata 


78 10 


20 50 a. 


Matalotes 


169 50 


Mauatenga r. 


77 


22 20 a. 


Matan 


153 10 


Mauda fl. 


138 


21 


Matancos 


296 


Mandalican 


42 30 


8 Oa. 


Matcin 


116 40 


Mandao r. op. 


121 


25 


Mat flo 


76 30 


Maugalor 


112 


11 30 


Matgua 


89 30 


Mangesia 


61 30 


41 30 


Mayma 


26 20 


Mangi sive China 


150 


37 U 


Mazacar 


169 


reg. 






mazna 


79 30 


Mangopa 


131 10 


3 10 


meaco 


60 30 


Manica 


62 50 


23 30 a. 


nieaudrus mons.... 


152 


Manicongo reg. ... 
Manicongo op. ... 
Manilia 


46 40 

47 20 
156 20 


5 Oa. 
5 a. 
15 


meb 

mecha 

mechenderi 


46 30 

75 30 

130 40 


ManiolsG Ins. 


140 30 


2 


niedano 


295 


Mausna 


95 30 


45 40 


los ruedanos 


60 20 


Mantra 


79 50 


7 


medellian 


20 50 


Mapazo 


3()7 30 


7 40 a. 


mediua celi 


23 30 


Mara 


75 20 


37 


medina talnabi ... 


73 


Maracapaua 


312 10 


8 


medino 


98 30 


Marach 


119 40 


8 40 


medra 


45 20 


Maramma 


56 40 


9 Oa. 


medua 


30 30 


Maranga 


281 30 


19 30 


megiran 


134 30 


Maranuon fl. 


323 


7 Oa. 


meidburg 


39 40 


Marasia 


146 30 


26 40 


meissen 


41 


Marata 
Maratue 


262 
305 


32 3U 
36 30 


mellegete 
meliUa 


26 50 
25 


Marchaut He 


327 


68 20 


melinde r. op. ... 


71 20 


Marcoa 


58 50 


7 10 a. 


melli reg. op. 


15 40 


Mardin 


82 10 


34 50 


meliiing 


48 


Mar de Bacbu ... 


92 


45 


memel 


48 40 


Mare congelatum . 


345 


64 


menacabo 


134 50 


Mar de India 


120 


10 Oa. 


mendoza 


30.-) 50 


Mare maior 


68 


46 


menlay 


165 40 


Ma mediter 


50 


35 


mens 


35 50 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 



ICi 





Long. 


Lat. 




Long. 


Lat. 


meusa 


59 


4 


mona.steiio de la 


73 30 


12 


mensuiia 


73 30 


17 40 


visioue 






meraga 


55 30 


7 20 


monenstio 


60 40 


47 10 


meren 


93 20 


39 40 


1 mongala 


66 30 


18 20 a. 


meroe 


68 20 


16 15 


1 mongul reg. 


160 


61 30 


mesab 


32 


28 40 


mongul op. 


159 20 


60 40 


mesat 


101 50 


36 50 


Los monges 


208 30 


9 40 


meshet 


85 30 


52 50 


monjes 


307 30 


11 30 


nieshite 


67 30 


25 30 


monsia 


73 


8 10o. 


mesopotamia 


78 


35 


monsorate 


319 10 


15 40 


messa 


17 


19 30 


montagala 


106 20 


43 Oa. 


messana 


45 50 


37 50 


montagna 


311 20 


41 


messet 


91 30 


31 50 


monte de bramidos 


47 10 


30 15 a. 


messi 


61 30 


38 40 


mote especo 


317 15 


8 


mestzora 


75 10 


55 


monte frago.so ... 


344 


12 Oa. 


mete 


84 50 


11 50 


monte negro 


44 40 


17 Oa. 


meti 


53 50 


13 40 a. 


mount Ralegh ... 


320 30 


65 


metlan 


264 


24 10 


mont royal 


301 


45 40 


mette 


106 40 


23 50 


mopox 


301 10 


10 


nietz 


33 30 


49 45 


mora 


99 40 


44 20 


mezrata 


47 40 


30 40 


morea reg. 


54 30 


38 


mezu 


133 50 


35 40 


1 mosaik 

[ mosambique reg. 


68 50 


55 


Diiaco 


170 30 


37 


70 20 


14 40 a. 


miaos 


159 


2 30 


1 and op. 






mien r. 


136 


.81 


1 mosconia reg. 


80 


59 


mien op. 


139 30 


29 50 


1 moskow 


70 30 


55 40 


miensko 


56 40 


54 50 


j mossa 


84 30 


35 


miguel 


297 


4 


! mosul 


84 


34 50 


milan 


38 30 


46 10 


mota 


299 40 


20 


millo 


57 50 


36 50 


motil 


160 40 





mina 


28 50 


6 20 


motines 


265 20 


20 30 


mindanao In. 


159 


8 


motros 


22 20 


56 50 


mindanao op. 


160 40 


7 10 


mozend 


24 20 


34 30 


miuden 


35 30 


52 40 


moseenek 


69 50 


51 30 


mindoro 


154 20 


12 40 


muVjar 


13fi 30 


2 20 


mingiu desertum . 


100 


31 


mugu 


118 30 


42 50 


minorca 


34 30 


40 


mullubaba 


296 20 


2 40 a 


mirocomonas 


179 20 


6 30 


i multan 


109 50 


29 20 


mirocomonas 


302 20 


21 40 


munia 


67 


28 


La mocha 


295 40 


38 10 a. 


; munster 


35 


52 10 


mochestan 


92 40 


27 20 


: muron 


76 


55 40 


modon 


53 20 


37 


mus 


81 50 


37 50 


modzir 


59 50 


52 


mut 


102 50 


32 40 


mogar 


57 10 


24 30 a. 








niogile fl. 


59 30 


54 








moguer 


20 


37 50 


X. 






mohimo 


55 10 


53 40 


Nabarz 


79 50 


50 50 


moi 


86 20 


25 30 


' Nachaus 


35 40 


32 


moitaga.si 


58 40 


17 50a. 


Xaco 


283 20 


12 30 


molalle 


74 50 


12 10 a. 


Nada 


58 30 


8 10 a 


moldavia reg. ... 


55 


47 


Nagai tartari 


97 


53 30 


molines 


, 30 20 


46 40 


Nagapat^m 


117 50 


10 


moltan 


114 20 


24 30 


Nagari 


151 30 


26 40 


moluccse Ins. 


160 40 


1 


1 Nagi-a 


118 10 


34 


momba-sa 


72 


4 50 a. 


ZS'agnebar 


130 30 


4 50 


mombeza 


79 


8 10 


Xaguudi fl. 


119 


17 40 


momoraucy 


306 


47 


Nairn 


94 10 33 40 


mompelier 


1 31 30 


44 10 


1 Naiman reg. 


140 64 


moua 


309 30 


IS 


Naiman o[>. 


140 


65 10 



166 



IXDEX GEOGllAPIIICUS. 



Namen 

Nantes 

Napata 

Napoli 

Napoli 

Napthali 

Narboua 

Narch 

Nardenljorg 

Narsinga 

Xarua 

Naseph 

Nata 

Natam 

Natolia reg. 

Nauaca 

Nauiasi 

Nazaret 

Nebio 

Neffaon 

Negru 

Iveijna 

Keli 

Nerpis 

Nestra 

Nestra 

Neuuox 

Newcastle 

Nicarea 

Nicobar In. 

Nicoia 

Nicomedia 

Nicopolis 

Nieflot 

Nil 

Nilnes 

Nilus fl. 

Ninus 

Nisa 

Nisabul 

Nisabul 

Nischa 

Nisni 

Nissa 

Nissa 

Nito 

Niues 

Noe Mons 

Norbate 

Noion 

Nombre de dios 

Nomedalen 

Normar 

Norombega 

Norwegia 

Notium pr. 

Nona 

Nouagradec 

Nougrod 



Long. 
31 10 
24 10 
69 20 
45 

55 10 
73 
30 20 

119 30 

47 10 

119 

56 10 
110 30 
290 40 
177 10 

66 

300 20 

277 10 

72 40 

38 30 

42 15 

173 

300 30 

57 50 
45 30 
35 
42 30 
57 
23 10 
59 30 



Lat. 
50 
47 50 
19 40 
41 
38 
34 30 
43 20 
30 40 
67 50 
18 
60 
43 

7 30 





130 30 


284 30 


63 30 


1 56 30 


57 50 


22 10 


98 40 


67 20 


82 20 


36 10 


102 10 


105 


57 30 


79 40 


45 30 


52 20 


285 10 


318 40 


81 


80 


30 


294 30 


33 30 


38 


315 40 


35 


171 


59 50 


57 10 


65 30 



15 

41 

; 17 10 

' 14 10 
I 34 10 
I 42 30 

30 

30 40 
2 20 
2 20 a. 

62 50 

28 10 

65 30 

64 20 

55 20 

39 30 
16 40 
10 40 

44 20 

45 
59 50 
10 30 
58 30 
32 

37 
44 

38 40 
34 30 
58 30 

56 
50 30 
44 30 
12 

16 20 

40 20 

17 10 
49 20 

9 20 

65 30 

61 20 
43 40 

62 
47 

9 20 a. 
53 
52 40 



Nowgorod 
Nowgorod 
Nuba palus 
Nubia reg. 
Nubia op. 
Nubia fl. 
La Nublada 
Nucana 
Der Nues 
Nuruberg 

0. 
Obyfl. 
Occa fl. 
Ochelasa 
Odeschiria 
Odia 
Oduief 
Oechardes fl. 
Olant 
OUeron 
Olone 

Omagua reg. 
Omba 
Omedon 
Omot 
Onega fl. 
Onegaburg 
Onem 
Onor 

Onora des Reyes . 
Oustea 
Ooszee 
Opakon 
Opauli 
Opin 
Oran 
Orbadari 
Orcades 
Orellana 
Orgabra 
Oribon 
Orixa r. 
Orixa op. 
Orleans 

Ormuz lus. & op. 
Orsa 
Orsa 
Orpha 
Ortona 
Osca 
Osil 
Oslam 
Osteco S. Miguel 

de Jumma 
Osties lamaons ... 
Otinangiuel 
Otronto 
Otujje 



Long. 
62 50 
80 



53 
57 
60 
57 
240 20 
138 
31 
39 30 



1(17 
77 30 
306 20 
116 
138 30 
71 30 
134 20 

43 30 
24 30 
24 30 

310 
54 10 

27 
64 30 
56 40 
59 30 

28 20 
111 40 
337 40 

79 40 
47 
64 30 

21 10 

80 20 

29 40 
69 

22 10 
343 10 

73 50 
59 10 
119 
118 40 
28 30 
91 20 
59 50 
41 20 
78 10 

44 30 I 
27 30 1 
49 10 
63 50 

311 30 

98 

68 30 

49 30 

293 50 



Lat. 
60 30 
55 20 
17 20 
13 
17 40 
15 40 
IS 30 

9 30 
57 30 
49 30 



60 
55 40 
48 30 
13 20 

12 U 

52 30 

58 
57 
45 30 

47 

9 a. 
66 50 

6 40 
19 30 
64 
62 30 

34 30 

13 10 
23 40 a. 

59 20 
57 

53 30 
6 

40 


30 



Ort. 



48 30 

19 

20 40 

48 
27 30 

54 20 
61 30 

35 40 
42 40 
42 10 
50 30 

49 40 
27 30 a. 



3 30 a. 
43 20 
40 20 

7 Oa. 



INDEX GEOGEAnilCUS. 



1G7 





Long. 


Lat. 




Long. 


Lat. 


Oumare 


80 30 


6 


Penacote 


119 30 


18 30 


Oxford 


24 


52 


Penda 


74 10 


5 20 a. 


Oxus fl. 


107 


41 20 


Pendaua 


118 40 


30 10 


Oyar. 


7o 


13 


Perche 


145 26 


50 








Perflaul 


72 


56 30 


P. 






Perigo 


323 11) 


43 20 


Paam 


138 20 


2 50 


Periperi 


137 40 


11 20 


Paca 


302 50 


31 10 a. 


Pernou 


53 30 


58 40 


Pacem 


132 


4 


Peru reg. 


196 


10 Oa. 


Pagani 


177 40 


18 


Perusia 


42 20 


43 10 


Paganso 


99 50 


45 


Pescara 


34 30 


30 10 


Paiale 


241 50 


31 20 


Petallan 


257 


28 40 


Paita 


290 30 


5 10 a. 


Petepoli 


118 20 


12 


Palage 


14 


18 


Pharacon 


133 30 


29 20 


Palagosa 


47 30 


43 


Philippine In. ... 


158 


15 


Palandura; Insula. 


108 


11 


Piader 


91 30 


25 


Palatia 


60 50 


39 20 


Pico 


356 40 


38 20 


Paleacate 


118 20 


13 40 


Picora reg. 


317 


10 Oa. 


Paliace 


55 40 


32 


Picora op. 


316 40 


9 30 a. 


Pallu 


80 20 


37 30 


Las Piedras 


296 40 


4 Oa. 


Palma 


6 20 


28 


Pigmea 


148 40 


32 


Palmar Rio 


273 30 


26 40 


Pijusko 


55 


52 


Palona 


105 10 


2 Oa. 


Pilingu 


144 20 


40 


Pamer 


120 


41 


Pina 


296 21) 


3 


Pampalona 


24 30 


42 40 


Pinegle 


131 20 


52 30 


Panairuca 


145 40 


8 30 a. 


Pinego 


61 10 


64 30 


Panama 


394 30 


8 10 


Pinga 


310 14 


14 20 a. 


Panassa 


138 50 


23 50 


Piramide 


173 10 


20 20 


Pandan 


121 50 


30 10 


Pisa 


40 30 


43 40 


Pantanalia 


42 50 


36 30 


Pisaena 


302 


24 40 a. 


Panuco 


270 10 


22 20 


Pizau 


73 


51 30 


Paquippe 


306 


34 40 


Placentia 


20 40 


40 


Parasau 


112 20 


37 50 


Las Playas 


151 30 


32 10 


Pari 


282 30 


9 30 


Plaia 


45 20 


21 Oa. 


Paria 


317 20 


6 40 


Plaia 


231 50 


31 20 a. 


Pariban 


136 20 


7 50 a. 


Plaia 


63 30 


24 30 a. 


Paris 


29 25 


48 30 


Plaias 


273 20 


26 


Parma 


39 20 


45 10 


Plaia de lagunas... 


45 40 


25 Oa. 


Pascar 


59 40 


1 20 a. 


Plata 


315 


19 50 a. 


Pascherti 


94 40 


58 


Plescow 


59 10 


59 


Pasir 


105 20 


24 30 


Plimouth 


21 10 


50 50 


Passan 


41 50 


48 40 


Plingu 


144 20 


40 


Paste 


304 


11 40 a. 


Ploosko 


48 10 


52 40 


Pastoco 


297 50 


a. 


Plotzco 


57 30 


57 40 


Patane 


138 10 


6 50 


Pochant 


140 


26 30 


Patanis 


99 10 


25 


Podenpasay 


303 


45 


Paten issi 


109 


20 40 


Podolia reg. 


59 


49 30 


Patrona 


165 30 


6 50 a. 


Poicters 


26 30 


47 20 


Pauia 


37 50 


46 10 


Polonia reg. 


53 


50 


Pazanfii 


136 20 


31 


Ponnoy 


58 40 


67 30 


Pazanf u 


155 30 


54 50 


Pontanay 


74 30 


20 10 a. 


Pazer 


134 20 


3 20 a. 


Ponte viedro 


17 20 


42 40 


Pechora 


66 50 


67 


Popaia 


297 30 


1 50 


Pechora castle . . . 


73 50 


64 50 


Poparopa Ins. ... 


128 40 


16 30 


Pedir 


181 10 


4 


Poroguiman 


304 30 


45 


Pef ora 


47 40 


65 40 


buen Porto 


177 30 


2 Oa. 


Pegu r. op. 


135 


20 10 


Puer agosto 


298 20 


53 Ort. 


Peim reg. 


132 


51 30 


P. de Baldivia ... 


296 10 


36 30 a. 


Peim op. 


132 50 


.50 30 


P. de Canoas 


239 20 


36 40 



168 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 



P. de Canallos ... 

P. de Chili 

Por de la Concep- 
tion 

P. Desire 
P. Escondo 

P. Famine 

P. Fremos 

P. del Grado 

Por. de Caspar 
Rico 

Porto houdo 

Po. S. Juliano ... 

P. de S. Lazaro ... 

P. de los Leonos . 

P. de S. Miguel... 

Puerto de la Mise- 
ricordia 

Po. de Nauidad ... 

P. de Negrillo ... 

P. de Paxaro 

P. port 

P. de puerto 

P. de quintero ... 

P. Real 

Po. de los Reyes . 

P. de don Rodrico 

Por. Salido 

P. Santo 

P. de Sardiuas ... 

Po. de Juan Ser- 
rano 

P. de Yelas 

P. S. Vincente ... 

P. de Xali.sco 

Po.silles 

Posession 

Postna 

Potantr 

Potiwlo 

Potocalma 

Potossi 

Poueada 

poyos.?a 

pracada 

prag 

preflau 

preslau 

primsberg 

proinay 

pr. terras austr. ... 

prussia reg. 

przebors 

ptolomais 

puchio 

pulobarea 

puli-sangar fl. 

punto de Cayneca 

punta del Gada ... 



I Long. 

28.3 

.300 20 

45 40 

313 
157 40 
302 50 

44 
42 10 

189 30 

286 

310 

45 30 
318 20 

240 30 
296 20 

264 
296 50 
157 20 

17 30 
254 
300 30 

21 30 
244 
333 
186 40 

10 
238 50 

311 

280 30 
337 20 
260 40 
325 30 

241 30 
45 10 
51 40 
67 

299 30 

315 10 

116 10 

96 

147 20 

42 30 

45 10 

49 40 
48 30 
75 20 
13 

50 
48 30 
66 40 

296 

135 50 

1.58 40 

48 30 

85 50 



Lat. 
14 20 
31 Oa. 
24 20 a. 

47 40 a. 
17 10 
53 10 a. 

4 Oa. 

3 50 

3 40 a. 

29 
50 Oa. 
12 20 a. 
42 30 a. 

35 

53 Oa. 

2130 
17 10 
16 20 
41 10 

31 30 

32 10 a. 

36 40 
28 40 

28 Oa. 
3 a. 

32 30 

37 
47 40 a. 

12 

23 50 a. 

24 10 

54 40 
32 20 
52 30 
40 50 
52 
35 Oa. 
21 10 a. 

10 Oa. 
93 

8 10 a. 

50 

51 10 

49 45 

55 10 
71 
42 Oa. 
54 

50 50 

29 40 

6 50 a. 

2 Oa. 
54 
32 40 a. 

11 



pun. de la Galera . 
pun. de S. Helena 
pun. de S. Helena 
pun. de S. Lucas . 
pun. de S. Maria . 
punto primero de 

Xauidad 
puripegam 
puy 
puza 

I Q. 

; Quanzu 

Quara 

Queda 
I Quelinsu 

Queples 
j Queroa 

Quesibi 

Quiam fl. 
I Quiansu 
I Quicare Ins. 

Quicari 

Quilca 

Los Quillacinga ... 

Quiloa r. op. 

Quinecho ... | 

Quinlete 

Quinzai 

Quises 

Quitaieuo Ins. 

Quitainano 

Quiticui 

Quito 

Quiriminiao 

Quiuira r. 

Quiuira op. 

R. 
Rab 
Rabon 
Ragusi 
Raia 
Raige 
Ramat 
Rameses 
Rane 

Ranos Ins. 
Raptu jirom. 
Rarassa 
Rasani 
Razamuzes 
Rast 
Rauel 
Rauenna 
Rauora 
Razer 
Real 
Redonda 



Long. 
295 40 
290 10 
325 20 
252 30 
60 30 
58 30 

120 20 
31 10 
86 30 



157 30 
59 

135 20 

158 30 
41 20 

134 

88 20 

139 

144 40 

290 
287 30 

298 50 

299 20 
69 50 

268 50 
303 40 
1.^3 
308 40 
353 40 

291 30 
54 40 

293 10 
144 
240 
233 



47 15 
74 
49 30 

153 20 
79 10 
74 10 
68 30 

352 40 

299 20 
72 10 

118 30 
81 50 
26 20 

91 
110 30 

42 20 

92 
88 30 
22 30 

193 10 



Lat. 
40 Oa. 

2 10 a. 
37 30 a. 
25 30 
29 Oa. 
31 Oa. 

21 40 
45 
25 



44 10 
10 50 a. 
6 40 

36 

37 40 
10 10 
24 30 
54 
42 30 

6 20 
12 
16 30 a. 

30 

8 50 4. 
26 
34 40 a. 

40 
18 30 

1 40 a. 
14 
22 10 a. 

10 
6 Oa. 
42 

41 40 



47 40 a. 
23 50 
44 
7 30 a. 
28 
33 50 
30 30 
62 40 
26 

19 30 a. 
26 
32 40 
30 20 
39 30 

20 40 
44 20 
59 
28 40 
39 

4 30 a. 



INDEX GEOGEAPHICrS. 



169 



Regil 

Reuus 

llene 

Reiieu 

Rey 

Rezon 

Rhobana 

Rhezo 

Rhodus 

Rianrech 

Eibadeo 

Eiffa 

Riga 

R. del Ancon 

R. de S. Andres... 

R. S. Antone 

R. Aoripana 

R. de Arboledas... 

R. de S. Augiistino . 

R. de S. Augustino . 

R. de S. Barbara... 

Rio de la Barca ... 

R. de Baraues ... 

R. del Brazil 

R. de la Buelta ... 

R. de la Buelta ... 

R. de las Bueltas . . . 

Rio de Buguli ... 

R. de los Cama- 

rones 
R. del Campo 
R. de la Canele ... 
Rio de Cauo 
R. de Carandia ... 
R. Catamanga ... 
R. de Chiriguana . 
R. de Cinaloa 
R. de la Crux 
R. de Culpare 
R. Dangla 
R. Doce 
Rio Dolce 
Rio Dulce 
R. de S. Domingo . 
R. del Estremo ... 
R. de Flores 
Rio de Foues 
R. de S. Francisco . 
R. del Godo 
R. del Ganelo 
R. de Gigautes ... 
R Grande 
R. Grande 
R. del Guato 
R. de Gungun ... 
R. de la Haeha ... 
R. de S. Hieronymo 
R. deS. Helena ... 
R. Hondo 



Long. 

82 10 

31 

51 30 

114 30 

9i 40 

74 

169 30 

47 

61 40 

94 40 

19 20 

66 40 

53 30 

335 

178 10 

70 

337 10 

331 40 

350 
183 10 
326 40 

321 40 

322 10 
348 20 
306 
325 20 

31 30 
15 
42 

42 30 
306 30 
298 40 
322 10 
322 

303 30 
258 30 
308 40 
340 30 

42 30 
345 20 
320 
316 30 
353 
340 40 
287 20 

304 

351 40 
34 20 

342 10 
278 30 
301 10 
314 30 
284 30 
348 30 
314 15 
183 40 ! 
348 40 
290 



Lat. 




36 30 


R. Hondo 


49 


Rio del Infante ... 


60 


R. de Infante 


45 


R. de S. Juan 


37 10 


R. de S. Juan naui- 


54 30 


dad 


47 


R. de laguana 


38 20 


1 R. de laguna 


37 20 


R. S. Laurens 


40 


R. de Lepeti 


43 20 


Rio de Liampo ... 


2120 


Rio de Limara ... 


58 


R. de Manicongo... 


26 Oa. 


R. de Mecoretas... 


2 30 a. 


R. de Medano 


14 10 a. 


R. de S. llondego. 


2 Oa. 


R. de Montagnas . 


1 40 


R. de Xaguin 


15 30 a. 


R. Xegro 


2 30 a. 


! R. delaXotitia ... 


34 Oa. 


\ Riode S. Olalla ... 


5 


; R. del oro 


48 20 


1 Rio de Paiamino... 


17 10 a. 


1 R. de Palmas 


38 50 


R. Panuco 


3 40 


i Gran Rio de Parana 


6 


R. de Pascua 


9 


R. de lo Peleijo ... 


5 30 a. 


Rio de Perk 




R. de Perus 


2 50 


R. de Pescadores... 


3 30 a. 


R. de Pescadores... 


33 10 


Rio peti 


35 a. 


R. de Pindado ... 


33 20 a. 


R.de la Plata ... 


27 Oa. 


R. de S. polo 


30 


R. de praia arre- 


49 40 a. 


cifes 


23 Oa. 


R. primero 


1 40 


Rio de los Reyes... 


19 10 


R. Roque 


6 ' 


R. de Salo 


52 j 


R. S. Saluador ... 


7 50 a. 


R. Saluador 


22 30 a. 


R. Santo 


29 


Rio seco 


48 


R. Seco 


10 Oa. 


R. de Serrano 


6 20 


R. del sp. santo ... 


22 40 a. 


R. del sp. Santo... 


29 


R. de Teraiayou.., 


11 


R. de Tison 


44 


R. de los Topoios . 


29 30 


R. de Turme 


13 10 a. 


R. Verde 


10 40 


R. Verde 


3 Oa. 


R. de Vincente ... 


16 30 a. 


R. Visto 


52 10 a. 


The white riuer ... 



Long. 


318 50 


40 40 


55 


45 40 


287 30 


32e 30 


55 1<» 


318 10 


323 30 


158 


299 


48 20 


320 


283 50 


46 20 


319 40 


157 30 


324 40 


316 


301 40 


10 20 


298 


272 10 


271 50 


321 20 


334 50 


321 30 


292 30 


318 30 


331 20 


277 30 


318 


157 33 


326 30 


331 


316 j 


327 40 


60 


351 40 1 


335 40 


326 10 


17 


300 30 


295 30 


293 50 


311 


281 30 


60 


318 


253 


335 40 


77 


321 10 


289 


323 40 


319 40 


308 10 



Lat. 


41 50 


5 30 


30 30(7 


14 40 a 


30 


12 Oa 


32 50 a 


53 


30 Oa. 


29 


6 Oa. 


10 Ott. 


31 10 a. 


29 30 


9 20 a. 


42 20 


30 30 


32 10 a. 


14 10 a. 


7 40 a. 


22 30 


5 Oa. 


14 20 


22 30 


5 a. 


6 30 a. 


43 


29 


42 


3 10 


28 


29 30 a. 


IS 20 


36 Oa. 


32 20 a. 


41 20 


45 


29 Oa. 


4 10 a. 


24 30 a. 


33 Oa. 


7 Oa. 


3 a. 


31 30 


30 30 


47 40 a. 


31 


27 30 


27 40 a. 


36 30 


12 Oa. 


24 40 a. 


5 20 


33 30 


4 40 


42 20 


51 20 a. 



170 



INDEX GEOGKAPHICUS. 





Long. 


Lat. 




Lon^. 


L«.t. 


Ripon 


35 30 


55 20 


Samarcban 


130 20 


47 40 


Risan 


9 30 


47 


Samarchant 


109 


44 


Eoan 


27 40 


48 50 


Samaria 


72 20 


33 40 


Koca 


311 


11 10 


Samirent 


90 50 


35 30 


Roca partida 


248 


19 


Samot 


51 20 


28 Oa. 


Roncador 


294 30 


13 30 


Sana 


84 40 


17 50 


Rochelle 


25 30 


46 40 


Sana 


70 30 


23 40 


Rodhe 


36 20 


64 50 


Sanbicasas 


78 


12 40 a. 


Rofain 


150 30 


48 40 


Sandace 


69 20 


18 


Roma 


42 30 


42 


Sandersons tower . 


320 


65 30 


Romaiia 


107 40 


42 10 


Hope Sanderson... 


326 20 


72 40 


Los Romeros 


98 40 


28 30 


Sandri 


162 50 


53 


RooRwick 


40 24 


50 


Saguenay fl. 


306 40 


55 


Ropaga 


60 40 


5 30 a. 


Sanguin 


160 20 


41 20 


Roguelay 


314 10 


50 


Sanostol 


350 


62 


Rossa 


38 10 


39 


Sanson 


20 40 


43 20 


Rostone 


72 10 


57 


Santari 


73 40 


17 


Roswic 


38 20 


55 20 


Sante 


294 40 


9 30 a. 


Ruened 


58 20 


19 40 a. 


S. Apolonia 


82 30 


21 40 a. 


Russia 


40 22 


55 10 


S. Barnardo 


328 40 


12 30 


Rust 


57 30 


59 30 


S. Barnardo 


181 20 


23 20 


Rye 


34 10 


67 30 


S. Barnardo 


319 50 


17 


Rygalli 


27 30 


51 Oa. 


S. Bartolomeo ... 


319 10 


17 50 








S. Catarina In. ... 


308 20 


17 


S. 






S. Cathariua 


292 50 


12 10 


Saba 


317 30 


17 20 


S. Christophero ... 


318 30 


16 40 


Sabain 


68 20 


8 40 


S. Christoual 


291 20 


22 20 


Sabarza 


154 50 


45 


S. Christoual 


306 30 


38 


Sabia 


60 40 


23 40 


S. Croce 


4 


10 a. 


Sablestan reg. ... 


114 


34 


S. Croce 


3 50 


1 Oa. 


Sablon 


333 50 


53 50 


S. Crux 


314 15 


16 


Sabron 


84 50 


45 10 


S. Crux 


334 20 


43 30 


Sabrata 


43 30 


29 50 


S. Cruxde la Sierra 


318 10 


17 20 a. 


Sacabo 


71 20 


28 30 


S.Dauids 


20 


52 


Sachadi 


85 50 


22 


S. Domingo 


307 10 


17 50 


Sachi 


113 10 


42 20 ! 


S- Espirito 


322 30 


31 20 a. 


Sachaf lacus 


52 


17 


S. Espirito 


75 40 


13 50rt. 


Sachion 


135 50 


56 30 


S. Francisco 


87 


7 Oa. 


Sacolche 


68 


15 10 


S. Francisco 


326 20 


24 40 a. 


Sacole 


69 30 


19 


S. Francisco 


255 


31 50 


Saendebar 


174 40 


35 50 


S. Francisco 


335 20 


26 10 a. 


Saepam 


176 30 


14 


S. George 


357 10 


39 Oa. 


Sagatin 


95 30 


58 20 


S. Helena 


24 30 


16 Oa. 


Sala 


20 20 


33 30 


S. Hierouymo ... 


181 30 


24 


Sala 


89 40 


48 


S. Hieroms Riuer . 


302 10 


53 10 a. 


Salamanca 


20 30 


40 50 


Santiago 


264 30 


20 30 


Salaue 


63 10 


13 40 


Santiago 


298 10 


32 10 


Salasta 


72 40 


41 50 


S. Jago 


175 30 


2 Oa. 


Salata 


76 


24 30 


S. antiago 


320 


14 30 


Salebrena 


24 50 


37 30 


S. Juan 


171 30 


6 20 


Salina 


45 


38 30 


S. Jan de Luz ... 


25 10 


43 20 


Salinus de Treiiot . 


321 40 


53 


S. Juan de Lua ... 


273 20 


19 40 


Salsburg 


42 


48 20 1 


S. Lazaro 


71 


10 20 a. 


Salsipodes 


288 40 


15 40 


S. Lucar 


21 20 


37 10 


Salstom 


32 20 


62 


S. Lucia 


1 


17 


Saluado 


321 20 


5 


S. Lucia 


319 50 


12 40 


Samain 


111 


46 30 


S. Malo 


24 20 


48 50 


Samma 


51 


65 


S. Maria 


82 30 


17 Offl. 


Samara 


118 30 


8 10 


S. Maria 


241) 40 


34 20 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 



171 



S. Maria 
S. Maria 
S. Maria 
S. Maria de Naza- 

ret 
S. Martha 
S. Martiu 
S. Martin In. 
S. Martin 
S. Matbeo 
S. Michel 
S. Miguel 
S. Miguel 
S. Miguel 
S. Miguel 
S. Nicolas 
S. Nicholas 
S. Nicholas 
S Pietro 
S. Pol 

S. Pol. de Lyon 
S. Samson 
S. Vincent 
S. Vinceute 
S. Vues 
Todos Santos 
Todos Santos 
Sanx Pouan 
La Saona 
Sapom Ins. 
Sarachi 
Saragosa 
Saragua 
Saraiatzik 
Sardinia 
Sargora 
Sargora 
Sari 
Sartan 
Sata 

Satyroru Ins. 
Sana 
Santopoli 
Saun 
Saura 
Scampi 
Scanga 
Scarborough 
Scarpanto 
Scierno 
Sciro 
Schotland 
Schwitenea 
Scosna 
Scotia r. 
Scudo 
Scylazo 
Secotan 
Segedein 



I Long. 


Lat. 




Long. 


Lat. 


30 


36 


segn nuestra Ins. . 


293 30 


46 20 a 


35(5 


IS 30 a. 


selefer 


135 50 


33 20 


85 


44 30 


selg 


111 50 


48 


66 30 


16 30 


semes 


J 9 30 


' 48 20 






semon 


95 40 


38 10 


301 20 


10 40 


senega reg. 


13 


24 


321 10 


51 


senega fl. 


12 30 


11 30 


293 40 


46 50 a. 


septa 


22 


i 35 40 


319 10 


17 10 


seretua 


118 50 


28 50 


21 10 


1 50 a. 


sereng 


105 30 


27 50 


60 50 


65 30 


sereut 


97 10 


29 


327 20 


47 20 


serueri 


103 30 


35 


291 40 


6 10 a. 


serneri reg. 


106 33 


33 30 


268 


24 


seroponon 


115 40 


59 20 


249 


32 50 


serra 


158 20 


49 10 


€9 


64 


serra liona 


15 30 


7 40 


323 20 


53 40 


serras de S. Espe- 


42 30 


1 50 a. 


2 


17 


ritu 






64 30 


1 30 


serta 


62 


26 50 


330 40 


47 20 


seruan 


90 20 


39 4.5 


20 40 


48 40 


seu desertum 


52 


14 30 


306 30 


40 30 


shaboglishar 


83 40 


56 30 


30 


17 30 


shakaskik 


91 30 


53 


318 40 


41 50 


shensk 


68 40 


61 50 


17 30 


38 30 


skalholt 


8 30 


65 20 


319 10 


14 50 


siau 


139 10 


14 30 


350 30 


12 30 a. 


siao 


160 50 


3 30 


75 30 


14 40 a. 


siarant 


118 20 


30 


309 


16 50 


sibaccha 


50 


28 40 


107 10 


30 


sibier r. op. 


99 20 


59 30 


84 30 


44 10 


sibilia 


22 


35 50 


26 10 


41 50 


sicby montes 


115 


58 30 


64 


9 


sicilia 


45 


37 30 


87 10 


48 30 


sidal 


75 30 


22 


39 


40 


sidon 


72 10 


36 30 


54 30 


15 20 a. 


sierras de Penedall 


47 20 


30 40 a. 


137 40 


40 


sierra neuada 


298 


49 Oa. 


97 30 


37 40 


siete herman 


170 


9 30 


84 


14 40 


sigesmel locus ... 


41 


11 30 


72 50 


25 40 


sigistau r. 


105 


31 


174 10 


46 30 


simiso 


69 10 


44 20 


81 10 


18 40 


siua 


70 


41 40 


73 30 


47 


sinai mons 


75 


30 


115 20 


47 20 


sind 


109 30 


27 


84 40 


31 20 


sindacui 


165 10 


55 40 


51 50 


42 


siudam 


99 


32 20 


119 30 


26 


siudiufu 


142 10 


44 


24 50 


54 30 


singa 


60 30 


3 50 a. 


62 10 


36 


singin 


147 10 


41 40 


145 15 


28 


singui 


155 30 


55 30 


57 30 


41 10 


singui 


149 30 


38 30 


25 


60 


singuimatu 


155 30 


48 10 


28 50 


59 


siminan 


106 30 


45 30 


75 40 


52 


sinus Barbaricus... 


74 


4 Oa. 


20 


57 


sinus S. Laurentij 


325 


49 


291 


9 


sinus Mexicanus... 


280 


26 


47 40 


39 20 


sinus Per.sicus ... 


85 


29 


304 50 


34 30 


sione 


59 10 


12 40 


49 


47 10 


sipanto 


45 30 


41 50 



172 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 



siquisita 

sirach 

siras 

sire 

sirgiam 

sissam Ins. 

sistan 

slaba 

slauonia 

slowoda 

slowoda 

slutzk 

smacatlan 

smirna 

snauel 

sobaha 

socbasi fl. 

soghgi 

soha 

solangi reg. 

solidea 

soloski 

soltania 

soram 

sorand 

sorling3 

sosa 

sossa fl. 

sostau 

spaara 

spakado 

spartivento 

spier 

spina 

spicia 

stachene 

staci 

stad 

stadin fl. 

staianfu 

stagira 

stampalio 

stapholt 

starabat 

starigur 

stecborg 

stetin 

stobi 

stockolm 

stoka 

stolp 

stora 

stormesent 

stornita 

straight of Matu 

chin 
straun 
strelna 
streltze 





Long. 


Lat. 




312 40 


19 50 a. 




87 20 


42 10 




90 40 


30 40 




46 30 


12 30 




95 10 


29 40 




106 20 


1 20 




105 30 


28 40 




55 50 


58 40 




47 


45 




68 20 


64 30 




86 30 


58 50 




59 


52 38 




270 50 


16 40 




60 20 


40 30 




2 30 


64 20 




63 10 


16 10 




108 


48 50 




143 20 


50 20 




92 30 


23 50 




139 


50 




14 15 


11 




55 


64 30 




92 40 


37 20 




86 50 


35 40 




351 40 


61 




18 


50 




61 


1 30 




108 30 


64 30 




117 40 


28 




96 50 


33 30 




46 50 


45 20 




47 30 


38 




35 30 


49 20 




60 50 


43 30 




39 50 


44 30 




118 50 


32 40 




94 


30 40 




30 40 


61 40 




306 20 


50 




147 50 


42 




55 30 


43 30 




59 50 


36 40 




2 20 


65 40 




99 40 


41 20 




44 40 


69 10 




42 30 


58 50 




42 10 


53 50 




52 30 


44 




42 


58 10 




57 50 


48 30 




45 30 


55 30 




35 50 


35 40 




30 


59 40 




135 10 


37 10 


- 


74 30 


73 10 




84 30 


43 30 




79 40 


61 10 




79 40 


62 



strupuli cost 

suachem 

suastus fl. 

sua ziuo 

subao 

succuir 

suedia reg. 

suetinos 

sufFetuba 

siiguau 

Sumatra Ins. 

sunda 

supa 

sus 

susaca 

siisdal 

swest 

Swinburne head 

syr 

sjria 

syracuspc 

syrtis maior 

syrtis minor 

T. 
Tabaco 
Tacan 
Tacine 
Tachnin fl. 
Tacomiguo 
Tadelis 
Tadinsu 
Tagaranto 
Tagaza 
Taguima In. 
Taiapui'a 
Taigin 
Taingu 
Taiombara 
Taiompura 
Taiona 
Talabora 
Talao 
Talca 
Talcau 
Tamaco 
Tamasa 
Tambof 
Tamos pr. 
Tana 

Tanamaibu 
Tancbit 
Tanes 
Tapasipa 
Tapuri motes 
Tar am a 
Taranto 
Tarapaca 
Tarbacan 



Long. 


96 10 


72 40 


119 20 


51 10 


153 50 


143 10 


40 


57 


39 20 


69 30 


134 


138 


156 30 


87 30 


73 40 


74 20 


64 50 


25 


90 30 


74 


45 40 


48 30 


43 10 


322 10 


152 20 


27 40 


125 50 


72 40 


33 50 


ua 20 


143 30 


18 40 


154 30 


142 30 


149 10 


152 


144 20 


145 50 


59 30 


312 


161 


98 10 


85 


270 15 


75 30 


15 30 


174 30 


135 10 


109 30 


114 10 


30 50 


275 


113 


301 15 


48 


306 20 


109 30 



INDEX GEOGEAPHICUS. 



173 



Targa reg. 

Targa op. 

Tarnassar 

Tarragona 

Tarso 

Tar tab o 

Tartar 

Tartaria reg. 

Tasan 

Tasica 

Taskent reg. 

Taskent op. 

Taste 

Tatracan 

Tauasca 

Tauais 

Tauay 

Tauest 

Tauilla 

Tauris 

Taxila 

Tebeld 

Tebilbelt 

Technaa fl. 

Techort 

Tefethue 

Tega 

Tegoram 

Tegnat 

Teient 

Tallin 

Temican 

Teueritfe 

Tendue op. 

Tendue reg. 

Tenesab 

Teulech 

Teorregu 

Tequandela 

Tercera 

Terenate 

Terra alta 

Terra alta 

Terra de los f umos 

Terra de Humos. 

Prim era Terra 

Terra de S. V 

cente 
Tarsis 
Tesebit 
Thessalonica 
Thesset reg. op. 
Testigos 
Teufar 
Texir 
Tezerin 
Tezzeri 
Thebet reg. 
Thebet op. 





Long. 


Lat. 




32 


25 




31 20 


23 40 




119 40 


17 10 




29 30 


40 40 




71 20 


40 




162 40 


38 40 




152 


63 20 




130 


62 




132 30 


36 20 




66 40 


22 10 




129 


49 




126 


50 15 




308 40 


9 10 




55 


44 50 




275 40 


18 20 




108 40 


42 20 




135 10 


15 30 




49 20 


63 30 




18 10 


37 20 




90 30 


38 10 




121 40 


34 50 




41 10 


10 10 




23 10 


29 30 




68 


7 20 a. 




35 50 


27 10 




16 10 


30 




47 20 


25 30 




29 30 


30 




27 40 


28 10 




17 


30 30 




13 30 


54 40 




20 50 


8 30 




8 10 


27 30 




168 30 


57 30 




170 


59 




46 50 


61 10 




17 


31 




48 5Q 


25 




303 10 


49 




358 20 


39 




160 40 


1 20 




160 30 


6 40 a. 




45 20 


15 2.J 


lOS 


322 30 


40 20 II. 




348 40 


1 30 a. 




172 10 


30 a. 


in- 


346 40 


2 a. 




115 20 


49 




27 30 


30 




53 40 


44 20 




20 


29 10 




316 10 


11 




37 30 


27 10 




11 30 


22 30 




24 50 


30 40 




43 40 


26 




138 50 


45 




138 50 


44 





Long. 


Lat. 


Thene 


79 20 


37 40 


Tholoman 


144 20 


40 


Tholouse 


28 40 


43 50 


Thomebamba 


293 40 


1 50 a 


Thunis 


67 40 


32 


Thialso 


49 40 


22 40 a 


Tidore 


160 40 


40 


Tigramahon 


65 


6 


Tigris fl. 


84 


34 30 


Timitri 


133 10 


49 20 


Timocham 


108 50 


28 20 


Tinazen 


70 


13 


Tingui 


155 


43 


Tinoca 


166 


32 


Tinzu 


164 


48 40 


Tipura 


131 10 


28 10 


Tiguisana 


305 20 


16 a 


Tirna 


47 


49 


Tisrich 


95 20 


28 10 


Titicaca lacus 


308 30 


18 Oa. 


Toch tepee 


274 40 


19 


Tocros 


54 50 


46 


Tosian 


13 20 


29 


Togora 


146 


49 50 


Takel 


4 20 


64 


Toledo 


22 20 


39 40 


Tollon 


34 50 


43 2.) 


Tolometa 


53 


31 30 


Tombute 


20 50 


15 


Toram 


134 30 


7 


Torn 


47 


53 10 


Toropetz 


62 40 


57 50 


Tortoza 


29 30 


40 30 


Tortuga 


303 50 


20 20 


Tortugas 


312 20 


10 40 


Tosalis 


143 40 


37 30 


Totoneac 


2l8 20 


36 


Toul 


33 10 


49 10 


Toure 


27 30 


47 50 


Trabuco 


56 30 


31 30 


Tranom Ins. 


107 10 


1 20 


Trauooch 


34 20 


67 


Trapam 


43 30 


37 30 


Trapieari 


305 10 


7 a. 


Trebizonda 


74 30 


44 40 


Tremizen 


29 


34 10 


Trent 


40 10 


46 10 


Treta 


68 


37 20 


Treuia 


20 10 


7 40 


Triago Ins. 


278 40 


21 


Tribanta 


63 30 


41 50 


Tricalamata 


120 10 


7 30 


Trier 


34 10 


49 50 


Trieste 


44 10 


46 10 


Trin 


36 30 


45 40 


Trinidad 


355 20 


19 10a 


Trinidad 


295 50 


21 20 


Trinidad 


319 20 


9 


Triuitie hurbor ... 


308 30 


36 



174 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 





Long. 


Lat. 


1 


Long. 


Lat. 


Tripolis antiqua . . . 


44 20 


30 20 


Yeuetitc 


41 40 


45 50 


Tripoli de Baibaria 


45 20 


30 30 


Yella 


77 


13 


Tripolis Sorise ... 


72 20 


37 


Yerdiso 


59 50 


45 


Troia 


f.9 


42 30 


Yerdum 


32 10 


49 20 


Troy 


31 


48 10 


Yerma r. 


133 


21 30 


Tuat 


29 


28 30 


Yerma op. 


130 20 


20 10 


Tuban 


154 10 


5 40 a. 


Yerona 


40 40 


45 50 


Tucare 


32 20 


7 


Vertoplate 


130 30 


1 3U 


Tucca 


38 10 


33 20 


Vesgirt 


116 20 


41 30 


Tucken 


51 30 


57 40 


Yguin 


161 10 


39 20 


Tuesa 


81 15 


18 


Yiaua 


17 30 


42 


Tugasar 


16 40 


14 30 


Yiatca 


87 50 


59 30 


Tuia 


82 50 


62 


Yich 


81 40 


53 50 


TuUa 


72 


53 20 


Yidepski 


59 


57 I) 


Tumbes 


291 40 


4 10 a. 


i Yienna 


45 30 


48 30 


Tumboblanco 


294 


3 Oa. 


! Yigangara 


80 40 


14 40 


Tumena 


90 50 


29 30 


Yillac 


48 


46 50 


Tamisa 


84 10 


24 


Villa longa 


28 20 


7 40 


Tuna 


41 50 


64 30 


i Villa Coude 


17 30 


41 30 


Tuuei 


72 10 


9 40 


'■ Vilna 


54 30 


55 


Tunis r. op. 


40 


36 


Yindius Mons 


124 


28 


Turbet 


99 50 


34 


Yirgines 


178 40 


1 20 


Turchestan reg. ... 


110 11 


47 


Virginia 


302 


36 


Turf on 


131 30 


56 30 


Visigrod 


61 30 


51 30 


Turris lapidea 


125 


47 


Bona Vista 


4 30 


15 30 


mons 






Buena Vista 


308 40 


40 10 


Turses 


103 10 


34 


Buena Vista 


177 30 


13 30 


Tursis 


103 40 


37 30 


Yiterbo 


41 50 


42 40 


Turuubaia 


76 20 


24 50 a. 


Vkkil 


53 10 


57 


Tutega 


17 


6 30 


YUao 


242 10 


30 30 


Twer 


68 10 


57 10 


Yllao 


240 30 


21 


Tybi 


91 50 


19 40 


Vim 


37 50 


48 50 


Tyrus 


71 35 


35 30 


Vocam 


116 8 


39 


Tzercas 


79 50 


49 20 


Vociam 


128 


40 








Volga fl. 


75 40 


58 


V. 






Ypsalia 


42 50 


60 


Vadi • ... 


54 40 


16 Oa. 


Yque 


60 40 


6 40 


Vahuliez 


90 40 


60 50 


Vraba 


297 20 


7 30 


Vaigii-male 


119 


18 


Vraba 


285 30 


10 40 


Vaigui 


150 50 


39 


Yrcamia 


23 50 


46 


Val Parayso 


300 


33 Oa. 


Vrcos 


301 


14 50 


Yalderas 


261 50 


22 30 


Vrdubar 


90 30 


37 


Valentia 


29 20 


39 40 


Vrgis fl. 


85 50 


53 20 


Valunta 


56 


27 50 a. 


Vristigna 


38 40 


39 40 


Vamba fl. 


49 40 


5 Oa. 


Vsargala Mons ... 


32 50 


27 


Van 


86 30 


36 50 


Vstiga 


43 15 


39 


Yangue 


48 40 


8 50 


Vstiug 


79 30 


61 30 


Yar ... 1 


120 30 


22 40 


Vstuzna 


67 


59 20 


Yarcano ... | 


107 50 


39 


Ytual 


42 40 


62 50 


Yaron 


83 30 


70 30 








Yarta 


46 50 


51 40 


W. 






A'asianar 


75 40 


49 


Waesbergen 


39 


57 30 


Vastaa 


85 10 


36 50 


AVardhuys 


50 30 


70 30 


Yasten 


39 30 


59 50 


E. Warwickes fore- 


323 10 


62 


Vatacaba 


53 40 


12 30 a. 


land 






Yaygath Ins. 


81 30 


69 20 


Coun. Warwicks 


330 40 


64 40 


Yban 


96 50 


32 


sound 






Yche ... 1 


110 40 


31 30 


AYassilgorod 


81 50 


56 40 


"Wkelax ... 


54 20 


62 


Woxen 


49 20 


52 30 



INDEX GEOGRAPHICUS. 



175 



Weiraoughi 

"Welichi 

Weliki poyassa ... 

Weliki tuiijen ... 

Welisz 

Weroy 

Wesel 

Westerhol 

Whitbe 

Wiborgh 

AViesDia 

Wight 

Sir Hugh Willow- 

bies land 
Wintertou 
Winei'us 
Wococan 
Wologda 
Wologda 
Wolsk 



X. 



Xaiel 

Xaudu 

Xanes 

Xagnes 

Xara 

Xibuar 

Xinxa 

Xumete 



Y. 

Yertnouth 
Yorck 
Yuagua 
Yuchcope 



Z. 

Zabe 

Zacabedera 

Zacana 11. 

Zacatula 

Zachabirtenduc ... 

Zachet 

Zacatora Ins & op. 



Long. 


23 50 


96 30 


101 20 


95 40 


63 40 


36 50 


31 30 


40 30 


24 30 


56 30 


67 30 


25 10 


55 


27 30 


18 40 


307 30 


73 50 


74 30 


68 30 


85 30 


168 40 


311 30 


282 


130 


116 


301 30 


304 20 


27 30 


23 30 


303 30 


22 50 


67 20 


140 40 


60 40 


269 40 


165 10 


76 40 


88 



Lat. 




51 


Zagatray 


56 


Zahaspa 


63 30 


Zahu 


56 20 


Zaiton 


56 50 


Zalines 


68 40 


Zama 


51 30 


Zama 


67 40 


Zambere fl. 


55 


Zamfara 


62 35 


Zamilla 


55 


Zanhaga reg 


50 30 


Zanzibar 


75 


Zaphalouia 




Zara 


53 30 


Zaradrns fl. 


43 40 


Zardadain 


34 


Zarim 


59 30 


Zauou 


60 


Zazela 


55 50 


Zerbeng 




Zebil mons 




Zedica 




Zegzeg r. op 


15 40 


Zeila 


55 40 


Zeit 


11 


Zembere lac 


20 30 


Nona zemla 


17 


Zengiau 


46 30 


Zerigo 


12 Oa. 


Zerzer 


23 


Zet 




Zibit 




Zigeck 




Zigide 


53 


Zil 


54 30 


Zimbaos 


21 


Zimbro 


56 30 


Zingis 




Zire 




Ziz 




Zodaha 


5 30 a. 


Zodiala 


13 10 


Zordalanel 


13 Oa. 


Zophal 


20 


Zoquila 


58 30 


Zuenziga r. 


6 


Zuiatzko 


12 50 


Zuubal 



Long. 
105 
101 20 
1 41 20 

157 30 

51 50 

49 30 
74 40 
55 
41 
89 
20 
73 50 

52 

46 25 
125 
143 10 
135 40 

41 30 

81 40 

138 40 

47 

48 
36 40 
80 
77 

55 
83 30 

158 20 

56 
79 

53 
70 
45 50 
55 

115 
59 

50 50 
76 10 

107 10 

27 

143 30 

57 50 
137 30 

64 20 

58 30 
25 
85 20 
39 30 



Lat. 


45 


42 30 


28 


28 


58 30 


14 Oa. 


11 40 


19 10 a. 


16 


28 20 


24 


6 30 a. 


38 30 


45 40 


94 


32 20 


14 40 


50 


7 40 


35 40 


17 Oa. 


29 30 


14 40 


11 


5 


11 30 a. 


74 


37 20 


36 


17 50 


17 10 a. 


22 10 


40 50 


10 40 


15 


25 20 a. 


22 40 


49 30 


30 10 


26 30 


8 20 a. 


4 


23 


56 


37 30 



FINIS. 



BIOGHAPHICAL INDEX 

OP 

NAMES IN THE " TRACT AT US DE GLOBIS" OF 
ROBERT HUES. 



PA&E 

Abulfeda — On the measurement of a degree by order of Almamun ... 92 
Length of a parasang .. ... .. ... 93 

Place whence the Arabians reckoned their longitude ... .. 96 

This Arabian historian and geographer belonged to the same 
family as the famous Saladin, and was one of the Ayubites who 
reigned at Hamal in Syi-ia. He was born in 1273, and died in 
1331. He took part in the wars which resulted in the complete 
extirpation of the colonies formed by the Crusader.s in the East, 
and in the wars of the Sultans of Egypt and Syria against the 
Mongols. His works are the Universal Chronicle and the Geo- 
graphy. The latter work contains an account of the system of 
the sphere as then [understood in the East, tables of latitude 
and longitude, and detailed descriptions of countries and seas. 
The first complete edition of the works of Abulfeda was pub- 
lished by Renaud (Paris) in 1840, with a French ti'anslation. 

Achasus — Number of the Hyades according to ... ... 56 

Achseus, of Eretria in Eubosa, was born B.C. 4 84, the con- 
temporary of Sophocles and Euripides. The titles of ten of his 
tragedies and of seven of his satirical dramas are known, but only 
fragments have been preserved, collected and edited by Urlichs 
(Bonn, 1834). 

Agenor — Father of Europa ... ... ... ... 77 

He was son of Poseidon and Libya, and King of Phoenicia, twin- 
brother of Belus. 

Albarenus— Position of a Jrieii's in the time of ... ... 29 

Albategnius— On the length of the year 

His real name was Muhammad ibn Jafar ibn Senan Abu Abdal- 
lah, known as Albatenius and Albategnius. He was born in the 
ninth century, at Baten, near Haran in Mesapotamia, whence his 
name of A\-baten-bis, and died in 929 a.d. His observations were 
taken between 877 and 918, at Rekbah on the Euphrates, and at 
Autioch. His chief work was translated into Latin under the 
title of De Scientia Stellaj-um, and printed at Nuremberg, 1537, 
and at Bologna. 1545, with a commentary by Regiomontanus. It 
showed that the Arabs had tables which gave the altitude of the 



2} 



BIOGKAPHICAL INDEX. 177 

sun with reference to the length of the shadow of the gnomon. 
The chief discovery of Albategnius has reference to the move- 
ment of the sun's apogee. He observed eclipses, and time of 
equinoxes. He also wrote a commentary on the Almagest, and 
was known as the Arabian Ptolemy. 
Albumazar — Tables of the mean motions of the sun written according 

to the Persian account ... ... ... ... 27 

His name was Abu-Masar- Jafar ibn Muhammad, born at Balkh 
in 776 A.D., and died in 885. Casiri gives a list of upwards of fifty 
of his works ; and d'Herbelot calls him the Prince of the Astrono- 
mers of his time. His chief work on astronomy was translated 
into Latin, and printed at Augsburg in 1506. He composed astro- 
nomical tables according to the system of the Persians. 
Alexander the Great — Found the water of the Caspian to be fresh ... 69 
Son of Philip II, King of Macedonia, and of Olympias, of the 
royal house of Epirus, born B.C. 356. He succeeded his father in 
336. Died at Babylon, 323. 
Alfraganus — Time of the vernal equinox in his days ... ... 28 

Length of Saturn's year ... ... ... ... 45 

On the number of constellations ... ... ... 47 

On the number of stars, 94. Names of constellations ... ... 49 

Names of stars in Z7rsa Jfino»* ... ... ... ... 50 

Number of stars in the constellation of the Harp ... ... 53 

Gives the name of Altair to Cygnus ... ... ... 54 

His interpretation of the Arabic name for ^)i(Zromec?a ... ... 55 

His name for the star i'eHeS in Zeo ... ... ... 57 

Number of stars in the constellation of Pisces Australis ... 62 

Cause of the increased apparent size of the sun at rising and setting 64 
Draws his second climate through Cyprus and Rhodes ... ... 87 

On the circumference of the earth ... ... ... 92 

Length of the Arabian mile ... ... ... ... 93 

His astronomical work was translated and edited by Christman 
(whom see). 
Alhazenus — Held that the toj^s of the highest hills reached to eight 

Arabian miles ... ... ... ... ... 13 

Length of a degree, according to his book — De Crepusculis ... 92 

Length of twilight ... ... ... ... ... 113 

Abu-Ali-al Hasan-ibn al Hasan ibn al Haytam (called Alhazenus) 
was born at Bussora, and died at Cairo in 1030 a.d. He was an 
Arabian astronomer, who suggested the construction of an ap- 
paratus for predicting, with infallible exactness, the periodical in- 
undations of the Nile. The Fatimite Khalifa of Egypt sent for 
him, and gave him every facility to complete his project ; but, 
after a voyage up the Nile, he recognized insuperable difficulties. 
Fearing the anger of his employer, he feigned madness, and passed 
the rest of his life in copying manuscripts. Casiri gives a list of 
his original works. The princijial ones are commentaries on 

P 



178 BIOGEAPHICAL INDEX. 

Ptolemy and Euclid, and a treatise on optics, and on twilight ; 
translated into Latin, and published at Basle in 1572. It was in 
accordance with his ideas that the first spectacles were made. 
Almamun — Iving of Arabia — Distance of tropics from the equator ... 32 
Views of Arabic writers since his time, as to the earth's circum- 
ference ... ... ... ... ... 92 

Abul- Abbas -Abdallah-al-mamun, the Abbasside Khalifa, was 
born at Baghdad in 786, and died in 834. He was son of the 
celebrated Khalifa Harun-al-rashid, in whose life-time he admin- 
istered the Persian province of Khorasan. He succeeded in 813. 
His reign was a period of progress and civilization. He caused 
numerous Greek scientific and philosophic works to be translated 
into Arabic, and especially fostered the study of mathematics and 
astronomy. He founded an observatory at Baghdad, and caused 
a degree of the meridian to be measured on the plain of Mesopo- 
tamia. His chief astronomers were Albategnius, Albumazar, the 
Jew Maschallah, and the Persian Abdallah-ibn-Sehl. 
Almehon, son of Almuhazar — On the distance of the tropics from the 

equator ... ... ... ... ... 32 

Alphonsus and the Alphonsines— On the length of the year ... 27 

Position of a Arietis in their time ... ... ... 29 

Eccentricity of the moon and Venus ... ... ... 47 

Name of the first star in the tail of Ursa Major ... ... 50 

i?asa6c«, their name for a star in ^erci«?es — corrupt ... ... 52 

Give Ver/a as a name iov a Lyroe ... ... ... 53 

Their name for a star in Cassiopeia ... ... ... 53 

Saclateni, their name for the Ilcedi in Auriga ... ... 54 

Gave the name of Bcllatrix to a star in Orion ... ... 59 

Their name of .4?/flr»-< for a star in //yfZ/'ffl ... ... ... 61 

Alfonso X (el Sabio), King of Castille and Leon, was born in 
1226, and died in 1284. He was brother-in-law of Edward I of 
England, and succeeded his father, San Fernando III, in 1252. 
This king cultivated the science of the Arabs of Spain, and was 
devoted to literary pursuits. An unwise and vacillating politician, 
he was an able lawgiver and a great patron of literature. He 
founded the L^niversity of Salamanca, promoted the study of the 
Spanish language, and compiled a code of laws. The astronomical 
tables prepared under his auspices were in universal use until the 
beginning of the sixteenth century. They were called the Alfonsine 
Tables, and were probably the work of Arabian astronomers of 
Granada, who lived at the court of Alfonso. The tables are dated 
30 May 1252, and were first printed at Venice in 1492. The room 
is still shown in the alcazar of Segovia, where Alfonso studied 
astronomy. His code of laws was called " Las Siete Partidas", 
and was almost entirely the king's own work. The celebrated 
Cronica de Espana, a history of Spain from the earliest times to 
the death of his father, is also attributed to Alfonso X. 



BIOGliAFHlCAL INDEX. 179 

Anaximander — First observed the obliquity of the ecliptic ... 24 

Boru at Miletus iu (310 B.C.; one of the earliest philosophers of 
the Ionian school, and discijile of Thales, its founder. His work, 
consisting of statements of his opinions, was found accidentally by 
Apollodorus. His speculations related to the origin of the uni- 
verse. He is believed to have been the firet to introduce the use 
of the gnomon into Greece. He died about 547 B.C. But there 
is very little evidence that the ecliptic and equinoctial circle were 
known in Greece in his time. 
Anthony, Mark — Defeated by Augustus ... ... ... 71 

Antinous — A constellation named in honour of ... ... ... 54 

A youth of Bithynia, who, on account of his extraordinary 
beauty, was taken by the Emperor Hadrian to be his page. He 
drowned himself in the Nile, owing to a superstitious belief that 
he would thus avert some calamity from the Emperor. Hadrian's 
grief knew no bounds. He enrolled Antinous among the gods, 
erected temples to him, medals and statues were executed iu his 
honour, and his death (a.D. 122) formed an era in the history of 
ancient art. The constellation of Antinous consists of some small 
stars near Aquila. 
Antiochus {see Numenius) — All the eastern coast of Asia sailed round 

in reign of ... ... ... ... ... 72 

Antiphanes — Censured by Strabo ... ... ... 1,73 

A native of Berga in Thrace, who wrote on marvels ; he was 
censured by Strabo for writing his incredible stories as if they 
were true. 
Apher — Africa said by Eustathius to be named from ... ... 77 

Appianus (see Gemma Frisius). 

Appianus was the Latinised name of Bienewitz, a German astro- 
nomer, who was born at Leipzig in 1495, and died in 1552. He 
was professor of mathematics at Ingolstadt. His Cosmoyrajjlda 
was first published at Landshut in 1524. 
Aquinas, St. Thomas — On the position of the terrestrial paradise ... 38 
Aratus — His errors and imperfections, as compared with the writings of 

Ptolemj' ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Apxilication of the word zone by Theon, iu his commentary on ... 37 
Differs from Ptolemy concerning the number of stars in the con- 
stellations ... ... ... ... ... 48 

Not more ancient than Hipparchus. as Theon would have him to be 48 
Theon, in his commentary on, affirms that the Little Bear was called 
«Ae Z>o^ by Thales ... ... ... ... 50 

Name for the constellations of the bears ... ... ... 51 

Constellation of Hercules resembles one weary with labour, iu the 
conception of ... ... ... ... .. 52 

Does not mention Canopus, as it never appears in Greece ... 81 

Aratus was a native of Soli in Cilicia, and lived about B.C. 270. 
He was the author of two Greek astronomical poems. He spent the 



180 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

latter part of his life at the court of Antigonus Gonatus, King of 
Macedonia. The first poem, called Phenomeyia, consists of 732 
verses, the second, Prognostica, of 422. These poems are believed to 
be versified editions of two works by Eudoxus, which are lost. The 
positions of the constellations and the path of the sun in the 
zodiac are described. The opening verses contain the passage 
quoted by St. Paul {Acts xvii, 28), " For in him we live, and move, 
and have our being, as certain also of your own poets have said." 
The poems were very popular, and there were several Latin trans- 
lations. 
Archimedes — Improved the globle or sphere ... ... ... 5 

Discovered the proiDortion between diameter and circumference of a 
circle ... ... ... ... ... ... 12 

Every liquid body at rest has a spherical surf ace ... ... 14 

Adopted the length of the year from CalipiDus ... ... 26 

Cites Aristarchus as to the sun's apparent diameter ... ... 89 

Born 287 B.C. A kinsman, certainly a friend of Hiero, King of 
Syi-acuse. The most famous mathematician of ancient times. He 
studied, in Alexandria, under Conon, and then returned to Syra- 
cuse. He constructed various engines of war for Hiero, which 
were used when Marcellus besieged the town, and long delayed its 
capture. He is said to have set the Roman ships on fire with a 
burning-glass. He built a large ship, and moved it into the sea by 
means of a screw, being a present from Hiero to Ptolemy, King of 
Egypt. He also invented a water-screw for pumpiug water out of 
the shiji's hold. He constriicted a kind of orrery for representing 
the movements of the heavenly bodies. He discovered the pro- 
l^ortion between the circumference and diameter of a circle ; and 
many other solutions of mathematical problems. He was killed 
by Roman soldiers when Marcellus took Syracuse. 
Arias Montanus — Translation of Benjamin of Tudela. Error re- 
specting Canoinis .. . ... ... ... ... 61 

Name of Abyssines ... ... ... ... ... 78 

Arias Montanus, a learned Spaniard, was born in 1527, and died 
in 1598. He was a gieat linguist, and travelled over every part 
of EurojDe. He also accompanied the Bishojj of Segovia to the 
Council of Trent. He had charge of the publication of a new 
edition of the Polyglot Bible (1572), and PhUip II offered him a 
bishopric, which he declined. His translation of Benjamin of 
Tudela is in Latin. 
Aristarchus, Samius — Followed Calippus, in calculating the length of 

the year ... ... ... ... ... 26 

Calculation of the sun's api^arent diameter .. . ... ... 89 

He flourished at Samos in 270 B.C. It occurred to him that the 
ilhimiuation of the moon by the sun afforded a means of esti- 
mating the sun's distance. He estimated the sun's distance at 
ntueteen times that of the moon, or a twentieth of its true value. 



BIOGEAPHICAL INDEX. 181 

By ascertaining the exact time between new moon and half full 
moon he got two angles in a triangle, one side of which is the 
distance required. None of his works remain, except the treatise 
on the distances of the sun and moon, 
Aristotle— On the height of Mount Athos ... ... ... 8 

Height of Caucasus celebrated by ... ... ... 9 

Reported that Sesostris gave up his scheme of uniting the Mediter- 
ranean and Arabian Seas, because the surface of the latter was 
higher than the former ... ... ... ... 14 

Terminated the zones with the tro^^ics and Arctic and Antarctic 
circles ... ... ... ... ... 38 

His calculation of the circumference of the earth ... ... 80 

He was born at Stageira, a seaport in the district of Chalcis. 
Born 384 B.C. His father, who was a jjhysician, introduced him 
to the court of the King of Macedonia. On his father's death he 
went to Athens, and became a disciple of Plato. He lived at 
Athens for twenty years. He then accepted an invitation of 
Philip of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander. 
Stageira, which had been destroyed by Philip, was rebuilt at the 
request of Aristotle, and a grove was planted there, for himself 
and his pupils. Here he lived with his royal pupil for four years. 
In 335 Aristotle returned to Athens, and delivered his lectures to 
his disciples, while walking in the groves which surrounded the 
lyceum. He died at Chalcis in 322 B.C., aged 63. His works 
were studied by the Arabian men of learning, led by Avicenna and 
Averrhoes, and, through the commentaries of St. Thomas Aquinas, 
at the universities of Paris and Oxford. In the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries the editions of Aristotle were very numerous. 
Artemidorus — On the ai)parent size of the sun at his setting ... 64 

A Greek geographer of Ephesus who flourished about B.C. 100. 
He was also a great traveller, but his work, which was valued 
highly by the ancients, is lost. An abridgment was made by 
Marcianus of Heracleia, and fragments of this abridgment have 
been preserved. Artemidorus is frequently quoted by Strabo 
and Pliny. 
Arzachel — On the length of the year ... ... ... 27 

On the time of the vernal equinox ... ... ... 28 

'Position oi a Arietis ... ... ... ... 29 

Distance of the tropics from the equator ... ... ... 32 

A celebrated Jewish astronomer of Toledo, living about 1080 
A.D. He determined the apogee of the sun by 400 observations, 
and fixed the obliquity of the ecliptic at 23"^ 34'. Arzachel is the 
author of the Tables of Toledo, which probably served as a basis 
of the Alphousine Tables. 
Atlas of Libyra — Said to have invented the globe or sphere ... 5 

Son of Japetus and Clymene, according to Hesiod ; who said 
that he bore up heaven with his head and hands. He is described 



182 BIOGRAPHICAL I.XDEX. 

as the leader of the Titans in their contest with Zeus. Ovid says 
that Perseus changed him into Mount Atlas by means of the head 
of Medusa, for refusing him shelter. He is also said to be the 
father of the Pleiades. Others said that he was a great king, 
and the first who taught men that heaven had the form of a 
globe. 

Augustus — Defeat of Mark Anthony. Project of Cleopatra for flight 71 
Ensigns discovered in Arabia, known to have belonged to Spanish 
ships in the time of ... ... ... ... 74 

Avarius — On the length of the year ... ... ... 27 

Avicenna — Believed, with Eratosthenes, in a habitable zone under the 

equator ... ... ... ... ... 38 

Abu-Ali-el Hosein ibn Abdallah ibn el Hosein ibu Ali, called 
Avicenna, the famous Eastern physician, was born in 980 a.D. and 
died in 1037. He was born at Bokhara, where he studied arith- 
metic, algebra, and the physical sciences. He travelled over Persia, 
living at different times at Ehe, Kazveen, and Hamadan, where he 
composed most of his works. His works are very numerous, the 
chief one being the Canon of Medicine. 

Avienus (sec Festus}. 

Azaphius — On the length of the year ... ... ... 27 

Baroccius, Franciscus — In error respecting the position of a Arietis ... 29 

Bassus — Question as to the authorshiiJ of the work attributed to Ger- 

manicus ... ... ... ... ... 48 

His name of Terrestris for a star, because it always appeared very 
low ... ... ... ... ... 61 

Bassus (Aufidius) drew up an account of the Roman wars in 
Germany, and also wrote a Roman History, which was continued 
by Pliny. He lived under Augustus and Tiberius, but all his 
works are lost. 

Benedictis, Johannes — His error respecting the causes of the visibility 

of stars .. ... ... ... ... 63 

Benjamin of Tudela {see Arias Montanus)— His translator on the 

name of Abyssinians ... ... ... 61, 78 

A Jew Rabbi and traveller, who lived in the second half of the 
twelfth century. The object of his travels was to visit synagogues 
of his people, and he returned to Spain in 1173. His itinerary 
is written in Hebrew, and was translated into Latin by Arias 
Montanus in 1575. 

Borough, Stephen — His discoveries towards the north-east ... 2 

Cabot, Sebastian — His discoveries ... ... ... 2 

Caesar (see Augustus Germanicus, and Julius). 

Calippus — His calculation as to the length of the year ... ... 26 

An astronomer of Cyzicus, who worked with Aristotle at Athens, 
and also at Cyzicus. His observations are often referred to by 
Ptolemy. He invented the cycle of 76 years, to correct the cycle 
of 19 years adopted by Meton. 



BIOGEAPHICAL INDEX. 183 

CalHmachus — Alexandrian poet. His verses on the constellation of 

Berenice's hair ... ... ... ... ... 57 

A grammarian and poet, born at Cyrene, chief librarian at Alex- 
andria under Ptolemy Philadelphus, B.C. 260 to 240, when he died. 
The titles of forty of his works are known to us, but the frag- 
ments that have been preserved are chiefly poetical. They consist 
of six hymns, seventy-three epigrams, and parts of elegies. Ca- 
tullus imitated one, in his De Coma Berenices. His jtrose works 
are entirely lost. 
Campanus — On the position of the terrestrial paradise ... ... 38 

Francisco Campano, born in Tuscany, and Secretary to Cosmo 
de ^Medici. He was a classical scholar of eminence. 
Candish {or Cavendish), Thomas — His voyage of circumnavigation 3 

His voyage not so well known perhajis abroad ... ... 15 

Cardanus (see Scaliger) — On the height of the atmosphere ... 10 

Wonderful magnitude of stars about the South Pole ... ... 67 

Geronimo Cardan, a celebrated Italian physician and philosopher, 
was born at Pavia in 1501, and died at Rome in 1576. He was 
educated at Venice and Padua, and settled at Milan as a physician. 
In 1552 he visited Scotland at the invitation of John Hamilton, 
Archbishop of St. Andrew's, and saw King Edward VI in London, 
on his way back to Italy. He was unhaj^py in his family relations, 
his wife being a scold ; one son was beheaded for poisoning his 
wife, and the other was so incorrigible that Cardan was obliged to 
disinherit him. His extraordinary life is related by himself in 
his Vita propria. His best-known work is entitled De Subtilitate, 
which was vigorously attacked by Scaliger. This and the De 
Rerum Varietate comprises all the knowledge Cardan had acquired 
in medicine and natural history, most of his ideas being borrowed 
from Aristotle and Pliny. But he wrote upwards of 222 other 
treatises. 
Celer, Q. Metellus — Proconsul of Gaul. Arrival of Indians on the 

coast of Germany in his time ... ... ... ... 74 

Consul B.C. 60. He died in B.C. 59, the year of Cesar's Consulship. 
Censorinus — His views on the course of the sun ... ... 25 

Correct view as to the length of the year ... ... ... 27 

Report of the view of Eratosthenes as to the earth's circum- 
ference ... ... ... ... ... SO 

Censorinus wrote a book called De Die NataJi, in 238 a.d. It 
treats of the generation of man, his natal hour, the influence of 
the stars on his career, and the various methods for the division 
and calculation of time. He was a native of Rome, but nothing 
is known of him. 
Chancellor, Richard — His discoveries towards the north-east ... 2 

Christmannus, Jacobus — Mistaken as to the length of the year of 

Hipparchus and Ptolemy .. ... ... ... 26 

In another place he states their view correctly ... ... 20 

Time of the solstice observed bv Meton and Euctemon ... 28 



18-i BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

Gives the names of constellations from the Arabic version of the 
Almagest ... ... ... ... ... 49 

The stars in the Great Bear called " FilicB Feretri^ ... ... 51 

Believed Betelgueze to be the hand of Orion ... ... 59 

Length of the parasang ... ... ... ... 92 

Held the Arab mile to be equal to the Italian ... ... 93 

Position of the point of Africa whence the Arabs calculated their 
longitudes ... "" ... ... ... 96 

Jacob Christman, a learned German, was born at Johannisberg 
in 1554, and died in 1613. He knew Arabic, Syriac, Hebrew, 
Chaldee, Greek, Latin, French, Italian, and Spanish. He travelled 
for some years, and eventually settled at Heidelberg, where he 
taught the Eastern languages and logic for thirty years. . His 
work on the astronomy of Alfraganus, with a commentary on the 
calendars (Frankfort, 1590), is the one referred to by Hues. 
Cleomedes — The sun rises with the Persians four hours sooner than in 

Spain ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 

His account of opinions respecting the shape of the earth ... 8 

On the height of mountains 

On the depth of the sea, as cited by Pliny ... 

Assigns no certain distance of the Ai'ctic circles from the Pole 

View as to the apparent size of the sun at rising and setting 

On the circumference of the earth 

On the increase and diminishing of number of days in 

months ... ... ... ... ... 116 

The date of the work of Cleomedes on the Circular Theory of the 
Heavenly Bodies is uncertain, and nothing is known of the writer. 
It treats of the universe, of the zones, motions of the stars and 
planets, and of the magnitude and figure of the earth. He gives 
the only extant account of the way in which Eratosthenes and 
Posidonius attempted to measure an arc of the meridian. It is 
probable that Cleomedes flourished before Ptolemy. Sir Edward 
Bunbury looks upon the work of Cleomedes as an epitome of the 
views of Posidonius. 
Cleopatra — Her plan of escape, by transporting her fleet into the 

Arabian Sea ... ... ... ... ... 71 

Daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, born B.C. 69. Dethroned by her 
brother ; she was restored by Julius Caesar, who loaded her with 
honours, and induced her to come to Rome. On Caesar's death 
she fled to Egypt. Meeting Mark Anthony in Cilicia she entirely 
cajitivated him, and they returned to Egypt together. At the 
battle of Actium she fled with her fleet, and was joined by Anthony 
at Alexandria. It was then that she formed the plan of trans- 
porting her fleet into the Red Sea. She betrayed Anthony, who, 
however, died in her arms, and finding no favour from Augustus, 
she poisoned herself by the bite of an asp — B.C. 30, aged 39 — the 
last of the Ptolomies. 



11; 


12 


... 


12 


... 


32 




64 


80, 


81 


the 





BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 185 

Cleostratus Tenedius — First divided the zodiac into signs, according 

to Pliny ... ... ... ... ... 24 

Fii-st observed the configuration of the .fi^fff/t and Cffpe?Za ... 54 

An astronomer of Tenedos, inventor of the cycle of eight 

j-ears (used before Meton introduced the nineteen year cycle), 

according to Censorinus. Lived B.C. 548 to 432. It is Higinus 

who say.-j that Cleostratus first observed the Haedi. 

Coignet, Michael— His error respecting the height of the poles in 

rumb saihng ... ... ... ... ... 131 

Exposed the mistake of those who thought that the rumbs met at 
the poles ... ... ... ... ... 131 

Columella — On the cause of the solstices ... ... ... 25 

L. Junius iloderatus Columella ^vas the most important of aU 
the Roman writers on rural affairs. He flourished in the first half 
of the first century after Christ, and was a native of Cadiz, but 
generally Uved at Rome. His work is a comprehensive treatise on 
agriculture, in twelve books. 
Conon — The Alexandrian mathematician. Constellation of Berenice's 

Hair ... ... ... ... ... ... 57 

A native of Samos, friend and pupil of Archimedes. His works 
are all lost, but his observations are referred to by Ptolemy. 
Seneca tells us that he made a collection of the solar ecHpses ob- 
served by the Egyptians. His naming of the constellation of 
Berenice's Hair is on the authority of the poem of Callimachus, 
translated hj Catullus. 
Copernicus — On the length of the year ... ... ... 27 

Position of a Arietis ... ... ... ... 29 

Distance of the tropics from the equator ... ... ... 32 

Censured by Scaliger ... ... ... ... 47 

His enumeration of the stars ... ... ... ... 49 

Reckoned the longitude of stars from a j4We<!5 ... ... 50 

Erroneous estimate of the \vidth of the isthmus between the Medi- 
terranean and Arabian Sea ... ... ... ... 71 

Apparent diameter of the sun ... ... ... ... 90 

Nicolaus Copemick (Copernicus) was born at Thorn in Poland, in 
January 1472. He was educated at the University of Cracow, and 
was afterwards some time at Bologna, where he studied mathe- 
matics and astronomy. In about 1500 he settled at Rome, and 
eventually returned to Ms native country. He became a canon 
of Frauenberg near Danzig, in the diocese of Wermland, where his 
uncle was bishop. His criticisms of the Ptolemaic system, and 
the work describing his own theory, were completed in 1530, but 
not published tiU 1543 at Nuremberg, being dedicated to Pope 
Paul lil. He placed the sun in the centre of the universe, and 
he correctly explained the variation of the seasons and the pre- 
cession of the equinoxes. Copernicus died at Frauenberg in the 
year that his work was published. It was entitled Ve revolu- 
tionibus Orhiurn Ccelestium. 

Q 



186 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

Corbulo — A Roman general in Armenia. Observation of an eclipse, 

cited by Pliny ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Cneius Domitius Corbulo, brother-in-law of the Emperor Caligula, 
was Consul a.d. 39. He commanded an army in Germany w-ith 
great success in the reign of Claudius, and Nero entrusted him 
with the supreme command against the Parthians. He conquered 
Armenia, and was always faithful to Nero, who condemned him to 
death a.d. 67. On receiving the news, he committed suicide. 
Cornelius Nepos — Story of Eudoxus Cyzicenus reported by ... 13 

Arrival of Indians on the coast of Germany, reported by Mela from 74 
Contemporary of Cicero and Catullus, He was probably a 
native of Verona, and died during tlie reign of Augustus. All 
his works are lost, but in 1471 a volume was published at Venice 
containing a series of biographies of nineteen Greek and Roman 
generals, attributed to one Probus. Probably the biographies 
were wi-itten by Cornelius Nepos, and abbreviated some centuries 
afterwards by Probus. 
Corsalius, Andreas — His account of stars in the southern hemisphere 65 
Magellan's clouds ... ... ... ... 66 

Andrea Corsali, an Italian navigator, was bom at Florence, and 
entered the service of King Emanuel of Portugal. He received 
command of a ship in which he made a voyage to India and China, 
and visited Muscat and part of Persia. The narrative of his voyage 
is contained in two letters to Lorenzo de Medici, dated 1515 and 
1517. Ramusio inserted it in his collection of voyages. 
Crates — Mentioned by Strabo as having perfected the sphere or globe ... 5 
Crates of Mallus, in Cilicia, was famous as a grammarian who 
lived at Pergamus under the patronage of Eumenes and Attains II 
B.C. 160. He also wrote a commentary on the Theogony of Hesiod, 
and a work on geography, of which only a few fragments remain. 
Daimachus — Censured by Strabo as a fabulous writer ... ... 2 

A Greek historian who was sent as ambassador to ludia in 
about 312 B.C. Strabo names him as one who spread false and 
fabulous reports about India. His work is lost. 
Darius. — His scheme for cutting through the isthmus between the Medi- 
terranean and Arabian Sea ... ... ... ... 14 

Scheme abandoned owing to difference of levels ... ... 73 

Account of a voyage round Africa sent by, given in Herodotus ... 73 
Davis, John — His northern discoveries ... ... ... 2 

His adventures by sea give hope that America is bounded on the north 
by a frozen sea ... ... ... ... ... 7 9 

Demetrius— Project for cutting the isthmus between Greece and the 

Peloponnesus ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Report on the levels ... ... ... ... 14 

Demetrius I of Macedonia (Poliorcetes), son of Antigonus. He 
succeeded his father in B.C. 301, when the latter was slain in the 
battle of Ipsus. In b.c. 286 he fell into the hands of Seleucus, 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 187 

King of Syria, and died in captivity. He was a man remarkable 
for activity of mind, fertility of resource, and promptitude in the 
execution of liis schemes. 

Democritus— On the length of the year ... ... ,..26 

Dicaearchus— On the height of mountains ... ... ... 11 

DiciTarchus, a philosopher contemporary with Aristotle, was born 
at Messina, but passed his life in Greece. He died about B.C. 285. 
His works were partly geographical and partly historical, but they 
are all lost except a few fragments. One of his works was On the 
Ilci'jht of Mountains, mentioned by Pliny. 

Diodorus Siculus — Statement that Atlas of Libya discovered the use 

of the globe ... ... ... ... ... 5 

A contemporary of Ccesar and Augustus ; born at Agyrium in 
Sicily. He made it the business of his life to write a universal 
history, and for this purpose he travelled much, and was for several 
years at Rome, collecting materials. He wrote in about B.C. 8. 
The work consisted of forty books, of which only fourteen have 
been preserved. 

Dion — His error respecting the length of the year ... ... 27 

Dion Cassius was born at Nice in Bithynia in 155 a.d. He was 
carefully educated, and came to Rome soon after the death of the 
Emperor Marcus Aurelius. He became a Senator and voted for 
Pertinax on the death of Commodus. During the reign of Severus 
he retired to Capua to write his history. Consul a.d. 220. Pro- 
consul in Africa and Pannonia. Under Alexander Severus he was 
again Consul A D. 229. He retired to Nice, where he completed 
his history and died. An important portion of his work has been 
preserved. 

Dionysodorus — An epistle to the gods, on the earth's semidiameter, 

found in his tomb ... ... ... ... 81 

A Greek geometer of Cydnus. The date of his life is uncertain ; 
but according to Pliny a letter was found in his tomb, addressed 
to the living. In it he declared that the radius of the earth was 
42,000 stadia. This is the most exact measurement recorded by 
the ancients. 42,000 stadia is equal to 7,770 kilometres. 

Dionysius Afer — On the height of Atlas ... ... ... 11 

Shape of the earth compared to a hand ... ... ... 68 

Placed Taprobane under the tropic of Cancer ... ... 76 

Dionysius Exiguus — A Roman Abbot. Introduced the use of letters to 

designate daj's in the Calendar ... ... ... 21 

Dionysius Periegetes — Absurd height given to the Pillars of Hercules 9 
Author of Pcriegesis, describing the earth in hexameter verse. 
This work is still extant, and was very popular in ancient times. 
He probably flourished in the beginning of the fourth century ; 
from the reign of Nero to Trajan. The work merely professes to 
be a summary. 

Drake, Sir Francis — His voyage of circumnavigation ... 3, 15 



188 BIOGRAPHICxVL INDEX. 

Endymion — First observed tlie phases of the moon, according to Pliny 46 
A youth beloved by Selene, who was granted the boon of eternal 
sleep on Mount Latmus ; kissed by the soft rays of the moon. 
Eratosthenes — Harshly censured by Strabo ... ... ... 1 

On the earth being shaped like a globe, with some ii-regularities ... 6 
Height of the atmosphere ... .. ... ... 10 

Height of mountains ... ... ... ... 12 

Irregularities in the surface of the sea ... ... ... 13 

Length of a degree in furlongs ... ... ... ... 31 

A narrow zone on the equator held to be habitable ... ... 38 

Showed that the number of uninhabitable zones was erroneous ... 39 
Commentaries on Aratus attributed to ... ... ... 49 

Yiew as to the shape of the earth ... ... ... 68 

Believed that Europe was once joined to Africa ... ... 70 

The isthmus between the Mediterranean and Ai-abian Sea, once sub- 
merged ... ... ... ... ... 71 

On the circumference of the earth ... ... ... 80 

Distance between Syene and Alexandria ... ... ... 81 

Received the rei^ort of distances without actual measurement ... 84 
Errors in his distances ... ... ... ... 84 

Observation of the distance from Rhodes to Alexandria ... 88 

Erroneous calculation respecting the earth's circumference 90, 94 

Eratosthenes of Cj'rene was born B.C. 276. Leaving Athens at 
the invitation of Ptolemy Euergetes, he was placed over the 
library at Alexandria. He died B.C. 196, aged eighty, of voluntary 
starvation, having lost his sight, and being tired of life. He made 
the distance of the tropics from the equator to be 23° oV'IO" ; 
which was adopted by Hipparchus and Ptolemy. His great work 
was an attempt to measure the magnitude of the earth. He 
assumed that Syene (Assouan) was on the tropic, because he was 
told that vertical objects cast no shadow there, on the day of the 
summer solstice. He also assumed that it was in the same 
longitude as Alexandria, in which he was 3° out. In determining 
the latitude of Alexandria he used the hemispherical dial of 
Berosus, and so obtained the arc between Alexandria and Syene. 
The result was 250,000 stadia for the circumference of the earth. 
He systematised the scattered geographical information then 
existing, and combined it in a great work, which is unfortunately 
lost. We only have fragments quoted by later writers. 
Etesias— Indian histories. Apparent size of the sun in India ... 64 

Euctemon — Time of the solstice in his time ... ... ... 28 

An astronomer who worked with Meton. Ptolemy refers to him 
as an authority on the rising and setting of stars. 
Eudoxus — Advance of knowledge since his time ... .. 1 

Stars called by the same names in his time ... ... 49 

Wonderful account of the falls between the Ca.spian and Scythian 
Seas ... ... ... ... ... ... 69 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 189 

Cnidus. His evidence as to the latitude of Rhodes ... ... 86 

Cyzicenus. Story of, given by CorneHus Nepos, not credited ... 73 
Eudoxus of Cnidus, the astronomer, Kved about 366 B.C. He 
was several years in Egypt, and probably introduced the sphere, 
and a more correct computation of the length of the year, into 
Greece. All that is positively known of Eudoxus is from the poem 
of Aratus, with the commentary of Hipparchus on it. It appears 
from these sources that Aratus was merely the versifier of the 
work of Eudoxus. 
Euripides— On the number of the Hyades ... ... ... 56 

Tragic poet of Athens ; born B.C. 485 or 4S0. Died 406. 
Europa Tyria : whence name of Europe ... ... ... 77 

Eustathms — On the height of the Pillars of Hercules according to 

Dionysius Periegetes ... ... ... ... 9 

Scholiast of Dionysius Afer. On the height of Atlas ... ... 11 

Observed that Dionysius followed Eratosthenes in many things ... 68 
Derivation of the name of Europe ... ... ... 77 

Name of Africa ... ... ... ... ... 77 

Euthemeras — Censured by Strabo, as unworthy of credit ... ... 1 

Evemerus — Fabulous relations of ... ... ... ... 73 

A Sicilian author of the time of Alexander the Great. He 
made a voyage down the Red Sea to India, and wrote a history of 
the gods on his return. He represents the gods as having originally 
been men. His book was very popular, and was translated into 
Latin. 
Fabianus— Cited by Pliny as to the depth of the sea ... ... 12 

Papirius Fabianus flourished in the reigns of Tiberius and 
Caligula. His works on philosophy and physics are often referred 
to by Pliny. 
Festus Avienus Rufus — On the number of the constellations ... 47 

Gives the name of lugula to Orion ... ... ... 69 

This writer flourished in about the time of Gratian and Valens. 
Among his poems there are two geographical essays in verse. 
Firmicus Maternus — On the apparent diameter of the sun and moon ... 88 
His work is an introduction to judicial astrologj', written about 
A.D. 334. 
Frobisher, Martin — His northern discoveries ... ... 2,79 

Galen — His error as to the length of the year ... ... 27, 28 

Claudius Galen was a native of Pergamus, born about A.D. 130. 
He was very carefully educated, studying under the best physicians 
of Greece, and in 158 became physician to the school of gladiators 
in his native town. In 163 he went to Rome, and in 168 he 
attended the Emperor Marcus Aurelius at Aquileia in Venetia. 
He was employed to make up the medicine called theriaca for the 
Emperor. He died about 20U A.D. He was one of the most 
learned men of his age. His extant woiks consist of S3 treatises 
treating of medical science. 



190 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

Gemma Frisius — Improvement iu the sphere or globe attributed 

to ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Method of observing sun's altitude by a spherical gnomon ... 100 

Error respecting the magnetic needle ... ... ... 129 

On the nature of rumbs, and on rumb sailing ... ... 133 

This learned Frisian was born at Dokkum in 1508, and died at 
Louvain in 1555. In 1541 he became Professor of Medicine at 
Louvain, but his principal works are on mathematical and astro- 
nomical subjects. His Methodxis Arithniaticce Practicce appeared at 
Antwerp in 1540 ; Totius Orhis Descriptio (Louvain, 1540) ; De 
Principiis Astronomice (Paris, 1547) ; De Usu Annuli Astronotnica 
(Antwerp, 1558) ; De Astrolahio Catholico et usu ejusdem (Antwerp, 
1556). He also edited the Cosmo^'rfyj/tta of Appianus. 
Gerion — Name of Africa said to be from Apher, a companion of 

Hercules in expedition against ... ... ... 77 

Germanicus Csesar — On the number of constellations, following 

Aratus ... ... ... ... ... 47 

Question as to the authorship of his commentaries ... ... 48 

His remains of a Latin translation of Aratus are in verse, and 
critics have denied his authorship without sufficient reason. The 
scholia ajipended to the translation are attributed to Cajsius Bassus. 
The military exploits of Germanicus are recorded by Tacitus. His 
mother, Antonia, was a niece of the Emperor Augustus ; his 
father, Nero Claudius Drusus, was son of the Empress Livia, and 
brother of Tiberius ; so that he was brother of the Emperor 
Claudius. He was born B c. 15, and died a.d. 20. 
Gilbert, Sir Humphrey ^American discoveries ... ... 3 

Granville, Sir Richard — His voyage to Virginia ... ... 3 

Grotius — His enumeration of stars, in his notes on Aratus ... 49 

On the word Istusi for the constellation of Sagitta ... ... 54 

Hugo Grotius was born at Delft in 1583, and died at Rostock in 

1645. He was a statesman and a writer on many subjects. The 

work referred to by Hues is his Syntagma Aratceorum Greece et 

Latine cum notis (Leyden, 1600). 

Hadrian — The Emperor. Caused a constellation to be named after 

Antinous ... ... ... ... ... 54 

He reigned from a.d. 117 to 138, and was born a.d. 76 at 
Rome. 
Hanno— The Carthaginian. Sailed round from Gades to Arabia ... 74 

His Periplus has been preserved, being a Greek translation of 
the Punic original. The date of the voyage is about 500 B.C. The 
object of the voyage of Hanno was not discovery but colonisation. 
The expedition consisted of sixty ships, and a great number of 
men and women. The first settlement was formed on the coast 
two days' sail beyond the Pillars of Hercules. Some days after- 
wards they founded five other towns on the African coast. They 
passed the mouths of the great rivers, and came to a country where 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 191 

there were hairy people called Gorillas. The skins of three female 
gorillas were brought back to Carthage, whither they were com- 
pelled to return, from want of provisions. Hanno's furthest 
point was probably Sherboro' Sound, just beyond Sierra Leone 
(7° 45' N.). 
Hariot, Mr. Thomas — His account of Virginia ... ... 3 

His treatise on riimbs ... ... ... ... 127 

Harpalus — On the length of the year ... ... ... 26 

He is mentioned by Censorinus as having altered the mode of 
intercalation practised in the octaeteris of Cleostratus. 
Heracleides Ponticus — Account of a magician who said he had been 

round Africa ... ... ... ... ... 73 

A pujnl of Plato and Aristotle ; a luxurious and very fat man. 
Hercules — Tradition of his having cut through the strait at Gades ... 70 
His expedition against Gerion ... ... ... ... 77 

Hero Mechanicus — Derivation of the name of the Hyades ... 55 

Length of a furlong. One of the lower rank of ancient writers ... 83 

Herodotus — On the height of Mount Atlas ... ... ... 11 

Egypt the gift of the Nile ... ... ... ... 72 

His account of a voyage sent by Darius ... ... ... 73 

On the origin of the name of Euroj^e ... ... ... 77 

Length of a parasang ... ... ... ... 93 

Born at Halicarnassus B.C. 484, six years after the battle of 
JIarathon. He wrote his history at Thurii in about 408. 
Higinus, Julius — His name for Saturn — "Stella Solis", or Star of the 

Sun ... ... ... . . ... ... 45 

Number of the constellations ... ... ... ... 47 

Meanings of fables respecting the constellations ... ... 48 

The bright star in Vir</o wrongly placed by ... ... 57 

C. Julius Hj^ginus was a native of Spain, a freedman of Augustus. 
He had charge of the Palatine library, and was an intimate friend 
of Ovid. Most of his numerous works have perished. Two have 
been preserved, a series of short mythological legends called 
Fabulum Liber, and Poeticon Astronomicon. The second book of 
the latter work comprises the legends connected with the iirincipal 
constellations, and the third is a detailed account of the number 
and arrangement of the stars. 
Hipparchus — Censured by Strabo ... ... ... ... 1 

Length of the year. His calculation misunderstood by Christ- 
mannus ... ... ... ... ... 26 

Inequality of the sun's periodiccd revolution ... ... 26 

Time of the vernal equinox ... ... ... ... 28 

Position cf a Arietis... ... ... ..- ... 30 

Position of PoZan's in his time ... ... ... 30,31 

Observations on the planets and fixed stars... ... ... 48 

Describes Taurus as only half the figure of a bull ... ... 56 

Time when he flourished ... ... ... ... 48 



192 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

Places the Pleiades outside the constellation of Taurus... ... 56 

On the circumference of the earth ... ... ... 80 

Taxes Eratosthenes for his mistakes respecting distauces of places 80 
Hipparchus is believed to have been a native of Bithynia, but 
he observed at Rhodes (b.c. 160-145). He is only known to us 
through Ptolemy. He thought that the distance of the sun could 
be found by observing the duration of a lunar eclipse, and com- 
bining this measure with the moon's distance and the sun's appa- 
rent diameter. Ptolemy followed him in applying this method. 
Their result was nearer the truth than that of Aristarchus, namely, 
5,000,000 miles, instead of 92,000,000. 
Hippias — On the number of the Hyades ... ... ... 56 

Derivation of the name of Europe ... ... ... 77 

Derivation of the name of Asia .. . ... ... ... 78 

Homer — The epithet given by him to the stars of the Great Bear 

eA.i»c<i)7ras ... ... ... ... ... 51 

His view of the shape of the earth ... ... ... 68 

Scholiasts on, affirm that Menelaus went to Ethiopia by sailing 
through a strait, where is now the isthmus between Asia and 
Africa... ... ... ... ... ... 71 

Does not mention Memphis. Reason ... ... ... 72 

Hues, Robert — His voyage in the southern hemisphere (1591-92) ... 66 
Never saw more than three stars of the first magnitude in the 
southern hemisphere which are not seen in England — Canopus, 
Achernar, and a C'rucis— to which )S Crucis may be added (foot and 
knee of Centaurus) ... ... ... ... 66 

His observations of the variation of the compass, near the coast of 
America ... ... ... ... ... 121 

Iphricus — A King of Arabia. Name of Africa said to be derived from... 77 
Jackman, Charles — -His discoveries towards the north-east ... 2 

Johannes Benedictis (see Benedictis). 

Juba — Tradition respecting the circumnavigation of Africa ... 73 

Julius Caesar — His determination of the civil year, in consultation with 

Sosigenes ... ... ... ... ... 26 

Calculation respecting the Julian year ... ... ... 27 

Time of the equinox 200 years after time of ... ... 28 

Lactantius — On the authorship of the Commentaries of Germani- 

cus ... ... ... ... ... ... 48 

Leontius Mechanicus — Globes constructed on principles laid down by 

Ptolemy ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Distance of the equator from the tropics ... ... ... 31 

A Greek mechanical writer whose period is not exactly 

known. He constructed a sphere or celestial globe after the 

description of Aratus ; and he probably lived in the reign of 

Justinian. 

Lyronus, Nicolaus — On the position of the terrestrial paradise ... 38 

Machomethes Aratensis — On the distance of the tropics from the 

equator ... ... ... .,, ... 32 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 193 

Magellan, Ferdinand — His circumnavigation proved the world to be 

round ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Instruction received by Scaliger, from his voyage ... ... 129 

Mandeville, Sir John— Travels ... ... ... ... 3 

Manilius — Names of constellations given by Scaliger, in hia commen- 
taries on ... ... ... ... ... 49 

Manilius was the author of an astrological poem entitled Astro- 
nomia, and probably flourished in the time of Tiberius. The 
editio princeps of Manilius was printed at Nuremberg in 1472 by 
Eegiomontanus. 
Marinus Tyrius— Censured by Ptolemy ... ... ... 2 

Position of Polaris in the time of Hipparchus, as reported by 30, 31 

Number of furlongs to a degree ... ... ... 82 

A Greek geographer. The immediate predecessor of Ptolemy, 
and the founder of mathematical geography. His work is lost, 
but Ptolemy based his own upon it. 
Masses, the Arabian — Translator of Ptolemy into Arabic ... 86 

Maurolycus, Franciscus, Abbot of Messava — Attempt to reconcile 

the discrepancies in the length of furlongs ... ... 83 

On Ptolemy's latitude of Rhodes ... ... 85,87 

Describes the hydroscopical instruments of the Egyptians ... 89 

Medina, Pedro de — Grand Pilot of Spain. His theory of the cause of 

variation ... ... ... ... ... 120 

Megasthenes — Indian historian contemned by Strabo ... ... 1 

A friend and companion of Seleucus Nicator, who sent him on 
a mission to India, about B.C. 300. He is referred to by Arrian, 
Diodorus, and Pliny, as well as by Strabo, but his work is lost. 
The ancients were chiefly indebted to Megasthenes for the little 
they knew of India. 
Mela, Pomponius — On the height of Mount Athos ... ... 8,9 

On the supposed communication between the Caspian and Scythian 
Seas ... ... ... ... ... ... 68 

Story of Eudoxus Cyzicenus told by him, from Cornelius Nepos ... 73 
Arrival of Indians on the coast of Germany, told by Cornelius Nepos 74 
The first Roman writer who composed a treatise on geography. 
He was born near Algesiras, and flourished in the time of the 
Emperor Claudius. 
Menelaus— In Homer : his course in sailing to the Ethiopians ... 71 

Mercator, Gerard— The globe or sphere perfected by ... ... 5 

Size of his globes ... ... ... ... ... 16 

Placed the point of no variation at the Azores ... ... 122 

Messahalah — Wrote his tables of the mean motions of the Sun accord- 
ing to the Persian account ... ... ... ... 29 

Meton, the Athenian — Position of a Arietis in his time ... ... 29 

Length of the year ... ... ... ... ... 26 

Time of the solstice in his time .. ... ... ... 28 

Meton observed the solstices, probably at Athens B.C. 432. He 
introduced the cycle of 19 years. 

K 



W4: HTDGHAPHDIAIl O^DMX. 

BK^iklS — CmstBilatiflii or die: i^reair Eeac siut ly T^imm -zi oarB: hfmr 

iirrasarBd 'ay ... ... ... ... ..> SI- 

BiiaB3C&lia — His hisTtiiy' lomcsiraed: by" ■Jtrruio . — .... — t 

^ mitiYBr or Q33i5a. ALfflraniiear sive ftfrrr nftR^ nftipar^miTirTHMur jf 
t&e Ifefic: wiiicir cEescsitftMl trii& BidiTs. vasL naviEtiBfiL tixer EgrfsmT 
Gidf; H.a ;i2£u ^rfer iJj^:aniEe3r i teatdi. ait joiaed: -^jja armuiKt if 
Jtirtieoima. ~» Tvoife i» Ibai;; but lis «inSaiicsr lias bftwr arESSTreft 
by Arrian. 

SIacsa7:&&i'?£3a£fesirL£Sfrtai£iif: diftb.till .. .... .... 5i- 

Je. Gceek: pByaciaiL amt grnfmTnariaii. as wefll ck » gera; wiia 

ffinirished acL ISS ta I3S T^t^ gaerrs maiTriy i^e&t: or Tssmmuvis 

ji mmala ;mtE tii& wauiuia infficlEd- dy tfien.. iji: goiBaiis :tiii£ . tnri— 

(fotes, out ire aill of: afaanrcC cibijBa. 

BCrffHf 1 In Easteimis!, JHrnTetl die name of Emmne fmnr Siimoua ... TT 

Biiaiiius, Perns — EmvefE tie Iiei^iia of inauiitsdii& nsptaiJEsL b.y tiiet 

oncienta. 5u be aiimiQiiK ... .... .... . S 

E(jiiiiB<f avLU tie arHC, in. iniE'ffliCTing; Tl TngareiiiTay, asf ta t&Ef gwiSTamT 
ut Polai'is ... .... .... ... .. -31 

(3rL the IffliedL 'jf tie tmioiis' ... .... .. 3Si 

On: tie aJEcmnirarraiee .if tie earti: ... .. . 3ff 

TTfiJfF tie 4rn.iTin.T i milt^ OQ be trhfii- asnie \a tie Uaiian. .... .„. 9^ 

Qn tifi- Tfyngrj nf TTw fiiirht - ... ... ... IZS 

BeSeTed tiaiztie magnet wag wRaigRTTRf£by Icmgni^ .. ... E3D[' 

On: mmhea :md tie gmcrice xc nsJTig- tjem in, tie jttiner ... ES" 

TTftJirF tiat tie ramiiea: oaiifflffiKtL jf ^orriflna jf xrear: T?rp.iig^^ .... T3H' 

Th e rmnheg <ia not: aner tie gtiiea .. ... ... ISL 

Tie freat: PorSnenese matiKiiatician: nut i«3Tnunn£2!: iJefin 
jSTirnesr (or IS"«im'iTff) tvns b*jrn_ itt Vimgar in. EfxirriiistL in. Z^~ rria- 
woife i7« ^irfB tii^ .Sa£um«! 3(iv7t/antS,. waa giiiiiisiiei az Hssme jl. 
ladTl W^ tvaa tie firar ooanuersgnKr wiu tfitriHiWtff tie •«mis of 
tieglaneohartr. ;Hnf lie gave tie aalutiinia of sesresai. jfamnainiGaL 
grafalpms. TTmiumTicr xie ifenerminatiniL nf lie lAiiuuIe bysufi 
c&iuiiie atticnde ffis t^satise nr irgefiasi wns giiurBfE ji: Vnrw^n 
itLlaST. Srinez; wiu wae PtniEasor of SQiraeautcica «z The ~iii- 
''qrsity of CiDimbra. tietl in. LSTT. assd. ifl. 
H^uniEiius — 'learaaL tn Anriatiii& 1?T» viiuuiy Iiy ^w*. ; tnrF ianiL hl die 

3a.raB ^ifiot: .... .... ..-. _.. ]3E 

Qgiagiffes — Laicti. of tie jraar .... .... . . •25' 

Am aammomer of CBiu* wia <&33irei. mam: of Ma CTnwififtge 
fisnn. tie giiests of ^^^]it. HeisaaaS-tabayeiiiriKnEfLx jjcieof 
ffS^yniine j«ais5iirbmijEinjEtieIiuiairami««IarjfflHsiiita iHjeairfc- 
ance. Tie iate of his life is tuujHxain. 
Qftmtius P^rranig — Differraice of Inn^iruieby tietmi^cmicif tie- rnrmrr 357 
Qttailus. JLJraianr — ^S:£csileinje of liis ^gfifflratphicai taiiiieg .... HT 

QsfartL Manic if — Z:qiioreit tieji«iiar CB^DnabyIiisaiiiLin.tnaarc. .. ni< 
Psnnenictes — Sis- escraiaan of tie tnrrfrf ame . . . . 3S 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 195 

A Greek philosopher, born in the colony of Ele.a in Italy, con- 
temporary of Socrates. He explained his philosophical system in 
a didactic poem on nature. 
Patricius, Franciscus Senensis — The earth's surface a plane 8, 13, 14, 15 
On the height of Teneriff'e ... ... ... ... 10 

The voyage of Magellan should have convinced him that the world 
is not a plane ... ... ... ... ... 15 

On southern stars ; from the accounts given by Amerigo ... 04 

Errors respecting stars in the southern hemisphere ... 66,07 

Patrocles, in Strabo, affirmed that it was possible to sail to India, north 

of Bactria ... ... ... ... ... 74 

Under Antiochus I, Patrocles held chief command from the 
frontier of India to the Caspian, and Eratosthenes appears to have 
derived much information from him, but his work is lost. He is 
praised by Strabo for his accuracy and the soundness of his judg- 
ment. His erroneous information resi^ecting the outlet of the 
Caspian to the Scythian Sea led to the adoption of this error by all 
the ancient geographers. 
Pencerus — Mistake respecting proportion of perpendicular of ten 

furlongs to the diameter of the earth ... ... ... 12 

Geographers measure distances by great circles ... ... 134 

Pet, Arthur— His discoveries towards the north-east ... ... 2 

Pherecides — On the number of the Hyades ... ... ... 56 

Philander — On the authorship of the commentary on Germanicus ... 48 
Philolaus — A Pythagorean, on the length of the year ... ... 26 

Contemporary of Socrates. Philolaus was the first to commit 

the doctrines of Pythagoras to writing. Some extracts have come 

down to us. He was a native of Tarentum or Crotoua, but resided 

long at Thebes. 

Pliny — The earth cannot be an exact sphere owing to irregularities of 

surface ... ... ... ... ... 6 

His report on the observation of an eclipse in Italy and Armenia ... 7 
On the extraordinary height of Mount Athos ... ... 9 

On the height of Mount Casius in Syria ... ... 9, 11 

Measurement of height of the Aljis, by counting turnings and 
windings ... ... ... ... 12,13 

Obliquity of the ecliptic first observed by Ana.ximander ... 24 

Time of the equinoxes ... ... ... ... 25 

Conjectured that Saturn w.as the smallest planet ... ... 45 

Nature of the evening star (Venus) observed by Pythagoras ... 45 

Story of Endymion related by ... ... ... ... 46 

Number of constellations ... ... ... ... 47 

Delineation of the constellation of Taurus... ... ... 56 

Hipparchus first gave the names and places of the stars ... 48 

Places the Pleiades in the tail of Taurus. Said they were never 
seen at Taproljana ... ... ... ... 56 

Connected the Caspian with the Scythian ocean ... ... 69 



196 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

Length of the strait between Europe and Asia ... ... 70 

Island of Pharos at Alexandria, once distant from the coast ... 72 

Story that ensigns of Spanish ships were found on the coast of Arabia 74 
Circumference of the earth according to Eratosthenes ... ... 81 

A deep well dug at Syene, to find the summer solstice ... ... 82 

Distance between Rhodes and Alexandria ... ... ... 82 

Length of furlong ... ... ... ... ... 84 

Pliny was born a.d. 23, and died, aged 56, a.d. 79, He was 
born either at Verona or at Como. He went to Rome when 
quite young to receive his education, and served in the army in 
Germany. During the reign of Nero he lived in retirement, and 
in A.D. 71 he went to Spain as Procurator, becoming guardian to 
his nephew, the younger Pliny, at about the same time. In 73 he 
returned to Rome, during the reign of Vespasian, whom he had 
known in Germany, and he now became one of that Emperor's 
most intimate friends, as well as the friend of his son Titus. He 
devoted nearly his whole time, during many years, to study, and 
amassed a vast amount of information, leaving to his nephew 160 
volumes of notes, a.d. 77 he completed his Historia Naturalis, 
dedicated to Titus. He was appointed Admiral by Vespasian, and 
in 79 A.D. was at Misenum with the fleet when the eruption of 
Vesuvius took place. Approaching too near to observe the phe- 
nomena he was suffocated. Pliny was a mere compiler, without 
originality, or even the ability of sifting and arranging his 
materials. 

The Historia Naturalis is divided into thirty-six books, besides 
the dedication to Titus, table of contents and list of authorities. 
The next book is the one in which he treats of the heavenly bodies, 
and of the physical conditions of the earth, and his historical 
notices of the progress of astronomy are very valuable. The four 
following books are devoted to geography. 

His nephew, Pliny the younger, filled numerous important 
offices, was an orator, a learned scholar, and the intimate friend of 
Tacitus. His extant works consist of a eulogy of Trajan, and ten 
books of letters, which furnish materials for his life and notices of 
his contemporaries. He was born a.d. 62, but the time of his 
death is unknown. He gave an account of the circumstances of 
his uncle's death in a letter to Tacitus, but the most valuable and 
interesting letters are included in his correspondence with the 
Emperor Trajan. 
Plutarch — Width of the isthmus joining Asia and Africa ... ... 71 

The biographer was born at Chseroneia in Bceotia, and was a 
young man when Nero visited Greece. He lectured at Rome, and 
is said to have been the preceptor of Trajan, but passed the latter 
part of his hfe in his native town. The time of his death is un- 
known. His parallel Hves of forty-six Greeks and Romans, arranged 
in pairs, have immortalized his name. His lives of the five first 
Roman Emperors and of Vitellius are lost. 



BIOGRAPHICAL IXDEX. 197 

Polybius - Censured by Strabo ... ... ... ... 1 

Dmded the earth into five zones ... ... ... 33 

Showed that stories of uninhabitable zones were vain and idle ... 39 
Ignorance of the southern parts of Africa ... ... ... 73 

This historian was a native of Megalopolis in Arcadia, born 
about 204 B.C. His father, Lycortas, was one of the most dis- 
tinguished men of the Acha?an league, who trained him in politi- 
cal knowledge and the military art. When Greece was conquered 
by the Eomans, Polybius was taken to Rome, where he became 
the friend of Scipio, and he was present at the fall of Carthage. 
Returning to Greece, he interceded successfully with the RomaiLS 
for lenient treatment of his countrymen. He travelled exten- 
sively, collecting materials for his history, and died B-c. 122. The 
greater part of his work is lost,, only the first five books being 
complete. 
Polycletus — His authority for the water of the Caspian being fresh ... 69 
A Greek historian, native of Larissa, and author of a history of 
Alexander the Great. His work is lost, but he is often quoted by 
Strabo. 
Pompey — His observations respecting the water of the Caspian being 

fresh ... ... ... ... ... ... 69 

Cn. Pompeius Magnus was bom RC. 106. He assumed com- 
mand of the war against Mithridates B.C. 66, and completed his 
Eastern conquests in B.C. 63 ; B.C. 48 he was defeated by Caesar 
in the battle of Pharsalia, and was assassinated when he was in the 
act of landing on the coast of Egypt. 
Posidonius — Censured by Strabo ... ... ... ... 1 

On the depth of the sea ... ... ... ... 12 

Reprehended Parmenides for giving too much extension to the torrid 
zone ... ... ... ... ... ... 33 

Makes the Arctic circle mutable, and not the limit of the frigid 
zone ... ... ... ... ... ... 33 

Yiews as to the equinoctial region being inhabitable ... ... 33 

On refraction ... ... ... ... .. 64 

Censures Artemidorus for his story about the apparent size of the 
sun ... ... ... ... ... ... 64 

Length of the isthmus between Egypt and Asia ... ... 71 

Gives no credit to stories about the unknown coasts of Africa ... 73 
On the circumference of the earth ... 81, 52, 83, 84, 87 

The distances of the two places on which he based his calculation 
never measured by himself ... ... ... ... 85 

His latitude of Rhodes ... ... ... ... 87 

Observation of Canopus from a place in Spain ... ..87 

Arc of the meridian intercepted between Rhodes and Alexandria ... S3 
A Stoic philosopher, native of Apameia in Syria, bom about 
B.C. 135. He went to Athens, travelled extensively, and fi^ed his 
abode at Rhodes. He went as Ambassador to Rome, B.C. 86, and 



198 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

became acquainted with Marius. Both Cicero and Pompey visited 
him at Rhodes. In B.C. 51 Posidonius removed to Rome and died 
soon afterwards. 

Posidonius constructed a revolving sphere to exhibit the motions 
of the heavenly bodies. He calculated the circumference of the 
earth, from observations of Canopus taken in Spain, and made 
it much less than Eratosthenes. None of his writings have been 
preserved entire ; but all the fragments have been collected, and 
were edited by Bake in 1810. He is often quoted by Strabo. 
Proclus — Improved the globe or sphere ... ... ... 5 

Canopus visible at Alexandria ... ... ... ... 7 

Distance of the tropic from the equator ... ... ... 31 

Assigns no certain distance of the Arctic circle from the Pole ... 32 
On the latitude of Rhodes ... .., ... 82,86,87 

Described the hydroscopic instruments of the Egyptians ... 89 

Apparent diameter of sun and moon ... ... ... 90 

Proclus was born at Byzantium in 412 A.D. He went to Alex- 
andria when quite young, where he completed his studies, and 
afterwards removed to Athens. He was looked upon as the suc- 
cessor of Plato. He died 485 a.d. He held the doctrine of 
emanations from one ultimate principle of all things, the absolute 
unity, towards union with which again all things strive. His 
principal works are still extant. 
Prophatius, a Jew — Distance of the tropics from the equator ... 32 

Ptolemy — Errors of more ancient geographers when compared with his 

writings ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Censures Marinus TjTius. Yet modern writers detect errors in 
Ptolemy himself ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Recent discoveries have shown the mistakes of Ptolemy ... 2 

His rules for constructing globes ... ... ... 5 

Eclipse of the moon at Arbela rej^orted by ... ... ... 7 

Height of the atmosphere ... ... ... ... 10 

Circumference of the earth ... ... ... 12,81 

Length of the year ... ... ... ... ... 26 

Time of the equinoxes ... ... ... ... 28 

Place of the solstices. Position of PoZa?- is ... ... ... 30 

Length of a furlong .. . ... ... ... ... 31 

Distance of the tropics from the equator ... ... ... 32 

Inconsistency respecting the habitability of equinoctial regions ... 38 
Climates into which the ancients divided the earth. Number 
according to ... ... ... ... ... 42 

Observations on the planets and fixed stars ... ... 44 

Eccentricity of the moon ... ... ... ... 47 

Number of constellations ... ... ... ... 48 

Number of stars in the constellations ... ... ... 48 

Time when Hipparchus flourished ... ... ... 48 

Longitude of stars reckoned from a Arictis ... ... 50 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 199 

Number of stars in 4 Wes ... ... ... ... 55 

IJnioTined sta,rs hetween Leo and Ursa Major ... ... 57 

People of Azania called (7areopws a horse ... ... ... 61 

On the Milky Way ... ... ... ... 62 

Stars enumerated by ... ... ... ... 62 

Only one Canopus ... ... ... ... ... 66 

Few stars in the south that Ptolemy had not seen ... ... 67 

Calls the Red Sea the Indian Sea ... ... ... 68 

Eelative size of the continents ... ... ... ... 69 

Limits of Africa to the east ... ... .... ... 70 

Ignorance of the southern parts of Africa ... ... ... 73 

Extent of the habitable portion of the earth ... ... 75 

Rhodes and Alexandria supposed to be on the same meridian ... 81 

Number of furlongs to a degree ... ... ... 82 

His calculations of distances more correct than those of his pre- 
decessors ... ... ... ... ... 84 

His assignment of the latitudes of Rhodes and Alexandria ... 85 

Length of a degree ... ... ... ... ... 91 

His position of the Fortunate Isles ... ... ... 96 

Commentaries on, by Wernerus ... ... ... 133 

Claudius Ptolemy observed at Alexandria in a.d. 139, and was 
alive in a.d. 161. Nothing more is known of him personally. His 
great work {MeyaXri 2i'i'Ta|ts) or MeyiaTf), was known to the Arab 
translators as the Almagest. It was first printed at Venice in 1496 
from a full epitome begun by Purbach, and finished by Regiomon- 
tanus. The fir.?t complete edition appeared at Venice in 1515, 
made from the Arabic. The version of George of Trebizond, made 
from the Greek, was published in 1528. The first Greek text was 
published at Basle in 1538. The catalogue of stars was published 
at Cologne in 1537, with forty-eight drawings of the constellations 
by Albert Diirer. 

The first book of the Almagest treats of the relations of the 
earth and heaven, the theory of the sun and moon, and the sphere 
of the fixed stars and planets. It also contains an account of the 
observations proving the obliquity of the ecliptic, and geometry 
and trigonometry enough for the determination of the connection 
between the sun's right ascension, declination, and longitude, and 
for the formation of a table of declinations to each degree of 
longitude. The second book is on determination of latitude, the 
points at which the sim is vertical, the equinoctial and soLstitial 
shadows of the gnomon, with several tables. The third book is on 
the length of the year, and on the theory of solar motion. The 
fourth and fifth books are on the theory of the moon, and the 
sixth on eclipses. The seventh and eighth books are devoted to 
the stars. The catalogue gives the longitudes and latitudes of 
1,022 stars, described by their positions in the constellations. The 
remainder of the thirteen books is devoted to the planets. 



200 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

Ptolemy was largely indebted to Hipparchus for his materials, 
and for his methods of calculating and observing. 

Ptolemy's geographical syn taxis is a catalogue of names of places, 
with then- estimated latitudes and longitudes, forming the mate- 
rials for his map of the known world. It maintained its position 
as the accepted geographical text-book until the fifteenth century 
without a rival. The treatise of Ptolemy was based on the earher 
work of Marinus of Tyre. Ptolemy assumed the earth to be a 
sphere, but the mode of laying down positions by imagining great 
circles passing through the poles called meridians, and other circles, 
one of which was a great circle equidistant from the poles, and the 
others parallel smaller cu-cles, had been established from the time 
of Eratosthenes, as well as the division of great circles into 360". 
But Ptolemy introduced the terms longitude (iJ.r]Kos) and latitude 
(irXaTos), and the plan of designating the positions of places by 
stating the numbers which represent the latitudes and longitudes 
of each. He divided his degrees into twelfths. His division of 
the earth into zones, which he called climates, was made with 
reference to the length of the longest day in each. 

The Geographia of Ptolemy was printed at Rome in 1462, 1475, 
1478, 1482, 1486, 1490 ; the editions of 1482 and 1490 being the 
best. 

Pucerus — Held that the furlongs of the ancients were not of the same 

lengths ... ... ... ... ... 83 

Purbachius — Distance of the tropics from' the equator ... ... 32 

George Purbach was born at Linz in 1423. He was Professor 
of Astronomy at Vienna, where he constructed astronomical instru- 
ments. He commenced a translation of Ptolemy, and wrote on 
the theory of the planets, and on ecHpses. Purbach died at 
Vienna in 1461. 

Pythagoras — First observed the nature of the planet Venus ... 45 

The famous philosopher was probably born at Samos in about 
B.C. 608, or according to others in B.C. 570. He is believed to have 
travelled extensively ; to have visited Babylon, and to have studied 
in Egyjit. He eventually settled at Crotona, a Greek colony in the 
south of Italy, and there established a club or society for the study 
of the master's religious and philosophical theories. Pythagoras 
taught the doctrine of transmigration of souls, and made consider- 
able advances in mathematical science, but his teachings were kept 
secret by the brotherhood into which his disciples were formed. 
Eventually the populace of Crotona, Sybaris, and other towns 
were excited against the Pj-thagorean clubs, and they were sup- 
pressed. Pythagoras himself is believed to have died at Meta- 
pontum, where his tomb was shown in the time of Cicero. It is 
probable that he never actually wrote anything, but that his 
teaching was oral. 

Pytheas— Censured by Strabo ... ... ... 1,73 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 201 

A native of Massilia, and a celebrated navigator. He sailed to 
the western and northern parts of Europe, and wrote a work con- 
taining the results of his discoveries. He probably lived in the 
time of Alexander the Great. In one of his voyages he visited 
Britain and Thiile, and in another he coasted the Mediterranean 
and Black Sea from Cadiz to the Tanais. Strabo treated the narra- 
tives of Pytheas as false and worthless. Hipparchus considered 
them worthy of belief. Pytheas was the first person who found 
the latitude by the shadow of the sun. 
Raleigh, Sir Walter.— His settlement of Virginia .... ... 3 

Regiomontanus. — Distance of the tropics from the equator ... 32 

Johann Muller, or Regiomontanus, was born at Konigsberg in 
Franconia, in 1436, and was a pupil of Purbach. In 1461 he went 
to Italy to study Greek, returning to Vienna in 1465. He com- 
pleted Purbach's translation of the Almagest of Ptolemy. In 1471 
he removed to Nuremburg, where he constructed astronomical 
instruments. He published the first almanac for the years 1475 to 
1566. Regiomontanus died at Rome in 1475. 
Reinholt, Erasmus. — Longitude of stars reckoned from a Arietis ... 50 
Rhaeticus. — Position oi a Arietis ... ... ... ... 29 

Rudolphus, Brugensis. — Translation of Ptolemy from Arabic ... 86 

Rufus (.see Festus A.). 

Saunderson, William. — His globes ... ... ... 16 

Smaller and cheaper globes made ... ... ... 16 

Scaliger, Julius. — Height of Teneriffe ... ... ... 10 

Depth of the sea ... ... ... ... ... 11 

Censure of Copernicus ... ... ... ... 47 

Names of constellations in Arabic ... ... ... 49 

Name of Mizar, a star in Ursa Major, "locum precinctionis" 50, 55 

His reading oi Aben or Draco ... ... ... ... 51 

His name for the Hcedi — Sadateni ... ... ... 54 

Names of the Gemini ... ... ... ... 56 

Meaning of iJfeZ^e/, a star in C'a?2cer ... .. ... 56 

Correction of the name of a star in (Scores io ... ... ... 58 

Name of a star in CeiMS ... ... ... ... 59 

Correction of the name of a star in Eridanus ... ... 60 

Pointed out erroneous ideas respecting the magnet ... ... 129 

Julius Scaliger was born at Verona in about 1484, and died in 

1558. He was a jjhysician and a great scholar, whose published 

works are very numerous. His son Joseph Scaliger was still more 

eminent as a scholar and commentator. 

Seleucus. — Eastern seas from India to the Caspian sailed over in the 

reign of ... ... ... ... ... 75 

King of Syria, and founder of the Syrian monarchy, surnamed 
Nicator. He died B.C. 280. 
Sesostris. — Attempt to cut through the isthmus between Egypt and 

Asia ... ... ... ... ... 14, 72 

S 



202 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

The same as Ramses, the third King of the 19th drnasty, when 

Egypt was in her greatest splendour. 
Solinus. — On the height of Mount Athos ... ... 8,9 

Height of Atlas ... ... ... ... ... 11 

Height of Thessalian mountains ... ... ... 11 

Statement that the Pleiades are never seen in Taprobane ... 5G 

Connected the Caspian with the Scythian ocean ... ... 69 

As to the Caspian water being fresh ... ... ... 69 

On the distance of Pharos from Alexandria ... ... 72 

Traditions of King Juba respecting the circumnavigation of Africa . 73 
C. Julius Solinus was the author of a geographical compendium 

containing a brief sketch of the world as known to the ancients. 

He flourished in about a-D. 238. Solinus was nmch studied in the 

middle ages, and his work was printed as early as 1473. Arthur 

Golding translated it into English in l.'5S7. 
Sosig'enes. — A Peripatetic Consulted by Julius Caesar in the measure 

:t the civil year ... ... ... ... ... 26 

H:> error, in the Julian Calendar, respecting the time of the 

eov.inoxes ... ... ... ... ... 28 

Distance of Mercury from the sun ... ... ... 46 

Observations of eclipses .. ... ... ... 90 

The astronomer employed by Julius Caesar to superintend the 

correction of the calendar in B.C. 46. He was probably an Alex- 
andrian Greek. 

Strabo. — His censures on his geographical predecessors .. ... 1 

ilentioned the improvement of the globe or sphere by Crates ... ."> 

Cited the view of Eratosthenes respecting the shaj^e of the earth ... 6 

Sun seen from tops of mountains sooner than at sea level ... 9 

Height of the pyramids ... ... ... ... 9 

High^ mountain .. ... ... ... ... 12 

Censured Eratosthenes for giving different elevations to the surface 

of tie sea ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Position of Po7<irf5 ... ... ... ... 30,31 

Assigned no certain distance of the Arctic circle from the Pole ... 32 

On sun's refraction, citing Posidonius ... ... 63, 64 

Connected the Caspian with the Scythian ocean ... ... 68 

The Euxine once a lake ... ... ... ... 69 

Length of the strait between Europe and Africa ... ... 70 

Distance between Pelusium and the Heroes city ... ... 71 

Formation of Egypt by the floods of the Nile ... 71, 72 

Saw the Egyptian shore overflowed ... ... ... 72 

Story of Eudoxus Cyzieenus reported by ... ... ... 73 

Possible to sail to India, north of Bactria and the Caspian 74, 75 

Extent of the habitable earth ... ... ... ... 75 

Circumference of the earth according to Eratosthenes ... ... SO 

Well dug at Syene to observe the solstice ... ... ... 81 

Circnmference of the earth set down by Ptolemy, received by the 

ancients ... ... ... ... ... 82 



BIOGKAPIIICAL INDEX. 203 

Errors of Eratosthenes in setting down the distances of places ... 84 
Circumference of the earth and length of a furlong ... ... 9-4 

Strabo was a native of Amasia in Pontus, living during the 
reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. He was born about B.C. 54. He 
was several years at liome, and travelled in Egypt, and probably 
over the greater part of the Roman Empire. The work of Strabo 
is the most important geograi^hical work that has come to us from 
antiquity. He fully discusses the systems of his predecessors, 
Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, Posidonius and Polybius, and then 
gives an outhne of his own views. He adopts the doctrine of the 
s^jhericity of the earth, of the equator and ecliptic, and of the five 
zones, and the measurement of the circumference of the earth 
according to Eratosthenes. Considering . the error caused by 
ignoring the curvature of the sphere to be imimportaut, Strabo 
represented the world, on his map, as a plane surface, and the 
meridians and parallels of latitude as straight Unes crossing each 
other at right angles. His first two books are introductory, and 
in the third he commences a particular descrifition of the different 
countries. He devotes eight books to Europe, six to Asia, and one 
to Egypt and Ethiopia. 
Strato. — Cited by Strabo as believing that the Euxine was once a lake 69 
Strigelius, Victorinus. — In error in saying that Ptolemy calculated the 

longitudes of stars irora a Arietis ... ... ... 50 

Surannius Graccula. — On the width of the strait between Europe and 

Africa ... ... ... ... ... 70 

Thales.— Invention of the globe or sphere attributed to ... ... 5 

Position of a Arietis in his time ... ... 24, 29 

Inventor of the constellation of Ursa Major ... ... 50 

Number of the ////arfes ... ... ... ... 56 

Thales, the Ionian phUosoiaher, was born at Miletus, contem- 
porary of Croesus, 560 B.C. ; and lived to a great age, but he left 
behind him nothing in a written form. 

Thales (or Thaletas), the lyric poet and musician, was a native of 
Gortyna in Crete, who settled in Sparta, where he became the 
head of a new school of music in about 660 B.C. There are no 
remains of his poetry. 
Thebitben Chorah. — Date of the vernal equinox in his time ... 28 

Theodorus Gaza. — Date of the vernal equinox ... ... 28 

One of the latest of the Byzantine scholars and writers, who 
fled into Italy when the Turks took his native city of Thessalonica, 
in 1430 A.D. He taught Greek at Ferrara, and was employed by 
the Pofie in translating Greek works into Latin. He died A.D. 
1478. He wrote a Greek grammar, and translated some of the 
works of Aristotle. 
Theon. — Theories of the shape of the earth, in his commentary on 

Ptolemy ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Time of the equinoxes ... ... ... ... 25 



204 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

Time of the solstice ... ... ... ... 25 

On the zones, in his commentary on Aratus ... ... 37 

Placed the Pleiades on the back of Taurus ... ... 48 

Thales called fVsa Jlfw or " the Dog" ... ... ... 50 

Ursa Major, invented hj 'NaiAhis ... ... ... 50 

Names of Hyades from their resemblance to the Greek letter T 55, 56 
Unformed stars between Leo and Uj'sa Major reckoned to belong to 
Virgo ... ... ... ... ... 57 

Name of ^ydra among the Egyi^tians ... ... ... 61 

Use of the hydroscopic instruments of the Egyptians ... ... 81> 

Theon of Alexandria is best known as the father of Hypatia. 
Of himself personally there are no particulars, except that he 
Was an astronomer and mathematician. He wrote a commentary 
on Aratus, and another on the Almagest of Ptolemy, addressed 
to his son Epiphanius. 
Timaeus.— Distance of Mercury from the Sun ... ... ... 46 

The historian, native of Tauromenium in Sicily, and son of An- 
dromachus, the tyrant of that colony. Timseus was born about 
352 B.C., and died at a great age in 256 B.C. He was banished 
from Sicily by Agathocles, and passed his exile at Athens. He 
Wrote a history of Sicily from the earliest times, which was 
severely criticised by Polybius, but commended by Cicero. Some 
fragments of the work of Timseus have been preserved. 
Timocharis.— Position of a Arietis in his time ... ... 24, 29 

Number of stars in the constellation of Z2/ra ... ... 53 

Valla, Georg.— On Cleomedes. Depth of the sea ... ... 12 

Varro M., in Solinus. — Serving with Pompey. On the water of the 

Caspian ... ... ... ... ... 69 

M. Terentius Varro was born B.C. 116, being ten years older 
than Cicero, with whom he lived for a long period on terms of 
intimacy. Varro held a high naval command in the war against 
Mithridates, and continued to serve under Pompey until the 
battle of Pharsalia. He then submitted to Csesar, who received 
him graciously, and he passed several years in retirement, at his 
country seat near Cumae. He died B.C. 28, aged 88. He was a 
man of vast learning and the most voluminous of Roman authors. 
Only one of his books, and fragments of another, have been ^^re- 
served, namely, De re rustica, an important treatise on agriciil- 
ture ; and a work on grammar. 
Vertomannus, Ludovico. — His writings disprove the theory of Appian 

respecting the magnet ... ... ... ... 129 

Vespucci, Amerigo.— Stars round the South Pole. Cited by Patricius 64 
Kei^orted that there were three Canopi ... ... ... 66 

America named after ... ... ... ... 79 

Vitellio.— Length of twilight ... ... ... 110,113 

Vitruvius.— Number of the winds ... ... ... ... 21 

Time of the equinoxes ... ... ... ... 25 



BIOGEAPHICAL INDEX. 205 

Gives the whole bull in delineating Taurus ... ... 48 

Corrupted Nisus (name for the constellation of Hercules) into 
Nesses ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Placed the PfeiflK^es on the tail of Taui'Ms ... ... ... 56 

Spica wrongly jjlaced by ... ... ... ..57 

Circumference of .the earth ... ... ... ... SO 

Vitruvius was born about B.C. 76, and composed his work on 
architecture in the reign of Augustus. The ninth book treats of 
sundials and other instruments for measuring time. 
Wernerus, Johannes. — Fosition oi Polaris ... ... ... 30 

Distance of the tropics from the equator ... ... ... 32 

Longitude by motion of the moon ... ... ... 97 

Rumbe lines made in sea voyages differ from great circles on land 133 
Willoughby, Sir Hugh. — His discoveries to the north-east ... 2 

Xenophon. — Length of the parasang ... ... ... 93 

The Athenian, born about B.C. 444. In B.C. 401 he joined the 
expedition of the younger Cyrus, and became acquainted with the 
Persian standards of measurement. On the defeat and death of 
Cyrus, the Greek contingent under Xenophon was left alone on 
the wide plain of Mesopotamia. Xenophon retreated across 
Armenia to Trebizond, and thence to Chrysopolis. On the death 
of his master Socrates, B.C. 399, Xenophon was bajiished from 
Athens, and joined Agesilaus, King of Sparta. He settled at 
Scillus in Elia, where he passed his time in writing and huutiug. 
Here he probably composed the Anabasis. He lived 20 yeai's at 
Scillus, and probably died at Corinth. 
Xylander. — Renders a furlong by an ell, in his translation of Strabo ... 83 



INDEX OF :s^AMES 

OF 

STAKS AND CONSTELLATIONS 

As (jiven by Hues in his " Tradatus de Globis", 
WITH EEMARKS. 



Some of the notes on the Arabic names have been kindly furnished by 
Professor Robertson Smith. His references are to Cazwini, "Ajaib 
al'Makhhtcat," (Vol. i, ed. WHstenfeld. Gottingen, 1849). Meier's 
"■ Sternnamen" (8vo. JBerL, 1809) gives a translation with notes ; but, 
except in special cases, Mr. R. S. has referred to the Arabic text. 

The authorities of H^les are AJfragamis, Scaliger, Grotius, Jacob Christ- 
mamius, the Almagest of Ptolemy, Reinholt, Copernicus, &c. 

I, denotes stars of the first magnitude. II, second magnitude. 



PAGE 

Aben. — Draco; or Tahen according to Scaliger. The latter is the 

more correct form ; Arabic tlio'bdn, " serpent." (See Sasabcn) 51 

Abraceleus.— A name for Pollux ... ... .. ... 56 

Acarnar-Acharnaha. — (See Achernar). 

Achernar (a Eridani) I. — AMir-al-nahr ( ^^Jl^I), " the end of the 
river." Cazveini, p. 39, speaks of " the brighter star at the end 
of the river called ^Z-saZim (^Jyi), the ostrich" ... ... 60 

Achilaschemali (Corona Borealis). — A corruption of Al-iJclU al- 
sliemali, the northern crown. The usual Ai-abic name is iS^\ 
Al-fakka{Cazwini,-p.B2). S. Assemani (Globus Coelestis Cufico, 
Arabicus, 4to. Padua 1790, p. cvii) gives AcMleus-chemali 
from a map. See also Born, p. 45, and Ideler, p. 58 ... 52 _ 

Ahant-al-genubi (Piscis Australis). The Southern Fish ^J■iy^ ev^il 

Al-hut-al-Ja7iubl {Cazivini, 'p.. 41) ... ... .. 62 

Alachil-al-genubi (Corona Australis). The Southern Crown, Al-iklll- 

al-janMlt (Casivini, -p. 4:1) ... ... ... ... 62 

Alacrah (Scorpio). — i^j/JI Al-'acrab (Cazivini, p. 37 ; Dorn, p. 55). 

(See Al-atarah) ... ... ... ... .. ... 58 

Alamec (Andromeda). — Andromeda is called by the Arabs "the woman 
in chains," sl-I-Jl 51^1 Al-niar'a al-niusalsahi (Cazwini, p. 34). 
Assemani has the forms. iZawac/i, Elamah, with only conjectural 
explanations. They are due to a false reading, for the name is 
explained to mean the star in the right foot of Andromeda, and 
the real Arabic name of this (7 Andromeda;) is jU*!!- Al'anac, 
"the goat," or ,j>p\ jUc Anac-al-ard, "the badger." See 
Lane's Lexicon, p. 2176, and Dorn (Drei Aralitiche Astron. 
Instrumente, 4to., Petersb. 1868, p. 100) ... ... ... 55 



INDEX OF NAMES OF STARS AND CONSTELLATIONS. 207 

Alanin (Draco). — This is probably a misprint for Atanin, one of 
the many corruptions of Tinmn : see Assemani, p. cii. (See 
Hasahen) ... ... ... ... ... ... 51 

Alarnebet (Lepns). — t-^;^l Al-amah, "the hare" {Cazwini, p. 39; 
Born, p. 60). Alarnehet represents the feminine form, which 
is not applied to the constellation ... ... ... ... CO 

Al-asad (Leo).— Jw,yi (Caairin*, p. 36; Dorn, p. 54) ... ... 56 

Alashan (Sagittarius).— Probably ^1 ^Je. Ala-l-sahm, "the star 

upon the arrow." Cazwini names two such stars ... ... 58 

Alatod (a star in Auriga), ^^1 Al-atud. In Spanish pronunciation 

atod. A yearling goat, or Capella. (See Al-liaisk) ... ... 52 

Al-atrah (Scorpio). — The corrupt form, Al-atrah, for Al-acrah, is 
noticed in Assemani, p. cliii. t and c being very like in many 
manuscripts and early prints, this was an easy corruption ; h 
for fc is a further corruption. (See AJ-acrah) ... ... 58 

Al-batina (Crater). — A corruption for i^LUI Al-hdthja, "the cup" 
(Cazicini, p, 40; Born, p. 61). This is an error due to the 
diacritical points. (See Ell-is) ... ... ... ... 61 

Al-cheleb al-akbar (Canis).— ^;r^=yi ^,l£»!l Al-lalh al-aUar, "the 

greater dog " (Cazwini, p. 39 ; Born, p. 60) ... ... ... GO 

Al-cheleb-al asgar.-^s^Vl ^,k^Jl Al-lalb-al-asghor (Auti-canis), " les- 
ser dog" (Born, p. 61) ; Cazwini (p. 39) has ^J-s^Jl L_Ji^Jl Al-halh- 
al-muiacadd ivi , " the preceding dog," a rendering of UpoKvcov ... 60 

Al-cheti-hala-rechabatch (Hercules). — 4,^-!^ J* ^^^'lil Al-jtltlu-alu-rii'kla- 
taihi, " the kneeler on his knees." Engonasin ("Er ySvaa-iv) or 
Nixusin genuhus. (Cazwini, p. 32 ; Born, p. 45) tch is a corrup- 
tion for ieTi, ... ... ... ... ... .. 52 

AI-CUSU (Sagittarius).^ — u")^^ Al-caiis, " the bow." The final n is the 
Arabic nominative termination. It is also called ^j-]/', " the 
archer " (CazicwT, p. 37; Dorw, p. 56) ... ... ... 58 

Al-delphin (Delphinus) ... ... ... "... ... 54 

Aldebaran (a Tauri) I. — The Bull's eye. " PaUUci'um " of the Latins. 
A bright red star, at one end of the V formed by the Hyades, 
and one of the stars whose lunar distances are given in the Nau- 
tical Almanac. Aldalanln also means the Hyades as a whole, 
j^l^j!) Al-dalaran from Balara, " to follow." This is an old 
Arabic name for the Hyades not borrowed from the Greek, and 
its meaning is disputed among the Arabs. It probably designates 
the Hyades as following the Pleiades. See EreM, Religion der 
Araher (1863), p. 10. (Cazivini, p. 35) ... ... ... 55 

Alderaimin. — A star in Cepheus. — ^^J1 e^JJl Al-dhir'-al-aiman, " the 
right fore arm," the article al being omitted before the adjec- 
tive incorrectly. Cazwini (p. 31) describes a Ofhei as on the 
left shoulder, and also speaks of stars on the fore arms ... 51 

Aldigaga (Cygnusi. — 4=.Udll Al-dajaja, "the hen," and JUJl Al-tair, 
"the bird," are names of Cygnus (Cazv.-ini, p. 32; Born. 
p. 46) 53 



208 HsBEX OF IvAMES OF 

Alfaxas-alatham (PegasnE) — Ja.'H' i_^jL\Alfaras-al~a'saw," the greater 
torse. '"" -wldcli is clearlr -what is Tceant tere, aB t in tlie more 
clasEicaJ pronxmciatioii is not a palatal s But a palatal th. (Cos- 
vAni. p. 34 ; Dorn, p. 50.) (Bee Al-merLk^Ji) ... ... 54 

Alfard (b HrdrBs). — .^i.''.- Al-fari, " the isolated one." (Cazirmi, p. 4Ci ; 

Pc-rr,, p. 25) ... ... ... ... ... ... 61 

AHecca. — (Bee Corona BoreaMs.) 

Alferkathao. — (StarE in "Crsa Minor) ^'Jis^i-'^ Al-fwroadan, "tlie two 
calreB " {& and 7). The brightest of the four stare tliat make a 
square in Ursa Minor {Cazwini, p. 29 ; Dorn, p. 43) ... 50 

Alg'edi. — (AraHe name for CapricormiB) i^J^^ Al-jadi, "the kid." 

(Casncirti, p. 37; Dorn, p. 56) ... ... ... ... 58 

Alg'enib (7 Pegasi). — ^-4^ Al-Jenb, "the side." Tarions consteDa- 
tionE hare stars so named, especially a Persei {Ii.el.er, p. 116). 

Alg'eiize. — ^An Arabic name applied to Gemini, and also to Orion. 
' ' Of tlie stars in G-emini that vhich is their head is called Ras- 
algeuze. Isow Ge^ti^ signifies a •walnut, and perhaps theyallnde 
herein to th.e Latin word Ingula, which name Festus calleth 
Orion, because he is greater ttan any of tie other oonstellationB 
as a walnut is bigger than any other kind of nut " ... ... 59 

The meaning of '\jy^ Al jaiiza is not clear, and the constellation 
is also called a^^i^^ AUtauaman, *' the twins," after the Greek 
(Coziww, p. 36; Dorn, p. b3) jja. Jauz means "a nut," but tbis 
word can hardly have anything t.o do with it. Al-Jauza is a 
name also giren to Orion ( Cas'^nni, p. 38 ; Dorn, p. 59) ... 59 

Al-gibbax (Orion).— ^'J^ Al-jahhar, "the hero." (Cosicmi, p. 38; 

Brjm, p. 59) ... ... ... ... ... ... 59 

AJ-gol (3 Persei). — Jji'l Al-pJtvl, "the ghoul": Le. Medusa, the 

monster. (Cosv-'im, p. 33; Dorn, p. 47)- (See CfeamiZ-ras-aZpoZ) 53 

Algomeiza (Procyon). — e'-a-^" AUahumaica, "the little watery-eyed 
one " (fern.), because she weeps for her separation from her 
brother, CaTioyu*. (See the myth in IdeZer, p. 245) ... ... GO 

Alg'orab (Corrus). — ^^jm.\ Al-ghorah, "the raven." {Cazwini, p. 41 ; 

Dorn, p. 61) ... ... ... ... ... ... 61 

AJ-haisk (Ca.pell»). — J^l Al-ayyuc {Cazwini, p. 33 ; Dorn, p. 25). The 
European f onns are 'AIovk, Alhajoc, &c. (See Ideler, p. 92.) The 
Arabic lexicographers {Lar^e, p. 2199) take the name to mean 
" the impeder" of the Hyades from meeting the Pleiades; but 
this is very questionable. (See Alitod) ... ... ... 53 

Al-hakkah (Aquila). — v'.a«!l Al-'ucah, "the eagle." Here again ayin 
is represerted by Ti.- and the final Ti should be b {Cazvrini, 
p. 33: X>r>r?i, p. 50). (Bee .:!Zfa«>) ... ... ... ... 54 

Al-hamel (Aries). — jJ2 Al hamal, " the young ram " (CcLncsni, p. 35 ; 
Dom, p. 52). The name of the constellation transferred to a 
star ... ... ... - ... ... ... ... 55 

Al-hasa (Serpens). — An error for Al-haia ; see the next name ... 54 



STARS AND CONSTELLATIONS. 209 

Al-hava (Serpentarius). — Cazwini (p. 33) puts together, as one con- 
stellation, the serpent charmer and the little serpent, h^j 
cl^U Alhaivwd' vjal-huuayya. A various reading for Buicayya 
is Eayya (Born, p. 49) ... ... ... ... 54 

Al hava (Bootes). — Al-'awnd' Ayi\ "the howler." (Cazwini, p. 32; 

Born, p. io. See Bootes) ... ... ... ... ... 5X 

Aliemalija (Sirius).— Corruption of Al-yamaniya. (See Alsahare.) 

Alioth (e UrssB ilajoris). — The first star in the tail of the Great Bear. 
The name is from the Alphonsine Tables, and Cazwini (p. 30) 
calls the same star e)^ --l^yaMn. -4Zj/a(i) would be the buttock. 50 

Almara-almasulsela (Andromeda). — (See Alamac.) 

Almenkeh (7 Pegasi). — t_-JUl Al-manlcih, "the shoulder"; or fully 

J/an/al; a?-/aras, " the horse's shoulder." (Cazvjini, p. 3i) ... 54 

Al-mugamra (Ara). — 5r»^ al-mijmara, " the censer," evfjuo.TijpLov 

(Cazu-ini, p. il; Born, -p. 60) ... ... ... ,.. 62 

Al-mutaleh (Triangulum). — c-kjl Al-mutliallath. {Cazw. p. 41; Born, 

p. 60) 55 

Al-nahar. — (See Achemar.) 

Alphard.— (See Alfard.) 

Alphecca. — (See Corona Borealis). 

Alpheratz (a Andromeda;). — Dorn (p. 51) gives o Andromeda as 
3. 1 . ■.. ' ■... . ! ! ^j^\j Ras-al-mv.salsala, " the head of the woman in chains." 
Ratz should be Ras. Phe maybe Fi (^y) the preposition in. 
If so, the article is incorrectly prefixed to an abbreviation of a 
descriptive phrase ... ... ... .., ... 55 

Al-redaf (Cepheus).— According to Ideler (p. 297) this is a mistake. 

(See Beneh-al-digo'ja) ... ... ... ... __ 52 

Al-rucaba (Ursa Minor).— The Pole Star of the Alphonsine Tables. 
It had not been traced to an Arabic name when Ideler wrote 
and his conjectures do not carry us further (p. 15). It may be 
i^'S^l Al-reko.h, properly "the stirrup"; which is also "point 
d'appui," and gives in Spanish arrocaba, the perpendicular beam 
on which a roof rests, a suitable metaphor for the Pole 
Star ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 50 

Al-sahare al semalija (Procyon). — Al-semaUJa is plainly iJ'^tJI 
"northern." Al-sahare is Al-slii'ra, a name applied both to 
Sirius and Procyon. They are distinguished as i-e'-»J' and Ju«lt!| 
Al-yamaniya and Al-shamiya, or Yemenite and Syrian — South- 
ern and Northern ... ... ... ,.. _ qq 

Alsahare Aliemalija (Sirius). — For al-sM'ra al-yamaniya ... ... 60 

Alsamech-alramech (Bootes). — Properly Arcturus oraBootis, which 
the Arabs call Al-simdk al-rdrnih J^)\ ell_!l "the prop that 
carries a spear," to distinguish it from the other si/ndk, Spica 
Yirginis. The spear itself (rv.w/() is 17 Bootis ... ... 51 

Al sartan. — ^^'-l'_r-'' AUmrato-n, "the crab'' {CazvAni, p. 3G ; Born, 

p. 53). iSee Cancer) ... ... ... ... ,.. 55 

Al semcha. — iS^\ Al-samaka, ^' the &&h." ... ... ... 53 

T 



210 INDEX OF NAMES OF 

Al-sephina. — (See Se])hina). 

Al-soham (Sagitta). — 1^1 AJ-salwi, "the arrow." (Cazirini, -p. 33 ; 

Dorn, p. 50), (See Istvsi)... ... ... ... ... 54 

Al-subah (Fera). — ^\ Al-salu'. ({iee Asida) ... ... ... 61 

Al-sugahr (Hydra).- — ^WAJ^ Al-slmjd', '*the Serpent." (Cazwini, p. 40 ; 
Dorn, p. 61). The final lir seems to be an attempt to represent 
the guttural 'ayn ... ... ... ... ... 61 

Altair (a Aquilte). — J^\ Aliair, fully al-nas^r al-te/ir, "the flying 
vulture." Cygnus I. — A green star whose lunar distances are 
given in the Nautical Almanac. The name is also applied to 
Cygnus. (See Alhakliali) ... ... ... . ... ... 54 

Al-tor (Taurus).' — j^W Al-tliaur. {Cazwini, -p. Zo ; Dorn, p. 53) ... 55 
Al-vakah (Vega). — ^1^1 Al-waci' ; fuller ^\j]\j^\Al nasr al wad', 
"the falling vulture." [Cazivini, p. 32; Dor7i, p. 46). (See 
Lyra, Vega, Sclialiaf) ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Anchenetenar, or Angeienar (a star in Eridanus). — This, according 
to Ideler (p. 234) corresponds, as Scaliger observed, with 
Ptolemy's iiria-rpocprt, or "turn of the river." The longer form 
seems to be due to a conjecture of Scaliger. The shorter is 
the Alphonsineform. This is clearly^l c'..W 5 i] Incita' al-nahr 
(amialir), "the place where the river stops short and turns." 
Cazwini (p. 38) uses this word, and says : — " then it stops and 
passes, etc." ... ... ... ... ... ... GO 

Andromeda, the constellation between Perseus and Pegasus, and 
south of Cassiopeia. Alanac is y Andromedse, Mirach or Mizar 
is j3 Andromedse ... ... ... ... ... ... 55 

Antares (a Scorpii) I. to II. — A red star whose lunar distances are 
given in the Nautical Almanac. Avtares forms a right-angled 
triangle with Spica and Archims, the right angle at Spica. 
Anticanis. — The Latin name for Procy on ... ... ... .. 60 

Antinous. — (See Aqwila.) 

Aphelon (Castor) is a deformation, through the Arabic, of Ptolemy's 

Apollo. (See HeZer, p. 151) ... ... ... .. 56 

Apollo. — A name given to Casior, by Ptolemy ... ... ... 56 

Aquarius. — Constellation of the Waterman. In Arabic it is Al-dalw, 
which means "a bucket to draw water," or al-dali, al-sdkib, 
" the water-drawer." One star is called Seat, i.e. Arabic sa'd 58 
Aquila. — Constellation of the Eagle. In Arabic Al-'ucah. There are 
three stars in a line, of which Altair is the centre. The 
ancients reckoned nine stars, besides six of small magnitude, 
which the Emperor Hadrian caused to be called Antinous, in 
memory of the Bithynian youth who sacrificed his life for liis 
imperial master. (See Al-ha'k'kah, Altair) ... ... ... 53 

Ara, or Tlmrihulum. — A small constellation S, in Arabic al-mijmara 

{Alimigamra) . Bassus called it Sacrarium ... ... ... 61 

Arcturus (a Bootis) I.— So called both by Greeks and Latins. The 
herdsman. "'Ap/croy, a bear, and Ovpos, a warder. In Arabic 
Al-simali al-ramih, "the spear-bearing prop"; very corruptly 



STARS AND CONSTELLATIONS. 211 

Soninch-haramach (seo Al-aamecli al-ramecli'). Tlicon placed it 
in the girdle of the herdsman — Bootes. It is a yellow star, the 
fourth brightest in the heavens, travelling at a rate of fifty-four 
miles a second. See Job ix, 9, xxxviii, 32, where, however, 
modern scholars do not understand Arcturus to be the star 
meant ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 51 

Argo Navis. — Southern constellation of the ship Argo, called by 
the Arabs Sajina, " ship." A dialectic name for s/(ip isMarkah, 
which also means saddle, and so is the name of a Pegasi. The 
Alphonsines give the name Mera to the sixth star in the con- 
stellation. It contains forty-five stars, the brightest being 
Canopios. The next is rj Argus, which varies from the first to 
the sixth magnitude in forty-six years. {See Sephifia) ... CO 

Arided. — A star in Cygnus. (See Deneh) ... ... ... 53 

Aries. — Constellation of the Kam. In Arabic Al-hamal. It has 

thirteen stars according to Ptolemy ... ... ... 55 

a Arietis, or Hamal, the chief star of Aries, and formerly the point of 
intersection of the equator and ecliptic ; now 27° short of 
it. II. Yet one of the stars whose lunar distances are given in 
the Nautical Almanac ... ... ... ... ... 55 

Asida. — (A star in Fera.) According to Scaliger (Meier, p. 279), a 
Turkish planisphere has sju.,^! Al-asada, " the lioness/' for the 
iisual |»^1 Al-sahu (Fera) of Cazwini (p. 41) and Dorn (p. 62). 
(See Al-siihah) ... ... ... ... ... ... 61 

Asugia and Asuia, other forms of Al-sagahr or Al-shuja. (See 
Orion.) 

Asumpha. — (A name of Deneh, in Leo.) Perhaps a corruption of 

^.J-ffir/a, which is the Arabic name of ;8 Leouis ... ... 57 

Atauri.— (See Al-tor.) 

Auriga. — Constellation of the Waggoner. In Arabic, Mwiisih-al-a'inna 
(corruptly Ilemassich al lianamslmt), " He who holds the reins," 
and Roha. It contains fourteen stars, the bright one in the 
left shoulder being Capella ... ... ... ... 53 

Beemim (7Eridani). — Ideler (p. 234) has conjectures as to derivation, 

but they are not satisfactory ... ... ... ... 60 

Bellatrix (7 Orionis). — A bright blue star in the shoulder of Orion, so 

named in the Alphonsine Tables ... ... ... ... 59 

Benetnasch (v Ursaa Majoris). — ^J.s^j oUj Banat na'sh. (Cazwini, p. 30.) 
Na'sli, " the bier," is the four stars that form the square of the 
Great Bear ; and the three tail stars are the daughters who 
follow it — the " FilicB Peretri." The proper Arabic name of tj 
Ursee Majoris is Al-caid, " the Governor"; and Banat na'sli, or 
" the bier's daughters," is the name of the seven stars as a 
whole ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 51 

Berenice's Hair. — Stars between Leo and Ursa Major, reckoned by 
Theon as belonging to Virgo. Conon, the mathematician of 
Alexandria, dedicated them to the hair of Ptolemy's wife, and 
the poet Callimachus celebrated the event iu verse ... ... 57 



212 DTDEX :t vaates or 



lAt red siar in tie rigit ehoolder 

S-ee J.7j€«r*.) Bm the sore 

- r3, "the hauid," or 

- IeTie(DieiMa.Sf9M. 

• ?!:=. 1S76, p. 67) 

... 59 

" ^''J' ii came 



- : 3S (A s:ar in 1 — _-=^ --=: I - - - lie 

... 51 



C^:i-- -^ 



S^«"i» 



le-" - : ^ 13 Svrimi, 

C . =~~ pcs. — i^^ :: , - " rzigiixeafe 

r.-iil^TT i: Si.odeB,yet 









c- 



-xrv^sed by tie Ar^oi lo AphaUm {Mder, pu 151) 

. 56 



STAES A5T) COXSTZLlAr: I V 3. 213 

Centazros. — A cocatiellaiion. of ulLinry--seveii sjars, called, by the same 
name in Arabic. Ajnong riie stars, dioae in. the Centaur 5 f ee- 
now form the SoTitlieni CrosH. a CentaJiri L is zhe nearest of 
tlie fixed siars. being only 200,000 tiinea the disiaiice of zhe 
Hon from die eartt. Ie ia a doable siar. /3 Crmtauri L is 
equally near ... ... ... ... ... 61, 66 

Cephens- — ^A consieEaiion of eleven stajrs. called FTiicans by tke 
PhcEnicians, whicK is inserpreued. as FTammf-jer. Is comarns a 
scar called by cte Arabs Al-Ihir^-al-aiman •'canmpd.y Alder' 
(if/;'t7!. . '• die risb.:: fcre-arm."' [See Alderaimin ... ... 51 

Cetas. — ConsreEaiions of die Wij^e, caHed. El caitiLs in Arabic. Of 
rna trvrenry-cwo stars, ^enkar-il-kavtos mpang ^ die Whale's 
snoTTE," Boten-el-kadtos, " the Whale's belly,^ i>e?i«6-ei-i2i*fcs,'*die 
Whale's caiL" a Crrti is a star ■vs-rdch. changes from Srst to 
twelfdi magnitude in 331 years ... ... ... ... 59 

CIisiml-ras-aIgt)L — A star ia Persetis. ^ji u-j J-«, EJ-.iZ rzs ■:il- 
jJiwl, " He that carries the Gionl's head." (Car-ii-r7ji, p. 33.) 
The nam.e of the constelladon transferred, to its c riie f star. 
The star is nsnally caHed Alaol ... ... ... 53 

ChesH. — The Hebre-sr nasxe for Canopna .. ... ... 61 

Corana Anstralis, or die eonsteHation of the Soxaiem Crown. In 
Arabic, AlacJitl-'il-ien^j,Gi correcdy A'ik£lL-al~Ja7i£ii . It is 
formed of thirteen stars forming a donble wreath. ... ... (2 

Corona Borealis, or the Xorthem Crown. Arabic, al-Hlil aZshaindlL 
Tae brigh]; star which, seems to &sten die chaplet ia called 
Alpheca {al-Tfikka i-=-a"}, m.eaning Solniia, '* unsying "; also 
caEed ^'jmic. The constellanon has eight scars, if and 7 Corona 
BorealLa are doable scars ; and t Coronae (previously of tenth 
magnitude^ blazed ont suddenly in ilay, 1S66 ... ... 52 

Corsns. — ConsteEadon of the Crow : in Arabic, Ai-j*or»&. It has 

seven stars ... ... ... ... ... ... 61 

CratS'. — Constelladon of die Cap ; in Arabic, Al-batiua, or Al-hzs (cor- 

rupciy Ulirw). It has seven stars ... ... ... ... 61 

QracsxQ. or the constelladon of the Soutliern Cross, detached from 
the Centaur, of which it formed, the hind feet. The Elizafaechan 
navigators cormpred. " Cmcero'" into " the Crv.i^ers.'^ It was 
only known to Ptolem.y as the GiKtaM/tsfeet. a, and ^ Crucis are 
LI.' ... „ 67 

Cygnns or Gallina. — Conscellacioii of die Swan or Hen, of seventeen 
stars. In Arabic it is called A ^--Ui;,"<i/ii ^corrupdy Aldiga^a) and 
ALtair. The ch'if^ star ia Z'^ne'-:, which, see. /3 and S Cjgni 
are doable stars ... ... ... ... ... ... 53 

Delpiiimis. — The consceUadon of the Dolphin, ten small scars. In 

Arabic, Al-iei]i» ... ... ... ... ... ... 54 

Deneb ^i Cygni) or Deneib-Oildiijaaa, ia.'^aS.'^ >— ii Dhana,c-<il-dj.jaja, 
" the hen's taiL" i^Coksvini, p. 32.) Cazwini says that die bright 
scar on the call is called «— »J- Al-ridf, "the one who rsies 
behind" die four fawiris or horsemen '[f^^Q ^Dont, pi. 46}^ ^ 



214 INDEX OF NAMES OF 

Also Arided, which is a corruption of al-ridf. It is a green 
star ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 57 

Deneb-al-asad (/3 Leonis). — Jw."l)l (_J^ Bhanah-al-asad, "lion's tail." 
The usual name in Arabic is ij^Jl Al-farfa {Cazruini, p. 46). 
Bhanab-al-asad is given as a synonym by Alferghani apud 
Asse7n. cxc. ... ... ... .. ... ... 57 

Deneb-al-gedi (Star in Capricornus). — ^sd i_JJ Dhanah-al-jadi, 

"kid's tail" ... ... ... ... ... ... 58 

Deneb-al-kaitos (Star in Cetus). — o-^.'^l ^^ Dhanah-al-caitua, " tail 
of the /cTjTos." There are several stars at the root of the tail, 
according to Cazwini (p. 38) called Jii^\ Al nizam, "the string 
of pearls," and one in its southern part called "the second 
frog," J'^\ ^J^l... ... ... ... ... ... 59 

Denebola (0 Leonis). — A white star. Ola may be for aula, " first "... 57 

Dhath-al-cursi (Cassiopeia).' — ^^^-^^^Jl cjU Bhut-al-kursi, "the woman 

with the chair." {Cazwini, p. Z'2 x Doru, p. 46. ) ... ... 53 

Dobhe (o Ursae Majoris). — Called by Dorn (p. 43) l_>jJ1 ^, Zalir-al- 
dubb, " the bear's back." The last word only has been retained, 
and the final e may represent the genitive termination, or, as 
Dorn suggests (p. 69), it may represent the feminine Duhla, 
TJrsa. Ideler (p. 23) supposes that the name of the constellation 
has simj^ly been transferred to the chief star, as in other cases 50 

Draco. — A constellation of thirty-one stars ... ... ... 51 

Dub-al-akhbar (Ursa Major).— ^^^^=^1 ujjJI, Al-dtM-al-akbar, "the 

greater bear" ... ... ... ... ... .. 50 

Dub-al-asgar (Ursa Minor) .-^^i-j^l i_>jJ! Al-dubb-al-asghar, "the 

lesser bear" ... ... ... ... ... ... 50 

Echer. — (See Sirius.) A corruption of Al-sld'rd. 

El-adari (Virgo). — tl^JJl Al-'adhra, "the Virgin." (Cazivini, p. 36 ; 

Dorn, p. 54) ... ... ... ... ... ... 57 

El-cusu (Sagittarius.)— See .4Z-CM.^i!, ... ... ... ... 58 

El-delis (Aquarius) .^ — -jJjJl. Al-dalw," the bucket." (Cazwini, -p. 37) 58 

El-kaitos (Cetus).' — y-^J'- Al-caitv.s, a transcription of ktjtos (Caz- 
wini, p. 31) ... ... ... ... ... ... 59 

Elkis (Crater)' — ij-^-^1 Al-kas, "the cup." Pronounced in Spain 
Al-kes, which is the form in the Alphonsine Tables (Ideler, p. 
271) for o Craterae. (See Al-batina.) ... ... ... 59 

Elguez'e — (See Al-geuze.) 

El-seiri (Sirius). — ^ji^\ Al-shi'ra, leipios. The Greek word is itself 
jirobably a loan word, and the Arabic not merely a copy of 
it. It may mean "hairy." In Arabian astronomy there are 
two Shiras, Sirius and Procyon ... ... ... .. 60 

Enif-alfaras (Pegasus). — Obviously u-'ji\ >-aJl Anf-al-faras, "the 
horse's nose." Ideler (p. 116) identifies it with i^^l J Fum- 
al-Jaras of Cazwini (p. 34), "the horse's mouth," e Pegasi ... 55 

Equiculus.— The constellation of the Little Horse. In Arabic, cit'at 
al-faroj?, iTpoTo^i.r} Ittttou, i.e. "fore part of a horse cut off." 
Four obscure stars ... ... ... ... . 54 



STARS AND CONSTELLATIONS. 215 

Eridanus. — Constellation of the Eiver, called in Arabic, Al-nahr. It 
consists of thirty-four stars. The Arabs called one star incitd'al- 
naliT, "the turn of the river" (corruptly Anchetenar or 
Angetenar), and another Beemin (which see). Akhir-al-nalir, 
known as Achernar (which see), is another bright star in this 
constellation ... ... ... ... ... ... 59, GG 

Fera. — An obscure constellation .called Asida in Arabic, and Al-sahu^ 

(corruptly *4?si(6a/i). Nineteen small stars ... ... ... Gl 

Flammiger. — (See Cepheus). 

Fomalhaut (Piscis Australis). — A bright white star I. to II. Its lunar 
distances are given in the Nautical Almanac. o^U J, Fum-al- 
hut, " mouth of the fish." {Cazivini, -p. il) ... ... 62 

Gallina. — (See Cygnus). 

Gemini. — Constellation of the Twins, consisting of eighteen stars. 
In Arabic, Algeuze. Some will have the twins to be Castor and 
Pollux, others A2>ollo and Hercules. With the Arabians one is 
called Aphelon and Aellar, the other Abracaleus or Gracleus, as 
Scaliger conceives ... ... ... ... ... 56 

Gibbar. — (See Sirius). 

Gracleus. — A name of Pollux ... ... ... ... ... 56 

Habor. — Corrupted from Echer, (which see). 

Hain-altor. — Bull's eye; Ar.^y!! ^^ 'ayn al-thav.r. (See Aldelaran.) 

Hamel (a Arietis). — (See Al-Hamel.) 

Has-alangue. — (See Al-hava). Should be Ras-alangue? Perhaps 
rather a corruption of the star called asl-dhanab al-hayya, " root 
of the serpent's tail " (Dorn, p. 49)... ... ... ... 54 

Hazimath al-hacel (Spica). — Very corrupt for J^Vl dU-Jl, Al simak 
al a'zal, "the unarmed prop": as distinguished from the spear- 
bearing Simak, or Arcturus (Al-simak al-ramih) (Cazwini, p. 
47), or because it does not bring wind or cold. (See Lane, p. 
1430) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 57 

Haedi.— " The Kids." (See Capella.) 

Hercules. — A constellation of eight stars. In Arabic, Al jathi ala 
rukhataihi (corruptly Alcheti hala recliabatah), "the kneeler 
on his knees." The Latins called it Nisus or Nixus. The star in 
the head is Ras-al-jathi (Rasaclieti), "the head of the kneeler"; 
not Rasahen, as the Alphonsines corruptly have it. Another 
star is Marfic (corruptly Marsic) or " the elbow," another Mifcim 
(corruptly Jfaasi'))!. or Mazim) "the wrist": corresponding to /c 
and Herculis. The sun is now approaching Hercules at a rate 
of four miles a second, f Herculis is a double star ... ... 52 

Hyades (In Taurus). — (See Aldeharan.) Thales Milesius says there are 

two, Euripides three, Achseus four, Hippias seven ... ... 56 

Hydra. — In Arabic Al-shuja' (Ahagahr) and Asitgioj, "the serpent." 
The constellation consists of twenty-five stars, one of them (a) 
called by the Alphonsines 4 7/orf, i.e. al-fard, "the isolated." 
The Egyptians called it JViZv.s ... ... ... ... 61 

Ingula. — (See Al-geuze). 



216 INDEX OF NAMES OF 

Istusi (Sagitta). — Ideler (p. 103) gives IsUtse as the form of the 
Alphonsine Tables, with the obvious interpretation Oicrros, after 
Grotius. The true Arabic name is ^^1 Al-sahm, " the arrow." 
{Cazivini, p . S3.) (See Al-soham) ... ... ... ... 54 

Kalb-al asad — " Heart of the lion." The Arabic name for Reguhis ... 56 

Kaleb alacrah (In Scorpio). — i_j^1 t_Ji5, Calb-al-acrab, "heart of the 

Scorpion." (Cazwini, p. i8 ; Dorn,-p. 5o) ... ... ... 58 

Katavat alfaras. — (See I]quiculus). 

Leo. — Constellation of twenty-seven stars. In Arabic ^Z-asad. The 
heart is called BaaXKiKos or Regulus, in Arabic Kalb-al-asad. 
Proclus says that those who are born under this star have a 
kingly nativity. At the end of the tail is Denebola, Deneb-aJ- 
asad, or j8 Leonis ; or Asumpha according to Alfraganus, y and 
le Leonis are double stars. (See Berenice's Hair) ... ... 56 

Lepus. — A constellation containing twenty-two small stars. In Arabic 

Al-arnab (Alarnebet) ... ... ... ... ... 60 

Leschat or Lesath (In Scorpio). — Lesath is found on modern maps, 
according to Ideler. The usual name of the two stars at the 
end of the Scorpion's tail (A and v Scorpionis) is sJ^l, Al- 
shaivla, explained as the raised part of the tail or the sting. 
(Cazivini, p. 37, 48j Lwne, p. 1622.) Cazwini says that the sting 
propf r is like ^.e. iJ^, latkliat ghaim, " a small cloud," literally 
"a splash of cloud"; so read with Fleischer jn Ethe's trans- 
lation of Cazwini (p. 447), The word Leschat might be a cor- 
ruption of Laifc/io., " a splash or patch." Scaliger conjectures 
Lasat ijtJ, "the puncture of the Scorpion." (See Ideler, p. 
183.) But it is not likely that a star would be named after an 
action, instead of a thing ... ... ... ... ... 58 

Libra. — Zodiacal constellation of the Balance. The part forming 
the Southern Balance is called by the Arabs lllzdn-aUyamin. 
Originally Libra was not a sign : the later astronomers formed 
it out of the claws of Scorpio. (See Z^ibeneschi-rnali.) The 
constellation contains eight stars ... ... ... ... 57 

Lyra. — Constellation of the Harp : in Arabic Al ivuci' {Al valah) that 
is, "falling" — "the falling vulture." Hipparchus and 
Ptolemy give it ten stars, the chief one being called " Vega " 
by the Alphonsines. Theon gives eight stars, Alfraganus 
eleven. (See Vega.) e Lyrse is not only a double star, but each 
of the double stars is itself double, revolving round each other 25 

Maasin. — (See Mazim). 

Magellanic Clouds. — Hues saw the clouds (mentioned by Andreas 
Corsalis) one being twice or thrice as big as the other, and in 
colour like the Milky Way, neither of them very far from the 
pole. " Our mariners used to call them Magellan's Clouds." 
They are now called 'Nubecula Major and Minor ... ... 67 

Markab (a Pegasi). — i_.r^ Markab, "saddle." (See Lane, p. 1145.) 
Also " ship " and so used of Argo. The lunar distances of this 
star are given in the Nautical Almanac ... ... ... 54 



STARS AND CONSTELLATIONS. 217 

Marsic or Mazim (a star in Hercules). — Ideler (p. 65) explains these 
two names from the Alphonsine Tables correctly. Marsic is an 
error for Marfic jj^ " elbow" : and Masijm is for mi'cam --aa*, 
"wriRt." They correspond to /c and o Herculis ... ... 52 

Megrez (y UrsiJS Majoris). — (See Phejda.) Or S is Megrez, and y 
Phachd, or " the thigh." 

Mellef. (a star in Cancer). — k-iWI Al-mi'laf, " the crib or manger." 
" Praesepe" {Cazwini, p. 36). Cazwini says that this is the 
name in the Almagest, a translation, therefore, of (paTuri ... 56 

Memassich-al-hanamshat (Auriga).— Auriga is called i^)l viL.** 
Mumsik-iil-a'inna, " he who holds the reins," 'Hfioxos : and also 
Mumsik-al-inan ij'-^l, "he who holds the rein." (Dorn, p. 48.) 
MumassiTc will mean the same. The first part of Hanamshat is 
clearly 'inan with h for ayii. It is possible that shat may be 
L!'— "wielding the whip," or sayydt " the whipper." Another 
name is Roha ... ... ... ... ... ... 53 

Menkar (a star in Cetus). — ,^ Manhhar or Minlihir, "the nostril." 

According to Ideler (p. 210) it is A Ceti ... .., .. 59 

Merak (3 Ursae Majoris).— jl^*ll Al maracc, "the loins." {Dorn, 
p. 43.) 

Mirach or Mizar (a star in Cassiopeia). — jj-U Mizar, "drawers" or 
"waist cloth." Cazwini (p. 34), and ^ufi ctpicJ Dorn (p. 58) 
speak of the Mizar or " waist cloth " of Andromeda. The 
same part of the body can equally be called Maracc, " the 
loins," ij\jJ\. ... ... ... ... ... ... 53 

Mizanaliemin (Libra). — j^lj-Jl Al mizan, "the balance." The second 
word may be {j^\ Al yamin, " the right hand," so that the 
name would properly denote the southern scale, or is it al- 
aimai?, " the lucky " ? ... ... ... ... ... 57 

Mirzar (f Ursaa Majoris). — Ideler (p. 24) writes Mizar, and sup- 
poses that, as in the case of Andromeda, it was originally Merak, 
or ;3 Ursaa Majoris, and has changed its place. Bat this involves 
two mistakes, for a bear would not have a waist cloth. Caz- 
wini (p. 30) and Dorn (p. 43) call this star "the goat" — Al 
'anac jUJl. A synonym would be ijj^ Mi'za. It seems very 
likely that this is the true origin of the word, the r being 
added by false analogy. (See Phegda) ... ... ... 50 

Moselek. — (See Sclmmlek). 

Munic. — (See Corona Borealis). 

Mutlathan. — (See Almutaleh). 

Nesses. — Corruption of Nisus, by Vitruvius. 

Nilus. — (See Hydra). 

Nisus or Nixus. — (See Hercules). 

Orion. — Sometimes called Asugia (Al-slmjd', "the valiant man," the 
same Arabic word that also means " water-snake or hydra " ;) 
(but is there any proof that this name really means Orion ?) and 
sometimes Al-gcuze by the Arabs : also Al-gihhar, "the hero." 

U 



218 INDEX OF NAMES OF 

The constellation contains thirty-eight stars. Betelgueze on 
the right, Bellatrix on the left shoulder, Rigel the foot, and 
three small stars form the belt, — 5, e and C Orionis. (See Job 
xxviii, 31 ; and ^mos V, 8) ... ... ... ... 51) 

Palilicium. — (See Aldebaran) . 

Pegasus. — A constellation of ten stars, called Alfaras-alathan, " the 
Great Horse," in Arabic. Algenib is y Pegasi. The star on 
the right shoulder is Al menlceh, also called Seat-alfaras; another 
is Enif-alfaras, "the horse's nose." Marlcab is a Pegasi. 
P Pegasi shows, by its spectrum, that it contains hydrogen, 
sodium, magnesium, and perhaps barium ... ... ... 54 

Perseus. — A constellation of twenty-six stars, in Arabic called Chamil 
ras algol, " He that carries the head of Medusa." The star over 
the left hand is called Bas algol. The Alphonsines named one of 
the stars Algenib, meaning "the side." j8 Persei is of second 
magnitude for two-and-a-half days, then suddenly falls to fourth 
magnitude in three hours ; returns in the same time ... 53 

Phegda (5 Ursse Majoris). — This is evidently J^ Fakhidh, "the 
thigh." The thigh is given by the authorities in Ideler (p. 22) 
as 7 Ursse Majoris. But Dorn (p. 43) calls y the left thigh, and 
5 might very well be taken for the right thigh. Ideler, from his 
Eastern authorities, calls it j^ Maghriz, "root of the tail," 
Megrez of the maps. If the right thigh is placed at S and the 
buttock at € (see Alioth) ( will be the real root of the tail, and 
Mirzar or Mizar may be a corruption of Maghriz : r for the 
rolled gh is not unnatural. 

Phicares. — (See Cepheus). 

Piscis. — A zodiacal constellation of thirty-four obscure stars, called 

Alsemcha in Avahio ... ... ... ... ... 58 

Piscis Australis.— A constellation of twelve stars according to 
Ptolemy, called in Arabic Al-hut-algemibi. The bright star in 
the fish's mouth is Fomalhut ... ... ... ... 62 

Pleiades. — A group of six or seven small stars on the back of Taurus, 
increasing to sixty or seventy under the telescope. The 
Latins called them Vergil ic^, the Arsihs Al-thuroAjya. Pliny and 
Vitruvius place them in the tail of the Bull, and Hipparchus on 
the left foot of Perseus ... ... ... ... ... 56 

Polaris — or the Pole Star, is the last star in the tail of the Little Bear. 
It was anciently called the Dog, and was known as the 
Cynosiire {kvvos, gen. of kvwu a dog, and ovpa tail). The 
Phoenicians always steered by Polaris as Aratus affirms, while 
the Greeks used the Great Bear. It is less than 1° 30' from 
the Pole, will approach to within 30', and then recede. (See 
Al-rucaha.) Polaris is a white star. Its distance from the 
Pole in the time of Hipparchus ... ... ... ... 50 

Pollux (Star in Gemini) I. to II. — Called Hercules h j some, Abra eel eus 
for Bracleus by the Arabs, as Scaliger conceives. The lunar 
distances of Pollux are given in the Nautical Almanac. Pollux 
contains iron, hydrogen, sodium, and magnesium ... ... 56 



STARS AND CONSTELLATIONS. 219 

Praesepe. — (See Cancer-Mellef). 

Procyon. — In the constellation of Anticanis or the Lesser Dog I. It 
contains two stars. (See Al-cheleb al asgar and Al-sahare and 
Algomeiza). Procyon is a blue star .. ... ... 60 

Rasaben. — (See Rastahan). 

Rasalangue. — (See Al-hava) . 

Rasacheti (Star in Hercules). — ^ylU i^-l^ Ras al jathi, "head of the 

kneeler." a Herculis. {See Al-cheti) ... ... ... 52 

Rastaban (y Draconis). — A star in the Dragon's head. Ras-al-tinnin, 
"the Dragon's head," is the usual name. But taban is 
plainly jjCli' Tha'han, one of the many Arabic words for a 
serpent, which is said to be the modern use for " Draco." 
Rastaban became Rasaben, and then the constellation as a 
whole {Ras being dropped) became Aben. This star is of 
historical interest, as a change in its polar distance attracted 
Bradley's attention in 1728, and led to the discovery of aberra- 
tion. (See J^&ew) .. ... ... ... ... 51 

Regulus (a Leonis) I. to II. — The bright white star in the constella- 
tion of Leo, called in Arabic Calb-al-asad,,'' the lion's heart." 
In Greek Bdo-rAiicds, in Latin Regulus, because, says Proclus, 
those who are born under this star have a kingly nativity. 
The lunar distances of Eegulus are given in the Nautical 
Almanac ... ... ... ... ... ... 57 

Rigel I. — The bright blue star in the foot of Orion. In Arabic Rigel- 

algeuze, and RigeUal-gibbar, ^}J^JRiJl," ioot." {Caziuini, p. 38) ... 59 

Roha. — (See Memassich-alhanamsJiat or Auriga). 

Saclateni — of the Alphonsines, Sodateni of Scaliger, the Latin 

name for the HcBcii or kids, attending on Capella ... ., 54 

Sacrarium. — (See Ara). 

Saltatores. — (See Ursa Minor). 

Sagitta or Telum. — A small constellation of five stars, also called 
Istusi, which word Grotius thinks is derived from the Greek 
oI(tt6s, an arrow. In Arabic Al-sahm ... ... ... 54 

Sagittarius. — Constellation of the Archer, containing thirty-one stars. 

In Arabic Al-caus, El -cusu, " a how " ... ... ... 58 

Schaliaf (Lyra). — Misread, by confusing i-s and j for Shalyac jiAi^ 
{Cazwini, -p. 32). It is not an Arabic word, and the first syllable 
points to a derivation from the Greek ;^6Aiiy, sh in Arabic 
often being used for-the Greek x- (See Lyra, Vega, Al-vakah) 52 

Scheder (a Cassiopeise). — So given by the Alphonsines, but Scaliger 

has Seder, meaning a breast, j>>rf iSacir, " breast" ... ... 53 

Schomlek (a star in Scorpio). — A gross corruption for Jji Shaula. 

(See Leschat.) Scaliger would have ilioseZefc ... ... 58 

Scorpio. — A constellation of twenty-one stars; in Arabic Al-acrao, 
corrupted into Alacrah. The star in the heart is Calb-al-acrab, 
"the sting," Leschat. Scaliger thinks Schomlek should be 
Moseleh ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 58 

Seat (a star in Aqiiarius). — Correctly Js-. S'ad, " luck." Various 
stars are so called, with a defining word, and there arc three of 



220 INDEX OF NAMES OF 

them in Aquarius. {Casicini,p. 37; Dorn, p. 57.) One is JyuJl 
Jjt- Sa'd al Sit' v.d, " luck of lucks." )3 Aquarii ... ... 58 

Seat-alfaras (a star in Pegasus). — Cazwini (p. 34) calls it Majihih-al- 
faras, " the shoulder." It is, therefore, to be taken as u-fill J^L. 
Said-al-faro.s, " the arm of the horse " : " Brachium equi." 
(See IdeZe/, p. 117) ... ... ... ... ... 54 

Soheil. — J;^, Suhail. The Arabic name for Canopus ... ... 61 

Seder. — In Cassiopeia. (See Scheder.) 

Sephina. — Arab name for Argo Navis ... ... ... ... 60 

Serpens. — A constellation of eighteen stars. (See Al-hasa) ... 54 

Serpentarius. — The Serpent-bearer. A constellation of twenty -four 

stars. In Arabic Al-hava, and Hasalanque ... ... 54 

Sirius. — The Dog Star, I. The brightest star in the heavens ; once 
red, now green. The ancient Egyptians observed its heliacal 
rising close after the summer solstice, the season of greatest 
heat. They called it Sothis, and from it they had warning that 
the overflow of the Nile was about to commence. The heliacal 
rising has since slowly changed its date. 'Seipios from 2eipeiv, 
"to scorch." It is called in Arabic AUslii'ra (corruptly Echar) 
Gibhar al-kalb al-jahhdr. It contains iron, hydrogen, magnesium, 
and sodium. (See El seiri.) Heliacal setting of Strtus ... 60 

Somech-haramach (Arctarus) . — Al-simak al raynih. (See Al-samech 
al -ramecK.) 

Southern Cross. — (See Crucero.) 

Spica. — The bright blue star in the constellation of Virgo I., in the 
left hand of the Virgin, and called arax^s, an ear of corn, 
typical of the harvest, which, with the Greeks, coincided with 
the son's approach to Spica. In Arabic, Al simak al a'zal 
(corruptly Hasimath alhacel, which see), means " the unarmed 
prop," because it does not bring wind or cold. The lunar dis- 
tances of Spica are given in the Nautical Almanac ... ... 57 

Sporades. — Small stars not included in any constellation ... ... 96 

Suculae. — The Latin name for the Hyades. (See Taurus.) 

Sunbale. — Ear of corn. (See Virgo.) 

Taben. — Scaliger's reading for Aben (which see). 

Taurus. — The constellation of the Bull ; in Arabic, Al-tliaur. The 
bright red star Aldeharan is the Bull's eye, being one end of a V of 
stars called the Hyades, and by the Latins Suculce. Theon 
supposes they are so called because their shape is like the 
letter T (yaSes) ; more probably because they are said to be fore- 
runners of stormy weather. The seven stars on the Bull's 
back were called by the Greeks Pleiades, perhaps from their 
multitude, by the Latins Vergilioe, by the Arabs Al-thurayyd. 
The constellation of Taurus comprises thirty-three stars. 
Hipparchus and Ptolemy only make half the Bull appear, 
Nicander and Pliny give the whole ... ... ... 55 

Telum. — (See Sagitta.) 
Tbeemim. — (See Beemim.) 



STARS AND CONSTELLATIONS. 221 

Thuribulum. — (See Ara.) 

Triangle. — An obscure constellation of four stars, called in Arabic 

Almutaleh or Mutlathan, which means "triangle" ... ... 55 

Ursa Major. — The constellation of the Great Bear or Charles's Wain ; 
in Arabic, Dub-al-akhbar. The first star in the back is Dubhe (a 
Ursse Majoris) kot' f^oxv"- Dahlie and Merah (o and ^S) are the 
pointers. Megrez and Phegda (7 and 5) are the two stars which 
complete the trapezium. AUotli («) is the first star in the tail, 
Mirzali (0 the second, and Benetnasch (tj) the last. The con- 
stellation was first invented by Naplius, according to Theon, in 
all twenty-four stars. Both Bears, according to Aratus, are 
called afxala, "a chariot." The Arabs call the seven stars. 
Banatnash, or " Filise Feretri," daughters of the bier. The 
Greeks, in navigating, were guided by the Great Bear rather 
than by Polaris. The Greeks called the Great Bear eA/zcr; 50, 51 

Ursa Minor. — The constellation of the Little Bear ; in Arabic, Duh- 
al-asgar and Al-rticaba. Polaris is the last star in the tail ; so 
called because it is nearest of any to the Pole. There are 
two other stars in the tail, called by the Greeks xopf^^ai, 
that is, Saltatores or dancers. The Arabs call the two stars in 
the fore part of the body Alferkathan, This constellation of 
seven stars is said to have been invented by Thales, who 
called it the Bog, as Theon (upon Aratus) affirms ; Cynosure waa 
the dog's tail, with the pole star. (See Al-rucaba, Al-ferkathan) 50 

Vega (a Lyrag) I. — A bright green star, which will hereafter, in 12,000 
years, become the pole star, approaching within 5° of the Pole, 
So named by the Alphonsines. (See Alrakah.] Yega contains 
hydrogen, iron, sodium, and magnesium ... ... ... 52 

Vergiliae. — (See Tavrus and Pleiades.) 

Via lactea, or Milky Way ... ... ... ... ... 65 

Virgo. — Constelliition of the Virgin ; in Arabic, Eladari, but more fre- 
quently called Sunbula, which signifies " an ear of corn." It 
contains twenty-six stars, the brightest being (Spt'ca ... ... 57 

Zubeneschi-mali and Zuben-algenubi, in the constellation of Libra, 
Uyi or ^^ji\ Al-zubund, are a and ;3 Libra3. {Cazu-ini,p. 47.) 
According to the lesicograijhers this is a singular form, the 
dual being Al-zubanayan, but popularly Al-zubiindii ; whence 
the common Azubenen. Thus the name of one of the two stars 
would be Al-zuban, pronounced in Spain Al-zubSn. And thus 
the two are Al-zuban al-shamalijthe northern, und al-janubi, the 
southern JU-tJl ^y^. The word appears to be of Persian 
origin, and to mean anything tongue-shaped. (See Libra.) 



INDEX 

OF 

PLACES MENTIONED BY ROBERT HUES IN THE 
"TRACTATUS DE GLOBIS". 



Abenna, Greek name of one of the 

Pillars of Hercules, 9 
Abyssines, 78, or Habyssines 
JEgean Sea, 69 
Ethiopians, 71 
^Ethiopian Ocean, 70, 73 
Africa, southern parts diligently 

searched by the Portugals, 2, 73 ; 

circumnavigation, 72, 73, 74; name, 

77 ; Herodotus reported discovery 
by men sent by Darius, 73 

Agisymba, African region described 
by Ptolemy, near the equator, 39 

Agodes, 78 ; a petty kingdom of 
Senegal ; in the list, long. 38.20, 
lat. 25.30 N. 

Album Promontorium, 70 ; width 
of Strait of Gibraltar from, to 
Mellaria 

Alexandria, 72, 81 ; in the list, 149 

Algier, 77; in the list, 149 

Alps, measurement by Pliny, 13 

America, 79 ; discovery of northern 
parts by Frobisher and Davis, 2 

Andes, in Peru, 10 

Angola, 78 ; a small kingdom bor- 
dering the Abyssines to the west, 

78 ; in the list, Angolia 
Antwerp, variation at, 120 ; in the 

list, Antwerper, long. 31.20, lat. 

50.30 N. 
Arabia, 9, 74 ; Hauno sailed from 

Gades to, 74 
Arabian Gulf, 14, 68, 72, 73 
Arbela, 7 



Archipelago ; see JEgean Sea 

Armenia, 7 

Asia, 69, 74 ; name, 78 ; nearly cir- 
cumnavigated, 68, 69 ; southern 
ports diligently searched by the 
Portugals, 2 

Assyria, 7 

Athos, Mount, fabulous height, 8, 9 

Atlantic Ocean, 68, 70 

Atlas, Mount, height, 11 

Augustine, Cape St., 142 

Azores, 10, 77 ; prime meridian at, 
96 ; no variation, 120, 121 

Baccalareum Regis, 79 ; Spanish 

name (Newfoundland) 
Bactriana, 11, 75; in list, Bactriane 

Reg., 151 
Barbary, 77 
Benamatapa, 76 ; to south of 

Abyssines, 78 ; in the list, Bene- 

mataxa, 152 
Biledulgerid, 78, or Numidia ; in 

the list, 152 
Blanco, C. (Africa), 145; western- 
most point of Africa ; in the list, 

153 
Bohemia, 77 

Borneo, 79 ; in the list, Burueo, 153 
Brazil, 79, 121, 142; in the list, 

Brasilia Keg., 152 
Britain, Great, 76, 77 
British Sea, 70 
Burnum, 78 ; a petty kingdom of 

Senegal 



INDEX OF PLACES MENTIONED. 



22' 



Calpe, 9 

Canary Isles, 10, 141; meridian, 
96 ; in the list, Canaria 

Canos, 78 ; a petty kingdom of 
Senegal 

Cantin, C, west coast of Africa, 140, 
141 

Cape Verd, 142 

Cape Verds, 96 

Carthage, 7, 74 ; voyage of Hanno 

Casena, 78 ; a petty kingdom of 
Senegal 

Cassius, Mount, in Syria, 72 

Caspian Sea, 68, 75 ; communica- 
tion with the Scythian Ocean ; 
water fresh and sweet 

Cathaia, 2, 78 

Caucasus, height, 9 

Cenchrceae, 13 

China, 2, 3, 78 

Cinnamoraifera, 76 

Cnidus, 86 

Corinth, 13 

Cornwall, Lizard, point of, 135 

Crete, 77 

Cuba, 79 

Cyprus, 78 

Dalguer, cape on W. coast of Africa, 
137, 145 (modern C. Geer) ; in 
an example for finding Diff. Long., 
137 

Denmark, 77 

Don, R., 69 

Eastern Sea ; sec Mare Sericum 

Egypt, 9, 14, 71, 78 

England, 77 

Erythraean Sea ; see Red Sea 

Ethiopia, called Agisymba, 39 

Ethiopians, kingdom of Prester 

John, 78 
Ethiopian Sea ; see Red Sea 
Europe, 69 ; northern parts dis- 
covered by the English, 2 ; name, 
145 
Euxine Sea, 69 ; once a lake 



Fez, 77 

Florida, 79 

Fortunate Isles, meridian, 75 

France, 77 

Fretum Gaditinum ; see Straits of 

Gibraltar 
Frio, Cape, 120 
Frozen Sea, 6S, 74, 79 ; see Mare 

Saturninum, Hyperborean 

Gades, 74 ; Hanno sailed from, to 
Arabia 

Gagos, 78 (Gago Reg., in Africa); 
petty kingdom of Senegal 

Gaoga, 78 ; petty kingdom of Sene- 
gal 

German Sea, 70 

Germany, 77 

Gibraltar Strait, 69, 70, 77 ; length 
and width according to the ancients 

Good Hope, Cape of, 15, 73, 146 ; 
discovery by Portuguese 

Greece, 13, 77 

Greenland, 74 ; still believed by 
some to be part of the Indian con- 
tinent 

Gualata, a petty kingdom of Senegal, 
78 

Guberis, 78 ; a petty kingdom of 
Senegal ; in the list, Guber op., 
160 

Guinea, 18 

Habyssines, 78 
Hellespont, 69 
Haemus, Mount, 13 
Hercules, Pillars of, 9 
Hircania, 75 
Hispaniola, 79 
Hungary, 77 

Hyperborean ; see Frozen Sea, 
northern boundary of Asia 

India, 3, 70 

Indian Sea of Ptolemy, or Red Sea, 

bounded the earth to the south, 

74 



224 



IXDEX OF PLACES MENTIONED. 



Ireland, 77 
Iseland ; sec Thule 
Isthmus (Suez), 70, 71 
Italy, 77 

Japonian Isles, 79 
Java, 79 

Labrador, 79 ; Spanish name 

Lemnos, 8 

Libya, 69, 78, or Africa 

Livonia, 77 

Lizard Point, 135 

London, variation, 120 

Macavum, Prom. (Persian Gulf), 73 

Macedon, 8 

Madagascar, 78 

Maeotis, Lake. 69 

Magellan Strait, passed through by 

Drake and Cavendish, 3, 76, 77, 

79 ; variation, 121 
Magellanica, 79 ; a great southern 

continent 
Manicongo, 78 ; a small kingdom 

bordering the Abyssines to the 

west 
Mare Maggiore (Euxine), 69 ; 

name of the Black Sea in the time 

of Hues 
Mare Saturninum vel Mortuum, 

68 ; the Frozen Sea, so called by 
Dionysius ; bounds the earth to 
the north 

Mare Sericum, 68 ; bounded the 

earth to the east 
Mare dalle Zabacche (Mseotis), 

69 ; name of the Sea of Azof in 
the time of Hues 

Marocco, 77 

Mauritania, 77, or Barbary 

Mediterranean, 14, 69, 70, 77, 78 ; 

bounds Europe and Africa 
Melinda, 78 
Mellaria (in Spain), 70 ; width of 

Strait of Gibraltar from, to Pro- 

montorium Album 



Melli, 78 ; a petty kingdom of Se- 
negal 

Memphis, 72 

Mexico, 79 

Moluccas, 79 

Mortuum Mare, 68 

Mozambique, 78 

Muscovia, 77 

Muscovite Tartarians, 78 ; pos- 
sess northern parts of Asia 

Myrrhina (in Lemnos), 8 

Negros, country of, 73 

Newfoundland, 121 

New Guinea, 79 ; whether it be an 

island or part of a continent, as yet 

unknown 
Niger, R., 78 
Nilus, R., 70 
Norway, 77 ; high mountains of, 8 ; 

our countrymen have sailed beyond 

the utmost parts 
Nova Francia, 79 
Nova Hispania, 79 
Nova Zembla, 74 ; proved to be an 

ialaiid 
Nubia, 78 
Numidia, 78 

Ortegal, C, 135 

Pegu, 78 

Pelion, Mount, 77 
Peloponnesus, 13 
Pelusium, 71 
Persia, 3 
Persian Gulf, 73 
Peru, 10, 79 

Pharos of Alexandria, 72 
Philippines, 79 
Pico (in the Azores), 10 
Polonia. 77 

Portugals, discoveries of, 2 
Pretegiani, or Prester John's coun- 
try, 78 ; see Ethiopia 
Propontis, 69 
Prussia, 77 



INDEX TO PLACES MENTIONED. 



225 



Quiloa, 78 

Red Sea, 68, 77, or Indian or Ethio- 
pian Sea 
Rhoetia, 77 

Rhodes, 7, 79, 82 ; latitude, 87 
Russia, 77 

St. Augustin (in Brazil), 142 

St. Helena, 121, 139, 140, 143 

St. Michael's (Azores), meridian, 
96, 99, 145 ; in the list, S. Migu.jl 

St. Thomas, Isle, 78 

Sardinia, 77 

Sardinian Sea, depth, 12 

Sarra, 78 (Sahara ?) 

Saturninum, Mare, GS 

Sclavonia, 77 

Scotland, 77 

Scythian Ocean, 68, 69 ; commu- 
nicated with the Caspian 

Senega, 78 

Sericum, Mare, 68 

Serra Leone, 139 ; in the list, 
Serra Liona, 171 

Sicily, 77 

Sinas, 75, 76 

Sisimitrae Petra, a mountain in 
Bactriana, 11 

Slotus, Mount, under the Pole, 10 

Sogdiana, 12 

South Sea, 79 



Spain, 77 

Suevia, 74 

Sumatra, 79 

Sweden, 77 ; in the list, Suedia 

reg., 40, 60 
Syene, 38, 81 
Syria, 9 

Tanais, R., 69 ; now called Don 
Taprobane, 56, 76 ; placed by 

Dionysius on the tropic 
Tartarian Ocean, eastern bound of 

Asia, 74 
Tartary, 3 
Teneriffe, height, 10 
Thebes, 72 

Thessalian Mountains, height, 11 
Thule (or Island), 75 
Tombutum, 78 ; a petty kingdom 

of Senegal ; in the list, Tumbute, 

173 
Tunis, 77 

Verd, Cape ; see Cape Verds, 142 
Virginia, 3, 79 

Zanfaran, 78 ; a petty kingdom of 
Senegal ; in the list, Zamfara, 175 

Zeilam, 79 

Zegzega, 78 ; a petty kingdom of 
Senegal ; in the list, Zsgzcg r. op., 
175 



INDEX TO SUBJECTS. 



PAGK 

Acronychal, or evening rising of a star ... ... 109 

Altitude — Observed by cross staff, or t)tlier like instrument ... 100 

Latitude by meridian altitude ... ... ... 102.103 

Double altitude ... ... ... ... ... 103 

Amphiscii — Inhabitants of the tropics. Meaning of the word 39, 40 

Amplitude ... ... ... ... ... ... 107 

Antasci — Inhabitants of temperate zones. Fleming of the word ... 41 

Antipodes or Antichthones ... ... ... ... 41 

Arctic and Antarctic Circles ... ... ... 31,32 

Aries— First point of ... ... ... ... 24,29 

Atmosphere — Height above the earth ... ... ... 10 

Axis— Of the globe ... ... ... ... ... 22 

Azimuths — Lines from the zenith to the horizon. Their ]ilace suppilied 

on the globe by a " Quadrant of Altitude", a movable plate of 

brass graduated to 90 deg. ... ... ... 3:5,100 

How to find the azimuth of sun or star ... ... ... 106 

Calendars — On the horizon of the globe ... ... ... 21 

Julian, 27 ; Roman, 27 ; error of Sosigenes, 2S. 

Circumference— Of the earth ... ... ... 80 to 94 

Climates ... ... ... ... ... ... 42 

Each climate contains two parallels ... ... 42, 43 

Colures ... ... ... ... ... 2S, 29 

Compass (Nautical) — For observing distance of sun's azimuth from the 

needle, 226 ; or " compass of variation", 227. 

Compass — Description ... ... ... ... 122, 129 

Constellations —Number, according to Ptolcmi/, Pliny, and Alfraganus 47 

Cosmical — Or morning rising of stars ... ... ... 109 

Course — Of the sun ... ... ... ... ... 2.5 

. [See Navigation Problems, Rhumbs.) 

Cross Staff ... ... ... ... ... 100.102 

Declination... ... ... ... ... ... 101 

Degree — Measurement of ... ... ... ... 82 

Length of a furlong, 83 ; mile, 91, 92 ; parasang, 93. 

Table of miles in a degree ... ... ... ... 136 

Dial — How to make dials, by the globe ... ... 123 to 126 

Dioptrical Instruments ... ... ... 11, 13 

Distance — Length of the hj'[iothenuse of a triangle, of which departure 

and difference of latitude form the two other sides ... ... 99 

Double Altitude ... ... ... ... ... 103 



INDEX TO SUBJECTS. 227 

Earth — Shape ... ... ... ... ... 6, 7 

Sphericity ... ... ... ... ... 7, 8 

Proved by J/f/7e//rtn's clroumtiavigation ... ... .... 15 

0()inions of the ancients. 6, 7 ; proofs, 12, 14, 15. 

Arguments agaiu.st sphericity ... ... ... ... 6 

Cii'cumferenee ... ... ... ... 12, 80 to 94 

Eclipses (see Longitude) — Time of ... ... ... 7 

Ecliptic — Obliquity first observed, 23 ; on globe, 24. 

Ephemerides — For place of the sun ... ... ... 101 

Warning against obsolete" tables ... ... ...101 

The first almanac giving the sun's declination was calculated by 
Regiomontanus for the years 1475 to 1566, Calendarium Novum. 
Martin Fernandez Enciso, in his Suriia de Geograjia, gives tables of 
declination (Seville, 1519). The ephemeris of Darid Orujanus was 
calculated for the years from 1595 to 1650 (Frankfort, 1599). 
Searle's ephemeris was from 1609 to 1617. The ephemeris of 
Stadius (1545) was used by /. Davis; described by lilundi'iille, 
p. 162. 
Equator or Equinoctial — Drawn on the globe ... ... ... 23 

Equinox — Time of, 28. Precession ... ... 24, 25 

Furlong' (see Degree). 

Globe — Use by the ancients, 5 ; moderns, 16, 95 ; use of ... ... 19 

Size of Mercator's, and of the Molyneux globes ... ... 16 

Description of the horizon, 20, 21 ; of the brass meridian, 21, 22 ; 
the axis ... ... ... ... ... 22 

The Hour circle, 22 ; the Index Hor arias ... ... ... 22 

Lines on the globe itself. Equator, 23 ; zodiacs ... ... 23 

Width of zodiac ... ... ... ... ... 24 

Three positions, right, parallel, and oblique ... 33 to 36 

Solution of problems by ... ... ... 96 to 126 

Gnomon — Of sun dial ... ... ... ... ... 125 

Gnomon (spherical) — (see Gemma Frisius). ... ... ... 100 

Heliacal — Risings and settings ... ... ... ...Ill 

Hesperus (see Venus). 

Heteroscii — Inhabitants of the temperate zones ... ... 40 

Horizon— Of the globe ... ... ... ... 20,21,35,36 

Hour Circle (see Globe). 

Index Horarius (see Globe). 

Jupiter — Planet. Length of its year ... ... ... 45 

Latitude, 96 ; always equal to elevation of the Pole ... ... 98 

By meridian altitude ... ... ... ... 102 

By double altitude ... ... ... ... ... 103 

Longitude-— Calculated from the Canaries ... ... ... 96 

Calculated from St. Michael's ... ... .. ... 9G 

Found by eclipses of the moon ... ... ... ... 97 

Great errors arising from the belief that degrees of longitude are the 
same length on every parallel ... ... ... 136 



228 INDEX TO SUBJECTS. 

Vain promisers of a solution ... ... ... 97,137 

Table of degrees of longitude in each parallel ... ... 138 

The method of finding longitude by eclipse of the moon is of 
very little practical use, on account of the great difficulty there is 
in ascertaining at what instant the beginning and end take place, 
since the moon in passing behind the earth is dejirived of the 
solar light gradually. The uncertaiutj' may amount to several 
minutes. 
Map (sec Planisphere). 

Mathematics — Solution of problems in navigation by ... 95, 96 

Mars— Planet ... ... ... ... ... 45 

Mercury — Planet ... ... ... ... ... 4fi 

Meridian — On the globe ... ... ... ... 21 

Prime {sec Altitude) ... ... ... 96, 97 

Mile (.see Degree). 

Moon— As a planet ... ... ... ... ... 46 

Mountains— Height of ... ... ... ... 7 to 15 

How much they may detract from the sphericity of the earth. 

Nadir ... ... ... ... ... ... 20 

Navigation — Solution of problems by use of the globe ... 139 to 147 

Given dift'. long, and difif. lat., find course and dist. ... ... 139 

„ difF. long, and course ,, diff. lat. and dist. ... ... 143 

„ diif. long, and dist. „ course and difF.' lat. ... 144 

„ difF. lat. and course „ dist. and difF. long. ... 144 

„ difF. lat. and di.st. „ course and difF. long. ... 145 

„ course and dist. „ long. and lat. ... ... 146 

Paradise — Terrestrial position ... ... ... ... 38 

Parallels [see Climates). 

Parasang (see Degree). 

Periaecj ... ... ... ... ... 40, 41 

Plane Chart — Errors in, from assuming degrees of longitude to be of 

equal length ... ... ... ... ... 136 

Planets ... ... ... ... ... 44 to 47 

Planisphere or Map ... ... ... ... 5, 6 

Pole — Elevation of {see Latitude). 

Quadrant— Of altitude ... ... ... ... 33,100,102 

Rhumbs — Described on the globe ... ... ... 127 to 147 

A track on one bearing cuts all meridians at the same angle, and 
this angle is the rhumb or course. 

Right Ascension ... ... ... ... ... 104 

Saturn — Planet ... ... ... ... ... 45 

Scioterical Instruments ... ... ... ... SO 

Sea— Depth .. ... ... ... ... .. 12 

Solstice— Time of ... ... ... .. 25,28 

Spheres — The three positions of ... ... ... ... 33 

Sphericity — Of the earth {see Earth). 

Stars — Fixed ... ... ... ... ... 47 



INDEX TO SUBJECTS. 229 



Evening and morning 



45 



Number of fixed stars ... ... ... 48, 49 

Thricefold rising and setting ... ... ... ... 109 

To find latitude, longitude, and declination ... ... 118 

Measurement of longitude ... ... ... ... 50 

Sun — Course ... ... ... ... ... 25 

Diameter of ... ... ... ... 89, 90 

To find altitude of, 100 ; place and declination of, 100 ; latitude by 
the altitude of, 102; right ascension, 104; azimuth, 106; 
amplitude, 107 ; sun-dial, 123. 
Temperate Zones {see Zones) — Inhabitants called Heteroscii 38, 40 

Time — Length of day, 117, 118 ; time of day ... ... ... 118 

Tropics, 31 — Distance from the equator ... ... 31,32 

Inhabitants called Amphiscii ... ... ... 39,40 

Strabo, 24° ; Ptolemy, 23° 51' ; Almamun, 23° 35' ; Regiomon- 
tanus, 25° 28' ; Copernicus, 23° 28' 30" ; modern, 23° 27'. 
T'wilight — To find beginning and end of ... ... ...113 

Variation ... ... ... ... ... ... 119 

At London 11° E. ... ... ... ... ...120 

Observations of i7«es on the American coast ... ... 121 

Compass used for observing ... ... ... 122,129 

Venus — Planet ... ... ... ... ... 45 

Called PJtospJiorus and Hesperus, the morning or evening star ... 45 

Year (sec Calendar)— Length ... ... ... 25,26,27,28 

Zenith ... ... ... ... ... 20,98 

Zodiacs ... ... ... ... ... 24, 25 

A belt on each side of the ecliptic, 6° wide as delineated by the 

ancients, or 12° altogether. Owing to the motions of Mars and 

Venus the modern astronomers added 2°, and the zodiac is now 

16° wide, or 8° on each side of the ecliptic. Divided into signs, 50. 

Signs of, described on horizon of the globe ... ... ... 23 

Zones, 37 to 39. Inhabitants divided with respect to the diversity of 
their noon shadows into Amphiscii, 39, 40 ; Heteroscii, 40 ; and 
Periscii, 40, 41. 



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