Skip to main content

Full text of "The traditional games of England, Scotland and Ireland : with tunes, singing rhymes and methods of playing according to the variants extant and recorded in different parts of the kingdom"

See other formats


VOL. I. 
ACCROSHAY NUTS IN MAY 

Medium 8vo, xix.~424 pp. With numerous Diagrams and 
Illustrations. Qoth uncut. I2s, 6d. nett. 

Some Press Notices 

Notes and Queries. "A work of supreme importance . . . 
a scholarly, valuable, and delightful work." 

Spectator. " Interesting and useful to the antiquarian, his- 
torian, and philologist, as well as to the student of manners 
and customs." 

Saturday Re-view. " Thorough and conscientious." 

Critic (New York). "A mine of riches to the student of 
folk-lore, anthropology, and comparative religion." 

Antiquary. "The work of collection and comparison has 
been done with obvious care, and at the same time with a con 
amore enthusiasm." 

Zeitschrift fiir vergl. Literaturgeschicht."\& jeder Eezie- 
hung erschopiend und mustergiltig." 

Zeitschrift fiir Pddagogie. "Von hoher wissenschafllicher 
Pedeutung." 



[All rights reset ved] 



THE 

TRADITIONAL GAMES 

f J6nglan&, Scotland anfc 3relant> 



TUNES, SINGING-RHYMES, AND METHODS OF PLAYING 

ACCORDING TO THE VARIANTS EXTANT AND 

RECORDED IN DIFFERENT PARTS 

OF THE KINGDOM 



COLLECTED AND ANNOTATED UY 

ALICE BERTHA GOMME 

VOL. II. 

OATS AND BEANS WOULD YOU KNOW 

TOGETHER WITH A MEMOIR ON THE STUDY 
OF CHILDREN'S GAMES 



LONDON 
DAVID NUTT, 270-71 STRAND 



Printed by BAI.LANTYNE, HANSON & Co. 
At the Ballantvne Press 



PREFACE 



THE completion of the second volume of my Dictionary has 
been delayed from several unforeseen circumstances, the 
most important being the death of my most kind and learned 
friend the Rev. Dr. Gregor. The loss which folk-lore students 
as a body sustained by this lamented scholar's death, was in 
my own case accentuated, not only by many years of kindly 
communication, but by the very special help which he 
generously gave me for this collection. 

The second volume completes the collection of games on 
the lines already laid down. It has taken much more space 
than I originally intended, and I was compelled to add some 
important variants to the first volume, sent to me during the 
compilation of the second. -I have explained in the memoir 
that the two volumes practically contain all that is to be 
collected, all, that is to say, of real importance. 

The memoir seeks to show what important evidence is to 
be derived from separate study of the Traditional Games of 
England. That games of all classes are shown to contain 
evidence of ancient custom and belief is remarkable testi- 
mony to the anthropological methods of studying folk-lore, 
which I have followed. The memoir fills a considerable 
space, although it contains only the analytical portion of 
what was to have been a comprehensive study of both the 
analytical and comparative sides of the questions. Dr. Gregor 
had kindly promised to help me with the study of foreign 



vi PREFACE 



parallels to British Games, but before his death it became 
apparent that this branch of the subject would almost need 
a separate treatise, and his death decided me to leave it 
untouched. I do not underrate its importance, but I am 
disposed to think that the survey I have given of the British 
evidence will not be materially shaken by the study of the 
comparative evidence, which will now be made the easier. 

I ought perhaps to add, that the " Memoir " at the end of 
this volume was read as a paper at the evening meeting of the 
Folk Lore Society, on March i6th, 1898. 

I have again to thank my many kind correspondents for their 
help in collecting the different versions of the games. 

A. B. G. 
24 DORSKT SQUARE, N.W. 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES 

ADDENDUM TO VOL. I. 



BEDFORDSHIRE 

Bedford . 
BERKSHIRE 

Welford . 
BUCKINGHAMSHIRE 

Buckingham . 
CAMBRIDGESHIRE 

Barrington, Girton 

Cambridge 
CORNWALL . 
DERBYSHIRE 
DEVONSHIRE 

Chudleigh Knighton 

DORSETSHIRE 

Broadwinsor . 
GLOUCESTERSHIRE 
HAMPSHIRE 

Gambledown . 
HERTFORDSHIRE 

Harpenden, Stevenage 
HUNTINGDONSHIRE 

St. Neots 

KENT .... 
LANCASHIRE 

Manchester . 

Liverpool 
LEICESTERSHIRE . 
LINCOLNSHIRE 

Brigg 

Spilsby . 
LONDON 

Blackheath . 

Hoxton . 

Marylebone . 
MIDDLESEX . 



ENGLAND. 



Mrs. Haddon. 
Mrs. S. Batson. 

Midland Garner. 
Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
Mrs. Haddon. 
Miss I. Barclay. 

Miss Youngman, I^on^ Ago^ vol. i. 
Miss Chase. 

Henderson's Folk-lore of the Northern Coun- 
ties of England. 

Folk-lore Journal \ vol. vii. 
Northall's English Folk Rhymes. 

Mrs. Pinsent. 
Mrs. Lloyd. 

Miss Lumley. 

Miss L. Broadwood. 

Miss Dendy. 
Mrs. Harley. 
Leicestershire County Folk-lore. 

Miss J. Barker. 

Rev. R. Cracroft. 

Dr. Haddon, A. Nutt, Mrs. Gomme. 

Mr. M. L. Rouse. 

Rev. S. D. Headlam. 

Mrs. Gomme. 

Mrs. Pocklington Coltman. 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES 



NORFOLK . . . . 

Hemsby. 

NORTHUMBERLAND 
OXFORDSHIRE 
STAFFORDSHIRE . 

Wolstanton . 
SUFFOLK . 

Woolpit, near Haughley 
SURREY 

Ash 
SUSSEX 

Lewes . 
WORCESTERSHIRE 

Upton on Severn . 
YORKSHIRE . 



Mrs. Haddon. 

Mrs. Haddon. 

Hon. J. Abercromby. 

Miss L. Broad wood. 

Halliwell's Ntirsery Rhymes. 

Miss Bush. 

Mrs. Haddon. 

Mr. M. L. Rouse. 

Mrs. Gomme. 
Miss Kimber. 

Miss. L. Broadwood. 
Miss E. Cadman. 



SCOTLAND. 

Notes and Queries. Pennant's Voyage to tlie Hebrides. 

ABERDEENSHIRE 

Mr. M. L. Rouse. 
Rev. Dr. Gregor. 



Aberdeen . 

Aberdeen Training College . 

Corgarff, Fraserburgh, Meikle- 

folla, Rosehearty, Tyrie 
ARGYLLSHIRE 

Connell Ferry, near Oban 
BANFFSHIRE 

Cullen, Macduff . 
BERWICKSHIRE .... 
ELGIN AND NAIRN 

Dyke ... 

Strichen . 

FORFARSHIRE 

Forfar 

KlNCARDINESHIRE 

Banchory . 

KlRCUDBRlGHTSHIRE 

Auchencairn . 

Crossmichael . 
Galloway . 

Dairy 

Kirkcudbright 
Laurieston . 
New Galloway 

LlNLITHGOWSHIRE 

Linlithgow . 
PERTHSHIRE 

Auchterarder .... 
Perth 



Rev. Dr. Gregor. 

Miss Harrison. 

Rev. Dr. Gregor. 

A. M. Bell (Antiquary, vol. xxx.). 

Rev. Dr. Gregor. 

Rev. Dr. Gregor. 
Rev. Dr. Gregor. 

Miss M. Haddon. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
Rev. Dr. Gregor. 

Mr. J. G. Carter. 

Mr. J. Lawson. 
Rev. Dr. Gregor. 

Mrs. Jamieson. 

Miss E. S. Haldane. 
Rev. Dr. Gregor. 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES 



IX 



ROSS-SHIRE . 

WlGTONSHIRE 

Port William School 



Rev. Dr. Gregor. 
Rev. Dr. Gregor. 



CORK 

Cork . 
DOWN 

St. Andrews 
DUBLIN 

Dublin . 

Howth . 
KERRY 

Kerry 

Waterville 
LEITRIM 

Kiltubbrid 
WATERFORD 

Waterford 



IRELAND. 

Carleton's Stories of Irish Peasantry, 
. Mr. I. J. Dennachy. 
. Miss H. E. Harvey. 

. Mrs. Cofifey. 

. Miss H. E. Harvey. 

. I. J. Dennachy. 
. Mrs. B. B. Green. 

. Mr. L. L. Duncan. , 
. Miss H. E. Harvey. 



WALES. 

Roberts' Cambrian Popular Antiquities. 



LIST OF GAMES 



OATS and Beans and Barley. 

Obadiah. 

Odd or Even. 

Odd-man. 

Old Dame. 

Old Roger is Dead. 

Old Soldier. 

Oliver, Oliver, follow the King. 

One Catch-all. 

Oranges and Lemons. 

'Otmillo. 

Over Clover. 

PADDY from Home. 

Paip. 

Pallall. 

Pally Ully. 

Pat-ball. 

Pay-swad. 

Pednameny. 

Peesie Weet. 

Peg and Stick. 

Peg-fiched. 

Peggy Nut. 

Peg-in-the-Ring. 

Peg-top. 

Penny Cast. 

Penny Hop. 

Penny Prick. 

Penny Stanes. 

Phoebe. 

Pick and Hotch. 

Pi -cow. 

Pigeon Walk. 

Pig-ring. 

Pillie-Winkie. 

Pinch. 

Pinny Show. 

Pins. 



xi 



Pirley Pease-weep. 

Pitch. 

Pitch and Hustle. 

Pitch and Toss. 

Pit-counter. 

Pits. 

Pize Ball. 

Plum Pudding. 

Plum Pudding and Roast Beef. 

Pointing out a Point. 

Poncake. 

Poor and Rich. 

Poor Mary sits a-weeping. 

Poor Widow. 

Pop Goes the Weasel. 

Pop-the-Bonnet. 

Poppet-Show. 

Port the Helm. 

Pots, or Potts. 

Pray, Pretty Miss. 

Pretty Little Girl of Mine. 

Pretty Miss Pink. 

Prick at the Loop. 

Prickey Sockey. . 

Prickie and Jockie. 

Priest-Cat (i). 

Priest-Cat (2). 

Priest of the Parish. 

Prisoner's Base. 

Puff-the-Dart. 

Pun o' mair Weight. 

Punch Bowl. 

Purposes. 

Push in the Wash Tub. 

Push Pin. 

Push the Business On. 

Puss in the Corner. 

Pussy's Ground. 

Pyramid. 



Xll 



LIST OF GAMES 



QUAKER. 


Save All. 


Quaker's Wedding. 


Say Girl. 


Queen Anne. 


Scat. 


Queen Mary. 


Scop-peril. 


Queen of Sheba. 


Scotch-hoppers. 




Scots and English. 


RAGMAN. 


Scratch Cradle. 


Rag-stag. 


Scrush. 


Rakes and Roans. 


Scurran-Meggy. 


Rakkeps. 


See-Saw. 


Range the Bus. 


See-Sim 


Rax, or Raxie-boxie, King of 


Shame Reel, or Shamit Dance. 


Scotland. 


She Said, and She Said. 


Relievo. 


Shepherd and Sheep. 


Religious Church. 


Shepherds. 


Rigs. 


Shinney, or Shinty, or Shinnops. 


Ring. 


Ship. 


Ring a Ring o' Roses. 


Ship Sail. 


Ring by Ring. 


Shiver the Goose. 


Ringie, Ringie, Red Belt. 


Shoeing the Auld Mare. 


Ring-me-rary. 


Shue-Gled-Wylie. 


Ring-taw. 


Shuttlefeather. 


Rin-im-o'er. 


Shuvvy-Hawle. 


Robbing the Parson's Hen-Roost. 


Silly Old Man. 


Rockety Row. 


Skin the Goatie. 


Roll up Tobacco. 


Skipping. 


Roly-poly. 


Skyte the Bob. 


Ronin the Bee. 


Smuggle the Gig. 


Rosy Apple, Lemon and Pear. 


Snail Creep. 


Roundabout, or Cheshire Round. 


Snapping Tongs. 


Round and Round the Village. 


Snatch Apple. 


Round and Round went the Gal- 


Snatch Hood. 


lant Ship. 


Soldier. 


Round Tag. 


Solomon. 


Rounders. 


Sort'em-billyort'em. 


Rounds. 


Sow-in-the-Kirk. 


Row-chow-Tobacco. 


Span Counter. 


Rowland-Ho. 


Spang and Purley. 


Rumps. 


Spangie. 


Rusty. 


Spannims. 




Spawnie 


SACKS. 


Spinny-Wye. 


Saddle the Nag. 


Splints. 


Saggy. 


Spurn point. 


Sailor Lad. 


Spy-arm. 


Sally go Round the Moon. 


Stacks. 


Sally Water. 


Stag. 


Sally Sober. 


Slagging. 


Salmon Fishers. 


Steal the Pigs. 


Salt Eel. 


Stealy Clothes. 



LIST OF GAMES 



Xlll 



Steik and Hide. 
Sticky-stack. 
Sticky Toffey. 
Stiff Police. 
Stik-n Snael. 
Stocks. 
Stones. 
Stool-ball. 
Strik a Licht. 
Stroke. 
Stroke Bias. 
Sun and Moon. 
Sunday Night.' 
Sun Shines. 
Sweer Tree. 
Swinging. 

TAIT. 

Teesty-Totsy. 

Teter-cum-Tawter. 

Tee-to-tutn. 

Thimble King. 

Thing done. 

Thread the Needle. 

Three Days' Holidays. 

Three Dukes. 

Three Flowers. 

Three Holes. 

Three Jolly Welshmen. 

Three Knights from Spain. 

Three Little Ships. 

Three Old Bachelors. 

Three Sailors. 

Through the Needle Eye, Boys. 

Thun'er Spell. 

Tick. 

Tickle me Quickly. 

Ticky Touchwood. 

Tig. 

Time. 

Tip it. 

Tip-Cat. 

Tip-tap-toe. 

Tiring Irons. 

Tisty Tosty. 

Titter-totter. 

Tit-tat-toe. 

Tods and Lambs. . 

Tom Tiddler's Ground. 

Tops. 



The Totum, or Tee-to-tum. 

Touch. 

Tower of London. 

Town Lovers. 

Trades. 

Trap, Bat, and Ball. 

Tray-trip. 

Tres-acre. 

Tribet. 

Trippit and Coit. 

Trip and Go. 

Trip- trout. 

Troap. 

Troco, Trucks. 

Troule-in-Madame. 

Trounce-Hole. 

Troy Town. 

Truncher. 

Trunket. 

Truss. 

Tuilyie-wap. 

Turn, Cheeses, Turn. 

Turn Spit Jack. 

Turn the Ship. 

Turn the Trencher, or, My Lady's 

Toilet. 
Turvey. 
Tutt-ball. 

Twelve Days of Christmas. 
Twelve Holes. 

UNCLE John is 111 in Bed. 

Up the Streets. 

WADDS and the Wears (i). 

Wadds and the Wears (2). 

Waggles. 

Wallflowers. 

Warney. 

Way-Zaltin.- 

We are the Rovers. 

Weary. 

Weave the Diaper. 

Weigh the Butter. 

When I was a Young Girl. 

Whiddy. 

Whigmeleerie. 

Whip. 

Whishin Dance. 

Who goes round my Stone Wall 



XIV 



LIST OF GAMES 



Widow 

Wiggle-Waggle. 

Wild Boar. 

Wad Birds. 

Willie, Willie Wastell. 

Wind up the Bush Faggot. 

Wind, The. 



Wink-egg. 
Witch, The. 
Witle-Witte-Way. 
Wolf. 

Wolf and the Lamb. 
Would you know how doth the 
Peasant. 



ADDENDA 



A' THE BIRDIES. 
All the Boys. 
American Post. 
As I was Walking. 
Auld Grannie. 

BALL. 

Bannockburn. 
Black Doggie. 
Bonnet Ridgie. 
Button. 

CANLIE. 

Carry my Lady to London. 

Cat and Dog Hole. 

Catch the Salmond. 

Chicken come Clock. 

Chippings, or Cheapings. 

Chucks. 

Churning. 

Codham, or Codhams. 

Colley Ball. 

DAN'L my Man.- 

Deil amo' the Dishes. 

Dig for Silver. 

Dillsee Dollsie Dee. 

Doagan. 

Down in Yonder Meadow. 

Draw a Pail of Water. 

Drop Handkerchief. 

Dumb Crambo. 

Dump. 

EENDY, Beendy. 

FARMER'S Den. 

Fire on the Mountains. 



Fool, Fool, come to School. 
French Jackie. 

GALLOPING, Galloping. 
Gallant Ship. 
Galley, Galley Ship. 
Glasgow Ships. 
Granny's Needle. 
Green Gravel. 
Green Grass. 
Green Grass (2). 

HEAP the Cairn. 
Hear all ! 

Hen and Chickens. 
High Windows. 
Hot Cockles. 

ISABELLA. 

JENNY Jones. 
Jockie Rover. 
Jolly Lads. 
Jolly Miller. 

KEYS of Heaven. 
Kick the Block. 

LADY of the Land. 
Leap-Frog. 
London Bridge. 
Lubin, Looby Loo. 

MAGICIAN. 

Mnnnie on the Pavement. 

Merry-ma-Tanza. 

Milking Pails. 

My Delight's in Tansies. 



LIST OF GAMES 



xv 



NAMER and Guesser. 
Needle Cases. 
Nuts in May. 

ODD Man. 

Old Cranny Crow. 

Old Johanny Hairy, Crap in ! 

PAPER of Pins. 
Pickie. 
Poor Widow. 

QUEEN Anne. 



RASHES. 

SALLY Water. 
Shuffle the Brogue. 
Soldiers, Soldiers. 

THREE Dukes. 
Three Knights. 
Tug of War. 

WE are the Rovers. 
When I was a Young Girl. 



ANALYSIS OF " MEMOIR" 



Children's games, a definite branch of folk-lore Nature of material for the 
study Games fall into one of two sections Classification of the games Under 
customs contained in them Under implements of play Skill and chance games 
Importance of classification Early custom contained in skill and chance 
games In diagram games Tabu in game of "Touch" Methods of playing 
the games Characteristics of line form Of circle forms Of individual form 
Of the arch forms Of winding-up form Contest games War-cry used in 
contest games Early marriage customs in games of line form Marriage by 
capture By purchase Without love or courtship Games formerly played at 
weddings Disguising the bride Hiring servants game Marriage customs in 
circle games Courtship precedes marriage Marriage connected with water 
custom "Crying for a young man" announcing a want Marriage formula 
Approval of friends necessary Housewifely duties mentioned Eating of food 
by bride and bridegroom necessary Young man's necessity for a wife Kiss in 
the ring Harvest customs in games Occupations in games- Funeral customs 
in games Use of rushes in games Sneezing action in game Connection of 
spirit of dead person with trees Perambulation of boundaries Animals repre- 
sented Ballads sung to a dance Individual form games Hearth worship 
Objection to giving light from a fire Child-stealing by witch Obstacles in path 
when pursuing witch Contest between animals Ghosts in games Arch form 
of game Contest between leaders of parties Foundation sacrifice in games 
Encircling a church Well worship in games Tug-of-war games Alarm bell 
ringing Passing under a yoke Creeping through holed stones in games Under 
earth sods Customs in "winding up" games Tree worship in games Awaking 
the earth spirit Serpentine dances Burial of maiden Guessing, a primitive 
element in games Dramatic classification Controlling force which has preserved 
custom in games Dramatic faculty in mankind Child's faculty for dramatic 
action Observation of detail Children's games formerly an amusement of adults 
Dramatic power in savages Dramatic dances among the savage and semi- 
civilised Summary and conclusion. 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 



Oats and Beans and Barley 











:1 








| 










:=t=^trd 



Madeley, Shropshire (Miss Burne). 






VOL. II. 



OATS AND BEANS AND BARLEY 













Northants Notes and Queries, ii. 161 (R. S. Baker). 










Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

I. Oats and beans and barley grow ! 
Oats and beans and barley grow ! 
Do you or I or any one know 
How oats and beans and barley grow ? 
First the farmer sows his seed, 
Then he stands and takes his ease, 
Stamps his foot, and claps his hands, 
Then turns round to view the land. 

Waiting for a partner, waiting for a partner ! 
Open the ring and take one in ! 

Now you are married you must obey, 
You must be true to all you say, 



OATS AND BEANS AND BARLEY 



You must be kind, you must be good, 
And help your wife to chop the wood ! 
Much Wenlock (Burne's Shropshire Folklore, p. 508). 

II. Oats and beans and barley grow ! 
Does you or I or any one know 
Where oats and beans and barley grow ? 

So the farmer sows his seed ; 
So he stands and takes his ease ; 
Stamps his foot and claps his hands, 
And turns him round to view the lands. 

Waiting for a partner ! waiting for a partner ! 

Now young couple you must obey, 
You must be true in all you say, 
You must be wise and very good, 
And help your wife to chop the wood. 

Monton, Lancashire (Miss Dendy). 

III. Does you or I, or anie one knowe 
Where oates and beanes and barlie growe ? 

Where oates and beanes and barlie growe ? 
The farmer conies and sowes ye seede, 
Then he standes and takes hys ease, 
Stamps hys foote, and slappes hys hand, 
And turnes hym rounde to viewe ye land. 

Waiting for a partner, 

Waiting for a partner, 
Open the ringe and take mee in, 
Make haste and choose youre partner. 

Now you're married you must obey, 

Must bee true to alle you saye, 

Must bee kinde and verie goode, 

And helpe your wyfe to choppe ye woode. 

Raunds (Northants Notes and Queries, i. 163). 

IV. Oats and beans and barley grows, 
You or I or any one knows, 

You or I or any one knows, 

Where oats and beans and barley grows. 



OATS AND BEANS AND BARLEY 



Thus the farmer sows his seed, 
Stamps his feet and claps his hands, 
And turns around to view the land. 

Waiting for a partner, 

Waiting for a partner, 

Now you are married, &c. 
[same as Much Wen lock.] 

East Kirkby, Lincolnshire (Miss K. Maughan). 

V. Oats, beans, and barley grows, 
You or I or any one knows. 
Thus the farmer sows his seed, 
Thus he stands and takes his ease, 
Stamps his feet and folds his hands, 
And turns him round to view the lands. 

Oh ! waitin' for a partner, 

Waitin' for a partner. 

Now you're married, &c. 
[same as Much Wenlock.] 

Winterton (Miss Fowler). 

VI. Oats and wheat and barley grows, 
You and I and every one knows 
Where oats and wheat and barley grows. 
As the farmer sows his seed, 
Folds his arms and takes his ease, 
Stamps his feet and claps his hands, 
And turns him round to view the land. 

Waiting for a partner, 

Waiting for a partner, 

Waiting for a partner, 

To open the ring 

And take one in. 

Now you're married, &c. 
[same as Much Wenlock.] 

Tean, North Staffs. (Miss Keary). 



OATS AND BEANS AND BARLEY 



VII. Oats and beans and barley grow, 
You and I and every one know ; 
You and I and every one know 
That oats and beans and barley grow. 

Thus the farmer sows his seed, 
Thus he stands and takes his ease, 
Stamps his foot and claps his hands, 
And turns him round to view the land. 

Waiting for a partner, 

Waiting for a partner. 

Now you're married you must obey, &c. 
[same as Much Wenlock.] 

Brigg, Lincolnshire (Miss Barker). 

VIII. Oats and beans and barley-corns, you or I or any one 

else, 

You or I or any one else, oats or beans or barley-corns ; 
Thus the farmer sows his seed, 
Thus he stands and takes his ease, 
Stamps his foot, and claps his hands, 
And turns him round to view the land. 
Waiting for a partner, waiting for a partner ; 
Open the ring and take one in, 
Waiting for a partner. 
Now you're married, &c. 

[same as Much Wenlock.] 

Nottingham (Miss E. A. Winfield). 

IX. Oats and beans, barley and groats, 
- Oats and beans, barley and groats ; 
You, nor I, nor anybody knows 
How oats and beans and barley grows. 
Thus the farmer sows his seed, 
Thus he stands and takes his feed, 
Stamps liis foot and claps his hand, 
And turns around to view the land. 
Waiting for a partner, waiting for a partner. 
Slip the ring, and take one in, 
And kiss her when you get her in ; 



OATS AND BEANS AND BARLEY 



Now that you're married you must agree, 
You must be kind to all you see ; 
You must be kind, you must be good, 
And help your man [wife] to chop the wood. 

Isle of Man (A. W. Moore). 

X. Wuts and beans and barley graws, 
As you and I and every one knaws. 

Waatin' for a pardner. 

Fust the farmer saws his seads, 
Then he stands and taake his ease, 
Stomps his feat and clops his hands, 
And turns him round to view his lands. 
Waatin' for a pardner. 

Now you're married you must obaay; 
Must be trewe to all you saay; 
Must be kind and must be good, 
And help your wife to chop the wood. 
Waatin' for a pardner. 

Spilsby, N. Lines. (Rev. R. Cracroft). 

XL Oats and beans and barley corn, 
Oats and beans and barley corn ; 
You and I and nobody else, 
But oats and beans and barley corn. 
As the farmer sows his seed, 
As he stands to take us in, 
Stamps his feet and claps his hands, 
Turns around to field and lands. 
Waiting for a partner, 
Waiting for a partner, 
Open the gate and let her come out, 
And see the one you love the best. 

Now we're merry and wish you joy, 
First the girl, and then the boy, 
Seven years after, seven years past, 
Kiss one another and go to your class. 

Hampshire (Miss Mendham). 



OATS AND BEANS AND BARLEY 



XII. Where the wheat and barley grows, 
You and I and nobody knows, 
Where the wheat and barley grows, 
You and I and nobody knows. 
As the farmer sows his seed, 
As he stands and takes his ease, 
Stamps his foot and claps his hand, 
Turns around to view the land. 
Waiting for a partner, 
Waiting for a partner. 
Open the ring, take her in, 
Kiss her when you get her in. 
Now you're married you must be good, 
To make your husband chop the wood. 

Cowes, Isle of Wight (Miss E. Smith). 

XIII. Oats and beans and barley corns, 
You nor I nor any one knows ; 
You nor I nor any one knows 

How oats and beans and barley grows. 
As the sower sows his seed, 
As he stands he takes his ease, 
Stamps his foot and claps his hands, 
And turns him round to view the land. 
Waiting for a partner, 
Open the ring and take one in. 
Now you're married, &c. 

[same as Much Wenlock.] 
Long Eaton, Nottinghamshire (Miss Youngman). 

XIV. Hop or beans or barle}' corn, 
You or I or any one all : 
First the farmer sows his seed, 
Then he stands and takes his ease ; 

He stamped his foot and he clapped his hand, 

And turned around the bugle land, 

Waiting for a partner, a partner, a partner, 
He opened the ring and called one in, 
And now he's got a partner. 



OATS AND BEANS AND BARLEY 



Now you're married we wish you good joy, 
First the girl and then the boy ; 
Love one another like sister and brother, 
And pray each couple to kiss together. 

Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

XV. See the farmer sow his seed, 

See he stands and takes them in, 
Stamps his foot and claps his hand, 
And turns him round to view the land. 
O ! waiting for a partner, 
O ! waiting for a partner, 
Open the ring and take one in. 

Now you're married, &c. 
[same as Much Wenlock.] 

Earls Heaton, Yorks. (H. Hardy). 
XVI. A waitin' fur a pardner, 

A waitin' fur a pardner, 

You an' I an' ev'ry one knows 

How wheats an' beans an' barley grows. 

Fost tha farmer saws 'is seeds, 

Then he stans' an' teks 'is ease, 

Stamps 'is feet an' claps 'is 'ands, 

And turns him round to view tha lands. 
A waitin' fur a pardner, 
A waitin' fur a pardner, 
You an' I an' iv'ry one knows 
How wheats an' beans an' barley grows. 

Now you're married, &e. 
[same as Much Wenlock.] 

Boston. Lines. (Notes and Queries, 
7th series, xii. 493). 

XVII. Oats and beans and barley grows 
Not so fine as the farmer sows, 
You iior I nor nobody knows 
Oats and beans and barley grows. 
This is the way the farmer sows, 
The farmer sows, the farmer sows, 



OATS AND BEANS AND BARLEY 



This is the way the farmer sows. 

Here he stands and takes his ease, 

Stamps his foot and claps his hands, 

And turns around to view the land, 

Waiting for a partner, waiting for a partner, 

Open the ring and take one in, 

And kiss him (or her) as he (or she) enters. 

Aberdeen Training College (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XVIII. Waitin' for a partner, 
Waitin' for a partner, 
Open the ring and take one in, 
And now you've got your partner. 

Now you're married, &c. 
[same as Much Wenlock.] 

Wakefield, Yorks. (Miss Fowler). 

(c) The players form a ring by joining hands, with one child, 
usually a boy, standing in the centre. The ring walks round, 
singing the first four lines. At the fifth line the ring stands 
still, and each child suits her actions to the words sung. At 
"the farmer sows his seed," each player pretends to scatter 
seed, then they all fold their arms and "stand at ease," 
"stamp their feet," and "clap their hands" together in order, 
and finally each child turns herself round. Then they again 
clasp hands and move round the centre child, who at the 
words "open the ring and take one in" chooses and takes 
into the ring with him one player from it. These two stand 
together while the ring sings the marriage formula. At the 
end the child first in the centre joins the ring; the second 
child remaining in the centre, and in her turn choosing another 
from the ring. 

This is the (Much Wenlock) way of playing. Among the 
variants there are some slight differences. In the Wakefield 
version (Miss Fowler), a little boy is placed in the centre of the 
ring first, he chooses a girl out of the ring at the singing of the 
third line and kisses her. They stand hand in hand while 
the others sing the next verse. In the Tean version (Miss 
Keary), the children turn round with their backs to the one 



io OATS AND BEANS AND BARLEY 



in the centre, and stand still when singing " Waiting for a 
partner." In the Hampshire (Miss Mendham), Brigg (Miss 
Barker), and Winterton (Miss Peacock) versions, the children 
dance round instead of walking. The Rev. Mr. Roberts, 
in a version from Kirkby-on-the-Bain (N.W. Lincolnshire), 
says : " There is no proper commencement of this song. 
The children begin with ' A waitin' fur a pardner,' or ' Oats 
and beans,' just as the spirit moves them, but I think 'A 
waitin" is the usual beginning here." In a Sheffield version 
sent by Mr. S. O. Addy, four young men stand in the middle 
of the ring with their hands joined. These four dance round 
singing the first lines. After "views his lands" these four 
choose sweethearts, or partners, from the ring. The eight join 
hands and sing the remaining four lines. The four young 
men then join the larger ring, and the four girls remain in the 
centre and choose partners next time. The words of this 
version are almost identical with those of Shropshire. In the 
Isle of Man version (A. W. Moore), when the kiss is given all 
the children forming the ring clap their hands. There is no 
kissing in the Shropshire and many other versions of this 
game, and the centre child does not in all cases sing the 
words. 

(d) Other versions have been sent from Winterton, Leaden- 
ham, and Lincoln, by Miss Peacock, and from Brigg, while the 
Northamptonshire Notes and Queries, ii. 16 1, gives another 
by Mr. R. S. Baker. The words are practically the same as 
the versions printed above from Lincolnshire and Northants. 
The words of the Madeley version are the same as the Much 
Wenlock (No. i). The Nottingham tune (Miss Youngman), 
and three others sent with the words, are the same as the 
Madeley tune printed above. 

(e) This interesting game is essentially of rural origin, and 
probably it is for this reason that Mr. Newell did not obtain 
any version from England for his Games and Songs of American 
Children, but his note that it " seems, strangely enough, to be 
unknown in Great Britain " (p. 80), is effectually disproved by 
the examples I have collected. There is no need in this case 
for an analysis of the rhymes. The variants fall into three 



OATS AND BEANS AND BARLEY 



ii 



categories: (i) the questioning form of the words, (2) the 
affirming form, and (3) the indiscriminate form, as in Nos. 
xvi. to xviii., and of these I am disposed to consider the first 
to represent the earliest idea of the game. 

If the crops mentioned in the verses be considered, it will 
be found that the following table represents the different 
localities : 





ui 


d 


i 


g 


g 


B 


d 

03 




X 






c 

03 

i 


rt 


Lincolnsh 


^ 

a, 
o 
J^ 
M 


St afford sh 


Nottinghz 


o 

JJ 


Hants 


IsleofWij 


Norfolk 


Oats . 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 






Beans 


-i- 


4. 


.)_ 


4- 




+ 


-)- 


-I- 




+ 


Barley 
Wheat 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


T 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Groats 






















Hop . 













































The first three are the more constant words, but it is curious 
that Norfolk, not a hop county, should have adopted that grain 
into the game. Hops are grown there on rare occasions, and 
it is probable that the game may have been introduced from 
a hop county. 

In NortJiants Notes and Queries, i. 163-164, Mr. R. S. 
Baker gives a most interesting account of the game (No. iii.) as 
follows : " Having been recently invited to join the Annual 
Christmas Entertainment of the Raunds Church Choir, I noticed 
that a very favourite pastime of the evening was one which 
I shall call ' Choosing Partners.' The game is played thus : 
The young men and maidens join hands indiscriminately, and 
form a ring; within the ring stand a lad and a lass; then 
they all step round the way the sun goes, to a plain tune. 
During the singing of the two last lines [of the first part] they 
all disjoin hands, stop and stamp their feet and clap their 
hands and turn right round . . . then join hands [while sing- 
ing the second verse]. The two in the middle at [' Open the 
ring '] choose each of them a partner of the opposite sex, 
which they do by pointing to the one chosen ; then they con- 
tinue round, to the words [sang in next verse], the two pairs 
of partners crossing hands, first right and then left, and re- 



12 OATS AND BEANS AND BARLEY 

volving opposite ways alternately. The march round is 
temporarily suspended for choosing partners. The partners 
salute [at ' Now you're married '], or, rather, each lad kisses 
his chosen lass; the first two partners go out, the game 
continues as before, and every one in the ring has chosen 
and been chosen, and every lad has saluted every lass. The 
antiquity of the pastime is evidenced by its not mentioning 
wheat ; wheat was in remote times an exceptional crop the 
village people lived on oatmeal and barley bread. It also 
points, possibly, to a period when most of the land lay in 
grass. Portions of the open fields were cultivated, and after 
a few years of merciless cropping were laid down again to 
recuperate. ' Helping to chop the wood ' recalls the time when 
coal was not known as fuel. I am indebted for the correct 
words of the above to a Raunds maiden, Miss B. Finding, a 
native of the village, who kindly wrote them down for me." 
Mr. Baker does not say how Miss Finding got the peculiar 
spelling of this version. It would be interesting to know 
whether this form of spelling was used as indicative of the 
pronunciation of the children, or of the supposed antiquity of 
the game. The Rev. W. D. Sweeting, also writes at the same 
reference, "The same game is played at the school feast at 
Maxey; but the words, as I have taken them down, vary 
from those given above. We have no mention of any crop 
except barley, which is largely grown in the district ; and 
the refrain, repeated after the second and sixth lines, is 
' waiting for the harvest.' A lady suggested to me that the 
two first lines of the conclusion are addressed to the bride 
of the game, and the two last, which in our version run, ' You 
must be kind and very good,' apply to the happy swain." 

This interesting note not only suggests, as Mr. Baker and 
Mr. Sweeting say, the antiquity of the game and its connection 
with harvest at a time when the farms were all laid in open 
fields, but it points further to the custom of courtship and 
marriage being the outcome of village festivals and dances 
held after spring sowing and harvest gatherings. It seems in 
Northamptonshire not to have quite reached the stage of 
the pure children's game before it was taken note of by 



OATS AND BEANS AND BARLEY OBADIAH 13 

Mr. Baker, and this is an important illustration of the descent 
of children's games from customs. As soon as it has become 
a child's game, however, the process of decadence sets in. 
Thus, besides verbal alterations, the lines relating to farming 
have dropped out of the Wakefield version. It is abundantly 
clear from the more perfect game-rhymes that the waiting for 
a partner is an episode in the harvest customs, as if, when the 
outdoor business of the season was finished, the domestic 
element becomes the next important transaction in the year's 
proceedings. The curious four-lined formula applicable to the 
duties of married life may indeed be a relic of those rhythmical 
formulae which are found throughout all early legal ceremonies. 
A reference to Mr. Ralston's section on marriage songs, in his 
Songs of the Russian People, makes it clear that marriages 
in Russia were contracted at the gatherings called Besyedas 
(p. 264), which were social gatherings held during October 
after the completion of the harvest; and the practice is, of 
course, not confined to Russia. 

It is also probable that this game may have preserved the 
tradition of a formula sung at the sowing of grain, in order to 
propitiate the earth goddess to promote and quicken the growth 
of the crops. Turning around or bowing to fields and lands and 
pantomimic actions in imitation of those actually required, are 
very general in the history of sympathetic magic among primi- 
tive peoples, as reference to Mr. Frazer's Golden Bough will 
prove; and taking the rhyming formula together with the 
imitative action, I am inclined to believe that- in this game we 
may have the last relics of a very ancient agricultural rite. 

Obadiah 

The players stand in a row. The child at the head of the 
row says, " My son Obadiah is going to be married, twiddle your 
thumbs," suiting the action to the word by clasping the fingers 
of both hands together, and rapidly " twiddling" the thumbs. 
The next child repeats both words and actions, and so on all 
along the row, all the players continuing the "twiddling." 
The top child repeats the words, adding (very gravely), " Fall 
on one knee," the whole row follows suit as before (still 



14 ODD OR EVEN OLD DAME 

twiddling their thumbs). The top child repeats from the begin- 
ning, adding, " Do as you see me," and the rest of the children 
follow suit, as before. Just as the last child repeats the words, 
the top child falls on the child next to her, and all go down 
like a row of ninepins. The whole is said in a sing-song way. 
This game was, so far as I can ascertain, truly East Anglian. 
I have never been able to hear of it in other parts of England 
or Wales. Bexley Heath (Miss Morris). Also played in 
London. 

See "Solomon." 

Odd or Even 

A boys' game, played with buttons, marbles, and halfpence. 
Peacock's Manley and Corringham Glossary ; also mentioned 
in Brogden's Provincial Words (Lincolnshire). Mr. Patterson 
says (Antrim and Down Glossary) A boy shuts up a few small 
objects, such as marbles, in one hand, and asks his opponent 
to guess if the number is odd or even. He then either pays or 
receives one, according as the guess is right or wrong. Strutt 
describes this game in the same way, and says it was played 
in ancient Greece and Rome. Newell (Games, p. 147) also 
mentions it. 

See " Prickie and Jockie." 

Odd-man 

A game played with coins. Brogden's Provincial Words, 
L incolnshire. 

Old Dame 

I. I'll away to t' beck to wash my neck, 

When I get there, I'll ask t' ould dame what o'clock it is ? 
It's one, and you'll be hanged at two. 

I'll away to t' beck to wash my neck, 

When I get there, I'll ask t' ould dame what o'clock it is ? 
It's two, and you'll be hanged at three. 

[This is repeated until the old woman says, " It's eleven, and 
you'll be hanged at twelve."] 

Yorkshire (Miss E. Cadman). 



OLD DAME 15 



II. To Beccles, to Beccles, 

To buy a bunch of nettles, 
Pray, old dame, what's o'clock ? 
One, going for two. 

To Beccles, to Beccles, 
To buy a bunch of nettles, 
Pray, old dame, what's o'clock ? 

Two, going for three, &c. 

[And so on until " eleven going for twelve " is said, then the 
following : ] 

Where have you been ? 

To the wood. 

What for ? 

To pick up sticks. 

What for ? 

To light my fire. 

What for ? 

To boil my kettle. 

What for ? 

To cook some of your chickens. 

Halliwell, Ntirsery Rhymes, p. 229. 

(U) One child sits upon a little stool. The others march 
round her in single file, taking hold of each other's frocks. 
They say in a sing-song manner the first two lines, and the old 
woman answers by telling them the hour. The questions and 
answers are repeated until the old woman says, " It's eleven, 
and you'll be hanged at twelve." Then the children all run 
off in different directions and the old woman runs after them. 
Whoever she catches becomes old woman, and the game is 
continued. Yorkshire (Miss E. Cadman). In the version 
given from Halliwell there is a further dialogue, it will be 
seen, before the old woman chases. 

(c) The use of the Yorkshire word "beck" ("stream") in 
the first variant suggests that this may be the original version 
from which the " Beccles " version has been adapted, a parti- 
cular place being substituted for the general. The game some- 
what resembles " Fox and Goose." 



i6 



OLD ROGER IS DEAD 



Old Roger is Dead 






Earls Heaton (H. Hardy). 




9 






Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 



-mr 



-Bath, (A. B. Gomme). 



I. Old Rogers is dead and is laid in his grave, 
Laid in his grave, 
Laid in his grave ; 

Old Rogers is dead and is laid in his grave, 
He, hi ! laid in his grave. 

There grew an old apple tree over his head, 

Over his head, 

Over his head ; 
There grew an old apple tree over his head, 

He, hi ! over his head. 

The apples grew ripe, and they all fell off, 

They all fell off, 

They all fell off; 
The apples grew ripe, and they all fell off, 

He, hi ! they all fell off. 

There came an old woman a-picking them up, 

Picking them up, 

Picking them up ; 
There came an old woman a-picking them up, 

He, hi ! picking them up. 



OLD ROGER IS DEAD 17 

Old Rogers jumps up and he gives her a knock, 

Gives her a knock, 

Gives her a knock ; 
Old Rogers jumps up and he gives her a knock, 

He, hi ! gives her a knock. 

He makes the old woman go hipperty hop, 

Hipperty hop, 

Hipperty hop ; 
He makes the old woman go hipperty hop, 

He, hi ! hipperty hop. 

Earls Heaton, Yorks. (Herbert Hardy). 

II. Old Roger is dead, and lies in his grave, um, ah ! lies in 

his grave ; 
There grew an old apple tree over his head, um, ah ! 

over his head. 
The apples are ripe and ready to drop, um, ah ! ready 

to drop ; 
There came an old woman, picking them up. 

H anbury, Staffs. (Miss Edith Hollis). 

III. Sir Roger is dead and is low in his grave, 
Is low in his grave, is low in his grave ; 
Sir Roger is dead and is low in his grave, 
Hey hie ! is low in his grave. 

They planted an apple tree over his head, 
Over his head, over his head ; 
They planted an apple tree over his head, 
Hey hie ! over his head. 

When they grew ripe they all fell off, 
All fell off, all fell off; 
When they grew ripe they all fell off, 
Hey hie ! all fell off. 

There came an old woman and gathered them up, 
Gathered them up, gathered them up; 
There came an old woman and gathered them up, 
Hey hie ! gathered them up. 

VOL. II. B 



i8 OLD ROGER IS DEAD 



Sir Roger got up and gave her a nudge, 
Gave her a nudge, gave her a nudge ; 
Sir Roger got up and gave her a nudge, 
Hey hie ! gave her a nudge. 

Which made her go off with a skip and a hop, 
With a skip and a hop, with a skip and a hop ; 
Which made her go off with a skip and a hop, 
Hey hie ! with a skip and a hop. 

Ordsall, Nottinghamshire (Miss Matthews). 

IV. Sir Roger is dead and he's laid in his grave, 
Laid in his grave, laid in his grave ; 
Sir Roger is dead and he's laid in his grave, 
Heigh-ho ! laid in his grave. 

There grew a fine apple tree over his head, 
Over his head, over his head ; 
There grew a fine apple tree over his head, 
Heigh-ho ! over his head. 

The apples were ripe and they all fell off, 
All fell off, all fell off; 
The apples were ripe and they all fell off, 
Heigh-ho ! all fell off. 

There came an old woman and picked them all up, 
Picked them all up, picked them all up ; 
There came an old woman and picked them all up, 
Heigh-ho ! picked them all up. 

Sir Roger jumped up and he gave her a push, 
Gave her a push, gave her a push ; 
Sir Roger jumped up and he gave her a push, 
Heigh-ho ! gave her a push. 

Which made the old woman go hickety-hock, 
Hickety-hock, hickety-hock ; 
Which made the old woman go hickety-hock, 
Heigh-ho ! hickety-hock. 

Brigg, Lincolnshire (Miss J. Barker). 



OLD ROGER IS DEAD 19 



V. Sir Roger is dead and laid in his grave, 

Hee, haw ! laid in his grave. 
They planted an apple tree over his head, 

Hee, haw ! over his head. 
The apples are ripe and ready to fall, 

Hee, haw ! ready to fall. 
There came a high wind and blew them all off, 

Hee, haw ! blew them all off. 
There came an old woman to pick them all up, 

Hee, haw ! pick them all up. 
There came a little bird and gave her a tap, 

Hee, haw ! gave her a tap. 
Which made the old woman go hipperty hop, 

Hee, haw ! hipperty hop. 

Tong, Shropshire (Miss Burne). 

VI. Poor Johnnie is dead and he lies in his grave, 
Lies in his grave, lies in his grave ; 
Poor Johnnie is dead and he lies in his grave, 
He-ho ! lies in his grave. 

They planted an apple tree over his head, 
Over his head, over his head ; 
They planted an apple tree over his head, 
He-ho ! over his head. 

The apples got ripe and they all fell off, 
All fell off, all fell off; 
The apples got ripe and they all fell off, 
He-ho ! all fell off. 

Here comes an old woman a-picking them up, 
A-picking them up, a-picking them up ; 
Here comes an old woman a-picking them up, 
He-ho ! a-picking them up. 

Poor Johnnie got up and gave her a thump, 
And gave her a thump, and gave her a thump ; 
Poor Johnnie got up and gave her a thump, 
He-ho ! gave her a thump. 



20 OLD ROGER IS DEAD 



He made the old woman go hippity-hop, 
Hippity-hop, hippity-hop ! 
He made the old woman go hippity-hop, 
He-ho ! hippity-hop ! 

Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

VII. Cock Robin is dead and has gone to his grave ; 
There grew on old apple tree over his head ; 
The apples were ripe and ready to drop, 

O my, flippity flop ! 

There came an old woman to pick them all up, 
Cock Robin rose up and gave her a knock, 
And made the old woman go flippity flop ! 
O my, flippity flop ! 

Deptford, Kent (Miss Chase). 

VIII. Old Roger is dead and gone to his grave, 
H'm ha ! gone to his grave. 

They planted an apple tree over his head, 
H'm ha ! over his head. 

The apples were ripe and ready to fall, 
H'm ha ! ready to fall. 

There came an old woman and picked them all up, 
H'm ha ! picked them all up. 

Old Roger jumped up and gave her a knock, 
H'm ha ! gave her a knock. 

Which made the old woman go hippity hop, 
H'm ha ! hippity hop ! 

Bath, from a Nursemaid (A. B. Gomme). 

IX. Cock Robin is dead and lies in his grave, 
Hum-ha! lies in his grave. 
Place an old apple tree over his head, 
Hum-ha ! over his head. 
When they were ripe and ready to fall, 
Hum-ha ! ready to fall. 



OLD ROGER IS DEAD 21 

There comes an old woman a-picking them up, 
Hum-ha! a-picking them up. 

Cock Robin jumps up and gives her a good knock, 
Hum-ha ! gives her a good knock. 

Derbyshire (Folk-lore Journal, i. 385). 

X. Poor Roger is dead and lies low in his grave, 
Low in his grave, low in his grave, 
E. I. low in his grave. 

There grew an old apple tree over his head, 
Over his head, over his head, 
E. I. over his head. 

When the apples were ripe they all fell off, 
All fell off, all fell off, 
E. I. all fell off. 

There was an old woman came picking them up, 
Picking them up, picking them up, 
E. I. picking them up. 

Poor Roger jumped up and gave her a nudge, 
Gave her a nudge, gave her a nudge, 
E. I. gave her a nudge. 

Which made the old woman go lippety lop, 
Lippety lop, lippety lop, 
E. I. lippety lop. 

Newark, Nottinghamshire (S. O. Addy). 

XL Poor Toby is dead and he lies in his grave, 
He lies in his grave, he lies in his grave ; 
They planted an apple tree over his head, 
Over his head, over his head. 

The apples grew ripe and beginning to fall, 
Beginning to fall, beginning to fall ; 
The apples grew ripe and beginning to fall, 
Beginning to fall, beginning to fall. 

There came an old woman picking them up, 
Picking them up, picking them up ; 
Poor Toby rose up and he gave her a kick, 
Gave her a kick, gave her a kick. 



22 OLD ROGER IS DEAD 



And the poor old woman went hipperty hop, 
Hipperty hop, hipperty hop ; 
And the poor old woman went hipperty hop, 
Hipperty hop along. 

Belfast (W. H. Patterson). 

XII. There was an old woman we buried her here, 
Buried her here, buried her here ; 
There was an old woman we buried her here, 
He ho ! buried her here. 

Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

(b) A ring is formed by children joining hands; one child, 
who represents Sir Roger, lays down on the ground in the 
centre of the ring with his head covered with a handkerchief. 
The ring stands still and sings the verses. When the second 
verse is begun, a child from the ring goes into the centre and 
stands by Sir Roger, to represent the apple tree. At the fourth 
verse another child goes into the ring, and pretends to pick 
up the fallen apples. Then the child personating Sir Roger 
jumps up and knocks the child personating the old woman, 
beating her out of the ring. She goes off hobbling on one 
foot, and pretending to be hurt. In the Ordsall game the 
children dance round when singing the verses instead of stand- 
ing still, the action of the game being the same. In the Tong 
version, the action seems to be done by the ring. Miss Burne 
says the children go through various movements, finally all 
limping round. The Newark (Notts), and Bath versions are 
played as first described, Poor Roger being covered with a 
cloak, or an apron, and laying down in the middle of the ring. 
A Southampton version has additional features the ring of 
children keep their arms crossed, and lay their hands on their 
chests, bending their heads and bodies backwards and for- 
wards, in a mourning attitude, while they sing; in addition 
to which, in the Bath version, the child who personates the 
apple tree during the singing of the third verse raises her arms 
above her head, and then lets them drop to her sides to show 
the falling apples. 

(c) Various as the game-rhymes are in word detail, they 



OLD ROGER IS DEAD 23 



are practically the same in incident. One remarkable feature 
stands out particularly, namely, the planting a tree over the 
head of the dead, and the spirit -connection which this tree 
has with the dead. The robbery of the fruit brings back the 
dead Sir Roger to protect it, and this must be his ghost or 
spirit. In popular superstition this incident is not uncommon. 
Thus Aubrey in his Remains of Gentilisme, notes that " in the 
parish of Ockley some graves have rose trees planted at the 
head and feet," and then proceeds to say, " They planted a tree 
or a flower on the grave of their friend, and they thought the 
soule of the party deceased went into the tree or plant" (p. 155). 
In Scotland a branch falling from an oak, the Edgewell tree, 
standing near Dalhousie Castle, portended mortality to the 
family (Daly ell, Darker Superstitions, p. 504). Compare with 
this a similar superstition noted in Carew's History of Corn- 
wall, p. 325, and Mr. Keary's treatment of this cult in his 
Outlines of Primitive Belief ", pp. 66-67. In folk-tales this 
incident also appears ; the spirit of the dead enters the tree 
and resents robbery of its fruit, possession of which gives 
power over the soul or spirit of the dead. 

The game is, therefore, not merely the acting of a funeral, 
but more particularly shows the belief that a dead person is 
cognisant of actions done by the living, and capable of re- 
senting personal wrongs and desecration of the grave. It 
shows clearly the sacredness of the grave ; but what, perhaps 
to us, is the most interesting feature, is the way in which the 
game is played. This clearly shows a survival of the method 
of portraying old plays. The ring of children act the part of 
" chorus," and relate the incidents of the play. The three 
actors say nothing, only act their several parts in dumb show. 
The raising and lowering of the arms on the part of the child 
who plays " apple tree," the quiet of "Old Roger" until he 
has to jump up, certainly show the early method of actors 
when details were presented by action instead of words. 
Children see no absurdity in being a " tree," or a " wall," 
"apple," or animal. They simply are these things if the game 
demands it, and they think nothing of incongruities. 

I do not, of course, suggest that children have preserved in 



24 OLD SOLDIER OLIVER, OLIVER, c. 

this game an old play, but I consider that in this and similar 
games they have preserved methods of acting and detail (now 
styled traditional), as given in an early or childish period of the 
drama, as for example in the mumming plays. Traditional 
methods of acting are discussed by Mr. Ordish, Folk-lore, ii. 334. 

Old Soldier 

One player personates an old soldier, and begs of all the 
other players in turn for left-off garments, or anything else he 
chooses. The formula still used at Barnes by children is, 
" Here comes an old soldier from the wars [or from town], 
pray what can you give him ? " Another version is 
Here comes an old soldier from Botany Bay, 
Have you got anything to give him to-day. 

Liverpool (C. C. Bell). 

The questioned child replying must be careful to avoid using 
the words, Yes ! No ! Nay ! and Black, White, or Grey. These 
words are tabooed, and a forfeit is exacted every time one or 
other is used. The old soldier walks lame, and carries a stick. 
He is allowed to ask as many questions, talk as much as he 
pleases, and to account for his destitute condition. 

(c) Some years ago when colours were more limited in 
number, it was difficult to promise garments for a man's wear 
which were neither of these colours tabooed. Miss Burne 
(Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 526), in describing this game says, 
" The words Red or Blue are sometimes forbidden, as well as 
Yes or No," and adds that "This favourite old game gives 
scope for great ingenuity on the part of the beggar, and ' it 
seems not improbable ' (to use a time-honoured antiquarian 
phrase !) that the expression ' To come the old soldier over a 
person ' may allude to it." Halliwell (Nursery Rhymes, p. 224) 
describes the game as above. 

Oliver, Oliver, follow the King ! 

Oliver, Oliver, follow the King ! 

Oliver, Oliver, last in the ring ! 

Jim Burguin wants a wife, and a wife he shall. have, 
Nelly he kissed at the back-cellar door, 
Nelly made a pudding, she made it over sweet, 



ONE CATCH-ALLORANGES AND LEMONS 25 

She never stuck a knife in till he came home at night, 
So next Monday morning is our wedding-day, 
The bells they shall ring, and the music shall play ! 
Oliver, Oliver, follow the King ! (da capo). 
Berrington (Burne's Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 508). 

(b) The children form a ring and move round, singing the 
first two lines. Then they curtsey, or " douk down," all 
together; the one who is last has to tell her sweetheart's 
name. The other lines are then sung and the game is con- 
tinued. The children's names are mentioned as each one 
names his or her sweetheart. 

This is apparently the game of which " All the Boys," 
" Down in the Valley," and " Mary Mixed a Pudding up," 
are also portions. 

One Catch-all 

The words " Cowardy, cowardy custard " are repeated by 
children playing at this game when they advance towards the 
one who is selected to catch them, and dare or provoke her 
to capture them. Ray, Localisms, gives Costard, the head ; 
a kind of opprobrious word used by way of contempt. Bailey 
gives Costead-head, a blockhead ; thus elucidating this ex- 
clamation which may be interpreted, " You cowardly block- 
head, catch me if you dare" (Baker's Northamptonshire 
Glossary). 

The words used were, as far as I remember, 

Cowardy, cowardy custard, eat your father's mustard, 
Catch me if you can. 

To compel a person to "eat" something disagreeable is a 
well-known form of expressing contempt. The rhyme was 
supposed to be very efficacious in rousing an indifferent or 
lazy player when playing " touch " (A. B. Gomme). 

Oranges and Lemons 



26 



ORANGES AND LEMONS 









==iEE~~ pp 

fcj-B= =*3 



?=~ 




p=3= 












<^ 

^=^ 



An older and more general version of the last five bars (the 
tail piece) is as follows : 



Here comes a Here comes a ) 
light, &c. chopper, &c. f last 



last man's head. 

London (A. B. Gomme). 



i 






i=r^ * =: 



1* J 1 



Yorkshire (H. Hardy). 






*^ 



Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 



ORANGES AND LEMONS 27 



I. Oranges and lemons, 

Say the bells of St. Clement's ; 

You owe me five farthings, 

Say the bells of St. Martin's ; 

When will you pay me, 

Say the bells of Old Bailey ; 

When I grow rich, 

Say the bells of Shoreditch ; 

When will that be ? 

Say the bells of Stepney ; 

I'm sure I don't know, 

Says the Great Bell of Bow. 
Here comes a light to light you to bed ; 
Here comes a chopper to chop off your head ; 
The last, last, last, last man's head. 

London (A. B. Gomme). 

II. Oranges and lemons, 

Say the bells of St. Clement's ; 

You owe me four farthings, 

Say the bells of St. Martin's ; 

When will you pay me ? 

Say the bells of Old Bailey ; 

When I grow rich, 

Say the bells of Shoreditch ; 

When will that be ? 

Say the bells of Stepney ; 

I'm sure I don't know, 

Says the Great Bell of Bow. 
Here comes a candle to light you to bed ; 
Here comes a chopper to chop off your head ; 
Last, last, last, last, last man's head. 

Winterton and Leadenham, Lincolnshire ; also 
Nottinghamshire (Miss M. Peacock). 

III. Oranges and lemons, 

Says the bells of S. Clemen's. 
Brickdust and tiles, 

Says the bells of S. Giles. 



28 ORANGES AND LEMONS 

You owe me five farthings, 

Says the bells of S. Martin's. 
I do not know you, 

Says the bells of S. Bow. 
When will you pay me ? 

Says the bells of Old Bailey. 
When I get rich, 

Says the bells of Shoreditch. 
Here comes a candle to light you to bed, 
Here comes a chopper to chop off your head. 

Derbyshire (Folk-lore Journal, i. 386). 

IV. Oranges and lemons, 

The bells of St. Clemen's ; 
You owe me five farthings, 

The bells of St. Martin's ; 
When will you pay me ? 

Say the bells of Old Bailey ; 
When I grow rich, 

Say the bells of Shoreditch ; 
When will that be ? 

Say the bells of Shorlea ; 
I don't know, 

Says the Great Bell Bow. 
Here comes the candle to light you to bed, 
Here comes the chop to chop off your head. 

Chop, chop, chop, &c. 

Middlesex (Miss Winfield). 

V. Orange or lemon, 

The bells of St. Clement's [or the bells are a 

clemming]. 

I owe you five farthings, 
And when shall I pay you, 
To-day or to-morrow ? 
To-morrow will do. 
Here come some great candles 
To light you to bed, 
Here come some great choppers 
To chop off your head. 



ORANGES AND LEMONS 29 

Come under, come under, 
Come run as you ought ; 
Come under, come under, 
Until you are caught ; 
Then stand just behind us 
And pull either way ; 
Which side pulls the strongest 
That side wins the day. 

Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

VI. Oranges and lemons, 

The bells of St. Clement's. 

I owe you three farthings, 

When shall I pay you ? 

When I get rich. 

Here comes a candle to light you to bed, 

Here comes a hatchet to chop off your head. 

Brigg (from a Lincolnshire friend of Miss Barker). 

VII. Oranges and lemons, 

Say the bells of St. Clemen's. 
I owe you five farthins, 
Say the bells of St. Martin's. 
When shall I pay you ? 
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, 
Thursday, Friday, Saturday, 
Or Sunday ? 

Symondsbury, Dorset (Folk-lore Journal, vii. 216). 

VIII. I owe you five farthings. 
When will you pay me, 
To-day or to-morrow ? 
Here comes a candle to light you to bed, 
Here comes a chopper to chop off your head. 

Broadwinsor, Dorset (Folk-lore Journal, vii. 217. 

IX. Oranges and lemons, the bells of St. Clement's [or St. 

Helen's]. 

I owe you five farthings. And when will you pay me ? 
I'm sure I don't know. 



30 ORANGES AND LEMONS 



Here comes a candle to light you to bed, 

Here comes a chop'n bill to chop off your head 

Chop chop chop chop. 

[Or Here comes a chop'n bill to chop off the last man's head.] 
Earls Heaton, Yorks. (Herbert Hardy). 

X. Lend me five shillings, 

Said the bells of St. Helen's. 

When will you pay me ? 

Said the bells of St. Philip's. 

I do not know, 

Said the Great Bell of Bold. 

Ring a ding, ding, 
Ring a ding, ding, 
Ring a ding, ding, ding, ding. 
Earls Heaton (Herbert Hardy, as told him by A. K.). 

XI. Oranges and lemons, say the bells of St. Clement's; 

You owe me five farthings, and when will you pay 

me ? 

Say the bells of Old Bailey. 
When I grow rich, say the bells of Shoreditch. 
And the last one that comes shall be chop, chop. 

Hersham, Surrey (Folk-lore Record, v. 86). 

XII. Orange and lemon, 

Say the bells of St. Martin (or the bells of 

Sweet Lemon); 
I owe you five farthings, 
But when shall I pay you ? 

Here comes a candle 
To light you to bed, 
Here comes a hatchet 
To chop off your head. 

Eckington, Derbyshire (S. O. Addy). 



ORANGES AND LEMONS 31 



XIII. Oranges and lemons, 

The bells of St. Clement's ; 
I owe you five farthings, 
And when will you pay me ? 
Oh, that I can't tell you ; 
Sim, Bim, bim, bow, bay. 

Settle, Yorks. (Rev. W. E. Sykes). 

XIV. Oranges or lemons, 

The bells of St. Clement's ; 
You owe me five farthings, 
Pray, when will you pay me ? 
Here come the clappers to knock you down 
backwards, carwoo ! 

Suffolk (Mrs. Haddon). 

XV. Oranges and lemons, say the bells of St. Clement's ; 
Brick dust and tiles, say the bells of St. Giles ; 
You owe me three farthings, say the bells of St. 

Martin's ; 

When will you pay me ? say the bells of Old Bailey ; 
When I grow rich, say the bells of Shoreditch ; 
When will that be ? say the bells of Stepney ; 
I'm sure I don't know, says the Great Bell of Bow. 

Perth (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XVI. Pancakes and fritters, 

Says the bells of St. Peter's ; 

Where must we fry 'em ? 

Says the bells of Cold Higham ; 

In yonder land thurrow (furrow), 

Says the bells of Wellingborough ; 

You owe me a shilling, 

Says the bells of Great Billing ; 

When will you pay me ? 

Says the bells of Widdleton Cheney ; 

When I am able, 

Say the bells at Dunstable ; 

That will never be, 



ORANGES AND LEMONS 



Says the bells at Coventry ; 

Oh, yes, it will, 

Says Northampton Great Bell ; 

White bread and sop, 

Says the bells at Kingsthorp ; 

Trundle a lantern, 

Says the bells at Northampton. 

Northamptonshire (Baker's Words and Phrases). 

(c) This game is generally played as follows : 

Two of the taller children stand facing each other, holding 

up their clasped hands. One is named Orange and the other 

Lemon. The other players, grasping one another's dresses, 

run underneath the raised arms and round Orange, and then 




Fig. 3 

under the arms again and round Lemon, while singing the 
verses. The three concluding lines are sung by " Orange " and 
" Lemon" in a slow emphatic manner, and at the word "head" 
they drop their arms over one of the children passing between 
them, and ask her secretly whether she will be orange or 
lemon. The captive chooses her side, and stands behind 
whichever leader she selects, placing her arms round her waist. 
The game continues till every one engaged in it has ranged 
herself behind one or other of the chiefs. When the two 
parties are ranged a "tug of war" takes place until one of 
the parties breaks down, or is pulled over a given mark. 



ORANGES AND LEMONS 33 

In the Middlesex version (Miss Winfield) the children form 
a ring and go round singing the verses, and apparently there 
is neither catching the 'Mast man" nor the " tug." Mr. 
Emslie says he has seen and played the game in Middlesex, 
and it always terminated with the cutting off the last man's 
head. In the Symondsbury version the players drop their 
hands when they say " Sunday." No tug is mentioned in 
the first Earls Heaton version of the game (Mr. Hardy). In 
the second version he says bells are represented by children. 
They should have in their hands, bells, or some article to repre- 
sent them. All stand in a row. First, second, and third bells 
stand out in turn to sing. All rush for bells to sing chorus. 
Miss Barclay writes : The children of the Fernham and Long- 
cot choir, playing on Christmas Eve, 1891, pulled across a 
handkerchief. In Monton, Lancashire, Miss Dendy says the 
game is played as elsewhere, but without words. In a Swaffham 
version (Miss Matthews), the girls sometimes call themselves 
" Plum pudding and roast beef," or whatever fancy may sug- 
gest, instead of oranges and lemons. They join hands high 
enough for the others to pass under, which they do to a call 
of " Ducky, Ducky," presently the hands come down and catch 
one, who is asked in confidence which she likes best. The game 
then proceeds in the usual way, one side trying to pull the 
other over a marked line. Oranges and lemons at Bocking, 
Essex, is an abbreviated variant of the rhyme printed by 
Halliwell (Folk-lore Record, iii., part II., 171). In Notting- 
hamshire, Miss Peacock says it is sometimes called " Tarts and 
Cheesecakes." Moor (Suffolk Words) mentions " Oranges and 
Lemons " as played by both girls and boys, and adds, " I 
believe it is nearly the same as ' Plum Pudding and Roast 
Beef.' " In the Suffolk version sent by Mrs. Haddon a new 
word is introduced, " carwoo." This is the signal for one of the 
line to be caught. Miss Eddleston, Gainford, Durham, says 
this game is called 

Through and through the shally go, 

The last shall be taken. 

Mr. Halliwell (Nursery RJiymes, No. cclxxxi.) adopts the 
verses entitled, "The Merry Bells of London," from Gammer 

VOL. II. C 



34 ORANGES AND LEMONS 

Gurton's Garland, 1783, as the origin of this game. In Aber- 
deen, Mr. M. L. Rouse tells me he has heard Scotch children 
apparently playing the same game, " Oranges and Lemons, ask, 
Which would you have, ' A sack of corn or a sack of coals ? ' ' 

(d) This game indicates a contest between two opposing 
parties, and a punishment, and although in the game the 
sequence of events is not at all clear, the contest taking place 
after the supposed execution, these two events stand out very 
clearly as the chief factors. In the endeavour to ascertain who 
the contending parties were, one cannot but be struck with the 
significance of the bells having different saint's names. Now 
the only places where it would be probable for bells to be 
associated with more than one saint's name within the circuit 
of a small area are the old parish units of cities and boroughs. 
Bells were rung on occasions when it was necessary or 
advisable to call the people together. At the ringing of the 
" alarm bell " the market places were quickly filled by crowds 
of citizens ; and by turning to the customs of these places in 
England, it will be found that contest games between parishes, 
and between the wards of parishes, were very frequent (see 
Gomme's Village Community, pp. 241-243). These contests 
were generally conducted by the aid of the football, and in 
one or two cases, such as at Ludlow, the contest was with 
a rope, and, in the case of Derby, it is specially stated that 
the victors were announced by the joyful ringing of their parish 
bells. Indeed, Halliwell has preserved the " song on the bells 
of Derby on football morning " (No. clxix.) as follows : 

Pancake and fritters, 

Say All Saints and St. Peter's ; 

When will the ball come, 

Say the bells of St. Alkmun ; 

At two they will throw, 

Says Saint Werabo ; 

O ! very well, 

Says little Michel. 

This custom is quite sufficient to have originated the game, 
and the parallel which it supplies is evidence of the connection 
between the two. Oranges and lemons were, in all probability, 



'OTMILLO 35 



originally intended to mean the colours of the two contesting 
parties, and not fruits of those names. In contests between 
the people of a town and the authority of baron or earl, 
the adherents of each side ranged themselves under and 
wore the colours of their chiefs, as is now done by political 
partizans. 

The rhymes are probably corrupted, but whether from some 
early cries or calls of the different parishes, or from sentences 
which the bells were supposed to have said or sung when 
tolled, it is impossible to say. The "clemming" of the bells 
in the Norfolk version (No. 5) may have originated " St. 
Clements," and the other saints have been added at different 
times. On the other hand, the general similarity of the rhymes 
indicates the influence of some particular place, and, judging 
by the parish names, London seems to be that place. If this 
is so, the main incident of the rhymes may perhaps be due 
to the too frequent distribution of a traitor's head and limbs 
among different towns who had taken up his cause. The ex- 
hibitions of this nature at London were more frequent than 
at any other place. The procession of a criminal to execution 
was generally accompanied by the tolling of bells, and by 
torches. It is not unlikely that the monotonous chant of 
the last lines, " Here comes a light to light you to bed," &c., 
indicates this. 

'Otmillo 

A boy (A) kneels with his face in another's (B) lap; the 
other player's standing in the background. They step forward 
one by one at a signal from B, who says to each in turn 
'Otmillo, 'Otmillo, 
Where is this poor man to go ? 

A then designates a place for each one. When all are 
despatched A removes his face from B's knees, and standing 
up exclaims, " Hot ! Hot ! Hot ! " The others then run to 
him, and the laggard is blinded instead of A. Warwickshire 
(Northall's Folk Rhymes, p. 402). 

This is probably the same game as " Hot Cockles," although 
it apparently lacks the hitting or buffeting the blinded wizard. 



36 OVER CLOVER PAIP 

Over Clover 

The name for the game of " Warner" in Oxfordshire. They 
have a song used in the game commencing 

Over clover, 

Nine times over. HalliwelFs Dictionary. 
See " Stag Warning." 

Paddy from Home 



-rp_, ^_ __.*za_^_^. v _tg._^. T _ ai/ __ 



Long Eaton, Notts. (Miss Youngman). 
Paddy from home has never been, 
A railway train he's never seen, 
He longs to see the great machine 
That travels along the railway. 

Long Eaton, Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire 
borders (Miss Youngman). 

(c) The children form a ring, and hold in their hands a string 
tied at the ends, and on which a ring is strung. They pass 
the ring from one to another, backwards and forwards. One 
child stands in the centre, who tries to find the holder of the 
ring. Whoever is discovered holding it takes the place of the 
child in the centre. 

(d) This game is similar to "Find the Ring." The verse 
is, no doubt, modern, though the action and the string and 
ring are borrowed from an older game. Another verse used 
for the same game at Earl's Heaton (Mr. Hardy) is 

The ring it is going ; 
Oh where ? oh where ? 
I don't care where, 

I can't tell where. 
Paip 

Three cherry stones are placed together, and another above 
them. These are all called a castle. The player takes aim 
with a cherry stone, and when he overturns the castle he 
claims the spoil. Jamieson. See "Cob Nut." 



PALLALL-PEG AND STICK 37 

Pallall 

A Scottish name for " Hop Scotch." Jamieson. 

Pally Ully 

See " Hop Scotch." 

Pat-ball 

A child's name for the simple game of throwing a ball from 
one to another. Lowsley's Berkshire Glossary. 

Pay-swad 

A boys' game, somewhat similar to " Duckstone." Each 
boy, when he threw his stone, had to say " Pay-swad," or he 
had to go down himself. Holland's Cheshire Glossary. 

See "Duckstone." 

Pednameny 

A game played with pins: also called "Pinny Ninny," "Pedna- 
a mean," " Heads and Tails/' a game of pins. Courtenay's 
West Cornwall Glossary. 

Peesie Weet 

The game of " Hide and Seek." When the object is hidden 
the word " Peesie-weet " is called out. Fraserburgh, Aberdeen- 
shire (Rev. W. Gregor). 

See " Hide and Seek (2)." 

Peg and Stick 

The players provide themselves with short, stout sticks, and 
a peg (a piece of wood sharpened at one or both ends). A 
ring is made, and the peg is placed on the ground so as to 
balance. One boy then strikes it with his stick to make it 
spring or bounce up into the air ; while in the air he strikes it 
with his stick, and sends it as far as he possibly can. His 
opponent declares the number of leaps in which the striker is 
to cover the distance the peg has gone. If successful, he counts 
the number of leaps to his score. If he fails, his opponent 
leaps, and, if successful, the number of leaps count to his 
score. He strikes the next time, and the same process is gone 
through. Earls Heaton, Yorks. (Herbert Hardy). 

See "Tip-cat." 



38 PEG-FICHED PEG-TOP 



Peg-fiched 

A west country game. The performers in this game are 
each furnished with a sharp-pointed stake. One of them then 
strikes it into the ground, and the others, throwing their sticks 
across it, endeavour to dislodge it. When a stick falls, the 
owner has to run to a prescribed distance and back, while the 
rest, placing the stick upright, endeavour to beat it into the 
ground up to the very top. H alii well's Dictionary. 

Peggy Nut 

A boyish game with nuts. Dickinson's Cumberland Glossary. 

Peg-in-the-Ring 

A game of " Peg-top." The object of this game is to spin 
the top within a certain circle marked out, in which the top is to 
exhaust itself without once overstepping the bounds prescribed 
(H alii well's Diet. Provincialisms]. Holloway (Dictionary) says, 
" When boys play at ' Peg-top,' a ring is formed on the ground, 
within which each boy is to spin his top. If the top, when it 
has ceased spinning, does not roll without the circle, it must 
remain in the ring to be pegged at by the other boys, or he 
redeems it by putting in an inferior one, which is called a 
' Mull.' When the top does not roll out, it is said to be 
'mulled.'" Mr. Emslie writes: "When the top fell within 
the ring the boys cried, ' One a penny ! ' When two had fallen 
within the ring it was, ' Two a penny ! ' When three, ' Three 
a penny, good as any ! ' The aim of each spinner was to do 
what was called ' drawing/ i.e. t bring his top down into the 
ring, and at the same time draw the string so as to make the 
top spin within the ring, and yet come towards the player and 
out of the ring so as to fall without." 

See "Tops." 

Peg-top 

One of the players, chosen by lot, spins his top. The other 
players endeavour to strike this top with the pegs of their own 
tops as they fling them down to spin. If any one fails to spin 
his top in due form, he has to lay his top on the ground for 
the others to strike at when spinning. The object of each 



PENNY CAST PENNY STANES 39 

spinner is to split the top which is being aimed at, so as to 
release the peg, and the boy whose top has succeeded in 
splitting the other top obtains the peg as his trophy of victory. 
It is a matter of ambition to obtain as many pegs in this 
manner as possible. London (G. L. Gomme). 
See " Peg-in-the-Ring," " Tops." 

Penny Cast 

A game played with round flat stones, about four or six 
inches across, being similar to the game of quoits ; sometimes 
played with pennies when the hobs are a deal higher. It was 
not played with pennies in 1810. Easther's Almondbury 
Glossary. In an article in BlackwoocTs Magazine, August 
1821, p. 35, dealing with children's games, the writer says, 
Pennystanes are played much in the same manner as the quoits 
or discus of the ancient Romans, to which warlike people the idle 
tradesmen of Edinburgh probably owe this favourite game. 

See "Penny Prick." 

Penny Hop 

A rude dance, which formerly took place in the common 
taverns of Sheffield, usually held after the bull -baiting. 
Wilson's Notes to MatJier's Songs, p. 74, cited by Addy, 
Sheffield Glossary. 

Penny Prick 

"A game consisting of casting oblong pieces of iron at a 
mark." Hunter's Hallamsh. Gloss., p. 71. Grose explains it, 
"Throwing at halfpence placed on sticks which are called 
hobs." 

Their idle houres, I meane all houres beside 

Their houres to eate, to drinke, drab, sleepe, and ride, 

They spend at shove-boord, or at pennie-pricke. 

Scots' Philomythie, 1616. 

Halliwell gives these references in his Dictionary; Addy, 
Sheffield Glossary, describes it as above; adding, "An old 
game once played by people of fashion." 

See "Penny Cast." 

Penny Stanes 

See "Penny Cast." 



40 PHCEBE PIG-RING 

Phoebe 

The name of a dance mentioned in an old nursery rhyme 
A correspondent gave Halliwell the following lines of a very 
old song, the only ones he recollected : 
Cannot you dance the Phoebe ? 
Don't you see what pains I take ; 
Don't you see how my shoulders shake ? 
Cannot you dance the Phoebe ? 

Halliwell's Dictionary. 

These words are somewhat of the same character as those 
of " Auntie Loomie," and are evidently the accompaniment of 
an old dance. 

See "Lubin." 

Pick and Hotch 

The game of " Pitch and Toss." Brogden's Provincial 
Words, Lincolnshire. It is called Pickenhotch in Peacock's 
Manley and Corringliam Glossary. 

Pi-cow 

A game in which one half of the players are supposed to 
keep a castle, while the others go out as a foraging or maraud- 
ing party. When the latter are all gone out, one of them 
cries Fee-kit, which is a signal to those within to be on the 
alert. Then those who are without attempt to get in. If 
any one of them gets in without being seized by the holders 
of the castle, he cries to his companions, The hole's won ; and 
those who are within must yield the fortress. If one of the 
assailants be taken before getting in he is obliged to change 
sides and to guard the castle. Sometimes the guards are 
successful in making prisoners of all the assailants. Also the 
name given to the game of Hide and Seek. Jamieson. 

Pigeon Walk 

A boy's game [undescribed]. Patterson's Antrim and Down 
Glossary. 

Pig-ring 

A game at marbles where a ring is made about four feet 
in diameter, and boys " shoot " in turn from any point in the 



PILLIE-WINKIE PINNY SHOW 41 

circumference, keeping such marbles as they may knock out 
of the ring, but loosing their own " taw " if it should stop 
within. Lowsley's BerksJiire Glossary. See " Ring Taw." 

Pillie-Winkie 

A sport among children in Fife. An egg, an unfledged 
bird, or a whole nest is placed on a convenient spot. He who 
has what is called the first pill, retires a few paces, and being 
provided with a cowt or rung, is blindfolded, or gives his 
promise to wink hard (whence he is called Winkze), and 
moves forward in the direction of the object, as he supposes, 
striking the ground with the stick all the way. He must 
not shuffle the stick along the ground, but always strike 
perpendicularly. If he touches the nest without destroying 
it, or the egg without breaking it, he looses his vice or turn. 
The same mode is observed by those who succeed him. When 
one of the party breaks an egg he is entitled to all the rest 
as his property, or to some other reward that has been 
previously agreed on. Every art is employed, without re- 
moving the nest or egg, to mislead the blindfolded player, who 
is also called the Pinkie. Jamieson. See " Blind Man's Stan." 

Pinch 

The game of " Pitch- Halfpenny," or " Pitch and Hustle." 
Halliwell's Dictionary. Addy (Sheffield Glossary) says this 
game consists of pitching halfpence at a mark. 

See "Penny Cast," "Penny Prick." 

Pinny Show 

A child's peep-show. The charge for a peep is a pin, and, 
under extraordinary circumstances of novelty, two pins. 

I remember well being shown how to make a peep or poppet- 
show. It was made by arranging combinations of colours from 
flowers under a piece of glass, and then framing it with paper 
in such a way that a cover was left over the front, which 
could be raised when any one paid a pin to peep. The follow- 
ing words were said, or rather sung, in a sing-song manner : 

A pin to see the poppet-show, 

All manner of colours oh ! 

See the ladies all below. (A. B. Gomme). 



42 PINS PIRLEY PEASE-WEEP 

Pansies or other flowers are pressed beneath a piece of glass, 
which is laid upon a piece of paper, a hole or opening, which 
can be shut at pleasure, being cut in the paper. The charge 
for looking at the show is a pin. The children say, " A pin 
to look at a pippy-show." They also say 

A pinnet a piece to look at a show, 

All the fine ladies sat in a row. 

Blackbirds with blue feet 

Walking up a new street ; 

One behind and one before, 

And one beknocking at t' barber's door. 

Addy's Sheffield Glossary. 
In Penh (Rev. W. Gregor) the rhyme is 
A pin to see a poppy show, 
A pin to see a die, 
A pin to see an old man 
Sitting in the sky. 

Described also in Holland's Cheshire Glossary, and Lowsley's 
Berkshire Glossary. Atkinson's Cleveland Glossary describes 
it as having coloured pictures pasted inside, and an eye-hole 
at one of the ends. The Leed's Glossary gives the rhyme as 
A pin to look in, 
A very fine thing. 
Northall (English Folk-rhymes, p. 357), also gives a rhyme. 

Pins 

On the ist of January the children beg for some pins, using 
the words, " Please pay Nab's New Year's gift." They then 
play " a very childish game," but I have not succeeded in 
getting a description of it. Yorkshire. 

See " Prickie and Jockie." 

Pirley Pease-weep 

A game played by boys, " and the name demonstrates that it 
is a native one, for it would require a page of close writing to 
make it intelligible to an Englishman." The rhyme used at 
this play is 

Scotsman, Scotsman, lo ! 

Where shall this poor Scotsman go ? 



PITCH PITCH AND TOSS 43 

Send him east, or send him west, 
Send him to the craw's nest. 

Blackwood's Magazine, August 1821, p. 37. 

The rhyme suggests comparison with the game of " Hot 
Cockles." 

Pitch 

A game played with pennies, or other round discs. The 
object is to pitch the penny into a hole in the ground from a 
certain point. Elworthy, West Somerset Words. 

Probably " Pick and Hotch," mentioned in an article in 
Blackwood's Mag., Aug. 1821, p. 35. Common in London 
streets. 

Pitch and Hustle 

" Chuck- Farthing." The game of " Pitch and Toss " is very 
common, being merely the throwing up of halfpence, the result 
depending on a guess of heads or tails. Halliwell's Dictionary. 

Pitch and Toss 

This game was played by two or more players with " pitchers " 
the stakes being buttons. The ordinary bone button, or 
" scroggy," being the unit of value. The " pitcher " was made 
of lead, circular in form, from one and a half inch to two 
inches in diameter, and about a quarter of an inch thick, with 
an " H " to stand for " Heads " cut on one side, and a " T " for 
" Tails " on the other side. An old-fashioned penny was some- 
times used, and an old " two-penny " piece I have by me bears 
the marks of much service in the same cause. A mark having 
been set up generally a stone and the order of play having 
been fixed, the first player, A, threw his " pitcher " to the mark, 
from a point six or seven yards distant. If he thought he lay 
sufficiently near the mark to make it probable that he would be 
the nearest after the others had thrown, he said he would "lie." 
The effect of that was that the players who followed had to lie 
also, whatever the character of their throw. If A's throw was 
a poor one he took up his " pitcher." B then threw, if he 
threw well he " lay," if not he took up his pitcher, in hope of 
making a better throw, as A had done. C then played in the 
same manner. D followed and " lay." E played his pitcher, 



44 PITCH AND TOSS 



and had no choice but to lie. F followed in the same way. 
These being all the players, A threw again, and though his 
second might have been worse than his first, he has to lie like 
the others. B and C followed. All the pitchers have been 
thrown, and are lying round the mark, in the following order 
of proximity for that regulates the subsequent play B's is 
nearest, then D's follows, in order by A, C, F, E. B takes the 
pitchers, and piles them up one above the other, and tosses 
them into the air. Three (let us say) fall head up, D's, A's, 
and F's. These three B keeps in his hand. D, who was next 
nearest the mark, takes the three remaining pitchers, and in 
the same manner tosses them into the air. B's and C's fall 
head up, and are retained by D. A, who comes third, takes 
the remaining pitcher, E's, and throws it up. If it falls a 
head he keeps it, and the game is finished except the reckon- 
ing ; if it falls a tail it passes on to the next player, C, who 
throws it up. If it fall a head he keeps it, if a tail, it is passed 
on to F, and from him to E, and on to B, till it turns up a head. 
Let us suppose that happens when F throws it up. The game 
is now finished, and the reckoning takes place 

B has three pitchers, D's, A's, and F's. 
D two B's and C's. 

F one E's. 

A, C, and E have none. 

Strictly speaking, D, A, and F should each pay a button to 

B. B and C should each pay one to D. E should pay one to 
F. But in practice it was simpler, F holding one pitcher had, 
in the language of the game, " freed himself." D had " freed 
himself," and was in addition one to the good. B had " freed 
himself," and was two to the good. A, C, and E, not having 
" freed themselves/' were liable for the one D had won and the 
two B had won, and settled with D and B, without regard to 
the actual hand that held the respective pitchers. It simpli- 
fied the reckoning, though theoretically the reckoning should 
have followed the more roundabout method. Afterwards the 
game was begun de novo. E, who was last, having first pitch 
the advantage of that place being meant to compensate him 



PIT-COUNTER PIZE BALL 45 

in a measure for his ill luck in the former game. The stakes 
were the plain horn or bone buttons buttons with nicks were 
more valuable a plain one being valued at two " scroggies," 
or " scrogs," the fancy ones, and especially livery buttons, 
commanding a higher price. Rev. W. Oregon See " Buttons." 

Pit-counter 

A game played by boys, who roll counters in a small hole. 
The exact description I have not been able to get. Halliwell's 
Dictionary. 

Pits 

A game at marbles. The favourite recreation with the 
young fishermen in West Cornwall. Forty years ago " Pits " 
and "Towns" were the common games, but the latter only is 
now played. Boys who hit their nails are looked on with 
great contempt, and are said "to fire Kibby." When two are 
partners, and one in playing accidentally hits the other's 
marble, he cries out, " No custance," meaning that he has 
a right to put back the marble struck ; should he fail to do 
so, he would be considered "out." Folk-lore Journal, v. 60. 
There is no description of the method of playing. It may be 
the same as "Cherry Pits," played with marbles instead of 
cherry stones (vol. i. p. 66). Mr. Newell, Games and Songs 
of American Children, p. 187, says "The pits are thrown over 
the palm ; they must fall so far apart that the fingers can be 
passed between them. Then with a fillip of the thumb the 
player makes his pit strike the enemy's and wins both." 

Pize Ball 

Sides are picked ; as, for example, six on one side and six on 
the other, and three or four marks or tuts are fixed in a 
field. Six go out to field, as in cricket, and one of these 
throws the ball to one of those who remain "at home," and 
the one " at home " strikes or pizes it with his hand. After 
pizing it he runs to one of the " tuts," but if before he can 
get to the " tut " he is struck with the ball by one of those 
in the field, he is said to be burnt, or out. In that case the 
other side go out to field. Addy's Sheffield Glossary. 

See " Rounders." 



46 PLUM PUDDING POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 

Plum Pudding 

A game at marbles of two or more boys. Each puts an equal 
number of marbles in a row close together, a mark is made at 
some little distance called taw ; the distance is varied accord- 
ing to the number of marbles in a row. The first boy tosses 
at the row in such a way as to pitch just on the marbles, and 
so strike as many as he can out of the line ; all that he strikes 
out he takes; the rest are put close together again, and two 
other players' take their turn in the same manner, till all the 
marbles are struck out of the line, when they all stake afresh 
and the game begins again. Baker's Northamptonshire 
Glossary. 

Plum Pudding and Roast Beef 

Mentioned by Moor, Suffolk Words and Phrases, as the 
name of a game. Undescribed, but nearly the same as 
French and English. 

Pointing out a Point 

A small mark is made on the wall. The one to point out 
the point, who must not know what is intended, is blindfolded, 
and is then sent to put the finger on the point or mark. 
Another player has taken a place in front of the point, and 
bites the finger of the blindfolded pointer. Fraserburgh, 
Aberdeenshire (Rev. W. Gregor). 

Poncake 

Name of a girl's game the same as Cheeses. Holland's 
Cheshire Glossary. See "Turn Cheeses, Turn." 

Poor and Rich 

An old game mentioned in Taylor's Motto, sig. D, iv. 
London, 1622. 

Poor Mary sits a-weeping 




POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 



47 










Barnes (A. B. Gomme). 



I. Poor Mary sits a-weepin', 
A-weepin', a-weepin' ; 
Poor Mary sits a-weepin' 
On a bright summer's day. 




" Poor Mary sits a- weeping." 

Pray, Mary, what're you weepin' for, 
A-weepin J for, a-weepin' for ? 
Pray, Mary, what're you weepin' for ? 
On a bright summer's day. 

I'm weepin' for a sweetheart, 
A sweetheart, a sweetheart ; 
I'm weepin' for a sweetheart, 
On a bright summer's day. 



48 POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 



Pray, Mary, choose your lover, 
Your lover, your lover; 
Pray, Mary, choose your lover 
On a bright summer's day. 

Now you're married, I wish you joy ; 
First a girl, and then a boy ; 
Seven years after, son and daughter ; 
Pray, young couple, come kiss together. 

Kiss her once, kiss her twice, 
Kiss her three times over. 

Barnes, Surrey (A. B. Gomme). 

II. Poor Mary is weeping, is weeping, is weeping, 
Poor Mary is weeping on a bright summer's day. 

Pray tell me what you're weeping for, weeping for, weep- 
ing for, 

Pray tell me what you're weeping for, on a bright summer's 
day? 

I'm weeping for my true love, my true love, my true love, 
I'm weeping for my true love, on a bright summer's day. 

Stand up and choose your lover, your lover, your lover, 
Stand up and choose your lover, on a bright summer's day. 

Go to church with your lover, your lover, your lover, 
Go to church with your lover, on a bright summer's day. 

Be happy in a ring, love ; a ring, love ; a ring, love. 
Kiss both together, love, on this bright summer's day. 

Upton-on- Severn, Worcestershire (Miss Broadwood). 

III. Pray, Sally, what are you weeping for 
Weeping for weeping for ? 
Pray, Sally, what are you weeping for, 
On a bright shiny day ? 

I am weeping for a sweetheart 
A sweetheart a sweetheart ; 
I am weeping for a sweetheart, 
On a bright shiny day. 



POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 49 

Pray, Sally, go and get one 
Go and get one get one ; 
Pray, Sally, go and get one, 
On a bright shiny day. 

Pray, Sally, now you've got one 
You've got one got one ; 
Pray, Sally, now you've got one, 
On a bright sunny day. 

One kiss will never part you 
Never part you part you ; 
One kiss will never part you, 
On a bright sunny day. 

Dorsetshire {Folk-lore Journal, vii. 209). 

IV. Poor sat a-weeping, 

A- weeping, a-weeping; 

Poor sat a-weeping, 

On a bright summer's day. 

I'm weeping for a sweetheart, 
A sweetheart, a sweetheart ; 
I'm weeping for a sweetheart, 
On a bright summer's day. 

Oh, pray get up and choose one, 
And choose one, and choose one ; 
Oh, pray get up and choose one, 
On a bright summer's day. 

Now you're married, you must obey ; 
You must be true to all you say. 
You must be kind, you must be good, 
And help your wife to chop the wood. 

Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

V. Poor Mary sat a-weeping, a-weeping, a-weeping, 
Poor Mary sat a-weeping, down by the sea-side. 

By the side of the river, by the side of the river, 
She sat down and cried. 
VOL. II. D 



50 POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 

Oh, pray get up and choose one, and choose one, and 

choose one, 
Oh, pray get up and choose one, down by the sea-side. 

Now you're married, I wish you joy; 

Father and mother you must obey ; 

Love one another like sister and brother, 

And pray, young couple, come kiss one another. 

Colchester (Miss G. M. Frances). 

VI. Poor Mary is a-weeping, a-weeping, a-weeping, 
Poor Mary is a-weeping on a fine summer's day. 
What is she weeping for, weeping for, weeping for, 
What is she weeping for on a fine summer's day ? 

She's weeping for her sweetheart, her sweetheart, her 

sweetheart, 
She's weeping for her sweetheart on a fine summer's 

day. 

Pray get up and choose one, choose one, choose one, 
Pray get up and choose one on a fine summer's day. 
Pray go to church, love; church, love; church, love; 
Pray go to church, love, on a fine summer's day. 

Pray put the ring on, ring on, ring on, 
Pray put the ring on, on a fine summer's day. 
Pray come back, love ; back, love ; back, love ; 
Pray come back, love, on a fine summer's day. 

Now you're married, we wish you joy ; 

Your father and mother you must obey ; 

Love one another like sister and brother ; 

And now it's time to go away. 

{Suffolk County Folk-lore, pp. 66, 67.) 

VII. Poor Mary sits a-weeping, a-weeping, a-weeping, 

Poor Mary sits a-weeping on a bright summer's day. 

Pray tell me what you are weeping for, weeping for, 

weeping for, 
Pray tell me what you are weeping for on a bright 

summer's day ? 



POOR MARY SITS A- WEEPING 51 

I'm weeping for a sweetheart, a sweetheart, a sweet- 
heart, 
I'm weeping for a sweetheart on a bright summer's day. 

Poor Mary's got a shepherd's cross, a shepherd's cross, 

a shepherd's cross, 
Poor Mary's got a shepherd's cross on a bright summer's 

day. 

Berkshire (Miss Thoyts, Antiquary, xxvii. 254). 

VIII. Mary sits a- weeping, a- weeping, a- weeping, 
Mary sits a-weeping, close by the sea-side. 

Mary, what are you weeping for, weeping for, weeping 

for, 
Mary, what are you weeping for, close by the sea-side ? 

I'm a-weeping for my sweetheart, my sweetheart, my 

sweetheart, 
I'm a-weeping for my sweetheart, close by the sea-side. 

Pray get up and choose one, and choose one, and 

choose one, 
Pray get up and choose one, close by the sea-side. 

Winterton and Lincoln (Miss M. Peacock). 

IX. Poor Mary sits a-weeping, a-weeping, 

Poor Mary sits a-weeping, on a bright summer's day. 

She is weeping for her lover, her lover, 

She is weeping for her lover on a bright summer's day. 

Stand up and choose your lover, your lover, 
Stand up and choose your lover, on a bright summer's 
day. 

And now she's got a lover, a lover, 
And now she's got a lover, on a bright summer's day. 
Hanbury, Staffs. (Miss E. Hollis). 

X. Oh, what is Nellie weeping for, 
A-weeping for, a-weeping for ? 
Oh, what is Nellie weeping for, 
On a cold and sunshine day ? 



52 POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 

I'm weeping for my sweetheart, 
My sweetheart, my sweetheart ; 
I'm weeping for my sweetheart 
' On a cold and sunshine day. 

So now stand up and choose the one, 
And choose the one, and choose the one; 
So now stand up and choose the one, 
On a cold and sunshine day. 

Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire (Miss Matthews). 

XI. Poor Mary sits a-weeping, a-weeping, a-weeping, 

Poor Mary sits a-weeping, on a bright summer's day. 

Pray what are you a-weeping for, a-weeping for, a- 

weeping for, 
Pray what are you a-weeping for on a bright summer's 

day? 

She's weeping for a lover, a lover, a lover, 

She's weeping for a lover, this bright summer's day. 

Rise up and choose your lover, your lover, your lover, 
Rise up and choose your lover, this bright summer's day. 

Now Mary she is married, is married, is married, 
Now Mary she is married this bright summer's day. 
Enborne School, Newbury, Berks. (Miss M. Kimber). 

XII. Poor Sarah's a-weeping, 
A-weeping, a-weeping; 
Oh, what is she a-weeping for, 
A-weeping for, a-weeping for ? 

I'm weeping for a sweetheart, 
A sweetheart, a sweetheart ; 
I'm weeping for a sweetheart 
This bright summer day. 

Oh, she shall have a sweetheart, 
A sweetheart, a sweetheart ; 
Oh, she shall have a sweetheart 
This bright summer day. 



POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 53 

Go to church, loves, 
Go to church, loves. 
Say your prayers, loves, 
Say your prayers, loves. 
Kiss your lovers, 
Kiss your lovers ; 
Rise up and choose your love. 

Liphook, Hants. (Miss Fowler). 

XIII. Poor Mary sits weeping, weeping, weeping, 

Poor Mary sits weeping on a bright summer's day ; 
On the carpet she must kneel till the grass grows on 
the field. 

Stand up straight upon your feet, 

And show me the one you love so sweet. 

Now you're married, I wish you joy ; 
First a girl, and second a boy ; 
If one don't kiss, the other must, 
So kiss, kiss, kiss. 

Cambridge (Mrs. Haddon). 

XIV. Poor Mary is a-weeping, a-weeping, a-weeping, 

Poor Mary is a-weeping on a bright summer's day ; 
Pray what is she a-weeping for, a-weeping for, a-weep- 
ing for, 

Pray what is she a-weeping for, on a bright summer's 
day? 

I'm weeping for my true love, my true love, my true 

love, 
I'm weeping for my true love, on a bright summer's day. 

Stand up and choose your true love, your true love, 

your true love, 
Stand up and choose your true love, on a bright 

summer's day. 

Ring a ring o' roses, o' roses, o' roses, 
Ring a ring o' roses ; a pocketful of posies. 

Ogbourne, Wilts. (H. S. May). 



54 POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 

XV. Poor Sally is a-weeping, a-weeping, a-weeping, 
Poor Sally is a-weeping, down by the sea-side. 

Pray tell me what you're weeping for, you're weeping 

for, you're weeping for, 
Pray tell me what you're weeping for, down by the 

sea-side ? 

I'm weeping for my sweetheart, my sweetheart, my 

sweetheart, 
I'm weeping for my sweetheart, down by the sea-side. 

A ring o' roses, 
A pocketful of posies ; 
Isham ! Isham ! 
We all tumble down. 

Manton, Marlborough, Wilts. (H. S. May). 

XVI. Poor Mary is a-weeping, a-weeping, a-weeping, 
On a fine summer's day ; 

What is she weeping for, weeping for, weeping for ? 

She is weeping for her lover, her lover, her lover ; 
And who is her love, who is her lover ? 

Johnny Baxter is her lover, Johnny Baxter is her lover ; 
And where is her lover, where is her lover ? 

Her lover is a-sleeping, her lover is a-sleeping, 
Is a-sleeping at the bottom of the sea. 

South Devon (Notes and Queries, 8th Series, 
i. 249, Miss R. H. Busk). 

XVII. Poor Mary, what are you weeping for ? 

You weeping for ? 
You weeping for ? 

Poor Mary, what are you weeping for, 
On a bright summer's day ? 

Pray tell us what you are weeping for ? 
You are weeping for ? 
You are weeping for ? 



POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 55 

Pray tell us what you are weeping for, 
On a bright summer's day. 

My father he is dead, sir ; 

Is dead, sir ; 

Is dead, sir. 
My father he is dead, sir, 

On a bright summer's day. 

Earls Heaton (Herbert Hardy). 

XVIII. Poor Mary is a-weeping, a- weeping, a- weeping, 
Poor Mary is a-weeping, on a fine summer's day. 
Pray tell me what you're weeping for ? &c. 

Because my father's dead and gone, is dead and gone, 

is dead and gone ; 
Because my father's dead and gone, on a fine 

summer's day. 

She is kneeling by her father's grave, her father's 

grave, her father's grave ; 
She is kneeling by her father's grave, on a fine 

summer's day. 

Stand up and choose your love, choose your love, 

choose your love ; 
Stand up and choose your love, on a bright summer's 

day. 

(Rev. W. Gregor). 

XIX. Oh, what is Jennie weeping for, 

A-weeping for, a-weeping for ? 
Oh, what is Jennie weeping for, 
All on this summer's day ? 

I'm weeping for my own true love, 
My own true love, my own true love ; 

I'm weeping for my own true love, 
All on this summer's day. 



POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 



- a, 

'ri 



i i ijii 

rt M T3 



1 1 1 1 



* S| 



I'll I I 



i 



Si 

.^H 'O 

w fc .2J 

_.& 
~^ 

x-5j3 d 
M c/3 



3 C OJ to 

I i as i i ri* i i 

- ^n-T 

^2 ^^ >> 

J2-S 5-C.S 



'fit!' 

Pi" 13 

^H ^O 



I I I 



. 

! 



i 1 1 1 11 



W-^ ^ M-t > *-' _LJ - 

JV l^l 1 



1 1 1 



i 1 1 1 i i 



jJa'S) .s^-^^ 

oj xi u ^ w -_2 

cx ^ ^ 5 d o w 



1 1 1 1 



III II 



f l 

* 



i 1 1 



rt'C i i 

'sS ' I 



a ^ 






l., 



, 



CO * 10 vO tx CO 



M M CO *f 10 



POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 



57 



I III 



I I I I I I I 



! I I ! 



Il 



I I 



- - 






I I I I I I I I I 



rt O o 
>- G bfl 



I I I I I 



fill I I I I III 



i i i i i 



WJ u 
glfe 

o 5 



Efi 

lj 

1/3 0> 
I I I l|35 | 

^88 
.S'StJ 

^~"_A 



t^ 00 Ox 



Ti- LD 



vd t>. od cf\ 

<N (S M (N 



POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 





A i. 


s - w 






S 


**" ^ ^7 




> 


^ 


c 3 S "^ 




1 


>> ^ 


'& u ||' 

<u S <u 1 1 A 


M II II M MM 


1 


S If ^ 


^ > C 4, 

O ^C (L) 

M ' ... $ 




W 


|-c c 3 


J" ^ rt > .I 

0) <U C3 

f-] (-| C rr^ 






PH ^ <r " 


C/2 O 






Ci 


E 


Si .2 




W > 




O QJ 


Newbury. 


t |I 

bilei M | 

"3 C JS C 

S 'a^U 
S^^^ 
IM 8 


g> 3 

u ^^,11 

C/3 H 


"" ,- ^ 

1 1 | M 1 j^d II 1 1 1 1 
cx rt S -ii 

P ii 




rt 

a 


<2 S 

3 
bO *> 


11 


IS 


55 


C *> 


^ 


1 


||l 1 


Mli ii 

^ O ^ i/) 


1 M 1 II II MM 


5 


S? 


(/) *"^ pj "j_, 


r* O 


C/3 


1 




2| 




CU 


C/3 O 


C/3 




c3 rt 2? 

^: .5 


" B 






fe CX 


2 S 




4J 


K ^ 






13 
^ 


1*1 "' 

I.' 


Iil|i i i 
u ||*i 


II M II II II II 




O ^P_e 

o 2-S., 


^ S c I 






OH CL, 


"^H ^O 






c3 CX 


,2 -u 


13 i 3 




W Jj 


i 


OJ g >% 




s ^ 


5? *"* 5 


, r "i 


1 

C/2 




^1 c 


l~| II l|| II MM 




h u ^"b/3 


w ^ ^d >^ 


>-> ^ ^ >, 




O j3 c 








c2^- 


c^ "'o' 


!z;' c '~ 


, 


*-j bn y bo 

.Is ^.s 

^& ^e- 


i 




1 


& 1 a8 

5 ^ 


i HIM 


II II II M MM 


*H 


^* >~> * w 


C/5 




w 


o a g ?? 

o cs >i; VH >-, 


S c 1 









o 






rt cJ 


rt ' 


<U 03 




in ,fl ' v - 


3 


| | 


pd 


"rf ..afi 

d bc*j bn 

OJ.C_g_C 


.pUsS i i 

Ci, D . rQ 1 1 1 


O ^ 

iljiaJH ii mi 

D**"* ,*"! *ii 




b| - 


^ | .* " 


Si o <u fe 




c2 o 


-~ w h S 


5 X c/3" 5 











o 

55 


M (N ff) 


^- u-> vO tvoo 


d\ O MM" co ^f tovo" txoo" ON o* 



POOR MARY SITS A- WEEPING 



59 





^0^0 




1 o ^2 


II 1 III II II 1 


11111 H g ^rf ' ' 


II ! Ill II II 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 1 


III 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


CJ 

1 

1 1 1 1 -J 1 1 1 1 1 M 




g u . 




o ^o 


III 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1,1 1 III 1 1 II 




M. W 




tTS 




1 


fe 53"2 xf 
6 x-S 8 

J-SSl 1 

'111!. 11 ! " " 

lljll *J 

fe J OH 


5/j * O 

Ui c^ O 
W <p 

J 1 |^l 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 


. 
II 1 III II l|.j 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


o5 c/f 


5 1 1 




III 1 1 1 1 fa b 1 

O 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 






c^5 








H N CO rt- xovO txOO O\ O 
N N <N(N(N (MM WCO< 


oco % co" X % StfoS . 5. g.? 



6o 



POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 



No. 


Cambridge. 


Ogbourne. 


Manton. 


Berwickshire. 


Scotland. 


i. 


Poor Mary is 


Poor Mary is 


Poor Sally is 


What is Jen- 


Poor Mary is 




a-weeping. 


a-weeping. 


a-weeping. 


nie weeping 


a-weeping. 










for? 




2. 





Pray what is 


Pray tell me 





Pray tell me 






she weeping 


what you're 




what you're 






for? 


weeping for. 




weeping for. 


3- 

















4- 





I'm weeping 
for my true 


I'm weeping 
for my sweet- 


I'm weeping 
for my own 









love. 


heart. 


true love. 




5- 





On a bright 





All on this 


On a fine sum- 






summer 's 




sum mer 's 


mer's day. 






day. 




day. 




6. 















7- 

















8. 








Down by the 














seaside. 






9- 

















10. 


Stand up upon 
your feet and 


Stand up and 
choose your 








Stand up and 
choose your 




show the one 


true love. 






love. 




you love so 












sweet. 










ii. 

















12. 











Rise up and 













choose an- 












other love. 




13- 


On the carpet 
















she shall 












kneel till the 












grass grows 
on the field. 










14. 


Now you're 
















married I 












wish you joy. 










IS- 


First a girl and 
















second a boy. 










1 6. 

















17- 

















1 8. 

















20. 











z 


z 


21. 

















22. 

















23. 

















24. 

















25- 

















26. 

















2 7 . 

















28. 

















29. 


If one don't 
















kiss, the 












other must. 










30- 














Because my 












father's dead 












and gone. 


3*- 














She's kneeling 
by her father's 












grave. 


32. 


} 










to 


s. 














41. 


j 










42. 





Ring a ring o' 


A ring of roses 












roses a pocket- 
ful of posies. 


a pocketful 
of posies. 






43- 








We all tumble 














down. 







f POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING 61 

Rise up and choose another love, 

Another love, another love ; 
Rise up and choose another love, 

All on this summer's day. 

Berwickshire (A. M. Bell, Antiquary, xxx. 16). 

(b) A ring is formed by the children joining hands. One 
child kneels in the centre, covering her face with her hands. 
The ring dances round, and sings the first two verses. The 
kneeling child then takes her hands from her face and sings 
the next verse, still kneeling. While the ring sings the next 
verse, she rises and chooses one child out of the ring. They 
stand together, holding hands while the others sing the marriage 
formula, and kiss each other at the command. The ring of 
children dance round quickly while singing this. When finished 
the first " Mary " takes a place in the ring, and the other child 
kneels down (Barnes and other places). At Enborne school, 
Newbury (Miss Kimber), this game is played by boys and girls. 
All the children in the ring sing the first two verses. Then 
the boys alone in the ring sing the next verse ; all the ring 
singing the fourth. While singing this the kneeling child rises 
and holds out her hand to any boy she prefers, who goes into 
the ring with her. When he is left in the ring at the com- 
mencement of the game again, a boy's name is substituted for 
that of " Mary." There appears to be no kissing. In the 
Liphook version (Miss Fowler), after the girl has chosen her 
sweetheart the ring breaks, and the two walk out and then 
kneel down, returning to the ring and kissing each other. A 
version identical with that of Barnes is played by the girls of 
Clapham High School. All tunes sent me were similar to 
that given. 

(c) The analysis of the game rhymes is on pp. 56-60. 

This analysis shows that the incidents expressed by the 
rhymes are practically the same in all the versions. In the 
majority of the cases the weeping is depicted as part of a cere- 
mony, by which it is known that a girl desires a lover ; she is 
enabled then to choose one, and to be married. The marriage 
formula is the usual one in the Barnes' version, but follows 
another set of words in three other versions. In the cases 



62 POOR MARY SITS A-WEEPING POOR WIDOW 

where the marriage is neither expressed by a formula, nor 
implied by other means (Winterton and Forest of Dean), the 
versions are evidently fragments only, and probably at one 
time ended, as in the other cases, with marriage. But in 
three other cases the ending is not with marriage. The Earls 
Heaton and Scottish versions represent the cause of weeping 
as the death of a father, the Berkshire version introduces the 
apparently unmeaning incident of Mary bearing a shepherd's 
cross, and the South Devon version represents the cause of 
weeping the death of a lover at sea. It is obvious that at places 
where sailors abound, the incident of weeping for a sailor- 
lover who is dead would get inserted, and the fact of this change 
only occurring once in the versions I have collected, tells all the 
more strongly in favour of the original version having repre- 
sented marriage and love, and not death, but it does not follow 
that the marriage formula belongs to the oldest or original 
form of the game. I am inclined to think this has been added 
since marriage was thought to be the natural and proper result 
of choosing a sweetheart. 

(d) The change in some of the verses, as in the Cambridge 
version, is due to corruption and the marked decadence now 
occurring in these games. No. 13 in the analysis is from the 
game "Pretty little girl of mine," and Nos. 42-3 " Ring o' Roses." 

Poor Widow 

I. Here's an old widow who lies alone, 

Lies alone, lies alone, 
Here's an old widow who lies alone, 
She wants a man and can't get one. 
Choose one, choose two, choose the fairest. 
The fairest one that I can see 
Is [Mary Hamilton], come unto me. 
Now she is married and tied to a bag, 
She has got a man with a wooden leg. 

Belfast (W. H. Patterson). 
II. There was an old soldier he came from the war, 

His age it was sixty and three. 
Go you, old soldier, and choose a wife, 
Choose a good one or else choose none. 



POP GOES THE WEASEL 63 

Here's a poor widow she lives her lone, 
She hasn't a daughter to marry but one. 

Come choose to the east, choose to the west, 
And choose the very one you love best. 

Here's a couple married in joy, 

First a girl and then a boy, 
Seven years after, and seven years come, 
Free * young couple kiss and have done. 

Belfast (W. H. Patterson). 
III. There was a poor widow left alone, 
And all her children dead and gone. 
Come, choose you east, 
Come, choose you west, 
Take the man you love best. 
Now they're married, 
I wish them joy, 
Every year a girl or a boy, 
I hope this couple may kiss each other. 

Nairn (Rev. W. Gregor). 

(b) One child is chosen to act the part of the widow. The 
players join hands and form a circle. The widow takes her 
stand in the centre of the circle in a posture indicating sorrow. 
The girls in the circle trip round and round, and sing the first 
five lines. The widow then chooses one of the ring. The ring 
then sings the marriage formula, the two kiss each other, and 
the game is continued, the one chosen to be the mate of the 
first widow becoming the widow in turn (Nairn). 

(c) This game is probably the same as " Silly Old Man." 
Two separate versions may have arisen by girls playing by 
themselves without boys. 

Pop Goes the Weasel 

Half a pound of tup'ny rice, 

Half a pound of treacle ; 
Mix it up and make it nice, 
Pop goes the weasel. 

Earls Heaton (Herbert Hardy). 

* Sometimes "pray," but "pree" seems to be the Scotch for taste: " pree 
her moo " = taste her mouth = to kiss. 



64 POP-THE-BONNET POTS, OR POTTS 

(b) Children stand in two rows facing each other, they sing 
while moving backwards and forwards. At the close one from 
each side selects a partner, and then, all having partners, they 
whirl round and round. 

(c) An additional verse is sometimes sung with or in place 
of the above in London. 

Up and down the City Road ; 

In and out the Eagle ; 

That's the way the money goes, 

Pop goes the weasel. 

(A. Nutt). 

Mr. Nutt writes : " The Eagle was (and may be still) a well- 
known tavern and dancing saloon." 

Pop-the-Bonnet 

A game in which two, each putting down a pin on the crown 
of a hat or bonnet, alternately pop on the bonnet till one of the 
pins crosses the other; then he at whose pop or tap this takes 
place, lifts the stakes. Teviotdale (Jamieson). The same game 
is now played by boys with steel pens or nibs. 

See " Hattie." 

Poppet-Show 

See " Pinny Show." 

Port the Helm 

This is a boys' game. Any number may join in it. The 
players join hands and stand in line. The leader, generally 
a bigger boy, begins to bend round, at first slowly, then with 
more speed, drawing the whole line after him. The circular 
motion is communicated to the whole line, and, unless the boys 
at the end farthest from the leader run very quickly, the 
momentum throws them off their feet with a dash if they do 
not drop their hold. Keith, Nairn (Rev. W. Gregor). 

Pots, or Potts 

Throwing a ball against a wall, letting it bounce and catching 
it, accompanied by the following movements : 

1. Simply three times each. 

2. Throw, twist hands, and catch. 

3. Clap hands in front, behind, in front. 



PRAY, PRETTY MISS 65 

4. Turn round. 

5. Beat down ball on ground three times, and catch. 

6. Again on ground and catch (once) at end of first " pot," 
and twice for second " pot." -Hexham (Miss J. Barker). 
Pray, Pretty Miss 

I. Priperty Miss, will you come out, 

Will you come out, will you come out ? 
Priperty Miss, will you come out 
To help us with our dancing ? 

No! 

The naughty girl, she won't come out, 
She won't come out, she won't come out ; 
The naughty girl, she won't come out 
To help us with our dancing. 

Priperty Miss, will you come out, 
Will you come out, will you come out ? 
Priperty Miss, will you come out 
To help us with our dancing ? 

Yes! 

Now we've got another girl, 
Another girl, another girl ; 
Now we've got another girl 
To help us with our dancing. 

Fochabers (Rev. W. Gregor). 

II. Pray, pretty Miss, will you come out, 
Will you come out, will you come out ? 
Pray, pretty Miss, will you come out 
To help me in my dancing ? 

No! 

Then you are a naughty Miss ! 
Then you are a naughty Miss ! 
Then you are a naughty Miss ! 
Won't help me in my dancing. 

Pray, pretty Miss, will you come out, 
Will you come out, will you come out ? 

VOL. II. E 



66 PRAY, PRETTY MISS 

Pray, pretty Miss, will you come out 

To help me in my dancing ? 

Yes! 

Now you are a good Miss ! 

Now you are a good Miss ! 

Now you are a good Miss ! 

To help me in my dancing. 

Cornwall (Folk-lore Journal ', v. 47, 48). 

III. Pray, pretty Miss, will you come out to help us in our 

dancing ? 
No! 
Oh, then you are a naughty Miss, won't help us with 

our dancing. 
Pray, pretty Miss, will you come out to help us in our 

dancing ? 
Yes! 
Now we've got our jolly old lass to help us with our 

dancing. Sheffield, Yorks. (Folk-lore Record, v. 87). 

IV. Oh, will you come and dance with me, 
Oh, will you come and dance with me ? 
No! 

[They say as above to the next girl, who says "Yes."] 
Now we've got our bonny bunch 
To help us with our dancing. 

Hurstmonceaux, Sussex (Miss Chase). 

(b) The Scottish version of this game is played as follows : 
All the players stand in a line except two, who stand facing 
them. These two join hands crosswise, and then advancing 
and retiring, sing to the child at the end of the line the first 
four lines. The first child refuses, and they then dance round, 
singing the second verse. They sing the first verse again, 
and on her compliance she joins the two, and all three dance 
round together, singing the last verse. The three then ad- 
vance and retire, singing the first verse to another child. 

The Cornish version is played differently : a ring is formed, 
boy and girl standing alternately in the centre. The child in 



PRETTY LITTLE GIRL OF MINE 



67 



the middle holds a white handkerchief by two of its corners ; 
if a boy he would single out one of the girls, dance backwards 
and forwards opposite to her, and sing the first verse. If 
the answer were " No ! " spoken with averted head over the 
left shoulder, he sang the second verse. Occasionally three 
or four in turn refused. When the request was granted the 
words were changed to the fourth verse. The handkerchief 
was then carefully spread on the floor; the couple knelt on 
it and kissed : the child formerly in the middle joined the 
ring, and the other took his place, or if he preferred it re- 
mained in the centre ; in that case the children clasped hands 
and sang together the first verse over again, the last to enter 
the ring having the privilege of selecting the next partner. 

(c) Miss Courtney says (Folk-lore Journal, v. 47), that this 
game is quite a thing of the past. Of the Hurstmonceaux 
version, Miss Chase says, "This game is not fully remembered. 
It was played about 1850." The words indicate an invitation 
to the dance similar to those in "Cushion Dance." "Green 
Grass." 

Pretty Little Girl of Mine 




Monton, Lancashire (Miss Dendy). 







WS ' 



Tean, North Staffordshire (Miss Burne). 









Eccleshall (Miss Burne). 



68 



PRETTY LITTLE GIRL OF MINE 






^-*-^-*- t 3-*- -v *- 3 






i 



3=3- 



ip= 






I . 



Nottingham (Miss Youngman). 







Hanbury, Staffordshire (Edith Hollis). 



I. Here's a pretty little girl of mine, 

She's brought me many a bottle of wine ; 

A bottle of wine she gave me too 

See what this little girl can do. 

On the carpet she shall kneel 

As the grass grows on the fiel' ; 

Stand upright on your feet, 

And choose the one you love so sweet. 

Now you are married I wish you joy, 
First a girl and then a boy ; 
Seven years after, son and daughter ; 
Prav > young couple, kiss together. 

Symondsbury, Dorset (Folk-lore Journal, vii. 207). 

II. Oh, this pretty little girl of mine, 
Brought me many a bottle of wine ; 
A bottle of wine and a guinea, too, 
See what my little girl can do. 



PRETTY LITTLE GIRL OF MINE 69 

Down on the carpet she shall kneel, 
As the grass grows in the field ; 
Stand upright on your feet, 
And choose the one you love so sweet. 

Now I'm married and wish you joy, 
First a girl and then a boy ; 
Seven years after, seven years past, 
Kiss one another and go to your class. 

Hampshire (Miss Mendham). 

III. Here's a pretty little girl of mine, 

Who's brought her bottle and glass of wine ; 
A glass of wine and a biscuit too, 
See what my pretty girl will do. 

On the carpet she shall kneel, 
While the grass grows in the field ; 
Stand upright upon your feet, 
Choose the one you love so sweet. 

When you're married I wish you joy, 
First a girl and second a boy, 
Seven years after, son and daughter, 
Now, young couple, kiss together. 

Gambledown, Hants (Mrs. Pinsent). 

IV. Oh ! this pretty little girl of mine, 
Has cost me many a bottle of wine ; 
A bottle of wine and a guinea or two, 
So see what my little girl can do. 

Down on the carpet she shall kneel, 
While the grass grows on her field ; 
Stand upright upon your feet, 
And choose the one you love so sweet. 

Now you are married you must obey, 
Must be true in all you say ; 
You must be kind and very good, 
And help your wife to chop the wood. 

Maxey (Northants Notes and Queries, i. 214). 



70 PRETTY LITTLE GIRL OF MINE 

V. Here's a pretty little girl of mine, 

She's cost me many a bottle of wine ; 
A bottle of wine and a guinea too, 
See what my little girl can do. 

Down on the carpet she must kneel, 
As the grass grows in the field ; 
Stand upright upon her feet, 
And choose the one she loves so sweet. 

Now you're married I wish you joy, 
Father and mother you must obey ; 
Love one another like sister and brother, 
And pray, young couple, come kiss one another. 
Colchester (Miss G. M. Frances). 

VI. Oh ! this pretty little girl of mine, 

She bought me many a bottle of wine, 
A bottle of wine she gave me too, 
So see what my little girl could do. 

Stand up, stand up upon your feet, 
And choose the one you love so sweet. 

Liphook, Hants (Miss Fowler). 

VII. See what a pretty little girl have I, 
She brings me many a bottle of wi' ; 
A bottle of wine and a biscuit too, 
See what a little girl can do. 
On the carpet she shall kneel, 
As the grass grows in the fiel' ; 
Stand upright upon your feet, 
And choose the one you love so sweet. 

Now you're married we wish you joy, 
First a girl and then a boy, 
Seven years after, son and daughter, 
May you couple kiss together. 

South Devon (Notes and Queries, 8th series, i. 249 ; 
Miss R. H. Busk). 

VIII. See what a pretty little girl I am, 

She gave me many a bottle of wine, 



PRETTY LITTLE GIRL OF MINE 71 

Many a bottle of wine, and a biscuit too, 

See what a pretty little girl can do. 

On the carpet you shall kneel, 

Stand up straight all in the field, 

Choose the one that you love best. 

Now we are married and hope we enjoy, 

First a girl and then a boy, 

Seven years after and seven years to come, 

May young company kiss have done. 

Holywood, Co. Down (Miss C. M. Patterson). 

IX. See what a pretty little girl I am ! 
Brought me many a bottle o' wine ! 
Bottle o' wine to make me shine ! 
See what a pretty little girl I am ! 

Upon the carpets we shall kneel, 
As the grass grows in yonder field ; 
Stand up lightly on your feet, 
And choose the one you love so sweet. 

Now these two are going to die, 

First a girl, and then a boy ; 

Seven years at afterwards, seven years ago, 

And now they are parted with a kiss and a go. 

Monton, Lancashire (Miss Dendy). 

X. See this pretty little maid of mine ! 
She's brought me many a bottle of wine ; 
A bottle of wine, a good thing, too ; 

See what this pretty maid can do ! 

Down on the carpet she must kneel 
Till the grass grows on her feet ; 
Stand up straight upon thy feet. 
Choose the very one that you love sweet. 

Take her by her lily-white hand, 

Lean across the water ; 
Give a kiss, one, two, three, 

To Mrs. 's daughter. 

Suffolk (Mrs. Haddon). 



PRETTY LITTLE GIRL OF MINE 



XI. See what a pretty little girl I am ! 

They brought me many a bottle of wine 
Bottle of wine to make me shine ; 
See what a pretty little girl I am ! 

On the carpets we must kneel, 

As the grass grows in yonder field ; 

Rise up lightly on your feet, 

And kiss the one you love so sweet. 

My sister's going to get married, 
My sister's going to get married, 
My sister's going to get married, 
Ee! li! Oh! 

Open your gates as wide as high, 
And let the pretty girls come by, 

And let the-! J y I matrons* by. 
( bonny ) 

One in a bush, 
Two in a bush, 

Ee! li! Oh! 
Colleyhurst, Manchester (Miss Dendy). 

XII. On the carpet you shall kneel 

Where the grass grows fresh and -[ green ; 

I clean ; 

Stand up, stand up on your pretty feet, 
And show me the one you love so sweet. 
Now Sally's got married, we wish her good joy, 
First a girl, and then a boy ; 
Seven years arter, a son and darter, 
So, young couple, kiss together. 
Or, 

Seven years now, and seven to come, 

Take her and kiss her and send her off home. 

Eccleshall, Staffs. (Miss Burne). 

XIII. On the carpet you shall kneel, 

As the grass grows on the field ; 

* Matron is not a word in common use among Lancashire people. 



PRETTY LITTLE GIRL OF MINE 73 

Stand up straight upon your feet, 
And tell me the one you love so sweet. 

is married with a good child, 

First with a girl and then with a boy ; 
Seven years after son and daughter, 
Play with a couple and kiss together. 

Tean, North Staffs, (from a Monitor in the 
National School). 

XIV. On the carpet you shall kneel, 
As the grass grows in the field ; 
Stand up, stand up upon your feet, 
And tell me whom you love so sweet. 

Now you're married I wish you joy, 
First a girl, and then a boy ; 
Seven years after son and daughter, 
Come, young couple, come kiss together. 

Middlesex (Miss Winfield). 

XV. On the carpet you shall kneel, 
As the grass grows in the field ; 
Stand up, stand up on your feet, 
Show the girl you love so sweet. 

Now you're married I hope you'll enjoy 
A son and a daughter, so 
Kiss and good-bye. 

Long Eaton, Nottinghamshire (Miss Youngman). 

XVI. Down on the carpet you shall kneel, 

While the grass grows on your field ; * 

Stand up straight upon your feet, 

And choose the one you love so sweet. 

Marry couple, married in joy, 

First a girl and then a boy ; 

Seven years after, seven years come, 

Please,*)* young couple, kiss and have done. 

-Belfast (W. H. Patterson). 

* d not sounded. 

t Another version has " pree," which means in Scotch, taste, hence kiss. 



74 PRETTY LITTLE GIRL OF MINE 

XVII. On the carpet you shall kneel, 

While the grass grows fresh and green ; 
Stand up straight upon your feet, 
And kiss the one you love so sweet. 

Now they're married, love and joy, 
First a girl and then a boy ; 
Seven years after, seven years ago, 
Now's the time to kiss and go. 

Liverpool and neighbourhood (Mrs. Harley). 

XVIII. On the carpet you shall kneel, 
As the grass grows in the field ; 
Stand up, stand up on your feet, 
And shew me the girl you love so sweet. 
Now Sally's married I hope she'll enjoy, 
First with a girl and then with a boy ; 
Seven years old and seven years young, 
Pray, young lady, walk out of your ring. 

Derbyshire (Folk-lore Journal, i. 385). 

XIX. On the carpet you shall kneel, 

Where the grass grows fresh and green ; 
Stand up, stand up on your pretty feet, 
And show me the one you love so sweet. 

Berrington (Burne's Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 509). 
[Same ending as Eccleshall version.] 

XX. On the carpitt you shall kneel, 

While the grass grows in the field ; 
Stand up, stand up on your feet, 
Pick the one you love so sweet. 

Wakefield, Yorks. (Miss Fowler). 

XXI. King William was King David's son, 
And all the royal race is run ; 
Choose from the east, choose from the west, 
Choose the one you love the best.* 

* At Earls Heaton two verses or lines are added, viz. : 
" If she is not here to take her part, 
Choose another with all your heart." 



PRETTY LITTLE GIRL OF MINE 75 

Down on this carpet you shall kneel, 
While the grass grows in yond field ; 
Salute your bride and kiss her sweet, 
Rise again upon your feet. 

Hanging Heaton, Yorks. (Herbert Hardy). 

XXII. On the carpet you shall kneel, while the grass grows 

at your feet ; 
Stand up straight upon your feet, and choose the one 

you love so sweet. 
Now Sally is married, life and joy, first a girl and 

then a boy ; 

Seven years after, seven years ago, three on the 
carpet, kiss and go. 

Hanbury, Staffordshire (Miss Edith Hollis). 

XXIII. I had a bonnet trimmed wi' blue. 
Why dosn't weare it ? Zo I do ; 
I'd weare it where I con, 
To te'ake a walk wi' my young mon. 
My young mon is a-gone to sea, 
When he'd come back he'll marry me. 
Zee what a purty zister is mine, 
Doan't 'e think she's ter'ble fine ? 
She's a most ter'ble cunnen too, 
Just zee what my zister can do. 
On the carpet she can kneel, 
As the grass grow in the fiel'. 
Stand upright upon thy feet, 
And choose the prettiest you like, sweet. 
Hazelbury Bryan, Dorset (Folk-lore Journal, vii. 208). 

XXIV. Kneel down on the carpets, we shall kneel ; 
The grass grows away in yonder fiel', 
Stand up, stand up upon your feet, 
And show me the one you love so sweet. 

Now they get married, I wish they may joy 
Every year a girl or a boy ; 



76 PRETTY LITTLE GIRL OF MINE 

Loving together like sister and brother, 
Now they are coupled to kiss together. 

Galloway, N.B. (J. G. Carter). 

(c) This game is played in the same way in all the different 
variants I have given, except a slight addition in the Suffolk 
(Mrs. Haddon). A ring is formed by the children joining 
hands one child stands in the centre. The ring dances or 
moves slowly round, singing the verses. The child in the 
centre kneels down when the words are sung, rises and 
chooses a partner from the ring, kisses her when so com- 
manded, and then takes a place in the ring, leaving the other 
child in the centre. In those cases where the marriage formula 
is not given, the kissing would probably be omitted. 

(d) Of the twenty-four versions given there are not two 
alike, and this game is distinguished from all others by the 
singular diversity of its variants ; although the original struc- 
ture of the verses has been preserved to some extent, they 
seem to have been the sport of the inventive faculty of each 
different set of players. Lines have been added, left out, and 
altered in every direction, and in the example from Hazelbury 
Bryan, in Dorsetshire (No. xxiii.), a portion of an old song or 
ballad has been added to the game rhyme. These alterations 
occur not only in different counties, but in the same counties, 
as may be seen by the Dorset, Hants, Staffordshire, and 
Northants examples. Mr. Carter says of the Galloway game 
that the kissing match sometimes degenerates into a spitting 
match, according to the temper of the parties concerned. In 
the Suffolk version (Mrs. Haddon), at the words " Lean across 
the water," the two in the centre lean over the arms of those 
forming the ring. These words and action are probably an 
addition. They belong to the " Rosy Apple, Lemon and 
Pear" game. 

These peculiar characteristics of the game do not permit of 
much investigation into the. original words of the game-rhyme, 
but they serve to illustrate, in a very forcible manner, the 
exactly opposite characteristics of nearly all the other games, 
which preserve, in almost stereotyped fashion, the words of the 
rhymes. It appears most probable that the verses belonged 



PRETTY MISS PINK 77 

originally to some independent game like "Sally, Sally Water," 
and that, when divorced from their original context, they lent 
themselves to the various changes which have been made. The 
minute application of modern ideas is seen in the version from 
Gambledown, where "A bottle of wine and a guinea, too," 
becomes " A bottle of wine and a biscuit, too ; " and at West 
Haddon, in Northamptonshire, a variant of the marriage 
formula is given in Northants Notes and Queries, ii. 106, as 

Now you're married, we wish you joy, 
First a girl and then a boy ; 
Cups and saucers, sons and daughters, 
Now join hands and kiss one another. 

Another version from Long Itchington, given in Notes and 
Queries, 7th series, x. 450, concludes with 

Up the kitchen and down the hall, 
Choose the fairest of them all ; 
Seven years now and seven years then, 
Kiss poor Sally and part again. 

Pretty Miss Pink 

Pretty Miss Pink, will you come out, 
Will you come out, will you come out ? 
Pretty Miss Pink, will you come out, 
To see the ladies dancing ? 
No, I won't. 

Pretty Miss Pink, she won't come out, 
Won't come out, won't come out, &c. 
She will come out. 
Pretty Miss Pink, she has come out, &c. 

Winterton Lines and Nottinghamshire 
(Miss M. Peacock.) 

(b) The children place themselves in a row. They each 
choose a colour to represent them. One player must be pink. 
Another player stands facing them, and dances to and fro, 
singing the first four lines. The dancer then sings the next 
two lines, and Miss Pink having answered rushes forward, 



78 PRICK AT THE LOOP PRIEST-CAT 

catches hold of the dancer's hand, and sings the next verse. 
Each colour is then taken in turn, but Miss Pink must always 
be first. 

(c) This is clearly a variant of " Pray, Pretty Miss," colours 
being used perhaps from a local custom at fairs and May 
meetings, where girls were called by the colours of the ribbons 
they wore. 

Prick at the Loop 

A cheating game, played with a strap and skewer at fairs, 
&c., by persons of the thimble-rig class, probably the same as 
the game called " Fast and Loose." 

Prickey Sockey 

Christmas morning is ushered in by the little maidens play- 
ing at the game of " Prickey Sockey," as they call it. They are 
dressed up in their best, with their wrists adorned with rows 
of pins, and run about from house to house inquiring who will 
play at the game. The door is opened and one cries out 
Prickey sockey for a pin, 
I car not whether I loss or win. 

The game is played by the one holding between her two 
forefingers and thumbs a pin, which she clasps tightly to pre- 
vent her antagonist seeing either part of it, while her opponent 
guesses. The head of the pin is " sockey," and the point is 
"prickey," and when the other guesses she touches the end 
she guesses at, saying, "this for prickey," or "this for sockey," 
At night the other delivers her two pins. Thus the game is 
played, and when the clock strikes twelve it is declared up ; that 
is, no one can play after that time. Mirror, 1828, vol. x. p. 443. 

See " Headicks and Pinticks." 

Prickie and Jockie 

A childish game, played with pins, and similar to " Odds or 
Evens," Teviotdale (Jamieson), but it is more probable that 
this is the game of " Prickey Sockey," which Jamieson did not 
see played. 

Priest-Cat (i) 

See "Jack's Alive." 



PRIEST-CATPRISONER'S BASE 79 

Priest-Cat (2) 

A peat clod is put into the shell of the crook by one person, 
who then shuts his eyes. Some one steals it. The other 
then goes round the circle trying to discover the thief, and 
addressing particular individuals in a rhyme 
Ye're fair and leal, 
Ye canna steal ; 
Ye're black and fat, 
Ye're the thief of my priest-cat ! 

If he guesses wrong he is in a wadd, if right he has found 
the thief. Chambers' Popular Rhymes, p. 128. 

This is an entirely different game to the " Priest-Cat" given 
by Mactaggart (see " Jack's Alive "), and seems to have origi- 
nated in the discovery of stolen articles by divination. 

Priest of the Parish 

William Carleton describes this game as follows : " One of 
the boys gets a wig upon himself, goes out on the floor, places 
the boys in a row, calls on his man Jack, and says to each, 
' What will you be ? ' One answers, ' I'll be Black Cap,' another, 
' Red Cap,' and so on. He then says, ' The priest of the parish 
has lost his considering-cap. Some says this, and some says 
that, but I say my man Jack.' Man Jack then, to put it off 
himself, says, ' Is it me, sir?' 'Yes you, sir.' 'You lie, sir.' 
'Who then, sir?' 'Black Cap.' If Black Cap then doesn't 
say, ' Is it me, sir ? ' before the priest has time to call him he 
must put his hand on his ham and get a pelt of the brogue. 
A boy must be supple with the tongue in it." Traits and 
Stories of the Irish Peasantry, p. 106 (Tegg's reprint). 

This game is no doubt the original form of the game im- 
perfectly played under the name of " King Plaster Palacey " 
(see ante, i. 301). 

Prisoner's Base or Bars 

The game of "The Country Base" is mentioned by Shake- 
speare in "Cymbeline" 

" He, with two striplings (lads more like to run 
The country base, than to commit such slaughter), 
Made good the passage." Act v., sc. 3. 



8o PRISONER'S BASE 

Also in the tragedy of Hoffman, 1632 
" I'll run a little course 
At base, or barley-brake." 
Again, in the Antipodes, 1638 

" My men can runne at base? 
Also, in the thirtieth song of Drayton's " Polyolbion '- 

"At hood-wink, barley-brake, at tick, or prison-base? 
Again, in Spenser's "Faerie Queen," v. 8 

" So ran they all as they had been at bace? 

Strutt (Sports and Pastimes, p. 78), says, " This game was 
much practised in former times. The first mention of this 
sport that I have met with occurs in the Proclamations at the 
head of the Parliamentary proceedings, early in the reign of 
Edward III., where it is spoken of as a childish amusement; 
and prohibited to be played in the avenues of the palace at 
Westminster during the Sessions of Parliament, because of 
the interruption it occasioned to the members and others 
in passing to and fro. . . . The performance of this pastime 
requires two parties of equal number, each of them having a 
base or home, as it is usually called to themselves, at the 
distance of about twenty or thirty yards. The players then 
on either side taking hold of hands extend themselves in length 
and opposite to each other, as far as they conveniently can, 
always remembering that one of them must touch the base ; 
when any one of them quits the hand of his fellow and runs 
into the field, which is called giving the chase, he is im- 
mediately followed by a second from the former side, and he 
by a second opponent; and so on alternately, until as many 
are out as choose to run, every one pursuing the man he first 
followed and no other; and if he overtake him near enough to 
touch him, his party claims one toward their game, and both 
return home. Then they run forth again and again in like 
manner, until the number is completed that decides the victory ; 
this number is optional. It is to be observed that every person 
on either side who touches another during the chase, claims 
one for his party." 

Strutt describes the game in Essex as follows : " They play 



PRISONER'S BASE 81 



Prison / I Prison 

forB / \ for A 



this game with the addition of two prisons, which are stakes 
driven into the ground, parallel with the home boundaries, 
and about thirty yards from them ; and every person who is 
touched on either side in the chase is sent to one or other of 
these prisons, where he must remain till the conclusion of the 
game, if not delivered previously by one of his associates, and 
this can only be accomplished by touching him, which is a 
difficult task, requiring the performance of the most skilful 
players, because the prison belonging to either party is always 
much nearer to the base of their opponents than to their own ; 
and if the person sent to relieve his confederate be touched 
by an antagonist before he reaches him, he also becomes a 
prisoner, and stands in equal need of deliverance." Sports and 
Pastimes, p. 80. 

But this is not quite the same as it is played in London. 
There the school ground is divided in the following manner : 
The boys being divided into equal 
sides, with a captain for each, one 
party takes up its quarters in A, the 
other in B. Lots are chosen as to 
which side commences. Then one 
member of the side so chosen (say A) 
starts off for the middle of the play- 
ground and cries out " Chevy, Chevy 
Chase, one, two, three ; " thereupon 
it becomes the object of the side B 
to touch him before reaching home 

again. If unsuccessful one from side B goes to the middle, 
and so on until a prisoner is secured from one of the sides. 
Then the struggle commences in earnest, after the fashion 
described by Strutt as above. If a boy succeeds in getting 
to the prison of his side without being touched by an opponent, 
he releases a prisoner, and brings him back home again to help 
in the struggle. The object of the respective sides is to place 
all their opponents in prison, and when that is accomplished 
they rush over to the empty home and take possession of it. 
The game then begins again from opposite sides, the winning 
side counting one towards the victory. London (G. L. Gomme). 

VOL. II. F 



82 PRISONER'S BASE 

This was once a favourite game among young men in North 
Shropshire (and Cheshire). It was played yearly at Norton- 
in-Hales Wakes, and the winning party were decorated with 
ribbons. Men-servants, in the last century, were wont to ask 
a day's holiday to join or witness a game of " Prison-bars," 
arranged beforehand as a cricket-match might be (see Bye- 
goneSj 2nd May 1883). A form of the game still survives there 
among the school-children, under the name of " Prison Birds." 
The Birds arrange themselves in pairs behind each other, 
facing a large stone or stump placed at some little distance. 
Before them, also facing the stone, stands one player, called 
the Keeper. When he calls, " Last pair out ! " the couple next 
behind him run to the stone and touch hands over it. If they 
can do so without being touched by the Keeper, they are free, 
and return to a position behind the other birds ; but any one 
whom he touches must remain behind the stone "in prison." 
Ellesmere (Burne's Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 524). 

The Ellesmere inhabitants were formerly accustomed to 
devote their holiday occasions to the game, and in the year 
1764 the poet laureate of the town (Mr. David Studley) com- 
posed some lines on the game as it was played by the Married 
v. Single at Ellesmere. They are as follows : 

"Ye lovers of pleasure, give ear and attend, 
Unto these few lines which here I have penned, 
I sing not of sea fights, of battles nor wars, 
But of a fine game, which is called f Prison Bars.' 

This game was admired by men of renown, 
And played by the natives of fair Ellesmere town ; 
On the eighth day of August in the year sixty-four, 
These nimble heel'd fellows approached on the moor. 

Twenty-two were the number appeared on the green, 
For swiftness and courage none like them were seen ; 
Eleven were married to females so fair, 
The other young gallants bachelors were. 

Jacob Hitchen the weaver commands the whole round, 
Looks this way, and that way, all over the ground, 



PUFF-THE-DART PUN O' MAIR WEIGHT 83 



Gives proper directions, and sets out his men, 
So far go, my lads, and return back again. 

Proper stations being fixed, each party advance, 
And lead one another a many fine dance. 
There's Gleaves after Ellis, and Platt after he, 
Such running before I never did see. 

Huzza I for the young men, the fair maids did say, 
May heaven protect you to conquer this day, 
Now, my brave boys, you're not to blame, 
Take courage, my lads, nine and eight is the game. 

Now behold the Breeches makers, master and man, 
Saddlers, Slaters, and Joiners, do all they can ; 
The Tailor so nimble, he brings up the rear, 
Cheer up, my brave boys, you need not to fear. 

Alas ! poor old Jacob, thy hopes are in vain, 
Dick Chidley is artful, and spoils all thy schemes. 
The Barber is taken, the Currier is down, 
The Sawyer is tired, and so is the Clown." 

The moor referred to in the last line of the second verse was 
the Pitchmoor. The Clown was a nickname for one of the 
players, who, on hearing the song repeated in the presence of 
the author, became so exasperated, that, to appease him, the 
words "the game is our'n" were substituted for the words 
" so is the Clown " in the last line of the concluding verse. 

Puff-the-Dart 

A game played with a long needle inserted in some worsted, 
and blown at a target through a tin tube. Halliwell's Dic- 
tionary. This game is also mentioned in Baker's Northampton- 
shire Glossary. 

Pun o' mair Weight 

A rough play among boys, adding their weight one upon 
another, and all upon the one at the bottom. Dickinson's 

Cumberland Glossary. 



84 PUNCH BOWL 



Punch Bowl 

I. Round about the punch bowl, 

One, two, three ; 

If anybody wants a bonnie lassie, 
Just take me. 

Another form of words is 

The fillan o' the punch bowl, 

That wearies me ; 

The fillan o't up, an' the drinkan' o't doon, 
An' the kissan o' a bonnie lass, 
That cheeries me. 

Fochabers (Rev. W. Gregor). 

II. Round about the punch bowl, 

Punch bowl, punch bowl ; 
Round about the punch bowl, one, two, three. 

First time never to fall, 

Never to fall, never to fall ; 
First time never to fall, one, two, three. 

Second time, the catching time, 

Catching time, catching time ; 
Second time, the catching time, one, two, three. 

Third time, the kissing time, 

Kissing time, kissing time, 
Third time, the kissing time, one, two, three. 

Belfast (W. H. Patterson). 

III. Round about the punch bowl, one, two, three; 
Open the gates and let the bride through. 

Half-a-crown to know his name, to know his name, to 

know his name, 

Half-a-crown to know his name, 
On a cold and frosty morning. 

Ah! (Michael Matthews) is his name, is his name, is 

his name ; 

(Michael Matthews) is his name, 
On a cold and frosty morning. 



PURPOSES 85 



Half-a-crown to know her name, to know her name, to 

know her name, 

Half-a-crown to know her name, 
On a cold and frosty morning. 

(Annie Keenan) is her name, is her name, is her name, 
(Annie Keenan) is her name, 
On a cold and frosty morning. 

They'll be married in the morning, 
Round about the punch bowl, I [? Hi !]. 

Annaverna, Ravensdale, Co. Louth, Ireland 
(Miss R. Stephen). 

(b) The Fochabers' game is played by girls only. The 
players join hands and form a ring. They dance briskly 
round, singing the verse. The last word, " me," is pronounced 
with strong emphasis, and all the girls jump, and if one falls 
she has to leave the ring. The game is carried on until all 
the players fall. In the Belfast game, at the words "one, 
two, three," the players drop down in a crouching position 
for a few seconds. In the Louth (Ireland) game the players all 
curtsey after the first line, and the one who rises last is the bride. 
She is led outside the ring by another, and asked to whom she 
is engaged. She tells without letting those in the ring hear, 
and the two return to the ring saying the second line. Then 
all the ring sing the next three lines, and then the girl who 
has been told the name tells it to the ring, who thereupon 
sing or say the remaining lines of the verse. 

(c) The Louth version has more detail in its movements, 
and probably represents the oldest form. At all events, it 
supplies the reason for the words and movements, which are 
not quite so obvious in the other versions. Many ancient 
monoliths are known as " Punch Bowls," and it may be that 
this game is the relic of an old marriage ceremony, " at the 
stones." 

Purposes 

A kind of game. " The prettie game which we call pur- 
poses " (Cotgrave in v. " Opinion "). Halliwell's Dictionary. 



86 PUSH IN WASH TUB PUSH THE BUSINESS ON 

Push in the Wash Tub 

A ring of girls is formed. Two go in opposite directions 
outside the ring, and try to get back first to the starting-point ; 
the one succeeding stops there, rejoining the ring, the other 
girl pushes another girl into the ring, or wash tub, with whom 
the race is renewed. Crockham Hill, Kent (Miss Chase). 
Push-pin, or Put-pin 

A child's play, in which pins are pushed with an endeavour 
to cross them. So explained by Ash, but it would seem, from 
Beaumont and Fletcher, vii. 25, that the game was played by 
aiming pins at some object. Halliwell's Dictionary. 
" To see the sonne you would admire, 
Goe play at push-pin with his sire." 

Men's Miracles, 1656, p. 15. 
" Love and myselfe, beleeve me on a day, 
At childish push-pin for our sport did play." 

Herrick's Works, i. 22. 

There is an allusion to it under the name of put-pin in 
Nash's Apologie, 1593 

" That can lay down maidens bedds, 
And that can hold ther sickly heds ; 
That can play at put-pin, 
Blow poynte and near lin." 

Two pins are laid upon a table, and the object of each player 
is to push his pin across his opponent's pin. Addy's Sheffield 
Glossary. 

See "Hattie," "Pop the Bonnet." 

Push the Business On 

I. I hired a horse and borrowed a gig, 
And all the world shall have a jig; 
And I'll do all 'at ever I can 
To push the business on. 

To push the business on, 
To push the business on ; 
And I'll do all 'at ever I can 
To push the business on. 

North Kelsey, Anderby, and near the Trent, 
Nottinghamshire (Miss M. Peacock). 



PUSH THE BUSINESS ON 87 

II. Beeswax and turpentine make the best of plaster, 

The more you try to pull it off, it's sure to stick the faster. 
I'll buy a horse and hire a gig, 
And all the world shall have a jig; 
And you and I'll do all we can 
To push the business on, 
To push the business on ; 
And we'll do all that ever we can 
To push the business on. 

Brigg, Lincolnshire (Miss Barker, from a 
Lincolnshire friend). 

III. I'll buy a horse and steal a gig, 
And all the world shall have a jig; 
And I'll do all that ever I can 

To pass the business on. 

To pass the business on, 
To pass the business on ; 
And I'll do all that ever I can 
To pass the business on. 
Wolstanton, North Staffs. (Miss Bush, Schoolmistress) 

IV. We'll borrow a horse and steal a gig, 
And round the world we'll have a jig ; 
And I'll do all that ever I can 

To push the business on. 

Earls Heaton (Herbert Hardy). 

V. I'll hire a horse and steal a gig, 
And all the world shall have a jig; 
And I'll do all that ever I can 
To push the business on, 

To push the business on, to push the business on, 
And I'll do all that ever I can to push the business on. 
Settle, Yorkshire (Rev. W. S. Sykes). 

(b) The players stand in a circle, boy and girl alternately, 
and sing the lines. At the fourth line they all clap their 
hands, keeping time with the song. When singing the seventh 
line each boy takes the girl on his left hand, dances round 
with her and places her on his right hand. This is done till 



88 



PUSS IN THE CORNER 



each girl has been all round the circle, and has been turned or 
danced with by each boy. In the Wolstanton version (Miss 
Bush), after singing the first four lines, the children fall 
behind one another, march round, clapping their hands and 
singing ; at the seventh line the}' all join in couples and galop 
round very quickly to the end. When they finish, the girls 
stand at the side of the boys in couples, and change places 
every time they go round until each girl has partnered each 
boy. At Hexham there is rather more of the regular dance 
about the game at the beginning. At the fourth line they set 
to partners and swing round, the girls changing places at the 
end, and continuing until they have been all round each time 
with a different partner. 

(c] This game seems of kin to the old-fashioned country 
dances. Miss Bush writes that this game was introduced into 
the school playground from Derbyshire a few years ago, and 
is sung to a simple tune. 

Puss in the Corner 

The children stand at fixed points : one stands in the middle 

and chants, "Poor puss 
wants a corner." The 
others beckon with the 
fore - finger, and call- 
ing, " Puss, puss," run 
from point to point. 
Puss runs also to one 
of the vacant spaces. 

The one left out becomes puss. Monton, Lancashire (Miss 
Dendy). 

The players place themselves each in some " coign of van- 
tage," as the play place allows; one player in the middle is 
" out." Those in the corners change places with each other 
at choice, calling, " Puss, puss, puss," to attract each other's 
attention. The one who is out watches his opportunity to slip 
into a vacant corner, and oblige some one else to be "out." 
A favourite game in the streets of Market Drayton. Burne's 
Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 523. 




PUSSY'S GROUND QUAKER 89 

When we played this game, the child who was to be " Puss " 
was invariably decided upon by a counting-out rhyme. He or 
she being the last of the five players " not he." The words we 
used when wishful to change corners were, " Puss, puss, give me 
a drop of milk." The players in the corners beckoned with the 
finger to an opposite player in another corner (A. B. Gomme). 

The game in Scotland is called " Moosie in the Corner," 
and is played by boys or girls, or by both together, either 
outside or in a room. Each player takes a corner, and one 
stands in the middle. On a given signal, usually by calling 
out the word " Change," a rush is made from the corners. 
The aim of the one standing in the middle is to reach a 
vacant corner. If the game is played in a room, as many 
chairs, or other seats, are placed as there are players, less 
one. Each takes a seat, and one is left standing. On the 
word "Change" being called out, each jumps from the seat 
and makes for another. The one standing strives to get a 
seat in the course of the change. Nairn and Macduff (Rev. 
W. Gregor). 

Pussy's Ground 

Name for Tom Tiddler's Ground in Norfolk. 
See "Tom Tiddler's Ground." 

Pyramid 

A circle of about two feet in diameter is made on the ground, 
in the centre of which a pyramid is formed by several marbles. 
Nine are placed as the base, then six, then four, and then one 
on the top. The keeper of the pyramid then desires the other 
players to shoot. Each player gives the keeper one marble for 
leave to shoot at the pyramid, and all that the players can 
strike out of the circle belong to them. London streets (A. B. 
Gomme), and Book of Sports. 

See ".Castles." 

Quaker 

Men and women stand alternately in a circle, and one man 
begins by placing his left hand on his left knee, and saying, 
" There was an old Quaker and he went so." This is repeated 
all round the circle ; the first man then says the same thing 



90 QUAKER'S WEDDING QUEEN ANNE 

again, but this time he places his right hand on his riglit knee. 
Then he places his hand on the girl's shoulder, then round her 
neck, and on her far shoulder, then looks into her face, and, 
lastly, kisses her. Sharleston, Yorks (Miss Fowler). 

Quaker's Wedding 

Hast thou ever been to a Quaker's wedding ? 

Nay, friend, nay. 
Do as I do ; twiddle thy thumbs and follow me. 

The leader walks round chanting these lines, with her eyes 
fixed on the ground. Each new comer goes behind till a long 
train is formed, then they kneel side by side as close together 
as possible. The leader then gives a vigorous push to the one 
at the end of the line [next herself, and that one to the next], 
and the whole line tumble over. Berkshire (Miss Thoyts in 
the Antiquary, xxvii. 194). 

See "Obadiah," "Solomon." 

Queen Anne 

I. Lady Queen Ann she sits in her stand, 
And a pair of green gloves upon her hand, 
As white as a lily, as fair as a swan, 
The fairest lady in a' the land ; 
Come smell my lily, come smell my rose, 
Which of my maidens do you choose ? 
I choose you one, and I choose you all, 
And I pray, Miss ( ), yield up the ball. 

The ball is mine, and none of yours, 
Go to the woods and gather flowers. 
Cats and kittens bide within, 
But we young ladies walk out and in. 

Chambers' Pop. Rhymes, p. 136. 

II. Queen Anne, Queen Anne, who sits on her throne, 
As fair as a lily, as white as a swan ; 
The king sends you three letters, 
And begs you'll read one. 

I cannot read one unless I read all, 
So pray ( ) deliver the ball. 



QUEEN ANNE 91 



The ball is mine and none of thine, 

So you, proud Queen, may sit on your throne, 

While we, your messengers, go and come. 

(Or sometimes) 

The ball is mine, and none of thine, 

You are the fair lady to sit on ; 

And we're the black gipsies to go and come. 

H alii well's Pop. Rhymes, p. 230. 

III. Queen Anne, Queen Anne, you sit in the sun, 
As fair as a lily, as white as a wand, 

I send you three letters, and pray read one. 
You must read one, if you can't read all, 
So pray, Miss or Master, throw up the ball. 

Halliwell's Pop. Rhymes, p. 64. 

IV. Here we come a-piping, 

First in spring and then in May. 
The Queen she sits upon the sand, 
Fair as a lily, white as a wand : 
King John has sent you letters three, 
And begs you'll read them unto me. 
We can't read one without them all, 
So pray, Miss Bridget, deliver the ball. 

Halliwell's Pop. Rhymes, p. 73. 

V. Queen Anne, Queen Anne, 
She sot in the sun ; 
So fair as a lily, 
So white as a nun ; 
She had a white glove on, 
She drew it off, she drew it on. 
Turn, ladies, turn. 

The more we turn, the more we may, 
Queen Anne was born on Midsummer Day ; 
We have brought dree letters from the Queen, 
Wone of these only by thee must be seen. 
We can't re'ade wone, we must re'ade all, 
Please ( ) deliver the ball. 

Dorsetshire {Folk-lore Journal, vii. 229). 



92 QUEEN ANNE 



VI. Here come we to Lady Queen Anne, 

With a pair of white gloves to cover our hand ; 
As white as a lily, as fair as the rose, 
But not so fair as you may suppose. 

Turn, ladies, turn. 

The more we turn the more we may, 
Queen Anne was born on Midsummer Day. 

The king sent me three letters, I never read them all, 
So pray, Miss , deliver the ball. 

The ball is yours, and not ours, 

You must go to the garden and gather the flowers. 

The ball is ours, and not yours, 
We go out and gather the flowers. 

Cornwall (Folk-lore Journal, v. 52-53). 

VII. Queen Anne, Queen Anne, she sits in the sun, 
As fair as a lily, so white and wan ; 

A pair of kid gloves she holds in her hand, 
There's no such a lady in all the fair land. 

Turn all. 

The more we turn the better we are, 
For we've got the ball between us. 

North Kelsey, Lincolnshire (Miss M. Peacock). 

VIII. Lady Queen Anne she sits on a stand [sedan], 
She is fair as a lily, she is white as a swan ; 

A pair of green gloves all over her hand, 
She is the fairest lady in all the land. 
Come taste my lily, come smell my rose, 
Which of my babes do you choose ? 
I choose not one, but I choose them all, 
So please, Miss Nell, give up the ball. 

The ball is ours, it is not yours, 

We will go to the woods and gather flowers ; 

We will get pins to pin our clothes, 

You will get nails to nail your toes. 

Belfast (W. H. Patterson). 



QUEEN ANNE 93 



IX. Queen Anne, Queen Anne, she sits in the sun, 
As fair as a lily, as brown as a bun ; 
We've brought you three letters, pray can you read 

one? 

I can't read one without I read all, 
So pray deliver the ball. 

You old gipsy, sit in the sun, 
And we fair ladies go and come ; 
The ball is mine, and none o' thine, 
And so good-morning, Valentine. 

Swaffham. Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

X. Queen Anne, Queen Anne, she sits in the sun, 
As fair as a lily, as brown as a bun. 
Turn, fair ladies, turn. 

We bring you three letters, and pray you read one. 
I cannot read one without I read all, 
So please ( ) give up the ball. 

[If the wrong guess is made the girls say ] 
The ball is ours, and none of yours, 
And we've the right to keep it. 

[If the right child is named, they say ] 
The ball is yours, and is not ours, 
And you've the right to take it. 

[Some of the children said this rhyme should be] 
The ball is ours, and none of yours, 
So you, black gipsies, sit in the sun, 
While we the fair ladies go as we come. 

London (A. B. Gomme). 

XI. Queen Anne, Queen Anne, she sits in the sun, 
As fair as a lily, as white as a swan ; 
I bring you three letters, so pray you choose one, 
I cannot read one without I read all, 

So pray give up the ball. 

[If the wrong girl is asked, they say ] 
The ball is ours, it is not yours, 
And we've the right to keep it. 



94 QUEEN ANNE 



[When the right one is guessed ] 

The ball is yours, it is not ours, 
And you've the right to keep it. 

Barnes, Surrey (A. B. Gomme). 

XII. The lady Queen Anne she sat in a tan (sedan), 
As fair as a lily, as white as a swan ; 
The Queen of Morocco she sent you a letter, 
So please to read one. 

I won't read one except them all, 

So please, Miss , deliver the ball. 

Hersham, Surrey (Folk-lore Record, v. 87). 

XIII. Queen Ann, Queen Ann, 
She sits in the sun, 

As fair as a lily, and bright as one ; 
King George has sent you three letters, 
And desires you to read one. 

I cannot read one 
Without I read all, 
So pray, Miss ( ), 

Deliver the ball. 

[Rhyme when right is seldom in use, and the one when 
wrong forgotten.] 

The ball is ours, and none of yours, 
So, black gipsies, sit in the sun, 
And we, fair ladies, go as we come. 

Sussex, about 1850 (Miss Chase). 

XIV. Queen Ann, Queen Ann, 
She sat in the sun ; 

A pair of white gloves to cover her hands, 
As white as a lily, as red as a rose, 
To which young lady do you propose ? 

Devon (Miss Chase). 

XV. Here come seven sisters, 

And seven milken daughters, 
And with the ladies of the land, 
And please will you grant us. 



QUEEN ANNE 95 



I grant you once, I grant you twice, 

I grant you three times over; 

A for all, and B for ball, 

And please [ ] deliver the ball. 

Booking, Essex (Folk-lore Journal, vi. 211). 

(b) Sides are chosen, and two lines are formed ; the words 
are said by each line alternately. One line, in which is the 
Queen, standing still or sitting down, the other line advancing 
and retiring while singing the words. The latter line gives 
one of their number a ball or some other small object to hold 
in the hand in such a manner that it cannot be perceived. 
All the players on this side then assume the same position 
either all put their hands behind them or fold their arms, put 







their hands under their armpits, or under their skirts or 
pinafores. The object of the other side is to guess which 
child in the line has the ball. The line which has the ball 
commences the game by advancing singing or saying the first 
three or four lines. Queen Anne answers, and then names one 
of the girls on the opposite side whom she suspects to have 
the ball, and if she be right in her guess the lines change 
sides. If she be wrong, the line retires in triumph, the girl 
who possesses the ball holding it up to show the Queen she 
is wrong. The children all curtsey when leaving the Queen's 
presence. Another girl of the line then takes the ball and 
the game continues till the right holder of the ball is named. 
When the Queen tells the line of players to " turn," they all 
spin round, coming back to face the Queen, and then stand 
still again. In the North Kelsey version (Miss Peacock) there 
is only one player on Queen Anne's side, the rest form the line. 
This is also the case with the Cornish game. 

(c) The analysis of the game-rhymes is as follows : 



96 



QUEEN ANNE 



,. 




O) 
. 


IS 5. 
^ -0 


i 








J2 


d 


3 <ZD '6 




c 
























M 

,2 


1 I | 1 1 1 


'3% 1 


S g A -d 1 1 


' * 0) 


rt 1 


1 ! 


1 




G 


c *o <3 


^ s 3 ^rt 


d 


!$ 






55 




.^ '3 .S 

73 OH 


w.'S <u 

2 - 


s 
II 


<u 






Cornwall. 


Lady Queen Anne. 


Pair of white gloves 
to cover our hand. 
White as lily, fair 


as rose. 

Not so fair as you 
may suppose. 


c~ 

'li 


more we may. 
Q. Anne was born 
on midsummer 


day. 
King sent me three 
letters. 


I 








OJ 


G 


SF 


- 


^S 









J3 






tuo 


x^ 


g 
1 


oi 

1 i 1 1 I l 


co 

3 D 
v> 5! 
(U 

3 -a 


. 1 1 1 
v) fi 


</? *" 

i .% V 


||| 


O j" 

i 


heseonl 
mst be s 








C S 

ii 


|! . 


ag 


ill 


IP 


^S 
Jl 




d tub T3 




| 






c - 




3 


a, -S g 
S a OT 










s 

(A . 


1 


*4> 


8 M | j I | 


I I 1 


3-d 1 1 1 


1 1 1 


1 


C fcr 3 


ll 





^ bjh-S ci Q 




in ^ 






O ^ >i 




a 


org^ g S ^ 




3| 






?S a 


IB 




fe-^^ ^2 




'3 ^J 






S^J Sf 


^ 




E Oc/5 




i2 " 






^ w 










I 






1 




N 1 




c 


j3 






(U 




'f. 


S 

1 1 1 1 1 


3 
1 1 


#1-11 


1 1 1 


, 





I 




< 


,fl 








on d 




X 


c 


.s 


3*1 






g fc " 






< 


c/5 


8 






^| 






u 

c 


S 

V 








g" g 







D O 

c _^ 


2 








*" "rt 




1 


1 1 . *. 1 1 1 


^ 

1 1 ^ 


1 1 I 1 


I 1 1 


1 


C/5 ^ 


1 


1 


(U J3 
C 


M 








" 2 




3 


< 


1 


1 






W)iJ to 






C/3 


. 


E 






S "QJ ^ 






O 1 c/5 


fe 








2 








in i- 


0) i 


<* 
























and (Chamber.- 


o" 
1 1 < 1 s I 

^ = 


of green glov 
her hand, 
te as a lily, fc 


C <" 

1' ! ' fi 


5 _ O 
* o' 


1 


1 1 


I 


1 




.b a2 

oi O> 
OH t> 


3 ~ I E 


:> S 








d 


M ci co <t i 100 


t>^OO O^ 


O M 01 fO 


rf tr-0 


^ 


00 O\ 


o 


5 

















QUEEN ANNE 



97 





1 

0) 








S i 






1 1 


1 Ig 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


u 

.3 


1 


L II il 


2 1; 


1 


1 ' <u 

II 1 

i< 0) 


S , , ^| j f S , , 


||| 1 1 1 III 


> 




-a 2^ ^-a 


"5 


" 


3g 


S C n G 2 C 

H rt a 13 S ri 


6& 


g 


u 








1 


II 1 1 II 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


P 


55 w 






2 


E^ 






u 


-_. 






Is 


1 

1 ' a; 






~* 1 


(^ -5 1 


II 1 1 II 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 M 


" 1 


Sfe 






Q) '^ 


rt'S 






b> ^ 


S-o 






!> 


PH 






L 


2 






~ i 


, ,x 

% a | 


II 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




Ji 






OJ 

"d 

Hi 

II 


OJ 

1 
" ri 1 


^ & 'g a -o 1 *5 "c 
II ^ g S II-S 2o 

2 *S otuo oo^ 1 *^ 

'" a " ^ 1 1 ^ 8 J8 j 8 

n S o - w" ' S3 S S " 

^i^iyii JIBI:I 


1 1 1 ! 1 1 1 


c c 


t^ 


|a|iS|S8 ^l 2 !' 1 


3 


c 

8*3 

|ii 


a 

3 

2 




.S S rt 

it ii 

-Sl 1 1111 


S 'S.s 

^ ctf 

1 1 Cl ll 1 1 1 




|1 


2l Ib 


s *l 


p 




T3 O T3 


gill 


s s 


co 4 

N <N 


xA> \d ts od ON o M ci 

<N<N N (NOCOCOCO 


CO rf LO VO IN 00 ON 



VOL. II. 



G 



98 



QUEEN ANNE 







fe 'S c 3 ? 

IT u . g^ 




c 


1 ij 1 1 


l-jll 3j 1 1 N 1^1 


1 1 1 1 1 




G 


e'S "c S S Z&c 


4 




0> 


'** *S 3 iP -^ c 


4 




5 


c^ ^ H 








.1 


1S2"S 
" 2 S 






c' ^ 


ri 


X 
3 


i 1 1 1 i 


lj 1 1 t.,1 M I 


^'oj a 

III t U Q 

1} r^ ^> 


O) 





c So 


T3 ^ flj 




<U 


.5 


tuo X .hi c 







2 '5 ^ 


-S xg o 




OJ 


OJ 


8fc 




C 


Id 


Ss 


| 


< 


, 


111 


1 

v 


1 1 | 1 

Q, rt 


ill S g i i i i i 

c/i 2 
d ^ 


^; TO 4> 

|-i 




"O OT 


- w 






J 


g d 


5"s 






S 


(D 1/3 






c ^ 


*s ^ 


<fl 


U 




g 


1 


C 


l| 1 S d | | | | | 

* J 52 ^ 


111 I R - 




$ 

5 


V- C/3 

~ '3 rt 

C/3 fa 


^5^ 






C 


s 






o 


5 


London. 


1 ij ] 1 

G 


^ 
Ijl 1 -t 1 1 1 1 

G a| 


ml.! 

.S J2 o 
3 




I 


1 I 3 


^, ^^ l-t 


S 




& 


8 ^ 

^ u 

S 3 


rt 


o5 


3 


W3 


1 


1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 3 - 1 M 1 


1 1 1 1 j 





<! 


5 w 




W 





C C^ ^Q 


^ ^ ^ n" 




01 


"""* IM t/5 


- > ^ ^ fi 




?3 


*2 *M ^ 






a 


c^ fa 


^ (X 




i 


g-g 3 |^| 






c 


^O c^ ^_, C rt *"*" 






<j T3 


bjQ *S U7 




Belfast. 


I 1 1 1 9 

0* G 
>, o 


1 l|| 1 1 t l|g}| 

oo 33 ^-d S^-S^ 


1 1 1 1 1 




3 1 


s^ -a- -a- | s '|^ 

CH fa fa H !> 




. 








o 


H N CO T ^O 


>o t>.od cy> O M d ro it- 


lOvO txOO C\ 


5 









QUEEN ANNE 99 



1 1 


I 1 


Mill 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


C 

o 


1 


|. & 1- 

a8 .|| 


'jj 


Pray, Miss [ 
deliver the 


l|l|ll^l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

IflSlg 

.-53 eT g 

c^ ^ d h 


8" 


^-j 







u-.^ 




Id 

1 E* 


% 


Mill 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II 


la 


Cu 







1 


2" 'C 3 b" ~ a, 


"rt 3 ' 


ex 


g 5^.| e - !| 


l s 
s^ 


1 gj 

<S U 


II 1 -Jl |'g,a| 1 1 l'| o | M 1 1 


a s 


^ 


h'~ <^h rt < 


i 


1 


1 %> i 1 --"a; 




CX 


w -w *-i Sv tn ^ d ^ S 


Qj 


3 


*^ S SH to/) 3 T^ O 


'! 


l| 

M 


M i if i r|f llll-S ii ''I i i 


II 
s^ 


11 


|| lllg-||l 


o 


OH 


H < H ^ ^ 




1 


S g, ^ ^ 
.a oj .S 
w - 8 g* 6 









1 1 


i S 


|-a e -f 12 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 1 l^| 




1 


i 1 lg 'g o^ 




fr 


- ^ - C ^ O ^^ 







^"| d h c c8 


1 


ij;=j 


-ts - 31 2 .-^ 


u 

c 


j3 


g ^ o SD -^-5 ' 


! 11 


lit 


1 1 1 flgjL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 li||g 1 


o o 


& j 


-^c^'o^ 'g'^- 


fl 


|-a 


s.a5lS a,-ag 

H ^ ^ ^ 


ss 


N CO 

M Cl 


MM M W N M fOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOcOCO 



ioo QUEEN ANNE 



This game appears to be in such a state of decadence that 
it is difficult to do more than suggest an origin. It may be 
that " Queen Anne" represents an oracle, and the petition is 
addressed to her to discover the stolen treasure; but more 
probably the players represent disguised damsels, one of whom 
is a bride whose identity has to be found out by her showing 
or possessing some object which belongs to or has been given 
previously by her suitor. The " guessing" or " naming" a 
particular person runs through all the versions, and is un- 
doubtedly the clue to the game. If the Belfast version is 
the nearest to the original of those at present existing, and 
there is every probability that this is so, especially as Chambers' 
version is so similar, an early form of the game might be 
restored, and from this its origin may be ascertained. Using 
the first four lines of one of Halliwell's versions, and what 
appear to be the common lines of the other versions, the 
reading is 

Suitor and Friends. 

Here we come a-piping, 
First in Spring and then in May. 
The Queen she sits upon the sand, 
Fair as a lily, white as a wand [swan]. 

Here's a pair of < w ] " \ gloves to cover the hands 
I green J 

[suitors offer gloves], 
Of the fairest lady in all the land. 

Guardian (or Mother) and Maidens. 

Come ( taste 1 my lily, come-f taste i my rose, 
( smell J I smell J 

For which of my maidens do you propose ? 

Suitors or Queen Anne. 
I chose but one, I chose from all, 
I pray, Miss ( ), receive the ball [throwing ball to 

one girl, who catches it]. 
Or 

[I pray this hand receive the ball], putting a ball into 
the extended hands of one of three girls. 



QUEEN ANNE 101 



Guardian then disguises three girls (one with the ball) with 
veils or other coverings, so that they precisely resemble each 
other, and returns with the girls to the suitors, saying to the 
girls- 
Turn, ladies, turn ; turn, ladies, turn ; 

and to the suitors 

Come choose your own, come choose from all. 

I've brought you three letters, pray can you read one ? 

Suitor 
(touching one of the disguised girls). 

I cannot read one without I read all. 

I pray, Miss ( ), yield up the ball.] 

Disguised Maiden 
(one who did not receive the ball). 

The ball is mine, and none of thine, 
And so, good morning, Valentine. 

Chorus of Maidens (curtseying). 

We will go to the wood and gather flowers, 
We will get pins to pin our clothes, 
You will get nails to nail your toes. 
Cats and kittens bide within, 
But we, young maidens, come out and in. 

The inference being that the chosen maiden is still free until 
the suitor can try again, and is fortunate enough to indicate the 
right maiden. 

If this conjectural restoration of the verses be accepted on 
the evidence, it would suggest that this game originated from 
one of the not uncommon customs practised at weddings or 
betrothals when the suitor has to discriminate between several 
girls all dressed precisely alike and distinguish his bride by 
some token. (See " King William.") This incident of actual 
primitive custom also obtains in folk tales, thus showing its 
strong hold upon popular tradition, and hence increasing the 
probability that it would reappear in games. It must be re- 



IO2 



QUEEN MARY 



membered that the giving of gloves was a significant fact in 
betrothals. 

This game is said by some to have its origin in the use 
of the sedan chair. A version taken from a newspaper 
cutting (unfortunately I had not recorded the name and date, 
but think it was probably the Leeds Mercury some years ago) 
gives the following rhyme. The writer does not say whether 
he knows it as a game 

Lady Lucan she sits in a sedan, 
As fair as a lily, as white as a swan ; 
A pair of green gloves to doff and to don. 
My mistress desires you will read one, 
I can't read one without them all, 
So I pray this hand decline the ball. 

In this version there is still the puzzle to solve, or riddle 
to read. 



Qu 

crt 

> 

CO 

en 


9 


een Mary 

3r-fr M 1* ic 1* 






fl) 8 ^ 1 J T J - 


i~ .J^ J p| 


* p J j JJ] 


~ He has 


L/ Is tt. 




i V Ik 1% K S | 


XL P iS h_ S P 


1 IS i S 


Me ' CZj Is i 


f(Y\ J . JS J 


J J^ 


I ^T' J , J J ; r J 


\S7 m 9 ^ 1 g"'9~ 


' J T! 


^ -^ i- ^ ,...j...^ . 


^ 


* M 


y 


T~ f~f~~^~^ ?~ 


^""1^=1^ =^ 


=qg^| k S ^ H 


,* ^r 


-*-*? 




j' o | n - | 


L 1, 1 


i i i i 




* K n 


L. K k_ - S 




J 


K K 




9^9 


J * J * 


3 






V J Nl i h. 


3K 


I 


jf } J 1 h 


^ 


IS t. i 


tfh J * J .- J 


. J...,, IV 


K . K r n 



Hexham (Miss J. Barker). 

I. Queen Mary, Queen Mary, my age is sixteen, 
My father's a farmer on yonder green ; 
He has plenty of money to dress me in silk 
Come away, my sweet laddie, and take me a walk. 



QUEEN MARY 103 



One morning I rose and I looked in the glass, 
I thought to myself what a handsome young lass ; 
My hands by my side, and a gentle ha, ha, 
Come away, my sweet lassie, and take me a walk. 

Father, mother, may I go, may I go, may I go ; 
Father, mother, may I go, to buy a bunch of roses ? 
Oh yes, you may go, you may go, you may go ; 
Oh yes, you may go, buy a bunch of roses ! 

Pick up her tail and away she goes, away she goes, 

away she goes ; 

Pick up her tail and away she goes, to buy a bunch 
of roses. 

Sang by the children of Hexham Workhouse 
(Miss J. Barker). 

II. Queen Mary, Queen Mary, my age is sixteen, 
My father's a farmer on yonder green ; 
He has plenty of money to keep me sae braw, 
Yet nae bonnie laddie will tak' me awa'. 

The morning so early I looked in the glass, 
And I said to myself what a handsome young lass ; 
My hands by my side, and I gave a ha, ha, 
Come awa', bonnie laddie, and tak' me awa'. 

Berwickshire, A. M. Bell, Antiqtiary^ xxx. 17. 

III. My name is Queen Mary, 
My age is sixteen, 

My father's a farmer in Old Aberdeen ; 
He has plenty of money to dress me in black 
There's nae [no] bonnie laddie 'ill tack me awa'. 
Next mornin' I wakened and looked in the glass, 
I said to myself, what a handsome young lass ; 
Put your hands to your haunches and give a ha, ha, 
For there's nae bonnie laddie will tack ye awa'. 

N. E. Scotland (Rev. W. Gregor). 

IV. My name is Queen Mary, 
My age is sixteen, 

My father's a farmer in yonder green ; 



io 4 QUEEN OF SHEB A RAGMAN 

He's plenty of money to dress in silk [fu' braw'], 
For there's nae bonnie laddie can tack me awa'. 
One morning I rose and I looked in the glass, 
Says I to myself, I'm a handsome young lass ; 
My hands by my edges, and I give a ha, ha, 
For there's nae bonnie laddie t' tack me awa'. 

Cullen (Rev. W. Gregor). 

(b) The Scottish game is played by girls. The players join 
hands, form a circle with one in the centre, and dance round 
singing. At the words "'ill tack me awa'/' the centre player 
chooses another one, and the two wheel round. Then the 
singing proceeds. At the exclamation " ha ! ha ! " the players 
suit the action to the words of the line. In the Cullen game 
the girls stand in a row with one in front, who sings the verses 
and chooses another player from the line. The two then join 
hands and go round and round, singing the remaining verses. 

Queen of Sheba 

Two rows of people sit on chairs face to face on each side 
of a door, leaving just sufficient space between the lines for a 
player to pass. At the end of the rows furthest from the door 
sits the " Queen of Sheba," with a veil or shawl over her head. 
A player, hitherto unacquainted with the game, is brought to 
the door, shown the Queen, and told to go up between the 
rows, after being blindfolded, to kiss her, taking care, mean- 
while, to avoid treading on the toes of the people on each 
side the alley leading to the lady. While his mind is diverted 
by these instructions, and by the process of blindfolding, the 
Queen gives up her seat to " the King," who has been lurking 
in the background. He assumes the veil and receives the kiss, 
to the amusement of every one but the uninitiated player. 

Anderby, Lincolnshire, and near the Trent, 
Nottinghamshire (Miss M. Peacock). 

Ragman 

An ancient game, at which persons drew by chance poetical 
descriptions of their characters, the amusement consisting as 
at modern games of a similar kind in the peculiar applica- 
tion or misapplication of the verses so selected at hazard by 
the drawers. Halliwell's Dictionary. Halliwell goes on to 



RAGMAN 105 

say that the meaning of this term was first developed by 
Mr. Wright in his Anecdota Literaria, 1844, where he has 
printed two collections of ancient verses used in the game of 
" Ragman." Mr. Wright conjectures that the stanzas were 
written one after another on a roll of parchment ; that to each 
stanza a string was attached at the side, with a seal or piece of 
metal or wood at the end ; and that when used the parchment 
was rolled up with all the strings and their seals hanging 
together, so that the drawer had no reason for choosing one 
more than another, but drew one of the strings by mere chance, 
and which he opened to see on what stanza he had fallen. If 
such were the form of the game, we can very easily imagine 
why the name was applied to a charter with an unusual 
number of seals attached to it, which, when rolled up, would 
present exactly the same appearance. Mr. Wright is borne 
out in his opinion by an English poem, termed " Ragmane 
roelle," printed from MS., Fairfax, 16: 

" My ladyes and my maistresses echone, 
Lyke hit unto your humbyble wommanhede, 
Resave in gre of my sympill persone 
This rolle, which, withouten any drede, 
Kynge Ragman me bad me sowe in brede, 
And cristyned yt the merour of your chaunce ; 
Drawith a strynge, and that shal streight yow leyde 
Unto the verry path of your governaunce." 
That the verses were generally written in a roll may perhaps 
be gathered from a passage in Douglas's Virgil : 

" With that he raucht me ane roll : to rede I begane, 

The royetest ane ragment with mony ratt rime." 
Halliwell also quotes the following : 

"Venus, whiche stant withoute lawe, 
In non certeyne, but as men drawe 
Of Ragemon upon the chaunce, 
Sche leyeth no peys in the balaunce." 

Gower, MS. Society of Antiquaries, 134, 244. 

The term rageman is applied to the devil in " Piers Plough- 
man," 335. 



106 RAG-STAGRAX 



Rag-stag 

See " Stag Warning." 

Rakes and Roans 

A boys' game, in which the younger ones are chased by the 
larger boys, and when caught carried home pick-a-back. 
H alii well's Dictionary. 

Moor {Suffolk Words and Phrases) says this game is often 
called " Rakes " only, and is the same, probably, that is 
thus alluded to : " To play Reaks, to domineer, to show mad 
pranks." The jest of it is to be carried home a pig-back, by 
the less swift wight who you may catch. 

Rakkeps 

A game among boys [undescribed]. Dickinson's Cumber- 
land Glossary. 

Range the Bus 

Sides are chosen, and a line made across the playground. 
One of the sides goes up and the other goes down, and throws 
their bonnets on the ground. Then one side tries to get one of 
the opposite side across the line and crown him, and one of 
the opposite side tries to crown him back. If another boy 
can catch this player before he gets near him, he is crowned 
also. All the time the one side is trying to take the bonnets. 
Old Aberdeen (Rev. W. Gregor). 

See " French and English," " Scotch and English." 

Rax, or Raxie-boxie, King of Scotland 

The players, except one, take their stand at one side, and 
one stands at the other side in front of them. When all are 
ready, the one in front calls out " Cock," or " Caron," when all 
rush across to the other side, and he tries to catch one of them 
in crossing. The one caught helps to catch the others as they 
run back. Each time the players run from the one side to the 
other the word "Cock," or "Caron," is called out, and the 
change is continued till all are caught each one as caught 
becoming a catcher. In Tyrie the game is called " Dyke King " 
when played by boys, and "Queen" when played by girls. 



RELIEVO RELIGIOUS CHURCH 107 

The word " King/' or " Queen," is called out before each run, 
according as the game is played by boys or girls. Ballin- 
dalloch (Rev. W. Gregor). 

This game is called " Red Rover " in Liverpool (Mr. C. C. 
Bell). "Red Rover" is shouted out by the catcher when 
players are ready to rush across. 

See " King Caesar." 

Relievo 

This game is played by one child trying to catch the rest. 
The first prisoner taken joins hands with the captor and helps 
in the pursuit, and so on till all the playmates have been taken. 
Anderby, Lines. (Miss M. Peacock). 

This game is the same as "Chickiddy Hand," "Stag 
Warning." 

Religious Church 

The children stand in a line. One child on the opposite 
side, facing them, says 

Have you been to a religious church ? 
Row of children answer 

No! 

Have I asked you ? 

No! 

Put your fingers on your lips and follow me. 

All the row follow behind her to some other part of the ground, 
where she stands with her back to them, and they form a new 
row. One child out of the row now steps forward, and stand- 
ing behind the first girl says 

Guess who stands behind you ? 

If the first girl guesses right she keeps her old place, and 
they begin again. If she is wrong the child who has come from 
the row takes her place, and a new game is begun. Of course 
the child who asks the last question alters its voice as much 
as possible, so as not to be recognised. Liphook, Hants. 
(Miss Fowler). 



io8 



RIGS RING A RING O' ROSES 



Rigs 

A game of children in Aberdeenshire, said to be the same 
as Scotch and English, and also called Rockety Row. Jamie- 
son's Dictionary. 

Ring 

See " Ring-taw." 

Ring a Ring o' Roses 






Marlborough (H. S. May). 



I :=sr^=s=s=]= 




Yorkshire (H. Hardy). 



Or, 






Sporle (Miss Matthews). 
I. Ring a ring o' roses, 

A pocket-full o' posies ; 

One for me, and one for you, 

And one for little Moses 

Hasher, Hasher, Hasher, all fall down. 

Winterton, Lincoln, and Leadenham 
(Miss M. Peacock). 

II. A ring, a ring o' roses, 
A pocket-full o' posies ; 

One for Jack, and one for Jim, and one for little 

Moses 

A-tisha ! a-tisha ! a-tisha ! 
Shropshire (Burne's Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 511). 

III. A ring, a ring o' roses, 
A pocket-full o' posies ; 

A curchey in, and a curchey out, 
And a curchey all together. 
Egmond (Burne's Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 571). 



RING A RING O' ROSES 109 

IV. Ring, a ring o' roses, 
A pocket full o' posies ; 
Up-stairs and down-stairs, 
In my lady's chamber 
Husher ! Husher ! Cuckoo ! 

Wakefield, Yorks. (Miss Fowler). 

V. Ring, a ring of roses, 
Basket full of posies 
Tisha ! Tisha ! all fall down. 

Penzance, Cornwall (Mrs. Mabbott). 

VI. Ring, a ring a roses, 
A pocketful of posies ; 
Hush, oh ! hush, oh ! 
All fall down ! 

Colchester, Essex (Miss G. M. Frances). 

VII. Ring, a ring a rosy, 

A pocket full of posies ; 
One for you, and one for me, 
And one for little Moses 
Atishm ! Atishm ! 

Beddgelert (Mrs. Williams). 

VIII. A ring, a ring of roses, 

A pocket full of posies 
Hist ! hush ! last down dead ! 

Gainford, Durham (Miss A. Eddleston). 

IX. Ring, a ring a row-o, 
See the children go-o, 
Sit below the goose-berry bush ; 
Hark ! they all cry Hush ! hush ! hush ! 
Sitty down, sit down. 

Duzzy, duzzy gander, 

Sugar, milk, and candy ; 

Hatch-u, hatch-u, all fall down together. 

South Shields (Miss Blair, aged 9). 



no RING A RING O' ROSES 

X. Ringey, ringey rosies, 
A pocketful of posies 
Hach-ho, hach-ho, all fall down. 
Another version 

Hash-ho ! Tzhu-ho ! all fall down. 

Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

XL Windy, windy weather, 
Cold and frosty weather, 
When the wind blows 
We all blow together. 
I saw Peter ! 

When did you meet him ? 
Merrily, cherrily [so pronounced] 
All fall down. 

A ring, a ring of roses, 
A pocketful of posies 
Ashem, ashem, all fall down. 

Sheffield (S. O. Addy). 

(fr) A ring is formed by the children joining hands. They 
all dance round, singing the lines. At the word " Hasher " or 
" Atcha" they all raise their hands [still clasped] up and down, 
and at " all fall down " they sit suddenly down on the ground. 
In Lancashire (Morton) they pause and curtsey deeply. The 
imitation of sneezing is common to all. Miss Peacock says, in 
Nottinghamshire they say " Hashem ! Hashem ! " and shake 
their heads. In the Sheffield version the children sing the 
first eight lines going round, and all fall down when the 
eighth is sang. They then form a ring by holding hands, and 
move round singing the next three lines, and then they all fall 
either on their knees or flat on their faces. 

(c) Versions of this game, identical with the Winterton one, 
have been sent me by Miss Winfield, Nottingham; others, almost 
identical with the second Norfolk version, from Monton, Lan- 
cashire (Miss Dendy), North Staffs. Potteries, Norbury, Staffs., 
(Miss A. Keary), Earls Heaton, Yorks. (H. Hardy). Addy, 
Sheffield Glossary, gives a version almost identical with the 
last Sporle version. 



RING BY RING RINGIE, RINGIE, RED BELT in 

Addy, Sheffield Glossary, compares the old stories about 
rose-laughing in Grimm's Teut. Myth. iii. noi. "Gifted chil- 
dren of fortune have the power to laugh roses, as Treyja wept 
gold. Probably in the first instance they were Pagan beings 
of light, who spread their brightness in the sky over the earth 
'rose children,' 'sun children.'" This seems to me to be a 
very apposite explanation of the game, the rhymes of which 
are fairly well preserved, though showing in some of the vari- 
ants that decay towards a practical interpretation which will 
soon abolish all traces of the mythical origin of game-rhyme. 
It may, however, simply be the making, or "ringing," a ring 
or circle of roses or other flowers and bowing to this. Mr. 
Addy's suggestion does not account for the imitation of sneez- 
ing, evidently an important incident, which runs through all 
versions. Sneezing has always been regarded as an important 
or supernatural event in every-day life, and many superstitious 
beliefs and practices are connected with it both in savage and 
civilised life. Newell (Games and Songs of American Children, 
p. 127) describes "Ring around the Rosie," apparently this 
game, but the imitation of sneezing has been lost. 

Ring by Ring 

Here we go round by ring, by ring, 

As ladies do in Yorkshire ; 
A curtsey here, a curtsey there, 
A curtsey to the ground, sir. 

Hersham, Surrey (Folk-lore Record^ v. 86). 

There is no description of the way this game is played, but 
it is evidently a similar game to " Ring-a-Ring o' Roses." 

Ringie, Ringie, Red Belt 

Take a small splint of wood, kindle it, and when it is burn- 
ing turn it rapidly round in a circle, repeating the words 
Ringie, ringie, Red Belt, rides wi' the king, 
Nae a penny in's purse t' buy a gold ring. 
Bow ow ow, fat dog art thou, 
Tarn Tinker's dog, bow ow ow. 

Corgarff (Rev. W. Gregor). 



ii2 RING-ME-RARY 



This goes by the name of " Willie Wogie " at Keith, but no 
words are repeated as the splint is whirled. 
See "Jack's Alive." 

Ring-me-rary 

I. Ring me (i), ring me (2), ring me rary (3), 
As I go round (4) ring by ring (5), 
A virgin (6) goes a-maying (7) ; 
Here's a flower (8), and there's a flower (9), 
Growing in my lady's garden (10). 
If you set your foot awry (i i), 
Gentle John will make you cry (12) ; 
If you set your foot amiss (13), 
Gentle John (14) will give you a kiss. 
This [lady or gentleman] is none of ours, 
Has put [him or her] self in [child's name] power ; 
So clap all hands and ring all bells, and make the 
wedding o'er. 

Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes, p. 67. 

II. As I go round ring by ring, 
A maiden goes a-maying ; 
And here's a flower, and there's a flower, 
As red as any daisy. 
If you set your foot amiss, 
Gentle John will give you a kiss. 

Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes, p. 125. 

(b) A number of boys and girls stand round one in the 
middle, who repeats the lines, counting the children until one 
is counted out by the end of the verse. The child upon 
whom (14) falls is then taken out and forced to select one 
of the other sex. The middle child then proceeds to say the 
three last lines. All the children clap hands during the saying 
(or singing) of the last line. If the child taken by lot joins in 
the clapping, the selected child is rejected, and, I believe, takes 
the middle place. Otherwise, I think there is a salute. Halli- 
well. 

(c) This game is recorded by no authority except Halliwell, 
and no version has reached me, so that I suppose it is now 



RING-TAW 113 



obsolete. It is a very good example of the oldest kind of 
game, choosing partners or lovers by the "lot," and may be 
a relic of the May-day festival, when the worship of Flora 
was accompanied by rites of marriage not in accord with 
later ideas. 

Ring-taw 

A rough ring is made on the ground, and the players each 
place in it an equal share in "stonies," or alleys. They each 
bowl to the ring with another marble from a distance. The 
boy whose marble is nearest has the first chance to " taw ; " if 
he misses a shot the second boy, whose marble was next 
nearest to the ring, follows, and if he misses, the next, and 
so on. If one player knocks out a marble, he is entitled to 
" taw " at the rest in the ring until he misses ; and if a 
sure "tawer" not one of the others may have the chance to 
taw. Any one's "taw" staying within the ring after being 
tawn at the "shots," is said to be "fat," and the owner of 
the "taw" must then replace any marbles he has knocked 
out in the ring. Earls Heaton, Yorks. (Herbert Hardy). 
Halliwell (Dictionary) describes this game very much as 
above, except that a fine is imposed on those who leave the 
taw in the ring. Ross and Stead (Holderness Glossary) 
give this game as follows : " Two boys place an equal 
number of marbles in the form of a circle, which are then 
shot at alternately, each boy pocketing the marbles he hits." 
Addy (Sheffield Glossary) says, " Ring - taw " is a marble 
marked with a red ring used in the game of marbles. This 
is commonly called " ring " for short. Evans (Leicester sJiire 
Glossary) describes the game much the same as above, but 
adds some further details of interest. " If the game be 
knuckle-up the player stands and shoots in that position. If 
the game be knuckle-down he must stoop and shoot with the 
knuckle of the first finger touching the ground at taw. In 
both cases, however, the player's toe must be on taw. The 
line was thus called taw as marking the place for the toe of 
the player, and the marble a taw as being the one shot from 
the taw-line, in contradistinction to those placed passively in 

VOL. II. H 



ii4 RIN-IM-O'ER ROBBING, &c. 

the ring-Mine* in the one case, and ' marble' in the other being 
dropped as superfluous." Strutt (Sports and Pastimes, p. 384) 
alludes to the game. 

In Ireland this game is also called " Ring," and is played 
with marbles and buttons. A ring is marked out on a level 
hard place, and every boy puts down a button. The buttons 
are lightly struck in the centre of the ring, and all play their 
marbles to the buttons. The nearest to them play first. The 
line from which they play is generally about eight feet away, 
and everybody does his best to strike the buttons. Any put 
out are kept by the boy putting them out, and if a boy strikes 
a button, or buttons, out, he can play on until he misses. 
Waterville, Cos. Kerry and Cork, T. J. Dennachy (through 
Mrs. B. B. Green of Dublin). 

Rin-im-o'er 

A game among children, in which one stands in the middle 
of a street, road, or lane, while others run across it within a 
certain given distance from the person so placed, and whose 
business it is to catch one in passing, when he is released, 
and the captive takes his place. Teviotdale (Jamieson's Dic- 
tionary). 

It nearly resembles "Willie Wastle." 

Robbing the Parson's Hen-Roost 

This game is played by every player, except one (the ques- 
tioner), choosing a word, and introducing it into his phrase 
whenever he gives an answer. For example, X, Y, and Z 
have chosen the words elephant, key-hole, and mouse-trap. 

Questioner. "What did you steal from the parson's hen- 
roost ? " 

X. "An elephant." 

Q. " How did you get into the hen-roost ? " 

Y.. "Through the key-hole." 

Q. " Where did you put what was stolen ? " 

Z. " Into a mouse-trap." 

And so on with the other players. Lincoln [generally known] 
(Miss M. Peacock). 



ROCKETY ROW ROLY-POLY 115 

The players choose a name, and another player asks them 
questions, beginning with, " The Parson's hen-roost was robbed 
last night, were you there ? " To all questions each player 
must answer by repeating his own name only : if he forgets 
and says, " Yes " or " No," he has to take the questioner's 
place. Haxey, Lincolnshire (Mr. C. C. Bell). 

Rockety Row 

A play in which two persons stand with their backs to each 
other, one passing his arms under the shoulders of the other, 
they alternately lift each other from the ground. Jamieson's 
Dictionary. 

See " Bag o f Malt," " Weigh the Butter." 

Roll up Tobacco 

See " Bulliheisle," "Eller Tree," "Wind up the Bush 
Faggot." 

Roly-poly 

A game played with a certain number of pins and a ball, 
resembling half a cricket ball. One pin is placed in the centre, 
the rest (with the exception of one . 

called the Jack) are placed in a A /L 

circle round it ; the Jack is placed A LA- 
about a foot or so from the circle, 
in a line with the one in the circle 
and the one in the centre. The 
centre one is called the King, the 
one between that and the Jack, the Queen. The King counts 
for three, the Queen two, and each of the other pins for one 
each, except Jack. The art of the game lies in bowling down 
all the pins except Jack, for if Jack is bowled down, the player 
has just so many deducted from his former score as would 
have been added if he had not struck the Jack (Holloway's 
Diet. Provincialisms). This game was formerly called " Half- 
bowl," and was prohibited by a statute of Edward IV. (Halli- 
well's Dictionary). Brockett (North Country Words and 



n6 



ROLY-POLY 



Phrases) says it is a game played at fairs and races. It is, 
under the name of " Kayles," well described and illustrated by 
Strutt (Sports and Pastimes, p. 270, 271), which is reproduced 
here. It will be seen that Jamieson describes it as played with 
a pole or cudgel. He says this game no doubt gave origin to 
the modern one of "Nine-pins;" though primitively the Kayle- 
pins do not appear to have been confined to any certain 
number nor shape. . . . The Kayle-pins appear to have been 
placed in one row only. He also says that " Half- bowl," 
played in Hertfordshire, was called " Roly-poly." 





Jamieson (Dictionary) gives this as " Rollie-poly," a game of 
nine-pins, called also Kayles. The name " Rollie-poly " was 
given to it because it was played with a pole, or cudgel, by 
which the pins were knocked over. In the West of Scotland, 
where this game was in great repute in olden times, it formed 
one of the chief sports of Fastern's-e'en, and was a favourite 
amusement at fairs and races. The awards for successful 
throwing were generally in the form of small cakes of ginger- 
bread, which were powerful incentives to the game, and never 
failed to attract players in response to the cry, "Wha'll try the 
lucky Kayles ? " 



RONIN THE BEE ROSY APPLE, &c. 117 

Ronin the Bee 

A rude game. A cazzie, or cassie, is unexpectedly thrown 
over the head of a person. When thus blindfolded he is pressed 
down, and buckets of water are thrown upon the cassie till the 
victim is thoroughly saturated. Jamieson's Dictionary. 

See "Carrying the Queen a Letter," " Ezzeka." 

Rosy Apple, Lemon and Pear 




Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

I. Rosy apple, lemon, or pear, 
Bunch of roses she shall wear ; 
Gold and silver by her side, 
I know who will be the bride. 
Take her by her lily-white hand, 
Lead her to the altar ; 
Give her kisses, one, two, three, 
Mrs. (child's name) daughter. 

Hersham, Surrey (Folk-lore Record, v. 58). 

II. Rosy apple, lemon, and pear, 
A bunch of roses she shall wear ; 
Gold and silver by her side, 
Choose the one shall be her bride. 
Take her by her lily-white hand, 
Lead her to the altar ; 
Give her kisses, one, two, three, 
To old mother's runaway daughter. 
Symondsbury, Dorsetshire (Folk-lore Journal, vii. 210). 

III. Rosy apple, lemon, and a pear, 

A bunch of ribbons she shall wear; 
Gold and silver by her side, 
I know who will be her bride. 



n8 ROSY APPLE, LEMON AND PEAR 

Take her by the lily-white hand, 

Lead her over the water ; 

Give her kisses, one, two, three, 

For Mrs. daughter. 

Maxey, Northants. (Rev. W. D. Sweeting). 

IV. Rosy apple, lemon, and a pear, 
Bunch of roses you shall wear ; 
Gold and silver by your side, 
I know who shall be a bride. 
Take her by the lily-white hand, 
Lead her 'cross the water ; 
Give her kisses, one, two, three, 
For Mrs. (So-and-so's) daughter. 

Deptford, Kent (Miss Chase). 

V. Rosie had an apple and a pear, 
A bunch of roses she shall wear ; 
Gold and silver by her side, 
I knows who shall be her bride. 
Take her by the lily-white hand, 
Lead her across the water ; 
Give her a kiss, and one, two, three, 
Old Mother Sack-a-biddy's daughter ! 

Ogbourne, Wilts. (H. S. May). 

VI. Rosy apples, mellow pears, 

Bunch of roses she shall wear ; 
Gold and silver by her side, 
Tell me who shall be her bride. 
Take her by her lily-white hand, 
Lead her across the ocean ; 
Give her a kiss, and one, two, three, 

Mrs. daughter. 

Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

VII. A rosy apple, lemon, and a pear, 
A bunch of roses she shall wear ; 
Gold and silver by your side, 
Choose the one to be your bride. 



ROSY APPLE, LEMON AND PEAR 119 

Take her by her lily-white hand, 

Lead her to the altar ; 

Give her a kiss by one, two, three, 

Mrs. daughter. 

Cowes, I. of Wight (Miss E. Smith). 

VIII. Roses up, and roses down, 
Roses in the garden ; 
I wadna gie ye a bunch o' flowers 
For tenpence halfpenny farden. 
Take her by the lily-white hand, 
Lead her across the water ; 
Gie her a kiss, and one, two, three, 
For she's a lady's daughter. 

Berwickshire (A. M. Bell) Antiquary ', xxx. 16. 

IX. Maggie Littlejohn, fresh and fair, 
A bunch of roses in her hair ; 
Gold and silver by her side, 
I know who is her bride. 

Take her by the lily-white hand, 

Lead her over the water ; 

Give her kisses, one, two, three, 

For she's a lady's daughter. 

Roses up, and roses down, 

And roses in the garden ; 

I widna give a bunch of roses 

For twopence ha'penny farthing. 

Rev. W. Gregor. 

X. Roses up, and roses down, 
And roses in the garden ; 
I widna gie a bunch o' roses 
For tippence ha'penny farden. 
So and so, fresh and fair, 
A bunch o' roses she shall wear ; 
Gold and silver by her side, 
Crying out, " Cheese and bride " (bread). 



120 ROSY APPLE, LEMON AND PEAR 

Take her by the lily-white hand, 
Lead her on the water ; 
Give her kisses, one, two, three, 
For she's her mother's daughter. 

Fraserburgh (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XI. Roses up, and roses down, 
And roses in the garden ; 
I wadna gie a bunch o' roses 
For twopence ha'penny farthin'. 

, fresh and fair, 

A bunch of roses she shall wear ; 
Gold and silver by her side, 
I know who's her bride. 

Take her by the lily-white hand, 

And lead her o'er the water ; 

And give her kisses, one, two, three, 

For she's the princess' daughter. 

Cullen (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XII. Maggie Black, fresh and fair, 

A bunch of roses she shall wear ; 
I know who Til take. 
Give her kisses, one, two, three, 
For she's a lady's daughter. 

Roses in, and roses out, 

Roses in a garden ; 

I would not give a bunch of roses 

For twopence halfpenny " farden." 

Nairn (Rev. W. Gregor). 

(c) The players form a ring, one child stands in the centre, 
who chooses a sweetheart from the ring when the fifth line 
is sung; the two kiss, the first child takes her place in the 
ring, the second child remains in the centre, and the game 
begins again. This is the method adopted in most of the 
versions. The Symondsbury game is slightly different ; the 
first part is the same, but when the last line is sung the child 
who was first in the middle must run away and take a place 
in the ring as soon as she can. The second one remains in 



ROSY APPLE, LEMON AND PEAR 121 

the centre. The Maxey (Northants.) version is altogether diffe- 
rent. All the children but one stand in a row. The one 
stands in front of them and sings the lines by herself; at 
the last line she selects one from the line by naming her. 
These two then sing the lines, " swinging round/' so described 
by Mr. Sweeting's informant. They then select a third when 
singing the last line, and the three then swing round. This 
is repeated till all the children from the line come into the 
ring. 

In the Scotch versions the players all stand in a line, with 
one in front, and sing. At the end of the fourth line the one 
in front chooses one from the line, and all again sing, mention- 
ing the name of the one chosen (Fraserburgh). At Cullen, 
one child stands out of the line and goes backwards and 
forwards singing, then chooses her partner, and the two go 
round the line singing. 

(d) A version which I collected in Barnes is not so perfect 
as those given here, only the four first lines being sung. A 
Kentish version sent me by Miss Broadwood is almost iden- 
tical with the Deptford game. Miss Broadwood's version 
commences 

Rosy apple, miller, miller, pear. 

An Ipswich version is almost identical with that of Hersham, 
Surrey (Lady C. Gurdon's Suffolk County Folk-lore, p. 64), 
except that it begins " Golden apple " and ends with the 
marriage formula 

Now you're married, I wish you joy, 
Father and mother you must obey ; 
Love one another like sister and brother, 
And now's the time to kiss away. 

(e) This game is probably derived from the mode of dressing 
the bride in the marriage ceremony, and is not very ancient. 
The line " Lead her to the altar " probably indicates the earliest 
version, corrupted later into " Lead her across the water," and 
this would prove a comparatively modern origin. If, however, 
the "altar" version is a corruption of the "water" version, the 
game may go back to the pre-Christian marriage ceremony, but 
of this there is little evidence. 



122 



ROUNDABOUT ROUND THE VILLAGE 



Roundabout, or Cheshire Round 

This is danced by two only, one of each sex ; after leading 
off into the middle of an imaginary circle, and dancing a short 
time opposite to each other, the one strives by celerity of steps 
in the circumference of the circle to overtake and chase the 
other round it; the other in the meantime endeavouring to 
maintain an opposite situation by equal celerity in receding. 
Roberts' Cambrian Popular Antiquities, p. 46. 

Halliwell gives Round, a kind of dance. " The round dance, 
or the dancing of the rounds." Nomenclator, 1585, p. 299. 
There was a sort of song or ballad also so called. Diet. 
Provincialisms. 



Round and Round the Village 







Barnes, Surrey (A. B. Gomme). 




Hanbury, Staff. (Edith Hollis). 



I. Round and round the village, 
Round and round the village ; 
Round and round the village, 
As we have done before. 

In and out the windows, 
In and out the windows ; 
In and out the windows, 
As we have done before. 



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 123 

Stand and face your lover, 
Stand and face your lover ; 
Stand and face your lover, 
As we have done before. 

Follow her to London, 
Follow her to London ; 
Follow her to London, 
As we have done before. 

Kiss her before you leave her, 
Kiss her before you leave her ; 
Kiss her before you leave her, 
As we have done before. 

Barnes, Surrey (taken down from children 
of village school A. B. Gomme). 

II. Round and round the village, 
Round and round the village ; 
Round and round the village, 
As you have done before. 

In and out the window, 
In and out the window ; 
In and out the window, 
As you have done before. 

Stand and face your lover, 
Stand and face your lover ; 
Stand and face your lover, 
As you have done before. 

Deptford, Kent (Miss Chase). 

III. Round and round the village, 
In and out of the window ; 
Stand and face your lover, 
As you have done before. 

Stand and face your lover, 
Stand and face your lover ; 
Oh, stand and face your lover, 
As you have done before. 



i2 4 ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 

Follow me to London, 
Follow me to London ; 
Oh, follow me to London, 
As you have done before. 

Wakefield, Yorks. (Miss Fowler). 

IV. Round and round the village, 
In and out of the window ; 
Stand and face your lover, 
As you have done before ; 
Oh, stand and face your lover, 
As you have done before, O. 

Follow me to London, 
Follow me to London ; 
Follow me to London, 
As you have done before. 

Winterton and Bottesford, Lincolnshire 
(Miss M. Peacock). 

V. Round and round the village, 
Round and round the village ; 
Round and round the village, 
As you have done before. 

In and out the windows, 
In and out the windows ; 
In and out the windows, 
As you have done before. 

Stand and face your lover, 
Stand and face your lover ; 
Stand and face your lover, 
As you have done before. 

Shake hands with your lover, 
Shake hands with your lover; 
Shake hands with your lover, 
As you have done before. 

From girls of Clapham High School 
(Miss F. D. Richardson). 



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 125 

VI. Out and in the villages, 
Out and in the villages ; 
Out and in the villages, 
As you have done before. 
Out and in the windows, 
Out and in the windows ; 
Out and in the windows, 
As you have done before. 
Stand before your lover, 
Stand before your lover ; 
Stand before your lover, 
As you have done before. 

Cullen (Rev. W. Gregor). 

VII. Go round and round the village, 
Go round and round the village, 
As we have done before. 

Go in and out the window, 
Go in and out the window, 
As we have done before. 

Come in and face your lover, 

Come in and face your lover, 

As we have done before. 

I measure my love to show you, 
I measure my love to show you, 
As we have done before. 

I kneel because I love you, 
I kneel because I love you, 
As we have done before. 

Follow me to London, 
Follow me to London, 

As we have done before. 

Back again to Westerham, 
Back again to Westerham, 
As we have done before. 

Crockham Hill, Kent (Miss Chase). 



126 ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 

VIII. Walking round the village, 
Walking round the village ; 
Walking round the village, 
As we have done before. 

In and out the windows, 
In and out the windows ; 
In and out the windows, 

As you have done before. 

Stand and face your lover, 
Stand and face your lover ; 
Stand and face your lover, 
As you have done before. 

Now they go off courting, 
Now they go off courting ; 
Now they go off courting, 

As they have done before. 

Chase her back to Scotland, 
Chase her back to Scotland ; 
Chase her back to Scotland, 
As you have done before. 

Penzance, Cornwall (Mrs. Mabbott). 

IX. Round about the village, 
Round about the village ; 
Round about the village, 
As you have done before. 

In and out of the windows, 
In and out of the windows ; 
In and out of the windows, 
As you have done before. 

I stand before my lover, 
I stand before my lover ; 
I stand before my lover, 
As I have done before. 



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 127 

Follow me to London, i 

Follow me to London ; 
Follow me to London, 
As you have done before. 

Dance away to Fairyland, 
Dance away to Fairyland ; 
Dance away to Fairyland, 
As we have done before. 

Stevenage, Herts. (Mrs. Lloyd, taught to a 
friend's children by a nurse from Stevenage}. 

X. All round the village, 
All round the village ; 
All round the village, 
As we have done before. 

In and out of the window, 
In and out of the window ; 
In and out of the window, 
As we have done before. 

Stand and face your lover, 
Stand and face your lover ; 
Stand and face your lover, 
As we have done before. 

Kiss her if you love her, 
Kiss her if you love her ; 
Kiss her if you love her, 
As we have done before. 

Take her off to London, 
Take her off to London ; 
Take her off to London, 
As we have done before. 

Earls Heaton, Yorks. (Herbert Hardy). 

XL All round the village, 
All round the village ; 
All round the village, 
As you have done before. 



128 ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 

In and out the windows, 
In and out the windows ; 
In and out the windows, 
As you have done before. 

Stand and face your lover, 
Stand and face your lover ; 
Stand and face your lover, 
As you have done before. 

Follow her to London, 
Follow her to London ; 
Follow her to London, 
As you have done before. 

Tean, North Staffs, (from a Monitor in 
the School). 

XII. Round and round the village, &c., 
As you have done before. 

In and out the windows, as you have done before. 
Stand and face your lover, &c. 

Follow me to London, &c. 

Roxton, St. Neots (Miss E. Lumley). 

XIII. Out and in the windows, 
Out and in the windows ; 
Out and in the windows, 
As you have done before. 

Stand before your lover, 
Stand before your lover ; 
Stand before your lover, 
As you have done before. 

Follow her to London, 
Follow her to London ; 
Follow her to London, 
Before the break of day. 

Fraserburgh (Rev. W. Gregor). 



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 129 

XIV. In and out of the window, 
In and out of the window ; 
In and out of the window, 
As you have done before. 

Stand and face your lover, 
Stand and face your lover ; 
Stand and face your lover, 
As you have done before. 

Give me a kiss, my darling, 
Give me a kiss, my darling ; 
Give me a kiss, my darling, 
As you have done before. 

Follow me to London, 
Follow me to London ; 
Follow me to London, 

As you have done before. 

Hanbury, Staffordshire (Miss E. Hollis). 

XV. Marching round the ladies, 

Marching round the ladies, as you have done before. 
In and out the windows, 

In and out the windows, as you have done before. 
Stand and face your lover, 

Stand and face your lover, as you have done before. 
Follow me to London, 

Follow me to London, as you have done before. 
Bring me back to Belfast, 

Bring me back to Belfast, as you have done before. 
Belfast, Ireland (W. R. Patterson). 

XVI. Come gather again on the old village green, 

Come young and come old, who once children have been. 
Such frolics and games as ne'er before were seen, 
We join in riots and play [? riotous]. 
Take her off to London, 
Take her off to London, 
Take her off to London. 

VOL. II. I 



130 ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 

In and out the windows, 
In and out the windows ; 
In and out the windows, 
As you have gone before. 

Round about the village, 
Round about the village ; 
Round about the village, 
As you have gone before. 

Soon we will get married, 
Soon we will get married ; 
Soon we will get married, 
And never more depart. 

Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

XVII. Three jolly sailor boys 
Lately come ashore, 

Spend their time in drinking lager wine, 
As they have done before. 

We go round, and round, and round, 
As we have done before ; 
And this is a girl, and a very pretty girl, 
A kiss for kneeling there. 

Go in and out the window, 
Go in and out the window ; 
Go in and out the window, 
As we have done before. 

Follow me to London, 
Follow me to London ; 
Follow me to London, 

As we have done before. 

Go back and face your lover, 

Go back and face your lover ; 

Go back and face your lover, 

As we have done before. 

Brigg (from a Lincolnshire friend of Miss J. Barker). 



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 131 

XVIII. Up and down the valley, 
Up and down the valley ; 
Up and down the valley, 
As I have done before. 

In and out the window, 
In and out the window; 
In and out the window, 

As I have done before. 

Stand and face your lover, 
Stand and face your lover ; 
Stand and face your lover, 
As I have done before. 

Follow me to London, 
Follow me to London ; 
Follow me to London, 

As I have done before. 

Settle, Yorks. (Rev. W. S. Sykes). 

XIX. In and out the willows, 
In and out the willows ; 
In and out the willows, 

As you have done before. 

Stand and face your lover, 
Stand and face your lover ; 
Stand and face your lover, 
As you have done before. 

Follow me to London, 
Follow me to London ; 
Follow me to London, 

As you have done before. 
West Grinstead, Sussex (Notes and Queries, 
8th Series, i. 249, Miss Busk). 

(c) The children join hands and form a ring with one child 
standing outside. The ring stands perfectly still throughout this 
game and sings the verses, the action being confined to at first 
one child, and then to two together. During the singing of 



I 3 2 



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 



the first verse the outside child dances round the ring on the 
outside. When the ring commences to sing the second verse 
the children hold up their arms to form arches, and the child 
who has been running round outside runs into the ring under 
one pair of joined hands, and out again under the next pair of 
arms, continuing this " in and out " movement until the third 
verse is commenced. The child should try and run in and 



Figl 




out under all the joined hands. At the third verse the child 
stops in the ring and stands facing one, whom she chooses for 
her lover, until the end of the verse ; the chosen child then 
leaves the ring, followed by the first child, and they walk round 
the ring, or they walk away a little distance, returning at the 
commencement of next verse. In the first three versions the 
second child is chased back and caught by the first child. 
In the Clapham version the two shake hands in the last verse. 



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 133 

The Barnes version has kissing for its finale. The Hanbury 
also has kissing, but it precedes the following to London. 
In the Brigg, Lincolnshire (Miss Barker), a child stands in the 
middle and points with her finger to each one she passes ; 
finally selects one, who leaves the ring and kneels in front 
of the girl in the middle. At the end of the second verse 
the kneeling child gets up and the first child goes in and out 
under the arms of the players, followed by the other. At the 
fourth they reverse and go back under the arms in the 
opposite direction, finally stopping in the middle of the ring, 
when another child is chosen and the first one in goes out. 
In the Winterton and Bottesford versions (Miss Peacock), at 
the words "Stand and face your lover," the child who has 
been going " in and out " stands before the one she chooses, 
beckons to her, and sings the next verse. Then the chosen 
one chases her until she can catch her. In the Crockham Hill 
version (Miss Chase) the love is measured out with a handker- 
chief three times, and after kneeling in the road, the chosen 
partner follows round the ring and reverses for the return. 

(d) The analysis of the game-rhymes is on pp. 13439. 
This shows that we are dealing with a game which repre- 
sents a village, and also the houses in it. The village only 
disappears in six out of the twenty versions. In three of 
these (Hanbury, Fraserburgh, and West Grinstead) the line 
has gone altogether. In the fourth (Lincolnshire) it becomes 
" Round and round and round," no mention being made of the 
village. In the fifth (Belfast) the line has become " Marching 
round the ladies." In the sixth (Settle) it has become " Up 
and down the valley," which also occurs in another imperfect 
version, of which a note was sent me by Miss Matthews 
from the Forest of Dean, where the line has become " Round 
and round the valley." The substitution of " ladies " for 
"village" is very significant as evidence that the game, like 
all its compeers, is in a declining stage, and is, therefore, 
not the invention of modern times. The idea of a circle of 
children representing a village would necessarily be the first 
to die out if the game was no longer supported by the influence 
of any custom it might represent. The line of decadence 



134 



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 



>* 
* 

ji 



< < < o 



I 

8 . 



C a; rt S 

fill 

< Of 



i i 
' ' 






. 



and 
wind 



tn -*- 1 <_i 

< <n 



1 1 1 Ji-l 



(U g T3 

G C '^ '-*-" C 

< 






fi l I I I *-l 






JS,, 



S i i 



. 

l 



ffi 

si 
1 

o 



1 1 



1 



I i 






I 1 



11 = 1 



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 135 

j 

o 

i i i i i i i i i i i i 3 . i i i i i 



iiijgiijgiiiiiiiiii 

<u~ o< 

35 x js 

,c >> 3 

co < 



3 3 

2 T3 

I I I I I I I I I I | I * M . I I I I I 



9 TJ se T3 

. * > 

I I ? I i I a; I I I 1 -M-Sg' 

S . u o e iJ ,0 

|l JS |JJ* 



S gj . v 

I I ! I I I I I I I | I J.I I | I J 

pt^ *3^ Q ^ 

~1 | : | i I | | 

go* p3^22 

I || I I I I ^ -f |J -I 1 I ^ .' la 1 ^ 

So ^'^S^^'w ^ ^^ -^ S ^ ' 



"8 



Ic 1 ! ' ! ' ^d' ! ll ' ' ^oJ 1 ' ' ' ! 

*^b ^o <uo oo 

| s |2 j |jj 

ts 00 O\ O w 01 CO ^t" *O *O C^OOONO w N CO^ 
HWWddCJWNWWWCiClCOC'OCOCOcr 



136 



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 





1 

O 


1 i 


0) 0) 

s 

T3 <~ 


o 




t" 


a; 


&> TI i_r 


<D 






> -4- 


> 2 s 


> 




1 1 


1 1 . \ 1 * 1 


J3 - rt O I 


1 A - 


a 




C <u 


"" 


il-ss 

33* 


tu 

Sa 
f S 




M 


< ^S 


< C/J 






d 


1 


o 

aJ 


1 


IS o 


T3 fci/J 





TJ ^j 


> 


"8.3 


1 | 1 1 


1 i 1 ) 1 g 1 


i g| f 


1 * g 


I* 


11 


c c 


1 


II 




O * 










K 


s 


1/3 


< 




P2 


5 


(U 

u 


g 








c3 


O 


Wakefield 


I 

1 III 1 
d* 

6 


o 

1 1 1*1 1 I*! 

11 

= s 


O Js 

I 


a 

'Si 




K 




09 


5 






a j oj 


V V 








| 1 f 


s 

T3 IM 




1 

3 : 


1 II! 


|lf!' J! 


d) o C 

Ills 

^5 8. 

< C/3 


1 1 

<^ 






3 


I 1 


(L) 
1 


l| 







4> 8 

^2 


fe 




1 II! 


i i i i i I g i 


J3 T3 | 


1 -G 


1* 




gi 


lljl 


M 









< & 


< 




I 


I - 


o 




rH 


bJo^ * 


'O 







I 


fe-a I 


a> ,^3 


g 






S *o | | 


1 ! -S f 1^1 


18 ' f 


1 1 


1 


3 s! 


- ai o . 

35 rrl W 

O O ^ fe 









1 g gj|r| 


"2 s l 


^S 






U C 


< 


< 






T) 


(D 


t> t* 





i 


1 


c cJ 

-8 '^ 

o 


1 ^ 


1 





g. 


8? 6 


> rt 


i 


* 


1 S|l 1 


r i;.| I* r | I 


J3 ' -a 1 




1 


1* 


S* a^ 


'111 
flflf 


;i 


d 


H ci ro TJ- 


O \O tx 00* Ov O M 


ci co ^f' 


10 vo 

M 


5 











ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 137 



1 ! ! 1 1 1 



-i 



1 I . . I ! I ! I 



I I I I I I I i i g t 6 



c 8 2 

2 I 

I f I 8 I 4> I i 



i 



(U O 0) 

I I I 1 I I I | I I 

fl5 .fl 



J 

< 






S 1 



S 
'C CQ w 

s < 



I I I I I s h v3 I I ! g I ^ I f ! 1 

oj ^ 5 



O < fe <I . 

U) O 

| 2 

I I I .-d I I I I I 1 1 I I i I I I 

1 Jl 

w H 






138 



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 





E/l 


s s' 


S 


1 


! 

P 


1 1 

S g, 


1 

OJ 

c 


1 

*c 

c 


i i t i i f i r t | 


1 * I 1 


1 j 


1 


i 


-a * 






1 


1 1 


o 




c 


< C/3 


< 




1 g 1 


b 

2' ^ 








*2 u 


<2 




^ 2 ' 


X 1 


i 


4 

C/) 


i i 1 i i i 1 i i | 

* * 8 


i 1 1 i 

aj "^ 


1 




1 5 1 


rt 
S * 






5- < S 


2 1 


3 




. 


S u 


a 




1 


O ttJ 

S 1 


s 


i 
1 


' 

1 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 I | 


1 1 
1 1 1 ' 


i { 





1 


5 


1 






t 3 






g 


< 


< 




2 < 

- 1 * 


g g 






<S o 








TJ "O 


_Q JH 




X 

o 


T: .3 

i 1 E 
1 ^ 1 1 I 1 | 1 1. 1 


0) 

,li, 


i i 




^ I 

*O rt ^ *O 

li 5- 


g 1 

5 | 






c2 < 5 


< & 






si 


aJ 






5n ^ 


O QJ 






1 I |. 


S 1 




. 


"> g '^ 







"3 
U 


1 1 1 "S 1 1 1 1 ^ 

S cJ .S 

T3 ^ T3 


1 1 g i 

1 


i i 




| 


3 
>^ C 






III 


tn 
< C/2 




d 


H 01 CO^LOvO C"sOO ONO 


M N CO ^ 


to vd 



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 






I I I 1 1 I I I I ! 2 I I I I I I I 

I i 



i i 
. 



I I I I I I I I I 2 | I | | | | | 







* 

M 

I I I I I I I I I I 2 | | | | | | 

| | 



a 

I I I I I t I I I I 2 I I I I I I | 

i 



ci m co co co 



i4o ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 

becomes in this way an important argument for the discovery 
of the original form. 

The next incident, No. 10 of the analysis, goes through all 
the games except one (West Grinstead), where the very obvious 
corruption of " willows " for " windows " occurs. This incident 
takes us to the houses of the village ; and thus the two lines 
show us a procession, first, going round outside the boundary 
of the village, and, secondly, proceeding in serpentine fashion 
through the houses. Incident 1 3 has a few variations which do 
not point to anything more than verbal alteration, due to the 
changes which have occurred in the conception of the game. In- 
cidents 17 to 22 are not constant to all the versions, and their 
variations are of an unimportant character. Incident 27 is 
an important element in the game. The prevalence of London 
as the place of assignation is probably due to the influence of 
that city in the popular mind ; but the real significance seems 
to be that the lover-husband follows his bride to her own 
village. In only two versions is this incident varied (No. 28) 
to indicate that the husband took his wife with him, and only 
three versions have dropped out the incident altogether. 

Abnormal incidents occur in only seven versions, and they 
are not of great significance. The Lincolnshire and Sporle 
versions have a line of general introduction (No. i) before the 
game proper begins. Incidents 8 and 9 occur only in the 
Lincolnshire version, and do not disturb the general movement 
beyond indicating that the game has become, or is becoming, 
an indoor game. Incident 21 is obviously a modern line. 
Nos. 26 and 31 suggest a chase after a fugitive pair which, 
as they do not occur in other versions, must be considered 
as later introductions, belonging, however, to the period when 
runaway marriages were more frequent than they are now, 
and thus taking us back to, at least, the beginning of this 
century; while the significant and pretty variant No. 32 shows 
that the game has lost touch with the actual life of the people. 
No. 30 in the Fraserburgh version has a suspicious likeness 
.to a line in the American song " I'm off to Charlestown," but 
as it occurs only in this one version it cannot count as an 
important element in the history of the game. 



ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 141 

(e) Miss Matthews notes a Forest of Dean version. The 
children form a ring, singing, " Round and round the valley, 
where we have been before," while one child walks round the 
outside. Then they stand with uplifted hands, joined together, 
and sing, " In and out of the windows, as we have done 
before," while the child threads her way in and out of the 
ring. Then they sing, "Stand and face your lover, as we 
have done before;" the child then stands in the centre of 
the ring and faces some one, whom she afterwards touches, 
and who succeeds her. A version from North Derbyshire 
(Mr. S. O. Addy) is practically the same as the Tean, North 
Staffs, version, except that the third verse is " Run to meet 
your lover," instead of " Stand and face your lover." The 
first child, during the singing of the third verse, walks round 
outside the ring, and touches one she chooses, who then runs 
away. While the fourth verse is being sung she is chased 
and caught, and the game begins again with the second child 
walking round the village. So far as Lancashire is concerned, 
Miss Dendy says, " I have no good evidence as yet that it is 
a Lancashire play. I think it has been imported here by 
board-school mistresses from other counties." 

(/) The burden of this game-rhyme is undoubtedly the oldest 
part that has been preserved to modern times. It runs through 
all the versions without exception, though variations in the 
other lines is shown by the analysis to occur. The words of 
the line, "As we have done before," convey the idea of a recur- 
ing event, and inasmuch as that event is undoubtedly marriage, 
it seems possible to suggest that we have here a survival of the 
periodical village festival at which marriages took place. If the 
incidents in the game compare closely with incidents in village 
custom, the necessary proof will be supplied, and we will first 
examine how far the words of the rhyme and the action of the 
game supply us with incidents; and, secondly, how far these 
incidents have been kept up in the village custom. 

There is nothing in the words to suggest that the incidents 
which the game depicts belong to a fixed time, but it is an 
important fact that they are alluded to as having previously 
taken place. If, then, we have eventually to compare the game 



142 ROUND AND ROUND THE VILLAGE 

with a fixed periodical custom, we can at least say that the 
rhymes, though not suggesting this, do not oppose it. 

This game belongs to the group of "custom games." The 
first characteristic which suggests this is that the children, 
who join hands and form a circle, are always stationary, 
and do not move about as in dance games. To the minds 
of the children who play the game, each child in the circle 
represents something other than human beings, and this 
" something " is indicated in the first and second verses, 
which speak of the " windows," of houses, and a journey 
round " a village." In this game, too, the children, who thus 
represent a village, also act as "chorus," for they describe 
in the words they sing the various actions of those who are 
performing their parts, as in the game of " Old Roger." 

With this evidence from the game itself, without reference 
to anything outside, it is possible to turn to custom to ascer- 
tain if there is anything still extant which might explain the 
origin of the game. Children copy the manners and customs 
of their elders. If they saw a custom periodically and often 
practised with some degree of ceremonial and importance, they 
would in their own way act in play what their elders do 
seriously. 

Such a custom is the perambulation of boundaries, often 
associated with festive dances, courtship, and marriage. More 
particularly indicative of the origin of the game is the Helston 
Furry Dance "About the middle of the day the people collect 
together to dance hand-in-hand round the streets, to the sound 
of the fiddler playing a particular tune, which they continue to 
do till it is dark. This is called a ' Faddy.' In the afternoon the 
gentility go to some farmhouse in the neighbourhood to drink 
tea, syllabab, &c., and return in a morrice-dance to the town, 
where they form a Faddy and dance through the streets till it 
is dark, claiming a right of going through any person's house, 
in at one door and out at the other." Gent. Mag. Lib. 
Manners and Customs, p. 217. "In one, if not more, of the 
villages," says Mr. Gregor (Folk-lore N.E. Scotland, p. 98), 
" when the marriage takes place in the home of the bride the 
whole of the marriage party makes the circuit of the village." 



ROUND AND ROUND WENT THE GALLANT SHIP 143 

In South-Eastern Russia, on the eve of marriage the bride 
goes the round of the village, throwing herself on her knees 
before the head of each house. In an Indian custom the 
bride and bridegroom are conveyed in a particular "car" 
around the village. Gomme, Folk-lore Relics ', pp. 214, 215. 
According to Valle, a sixteenth century traveller, "At night 
the married couples passed by, and, according to their mode, 
went round about the city with a numerous company. Valle's 
Travels in India (Hakluyt Soc.), p. 31.* 

In these marriage customs there is ample evidence to suggest 
that the Indo-European marriage-rite contained just such 
features as are represented in this game, and the changes from 
rite to popular custom, from popular custom to children's 
game, do much to suggest consideration of the evidence that 
folk-lore supplies. 

This game is not mentioned by Halliwell or Chambers, nor, 
so far as I am aware, has it been previously printed or recorded 
in collections of English games. It appears in America as " Go 
round and round the Valley" (Newell, Games, p. 128). 

See "Thread the Needle." 

Round and Round went the Gallant Ship 

I. Round and round went the gallant, gallant ship, 
And round and round went she ; 
Round and round went the gallant, gallant ship, 
Till she sank to the bottom of the sea, the sea, the sea, 
Till she sank to the bottom of the sea. 
All go down as the ship sinks. Cullen (Rev. W. Gregor). 

II. Three times round goes our gallant ship, 

And three times round went she ; 

Three times round went our gallant ship, 

Then she sank to the bottom of the sea. 
As the players all " bob " down they cry out " the sea, the 

sea, the sea." Aberdeen Training College 

(Rev. W. Gregor). 

* Among the Ovahereri tribe, at the end of the festive time, the newly-married 
pair take a walk to visit all the houses of the " Werst." The husband goes first 
and the wife closely follows him. South African Folk-lore Journal, i. 50. 



144 



ROUND TAG 



Round Tag 

A large ring is formed, two deep, with wide right and left 
hand intervals between each couple, and one child stands in 
the ring and another outside. When the play begins the 
child in the middle runs and places herself in front of one 
of the groups of two, thus forming a group of three. There- 
upon the third child, that is, the one standing on the outer 
ring, has to run and try to get a place in front of another 
two before the one outside the ring can catch her. Then 
she who is at the back of this newly-formed three must be on 
the alert not to be caught, and must try in her turn to gain 




a front place. The one catching has all along to keep outside 
the ring, but those trying to escape her may run in and out 
and anywhere ; whoever is caught has to take the catcher's 
place. Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

This game, called " Short Terrace " at East Kirkby, is played 
in the same way as that described from Sporle, with the 
exception that three players stand together instead of one in 
the centre to start the game. The player who stands im- 
mediately outside the circle is called 'the "clapper;" it is his 
object to hit the player who stands behind two others. East 
Kirkby, Lincolnshire (Miss K. Maughan). 

"Twos and Threes" is the name by which this game is 



ROUNDERS 145 



known in Hampshire, Monton in Lancashire (Miss Dendy), 
and other places. It is played in precisely the same manner 
as at Sporle. 

HalliwelPs Dictionary says of this game as played in Devon, 
" A round game, in which they all stand in a ring." 

See " Tag." 

Rounders 

This is a boys' game. A round area is marked out by 
boundary sticks, and at a chosen point of the boundary the 
base is fixed. This is marked out independently of the 
boundary, but inside it. Sides are then chosen. One side are 
the "ins," and strike the ball; the other side are the "outs," 
and deliver the ball, scout, and endeavour to get their opponents, 
the "ins," out as soon as possible. The ball (an indiarubber 
one) is delivered by the "feeder," by pitching it to a player, 
who stands inside the base armed with a short stick. The 
player endeavours to strike the ball as far away as possible from 
the fielders or scouts. As soon as the ball is struck away he 
runs from the base to the first boundary stick, then to the second, 
and so on. His opponents in the meantime secure the ball 
and endeavour to hit him with it as he is running from stage to 
stage. If he succeeds in running completely round the boundary 
before the ball is returned it counts as one rounder. If he is hit 
he is out of the game. He can stay at any stage in the boun- 
dary as soon as the ball is in hand, getting home again when 
the next player of his own side has in turn hit the ball away. 
When a ball is returned the feeder can bounce it within the base, 
and the player cannot then run to any new stage of the boundary 
until after the ball has again been hit away by another player. 
If a player misses a ball when endeavouring to strike at it he 
has two more chances, but at the third failure he is bound to 
run to the first boundary stick and take his chance of being hit 
with the ball. If a ball is caught the whole side is out at once ; 
otherwise, the side keeps in until either all the players have 
been hit out with the ball or until the base is crowned. This 
can be done by bouncing the ball in the base whenever there 
is no player there to receive the delivery from the feeder. 

VOL. II. K 



146 ROUNDS SACKS 



When a complete rounder is obtained, the player has the privi- 
lege either of counting the rounder to the credit of his side, or 
of ransoming one of the players who have been hit out, who 
then takes his part in the game as before. When all but one 
of the players are "out," this last player in hitting the ball must 
hit it away so as to be able to make a rounder, and return to 
the base before his opponents get back the ball to crown the base. 
An elaborate form of this game has become the national game 
of the United States. 

Rounds 

See " Roundabout." 

Row-chow-Tobacco 

See " Bulliheisle," " Eller Tree," "Snail Creep," "Wind up 
the Bush Faggot." 

Rowland- Ho 

A Christmas game. Halliwell's Dictionary. 

Rumps 

A game with marbles [undescribed]. Dickinson's Cumber- 
land Glossary. 

Rusty 

A boys' game, exactly the same as "Ships." Addy's 
Sheffield Glossary. 

Sacks 

A number of children place their closed fists on top of one 
another in a pile. The leader asks, pointing to the topmost 
fist, "What's in that sack?" Answer, Potatoes, or anything 
the child chooses. The leader tips it off with her finger, saying, 
" Knock it away," and so to the very undermost fist, when 
she asks, " What's in this sack ? " The answer must be, 
" Bread and cheese ; " and then the following dialogue takes 
place : 

Where's my share ? 

The mouse eat it. 

Where's the mouse ? 

The cat killed it. 



SADDLE THE NAG SAILOR LAD 147 

Where's the cat ? 
The dog worried it. 
Where's the dog ? 
The cow tossed it. 
Where's the cow ? 
The butcher killed it. 
Where's the butcher ? 
Behind the door. 

And who ever speaks the first word shall get a sound round 
box on the ear. Co. Cork (Mrs. B. B. Green). 

Saddle the Nag 

An equal number of players is chosen on each side. Two 
chiefs are chosen by lot. One of the chiefs takes his stand 
by a wall, and all his party bend their backs, joined in a line. 
One of the opposite side leaps on the back of the one farthest 
from the one standing at the wall, and tries to make his way 
over the backs of all the stooping boys, up to the one standing. 
Those stooping move and wriggle to cast him off, and if they 
succeed in doing so, he stands aside till all his side have tried. 
When all have tried and none succeed in crowning the one 
standing, the sides change. If one or more succeed, then each 
such has a second chance before the sides change. Each side 
commonly has six chances. The side that succeeds in oftenest 
touching the chief's head wins the game. Dyke (Rev. W. 
Gregor). 

See "Skin the Goatie." 

Saggy 

A game with marbles [undescribed]. Dickinson's Cumber- 
land Glossary. 

Sailor Lad 

A sailor lad and a tailor lad, 

And they were baith for me ; 
I wid raither tack the sailor lad, 

And lat the tailor be. 



148 SAILOR LAD 



What can a tailor laddie dee 

Bit sit and sew a cloot, 
When the bonnie sailor laddie 

Can turn the ship aboot. 

He can turn her east, and he can turn her west, 

He can turn her far awa' ; 
He aye tells me t' keep up my hairt 

For the time that he's awa'. 

I saw 'im lower his anchor, 

I saw 'im as he sailed ; 
I saw 'im cast his jacket 

To try and catch a whale. 

He skips upon the planestanes, 

He sails upon the sea ; 
A fancy man wi' a curly pow 

Is aye the boy for me, 

Is aye the boy for me ; 
A fancy man wi' a curly pow 

Is aye the boy for me. 

He daurna brack a biscuit, 

He daurna smoke a pipe ; 
He daurna kiss a bonnie lass 

At ten o'clock at night. 

I can wash a sailor's shirt, 
And I can wash it clean ; 
I can wash a sailor's shirt, 
And bleach it on the green. 

Come a-rinkle-tinkle, fal-a-la, fal-a-la, 
Aboun a man-o'-war. 

Rosehearty (Rev. W. Gregor). 

A circle is formed by joining hands. They dance round 
and sing. Sometimes at Rosehearty two play the game by 
the one taking hold of the other's left hand with her right. 



SALLY GO ROUND THE MOON SALLY WATER 149 



Sally go Round the Moon 

Sally go round the moon, 
Sally go round the stars ; 
Sally go round the moon 
On a Sunday afternoon. 

Deptford, Kent (Miss E. Chase). 

Three or more girls take hold of hands, forming a ring ; 
as they spin round they sing the lines. They then reverse 
and run round in the other direction with an O ! or repeat 
over again. 

This game is mentioned in the Church Reformer^ by the 
Rev. S. D. Headlam, as one being played at Hoxton, but 
no account of how the game is played is given. 

Sally Water 







Yorkshire (Mr. H. Hardy). 



. I- 1 . ^K 1 ^p I 1 











-rb 






Lancashire (Miss Dendy). 






w :gigt 9 zgtg: 



Enborne (Miss Kimber). 



SALLY WATER 






I 












1 



Welford (Mrs. Stephen Batson). 










=SEtEEEE^EE[ 









Liverpool (Mr. C. C. Bell). 









~ 






Biddgelert, Wales (Mrs. Williams). 



SALLY WATER 











Nottingham (Miss Youngman). 

I. Sally, Sally Water, 
Sprinkle in the pan ; 
Rise, Sally, rise, Sally, 
And choose a young man. 
Choose [or bow] to the east, 
Choose [or bow] to the west, 

And choose [or bow to] the pretty girl [or young man] 
That you love best. 

[Another version has : 

Choose for the best one, 
Choose for the worst one, 
Choose for the pretty girl 
That you love best.] 

And now you're married I wish you joy ; 

First a girl and then a boy ; 

Seven years after son and daughter ; 

And now, young people, jump over the water." 

Symondsbury, Dorsetshire (Folk-lore 
Journal, vii. 207). 



152 SALLY WATER 



II. Sally, Sally Walker, sprinkle water in the pan ; 
Rise, Sally, rise, Sally, and seek your young man ; 
Turn to the east and turn to the west, 
And choose the one that you love best. 

Now you're married we wish you joy, 
First a girl and then a boy, 
Seven years after a son and a daughter, 
So young lovers kiss together. 

Chudleigh Knighton, Devon (Henderson's Folk-lore 
of the Northern Counties^ p. 27). 

III. Sally, Sally Water, 
Sprinkle in the pan ; 
Hi! Sally; Ho! Sally, 
Choose a young man ; 
Choose for the best, 
Choose for the worst, 

Choose for the very one you love best. 

Now you're married we wish you joy, 
First a girl and then a boy, 
Seven years after sister and brother ; 
Kiss each other and come out of the water. 

Somersetshire, Notes and Queries^ 8th series, 
i. 249 (Miss R. H. Busk). 

IV. Sally Waters, Sally Waters, come sprinkle in the pan ; 
Rise, Sally ; rise, Sally, for a young man ! 

Choose for the best, choose for the worst, 
Choose for the very one you love the best. 

Now you are married, we wish you joy ; 
First a girl and then a boy, 
Seven years afterwards son and daughter ; 
Pray, young couple, kiss together. 

London version (Miss Dendy). 

V. Sally, Sally Walker, 

Sprinkling in a pan ; 
Rise, Sally; rise, Sally, 
For a young man. 



SALLY WATER 153 



Come, choose from the east, 

Come, choose from the west, 
Come, choose out the very one 

That you love best. 

Now there's a couple 

Married in joy ; 
First a girl, 

And then a boy. 

Now you're married ; 

You must obey 
Every word 

Your husband says. 

Take a kiss 

And walk away, 
And remember the promise 

You've made to-day. 

Fochabers (Rev. W. M'Gregor). 

VI. Sally, Sally Waters, 
Sprinkled in the pan ; 
Rise, Sally, rise, Sally, 
For a young man, 

Choose the best and choose the worst, 
And choose the prettiest you love best. 

Welford, Berks (Mrs. Stephen Batson). 

VII. Sally, Sally Wallflower, 
Sprinkled in the pan, &c., 
Now you're married, &c., 
On the carpet you shall kneel, &c. 

Notes and Queries, 5th series, Hi. 

VIII. Sallie, Sallie Waters, 
Sprinkled in a pan ; 
Rise, Sallie, rise, Sally, 
Choose a young man. 
Choose the best, and 
Choose the worst, and 
Choose the one that you love best. 



154 SALLY WATER 



Now that you are married, 

I'm sure we wish you joy, 

First a girl, then a boy ; 

Seven years after, 

Son and daughter, 

Pray, young couple, come kiss together. 

Enborne, Berks ; Marlborough, Wilts ; 
Lewes, Sussex (Miss Kimber). 

IX. Sally, Sally Waters, 
Sprinkle in a pan ; 
Cry, Sally, cry, Sally, 
For a young man. 
Come choose the worst, 
Come choose the best, 
Come choose the young man 
That you like the best. 

And now you're married 
I wish yer good joy, 
Every year a girl and a boy. 
Come love one another 
Like sister and brother, 
And kiss together for joy. 

Clash the bells, 
Clash the bells. 

Maxey, Northants ; and Suffolk (Rev. W. D. Sweeting). 

X. Sally, Sally Water, sprinkle in the pan ; 
Rise, Sally, rise, Sally, for a young man. 
Pick and -choose, but choose not me, 
Choose the fairest you can see. 

Now Sally is married, we wish her much joy, 
First a girl and then a boy ; 
Seven years after a son and a daughter, 
Please to come and kiss together. 

Summertown, Oxford (A. H. Franklin in 
Midland Garner, N. S. ii. 32). 



SALLY WATER 155 



XL Sally, Sally Waters, sprinkle in the pan ; 
Rise, Sally, rise, Sally, for a young man. 
Choose for the worst, choose for the best, 1 
Choose for the prettiest that you loves best. 
Now you are married, &c. 

Longcot, Berkshire, (Miss J. Barclay). 

XII. Sally, Sally Waters, 
Sprinkle in a pan ; 
Cry, Sally, cry, Sally, 
For a young man. 

Rise up, Sally, 

Dry your tears ; 

Choose the one you love the best, 

Sally, my dear. 

Earls Heaton, Yorks. (Herbert Hardy). 

XIII. Sally, Sally Water, sprinkle in the pan, 
Is not a nice young man ? and 

Is not (girl's name) as good as he ? 
They shall be married if they can agree. 
I went to her house and I dropped a pin, 

I asked if Mrs. was in. 

She is not within, she is not without, 

She is up in the garret walking about. 

Down she comes as white as milk, 

With a rose in her bosom as soft as silk. 

She off with her glove and showed me her ring, 

To-morrow, to-morrow the wedding begins. 

Surrey {Folk-lore Record^ v. 88). 



XIV. Sally, Sally Walker, come sprinkle your pan, 

For down in the meadows there's a nice young man ; 

Rise up, Sally, don't look sad, 

For you shall have a husband, good or bad. 

1 Redruth version 

Fly for the east, fly for the west, 
Fly for the very one you love best. 



156 SALLY WATER 



On the carpet you shall kneel 
Till the grass grows round your feet ; 
Stand up straightly on your feet, 
And choose the one you love so sweet. 

Now Sally's married, we wish her joy, 

First a girl, then a boy ; 

If it's a boy, we'll buy him a cap, 

If it's a girl, we will buy her a hat. 

If one won't do, will buy you two, 

If two won't do, will buy you three, 

If three won't do, will get you four, 

If four won't do, will get no more, 

So kiss and shake hands, and come out. 

Tong, Shropshire (Miss C. F. Keary). 

XV. Sally, Sally Water, come sprinkle your pan (or plants), 
For down in the meadows there lies a young man. 
Rise, Sally, rise, and don't you look sad, 
For you shall have a husband, good or bad. 
Choose you one, choose you two, 
Choose the fairest you can see ! 

The fairest one as I can see, 

Is Jenny Wood, pray come to me ! 

Now you are married, I wish you good joy, 

First a girl and then a boy ; 

Seven years now, and seven to come, 

Take her and kiss her, and send her off home. 

Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 509. 



XVI. Sally, Sally Water (or Slauter), 
Come sprinkle in your can, 
Why do you get married 
To a foolish young man ? 
Pick the worst, and pick the best, 
And pick the one that you love best. 



SALLY WATER 157 



To a nice young man 

So kiss and say good-bye. 
[My informant forgets the rest.] 

Nottinghamshire (Miss M. Peacock). 

XVII. Sally Water, Sally Water, 
Come sprinkle your can, 

' Why don't you rise, Sally, 
And choose a young man ? 
Come choose of the wisest, 
Come choose of the best, 
Come choose of the young man 
That lies in your breast. 

Gloucestershire and Warwickshire (Northall, 378). 

XVIII. Sally Water, Sally Water, 
Come, sprinkle your can ; 
Who do you lie mourning, 
All for a young man ? 
Come, choose of the wisest, 
Come, choose of the best, 
Come, choose of the young men 

The one you love best. Addy's Sheffield Glossary. 

XIX. Sally, Sally Salter, 

Sprinkle in some water ; 

Knock it in a mortar, 

And send it in a silver saucer 

To door. 

Stixwould, Lincolnshire, seventy years ago 
(Miss M. Peacock). 

XX. Sally Water, Sally Water, 
Springin' in a pan ; 
Cry, Sally, cry, Sally, 
For a young man ; 
Choose for the worst 'un, 
Choose for the best 'un, 
Choose the little gell 'at you love the best. 



158 



SALLY WATER 



Now you're married 
I wish you joy ; 
First a girl, and then a boy ; 
Seven years after 
Son and daughter. 
Pray, young couple, come kiss together. 

Wakefield, Yorkshire (Miss Fowler). 

XXI. Sally, Sally Water, 

Come, water your can, 

Such a young lady before a young man ; 

Rise, Sally Water, 

Don't look so sad, 

For you shall have a husband, good or bad. 

Now you're married we wish you joy ; 
Father and mother, you need not cry ; 
Kiss and kiss each other again ; 
Now we're happy, let's part again. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire {Northamptonshire 
Notes and Queries, ii. 105). 

XXII. Sally, Sally Slarter, 
Sitting by the water, 
Crying out and weeping 
For a young man. 
Rise, Sally, rise, 
Dry up your eyes ; 
Turn to the east, 
Turn to the west, 
Turn to the young man 
That you love the best. 
So now you've got married 
I hope you'll enjoy 
Your sons and your daughters, 
So kiss and good-bye. Addy's Sheffield Glossary. 

XXIII. Sally, Sally Walker, sprinkled in a pan ; 

What did she sprinkle for ? for a young man ; 
Sprinkle, sprinkle, daughter, and you shall have a cow; 
I cannot sprinkle, mother, because I don't know how. 



SALLY WATER 



159 



Sprinkle, sprinkle, daughter, and you shall have a 

man; 

I cannot sprinkle, mother, but I'll do the best I can. 
Pick and choose, but don't you pick me ; 
Pick the fairest you can see. 

The fairest one that I can see is . Come to me. 

Now you're married I wish you much joy ; 
Your father and mother you must obey ; 
Seven long years a girl and a boy ; 
So hush, a bush, bush, get out of the way. 

Buckingham (Thos. Baker in Midland Garner, 
New Series, ii. 31). 

XXIV. Little Sally Walker sitting in a sigh, 

Weeping and waiting for a young man. 
Come choose you east, come choose you west, 
The very one that you love best. 

Nairn (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XXV. Little Sally Walker sitting on the sand, 
Crying and weeping for a young man. 
Rise, Sally, rise, Sally, wipe away your tears, 
Try for the east, and try for the west, 
Try for the (little) very one you love best. 

Now they're married I wish them joy, 
Every year a girl and boy, 
Loving each other like sister and brother, 
I hope to see them meet again. 

Fraserburgh (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XXVI. Little Sally Sander 
Sitting in the sander, 
Weeping and crying for her young man. 
Rise, Sally, rise 
And wipe away your tears ; 
Choose to the east, 
Choose to the west, 
And choose to the very one that you love best. 



i6o 



SALLY WATER 



Now you're married we wish you joy, 
First a girl and then a boy ; 
Twelve months after son and daughter, 
All join hands and kiss together. 

Penzance, Cornwall (Mrs. Mabbott). 

XXVII. Sally, Sally Walker, tinkle in a can ; 

Rise up, Sally, and choose a young man. 
Look to the east, and look to the west, 
Choose the one that you love the best. 

Settle, Yorkshire (Rev. W. S. Sykes). 

XXVIII. Sally Water, Sally Water, 
Come sprinkle your fan ; 
Sally, Sally Waters, sprinkle in a pan ; 
Rise, Sally, rise, Sally, for a young man. 
Choose to the east, and choose to the west, 
And choose the dearest one that you love best. 

Now you're married, we wish you joy, 
First a girl and then a boy ; 
Love one another like sister and brother, 
And never lose time by kissing one another. 
* West H addon (Northamptonshire Notes 

and Queries, ii. 104). 

XXIX. Little Sally Waters, sitting in the sun, 

Crying and weeping for her young man. 
Rise, Sally, rise, wipe up your tears, 
Fly to the east, fly to the west, 
Fly to the one that you love the best. 

Brigg, Lincolnshire (Miss Barker). 

XXX. Hie Sally Walker, hie Sally Ken, 

Hie Sally Walker, follow young men. 
Choose to the east, and choose to the west, 
Choose to the very one you love best. 

Marriage comfort and marriage joy, 
First a girl and then a boy. 
Seven years after, seven years to come, 
Fire on the mountain, kiss and run. 

Belfast, Ireland (W. H. Patterson). 



SALLY WATER 



161 



XXXI. Little Alice Sander 
Sat upon a cinder, 

Weeping and crying for her young man. 
Rise up, Alice, dry your tears, 
Choose the one that you love best, 
Alice my dear. 

Now they have got married 

I hope they will joy, 

Seven years afterwards, seven years ago, 

Now is the time to kiss and go. 

Earls Heaton, Yorks. (Herbert Hardy). 

XXXII. Rise, Sally Walker, 
Rise if you can, 

Rise, Sally Walker, and follow your good man ; 
Choose to the east, and choose to the west, 
Choose to the one you love best. 
There is a couple married in joy, 
Past a girl and then a boy, 
Seven years after, seven years to come, 
Kiss you couple, kiss and be done. 
A' the many hours to us a happy life, 

Except and he wants a wife. 

A wife shall he have, 

And a widower shall he be, 

Except that sits on his knee, 

A guid fauld hoose and a blacket fireside, 
Draw up your gartens and show all your bride. 

(Rev. W. Gregor). 

XXXIII. Arise, Sally Walker, arise, if you can, 

Arise, Sally Walker, and follow your good man ; 
Come choose to the east, come choose to the west, 
Come choose to the very one you love best. 

This is a couple married with joy ; 
First a girl and then a boy, 
Seven years after and seven years to come, 
This young couple married and begun. 

VOL. II. L 



1 62 SALLY WATER 



[The Christian name of a girl] made a pudding so 

nice and sweet, 

[Boy's Christian name] took a knife and tasted it. 
Taste love, taste love, don't say No, 
The next Sunday morning 
To church we shall go. 
Clean the brazen candlesticks, 
And clean the fireside, 
Draw back the curtains, 
And lat's see the bride. 
A' the men in oor toon leads a happy life, 
Except [a boy's full name], and he wants a wife. 
A wife shall he hae, and a widow she shall be ; 
For look at [a girl's full name] diddling on's knee. 
He paints her cheeks and he curls her hair, 
And he kisses the lass at the foot o' the stair. 

Tyrie (Rev. W. Gregor). 

[The form of words at Cullen is the same for the first seven 
lines, and then the words are : ] 

XXXIV. This young couple be married and be done, 
A' the men in oor toon leads a happy life, 
Except and he wants a wife. 
A wife he shall have, and a widow she shall be, 
Except [a girl's name] that sits on his knee, 
Painting her face and curling her hair, 
Kissing [a girl's name] at the foot o' the stair. 

Cullen (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XXXV. Rise, Sally Walker, rise if you can, 

Rise, Sally Walker, follow your gudeman. 

Come choose to the east, come choose to the 

west, 
Come choose to the very one that you love best. 

Now they're married I wish them joy, 
Every year a girl or boy, 
Loving each other like sister and brother, 
And so they may be kissed together. 



SALLY WATER 



163 



Cheese and bread for gentlemen, 

And corn and hay for horses, 

A cup of tea for a' good wives, 

And bonnie lads and lassies. 

When are we to meet again ? 

And when are we to marry ? 

Raffles up, and raffles down, and raffles a' a 

dancin', 

The bonniest lassie that ever I saw, 
Was [child in the centre] dancin'. 

Aberdeen Training College (Rev. W. Gregor.) 

XXXVI. Sally, Sally Walker, sitting in the sun, 

Weeping and wailing for a young man, 
Rise, Sally, rise, and wipe away your tears, 

Fly to the east, fly to the west, 
And fly to the very one that you love best. 

Uncle John is very sick, 

He goes a courting night and day ; 
Sword and pistol by his side, 

Little Sally is his bride. 
He takes her by the lily white hand, 

He leads her over the water; 
Now they kiss and now they clap, 

Mrs. Molly's daughter. 

Nairn, Perth, Forfar (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XXXVII. Sally, Sally Waters, why are you so sad ? 

You shall have a husband, either good or bad ; 
Then rise, Sally Waters, and sprinkle your pan, 
For you're just the young woman to get a nice 

man. 

Now you're married, we wish you joy, 
Father and mother and little boy, 
Love one another like sister and brother, 
And now, good people, kiss each other. 

Halliwell, Popular Rhymer, p. 229. 



1 64 SALLY WATER 



XXXVIII. Rise, Sally Walker, 

Rise if you can (Northumberlar^l), 
Sprinkle in the pan (Yorks. and Midlands), 
Rise, Sally Walker, 
For a young man. 
Choose to the east, 
Choose to the west, 

very one (Northumberland), 



Choose to the^ pretty girj ^^ &c) 
You love best. 

Now you're married, 
I wish you joy, 
First a girl, 
And then a boy. 

Seven years after, ' 

Seven years over, .__ , N 

AT , J . V (Northumberland). 

Now s the time to v 

Kiss and give over. 

Five years after "\ 

A son and daughter, I , 

_. i r (Yorks., &c.) 

Pray, young couple, v 

Kiss away. } 

Hexham (Miss J. Barker). 

XXXIX. Sally Waters, Sally Waters, come rise if you can, 
Come rise in the morning, all for a young man ; 
Come choose, come choose, come choose if you can, 
Come choose a good one or let it alone. 

Monton, Lancashire (Miss Dendy). 

XL. Sally Waters, Sally Waters, 
Come rise if you can, 
Come rise in the morning, 
All for a young man. 
First to the east, then to the west, 
Then to the bonny lass that you love best. 



SALLY WATER 165 



Now, Sally, you are married, 
I hope you'll agree, 

Seven years at afterwards, seven years ago, 
And now they are parted with a kiss and a blow. 
Monton, Lancashire (Miss Dendy). 

The last two lines were supplied by a girl in a very poor district of 
Manchester (note by Miss Dendy). 

XLI. Rise, Sally Walker, rise, if you can, 

Rise, Sally Walker, and follow your gueedman, 

Choose to the east, and choose to the west, 

Choose to the one that you love best. 

There is a couple married in joy, 

First a girl and then a boy, 

Seven years after, seven years to come. 

Rosehearty (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XLI I. Little Polly Sanders sits on the sand, 

Weeping and crying for her young man ; 
Rise up, Polly, wipe your tears, 
Pick the one you love so sweet. 
Now Polly's got married, we hope she'll have joy, 
For ever and ever a girl or a boy. 
If one won't do, she must have two, 
So I pray you, young damsels, to kiss two and two. 

Liverpool (C. C. Bell). 

XLIII. Here sits poor Sally on the ground, 

Sighing and sobbing for her young man. 
Arise, Sally, rise, and wipe your weeping eyes, 
And turn to the east, and turn to the west, 
And show the little boys that you love best. 

A bogie in, a bogie out, 

A bogie in the garden, 

I wouldn't part with my young man 

For fourpence ha'penny farthing. 

Long Eaton, Nottingham (Miss Youngman). 



i66 



SALLY WATER 



[In London the above is :] 

XLIV. A beau in front and a beau behind, 
And a bogie in the garden oh ! 
I wouldn't part with my sweetheart 
For tuppence (two) ha'penny farthing. 

London (Mrs. Merck). 

XLV. Sally Walker, Sally Walker, 

Come spring time and love, 
She's lamenting, she's lamenting, 

All for her young man. 

Come choose to the east, come choose to the west, 
Come choose the one that you love best. 

Here's a couple got married together, 

Father and mother they must agree, 
Love each other like sister and brother, 
I pray this couple to kiss together. 

Morpeth (Henderson's Folk-lore of 
Northern Counties, p. 26). 

XLVI. Rise, Sally Walker, rise if you can, 

Rise, Sally Walker, and choose your good man, 

Choose to the east, and choose to the west, 

And choose the very one you love best. 

Now they're married, wish them joy, 

First a girl, and then a boy, 

Seven years after, seven years to come, 

Now's the time to kiss and be done. 

Gainford, Durham (Miss A. Edleston). 

XLVI I. Little Alexander sitting on the sand, 

Weeping and crying for a young man ; 

Rise up, Sally, and wipe your tears, 

Pick the very one that you like best. 

Now, Sally, now married, I hope she'll (or you'll) enjoy, 

For ever and ever with that little boy 

(or with her or your young boy). 

Beddgelert, Wales (Mrs. Williams). 



SALLY WATER 167 



XLVIII. Rice, Sally Water, rice if you can, 

Rice, Sally Water, and choose your young man ; 
Choose to the east, choose to the west, 
Choose to the prettiest that you love. 

Now you're married, we wish you good joy, 
First a little girl, and then a little boy ; 
Seven years after, seven years to come, 
Seven years of plenty, and kiss when you done. 

Norfolk (Mrs. Haddon). 

(c) A ring is formed by the children joining hands. One 
girl kneels or sits down in the centre, and covers her face with 
her hands as if weeping. The ring dances round and sings 
the words. The child in the centre rises when the command is 
given, and chooses a boy or girl from the ring, who goes into 
the centre with her. These two kiss together when the words are 
said. The child who was first in the centre then joins the ring, 
the second remaining in the centre, and the game continues. 

All versions of this game are played in the same way, except 
slight variations in a few instances. Kissing does not prevail 
in all the versions. In the Earls Heaton game, the child who 
kneels in the centre also pretends to weep and dries her tears 
before choosing a partner. Miss Burne, in Shropshire Folk- 
lore, says the girl kneels disconsolately in the middle of the 
ring. In the Strixwould version, the child stands in the centre 
holding in her hands something resembling a saucer ; she then 
pretends to " knock it in a mortar," and gives the saucer to the 
one whom she chooses. This one exchanges places with her. 
In the Northants version, at the words " clash the bells," the 
children dash down their joined hands to imitate ringing bells. 
Addy, Sheffield Glossary, says one girl sits in the middle 
weeping. When the girl has chosen, the young man remains 
in the centre, and the word " Sally " is changed to " Billy," or 
some other name, and " man " to " girl." In the Beddgelert 
version, the centre child wipes her eyes with a handkerchief in 
the beginning of the game. Several other versions have been 
sent me, all being the same as those printed here, or varying 
so slightly, it is unnecessary to repeat them. 

(d} The analysis of the game-rhymes is as follows : 



i68 



SALLY WATER 



Wiltshire. 


<2 .a 

|ll MS f f 1 1 f l||l 1 

t !i j! 

CO C/2 * 


K i 

c/1 GJ ra 

o ^ g 

*^ QJ QJ 

1 1 1 _. l| "g^ 1 MM 


Crockham 
Hill, Kent. 


1 rf 1 d 
II^J 1 l||| M 1 1 1 II 

73 <c 0,6 

CO CO 


MM M 1 1 MM 


Berkshire. 


i .1 1 

III 11*8 II II 1 1 2 II 

^ 3 . j 

^ -S ^ 
172 CO* S 


1 M Jvll . 1 1 MM 

e o'S 

OQ O ^ 

u u rt 


Fochabers. 


rt M 

| -s I 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

1 I 1 p 


III 
1 1 8 1 if 1 1 MJI 

1 Si L- 

_2 ^3 ,2 ood 


1 


1 

| M 1 l'jj 1 1 1 II 1 g II 

t li Si 

(73 CO (^ 


n-T "5 b 
| 1 1 

M 1 'f^'l^ ' ' ' ' ' 


1 

1 


o; rf 

c <u d 

|ii M^ i i M i i||i i 
^ I 

73 a ft s" >-> 

CO 73 ffi 


n i j if^'B^" i i i i i 

OQ o ^ ^ oj 

S* 6I' E 


j 

IS 
Q 


1 -3 d 

^ * d ^ rf 

III 1 III 1 1 1 1 'ill 1 


1 | i 

M 1 1 if^.l^ i MM 

o > ^"5 

S gl' n 


j5 


i 8 = 

S a |l 

| 1 1 11^ 1 M Mil 1 


1 1 1 

*-T aj D 

MSI l^*|* 1 I'll 

,c^o-C 

u u z 


d 


- ci m 4^-d t^ d d M N- m 4 ^> 











SALLY WATER 169 





3 >> bfl 


4_, 








*J ^ 






^ ll. 


1 " 


-: 


QJ 


p 


10 V 


o 


rt 1 1 


II "" Ml Ml 1 >SM 1 1 


\i\* i M i M 


fc 





3 -o'" 


o ^^ 




rT 


C rt J^ | 


'o ^ O 




CO 


jxo ^ rt e 


S u^ 1 






^-o 


rt 


X, 




^ " 





1 

ID 


ill 


| 

M '1 III 1 1 ST-jj I I M 


i rl i o o i i i M 


j 





1 f- > 


f 


CO 


1 


C ctf to ^ 

co^ a 22 - 


^3 o - n 
u ^ 


X. 


jj 


l H. 


1o O 


o 


52 


JH ^ _l C 


^^J 1 "^ 


t' 


l3 1 


I i'~ i M M M l "Sell 


MM 1 II 3 c II 


1 


X 


^o; . ^ r 

3 . 'rt t' a 

. c > ^ 3 


Ci 

i! 


CO 


1 


a, CL P id x 


6" 


1 


(U QJ 


1 * 


1 


J3 .0 


P QJ 






3 


tuo 


1 


1 ' ' 


1 1 '~ M M M 1 1 IB || 


(D aJ 

MM 1 ll| i M 


1 




3 . -55 


^i 

10 .T3 




1 


5 1 c o 

aa ^ >, 


|lc 






bJO 
tc 


1 






o 




Yorkshire, 


(" 


rt 

II -S 1 M M 1 1 * 1 II 


1 M 5 1 i 1 11! 




"Trt 


. . rt 

a ^S 


1 




CO 


CO U 


u 1 " 1 






a> tuo 


j 




. 


1 


1 ^ 


Oxford. 


0) 

III 

>-. 


. >> 
1 1 III 112 1 1 II 

Is 1 s " 


M'^ i |' M i M 




1 


co" CU (5 


X! O 'C 
U fc 


$ 




d 

rt 

CX o 
rt ^ 


1 1 i 


g 

J3 

1 


1 1 1 

^ 


II -~ Ml III * 1 II 

3 ,2 
. 


O O > ^_QJ 


i & 


c& U 


u u" 4 !? w 


6 


H ci co 


T}- 10^0 tNodc^o^cico ^t* ^o NO N 


ra ON o M ci co TJ- to vd t^. 







IHHIHH H H MM 


MMC101 (N (N(N W dN 



170 SALLY WATER 







d 




d ^ 






c 




.j S 


ui 


<u 






>S C3 <u D 


Tj 


\% \ ! 


1 T3 


1 M Ml 1 


ii O B i ia i -go- 1 i M i 








M 








t 11 


'Co _o |.a> 






<n 




C/2 U Z 








D b/j 


to jl 

% i 


1 


0) 

I IIS 


\ \ 


p a" 
II I I I j| 


II 1 all* 'go II II 1 


C/2 


(72 
1 




11 II 

(72 U 


&T3 ^ - 

8> "8 

3 j-. O O 

h U^ Z" 


| 






<n 
5 


1 


,c 


<u 




S d 


0) 


1 

'? 


| 1 II 


\ \ 


1 M 1 I*" 1 

*" 


II 1 MM ' II 1 1 1 
>-. - 


| 


1 




d ^ _o 

^ 5 


y 








i I 


1 1 i 


2 

D 


C 




d >, 

JH 


1/30) D 


Cfl 

1 


(in 


\ \ 


1 r M | M * 


M 1 III 5 go j || II 

(U <U >> 

10 in ^ 




_^~* 




*^ b^ ^ 


O O "*" ^ ^ 




3 




c& U S 


u u" Z u 


tj 






1 


1- 


1 


1 ! ll 


| | 


f, N 1 M 1 


d, , 

1 .S 2 I |||] 1 Mill 




d 








B 


(72 




^ *-i 


t^I <y 


3 






c >-> 


T3 3 




| 




a, ^ 

(72 


I s 








o 


.S d 


1 1 


T3 




u 


S**" d 


<_7 


E 

1 


Sally Water 


Sprinkle yot 


M r.|i 
|ll 


II 1 1 1 1 5 1 Mill 


1 

1 




Dur can. 


i 
i| 


I | 
JS.S 




|M, 


'| 


i M 1 1 i-ggi 


II 1 i| 1 ". . 1 Mill 


3 


1 


1 

C72 


1* 


1 I 11 


6 


H pi co T}- 


10 vd 


(>. CXD ON O w Cj CO 4 1 


^ ^ **$!S ?j SP^^gj- 



SALLY WATER 



171 



to 


| 


M 

1 S 


1 

O 
2 e 


a 


l| i i 1 1 1 i i 1 


1 1 1 II 1 1 


l| ."g 1 1 1 N 












^ 


t*_ ^ O i) 


8 > g 




"3 


~* 2 ^1 ^ 






73 


ffi u 


u^S 






U) 


ts 






c c 

tn O 


JS 




ui 


u > 

f-* -J flj 




1 


I 1 1 1 1 II II 1 


fl cd ^ 

I .a 1 a 1 1 1 i 1 

bjo DJO . 


I 5 1 1 Ml 1 
s-p; 






.2 .5 S S 


s > 






*>^ Q ^ 


J3 






^ u E 


u rt 




. 


bfl ^- 


*J ^ 


i 


Ot 


1 ^ 


a) d 

a 

4) (U 


1 

1 


| II II -~ 1 1 II 


1 1 ^ 1 ''(I 1 

<S v 


I ;.'^ 1IIM 


& 


" .s 


0) d 


8? {*"" 




"d OH 

C/3 C/3 


C^ U 


SI' S 






03 


tn 






C "* to 


40 


1 


Jj 

11 I.M 1 1 1 1 1 


S |d % 

S i , S i i i 1 1 i 

i sf 1 
P 1- j 


'L 1 " Ml 




c 


rt <j 


1 * 


a 


Oj .C 


2 d ^j- 


(L) (U 


i 


II 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 a 


III baS | M I 


i 5 ;|oi i i i i 


a 


C/3 bfl 


'5.S 3 


^ 1J 




^ '5 1 


3 o 


o > ^ 




S ST 


^^ S 


u"^^ u 


| 


1 ^ 

if 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 fl 


rt 

Ic ?' 
1 1 1 b J 1 II * 1 


j.[ 





> o 

M 

^ -S 

S I 


S OJ3 

'& 2 
00 5^ 

X H 


j!p 


c 

a 


, 1 

1 1 1 ii i i i S i 


d ^j 

2 c* 
III 1 1 1 1 rt 1 

III b/) c 1 1 1 D 1 


i 

42 

I 5 1 Mill 


fc 


^ 5> 


Uc 1 " 


S"d 




>% ^ 


<u o o 

K- >- 43 


1 o 




c^ c/5 


> U 


u" 


1. 








| 


M 0) CO rf ^^5 txOO* CT\ O* 


M ci co Tf tovcJ t^od d< 

M M M H M M M M H 


OH M co 'f xo\O tx 



i;2 SALLY WATER 



i. ; i in 

1 1 II I I I I I I I * I Ml I I 5 |^ II I II 

^ r2: iS ajojT3>-i_ 

r^" .Srf &> C O O O ^ -~ 

3 &^ -2 S J3 J3-oC 

72 72 & U U 



3 s| % 

I 



* * II II I M II II I I I ! * I 



I-H 



ill f I I Ml 

^ 



I * H 

cj* X o J> 

I "3 II II I I II II * I III I I I* >jgM M I 

_S 2 u S~ u 

S? *J tQ i 

S SR <" d 

fe -Q g 

l| I II I MMMg I 111 111 5 /jj^ II I I I 



, I 1 d 

| I I I I IMIM^.I III | I l^-S-l Mill 

^ -- S ^-c- 2 ^ 5 

72 CJ ^ Z 



d 

I ' -a _g 

I I J II I II I S I II .! I I M l fl >Jl I 1*11 






U 



o d\ o H ci co ^ iovo IN oo" <5> c> M ci 

MHIHH 1-1 HHH HHOld CJ 



SALLY WATER 



173 







b/> o ^ 








1 
I 


-"M II II 1 l'| 


rt s 

111 ^ 1 1 N N Crc ii ii i 


B 


1 ' ao 


b/j j "5 "^ ''"'TT 


m 


s -S 


e ^ -^ ^ ^ 




! I 


u Z 






a! ^ s 1 


. 




o ^ a ^ 






**-** Q^ G 


1 


-M 1 1 M M 1 


N^ I N I i ll- ^ I ii I I 

C <U 0> ^j O 




0) 


o o ^j ^ cJ 




1 


2 u u ^ ^ 






85 d ^ 






c > ^ S 


Gainford. 


1^ II II II II 


""a +-" 

1 1 1 1 Mil II 5 "|* II I II 

d b % ^ -g - -d" 

oo g 8>^1 




1 


>~. ^ != o o n 
2 u u ~ ^ 






^ <-i 1/5 aT 






S<8 ^ "S< 








1 


1 1 II 1 1 i II 1 


**" " O 

III ||ll 1 1 1 1 - . d INN 




>> 


go o o~& 




S 


3* 6 U^K 




<u 


rt . i 






d 1 1 


J2 


-N 1 1 1 1 II T 


Mil ^M Jtf 11^ . 1 II 1 l-s 




S* .s 3 ^ 
g S t 

C/3 35 


i II i II I 

c/3 H h < 


. 


OJ 


13 *J~ <u 




/^ 




1 


ll II 1 1 1 1 II 


M * . 1 II I . II 1 i Mill 

2 C I" to "<n 


1 


1 


cS O u Co' 

S ^ ^ ^^ 
rt u H 


J 


h 


g 3 S 

*J ^ C 

o t/5 c 
- 8 i JP 


1 


II II 1 1 1 II 


M * 1 II 1 g M 2 c N M 1 


1 









1 


l S sl^.1 

w c Sii S^ o fi 

bd E H fc 


6 


H cJ CO ^ ^vO txOO CT\ O 

M 


da? j ^^ ?^s s* S^^sj- 



174 SALLY WATER 



The first thing to note from this analysis are the words 
Sally and Water. In twenty-three versions they are Sally 
Water or Waters, in seventeen versions it is Sally Walker, in 
six versions it is another name altogether, while in two versions 
it is Sallie only. The most constant name, therefore, points to 
Sally Water as the oldest version; and it is noticeable that 
in the Lincolnshire and Sheffield versions, where the name is 
not Sally Water, the word water is introduced later on in the 
line which directs the action of sprinkling water. Is it possible, 
then, that Sally Water may be a corruption from an earlier 
form where Sally is some other word, not the name of a girl, 
as it is usually supposed to be, and the word water is con- 
nected, not with the name of the maiden, but with the action 
of sprinkling which she is called upon to perform ? If we 
could surmise that the early form was " Sallie, Sallie, water 
sprinkle in the pan," the accusative being placed before 
the verb, the problem would be solved in this manner; but 
there is no warrant for this poetical licence in popular verses, 
and I prefer to suggest that "water" got attached as a sur- 
name by simple transposition, such as the Norfolk and Bedd- 
gelert versions allow as evidence. It follows from this that 
Walker and other names appear as degraded forms of the 
original, and do not enter into the question of origins, a point 
which may readily be conceded, considering that the general 
evidence of all these singing games is, that no special names 
are ever used, but that names change to suit the players. The 
next incident in the analysis is the ceremony of " sprinkling 
the water," which is constant in twenty-one versions, while the 
Wakefield " Springin' in the pan," the Settle " Tinkle in a can," 
Halli well's " Sprinkle for a young man," and the eight versions 
in which this incident is wholly absent in any form, are evident 
corruptions. The tendency of the corruption is shown by this 
to be that the " sprinkling of water" came to be omitted from 
the verse, and therefore the other variants 

Sitting by the water (Sheffield), 

Water your can (Warwickshire), 

Sitting in a sigh (Nairn), 

Sitting on the sand (Fraserburgh and Beddgelert). 



SALLY WATER 175 



Sitting in the sander (Cornwall), 

Sitting in the sun (Brigg. and Nairn), 

Sat upon a cinder (Earls Heaton), 

Sitting on the ground (Notts.), 

are but the steps through which the entire omission of the 
water incident was finally attained. The third incident is 
"Rise and choose" a young man, the alternative being " Cry- 
ing for a young man." The first indicates a kneeling and 
reverential attitude before the water, and occurs in twenty- 
one versions, while the second only occurs in fourteen ver- 
sions. 

The expression " crying" is really to " announce a want," 
as " wants" were formerly cried by the official " crier" of 
every township, and indeed as children still in games "cry" 
the forfeits ; but losing this meaning, the expression came to 
mean crying in the sense of " weeping," and appearing to the 
minds of children as a natural way of expressing a want, would 
therefore succeed in ousting any more archaic notion. The 
incident of crying for a lover appears in other singing games, 
as, for instance, in " Poor Mary." Especially may this be con- 
sidered the process which has been going on when it is seen 
that "choosing" is an actual incident of the game, even in 
those cases where "crying" has replaced the kneeling. The 
choosing incident also assumes two forms, namely, with respect 
to " east and west " in twenty-two versions, and " best and 
worst " in nine versions. Now, the expression, " for better for 
worse," is an old marriage formula preserved in the vernacular 
portion of the ancient English marriage service (see Palgrave, 
English Commonwealth, ii., p. cxxxvi.) ; and I cannot but think 
that we have the same formula in this game, especially as the 
final admonition in nearly all the versions is to choose " the 
one loved best." Following upon this comes the very general 
marriage formula noted so frequently in these games. It is 
slightly varied in some versions, and is replaced by a different 
formula, but one that also appears in other games, in two or 
three versions. One feature is very noticeable in the less 
common versions of this game, viz., the assumption of the 
marriage being connected with the birth of children, and the 



1 76 SALLY WATER 



indulgences of the lovers, as in the Tong and Scottish versions 
xxxii., xxxiii., and xxxiv. 

(e) In considering the probable origin of the game, the 
first thing will be to ascertain as far as possible what ideas 
the words are intended to convey. Taking note of the 
results of the analysis, so far as they show the corruptions 
which have taken place in the words, it seems clear that though 
it is not possible to restore the original words, their original 
meaning is still preserved. This is, that they accompanied the 
performance of a marriage ceremony, and that a chief feature of 
this ceremony was connected with some form of water- worship, 
or some rite in which water played a chief part. Now it has 
been noted before that the games of children have preserved, 
by adaptation, the marriage ceremony of ancient times (e.g., 
11 Merry ma Tansa," "Nuts in May," "Poor Mary," " Round and 
Round the Village ") ; but this is the first instance where such 
an important particularisation as that implied by water-worship 
qualifies the marriage ceremony. It is therefore necessary to see 
what this exactly means. Mr. Hartland, in his Perseus (i. 1679), 
draws attention to the general significance of the water cere- 
monial in marriage customs, and Mr. F. B. Jevons, in his intro- 
duction to Plutarch's Romane Questions, and in the Transactions 
of the Folk-lore Congress, 1891, deals with the subject in refer- 
ence to the origin of custom obtaining among both Aryan and 
non-Aryan speaking people. In this connection an important 
consideration arises. The Esthonian brides, on the morning 
after the wedding, are taken to make offerings to the water 
spirit, and they throw offerings into the spring (or a vessel of 
water), overturn a vessel of water in the house, and sprinkle 
their bridegrooms with water. The Hindoo offerings of the bride 
were cast into a water vessel, and the bride sprinkles the court of 
the new house with water by way of exorcism, and also sprinkles 
the bridegroom (Jevons, loc. cit., p. 345). Here the parallel be- 
tween the non- Aryan Esthonian custom and the Aryan Hindoo 
custom is very close, and it is a part of Mr. Jevons' argument 
that, among the Teutons, with whom alone of Aryan speaking 
peoples the Esthonians came into contact, the custom was limited 
to the bride simply stepping over a vessel of water. There is 



SALLY WATER 177 



certainly something a great deal more than the parallel to the 
Teutonic custom in the game of" Sally, Sally Water/' and as it 
equates more nearly to Hindoo and Esthonian custom, the ques- 
tion is, Does it help Mr. Jevons in the important point he raises ? 
I think it does. A custom is very low down among the strata of 
survivals when it is only to be recognised as part of a children's 
singing game, and the proposition it suggests is that children 
have preserved more of the old custom than was preserved by 
the people who adopted a portion of it into their marriage 
ceremony. A custom so treated must be older than the 
marriage ceremony with which it thus came into contact, and 
if this is a true conclusion, we have in this children's game a 
relic of the pre-Celtic peoples of these islands a relic therefore 
going back many centuries for its origin, and which is of inesti- 
mable service in discussing some important problems of the 
ethnic significance of folk-lore. These conclusions are entirely 
derived from the significant position which this game occupies 
in relation to Esthonian (non-Aryan) and to Teutonic (Aryan) 
marriage customs respectively, and therefore it is of consider- 
able importance to note that it entirely fits in with the conclu- 
sion which my husband has drawn as to the non-Aryan origin of 
water- worship (seeGomme's Ethnology of Folk-lore, pp. 79-105). 
There is, however, something further which seems to bring 
this game into line with non-Aryan marriage customs. The 
marriage signified by the game is acknowledged and sanctioned 
by the presence of witnesses; is made between two people 
who choose each other without any form of compulsion; is 
accompanied by blessings upon the young couple and prognos- 
tications of the birth of children. These points show that the 
marriage ceremony belongs to a time when the object of the 
union was to have children, and when its duration was not 
necessarily for life. It is curious to note that water worship is 
distinctly connected with the desire to have children (Proc. 
Roy. Irish Acad., 3rd ser., ii. 9); and that the idea of the 
temporary character of the marriage status of the lower classes 
of the people is still extant I have certain evidence of. Early 
in November of 1895, a man tried for bigamy gave as his 
defence that he thought his marriage was ended with his first 

VOL. II. M 



i 7 8 SALLY WATER 



wife, as he had been away seven years. It is a frequently 
told story. A year and a day and seven years are the two 
periods for which the popular mind regards marriage bind- 
ing. " I was faithful to him for seven years, and had more 
than my two children," a woman said to me once, as if two 
children were the required or expected number to be born 
in that period. If there is a popular belief of this kind, it is 
strangely borne out by this game-rhyme. lt First a girl, and 
then a boy," may also be shown to be a result to be desired 
and prayed for, in the popular belief that a man's cycle of life is 
not complete until he is the father of a daughter, who, in her turn, 
shall have a son. Miss Hawkins Dempster obtained evidence 
of such a belief from the lips of a man who considered he was 
entitled to marry another woman, as his wife had only borne 
him sons, and therefore his life was not (like hers) complete. 

The free choice of both woman and man is opposed to the 
theory of our present marriage ceremony, where permission or 
authority to marry is only necessary for the woman, the man 
being able to do as he pleases. This is now regarded as 
a sign of women's early subjection to the authority of men and 
their subordinate place in the household. But it does not 
follow that this was the relative position of men and women 
when a ceremony was first found needful and instituted. I 
am inclined to think it must have been, rather, the importance 
attached to the woman's act of ratification, in the presence of 
witnesses, of her formal promise to bear children to a parti- 
cular man. Marriage would then consist of contracts between 
two parties for the purpose of, and which actually resulted 
in, the birth of children ; of concubinage, or the wife consent- 
ing to children being born to her husband by another woman 
in her stead, if she herself failed in this respect (such children 
being hers and her husband's jointly) ; of marriage without 
ceremony or set purpose, resulting from young people being- 
thrown together at feast times, gathering in of harvests, &c., 
which might or might not result in the birth of children. 
These conditions of the marriage rite are at variance with what 
we know of the Aryan marriage generally and its results ; and 
that they flow from the customs preserved in the game under 



SALLY SOBER SALMON FISHERS 179 

consideration is further proof of the origin of the game from a 
marriage rite of the pre-Celtic people of these islands. The 
"kissing together" of the married couple is the token to the 
witnesses of their mutual consent to the contract. 

Attention has already been directed to the fact that parts of 
the formula preserved in this game are also found in other 
games, and it may possibly be assumed therefrom that the 
same origin must be given to these games as to " Sally Water." 
The objection to such a conclusion is mainly that it is impossible 
to decide to which game the popular marriage formula originally 
belonged, and from which it has been borrowed by the other 
games. Seeing how exactly it fits the circumstances of " Sally 
Water," it might not be too much to suggest that it rightly 
belongs to this game. Another point to be noted is that the tune 
to which the words of the marriage formula are sung is always 
the same, irrespective of that to which the previous verses are 
sung, and this rule obtains in all those games in which this 
formula appears a further proof of the antiquity of the formula 
as an outcome of the early marriage ceremony. 

Sally Sober 

A game among girls [undescribed]. Dickinson's Cumber- 
land Glossary (Supplement}. 

Salmon Fishers 

I. Cam' ye by the salmon fishers, 
Cam' ye by the roperee ? 
Saw ye a sailor laddie 
Sailing on the raging sea ? 

Oh, dear , are ye going to marry ? 

Yes, indeed, and that I am. 

Tell to me your own true lover, 

Tell to me your lover's name ? 

He's a bonnie lad, he's a bonnie fellow, 

Oh, he's a bonnie lad, 

Wi' ribbons blue and yellow, 

Stockings of blue silk ; 

Shoes of patent leather, 

Points to tie them up. 



i8o SALMON FISHERS 



A gold ring on his finger. 

Did you see the ship he came in ? 

Did you see it comin' in ? 

Every lassie wi' her laddie, 

Every widow wi' her son. 

Mother, struck eight o'clock, 

Mother, may I get out ? 

For my love is waiting 

For to get me out. 

First he gave me apples, 

Then he gave me pears, 

Then he gave me a sixpence 

To kiss him on the stairs. 

Oh, dear me, I wish I had my tea, 

To write a letter to my love 

To come back and marry me. 

Rosehearty (Rev. W. Gregor). 

II. Cam' ye by the salmon fishers ? 
Cam' ye by the roperee ? 

Saw ye a sailor laddie 

Waiting on the coast for me ? 

I ken fahr I'm gyain, 

I ken fahs gyain wi' me ; 

I ha'e a lad o' my ain, 

Ye daurna tack 'im fae me. 

Stockings of blue silk, 

Shoes of patent leather, 

Kid to tie them up, 

And gold rings on his finger. 

Oh for six o'clock ! 

Oh for seven I weary ! 

Oh for eight o'clock ! 

And then I'll see my dearie. 

Fochabers (Rev. W. Gregor). 

III. Come ye by the salmon fishers ? 
Come ye by the roperee ? 

Saw ye my dear sailor laddie 
Sailing on the raging sea ? 



SALT EEL 181 



Tip for gold and tip for silver, 

Tip for the bonnie laddie I do adore ; 

My delight 's for a sailor laddie, 

And shall be for evermore. 

Sit you down, my lovely Elsie, 

Take your baby on your knee ; 

Drink your health for a jolly sailor, 

He will come back and marry you. 

He will give you beads and ear-rings, 

He will give you diamonds free ; 

Sailors they are bonnie laddies, 

Oh, but they are neat and clean ! 

They can kiss a bonnie lassie 

In the dark, and A, B, C ; 

When the sailors come home at evening 

They take off their tarry clothes, 

They put on their light bluejackets, 

That is the way the sailors go. 

Rev. W. Gregor. 

A circle is formed, and the children dance round singing. 
Before beginning they agree which of the players is to be 
named in the fifth line of the Rosehearty version. 

Jamieson's Dictionary (sub voce), "Schamon's Dance," says, 
" Some particular kind of dance anciently used in Scotland." 

Blaw up the bagpyp than, 
The schamon's dance I mon begin, 
I trow it sail not pane. 
" Peblis to the Play," Chronicles of Scottish Poetry, i. 135. 

Pinkerton defines salmon as "probably show-man, shaw- 
uia/i." 

See " Shame Reel, or Shamit Dance." 

Salt Eel 

This is something like " Hide and Find." The name of 
Salt Eel may have been given it from one of the points of the 
game, which is to baste the runaway individual, whom you 
may overtake, all the way home with your handkerchief, 
twisted hard for that purpose. Salt Eel implies on board ship 



1 82 SAVE ALL SCOTCH-HOPPERS 

a rope's ending, and on shore an equivalent process. Moor's 
Suffolk Words and Phrases. 

Save All 

Two sides are chosen in this game. An even number of 
boys, say eight on each side. Half of these run out of the 
line, and are chased by half of the boys from the other side. 
If two out of four get " home " to door or lamp-post, they 
save all the prisoners which have been made ; if two out of 
four are caught before the others get " home," the side catch- 
ing them beats. Deptford (Miss Chase). 

Say Girl 

A game undescribed, recorded by the Rev. S. D. Headlam 
as played by some Hoxton school children. Church Reformer^ 
1894. 

Scat 

A paper-knife, or thin slip of wood, is placed by one 
player on his open palm. Another takes it up quickly, and 
tries to " scat " his opponent's hand before he can draw it 
away. Sometimes a feint of taking the paper-knife is made 
three or four times before it is really done. When the " scat " 
is given, the " scatter " in his turn rests the knife on his palm. 
Scat is the Cornish for "slap." Folk-lore Journal, v. 50. 

Scop-peril, or Scoperel 

Name for teetotum ordinarily manufactured by sticking a 
pointed peg through a bone button. Easther's Almoiidbury 
Glossary ; also in SW. Lincolnshire, Cole's Glossary. 

See "Totum." 

Scotch-hoppers 

In Poor Robin's Almanack for 1677, m tne verses to the 
reader, on the back of the title-page, concerning the chief 
matters in the volume, among many other articles of intelli- 
gence, the author professes to show 
" The time when school boys should play at Scotch-hoppers." 

Another allusion occurs in the same periodical for 1707 
" Lawyers and Physitians have little to do this month, and 
therefore they may (if they will) play at Scotch-hoppers. Some 



SCOTS AND ENGLISH 183 

men put their hands into peoples' pockets open, and extract 
it clutch'd, of that beware. But counsel without a cure, is a 
body without a soul." And again, in 1740 "The fifth house 
tells ye whether whores be sound or not; when it is good 
to eat tripes, bloat herrings, fry'd frogs, rotten eggs, and 
monkey's tails butter'd, or an ox liver well stuck with fish 
hooks; when it is the most convenient time for an old man 
to play at Scotch-hoppers amongst the boys. In it also is 
found plainly, that the best armour of proof against the fleas, 
is to go drunk to bed." 

See " Hopscotch," " Tray-Trip." 

Scots and English 

Boys first choose sides. The two chosen leaders join both 
hands, and raising them high enough to let the others pass 
through below, cry 

Brother Jack, if ye'll be mine, 
I'll gie ye claret wine ; 
Claret wine is good and fine, 

Through the needle ee, boys. 

Letting their arms fall they enclose a boy and ask him to 
which side he will belong, and he is disposed of according 
to his own decision. The parties being at length formed, are 
separated by a real or imaginary line, and place at some 
distance behind them, in a heap, their hats, coats, &c. They 
stand opposite to each other, the object being to make a 
successful incursion over the line into the enemy's country, 
and bring off part of the heap of clothes. It requires both 
address and swiftness of foot to do so without being taken by 
the foe. The winning of the game is decided by which party 
first loses all its men or its property. At Hawick, where the 
legendary mimicry of old Border warfare peculiarly flourishes, the 
boys are accustomed to use the following rhymes of defiance : 
King Covenanter, come out if ye daur venture ! 
Set your foot on Scots' ground, English, if ye daur ! 
Chambers' Popular Rhymes, p. 127. 

The following version was written down in 1821 under the 
name of Scotch and English : Two parties of boys, divided 



1 84 SCRATCH CRADLE SCRUSH 

by a fixed line, endeavoured to pull one another across this 
line, or to seize by bodily strength or nimbleness a " wad " 
(the coats or hats of the players) from the little heap 
deposited in the different territories at a convenient dis- 
tance. The person pulled across or seized in his attempt 
to rob the camp was made a prisoner and conducted to the 
enemy's station, where he remained under the denomina- 
tion of " stinkard " till relieved by one of the same side, or by 
a general exchange of prisoners. Blackwoods Magazine, 
August 1821, p. 25. The Denham Tracts, i. 150, gives a 
version of the game much the same as these, except that 
the words used by the English are, " Here's a leap into thy 
kingdom, dry-bellied Scot." See also Hutton's History of 
Roman Wall (1804), p. 104. Brockett's account, under the 
title of "Stealy Clothes, or Watch Webs," is as follows: 
The players divide into two parties and draw a line as the 
boundary of their respective territories. At an equal distance 
from this line each player deposits his hat or some other 
article of his dress. The object of the game is to seize and 
convey these singly to your own store from that of the enemy, 
but if you are unfortunately caught in the attempt, you not 
only restore the plunder but become a prisoner yourself. 
This evidently takes its origin from the inroads of the English 
and Scotch ; indeed, it is plainly proved from the language 
used on the occasion, which consists in a great measure of 
the terms of reproach still common among the Borderers. 
Brockett's North Country Words. 

Jamieson, also, describes the game under the title of 
" English and Scotch," and says the game has originated 
from the mutual incursions of the two nations. 

See "French and English," " Prisoner's Base," "Rigs." 

Scratch Cradle 

The game of " Cat's Cradle." 

Scrush 

A game much like Shinty between two sides of boys, each 
with bandies (scrushes) trying to knock a roundish stone over 
the other's line. Barnes' Dorset Glossary. See "Shinney." 



SCURRAN-MEGGY SEE-SAW 1 85 

Scurran-Meggy 

A game much in vogue in Cumberland during the last 
century, and in which a peculiar form of top called a " scurran 
top " was used. Halliwell's Dictionary. 

See-Saw 










London (A. B. Gomme). 

I. Titty cum tawtay, 

The ducks in the water ; 
Titty cum tawtay, 

The geese follow after. 

Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes, p. 213. 

II. See- saw, Margery Daw, 

Sold her bed to lie upon straw; 

Wasn't she a dirty slut 

To sell her bed to lie upon dirt ? 

London (A. B. Gomme). 

III. See-saw, Margery Daw, 
Johnny shall have a new master ; 
He shan't have but a farthing a day, 
Because he can't work any faster. 

London (G. L. Gomme). 

IV. See-saw, sacradown, 

Which is the way to London town ? 
One boot up, and the other down, 
And that is the way to London town. 

Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes, No. cccxxx. 

V. The poor man was digging, 

To and fro, to and fro ; 
And his spade on his shoulder, 
To and fro, to and fro. 



i86 SEE-SIM 



The poor man was digging, 
To and fro, to and fro ; 

And he caught the black cross, 

To and fro, to and fro. Isle of Man (A. W. Moore). 
A common game, children sitting on either end of a 
plank supported on its centre, and made to rock up and 
down. While enjoying this recreation, they sing the verse. 
Addy, Sheffield Glossary, gives Ranty or Rantypole, a plank 
or pole balanced evenly, upon which children rock up and 
down in see-saw fashion. Jamieson, Etymological Dictionary, 
gives Coup-the-Ladle as the name for See-saw in Aber- 
deen. Moor, Suffolk Words and Phrases, describes this 
game, and gives the same words to be sung while playing 
as HalliwelPs above. Grose gives "Weigh," to play at See- 
saw. Holloway, Dictionary of Provincialisms, says, in Norfolk 
See-saw is called Titti cum Totter; and in Gain ford, Durham, 
Ewiggy Shog. Haltiwell gives versions of Nos. II. and III. 
in his Nursery Rhymes, and also other verses with the open- 
ing words " See-saw," namely, " See-saw, Jack-a-Daw," " See- 
saw, Sack-a-day;" but these are not connected with the 
game by Halliwell, and there is nothing in the words to 
indicate such a connection. Mactaggart, Gallovidian En- 
cyclopedia, calls the game " Coggle-te-Carry," but gives no 
verses, and Strutt calls it "Titter Totter." Sports, p. 303. 
He does not give any rhymes, except to quote Gay's poem, 
but it is possible that the rhyme to his game may be No. I. 
Brogden gives " Hightte " as the game of See-saw. The Manx 
version has not before been published, and Mr. Moore says is 
now quite forgotten in the Isle. The game is called " Shuggy- 
shoo " in Irish, and also " Copple-thurrish," evidently " Horse 
and Pig," as if the two animals were balancing against each 
other, and alternately becoming elevated and depressed. 
Ulster Journ. Arch., vi. 102. The child who stands on the 
plank in the centre and balances it, is frequently called the 
" canstick " or " candlestick." 

See-Sim 

A children's game. If one of the party is blindfolded, it 
is "Blind-Sim." Spurden's East Anglian Glossary. 



SHAME REEL SHEPHERD AND SHEEP 187 

Shame Reel, or Shamit Dance 

In several counties of Scotland this was the name of the 
first dance after the celebration of marriages. It was performed 
by the bride and best man and the bridegroom and best maid. 
The bride's partner asked what was to be the "sham spring," 
and she commonly answered, " Through the world will I gang 
wi' the lad that lo'es me," which, on being communicated to the 
fiddlers, was struck up, and the dance went on somewhat 
punctiliously, while the guests looked on in silence, and greeted 
the close with applause. This dance was common in Forfar- 
shire twenty years ago. Jamieson's Dictionary. 

See "Cushion Dance," " Salmon Fishers." 

She Said, and She Said 

This game requires two confederates ; one leaves the room, 
and the other in the secret asks a player in the room to whisper 
to him whom she (or he) loved ; he then calls in his com- 
panion, and the following dialogue is carried on : 

" She said, and she said ! 
And what did she say ? " 

"She said that she loved." 

" And whom did she love ? 
Suppose she said she loved ? " 

" No ! she never said that, whatever she said." 
An indefinite number of names are mentioned before the right one. 
When that came, to the surprise of the whisperer, the answer is 

"Yes! she said that." 

The secret was very simple ; the name of a widow or widower 
known to both players was always given before that whispered. 
Cornwall (Folk-lore Journal, v. 50). 

Shepherd and Sheep 

Children choose, by " counting out," or otherwise, a Shep- 
herd and a Wolf (or Mother Sheep, and Wolf). The Wolt 
goes away, and the rest of the players are the Sheep (or Lambs) 
and stand in a row. The Shepherd counts them Sunday, 
Monday, Tuesday, &c. Then 

Shepherd "What shall I bring home for you for dinner, 
Sunday, I'm going to market ? " 



i88 SHEPHERD AND SHEEP 



Sunday chooses something roast veal, apple tart, or any- 
thing else that she likes. Then Monday, Tuesday, and the 

rest choose also. Shepherd goes away, saying 

" Mind you are all good children." 
The Wolf comes directly the Shepherd goes out of sight, 

and takes away one of the Sheep. Shepherd comes back and 

begins to distribute the different things 

"Sunday, Monday, why, where's Tuesday?" (or Wednes- 
day, as the case may be.) 
The Children cry in chorus 

" Old Wolf came down the chimney and took him (or her) 

away." 

This formula is repeated till all the children (sheep) are stolen. 
The Shepherd now goes to the Wolfs house to look for his 

sheep 

Shepherd " Good morning, have you seen my sheep ? " 

Wolf " Yes, they went down Red Lane." 
[Shepherd looks down Red Lane.] 

Shepherd " I've been down Red Lane, and they're not there." 

Wolf- "I've just seen them pass, they're gone down Green Lane," 
&c. These questions and answers continue as long as the 
children's fancy holds out ; then the Shepherd comes back. 

Shepherd " I've looked everywhere, and can't find them. I 
b'lieve you've got them ? I smell meat ; may I go up and 
taste your soup ? " 

Wolf "You can't go upstairs, your shoes are too dirty." 

Shepherd " I'll take off my shoes " (pretends to take them off). 

Wolf" Your stockings are too dirty." 

Shepherd " I'll take off my stockings " (suits the action). 

Wolf " Your feet are too dirty." 

Shepherd" I'll cut my feet off" (pretends to cut them off). 
(Milder version, " I'll wash my feet.") 

H^"Then the blood '11 run about." 

(Milder version, "Then they'll wet my carpet.") 

Shepherd" I'll tie up my feet." 
(Or, "I'll wipe my feet") 

Wolf- "Well, now you may go up." 

Shepherd " I smell my sheep." 



SHEPHERDS 189 



The Shepherd then goes to one child, pretends to taste 
using fingers of both hands as though holding a spoon and fork 
on the top of the child's head, saying, " That's my sheep," 
" That's Tuesday," &c., till he comes to the end of the row, 
then they all shout out and rush home to the fold, the Wolf 
with them. A fresh Shepherd and Wolf are chosen, and the 
game starts once more. Cornwall (Miss I. Barclay). 

One player is chosen to be the Shepherd, another the Thief, 
and the rest the sheep, who are arranged in a long row. The 
Shepherd pretends to be asleep ; the Thief takes away one of 
the sheep and hides it ; he then says 

Thief- " Shepherdy, shepherdy, count your sheep ! " 
Shepherd " I can't come now, I'm fast asleep." 

Thief " If you don't come now, they'll all be gone, 
So shepherdy, shepherdy, come along ! " 

The Shepherd counts the sheep, and missing one, asks 
where it is gone. The Thief says, " It is gone to get fat ! " 
The Shepherd goes to sleep again, and the same performance 
is repeated till all the sheep are hidden; the Shepherd goes 
in search of them, and when found they join him in the 
pursuit of the Thief. Oswestry (Burne's Shropshire Folk-lore, 
p. 520). 

Mr. Northall (Folk Rhymes, p. 391) gives a version from 
Warwickshire, and says he believes the Shepherd's dog to be 
the true thief who hides his propensity in the dialogue 
Bow, wow, wow, What's the matter now ? 
A leg of a louse came over my house, 
And stole one of my fat sheep away. 

The game is played as in Shropshire. The dialogue in the 
Cornish game is similar to that of Witch." See " Wolf." 

Shepherds 

One child stands alone, facing the others in a line opposite. 
The single child shouts, " Shepherds, shepherds, give warn- 
ing." The others reply, " Warn away ! warn away ! " Then 
she asks, " How many sheep have you got?" They answer, 
" More than you can carry away." She runs and catches one 
they two join hands and chase the rest ; each one, as caught, 



i 9 o SHINNEY 



joining hands with the chasers until all are caught. Liverpool 
(Mr. C. C. Bell.) See " Stag," " Warney." 

Shinney, or Shinty, or Shinnops 

A writer in Blackwood 1 s Magazine, August 1821, p. 36, says : 
The boys attempt to drive with curved sticks a ball, or what 
is more common, part of the vertebral bone of a sheep, in 
opposite directions. When the object driven along reaches the 
appointed place in either termination, the cry of hail ! stops 
the play till it is knocked off anew by the boy who was so 
fortunate as to drive it past the gog. In the Sheffield district 
it is played as described by H alii well. During the game the 
boys call out, " Hun you, shin you." It is called Shinny in 
Derbyshire. Addy's Sheffield Glossary. Halliwell's descrip- 
tion does not materially differ from the account given above 
except that when the knur is down over the line it is called a 
"bye." (Dictionary}. In Notes and Queries, 8th series, viii. 
446 ; ix. 1 1 5 et seq, the game is described as played in Lincoln- 
shire under the name of " Cabsow," which perhaps accounts for 
the Barnes game of Crab-sowl. 

In Perthshire it is described as a game in which bats some- 
what resembling a golf club are used. At every fair or meet- 
ing of the country people there were contests at racing, 
wrestling, putting the stone, &c., and on holidays all the males 
of a district, young and old, met to play at football, but oftener 
at shinty. Perthshire Statistical Account, v. 72 ; Jamieson's 
description is the same. 

Mactaggart's Gallovidian Encyclopedia says : A game de- 
scribed by Scotch writers by the name of Shintie ; the shins, 
or under parts of the legs, are in danger during the game of 
being struck, hence the name from shin. Dickinson, Cumber- 
land Glossary, mentions Shinny as a boyish game, also called 
Scabskew, catty ; it is also the name of the crook-ended stick 
used in the game. Patterson, Antrim and Down Glossary, 
under name Shinney, says, This game is played with shinneys, 
i.e., hooked sticks, and a ball or small block of wood called the 
" Golley," or " Nag." 

In London this game is called Hockey. It seems to be the 
same which is designed Not in Gloucestershire; the name 



SHIP SHIP SAIL 191 



being borrowed from the ball, which is made of a knotty piece 
of wood. Grose's Glossary. 

It has been said that Shinty and Hockey differ in this 
respect, that in the latter two goals are erected, each being 
formed by a piece of stick with both ends stuck in the ground. 
The players divide into two parties ; to each of these the care 
of one of the goals belongs. The game consists in endeavour- 
ing to drive the ball through the goal of the opposite party. 
Book of Sports (1810), pp. 11-13. But in Shinty there are 
also two goals, called hails; the object of each party being 
to drive the ball beyond their own hail, but there is no hole 
through which it must be driven. The ball, or knot of wood, 
is called Shintie. 

See " Bandy," "Camp," "Chinnup," "Crab-sowl," " Dod- 
dart," " Hockey," " Scrush." 

Ship 

A boy's game. It is played in two ways (i) Of a single 
character. One boy bends down against a wall (sometimes 
another stands pillow for his head), then an opponent jumps 
on his back, crying " Ships " simply, or " Ships a-sailing, 
coming on." If he slips off, he has to bend as the other ; 
but if not, he can remain as long as he pleases, provided he 
does not laugh or speak. If he forgets to cry " Ships," he has 
to bend down. (2) Sometimes sides are chosen ; then the 
whole side go down heads and tails, and all the boys on the 
other side have to jump on their backs. The game in each 
case is much the same. The " naming " was formerly " Ships 
and sailors coming on." Easther's Almondbury Glossary. Mr. 
H. Hardy sends an account from Earls Heaton, which is prac- 
tically the same as these. 

Ship Sail 

A game usually played with marbles. One boy puts his 
hand into his trousers pocket and takes out as many marbles 
as he feels inclined ; he closes his fingers over them, and holds 
out his hand with the palm down to the opposite player, saying, 
" Ship sail, sail fast. How many men on board ? " A guess is 
made by his opponent ; if less he has to give as many marbles 



192 SHIVER THE GOOSE-SHUTTLEFEATHER 



as will make up the true number ; if more, as many as he said 
over. But should the guess be correct he takes them, and 
then in his turn says, " Ship sail," &c. Cornwall (Folk-lore 
Journal, v. 59). 

See " Handy Dandy," " Neivvie-nick-nack." 

Shiver the Goose 

A boys' game. Two persons are trussed somewhat like 
fowls ; they then hop about on their " hunkers," each trying 
to upset the other. Patterson's Antrim and Down Glossary. 

See "Curcuddie." 

Shoeing the Auld Mare 

A dangerous kind of sport. A beam of wood is slung 
between two ropes, a person gets on to this and contrives to 
steady himself until he goes through a number of antics ; if 
he can do this he shoes the auld mare, if he cannot do it he 
generally tumbles to the ground and gets hurt with the fall. 
Mactaggart's Gallovidian Encyclopedia. 

Shue-Gled-Wylie 

A game in which the strongest acts as the Gled or Kite, and 
the next in strength as the mother of a brood of birds ; for 
those under her protection, perhaps to the number of a dozen, 
keep all in a string behind her, each holding by the tail of one 
another. The Gled still tries to catch the last of them, while 
the mother cries " Shue ! Shue ! " spreading out her arms to 
keep him off. If he catch all the birds he wins the game. 
Fife, Teviotdale (Jamieson). 

See "Fox and Geese," "Gled-Wylie," "Hen and Chickens." 

Shuttlefeather 

This game is generally known as " Battledore and Shuttle- 
cock." The battledore is a small hand bat, formerly made of 
wood, then of a skin stretched over a frame, and since of catgut 
strings stretched over a frame. The shuttlecock consists of a 
small cork into which feathers of equal size are fixed at even 
distances. The game may be played by one, two, or more 
persons. If by one person, it merely consists of batting up 
the shuttlecock into the air for as long a time as possible ; if 



SHUTTLEFE ATHER 193 

by two persons, it consists of batting the shuttlecock from one 
to the other; if by more than two, sides are chosen, and a 
game has been invented, and known as " Badminton." This 
latter game is not a traditional game, and does not therefore 
concern us now. 

Strutt (Sports and Pastimes, p. 303) says this is a sport of 
long standing, and he gives an illustration, said to be of the 
fourteenth century, from a MS. in the possession of Mr. F. 
Douce. This would probably be the earliest mention of the 
game. It appears to have been a fashionable pastime among 
grown persons in the reign of James I. In the Two Maids 
of Moredacke, 1609, it is said, "To play at Shuttlecock 
methinkes is the game now," and among the anecdotes related 
of Prince Henry, son to James I., is the following : " His 
Highness playing at shittle-cocke with one farr taller than 
himself, and hittyng him by chance with the shittle-cock upon 
the forehead" (Harl. MS., 6391). Among the accounts of 
money paid for the Earl of Northumberland while he was 
prisoner in the Tower for supposed complicity in the Gun- 
powder Plot, is an item for the purchase of shuttlecocks (Hist. 
MSS. Com., v. p. 354). 

But the popular nature of the game is not indicated by these 
facts. For this we have to turn to the doings of the people. 
In the villages of the West Riding the streets may be seen on 
the second Sunday in May full of grown-up men and women 
playing " Battledore and Shuttlefeathers " (Henderson's Folk- 
lore of the Northern Counties, p. 80). In Leicester the approach 
of Shrove Tuesday (known amongst the youngsters as " Shut- 
tlecock Day ") is signalised by the appearance in the streets of 
a number of children playing at the game of " Battledore and 
Shuttlecock." On the day itself the streets literally swarm 
with juveniles, and even grown men and women engage in 
the pastime. Passing through a by-street the other day I 
heard a little girl singing 

Shuttlecock, shuttlecock, tell me true 
How many years have I to go through ? 
One, two, three, four, &c. 

Notes and Queries, 3rd series, iii. 87. 

VOL. II. N 



194 SHUTTLEFEATHER 

The occurrence of this rhyme suggests that there is some 
sort of divination in the oldest form of the game, and it appears 
to me that the origin of the game must be sought for among 
the ancient practices of divination. An example is found 
among the customs of the children of Glamorganshire during 
the cowslip season. The cowslip heads are strung on a piece 
of thread and tied into a " posty," and the play is to throw it 
up a tolerable height, catching it on the distended palm with a 
blow that sends it up again, while the player sings : 
Pisty, posty, four and forty, 
How many years shall I live ? 

One, two, three, four, &c. 

Of course, if it falls to the ground uncaught, or even if caught 
in the clenched hand, there is an end of the player's " life." 
There is a good deal of emulation amongst the children as to 
who shall live the longest (Notes and Queries, 3rd ser., iii. 172). 
Miss Burne (Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 530) mentions the same 
custom, giving the rhyme as 

Toss-a-ball, toss-a-ball, tell me true 
How many years I've got to go through, 

and she says the cowslip is thence called a "tissy-ball." In 
this custom we have no artificial aids to form a game, but we 
have a significant form of divination from natural flowers, 
accompanied by a rhyming formula exactly parallel to the 
rhymes used in the Leicestershire game of " Shuttlecock," and 
I conclude therefore that we have here the true origin of the 
game. This conclusion is confirmed when it is found that divina- 
tory verses generally accompany the popular form of the game. 

At Wakefield the children playing " Battledore and Shuttle- 
cock" take it in turn, and say the following sentences, one 
clause to each bat, and repeated until the shuttlecock falls : 

ist. This year, next year, long time, never. 

2nd. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, 
Saturday, Sunday. 

3rd. Tinker, tailor, soldier, sailor, rich man, poor man, 
beggar-man, thief. 

4th. Silk, satin, cotton, rags. 

5 th. Coach, carriage, wheelbarrow, donkey-cart. Miss Fowler 



SHUTTLEFEATHER 195 

At Deptford the rhymes were 

Grandmother, grandmother, 
Tell me the truth, 

How many years have I been to school ? 
One, two, three, &c. 

Grandmother, grandmother, 
Tell me no lie, 
How many children 
Before I die ? 

One, two, three, &c. 

In the same way the following questions are put and 
answered : 

How old am I ? 

How long am I going to live ? 

How many children shall I have ? 

Black currant, 
Red currant, 
Raspberry tart, 
Tell me the name 
Of my sweetheart. 
A, B, C, D, &c. 

Tinker, tailor, soldier, sailor, potter's boy, flour boy, thief. 

Silk, satin, cotton, muslin, rags. 

Coach, carriage, wheelbarrow, dungcart. 

On their buttons they say : " Bought, given, stolen," to show 
how acquired. Miss Chase. 

In London the rhymes were t 

One, two, buckle my shoe, 
Three, four, knock at the door, 
Five, six, pick up sticks, 
Seven, eight, lay them straight, 
Nine, ten, a good fat hen, 
Eleven, twelve, ring the bell, 
Thirteen, fourteen, maids a courting, 
Fifteen, sixteen, maids in the kitchen, 
Seventeen, eighteen, mistress waiting, 
Nineteen, twenty, my plate's empty. 



196 SHU VVY-HAWLE SILLY OLD MAN 

One, two, three, four, 
Mary at the cottage door, 
Eating cherries off a plate, 
Five, six, seven, eight. 

Up the ladder, down the wall, 
A twopenny loaf to serve us all ; 
You buy milk and I'll buy flour, 
And we'll have pudding in half an hour. 
One, two three, four, five, six, &c. 

This year, next year, some time, never, repeated. 

A, B, C, D, E, &c., repeated for the initial letter of the future 
husband's name. 

Tinker, tailor, soldier, sailor, apothecary, ploughboy, thief, 
for future husband's vocation. 

Monday, Tuesday, &c., for the wedding day. 

Silk, satin, cotton, rags, for the material of the wedding gown. 

Coach, carriage, wheelbarrow, dungcart, for conveyance on 
wedding day. 

Big house, little house, pigsty, barn, for future home. (A. 
B. Gomme.) 

It will be seen that many of these divination formulae are 
used in other connections than that of " Shuttlecock," but this 
rather emphasises the divinatory character of the game in its 
original form. See " Ball," "Teesty-tosty." 

Shuvvy-Hawle 

A boys' game at marbles. A small hole is made in the 
ground, and marbles are pushed in turn with the side of the 
first finger ; these are won by the player pushing them into 
the shuvvy-hawle. Lowsley's Berkshire Glossary. 



Silly Old Man 




Leicester (Miss Ellis). 



SILLY OLD MAN 197 







Monton, Lancashire (Miss Dendy). 

I. Silly old man, he's all alone, 

He wants a wife and can't get one ; 
Round and round and choose a good one, 
Or else choose none. 

This young couple are married together, 
Their fathers and mothers they must obey ; 
Love one another like sister and brother, 
And down on their knees and kiss one another. 

Leicester (Miss Ellis). 

II. Silly old man, he walks alone, 
He walks alone, he walks alone ; 
Silly old man, he walks alone, 

He wants a wife and can't get one. 

All go round and choose your own, 

Choose your own, choose your own ; 

All go round and choose your own, 

And choose a good one or else choose none. 

Now young couple you're married together, 
Married together, married together; 
Now young couple you're married together, 
Your father and mother you must obey. 
So love one another like sister and brother, 
And now young couple pray kiss together. 

Lancashire {Notes and Queries, 5th series, iv. 157). 

III. Silly old maid (or man), she walks alone, 
She walks alone, she walks alone ; 
Silly old maid, she walks alone, 

She wants a man (or wife) and she can't get one. 



198 SILLY OLD MAN 



Go around and choose your own, 
Choose your own, choose your own ; 
Go around and choose your own, 
And take whoever you like in. 

Now these two are married together, 

Married together, married together ; 

Now these two are married together, 

I pray love, kiss again. Isle of Man (A. W. Moore). 

IV. Here's a silly ould man that lies all alone, 
That lies all alone, that lies all alone; 
Here's a silly ould man that lies all alone, 
He wants a wife and he can get none. 

Now young couple you're married together, 
You're married together, you're married together; 
You must obey your father and mother, 
And love one another like sister and brother. 
I pray, young couple, you'll kiss together. 

Carleton's Traits and Stories of the Irish 
Peasantry, p. 107. 

V. Silly old man, he walks alone, 
Walks alone, walks alone ; 
Silly old man, he walks alone, 
Wants a wife and he canna get one. 

All go round and choose your own, 
Choose your own, choose } r our own ; 
All go round and choose your own, 
Choose a good one or let it alone. 

Now he's got married and tied to a peg, 
Tied to a peg, tied to a peg ; 
Now he's got married and tied to a peg, 
Married a wife with a wooden leg. 

Monton, Lancashire (Miss Dendy). 

VI. Silly old maid, she lives alone, 
She lives alone, she lives alone ; 
[Silly old maid, she lives alone,] 
Wants a husband but can't get one. 



SKIN THE GOATIE 199 

So now go round and choose your own, 
Choose your own, choose your own ; 
Now go round and choose your own, 
Choose the very one you love best. 

Now young couple, you're married for ever, 
Your father and mother you must obey ; 
Love another like sister and brother, 
And now young couple, pray kiss together. 

Dublin (Mrs. Lincoln). 

(c) The children form a ring, joining hands. A child, usually 
a boy, stands in the middle. The ring dances round and sings 
the verses. The boy in the centre chooses a girl when bidden 
by the ring. These two then stand in the centre and kiss 
each other at the command. The boy then takes a place in 
the ring, and the girl remains in the centre and chooses a boy 
in her turn. In the Dublin and Isle of Man versions a girl is 
first in the centre; in the Manx version (A. W. Moore) the 
two children hold hands when in the centre. 

(d) In the Traits and Stories of the I risk Peasantry, Mr. 
Carleton gives this game as one of those played by young 
people of both sexes at funeral wakes. It is played in the 
same way as the game now is ; boys and girls stand alternately 
in a ring holding hands, choosing each other in turn, and kiss- 
ing. The other versions do not differ materially from each other, 
except that the Lancashire version described by Miss Dendy 
has evidently been corrupted quite lately, because a purer form 
is quoted from the same county in Notes and Queries. The 
game seems to be one of the group of marriage games arising 
from the fact that at any gathering of people for the purpose 
of a ceremonial, whether a funeral or a festival, it was the 
custom to form matrimonial alliances. The words are used for 
kiss-in-the-ring games, and also in some marriage games when 
the last player is left without a partner. 

Skin the Goatie 

One boy takes his stand in an upright position at a wall. 
Another boy stoops with his head in the breast of the one stand- 



200 SKIPPING 



ing upright. A third boy jumps stride-leg on his back, and 
tries to " crown," i.e., put his hand on the head of the boy at 
the wall. The boy on whose back he is tries every means by 
shifting from side to side, and by throwing up his back, to pre- 
vent him from doing so, and to cast him off. If he succeeds in 
doing so, he takes his stand behind the stooping boy in the same 
position. Another boy then tries to do the same thing over 
the two stooping boys. If he succeeds in crowning the stand- 
ing boy, he takes his station at the wall. If not, he takes his 
stand behind the two stooping boys. The game goes on till a 
boy " crowns " the one standing at the wall. Banchory (Rev. 
W. Gregor). 

See " Saddle the Nag." 

Skipping 

Strutt says (Sports, p. 383), "This amusement is probably 
very ancient. Boys often contend for superiority of skill in 
this game, and he who passes the rope about most times 
without interruption is the conqueror. In the hop season a 
hop-stem, stripped of its leaves, is used instead of a rope, and, 
in my opinion, it is preferable." On Good Friday on Brighton 
beach the fisher folk used to play at skipping, six to ten 
grown-up people skipping at one rope. 

Apart from the ordinary, and probably later way of playing, 
by one child holding a rope in both hands, turning it over the 
head, and either stepping over it while running, or standing 
still and jumping until the feet catch the rope and a trip is 
made, skipping appears to be performed in two ways, jumping 
or stepping across with (i) more or less complicated movements 
of the rope and feet, and (2) the ordinary jumping over a turned 
rope while chanting rhymes, for the purpose of deciding whether 
the players are to be married or single, occupation of future 
husband, &c. 

Of the first class of game there are the following variants : 

" Pepper, salt, mustard, cider, vinegar." Two girls turn 
the rope slowly at first, repeating the above words, then they 
turn it as quickly as possible until the skipper is tired out, 
or trips. 



SKIPPING 201 



" Rock the Cradle." In this the holders of the rope do not 
throw it completely over, but swing it from side to side with an 
even motion like the swinging of the pendulum of a clock. 

" Chase the Fox." One girl is chosen as a leader, or fox. 
The first runs through the rope, as it is turned towards her, 
without skipping; the others all follow her; then she runs 
through from the other side as the rope is turned from her, and 
the others follow. Then she runs in and jumps or skips once, 
and the others follow suit; then she skips twice and runs 
out, then three times, the others all following in turn until one 
trips or fails. The first one to do this takes the place of one of 
the turners, the turner taking her place as one of the skippers. 

" Visiting." One girl turns the rope over herself, and another 
jumps in and faces her, while skipping in time with the girl she 
visits. She then runs out again without stopping the rope, 
and another girl runs in. 

" Begging." Two girls turn, and two others run and skip 
together side by side. While still skipping they change places ; 
one says, as she passes, " Give me some bread and butter;" 
the other answering, "Try my next door neighbour." This is 
continued until one trips. 

" Winding the Clock." Two turn the rope, and the skipper 
counts one, two, three, up to twelve, turning round each time 
she jumps or skips. 

" Baking Bread." Two girls turn, and another runs in with 
a stone in her hand, which she puts down on the ground, and 
picks up again while skipping. 

"The Ladder." The girls run in to skip, first on one foot 
and then the other, with a stepping motion. 

Two other games are as follows : (i.) Two ropes are used, 
and a girl holds either end in each hand, turning them alter- 
nately; the skipper has to jump or skip over each in turn. 
When the rope is turned inwards, it is called "double dutch," 
when turned outwards, " French dutch." (2.) The skipper has 
a short rope which she turns over herself, while two other girls 
turn a longer rope over her head. 

The second class of games consists of those cases where the 
skipping is accompanied by rhymes, and is used for the purpose 



202 SKIPPING 



of foretelling the future destiny of the skipper. These rhymes 
are as follows (all collected by Miss Chase): 

Ipsey, Pipsey, tell me true 
Who shall I be married to ? 

A, B, C, &c. 

Letters initial of one to whom you'll be married. Hurst- 
monceux, Sussex. 

Half pound tuppeny rice, 

Half a pound of treacle, 

Penny 'orth of spice 

To make it nice, 

Pop goes the weazle. Crockham Hill, Kent. 

When I was young and able, 
I sat upon the table ; 
The table broke, 
And gave me a poke, 
When I was young and able. 
[The children now add that when singing 
Pass the baker,* 
Cook the tater, 
is the full couplet.] Deptford. 

Every morning at eight o'clock, 

You all may hear the postman's knock. 

i, 2, 3, 4. There goes " Polly." 

Girl named running out, and another girl running in directly. 
Mary le bone. 

Up and down the ladder wall, 
Ha'penny loaf to feed us all ; 
A bit for you, and a bit for me, 
And a bit for Punch and Judy. 

Paddington Green. 

As they run thus, each calls in turn, " Red, yellow, blue, 
white." Where you are tripped, the colour stopped on marks 
that of your wedding gown. Deptford. 

* To change from left to right side, crossing a second skipper, is called " Pass 
the Baker." 



SKIPPING 203 



Each of the two girls turning the rope takes a colour, and as the 
line of children run through, they guess by shouting, " Red ? " 
" Green ? " When wrong nothing happens ; they take the place 
of turner, however, if they hit upon her colour. Another way 
is to call it " Sweet stuff shop," or " green grocers," and guess 
various candies and fruits until they choose right. Deptford. 

When several girls start running in to skip, they say, 

"All in, a bottle of gin," 
and as they leave at a dash, they cry 

"All out, a bottle of stout." 

While " in " jumping, the turners time the skippers' move- 
ments by a sing song. 

Up and down the city wall, 

Ha'penny loaf to feed us all ; 

I buy milk, you buy flour, 

You shall have pepper in half an hour. 

Deptford. 
At pepper turn swiftly. 

Up and down the ladder wall, 

Penny loaf to feed us all ; 

A bit for you, and a bit for me, 

And a bit for all the familee. Marylebone. 

Up and down the city wall, 
In and out "The Eagle," 
That's the way the money goes, 
Pop goes the weazel. 

From "A London Maid. ' 

Dancing Dolly had no sense, 

For to fiddle for eighteenpence ; 

All the tunes that she could play, 

Were " Sally get out of the donkey's way." 

Deptford. 
My mother said 
That the rope must go 
Over my head. Deptford. 



204 SKYTE THE BOB 



Andy Pandy, 

Sugardy candy, 

French almond 

Rock. Deptford. 

B-L-E-S-S-I-N-G. 
Roses red, roses white, 
Roses in my garden ; 
I would not part 
With my sweetheart 
For tuppence hapenny farthing. 
A, B, C, &c., to X, Y, Z. Deptford. 

Knife and fork, 

Lay the cloth,* 

Dont forget the salt, 

Mustard, vinegar, 

Pepper ! Deptford. 

They sometimes make a girl skip back and forth the long- 
way of the rope, using this dialogue 

Girl skipping. " Father, give me the key." 

Father. "Go to your mother." 

Girl jumping in opposite direction. " Mother, give me the 
key." 

Mother. " Go to your father." 

Lady, lady, drop your handkerchief, 
Lady, lady, pick it up. 
Suiting action to the words, still skipping. 

Rhyme to time the jumps 
Cups and saucers, 
Plates and dishes, 
My old man wears 
Calico breeches. 

Skyte the Bob 

This game might be played by two, three, or more. A 
small stone of a squarish form, called the " bob," was placed 

* In Marylebone add here, " Bring me up a leg of pork." 



SMUGGLE THE GIG 205 

on a level piece of ground. On this stone each player placed 
an old button, for buttons were the stakes. A point was 
fixed several yards from the stone, and a line was drawn. 
Along this line, "the stance," the players took their stand, 
each holding in his hand a small flat stone named "the 
pitcher." This stone was thrown so as to strike "the bob" 
and make the buttons fall on " the pitcher," or nearer it than 
"the bob." The button or buttons that lay nearer "the 
pitcher "than "the bob" fell to the lot of the player. The 
second player did the same, but he had to guard against 
driving any of the buttons nearer the first player's stone. If 
a button was nearer his stone than "the bob," or the first 
player's stone, he claimed it. The third player followed the 
same course if all the buttons had not been won by the two 
players. If the buttons were not all won at the first throw, 
the first player had a second chance, and so on till all the 
buttons were won. If two played, if each won a button, they 
alternately began, but if one gained the two buttons, the other 
began. When three played, if one had two for his share he 
played last in the following game, and the one that had nothing 
played first. If the players, when three played, were experts, 
the one whose lot it was to play second, who was called the 
" poust," lost heavily, and to be " pousted " was always looked 
upon as a misfortune, for the reason that the first player often 
by the first throw gained the whole stake, and then in the 
following game the last player became the first, and the gainer 
in the foregoing game became the last. If this player carried 
off the whole stake, he in the next game took the last place, 
and the last took the first, and so between the two good players 
the " poust " had no chance. Aberdeenshire (Rev. W. Gregor). 
See " Buttons." 

Smuggle the Gig 

Mr. Ballantyne describes the game as played in his young 
days at Biggar as follows : Two boys would each select his 
own side. " First pick " was decided by lot. A third boy 
took two straws, one shorter than the other, and held them 
between his finger and thumb in such a way that only equal 



206 SMUGGLE THE GIG 

lengths were visible. Each leader drew a straw. The one 
who drew the longest had " first pick " of all the intended 
players, the other leader had the next; alternate choice was 
then made by them until both sides were complete, and were 
ranged by their leaders. Then lots were again drawn as to 
which side should go out first. The side going out had to 
show the Gig; anything easily carried in the hand sufficed. 
The "outs" went out from the den twenty or thirty yards, some- 
times round the end of a house, to "smuggle the Gig" that 
is, to give one of their number the Gig to carry, care being 
taken that the " ins " did not know who had it. During this 
time the leader of the ins called "out" in a loud voice 

Zimerie, twaerie, hickeri seeven, 

Aucherie, daucherie, ten and eleven ; 

Twall ran musha dan 

Tweedledum, twadledum, twenty-one. Time's up ! 
Outs had all to appear by " Ready " when the chase began. 
Boundary limits were fixed, beyond which outs could not run 
and ins could not stand, within a fixed distance of the den. 
This den was a place marked by a mark or rut in the ground, 
about four feet by six feet. The outs endeavoured (particularly 
the one carrying the Gig) to get into the den before any one 
could catch and "crown" him. The pursued, when caught, 
was held by the pursuer, his cap taken off, and the palm of 
the hand was placed on the crown of his head. As he did so 
the pursuer would say, " Deliver up the Gig." If he had it 
not, the pursuer went off after another player. If he had the 
Gig, and succeeded in getting into the den without being 
"crowned," outs won the game; but if the Gig was caught 
and " crowned," ins won. 

At Fraserburgh the players are divided equally. A spot is 
marked off, called the Nestie. Any small object known to all 
is chosen as the Gig. One half of the players receive the 
Gig and retire, so as not to be seen distinctly by the other 
half that remains in and near the Nestie. The Gig is concealed 
on the person of one of the players that retire. When every- 
thing is ready those having the Gig move towards the Nestie, 
and those in the Nestie come to meet them. The aim is to 



SNAIL CREEP 207 



catch the player who has the Gig before reaching the Nestie. 
If this is done the same players again hide the Gig, but if the 
Gig is discovered, the players discovering it now hide it. 

At Old Aberdeen sides are chosen, then a small article (such 
as a knife) is made the gig. Then one side, determined by a 
toss, goes out and smuggles the gig and cries out, "Smuggle 
the gig." Then the other side rushes in and tries to catch the 
one that has the "gig." If the one that has the gig is free, the 
same side goes out again. Rev. W. Gregor. 

See " Gegg." 

Snail Creep 

In Mid-Cornwall, in the second week of June, at St. Roche, 
and in one or two adjacent parishes, a curious dance is per- 
formed at their annual "feasts." It enjoys the rather un- 
dignified name of " Snail Creep," but would be more properly 
called the " Serpent's Coil." The following is scarcely a perfect 
description of it : " The young people being all assembled in 
a large meadow, the village band strikes up a simple but lively 
air and marches forward, followed by the whole assemblage, 
leading hand-in-hand (or more closely linked in case of engaged 
couples), the whole keeping time to the tune with a lively step. 
The band, or head of the serpent, keeps marching in an ever- 
narrowing circle, whilst its train of dancing followers becomes 
coiled around it in circle after circle. It is now that the most 
interesting part of the dance commences, for the band, taking 
a sharp turn about, begins to retrace the circle, still followed as 
before, and a number of young men, with long leafy branches 
in their hands as standards, direct this counter movement with 
almost military precision." W. C. Wade (Western Antiquary, 
April 1 88 1). 

A game similar to the above dance is often played by 
Sunday school children in West Cornwall, at their out-of-door 
summer treats, called by them " Roll tobacco." They join 
hands in one long line, the taller children at their head. The 
first child stands still, whilst the others in ever-narrowing 
circles dance around singing until they are coiled into a tight 
mass. The outer coil then wheels sharply in a contrary 



208 SNAPPING TONGS SOLDIER 

direction, followed by the remainder, retracing their steps. 
Courtney's Cornish Feasts and Folk-lore^ p. 39. A Scottish 
game, " Row Chow Tobacco," described by Jamieson, is played 
in the same way, the boy at the extremity being called the 
" Pin." A clamorous noise succeeds the " winding up/' the 
players crying out " Row Chow Tobacco " while giving and 
receiving the fraternal hug. The words are pronounced 
Rowity-chowity-bacco. The naming of this game in connec- 
tion with tobacco is curious. It is undoubtedly the same as 
" Snail Creep." I am inclined to think that all these games are 
connected with an ancient form of Tree-worship, and that the 
analogy of tobacco-rolling is quite modern. 

See "Bulliheisle," "Eller Tree," " Tuilyie-waps," "Wind up 
the Bush Faggot." 

Snapping Tongs 

See " Musical Chairs." 

Snatch Apple 

A game similar to " Bob Cherry," but played with an apple. 
Halliwell's Dictionary. 

Snatch Hood 

An undescribed boy's game mentioned in a statute of Edward 
III.'s time. Halliwell's Dictionary. 

Soldier 

I am an old soldier, I come from the war, 

Come from the war; 
I am an old soldier, I come from the war, 

And my age it is sixty-and-three. 
I have but one son and he lies alone, lies alone, 

I have but one son and he lies alone ; 
And he's still making moan for lying alone. 
Son, go choose a wife of your own, 
Choose a good one or else choose none, 
Or bring none home to me. 

Now they're got married, they're bound to obey, 
Bound to obey in every degree ; 
And as you go round kiss all but me. 

Belfast, Ireland (W. H. Patterson). 



SOLOMON SOW-IN-THE-KIRK 209 



The players form a ring and sing the first three verses. 
Then one of the players chooses a girl from the ring. The first 
three verses are again sung until the whole ring is arranged in 
couples ; then the first couple kneels in the middle, and the rest 
dance round them singing the marriage formula ; then the 
second couple, and so on, each couple kissing. 

Solomon 

The players knelt in a line ; the one at the head, in a very 
solemn tone, chaunted, " Solomon had a great dog ; " the 
others answered in the same way, "Just so" (this was always 
the refrain). Then the first speaker made two or three 
more ridiculous speeches, ending with, "And at last this 
great dog died, and fell down," giving at the same time a 
violent lurch against his next neighbour, who, not expecting it, 
fell against his, and so on, to the end of the line. Cornwall 
{Folk-lore Journal, v. 50). 

See "Obadiah," Quaker's Wedding. 

Sort'em-billyort'em 

A Lancashire game, very similar to " Hot Peas and Bacon." 
Halliwell's Dictionary. 

Sow-in-the-Kirk 

A large hole is made in the ground, surrounded by smaller 
ones, according to the number of the players, every one of 
whom has a shintie, or hooked stick. The middle hole is called 
the kirk. He who takes the lead in the game is called the sow- 
driver. His object is to drive a small piece of wood or bone, 
called the sow, into the large hole or kirk ; while that of his 
opponents, every one of whom keeps his shintie in one of the 
smaller holes, is to frustrate his exertions by driving back the 
sow. If he succeeds, either in knocking it into one of the 
small holes, while one of his antagonists is in the act of 
striking it back, he is released from the drudgery of being 
driver. In the latter case, the person whose vacancy he has 
occupied takes the servile station which he formerly held. 
Lothian (Jamieson). This is said to be the same game with 
" Church and Mice " in Fife. Jamieson's description is not very 

VOL. II. O 



210 SPAN COUNTER SPANGIE 

lucid. It appears that each player must hold his shintie with 
its end in his hole, and it is only when he takes it out to pre- 
vent the sow-driver getting his sow into or towards the kirk, 
that the sow-driver has the chance of putting the sow into the 
player's hole, and so causing that player to take the place of 
sow-driver. 

See " Kirk the Gussie." 

Span Counter 

A common game among boys. " You shall finde me playing 
at Span Counter." Dekker's Northward Hoe. Toone, Etymo- 
logical Dictionary, mentions this as a juvenile game played 
with counters. 

Boys shall not play 

At span counter or blow pipe. 

Donne (Satire iv.). 

Dr. Grosart, in noting this passage, says, " I rather think the 
game is still played by boys when they directly, or by rebound, 
endeavour to play their button or marble into a hole." Strutt 
briefly notes the game as being similar to " Boss Out." Sports, 
p. 384. Halliwell (Dictionary} simply gives the quotation from 
Donne's Poems, p. 131, mentioning the game. 

See " Boss Out." 

Spang and Purley 

A mode resorted to by boys of measuring distances, par- 
ticularly at the game of marbles. It means a space and some- 
thing more. Brockett's North Country Words. 

Spangie 

A game played by boys with marbles or halfpence. A 
marble or halfpenny is struck against the wall. If the second 
player can bring his so near that of his antagonist as to 
include both within a span, he claims both as his. Jamieson. 

This is the same game as "Banger," " Boss Out." Probably 
the Old English game of " Span Counter," or " Span Farthing," 
was originally the same. See Johnson's Dictionary. 



SPANNIMS STACKS 211 

Spannims 

A game at marbles played in the eastern parts of England. 
Halliwell's Dictionary. 

Spawnie 

The same game as " Spangie." Keith (Rev. W. Gregor). 

Spinny-Wye 

The name of a game among children at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. I suspect this is nearly the same with " Hide and 
Seek." " I spye" is the usual exclamation at a childish game 
called "Hie, spy, hie." Brand, ii. 442. 

Splints 

A game at marbles, in which they are dropped from the hand 
in heaps. Easther's Almondbury Glossary. 

Spurn point 

An old game (undescribed) mentioned in the play Apollo 
Shroving, London, 1627, p. 49. 

Spy-arm 

A game of Hide-and-Seek, with this difference, that when 
those are found who are hid the finder cries Spy-arm ; and if 
the one discovered can catch the discoverer, he has a ride upon 
his back to the dools. Mactaggart's Gallovidian Encyclopedia. 

See "Hide and Seek "(i). 

Stacks 

A stack in the centre of the stackyard was selected, and round 
a part of one side a rut was marked in the earth usually by the 
toe-bit of the ploughman's boot. This enclosure, not over 
four feet wide at the broadest part, was called the den. One 
of the players, selected to be the catcher, stood within this den, 
and when all the players were ready turned his face to the 
stack, and counted out loud the numerals from one to twenty, 
the last with a great shout. During the count the players ran 
round the stacks out of sight, but no hiding nor leaving the stack- 
yard, this was " not fair." When twenty was heard one would 
shout back " Ready ! " Then out came the catcher. He was 
not permitted to stand in or near the den, but went out among 
the stacks and caught as many players as he 'could before they 



212 STAG 



reached the den. The great aim of those " out " was to get 
into the den unseen and untouched. If all the players got in, 
then the catcher had to try again ; but when all were caught 
(which was seldom or ever), the last one caught was catcher 
for the next game. When one player was touched by the 
catcher he or she had to remain in the den till the rest were all 
in. Biggar (Wm. Ballantyne). 

Mr. Ballantyne says, " This game usually ended in a promis- 
cuous ' catching' and ' touching' game, each lad trying to catch 
the lass he liked best, and some lads, for the fun of the thing, 
would try and get a particular girl first, her wishes and will not 
being considered in the matter ; and it seemed to be an un- 
written law among them for the lass to ' gang wi' the lad that 
catched her first,' yet I have known lassies take this opportunity 
to favour the lad they preferred. It was the correct thing for 
the people to visit each other's farms in rotation to play ' the 
stacks.'" This game was played when all the crops of grain 
were in the stackyard under thack and rape (?nape). Then 
it was customary for the servant lads and lasses of neighbours' 
"ferm toons" to gather together and play at this game. Mr. 
Ballantyne considers it was the third of three festivals formerly 
held at the ingathering of the crops. 

See " Barley Break." 

Stag 

A boys' game. One boy issues forth and tries to " tig " 
another, previously saying this nominy, or the first two lines 

Stag, stag arony, 

Ma' dog's bony, 

Them 'at Aw catch 

Til ha' to go wi' me. 

When one boy is tigged (or " tug") the two issue forth hand in 
hand, and when more, all hand in hand. The other players 
have the privilege of breaking the chain, and if they succeed the 
parties forming it are liable to be ridden back to the den. At 
Lepton, where the game was publicly played, the boundaries 
were " Billy tour end, Penny Haas end, and I' Horsin step." So 
played in 1810, and is still. Easther's Almondbury Glossary. 
In the Sheffield district it is called " Rag Stag," and is 



STAG 213 

usually played in the playground, or yard, attached to a 
school. Any number can play. A place is chalked out in a 
corner or angle formed by the walls or hedges surrounding 
the playground. This is called the den, and a boy stands 
within the den. Sometimes the den is formed by chalking an 
area out upon a footpath, as in the game of "Bedlams." The 
boy in the den walks or runs out, crying, " Rag-stag, jinny I 
over, catching," and having said this he attempts to catch one 
of the boys in the playground who have agreed to play the 
game. Having caught him he takes him back into the den. 
When they have got into the den they run out hand-in-hand, 
one of them crying, " Rag-stag, jinny I over, touching,'' whilst 
the other immediately afterwards calls out, " Rag-stag, jinny I 
over, catching." They must keep hold of each other's hands, 
and whilst doing so the one who cried out " Touching " 
attempts to touch one of the boys in the playground, whilst 
the one who cried " Catching " attempts to catch one of such 
boys. If a boy is caught or touched, the two boys who came 
out of the den, together with their prisoner, run back as quickly 
as possible into the den, with their hands separated. If whilst 
they are running back into the den any boy in the playground 
can catch any one of the three who are running back, he jumps 
on his back and rides as far as the den, but he must take care 
not to ride too far, for when the boys who are already caught 
enter the den they can seize their riders, and pull them into 
the den. In this case the riders too are caught. The process 
is repeated until all are caught. Addy's SJieffleld Glossary. 

Another name for the game is " Stag-out." One player is 
Stag, and has a place marked out for his bounds. He stands 
inside, and then rushes out with his hands clasped together, 
and endeavours to touch one of the other players, which being 
accomplished, he has the privilege of riding on the boy's back 
to his bounds again. Book of Sports. In a London version 
the hands were held above the head, and joined by interlacing 
the thumbs, the fingers being outspread, the boy had to touch 
another while in this position. 

In Shropshire it is called " Stag-warning." One boy is 
chosen Stag; he runs about the playground with his clasped 



2i4 STAG 

hands held palms together in front of him, trying to tick 
( = touch) others. Each whom he touches joins hands with him, 
and they run together in an ever-lengthening chain, sweeping 
the playground from end to end, the boys at each end of the 
chain "ticking" others with their disengaged 'hands, till all are 
caught but one, who becomes the next " Stag." The Stag gives 
notice of his start by exclaiming 

Stag-warning, stag- warning, 

Come out to-morrow morning! Shrewsbury. 

Stag a-rag a-rorning 
Very frosty morning ! 

What I cannot catch to-night I'll catch to-morrow 
morning ! 

Chirbury (Burne's Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 523). 

The game is mentioned by Mr. Patterson in his Antrim and 
Down Glossary. Northall's English Folk Rhymes, p. 392, gives 
a Warkwickshire and Staffordshire version, in which the first 
player " ticked " or " tagged " becomes Stag when the first game 
is concluded, all having been caught. The words used are 
Stag aloney, 
My long poney, 
Kick the bucket over. 

Halliwell (Dictionary) also describes the game, and indicates 
its origin. The boy chosen for the game clasps his hands to- 
gether, and, holding them out, threatens his companions as 
though pursuing them with horns, and a chase ensues in 
which the Stag endeavours to strike one of them, who then 
becomes Stag in his turn. Unfortunately, Halliwell does not, 
in this instance, give his authority, but if it is taken from 
the players themselves, it is a sufficient account of the origin 
of the game, apart from the evidence of the name. All this 
group of games is evidently to be traced to one original, 
though in different places the detail of the game has developed 
somewhat differently. It evidently comes down from the time 
when stags were hunted not so much for sport as for food. 

See "Chickidy Hand," " Hornie," " Hunt the Stagie," 
{< Shepherds/' " Warney." 



STAGGING STICKY-STACK 215 

Stagging 

A man's game. Two men have their ankles tied together 
and their wrists tied behind their backs. They then try to 
knock each other down. Patterson's Antrim Glossary. 

See " Hirtschin Hairy." 

Steal the Pigs 

The game represents the stealing of a woman's children and 
the recovery of them. The mother, before beginning to wash, 
disposes of her children in a safe place. She proceeds to do 
her washing. While she is busy a child-snatcher comes and 
takes away one. The others begin to cry. The mother hears 
them crying. She goes and asks the reason of their crying, 
and is told that a woman came and took away one of them. 
She scolds and beats them all ; tells them to be more careful for 
the time to come, and returns to her washing. Again the children 
cry, and the mother goes to see what is the matter with them, 
and is told the same thing. She repeats her admonition and 
bodily correction, and returns to her work. This process is re- 
peated till all the children are stolen. After finishing her washing, 
she goes to her children and finds the last one gone. She sets 
out in search of them, and meets a woman whom she questions 
if she had seen her children. She denies all knowledge of them. 
The mother persists, and at last discovers all her stolen children. 
She demands them back. The stealer refuses, and puts them 
behind her and stands on her defence. A tussel takes place. 
The mother in the long run rescues her children. Fraserburgh 
(Rev. W. Gregor). 

See "Mother, Mother, Pot boils over," " Witch." 

Stealy Clothes 

See " Scots and English." 

Steik and Hide 

The game of Hide and Seek. Aberdeen (Jamieson). 

Sticky-stack 

A game among young people in running up the face or cut part 
of a hay-stack to try who can put in a stick the highest. 
Brockett's NortJt Country Words. 



216 STICKY TOFFEY STONES 

Sticky Toffey 

Name of a game (undescribed) recorded by the Rev. S. D. 
Headlam, as played by Hoxton School children at Hoxton. 
Church Reformer, 1 894. 

Stiff Police 

A game (undescribed) recorded by the Rev. S. D. Headlam, 
as played by Hoxton School children. Church Reformer, 
1894. 

Stik-n Snael (Stick and Snell) 

Game of cat. Elworthy, West Somerset Words. The short 
stick, pointed at both ends, is called a snell. 

Stocks 

A schoolboys' game. Two boys pick a side, and there is one 
den only, and they toss to see which side shall keep it. The 
side which wins the toss then goes out, and when two boys 
have got a good distance off they cry " Stocks." The boys 
who keep the den run after them to catch them. When one is 
caught his capturer counts ten while he holds him (in a more 
primitive but less refined state, spat over his head) and cries 
Stocks. This prisoner is taken into the den. If they are all 
caught the other side turns out. But if one of the outer side 
can manage to run through the den and cry " Stocks," all 
the prisoners are relieved, and can go out again. Easther's 
Almondbury Glossary. See " Stacks." 

Stones 

A circle of stones is formed according to the number of 
players, generally five or seven each side. One of the out 
party stands in the centre of the circle, and lobs at the different 
stones in rotation ; each hit a player gives all his side must 
change stations, in some places going round to the left and in 
others to the right. The stones are defended by the hand or a 
stick, according as a ball or stick is lobbed. All the players 
are out if the stone is hit, or the ball or stick caught, or one of 
the players is hit while running. In different counties or 
places these games are more or less modified. Dublin, Folk- 
lore Journal, ii. 264-265. 



STOOL-BALL 217 



Mr. Kinahan, who describes this game, adds a very instruc- 
tive note, which is worth quoting : 

11 These games I have seen played over half a century ago, 
with a lob-stick, but of later years with a ball, long before a 
cricket club existed, in Trinity College, Dublin, and when the 
game was quite unknown in a great part of Ireland. At the 
same time, they may have been introduced by some of the 
earlier settlers, and afterwards degenerated into the games 
mentioned above ; but I would be inclined to suspect that the 
Irish are the primitive games, they having since been improved 
into cricket. At the present day these games nearly every- 
where are succeeded by cricket, but often of a very primitive 
form, the wickets being stones set on end, or a pillar of stones ; 
while the ball is often wooden, and very rudely formed." 

Stool-ball 

The first mention of this game is by Smyth in his Berkeley 
Manuscripts. In the reign of Elizabeth, the Earl of Leicester, 
with an extraordinary number of attendants and multitudes 
of country people, and " whom my neighbours parallel to 
Bartholomew faire in London, came to Wotton, and thence to 
Michaelwood Lodge, castinge down part of the pales, which 
like a little park then enclosed the Lodge (for the gates were 
too narrow to let in his Trayne), and thence went to Wotton 
Hill, where hee plaid a match at stoball." Gloucestershire 
County Folk-lore, p. 26. 

The earliest description of the game, however, is by Aubrey. 
He says " it is peculiar to North Wilts, North Gloucestershire, 
and a little part of Somerset near Bath. They smite a ball, 
stuffed very hard with quills and covered with scale leather, with 
a staffe, commonly made of withy, about three feet and a half 
long. Colerne down is the place so famous and so frequented 
for stobball playing. The turfe is very fine and the rock (free- 
stone) is within an inch and a halfe of the surface which gives 
the ball so quick a rebound. A stobball ball is of about four 
inches diameter and as hard as a stone. I do not heare that 
this game is used anywhere in England but in this part of 
Wiltshire and Gloucestershire adjoining." (Aubrey's Natural 



218 STOOL-BALL 



History of Wiltshire, p. 117; Collections for North Wilts, 
p. 77). It is no doubt the same game as Stool-ball, which is 
alluded to by Herrick in 1648 (Hesperides), and in Poor Robin's 
Almanack for 1677 ( see H alii well's Dictionary). D'Urfey's 
Don Quixote, written in 1694, alludes to it as follows : 

" Down in a vale, on a summer's day, 

All the lads and lasses met to be merry ; 
A match for kisses at stool-ball to play, 

And for cakes and ale, and cider and perry." 

Chorus ; 

" Come all, great, small, short, tall 
Away to stool-ball." 

It is also alluded to in Poor Robin's Almanack for 1740 : 

" Now milkmaids pails are deckt with flowers, 
And men begin to drink in bowers, 
The mackarels come up in shoals, 
To fill the mouths of hungry souls ; 
Sweet sillabubs, and lip-lov'd tansey, 
For William is prepared by Nancy. 
Much time is wasted now away, 
At pigeon-holes, and nine-pin play, 
Whilst hob-nail Dick, and simpring Frances, 
Trip it away in country dances ; 
At stool-ball and at barley-break, 
Wherewith they harmless pastime make." 

It is described by Strutt in Sports and Pastimes, p. 103, as 
a variety of game more commonly known as " goff " or " bandy 
ball," the paganica of the Romans, who also stuffed their balls 
with feathers. According to Dr. Johnson, the balls are driven 
from stool to stool, hence the name. 

In spite of Aubrey's opinion as to the limited range of this 
game, it appears to have been pretty generally played. Thus, 
Roberts' Cambrian Antiquities says, " Stool-ball, resembling 
cricket, except that no bats are used and that a stool was 
substituted for the wicket, was in my memory also a favourite 
game on holydays, but it is now seldom or ever played. It 



STOOL-BALL 219 



generally began on Easter Eve" (p. 123). It was also an old 
Sussex game. Mr. Parish's account is that it was "similar 
in many respects to cricket, played by females. It has lately 
been revived in East Sussex by the establishment of stool-ball 
clubs in many villages. The elevens go long distances to play 
their matches ; they practise regularly and frequently, display 
such perfection of fielding and wicket-keeping as would put 
most amateur cricketers to shame. The rules are printed and 
implicitly obeyed." Parish's Dictionary of Sussex Dialect. 

Miss Edith Mendham says of the Sussex game, it is supposed 
to derive its name from being played by milkmaids when they 
returned from milking. Their stools were (I think) used as 
wickets, and the rules were as follows : 

1. The wickets to be boards one foot square, mounted on a 
stake, which, when fixed in the ground, must be four feet nine 
inches from the ground. 

2. The wickets to be sixteen yards apart, the bowling crease 
to be eight yards from the wicket. 

3. The bowler to stand with one foot behind the crease, and 
in bowling must neither jerk nor throw the ball. 

4. The ball to be of that kind known as " Best Tennis," No. 3. 

5. The bats to be of wood, and made the same size and 
shape as battledores. 

6. The striker to be out if the ball when bowled hits the 
wicket, or if the ball be caught in the hands of any of the 
opposing side, or if in running, preparing to run, or pretending 
to run, the ball be thrown or touch the wicket before the striker 
reaches it, and the ball in all cases must strike the face of the 
wicket, and in running the striker must at each run strike the 
wicket with her bat. 

7. There should be eleven players on each side. 

8. Overs to consist of eight balls. 

Miss F. Hagden, in her short History of Alfriston, Sussex, 
says, " In the Jubilee year the game of stool-ball was revived 
and played in the Tye field. The rules resemble those of 
cricket, but the wickets are square boards on posts ; the bowler 
stands in the centre of the pitch, the bats used are round 
boards with a handle. The game in Alfriston seems now to 



220 STRIK A LIGHT STROKE BIAS 



have died out again, but in many villages there are regular 
clubs for the girls/' p. 43. It also appears to be a game among 
Lancashire children to this day. A stool is used as a wicket, 
at which it is attempted to throw the ball; a player stands near 
the stool, and using his or her hand as a bat, wards off the 
blow. If the ball hits the stool the thrower takes the place at 
wicket ; or if the ball is caught the catcher becomes the guardian 
of the stool. Stool-ball, like all ball games, was usually played 
at Easter for tansy cakes. Mr. Newell (Games and Songs) 
says this game is recorded by the second governor of Massa- 
chusetts as being played under date of the second Christmas 
of the colony. 

See " Bittle-battle," "Cricket," "Stool-ball." 

Strik a Licht 

A version of hide and seek. One player is chosen to be 
"it." The other players go away to a distance and "show a 
light," to let "it" understand they are ready. They then hide, 
and the first one found has to be " it " in place of the previous 
seeker. Aberdeen (Rev. W. Gregor). 

See " Hide and Seek." 

Stroke 

A game at marbles, where each player places a certain number 
on a line and plays in turns from a distance mark called 
" scratch," keeping such as he may knock off. Lowsley's 
Berkshire Glossary. 

Stroke Bias 

Brome, in his Travels over England, 1700, p. 264, says: 
" The Kentish men have a peculiar exercise, especially in the 
eastern parts, which is nowhere else used in any other country, 
I believe, but their own ; it is called ' Stroke Bias,' and the 
manner of it is thus. In the summer time one or two parishes 
convening make choice of twenty, and sometimes more, of the 
best runners which they can cull out in their precincts, who 
send a challenge to an equal number of racers within the 
liberties of two other parishes, to meet them at a set day upon 
some neighbouring plain; which challenge, if accepted, they 
repair to the place appointed, whither also the county resort 



SUN AND MOON SUNDAY NIGHT 221 

in great numbers to behold the match, when having stripped 
themselves at the goal to their shirts and drawers, they begin 
the course, every one bearing in his eye a particular man at 
which he aims; but after several traverses and courses on both 
sides, that side, whose legs are the nimblest to gain the first 
seven strokes from their antagonists, carry the day and win the 
prize. Nor is this game only appropriated to the men, but in 
some places the maids have their set matches too, and are as 
vigorous and active to obtain a victory." 

Sun and Moon 

"A kinde of play wherein two companies of boyes holding 
hands all on a rowe, doe pull with hard hold one another, till 
one be overcome." Quoted by Halliwell (Dictionary), from 
Thomasii Dictionarium, London, 1644. 

Sunday Night 

1. Sunday night an' Nancy, oh ! 
My delight and fancy, oh ! 

All the world that I should know 
If I had a Katey, oh ! 

" He ! ho ! my Katey, oh ! 
My bonny, bonny Katey, oh ! 
All the world that I should keep 
If I had a Katey, oh ! " 

Liphook, Hants (Miss Fowler). 

2. Sunday night and brandy, O ! 
My life and saying so, 

My life and saying so, 
Call upon me Annie, O ! 
I Annie, O ! 

Bonnie, bonnie Annie, O ! 
She's the girl that I should like 
If I had an Annie, O ! 

Earls Heaton, Yorks. (H. Hardy). 

(b) The children stand in a row with backs against a wall 
or fence, whilst one stands out and stepping backwards and 
forwards to the tune sings the first verse. Then she rushes 



222 SUN SHINES SWINGING 

to pick out one, taking her by the hands and standing face to 
face with her, sings the other verse. Then the two separate 
their hands, and standing side by side sing the first verse over 
again, taking another girl from the row, and so on again. 

" Monday night," or " Pimlico," is the name of a singing game 
mentioned by the Rev. S. D. Headlam, in The Church Reformer, 
as played by children in the schools at Hoxton, which he says 
was accompanied by a kind of chaunt of a very fascinating 
kind. 

Sun Shines 

The sun shines above and the sun shines below, 

And a' the lasses in this school is dying in love I know, 

Especially (girl's name) she's beautiful and fair ; 

She's awa wi' (a boy's name) for the curl o's hair. 

In comes (girl's name) mother with the glass in her han', 

Says My dearest daughter, I'm glad you're gettin a man, 

I'm glad you're gettin a man and a cooper to trade, 

And let a' the world say he is a rovin' blade. 

Fraserburgh (Rev. W. Gregor). 

All sing to " especially," boy chooses girl, and then the two 
whirl round, and all sing to the end. 

Sweer Tree 

Two persons sit down feet to feet and catch a stick with 
their hands ; then whoever lifteth the other is the strongest. 
Mactaggart's Gallovidian Encyclopedia. 

Compare " Honey pots." 

Swinging 

Rhymes were said or sung by children and young people 
when swinging. They were of the same character, and in many 
instances the same as those given in " See-saw " and " Shuttle- 
feather," and were used formerly for purposes of divination. 
The following extract, from the Pall Mall Gazette of Sept. 
1 9th, 1895, seems to indicate an early notion connected with 
swinging. It is taken from one of the articles in that paper 
upon Jabez Balfour's diary during his residence in the Argen- 
tine Republic : " On the 2nd November he (Balfour) mentions 



SWINGING 223 



a curious Bolivian custom on All Souls' Day, when ' they erect 
high swings, and old and young swing all day long, in the 
hope that while they swing they may approach the spirits of 
their departed friends as they fly from Purgatory to Paradise.' 
Two days later he adds : 1 1 have to-day heard another expla- 
nation of the Bolivian practice of swinging on All Souls' Day. 
They swing as high as they can so as to reach the topmost 
branches of the trees, and whenever they are thereby able to 
pull off a branch they release a soul- from Purgatory.' " Notes 
and Queries, 8th series, vi. 345. With this may be compared 
one of the methods and words used while swinging which I 
remember playing, namely, that while swinging, either in a room 
or garden, the object was to endeavour to touch either a beam 
in the ceiling or the top branches of a tree, singing at the same 
time a rhyme of which I only recollect this fragment : 

One to earth and one to heaven, 

And this to carry my soul to heaven. 

The last was said when the effort was made to touch the 
ceiling or tree with the feet. (A. B. Gomme.) 
Miss Chase has sent me the following rhymes : 

I went down the garden 

And there I found a farth'ng; 

I gave it to my mother 

To buy a little brother ; 

The brother was so cross 

I sat him on the horse ; 

The horse was so bandy 

I gave him a drop (or glass) of brandy ; 

The brandy was so strong 

I set him on the pond ; 

The pond was so deep 

I sent him off to sleep ; 

The sleep was so sound 

I set him on the ground ; 

The ground was so flat 

I set him on the cat ; 

The cat ran away 

With the boy on his back ; 



224 SWINGING 



And a good bounce [A great push here] 
Over the high gate wall. 
Said while swing stops itself: 

Die, pussy, die, 

Shut your little eye, 

When you wake, 

Find a cake ; 

Die, pussy,, die. Deptford. 

Wingy, wongy, 

Days are longy, 

Cuckoo and the sparrow ; 

Little dog has lost his tail, 

And he shall be hung to-morrow. 

Marylebone. 

The Deptford version is practically the same as known in 
several parts of the country, and Mr. Gerish has printed a 
Norfolk version in Folk-lore (vi. 202), which agrees down to 
the line "sent him off to sleep," and then finishes with 
With a heigh-ho ! 
Over the bowling green. 

When they came to the " heigh-ho " a more energetic push 
than usual was given to the occupant of the swing, who was then 
expected to vacate the swing and allow another child a turn. 
Thus the rhyme served as an allowance of time to each child. 

An amusement of boys in Galloway is described as on the 
slack rope, riding and shoving one another on the curve of the 
rope : they recite this to the swings 

Shuggie show, druggie draw, 
Haud the grip, ye canna fa' ; 
Haud the grup or down ye come, 
And danceth on your braid bum. 

Mactaggart's Gallovidian Encyclopedia. 

Brockett (North Country Words) describes as a swing: a 
long rope fastened at each end, and thrown over a beam, on 
which young persons seat themselves and are swung back- 
wards and forwards in the manner of a pendulum. 

See "Merritot." 



TAIT THIMBLE RING 225 



Tait 

The Dorset game of " See-saw." Halliwell's Dictionary. 

Teesty-Tosty 

The blossoms of cowslips collected together tied in a globular 
form, and used to toss to and fro for an amusement called 
"Teesty-Tosty," or simply sometimes "Tosty." Somerset 
(Hollo way's Diet, of Provincialisms). 

A writer in Byegones for July 1890, p. 142, says, "Tuswball " 
means a bunch. He gives the following rhyme, used when 
tossing the ball : 

Tuswball, tuswball, tell unto me 
What my sweetheart's name shall be. 

Then repeating letters of the alphabet until the ball falls, and 
the letter last called will indicate the sweetheart's name. 

See "Ball," " Shuttlefeather," "Trip Trout." 

Teter-cum-Tawter 

The East Anglian game of " See-saw." Halliwell's Dic- 
tionary. 

Tee-to-tum. See " Totum " 

Thimble Ring 

I come with my ringle jingles 

Under my lady's apron strings. 

First comes summer, and then comes May, 

The queen's to be married on midsummer day. 

Here she sits and here she stands, 

As fair as a lily, as white as a swan ; 

A pair of green gloves to draw on her hands, 

As ladies wear in Cumberland. 

I've brought you three letters, so pray you read one, 

I can't read one unless I read all, 

So pray, Miss Nancy, deliver them all. 

Sheffield (S. O. Addy). 

A number of young men and women form themselves into 
an oval ring, and one stands in the centre. A thimble is given 

VOL. II. P 



226 THIMBLE RING 



to one of those who form the ring, and it is passed round from 
one to another, so that nobody knows who has it. Then the 
one who stands in the centre goes to the man at the top of the 
oval ring and says, " My lady's lost her gold ring. Have you 
got it ? " He answers " Me, sir ? no, sir." The one in the 
middle says, " I think you lie, sir, but tell me who has got it." 
Then he points out the one who has the thimble, of which he 
takes possession, and then says the above lines. Then the one 
who was found to have had the thimble takes the place of the 
one inside the ring, and the game is repeated. 

Halliwell gives a version of this game under the name of 
Diamond Ring {Nursery Rhymes, p. 223), but the words used 
consist only of the following lines : 

My lady's lost her diamond ring, 
I pitch upon you to find it. 

In the two following games from Yorkshire and Lincolnshire 
there are no words used in rhymes or couplets. 

One child stands in the centre of a ring, which is formed by 
each member clasping the wrist of his or her left hand neigh- 
bour with the left hand, thus leaving the right hand free. A 
thimble is provided, and is held by one of the players in the 
right hand. No circular movement is necessary, but as the tune 
is sung, the right hand of each member is placed alternately in 
that of their right and left hand neighbour, each performing the 
action in a swinging style, as if they had to pass the ring on, and 
in such a manner, that the one standing in the centre cannot 
detect it. The thimble may be detained or passed on just as 
the players think fit. The words are the following : 
The thimble is going, 
I don't know where. 
Varied with 

It's first over here, 
Or 

It's over there, 

as the case may be, or rather may not be, in order to throw 
the victim in the centre off the scent. West Riding of York- 
shire (Miss Bush). 

The players sit in a row or circle, with their hands held palm 



THING DONE 227 



to palm in their laps. The leader of the game takes a thimble, 
and going to every member of the company in turn, pretends 
to slip it between their fingers, or to hide it in their pinafores, 
saying as she does so " I bring you my lady's thimble, you 
must hold it fast, and very fast indeed." Whereon each child 
thus addressed should assume an air of triumph suitable to the 
possession of such a treasure. After the whole party have 
gone through the farce of receiving the thimble, the girl who 
carried it round calls a player from the circle to discover who 
holds it. For every wrong guess a fine must be paid. When 
the searcher discovers the thimble she begins a new round of 
the game by taking the place of leader; and so on, till the 
accumulation of forfeits is sufficient to afford amusement in 
" loosing the tines." The game is called "Lady's Thimble." 
Lincoln, Scawby and Stixwould 76 years ago (Miss M. 
Peacock). 

The rhyme used in the Sheffield game is that used in 
" Queen Anne," but it appears to have no relevance to this 
game. 

Thing done 

A game described by Ben Jonson in his play of Cynthia's 
Revels (act iv. scene i). The passage is as follows : 

" PHANTASTE. Nay, we have another sport afore this, of 
' A thing done, and who did it,' &c. 

"PHILANTIA. Ay, good Phantaste, let's have that: dis- 
tribute the places. 

" PHANTASTE. Why, I imagine A thing done; Hedon 
thinks who did it; Maria, with what it was done; Anaides, 
where it was done ; Argurion, when it was done ; Amorphus, 
for what cause was it done; you, Philantia, what followed 
upon the doing of it; and this gentleman, who would have 
done it better. ..." 

Gifford thinks that this sport was probably the diversion of 
the age, and of the same stamp with our modern "Cross 
Purposes," "Questions," and " Commands," &c. 



228 



THREAD THE NEEDLE 



Thread the Needle 











Harpenden (Miss Lloyd). 



I. Thread my grandmother's needle ! 
Thread my grandmother's needle ! 
Thread my grandmother's needle ! 
Open your gates as wide as high, 
And let King George and me go by. 
It is so dark I cannot see 
To thread my grandmother's needle ! 
Who stole the money-box ? 

London (Miss Dendy). 

II. Open your gates as wide as I, [high ?] 
And let King George's horses by; 
For the night is dark and we cannot see, 
But thread your long needle and sew. 

Belfast (W. H. Patterson). 

III. Thread the tailor's needle, 

The tailor's blind, so he can't see ; 

So open the gates as wide as wide, 

And let King George and his lady pass by. 

Booking, Essex {Folk-lore Record, iii. 170). 

IV. Thread my grandmother's needle, 
Thread my grandmother's needle ; 
It is too dark we cannot see 

To thread my grandmother's needle. 

Harpenden (Mrs. Lloyd). 



THREAD THE NEEDLE 229 



V. Thread the needle, 
Thread the needle, 
Nine, nine, nine, 
Let King George and I pass by. 

Liphook, Hants (Miss Fowler). 

VI. Open the gates as wide as wide, 

And let King George go through with his bride ; 
It is so dark, we cannot see 
To threaddle the tailor's needle. 

Parish Dictionary of the Sussex Dialect. 

VII. Brother Jack, if ye were mine, 
I would give you claret wine ; 
Claret wine's gude and fine 
Through the needle-e'e, boys ! 

Blackwoocfs Magazine, August 1821. 

VIII. Through the needle-e'e, boys, 

One, two, three, boys. 

Ross-shire (Rev. W. Gregor). 

IX. Hop my needle, burn my thread, 
Come thread my needle, Jo-hey. 

Lincoln (C. C. Bell). 

X. Come thread a long needle, come thread, 
The eye is too little, the needle's too big. 

Hanbury, Staffs. (Miss Edith Hollis). 

XL Thread the needle thro' the skin, 
Sometimes out and sometimes in. 

Warwickshire, Northall's Folk Rhymes, 397. 

XII. Open the gates as wide as the sky, 

And let King George and his lady go by. 

Ellesmere, Burne's Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 321. 

(3.) The children stand in two long rows, each holding the 
hands of the opposite child, the two last forming an arch. They 
sing the lines, and while doing so the other children run under 
the raised arms. When all have passed under, the first two 
hold up their hands, and so on again and again, each pair in 
turn becoming the arch. Mrs. Lloyd (Harpenden version) 
says the two first hold up a handkerchief, and the children all 



230 THREAD THE NEEDLE 

run under, beginning with the last couple. In the London 
version (Miss Dendy) the "last line is called out in quite 
different tones from the rest of the rhyme. It is reported to 
have a most startling effect." The Warwickshire version is 
played differently. The players, after passing under the 
clasped hands, all circle or wind round one of their number, 
who stands still. 

(c.) In some cases the verse, " How many miles to Babylon ? " 
is sung before the verses for " Thread the needle," and the 
reference made (ante, vol. i., p. 238) to an old version seems 
to suggest the origin of the game. This, at all events, goes far 
to prove that the central idea of the game is not connected 
with the sewing needle, but with an interesting dance move- 
ment, which is called by analogy, Thread the needle. It is, 
however, impossible to say whether the verses of this game are 
the fragments of an older and more lengthy original, which 
included both the words of " How many miles to Babylon " 
and " Thread the needle," or whether these two were indepen- 
dent games, which have become joined ; but, on the whole, I 
am inclined to think that " Thread the needle," at all events, 
is an independent game, or the central idea of an independent 
game, and one of some antiquity. 

This game is well illustrated by custom. At Trowbridge, in 
Wilts, a game, known as "Thread the needle," used to be the 
favourite sport with the lads and lasses on the evening of 
Shrove Tuesday festival. The vocal accompaniment was 
always the following : 

Shrove Tuesday, Shrove Tuesday, when Jack went to plough, 

His mother made pancakes, she didn't know how ; 

She tipped them, she tossed them, she made them so black, 

She put so much pepper she poisoned poor Jack. 

Notes and Queries, $th series, xi. p. 227. 

At Bradford-on-Avon, as soon as the "pancake bell" rang 
at eleven A.M., the school children had holiday for the remainder 
of the day, and when the factories closed for the night, at dusk 
the boys and girls of the town would run through the streets 
in long strings playing "Thread the needle," and whooping 
and hallooing their best as they ran, and so collecting all they 



THREAD THE NEEDLE 231 

could together by seven or eight o'clock, when they would 
adjourn to the churchyard, where the old sexton had opened 
the churchyard gates for them; the children would then join 
hands in a long line until they encompassed the church ; they 
then, with hands still joined, would walk round the church 
three times ; and when dismissed by the old sexton, would 
return to their homes much pleased that they " Clipped the 
Church, "and shouting similar lines to those said at Trowbridge. 

At South Petherton, in South Somerset, sixty or seventy 
years ago, it was the practice of the young folk of both sexes 
to meet in or near the market-place, and there commence 
" Threading the needle " through the streets, collecting numbers 
as they went. When this method of recruiting ceased to add 
to their ranks, they proceeded, still threading the needle, to the 
church, which they tried to encircle with joined hands; and 
then, whether successful or not, they returned to their respec- 
tive homes. Old people, who remember having taken part in 
the game, say that it always commenced in the afternoon or 
evening of Shrove Tuesday, " after having eaten of their pan- 
cakes." In Leicestershire County Folk-lore, p. 1 14, Mr. Billson 
records that it was formerly the custom on Shrove Tuesday 
for the lads and lasses to meet in the gallery of the Women's 
Ward in Trinity Hospital to play at " Thread the Needle " and 
similar games. 

At Evesham the custom is still more distinctly connected 
with the game, as the following quotation shows : " One cus- 
tom of the town is connected with a sport called ' Thread my 
needle/ a game played here by the children of the town 
throughout the various streets at sunset upon Easter Monday, 
and at no other period throughout the year. The players cry 
while elevating their arms arch-wise 

Open the gates as high as the sky, 
And let Victoria's troops pass by." 

May's History of Eveshani, p. 319. 

As all these customs occur in the early spring of the year, 
there is reason to think that in this game we have a relic of 
the oldest sacred dances, and it is at least a curious point that 



2 3 2 THREE DAYS' HOLIDAYS 

in two versions (Becking and Ellesmere) the Anglo-Saxon 
title of "Lady " is applied to the Queen. 

The writer in BlackivoocPs Magazine, who quotes the rhymes 
as "immemorial," says: " Another game played by a number 
of children, with a hold of one another, or ' tickle tails/ as it 
is technically called in Scotland, is 'Through the needle-e'e.' " 
Moor (Suffolk Words and Phrases) mentions the game. Patter- 
son (Antrim and Down Glossary) gives it as "Thread the 
needle and sew." Barnes (Dorset Glossary) calls it " Dred the 
wold woman's needle," in which two children join hands, and 
the last leads the train under the lifted arms of the first two. 
Holloway (Dictionary of Provincialisms) says the children form 
a ring, holding each other's hands ; then one lets go and passes 
under the arms of two who still join hands, and the others all 
follow, holding either by each other's hands or by a part of 
their dress. " At Ellesmere," Miss Burne says, " this game 
was formerly called ' Crew Duck.' It now only survives among 
little girls, and is only played on a special day." It is alluded 
to in Poor Robin's Almanack for 1738 : " The summer quarter 
follows spring as close as girls do one another when playing 
at Thread my needle; they tread upon each other's heels." 
Strutt calls this "Threading the Taylor's needle." Newell 
(Games of American Children) gives some verses, and de- 
scribes it as played in America. 

See " How many miles to Babylon," " Through the Needle 
'ee." 

Three Days' Holidays 

Two players hold up their joined hands, the rest pass under 
one by one, repeating, "Three days' holidays, three days' 
holidays ! " They pass under a second time, all repeating, 
" Bumping day, bumping day ! " when the two leaders strike 
each player on the back in passing. The third time they say, 
" Catch, catch, catch ! " and the leaders catch the last in the 
train between their arms. He has the choice of " strawberries 
or grapes," and is placed behind one of the leaders, according 
to his answer. When all have been "caught," the two parties 
pull against each other. Berrington (Burne's Shropshire Folk- 
lore, p. 522). 



THREE DUKES 



233 



" Holidays," says Miss Burne, " anciently consisted of three 
days, as at Easter and Whitsuntide, which explains the words 
of this game ; " and the manorial work days were formerly three 
a week. See " Currants and Raisins." 

Three Dukes 



&=^^ 



-* 








Madeley, Shropshire (Miss Burne). 




Biggar, Lanarkshire (W. Ballantyne). 








Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

-K--*-* 






Isle of Man (A. W. Moore). 



234 THREE DUKES 

I. Here come three dukes a-riding, 

A-riding, a-riding; 
Here come three dukes a-riding, 
With a rancy, tancy, tay ! 

What is your good will, sirs ? 

Will, sirs ? will, sirs ? 
What is your good will, sirs ? 

With a rancy, tancy, tay ! 

Our good will is to marry, 
To marry, to marry; 

Our good will is to marry, 
With a rancy, tancy, tay ! 

Marry one of us, sirs, 

Us, sirs, us, sirs ; 
Marry one of us, sirs, 

With a rancy, tancy, tay ! 



You're all too black and greasy [or dirty], 

Greasy, greasy ; 
You're all too black and greasy, 

With a rancy, tancy, tay ! 

We're good enough for you, sirs, 

You, sirs, you, sirs ; 
We're good enough for you, sirs, 

With a rancy, tancy, tay ! 

You're all as stiff as pokers, 

Pokers, pokers ; 
You're all as stiff as pokers, 

With a rancy, tancy, tay ! 

We can bend as much as you, sirs, 

You, sirs, you, sirs ; 
We can bend as much as you, sirs, 

With a rancy, tancy, tay ! 



THREE DUKES 235 



Through the kitchen and down the hall, 

I choose the fairest of you all ; 
The fairest one that I can see 

Is pretty Miss , walk with me. 

Madeley, Salop (Miss Burne), 1891. 

[Another Shropshire version has for the fourth verse 

Which of us will you choose, sirs ? 
Or, 

Will you marry one of my daughters ?] 

II. Here comes three dukes a-riding, a-riding, 
With a ransome dansome day ! 

Pray what is your intent, sirs, intent, sirs ? 
With a ransome dansome day ! 

My intent is to marry, to marry ! 

Will you marry one of my daughters, my daughters ? 

You are as stiff as pokers, as pokers ! 

We can bend like you, sir, like you, sir ! 

You're all too black and too blowsy, too blowsy, 
For a dilly-dally officer ! 

Good enough for you, sir! for you, sir! 

If I must have any, I will have this, 
So come along, my pretty miss ! 

Chirbury (Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 517). 

III. Here come three dukes a-riding, 

A-riding, a-riding; 
Here come three dukes a-riding, 
With a rancy, tancy, tee ! 

Pray what is your good will, sirs ? 

Will, sirs, will, sirs ? 
Pray what is your good will, sirs ? 

With a rancy, tancy, tee ! 



236 THREE DUKES 



My will is for to marry you, 

To marry you, to marry you ; 
My will is for to marry you, 

With a rancy, tancy, tee ! 

You're all so black and blousey (blowsy ?), 
Sitting in the sun so drowsy ; 
With silver chains about ye, 
With a rancy, tancy, tee ! 
Or, 

[With golden chains about your necks, 
Which makes you look so frowsy.] 

Walk through the kitchen, and through the hall, 
And pick the fairest of them all. 

This is the fairest I can see, 

So pray, Miss , walk with me. 

Leicester (Miss Ellis). 

IV. Here come three dukes a-riding, a-riding, a-riding, 
Here come three dukes riding, riding, riding; 
Ransam, tansam, tisum ma tea (sic). 

Pray what is your good will, sir, will, sir, will, sir ? 
Pray what is your good will, sir ? 
Ransam, tansam, tisum ma tea ! 

My will is for to marry, to marry, to marry, 
My will is for to marry ; 

Ransam, tansam, tisum ma tea ! 

Pray who will you marry, you marry, you marry ? 
Pray who will you marry ? 

Ransam, tansam, tisum ma tea ! 

You're all too black and too brown for me, 
You're all too black and too brown for me, 
Ransam, tansam, tisum ma tea ! 

We're quite as white as you, sir; as you, sir; as you, sir; 
We're quite as white as you, sir ; 
Ransam, tansam, tisum ma tea ! 



THREE DUKES 237 



You are all as stiff as pokers, as pokers, as pokers, 
You are all, &c., 

Ransam, tansam, tisum ma tea ! 

We can bend as well as you, sir ; as you, sir ; as you, sir ; 
We can bend as well as you, sir ; 
Ransam, tansam, tisum ma tea ! 

Go through the kitchen, and through the hall, 
And take the fairest of them all ; 

The fairest one that I can see is " ," 

So come to me. 

Oxfordshire version, brought into Worcestershire 
(Miss Broadwood). 

V. Here come three dukes a-riding, a-riding, a-riding ; 
With a ransom, tansom, titty foil-la ! 
With a ransom, tansom, tay ! 

And pray what do you want, sirs? want, sirs? want, sirs? 
With a ransom, tansom, titty foil-la ! 
With a ransom, tansom, tay ! 

I want a handsome wife, sir ; wife, sir ; wife, sir ; 
With a ransom, tansom, titty foil-la ! 
With a ransom, tansom, tay ! 

I have three daughters fair, sir ; fair, sir ; fair, sir : 
With a ransom, tansom, titty foil-la ! 
With a ransom, tansom, tay ! 

They are all too black and too browny, 
They sit in the sun so cloudy ; 

With a ransom, tansom, titty foil-la ! 

With a ransom, tansom, tay ! 

Go through my kitchen and my hall, 
And find the fairest of them all ; 

With a ransom, tansom, titty foil-la ! 

With a ransom, tansom, tay ! 

The fairest one that I can see, 

Is little , so come to me. 

Monton, Lancashire (Miss Dendy). 



238 THREE DUKES 



VI. Here come three dukes a-riding, a-riding, a-riding ; 

Here come three dukes a-riding, with a ransom, tansom, 
te! 

Pray what is your intention, sir [repeat as above]. 
My intention is to marry, &c. 
Which of us will you choose, sir, &c. 
You're all too black and too browsy, &c. 
We're good enough for you, sir, &c. 

Through the kitchen and over the wall, 
Pick the fairest of us all. 

The fairest is that I can see, pretty Miss , come 

to me. 

East Kirkby, Lincolnshire (Miss K. Maughan). 

VII. Here come three dukes a-riding, 

A-riding, a-riding; 
Here come three dukes a-riding, 
With a dusty, dusty, die ! 

What do you want with us, sirs ? [repeat as above]. 
We've come to choose a wife, Miss, &c. 
Which one of us will you have, sirs ? &c. 

You're all too black and too browsy, 
You sit in the sun so drowsy ; 
With a golden chain about your neck, 
You're all too black and too browsy. 

Quite good enough for you, sirs, &c. 

We walk in our chamber, 
We sit in our hall, 
We choose the fairest of you all ; 
The fairest one that we can see 

Is little , come to me. 

Wakefield, Yorks. (Miss Fowler). 



THREE DUKES 239 



VIII. Here come three dukes a-riding, a-riding, a-riding, 
Here come three dukes a-riding ; 
A randy, dandy, very fine day ! 

And pray what is your will, sirs ? &c. [as above]. 
We come for one of your daughters, &c. 
Which one will you have, sir ? &c. 

They are all as black as a browsie, browsie, browsie, 
&c. 

One can knit, and one can sew, 
One can make a lily-white bow ; 
One can make a bed for a king, 
Please take one of my daughters in. 

The fairest one that I can see 
Is [ ], come to me. 

Gainford, co. Durham (Miss A. Edleston). 

IX. Here comes a poor duke a-riding, a-riding, 
Here comes a poor duke a-riding ; 
With the ransom, tansom, tee ! 

Pray who will you have to marry, sir ? &c. 
You're all so black and so dirty, &c. 
We are quite as clean as you, sir, &c. 

Through the kitchen, and through the hall, 
Pick the fairest one of all. 

The fairest one that I can see 

T c 

) 

The fairest one that I can see, 
With a ransom, tansom, tee ! 

Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

X. Here comes one duke a-riding, 

A-riding, a-riding; 
Here comes one duke a-riding, 

With a ransom, tansom, terrimus, hey ! 



2 4 o THREE DUKES 



What is your intention, sir ? &c. [as above]. 

My intention is to marry, &c. 

Marry one of us, sir ? &c. 

You're all too black and dirty (or greasy), &c. 

We're good enough for you, sir, &c. 

You're all as stiff as pokers, &c. 

We can bend as much as you, sir, &c. 

Through the kitchen and through the hall, 

I choose the fairest of you all ; 

The fairest one as I can see 

Is pretty , come to me. 

Now I've got my bonny lass, 

Bonny lass, bonny lass ; 
Now I've got my bonny lass 

To help us with our dancing. 

Barnes, Surrey (A. B. Gomme). 

XI. Here comes one duke a-riding, a-riding, a-riding ; 
Here comes one duke a-riding 
On a ransom, dansom bay ! 

You're all so black and dirty, &c. 

Pray which of us will you choose, sir, &c. 

Up in the kitchen, down in the hall, 
And choose the fairest one of all. 
The fairest one that I can see 

Is pretty Miss , so come to me. 

Booking, Essex (Folk-lore Record, vol. iii., 
pt. ii., pp. 170-171). 

XII. Here comes one duke a-riding, a-riding, a-riding, 

Here comes one duke a-riding, with a ransom, tansom, 

ta! 

Pray which of us will you choose, sir ? &c. 
You're all so black and so blousey, &c. 
We're quite as white as you, sir, &c. 



THREE DUKES 241 



Up of the kitchen, down of the hall, 

Pick the fairest girl of all ; 

The fairest one that I can see 

Is , come to me. Suffolk (Mrs. Haddon). 

XIII. Here comes the Duke of Rideo, 
Of Rideo, of Rideo ; 

Here comes the Duke of Rideo, 
Of a cold and frosty morning. 

My will is for to get married, &c. 

Will any of my fair daughters do ? &c. 

[The word "do" must be said in a drawling way.] 

They are all too black or too proudy, 
They sit in the sun so cloudy ; 
With golden chains around their necks, 
That makes them look so proudy. 

They're good enough for you, sir ! &c. 

I'll walk the kitchen and the hall, 
And take the fairest of them all ; 
The fairest one that I can see 

Is Miss 

So Miss , come to me. 

Now we've got this pretty girl, 
This pretty girl, this pretty girl ; 
Now we've got this pretty girl, 
Of a cold and frosty morning. 
Symondsbury, Dorsetshire (Folk-lore Journal, vii. 222-223). 

XIV. Here come three dukes a-riding, a-riding, a-riding, 
Here come three dukes a-riding ; 

With a ransom, tansom, tisamy, tea ! 

What is your good will, sirs ? &c. 
My good will is to marry, &c. 
One of my fair daughters ? &c. 

You're all too black and browsy, &c. 
VOL. n. o 



242 THREE DUKES 



Quite as good as you, sirs, &c. 

[The dukes select a girl who refuses to go to them.] 

O, naughty maid ! O, naughty maid ! 

You won't come out to me ! 

You shall see a blackbird, 

A blackbird and a swan ; 

You should see a nice young man 

Persuading you to come. 

Wrotham, Kent (Miss Dora Kimball). 

XV. Here comes a duke a-riding, a-riding, a-riding; 

Here comes a duke a-riding, to my nancy, pancy, 
disimi, oh ! 

Which of us will you have, sir ? &c. 
You're all so fat and greasy, &c. 
We're all as clean as you, sir, &c. 

Come down to my kitchen, come down to my hall, 
I'll pick the finest of you all. The fairest is that girl 
I shall say, " Come to me." 

I will buy a silk and satin dress, to trail a yard as we go 

to church, 

Madam, will you walk ? madam, will you talk ? 
Madam, will you marry me ? 

I will buy you a gold watch and chain, to hang by vour 

side as we go to church ; 

Madam, will you walk ? madam, will you talk ? 
Madam, will you marry me ? 

I will buy you the key of the house, to enter in when 

my son's out ; 

Madam, will you walk ? madam, will you talk ? 
Madam, will you marry me ? 

Earls Heaton, Yorks. (H. Hardy). 

XVI. Here comes one duke a-riding, 

With a rancey, tancey, tiddy boys, O ! 
Rancey, tancey, tay ! 



THREE DUKES 243 



Pray which will you take of us, sir ? &c. 
You're all as dark as gipsies, &c. 
Quite good enough for you, &c. 
Then we'll take this one, &c. 

[After all are taken, the dukes say] 

Now we've got this bonny bunch, &c. 
Hurstmonceux, Sussex, about 1880 (Miss E. Chase). 

[A Devon variant gives for the third verse 

You are all too black and ugly, and ugly, and ugly. 
And- 

You are all too black and browsie, &c. 
With the additional verse 

I walked through the kitchen, 

I walked through the hall, 

For the prettiest and fairest 

Of you all. 
Ending with 

Now I have got my bonny lass, c. 
And something like 

Will you come and dance with me ? 

Devon (Miss E. Chase)]. 

XVII. Here comes a duke a-riding, a-riding, a-riding; 

Here comes a duke a-riding to the ransy, tansy, tay ! 

Pray what do you come riding for ? &c. 
For one of your fairy [? fair] daughters, &c. 
Will either one of these do ? &c. 
They're all too black and too dirty, &c. 
They're quite as clean as you, sir, &c. 

Suppose, then, I take you, Miss, &c. 

Clapham, London (Mrs. Herbertson). 

[Another version is played by the duke announcing that he 
wants a wife. The circle of maids and duke then reply to 
each other as follows : 



244 THREE DUKES 



Open the door and let him in. 
They're all as stiff as pokers. 
Quite as good as you, sir. 
I suppose I must take one of them ? 
Not unless you like, sir. 

I choose the fairest of you all, 
The fairest one that I can see 

Is , come to me. 

Clapham Middle-class Girls School (Mrs. Herbertson)]. 

XVIII. Here comes the duke a-riding, 

With my rantum, tantum, tantum, tee ! 
Here comes the duke a-riding, 
With my rantum, tantum, tee ! 

What does the duke a-riding want ? 
With his rantum, tantum, tantum, tee, &c. 

The youngest and fairest daughter you've got, &c. 

Dublin (Mrs. Coffey). 

XIX. Here comes a duke a-riding, a-riding, a-riding ; 

Here comes a duke a-riding, a ransom, tansom, tee ! 

What is your good will, sir, &c. 
My will is for to marry, &c. 
Will ever a one of us do ? &c. 

You're all so black and so browsy. 
You sit in the sun and get frowsy, 
With golden chains about your necks, 
You're all so black and so browsy. 

Quite as good as you, sir, &c. 

[There is more of this, but it has been forgotten by my 
authority.] Thos. Baker, junr. (Midland Garner, N. S., ii. 32). 

XX. Here comes a duke a-riding, 

With a ransom, tansom, titta passee ! 
Here comes a duke a-riding, 
With a ransom, tansom, tee ! 



THREE DUKES 



245 



Pray what is your good will, sir ? 
With a ransom, tansom, titta passee ! 
Pray what is your good will, sir ? 
With a ransom, tansom, tee ! 

My will is for to marry you (as above). 
Pray which of us will you have, sir ? &c. 

Through the gardens and through the hall, 
With a ransom, tansom, titta passee ! 
I choose the fairest of you all, 
With a ransom, tansom, tee ! 

Settle, Yorks. (Rev. W. G. Sykes). 

XXI. There came three dukes a-riding, ride, ride, riding; 
There came three dukes a-riding, 
With a tinsy, tinsy, tee ! 

Come away, fair lady, there is no time to spare ; 
Let us dance, let us sing, 
Let us join the wedding ring. 

West of Scotland {Folk-lore Record, iv. 174). 

XXII. Here come three dukes a-riding, 
A-riding, a-riding. 

They will give you pots and pans, 
They will give you brass ; 
They will give you pots and pans 
For a pretty lass. 

Penzance, Cornwall (Mrs. Mabbott). 

XXIII. Here come four dukes a-riding, 
Ring a me, ding a me, ding. 

W T hat is your good will, sirs ? 
Ring a me, ding a me, ding. 

Our good will's to marry, &c. 
Marry one of us then, &c. 
You're too poor and shabby, &c. 
We're quite as good as you are, &c. 



246 THREE DUKES 



Suppose we have one of you then, &c. 
Which one will you have, &c. 

We'll have to marry, &c. 

Who will you send to fetch her, &c. 

We'll send to fetch her. 

Roxton, St. Neots (Miss E. Lumley). 

XXIV. Here come three dukes a-riding, 

With me rancy, tansy, tissimy tee, 
Here come three dukes a-riding, 
With a ransom, tansom, tissimy tee. 
Here come three dukes a-riding, 
With a ransom, tansom, tissimy tee. 

Pray which of its will you have, sir (repeat as 
above). 

I think I will have this one (repeat). 

[Forgotten, but the girls evidently decline to part with one 
of their number.] 

You are all too black and too blousy (repeat). 
We're far too good for you, sir (repeat). 
Isle of Man (A. W. Moore). 
Played at a Manx Vicarage 
nearly sixty years ago (Rev. T. G. Brown). 

XXV. Here comes a Jew a riding, 

With the ransom, tansom, tissimi, O ! 

And pray what is your will, sir ? (as above). 
Then pray take one of my daughters, &c. 
They are all too black and too browsy, &c. 
They are good enough for you, sir, &c. 
My house is lined with silver, &c. 
But ours is lined with gold, sir, &c. 

Then I'll take one of your daughters, &c. 

Forest of Dean, Gloucester (Miss Matthews). 



THREE DUKES 



247 



XXVI. The Campsie dukes a-riding, a-riding, a-riding ; 

The Campsie dukes a riding, come a rincey, 
dincey, dee. Biggar (Wm. Ballantyne). 

XXVII. Five dukes comes here a-ridin', 
A-ridin' fast one day ; 
Five dukes comes here a-riding, 
With a hansom, dansom day. 
What do you want with us, sirs, 
With us, sirs, &c. 
We want some wives to marry us, 
To marry us, to marry us, &c. 
Will you marry us, Miss Nancy, 
Miss Nancy, Miss Nancy, &c. 
We won't marry you to-day, sirs, &c. 
Will you marry us to-day, Miss? &c. (to another girl). 
We will marry you to-day, sirs, &c. 

London, Regent's Park (A. B. Gomme). 

XXVIII. There's three dukes a-riding, a-riding, 
There's three dukes a-riding, 
Come a ransin, tansin, my gude wife. 
Come a ransin, tansin te-dee, 
Before I take my evening walk, 
I'll have a handsome lady, 
The fairest one that I do see. 

Rosehearty, Pitsligo (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XXIX. One duck comes a-ridin', sir, a-ridin', sir, 
A-ridin' to marry you. 
And what do you want with me, sir ? 
I come to marry you two. 
There's some of us ready to dance, sir ; 
Ready to dance and sing ; 
There's some of us ready to dance, sir, 
And ready to marry you. 

Then come to me, my darlin', my darlin', darlin' day, 
With a ransom, tansom-, tansom, tansom tay. 

London, Regent's Park (A. B. Gomme). 



248 THREE DUKES 



XXX. There's a young man that wants a sweetheart 
Wants a sweetheart wants a sweetheart 
There's a young man that wants a sweetheart, 
To the ransom tansom tidi-de-o. 

Let him come out and choose his own, 
Choose his own, choose his own ; 
Let him come out and choose his own, 
To the ransom tansom tidi-de-o. 

Will any of my fine daughters do, &c. 

They are all too black and brawny, 
They sit in the sun uncloudy, 
With golden chains around their necks, 
They are too black and brawny. 

Quite good enough for you, sir ! &c. 

I'll walk in the kitchen, and walk in the hall, 

I'll take the fairest among you all; 

The fairest of all that I can see, 

Is pretty Miss Watts, come out to me. 

Will you come out ? 

Oh, no ! oh, no ! 

Naughty Miss Watts she won't come out, 
She won't come out, she won't come out ; 
Naughty Miss Watts she won't come out, 
To help us in our dancing. 
Won't you come out ? 

Oh, yes ! oh, yes ! 

Dorsetshire (Folk-lore Journal, vii. 223-224). 

(c.) Three children, generally boys, are chosen to represent 
the three dukes. The rest of the players represent maidens. 
The three dukes stand in line facing the maidens, who hold 
hands, and also stand in line. Sufficient space is left between the 
two lines to admit of each line in turn advancing and retiring. 
The three dukes commence by singing the first verse, advanc- 
ing and retiring in line while doing so. The line of maidens 
then advances singing the second verse. The alternate verses 



THREE DUKES 249 



demanding and answering are thus sung. The maidens make 
curtseys and look coquettishly at the dukes when singing the 
fourth verse, and draw themselves up stiffly and indignantly 
when singing the sixth, bending and bowing lowly at the 
eighth. The dukes look contemptuously and criticisingly at 
the girls while singing the fifth and seventh verses; at the 
ninth or last verse they "name" one of the girls, who then 
crosses over and joins hands with them. The game then con- 
tinues by all four singing " Here come four dukes a- riding," 
and goes on until all the maidens are ranged on the dukes' 
side. 

This method of playing obtains in most versions of the 
game, though there are variations and additions in some 
places. In the Bocking, Barnes, Dublin, Hurstmonceux, 
Settle, Symondsbury, Sporle, Earls Heaton, and Clapham 
versions, where the verses begin with " Here comes one Duke 
a-riding," one boy stands facing the girls, and sings the first 
verse advancing and retiring with a dancing step, or with a 
step to imitate riding. In some instances the " three Dukes " 
advance in this way. In the Barnes version, when the chosen 
girl has walked over to the duke, he takes her hands and 
dances round with her, while singing the tenth verse. In the 
Symondsbury (Dorset) version the players stand in a group, 
the duke standing opposite, and when singing the sixth verse, 
advances to choose the girl. When there is only one player 
left on the maidens' side the dukes all sing the seventh verse ; 
they then come forward and claim the last girl, and embrace 
her as soon as they get her over to their side. In the 
Hurstmonceux version, when the girls are all on the dukes' 
side, they sing the last verse. Miss Chase does not say 
whether this is accompanied by dancing round, but it probably 
would be. In the Dublin version, after the third verse, the 
duke tries to carry off the youngest girl, and her side try to 
save her. In the Wrotham version, after the girls' retort, 
"Quite as good, as you, sir," the dukes select a girl, who 
refuses to go to them : they then sing the last six lines when 
the girl goes over. In the second Dorset version (which 
appeared in the Yarmouth Register, Mass., 1874) the players 



2 5 o THREE DUKES 



consisted of a dozen boys standing in line in the usual way, and 
a dozen girls on the opposite side facing them. The boys sing 
the first two verses alternately ; the girl at first refuses and then 
consents to go. Dancing round probably accompanies this, 
but there is no mention of it. In Roxton, St. Neots, after the 
verses are sung, the duke and the selected girl clasp hands, and 
he pulls her across to the opposite side, as in " Nuts in May." 
In Settle (Yorks.) the game is called "The Dukes of York 
and Lancaster." The first duke advances with a dancing step. 
The game is then played in the usual way until all the players 
are ranged on the dukes' side; then the two original dukes, 
one of whom is " red " and the other " white," join hands, and 
the other players pass under their raised hands. The dukes 
ask each of them, in a whisper, "red?" or " white?" The 
player then goes behind the one he or she has chosen, clasping 
the duke's waist. When all the players have chosen, a tug-of- 
war ensues between the two sides. In the Earls Heaton ver- 
sion, the duke sings the verses, offering gifts to the girl when 
she has been selected. In the Oxfordshire version (Miss 
Broadwood) one player sings the words of the verse, and all 
join in the refrain as chorus. In the Monton (Lancashire) 
version the duke sings the last verse, and then takes a girl 
from the opposite side; and in another version from Barnes, 
in which the words of the last verse are the same as these, one 
of the dukes' side crosses over and fetches the girl. The duke 
bows lowly before the chosen girl in the Liphook version before 
she joins his side. In the East Kirkby, Lincolnshire, version, 
when the dukes sing the last verse, they advance towards the 
opposite side, who, when they see the direction in which they 
are coming, form two arches, by three of the players holding 
up their arms, the dukes' side going through one arch and 
returning through the other, bringing the chosen girl with 
them. One Clapham version is played in a totally different 
manner : the maidens form a circle instead of a line, and the 
duke stands outside this until he is admitted at the line which 
says, " let him in." At the conclusion of the dialogue he breaks 
in and carries one player off. This is an unusual form ; I have 
only met with one other instance of it. 



THREE DUKES 251 



The action in many of these versions is described as very 
spirited : coquetry, contempt, and annoyance being all expressed 
in action as the words of the game demands. The dancing 
movement of the boys in the first verse to imitate riding, 
though belonging to the earlier forms, is, with the exception 
of two or three versions, only retained in those which are 
commenced by one player, partly, perhaps, because of the 
difficulty three or more players experience in " riding " or 
" prancing" while holding each other's hands in line form. 
I have seen the game played when the " prancing" of the 
dukes (in a game where there were a dozen or more players 
on each side at starting, as in the Dorset version) was as 
important a feature as the maidens' actions in the other verses. 
I think the oldest form of the game is that played by a fairly 
equal number of players on each side, boys on one side and 
girls on the other, rather than that of " one " or "three" players 
on the dukes' side, and all the others opposite. The game 
then began with the present words, " Here come three dukes ; " 
these three each chose a girl at the same time, and when these 
three were wived, another three " dukes" would pair with 
three more of the girls, and after that another three, and so 
on. This form would account for the modern idea that the 
number of dukes increases on every occasion that the verses 
are sung, after the first wife has been taken over, and until 
all the girls have been thus chosen. This idea is expressed in 
some versions by the change of words : " Here's a fourth [or 
fifth, and so on] duke come a riding" to take a wife, the 
chosen maiden becoming a duke as soon as she has passed 
over on to the dukes' side. The process of innovation may be 
traced by the methods of playing. Thus, in one version 
played at Barnes (similar in other respects to No. 10). be- 
ginning " three dukes a riding," three girls were chosen by 
the three first dukes, one by each, at the same time, and all 
three girls walked across with the three dukes to the boys' line, 
and stood next their respective partners. In two imperfect 
versions I have obtained in Regent's Park, London, the same 
principle occurs. One girl began " One duck comes a ridin', " 
and two girls from the opposite side walked across ; the other 



252 THREE DUKES 



"Five dukes come here a ridin'" was played by five players 
on each side, and this was continued throughout. When the 
verses were said, each of the five dukes took a player from 
the opposite side and danced round with her. Again, in those 
versions (Symondsbury and Barnes), where when one player 
is left on the maidens' side without a partner, and all the dukes 
are mated, the additional verse is sung, and this player is taken 
over too. Beyond these versions are the large number begin- 
ning with three or more children singing the formula of " three 
dukes," and choosing one girl at a time, until all are taken over 
on to the dukes' side. Finally, there are the versions, more in 
accord with modern ideas, which commence with one duke 
coming for a wife, and continue by the girls taken over 
counting as dukes, the formula changing into two dukes, 
and so on. 

If this correctly represents the line of decadence in this 
game, those versions in w r hich additional verses appear are, I 
think, instances of the tacking on of verses from the " invitation 
to the dance" or " May" games; particularly in the cases in 
which the words " Now I've got my bonny lass " appear. The 
Earls Heaton version is curious, in that it has several verses 
which remind us of the old and practically obsolete " Keys of 
Canterbury " (Halliwell, 96). It may well be that a remembered 
fragment of that old ballad, which was probably once danced as 
a dramatic round, has been tacked on to this game. The ex- 
pression "walk with me," or "walk abroad with me," is signi- 
ficant of an engaged or betrothed couple. " I'm walking or 
walking out with so and so" is still an expression used by 
young men and young women to indicate an engagement. 
" She did ought to be married now ; she've walked wi' him 
mor'n'er a year now." Some of the versions show still more 
marked signs of decadence. The altered wording, " Here 
comes a Jew a riding," " Here comes the Duke of Rideo," 
"A duck comes a ridin'," and the Scotch " Campsie Dukes a 
riding ; " a Berkshire version, collected by Miss Thoyts (^Anti- 
quary, xxvii. p. 195), similar to the Shropshire game, but 
with a portion of the verse of " Milking Pails " added to it, 
and the refrain of " Ransome, tansome, tismatee ; " together 



THREE DUKES 253 



with the disappearance of some of the verses, are all evidently 
the results of the words being learnt orally, and imperfectly 
understood, or not understood at all. 

In this game, said in Lancashire to be the "oldest play 
of all," judging both by the words and method of playing, we 
have, I believe, a distinct survival or remembrance of the 
tribal marriage marriage at a period when it was the custom 
for men of a clan to seek wives from the girls of another clan, 
both clans belonging to one tribe. The game is a purely 
marriage game, and marriage in a matter-of-fact way. Young 
men of a clan or village arrive at the abode of another clan 
for the purpose of seeking wives, probably at a feast or fair 
time. The maidens are apparently ready and expecting their 
arrival. They are as willing to become wives as the dukes are 
to become husbands. It is not marriage by force or capture, 
though the triumphant carrying off of a wife appears in some 
versions. It is exogamous marriage custom, after the tribe 
had settled down and arranged their system of marriage in lieu 
of a former more rude system of capture. The suggested 
depreciation of the girls, and their saucy rejoinders, may be 
looked upon as so much good-humoured chaff and banter 
exchanged between the two parties to enhance each other's 
value, and to display their wit. While it does not follow that 
the respective parties were complete strangers to one another, 
these lines may indicate that each individual wished "to have 
as good a look round as possible " before accepting the offer 
made. It will be seen that there is no mention of " love " in 
the game, nor is there any individual courtship between boy 
and girl. The marriage formula does not appear, nor is there 
any sign that a " ceremony " or " sanction " to conclude the 
marriage was necessary, nor does kissing occur in the game. 

There is evidence of the tribal marriage system in the 
survivals of exogamy and marriage by capture occasionally 
to be noted in traditional local custom. Thus the custom 
recorded by Chambers {Book of Days, i. 722) of the East 
Anglians (Suffolk), where whole parishes have intermarried 
to such an extent that almost everybody is related to or con- 
nected with everybody else, is distinctly a case in point, the 



254 THREE DUKES 



intermarrying of " parishes " for a long series of years neces- 
sarily resulting in close inter-relationship. One curious effect 
of this is that no one is counted as a " relation " beyond first 
cousins ; for if " relationship " went further than that it might 
" almost as well include the whole parish." The old proverb 
(also from East Anglia) : 

" To change the name, and not the letter, 

Is a change for the worse, and not for the better ; " 
that is, it is unlucky for a woman to marry a man whose 
surname begins with the same letter as her own, also indicates 
a survival of the necessity of marrying into another clan or 
tribal family. 

Another interesting point in the game is the refrain, "With 
a rancy, tancy, tay," which with variations accompanies all 
versions, and separates this game from some otherwise akin 
to it. There is little doubt that this refrain represents an old 
tribal war cry, from which " slogans" or family "cries" were 
derived. These cries were not only used in times of warfare, 
tribes were assembled by them, each leader of a clan or party 
having a distinguishing cry and blast of a horn peculiar to 
himself, and the sounding of this particular blast or cry would 
be recognised by men of the same party, who would go to each 
other's assistance if need were. The refrain is sung by all 
the players in Oxfordshire and Lancashire, and in some ver- 
sions the players in this game put their hands to their mouths 
as if imitating a blast from a horn, and a Lancashire version 
(about 1820-1830), quoted by Miss Burne, has for the refrain, 
" With a rancy, tancy, terry boys horn, with a rancy, tancy, 
tee." "The burden," says Miss Burne, "evidently represented 
a flourish of trumpets." The Barnes version, "With a rancy, 
tancy, terrimus hey!" and many others confirm this. 

An interesting article by Dr. Karl Blind (Antiquary } ix. 
63-72), on the Hawick riding song, " Teribus ye Teri Odin," 
points out that this slogan, which occurs in the "Hawick 
Common-Riding Song," a song used at the annual Riding of 
the Marches of the Common, is an ancient Germanic war-cry. 
Dr. Blind, quoting from a pamphlet, Flodden Field and New 
Version of the Common Riding Song, says, " It is most likely 



THREE FLOWERS 255 



that the inspiring strains of 'Terribus' would be the marching 
tune of our ancestors when on their way for Flodden Field and 
other border battles, feuds, and frays. The words of the 
common-riding song have been changed at various periods, 
according to the taste and capacity of poets and minstrels, but 
the refrain has remained little altered. . . . The origin of the 
ancient and, at one time, imperative ceremony of the common- 
riding is lost in antiquity, and this old, no longer understood, 
exclamation, 'Teribus ye Teri Odin,' has (says Dr. Blind) all 
through ages in the meanwhile clung to that ceremony." 

If we can fairly claim that the words of this game have 
preserved an old slogan or tribal cry, an additional piece of 
evidence is supplied to the suggestion that the game is a 
reflection of the tribal marriage a reflection preserved by 
children of to-day by means of oral tradition from the children 
of a thousand years ago or more, who played at games in 
imitation of the serious and ordinary actions of their elders. 

Three Flowers 

My mistress sent me unto thine, 

Wi' three young flowers baith fair and fine 

The Pink, the Rose, and the Gilliflower : 

And as they here do stand, 
Whilk will ye sink, whilk will ye swim, 
And whilk bring hame to land ? 

A group of lads and lasses being assembled round the fire, 
two leave the party and consult apart as to the names of three 
others, young men or girls, whom they designate Red Rose, 
the Pink, and the Gilliflower. If lads are first pitched upon, 
the two return to the fireside circle, and having selected a lass, 
they say the above verse to her. The maiden must choose one 
of the flowers named, on which she passes some approving 
epithet, adding, at the same time, a disapproving rejection of 
the other two; for instance, I will sink the Pink, swim the 
Rose, and bring home the Gilliflower to land. The two young 
men then disclose the names of the parties upon whom they 
had fixed those appellations respectively, when of course it 
may chance that she has slighted the person she is understood 



256 THREE HOLES 



to be most attached to, or chosen him whom she is believed to 
regard with aversion ; either of which events is sure to throw 
the company into a state of outrageous merriment. Chambers' 
Popular Rhymes, p. 127. Mr. W. Ballantyne has given me a 
description of this game as played at Biggar when he was a 
boy, which is practically the same as this. 

Three Holes 

Three holes were made in the ground by the players driving 
the heels of their boots into the earth, and then pirouetting. 
The game was played with the large marbles (about the size 

B 

1 O A O O 

C-N 

I 2 3 

of racket balls) known as " bouncers," sometimes as "bucks." 
The first boy stood at " taw," and bowled his marble along 
the ground into I. (It was bad form to make the holes too large ; 
they were then " wash-hand basins," and made the game too 
easy.) Taking the marble in his hand) and placing his foot 
against I, he bowled the marble into 2. He was now "going up 
for his firsts." Starting at 2, he bowled the marble into 3, and 
had now " taken off his firsts," and was " coming down for his 
seconds." He then bowled the marble back again into 2, and 
afterwards into I. He then "went up for his thirds," bowling 
the marble into 2, and afterwards into 3, and had then won the 
game. When he won in this fashion, he was said to have 
" taken off the game." But he didn't often do this. In going 
up for his firsts, perhaps his marble, instead of going into 2, 
stopped at A ; then the second boy started from taw, and, having 
sent his marble into I, bowled at A; if he hit the marble, he 
started for 2, from where his marble stopped ; if he missed, or 
didn't gain the hole he was making for, or knocked his anta- 
gonist's marble into a hole, the first boy played again, hitting the 
other marble, if it brought him nearer to the hole he was making 
for, or else going on. In such a case as I have supposed, it 
would be the player's aim to knock A on to B, or some place 
between 2 and 3, so as to enter 2, and then strike again so as 
to near 3, enter 3, and strike on his way down for his seconds, 



THREE JOLLY WELSHMEN THREE KNIGHTS 257 

and near 2 again. These were the chances of the game ; but 
if the boy who started went through the game without his 
antagonist having a chance, he was said " to take off the 
game." London (J. P. Emslie). 



Three 

One child is-&upposed to be taking care of others, who take 
hold of her or of each other. Three childrenpersonate the Th/j "fo 

Jffiglshmen. These try to rob the mother or~c^jSakerofher IT" , ' A 

children. They each try to capture as many as they can, and 
I think the one who gets most is to be mother next time. 
Beddgelert (Mrs. Williams). 

See "Gipsy," " Mother, Mother," " Shepherd and Sheep," 
" Witch." 

Three Knights from Spain 

I. Here come two dukes all out of Spain, 
A courting to your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, she is so young, 
She can't abide your flattering tongue. 

Let her be young, or let her be old, 
It is the price, she must be sold, 
Either for silver or for gold. 
So fare you well, my lady gay, 
For I must turn another way. 

Turn back, turn back, you Spanish knight, 
And rub your spurs till they be bright. 

My spurs they are of a costliest wrought, 
And in this town they were not bought, 
Nor in this town they won't be sold, 
Neither for silver, nor for gold. 
So fare you well, my lady gay, 
For I must turn another way. 

Through the kitchen, and through the hall, 
And take the fairest of them all ; 
The fairest is, as I can see, 
Pretty Jane come here to me. 

VOL. II. R 



258 THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 

Now I've got my pretty fair maid, 
Now I've got my pretty fair maid, 
To dance along with me, 
To dance along with me ! 

Eccleshall, Halli well's Nursery Rhymes, p. 222. 

II. Here comes three lords dressed all in green, 
For the sake of your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, she is so young, 

She learns to talk with a flattering tongue. 

Let her be young, or let her be old, 
For her beauty she must be sold. 

My mead's not made, my cake's not baked, 
Arid you cannot have my daughter Jane. 

Cambridgeshire, HalliwelFs Nurseiy Rhymes, p. 222. 

III. We are three brethren out of Spain, 
Come to court your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, she is too young, 
And has not learned her mother tongue. 

Be she young, or be she old, 
For her beauty she must be sold. 
So fare you well, my lady gay, 
We'll call again another day. 

Turn back, turn back, thou scornful knight, 
And rub thy spurs till they be bright. 

Of my spurs take you no thought, 
For in this town they were not bought. 
So fare you well, my lady gay, 
We'll call again another day. 

Turn back, turn back, thou scornful knight, 
And take the fairest in your sight. 
The fairest maid that I can see, 
Is pretty Nancy come to me. 



THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 259 

Here comes your daughter, safe and sound, 
Every pocket with a thousand pound, 
Every finger with a gay gold ring, 
Please to take your daughter in. 

Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes, cccxxxiii. 

IV. We are three brethren come from Spain, 

All in French garlands ; 
We are come to court your daughter Jean, 
And adieu to you, my darlings. 

My daughter Jean, she is too young, 

All in French garlands ; 
She cannot bide your flattering tongue, 

And adieu to you, my darlings. 

Be she young, or be she old, 

All in French garlands ; 
It's for a bride she must be sold, 

And adieu to you, my darlings. 

A bride, a bride, she shall not be, 

All in French garlands ; 
Till she go through this world with me, 

And adieu to you, my darlings. 

[There is here a hiatus, the reply of the lovers being 
wanting.] 

Come back, come back, you courteous knights, 

All in French garlands ; 
Clear up your spurs, and make them bright, 

And adieu to you, my darlings. 
[Another hiatus.] 

Smell my lilies, smell my roses, 

All in French garlands ; 
Which of my maidens do you choose ? 
And adieu to you, my darlings. 

Are all your daughters safe and sound ? 

All in French garlands ; 
Are all your daughters safe and sound ? 

And adieu to you, my darlings. 



2 6o THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 

In every pocket a thousand pounds, 

All in French garlands ; 
On every finger a gay gold ring, 

And adieu to you, my darlings. 

Chambers's Popular Rhymes, 143. 

V. Here come three Spaniards out of Spain, 
A courting to your daughter Jane. 

Our daughter Jane, she is too young, 
She hath not learnt the Spanish tongue. 

Whether she be young, or whether she be old, 
It's for her beauty she must be sold. 

Turn back, turn back, ye Spanish knight, 
And rub your spurs till they be bright. 

Our spurs are bright and richly wrought, 
For in this town they were not bought ; 
And in this town they shan't be sold, 
Neither for silver nor for gold. 

Pass through the kitchen, and through the hall, 
And pick the fairest of them all. 

This is the fairest I can see, 

So pray, young lady, walk with me. 

Leicester (Miss Ellis). 

VI. Here come three Spaniards out of Spain, 
A courting of your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, she is too young, 
She has not learned the Spanish tongue. 

Whether she be young or old, 
She must have a gift of gold ; 
So fare you well, my lady gay, 
We'll turn our heads another way. 

Come back, come back, thou Spanish knight, 
And pick the fairest in this night. 

Addy's Sheffield Glossary. 



THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 261 

VII. There were three lords they came from Spain, 
They came to court my daughter Jane ; 

My daughter Jane, she is too young 
To hear your false and flattering tongue. 

So fare thee well, your daughter Jane, 
I'll call again, another day, another year. 

Turn back, turn back, and choose 
The fairest one that you can see. 

The fairest one that I can see, 

Is pretty Jane, will you come with me. 

[Jane says No.] 

The proud little girl, she won't come out, she won't 

come out, to help us with our dancing ; 
So fare you well, I'll come again another day. 

Turn back, turn back, and choose 
The fairest one that you can see. 

The fairest one that I can see, 

Is pretty Sarah, will you come with me ? 

[Yes.] 

Now we have got the pretty fair maid 

To help us with our dancing, 

Dance round the ring. Belfast (W. H. Patterson). 

VIII. There was one lord came out of Spain, 
He came to court our daughter Jane. 

Our daughter Jane, she is too young, 
To be controlled by flattering tongue. 

Oh ! fare thee well. Oh ! fare thee well, 
I'll go and court some other girl. 

Come back, come back, your coat is wide, 
And choose the fairest on our side. 

The fairest one that I can see, 
Come unto me, come unto me. 

Belfast (W. H. Patterson). 



262 THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 

IX. There were three lords came out of Spain, 
They came to court my daughter Jane ; 

My daughter Jane, she is too young 
To bear your false and flattering tongue. 

So fare you well, so fare you well, 
I'll go and court some other girl. 

Come back, come back, your coat is white, 
And choose the fairest in your sight, 

The fairest one that I can see, 
Is [ ] come unto me. 

Belfast (W. H. Patterson). 

X. Here come three dukes dressed all in green, 
They come to court your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, she is too young 
To understand your flattering tongue. 

Let her be young, or let her be old, 
It is for her beauty she must be sold. 

Eighteenpence would buy such a wench, 
As either you or your daughter Jane.* 

Middlesex (from Mrs. Pocklington- 
Coltman's maid). 

XL There came a king from Spain, 
To court your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, she's yet too young 
To be deluded by a flattering tongue. 

Whether she's old, or whether she's young, 
It's for her beauty she must come. 

Then turn about, her coat is thin, 
And seek the fairest of your right. 

The fairest one that I can see 
Is fair and lovely Jan-ie. 

* Incomplete, there is more of the game, but the maid could not remember it. 



THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 263 

Then here's my daughter safe and sound, 
And in her pocket three hundred pound, 
And on her finger a gay gold ring, 
She's fit to walk with any king. 

Annaverna, Ravensdale, Co. Louth 
(Miss R. Stephens). 

XII. There came three dukes a-riding, riding, riding; 
Oh ! we be come all out of Spain, 
All for to court your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, she is too young, 
She has not learned her mother-tongue. 

Let her be young, or let her be old, 
The fate of beauty's to be sold. 

Here's my daughter safe and sound, 
And in her pocket a thousand pound, 

And on her finger a gay gold ring. 

i 

Here's your daughter not safe nor sound, 
And in her pocket no thousand pound, 
And on her finger no gay gold ring ; 
Open your door and take her in. 

London (Miss Dendy). 

XIII. There came three dukes all out of Spain, 
All for to court your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, she is too young, 
She has not learned her mother-tongue. 

Let her be young, let her be old, 
The fate of beauty's to be sold. 

Walk through the parlour, walk through the hall, 
And choose the fairest one of all. 

The fairest one that I can see 

Is little , so come to me. No 

Will you come ? No ! 



264 THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 



Naughty one, naughty one, you won't come out 
To join us in our dancing ! 
Will you come ? Yes ! 

Now we've got a pretty fair one 
To join us in our dancing. 

Colleyhurst, Manchester (Miss Dendy). 

XIV. Two poor gentlemen are come out of Spain, 
Come to court your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, is yet too young 
To understand your flattering tongue. 

Let her be young, or let her be old, 
She must be sold for Spanish gold. 

Turn back, turn back, you haughty knight, 
And take the fairest in your sight. 

This is the fairest I can see, 
So ( ) must come to me. 

Bexley Heath (Miss Morris). 

XV. Here come three lords all dressed in green, 
All for the sake of your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, she is so young, 

She doesn't know her mother-tongue. [Or, 

My cake ain't baked, my ban [qy. beer or barm] ain't 

brewed, 
And yew can't hev my daughter Jane.] 

Fie upon you and your daughter Jane ; [scornfully,] 
Eighteenpence will buy a good wench, 
As well as you and your daughter Jane. 

Swaffham, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

XVI. Here come three lords all dressed in green, 
Here come three lords all come from Spain, 
All for the sake of your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, she is so young, 
She hath no knowledge in her tongue. 

Kent (Miss Fowler). 



THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 265 

XVII. I am a gentleman come from Spain ; 

I've come to court your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, is yet too young 
To understand your flattering tongue. 

Let her be young, or let her be old, 
She must be sold for Spanish gold. 
So fare thee well, my lady gay, 
I'll call upon you another day. 

Turn back, turn back, you saucy lad,* 
And choose the fairest you can spy ! 

The fairest one that I can see 

Is pretty Miss . Come to me ! 

I've brought your daughter home safe and sound, 
With money in her pocket here, a thousand pound : 
Take your saucy girl back again. 

Booking, Essex (Folk-lore Record, iii. pt. ii. 171). 

XVIII. Here comes three knights all out of Spain, 
A-courting of your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, she is too young, 
She can't abide your flattering tongue. 

If she .be young, or she be old, 
She for her beauty must be sold. 

Go back, go back, you Spanish knight, 
And rub your spurs till they are bright. 

My spurs are bright and richly wrought, 
And in this town they were not bought, 
And in this town they shan't be sold, 
Neither for silver nor for gold. 

Walk up the kitchen and down the hall, 
And choose the fairest of us all. 

* Probably once "boy," pronounced "by" in Essex. 



266 THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 

Madams, to you I bow and bend, 
I take you for my dearest friend ; 
You are two beauties, I declare, 
So come along with me, my dear. 

Wenlock, Condover, Ellesmere, Market Drayton 
(Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 516). 

XIX. Here come three dukes all out of Spain, 
In mourning for your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, is yet too young 
To cast her eyes on such a one. 

Let her be young, or let her be old, 
'Tis for her beauty she must be sold. 
So fare thee well, my lady gay, 
I'll call on you another day. 

Turn back, turn back, you saucy Jack, 

Up through the kitchen and through the hall, 

And pick the fairest of them all. 

The fairest one that I can see. 

So please, Miss , come with me. 

Pembrokeshire, Wales (Folk-lore Record, v. 89). 

XX. Here's two brothers come from Spain, 
For to court your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, she is too young, 
She has not learned her mother tongue. 

Be she young, or be she old, 
For her beauty she must be sold. 

But fare thee well, my lady gay, 
And I'll call back some other day. 

Come back! come back! take the fairest you see. 

The fairest one that I can see 

Is bonnie Jeanie [or Maggie, &c.], so come to me. 



THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 267 

Here's your daughter, safe and sound, 
In every pocket a thousand pound, 
On every finger a gay gold ring, 
So, pray, take your daughter back again. 

People's Friend, quoted in review of 
" Arbroath : Past and Present." 

XXI. We are three suitors come from Spain, 
Come to court your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane she is too young 
To be beguiled by flattering tongue. 

Let her be young, or let her be old, 
For her beauty she must be sold. 

Return, return, your coat is white, 
And take the fairest in your sight. 

Here's your daughter safe and sound, 
And in her pocket five hundred pound, 
On her finger a gay gold ring, 

Fit to walk with any king. 

Dublin (Mrs. Lincoln). 

XXII. Here comes a poor duke out of Spain, 
He comes to court your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane is yet too young, 
She has a false and flattering tongue. 

Let her be young, or let her be old, 
Her beauty is gone, she must be sold. 

Fare thee well, my lady gay, 
I'll call again another day. 

Turn back, turn back, you ugly wight, 
And clean your spurs till they shine bright. 

My spurs they shine as bright as snow, 
And fit for any king to show ; 
So fare thee well, my lady gay, 
I'll call again another day. 



2 68 



THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 



Turn back, turn back, you ugly wight, 
And choose the fairest one you like. 

The fairest one that I can see, 

Is you, dear , so come with me. 

Notes and Queries (1852), vol. vi. 242. 

XXIII. Here comes three knights all out of Spain, 
We have come to court your daughter Jane. 

Our daughter Jane she is too young, 
She has not learned the Spanish tongue. 

Whether she be young or old, 

Tis for her beauty she must be sold. 

Turn back, turn back, ye Spanish knights, 
And rub your spurs till they are bright. 

Our spurs are bright and richly wrought, 
For in this town they were not bought ; 
And in this town they shan't be sold, 
Neither for silver nor for gold. 

Turn back, turn back, ye Spanish knights, 
And brush your buckles till they are bright. 

Our buckles are bright and richly wrought, 
For in this town they were not bought ; 
And in this town they shan't be sold, 
Neither for silver nor for gold. 

Yorkshire (Miss E. Cadman). 

XXIV. There was one lord that came from Spain, 
He came to court my daughter Jane ; 

My daughter Jane, she is too young 
To be controlled by a flattering tongue. 

Will you ? No. 
Will you ? Yes. 

[This second one then joins hands with the " lord," and they 
dance round together, saying ] 

You dirty wee scut, you wouldn't come out 
To help us with our dancing. 

Ballymiscaw school, co. Down (Miss C. N. Patterson). 



THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 269 

XXV. Ther6 were one lord came out of Spain, 
Who came to court your daughter Jane. 

Your daughter Jane, she is too young 
To be controlled by flattering tongue. 

Oh ! fare thee well ; oh ! fare thee well ; 
I'll go and court some other girl. 

Come back, come back, your coat is white, 
And choose the fairest in your sight. 

The fairest one that I can see, is , come to me. 

Holywood, co. Down (Miss C. N. Patterson). 

XXVI. Here's two dukes come out from Spain, 
For to court your daughter Jane ; 

My daughter Jane is far too young, 
She cannot hear your flattering tongue. 

Be she young, or be she old, 
Her beauty must be sold, 
Either for silver or for gold ; 
So fare you well, my lady fair, 
I'll call again some other day. 

Galloway (J. G. Carter). 

XXVII. Here's one old Jew, just come from Spain, 
To ask alone your daughter Jane. 

Our daughter Jane is far too young 
To understand your Spanish tongue. 

Go away, Coat-green. 

My name is not Coat-green, 
I step my foot, and away I go. 

Come back, come back, your coat is green, 
And choose the fairest one you see. 

The fairest one that I can see 
Is pretty Alice. Come to me. 

I will not come. 



270 THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 

Naughty girl, she won't come out, 

She won't come out, she won't come out ; 

Naughty girl, she won't come out, 
To see the ladies dancing. 

I will come. 

Pretty girl, she has come out, 

She has come out, she has come out ; 

Pretty girl, she has come out, 
To see the ladies dancing. 
Berwickshire (A. M. Bell, Antiquary, vol. xxx. p. 1 5). 

XXVIII. Here come two Jews, just come from Spain, 
To take away your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane is far too young, 
She cannot bear your chattering tongue. 

Farewell ! farewell ! we must not stay ; 
We'll call again another day. 

Come back, come back, your choice is free, 
And choose the fairest one you see. 

The fairest one that I can see 

Is A F . Come to me. 

Cowes, Isle of Wight (Miss E. Smith). 

XXIX. There came three dukes a-riding, a-riding, a-riding, 
There came three dukes a-riding, 
To court my daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane is far too young, far too young, 
My daughter Jane is far too young, 
She hath a flattering tongue. 

They're all as red as roses, as roses, as roses, 
They're all as red as roses with sitting in the sun. 

Perth (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XXX. Here comes a duke a-riding, 
To court your daughter Jane. 



THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 271 

My daughter Jane is far too young 
To listen to your saucy tongue ; 
Go back, go back, you saucy Jack ; 
And clean your spurs and 

My spurs are bright as bright can be, 
With a tissima, tissima, tissima tee. 

Go through the house, go through the hall, 
And choose the fairest of them all. 

The fairest one that I can see 
Is . Come to me. 

Clapham School (Mrs. Herbertson). 

XXXI. Here comes three dukes a-riding, a-riding, 

Here comes three dukes a-riding, to court your 
daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane is yet too young 
To bear your silly, flattering tongue. 

Be she young, or be she old, 
She for beauty must and shall be sold. 
So fare thee well, my lady gay, 
We'll take our horse and ride away, 
And call again another day. 

Come back, come back ! you Spanish knight, 
And clean your spurs, they are not bright. 

My spurs are bright as " rickety rock" [and richly 

wrought], 

And in this town they were not bought, 
And in this town they shan't be sold, 
Neither for silver, copper, nor gold. 
So fare thee well, &c. 

Come back ! come back ! you Spanish Jack [or cox- 
comb]. 

Spanish Jack [or coxcomb] is not my name, 
I'll stamp my foot [stamps] and say the same. 
So fare thee well, &c. 



2 7 2 



THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 



Come back ! come back ! you Spanish knight, 
And choose the fairest in your sight. 

This is the fairest I can see, 

So pray, young damsel, walk with me. 

We've brought your daughter, safe and sound, 

And in her pocket a thousand pound, 

And on her finger a gay gold ring, 

We hope you won't refuse to take her in. 

I'll take her in with all my heart, 
For she and " me " were loth to part. 

Cornwall (Folk-lore Journal \ v. 46, 47). 

XXXII. Here comes three dukes all out of Spain, 
For to court your daughter Jane. 

My daughter Jane, she is too young, 
She cannot bear your flattering tongue. 

Be she young, or be she old, 
For her beauty she must be sold. 

So fare thee well, my lady gay, 
We'll call again another day. 

Turn back, turn back, you Spanish knight, 
And take the fairest in your sight. 

Well through the kitchen and through the hall, 
I take the fairest of you all. 

The fairest one that I can see 

Is pretty , come to me. 

Gloucestershire (Northall's Rhymes, p. 385). 

XXXIII. Two poor sailors dressed in blue, 
Two poor sailors dressed in blue, 
Two poor sailors dressed in blue, 

We come for the sake of your daughter Loo. 

My daughter Loo, she is too young, 
She cannot bear your flattering tongue. 

Whether she be young, or whether she be old, 
It is our duty, she must be sold. 



THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 



273 



Take her, take her, the coach is free, 
The fairest one that you can see. 

The fairest one that we can see, 

Is bonnie [ ]. Come to me. 

Here's all your daughters safe and sound, 

In every pocket a thousand pound, 

On every finger a guinea gold ring, 

So please, take one of your daughters in. 

Fochabers, N.E. Scotland (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XXXIV. Two poor sailors dressed in blue, dressed in blue, 

dressed in blue, 

Two poor sailors dressed in blue, come for the sake 
of your daughter Loo. 

My daughter Loo, she is too young, she is too 

young, she is too young, 
She cannot bear your flattering tongue. 

Let her be young, or yet too old, yet too old, yet 

too old, 
But for her beauty she must be sold. 

The haughty thing, she won't come out, she won't 

come out, she won't come out ; 
The haughty thing, she won't come out, 
To help us with our dancing. 

Now we have got a beautiful maid, a beautiful 

maid, a beautiful maid ; 
Now we have got a beautiful maid, 
To help us with our dancing. 

Nairn (Mrs. Jamieson, through 
Rev. W. Gregor). 

XXXV. One poor sailor dressed in blue, dressed in blue, 

dressed in blue, 

One poor sailor dressed in blue, 
Has come for the sake of your daughter Sue. 

My daughter Sue, she is too young, 
She cannot bear your flattering tongue. 

VOL. II. S 



274 THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 

Whether she be young, or whether she be old, 
For her beauty she must be sold. 

Take her, take her, the coach is free. 

The fairest one that I can see is bonny ( ), 
come with we. 

[No!] 

The dirty sclipe, she won't come out, she won't 
come out, she won't come out ; 

The dirty sclipe, she won't come out to dance 
along with me. 

Now, I have got another poor maid, &c., 

To come along with me. 

Cullen (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XXXVI. Here comes two ladies down from Spain, 

A len (?) [all in] French garland. 
I've come to court your daughter Jane, 
And adieu to you, my darling. 

Scotland (Notes and Queries, 3rd series, v. 393). 

XXXVII. Here are just three tribes come down from Spain, 
To call upon my sister Jane. 

My sister Jane, she is far too young ; 
I cannot bear her chattering tongue. 

The fairest lily that I can see, 

Is pretty little Lizzie, will ye come to me ? 

[No!] 

The dirty thing, she won't come out, she won't 
come out, she won't come out ; 

The dirty thing, she won't come out, to help us 
with the dancing. 

[Yes!] 

Now we've got a pretty maid, a pretty maid, a 

pretty maid ; 
Now we've got a pretty maid, to help us with the 

dancing. Waterford (Miss H. E. Harvey). 



THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 275 

($) The players stand in two lines, facing one another, three 
boys on one side and the girls (any number) on the other. 
The boys advance and retire dancing, and saying the first two 
lines. The girls stand still, one who personates a mother 
answers with the next two lines. The boys then advance and 
reply. When they are retiring the mother says the next lines 
and the boys reply ; they then choose a girl and take her over 
to their side. The dialogue is generally spoken, not sung. The 
boys turn their toes outwards to show their spurs. The number 
of players on the girls' side is generally an uneven one, the 
odd one is the mother and says the dialogue. This is 
the most general way of playing, but there are interesting 
variations. Chambers says two parties play, one representing 
a dame and her daughters, the other the suitors. The suitors 
move backwards and forwards with their arms entwined. The 
mother offers her daughters when she says " Smell my lilies," 
and the game ends by some little childish trick, but unfortu- 
nately, he does not describe this. Miss Ellis (Leicester) says 
if the number of players suited, probably all the boys, instead 
of three, would be on one side and the girls on the other, but 
there is no hard and fast line. They turn out their toes to 
show their spurs : when they sing or say, li Pass through the 
kitchen," &c., the girls stretch out their arms, still keeping 
hold of hand, and the boys, forming a long tail, wind in and 
out under their arms as they stand. Having previously 
decided among themselves which girl they shall seize, they go 
up and down the lines several times, until the period of sus- 
pense and expectation is supposed to have lasted long enough. 
Then the last boy in the line puts his arms round the chosen 
girl's waist and carries her off. This goes on until there is 
only one girl left, who recommences the game on her part by 
singing the first lines, choosing first a boy, who then be- 
comes a Spaniard. In the first version from Belfast, the first 
girl who is asked to go refuses, and another is asked, who 
consents. In the Manchester version (Miss Dendy), the girl 
refuses twice, then accepts. The " mother" is seated in state 
with her "daughters" round her in the Bexley Heath (Miss 
Morris) version. The two "gentlemen" advance to her and 



276 THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 



turn haughtily away when refused. Then they choose a girl 
and take her over to their side. In the Shropshire (Edgmond) 
version, two girls, one from each end of the line of " daughters," 
goes over to the knights' side, who also "bow" and "bend" 
when saying the lines, and the game is repeated saying five, 
seven, &c., knights. Here, also, the last player left on the girls' 
side takes the knight's part in the next game. Miss Burne 
adds, at other places the knights call only one girl by name each 
time. Both lines in the Shropshire game advance and retire. 
In the Dublin game (Mrs. Lincoln), three young boys are 
chosen for the suitors, one girl is the mother, and any number 
from three to. six personate the daughters. The first boy only 
speaks the lines. At " Return, return, your coat is white," 
he, with the other two "suitors," takes the girl, brings her 
back, and says the last verse. They then sit down, and the 
second suitor does the same thing, then the third one. Then 
the game is begun again [with three other boys] until all the 
daughters have been taken. In the version quoted from Notes 
and Queries, two children, mother and daughter, stand on one 
side, the other players opposite to them, and advance and 
retire. The contributor says they chant the words to a 
pleasing old melody. The Yorkshire version (Miss E. Cadman) 
is played in the usual way, both sides advancing and retiring 
in turn, and at the end one of the " knights " tries to catch 
one of the girls. They cross the room to each other's places. 
In Co. Down, at Ballymiscaw, Miss Patterson says one player 
refuses when asked, and another consents, this one and the 
" lord " then join hands and dance round together, saying the 
last words. The Annaverna version is sung by one on each 
side "king and the mother." The Berwickshire game was 
played by six children, one on one side, five on the other. 
The first lines are sung on both sides ; then the rest is dialogue 
until the girl refuses, when the "Jew" dances round by him- 
self, singing the words ; she then consents, and the two dance 
round with joined hands as in a reel, singing the last verse. 
The dialogue is spoken with animation, and the "Jew steps 
his foot " and prances away when saying these words. Twelve 
children in the Perth version stand in a row, another stands a 



THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 277 



little in advance, who is called ''daughter Jane," another is 
the "mother." Three more stand in front of the twelve and 
are the " Dukes." These dance forwards and backwards 
before "Jane and her mother," singing the first lines. The 
mother answers. When they sing the last line the " Dukes " 
choose one of the twelve, and sing the words over again until 
all the twelve are on the " Dukes' " side. Then they try to 
carry off "Jane" and the "mother," and run until they are 
caught. In the Clapham school version (Mrs. Herbertson), the 
"Duke" tries to drag by force the chosen girl across a hand- 
kerchief or other boundary, if successful she goes on his side. 
In the Cornwall version the " Dukes " retire and consult before 
choosing a girl, then select one. When all have been taken 
they bring them back in the same order to the "mother," say- 
ing the last verse, and the "mother" replies in the last two 
lines. In the London version, the " Dukes " take the girl and 
rob her, then bring her back. In the Fochabers version (Rev. 
W. Gregor), the two " sailors " join hands crosswise, walk 
backwards and forwards, and sing the words. The girl crosses 
over to them when chosen. When all are chosen the " sailors " 
bring all the girls before the mother, singing the last verse. 
The mother searches the daughters one after the other, finding 
neither money nor ring. She then chases the sailors, and the 
one caught becomes mother next game. 

(<:) This game has been said by previous collectors, and at 
first sight may be thought to be merely a variant of " Three 
Dukes," but it will on investigation, I think, prove to be more 
than this. In the first place, the obvious borrowing from the 
"Three Dukes" of a few words, as in versions Nos. 29, 30, 
and 31, tells against the theory of identity of the two games. 
Then the form of marriage custom is different, though it is 
still marriage under primitive conditions of society. The 
personal element, entirely absent from the "Three Dukes," 
is here one of the principal characteristics. The marriage 
is still one without previous courtship or love between two 
individuals, but the parental element is present' here, or at 
anyrate that of some authority, and a sanction is given, although 
there is no trace of any actual ceremony. The young men, or 



278 THREE KNIGHTS FROM SPAIN 

suitors, apparently desire a particular person in marriage, and 
although there is no wooing of that person a demand is made 
for her. These suitors are, I think, making the demand on the 
part of another rather than for themselves. They are the 
ambassadors or friends of the would-be bridegrooms, and are 
soliciting for a marriage in which purchase money or dowry 
is to be paid. The mention of " gold and silver " in many 
versions, and the line, "she must be sold," is important. 

All these indications of purchase refer to a time when the 
custom of offering gold, money, or other valuables for a bride 
was in vogue. While, therefore, the game has traces of carry- 
ing off the bride, this carrying off is in strict accord with the 
conditions prevalent when marriage by purchase had succeeded 
to marriage b}^ capture. The bargaining spirit is not much " en 
evidence " in this game, not, that is to say, in the same sense 
as is shown in " Three Sailors," p. 282, but there is sufficient 
evidence of a mercantile spirit to prove that women and girls 
were too valuable to be parted with by their own tribe or family 
without something deemed equivalent being given in return. 
There is a desire shown to possess the girl for her beauty ; 
and that a choice of a suitor could or would be made is shown 
by the remarks that she is too young and does not know the 
language and customs of this suitor. 

The mention of the spurs conveys the suggestion that the 
suitors or ambassadors are men of quality and renown. To 
win their spurs was an object greatly desired by all young 
men. Their reply to the taunt that their spurs are " dull " 
may mean that they are not bright from use, and may also show 
the idea that these men have come on a journey from some 
distance for a bride or brides, and this only is responsible for 
their spurs not being as bright as usual. Again, being "richly 
wrought " is probably an indication of wealth or consequence. 
Mention must be made of the mead not being made nor the 
cake yet baked, which occurs in two versions. If these two 
versions can be considered old ones, this would tend to show 
evidence of the ceremony of the eating together of particular 
food, which forms the most important element in primitive 
marriage ceremonies. 



THREE LITTLE SHIPS 279 

There occurs in some versions the incident of asking the girl 
to come, and the dancing round when she consents, mostly in 
connection with the incident of invitation to dance. This may 
not therefore belong, and I do not think it does, to the early 
forms of this game; but we must remember that dancing formed 
a part of the marriage ceremonies down to quite a late date, and 
it is therefore not surprising it should be found in many versions. 

It has been suggested that this game has for its origin an 
historical event in the reign of Edward III., whose daughter 
Jane married a prince of Spain. There is some possibility in 
this, as doubtless the marriage was conducted by ambassadors 
first of all with pomp and ceremonial, but I think the game 
really dates from a much earlier period, and if there are any 
grounds for connecting it with this particular royal marriage, 
it may merely have altered and fixed some of the words, such 
as " daughter Jane," " Lords from Spain," " Spanish gold," in 
people's minds, and in this way tended to preserve the game 
in its modern form. 

Mr. Addy, in his Sheffield Glossary, considers that the men- 
tion of the three knights and gifts of gold is a fragment of some 
old pageant of the Three Kings of Cologne, who, according to 
ancient legend, brought gifts to the infant Jesus, but I can see 
no evidence of this. 

It is somewhat curious that this game is very rarely sung to 
a tune, nor have I succeeded in obtaining one. It is usually 
said to a sort of sing-song chant, or else it is spoken in 
dialogue, and that with a good deal of animation. 

Mr. Newell gives versions, as played in America, similar to 
many here given, and Mr. Northall (Folk Rhymes, p. 385) gives 
one from Gloucestershire and Warwickshire. 

Three Little Ships 




_ L _^_, ,_^ 

London (A. B. Gomme). 



2 8o THREE LITTLE SHIPS 




Rimbault's Nursery Rhymes. 
I. Three little ships come sailing by, 

Sailing by, sailing by; 
Three little ships come sailing by, 
New Year's day in the morning. 

Who do you think was in the ships, 

In the ships, in the ships ; 
Who do you think was in the ships, 

New Year's day in the morning ? 

Three pretty girls were in the ships, 

In the ships, in the ships ; 
Three pretty girls were in the ships, 

New Year's day in the morning. 

One could whistle, and one could sing, 

One could play on the violin ; 
One could whistle, and one could sing, 

New Year's day in the morning. 

London (A. B. Gomme). 

II. I saw three ships come sailing by, 
Come sailing by, come sailing by ; 
I saw three ships come sailing by 
On New Year's day in the morning. 

And what do you think was in them then, 
In them then, in them then ; 
And what do you think was in them then, 
On New Year's day in the morning ? 

Three pretty girls were in them then, &c. 

One could whistle, and one could sing, 
The other could play on the violin ; 
Such joy was there at my wedding, 
On New Year's day in the morning. 

Rimbault's Nursery Rhymes. 



THREE LITTLE SHIPS 281 



III. As I sat on a sunny bank, 

A sunny bank, a sunny bank ; 

As I sat on a sunny bank 

On Christmas day in the morning. 

I saw three ships come sailing by, 
Come sailing by, come sailing by ; 
I saw three ships come sailing by 
On Christmas day in the morning. 

And who do you think was in those ships ? &c. 
But Joseph and his lady. 

And he did whistle, and she did sing, 
And all the bells on earth did ring 
For joy our Saviour he was born 
On Christmas day in the morning. 

Burne's Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 564. 

[The above verses, except the last one, are sung at Oswestry 
with these additional ones : ] 

Pray, whither sailed those ships all three ? &c. 
Oh ! they sailed unto Bethlehem, &c. 
They combed his hair with an ivory comb, &c. 
They washed his face in a golden cup, &c. 
They wiped his face with a lily-white cloth, &c. 
They brushed his shoes with a hairy brush, &c. 

Burne's Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 564. 

(c) In the London version, which I obtained from a maid- 
servant two lines of children stand, hand in hand, facing one 
another. They advance and retire in line, with dancing steps, 
alternately. The children sing the lines. When the last verse 
is sung a girl from the end of each line advances, and the two 
dance round together. This is continued until all have danced 
in turn in the space between the lines. 

(d) It will be seen that there is a probability of the version I 
collected as a dance game and Rimbault's nursery song being 
derived from the Christmas carol, a variant of which I reprint 
from Miss Burne's Shropshire Folk-lore. A version of this 
carol from Kent is given in Notes and Queries, 3rd series, iii. 7. 



282 THREE OLD BACHELORS THREE SAILORS 



Mr. A. H. Bullen, in Carols and Poems, gives an older version 
of the same. In this version there is no mention of whistling, 
singing, or playing the violin ; but in the Kent version, the 
third verse is the same as the fourth of that collected by 
Miss Burne, and the dance collected by myself. In the Revue 
Celtique, vol. iv., Mr. Fitzgerald considers this carol to have 
been the original from which the pretty words and dance, 
"Duck Dance," were derived, see ante, vol. i. p. 113. If these 
words and dance owe their origin to the carol, they may both 
show connection with an older form, when the carol was 
danced as a dramatic round. 

Three Old Bachelors 

Here come three old bachelors, 
Walking in a row, 
Seeking wives, and can't find 'em ; 
So open the ring, and take one in. 
Now you're married, you must obey ; 
You must be true to all you say ; 
You must be kind, you must be good, 
And help your wife to chop the wood. 

Earls Heaton, Yorks. (Herbert Hardy). 

Mr. Hardy suggests that this is a variant of " See the Farmer 
Sow his Seed," but it more nearly resembles " Silly Old Man," 
although the marriage formula is that of "Oats and Beans." 

Three Sailors 










Two last verses only. 









London (A. B. Gomme). 



THREE SAILORS 283 



Here come three sailors, three by three, 

To court your daughter, a fair lady (pronounced ladee) ; 

[Or, And down by your door they bend their knee]. 

Can we have a lodging here, here, here ? 

Can we have a lodging here ? 

Sleep, sleep, daughter, do not wake, 
Here are three sailors we can't take ; 
You cannot have a lodging here, here, here, 
You cannot have a lodging here. 

Here come three soldiers, three by three, 
To court your daughter, a fair lady ; 
Can we have a lodging here, here, here ? 
Can we have a lodging here ? 

Sleep, sleep, daughter, do not wake, 
Here are three soldiers we can't take; 
You cannot have a lodging here, here, here, 
You cannot have a lodging here. 

Here come three kings, three by three, 
To court your daughter, a fair lady ; 
Can we have a lodging here, here, here ? 
Can we have a lodging here ? 

Wake, wake, daughter, do not sleep, 
Here come three kings that we can take ; 
You can have a lodging here, here, here, 
You can have a lodging here. 

Here's my daughter, safe and sound, 
And in her pocket one hundred pound, 
And on her finger a gay gold ring, 
And she is fit to walk with a king. 

Here's your daughter, not safe nor sound, 
Nor in her pocket one hundred pound, 
On her finger no gay gold ring, 
I'm sure she's not fit to walk with a king. 

Barnes, Surrey, and London (A. B. Gomme). 



284 THREE SAILORS 



II. Here come three tinkers, three by three, 
To court your daughter, fair lady ; 
Oh ! have you any lodgings here, oh, here ? 
Oh ! have you any lodgings here ? 

Sleep, sleep, daughter, do not wake, 
Here come three tinkers we cannot take ; 
We haven't any lodgings here, oh, here, 
We haven't any lodgings here. 

Here come three soldiers, three by three, 
To court your daughter, fair lady ; 
Oh ! have you any lodgings here, oh, here ? 
Oh ! have you any lodgings here ? 

Sleep, sleep, daughter, do not wake, 
Here come three soldiers we cannot take ; 
We haven't any lodgings here, oh, here, 
We haven't any lodgings here. 

Here come three kings, three by three, 
To court your daughter, fair lady; 
Oh ! have you any lodgings here, oh, here ? 
Oh ! have you any lodgings here ? 

Wake, wake, daughter, do not sleep, 
Here come three kings that we can take ; 
We have some lodgings here, oh, here, 
We have some lodgings here. 

Here's my daughter, safe and sound, 
And in her pocket five hundred pounds, 
And on her finger a five guinea gold ring, 
And she is fit to walk with a king. 

Here's your daughter, nor safe nor sound, 
And in her pocket no five hundred pound, 
And on her finger no five guinea gold ring, 
And she's not fit to walk with the king. 

Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 



THREE SAILORS 285 



III. Here's three sweeps, three by three, 

And down by the door they bend their knee ; 
Oh ! shall we have lodgings here, oh, here ? 
Oh ! shall we have lodgings here ? 
Sleep, dear daughter, do not wake, 
For here's three sweeps coming to take ; 
Lodgings here they shall not have, 
So sleep, dear daughter, sleep. 

Here's three bakers, three by three, 
And down by the door they bend their knee ; 
Oh ! shall we have lodgings here, oh, here ? 
Oh ! shall we have lodgings here ? 

Sleep, dear daughter, do not wake, &c. (as above). 

Here's three kings, three by three, &c. (as above). 

Wake, dear daughter, do not sleep, 

For here's three kings coming to take ; 

Lodgings here they all may have, 

So wake, dear daughter, wake. 

Here's my daughter, safe and sound, 

And on her finger a guinea gold ring, 

And in her pocket a thousand pounds, 

So she is fit to marry a king. 

Here's your daughter, safe and sound, 
And on her finger no guinea gold ring, 
And in her pocket. no thousand pounds, 
So she's not fit to marry a king. 

Aberdeen Training College (Rev. W. Gregor). 

IV. Here come three tailors, three by three, 
To court your daughter, fair and fair ; 
Have you got a lodger here, oh, here ? 
Have you got a lodger here ? 

Sleep, daughter, sleep, sleep, 
Here come three tailors we can't take ; 
We haven't got a lodger here, oh, here, 
We haven't got a lodger here. 
[The verses are repeated for "sailors," "blacksmiths," &c., 



286 THREE SAILORS 



and then " kings," and ends in the same way as the preceding 
version.] Swaffham, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

V. Here come three sailors, three by three, 
A courting your daughter, Caroline Mee; 
[Some would sing it " Because your daughter "] 
Can we have a lodging here to-night ? 

Sleep, daughter, do not wake, 

Here's three sailors we can't take ; 

You cannot have a lodging here to-night. 

Here come three soldiers, three by three, 
A courting your daughter, Caroline Mee ; 
Can we have a lodging here to-night ? 

Sleep, daughter, do not wake, 
Here's three soldiers we can't take ; 
You cannot have a lodging here to-night. 

[This is repeated for " kings," and the game ends as in the 
previous versions. " Three " hundred pounds being substituted 
for "five."] Deptford, Kent (Miss Chase). 

VI. Here come some travellers three by three, 
And down by a door they bend their knee. 
" Can we get lodgings here ? " 
The fairest one that I can see 

Is pretty little , come to me, 

And you'll get lodgings here 

" Will you come ? " " Yes," or " No ! " 

Isle of Man (A. W. Moore). 

(c) The players form in two lines, and stand facing one another. 
One line consists of a mother and daughters. The other of the 
suitors. The mother stands a little in advance of her daughters. 
They remain stationary during the game, the mother alone 
singing the words on her side. The suitors advance and retire 
in line while singing their verses. The mother turns partly 
round when singing the two first lines of her verses addressing 
her daughters, and then faces the suitors when singing to them 
the remaining two lines. When she accepts the " kings " she 



THREE SAILORS 287 



brings one of her daughters forward, presents her to the 
suitors, and shows them the money in her pocket, and the 
ring on her finger. The daughter goes with the kings, who 
take her a little way apart, pretend to rob her of her ring, money, 
and clothes, and then bring her back to her mother, and sing the 
last verse. They then run off in all directions, and the mother 
and daughters chase and catch them, and they change sides. 
Sometimes all the daughters are taken by the suitors before 
they are robbed and brought back. The game is also played 
by five players only ; three representing the sailors or suitors, 
and .two the mother and daughter. The mother then chases 
the suitors, and whoever she catches becomes the daughter 
the next game. These are the usual methods of playing. In the 
Norfolk version the middle one of the three suitors takes the 
girl, robs her, and all three bring her back and sing the verses. 
In the Isle of Man version one player sits down, the others 
join hands, advance and retire singing the lines. The girl who 
is chosen joins the one sitting down. 

(d) This game points to that period of tribal society, when the 
youths of one tribe sought to obtain their wives from the 
maidens of another tribe according to the laws of exogamy, but 
a definite person is here selected for the wife, and it is to the 
relatives or persons having authority (as in " Three Knights") 
that the demand for the bride is made, and not to the girl 
personally, as in " Three Dukes." 

The game, while not so interesting a one to us as "Three 
Dukes," and " Three Knights," has its particular or peculiar 
features. It is probably later, and shows more clearly that 
position and wealth were of importance to a man in the obtain- 
ing of a wife. Individually he has not (apparently) courted 
the girl before, but he comes for that purpose now. He may 
be announcing himself under the various ranks or professions 
mentioned, before stating his real position ; or, this may show 
that the girl having many suitors, and those of all degrees, 
the "mother" or relatives are actuated by purely mercenary 
motives, and wish to select the best and richest suitor for 
her. We must remember that it was accounted great honour 
to a girl to have many suitors and amongst these men dis- 



288 THREE SAILORS 



tinguished by the performance of brave deeds, which had 
gained them renown and pre-eminence, or wealth. The fact 
that the rejection or acceptance of the suitors is made known 
to the girl by the " mother," or person having authority, shows 
that "sanction " or permission is necessary, and that " rejection " 
or " acceptance " is signified to the suitors in the words, you 
"may not," or, you "may" have a lodging here, signifies 
admission into the family. This is a most interesting feature. 
The girl is to " wake up," that would be to rouse up, be merry, 
dress in bridal array and prepare for the coming festival. She 
is also given to the suitors with " in her pocket one hundred 
pounds," and "on her finger a gay gold ring." This, it will be 
seen, is given her by her " mother " or person having authority, 
and probably refers to the property the girl brings with her to 
her new abode for her proper maintenance there; the ring 
shows likewise her station and degree in her former abode, and 
is the token that she is fit bride for a king, and must be treated 
accordingly. Curious, too, is " Here's my daughter safe and 
sound," which looks like a warrant or guarantee of the girl's 
fitness to be a bride. The expression "walk with," meaning 
" to marry," again occurs in this game as in "Three Dukes." 
The line occurring in two versions, " And down by the door 
they bend their knee," is suggestive of courtesy shown to the 
bride and her family at the threshold of the house. 

The incident of the three kings becoming robbers is not 
easily understood. Robbery was common of course, particularly 
when money and valuables were known to be carried on the 
person ; but I do not think this is sufficient in itself to account 
for the incident. It may be a reflection of the later fact that a 
man always took possession of his wife's personal property 
after marriage, and considered it his own to do as he pleased 
with. When this idea became codified in written law, the idea 
might readily get reflected in the game, when kings would not 
be understood as apparently taking things that did not belong 
to them, unless they were bandits in disguise. This last verse 
and the robbery may be a later addition to the game, when 
robbery was of everyday occurrence. There may have been 
(although there is nothing now in any version to warrant the 



THROUGH THE NEEDLE EYE, BOYS 289 

idea) some similar action on the part of the kings, such as a 
further arraying of the bride, and presenting her to their party 
or house, which has been misunderstood. Mr. Newell suggests 
that children having forgotten the original happy finish, and not 
understanding the " haggling " over the suitors, turned the 
kings into bandits. Children think it such a natural thing to 
wish to marry kings, princes, and princesses, and are so sincere 
in thinking it a matter of course to refuse a sailor or soldier for 
a king, when it is only a question of marriage, and not of 
choosing the one you like the best, that this reason does not to 
me seem to apply to a game of this kind. 

Through the Needle Eye, Boys 

Two leaders each choose a name such as " Golden Apple " 
and " Golden Pear." The remaining children all hold each 
other's waists in a long string, the " Golden Apple " and 
" Golden Pear " holding hands aloft like an arch. The string 
of children then runs under the arch. The last child that 
passes under is detained by the " Golden Apple" and " Golden 
Pear " (they having dropped hands previously). The detained 
child is asked in a whisper which she prefers, " Golden 
Apple," " Golden Pear ; " she chooses, and then stands at the 
back of the " Golden Apple" or " Golden Pear." When all 
the children have passed through, the "Golden Apple" and 
" Golden Pear" hold each other's hands and stand with the 
others behind them and pull like a "Tug of War." There 
should be a line drawn between the " Golden Apple " and the 
" Golden Pear," and whichever side pulls the other over the 
line, wins the game. Northumberland (from a lady friend of 
Hon. J. Abercromby). 

The formula sung in Fraserburgh when the players are 
running under the raised arms is 

Clink, clink, through the needle ee, boys, 

One, two, three, 

If you want a bonnie lassie, 

Just tak me. 

After the tug of war the victors call out " Rotten eggs, rotten 
eggs " (Rev. W. Gregor). 

VOL. ir. T 



2 9 o THROUGH THE NEEDLE EYE, BOYS 

The words used in Galloway are 

Through the needle e'e, boys, 
Through the needle e'e ! 
If 'twasna for your granny's sake, 
I wadna let 'e through. 

Galloway (J. G. Carter). 

Jamieson describes this game in the south of Scotland as 
follows : " Two children form an arch with both hands. The 
rest, who hold each other by the skirts following in a line, 
attempt to pass under the arch. The first, who is called the 
king, is sometimes laid hold of by those who form the arch, 
each letting fall one of his arms like a portcullis for enclosing 
the passenger. But more generally the king is suffered to pass, 
the attempt being reserved for the last ; whoever is seized is 
called the prisoner. As soon as he is made captive he takes 
the place of one of those who formed the arch, and who after- 
wards stand by his side." 

It is differently played in Mearns, Aberdeen, and some other 
counties. A number of boys stand with joined hands in a 
semicircle, and the boy at one end of the link addresses the 
boy at the other end of the line : 

A B , if ye were mine, 

I wad feed you with claret wine ; 
Claret wine is gude and fine, 
Through the needle-ee, boys. 

The boy to whom this is addressed makes room between 
himself and his next neighbour, as they raise and extend their 
arms to allow the opposite boy to run through the opening 
followed by all the other boys still linked to each other. If in 
running through the link should be broken, the two boys who 
are the cause suffer some punishment. Ed. Jamieson's Dic- 
tionary. 

The Northumberland game resembles " Oranges and Lemons." 
The other versions are nearer the " Thread the Needle " and 
" How many Miles to Babylon " games. Both games may be 
derived from the same custom. 

See " How many Miles to Babylon," " Thread the Needle." 



THUN'ER SPELL TICKLE ME QUICKLY 291 

Thun'er Spell 

A thin lath of wood, about six inches long and three or four 
inches broad, is taken and rounded at one end. A hole is bored 
in that end, and in the hole is tied a piece of cord between two 
and three yards long. It is then rapidly swung round, so as to 
produce a buzzing sound. The more rapidly it is swung, the 
louder is the noise. It was believed that the use of this instru- 
ment during a thunder-storm saved one from being struck with 
" the thun'er bolt." I have used it with this intention (Keith). 
In other places it is used merely to make a noise. It is com- 
monly deeply notched all round the edges to increase the 
noise. 

Some years ago a herd boy was observed making one in a 
farm-kitchen (Udny). It was discovered that when he was 
sent to bring the cows from the fields to the farmyard to be 
milked, he used it to frighten them, and they ran frantically to 
their stalls. The noise made the animals dread the bot-fly or 
" cleg." This torment makes them throw their tails up, and 
rush with fury through the fields or to the byres to shelter them- 
selves from its attacks. A formula to effect the same purpose, 
and which I have many and many a time used when herding, 
was : Cock tail ! cock tail ! cock tail ! Bizz-zz-zz ! Bizz-zz-zz. 
Keith (Rev. W. Gregor). 

Dr. Gregor secured one of these that was in use in Pitsligo, 
and sent it to the Pitt-Rivers Museum at Oxford, where it 
now lies. Professor Haddon has made a collection of these 
toys, and has written on their connection with the Australian 
boomerang. 

They are still occasionally to be met with in country districts, 
but are used simply for the purpose of making a noise. 

See " Bummers." 

Tick 

A game mentioned by Drayton, and still played in Warwick- 
shire. Halliwell's Dictionary. The same game as "Touch." 

Tickle me Quickly 

An old game (undescribed) mentioned in Taylor's Motto, 
1622, sig. D, iv. 



292 TICKY TOUCHWOOD 

Ticky Touchwood. 

Ticky, ticky Touchwood, my black hen, 
She lays eggs for gentlemen ; 
Sometimes nine and sometimes ten, 
Ticky, ticky Touchwood, my black hen. 

Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

Addy (Sheffield Glossary, under " Tiggy Touchwood ") says, 
" One player who is called Tiggy stands out, and each of the 
others takes hold of or touches a piece of wood, such as a door, 
or rail, &c. One then leaves his f wood ' and runs across the 
playground, and if whilst doing so Tiggy can touch him he 
must stand out or take Tiggy 's place." 

One child is chosen to be " Ticky," i.e., to be on the quivive 
to lay hold of or touch any one who is not touching wood. If 
played out of doors it must be clearly defined wJiat is wood, 
trees and all growing wood being forbidden. The fun consists 
in the bold ventures of those who tempt " Ticky " to run after 
them, and contrive to touch "wood" just before he touches 
them. When one is caught he is " Ticky " in turn. Swaff ham, 
Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

Played within a given boundary, in which were wooden 
buildings or fences. When one of the players was being 
pursued by the tigger, if he touched wood he could not be 
made prisoner, but he was not allowed to remain long in that 
position, and directly his hand left wood he was liable to 
instant capture. If when pursued he called out " a barla ! " 
he was again exempt from capture, but he could not move from 
the position or place where he or she was when they called 
out, a barla ! When wishing to move he had to call out " Ma 
barla oot ! " No den in this game, but constant running. 
Biggar (Wm. Ballantyne). 

Lowsley (Berkshire Glossary] says, " Boys have games 
called Touch-wood and Touch-iron, where any one not touching 
either of the substances named is liable to be caught by the one 
standing out." 

Ross and Stead (Holderness Glossary) give this game as 
Tiggy Touchwood, a game similar to Tig, but in which the 
player must touch wood. It is called Ticky, Ticky Touchwood 



TIG TIME 293 



by Brogden {Lincolnshire Provincial Words], and Tiggy in 
Addy's Sheffield Glossary. 

Also played in another way. One tree or piece of wood was 
selected for " Home," and the players darted out from this say- 
ing, "Ticky, Ticky Touchwood," then running back to the 
tree and touching it before Ticky caught them. " Parley " or 
" fainits " were the words called out when exempt. London (A. 
B. Gomme). 

It is also described in Patterson's Antrim and Down Glossary. 

Tig. 

A game in which one player touches another, then runs off 
to be pursued and touched in turn. 

Mr. Addy says, " Children tig each other when they leave 
school, and there is a rivalry among them to get the last tig. 
After a boy has said tig-poison, he is not to be ' tigged ' again." 
Brockett says: "Tig, a slight touch (as a mode of salutation), 
a play among children on separating for the night, in which 
every one endeavours to get the last touch; called also Last 
Bat." Brockett's Nortli Country Words, and consult Dickinson 
(Cumberland Glossary}, also Jamieson. A boys' game, in 
which the player scores by touching one who runs before him. 
Stead's Holderness Glossary. A play among children when 
separating for the night. Willan's Dialect Words of West 
Riding of Yorks. Called also "Touch" and "Tigga Tiggy," 
in East and West Cornwall ; (Courtney and Couch), also Patter- 
son's A ntrim and Down Glossary. 

See "Canlie," " Cross Tig." 

Time. 

The players stand in a line. Two are chosen, who stand 
apart, and fix on any hour, as one, two, three, &c., or any 
half-hour. A nestie is marked off at some distance from the 
row of players. One of the two goes in front of the line of 
players, and beginning at one end asks each the hour. This 
is done till the hour fixed on between the two is guessed. The 
one that makes the right guess runs to catch the other of the 
two that fixed the hour, and she makes off to the " nestie." If 
she is caught she goes to the line of players, and the one that 



294 TIP IT TIP-CAT 



caught her takes her place. If she reaches the " nestie" with- 
out being caught, she has still to run to the line of players; 
if she does this without being caught she holds her place as 
one of the time-fixers, but if caught she takes her stand in the 
line, and the one that caught her becomes time-fixer. Fraser- 
burgh (Rev. W. Gregor). 

Tip it. 

This is played by six players, divided into two sides of three 
each, with one captain to each side. A ring or other small 
object is taken by the side which wins the toss, and then both 
sides sit down to a small table. The in-side puts their hands 
under the table, and the ring is given to one of the three players. 
At a given signal they all bring up their closed hands on to 
the table, and the other side has to guess in which closed fist 
the ring is. The guesser has the privilege of ordering "off" 
the hands which he thinks are empty. If he succeeds in 
getting the empty hands off, he says " tip it " to the remaining 
one. If he guesses right the ring changes sides. The game 
is to keep the ring or other object on one side as long as pos- 
sible. London (Alfred Nutt). ' 

Tip-Cat. 

Strutt says this is so denominated from the piece of wood 
called a cat, aboutsix inches in length, and an inch and a half or 
two inches in diameter, diminished from the middle to both ends. 
When the cat is on the ground the player strikes it smartly, when 
it rises with a rotatory motion high enough for him to hit it again 
before it falls, in the same manner as a ball. He says there 
are various methods of playing the game, and describes the 
two following : A large ring is made in the ground ; in the 
middle of this the striker takes his station ; his business then 
is to hit the cat over the ring. If he fails in doing so he is 
out, and another player takes his place ; if successful, he judges 
with his eye the distance the cat is driven from the centre of 
the ring, and calls for a number at pleasure to be scored towards 
his game : if the number demanded be found upon measure- 
ment to exceed the same number of lengths of the bludgeon, 
he is out ; on the contrary, if it does not, he obtains his call. 



TIP-TAP-TOE 295 



The second way of playing is to make four, six, or eight holes 
in the ground in a circular direction, and at equal distances 
from each other, at every hole is placed a player with his 
bludgeon: one of the opposite party who stand in the field 
tosses the cat to the batsman who is nearest him, and every 
time the cat is struck the players are obliged to change their 
situations, and run once from one hole to another in succession ; 
if the cat be driven to any great distance they continue to run 
in the same order, and claim a score towards their game every 
time they quit one hole and run to another ; but if the cat be 
stopped by their opponents and thrown across between any 
two of the holes before the player who has quitted one of them 
can reach the other, he is out. 

Mr. Kinahan says there is among old Irish games one some- 
times called cat, played with three or more players on each side, 
two stones or holes as stations, and a lobber, but the regular 
cat is played with a stick four inches long, bevelled at each end, 
called the cat. This bevelled stick is laid on the ground, and 
one end hit with a stick to make it rise in the air, when it is 
hit by the player, who runs to a mark and back to his station. 
The game is made by a number of runs ; while the hitter is 
out if he fails three times to hit the cat, or if he is hit by the 
cat while running. (Folk-lore Journal, ii. 264.) The common 
game of " tip-cat " was called cat-and-kitten by Dorset children. 
The long stick represented the " cat " and the small pieces the 
" kitten." (Folk-lore Journal, vii. 234.) Elworthy ( West 
Somerset Words} calls it Stick and Snell. Brogden (Provincial 
Words y Lincolnshire} gives it as tip-cat, as does Lowsley 
(Berkshire Glossary), also Trippit and Coit, and Trippit and 
Rack in some parts of the North. Brockett's North Country 
Words. Once commonly played in London streets, now 
forbidden. 

See "Cudgel," " Waggles." 

Tip-tap-toe. 

A square is drawn having nine smaller squares or houses 
within it. Two persons play. They alternately make 
the one a square and the other a cross in any one of the 



296 TIRING IRONS TIT-TAT-TOE 

houses. He that first gets three in a line wins the game. 
Peacock's Manley and Corringham Glossary. Brogden 
(Provincial Words, Lincolnshire) calls it Tit-tat- toe, also Low- 
sley (Berkshire Glossary). 

Northall says called Tick-tack-toe in Warwickshire and 
Staffordshire; the rhyme is "Tick-tack-toe, I've caught you." 

This game is called " Noughts and Crosses," in London, 
probably from those marks being used in the game. 

See " Kit-Cat-Cannio," "Noughts and Crosses." 

Tiring Irons. 

An old game with iron rods and rings. Holland's Cheshire 
Glossary. 

Tisty Tosty 

See " Shuttlefeather," " Teesty Tosty." 

Titter-totter 

The game of see-saw. H alii well's Dictionary. 

Tit-tat-toe. 

A game played by school children on slates. A round is 
drawn, which is divided into as many divisions as is thought 
necessary, sixteen being generally the least. These divisions 
are each numbered, the centre containing a higher figure 
than any in the divisions, usually 25, 50, or 100. Several 
children can play. They each have a place or square allotted 
to them on the slate in which to record the numbers they 
obtain. A space is allotted to " Old Nick " or the " Old Man." 
The players alternately take a pencil in their right hand (hold- 
ing it point downwards on I, and tapping on each number 
with it), and shutting their eyes move round and round the 
diagram saying 

" Tit, tat, toe, my first go, 

Three jolly butcher boys all in a row 

Stick one up, stick one down, 

Stick one in the old man's ground," 

stopping and keeping the pencil in an upright position when 
the last word is said. The player then opens his eyes, and 
registers in his square the number at which the pencil stopped. 



TIT-TAT-TOE 



297 



This number is then scratched through on the diagram, to 
signify that it is taken, the other players proceed in the same 
manner as the first ; then the first one begins again. This is 
continued till all the numbers are scratched out, or till one of 
the players puts his pencil into the centre, and thus wins the 
game. If all the figures are taken before the centre is touched, 
the game goes to the " Old man " or " Old Nick." Also, if one 
player puts his pencil in a division already taken, he records 
nothing and loses that turn ; this is also the case if, after the 




verse is repeated, the pencil is found to be on a division or 
boundary line or outside the round. London (A. B. Gomme). 

I was taught by a maid servant to play this game on the 
ground. This girl drew the round and divisions and figures 
on the gravel path or mould in the garden, and sharpened a 
piece of stick at one end for the pointer. She did not know the 
game as one played on slates, but always played it on the 
ground in this way. 

This game appears to indicate a lottery, and might originally 
have had something to do with allotting pieces of land or other 
property to prospective owners under the ancient common field 



298 TODS AND LAMBS TOM TIDDLER'S GROUND 

system. The places when taken by one player not being avail- 
able for another, and the fact of it being known as played on 
the ground, and not on slates, are both significant indications 
of the suggested origin. The method of allotting lands by 
lottery is described in Gomme's Village Community. Mr. 
Newell, Games, p. 140, records a similar game called "Wheel 
of Fortune." 

Tods and Lambs 

A game played on a perforated board with wooden pins. 
Jamieson. The Editor adds that the game is materially the 
same as the English " Fox and Geese." 

See " Fox and Geese " (2). 

Tom Tiddler's Ground 

- adlib ' 




Liverpool (Mrs. Harley). 
A line is drawn on the ground, one player stands behind 
it. The piece so protected is " Tom Tiddler's ground." The 
other players stand in a row on the other side. The row 
breaks and the children run over, calling out, " Here we are 
on Tom Tiddler's ground, picking up gold and silver." Tom 
Tiddler catches them, and as they are caught they stand on 
one side. The last out becomes Tom Tiddler. Monton, 
Lancashire (Miss Dendy). 

Tom Tiddler's Ground is played at Chirbury under the name 
of " Boney " = Bonaparte ! one boy taking possession of a certain 
area, and the others trespassing on it, saying, " I am on Boney's 
ground." If they are caught there, they are put " in prison " 
till released by a touch from a comrade. Chirbury {Shropshire 
Folk-lore, p. 523-524). 

I'm on Tom Tinker's ground, 

I'm on Tom Tinker's ground, 

I'm on Tom Tinker's ground, 

Picking up gold and silver. 

Derbyshire (Folk-lore Journal, i. 386). 

Northall (Folk Rhymes) gives the following lines, and 
describes it as played as above, except that Tom Tinder is 



TOPS 299 

provided with a knotted handkerchief, with which he buffets 
any one caught on his property : 

Here we are on Tom Tinder's ground, 

Picking up gold and silver ; 

You pick weeds, and I'll pick seeds, 

And we'll all pick carraway comfits. 

In the Liverpool district the game is called "Old Daddy 
Bunchey " (Mrs. Harley), and in Norfolk " Pussey's Ground " 
(Miss Matthews). 

It is also mentioned by Lowsley (Berkshire Glossary). 

Tops 

The special games now played with tops are mentioned 
under their respective titles, but the general allusions to the 
ancient whipping-tops are important enough to note. 

Strutt says the top was known with us as early at least as 
the fourteenth century, when its form was the same as now, 
and the manner of using it can admit of but little if any 
difference. Representations of boys whipping tops occur in 
the marginal paintings of the MSS. written at this period ; and 
in a work of the thirteenth century, " Le Miracle de Saint 
Loys," the whipping top (Sabot) is mentioned. The top was 
probably in use as a toy long before. Strutt records the follow- 
ing anecdote of Prince Henry, son of James I., which he met 
with in a MS. at the Museum, the author of which speaks 
of it as perfectly genuine. His words are "The first tyme 
that he, the prince, went to the towne of Sterling to meete 
the king, seeing a little without the gate of the towne a stack 
of corne in proportion not unlike to a topp wherewith he used 
to play; he said to some that were with him, 'Loe there is a 
goodly topp;' whereupon one of them saying, 'Why doe you 
not play with it, then ? ' he answered, ' Set you it up for me, 
and I will play with it.'" Sports, p. 385. 

Northbroke, in his Treatise against Dicing, 1579, p. 86, 
says : " Cato giveth counsell to all youth, saying, ' Trocho lude, 
aleas fuge, playe with the toppe, and flee dice-playing.'" 

In the English translation of Levinus Lemnius, 1658, 
p. 369 : " Young youth do merrily exercise themselves in 



300 TOPS 

whipping-top, and to make it run swiftly about, that it cannot 
be seen ; and will deceive the sight." 

Cornelius Scriblerus, in his Instructions concerning the 
Plays and Playthings to be used by his son Martin, says : " I 
would not have Martin as yet to scourge a top, till I am better 
informed whether the trochus which was recommended by Cato 
be really our present top, or rather the hoop which the boys 
drive with a stick." Pope's Works, vi. 115. 

Among well-known classical allusions may be noted the 
following mention of whipping the top, in Persius's third 
Satire : 

"Neu quis callidior buxum torquere flagello." 

Thus translated by Dryden : 

" The whirling top they whip, 
And drive her giddy till she fall asleep." 

Thus also in Virgil's &neid, vii. 378 : 

" Ceu quondam torto volitans sub verbere turbo, 
Quern pueri magno in gyro vacua atria circum 
Intend ludo exercent. Ille actus habena 
Curvatis fertur spatiis : stupet inscia supra, 
Impubesque manus, mirata volubile buxum : 
Dant animos plagae." 

Thus translated by Dryden : 

" As young striplings whip the top for sport, 
On the smooth pavement of an empty court ; 
The wooden engine whirls and flies about, 
Admired with clamours of the beardless rout, 
They lash aloud, each other they provoke, 
And lend their little souls at ev'ry stroke." 

And so Ovid, Trist. 1. iii. Eleg. 1 2 : 

" Otia nunc istic : junctisque ex ordine ludis 

Cedunt verbosi garrula bella fori. 
Usus equi nunc est, levibus nunc luditur armis : 
Nunc pila, nunc celeri volvitur or be trochus" 

Passing from these general allusions to the top as a form of 



TOPS 301 

amusement, we enter on more significant ground when we take 
into consideration the various passages in the early dramatists 
and other writers (collected together in Nares' Glossary), which 
show that tops were at one time owned by the parish or 
village. 

" He's a coward and a coystril that will not drink to my 
niece, till his brains turn like a parish-top." Shakespeare, 
Twelfth Night, i. 3. 

"A merry Greek, and cants in Latin comely, 
Spins like the parish-top." 

Ben Jonson, New Inn, ii. 5. 

" I'll hazard 

My life upon it, that a boy of twelve 
Should scourge him hither like a parish-top, 
And make him dance before you." 

Beaumont and Fletcher, Thierry and Theod., ii. i. 

" And dances like a town top, and reels and hobbles." 

Ibid., Night Walker, i. i. 

Every night I dream I am a town-top, and that I am whipt 
up and down with the scourge stick of love. " Grim, the 
Collier of Croydon," ap. Dodsley, xi. 206. 

In the Fifteen Comforts of Marriage, p. 143, we read : 
" Another tells 'em of a project he has to make town tops 
spin without an eel-skin, as if he bore malice to the school- 
boys." 

Poor Robin, in his Almanack for 1677, tells us, in the 
Fanatick's Chronology, it was then " 1804 years since the first 
invention of town-tops." 

These passages seem to refer to a custom of keeping tops by 
a township or parish, and they are confirmed by Evelyn, who, 
speaking of the uses of willow wood, among other things made 
of it, mentions great "town-topps" (Sylva, xx. 29). The latest 
writers who give positive information on the subject are Black- 
stone, who, in his note on Shakespeare, asserts that to "sleep 
like a town top " was proverbial, and Hazlitt, who, in his col- 
lection of English Proverbs, has " like a parish-top." (See also 
Brand, ii. 448.) 



302 TOPS 

Steevens, in his notes on Shakespeare, makes the positive 
assertion that " this is one of the customs now laid aside : a 
large top was formerly kept in every village, to be whipt in 
frosty weather, that the peasants might be kept warm by 
exercise, and out of mischief, while they could not work." 

This passage is repeated in Ellis's edition of Brand, so that 
there is only one authority for the two statements. The ques- 
tion is whether Steevens was stating his own independent 
knowledge, or whether he based his information upon the 
passage in Shakespeare which he was illustrating. I think 
there can be no doubt that the custom existed, in whatever 
way we accept Steevens' statement, and the question is one of 
considerable interest. 

" Tops " is one of those games which are strictly limited 
to particular seasons of the year, and any infringement of 
those seasons is strictly tabooed by the boys. Hone (Every 
Day Book, i. 127), records the following rhyme: 
Tops are in, spin 'em agin ; 
Tops are out, smuggin' about, 

but does not mention the season. It is, however, the early 
spring. This rhyme is still in use, and may occasionally be 
heard in the streets of London in the top season. Smugging 
is legitimate stealing when boys play out of season. " Marbles 
furst, then comes tops, then conies kites and hoops," said a 
London boy who had acquired some tops by " smuggin ; " but 
these rules are fast becoming obsolete, as is also the use of a 
dried eel skin as the favourite whip or thong used. 

The keeping of a top by the parish in its corporate capacity 
is not likely to have arisen for the sake of supplying people 
with amusement, and we must look to a far more ancient 
origin for this singular custom. Hone mentions a doubtful 
story of a top being used in the ritual of one of the churches 
at Paris. (The burial of Alleluia. The top was whipped by 
a choir-boy from one end of the choir to the other : Every Day 
Book, i. 100), and if this can be confirmed it would be a link in 
the chain of evidence. But the whole subject requires much 
more evidence than it is now possible to go into here, though 
even, as far as we can now go, I am tempted to suggest that 



THE TOTUM 303 



this well-known toy takes us back to the serious rites of ancient 
religions. 

Brady's Clavis Calendaria, i. 209, mentions the discontinued 
custom of whipping tops on Shrove Tuesday as originating in 
the Popish Carnival as types of the rigour of Church discipline. 

It is not improbable that the tee-totum is the earliest form 
of top, and as its use is for gambling, it is probable that this 
and the top were formerly used for purposes of divination. 

See " Gully," " Hoatie," " Hoges," " Peg Top," " Peg in the 
Ring," " Scurran-Meggy," "Totum." 

The Totum, or Tee-to-tum 

The Totum is really only a top to spin by hand. It is made 
of a square piece of wood or bone, the four sides being each 
marked with a letter, and the peg is put through a hole in the 
centre. Sometimes the totum is shaped to a point on the 
under side, and a pin fixed in the upper part, by which it is 
twirled round. 

The game played is one of chance ; it may be played by two 
or more, either boys or girls, and is played only at Christmas. 
In Keith the letters are A, N, D, T. In playing the stake is one 
pin, and each plays in turn. If the side with A on it falls upper- 
most the player wins the whole stake "A, tack a'." If N 
turns up the player gets nothing " N, nikil (nihil), nothing." 
If T turns up one pin falls to the player " T, tack ane." If D 
comes uppermost the player has to lay down a pin " D, dossie 
doon." At times the game was played by paying a stake to 
all the letters except A, and the words used were " D, dip 
it," "T, tip it," and "N, nip it." Keith (Rev. W. Gregor). 

We played the game when children usually at Christmas time. 
The players sat round a table. A pool was made, each player 
putting in the same amount of stakes, either pins, counters, 
nuts, or money. One player collected the pool and then spun 
the tee-totum by his fingers. Whichever letter was uppermost 
when it stopped, the player had to obey. 

T, was take all (the contents of the pool). 

H, half the contents. 

N, nothing. 



304 TOUCH TOWN LOVERS 

P, to put into the pool the same amount as the stakes were 
at first. 

When this was done the next player spun the totum in his 
turn. When one player got T a fresh pool had to be collected. 
London (A. B. Gomme). 

Jamieson's Dictionary says children lay up stores of pins 
to play at this game at Christmas time. 

William Dunbar, the Scottish poet (James IV.), seems to refer 
to this game in the poem, Schir, %it remembir as of befoir, in 
the words 

" He playis with totum, and I with nicJiell" (1. 74). 

Strutt (Sports and Pastimes, page 385) says the four sides 
were marked with letters, and describes the game as we now 
play it in London. 

All tee-totums or whirligigs seem to have some reference to 
tops, except that the tee-totum is used principally for gambling. 

Some have numbers on their sides like dice instead of 
letters, and some are of octagonal shape. 

See "Lang Larence," " Scop-peril," "Tops." 

Touch 

One player is chosen " he." He then runs amidst the other 
players and tries to touch one, who then becomes " Tig " or 
"Touch" in turn. 

See " Ticky Touchwood, " Tig." 

Tower of London 

The Tower is formed by a circle of children, two of whom 
constitute the gate. These two join hands, and raise or lower 
their arm to open or shut the gate. The Tower is summoned 
to open its gates to admit " King George and all his merry 
men," how represented I can't remember ; but I know that at 
one point there is a chase, and the prisoner is caught and 
brought before the king, when there ensues a scrap of dialogue 
in song (Mrs. Harley). 

See " How many miles to Babylon," " King of the Barbaric." 

Town Lovers 

There is a girl of our town, 

She often wears a flowered gown ; 



TRADES 



35 



Tommy loves her night and day, 
And Richard when he may, 
And Johnny when he can ; 
I think Sam will be the man ! 

Halli well's Nursery Rhymes, pp. 217-218. 

A girl is placed in the middle of a ring and says the lines, the 
names being altered to suit the players. She points to each one 
named, and at the last line the one selected immediately runs 
away ; if the girl catches him he pays a forfeit, or the game is 
commenced again, the boy being placed in the middle. 

Trades 

Sides are chosen. These stand apart from each other, 
inside the line of their den. One side chooses amongst them- 
selves a trade, and then walk over to the other side, imitating 
the actions pertaining to different parts of that trade, and giving 
the initial letter. If the trade isj^uessed by the opposite side, 
that side chooses the next trade, and performs the actions. If 
the trade is not guessed, the side is at liberty to choose another, 
and continue until one is guessed. Forest of Dean, Glouces- 
tershire (Miss Matthews). 

The players that are to act the dumb tradesmen agree among 
themselves what trades are to be imitated. When this point 
is settled they present themselves before those that are to guess 
the trade, and proclaim three poor tradesmen wanting a trade 
dumb. Theythenbeginthe work ofimitation. The on- 
looker that first discovers the trade calls it out, and he becomes 
the dumb tradesman during the next round. Fraserburgh (Rev. 
W. Gregor). 

Some of the players form a line, while three others come up 
and say 

" Here are three men from Botany Bay, 
Got any work to give us to-day." 

The others ask, " What can you do ? " To which they reply, 
"Anything." And the others retort, " Set to work, then." 

The three then do some imaginary work, while those in the 
line have to guess what it is. Ogbourne, Wilts (H. S. May). 

VOL. n. u 



306 TRAP, BAT, AND BALL 

" Two broken Jrades men newly come over, 

The one from France and Scotland, the other from Dover." 

" What's your trade ? " 

Two boys privately arrange that the pass-word shall be some 
implement of a particular trade. The trade is announced after 
the above dialogue, and carpenters, nailors, sailors, smiths, 
tinkers, or any other is answered; and on guessing the in- 
strument, " Plane him," " Hammer him," " Rasp him," or 
" Solder him," is called out ; then the fun is that the unfor- 
tunate wight who guesses the " tool " is beaten with the caps 
of his fellows till he reaches a fixed goal, after which he 
goes out in turn. HalliwelPs Nursery Rhymes, cccxvi. In his 
Dictionary it is called "Trades^and Dumb Motions." 

Northall (English F0^-K^mesJ~Tecor^s~S^^ame as being 
played in Warwickshire. The method is practically the same 
as the Forest of Dean, except that the " tradesmen " are beaten 
if their trade is easily guessed by the others. They may also 
be beaten if they show their teeth during the operations. 

Trap, Bat, and Ball 

A game played with a trap, a ball, and a small bat. The 
trap is of wood made like a slipper, with a hollow at the heel 
end for the ball, and a kind of wooden spoon moving on a 
pivot, in the bowl of which the ball is placed. Two sides 
play one side bats, the other fields. One of the batsmen 
strikes the end or handle of the spoon, the ball then rises into 
the air, and the art of the game is for the batsman to strike it 
as far as possible with the bat before it reaches the ground. 
The other side who are " fielding," try either to catch the 
ball before it falls to the ground, or to bowl it from where it 
falls to hit the trap. If they succeed in catching the ball all 
the "ins" are out, and their side goes in to strike the ball, 
and the previous batsmen to field ; if the trap is hit the bats- 
man is out and another player of his side takes his place. The 
batsman is also out if he allows the ball to touch the trap 
when in the act of hitting it. (A. B. Gomme.) 

Halliwell (Dictionary) says, " Nurspell " in Lincolnshire is 
somewhat similar to " Trap Ball." It is played with a kibble, 



TRAY-TRIP TRIBET 307 

a nur and a spell. By striking the end of the spell with the 
kibble the nur rises into the air, and the game is to strike it 
with the kibble before it reaches the ground. He who drives 
it the greatest distance is the winner. Miss Burne (Shrop- 
shire Folk-lore, p. 527) says, "Trib and Knurr," otherwise 
" Dog Stick," are local names for " Knur and Spell," a superior 
form of " Trap Ball." The " knurr " is a hard wooden ball, 
the "trib" is the trap or receptacle, the " Dog Stick" the 
sort of club with which it is struck. The game is played as 
described by Halliwell. She adds it was formerly the favourite 
pastime of young men on Shrove Tuesday. 

At Bury St. Edmonds, on Shrove Tuesday, Easter Monday, 
and Whitsuntide festivals, twelve old women side off for a 
game at " Trap and Ball," which is kept up with the greatest 
spirit and vigour until sunset. Suffolk County Folk-lore, p. 56. 
See also Chambers's Book of Days, i. p. 428, for a similar 
custom among women at Chester. 

See "Nur and Spel," "Tribet," "Trippit and Coit." 

Tray-Trip 

Grose says this was an ancient game, like Scotch-hop, played 
on a pavement marked out with chalk into different compartments. 
According to Halliwell (Dictionary), it was a game at dice. 

See "Hop-scotch," "Scotch Hop." 

Tres-acre 

A game in which generally six are engaged one taking a 
station before two about 12 yards behind him, three 12 yards 
behind these two. One is the catch-pole. Never more than 
two can remain ; the supernumerary one must always shift and 
seek a new station. If the catch-pole can get in before the 
person who changes his station, he has the right to take his 
place, and the other becomes pursuer. Jamieson. 

This is not very descriptive, but the game is evidently the 
same as " Round Tag " and " Twos and Threes," played with 
a small number. 

Tribet 

A common children's game played in Lancashire ; which, 
perhaps, may be the primitive form of " Trap." It is played 



3o8 TRIPPIT AND COIT TROAP 

with a " pum," a piece of wood about a foot long and two 
inches in diameter, and a "tribet," a small piece of hard 
wood. Halliwell's Dictionary. 
See "Trap, Bat, and Ball." 

Trippit and Coit 

A game formerly known under the appellation of " Trippets," 
Newcastle. It is the same as " Trip-cat " in some southern 
counties. The trippet is a small piece of wood obtusely pointed 
something like a shoe hollow at one end, and having a tail 
a little elevated at the other, which is struck with a buckstick. 
It is also called " Buckstick, Spell-and-Ore." Brockett's North 
Country Words. See also Dickinson's Cumberland Glossary. 
Halliwell's Dictionary says The game is almost peculiar to the 
North of England. There is a poem called " The Trip Match " 
in Mather's Songs. 

See "Nur and Spel," "Trap, Bat, and Ball." 

Trip and Go 

Trip and go, heave and hoe, 
Up and down, to and fro ; 
From the town to the grove, 
Two and two let us rove ; 
A-maying, a-playing, 
Love hath no gainsaying; 
So merrily trip and go, 
So merrily trip and go. 

Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes, cccxlviii. 
A game rhyme, but undescribed. 

Trip-trout 

A game in which a common ball is used instead of the cork 
and feathers in " Shuttlecock." (Kinross) Jamieson. 
See " Shuttlefeather," "Teesty Tosty." 

Troap 

A game played by two persons, with bandies or sticks 
hooked at the end, and a bit of wood called a nacket. At 
each end of the ground occupied a line is drawn. He who 



TROCO, TRUCKS TROUNCE-HOLE 309 

strikes off the nacket from the one line, tries to drive it as near 
the other as possible. The antagonist who stands between 
him and the goal tries to throw back with his hand the nacket 
to the line from which the other has struck it. If he does this 
he takes the place of the other. If not, the distance is measured 
between the striking point and the nacket with one of the 
sticks used in striking, and for every length of the stick one is 
counted against the caster. (Angus) Jamieson. The editor of 
Jamieson adds that the name must have been originally the 
same as the English Trap, although in this game a ball is used 
instead of a nacket, and it is struck off as in cricket. 

Troco, Trucks 

This was an old English game formerly known as " trucks." 
Strutt, p. 270, 299 (who gives an illustration of it), considers 
this game to be the original of billiards. Professor Attwell 
says, Notes and Queries, /th series, xii. 137, "This game 
was played at Nassau House School, Barnes, for twenty years. 
It is played on a lawn with balls, cues, and rings." 

Troule-in-Madame 

In the Benefit of the Auncient Bathes of Buckstones, compiled 
by John Jones at the King's Mede, nigh Darby, 1572, 4to. 
p. 12, we read: "The ladyes, gentle woomen, wyves, and 
maydes, maye in one of the galleries walke ; and if the weather 
bee not aggreeable too theire expectacion, they may haue in the 
ende of a benche eleuen holes made, intoo the which to trowle 
pummetes, or bowles of leade, bigge, little, or meane, or also of 
copper, tynne, woode, eyther vyolent or softe, after their owne 
discretion ; the pastyme tronle-in-madame is termed." Probably 
similar to "Nine Holes." 

Trounce-Hole 

A game at ball resembling trap, but having a hole in the 
ground for the trap, a flat piece of bone for a trigger, and a 
cudgel for a bat. Norfolk, Holloway's Dictionary of Pro- 
vincialisms. 

See "Trunket." 



310 TROY TOWN TUILYIE-WAP 

Troy Town 

A game in which a plan of a labyrinth is drawn on a slate 
and presented as a puzzle by boys to their schoolfellows for 
them to find a way into the central citadel. It appears to 
owe its origin to the mediaeval mazes or labyrinths called " Troy 
Towns/' or "Troy Walls," many of which existed in different 
parts of England and Wales. It appears that games connected 
with the midsummer festivals were held in these labyrinths. 
This may, perhaps, account for the origin of this puzzle being 
considered a game. For accounts of labyrinths or mazes called 
"Troy Towns," see Notes and Queries, ist series, xi. 132, 193 ; 
2nd series, v. 211-213; 8th series, iv. 96, 97; in which many 
references are given; Trail. Cymmrodorion Soc., 1822, i. 
67-69; Roberts' Cambrian Antiquities (in which is a plan), 
212, 213; and Folk-lore Journal, v. 45. 

Truncher 

A game requiring dexterity. A young man lies flat, resting 
only on his toes at a certain mark at one extremity and on a 
trencher in each hand at the other. He then tries to reach out 
the trenchers as far as possible, and if not held at the right 
angle and edgewise, down they go and he is defeated. Dickin- 
son's Cumberland Glossary. 

Trunket 

A game at ball played with short sticks, and having a hole 
in the ground in lieu of stumps or wickets as in " Cricket " ; 
and with these exceptions, and the ball being " cop'd," instead 
of bowled or trickled on the ground, it is played in the same 
way ; the person striking the ball must be caught out, or the 
ball must be deposited in the hole before the stick or cudgel 
can be placed there. Halliwell's Dictionary. 

See "Cudgel," "Trounce Hole." 

Truss 

A boy's game like "Leap-Frog. " Halliwell's Dictionary. 

Tuilyie-wap 

A childish amusement in Teviotdale, in which a number of 
boys take hold of each other's hands and wrap themselves 



TURN, CHEESES, TURN 311 

round the one who is at the head; clasping themselves as 
firmly together as possible, and every one pushing till the 
mass falls over. Jamieson. 

See "Bulliheisle," " Eller Tree," "Snail-Creep," "Wind the 
Bush Faggot." 

Turn, Cheeses, Turn 

Green cheeses, yellow laces, 

Up and down the market places ; 

First a penny and then a proat, 

Turn, cheeses, turn. Leicester (Miss Ellis). 

Green cheeses, yellow laces, 
Up and down the market places, 
Turn, cheeses, turn ! 

H alii well's Nursery Rhymes, cccx. 

This is acted by two or more girls who walk or dance up 
and down, turning, when they say " Turn, cheeses, turn." 
Halliwell. 

I remember playing this game, but my remembrance is very 
imperfect. As far as I remember, there were two lines or rows 
of children. They danced forwards and backwards, crossing to 
the opposite side, and turning round. At the words, " Turn, 
cheeses, turn," the cheeses all turned round rapidly and then 
sank on the ground. The players tried to inflate their dresses as 
much as possible, and then stooped down to the ground, so that 
the dress remained inflated ; only the head and shoulders sur- 
rounded by a ball-like skirt then appeared, intended to represent 
a cheese. All joined hands and danced round at the end. 
The lines sang were the same as the Leicester except the 
third, which was " Some a penny, some a groat, turn, cheeses, 
turn." It was necessary for skirts to be very "full" to make 
good cheeses as wide at the waist as at the bottom of the 
skirt. (A. B. Gomme.) 

Holland {Cheshire Glossary) says, a frequent amusement of 
girls is making cheeses. They turn round and round till their 
dresses fly out at the bottom ; then suddenly squatting down, 
the air confined under the dress causes the skirt to bulge out 
like a balloon. When skilfully done the appearance is that of 



3 i2 TURN SPIT JACK TURN THE TRENCHER 

a girl's head and shoulders peeping out of an immense cushion. 
Evans' Leicestershire Glossary mentions this game. He says, 
" The performers sing a song of which the refrain is ' Turn, 
cheeses, turn,' but I do not remember to have heard the 
example cited by Mr. Halliwell- Phillips." Percy Soc n iv. 
p. 122. 

I always understood that the green cheeses were sage 
cheeses cheeses containing sage. Halliwell says, " Green 
cheeses, I am informed, are made with sage and potato tops. 
Two girls are said to be ' cheese and cheese.' " 

Turn Spit Jack 

A game at country balls, &c., in which young men compete 
by singing for their partners in the next dance. Patterson's 
A ntrim and Down Glossary. 

Turn the Ship 

This is commonly a girls' game. Two join hands and trip 
along, with hands crossed, turning from one side to the other, 
and crossing their arms over their heads without letting go 
their hold of each other, singing at the same time 
Tip, tip, toe, London, lo ! 
Turn, Mary Ann, and away you go. 
Or 

Tip, tip, toe, leerie, lo ! 
Turn the ship and away you go ; 
A penny to you, and a penny to me, 
And a penny to turn the basket. 

Fochabers (Rev. W. Gregor). 

Turn the Trencher, or, My Lady's Toilet 

An indoor game played at Christmas time by children and 
adults. All the players in the room must be seated. They 
are then asked by the leader of the game to choose some 
article of a lady's toilet, which article they will personally 
represent, such as diamond ring, bracelet, comb, brush, jug, 
basin, powder, hair-dye, di;ess, mantle, &c. any article, in 
fact, belonging to the toilet. 

The leader then goes to the centre of the room with a 



TURN THE TRENCHER 313 

small trencher, round card tray, plate, or saucer in her hand. 
She spins this (the trencher) round as quickly as possible, 
saying, " My lady's going out and needs her ' dress/ " or 
any other article she chooses to name. The player who 
has taken the name of "dress" must get up from her seat 
and catch the trencher before it falls. If successful this player 
then spins the trencher, calling out the name of another article 
of the toilet. If the player fails to catch it, a forfeit is demanded 
by the leader. Occasionally the spinner will say, " My lady's 
going to a ball (or elsewhere), and needs the whole of her 
toilet." When this is said, every player has to get up and 
take another place before the trencher falls; the last one to 
get a place has to take the trencher, and if it is down, to pay 
a forfeit. At the end of the game the forfeits are " cried " in 
the usual way. (A. B. Gomme.) 

This (called " Truckle the Trencher ") used to be a standard 
game for winter evenings. A circle was formed, and each one 
was seated on the floor, every player taking the name of a flower. 
This game was entered into with the greatest vivacity by staid 
and portly individuals as well as by their juniors. Dorsetshire 
(Folk-lore Journal, vii. 238). 

A trencher, saucer, or plate is used. The players sit in a 
circle, and one twirls the trencher, at the same time calling 
out the name of one of the players. He or she jumps up and 
tries to catch the whirling trencher before it falls. If it fall or 
is knocked over, a forfeit is lodged, and the player who lodged 
the forfeit now becomes the twirler. If the trencher is caught, 
it is handed back and twirled again, and another name called 
out. The game continues till all or, at least, most of the 
players have lodged forfeits. It is called " Turn the Plettie. 
Macduff (Rev. W. Gregor). 

This game is played in the same way in Ireland. It is called 
"Twirl the Trencher," and the players take names of towns or 
beasts. (Miss Keane.) 

Brogden (Provincial Words, Lincolnshire) and Halliwell 
{Dictionary) mention it as " Turn Trencher," a game played 
at Christmas time. Moor (Suffolk Words and Phrases) calls 
it "Move all." 



3 1 4 TURVEY TUTT-B ALL 

Turvey 

Turvey, turvey, clothed in black, 
With silver buttons upon your back ; 
One by one, and two by two, 
Turn about, and that will do. 

Haverfordwest (Notes and Queries, 3rd series, v. 394). 

The children marched two and two, in a measured step 
to a given distance, then turned and marched back again. 
See "Alligoshee." 

Tutt-ball 

"Tut-ball,"* as played at a young ladies' school at Shiffhal 
fifty years ago. The players stood together in their "den," 
behind a line marked on the ground, all except one, who was 
" out," and who stood at a distance and threw the ball to them. 
One of the players in the den then hit back the ball with the 
palm of the hand, and immediately ran to one of three brick- 
bats, called " tuts," which were set up at equal distances on the 
ground, in such positions that a player running past them all 
would describe a complete circle by the time she returned to 
the den. The player who was " out " tried to catch the ball, 
and to hit the runner with it while passing from one " tut " to 
another. If she succeeded in doing so, she took her place in 
the den, and the other went " out " in her stead. This game 
is very nearly identical with "rounders." Shropshire Folk- 
lore, p. 524. 

A game at ball, now only played by boys, but half a century 
ago by adults on Ash Wednesday, believing that unless they 
did so they would fall sick in harvest time. This is a very 
ancient game, and was elsewhere called " Stool-ball," indulged 
in by the clergy as well as laity to avert misfortune. Ross and 
Stead's Holderness Glossary. The game is not described. 

Addy (Sheffield Glossary) says this game is the same as 
" Pize-ball." Halliwell (Dictionary) says it is a sort of "Stob- 
ball Play." 

See "Cat and Dog," "Rounders," "Stool Ball." 

* Tut, a prominence, from A. S. tolian, whence also E. tout, q. v. W. W. S. 



TWELVE DAYS OF CHRISTMAS 



Twelve Days of Christmas 
















Repeat from 



Rimbault's Nursery Rhymes. 

I. The first day of Christmas, my true love sent to me 
A partridge in a pear-tree. 

The second day of Xmas, my true love sent to me 
Two turtle doves and a partridge in a pear-tree. 

The third day of Xmas, my true love sent to me 
Three French hens and two turtle doves and 
A partridge in a pear-tree. 

The fourth day of Xmas, my true love sent to me 

Four colly birds, three French hens, two turtle doves, and 

A partridge in a pear-tree. 

The fifth day of Xmas, my true love sent to me 
Five gold rings, four colly birds, three French hens, 
Two turtle doves, and a partridge in a pear-tree. 

The sixth day of Xmas, my true love sent to me 

Six geese a-laying, five gold rings, 

Four colly birds, three French hens, 

Two turtle doves, and a partridge in a pear-tree. 

The seventh day of Xmas, my true love sent to me 

Seven swans a-swimming, 

Six geese a-laying, five gold rings, 

Four colly birds, three French hens, 

Two turtle doves, and a partridge in a pear-tree. 



316 TWELVE DAYS OF CHRISTMAS 

The eighth day of Xmas, my true love sent to me 

Eight maids a-milking, seven swans a-swimming, 

Six geese a-laying, five gold rings, 

Four colly birds, three French hens, two turtle doves, and 

A partridge in a pear-tree. 

The ninth day of Xmas, my true love sent to me 

Nine drummers drumming, eight maids a-milking, 

Seven swans a-swimming, six geese a-laying, 

Five gold rings, four colly birds, three French hens, 

Two turtle doves, and 

A partridge in a pear-tree. 

The tenth day of Xmas, my true love sent to me 

Ten pipers piping, nine drummers drumming, 

Eight maids a-milking, seven swans a-swimming, 

Six geese a-laying, five gold rings, 

Four colly birds, three French hens, 

Two turtle doves, and 

A partridge in a pear-tree. 

The eleventh day of Xmas, my true love sent to me 

Eleven ladies dancing, ten pipers piping, 

Nine drummers drumming, eight maids a-milking, 

Seven swans a-swimming, six geese a-laying, 

Five gold rings, four colly birds, 

Three French hens, two turtle doves, and 

A partridge in a pear-tree. 

The twelfth day of Xmas, my true love sent to me 

Twelve lords a-leaping, eleven ladies dancing, 

Ten pipers piping, nine drummers drumming, 

Eight maids a-milking, seven swans a-swimming, 

Six geese a-laying, five gold rings, 

Four colly birds, three French hens, 

Two turtle doves, and 

A partridge in a pear-tree. 

Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes^ cccxlvi. 

II. The king sent his lady on the first Yule day, 
A papingo-aye [a peacock] ; 
Wha learns my carol and carries it away ? 



TWELVE DAYS OF CHRISTMAS 317 

The king sent his lady on the second Yule day, 

Three partridges, a papingo-aye ; 

Wha learns my carol and carries it away ? 

The king sent his lady on the third Yule day, 
Three plovers, three partridges, a papingo-aye ; 
Wha learns my carol and carries it away ? 

The king sent his lady on the fourth Yule day, 
A goose that was grey, 

Three plovers, three partridges, a papingo-aye ; 
Wha learns my carol and carries it away ? 

The king sent his lady on the fifth Yule day, 
Three starlings, a goose that was grey, 
Three plovers, three partridges, and a papingo-aye ; 
Wha learns my carol and carries it away ? 

The king sent his lady on the sixth Yule day, 
Three goldspinks, three starlings, a goose that was grey, 
Three plovers, three partridges, and a papingo-aye ; 
Wha learns my carol and carries it away ? 

The king sent his lady on the seventh Yule day, 

A bull that was brown, three goldspinks, three starlings, 

A goose that was grey, 

Three plovers, three partridges, and a papingo-aye ; 

Wha learns my carol and carries it away ? 

The king sent his lady on the eighth Yule day, 
Three ducks a-merry laying, a bull that was brown 

[The rest to follow as before.] 

The king sent his lady on the ninth Yule day, 

Three swans a-merry swimming [As before.] 

The king sent his lady on the tenth Yule day, 

An Arabian baboon [As before.] 

The king sent his lady on the eleventh Yule day, 

Three hinds a-merry hunting [As before.] 

The king sent his lady on the twelfth Yule day, 

Three maids a-merry dancing [As before.] 



318 TWELVE DAYS OF CHRISTMAS 

The king sent his lady on the thirteenth Yule day, 
Three stalks o' merry corn, three maids a-merry dancing, 
Three hinds a-merry hunting, an Arabian baboon, 
Three swans a-merry swimming, 
Three ducks a-merry laying, a bull that was brown, 
Three goldspinks, three starlings, a goose that was grey, 
Three plovers, three partridges, a papingo-aye ; 
Wha learns my carol and carries it away ? 

Chambers's Pop. Rhymes, p. 42. 

III. My lady's lap dog, 

Two plump partridges and my lady's lap dog ; 

Three grey elephants, two plump partridges and my 

lady's lap dog ; 

Four Persian cherry trees, three grey elephants, &c. ; 
Five Limerick oysters, four Persian cherry trees, &c. ; 
Six bottles of frontignac, &c. ; 
Seven swans a-swimming, &c., 
Eight flip flap, floating fly boats, &c. ; 
Nine merchants going to Bagdad, &c. ; 
Ten Italian dancing-masters going to teach ten Arabian 

magpies how to dance, &c. ; 
Eleven guests going to celebrate the marriage of the 

Princess Baldroulbadour with the Prince of Terra- 

del-Fuego, &c. ; 
Twelve triumphant trumpeters triumphantly trumpeting 

the tragical tradition of Telemachus. 

London (A. B. Gomme). 

IV. Twelve huntsmen with horns and hounds, 
Hunting over other men's grounds ! 
Eleven ships sailing o'er the main, 
Some bound for France and some for Spain ; 
I wish them all safe home again. 
Ten comets in the sky, 
Some low and some high ; 
Nine peacocks in the air, 
I wonder how they all come there, 
I do not know and I do not care. 



TWELVE DAYS OF CHRISTMAS 319 

Eight joiners in a joiners' hall, 

Working with the tools and all ; 

Seven lobsters in a dish, 

As fresh as any heart could wish ; 

Six beetles against the wall, 

Close by an old woman's apple stall ; 

Five puppies of our dog Ball, 

Who daily for their breakfast call ; 

Four horses stuck in a bog, 

Three monkeys tied to a clog; 

Two pudding ends would choke a dog, 

With a gaping wide-mouthed waddling frog. 

Halli well's Nursery Rhymes, cclxxx., cvi. 

(c) " The Twelve Days " was a Christmas game. It was 
a customary thing in a friend's house to play " The Twelve 
Days," or "My Lady's Lap Dog," every Twelfth Day night. 
The party was usually a mixed gathering of juveniles and 
adults, mostly relatives, and before supper that is, before 
eating mince pies and twelfth cake this game and the cushion 
dance were played, and the forfeits consequent upon them 
always cried. The company were all seated round the room. 
The leader of the game commenced by saying the first line. 
Generally the version used was similar to No. I. In later 
years the shorter version, No. III., was said. The lines 
for the " first day " of Christmas was said by each of the 
company in turn; then the first "day" was repeated, with 
the addition of the "second" by the leader, and then this 
was said all round the circle in turn. This was continued 
until the lines for the "twelve days" were said by every 
player. For every mistake a forfeit a small article belong- 
ing to the person had to be given up. These forfeits were 
afterwards " cried " in the usual way, and were not returned 
to the owner until they had been redeemed by the penalty 
inflicted being performed. 

In version No. IV., the game began by the leader saying 
to the player sitting next to her, "Take this!" holding the 
hands as if giving something. The neighbour answered, 
"What's this?" The leader answered, "A gaping, wide- 



320 TWELVE DAYS OF CHRISTMAS 

mouthed, waddling frog." The second player then turned to 
the third and repeated, "A gaping, wide-mouthed, waddling 
frog/' and so on all round the room. The leader then said, 
" Two pudding-ends would choke a dog," continuing in the 
same way until twelve was reached. Chambers does not 
describe the way the game given by him was played, but it 
was probably much in the same manner. Rimbault's Nursery 
Rhymes gives the tune to which words of the song were re- 
peated. The words given are almost identical with No. I., but 
the tune, copied here, is the only recorded one I have found. 

(d) It seems probable that we have in these rhymes a 
remnant of a practice of singing or chanting carols or rhymes 
relating to the custom of sending gifts to friends and relatives 
during the twelve days of Christmas. The festival of the 
twelve days was an important one. The great mid-winter 
feast of Yule consisted of twelve days, and from the 
events occurring during those days it is probable that events 
of the future twelve months were foretold. On the festival of 
the twelve days consult Keary's Outlines of Primitive Belief, 
p. 381. Miss Burne records that the twelve days rule the 
year's weather ; as the weather is on each day of the twelve, 
so will it be in the corresponding month, and for every mince- 
pie eaten in friends' houses during these days a happy month 
is promised. In the games usually played at this season, viz., 
those in which forfeits are incurred, and the redemption of 
these by penances inflicted on the unhappy perpetrators of 
mistakes, we may perhaps see a relic of the observance of 
certain customs and ceremonies, and the penalties likely to be 
incurred by those persons who omitted to religiously carry 
them out. It is considered unlucky in the North of England 
and Scotland to enter a neighbour's house empty-handed. 
Christmas bounties, and the practice of giving presents of food 
and corn and meal on St. Thomas's Day, 2ist December, to 
the poorer people, when they used to go round to the farmers' 
houses to collect food to prepare for this festival, may have 
had its origin in the idea that nothing could be prepared or 
cooked during the festival of the twelve days. It was a very 
general practice for work of all kinds to be put entirely aside 



TWELVE HOLES UNCLE JOHN IS ILL IN BED 321 

before Christmas and not resumed until after Twelfth Day. 
Dr. Gregor records that no bread should be baked nor washing 
done during this period, nor work left unfinished. Jamieson, 
in a note on Yule, says that the gifts now generally conferred 
at the New Year seem to have originally belonged to Yule. 
Among the northern nations it was customary for subjects 
at this season to present gifts to their sovereign, these 
were called Jolagiafir, i.e. Yule gifts. The custom in Scotland 
of presenting what we vulgarly call a sweetie-skon, or a loaf 
enriched with raisins and currants, has an analogy to this. 

It is difficult, with the scanty evidence at command, to do 
more than make the simple suggestions above. The game is 
evidently in a process of very rapid decadence, and we have 
probably only poor specimens of what was originally the form 
of verses sung in the two versions from Halliwell and Chambers. 
The London version, No. III., is only recognisable as belonging 
to this game from the fact that it was known as playing at the 
" twelve days," was always played on Twelfth Day, and it was 
not considered proper nor polite for the guests to depart until 
this had been played. This fact has induced me to add the 
fourth version from Halliwell, because it appears to me that it 
may belong to the final form which this game is taking, or 
has taken, namely, a mere collection of alliterative nursery 
words, or rhymes, to puzzle the speaker under a rapid repeti- 
tion, and to exact forfeits for the mistakes made. 

See " Forfeits." 

Twelve Holes 

A game similar to "Nine Holes," mentioned in Florio ed., 
1611, p. 20. Halliwell's Dictionary. 

Uncle John is 111 in Bed 

Uncle John is ill in bed, 

What shall I send him ? 
Three good wishes, and three good kisses, 

And a race of ginger. 
Who shall I send it by ? 

By the carrier's daughter ; 

VOL. II. X 



322 UNCLE JOHN IS ILL IN BED 

Catch her by the lily-white hand 
And carry her over the water. 
Sally goes a-courting night and day, 
Histal, whistal, by her side, 
Johnny Everall by her side. 

Shrewsbury, Chirbury (Burne's Shropshire 
Folk-lore, p. 511). 

Uncle Tom is very sick, 

What shall we send him ? 

A piece of cake, a piece of bread, 

A piece of apple dumpling. 

Who shall we send it with ? 

Mrs. So and So's daughter. 

She is neither without, 

She is neither within, 

She is up in the parlour romping about. 

She came downstairs dressed in silk, 

A rose in her breast as white as milk. 

She pulled off her glove, 

She showed me her ring, 

To-morrow, to-morrow the wedding shall begin. 

Nairn (Rev. W. Gregor). 

(<) The Shropshire version is played by the children form- 
ing a ring by joining hands. After the eighth line is sung all 
the children stoop down the last to do so has to tell her 
sweetheart's name. In the Scotch version the players stand 
in a row. They sing the first five lines, then one player is 
chosen (who chooses another) ; the other lines are sung, and the 
two shake hands. Another version from Scotland (Laurieston 
School, Kirkcudbright, Mr. J. Lawson), is very similar to the 
one from Nairn. 

Mr. Newell (p. 72) gives versions of this game which are 
fuller and more complete than those given here. He thinks 
it bears traces of ancient origin, and may be the last echo 
of a mediaeval song, in which an imprisoned knight is saved 
from approaching death by the daughter of the king, or soldan, 
who keeps him in confinement. 



UP THE STREETS 



323 








Liverpool (C. C. Bell). 



I. Up the streets and down the streets, 
The windows made of glass ; 

Is not [naming one of the children] a nice 

young lass ? 

She can dance, she can sing, 
She can show her wedding-ring. 
Fie, for shame ! fie, for shame ! 
Turn your back behind you. 

Liverpool (C. C. Bell). 

II. Up streets, down streets, 
Windows made of glass ; 

Isn't " Jenny Jenkins " a handsome young lass ? 
Isn't " Johnny Johnson " as handsome as she ? 
They shall be married, 
When they can agree. 

Monton, Lancashire, Collyhurst, Manchester 
(Miss Bendy). 

III. Up street and down street, 
Each window's made of glass ; 
If you go to Tommy Tickler's house 
You'll find a pretty lass. 

HalliwelPs Nursery Rhymes^ cccclxxx. 

(U) In the Liverpool version the children stand in a ring and 
sing the words. At " Fie, for shame," the child named ceases 
to sing, and the others address her particularly. When the 



3 2 4 WADDS AND THE WEARS 



verse is ended she turns her back to the inside of the ring. All 
do this in turn. The Monton game is played the same as 
" kiss-in-the-ring " games. 

(c) Northall (English Popular Rhymes, p. 549), gives a ver- 
sion almost the same as the Monton version. He also quotes 
some verses from a paper by Miss Tennant in the English 
Illustrated Magazine, June 1885, which she gives as a song of 
the slums of London. In Gammer Giirtoris Garland (1783, 
reprint 1810, p. 34), is a verse which is the same as Halliwell's, 
with two additional lines 

Hug her, and kiss her, and take her on your knee, 
And whisper very close, Darling girl, do you love me ? 

Wadds and the Wears (i) 

Mactaggart, in describing this, says it is one of the most 
celebrated amusements of the Ingle ring. To begin it, one 
in the ring speaks as follows : 

I hae been awa at the wadds and the wears 

These seven lang years ; 

And come hame a puir broken ploughman, 

What will ye gie me to help me to my trade ? 
He may either say he's a " puir broken ploughman " or any 
other trade, but since he has chosen that trade some of the 
articles belonging to it must always be given or offered to recruit 
it. But the article he most wants he privately tells one of the 
party, who is not allowed to offer him anything, as he knows 
the thing, which will throw the offerer in a wadd, and must be 
avoided as much as possible, for to be in a wadd is a very 
serious matter. Now, the one on the left hand of the "poor 
ploughman " makes the first offer by way of answer to what 
above was said " 111 gie ye the coulter to help ye to your trade." 
The ploughman answers, "I don't thank ye for the coulter; I 
hae ane already." Then another offers him another article 
belonging to the ploughman's business, such as the moolbred, 
but this also is refused : another gives the sock, another the 
stilts, another the spattle, another the naigs, and so on until 
one gives the soam, which was the article he most wanted, and 
was the thing secretly told to the one player. This throws the 



WADDS AND THE WEARS 325 



giver into a wadd, out of which he is relieved in the following 
manner : 

The ploughman says to the one in the wadd, " Whether will 
ye hae three questions and two commands, or three commands 
and two questions to answer, or gang on wi', sae that ye may 
win out o' the wadd ? " For the one so fixed has always the 
choice which of these to take. Suppose he takes the first, two 
commands and three questions, then a specimen of these may 
be " I command ye to kiss the crook," says the ploughman, 
which must be completely obeyed by the one in the wadd ; his 
naked lips must kiss the sooty implement. Secondly, says 
the ploughman, I command ye to stand up in that neuk 
and say 

" Here stan' I, as stiff's a stake, 

Wha 'ill kiss me for pity's sake ? " 

which must also be done ; in a corner of the house must he 
stand and repeat this couplet, until some tender-hearted lass 
relieves him. Then the questions are asked, such as "Suppose 
you were in a bed with Maggie Lowden and Jennie Logan, your 
twa great sweethearts, what ane o'm wad ye ding owre the 
bedside, and what ane wad ye turn to and clap and cuddle ? " 
He has to choose one, perhaps to the great mirth of the com- 
pany. Secondly, " Suppose ye were stannin' stark naked on 
the tap o' Cairnhattie, whether wad ye cry on Peggie Kirtle or 
Nell o' Killimingie to come wi' your claise ? " He has again to 
choose. Lastly, " Suppose ye were in a boat wi' Tibbie Tait, 
Mary Kairnie, Sally Snadrap, and Kate o' Minnieive, and it 
was to coup wi' ye, what ane o' 'em wad ye sink ? what ane 
wad ye soom ? wha wad ye bring to Ian' ? and wha wad ye 
marry ? " Then he has again to choose between the girls 
named. 

Chambers gives the following versions of the " Wadds " : 
The wadds was played by a group seated round the hearth 
fire, the lasses being on one side and the lads on the other. 
The questions are asked and answers given alternately. A lad 
first chants 

it's hame, and it's hame, and it's name, hame, name, 

1 think this night 1 maun gae hame. 



326 WADDS AND THE WEARS 

One of the opposite party then say s 

Ye had better light, and bide a' night, 
And I'll choose you a bonny ane. 
O wha will ye choose, an' I wi' you abide ? 
The fairest and rarest in a' the country side. 
At the same time presenting an unmarried female by name. 
If the choice give satisfaction 

I'll set her up on the bonny pear-tree ; 
It's straught and tall, and sae is she ; 
I wad wake a' night her love to be. 

If the choice do not give satisfaction, from the age of the 
party 

I'll set her up i' the bank dike ; 

She'll be rotten ere I be ripe ; 

The corbies her auld banes wadna pike. 

If from supposed want of temper 

I'll set her up on the high crab-tree ; 
It's sour and dour, and sae is she ; 
She may gang to the mools unkissed by me. 
A civil mode of declining is to say 

She's for another, and no for me ; 
I thank you for your courtesie. 

The same ritual is gone through with respect to one of the other 
sex ; in which case such rhymes as the following are used : 
I'll put him on a riddle, and blaw him owre the sea, 
Wha'll buy [Johnie Paterson] for me ? 
I'll put him on my big lum head, 
And blaw him up wi' pouther and lead. 
Or, when the proposed party is agreeable 
I'll set him on my table head, 
And feed him up wi' milk and bread. 

A refusal must be atoned for by a wadd or forfeit. A piece of 
money, a knife, or any little thing which the owner prizes, will 
serve. When a sufficient number of persons have made 
forfeits, the business of redeeming them is commenced, and 
generally it is then that the amusement is greatest. The duty 
of kissing some person, or some part of the room, is usually 



WADDS AND THE WEARS 327 

assigned as a means of redeeming one's wadds. Often for this 
purpose a lad has to kiss the very lips he formerly rejected ; 
or, it may be, he has to kneel to the prettiest, bow to the 
wittiest, and kiss the one he loves best before the forfeit is 
redeemed. The substance of the above is from a note in 
Cromek's Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway Song, p. 114, 
who says In this game formerly young men and women 
arranged themselves on each side of the fire, and alternately 
bestowed husbands and wives on each other. Carleton's 
Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry, p. 106, also de- 
scribes the game without any material difference. 

Another form of this game, practised in Dumfriesshire in 
the last century, and perhaps still, was more common. The 
party are first fitted each with some ridiculous name, not very 
easy to be remembered, such as Swatter-in-the- Sweet- Milk, 
Butter-Milk-and-Brose, the Gray Gled o' Glenwhargan Craig, 
&c. Then all being seated, one comes up, repeating the 
following rhymes 

I never stealt Rob's dog, nor never intend to do, 

But weel I ken wha stealt him, and dern'd him in a cleugh, 

And pykit his banes bare, bare, bare eneugh ! 

Wha but wha but 

The object is to burst out suddenly with one of the fictitious 
names, and thus take the party bearing it by surprise. If the 
individual mentioned, not immediately recollecting the name 
he bore, failed, on the instant, to say " No me," by way of 
denying the accusation respecting the dog, he was subjected 
to a forfeit ; and this equally happened if he cried " No me." 
when it was the name of another person which was mentioned. 
The forfeits were disposed of as in the former case. Popular 
Rhymes, pp. 125-126. 

It will be seen that the first version of Chambers more 
nearly resembles " Hey Wullie Wine " (vol. i. p. 207), and that 
the latter part of the version given by Mactaggart is similar to 
" Three Flowers" (ante, p. 255, and the first part to "Trades," 
P- 3S) Mr. W- Ballantyne sent me a version from Biggar as 
played when he was a boy. It is similar to Mactaggart's. 
This game may indicate an earlier form of playing at forfeits 



328 WADDS AND THE WEARS 

than the " Old Soldier," "Turn the Trencher," and kindred 
English games. Mactaggart does not state that any article 
belonging to the person who perpetrates the offence was 
given up and afterwards redeemed by the owner performing 
a penalty. In Chambers' versions this is done. It may be 
that, in Mactaggart's case, each offending person paid his or 
her penalty immediately after committing the blunder or 
offence instead of a leader collecting the forfeits from all 
offenders first, and then " crying " all together afterwards. 
Whether the game originated in the practice of "tabu," or 
was an outcome of the custom of restitution, or ransom, legally 
made for the commission of crimes, such as that called wergeld, 
the penalty or price to be paid to the relatives of a slain man, 
or of punishment for certain offences then being in the hands 
of a certain class of people, we cannot now decide; but it 
was customary for penalties to be attached to the commission 
of minor offences, and the punishment enforced without appeal 
to any legally constituted authority. The object of most of the 
present forfeit games seems to have been to make the offenders 
ridiculous, or, in the case of the above form of games, to 
find out the person loved or hated. In Shropshire "Crying 
the Weds" is the name given to the game of playing at 
forfeits. Wadd means a pledge. Jamieson says " Wears " 
signifies the " Wars." " At the wars " is a common mode 
still retained of describing the life of a soldier. Ihre sup- 
poses that the early term wadd or wed is derived from wadd- 
cloth, from this kind of merchandise being anciently given and 
received instead of money ; when at any time a pledge was 
left, a piece of cloth was used for this purpose, and hence a 
pledge in general would be called wadd. 

In Waldron's description of the Isle of Man (ante, vol. i. 
p. 1 39) is an account of a Twelfth Day custom which throws 
light on the game as described by Chambers. 

See "Forfeits," "Hey Wullie Wine," "Three Flowers," 
" Trades." 

Wadds and the Wears (2) 

Jamieson describes the game differently. He says The 



WAGGLES WALLFLOWERS 3 2 9 

players being equally divided, and a certain space being marked 
out between them, each lays down one or more wadds, or 
pledges, at that extremity where the party to which he belongs 
choose their station. A boundary being fixed, the object is to 
carry off the wadds from the one of these to the other. The 
two parties advancing to the boundary seize the first op- 
portunity of crossing it, by making inroads on the territories 
of the other. If one who crosses the line is seized by the 
opposite party before he has touched any of their wadds, he 
is set down beside them as a prisoner, and receives the name 
of a "stinker"-; nor can he be released until one of his own 
party can touch him without being intercepted by any of the 
others, in which case he is free. If any one is caught in the 
act of carrying off a wadd, it is taken from him ; but he cannot 
be detained as a prisoner, in consequence of his having touched 
it. If he can cross the intermediate line with it, the pursuit is 
at an end. When one party has carried off to their ground 
all the wadds of the other the game is finished. 

Waggles 

A game of tip-cat. Four boys stand at the corners of a 
large paving-stone ; two have sticks, the other two are feeders, 
and throw the piece of wood called a " cat." The batters act 
much in the same way as in cricket, except that the cat must 
be hit whilst in the air. The batter hits it as far away as 
possible, and whilst the feeder is fetching it, gets, if possible, 
a run, which counts to his side. If either of the cats fall to 
the ground both batters go out, and the feeders take their place. 
A game called " Whacks " is played in a similar way. London 
Streets (F. H. Low, Strand Magazine, Nov. 1891). 

See "Tip-cat." 











330 



WALLFLOWERS 













Nottingham (Miss Youngman). 








Connell Ferry, near Oban (Miss Harrison). 










Beddgelert (Mrs. Williams). 




Ogbourne, Wilts. (H. S. May). 







Longcot choir girls, Berks. (Miss I. Barclay). 

I. Wallflowers, wallflowers, growing up so high, 
All of you young ladies are sure to die. 

Excepting , she's the best of all. 

She can hop, and she can skip, 
And she can turn a candlestick. 

Oh my, fie for shame, turn your face to the wall again, 
Fernham and Longcot (Miss I. Barclay). 



WALLFLOWERS 331 



II. Wallflowers, wallflowers, 
Growing up so high, 
All you young ladies 
Are meant to die. 

Excepting little , 

She is the best of all. 

She can skip, and she can dance, 

She can turn the candlestick. 

O my, fie for shame, 

Turn your back to the wall again. 

From London maidservant (Miss E. Chase). 

III. Willy, willy wallflower, 
Growin' up so high, 
We are all maidens, 




We shall all die. 

Excepting , 

She's the youngest daughter, 

She can hop, 

She can skip, 
She can turn the candlestick. 

Fee, fie, shame, shame, 
Turn your backs together again : 

, your sweetheart is dead, 

He's sent you a letter to turn back your head. 
Wakefield, Yorks (Miss Fowler). 



WALLFLOWERS 



IV. Wallflowers, wallflowers, 
Growing up so high, 
We, young ladies, we shall die. 

Except 'tis , 

She's the youngest daughter. 
She can hop, and she can skip, 
She can play the wire, 
Oh for shame, fie for shame, 
Turn your back and have a game. 

Hampshire (Miss E. Mendham). 

V. Wally, wally wallflower, 
Growing up so high 
All ye young ladies 
You must all die. 

Excepting , 

She's the best of all- 
She can hop, and she can skip, 
She can turn the mangle, 
Oh my, fie for shame, 
Turn your back to the wall again. 

Barnes, Surrey (A. B. Gomme). 

VI. Wall flowers, wall flowers, growing up so high, 
We are all children, and we shall all die. 

Excepting , she's the youngest child, 

She can hop, she can skip, 
She can turn the wedding ring, 
Fie, fie, fie for shame, 
Turn your face to the wall again. 

Nottingham (Miss Youngman). 

VII. Wally, wally wall-flower, 
A-growen up so high, 
All we children be sure to die. 
Excepting [naming the youngest] 
'Cause she's the youngest, 
Oh ! fie ! for shame ! fie ! for shame ! 
Turn your back to the wall again. 
Symondsbury, Dorset (Folk-lore Journal, vii. 215). 



WALLFLOWERS 333 



VIII. Wall-flowers, wall-flowers, growing up so high, 

We are all living, and we shall all die. 

Except the youngest here [naming her]. 

Turn your back to overshed. (?) 
(This last line is repeated three times.) 

Symondsbury, Dorset {Folk-lore Journal^ vii. 215). 

IX. Wall-flowers, wall-flowers, growing up so high ! 
We shall all be maidens, [and so] we shall all die ! * 
Excepting Alice Gittins, she is the youngest flower, 
She can hop, and she can skip, and she can play the 

hour ! 

Three and four, and four and five, 
Turn your back to the wall-side ! 
Or, 

She can dance and she can sing, 
She can play on the tambourine ! 
Fie, fie ! fie, for shame ! 
Turn your back upon the game ! 

Ellesmere, Berrington, Wenlock (Shropshire 
Folk-lore , p. 513). 

X. Willie, willie wall-flowers, growing up so high ! 
We are all fair maids, we shall all die ! 

Excepting little , and she's the youngest here, 

Turn your head towards the south, and she's the one 

to bear, 

The willie, willie wallflowers. 
Or, 

Oh ! for shame, fie, for shame, turn yourself to the wall 

again Sprole, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

XL Wall-flowers, wall-flowers, growing up so high ! 
We are all ladies, we must all die ! 

Excepting , who is the prettiest child. 

Fie, for shame, fie, for shame, turn your back to the 
wall again. 

Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire (Miss Winfield) 

* At Wenlock they add to the chorus : 

O Alice ! your true love will send you a letter to turn round your head ! 
And she can turn the handlestick. 



334 WALLFLOWERS 



XII. Wall-flowers, wall-flowers, growing up so high ! 
We're all ladies, and we shall all die ! 
Excepting [naming smallest child in ring], 

She can hop, and she can skip, and she can play the 

organ ! 

Oh ! for shame, fie, for shame, 
Turn your back upon our game. 

Enbourne School, Berks. (Miss M. Kimber). 

XIII. Wall-flowers, wall-flowers, growing up so high ! 
We are all pretty maidens, we all have to die ! 
Except , she's the youngest girl, 

Ah ! for shame, ah ! for shame, 

Turn your back to us again. 

I'll wash you in milk, 

I'll dress you in silk, 

I'll write down your name, 

With a gold pen and ink. 

Earls Heaton (Herbert Hardy). 
XIV. Oh flower, oh flower, growing up so high ! 
We are all children, we have all to die ! 

Except , she the youngest gay, 

Oh ! for shame, fie, for shame, 
Turn your back against the wall. 

Beddgelert (Mrs. Williams). 

XV. Wall-flowers, wall -flowers, growing up so high ! 
We are all little, and we've got to die ! 

Excepting , and she's the only one, 

Oh ! for shame, fie, for shame, 
Turn your back to the wall again. 

Cowes, Isle of Wight (Miss E. Smith). 

XVI. Little Molly white-flower, we are all maidens, 
And we shall all die, except Polly Pegg, 
She's the best of all, 
She can hop, and she can skip, and she can turn the 

candlestick ! 
Oh ! fie, for shame, 
Turn your back to the wall. 

Hanbury, Staffordshire (Miss Edith Hollis). 



WALLFLOWERS 335 



XVII. Wall-flowers, wall-flowers, growing up so high ! 
We are all playmates, we shall all die ! 
Excepting - , for she's the youngest flower, 
Cry shame, cry shame, 
And turn your face to the wall again. 

Sheffield (S. O. Addy). 

XVIII. Wall-flower, wall-flower, growing up so high ! 
All the pretty maidens shall not die ! 

Excepting , she is the youngest child, 

Oh ! for shame, fie, for shame ! 
Turn your back to the wall again. 

Dean, near Salisbury (Mrs. C. Brough). 

XIX. Water, water wall-flower, growing up so high, 
We are all maidens, we must all die, 
Except , the youngest of us all. 

She can laugh, and she can dance, and she can play 

at ball ; 
Fie ! fie ! fie for shame ! turn your face to the wall 

again. Connell Ferry, near Oban (Miss Harrison). 

XX. Water, water wall-flower, growing up so high, 
We are all maidens, we must all die. 

Except , she's the youngest of them all ; 

She can dance, she can sing, 

And she can dance the wedding ring(or"Hieland fling") 

Fie ! fie ! fie for shame ! 

Turn your back to the wall again. 

Galloway (J. G. Carter). 

XXI. Wall-flowers, wall-flowers, 
Growing up so high ; 
All ye young maidens 
Are all fit to die. 

Excepting , and she's the worst of all, 

She can hop, and she can skip, 
And she can turn the candlestick. 

Fye ! fie ! for shame, 

Turn your face to the wall again. 

(Suffolk County Folk-lore, p. 67.) 



336 



WALLFLOWERS 



XXII. Wall-flowers, wall-flowers, growing up so high, 
All you young ladies will soon have to die ; 
Excepting , and she's the best of all. 

She can dance, she can skip, she can turn the 

mangle quick ; 
Hi, ho ! fie for shame ! turn your back to the wall 

again. Cambridge (Mrs. Haddon). 

XXIII. Wally, wally wall-flower, growing up so high, 
We are all maidens, and we shall die ; 

All except the youngest one, and that is [child's 

name]. 

Choose for the best, choose for the worst, 
Choose the one that you love best. 

Now you're married, I wish you joy, 
First a girl and then a boy, 
Seven years after son and daughter, 
Now, young couple, kiss together. 

Hersham, Surrey (Folk-lore Record, v. 84). 

XXIV. Wally, wally wall-flowers, 
Growing up so high ; 
We're all ladies, 

We shall all die. 

Excepting little , 

She's the only one ; 

She can hop, she can skip, 

She can play the herald, 

Fie ! fie ! fie for shame ! 

Turn your back to the wall again. 

Deptford, Kent (Miss Chase). 

XXV. Water, water wall-flower, 
Growing up so high ; 
We are all maidens, 
And we must all die. 

is the youngest, 

She must kick, 

And she must fling, 



WALLFLOWERS 



337 



And she must turn the sofa ; 

Fie ! fie ! fie, for shame ! 

Turn your back to the wall again. 

XXVI. Except , and she's the youngest one, 

She can hop, and she can skip, 
She can turn the sofa ; 
Oh fie ! fie ! fie, for shame ! 
Turn your back to the wall again. 

Cullen and Nairn (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XXVII. She can skip, she can dance, 
She can ding us all o'er. 

Aberdeen (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XXVIII. Green, green grovers, growing up so high, 
We are all maidens, 
And we must all die ; 

Except , the youngest of us all, 

She can dance, and she can sing, 
She can dance the Hieland fling ; 
Fie ! fie ! fie, for shame ! 
Turn your back to us again. 

Nairn (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XXIX. Water, water, well stones, 
Growing up so high, 
We are all maidens, 
And we must all die. 

Except , 

She's the youngest of us all, 

She can dance, she can sing, 

She can dance the " Hielan' Fling," * 

Oh fie, fie, for shame, 

Turn your back to us again. 

Dyke (Rev. W. Gregor). 

* Another version from Forfarshire gives " Green, green, grivers," and " Pull 
the cradle string" for " Dance the Hielan' Fling," and one from Nairn is "Turn 
your back to the wall again." 

VOL. II. Y 



338 WALLFLOWERS 



XXX. Here's a pot of wall-flowers, 
Growing up so high ; 
We're all maidens, and we shall die. 
Excepting [girl's name], 
She can hop, and she can skip, 
And she can play the organ. 
Turn your back, you saucy Jack, 
You tore your mother's gown. 

Northants (Rev. W. Sweeting). 

XXXI. Wall-flowers, wall-flowers, growin' up so high, 
Neither me nor my baby shall ever wish to die, 
Especially [girl's name], she's the prettiest flower. 
She can dance, and she can sing, and she can tell the 

hour, 

With her wee-waw, wy-waw, turn her face to the wall. 
Howth, Dublin (Miss H. E. Harvey). 

Or, Turn your back to all the game. 

Bonmahon, Waterford (Miss H. E. Harvey). 

XXXII. Sally, Sally, wall-flower [or Waters], 
Springing up so high, 

We're all fair maids, 

And we shall all die. 

Excepting [girl's name], 

She's the fairest daughter, 

She can hop, and she can skip, 

She can turn the organ. 

Turn your face toward the wall, 

And tell me who your sweetheart's called. 

Mr Moffit is a very good man, 

He came to the door with his hat in his hand, 

He pulled up his cloak, and showed me the ring ; 

To-morrow, to-morrow, the wedding begins. 

First he bought the frying-pan, 

Then he bought the cradle, 

And then one day the baby was born, 

Rock, rock the cradle. 

Hurstmonceuxj Sussex (Miss Chase). 



WALLFLOWERS 



339 



XXXIII. Water, water, wild flowers, 

Growing up so high, 

We are all maidens, 

And we shall all die, 

Excepting [Eva Irving], 

And she's the youngest of us all, 

And she can hop, and she can skip, 

And she can turn the candlestick, 

[Or " She can play the organ."] 

Piper shame ! piper shame ! 

Turn your back to the wall again. 

I pick up a pin, 

I knock at the door, 

I ask for , 

She's neither in, 

She's neither out, 

She's up the garden skipping about. 

Down come , as white as snow, 

Soft in her bosom as soft as glow. 

She pulled off her glove, 

And showed us her ring, 

To-morrow, to-morrow, 

The bells shall ring. 

Ogbourne, Wilts. (H. S. May). 

XXXIV. Water, water, wall-flowers, growing up so high, 
We are all maidens, and we must all die, 

Except , she's the only one, 

She can dance, she can sing, she can play the organ, 
Fie, fie, fie for shame, turn your face to the wall 

again. 

Green grevel, green grevel, the grass is so green, 
The fairest young lady that ever was seen. 
O - , O - , your true love is dead, 
He'll send you a letter to turn back your head. 

Laurieston School, Kirkcudbright (J. Lavvson). 
XXXV. [Mary Kelly's] stole away, stole away, stole away, 
[Mary Kelly's] stole away, 
And lost her lily-white flowers. 



340 WALLFLOWERS 



It's well seen by her pale face, her pale face, her pale face, 
It's well seen by her pale face, 
She may turn her face to the wall. 

Belfast (W. H. Patterson). 

(c) The children form a ring by joining hands. They all 
dance slowly round, singing the words. When the one child 
is named by the ring she turns round, so that her face is turned 
to the outside of the ring and her back inside. She still clasps 
hands with those on either side of her, and dances or walks 
round with them. This is continued until all the players have 
turned and are facing outwards. 

This concludes the game in many places, but in others the 
game is continued by altering the last line of the verses, and 
the children alternately turning round when named until they 
all face inside again. In some of the versions the first child 
to turn her face to the wall is the youngest, and it is then con- 
tinued by the next youngest, until the eldest is named. This 
obtains in Hampshire (Miss Mendham), Nottingham, Symonds- 
bury, Shropshire, Beddgelert, Sheffield, Connell Ferry, Oban, 
Hersham, Surrey, Dyke. In the London (Miss Chase) and 
Sheffield versions the child named leaves the ring and turns 
with her face to a wall. In the Wakefield version Miss Fowler 
says a child stands in the middle, and at the fifth line all the 
children say their own name. At the end of the verse they all 
unclasp hands, and turn with their faces outside the circle ; the 
verse is repeated, when they all turn again facing inwards, and 
so on over again. In the Nairn version, after all the players 
have turned their faces outside the ring, they all throw their 
arms over their heads, and turn so as to face inwards if possible 
without disjoining hands. The children at Ogbourne, Wilts, 
clap hands when singing the last two lines of the verses. At 
Enbourne School it is the tallest child who is first named, and 
who turns her back ; presumably the next tallest is then chosen. 
In the Suffolk game one child stands outside the ring; the ring 
sings the first four lines, and the child outside sings the rest. 
At Wenlock Miss Burne says each child is summoned in turn 
by name to turn their heads when the last line is said. At Hurst- 
monceux a girl chooses a boy after her face is turned to the wall. 



WALLFLOWERS 341 



(d) The most interesting point about this game is that it 
appears to refer to a custom or observance which particularly 
concerns young girls. We cannot say what the custom or 
observance was originally, but the words point to something 
in which a young maiden played the principal part. " We are 
all maidens" and " she's the youngest here" runs through 
most of the versions. A death seems to be indicated, and it 
may be that this game was originally one where the death of 
the betrothed of the youngest maiden was announced. This 
would account for the " turning the face to the wall," which is 
indicative of mourning and great sorrow and loss. The mention 
of the girl's accomplishments may mean that being so young 
and accomplished she would quickly get another suitor, and this 
might also account for the "fie for shame!" shame to be 
thinking of another lover so soon ; or, on the other hand, the 
other maidens may regret that by the loss of her lover and 
betrothed this young maiden's talents will be lost in "old 
maidenhood," as she will not now be married, and this will be 
"a shame." She will be, in fact, "on the shelf" or "out of 
sight " for the rest of her life, and through no fault of her own. 
The " we are all maidens " might refer to the old custom of 
maidens carrying the corpse of one of their number to the 
grave, and the words may have originally been the lament over 
her death. 

With reference to the words " turn the candlestick," which 
occurs in six versions, " M. H. P.," in Notes and Queries (/th 
sen, xi. 256), says : " Turning the Candlestick. A candle- 
stick in the game of ' See-saw ' is the Yorkshire name for the 
child who stands in the centre of the plank, and assists the 
motion by swaying from side to side." Toone (Etymological 
Dictionary) says Before the introduction of the modern candle- 
stick, the custom was to have the candle held by a person 
appointed for that purpose, called a candle-holder, and hence 
the term became proverbial to signify an idle spectator. 

" I'll be a candle-holder and look on." Romeo and Juliet. 

"A candle-holder sees most of the game." Ray's Proverbs. 

If this should be the meaning of the phrase in these rhymes, 
" she can turn the candlestick " may have originally meant 



342 WALLFLOWERS 



that now this maiden can be nothing but a " looker on " or 
"candle-holder" in the world. The meaning has evidently 
been forgotten for a long time, as other expressions, such as 
"she can turn the organ," have had to be adopted to "make 
sense " of the words. 

Aubrey (Remaines of Judaisme, p. 45) mentions the sport 
called " Dancing the Candlerush," played by young girls ; in 
Oxford called "Leap Candle," which consisted of placing a 
candle in the middle of the room and " dancing over the 
candle back and forth " saying a rhyme. This may be the 
" dance " referred to in the rhymes. 

The tune of most versions is the same. It is pretty and 
plaintive, and accords with the idea of mourning and grief. 
The Rev. W. D. Sweeting says the tune in Northants seems 
to be lost. The game is sung to a sort of monotone. 

Northall gives a version from Warwickshire similar to several 
given here, and Mr. Newell (Games and Songs of American 
Children) gives a version and tune which is similar to that of 
Hurstmonceux, Surrey. 

See " Green Grass." 

Warney 

I'm the wee mouse in the hole in the wa', 

I'm come out to catch you a'. 

One of the players starts with clasped hands to catch 
another. When this is done they join hands each one, on 
being caught, going into the number to form a chain. If the 
chain breaks no one can be caught. Laurieston School, Kirk- 
cudbright (J. Lawson). 

See " Stag," " Whiddy." 

Way-Zaltin 

A sort of horse-game, in which two boys stand back to back 
with their arms interlaced ; each then alternately bends forward, 
and so raises the other on his back with his legs in the air. 
This term, too, is sometimes used for see-sawing. Elworthy's 
West Somerset Words. Barnes (Dorset Glossary) calls this 
game " Wayzalt." Holloway (Diet. Prov.) says, in Hants the 
game is called "Weighing." 

See "Weigh the Butter." 



WE ARE THE ROVERS 



343 



We are the Rovers 




Bath (A. B. Gomme). 










Hanbury, Staffs. (Miss Edith Hollis). 







Wrotham, Kent (Miss D. Kimball). 

I. We are coining to take your land, 

We are the rovers ! 
We are coming to take your land, 

[Though you] are the guardian soldiers ! 

We don't care for your men nor you, 

[Though you] are the rovers ! 
We don't care for your men nor you, 

For we are the guardian soldiers ! 

We will send our dogs to bite, 

We are the rovers ! 
We will send our dogs to bite, 

Though you are the guardian soldiers ! 

We don't care for your dogs nor you, 

Though you're the rovers ! 
We don't care for your dogs nor you, 

For we are the guardian soldiers ! 



344 WE ARE THE ROVERS 

Will you have a glass of wine ? 

We are the rovers ! 
Will you have a glass of wine ? 

For respect of guardian soldiers ! 

A glass of wine won't serve us all, 
Though you're the rovers ! 

A glass of wine won't serve us all, 
For we are the guardian soldiers ! 

Will a barrel of beer then serve you all ? 

We are the rovers ! 
Will a barrel of beer then serve you all ? 

As you are the guardian soldiers ! 

A barrel of beer won't serve us all, 
Though you're the rovers ! 

A barrel of beer won't serve us all, 
For we're gallant guardian soldiers ! 

We will send our blue-coat men, 

We are the rovers ! 
We will send our blue-coat men, 

Though you are the guardian soldiers ! 

We don't fear your blue-coat men, 
Though you're the rovers ! 

We don't fear your blue-coat men, 
For we are the guardian soldiers ! 

We will send our red-coat men, 

We are the rovers ! 
We will send our red-coat men, 

Though you are the guardian soldiers ! 

We don't' mind your red-coat men, 
Though you're the rovers ! 

We don't mind your red-coat men, 
For we are the guardian soldiers ! 



WE ARE THE ROVERS 345 

Are you ready for a fight ? 

We are the rovers ! 
Are you ready for a fight ? 

Though you are the guardian soldiers ! 

Yes, we are ready for a fight, 

Though you're the rovers ! 
Yes, we are ready for a fight, 

For we are the guardian soldiers ! 

Ellesmere (Shropshire Folk-lore^, 518), 

II. We have come for a glass of wine, 

We are the Romans ! 
We have come for a glass of wine, 
We are King William's soldiers ! 

We won't serve you with the wine, 

We are the Romans ! 
We won't serve you with the wine, 

We are King William's soldiers ! 

We will set our dogs to watch, 

We are the Romans ! 
We will set our dogs to watch, 

We are King William's soldiers ! 

We don't care for you and your dogs, 

We are the Romans ! 
We don't care for you and your dogs, 

We are King William's soldiers ! 

We will set our police to watch, 

We are the Romans ! 
We will set our police to watch, 

We are King William's soldiers ! 

We don't care for you and your police, 

We are the Romans ! 
We don't care for you and your police, 

We are King William's soldiers ! 



346 WE ARE THE ROVERS 

Are you ready for a fight ? 

We are the Romans ! 
Are you ready for a fight ? 

We are King William's soldiers ! 

We are ready for a fight, 

We are the Romans ! 
We are ready for a fight, 

We are King William's soldiers ! 

Wrotham, Kent (Miss D. Kimball). 

III. Will you have a gill of ale ? 

We are the Romans ! 
Will you have a gill of ale ? 

For we are the Roman soldiers ! 

A gill of ale won't serve us all, 

We are the English ! 
A gill of ale won't, &c., 

For we are the English soldiers ! 

Take a pint and go your way, 
We are, &c. [As above.] 

A pint of ale won't serve us all, 
We are, &c. 

Take a quart and go your way, 
We are, &c. 

A quart of ale won't serve us all, 
We are, &c. 

Take a gallon and go your way, 
We are, &c. 

A gallon of ale won't serve us all, 
We are, &c. 

Take a barrel and go your way, 
We are, &c. 

A barrel of ale will serve us all, 
We are, &c. 

Lancashire : Liverpool and its neighbourhood 
(Mrs. Harley). 



WE ARE THE ROVERS 347 

IV. Have you any bread and wine, 

For we are the Romans ! 
Have you any bread and wine, 
We are the Roman soldiers ! 

Yes, we have some bread and wine, 

For we are the English ! 
Yes, we have some bread and wine, 

We are the English soldiers ! 

Will you give us a glass of it ? 
For we are, &c. [As above.] 

Yes, we'll give you a glass of it, 
For we are, &c. 

A glass of it won't serve us so, 
For we are, &c. 

Then you shan't have any at all, 
For we are, &c. 

Then we will break all your glasses, 
For we are, &c. 

Then we will go to the magistrates, 
For we are, &c. 

Then you may go to the magistrates, 
For we are, &c. 

Then let us join our happy ring, 
For we are, &c. 
Hartley Witney, Winchfield, Hants. (H. S. May). 

V. Have you any cake and wine ? 

For we are the English ! 
Have you any cake and wine ? 
For we're the English soldiers ! 

Yes, we have some cake and wine, 

For we are the Romans ! 
Yes, we have some cake and wine, 

For we're the Roman soldiers ! 



348 WE ARE THE ROVERS 

Will you give us cake and wine ? &c. 
No, we won't give you cake and wine, &c. 
Then we'll tell our magistrates, &c. 
We don't care for your magistrates, &c. 
Then we'll tell our highest men, &c. 
We don't care for your highest men, &c. 

Turn up your sleeves and have a fight, 
For we are the Romans [English] ! &c. 

Enbourne School, Berks. (Miss M. Kimber). 

VI. Have you any bread and wine ? 

We are the Romans ! 
Have you any bread and wine ? 
For we're the government soldiers ! 

Yes ! we have some bread and wine, &c. 
Will you give us a glass of it ? &c. 
We will give you a glass of it, &c. 
A glass of it won't serve us all, &c. 
We will give you a gallon of it, &c. 
We will break all your glasses, &c. 
We will tell the magistrates, &c. 
What care we for the magistrates, &c. 
Are you ready for a fight ? &c. 
Yes, we're ready for a fight, &c. 

Tuck up your sleeves up to your arms, &c. 
Present! Shoot! Bang! Fire!! 
Maxey, Northamptonshire (Rev. W. D. Sweeting). 

VII. Have you any bread and wine ? 

We are the English ! 
Have you any bread and wine ? 
We are the English soldiers ! 



WE ARE THE ROVERS 349 

No, we have no bread and wine, 

We are the Romans ! 
No, we have no bread and wine, 

We are the Roman soldiers ! 

A quart of ale won't serve us all, &c. 
Take a gallon and go your way, &c. 
A gallon of ale won't serve us all, &c. 
We will fetch the magistrate, &c. 
We don't care for the magistrate, &c. 
We will fetch the p'liceman, &c. 
We don't care for the p'liceman, &c. 
Are you ready for a fight ? &c. 

Yes, we're ready for a fight, &c. 

Hanbury, Staffs. (Miss Edith Hollis). 

VIII. Have you any bread and wine, bread and wine, bread 

and wine, 

Have you any bread and wine, 
For we are English soldiers ! 

Yes, we have some bread and wine, bread and wine, 

bread and wine, 
For we are French soldiers ! 

Will you give us a quarter of it ? &c. 
No, we won't give you a quarter of it, &c. 
Then we will send the magistrate, &c. 
What do we care for the magistrate, &c. 
What do we care for the convent dogs, &c. 
Are you ready for a fight, &c. 

Yes, we are ready for a fight, &c. 

Hurstmonceux, Sussex (Miss E. Chase, 1892). 



350 WE ARE THE ROVERS 

IX. Have you any bread and wine, 

Bread and wine, bread and wine ? 
Have you any bread and wine, 
My Theerie and my Thorie ? 

Yes, we have some bread and wine, bread and wine, &c. 
We shall have one glass of it, one glass of it, &c. 
Take one glass and go your way, go your way, &c. 
We shall have two glasses of it, two glasses of it, &c. 
Take two glasses and go your way, go your way, &c. 
[Repeat for three, four, and five glasses of it, then ] 
We shall have a bottle of it, a bottle of it, &c. 
A bottle of it ye shall not have, ye shall not have, &c. 
We will break your glasses all, your glasses all, &c. 
We will send for the magistrates, the magistrates, &c. 
What care we for the magistrates, the magistrates ? &c. 
We will send for the policemen, the policemen, &c. 
What care we for the policemen, the policemen ? &c. 
We will send for the red coat men, the red coat men, &c. 
What care we for the red coat men, the red coat men? &c. 
What kind of men are ye at all, are ye at all ? &c. 
We are all Prince Charlie's men, Prince Charlie's men, &c. 
But what kind of men are ye at all, are j^ at all ? &c. 
We are all King George's men, King George's men, &c. 
Are ye for a battle of it, a battle of it ? &c. 

Yes, we're for a battle of it, 
A battle of it, a battle of it, 
Yes, we're for a battle of it, 

My Theerie and my Thorie. 

Perthshire (Rev. W. Gregor). 



WE ARE THE ROVERS 351 

X. What men are ye of? 
What men are ye of? 
What men are ye of ? 

Metherie and Metharie. 

We are of King George's men, 
King George's men, King George's men, 
We are of King George's men, 
Metherie and Metharie. 

We will send for the policemen, &c. 

What care we for the policemen ? &c. 

We will have a bottle of wine, &c. 

You shall not have, &c. 

We will have three bottles of wine, &c. 

You shall not have, &c. 

We will send for Cripple Dick, &c. 

What care we for Cripple Dick, &c. 

We finish off with a battle three, &c. 

Northumberland (from a lady friend of 
Hon. J. Abercromby). 

XI. We shall have a glass of wine, 
A glass of wine, a glass of wine, 
We shall have a glass of wine, 
Methery I methory. 

You shall not have a glass of wine, 
A glass of wine, a glass of wine, 
You shall not have a glass of wine, 
Methery I methory. 

Then we'll break your dishes, then, &c. 
Then we'll send for the blue coat men, &c. 
What care I for the blue coat men, &c. 
Then we'll send for the red coat men, &c. 



352 WE ARE THE ROVERS 

What care we for the red coat men, &c. 
We are all King George's men, &c. 

We are all King William's men, &c. 

Auchencairn, Kirkcudbright (Prof. A. C. Haddon). 

XII. Have you any bread and wine, bread and 

wine, bread and wine ? 
Have you any bread and wine ? 
Come a theiry, come a thory. 

Yes, we have some bread and wine, &c. 
Will you give us a glass of it ? &c. 
Yes, we'll give you a glass of it, &c. 
Will you give us two glasses of it ? &c. 
Yes, we'll give you two glasses of it, &c. 
Will you give us a pint of it ? &c. 
A pint of it you shall not get, &c. 
We will break your window pane, &c. 
We will tell the policemen, &c. 
What care we for the policemen, &c. 
We will tell the red coat men, &c. 
What care we for the red coat men, &c. 
We will tell the magistrate, &c. 
What care we for the magistrate, &c. 
Will you try a fight with us ? &c. 
Yes, we'll try a fight with you, &c. 
Are you ready for it now ? &c. 

Yes, we're ready for it now, &c. 

Perth (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XIII. Have you got any bread and wine, bread 

and wine, bread and wine ? 
Have you got any bread and wine ? 
Come a theory, oary mathorie. 



WE ARE THE ROVERS 353 

Yes, we have some bread and wine, &c. 
We shall have one glass of it, &c. 
You shall not have one glass of it, &c 
To what men do you belong ? &c. 
We are all King George's men, &c. 
To what men do you belong, &c. 
We are all King William's men, &c. 

We shall have a fight, then, &c. 

Perth (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XIV. Have you any bread and wine, 

Ye o' the boatmen ? 
Have you any bread and wine, 
Ye the drunk and sober ? 

Yes, we have some bread and wine, &c. 
Will you give us of your wine, &c. 
Take one quart and go your way, &c. 
One quart is not enough for us, &c. 
Take two quarts and go your way, &c. 
[Continue up to six quarts, then ] 

Pray, what sort of men are you ? &c. 
We are all King George's men, &c. 
Are you ready for a fight ? &c. 

Yes, we're ready for a fight, &c. 

Forest of Dean (Miss Matthews). 

XV. I will fetch you a pint of beer, 

He I over; 

I will fetch you a pint of beer, 
Whether we are drunk or sober. 

I will fetch you a quart of beer, 

He I over; 
I will fetch you a quart of beer, 

Whether we are drunk or sober. 
VOL. n. z 



354 WE ARE THE ROVERS 

I will fetch you two quarts of beer, &c. 
I will fetch you three quarts of beer, &c. 
I will fetch you a gallon of beer, &c. 
I will fetch you a barrel of beer, &c. 
I will fetch the old police, &c. 

Are you ready for a fight, &c. 

Earls Heaton (H. Hardy) 

[Another variant from Earls Heaton is : ] 

Have you got a bottle of gin ? 

He I over; 
Have you got a bottle of gin, 

As in that golden story ? (H. Hardy). 

XVI. Have you any bread and wine, 

Bread and wine, bread and wine ? 
Have you any bread and wine ? 
Cam a teerie, arrie ma torry. 

Yes, we have some bread and wine, 
Bread and wine, bread and wine ; 

Yes, we have some bread and wine, 
Cam a teerie, arrie ma torry. 

We shall have one glass of it, &c. 
One glass of it you shall not get, &c. 

We are King George's loyal men, 

Loyal men, loyal men ; 
We are King George's loyal men, 

Cam a teerie, arrie ma torry. 

What care we for King George's men, 
King George's men, King George's men ; 

What care we for King George's men, 
Cam a teerie, arrie ma torry. 

Peoples Friend, quoted in a review of 
" Arbroath : Past and Present," by J. M. M'Bain. 



WE ARE THE ROVERS 



355 



XVII. We shall have one glass of wine, 

We are the robbers ; 
We shall have one glass of wine, 
For we are the gallant soldiers. 

You shall have no glass of wine, 

We are the robbers ; 
You shall have no glass of wine, 

For we are the gallant soldiers. 

We shall have two glasses of it, &c. 
You shall have no glass of it, c. 
We will break your tumblers, then, &c. 
We shall send for the policeman, &c. 
What care we for the policeman, &c. 
We shall send for the red coat men, &c. 
What care we for the red coat men, &c. 
We shall send for the blue coat men, &c. 
What care we for the blue coat men, &c. 
We shall send for the magistrate, &c. 
What care we for the magistrate, &c. 
We shall send for Cripple Dick, &c. 
W T hat care we for Cripple Dick, &c. 
We shall have a battle then, &c. 

Yonder is a battle field, &c. 

Laurieston School, Kirkcudbright (J. Lawson). 

XVIII. Here comes three dukes a-riding, a-riding, a-riding; 
Here comes three dukes a-riding, a-riding, a-riding ; 
My fair ladies. 

Have you any bread and wine, bread and wine, 

bread and wine ? 
Have you any bread and wine, bread and wine, 

bread and wine, 
My fair ladies ? 



356 WE ARE THE ROVERS 

How do you sell your bread and wine, &c. 

I sell it by a gallon, sir, &c. 

A gallon is too much, fair ladies, &c. 

Sell it by a gallon, my fair ladies, &c. 

Then we'll have none at all, &c. 

Are you ready for a fight, &c. 

Yes, we are ready for a fight, &c. 

My dear sirs. 

Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

(c) The players divide into two sides of about equal numbers, 
and form lines. The lines walk forwards and backwards in 
turn, each side singing their respective verses alternately. 
When the last verse is sung both lines prepare for a fight. 

This is the usual way of playing, and there is but little 
variation in the methods of the different versions. In some 
versions (Enbourne, Berks. ; Maxey, Northants., and Bath) 
sleeves are tucked up previous to the pretended fight, and in 
one or two places sticks and stones are used ; again in the 
Northamptonshire and Bath games, at " Present ! Shoot ! 
Bang ! Fire ! ! " imitations are given of firing of guns before 
the actual fight takes place. In the Hants (H. S. May) and 
Lancashire (Mrs. Harley) versions, when the last verse is 
reached the players all join hands, form a ring, and dance 
round while they sing the last verse. In several versions too, 
when they sing "We don't care for the magistrates," or other 
persons of authority, the players all stamp their feet on the 
ground. In the Hurstmonceux version the children double 
their fists before preparing to fight. Some pretend to have 
swords to fight with, but the greater number use their fists. 
In most of the versions the players on both sides join in the 
refrain or chorus. 

(d) This game represents an attacking or invading party and 
the defenders. It probably owes its origin to the border 
warfare which prevailed for so long a period between High- 
landers and Lowlanders of Scotland, the Scotch and English of 
the northern border counties, and in the country called the 



WE ARE THE ROVERS 357 

marches between Wales and England. Contests between 
different nationalities living in one town or place, as at 
Southampton and Nottingham, would also tend to produce 
this game. That the game represents this kind of conflict 
rather than an ordinary battle between independent countries 
is shown by several significant points. These are, the dialogue 
between the opposing parties before the fight begins, the men- 
tion of bread, ale, or other food, and more particularly the 
threat to appeal to the civil authorities, called in the different 
versions, magistrates, blue coat men, red coat men, highest 
men, policemen, and Cripple Dick. Such an appeal is only 
applicable where the opposing parties were, theoretically at all 
events, subordinate to a superior authority. The derision, too, 
with which the threat is received by the assailants is in strict 
accord with the facts of Border society. Scott in Waverley 
and the Black Dwarf describes such a raid, and the suggestion 
to appeal to the civil authority in lieu of a raid is met with the 
cry of such an act being useless. The passage from the Black 
Dwarf is : " ' We maun tak the law wi' us in thae days, 
Simon,' answered the more prudent elder. 'And besides,' 
said another old man, ' I dinna believe there's ane now living 
that kens the lawful mode of following a fray across the 
Border. Tarn o' Whittram kend a' about it; but he died in 
the hard winter.' ' Hout,' exclaimed another of these dis- 
cording counsellors, ' there's nae great skill needed ; just put 
a lighted peat on the end of a spear, a hayfork, or siclike, and 
blaw a horn and cry the gathering word, and then it's lawful 
to follow gear into England and recover it by the strong hand, 
or to take gear frae some other Englishmen, providing ye lift 
nae mair than's been lifted frae you. That's the auld Border 
law made at Dundrennan in the days of the Black Douglas.' " 
In Waverley \h& hero suggests " to send to the nearest garrison 
for a party of soldiers and a magistrate's warrant," but is told 
that " he did not understand the state of the country and of 
the political parties which divided it " (chap. xv.). The position 
of this part of the country is best understood from the evidence 
of legal records, showing how slowly the king's record ran in 
these parts. Thus Mr. Clifford (Hist, of Private Legislation) 



358 WE ARE THE ROVERS 

quotes from Hodgson's Hist, of Northumberland (vol. iii. 
pt. 2, p. 171), a paper, in the Cotton MS., on "The bounds 
and means of the 'batable land belonging to England and 
Scotland." It was written in 1550 by Sir Robert Bowes, a 
Northumbrian, at the request of the Marquis of Dorset, then 
Warden General of the Marches, and gives a graphic picture 
of Border life at that time. The writer describes Cassope 
bridge as "a common passage for the thieves of Tyndalle, in 
England, and for the thieves of Liddesdalle, in Scotland, with 
the stolen goods from one realm to the other." The head of 
Tyndalle is a place " where few true men have list to lodge." 
North Tyndall "is more plenished with wild and misdemeaned 
people" than even South Tyndall. The people there "stand 
most by four surnames," the Charltons, Robsons, Dodds, and 
Milbornes. " Of every surname there be sundry families, or 
graves, as they call them, of every of which there be certain 
headsmen that leadeth and answereth for all the rest. There 
be some among them that have never stolen themselves, which 
they call true men. And yet such will have rascals to steal 
either on horseback or foot, whom they do reset, and will 
receive part of the stolen goods. There be very few able men 
in all that country of North Tyndalle, but either they have 
used to steal in England or Scotland. And if any true man 
of England get knowledge of the theft or thieves that steal his 
goods in Tyndalle or Ryddesdale, he had much rather take a 
part of his goods again in composition than pursue the ex- 
tremity by law against the thief. For if the thief be of any 
great surname or kindred, and be lawfully executed by order 
of justice, the rest of his kin or surname bear as much malice, 
which they call deadly feade (feud), against such as follow the 
law against their cousin the thief, as though he had unlawfully 
killed him with a sword ; and will by all means they can seek 
revenge thereupon." At sundry times the dalesmen "have 
broken out of all order, and have then, like rebels or outlaws, 
committed very great and heinous attempts, as burning and 
spoiling of whole townships and murdering of gentlemen and 
others whom they have had grief or malice unto, so that for 
defence of them there have been great garrisons laid, and raids 



WE ARE THE ROVERS 359 

and incourses both against them and by them, even as it were 
between England and Scotland in time of war. And even at 
such times they have done more harm than they have received." 
A number of the Tyndaller's houses are set together, so that 
they may give each other succour in frays, and they join 
together in any quarrel against a true man, so that for dread 
of them " almost no man dare follow his goods stolen or spoiled 
into that country." 

The sides in the game are under the different names or leader- 
ship of Romans and English, King William's men, rovers and 
guardian soldiers, Prince Charlie's men, King George's men, &c. 
These names have probably been given in memory of some local 
rising, or from some well-known event which stamped itself upon 
the recollection of the people. It is very curious that in four or 
five versions a refrain, which may well be a survival of some 
of the slogans or family " cries" (see "Three Dukes"), should 
occur instead of the " Roman " and " English " soldiers, &c. 
These refrains are, "My theerie and my thorie," "Metherie and 
metharie," "Methory I methory," "Come a theeiry, come a 
thory," "Come a theory, oary mathorie," "Cam a teerie, arrie 
ma torry," and the three which apparently are still further de- 
gradations of these, "Ye o' the boatmen," "Drunk and sober," 
"He I over." That "slogans" or "war cries" were used in 
this species of tribal war there is little doubt. In the North- 
umberland and Laurieston versions the name is "Cripple 
Dick," these words, now considered as the name of a powerful 
and feared leader, may also indicate the same origin. The 
versions with these refrains come from Perthshire (three 
versions), Authencairn, and Northumberland ; Yorkshire has 
He I over; while the Romans and English, King George's 
men, King William's men, guardian soldiers, rovers, &c., are 
found in Shropshire, Staffordshire, Gloucester, Kent, Hants, 
Bath, Berks, Northamptonshire, Sussex, some of which are 
Border counties to Wales, and others have sea-coasts where 
at different times invasions have been expected. In Sussex, 
Miss Chase says the game is said to date from the alarm of 
Napoleon's threatened landing on the coast ; this is also said 
in Kent and Hampshire. Miss Burne considers the game in 



360 WEARY 



Shropshire to have certainly originated from the old Border 
warfare. She also considers that the bread and wine, barrels 
of ale, &c., are indications of attempts made to bribe the 
beleagured garrison and their willingness to accept it; but I 
think it more probably refers to the fact that some food, cattle, 
and goods were oftentime given to the raiders by the owners 
of the lands as blackmail, to prevent the carrying off of all 
their property, and to avoid fighting if possible. It will be 
noticed that fighting ensues as the result of a sufficient quan- 
tity of food and drink being refused. Scott alludes to the 
practice of blackmail, having to be paid to a Highland leader 
in Waverley, in the raid upon the cattle of the baron of 
Bradwardine (see chap. xv.). The farms were scattered, and 
before the defenders could combine to offer resistance, cattle 
and goods would be carried off, and the ground laid waste, if 
resistance were offered. 

The tune of the Northants game (Rev. W. Sweeting) and 
Hants (H. S. May) are so nearly like the Bath tune that it 
seemed unnecessary to print them. The tune of the Surrey 
game is that of "Nuts in May." The words of the .Bath 
version collected by me are nearly identical with the Shrop- 
shire, except that "We are the Romans" is said instead 01 
"We are the Rovers." They are not therefore printed here, 
but I have used this version in my Children's Singing Games, 
series I., illustrated. The tune of the Hants version (H. S. 
May) is similar to that of Wrotham, Kent (Miss D. Kimball). 

Weary 

Weary, weary, I'm waiting on you, 

I can wait no longer on you ; 
Three times I've whistled on you 
Lovey, are you coming out ? 

I'll tell mamma when I go home, 
The boys won't let my curls alone ; 
They tore my hair, and broke my comb 
And that's the way all boys get on. 

Aberdeen Training College (Rev. W. Gregor). 

The girls stand in a row, and one goes backwards and for- 



WEAVE THE DIAPER WEIGH THE BUTTER 361 

wards singing the first four lines. She then takes one out of 
the row, and they swing round and round while they all sing 
the other four lines. 

Weave the Diaper 

Weave the diaper tick-a-tick tick, 

Weave the diaper tick ; 

Come this way, come that, 

As close as a mat, 

Athwart and across, up and down, round about, 

And forwards and backwards and inside and out ; 

Weave the diaper thick-a-thick thick, 

Weave the diaper thick. 

Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes, p. 65. 

(U) This game should be accompanied by a kind of pantomimic 
dance, in which the motions of the body and arms express the 
process of weaving, the motion of the shuttle, &c. 

(c) Mr. Newell (Games and Songs of American Children, 
p. 80) mentions a dance called " Virginia Reel," which he says 
is an imitation of weaving. The first movement represents the 
shooting of the shuttle from side to side and the passage of the 
woof over and under the threads of the warp ; the last move- 
ments indicate the tightening of the threads and bringing 
together of the cloth. He also says that an acquaintance told 
him that in New York the men and girls stand in rows by 
sevens, an arrangement which may imitate the different colours 
of strands. Mr. Newell does not say whether any words are 
sung during the dancing of the reel. Halliwell gives another 
rhyme (p. 121), which may have belonged to this weaving 
game. It is extremely probable that in these fragments 
described by him we have remains of one of the old trade 
dances and songs. 

Weigh the Butter 

Two children stand back to back, with their arms locked. 
One stoops as low as he can, supporting the other on his back, 
and says, " Weigh the butter ; " he rises, and the second stoops 
in his turn with "Weigh the cheese." The first repeats with 



362 



WHEN I WAS A YOUNG GIRL 



" Weigh the old woman:" and it ends by the second with 
" Down to her knees." Folk-lore Journal, v. 58. 

The players turn their backs to each other, and link their 
arms together behind. One player then bends forward, and 
lifts the other off his [her] feet. He rises up, and the other 
bends forward and lifts him up. Thus the two go on bending 
and rising, and lifting each other alternately, and keep re- 
peating 

Weigh butter, weigh cheese, 

Weigh a pun (pound) o' can'le grease. 

Keith (Rev. W. Gregor). 

Mr. Northall (English Folk Rhymes ) gives this game with 
the words as 

A bag o' malt, a bag o' salt, 
Ten tens a hundred. 

This game is described as played in the same way in Antrim 
and Down (Patterson's Glossary), and also by Jamieson in 
Roxburgh. 

See"Way-Zaltin." 

When I was a Young Girl 




Platt School, nr. Wrotham, Kent (Miss Burne). 






*J 



Hanbury, Staffs. (Miss Edith Hollis). 



- H-. fl- 






WHEN I WAS A YOUNG GIRL 



3 6 3 






:Siq===}c$q==zq -F^- -V-^O-* P * 

Market Drayton, Salop (Shropshire Folk-lore). 



9 






Ogbourne, Wilts. (H. S. May). 

When I was a young girl, a young girl, a young girl, 
When I was a young girl, how happy was I. 
This way and that way, and this way and that way, 
And this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When I had a sweetheart, a sweetheart, a sweetheart, 
When I had a sweetheart, how happy was I. 
This way and that way, and this way and that way, 
And this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When I got married, got married, got married, 
When I got married, how happy was I. 
This way and that way, and this way and that way, 
And this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When I had a baby, a baby, a baby, 

When I had a baby, how happy was I. 

This way and that way, and this way and that way, 

And this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When my baby died, died, died, 

When my baby died, how sorry was I. 

This way and that way, and this way and that way, 

And this way and that way, and this way went I. 



364 WHEN I WAS A YOUNG GIRL 

When my husband died, died, died, 

When my husband died, how sorry was I. 

This way and that way, and this way and that way, 

And this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When I kept a donkey, a donkey, a donkey, 
When I kept a donkey, how happy was I. 
This way and that way, and this way and that way, 
And this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When I was a washerwoman, a washerwoman, a washer- 
woman, 

When I was a washerwoman, how happy was I. 
This way and that way, and this way and that way, 
And this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When I was a beggar, a beggar, a beggar, 
When I was a beggar, how happy was I. 
This way and that way, and this way and that way, 
And this way and that way, and this way went I. 

Platt School, near Wrotham, Kent (Miss Burne). 

II. When I was a young girl, a young girl, a young girl, 
When I was I young girl, how happy was I. 
And this way and that way, and this way and that way, 
and this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When I was a school-girl, a school-girl, a school-girl, 
When I was a school-girl, oh, this way went I. 
And this way and that way, and this way and that way, 
and this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When I was a teacher, a teacher, a teacher, 
When I was a teacher, oh, this way went I. 
And this way and that way, and this way and that way, 
and this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When I had a sweetheart, a sweetheart, a sweetheart, 
When I had a sweetheart, oh, this way went I. 
And this way and that way, and this way and that way, 
and this way and that way, and this way went I. 



WHEN I WAS A YOUNG GIRL 365 

When I had a husband, a husband, a husband, 
When I had a husband, oh ! this way went I. 
And this way and that way, and this way and that way, 
and this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When I had a baby, a baby, a baby, 
When I had a baby, how happy was I. 
And this way and that way, and this way and that way, 
and this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When my baby died, oh, died, oh, died, 
When my baby died, how sorry was I. 
And this way and that way, and this way and that way, 
and this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When I took in washing, oh, washing, oh, washing, 
When I took in washing, oh, this way went I. 
And -this way and that way, and this way and that way, 
and this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When I went out scrubbing, oh, scrubbing, oh, scrubbing, 
When I went out scrubbing, oh, this way went I. 
And this way and that way, and this way and that way, 
and this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When my husband did beat me, did beat me, did beat me, 
When my husband did beat me, oh, this way went I. 
And this way and that way, and this way and that way, 
and this way and that way, and this way went I. 

When my husband died, oh, died, oh, died, 
When my husband died, how happy was I. 
And this way and that way, and this way and that way, 
and this way and that way, and this way went I. 

Hurrah ! 
Barnes, Surrey (A. B. Gomme). 

III. When I was a young gell, a young gell, a young gell, 
When I was a young gell, i' this a way went I. 
An' i' this a way, an' i' that a way, an' i' this a way went I. 

When I wanted a sweetheart, a sweetheart, a sweetheart, 

When I wanted a sweetheart, i' this a way went I. 

An' i' this a way, an' i' this a way, an' i' this a way went I. 



3 66 WHEN I WAS A YOUNG GIRL 

When I went a-courting, a-courtin', a-courtin', 

When I went a-courtin', i' this a way went I. 

An' i' this a way, an' i' this a way, an' i' this a way went I, 

When I did get married, get married, get married, 

When I did get married, i' this a way went I. 

An' i' this a way, an' i' this a way, an' i' this a way went I 

When I had a baby, &c. 

When I went to church, &c. 

My husband was a drunkard, &c. 

When I was a washerwoman, &c. 

When I did peggy, &c. 

My baby fell sick, &c. 

My baby did die, &c. 

My husband did die, c. 

Liphook, Wakefield (Miss Fowler). 

IV. When I wore my flounces, my flounces, my flounces, 
When I wore my flounces, this a-way went I. 

When I was a lady, a lady, a lady, 
When I was a lady, this a-way went I. 

When I was a gentleman, a gentleman, a gentleman, 
When I was a gentleman, this a-way went I. 

When I was a washerwoman, &c. 
When I was a schoolgirl, &c. 
When I had a baby, &c. 
When I was a cobbler, &c. 
When I was a shoeblack, &c. 
When my husband beat me, &c. 
When my baby died, &c. 
When my husband died, &c. 

When I was a parson, &c. 

Hanbury, Staffs. (Miss Edith Hollis). 



WHEN I WAS A YOUNG GIRL 367 

V. When I was a lady, a lady, a lady, 
When I was a lady, a lady was I. 

'Twas this way and that way, and this way and that. 

When I was a gentleman, a gentleman, a gentleman, 
When I was a gentleman, a gentleman was I. 
'Twas this way and that way, and this way and that. 

When I was a schoolgirl, a schoolgirl, a schoolgirl, 
When I was a schoolgirl, a schoolgirl was I, &c. 

When I was a schoolboy, a schoolboy, a schoolboy, &c. 

When I was a schoolmaster, a schoolmaster, a school- 
master, &c. 

When I was a schoolmistress, a schoolmistress, a school- 
mistress, &c. 

When I was a donkey, a donkey, a donkey, &c. 

When I was a shoeblack, a shoeblack, a shoeblack, &c. 

Ogbourne, Wilts. (H. S. May). 

VI. When I was a naughty girl, a naughty girl, a naughty girl, 
When I was a naughty girl, a-this a-way went I ! 

And a-this a-way, and a-that a-way, 
And a-this a-way, and a-that a-way, 
And a-this a-way, and a-that a-way, 
And a-this a-way went I ! 

When I was a good girl, &c., a-this a-way went I ! &c. 

When I was a naughty girl, &c. 

When I went courting, &c. 

When I got married, &c. 

When I had a baby, &c. 

When the baby cried, &c. 

When the baby died, &c. 

Berrington (Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 514). 

VII. When I was a naughty girl, &c. [as above] 
When I went to school, &c. 



3 68 WHEN I WAS A YOUNG GIRL 

When I went a-courting, &c. 
When I got married, &c. 
When I had a baby, &c.. 
When the baby fell sick, &c. 
When my baby did die, &c. 
When my husband fell sick, &c. 
When my husband did die, &c. 
When I was a widow, &c. 
Then I took in washing, &c. 

Then my age was a hundred and four, &c. 

Market Drayton (Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 515). 

VIII. First I was a school-maid, a school-maid, how happy 

was I ! 
And a-this a-way, and a-that a-way went I ! 

And then I got married, how happy was I ! &c. 
And then I had a baby, how happy was I ! &c. 
And then my husband died, how sorry was I ! &c. 
And then I married a cobbler, how happy was I ! &c. 
And then the baby died, how sorry was I ! &c. 
And then I married a soldier, how happy was I ! &c. 
And then he bought me a donkey, how happy was I ! &c. 
And then the donkey throwed me, how sorry was I ! &c. 
And then I was a washing-maid, how happy was I ! &c. 

And then my life was ended, how sorry was I ! 

Chirbury (Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 515). 

IX. When first we went to school to school to school- 
How happy was I ! 

'Twas this way and that way, 
How happy was I ! 



WHEN I WAS A YOUNG GIRL 369 



Next I went to service to service to service 

How happy was I ! 

Twas this way, and that way, 

How happy was I ! &c. 

Next I had a sweetheart a sweetheart a sweetheart 
How happy was I ! &c. 

Next I got married got married got married- 
How happy was I ! &c. 

Next I had a baby a baby a baby- 
How happy was I ! &c. 

Next my husband died he died he died 
How sorry was I ! &c. 

Next my baby died she died she died 
How sorry was I ! &c. 

Dorsetshire (Folk-lore Journal, vii. pp. 218-219). 

X. Oh ! when I was a soldier, I did this way, this way. 
Oh ! when I was a mower, I did this way, this way. 
Oh ! when I was a hedge cutter, I did this way, this way. 
Oh ! when I was a boot cleaner, I did this way, this way. 
Oh ! when I was a teacher, I did this way, this way. 
Oh ! when I was a governess, I did this way, this way. 
Oh ! when I had a baby, I did this way, this way. 

Oh ! when my baby died, I did this way, this way. 

Fernham and Longcot Choir Girls, Berks. 
(Miss I. Barclay). 

XI. When I was a school-boy, a school-boy, a school-boy, 
When I was a school-boy, this way went I. 

When I was a school-girl, &c. 
When I was a-courting, &c. 
When I got married, &c. 
When I had a baby, &c. 

VOL. II. 2 A 



370 WHEN I WAS A YOUNG GIRL 

When my baby died, &c. 
When my husband was ill, &c. 
When I was a shoe-black, &c. 
When I was a washerwoman, &c. 
When I was a soldier, &c. 

When I was a sailor, &c. 

Frodingham and Nottinghamshire 
(Miss M. Peacock). 

XII. When I was a school girl, a school girl, a school girl, 
When I was a school girl, a this way went I. 

When I was a teacher, a teacher, a teacher, 
When I was a teacher, a this way went I. 

[Verses follow for courtin' 

married woman, 
having a baby, 
death of baby.] 

Earls Heaton (H. Hardy). 

XIII. When I went a courting, I went just so. 
When next I went a courting, I went just so ; 
When next I went a courting, I went just so ; 
When next I went a courting, I went just so. 

Haxey, Lincolnshire (C. C. Bell). 

(c) The children join hands and form a ring. They all dance 
or walk round singing the words of the first two lines of each 
verse. Then all standing still, they unclasp hands, and con- 
tinue singing the next two lines, and while doing so each child 
performs some action which illustrates the events, work, con- 
dition, or profession mentioned in the first line of the verse 
they are singing; then rejoining hands they all dance round in a 
circle again. The actions used to illustrate the different events 
are: In the versions from Platt school, for "young girl," each 
child holds out her dress and dances a step first to the right, then 
to the left, two or three times, finishing by turning herself quite 
round ; for a " sweetheart," the children turn their heads and 
kiss their hands to the child behind them ; for " got married," 



WHEN I WAS A YOUNG GIRL 371 

they all walk round in ring form, two by two, arm in arm ; for 
having a baby, they each " rock " and " hush " a pretended 
baby ; when the baby dies, each pretends to cry ; when the 
husband dies, they throw their aprons or handkerchiefs over 
their heads and faces ; for " keeping a donkey," each child pre- 
tends to beat and drive the child immediately in front of her ; 
for " washerwoman," each pretends to wash or wring clothes ; 
for a " beggar," each drops curtseys, and holds out her hand 
as if asking alms, putting on an imploring countenance. The 
Barnes* version is played in the same way, with the addi- 
tion of holding the hands together to represent a book, as if 
learning lessons, for " schoolgirl "; pretending to hold a cane, 
and holding up fingers for silence, when a "teacher"; when 
" my husband did beat me," each pretends to fight ; and for 
" my husband died," each child walks round joyfully, waving 
her handkerchief, and all calling out Hurrah ! at the end ; the 
other verses being acted the same as at Platt. The Liphook 
version is much the same : the children beckon with their 
fingers when "wanting a sweetheart"; kneel down and pre- 
tend to pray when " at church " ; prod pretended " clothes " in a 
wash-tub with a " dolly " stick when " I did peggy " is said ; and 
mourn for the " husband's" death. In the Hanbury game, the 
children dance round or shake themselves for " flounces " ; hold 
up dresses and walk nicely for " lady " ; bow to each other for 
" gentlemen " ; pretend to mend shoes when " cobblers " ; brush 
shoes for " shoeblack " ; clap hands when the " husband " dies ; 
and kneel when they are " parsons." In the Ogbourne game, the 
children " hold up their dresses as ladies do " in the first verse ; 
take off their hats repeatedly when "gentlemen"; pretend to 
cry when "schoolgirls"; walking round, swinging their arms, 
and looking as cocky as possible, when " schoolboys " ; patting 
each other's backs when "schoolmasters "; clapping hands for 
" schoolmistresses " ; stooping down and walking on all fours 
for a " donkey " ; and brushing shoes for " shoeblack." In the 
Shropshire games at Berrington, each child " walks demurely " 
for a good girl ; puts finger on lip for " naughty girl " ; walks 
two and two, arm in arm, for " courting " ; holds on to her dress 
for "married"; whips the "baby," and cries when it dies. In 



372 WHEN I WAS A YOUNG GIRL 

the Market Drayton game, each pretends to tear her clothes 
for " naughty girl " ; pretends to carry a bag for " school- 
girl"; walk in pairs side by side for "courting"; the same, 
arm in arm, for " married " ; " hushes " for a baby, pretends to 
pat on the back for sick baby ; covers her face with handker- 
chief when baby dies ; pats her chest when husband is sick, 
cries and " makes dreadful work " when he dies ; puts on 
handkerchief for a widow's veil for a widow; hobbles along, 
and finally falls down when "a hundred and four." In the 
Dorset game, when at " service," an imitation of scrubbing and 
sweeping is given ; walk in couples for sweethearts, and 
married ; the remaining verses the same as the Platt version. 
In the Fernham game the children shoot out their arms alter- 
nately for a soldier ; for a mower, they stand sideways and 
pretend to cut grass ; for hedge-cutter, they pretend to cut 
with a downward movement, as with a belt [qy. bill] hook, the 
other action similar to the Platt and Barnes games. In the 
Frodingham game they stamp and pretend to drill for " school- 
boys," pretend to sew as "schoolgirls," kiss for "courting," 
put on a ring for " getting married," run for a doctor when 
"husband" is ill, punch and push each other for "soldiers," 
and haul ropes for "sailors." In other versions, in which 
carpenters, blacksmiths, farmers, bakers appear, actions show- 
ing something of those trades are performed. 

(d) It will be seen, from the description of the way this game 
is played, that it consists of imitative actions of different 
events in life, or of actions imitating trades and occupations. It 
was probably at one time played by both girls and boys, young 
men and young women. It is now but seldom played by boys, 
and therefore those verses containing lines describing male 
occupations are not nearly so frequently met with as those 
describing girls' or womens' life only. Young girl, sweetheart, 
or going courtin', marriage, birth of children, loss of baby and 
husband, widowhood, and the occupations of washing and 
cleaning, exactly sum up the principal and important events in 
many working womens' lives comprising, in fact, the whole. 
This was truer many years ago than now, and the mention 
in many versions of school girl, teacher, governess, indicate in 



WHEN I WAS A YOUNG GIRL 373 

those versions the influence which education, first in the shape 
of dame or village schools, Sunday schools, and latterly Board 
schools, has had upon the minds and playtime of the children. 
These lines may certainly be looked upon as introductions by 
the children of comparatively modern times, and doubtless have 
taken the place of some older custom or habit. This game is 
exactly one of those to which additions and alterations of this 
kind can be made without destroying or materially altering, or 
affecting, its sense. It can live as a simple game in an almost 
complete state long after its original wording has been lost or 
forgotten, and as long as occupations continue and events 
occur which lend themselves to dumb action. The origin of 
the game I consider to be those dances and songs performed 
in imitation of the serious avocations of life, when such cere- 
monies were considered necessary to their proper performance, 
and acceptable to the deities presiding over such functions, 
arising from belief in sympathetic magic. 

At harvest homes it was customary for the men engaged in 
the work of the farm to go through a series of performances 
depicting their various occupations with song and dance, from 
their engagement as labourers until the harvest was completed, 
and at some fairs the young men and women of the village, in 
song and dance, would go through in pantomimic representa- 
tion, the several events of the year, such as courting, marriage, 
&c., and their several occupations. 

Perhaps the most singular instance of imitative action being 
used in a semi-religious purpose, is that recorded by Giraldus 
Cambrensis in the twelfth century, who, speaking of the church 
of St. Almedha, near Brecknock, says a solemn feast is held 
annually in the beginning of August : " You may see men and 
girls, now in the church, now in the churchyard, now in the 
dance, which is led round the churchyard with a song, on a 
sudden falling on the ground as in a trance, then jumping up 
as in a frenzy, and representing with their hands and feet 
before the people whatever work they have unlawfully done on 
feast days ; you may see one man put his hands to the plough, 
and another, as it were, goad on the oxen, one man imitating a 
shoemaker, another a tanner. Now you may see a girl with a 



374 WHIDDY WHIGMELEERIE 



distaff drawing out the thread and winding it again on the 
spindle ; another walking and arranging the threads for the 
spindle ; another throwing the shuttle and seeming to weave " 
(Itinerary of Wales, chap. ii.). 

For the significance of some of the pantomimic actions used, 
I may mention that in Cheshire for a couple to walk " arm-in- 
arm " is significant of a betrothed or engaged couple. 

Other versions have been sent me, but so similar to those 
given that it is unnecessary to give them here. The tunes 
vary more. In some places the game is sung to that of " Nuts 
in May." In Barnes the tune used was sometimes that of 
" Isabella," vol. i. p. 247, and sometimes the first one printed 
here. 

The game is mentioned by Newell (Games, p. 88). 

Whiddy 

Whiddy, whiddy, way, 

If you don't come, I won't play. 

The players, except one, stand in a den or home. One player 
clasps his hands together, with the two forefingers extended, 
He sings out the above, and the boys who are " home " 
then cry Warning once, warning twice, 
Warning three times over ; 
When the cock crows out come I, 
Whiddy, whiddy, wake-cock. Warning ! 
This is called " Saying their prayers." The boy who begins 
must touch another boy, keeping his hands clasped as above. 
These two then join hands, and pursue the others ; those whom 
they catch also joining hands, till they form a long line. If the 
players who are in the home run out before saying their prayers, 
the other boys have the right to pummel them, or ride home 
on their backs. London (J. P. Emslie, A. B. Gomme). 

See "Chickidy Hand," "Hunt the Staigie," "Stag," 
u Warney." 

Whigmeleerie 

A game occasionally played in Angus. A pin was stuck in the 
centre of a circle, from which there were as many radii as there 
were persons in the company, with two names of each person 



WHIP WHO GOES ROUND MY STONE WALL 375 

at the radius opposite to him. On the pin an index was placed, 
and moved round by every one in turn, and at whatsoever 
person's radius it stopped, he was obliged to drink off his 
glass. Jamieson. 

A species of chance game, played apparently with a kind of 
totum. 

Whip 

A boy's game, called in the South " Hoop or Hoop Hide." 
This is a curious instance of corruption, for the name hoop is 
pronounced in the local manner as hooip, whence whip. 
Easther's Almondbury Glossary. 

Whishin Dance 

An old-fashioned dance, in which a cushion is used to kneel 
upon. Dickinson's Cumberland Glossary. 
See " Cushion Dance." 

Who goes round my Stone Wall 
I. Who's going round my stone wall ? 
Nobody, only little Jacky Lingo. 
Pray don't steal none of my fat sheep, 
Unless I take one by one, two by two, three by three, 
Follow me. 

Have you seen anything of my black sheep ? 
Yes ! I gave them a lot of bread and butter and sent 

them up there [pointing to left or right]. 
Then what have you got behind you ? 
Only a few poor black sheep. 
Well ! let me see. 

[The child immediately behind Johnny Lingo shows its foot 
between her feet, and on seeing it the centre child says] 
Here's my black sheep. 

Winterton, Anderby, Nottinghamshire 
(Miss M. Peacock). 

II. Who's that going round my stony walk? 
It's only Bobby Bingo. 
Have you stolen any of my sheep ? 
Yes ! I stole one last night and one the night before. 

Enbourne School, Berks (Miss M. Kimber). 



376 WHO GOES ROUND MY STONE WALL 

III. Who goes round this stoney wa' ? 
Nane but Johnnie Lingo. 

Tak care and no steal ony o' my fat sheep away ! 
Nane but ane. Galloway (J. G. Carter). 

IV. Who goes round my pinfold wall ? 
Little Johnny Ringo. 
Don't steal all my fat sheep ! 
No more I will, no more I may, 
Until I've stol'n 'em all away, 
Nip, Johnny Ringo. Addy's Sheffield Glossary. 




V. Who's that walking round my sandy path ? 
Only Jack and Jingle. 
Don't you steal none of my fat geese ! 
Yes, I will, or No, I won't. I'll .take them one by one, 
and two by two, and call them Jack and Jingle. 
Barnes, Surrey (A. B. Gomme). 

VI. Who runs round my pen pound ? 
No one but old King Sailor. 

Don't you steal all my sheep away, while I'm a wailer ! 
Steal them all away one by one, and leave none but 
old King Sailor. 

Raimds (Northants Notes and Queries, i. p. 232). 



WHO GOES ROUND MY STONE WALL 377 

VII. Who's that walking round my walk ? 
Only Jackie Jingle. 
Don't you steal of my fat sheep ; 
The more I will, the more I won't, 
Unless I take them one by one, 
And that is Jackie Jingle. 

Hersham, Surrey (Folk-lore Record, v. 85). 

VIII. Who's going round my sunny wall to night ? 
Only little Jacky Lingo. 
Don't steal any of my fat chicks. 
I stole one last night 
And gave it a little hay, 
There came a little blackbird, 
And carried it away. 

Booking, Essex (Folk-lore Record, iii. 170). 
IX. Who's that round my stable door [or stony wall] ? 
Only little Jack and Jingo. 
Don't you steal any of my fat pigs ! 
I stole one last night and the night before, 
Chick, chick, come along with me. 

Deptford, Kent (Miss Chase). 

X. Who's this walking round my stony gravel path ? 
Only little Jacky Jingle. 
Last night he stole one of my sheep, 
Put him in the fold, 
Along came a blackbird, and pecked off his nose. 

Hampshire (Miss Mendham). 

XI. Who is going round my fine stony house ? 
Only Daddy Dingo. 
Don't take any of my fine chicks. 
Only this one, O ! 

Ellesmere (Burne's Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 520). 

XII. Who is that walking round my stone-wall ? 
Only little Johnnie Nero. 
Well, don't you steal any of my fat sheep ! 
I stole one last night and gave it a lock of hay, 
Here come I to take another away. 

Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 



378 WHO GOES ROUND MY STONE WALL 

XIII. Who's that going round my pretty garden ? 
Only Jacky Jingo. 

Don't you steal any of my fat sheep ! 
Oh, no I won't; oh, yes I will; and if I do I'll take 
them one by one, so out comes Jacky Jingo. 

Ogbourne, Wilts. (H. S. May). 

XIV. Who's going round my sheepfold ? 
Only poor Jack Lingo. 

Don't steal any of my black sheep ! 
No, I won't, only buy one. 

Roxton, St. Neots (Miss E. Lumley). 

XV. Who goes round my house this night ? 
None but Limping Tom. 

Do you want any of my chickens this night ? 
None but this poor one. Macduff (Rev. W. Gregor). 

XVI. Who goes round my house this night ? 
Who but Bloody Tom ! 
Who stole all my chickens away ? 
None but this poor one. 

Chambers's Pop. Rhymes, 122. 

XVII. Who goes round the house at night? 
None but Bloody Tom. 

Tack care an' tack nane o' my chickens awa' ! 
None but this poor one. Keith (Rev. W. Gregor. 

XVIII. Johnny, Johnny Ringo, 

Don't steal all my faun sheep. 
Nob but one by one, 
Whaul they're all done. 

Easther's Almondbury Glossary. 

XIX. Who's going round my stone wall ? 
Only an old witch. 
Don't take any of my bad chickens ! 
No, only this one. Hanbury, Staffs. (Miss E. Hollis). 

(b] The players stand in a circle, but they do not neces- 
sarily hold hands, nor do they move round. One player 
kneels or stands in the centre, and another walks round out- 



WHO GOES ROUND MY STONE WALL 379 

side the circle. The child in the centre asks the questions, 
and the child outside (Johnny Lingo) replies. When the last 
answer is given, the outside player, or Johnny Lingo, touches 
one of the circle on the back ; this player, without speaking, 
then follows Johnny Lingo and stands behind her holding 
her by her dress, or round the waist. The dialogue is then 
repeated, and another child taken. This is continued until all 
the circle are behind Johnny Lingo. Then the child in the 
centre tries to catch one of them, and Johnny Lingo tries 
to prevent it ; as soon as one player is caught she stands 
aside, and when all are caught the game is over. 

This is the usual way of playing. The variations are : in 
Galloway, Enbourne, Keith, and Hanbury, the centre player 
shuts her eyes, or is blindfolded. In the Almond bury version, 
when the centre child gets up to look for his sheep, and 
finds them (they do not stand behind Johnny Ringo, but 
hide), they run about " baaing ; " when he catches them he 
pretends to cut their heads off. In Chambers's description 
of the game, all the players except two sit upon the ground 
in a circle (sitting or lying down also obtains at Barnes), 
one of the two stands inside, and the other personates 
" Bloody Tom." Bloody Tom tries to carry off a player after 
the dialogue has been said, and the centre child tries to 
prevent this one from being taken, and the rest of the circle 
"cower more closely round him." In the Macduff version, 
when all the players have been taken, the centre child runs 
about crying, "Where are all my chickens?" Some of the 
"chickens," on hearing this, try to run away from "Limping 
Tom " to her, and he tries to prevent them. He puts them all 
behind him in single file, and the centre child then tries to catch 
them ; when she catches them all she becomes Limping Tom, 
and he the shepherd or hen. Dr. Gregor says (Keith) The 
game is generally played by boys ; the keeper kneels or sits in 
the middle of the circle; when all the sheep are gone, and 
he gets no answers to his questions, he crawls away still 
blindfolded, and searches for the lost sheep. The first player 
he finds becomes keeper, and he becomes Bloody Tom. In 
the Winterton version (No. I.) there is a further dialogue. The 



380 WHO GOES ROUND MY STONE WALL 

game is played in the usual way at the beginning. When Jacko 
Lingo says, " Follow me" (he had previously, when saying one 
by one and two by two, &c., touched three children on their 
back in turn), the third one touched leaves the ring, and stands 
behind him holding his clothes or waist. This is done until 
all the children forming the circle are holding on behind him. 
The child in the centre then asks the next question. When she 
says, " Here's my black sheep," she tries to dodge behind 
Jacky Lingo, and catch the child behind him. When she 
has done this she begins again at " Have you seen anything 
of my black sheep," until she has caught all the children 
behind Jacky Lingo. In two versions, Deptford and Bocking, 
there is no mention of a player being in the centre, but this 
is an obvious necessity unless the second player stands also 
outside the circle. In the Raunds version the ring moves slowly 
round. In the Hants version (Miss Mendham) the children sit 
in a line. The thief takes one at a time and hides them, and the 
shepherd pulls them out of their hiding-places. In the Shrop- 
shire game, the chickens crouch down behind their mother, 
holding her gown, and the fox walks round them. 

(c) This game appears to represent a village (by the players 
standing still in circle form), and from the dialogue the chil- 
dren not only represent the village, but sheep or chickens 
belonging to it. The other two players are one a watchman 
or shepherd, and the other a wolf, fox, or other depredatory 
animal. The sheep may possibly be supposed to be in the 
pound or fold ; the thief comes over the boundaries from a 
neighbouring village or forest to steal the sheep at night ; 
the watchman or shepherd, although at first apparently 
deceived by the wolf, discovers the loss, and a fight ensues, 
in which the thief gets the worse, and some of the animals, 
if not all, are supposed to be recovered. The names used 
in the game, pen pound, pinfold, fold, stone wall, sunny 
wall, sandy path, gravel path, sheep fold, garden, house, 
are all indications that a village and its surroundings is 
intended to be represented, and this game differs in that 
respect from the ordinary Fox and Geese and Hen and 
Chickens games, in which no mention is made of these. 



WIDOW 381 



Halliwell records two versions (Nursery Rhymes, pp. 61, 68). 
The words and method of playing are the same as some of those 
recorded above. There is also a version in Suffolk County Folk- 
lore, pp. 65, 66, which beginning with " Who's going round 
my little stony wall ? " after the sheep are all stolen, continues 
with a dialogue, which forms a part of the game of "Witch." 
The Rev. W. S. Sykes sends one from Settle, Yorkshire, the 
words of which are the same as No. XIV., except that the last 
line has "just one" instead of "buy one." Mr. Newell gives 
a version played b}' American children. 

Widow 

I. One poor widder all left alone, 

Only one daughter to marry at home, 

Chews [choose] for the worst, and chews for the best, 

And chews the one that yew [you] love best. 

Now you're married, I wish ye good joy, 

Ivery year a gal or a boy ! 

If one 'ont dew, ye must hev tew, 

So pray, young couple, kiss te'gither. 

Swaffham, Norfolk (Miss Matthews). 

II. Here is a poor widow who is left alone, 
And all her children married and gone ; 
Come choose the east, come choose the west, 
Come choose the one you love the best. 

Now since you've got married, I wish you joy, 
Every year a girl and boy ; 
Love one another like sister and brother, 
I pray you couple come kiss together. 

Perth (Rev. W. Gregor). 

III. One poor widow was left alone, 

Daughter, daughter, marry at home ; 
Choose the worst, or choose the best, 
Choose the young gentleman you love best. 

Now you are married, I wish you joy, 
Father and mother, you must obey, 



382 WIDOW 



Love one another like sister and brother, 
And now, young couple, come kiss together. 

Bexley Heath (Miss Morris.) 

IV. One poor widow is left all alone, all alone, all alone, 
Choose the worst, and choose the best, 
And choose the one that you like best. 

Now she's married I wish her joy, 
Her father and mother she must obey, 
Love one another like sisters and brothers, 
And now it's time to go away. 

Suffolk County Folk-lore, p. 67. 

V. One poor widow was left alone, 

She had but one daughter to marry alone ; 
Come choose the worst, come choose the best, 
Come choose the young girl that you like best. 

Maxey, Northants (Rev. W. D. Sweeting). 

VI. Here's a poor widow she's left alone, 
She has got nothing to marry upon ; 
Come choose to the east, come choose to the west, 
Come choose the one that you love best. 

Now they're married, we wish them joy, 
Every year a girl and a boy ; 
Seven years old, seven years to come, 
Now kiss the couple, and that's well done. 

Auchterarder, N.B. (Miss E. S. Haldane). 

(b) The children form a ring by joining hands. One player 
stands in the centre. The ring dance round singing the first 
verse ; the widow then chooses one player from the ring, who 
goes into the centre with her, and the ring dances round 
singing the second part. The one first in the centre then 
joins the ring, and the second player becomes the widow and 
chooses in her turn. 

This belongs to the marriage group of Kiss in the Ring 
games. Northall {English Folk Rhymes, p. 374), gives a 
version similar to the above. 

See " Kiss in the Ring," " Poor Widow," " Sally Water," 
" Silly Young Man." 



WIGGLE-WAGGLEWILD BIRDS 383 

Wiggle-Waggle 

The players sit round a table under the presidency of a 
" Buck." Each person has his ringers clenched, and the 
thumb extended. Buck from time to time calls out as suits 
his fancy : " Buck says, Thumbs up ! " or, " Buck says, 
Thumbs down ! " or, " Wiggle-waggle ! " If he says " Thumbs 
up ! " he places both hands on the table, with the thumbs 
sticking straight up. If "Thumbs down ! " he rests his thumbs 
on the table with his hands up. If "Wiggle-waggle!" he 
places his hands as in " Thumbs up ! " but wags his thumbs 
nimbly. Everybody at the table has to follow the word of 
command on the instant, and any who fail to do so are liable 
to a forfeit. Evan's Leicestershire Words. 

See " Horns." 

Wild Boar 

" Shoeing the Wild Boar," a game in which the player sits 
cross-legged on a beam or pole, each of the extremities of 
which is placed or swung in the eyes of a rope suspended 
from the back tree of an outhouse. The person uses a switch, 
as if in the act of whipping up a horse; when being thus 
unsteadily mounted, he is most apt to lose his balance. If 
he retains it, he is victor over those who fail. Teviotdale 
(Jamieson). 

Wild Birds 

"All the Wild Birds in the Air," the name of a game in 
which one acts the dam of a number of birds, who gives 
distinct names of birds, such as are generally known to all 
that are engaged in the sport. The person who opposes tries 
to guess the name of each individual. When he errs he is 
subject to a stroke on the back. When he guesses right he 
carries away on his back that bird, which is subjected to a 
blow from each of the rest. When he has discovered and 
carried off the whole, he has gained the game. Jamieson. 
Jamieson adds that this sport seems only to be retained in 
Abernethy, Perthshire; and it is probable, from the antiquity 
of the place, that it is very ancient. 

See "All the Birds in the Air," "Fool, Fool." 



384 WILLIE, WILLIE WASTELL WIND UP, 



Willie, Willie Wastell 

Willie, Willie Wastell, 
I am on your castle, 
A' the dogs in the toun 
Winna pu' Willie doun. 

Like Willie, Willie Wastel, 

I am in my castel 

A' the dogs in the toun 

Dare not ding me doun. Jamieson. 

A writer in the Gentlemen s Magazine for 1822, Part I. 
p. 401, says that the old distich 

" Willy, Willy Waeshale ! 

Keep off my castle," 

used in the North in the game of limbo, contains the true etymon 
of the adjective " Willy." 

The same game as " Tom Tiddler's Ground." It is played 
in the same way. Jamieson says the second rhyme given 
shows that the rhyme was formerly repeated by the player 
holding the castle, and not, as now, by the opposing players. 

See "King of the Castle," "Tom Tiddler's Ground." 

Wind up the Bush Faggot 

Andante , with determined deliberation. 







Repeat from beginning till all are wound up. 
Allegro, with unbounded vigour. 




Note. ( i ) The simplicity of time and no dotted notes, also change of key for \ music. 
(2) The game unites common and triple time very successfully. 

(3) Notwithstanding the injunction it is best not to wind up too tight. 

Essex (Miss Bendy). 

In the Essex game all the players join hands and form a 
long line. They should stand in sizes, the tallest should be 



WIND UP THE BUSH FAGGOT 385 

the first, and should stand quite still. All the rest walk round 
this tallest one, singing 

Wind up the bush faggot, and wind it up tight, 

Wind it all day and again at night, 

to the first part of the tune given that in three-eight time. 
This is to be repeated until all the players are wound round 
the centre or tallest player, in a tight coil. Then they all 
sing 

Stir up the dumplings, the pot boils over, 

to the second part of the tune in 2-4 time. This is repeated, 
all jumping simultaneously to the changed time, until there 
is a general scrimmage, with shrieking and laughter, and a 
break up. The players should look somewhat like a watch 



spring. ((?)))) As soon as the last one is wound up, no 




matter in what part of the 3-8 time music they may be, they 
leave off and begin to jump up and down, and sing to the 
2-4 music. Essex (Miss Dendy). 

This game is called "Wind up the Watch " in Wolstanton, 
North Staffordshire Potteries, and is played in the same manner. 
The words are only, "Wind up the Watch," and are said. 
When all the players are wound up they begin to unwind, 
saying, "Unwind the Watch." Miss Bush. Called "Wind 
up Jack " in Shropshire. It is the closing game of any play- 
time, and was played before " breaking-up " at a boys' school 
at Shrewsbury, 185056. The players form a line hand in 
hand, the tallest at one end, who stands still; the rest walk 
round and round him or her, saying, " Wind up Jack ! Wind 
up Jack ! " (or at Ellesmere, " Roll up the tobacco-box "), till 
"Jack" is completely imprisoned. They then "jog up and 
down," crying, "A bundle o' rags, a bundle o' rags!" Ber- 
rington, Ellesmere (Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 521). 

In Scotland the game is known as " Row-chow-Tobacco ; " 
a long chain of boys hold each other by the hands : they have 
one standing steadily at one of the extremities, who is called 
the Pin. Round him the rest coil like a watch chain round 
the cylinder, till the act of winding is completed. A clamorous 

VOL. II. 2 B 



3 86 WIND UP THE BUSH FAGGOT 

noise succeeds, in which the cry Row-chow-Tobacco prevails ; 
after giving and receiving fat fraternal hug } they disperse, and 
afterwards renew the process. In West of Scotland, it is 
Rowity-chow-o'-Tobacco, pronounced, rowity-chowity-bacco, 
and as the first syllable of each word is shouted, another hug 
or squeeze is given. The game is not so common as formerly. 
The same game is played in West Cornwall by Sunday-school 
children at their out - of- door treats, and is called " Roll 
Tobacco." 

It is known as "The Old Oak Tree" in Lincoln, Kelsey, 
and Winterton, and is played in the same manner. When 
coiling round, the children sing 

Round and round the old oak tree : 
I love the girls and the girls love me. 

When they have twisted into a closely-packed crowd they 
dance up and down, tumbling on each other, crying 
A bottle of rags, a bottle of rags. 

In the Anderby and Nottinghamshire version of the game 
the children often sing 

The old oak tree grows thicker and thicker every Monday 
morning. Miss M. Peacock. 

In Mid-Cornwall, in the second week in June, at St. Roche, 
and in one or two adjacent parishes, a curious dance is per- 
formed at the annual " feasts." It enjoys the rather un- 
dignified name of " Snails Creep," but would be more properly 
called the " Serpent's Coil." The following is scarcely a perfect 
description of it: "The young people being all assembled in 
a large meadow, the village band strikes up a simple but lively 
air and marches forward, followed by the whole assemblage, 
leading hand -in-hand (or more closely linked in case of engaged 
couples), the whole keeping time to the tune with a lively step. 
The band, or head of the serpent, keeps marching in an ever- 
narrowing circle, whilst its train of dancing followers becomes 
coiled round it in circle after circle. It is now that the most 
interesting part of the dance commences, for the band, taking 
a sharp turn about, begins to retrace the circle, still followed as 
before, and a number of young men, with long leafy branches 
in their hands as standards, direct this counter movement with 



WIND, THE 387 



almost military precision." W. C. Wade (Western Antiquary, 
April 1 88 1). 

From this description of the "Snail Creep," it is not diffi- 
cult to arrive at an origin for the game. It has evidently 
arisen from a custom of performing some religious observance, 
such as encircling sacred trees or stones, accompanied by song 
and dance. " On May Day, in Ireland, all the young men and 
maidens hold hands and dance in a circle round a tree hung 
with ribbons and garlands, or round a bonfire, moving in curves 
from right to left, as if imitating the windings of a serpent. "- 
Wilde (Ancient Cures, Charms, and Usages of Ireland, 106). 

It is easy to conjecture how the idea of " winding up a 
watch," or " rolling tobacco," would come in, and be thought 
the origin of the game from the similarity of action ; but it is, 
I think, evident that this is not the case, from the words " a 
bundle o' rags," the mention of trees, and the "jogging" up 
and down, to say nothing of the existence of customs in 
Ireland and Wales similar to that of " Snail Creep." It is 
noticeable, too, that some of these games should be connected 
with trees, and that, in the " Snail Creep " dance the young 
men should carry branches of trees with them. 

See " Bulliheisle," " Eller Tree." 

Wind, The 

I. The wind, the wind, the wind blows high, 
The rain comes pouring from the sky ; 
Miss So-and-So says she'd die 
For the sake of the old man's eye. 
She is handsome, she is pretty, 
She is the lass of the golden city ; 
She goes courting one, two, three, 
Please to tell me who they be. 
A. B. says he loves her, 
All the boys are fighting for her, 
Let the boys say what they will 
A. B. has got her still. 

Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire (Miss Matthews). 

II. The wind, wind blows, and the rain, rain goes, 
And the clouds come gathering from the sky ! 



388 WIND, THE 



Annie Dingleys very, very pretty, 
She is a girl of a noble city ; 
She's the girl of one, two, three, 
Pray come tell me whose she'll be. 

Johnny Tildersley says he loves her, 
All the boys are fighting for her, 
All the girls think nothing of her. 
Let the boys say what they will, 
Johnny Tildersley *s got her still. 

He takes her by the lily-white hand 

And leads her over the water, 
Gives her kisses one, two, three, 
Mrs. Dinglefs daughter ! 
Berrington, Eccleshall (Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 510). 

III. When the wind blows high, 
When the wind blows high, 

The rain comes peltering from the sky. 

She is handsome, she is pretty, 

She is the girl in all the city. 

She [He ?] comes courting one, two, three, 

Pray you tell me who she be. 

I love her, I love her, 

All the boys are fighting for her. 

Let them all say what they will, 

I shall love her always still. 

She pulled off her gloves to show me her ring, 

To-morrow, to-morrow, the wedding bells ring. 

Cowes, Isle of Wight (Miss E. Smith). 

IV. The wind, the wind, the wind blows high, 
The rain comes falling from the sky. 

She is handsome, she is pretty, 
She is the girl of London city. 
She goes a courting one, two, three, 
Please will you tell me who is he ? 
[Boy's name] says he loves her. 
All the boys are fighting for her. 
Let the boys do what they will, 



WIND, THE 389 

[Boy's name] has got her still. 

He knocks at the knocker and he rings at the bell, 

Please, Mrs. , is your daughter in ? 

She's neither ways in, she's neither ways out, 
She's in the back parlour walking about. 
Out she came as white as snow, 
With a rose in her breast as soft as silk. 
Please, my dear, will 3^011 have a drop of this ? 
No, my dear, I'd rather have a kiss. 

Settle, Yorks. (Rev. W. G. Sykes). 

V. The wind, the wind, the wind blows high, 
The rain comes sparkling from the sky, 
[A girl's name] says she'll die 
For a lad with a rolling eye. 
She is handsome, she is pretty, 
She is the flower of the golden city. 
She's got lovers one, two, three. 
Come, pray, and tell me who they be. 
[A boy's name] says he'll have her, 
Some one else is waiting for her. 
Lash the whip and away we go 
To see Newcastle races, oh. 

Tyrie (Rev. W. Gregor). 
[Another version after 

says he'll have her, 



In his bosom he will clap her.] 
[Another one after 

She has got lovers one, two, three, 
continues 

Wait till [a boy's name] grows some bigger, 

He will ride her in his giggie. 

Lash your whip and away you go 

To see Newcastle races, O !] 

Pittulie (Rev. W. Gregor). 
[And another version gives 

says she'll die 

For the want of the golden eye.] 

Fochabers (Rev. W. Gregor). 



39 



WINK-EGG 



VI. The wind blows high, and the wind blows low, 
The snow comes scattering down below. 

Is not very very pretty ? 

She is the flower of one, two, three. 
Please to tell me who is he. 

says he loves her, 

All the boys are fighting for her. 
Let the boys say what they will, 
loves her still. Perth (Rev. W. Gregor). 

A ring is formed by the children joining hands, one player 
standing in the centre. When asked, " Please tell me who 
they be," the girl in the middle gives the name or initials of. a 
boy in the ring (or vice versa). The ring then sings the rest 
of the words, and the boy who was named goes into the centre. 
This is the Forest of Dean way of playing. In the Shropshire 
game, at the end of the first verse the girl in the centre beckons 
one from the ring, or one volunteers to go into the centre ; the 
ring continues singing, and at the end the two children kiss ; 
the first one joins the ring, and the other chooses in his turn. 
The other versions are played in the same way. 

Northall (English Folk-Rhymes, p. 380) gives a version from 
Warwickshire very similar. 

Wink-egg 

Elworthy ( West Somerset Words) says When a nest is 
found boys shout, " Let's play ' Wink-egg.' " An egg is placed 
on the ground, and a boy goes back three paces from it, holding 
a stick in his hand ; he then shuts his eyes, and takes two 
paces towards the egg and strikes a blow on the ground with 
the stick the object being to break the egg. If he misses, 
another tries, and so on until all the eggs are smashed. In 
Cornwall it is called " Winky-eye," and is played in the spring. 
An egg taken from a bird's nest is placed on the ground, at 
some distance off the number of paces having been previously 
fixed. Blindfolded, one after the other, the players attempt 
with a stick to hit and break it. Folk-lore Journal, v. 61. 

See " Blind Man's Stan." 



WITCH, THE 391 



Witch, The 

This game is played by nine children. One is chosen as 
Mother, seven are chosen for her children, and the other is a 
Witch. The Mother and Witch stand opposite the seven chil- 
dren. The Mother advances and names the children by the 
days of the week, saying 

Sunday, take care of Monday, 
Monday, take care of Tuesday, 
Tuesday, take care of Wednesday, 
Wednesday, take care of Thursday, 
Thursday, take care of Friday, 
Friday, take care of Saturday. 

Take care the Old Witch does not catch you, and I'll bring 
you something nice. 

The Mother then goes away, and the Witch advances 
saying- 
Sunday, your mother sent me for your best bonnet, she 
wants to get one like it for Monday. It is up in the top long 
drawer, fetch it quick. 

Sunday goes away, and the Witch then seizes Saturday and 
runs off with her. 

The Mother re-enters, and names the children again, Sun- 
day, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, misses 
Saturday, and says 

Where's Saturday ? 

The children all cry and say 

The Old Witch has got her. 

This part is then repeated until the Witch has taken all the 
children and put them in a corner one by one, and stands in 
front to guard them. The Mother sets out to find the children, 
she sees the Old Witch, and says to her 

Have you seen my children ? 

Witch. Yes, I saw them walking down High Street. 

Mother then goes away, does not find them, and comes 
back asking 

Have you seen my children ? 

W. Yes, I saw them going to school. 



392 WITCH, THE 



Mother then goes away, does not find them, and comes back 
asking 

Have you seen my children ? 

W. Yes, they are gone to church. 

Mother again goes away, does not find them, and comes back 
asking 

Have you seen my children ? 

W. They are having dinner you can't see them. 

Mother again goes away, does not find them, and comes back 
asking 

Have you seen my children ? 

W. They are in bed. 

M. Can't I go up and see them ? 

W. Your shoes are too dirty. 

M. Can't I take them off? 

W. Your stockings are too dirty. 

M. Can't I take them off? 

W. Your feet are too dirty. 

M. Can't I cut them off? 

W. The blood would run on the floor. 

M. Can't I wrap them up in a blanket ? 

W. The fleas would hop out. 

M. Can't I wrap them up in a sheet ? 

W. The sheet is too white. 

M. Can't I ride up in a carriage ? 

W. You would break the stairs down. 

The children then burst out from behind the Witch and they 
and the Mother run after her, crying out, " Burn the Old Witch." 
They continue chasing the Witch till she is caught, and the 
child who succeeds in catching her, takes the part of the Witch 
in the next game. Dartmouth (Miss Kimber). 

The children choose from their party an Old Witch (who is 
supposed to hide herself) and a Mother. The other players 
are the daughters, and are called by the names of the week. 
The Mother says that she is going to market, and will bring 
home for each the thing that she most wishes for. Upon this 
they all name something. Then, after telling them upon no 
account to allow any one to come into the house, she gives her 



WITCH, THE 393 



children in charge of her eldest daughter, Sunday, and goes 
away. In a moment, the Witch makes her appearance, and 
asks to borrow some trifle. 

Sunday at first refuses, but, after a short parley, goes into 
the next room to fetch the required article. In her absence 
the Witch steals the youngest of the children (Saturday), and 
runs off with her. Sunday, on her return, seeing that the 
Witch has left, thinks there must be something wrong, and 
counts the children, saying, " Monday, Tuesday," &c., until 
she comes to Saturday, who is missing. She then pretends to 
cry, wrings her hands, and sobs out "Mother will beat me 
when she comes home." 

On the Mother's return, she, too, counts the children, and 
finding Saturday gone, asks Sunday where she is. Sunday 
answers, "Oh, mother! an Old Witch called, and asked to 

borrow , and, whilst I was fetching it, she ran off with 

Saturday." The Mother scolds and beats her, tells her to be 
more careful in the future, and again sets off for the market. 
This is repeated until all the children but Sunday have been 
stolen. Then the Mother and Sunday, hand in hand, go off 
to search for them. They meet the Old Witch, who has them 
all crouching down in a line behind her. 

Mother. Have you seen my children ? 

Old Witch. Yes ! I think by Eastgate. 

The Mother and Sunday retire, as if to go there, but, not find- 
ing them, again return to the Witch, who this time sends them 
to Westgate, then to Southgate and Northgate. At last one of 
the children pops her head up over the Witch's shoulder, and 
cries out, "Here we are, Mother." Then follows this 
dialogue : 

M. I see my children, may I go in ? 

O. W. No ! your boots are too dirty. 

M. I will take them off. 

O. W. Your stockings are too dirty. 

M. I will take them off. 

O. W. Your feet are too dirty. 

M. I will cut them off. 

O. W. Then the blood will stream over the floor. 



394 WITCH, THE 



The Mother at this loses patience, and pushes her way in, the 
Witch trying in vain to keep her out. She, with all her chil- 
dren, then chase the Witch until they catch her ; when they 
pretend to bind her hand and foot, put her on a pile, and burn 
her, the children fanning the imaginary flames with their pina- 
fores. Sometimes the dialogue after " Here we are, mother," 
is omitted, and the Witch is at once chased. Cornwall (Folk- 
lore Journal ', v. 53~54)- 

One child represents an old woman who is blind, and has 
eight children. She says she is going to market, and bids her 
eldest daughter let no one into the house in her absence. The 
eldest daughter promises. Then a second old woman knocks, 
and bribes the daughter, by the promise of a gay ribbon, to 
give her a light. Whilst the daughter is getting the light, the 
Witch steals a child anci carries it off. 

The daughter comes back, and makes all the other children 
promise not to tell their Mother. The Mother returns and 
says : " Are all the children safe ? " 

The daughter says, "Yes." "Then let me count them." 
The children stand in a row, and the Mother counts by placing 
her hands alternately on their heads. The eldest daughter 
runs round to the bottom of the row, and so is counted twice. 

This is repeated until all the children are gone. At the end 
the eldest daughter runs away, and the Mother finds all her 
children gone. Then the Witch asks the old woman to dinner, 
and the children, who have covered their faces, are served up as 
beef, mutton, lamb, &c. Finally they throw off their coverings 
and a general scrimmage takes place. London (Miss Dendy). 

At Deptford the game is played in the same way, and the 
dialogue is similar to the Cornish version, then follows 
I'll ride in a pan. 
That will do. 

The Mother gets inside to her children and says to them in 
turn, " Poke out your tongue, you're one of mine," then they 
run away home. Deptford (Miss Chase). 

In another Deptford version the children are named for days 
of the week, the Mother goes out, and the Witch calls and asks 
Please you, give me a match. 



WITCH, THE 395 

The minder goes upstairs, and the Witch carries a child off. 
The Mother comes home, misses child, and asks 
Where's Monday ? 
She's gone to her grandma. 
Mother pretends to look for her, and says 
She ain't there. 
She's gone to her aunt's. 
Children own at last 

The bonny Old Witch has took her ! 

The Mother beats the Daughter who has been so careless, 
goes to Witch, and says 

Have you any blocks of wood ? 

No. 

Can I come in and see ? 

No, your boots are too dirty, &c. 

[Same as previous versions.] 

A number of girls stand in a line. Three girls out of the 
number represent Mother, Jack, and Daughter. The Mother 
leaves her children in charge of her Daughter, counts them, 
and says the following : 

I am going into the garden to gather some rue, 
And mind old Jack-daw don't get you, 
Especially you my daughter Sue, 
I'll beat you till you're black and blue. 

While the Mother is gone Jack comes and asks for a match ; 
he takes a child and hides her up. The Mother comes back, 
counts her children, and finds one missing. Then she asks 
where she is, and the Daughter says that Jack has got her. 
The Mother beats the Daughter, and leaves them again, saying 
the same words as before, until all the children have gone. 
Ipswich (Suffolk Folk-lore, p. 62). 

I'll charge my children every one 
To keep good house till I come home, 
Especially you my daughter Sue, 
Or else I'll beat you black and blue. 

Hersham, Surrey (Folk-lore Record, v. 88). 

Halliwell gives a version of this which he calls the game of 
the " Gipsy." He gives no dialogue, but his game begins by 



396 WITTE-WITTE-WAY WOLF 

the Mother saying some lines to the eldest daughter, which are 
almost identical with those given from Hersham, Surrey. Mr. 
Newell gives some interesting American versions. 

This game appears in the versions given above to be a child- 
stealing game, and it may originate from this being a common 
practice some years ago, but it will be found on comparison 
to be so much like " Mother, mother, the pot boils over" (vol. i. 
p. 396) that it is more probable that this is the same game, 
having lost the important element of the " giving of fire," or a 
" light from the fire " out of the house, so soon as the idea that 
doing this put the inhabitants of the house into the power of 
the receiver or some evil spirit had become lost as a popular 
belief. " Matches" being asked for and a "light" confirms 
this. It will be seen that a Witch or evilly-disposed person 
is dreaded by the Mother, the eldest Daughter being specially 
charged to keep a good look-out. The naming of the children 
after the days of the week, the counting of them by the Mother, 
and the artifice of the eldest Daughter, in the London version, 
who gets counted twice, are archaic points. The discovery by 
tasting of the children by their Mother, and their suggested 
revival; the catching and "burning" of the Witch in the 
Dartmouth and Cornish games, are incidents familiar to us 
from nursery tales and from the trials of people condemned for 
witchcraft. Of the Cornish version it is said that " it has 
descended from generation to generation." 

Mr. Newell's versions tend, I think, to strengthen my sug- 
gestion in " Mother, the pot boils over," that the " fire " custom 
alluded to is the origin of that game and this. The fire incident 
has been forgotten, and the game therefore developed into a 
child-stealing or gipsy game. 

See " Mother, Mother." 

Witte-Witte-Way 

A game among boys, which I do not remember in the 
South. Brockett's North Country Words. Probably the same 
as " Whiddy," which see. 

Wolf 

I. Sheep, sheep, come home ! 
We dare not. 



WOLF 397 



What are you frightened of? 

The wolf. 

The wolf has gone home for seven days, 

Sheep, sheep, come home. 

Settle, Yorks. (Rev. W. S. Sykes). 

II. Sheep, sheep, come home ! 
I'm afraid. 
What of? 
The wolf. 

The wolfs gone into Derbyshire, 
And won't be back till six o'clock. 
Sheep, sheep, come home. 

Hanbury, Staffordshire (Miss Edith Hollis). 

III. Sheep, sheep, go out ! 
I'm afraid. 

What you're 'fraid of? 

Wolf. 

Wolf has gone to Devonshire ; 

Won't be back for seven year. 

Sheep, sheep, go out ! 

Hurstmonceux, Sussex, as played about forty 
years ago (M ss E. Chase). 

IV. Sheep, sheep, come home ! 
I'm afraid. 

What of? 

The wolf. 

The wolf 's gone to Devonshire, 

And won't be back for seven year. 

Sheep, sheep, come home. 

Anderby (Miss M. Peacock), Barnes (A. B. Gomme). 

V., VI. Won't be back for eleven year. 

Nottinghamshire (Miss M. Peacock). 
Marlborough, Wilts (H. S. May). 

(b] One player acts as Shepherd, and stands at one side of the 
playground or field ; another acts as Wolf. He crouches in one 
corner, or behind a post or tree. The other players are sheep, 
and stand close together on the opposite side of the ground to 
the Shepherd. The Shepherd advances and calls the sheep. 



39 8 WOLF 



At the end of the dialogue the sheep run across to the Shepherd 
and the Wolf pounces out, chases, and tries to catch them. 
Whoever he catches has to stand aside until all are caught. 
The game is played in this way in all versions sent me except 
Hurstmonceux, where there is the following addition : The 
Wolf chases until he has caught all the sheep, and put them in 
his den. He then pretends to taste them, and sets them aside 
as needing more salt. The Shepherd or Mother comes after 
them, and the sheep cover their heads with their aprons. The 
Mother guesses the name of each child, saying, " This is my 
daughter . Run away home !" until she has freed them all. 

Versions of this game, almost identical with the Anderby 
version, have been collected from Sporle, Norfolk (Miss Mat- 
thews) ; Crockham Hill, Kent (Miss E. Chase) ; Hersham, 
Surrey (Folk-lore Record, v. p. 88); Maryborough, Wilts (H. S. 
May) ; Ash and Barnes, Surrey (A. B. Gomme). In Notting- 
hamshire, Derbyshire is the place the wolf is said to have gone 
to. Mr M. L. Rouse sends the following fuller description of 
the game as played at Woolpit, near Haughley, Suffolk, which 
gives, I think, the clue to the earlier idea of the game : 

The game was played out of doors in a meadow. Two long 
parallel lines were drawn about fifty yards apart, forming bases 
behind them. Two boys stood some distance apart between 
the bases, and the rest of the players all stood within one base. 
One of the two boys in the centre acting as decoy cried " Sheep, 
sheep, come home ! " The sheep represented by the boys in 
the base cried back, " We can't, we're afraid of the Wolf." The 
decoy then said 

The wolf's gone to Devonshire, 
And won't be back for seven year. 
Sheep, sheep, come home. 

The sheep then made rushes from different points, and tried 
to get across to the other base. The other player in the centre 
tried to catch the sheep as they ran. Those caught joined 
the side of the wolf, and caught others in their turn. 

It appears clear that the " Decoy " is the correct character 
in this game instead of a " shepherd " or " master," as now given. 



WOLF AND LAMB WOULD YOU KNOW, &c. 399 

The decoy is evidently assuming the character and voice of 
the shepherd, or shepherd's dog, to induce the sheep to leave 
the fold where they are protected, in order to pounce upon 
them as they endeavour to go in the direction the voice calls 
them. The game owes its origin to times and places, when 
wolves were prowling about at night, and sheep were penned 
and protected against them by shepherds and watch-dogs. 

Wolf and the Lamb, The 

Two are chosen one to represent the wolf and the other 
the lamb. The other players join hands and form a circle 
round the lamb. The wolf tries to break through the circle, 
and carry off the lamb. Those in the circle do all they can to 
prevent the wolf from entering within the circle. If he manages 
to enter the circle and seize the lamb, then other two are 
chosen, and the same process is gone through till all have got 
a chance of being the lamb and wolf. This game evidently 
represents a lamb enclosed in a fold, and the attempts of a wolf 
to break through and carry it off. 

Fraserburgh, Aberdeen, April 14, 1892 (Rev. W. Gregor). 

Would you know how doth the Peasant 










Monton, Lancashire (Miss Dendy). 
Would you know how doth the peasant ? 
Would you know how doth the peasant ? 
Would you know how doth the peasant 
Sow his barley and wheat ! 

And it's so, so, doth the peasant, 
And it's so, so, doth the peasant, 
And it's so, so, doth the peasant 
Sow his barley and wheat ! 

Would you know how doth the peasant, &c., 
Reap his barley and wheat ? 



400 WOULD YOU KNOW HOW DOTH THE PEASANT 

It is so, so, doth the peasant, &c. ; 
Reap his barley and wheat ! 

Would you know how doth the peasant, &c., 
Thresh his barley and wheat ? 

It is so, so, doth the peasant, &c., 
Thresh his barley and wheat ! 

Would you know how doth the peasant, &c., 
When the seed time is o'er ? 

It is so, so, doth the peasant, &c., 
When the seed time is o'er ! 

Would you know how doth the peasant, &c., 
When his labour is done ? 

It is so, so, doth the peasant, &c. ; 
When his labour is done ! 

And it's so, so, doth the peasant, 
And it's so, so, doth the peasant, 
And it's so, so, doth the peasant, 
When his labour is o'er. 

Monton, Lancashire (Miss Dendy). 

II. It is so, so, does the peasant [or, farmer], 
It is so, so, does the peasant, 
It is so, so, does the peasant, 
When sowing times come. 

It is so, so, does the peasant, &c., 
When reaping time comes. 
It is so, so does the peasant, &c., 
When his threshing times comes. 

It is so, so, does the peasant, &c., 

When the hunting's begun. 

It is so, so does the peasant, &c., 

When the day's work is done. 

Frodingham, Lincoln and Notts (Miss M. Peacock). 

(c) The leader of this game stands in the middle, the players 
stand in a ring round him ; when there are a sufficient number 
of players, several rings are formed one within the other, 
the smallest children in the inner ring. The different rings 



WOULD YOU KNOW HOW DOTH THE PEASANT 401 

move in alternate directions when dancing round. All the 
children sing the words of each verse and dance round. They 
unclasp hands at the end of each alternate verse, and suit their 
actions to the words sung. At the end of the first verse they 
stand still, crook their arms as if holding a basket, and imitate 
action of sowing while they sing the second verse ; they then all 
dance round while they sing the third, then stand still again 
and imitate reaping while they sing the fourth time. Then 
again dance and sing, stand still and imitate " thrashing" of 
barley and wheat; after "seed time is o'er," they drop on 
one knee and lift one hand as if in prayer, again dancing 
round and singing. Then they kneel on one knee, put their 
hands together, lay their left cheek on them, and close their 
eyes as if asleep; while singing, "when his labour is o'er," at 
the last verse, they all march round, clapping hands in time. 

This is the Monton game. The Frodingham game is played 
in the same way, except that the children walk round in a 
circle, one behind another, when they sing and imitate the 
actions they mention. "When the hunting's begun" they 
all run about as if on horseback; "when the day's work is 
done," they all kneel on one knee and rest their heads on 
their hands. 

This game is evidently a survival of the custom of dancing, 
and of imitating the actions necessary for the sowing and reap- 
ing of grain which were customary at one time. Miss Dendy 
says " It is an undoubtedly old Lancashire game. It is some- 
times played by as many as a hundred players, and is then 
very pretty. The method of playing varies slightly, but it is 
generally as described above." The fact that this game was 
played by such a large number of young people together, 
points conclusively to a time when it was a customary thing 
for all the people in one village to play this game as a kind 
of religious observance, to bring a blessing on the work of 
the season, believing that by doing so, they caused the crops 
to grow better and produce grain in abundance. 

See " Oats and Beans and Barley." 



VOL. II. 2 C 



ADDENDA 



A' the Birdies. [See "All the Birds," vol. i. p. 2 ; " Oranges and 
Lemons," vol. ii. pp. 25-35.] 

A' the birdies i' the air 
Tick tae to my tail. 

A contest game of the oranges and lemons class. Two 
players, who hold hands and form the arch, call out the 
formula, and the other players, who are running about indif- 
ferently, go one by one to them and decide, when asked, which 
side they will favour, and stand behind one or the other. 

After the tug the side which has lost is called "Rotten 
eggs, rotten eggs." Aberdeen (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

All the Boys. [Vol. i. pp. 2-6.] 

Two versions of this game, one from Howth and another 
from St. Andrews, sent me by Miss H. E. Harvey, do not 
differ sufficiently from the versions i. and ii. printed as above 
to be given here in full. 

The St. Andrews game, after the line, 

" I love you, and you love me " 
(as printed in vol. i. version ii.), continues 

When we get married, I hope you will agree, 

I'll buy the chest of drawers, you'll buy the cradle. 

Rock, rock, bubbly-jock, 

Send her upstairs, lay her in her bed, 

Send for the doctor before she is dead. 

In comes the doctor and out goes the clerk, 

In comes the mannie with the sugarally hat. 

Oh, says the doctor, what's the matter here ? 

Oh, says Johnny, I'm like to lose my dear. 

Oh, says the doctor, nae fear o' that. 

403 



404 ADDENDA 



American Post. 

One player of a party acts as post and leaves the room. 
When he is outside he knocks at the door. Another player, 
who is the doorkeeper (inside), calls out, "Who's there?" 
The reply is, " American post." " What with ? " " A letter." 
" For whom ? " The name of one of the players in the room 
is given by the post. The one named then must go outside, 
and kiss the post, and in turn becomes post. Fraserburgh 
(Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

This, sometimes called " Postman," is now more generally 
played as a penalty when forfeits are being performed. The 
player whose penalty it is, is the first one to be "post." 
Postage is demanded, the amount being paid by kisses. 

As I was Walking-. 

The players, usually girls, stand in line up to a wall. One 
in front sings, going backwards and forwards. 

As I was walking down a hill, down a hill, down a hill, 

As I was walking down a hill, 

Upon a frosty morning. 

Who do you think I met coming down, coming down, &c., 

Who do you think I met, &c. 
She then chooses one from the line and both sing : 

I met my true love coming down, &c. 

He gave me kisses, one, two, three (clap hands), 

Upon a frosty morning. 

Cullen (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Auld Grannie. [A version of "Hen and Chickens," vol. i. pp. 

201, 202.] 

Here a variation of dialogue occurs. The game is played as 
previous Hen and Chicken games. The Hen says 

What are ye scrapin' for ? 
Auld grannie says 
A darning needle ? 

What are ye going to do with the darning needle ? 
Mak a poke. 
What to do with the poke ? 



ADDENDA 405 



To gang to the peat moss to get some peats. 

What for ? 

To make a fire, to make some tea, to pour over your wee 

chickens. 

Auld grannie rushes at them, and pretends to throw the water 
over them. When she has caught some players, and the sides 
are about equal in strength, the game ends in a tug of war. 
Dairy, Galloway (J. G. Carter.) 

Another, called " Grannie's Needle," has a slightly different 
parley. 

What are you looking for, granny ? 

My granny's needle. 

What are you going to do with the needle, granny ? 

To make a bag. 

And what are you going to do with the bag, granny ? 

To gather sand. 

What are you going to do with the sand, granny ? 

To sharpen knives. 

And what are you going to do with the knives, granny ? 

To cut off your chickens' heads. 

Belfast (W. H. Patterson). 

Ball. [Pots, vol. ii. p. 64.] 

1. Throw the ball up against a wall three times and catch it. 

2. Throw it up and clap hands three times before catching it. 

3. Throw it up and put your hands round in a circle. 

4. Throw it up and clap your hands before and behind. 

5. Throw it up and clap and touch your shoulder. 

6. Throw it up and clap and touch your other shoulder. 

7. Throw it up three times with your right hand and catch 
it with your right. 

8. Throw it up with your left and catch it with your left. 

9. Throw it up with your right and catch it with your right, 
dog snack fashion (i.e. as a dog snacks, knuckles up). 

10. Throw it up with your left and catch it with your left 
(dog snack). 

1 1. Throw it up and clap and touch your knee. 

12. Throw it up and clap and touch your other knee. 



406 ADDENDA 



13. Throw it up and turn round. 

These actions should each be performed three times. 
Laurieston School, Kircudbrightshire (J. Lawson). 
This is a more complete version of " Pots." 
Another game is 

One girl takes a ball, strikes it on the ground, and keeps 
pushing it down with her hand. While she is doing this, the 
other players stand beside her, and keeping unison with the 
ball, repeat 

Game, game, ba' ba', 
Twenty lasses in a raw, 
Nae a lad amon them a' 
Bits game, game, ba', ba'. 

If the girl keeps the ball dancing up and down " stottin' " 
during the time the words are being repeated, it counts one 
game gained. She goes on " stottin'" the ball, and the others 
go on repeating the words till she allows the ball to escape 
from her control. Fraserburgh (Rev. Dr. Gregor) ; Dairy, Gal- 
loway (J. G. Carter). 

Another rhyme for a ball game is 

Little wee laddie, foo's yer daidie ? 

New come oot o' a basket shadie. 

A basket shadie's ower full, 

New come oot o' a roarin' bull. 

A roarin bull's ower fat, 

New come oot o' a gentleman's hat. 

A gentleman's hat's ower fine, 

New come oot o' a bottle o' wine. 

A bottle o' wine is ower reid, 

New come oot o' a crust o' breid. 

A crust o' breid is ower broon, 

.New come oot o' a half-a-croon. 

A half-a-croon is ower little, 

New come oot o' a weaver's shuttle. 

A weaver's shuttle's ower holey, 

New come oot o' a paint pottie, 

Game, game, game, game, game ! 

Rev. Dr. Gregor. 



ADDENDA 407 



Bannockburn [See Fool, Fool, come to school, vol. i. p. 132.] 

Played as " Fool" with these differences. The namer cries to 
the fool in the same formula as the Sussex version (vol. i. p. 133). 
The fool, called here "Bannockburn," says, "Are ye it?" to 
each player pointing to them in turn. When she points at the 
correct one that player runs off. Bannockburn runs after and 
tries to catch her. If the first runner can get back into the 
row untouched she gets renamed, if caught she has to take 
Bannockburn's place. 

During the naming, Bannockburn tries to overhear the 
names given. But when noticed coming near, those being 
named, cry " Bannockburn away dune the sea." Dairy, Gallo- 
way (J. G. Carter). 

Black Doggie [see Drop Handkerchief, vol. i. 109-112.] 

A form of Drop Handkerchief differing from those versions 
previously given. 

The players join hands, form a circle and stretch out as far 
as each one's arms will allow. One player is outside the ring. 
When she sees they can stretch no further she cries out 
" Break," when they all loose hands and stand as far apart as 
possible. The player outside then goes round the ring singing, 
" I have a black doggie, but it winna' bite you, nor you, nor 
you," until she comes to one whom she chooses; she then 
throws the handkerchief down on the ground behind this one 
quietly. If this player does not notice the handkerchief, not 
one in the circle must tell her, or they are "out." The player 
who dropped the handkerchief walks round until she comes 
again to the one behind whom she dropped it. She picks it 
up and tells her she is "burnt." Then this player has to 
stoop down on her knees and is out of the game. Should the 
selected player notice the handkerchief, she picks it up and 
pursues the other round and through the ring, following 
wherever the first one leads until she catches her; they then 
change places; should she not follow the exact way the first 
player went, she too is out and must go down on her knees. 
Rosehearty (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Another version from Fraserburgh says that the players may 



4 o8 ADDENDA 



either join hands in a ring or sit upon the ground on their 
knees. The outside player goes round the circle three times, 
first saying "Black Doggie winna tack you, nor you." Then 
she goes round again and drops the handkerchief behind any 
one she pleases. She then runs and is pursued until caught, 
the other child following Black Doggie in and out wherever 
she goes. 

Bonnet Ridgie. ["Scots and English," vol. ii. pp. 183-184.] 

Players are chosen alternately by two chiefs. The line is 
drawn between the two sides, and the caps of each side are 
placed on the ground at each of the ends. When the two 
sides are ranged, the players try to catch and pull each other 
across the line. If one is pulled across he is called a " slink/' 
and must stand till he is set at liberty by one of his own side 
crossing the line and touching him. If this one manages to 
touch him before he is crowned, i.e. t has the crown of his 
head touched by one of his opponents, and if he is able to 
regain his own side before the same operation takes place, 
both are free. Each player watches an opportunity to gather 
up the caps of the opposing side. If one is clever and swift 
enough to reach the caps and gather them all before he is 
crowned, his side wins. Dyke School (Rev. Dr. Gregor.) 

Button, The. [" Diamond Ring," vol. i. p. 96 ; " Forfeits," p. 137 ; 

"Wads and the Wears," vol. i. pp. 327-8.] 
Played as " Diamond Ring," except that all sit round the fire, 
one man takes a button, puts it between his two hands, and 
goes round to each of the other players, who have their two 
hands held out, palms together, saying, " Don't tell what you 
got," and quietly dropping the button into one player's hands. 
He then asks the first man, saying, " Who has the button ? " 
One player is named. The master of the game says then 
" What forfeit will you give me that he has it ? " The player 
gives a forfeit. So on all round, every one guessing and giving 
a forfeit (including he who holds the button, who, of course, 
keeps his secret). When all the forfeits are in the master says, 
"Button, button, show, and let all fools know;" then those who 



ADDENDA 409 

have guessed right receive back their forfeits. The holder of 
the button then kneels down to deliver sentences on the others. 
The master takes a forfeit and holds it over the kneeler's 
head, saying, " Fine, fine, superfine, what's the owner of this 
fine thing of [gentleman's or lady's] wear to do ? " The man 
kneeling gives a sentence, such as to take the broom, ride 
it three times round the room, and each time kiss the crook 
hanging in the chimney and so on. 

If a man refuses to perform his sentence he is made to kneel 
down, and everything that can be got hold of is piled on his 
back. Kiltubbrid, Co. Leitrim (L. L. Duncan). 

Canlie. [See "Tom Tiddler's Ground," vol. ii. p. 298.] 

Name for "-Friar's Ground," in Co. Cork. "Canlie" is 
the Friar. The game is played as at Chirbury. Co. Cork 
(Mrs. B. B. Greene). 

Carry my Lady to London. [Vol. i. p. 59.] 

Carry a lady to London town, 

London town, London town ; 

London town's a bonny place, 

It's a' covered o'er in gold and lace. 
Or 

Carry a lady to London town, 

London town, London town ; 

Carry a lady to London town 

Upon a summer's day. 

Another rhyme for " Carry my Lady to London," and played 
in the same way. Galloway, N. B. (J. G. Carter). 

Cat and Dog Hole. [Vol. i. p. 63 ; "Tip-cat," vol. ii. p. 294.] 

Two versions of this, differing somewhat from those given 
previously. 

(i.) Played by two players. A hole is dug in the ground, 
and one player with a " catch-brod " stands in a stooping 
attitude in front of it, about a foot and a-half away, placing 
one end of the " catch-brod " on the ground. The other player 
goes to a distance of some yards, to a fixed point called " the 



4 io ADDENDA 



stance." From here he throws a ball, intending to land it in 
the hole. The other player's object is to prevent this by 
hitting it away with his " catch-brod." If the bowler succeeds 
they change places. 

(2.) This also is played by two players, and in the same way, 
except that a stone is substituted for the hole, and the bowler's 
object is to strike the stone with the ball. Sometimes it is 
played with three players, then running is allowed. When 
the ball is hit the batter tries to run to the " stance" and 
back, the bowler or the third player then tries to hit the 
" stance " with the ball while the batter is away making the 
run. If the third player can catch the ball before it touches 
the ground he tries to hit the stone with it, thus sending the 
batter out. Keith (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Catch the Salmond. 

Two boys take each the end of a piece of rope, and give 
chase to a third till they contrive to get the rope round 
him. They then pull him hither and thither in all directions. 
Banchory (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Evidently an imitation of net-fishing. 

Chicken come Clock [See "Fox and Goose," "Hen and 

Chicken," vol. i. pp. 139-141, 201 ; vol. ii. p. 404.] 
The children, boys and girls, squat down and take hold of 
hands, going round, and saying 

Chicken come clock around the rock, 

Looram, lorram, lumber lock. 

Five mile and one o'clock, 

Now the thief is coming. 

In comes Tod with his long rod, 

And vanishes all from victim vad. 

It is, it was, it must be done, 

Tiddlum, toddlum, twenty-one. 

Johnny, my dear, will you give me the loan of your spear, 

Till I fight for one of those Kildares, 

With a hickety, pickety pie. 



ADDENDA 411 

At these words one lad, who has been hiding behind a tree, 
runs in to catch one of the chickens. As the rhyme is finished, 
they all run, and the fox tries to catch one, another player, 
the old hen, trying to stop him, the chickens all taking hold of 
her by the tail. 

The fox has to keep on his hands and feet, and the old hen 
has to keep "clocking" on her "hunkers." 

Some of the children substitute these words for the latter 
part of the above : 

The crow's awake, the kite's asleep, 
It's time for my poor chickens 
To get a bit of something to eat 

What time is it, old granny ? 

Kiltubbrid, Co. Leitrim (L. L. Duncan). 

Mr. Duncan says this game has almost died out, and the 
people were rather hazy about the words they used to say. 

Chippings, or Cheapings. [See "Tops," vol. ii. pp. 229-303.] 

A game with peg tops played by two or more boys. A large 
button, from which the shank has been removed, or a round 
piece of lead about the size of a penny, is placed on the ground 
between two agreed goals. The players divide into sides, each 
side tries to send the button to different goals, the tops are 
spun in the usual way, and then taken up on the hand while 
spinning, and allowed to revolve once round the palm of the 
hand, and then thrown on the ground on the button in such a 
way that the button is projected some distance along the 
ground. Then a boy on the opposite side spins his top and 
tries to hit the button in the opposite direction. This is con- 
tinued alternately until one or other side succeeds in getting 
the button to the goal. London Streets (A. B. Gomme). 

Chucks. [Vol. i. p. 69 j also " Five-stones," pp. 122-129, " Huckle- 
bones," pp. 239-240.] 

A rhyme repeated while playing at " Chucks " with five small 
stones, lifting one each time. 

Sweep the floor, lift a chair, 
Sweep below it, and lay it down. 



4 i2 ADDENDA 



Cream the milk, cream the milk, 

Quick, quick, quick, 

Spread a piece and butter on it thick, thick, thick. 

Perth (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Churning. 

Churn the butter-milk, quick, quick, quick, 

I owe my mother a pint of milk. 

This game used to be played on the shore, just as the tide 
went out, when the feet sank easily into the sand. The chil- 
dren turned half-way round as they repeated the words. Isle 
of Man (A. W. Moore). 

Codham, or Cobhams. ["Tip it," vol. ii. p. 292.] 

A game resembling " Tip it," and a better form of the game. 
The parties are decided by a toss up. The object is passed 
from hand to hand under the table, until the leader of the 
opposite side calls out " up " or " rise." When all the closed 
hands are on the table, the leader orders any hands off which 
he thinks do not contain the object. If the last hand left on 
the table contains the object the sides change places, if not the 
same sides repeat, twelve successful guesses making " game," 
each failure counting one to the opposite side. The game is 
called " Up Jenkins " in the North of Scotland. The words 
have to be called out when the hands are called to show. 
Another name is " Cudlums ; " this word was called out when 
the leader pointed to the hand which he believed held the 
object. Bedford (Mrs. A. C. Haddon). 

Colley Ball. [" Monday," vol. i. p. 389.] 

The same game as " Monday," with this difference. The 
player who first throws the ball against the wall calls out 

the name of the child he wishes to catch it, saying "A 

B , no rakes, no better ball." If the ball goes on the 

ground the one called has to snatch the ball up and throw it 
at one of the retreating children. Hemsby, Norfolk (Mrs. 
A. C. Haddon). 

Also sent me from Isle of Man (A. W. Moore), where it is 
called "Hommer-the-let." 



ADDENDA 413 



Dan'l my Man. ["Jack's Alive," vol. i. p. 257.] 

A little slip of wood or straw is lit and blown out, and while 
it is red it is passed round from one to another, each man 
repeating as fast as he can 
Dan'l, my man, 
If ye die in my han', 
The straddle and mat is sure to go on. 

The man in whose hand the spark dies has to go down on 
his knees. A chair, or some other article, is held over him, 
and he has to guess what it is, the others crying out 

Trum, 1 trum, what's over your head ? 

If he is wrong it is left on him and another article brought, 
and so on. Kiltubbrid, Go. Leitrim (L. L. Duncan). 

Deil amo' the Dishes, The. [" Ghost at the Well," vol. i. p. 149.] 
One player acts as mother, and sends off one of the other 
players (her daughters) to take a message. She comes back, 
pretends to be frightened, and says she can't go, as there's 
something "chap, chap, chappin'." The mother sends another 
daughter with her this time, telling them " It's only your father's 
breeks, drap, drap, drappin'." These two return in the same 
way, saying again " There's something chap, chap, chappin'." 
Another daughter is now sent with the other two, the mother 
saying " Its only the ducks, quack, quack, quackin'." They all 
come back again more frightened saying the same thing. Then 
the mother and all the others go together to see what the 
matter is. They come upon another player who has been 
sitting apart making a noise with a stone. They all cry out 
"The deil's amo' the dishes," and there is a great chase. 
Aberdeen (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Dig for Silver. 

Dig for silver, dig for gold, 
Dig for the land that I was told. 
As I went down by the water side 
I met my lad with a tartan plaid. 

1 "Trum" is for the Irish " trom," = heavy. 



414 ADDENDA 



My wee lad is a jolly sailor, 

And shall be for evermore. 

(Name of boy) took the notion 

To go and sail on the ocean. 

He took poor (name of girl) on his knee, 

And sailed across Kilmarnock sea. 

Stop your weeping, my dear , 

He'll come back and marry you. 
He will buy you beads and earrings, 
He will buy you a diamond stone, 
He will buy a horse to ride on, 
When your true love is dead and gone. 
What care I for the beads and earrings, 
What care I for the diamond stone, 
What care I for the horse to ride on, 
When my true love is dead and gone. 

Laurieston School, Kircudbrightshire (J. Lawson). 

Another version is 

Billy Johnston took a notion 
For to go and sail the sea ; 
He has left his own true love 
Weeping on the Greenock quay. 
I will buy you beads and earrings, 
I will buy you diamonds three, 
I will buy you beads and earrings, 
Bonny lassie, if you marry me. 
What care I for beads and earrings, 
What care I for diamonds three, 
What care I for beads and earrings, 
When my own true love is far from me. 

Perth (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Compare with this " Keys of Heaven," p. 437, and " Paper 
of Pins," p. 450. 

Dilsee Dollsie Dee. [See " Here's a Soldier," vol. i. p. 206, and 

"Three Dukes," vol. ii. pp. 233-255]. 

A ring is formed, one child standing in the middle, all sing 
the words 



ADDENDA 415 



Which of us all do you love best, do you love best, do you 

love best, 

Which of us all do you love best, my dilsee dollsie dee. 
Which of us all do you love best, my dilsee dollsie dofficer. 
The child in the centre says 

You're all too black and ugly (three times), my dilsee 

dollsie dee, 

You're all too black and ugly, my dilsee dollsie dofficer. 
The first verse is repeated, and the child in the centre points 
to one in the ring and says 

This is the one that I love best, that I love best, that I 

love best, 

This is the one that I love best, my dilsee dollsie dee. 
This is the one I love the best, my dilsee dollsie dofficer. 
The centre child takes the one selected by the hand, and 
they stand together in the centre, while the ring dances round 
and sings 

Open the gates to let the bride out, to let the bride out, to 

let the bride out, 

Open the gates to let the bride out, my dilsee dollsie dee. 
Open the gates to let the bride out, my dilsee dollsie 

dofficer. 

The children then unclasp hands, and the two children walk 
out. Another child goes in the centre and the game is begun 
again, and continued until the ring is too small for dancing 
round. Sometimes, instead of this, the two children return 
to the ring singing, " Open the gates and let the bride in,'' and 
then they take places in the circle, while another goes in the 
centre. (Dr. A. C. H addon.) 

Doagan. An extraordinary game, which was played by 
Manx children sixty years ago. A rude wooden representation 
of the human form was fastened on a cross, and sticks were 
thrown at it, just after the fashion of the modern "Aunt Sally." 
But it is quite possible that this game, taken in connection with 
the following very curious words which the children repeated 
when throwing the sticks, is a survival of a more serious 
function 



4i 6 ADDENDA 



Shoh dhyt y Doagan. 
"This to thee, the Doagan." 

Cre dooyrt y Doagan ? 
11 What says the Doagan ? " 
Dar y chrosh, dar y chron, 
" Upon the cross, upon the block," 

Dar y maidjey beg, jeeragh ny cam, 
" Upon the little staff, straight or crooked," 

Ayns y cheylley veg shid hoal, 
" In the little wood over yonder." 

My verrys oo yn kione jeh'n Doagan, 
"If thou wilt give the head of the Doagan," 

Verym y kione jeeds er y hon. 1 
" I will give thy head for it." 

Mr. Moore writes that Kelly, who gives these words in his 
Dictionary, says that Doagan was a play, and that it refers 
to the head of Dagon being broken off. Does he mean the 
Philistine god of that name ? As he is capable of seeing a 
reference to the god, Baal, in the Manx word for May-day, 
Boaldyv, it is quite possible that his imagination may lead him 
so far ! Isle of Man (A. W. Moore). 

Down in Yonder Meadow. [Vol. i. p. 99 ; ii. p. 323 ; "All the 

Boys," i. 2-6.] 

Down in yonder meadow where the green grass grows, 
Where (name of girl) she bleaches her clothes ; 
She sang, she sang, she sang so sweet, 
She sang (name of boy) across the street. 
He kissed her, he kissed her, he bought her a gown, 
He bought her a gown and a guinea gold ring, 
A guinea, a guinea, a guinea gold ring, 
A feather for the church and a pea-brown hat. 
Up the streets and down the streets the windows made of 

glass, 

Oh, isn't (name of girl) a braw young lass. 
But isn't (name of boy) as nice as she, 
And when they get married I hope they will agree. 
1 Manx Society, vol. xiii. p. 63. 



ADDENDA 417 



Agree, agree, I hope they will agree, 

And when they get married I hope they will agree. 

Laurieston School, Kirkcudbrightshire (J. Lawson). 

Down in yonder meadow where the green grass grows, 
Where so and so (a girl's name) she bleaches her clothes ; 
She sang, and she sang, and she sang so sweet, 
Come over (a boy's name), come over, come over the street. 
So and so (same girl's Christian name) made a pudding 

so nice and sweet, 
So and so (same boy's Christian name) took a knife and 

tasted it. 

Taste, love ; taste, love ; don't say no, 
For the next Sabbath morning to church we must go. 
Clean sheets and pillowslips, and blankets an* a', 
A little baby on your knee, and that's the best of a'. 
Heepie tarrie, heepie barrie, bo barrie grounds, 
Bo barrie ground and a guinea gold ring, 
A guinea gold ring and a peacock hat, 
A cherry for the church and a feather at the back. 
She paints her cheeks and she curls her hair, 
And she kisses (boy's name) at the foot o' the stair. 

Fraserburgh (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

The above are played in the same way as previously de- 
scribed. 

Another version, from Perth, says, after the line, " She sang, 
and she sang " (as above). 

Come over the water, come over the street, 

She baked him a dumpling, she baked it so sweet 

That bonny (Billie Sanders) was fain for to eat, &c. 

Down in the meadows where the green grass grows, 
There's where my Nannie she sound her horn ; 
She sound, she sound, she sound so sweet ; 

Nannie made the puddin' so nice and so sweet, 
Johnny took a knife and he taste a bit ; 
Love, taste ; love, taste, and don't say nay, 
For next Sunday mornin' is our weddin'-day. 
VOL. IT. 2 D 



4 i8 ADDENDA 



Off wid the thimble and on wid the ring ; 
A weddin', a weddin', is goin' to begin. 
O Nannie, O Nannie, O Nannie my joy, 
Never be ashamed for to marry a boy ! 
For I am but a boy, and I'll soon be a man, 
And I'll earn for my Nannie as soon as I can. 
And every evenin' when he comes home, 
He takes her for a walk on the Circular Road. 
And every little girl that he sees passin' by, 
He thinks 'tis his Nannie he has in his eye. 

Howth, Dublin (Miss H. G. Harvey). 

Draw a Pail of Water. [Vol. i. pp. 100-107]. 
A lump of sugar, 
Grind your mother's flour, 
Three sacks an hour, 
One in a rush, two in a crush, 

Pray, old lady, creep under the bush (all jump round). 
Girton village, Cambridgeshire (Dr. A. C. Haddon). 

Drop Handkerchief. [Vol. i. pp. 109-112; "Black Doggie," 

vol. ii. p. 407.] 

As played at Fochabers the game varies slightly in the way 
it is played from those previously described. The words are 
" I dropt it, I dropt it, a king's copper next, 

I sent a letter to my love, and on the way I dropt it." 
The players forming the ring are forbidden to look round. 
The one having the handkerchief endeavours to drop it at some 
one's back without his or her knowledge, and then to get three 
times round the ring without being struck by the handkerchief. 
If the player does not manage this she has to sit in the centre 
of the ring as " old maid ; " the object in this version evidently 
is not to let the player upon whom the handkerchief is dropped 
be aware of it. Fochabers, N.E. Scotland (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Dumb Crambo. [See "Hiss and Clap," vol. i. p. 215.] 

The players divide into two sides : one side goes outside the 
room, the other remains in the room, and decides on some 



ADDENDA 419 



verb to be guessed and acted by the other. The outside party 

is told that the chosen verb " rhymes with ." The outside 

party decide on some verb y and come in and act this word in 
dumb show, whilst the inside party sit and look on, hissing if 
the guess is wrong, and clapping if the acting shows the right 
word is chosen. No word must pass on either side. Bedford, 
and generally known (Mrs. A. C. Haddon). 

Dump. [Vol. i. p. 117.] 

A version of this game played by three children. The three 
sit close together, close their hands and place them over each 
other, the first one on the knee of one of them. One then 
asks, " Faht's that cockin' up there ? " " Cock a pistol ; cock 
it aff," replies another. The same process is gone through till 
only one hand is left on the knee. Then the one whose hand 
was uppermost at the beginning of the game says 

Faht's in there ? 

Gold and money (is the answer). 

Fahr's my share o't ? 

The moosie ran awa' wi't. 

Fahr's the moosie ? 

In her hoosie. 

Fahr's her hoosie ? 

In the wood. 

Fahr's the wood ? 

The fire brunt it. 

Fahr's the fire ? 

The water quencht it. 

Fahr's the water ? 

The broon bull drank it. 

Fahr's the broon bull ? 

At the back a (of) Burnie's hill 

Fahr's the back a Burnie's hill ? 

A' claid wi' snaw. 

Fahr's the snaw ? 

The sun meltit it. 

Fahr's the sun ? 

Heigh, heigh up i' the air." 



420 ADDENDA 



He who speaks first, or laughs first, or lats (lets) their teeth 
be seen, gets nine nips, nine nobs, an' nine double douncornes, 
an' a gueed blow on the back o' the head. Corgarff (Rev. Dr. 
Gregor). 

Eendy, Beendy. 

Eendy, Beendy, baniba, roe, 

Caught a chicken by the toe ; 

To the east, to the west, 

To the old crow's nest, 

Hopping in the garden, swimming in the sea, 

If you want a pretty girl, please take me. 

N. Scotland, locality forgotten (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 
One girl dances forward from a line of children singing the 
words. Another from a line opposite responds, and they dance 
together. They look first to the east and then to the west by 
turning their heads in those directions alternately. 

Farmer's Den, The. 

All players but one form a ring, this one stands in the 
centre. The ring dances round singing the words 
The farmer in his den, the farmer in his den, 
For it's oh, my dearie, the farmer's in his den. 
For the farmer takes a wife, 
For the farmer takes a wife ; 
For it's oh, my dearie, the farmer takes a wife. 
The child in centre then chooses one from the circle, who goes 
in the middle, and the ring dances round again singing 

For the wife takes a child, &c. (as above). 
And choosing another child from the ring, then 

For the child takes a nurse, &c. (as above), 
For the nurse takes a dog, &c. (as above). 
Then all the players join in singing 
For we all clap the dog, 
For we all clap the dog. 
For it's oh ! my dearie, we all clap the dog. 
While singing this all the players pat the one who was 
chosen as "dog" on his or her back. Auchencairn, N.B. 
(Mary Haddon). 



ADDENDA 421 



Fire on the Mountains. [See "Round Tag," vol. ii. pp. 
144-145.] 

The players arrange themselves into a double circle with a 
space between each pair. The one at the back stands and the 
inside players kneel. Another player stands in the centre and 
cries out, " Fire on the mountain ; run, boys, run ! " Those 
players who are standing in the outer circle begin to run 
round, those kneeling remaining in that position. They con- 
tinue running until the centre player cries " Stop ! " They all 
then (including the centre player) make a rush to get a stand 
behind one of the kneeling players, the one who is left out 
going into the centre. Auchterarder, N.B. (Miss E. S. 
Haldane). 

This game may possibly suggest an origin for " Round tag," 
although the incident of " catching" or "touching" a runner 
does not appear, and the inner circle of players apparently are 
always stationary. 

Fool, Fool, come to School. [Vol. i. p. 132.] 

Played in the usual way with the following difference in 
the formula. The leader says, " Fool, foolie, come to your 
schoolie." When the fool comes, the leader says, "What have 
you been doing to-day ? " Fool says, " Cursin' and swearinV 
Fool is then chased off, recalled, and again questioned. Fool 
answers, " Suppin' my porridge and readin' my Bible." She 
is then welcome, and asked in the usual way to point out one 
from the school. Aberdeen (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Another formula sent me by Mr. C. C. Bell is to say, when 
the fool is sent back, " Fool, fool, go back to school, and learn 
more wit." 

French Jackie, name for " Round Tag " and " Two and 
Threes," in Tyrie (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Galloping. 

Galloping, galloping to the fair, 

Courting the girls with the red petticoats ; 

Galloping, galloping all day long, 

Courting the girls with the speckled petticoats. 



422 ADDENDA 



Girls sing this resting one knee on the ground, striking the 
other knee with their right hand as they say each word. The 
length of the song depends upon the ingenuity of the players 
in finding new colours for the petticoats each time. Isle of 
Man (A. W. Moore). 

The game is not known now. 

Gallant Ship. [See "Round and Round the Gallant Ship," vol. 

ii. p. 143.] 

Up spoke a boy of our gallant ship, 
And a well-spoken boy was he 
I have a mother in London town, 
This night she'll be looking for me. 

She may look, she may sigh, with the tear in her eye, 
She may look to the bottom of the sea. 
Three times round went our gallant ship, 
And three times round went she ! 
And three times round went our gallant ship, 
Till she came to the bottom of the sea ! 

The players form a ring and dance round, getting quicker 
as they sing " Three times round," &c. When the last line 
is sung they let go hands and sink to the ground. The player 
who sinks down first is taken away by the others and asked 
whom he or she loves best. The ring is then reformed, and 
the child who has given her sweetheart's name is placed in the 
centre. The ring then dances round singing out the name of 
the sweetheart. 

Mrs. Brown is new corned hame, 
A coach and four to carry hame. 

Galloway (J. G. Carter). 

Galley, Galley Ship. [See " Merry-ma-tansa," vol. i. pp. 369- 
376; ii. p. 443.] 

Three times round goes the galley, galley ship, 
And three times round goes she ; 
Three times round goes the galley, galley ship, 
And she sank to the bottom of the sea. 
Choose your neighbours one or two, 
One or two, one or two ; 



ADDENDA 423 

Choose your neighbours one or two, 
Around about Mary Matanzie. 

A treacle scone to tell her name, 
To tell her name, to tell her name ; 
A treacle scone to tell her name, 
Around about Mary Matanzie. 

A guinea gold watch to tell his name, 
To tell his name, to tell his name ; 
A guinea gold watch to tell his name, 
Around about Mary Matanzie. 

(Name of boy) is his name, 
Is his name, is his name, 

is his name, 

Around about Mary Matanzie. 

Laurieston School, Kircudbrightshire (J. Lawson). 

A version of " Merry- ma- tansa incomplete. [See vol. i. 

P- 375-] 

Another is 

Three times around goes our gallant ship, 

And three times around goes she, she, she ; 

And three times around goes our gallant ship, 

And she sinks to the bottom of the sea. 

Played in ring form with one child in centre. All sink down 
on the ground when the above lines are sung, and the last to 
rise must tell the name of her sweetheart. Then the circle 
forms around her, and all sing 

Here's the bride just new come in, 

Just new come in, just new come in ; 

Here's the bride just new come in, 

Around the merry guid tanzy. 

Guess wha's her guid lad, 
Her guid lad, her guid lad ; 
Guess wha's her guid lad, 
Around the merry guid tanzy. 



424 ADDENDA 



(Willie Broon) is his name, 
Is his name, is his name, 
(Willie Broon) is his name, 
Around the merry guid tanzy. 
St. Andrews and Howth (Miss H. E. Harvey). 

Miss Harvey writes : I believe " tanzy " is the name of a 
kind of dance. 

Glasgow Ships. 

Glasgow ships come sailing in, 
Come sailing in, come sailing in ; 
Glasgow ships come sailing in, 
On a fine summer morning. 

You daurna set your foot upon, 
Your foot upon, your foot upon ; 
You daurna set your foot upon, 
Or gentle George will kiss you. 

Three times kiss you, four times bless you, 
Five times butter and bread 
Upon a silver salver. 

Who shall we send it to, 
Send it to, send it to? 
Who shall we send it to ? 

To Mrs. 's daughter. 

Take her by the lily-white hand, 
Lead her over the water ; 
Give her kisses, one, two, three. 
She is the favourite daughter. 

Perth (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Glasgow ships come sailing in, &c. (three times) 
Three times bless you, three times kiss you, 
Three times butter and bread upon a silver saucer. 
Whom shall I send it to, I send it to, I send it to ? 
To Captain Gordon's daughter. 

Rosehearty (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 



ADDENDA 425 



The Glasgow ships come sailing in, &c. (as first version). 
Three times down and then we fall, then we fall, then 

we fall, 
Three times down and then we fall, in a fine summer 

morning. 
Three times butter and bread, butter and bread, butter 

and bread, 

Three times butter and bread upon a silver saucer. 
Come, choose you east, come choose you west, 
Come, choose you east, come choose you west, 
To the very one that you love best. 

Nairn (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Glasgow ships come sailing in, &c. (as first version) 

She daurna set a foot upon, &c. 

Or gentle John will kiss her. 

Three times round the ring, three times bless her, 

I sent a slice of bread and butter upon a silver saucer. 

Whom shall we send it to ? &c. 

To Captain 's daughter. 

Her love's dead and gone, dead and gone, dead and 
gone, 

She turns her back to the wa's again. 

She washes her face, she combs her hair, 

She leaves her love at the foot of the stair, 

She wears on her finger a guinea gold ring, 

And turns her back to the wa's again. 

All join hands and form a ring. At the end of verses 
the girl named turns her back, and the game is resumed. 
Fochabers (Rev. Dr. Gregor) ;' Port William School, Wigton- 
shire. 

In a version from Auchterarder, N. B., sent by Miss E. S. 
Haldane, the words are very similar to these. After all the 
children have turned their backs to the inside they have what 
is called the " pigs' race," which is running swiftly round in 
this position. See " Uncle John," vol. ii. pp. 321-322. 

Granny's Needle. [See "Auld Grannie."] 



426 ADDENDA 



Green Gravel. [Vol. i. pp. 170-183.] 

Round apples, round apples, by night and by day, 

There stands a valley in yonder haze ; 

There stands poor Lizzie with a knife in her hand, 

There's no one dare touch her, or she'll go mad ; 

Her cheeks were like roses, and now they're like snow, 

Poor Lizzie I poor Lizzie I you're dying, I know, 

We'll wash you with milk, and we'll dry [or roll] you 

with silk, 
And we'll write down your name with a gold pen 

and ink. New Galloway (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Boys and girls take hands and go round saying 
Round the green gravel 

Grass grows green, 
Many's the lady fit to be seen, 
Washed in milk and dried in silk. 
The last pops down ! 

The last boy or girl to pop down has to tell who he (or she) 
is courting. Kiltubbrid, Co. Leitrim (L. L. Duncan). 

Green Grass. [Vol. i. pp. 153-169.] 

All the girls arrange themselves in a line, and one stands in 
front. The one in front sings 

Dis-a-dis-a green grass, 

Dis-a-dis-a-dis ; 
Come all ye pretty fair maids, 

And walk along wi' us. 
Will ye have a duck, my dear (pointing to 

one of the girls in the line), 
Or will ye have a drake, 
Or will ye have a young man 
To answer for your sake ? 
The girl pointed to answers 

I'll neither have a duck, my dear, 

Nor will I have a drake ; 

But I will have a young man 

To answer for my sake. 



ADDENDA 427 



She now leaves the line and takes her stand beside the one 
that stands in front, and all begin to clap their hands and 
sing 

The bells will ring, 
And the psalms will sing, 
And we'll all claps hands together. 

The two in front then begin to sing what the one first sang, 
and the same goes on till all are chosen. Peterhead; St. 
Andrews (Mrs. Stewart, when a girl). 

Here we go in a merry band, 

Round about the berry buss ; 
Come all ye pretty fair maids, 

And dance along with us ; 
We shall have a duck and drake, 

We shall have a dragon, 
We shall have a young man, 

The prince of the Saigen. 
The young man dies, 

And leaves the girl a widow. 
The birds shall sing, the bells shall ring, 

And we will all clap hands together. 
Here we go a roving, 

A roving in a band ; 
I will take my pretty Mary, 
I will take her by the hand. 

Perth (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Another version, very similar to that given in vol. i. pp. 
161162 from Congleton Workhouse School, and sent me by 
Mr. J. Lawson, Laurieston School, Kirkcudbrightshire, begins, 
" Will you take silver and gold ? " 

Another Scottish version of this game is given in Notes and 
Queries, 3rd sen, v. 393, as follows : 

A duss, a duss of green grass, 

A duss, a duss, a duss ; 
Come all you pretty maidens, 
And dance along with us ; 
You shall have a duck, my dear, 
And you shall have a dragon, 



428 ADDENDA 



And you shall have a young gudeman, 
To dance ere you're forsaken. 

The bells shall ring, 

The birds shall sing, 
And we'll all clap hands together. 

Green Grass. [A game so called by Dr. Gregor, but apparently 
not belonging to the one usually known under that name.] 
The girls stand in a line, and one stands in front. All sing 
Green grass suits us, 
As my boots are lined with silver ; 

E. I. O, E. I. O, my ain bonnie (a girl's Christian name). 
The girl in front then chooses the girl named, and both girls 
join hands and wheel round, whilst all sing 

I kissed her once, I kissed her twice, 

I kissed her three times over. 

Hop, hop, the butcher's shop, 

I cannot stay any longer. 

If I stay my mother will say 

I played with the boys up yonder. 

Tyrie (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 
Another version is 

Green grass set her fair, a bunch of gold and silver, 
A white rosette upon her breast, a gold ring on her finger, 
A I O, my Jessie O ; I wish I had my Jessie O. 
I kissed her once, &c., as above. 

Heap the Cairn. [See " More Sacks to the Mill," vol. i. p. 390.] 
One boy is thrown flat on the ground, then another is 
thrown over him, and then another and another, and the bigger 
boys dash the smaller ones on those that are down, while all 
keep shouting 

Heap the cyarn 

Dirt and sharn. 

Keith (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Hear all! Let me at her. 

Hear all ! let me at her ; 

Hear all ! let me go ; 
Hear all ! let me at her, 

When my mammy will or no. 



ADDENDA 429 



has ta'en a notion 

For to go and sail the sea ; 
There he's left his own dear , 

Weeping on the Greenland sea. 

Hold your tongue, my own dear , 

Take your baby on your knee. 
Drink his health, my jolly sailors, 

I'll come back and marry thee. 

I will buy thee beads and ear-rings, 

I will buy thee diamond stones, 
I will buy thee silken ribbons, 

When thy baby's dead and gone. 

says she'll wear the ribbons, 

says she'll wear them a' 

says she'll wear the ribbons 

When her baby's dead and gone. 

A ring is formed, one player in the centre. When the verses 
are sung the girl in the middle chooses another to take her 
place. Fochabers (Rev. Dr. Gregor.) 

Hen and Chickens. [See "Auld Grannie," p. 404.] 

High Windows. [See "Drop Handkerchief," vol. i. pp. 109- 
112; "Black Doggie," vol. ii. pp. 407-408.] 

Boys hold hands and go round in ring form. 

One player stands in the middle and strikes one of those in 
the ring with a bit of grass ; both players then run out of the 
ring, and the boy who was in the midst must catch the other 
before he goes round three times. At the third time the boys 
all cry " High Windows," raising their hands at the same 
time to let the two inside the circle. Kiltubbrid, Co. Leitrim 
(L. L. Duncan). 

Hot Cockles. [Vol. i. p. 229.] 

A version of this game, in which a dell or goal is appointed. 
The players stand together, one player places his head between 
the knees of another, who bends down, and slaps him on the 
back, keeping time to the following rhyme, saying 



430 ADDENDA 



Skip, skip, sko, 

Where shall this young man go ? 

To the east, or the west ? 

Or the young crow's nest ? 

The kneeling boy shouts out the name of the dell, and the 
other players all rush off shouting out its name. The one who 
gets there first wins the game. Meiklefolla, Aberdeenshire 
(Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Hulla-balloo-ballee. [See "Lubin," vol. i. pp. 352-361.] 

One version of Lubin Loo, from Forfar, Linlithgow, and 
Argyllshire, is the same as those given in vol. i. A Nairnshire 
version is called " Hullabaloo-bailee. 

Hulla-balloo, bailee, 

Hulla-balloo, ballight ; 
Hulla-balloo, bailee, 

All on a winter's night, 
Put your right foot in, &c. 

Turn round about. 

At " turn round about," they reverse the direction, and dance 
round the other way, and so on. Rev. Dr. Gregor ; and Mrs 
Jamieson. 

Another version is 

Old Simon, the king, young Simon, the squire, 
Old Simon, the king, sat round a nice warm fire ; 
Keep your right hand in, shove your right hand out, 
Shake it a little, a little, and turn yourself about ! 
Keep your right foot in, shove your left foot out, 
Shake it a little, a little, and turn yourself about. 
Hally gallee, gallee, gallee; 
Hally gallo, gallo, gallo ; 
Hally gallee, gallee, gallee, 
Upon a Saturday night. 
Keep your right hand in, &c. 

Galloway (J. G. Carter). 

Several versions of this game are given by Mr. E. W. B. 
Nicholson in his interesting, little book "Goldspie," pp. 176- 
184. He considers "Hilli-ballu," " Hulla-baloo," and similar 



ADDENDA 431 



words to be the original of the English forms "Here we 
dance Looby Loo," or Lubin, and all of these to be derived 
from hunting cries, such as ha, la bas ! loup ! uttered by 
huntsmen to definite musical notes, possibly introduced into 
songs arid afterwards adapted as lullabies because of their 
resemblance to the lulling-cries ba (= bye) and lulli. 

Isabella. [Vol. i. pp. 247-256.] 

Two or three versions which vary slightly in method of 
playing may be given. The first is played in the usual way 
until the last line is said, when the player turns her back to 
the circle facing outwards as in Wall-flowers. 
Isabella, Isabella, Isabella, farewell; 

There is my hand, love, there is my hand, love, farewell ! 
Over the mountains, over the mountains, over the moun- 
tains, farewell ! 

Her love's dead and gone, dead and gone, dead and gone ! 
Her love's dead and gone, turn your back behind her. 

Perth (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 
Another version is 

Isabella, fare ye wella; Isabella, fare ye wella; Isabella, 

farewell ! 

One player then leaves the ring singing 
"I'm off to the Indies," &c. 
The ring all sing 
"Over the mountains" (as above) six times, ending with 

" Isabella, Isabella, farewell " (as above). 
The player who had previously left the ring returns singing, 
" I'm come back from the Indies," &c. 

A ring is formed, one player kneels in the centre, the players 
in the ring fix their eyes steadily on the kneeling girl all the 
time. Fochabers, N.E. Scotland (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 
In the next version the words of each verse are : 
Isabella, farewella, &c. 
Back from London, &c. 
Go to London, &c. 
Pull the brooch off my bosom, &c. 
Pull the ring off my finger, &c. 
Laurieston School, Kirkcudbrightshire (J. Lawson). 



432 ADDENDA 



Jenny Jones. [Vol. i. pp. 260-283.] 

The versions printed here vary, it will be seen, from those 
printed in vol. i., principally in the words used towards the 
end of the game, the earlier portions being very similar. The 
first one is an exceedingly interesting variant, the funeral 
details being fuller, and the idea of the spirit of the dead or 
Ghost surviving also. 

The first lines of each verse are as follows : 

I've come to see Jenny Jones, 

How does she do ? 

She is washing, &c., you can't see her now. 

I've come to see Jenny Jones, &c. 

She is scrubbing, &c., you can't see her now. 

I've come to see, &c. 

She is ill, &c. 

I've come to see, &c. 

She's very ill, &c. 

I've come to see, &c. 

She's dying, &c. 

I've come to see. 

She's dead. 

We'll come in blue, blue, blue. Will that suit ? 

Blue is for sailors, &c. That won't suit. 

We'll come in red, &c. 

Red is for soldiers, &c. 

We'll come in white, &c. 

White is for weddings, &c. 

We'll come in black, &c. 

Black is for mourning, &c. That will suit. 
They then take up Jenny Jones, and carry her to a little dis- 
tance off, lay her on the ground, and all stand round. One child 
stands over the grave, and while sprinkling Jenny with dust, 
says 

Ashes to ashes, dust to dust. 

If God won't have you, the devil must. 

Then Jenny jumps up and runs after the other children, who 
try to escape. The one she catches is " Jenny " next time. 
Barrington (Dr. A. C. Haddon). 



ADDENDA 433 



In another version called "Georgina" one player selected to 
act as Georgina kneels down against a wall, and the others 
stand round to conceal her. Two go apart to act as callers, 
while another stands near the group as mother. The callers 
come forward and say 

We came to see Georgina, &c. 
And how is she to-day ? 
She's upstairs washing, &c., 
And you can't see her to-day. 
Farewell, ladies. 

They then retire, but return in a little while, and put the 
question as before. She is then " starching," said as above ; 
and next time she is " ironing," the fourth time the mother's 
answer is, "She fell downstairs and broke her arm, and 
you can't see her to-day;" the fifth time, "Two doctors are 
at her ; " the sixth, she is " worse ; " and the seventh, she is 
"dead." The two callers remain when this reply is given. At 
this point Georgina makes a noise by rapping two stones 
together. The two at once exclaim, "Oh! mother, mother, 
what's that knocking ? " and she answers, " The coach going 
by." The knocking is repeated, and the question, and she 
says, " The wall falling down." On the knocking being heard 
a third time, she tells them to " take a candle and look." They 
pretend to do so, and " Georgina " starts up to chase them. 
They all run off shouting, " The Ghost." Strichen and 
Fochabers (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

I came to see Georgina, Georgina, Georgina, 
I came to see Georgina, and how is she to-day ? 

She's upstairs ironing. 
I came to see Georgina, &c. (as above). 

She fell downstairs and broke her muckle toe. 
I'm very sorry to hear that, &c. 

She's dead. 

Bad news, bad news, bad news to-day. 
What shall we dress her in ? &c. 

Dress her in red. 

Red is for the soldier, and that won't do, &c. 
What shall we dress her in ? &c. 
VOL. II. 2 E 



434 ADDENDA 



Dress her in blue. 
Blue is for the sailor, &c. 
What shall we dress her in ? &c. 

Dress her in white. 

White is for the angels, that will do, &c. 
Mother, mother, what's that ? &c. 

A gig running past. 
Mother, mother, what's that ? &c. 

The boys playing at marbles. 

Mother, mother, what's that ? what's that ? what's that ? 
Mother, mother, what's that ? 

Georgina's ghost ! ! 

Ending with a general stampede. 

Nairnshire (Mrs. Jamieson). 

We've come to see poor Janet, 

And how is she to-day ? 
She's up the stairs washing, 

She can't come down to-day. 
Very well, we'll call another day. 
We've come to see poor Janet, 

And how is she to-day ? 
She's up the stairs ironing, &c. 

Well, we'll call, &c. 
We've come to see poor Janet, &c. 

She's fallen downstairs and broken her horn 

toes, &c. 

Poor Janet, we'll call, &c. 
We've come, &c. 

She's dead, &c. 
What's she to be dressed in ? 

Red. 

That's for soldiers ; that won't do. 

Blue. 

That's for sailors ; that won't do. 

White. 

That will do. Rosehearty (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Played in usual way until the end. Janet is then carried off 
and laid down on the ground, but she starts up and chases them. 



ADDENDA 435 



Many other versions have been sent me, but none with 
different features. The best is one from Mr. J. G. Carter, 
Dairy, Galloway, called " Jenny Jo," but presenting no fresh 
details, and where white is used for the burial. Four children 
stand on one side with Jenny at their back, the other players on 
the opposite. She is buried with great mourning. In a version 
from Hemsby (Mrs. Haddon) the words are the same, except: 
"White is the colour for weddings," and black is for funerals. 
Then Jenny is carried to the grave, the other children walking 
behind two by two ; they kneel round Jenny, and have a good 
cry over her. Another version from Laurieston School (Mr. 
J. Lawson), called " Jerico," very similar to above, gives two 
additional verses. The first lines are, " Carry a poor soldier to 
the grave," and " Now the poor mother's weeping at the grave." 
In one version, after Jenny has been carried to her grave, the 
children stand round and sprinkle earth over her, and say, 
" Dust and dust, dust and dust," and then pretend to strew 
flowers. This I got in London. Another version from North 
Scotland begins, " I come to see Geneva" continues in usual 
way until "she is lying" instead of "ill"; then "she's dying," 
followed by " she's dead " ; then the funeral. In another 
version Dr. Haddon sent me, the game is only a fragment. 
After "Jenny Jo's dead and gone, all the day long," they 
continue, "Pipes and tobacco for Jenny Jo" (repeat twice), 
" Pipes and tobacco for Jenny Jo, all the day long." 

Jockie Rover. [See "Stag," vol. ii. pp. 212, 374.] 

One is chosen to be Rover, and a place is marked off called 
"The Den," from which he starts, and to which he and the 
others caught can run for protection. He has to clasp his 
hands and set off in pursuit of one of the players, whom he 
must crown without unclasping his hands. Before he leaves 
the den he calls out 

Jockie Rover, 

Three times over, 

If you do not look out, 

I'll gie you a blover. 
When he catches one he unclasps his hands, and makes for 



436 ADDENDA 



the den along with the one caught. The players close in upon 
them, and beat them with their caps. The two now join hands, 
and before leaving the den repeat the same words, and give 
chase to catch another. When another is caught, the three 
run to the den, followed by the others pelting them. 

During the time they are running to catch another player, 
every attempt is made by the others to break the band by 
rushing on two outstretched arms, either from before or from 
behind. Every time one is taken or the band broken, all 
already taken rush to the den, beaten by those not taken. 
Dyke (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

A form of " Warney," " Whiddy." 

Jolly Lads, Bold. [Vol. i. pp. 294-296.] 

Here come two bold, jolly lads, 

Just new come from the shore : 
We'll spend our time in drinking wine, 

As we have done before. 
Then the ring dances round, singing 

We will have a round, and a round, 

We will have a pretty, pretty girl, 
For to dance upon the ground. 

Her shoes are made of morocco, 
Her stockings lined with silk, 

Her teeth are white as anything, 
And her skin as white as milk. 

We shall have a round, and a round, &c. 

Auchterarder, N. B. (Miss E. S. Haldane). 

A ring is formed by players joining hands. Two other 
players dance round the ring in opposite directions, singing the 
first four lines while the ring stands still. Then the ring 
dances round singing the rest of the lines. The two outside 
then each take a player from the ring and begin again. 

The words of the dance game, " Here we go around," vol. i. 
p. 205, are practically the same as the latter part of this, and 
suggests that this or a similar round is its original. 

Jolly Miller. [Vol. i. pp. 289-293.] 

This is played with the usual double ring, boys on the out- 



ADDENDA 437 



side, girls inside, one child in centre. At the last a rush is 
made to obtain a vacant place. 

He was a jolly miller, 
He lived by himself. 

As the wheel went round, he made his wealth, 
One hand in his pocket, the other at his back, 
As the mill went round, he made his wealth. 
The girls being in the inside, turn and go the opposite way; 
and, while doing so, sing 

A hunting we will go, 
A hunting we will go, 

We'll catch a little fox, and we'll put him in a box, 
And a hunting we will go. 

Auchterarder, N. B. (Miss E. S. Haldane). 

In this version the " grab " appears to be lost, and the 
" hunting " put in before the rush for the vacant place is made. 

Keys of Heaven. 

I will give you a golden ring, 

And jewels to hang and birds to sing, 

If you'll be my true lover, 

And true love of mine. 

I will give you the keys of the chest, 
And gold enough to dress you in church, 
If you'll be my true lover, 
And true love of mine. 

I will give you the keys of even [heaven], 

And angels to wait upon you six and seven, 

If you'll be my true lover, 

And true love of mine. Marylebone (A. B. Gomme). 

Children form a ring by joining hands ; they dance round. 
One stands in centre. She chooses another from the ring after 
singing the words, and the two dance round together. 

This game is evidently but a fragment, the proper way of 
playing being forgotten. It would originally have been played 
in line form instead of a circle, and answers of " No " or 
" Yes," or other verses implying negative and then affirmative, 



438 ADDENDA 



given by the chosen or selected girl. These lines, and those 
given post (p. 450), as " Paper of pins/' are interesting frag- 
ments probably of one and the same game. 

Kick the Block. [See vol. i. p. 401-] 

A small circle is made, and the stone or block is put in it. 
A boy stands with his foot on the stone and his eyes shut until 
all the other players are hid. He then tries to find them, and 
keep his block in its place. If one should come out when he 
is away from his block it is kicked out, and all the boys that 
were found hide again. Laurieston School, Kirkcudbrightshire 
(J. Lawson). 

Another version of the same game, sent me by Mr. William 
P. Merrick, Shepperton, Middlesex, is called " Fly Whip." 

The same game as " Mount the Tin," played somewhat 
differently. 

Lady of the Land. [Vol. i. pp. 315-319.] 

A number of girls stand in a line. One of them represents 
the widow and the other the children. Another stands in front. 
All sing 

There came a poor widow from Sunderland, 
With all her children in her hand, 
One can bake, and one can sew, 
And one can do the hilygoloo. 
Please take one out. 

The player who is standing alone in front of the other 
players chooses one from the line. The two then join right 
and left hands and wheel round in front, all singing 
Oh there's poor (girl's name chosen), 
She has gone without a farthing in her hand, 
Nothing but a guinea gold ring, 
Good-bye (girl's name), 
Good-bye, good-bye. 
The mother shakes hands with the one chosen. 

Fraserburgh (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 
Another version 

There is a poor widow from Sankelone, 
With all her children in her hand, 



ADDENDA 439 



One can knit, and one sew, 
And one can play the liligolor. 
The widow then says 

Please take one in, 
Please take one in. 

The one in front picks out one and places her at her back, 
and she lays hold of her dress, then all sing 

Now for poor (girl's name who has been chosen), she is 

gone, 

Without her father (? farthing) in her hand, 
She has lost her guinea gold ring, 
Good-bye, good-bye, 
Good-bye, good-bye. 

The widow shakes hands with the girl. This is repeated till 
all are taken out and the widow is left by herself. She cries, 
and tries to take back her daughters. All run off. 

Cullen (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Another Isle of Man version varies slightly, beginning, 
"We're three young mothers from Babylon," and continuing 
in a similar way to the one in vol. i. p. 3 1 5 
One can wash, and one can sew, 
Another can sit by the fire and spin, 
The other can make a fine bed for the king, 
Please, ma'am, to take one in. 
The queen then says 

Come, my dearest . . . and give me your hand, 
And you shall have the nicest things in all this pleasant land. 
The girls are thus gradually chosen. 

Isle of Man (A. W. Moore). 

Here's a poor widow from Babylon, 
Six poor children left alone, 
One can bake, and one can brew, 
And one can shape, and one can sew. 
One can sit by the fire and spin, 
And one can make a bed for a king ; 
Come Tuesday east, come Tuesday west, 
Come choose the one that you love best. 

Galloway, N. B. (J. G. Carter). 



440 ADDENDA 



Leap-Frog. [Vol. i. pp. 133, 327, 328.] 

The chief rules of 'this game, obtaining in N.E. Scotland in 
Dr. Gregor's boyhood, were : The boy that stooped his back 
was called " the bull," pronounced " bill." The bull was not to 
"horn," i.e., throw up his back when the player placed his 
hands on it to leap over, or to bend his back down, and that 
the player was to lay his hands on the bull's back quite flat, 
and not to "knockle," i.e., drive the knuckles into it. The 
best way to play was: A line was drawn beside the bull, 
over which the heel of the player must not pass. All the 
players, the one after the other in succession, leaped over 
the bull. The one last over called out, " Fit it," i.e., foot it, 
which meant that the bull had to measure from the line a 
breadth and a length of his foot. This done he stooped, 
and all the players went over as before, and another breadth 
and length of foot were added. This went on as long as 
the players thought they were able to leap over the bull. 
When they thought they could not do so, the last player called 
out, " Hip it," i.e., take a hop. This done, the bull put himself 
into position, and each player now took a hop from the line 
to the bull, and then went over him. Here the same process of 
footing was gone through as before, as long as the players were 
able to go clear over the bull. Then came a step with as much 
footing as was considered safe, and then came a jump with 
so much footing. It was now with the players " hip, step, an' 
jump," and over the bull. Then more "fitm'/' and perhaps 
another " hip," and so on two hips, two steps, two jumps, and 
a flying leap over the bull. It was not often the game reached 
this point. Some one of the players had failed to pass right 
over the bull and caused him to fall, or had overstepped the 
line. When any player did either the one or the other, he had 
to become bull. Keith (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

This is a fuller and more complete description than that of 
"Foot and Over" (vol. i. p. 133). 

Another mode of playing leap-frog is : the players stand 
with their backs to the leapers, and only bend the head and 
the leaper's hands are placed between the shoulders. Instead 
of running a few yards in front, each player advances only a 



ADDENDA 441 



few feet, leaving just as much room as to allow the player 
scope to fall and spring again. This mode requires consider- 
able agility and practice. The higher the leap, so much the 
greater the fun. Keith (Rev. Dr. Gregor.) 

London Bridge. [Vol. i. pp. 333-350.] 

In the following versions of the game only the first lines 
of each verse are given, as said by each side. Descriptions of 
method of playing were not in all cases sent me. They are 
probably the same as those given under this game in vol. i., 
which is for two players to form an arch by holding up their 
joined hands, and the other players running under it. 

(i.) London Bridge is falling down, &c., my fair lady. 
What will it take to build it up ? &c. 
Needles and pins will build it up, &c. 
Needles and pins will not hold, &c. 
Bricks and mortar will build it up, &c. 
Bricks and mortar will wash away, &c. 
Silver and gold will build it up, &c. 
Silver and gold will be stolen away, &c. 
We will set a watchman to watch all night, &c. 
What if the watchman falls asleep, &c. 
We will set a dog to bark, &c. 
See the robbers passing by, &c. 
What have the robbers done to you ? &c. 
They have broke my locks and stole my gold, &c. 
Off to prison they must go, &c. 
What will you take to set them free ? &c. 

Perth (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

(2.) London Bridge is broken down, 
Build it up with lime and stone ; 
Lime and stone will build and break ; 
Set an old man to watch all night. 
Perhaps this man will run away, 
Ten times the wedding day. 

Tyrie (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 



442 ADDENDA 



(3.) Broken bridges falling down, falling down, falling 

down, my fair lady. 

What will you give to mend it up ? &c. 
Those running under the arch say 

A guinea gold ring will mend it up, &c. 
The two players say no. 

A pin I'll give to mend it up. 
No! 

A thousand pounds to mend it up ; 
This will waste away, my fair lady ; 
We'll mend it up with golden pins, my fair lady, 
For golden pins will never rust, never rust, my fair lady. 
Fochabers, N.E. Scotland (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

(4.) The broken bridge is falling down, falling down, fall- 
ing down, 

The broken bridge is falling down, my fair lady ; 
Stones and bricks will build it up, &c. 

Nairnshire (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

(5.) Broken bridges falling down, 

My fair lady, which will you have ? 
Open the door for the king's soldiers. 
What king are you ? 
I am true to the very last one. 

Isle of Man (A. W. Moore). 

Versions of this game from Scotland have been sent me, 
which show great similarity to those previously printed, but 
the game is more or less in a state of decadence. The best 
version is that from Perth. One from St. Andrews, Peterhead, 
though only consisting of the first verse, has preserved the 
refrains, "Dance o'er the Lady Lee" and " With a gay lady" 
of Halliwell's version. The others commence " broken bridges." 
The Isle of Man version is still more incomplete. A version 
sent me by Dr. Haddon from Barrington is similar to the one 
given, vol. i. p. 338-9, from Enborne School, and is not there- 
fore printed here. 

Magician. 

A mirror is covered with a cover, and a girl or boy is taken 
into the room. She or he is then asked what animal or thing 



ADDENDA 443 



they would like to see. As soon as the wish is stated, the cover 
is raised, and the child sees his or herself. London (A. B. 
Gomme). 

Mannie on the Pavement. 

One player has charge of the pavement. It is his duty to 
keep the others off. The others try how often they can touch 
the wall, and when the " mannie " catches one, that one 
becomes " mannie." Aberdeen (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Merry-ma-Tansa. [Vol. i. pp. 369-376; ii. 422-424.] 

Here we go round by jingo ring, by jingo ring, by 

jingo ring, 
Here we go round by jingo ring, in a cold and 

frosty morning. 
Twice about and then we fall, and then we fall, and 

then we fall, 
Twice about and then we fall, in a cold and frosty 

morning. 

All bend down. The one who rises up last goes into the 
centre of the circle, and those in the circle sing 

Choose your maidens all around, all around, all around, 
Choose your maidens all around, on a cold and frosty 

morning. 

The one in the centre chooses two from the ring, and retires 
with them a short distance away, when the name of a boy is 
selected as the lover. During the time the three are standing 
apart, those in the ring let go each other's hands, and take 
hold of the sides of their dresses, and make as if they were 
sweeping a house, singing the while 

Swype the hoose till the bride comes hame, the bride 

comes hame, the bride comes hame, 
Swype the hoose till the bride comes hame, on a cold 

and frosty morning. 

When the three come back, the one that was in the centre 
takes up the same position, and the two she picked out join 
those in the circle. Then all wheel round and sing 



444 ADDENDA 



A golden pin to tell her name, tell her name, tell her 

name, 
A golden pin to tell her name, in a cold and frosty 

morning. 
The answer is 

(girl's name is given) is her name, is her name, 

is her name, 

is her name, in a cold and frosty morning. 

Then comes the lover's name 

A golden watch to tell his name, tell his name, tell 

his name, 
A golden watch to tell his name, in a cold and frosty 

morning. 
The answer is 

So-and-so is his name, is his name, is his name, 
So-and-so is his name, in a cold and frosty morning. 
The one in the middle is then blindfolded, and all wheel 
round and sing 

Blindfolded dinna catch me, dinna catch me, dinna 

catch me, 
Blindfolded dinna catch me, on a cold and frosty 

morning. 

The blindfolded tries to catch one in the ring. The ring 
should not break, but it is often broken by the one that is on 
the eve of being caught. The one caught takes her stand in 
the centre, and the game begins anew from that point. Dyke 
(Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

This is a most interesting variant of this game blindfolding 
the bridegroom in order that he must first catch his bride, 
and her attempts to elude his caresses, are significant of early 
custom. 

Here we go round by jing-ga-ring, 
Jing-ga-ring, jing-ga-ring ; 
Here we go round by jing-ga-ring, 
Around the merry-ma-tansy. 

Three times round, and then we fall, 
Then we fall, then we fall j 



ADDENDA 445 



Three times round, and then we fall, 
Around the merry-ma-tansy. 

Choose your maidens all around, 
All around, &c. ; 

High gates till the bride comes in, 
The bride comes in, &c. 

A golden pin to tell her name, 
To tell her name, &c. 

(Mary Anderson) is her name, 
Is her name, &c. 

Blindfold you all around, 
All around, &c. 

A ring with one child in centre, who chooses one from the 
circle, at the end of third verse, after whispering the bride's name 
together otitside the circle, they are admitted at " high gates," 
when all the girls hold up their hands in arches as they dance 
round. All players in the ring are then blindfolded, and have 
to catch the child in the centre. Nairnshire (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 
Another version is 

Here we go round by jingo-ring, 

By jingo-ring, by jingo-ring, 
Here we go round by jingo-ring, 
And round by merry matansy. 
Twice about, and then we fall, 

And then we fall, and then we fall. 
Twice about, and then we fall, 
And round by merry matansy. 

Fochabers (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

In another version from St. Andrews and Peterhead, with 
same words, the players all flop down, then rise again and 
dance round. 

Another form of words is 

Here we go round by jingo-ring, 
Jingo-ring, jingo-ring. 
Here we go round by jingo-ring, 
In a cold and frosty morning. 



446 ADDENDA 



Three times round, and then we fall, 
Then we fall, then we fall, 
Three times round, and then we fall, 
In a cold and frosty morning. 

Nairn (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Another similar version from N. Scotland, locality not 
known. 

Round about the jingo-ring, &c. 

Round about the jingo-ring, &c. 

First time is catching time, &c., round, &c. 

A fine gold ring to tell her name, &c. 

( ) is her name, &c. 

Third time is kissing time, &c., round, &c. 

London (A. B. Gomme), from Scotch source. 

Milking Pails. [Vol. i. pp. 376-388.] 

A version sent me by Mr. M. L. Rouse, Blackheath, is 
similar to those previously printed, varying only at the end. 
After the " wash in the river," and " the stream will carry the 
clothes away," the children say, "Men, you may run after 
them." Hereupon they all run off, but the mother does not 
chase them. They return, and a dialogue ensues similar to 
a part of " Mother, may I go out to play," follows between the 
mother and children : 

"Where have you been all day ? " 

" Working for Jack, or aunt." 

" What did he give you ? " 

" A piece of plum-pudding as big as a flea, or a piece of bread 
as big as a house, and a piece of cheese as big as a mouse." 

The children then run off again, come quickly back with the 
news that they had seen a large bull in the meadow. 

"Where's the butcher?" 

"Behind the stable door cracking nuts, and you may have 
the shells." The mother then chases the children, beating all 
she can catch. 

My Delight's in Tansies. [See "Sunday Night," vol. ii. p. 221.] 
All the girls stand in a line except one who stands in front 



ADDENDA 447 



of the others. This one walks or dances backwards and for- 
wards. All sing the words 

My delight's in tansies, O ! 

My delight's in bransies, O ! 

My delight's in a red, red rose ; 

The colour o' my 

the name of one in the line chosen by the one in front is said. 
The two in front join right and left hands, and all sing 

Hey ho, my , O ! 

My bonnie, bonnie , O ! 

A' the warld wid I gie, 

For a kiss o' , O. 

My delight's in Nancy, O ! 

My delight's in tancy, O ! 

My delight's in a red, red rose, 

[She chooses out a girl] 

Call her, oh ! my (a girl's name), O ! 

Hey, ho, my , O ! 

My bonnie, bonnie , O ! 

A' the warld wad I gie 

For a kiss o' , O ! 

Fraserburgh (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Namer and Guesser. [Vol. i. p. 409.] 

Another version of this game. It is begun in the same way. 
As each player gets his name, he or she turns their back to the 
namer. When all are named, and are standing with their 
backs to the namer, the namer calls out, " Baker, baker, your 
bread is burnin'," or " Bakerie, bakerie, your bread is burnin'." 
The guesser answers, " Will you give a corner of it to me ? " 
or "Give me a corner of it," and takes a stand beside the 
namer. The namer then says 

Come, cheese me east, 
Come, cheese me west, 
Come, cheese me to " Rose." 

The guesser points to one of the players. If the guess is 
right, the player goes to the guesser's side ; if wrong, to the 
namer's side, when all the players except one are chosen. 
This one gets two names, say " Needles " and " Preens." The 



448 ADDENDA 



namer then says to the guesser, " Needles " or " Preens " ? A 
guess is made. This is done three times, and each time the 
names are changed. If the last guess is made correctly, then 
the player goes to the guesser, if not, to the namer. Some- 
times it is decided by "the best o' three." Then comes the 
" tug of war." The gaining side calls out " Rotten eggs, 
rotten eggs ! " Fraserburgh (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Needle Cases. 

Needle cases, needle cases, in a silver saucer. 

Who shall I direct it to but Captain 's daughter. 

What will you give to tell her name, tell her name, tell 
her name ? 

A hundred pounds and a glass of wine. 

(The girl's name is given, and she then asks) 

What will you give to tell his name ? 

(The others answer) 

Two hundred pounds and a glass of wine. 

(Boy's name given by girl). 

As I gaed down to borrow a pan, 

I saw her sitting kissing her man ; 

She off with the glove and on with the ring. 

To-morrow, to-morrow the wedding begins. 

Clean the brass candlesticks, clean the fireside, 

Draw up the curtains and let's see the bride. 
All the players but one stand in a circle this one goes round 
with a handkerchief, singing the first lines. When the girl's 
name is mentioned she tells her sweetheart's name to the girl 
with the handkerchief, sits down in the centre, and covers her 
face with her hands. The one with the handkerchief goes 
round again, asking, " What will you give ? " and the ring 
answers. Her name is then given, and the girl with the hand- 
kerchief again asks, " What will you give to tell his name ? " 
The -ring answers again, and the sweetheart's name is then 
given. The girl with the handkerchief goes round again and 
sings the last lines, the ring singing with her. Then the one 
in the centre joins the ring, and the game begins again. 
Aberdeen (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 



ADDENDA 449 



Nuts in May. [Vol. i. pp. 424-433.] 

Many versions of this have been sent me, but none differ 
materially from those printed previously. 

Odd Man. 

A game played by two or three hundred persons who form 
a circle ; every one places his stick in the ground before him, 
by way of barrier. A person called the odd man stands in the 
middle and delivers his bonnet to any one in the ring. This 
is nimbly handed round, and the owner is to recover it ; and 
on succeeding, takes the place of the person whom he took it 
from, and that person takes the middle place. Pennant's 
" Voyage to the Hebrides," p. 231. 

Old Cranny Crow. [Vol. i. p. 201 ; ii. pp. 404-405.] 

This game resembles " Hen and Chickens," but though of 
that class of game it is not, it will be seen, the usual form of 
" Hen and Chickens" at its conclusion. The earlier part of 
the game and dialogue, if any, may, however, have been similar. 
Mr. Rouse says : " I cannot recollect more of Old Cranny 
Crow than that she entices children one by one out for a walk, 
and steals them from their supposed mother. The mother is 
then invited to dine by Old Cranny Crow, and has a pie (one 
of her children) set before her, with pepper and salt, which she 
pretends to eat, and when doing so discovers it to be just like 
her Tommy (or other child's name). Then Cranny Crow 
puts another pie before her; this she discovers to be just 
like her Katy. She finds out all her children one by one, and 
they come to life again and run home. M. L. Rouse, Black- 
heath. [See " Mother, mother, pot boils over," " Witch."] 

Old Johanny Hairy, Crap in ! 

All players sit round the fire and put out their right feet. 
The Master of the game repeats 

Onery, twoery, dickery dary, 
Wispy, spindey, spoke of the lindey, 
Old Johanny Hairy 

Crap in ! l 

1 Crap draw. 
VOL. II. 2 F 



450 ADDENDA 



Each word is repeated to a man ; and when the leader comes 
to " Crap in," the man specified draws in his foot. When all 
have drawn in their feet but one, this one must then kneel 
down, and his eyes being blindfolded, the master of the game 
puts his elbow on his back and strikes him with his elbow 
or fist, saying 

Hurley, burley, trump the trace, 

The cow ran through the market-place. 

Simon Alley hunt the buck, 

How many horns stand up ? 

At the same time holding up several fingers. The man 
kneeling down has to guess the number. If he guesses 
correctly, the master of the game takes his place. If he fails 
to guess he is kept down, and another man goes and strikes 
his back, and so on. Kiltubbrid, Co. Leitrim (L. L. Duncan.) 
A version of " Hot Cockles," with interesting variations. 
Mr. Duncan, when sending me the games he collected, said 
" It is very possible that the people may have brought some 
of the games from England when returning from harvesting. 
This, however, does not apply to 'Old Johanny Hairy, crap in,' 
as it is now called in English. Crap isteach is the Irish for 
' draw in/ as in Mr. OTaharty's ' Sports of the Winter ' there 
is a Gaelic version. This, I should imagine, makes it certain 
that, although well known elsewhere, the game also obtained 
in the West of Ireland. 

Paper of Pins. 

Paper of pins to you I bring ; 
Say is my love worth anything ? 

Gold and silver to you I bring ; 
Say is my love worth anything ? 

No, I'll not have anything ; 
or, 

Yes, I will have what you bring. 

A ring is formed, and one player walks round outside saying 
the first four lines, stopping at any child she chooses who 
answers " Yes " or " No." If " Yes," the two go into the ring 
and kiss. Marylebone, London (A. B. Gomme). 



ADDENDA 



This is interesting, as a possible fragment of the old Keys 
of Canterbury [Halliwell's " Nursery Rhymes," No. cccclxvi.] 
and of the Paper of Pins, described so fully by Mr. Newell in 
" Games and Songs of American Children," pp. 51-55. 

See " Keys of Heaven," ante, p. 437. 

Pickie. A form of Hopscotch. [See " Hopscotch," vol. i. pp. 
223-227.] 




One player commences first by winning the toss. The pick 
(a small flat stone) is pitched into No. I bed. It is then moved 
out of this first place, backward across the front line, and not 
otherwise by touching or forcing it with one foot, the other 
foot being kept up; that is, the player must hop and use the 
foot on the ground to strike " pick." No line must be touched. 
If this happens, or if the pick, when being driven towards the 
pitching line, gets away otherwise than across the front line, 
the player is " out," and the next boy goes in. All the beds 
are done likewise, and all must be then done in a reverse way, 
beginning with No. 10. The first player who completes the 
game wins. Waterville, Co. Kerry (Mrs. B. B. Green). 

Poor Widow. [Vol. ii. pp. 62, 63.] 

Here's a poor widow from Babylon, 

All her sons and daughters are gone. 

Come choose to the east, come choose to the west, 

Come choose you the very one that you like best. 

Now they are married I wish them joy, 

Every year a girl and boy. 



452 ADDENDA 



Loving each other like sister and brother, 
A happy new couple may kiss together. 

Laurieston School, Kircudbrightshire (J. Lawson). 

A circle is formed, two children in the centre, one of whom 
kneels, the other walks round singing 

I am a poor widow go walking around, 

Go walking around, go walking around, my own. 

And all of my children are married but one, 

Are married but one, are married but one, my own. 

I put on a nightcap to keep her head warm, 
To keep her head warm, to keep her head warm, my own. 
Then rise up my daughter and choose whom you please, 
And choose whom you please, and choose whom you 
please, my own. 

The mother then joins the circle, and the daughter becomes 
poor widow. On the mention of the nightcap a white hand- 
kerchief is spread over the head, the circle walking around 
slowly, and chanting the words slowly and dismally. 

Penzance (Miss Courtney). 

See " Widow," ante, p. 381. 

Rashes. 

A game played by children with rushes in Derbyshire, which 
is a relic of the old custom of rush-bearing. In the warm days 
of May and June the village children proceed in parties to the 
sedges and banks of dyke and brook, there to gather the finest 
and best rushes. These are brought with childish ceremony 
to some favourite spot, and then woven into various articles, 
such as baskets, parasols, and umbrellas. Small arbours are 
made of green bushes and strewn with rushes, inside which 
the children sit and sing and play at " keeping house" with 
much lordly ceremony. At these times they play a.t a game 
which consists in joining hands in a circle, and going round a 
heap of rushes singing or saying 

Mary Green and Bessy Bell, 
They were two bonny lasses ; 



ADDENDA 453 



They built a house in yonder hill, 
And covered it with rashes. 

Rashes, rashes, rashes ! 

At each repetition of the word " rashes " (rushes) they loosen 
hands, and each picking up a lot of rushes, throw them into 
the air, so that they may fall on every one in the descent. 
Many of the articles made with rushes are hung over the 
chimney-piece in houses, and in children's bedrooms, as orna- 
ments or samples of skill, and there remain until the next 
season, or until the general cleaning at Christmas. Thomas 
Radcliffe, in "Long Ago," vol. i. p. 49 (1873). 

Queen Anne. [Vol. ii. pp. 90-102.] 

Lady Queen Anne, she sits in her pan, 
As fair as a lilly, as white as a lamb ; 
Come tittle, come tattle, come tell me this tale, 
Which of these ladies doth carry the ball ? 
My father sent me three letters, please deliver the ball. 
If a correct guess is made by the opposite side, the queen 
and the child who had the ball say 

The ball is mine, it is not yours, 
You may go to the garden and pick more flowers. 

Isle of Man (A. W. Moore). 

Sally Water. [Vol. ii. pp. 150-179.] 

Sally, Sally, Walker, sprinkling in a pan, 
Rye, Sally ; rye, Sally, for a young man, 
Come, choose to the east, come, choose to the west, 
And come choose to the very one that you love best. 
The choice is made here, and the two stand in the centre as 

usual. 

Now there's a couple married in joy, 
First a girl and then a boy. 

made a pudding nice and sweet, 

took a knife and tasted it. 

Taste, love ; taste, love, don't say no, 
Next Monday morning is our marriage day. 



454 ADDENDA 



Seven years after, seven years to come, 
This young man shall be kissed and be done. 

Fochabers, N. E. Scotland (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Sally, Sally, Water, sprinkled in a pan, 
Rise, Sally ; rise, Sally, for a young man. 
Choose the best, leave the worst, 
Choose the prettiest you can. 

Now you're married we wish you joy, 
First a girl and then a boy, 
Seven years after son and daughter, 
Kiss before you go over the water. 

London (Dr. A. C. Haddon, from Miss E. A. Passmore). 

Played in usual way. 

Shuffle the Brogue. [See "Hunt the Slipper," vol. i. pp. 

241, 242.] 

The boys sat on their haunches in a circle. One of the 
players takes a small object, and hands it from one to another 
under the legs from behind. The players as they pass the 
brogue repeat the words 

Shuffle the brogue once, 
Shuffle the brogue twice, 
Shuffle the brogue thrice. 

The object has always to be passed along in the same direction. 
One player who is blindfolded has to catch it as it is passing 
along. The one in whose hand it is found becomes the catcher. 
Crossmichael, Kirkcudbrightshire (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 

Soldiers, Soldiers. 

Soldiers, soldiers, march away, 

Monday morning's here again ; 

The drums shall rattle, the pipes shall play 

" Over the hills and far away." 

Now you're married I wish you joy, 

First a girl and then a boy ; 

If one don't kiss, the other must, 

So kiss, kiss, kiss. 

Girton Village, Cambridgeshire (Dr. A. C. Haddon). 



ADDENDA 455 



A circle is formed, and the children sing the first four lines. 
One chooses a partner, and they dance round in the ring. 

Three Dukes. [Vol. ii. pp. 233-255.] 

In a version of the Three Dukes, collected by Dr. A. C. 
H addon, the first lines are 

Here comes one duke a riding by, a riding by, 

A riding by (repeat). 

Rasima, Tasima, Tisima tay ; 

Pray what is your will, sir ? 

My will is to get married. 

Will any of my fair daughters do ? 

They're all as stiff as pokers. 

We can bend as well as you, sir. 
The duke goes round, chooses one, and sings 

I go to the kitchen, I go to the hall, 

I pick the fairest one of all (as previous versions). 

Girton Village, Cambridgeshire (Dr. A. C. Haddon). 

Three Knights from Spain. (Vol. ii. pp. 257-279.] 

A version of this game called " Gipsies," varies slightly from 
those previously printed. 

Here comes one gipsy come from Spain, 

To call upon your daughter Jane ; 

Our daughter Jane is far too young, 
To be controlled by flattering tongue. 

Oh, very well, I must away ; 
I'll call again some other day. 

Come back, come back, 

Your tails are flag, 

And choose the fairest one you see. 

The gipsy then chooses a girl from the line of players, and 
asks her to come. The girl asked replies, " No." Then the 
gipsy turns round and dances, saying, "Naughty girl, she 
won't come out (repeat), to help me in my dancing." Again the 
gipsy asks the girl, when she replies, " Yes," and goes to the 
gipsy, who says, " Now we have got the flower of May, the 



456 ADDENDA 



flower of May, &c., to help us with our dancing." Auchencairn, 
N. B. (Mary Haddon). 

Tug-of-War Game. 

Apples and oranges, two for a penny, 
Come all ye good scholars, buy ever so many. 
Come choose the east, come choose the west, 
Come choose the one you love the best. 
Played like "Oranges and Lemons." One child is " Apple," 
and another " Orange." Ross-shire (Rev. Dr. Gregor). 
Played in the same way is 

Pancakes and flitters is the wax of cantailers, 1 
I owe you two farthings, I'll pay you to-morrow ; 
Here comes a candle to light you to bed, 
Here comes a hatchet to chop off your head. 

Isle of Man (A. W. Moore). 

We are the Rovers. [Vol. ii. pp. 343-360]. 

In a version sent me by Dr. Haddon, there is a slight varia- 
tion. The first lines of each verse are 

Have you any bread and wine ? 

We are the Romans. 

Have you, &c. 

Yes, we have some bread and wine, 
We are the English. 
Yes, we have, &c. 

Will you give us some of it, &c. 
No ; we'll give you none of it, &c. 
We will tell our magistrates, &c. 
We don't care for your magistrates, &c. 
We will tell our new-born prince, &c. 
We don't care for your new-born prince, &c. 
Are you ready for a fight ? 
Yes, we're ready for a fight. 
Tuck up sleeves and have a fight. 

General scrimmage follows. Girton Village, Cambridgeshire 
(Dr. A. C. Haddon). 

1 Mr. Moore says he does not know the meaning of this word. 



ADDENDA 457 



When I was a Young Girl. [Vol. ii. pp. 362-374.] 
The first lines are 

When I was a naughty girl, &c., and this way went I 

(shrugging shoulders), 
When I was a good girl, &c. (folding arms, walking 

soberly), 
When I was a teacher (beating time or whacking, 

optional), 

When I went a-courting (walking arm in arm), 
When I had a baby (nursing apron as baby), 
When my baby died (crying), 
When my father beat me (hitting one another), 
When my father died, 

How I did laugh ! (laughing). 

Girton Village, Cambridgeshire (Dr. A. C. Haddon). 



MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 
CHILDREN'S GAMES 



CHILDREN'S games have not hitherto been studied in the same 
way as customs and superstitions and folk-tales have been 
studied, namely, as a definite branch of folk-lore. It is well 
however, to bear in mind that they form a branch by them- 
selves, and that, as such, they contribute to the results which 
folk-lore is daily producing towards elucidating many unre- 
corded facts in the early history of civilised man. 

Although games have been used by Dr. Tylor and others 
as anthropological evidence, these authorities have mostly 
confined themselves to those games of skill or chance which 
happen to have parallels in savage life; and the particular 
point of their conclusions rests rather upon the parallels, than 
upon the substantive evidence of the games themselves. 

I will first point out the nature of the material for the 
study. It will be seen that the greater number of games 
printed in these two volumes have been collected by myself 
and many kind correspondents, from children in the present 
day games that these children have learned from other 
children or from their parents, and in no case, so far as I am 
aware, have they been learned from a printed source. To 
this collection I have added all printed versions of the tradi- 
tional game, that is, versions of games written down by the 
collector of folk-lore and dialect in some cases unconscious 
collectors of folk custom from any available source. A dis- 
tinctive feature of the collection is, therefore, that I have 
printed all versions of each game known to me which show 

differences of words or methods of play. The importance of 

458 



THE STUDY OF CHILDREN'S GAMES 459 

having all the principal variants from different parts of the 
country will be obvious when definite conclusions as to th% 
origin and significance of traditional games are being considered, 

Strutt mentions many games played by boys in his day, 
but his remarks are confined principally to games of skill 
with marbles, tops, &c., and games like " Prisoner's Base/' 
11 Scots and English," " Hot Cockles," &c. He records none 
of those interesting dialogue games which we know now 
as singing games. It may be that these games were in his 
day, as now, the property more of girls than of boys, and 
he may not have looked for or thought of recording them, for 
it can hardly be imagined that he was unaware of their 
existence. He records swinging and ball and shuttlecock 
playing as girls' amusements, but very little else, and it can- 
not even be suggested that the singing game and dialogue 
game have arisen since his time. Indeed, an examination 
of the games will, I hope, prove for them a very remote 
origin, showing traces of early beliefs and customs which 
children could not have invented, and would not have made 
the subjects of their play unless those beliefs and customs 
were as familiar to them as cabs, omnibuses, motor cars, and 
railways, are to the children of to-day, who use these things 
as factors in games which they make up. 

I do not pretend to have made a complete collection of all 
versions of games to be found in the United Kingdom and 
Ireland. It will be seen from my list that some counties are 
entirely unrepresented ; but I think examples enough have been 
brought together from a sufficient number of different places 
to show that, even could I obtain the games of every county, 
I could not reasonably hope to obtain any that would be com- 
pletely different from those appearing here. Versions differing, 
more or less, in words from these would, doubtless, appear, 
but I do not think an entirely different game, or any variants 
that would materially alter my conclusions, will now be found. 
All those sent me during the progress of the volumes through 
the press and these are a considerable number show no 
appreciable differences. 

A detailed examination of each game has led me to draw 



460 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

certain conclusions as to the origin of many of the games. 
These conclusions differ materially from those advanced by 
Halliwell, Strutt, or the earlier writers, when they have at- 
tempted to suggest the origin of a game. I also differ from 
Mr. Newell in many of the conclusions advanced in his admir- 
able collection of American children's games, although I fully 
recognise the importance of his method of research. I believe, 
too, that hitherto no attention has been paid to the manner or 
method in which the game is played. It is to the "method" 
or " form " of play, when taken together with the words, that 
I wish to draw particular attention, believing it to be most 
important to the history of the games. 

I do not, of course, claim that all the games recorded in 
these two volumes are traditional in their present form, or have 
had independent origins; many of these now known under diffe- 
rent names have a common origin. There is, probably, not one 
game in the same condition, especially as regards words, as it 
was fifty or a hundred years ago ; but I consider the " form " 
or "method" would remain practically the same even if the 
words get materially altered. 

All games seem primarily to fall into one of two sections : 
the first, dramatic games; the second, games of skill and 
chance. Now the game proper, according to the general idea, 
must contain the element of winning or losing. Thus, the 
games of skill and chance are played either for the express 
purpose of winning property of some sort from a less fortunate 
or skilful player, or to attain individual distinction. Games of 
this kind are usually called boys' games, and are played 
principally by them; but beyond these generally recognised 
games is the important section of dramatic games, which are 
regarded as the property of the girls, and played principally 
by them. 

These two sections are generally considered as the peculiar 
and particular property of each sex. Although this idea is 
borne out by a study of the traditional game, it will be found 
that the boys have dramatic games of their own, and the girls 
have special games of skill and chance. It has so happened, 
however, that the development in the case of the boys' dramatic 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 461 



games has been in the direction of increasing the rules or laws 
of a game, introducing thereby so much variety that it is diffi- 
cult to recognise them as descendants of the dramatic originals. 
This has probably been the result of their use in school play- 
grounds, while the girls' dramatic games, not being utilised as a 
means of exercise, have been left alone, and are dying a natural 
death. " ^ 

It will be convenient if, at this point, < wg games are classified j 
as I shall use them in discussing the question of origin. The 
first necessary classification will relate to the incidents which 
show the customs and rites from which the games have de- 
scended ; the second classification will relate to the dramatic . 
force of the games, as it is from this that I hope to construct 
the ladder by which the game can be shown to have descended 
from a long past stage of culture. 

The classification, according to incident, is as follows, 
the name of each game referring to the title-name in the 
dictionary : 

MARRIAGE GAMES. 

All the Boys. Merry-ma-tanza. 

Babbity Bowster. Nuts in May. 

Cushion Dance. Oats and Beans. 

Down in the Valley. Oliver, Oliver, follow the King. 

Galley, Galley, Ship. Pretty little Girl of Mine. 

Glasgow Ships. Queen Anne. 

Hear all ! let me at her. Rosy Apple. 

Here comes a Virgin. Round and round the Village. 

Here's a Soldier left alone. Sally Water. 

Here stands a Young Man. Silly Old Man, he walks alone. 

Isabella. Three Dukes. 

Jolly Miller. Three Knights. 

King William. Three Sailors. 

Kiss in the Ring. Widow. 

Mary mixed a Pudding. 

COURTSHIP AND LOVEMAKING GAMES. 

Curly Locks. Jolly Hooper. 

Dig for Silver. JHy Sailors. 

Gallant Ship. Knocked at the Rapper. 

Here comes a Lusty Wooer. Lady on the Mountain. 

Here I sit on a Cold Green Bank. Paper of Pins. 

Hey Wullie Wine. Pray, pretty Miss. 



462 



MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



Queen Mary. 
Ring me Rary. 
Salmon Fishers. 
Shame Reel. 



Soldier. 
Sun shines. 
Three Old Bachelors. 
Wind, The. 



FORTRESS GAMES. 



Barbaric, King of the. 
Canlie (Addenda). 
How many Miles to Babylon. 
King of the Castle. 



London Bridge. 
Tower of London. 
Willie Wastell. 



FUNERAL GAMES. 



Booman. 
Green Grass. 
Green Gravel. 




Jenny Jones. 
Old Roger. 
Wallflowers. 



HARVEST GAMES. 

Oats and Beans and Barley. Would you know how doth the 

Peasant ? 



Dumb Motions. 



Deil amo' the Dishes. 
Ghost at the Well. 



TRADE GAMES. 

Trades. 

GHOST GAMES. 



Mouse and Cobbler. 



WELL WORSHIP GAME. 
Draw a Pail of Water. 

RUSH-BEARING GAME. 

Rashes. 

TREE WORSHIP GAME. 
Eller Tree. 

WINDING UP GAMES. 



Bulliheisle. 
Port the Helm. 
Snail Creep. 



Tuilzie Wap. 

Wind up the Bush Faggot. 



TABU GAME. 
Old Soldier. 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 



463 



DIVINATION GAMES. 



Dan'l my Man. 
Hot Cockles. 
Jack's Alive. 
Keppy Ball. 
'Ot millo. 



Priest Cat. 
Ragman. 
Ringie Red Belt. 
Shuttlefeather. 
Swinging. 



VICTIMISING 




MES. 



(Forms of Torture.} 



Block, Hammer, and Nail. 

Bonnety. 

Carrying the Queen a Letter. 

Cat Beds. 

Cobbin Match. 

Cry Notchil. 

Dump. 

Ezzeka. 

Father's Fiddle. 

Heap the Cairn. 

Hecklebirnie. 

Hewley Puley. 

Hickety Bickety. 



Hiry Hag. 



Jack's Alive. 

Magic Whistle. 

More Sacks to the Mill. 

Namers and Guessers. 

Priest of the Parish. 

Pun o' rnair Weight. 

Ronin the Bee. 

Sacks. 

Salt Eel. 

Shoe the Auld Mare. 

Wild Birds. 



Cockeldy Bread. 



CHARM GAMES. 

Thun'er Spell. 



EFFIGY GAME. 

Drawing Dun out of the Mire. 



IMITATION OF SPORT GAMES. 



All a Row. 
Cock-fight. 
Hare and Hounds. 



Hunting. 
Knights. 
Puff in the Dart. 



IMITATION OF SPORTS (WITH ANIMAL) GAMES. 



Badger the Bear. 
Bull in the Park. 
Call the Guse. 
Cockertie-hooie. 
Cock-fight. 
Cock's-heading. 
Doncaster Cherries. 
Fox. 



Fox in the Fold. 
Fox in the Hole. 
Frog in the Middle. 
Garden Gate. 
Hare and Hounds. 
Shue-Gled-Wylie. 
Wolf 



MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



Bag o' Malt. 
Honey Pots. 
Rockety Row. 



WEIGHING GAMES. 



Way Zaltin'. 
Weigh the Butter. 



LD STEALING GAMES. 




ipsy. 
Keeling the Pot. 

Mother, Mother, the Pot boils over. 
Old Cranny Crow. 



Steal the Pigs. 

Three Jolly Welshmen. 

Witch. 



ANIMAL CONTEST GAMES. 



Chickens, come clock. 

Fox and Geese. 

Gled-Wylie. 

Hen and Chickens. 

Letting the Buck out. 



Old Dame. 

Shepherds and Sheep. 

Who goes round my Stone Wall ? 

Wolf. 

Wolf and Lamb. 



FISHING GAME. 
Catch the Salmond. 

CHURNING GAME. 

Churning. 



Cross Questions. 
Thinir done. 



CONUNDRUM GAMES. 

Three Flowers. 



GUESSING GAMES. 



All the Birds in the Air. 

Bannockburn. 

Bird Apprentice. 

Birds, Beasts, and Fishes. 

Brother Ebenezer. 

Buck, Buck. 

Buff. 

Dumb Crambo. 

Fool, Fool, come to School. 

Handy Croopen. 

Handy Dandy. 



Hiss and Clap 
Hot Cockles. 
King Plaster Palacey. 
Little Dog I call you. 
Namers and Guessers. 
Old Johnny Hairy. 
Priest-Cat (2). 
Religious Church. 
Thimble Ring. 
Trades. 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 



465 



CONTEST GAMES. 



To take Prisoners. \ 
Bedlams. 
Blackthorn. 
Buckey-how. 
Canlie. 

Chickidy Hand. 
Click. 
Cock. 
Flowers. 
Hornie. 

Hunt the Staigie. 
Johnny Rover. 
King Ccesar. 
King Come-a-lay. 
King of Cantland. 
Larnploo. 
Over Clover. 
Prisoner's Base. 
Range the Bus. 
Rax. 
Relievo. 
Rin-im-over. 
Save all. 
Shepherds. 
Stacks. 
Stag. 

Stag Warning. 
Warney. 

Prisoners and Possession of Ground. 
Barley Break. 
French and English. 
How many Miles to Babylon (2). 
Pi-cow. 

Prisoner's Base. 
Range the Bus. 
Rigs. 
Scots and English. 



Catching and Touching for "he" or " it? 
Black Doggie. 
Blackman's Tig. 
Boggle about the Stacks. 
Canlie. 
Cross Tig. 

Cutters and Trucklers. 
Drop Handkerchief. 
Fire on the Mountains. 
Hand in and Hand out. 
High Windows. 
Jinkie. 

King o' the Castle. 
Letting the Buck out. 
Long Terrace. 
Mannie on the Pavement. 
One Catch all. 
Push in the Wash Tub. 
Puss in the Corner. 
Rakes and Roans. 
Round Tag. 
Ticky Touchwood. 
Tig. 
Time. 

Tom Tiddler's Ground. 
Touch. 
Tres-acre. 
Twos and Threes. 

Tug of War. 

A' the Birdies. 
Namers and Guessers. 
Oranges and Lemons. 
Sun and Moon. 
Three Day's Holidays. 
Through the Needle 'ee. 



DANCE GAMES. 
( With words and singing.'} 



All the Soldiers in the Town. 
Alligoshee. 
Auntie loomie. 
As I was walking. 
Ball of Primrose. 
Basket. 
VOL. II. 



Bell- Horses. 
Betsy Bungay. 
Bingo. 

Bold Jolly Lads. 
Boys and Girls. 
Carry my Lady to London. 
2 G 



466 MEMOIR ON' THE STUDY OF 



Chicamy. Pray, pretty Miss. 

Click, Clock, Cluck. Pretty Miss Pink. 

Contrary, Rules of. Push the Bus^ess on. 

Dinah. Queen Mary. 

Duck Dance. Ring by Ring' ,iu 

Duck under the Water. Ring o' Roses. .-;.- 

Farmer's Den. Round and Round went the Gal- 

Frincy-francy. lant Ship. 

Galloping. . ' Sailor Lad. 

Green Grass (Addenda). Sally go round. 

Green grow the Leaves (2). Sunday Night. 

Green grow the Leaves. Three Little Ships. . ' 

Here we go Around. Town Lovers. 

Jenny Mac. Trip and Go. 

Jingo Ring. Turn Cheeses. 

Leap Candle. Turn the Ship. 

Leaves are Green. Turvey Turyey. 

Long Duck. Uncle John. 

Lubin. Up the Streets. 

My delight's in Tansies. Weary. 

Phoebe. Weave the Diaper. 

Pop goes the Weasel. 



DANCE AND SEE-SAW GAMES. 

Cobble. Hirtschin Hairy. 

Cobler's Hornpipe. Huckie Buckie down the Brae. 

Curcuddie. See-saw. 

Cutch-a-Cutchoo. Skiver the Guse. 

Harie Hutcheon. 



HIDE AND SEEK GAMES. 

(i.) PERSONS (2). OBJECTS 

Bicky. Codham. 

Cuckoo. Find the Rihg. 

Gilty Galty Gigg. 

Hide and Seek (i). Hide and Seek (2). 

Howly. Kittlie-cout. 

Kick the Block. Odd-man. 

King by your Leave. Peesie Weet. 

Mount the Tin. Priest Cat (2). 

Salt Eel. Shuffle the Brogue. 

Spy Arm. Smuggle the Gig. 

Strike-a-licht. Thimble Ring. 

Tip it. 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 



467 



LEAP-FROG AND HOPPING GAMES. 



Accroshay. 
Bung the Bucket. 
Cat Gallows. 
Foot and Over. 
Half Hammer. 
Hop Frog. 



Hopscotch. 

Leap-frog. 

Loup the Bullocks. 

Saddle the Nag. 

Ships. 

Skin the Goatie. 



CARRYING GAMES. 



Betsy Bungay. 

Carry my Lady to London. 

King's Chair. 



Knapsack. 
Knights. 



Blind Bell. 

Blindman's Buff. 

Blindman's Stan. 

Buff. 

Cock Stride. 

Dinah. 

French Blindman's Buff. 

Giddy. 




les. 

Kick the^kjck. 
v Muffin Man. \ 

<3i4^Glmn4L-H'airy f Crap in ! 
'Ot millo. 
Pillie Winkie. 
Pointing out a Point. 
Queen of Sheba. 



FOLLOW MY LEADER GAMES. 



Follow my Gable. 
Follow my Leader. 
Jock and Jock's Man. 
Quaker. 



American Post. 
Button. 

Cross Questions. 
Diamond Ring. 
Fire, Air, Water. 
Follow my Gable. 
Forfeits. 
Genteel Lady. 
Jack's Alive, 



Ball. 

Ball in the Decker. 

Balloon. 

Balls and Bonnets. 

Burly Whush. 



Quaker's Wedding. 

Religious Church. 

Solomon. 

The Drummer Man. 



FORFEIT GAMES. 



Malaga Raisins. 

Mineral, Animal, Vegetable. 

Minister's Cat. 

Mr. Barnes. 

Old Soldier. 

Turn the Trencher. - 

Twelve Days of Christmas. 

Wads and the Wears. 



BALL, HAND. 



Caiche. 
Colley Ball. 
Cuck-ball. 
Cuckoo. 
Han'-and-Hail. 



4'68 



MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



Hats in Holes. 
Keppy Ball. 
Monday, Tuesday. 
Pat-Ball. 
Pize Ball. 



Pots. 

Stones. 
Teesty-Tosty. 
Trip-Trout. 
Tut-ball. 



Camp. 
Football. 



BALL, FOOT. 

Hood. 



BALL GAMES. 

( With bats and sticks played by rival parties.} 



Bad. 

Baddin. 

Bandy-ball. 

Bandy-cad. 

Bandy-hoshoe. 

Bandy-wicket. 

Bittle-battle. 

Buzz and Bandy. 

Cat and Dog. 

Cat and Dog Hole. 

Catchers. 

Cat i' the Hole. 

Chinnup. 

Chow. 

Church and Mice. 

Codlings. 

Common. 

Crab-sowl. 

Crooky. 

Cuck-ball. 

Cudgel. 

Dab-an-Thricker. 

Doddart. 

Hawkey. 

Hockey. 



Hornie Holes. 
Hummie. 
Hurling. 
Jowls. 

Kibel and Nerspel. 
Kirk the Gussie. 
Kit-Cat. 
Lobber. 
Munshets. 
Nur and Spel. 
Peg and Stick. 
Rounders. 
.Scrush. 
Shinney. 
Sow-in-the-Kirk. 
Stones. 
Stool -ball. 
Tip-cat. 

Trap-bat and ball. 
Tribet. 

Trippet and coit 
Troap. 

Trounce hole. 
Trunket. 
"Waggles. 



GAMES OF SKILL AND CHANCE. 

AIM Throwing sticks or stones to hit Duckstone. 

particular object. Loggats. 

All in the Well. Mag. 

Cockly Jock. Nacks. 

Cogs. Paip. 

Doagan. Pay Swad. 

Duck at the Table. Peg-fiched. 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 469 



Penny Cast. Ho-go. 

Penny Prick. Hoilakes. 

Roly Poly. Holy Bang. 

Hundreds. 

BUTTONS. Hynny-pynny. 

Banger. Lab. 

Buttons. L a ~ 

Cots and Twisses. Long-TawL 

Hard Buttons. Marbles. 

Pitch and Toss. Nine Ho les. 

Skyte the Bob. Pig- ring. 

Pit-Counter. 

CHANCE, or GAMBLING. p its 

Chuck Farthing. plum Puddi 

Cross and Pile. Pyramids. 

Dab ' Ring-taw. 

Davie Dra P' Ship-sail 

Hairry.my Bossie. Shuvvy-Hawle. 

Headicks and Pinticks. Span-counter. 

Heads and Tails. s ^ 

Hustle Cap. Spannims. 

Jingle-the-Bonnet. s lints> 

Lang Larence. Stroke> 

Neivie-nick-nack. Three Hoks< 
Odd-man. 

Odd or Even. NUTS QN STRJNG 

Pednameny. Cob-nut 

Pick and Hotch. Cock-battler. 

Pmch - Cogger. 

CHERRY STONES. ^ onkers ' 

Cherry Odds. Conquerors. 

Cherry-pit. J ud ' ^ T 

Paip. Peggy Nut 

EGGS. ON DIAGRAM OR PLAN. 

Blindman's Stan. Corsicrown. 

Cogger. Fipenny Morell. 

Jauping Paste-eggs. Fox and Geese (2). 

Pillie Winkie. Hap-the-beds. 

Wink -egg. Hickety-Hackety. 

Hopscotch. 

MARBLES. Kit-cat-cannio. 

Boss-out. London. 

Bridgeboard. Nine Men's Morris. 

Bun-hole. Noughts and Crosses. 

Capie-hole. Pickie. 

Castles. Tip-tap-toe. 

Chock or Chock -hole. Tit-tat-toe. 

Cob. Tods-and-lambs. 

Crates. Tray Trip. 

Dumps. Troy Town. 



470 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

PENCE. Ducks and Drakes. 

Chuck Farthing. Gobs. 

Chuck Hole. Huckle-Bones. 

Jackysteauns. 
PINS. 

Hattie. TOPS. 

Pinny-Show. Clippings. 

Pins. Gully. 

Pop-the-Bonnet. Hoatie. 

Push-pin. Hoges. 

Peg-in-the-Ring. 

SHUTTLECOCK. Peg Top. 

Shuttlefeather. Scop-peril. 

Scurran-Meggy. 

STONES AND DICE. Tops. 

Chance Bone. Totum. 

Checkstones. Whigmeleerie. 

Chucks. 

Dalies. WITH FINGERS AND STRING. 

Dibbs. Cat's-Cradle. 

This leaves over a few games which do not come under 
either of these chief heads, and appear now to be only forms 
of pure amusement. These are : 

Blow-point. Pins. 

Bob Cherry. Pirly Peaseweep. 

Bummers. Pon Cake. 

Chinny-mumps. Poor and Rich. 

Cuddy among the Powks. Prick at the Loop. 

Dish-a-loof. Robbing the Parson's Hen Roost. 

Dust Point. Scat. 

Handy Dandy. She Said, and She Said. 

Level Coil. Stagging. 

Lug and a Bite. Sticky-stack. 

Lugs. Stroke Bias. 

Magician. Sweer Tree. 

Malaga Raisins. Thing Done. 

Musical Chairs. Troco. 

Neighbour, I torment thee. Troule-in- Madame. 

Obadiah. Truncher. 

Penny Hop. Turn Spit Jack. 

Pigeon Walk. Wiggle Waggle. 

Pinny Show. Wild Boar. 

In order to show the importance of this classification, let me 
first refer to the games of skill. These are (i) where one 
individual plays with some articles belonging to himself against 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 471 

several other players who play with corresponding articles 
belonging to them ; (2) where one player attempts to gain 
articles deposited beforehand by all the players as stakes or 
objects to be played for. These games are played with buttons, 
marbles, cherry-stones, nuts, pins, and pence. In the second 
group, each player stakes one or more of these articles before 
beginning play, which stakes become the property of the 
winner of the game. The object of some of the games in the 
first group is the destruction of the article with which the 
opponent plays. This is the case with the games of " conkers" 
played with nuts on a string, and peg-top ; the nuts and top 
are broken, if possible, by the players, to prevent their being 
used again, the peg of the top being retained by the winner 
as a trophy. The successful nut or top has the merit and 
glory of having destroyed previously successful nuts or tops. 
The victories of the one destroyed are tacked on and appro- 
priated by each victor in succession. So we see a nut or a top 
which has destroyed another having a record of, say, twenty- 
five victories, taking these twenty-five victories of its opponent 
and adding them to its own score. In like manner the pegs 
of the tops slain in peg-top are preserved and shown as 
trophies. That the destruction of the implements of the 
game, although not adding to the immediate wealth of the 
winner, does materially increase his importance, is manifest, 
especially in the days when these articles were compara- 
tively much more expensive than now, or when it meant, as 
at one time it must have done, the making of another 
implement. 

These games are of interest to the folk-lorist, as showing 
connection with early custom. We know that playing at 
games for stakes involving life or death to the winner, or the 
possession of the loser's magical or valuable property or know- 
ledge, is not only found in another branch of folk-lore, namely, 
folk-tales, but there is plenty of evidence of the early belief 
that the possession of a weapon which had, in the hands of a 
skilful chief, done great execution, would give additional skill 
and power .to the person who succeeded in obtaining it. When 
I hear of a successful " conker" or top being preserved and 



472 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



handed down from father to son, 1 and exhibited with tales of 
its former victories, I believe we have survivals of the form of 
transmission of virtues from one person to another through the 
means of an acquired object. I do not think that the cumula- 
tive reckoning and its accompanying ideas would occur to 
modern boys, unless they had inherited the conception of the 
virtue of a conquered enemy's weapon being transferred to the 
conqueror's. 

Other games of skill are those played by two or more 
players on diagrams or plans. Many of these diagrams and 
plans are found scratched or carved on the stone flooring or 
walls of old .churches, cathedrals, and monastic buildings, 
showing that the boys and men of the Middle Ages played them 
as a regular amusement probably monks were not averse to 
this kind of diversion in the intervals of religious exercise ; 
plans were also made on the ground, and the games played 
regularly by shepherds and other people of outdoor occupa- 
tion. We know this was so with the well-known " Nine 
Men's Morris" in Shakespeare's time, and there is no reason 
why this should not be the case with others, although " Nine 
Men's Morris" appears to have been the favourite. These 
diagram games are primitive in idea, and simple in form. 
They consist primarily of two players trying to form a row 
of three stones in three consecutive places on the plan ; the 
one who first accomplishes this, wins. This is the case with 
" Kit-Cat-Cannio " (better known as " Noughts and Crosses ") 
" Corsicrown " and " Nine Men's Morris." 

Now, in " Noughts and Crosses " the simplest form of making 
a " row of three," where only two players play, and in another 
diagram game called "Tit-Tat-Toe," it is possible for neither 
player to win, and in this case the result is marked or scored 
to an unknown or invisible third player, who is called "Old 
Nick," "Old Tom," or "Old Harry." In some versions this 
third player is allowed to keep all the marks he registers, and 
to win the game if possible;- in others, the next successful 
player takes " Old Nick's " score and adds it to his own. 

1 I know of one nut which was preserved and shown to admiring boys as a 
conqueror of 1000. 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 473 

Here we have an element which needs explanation, and it is 
interesting to remind oneself of the primitive custom of as- 
signing a certain proportion of the crops or pieces of land to 
the devil, or other earth spirit, which assignment was made 
by lot. It -seems to me that a game in which an invisible 
player takes part must come from an era in -which un- 
known spirits were believed to take part in people's lives, 
the interpretation of such part being obtained by means of 
divination. 

Again, in the games played with ball (hand) are remains of 
divination, and the ball games played by two opposite parties 
with bats and sticks, the origin of our modern cricket and 
football, have been developed from those early contests 
which have played such an important part in parish and 
town politics. Even in the simple game of " Touch" or 
"Tig" a primitive element can be found. In this game, 
as in many others, it is one of the fundamental rules, now 
unfortunately being disregarded, that the player who is 
"he" or "it" must be chosen by lot; one of the "counting 
out " rhymes is said until all the players but one are counted 
out this one is then "he." This "he" is apparently a 
"tabooed" person; he remains "he" until he succeeds in 
touching another, who becomes " tabooed " in turn, and the 
first is then restored to his own personality. There would be 
no necessity for this deciding by lot unless something of an 
ignominious or " evil " character had been originally associated 
with the " unnamed " or " tabooed " player. In some games the 
player who is counted out is the victim of the rough play or 
punishment, which is the motive of the game. It is possible 
that the game of " Touch " has developed from the practice of 
choosing a victim by lot, or from tabooing people suffering 
from certain diseases or subjected to some special punishment. 

The " counting out " rhymes of children are in themselves 
an interesting and curious study. They contain the remains 
in distorted form of some of the early numerals. The fact 
of a counting-out rhyme being used in the games is of itself 
evidence of antiquity and old usage. For those interested 
in this branch of study I can refer to the valuable book on 



474 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

this subject by Mr. H. Carrington Bolton, which contains 
hundreds of these rhymes collected from various sources. 

I mention these instances of possible connection between the 
games of skill and ancient belief and custom, to show that the 
anthropological significance of traditional games is not absent 
from what might perhaps be considered quite modern games. 
This is important to my argument, because when I turn to the 
dramatic section of children's games there is so much evidence 
of the survival of ancient custom and belief, that I am supported 
in the arguments which I shall advance by the fact that the 
whole province of children's play, and not particular depart- 
ments, contribute to this evidence. It will be seen from the 
classification that many customs are dramatised or represented 
in a more or less imperfect form in a large number of games, 
and that these customs have been those which obtained a firm 
hold on the people, and formed an integral part of their daily 
life. Courtship, love, and marriage form the largest number ; 
then the contest games for the taking of prisoners and of 
territory are the next in point of numbers. Funerals appear 
as the next most widely spread, then harvest customs, while 
the practice of divination, the belief in ghosts and charms,, 
well-worship, tree-worship, and rush-bearing, witches, and 
child-stealing, are fully represented. Next come imitations of 
sports (animal), and contest games between animals, and then 
a number of games in which "guessing" is a principal feature, 
and a large number dealing with penalties or punishments 
inflicted for breach of rules. 

A survey of the classification scheme of traditional games 
introduces the important fact that games contain customs ; in 
other words, that games of skill and chance have come down 
from a time when practices were in vogue which had nothing 
originally to do with games, and that dramatic games have 
come down from times when the action they dramatise was 
the contemporary action of the people. It becomes important, 
therefore, to work more closely into the details of these games,- 
to ascertain if we can what customs are preserved, to what 
people or period of culture they might have belonged. In 
many instances enough is said under each game to show the 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 475 



significance of the conclusions, but when brought together and 
compared one with another these conclusions become more 
significant. The fact that marriage custom is preserved in a 
given form becomes of immense value when it is found to have 
been preserved in many games. I shall not go further into the 
games of skill and chance, but confine myself to the important 
class of dramatic games. 

By the dramatic game I mean a play or amusement which 
consists of words sung or said by the players, accompanied by 
certain pantomimic actions which accord with the words used, 
or, as I prefer to put it, of certain definite and settled actions 
performed by the players to indicate certain meanings, of 
which the words are only a further illustration. 

To take the method of play first, I have found five distinct 
and different methods : 

(1) The line form of game, played by the children being 
divided into two sides of about an equal number on each side, 
with a space of ground of about eight or ten feet between the 
two lines. Each line joins hands, and advances and retires in 
turn while singing or saying their parts. 

(2) The circle form, played by the children joining hands 
and forming a circle, and all walking or dancing round together 
when singing the words. 

(3) The individual form, where the children take separate 
characters and act a little play. 

(4) The arch form, in which two children clasp each other's 
hands, hold their arms high, and so form a kind of arch, 
beneath which all the other players run in single file. 

(5) Winding-up form, in which the players, clasping hands, 
wind round another player until all are wedged closely to- 
gether, and then unwind again, generally assuming a serpentine 
form in so doing. 

It will be well, in the first place, to arrange the games 
played under each of these methods : 

GAMES PLAYED IN LINE FORM (with singing and action). 

Babity Bowster. Here comes a Lusty Wooer. 

Green Grass. Here comes one Virgin on her 

Hark the Robbers (one form}. Knee. 



476 



MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



Jenny Jones (one form}. 
Jolly Hooper (only one line ad- 
vance). 

Lady of the Land. 
London Bridge (one form). 
Mary Brown (one form). 
Milking Pails. 



Nuts in May. 

Pray, pretty Miss (one form). 

Queen Anne. 

Three Dukes. 

Three Knights. 

Three Sailors. 

We are the Rovers. 



CIRCLE FORM (singing' and action subdivided into three methods). 



(1) Green Gravel. 
Jolly Miller. 

London Bridge (some versions). 
Lubin. 

Mulberry Bush. 
Nettles. 

Oats and Beans and Barley. 
Ring a Ring o' Roses. 
Rushes. 
Wallflowers. 

When I was a Young Girl. 
Would You know how doth the 
Peasant ? 

(2) All the boys. 
Down in the Valley. 
Glasgow Ships. 

Here stands a Young Man. 

Isabella. 

Jolly Fisherman. 

Jolly Sailors. 

King William. 

Kiss in the Ring. 

Knocked at the Rapper. 



Lady on the Mountain. 

Mary Brown. 

Mary mixed a Pudding. 

Merry-ma-tanza. 

Needle Cases. 

Old Widow. 

Oliver, Oliver, follow the King. 

Poor Mary sits a-weeping. 

Poor Widow. 

Pretty little Girl of Mine. 

Punch Bowl. 

Queen Mary. 

Rosy Apple, Lemon, and Pear. 

Round and Round the Gallant 

Ship. 

Sally Water. 
Silly Old Man. 
Uncle John. 
Wind. 

(3) Booman. 
Old Roger. 

Round and Round the Village. 
Who goes round my Stone Wall ? 



INDIVIDUAL FORM (dialogu* game}. 



Auld Grannie. 

Baste the Bear. 

Fox and Goose. 

Ghost at the Well. 

Gipsey. 

Gled-wylie. 

Hen and Chickens. 

Honey Pots. 

Jack, Jack, the Bread's a-burnin'. 

Keeling the Pot. 

King of the Barbaric. 

Lady on yonder Hill. 



Lend Me your Key. 

Mother, may I go out? 

Mother Mop. 

Mother, Mother, the Pot boils over. 

Mouse and Cobbler. 

Old Granny Crow. 

Old Woman. 

Shepherds and Sheep. 

Steal the Pigs. 

Three Jolly Welshmen. 

Witch. 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 477 

The arch form of game, or tug-of-war as it is usually called, 
subdivide into two methods : 

ARCH FORM. 

(i) Draw a Pail of Water. (2) Fool, Fool, come to School. 

Hark the Robbers (some versions]. Hark the Robbers (some versions}. 

How many Miles to Babylon. Little Dog, I call you. 

London Bridge. Namers and Guessers. 

Long Duck. Oranges and Lemons. 

Thread the Needle. Three Days' Holidays. 

Through the Needle Eye. Tug of War. 

WINDING UP, OR SERPENT'S COIL FORM. 

Bulliheisle. Snail Creep. 

Eller Tree. Tuilzie Wap. 

Port the Helm. Winding up the Bush Faggot. 

The first or line form of games is characterised by no one 
player being distinguished above his fellows ; there are no dis- 
tinct or separate characters to be played. All the players on 
one line say the same words and perform the same actions ; all 
advance together and retire together. Each line stands still 
while the other line advances, retires, and has its " say." In 
this way questions are asked and answers are given. Ques- 
tions and answers form an essential part of the line form of 
game. The one line of players imply action of a party com- 
posed of several persons who are of the same opinion, and the 
line on the opposite side is a party who hold different opinions, 
and express these in words and by actions ; so that in no 
game played in line form do we get unanimous action of all the 
players, but half and half. 

These line games represent in the main a contest, and there 
are contests of different kinds ; that is, war between the 
people of two different locations, between parishes or border 
countries of different nationalities, and contests for wives, of a 
more or less friendly nature. That the lines or sides indicate 
people who come from one country or district to another country 
or district is shown, I think, by the fact that a line is drawn in 
the middle of the ground, which line separates the territory of 
the two sides. Players can go as far as the line on their own 



478 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

side, but one step over lands them in the enemy's territory. 
In a marriage game of the line form, the girl when unwilling is 
pulled across the line, and when willing she walks across to 
the opposite side. It is also clear that in the marriage games 
the party on one side represents young men, and on the other 
side young women. 

In the second group, the circle form, all the players join 
hands to form a circle. They all perform the same actions and 
say the same words. This circle form is used in three ways. 

In the first or simplest class all the players perform the same 
actions, sing the same words all together. There is no division 
into parties, and no individual action or predominance. This 
method is adopted when a certain recurring custom is cele- 
brated or a special event is commemorated. The event is 
described in pantomimic action, and accompanied with dance 
and song. 

In the second class the circle is formed, the players all clasp 
hands, dance round together, and sing the same words ; but 
the action is confined to first one and then two players, who 
are taken by " choice " from those forming the circle. This 
class .principally consists of courtship, love-making, and mar- 
riage games. The two principal parties concerned usually 
have no words to say, though in some "love" games the 
centre player does express his or her own feelings in verse. 
The fact that this form is used for love and marriage games 
accounts for the much larger number of games in this class 
and their greater variety. 

In the third class of the circle game the players form the 
circle to act the part of " chorus " to the story. There are also 
two, three, or four players, as required, who act parts in dumb 
show suitable to the character personified. In this class the 
circle personate both animate and inanimate objects. The 
circle is stationary at least the players forming it do not dance 
or walk round. They sometimes represent houses ; a village, 
and animals are usually represented rather than people. 

The circle games I consider to be survivals of dramatic 
representations of customs performed by people of one village 
or of one town or tribe representations of social customs of 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 479 

one place or people, as distinct from the " line " form of games, 
which represent a custom obtaining between two rival villages 
or tribes. Thus Lam inclined to consider the joining of hands 
in a circle as a sign of amity, alliance, and kinship. In the case 
of the line games hands are clasped by all players on each side, 
who are thus in alliance against those on the opposite side. 
When hands are joined all round so that a circle is formed, all 
are concerned in the performance of the same ceremony. There 
is no division into parties, neither is difference of opinion shown 
either by action or words in circle games. 

In the third class of game there are several distinct char- 
acters, and the game partakes more of the nature of what we 
should call a play proper, and may be considered an outcome 
of the circle play. There are several characters, usually a 
mother, a witch or old woman, an elder daughter and several 
younger children, a ghost, and sometimes animals, such as 
sheep, wolves, fox, hen, and chickens. The principal characters 
(not more than two or three) are played by different children, 
and these having each a part allotted to them, have also a 
certain amount of dialogue to say, and corresponding actions 
to perform. The remaining characters, whether children or 
animals, merely act their part when action is required, all doing 
the same thing, and have no words to say. The dialogue in 
these games is short and to the point It has not been learnt 
from written sources, but orally, and as long as the main idea 
and principal incidents are not departed from, the players may, 
according to their capacity, add to or shorten the dialogue to 
heighten the situation. There is no singing in these games, 
though there is what perhaps might be called the remains of 
rhyme in the dialogue. 

The fourth form, that of the arch) is played in two ways. In 
the first, two children clasp their hands and hold them up to 
form an arch. Under this all the other players run as if 
going through an arch or gateway, and the players are gene- 
rally stopped by the two who form the arch. Then a circle 
is formed, and all the players join hands and dance round 
together. In the second way, the arch is formed as above, 
and all the players run under. These players are then caught 



480 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

one by one within the arch, and have to choose one of the two 
leaders, behind whom they stand. A tug-of-war then ensues 
between the two leaders and their followers. 

The first of these, that ending with the circle or dancing, 
indicates the celebration of an event in which all the people 
join, and all are of one way of thinking differing from this 
group of customs celebrated by the simple circle game by each 
person in turn performing a ceremony, signified in games by 
the action of going under or through an arch. 

The second way, when the " tug " follows, represents a con- 
test, but I do not think the contest is of the same kind as that 
of the line form. This rather represents the leaders of two 
parties who are antagonistic, who call, in the words of the 
rhymes, upon the people of a town, or faction, to join one of 
the two sides. The fact that each player in the line or string 
is caught by the leaders, and has to choose which of them 
he will fight under, together with the tug or pulling of one 
side over a marked line, by the other side, indicates a differ- 
ence in the kind of warfare from the line contests, where 
territory is clearly the cause of the struggle and fight. The 
line contest shows a fight between people of different lands ; 
and the arch contest, a method of choosing leaders by people 
living in one land or town. 

In the fifth form, " winding up games," the players join 
hands in a long line, and wind round and round one player 
at the end of the line, usually the tallest, who stands still 
until all are formed in a number of circles, something like 
a watch spring. They then unwind, sometimes running or 
dancing, in a serpentine fashion until all are again in straight 
line. These games probably refer to the custom of encircling 
trees, as an act of worship. They differ from the circle game 
in this way : The players in a circle game surround something 
or some one. In the " winding up" game they not only 
surround, but attachment or " hold " to the thing surrounded 
has to be kept. 

The fact that these games lend themselves to such treatment, 
and the fact that I am obliged to use the terms, district, tribe, 
localities, obliged to speak of a state of contest between groups, 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 481 

of the sacred encircling of a tree, and of other significant usages, 
go far to suggest that these games must contain some element 
which belongs to the essential part of their form, and my next 
quest is for this element. I shall take each class of game, and 
endeavour to ascertain what element is present which does 
not necessarily belong to games, or which belongs to other and 
more important branches of human action; and it will depend 
on what this element is as to what can ultimately be said of 
the origin of the games. 

Of the games played in " line " form, " We are the Rovers " 
is the best representative of pure contest between two opposing 
parties. If reference is made to the game (vol. ii. pp. 343-356), 
the words will be found to be very significant. In my account 
of the game (pp. 356-60), I suggest that it owes its origin 
to the Border warfare which existed on the Marches between 
England and Scotland and England and Wales, and I give my 
reasons, from analysing the game, why I consider it represents 
this particular form of contest rather than that of a fight 
between two independent countries. Both sides advancing 
and retiring in turn, while shouting their mutual defiance, and 
the final fight, which continues until all of one side are 
knocked down or captured, show that a deliberate fight was 
intended to be shown. I draw attention, too, to the war-cry 
used by each side, which is also significant of one of the old 
methods of rallying the men to the side of their leader an 
especially necessary thing in undisciplined warfare. This game, 
then, contains relics of ancient social conditions. That such a 
contest game as this is represented by the line form combining 
words, singing, and action, is, I submit, good evidence of my 
contention that the line form of game denotes contest. This 
game, then, I consider a traditional type of contest game. 

It is remarkable that among the ordinary, now somewhat 
old-fashioned, contest games played by boys there should be 
some which, I think, are degenerate descendants of this tra- 
ditional type. There are a number of boys' games, the chief 
features of which are catching and taking prisoners and getting 
possession of an enemy's territory as in the well-known 
"Prisoner's Base" and "Scots and English." " Prisoner's 

VOL. II. 2 H 



482 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

Base" (ii. pp. 80-87) in its present form does not appear to 
have much in common with games of the type of " We are the 
Rovers/' but on turning to Strutt we find an earlier way of 
playing (ibid. p. 80). Now, this description by Strutt gives us 
" Prisoner's Base " played by two lines of players, each line 
joining hands, their homes or bases being at a distance of 
twenty to thirty feet apart. That the line of players had to 
keep to their own ground is, I think, manifest, from it being 
necessary for one of the line to touch the base. There is no 
mention of a leader. Thus we have here an undoubted form 
of a contest game, where the taking of prisoners is the avowed 
motive, played in almost the same manner as the line dramatic 
game. When the dramatic representation of a contest became 
formulated in a definite game, the individual running out and 
capturing a certain player on the opposite side would soon 
develop and become a rule of the game, instead of all on one 
side trying to knock down all on the other side. It may be a 
point to remember, too, that in primitive warfare the object is 
to knock down and kill as many of the enemy as possible, 
rather than the capture of prisoners. 

In other games of a similar kind, the well-known " Scots and 
English " (ii. p. 183), for example, we have the ground divided 
into two parts, with a real or imaginary line drawn in the 
middle ; the players rush across the line and try to drag one 
of the opposite side across it, or to capture the clothes of the 
players. 

In other boys' games " Lamploo," " Rax," " King of Cant- 
land," "King Caesar," "Stag" there are the two sides; the 
players are sometimes all on one side, and they have to rush 
across to the other, or there are some players on each side, 
who rush across to the opposite, trying to avoid being taken 
prisoner by a player who stands in the middle between the 
opposite' goals. When this player catches a boy, that boy 
joins hands with him; the next prisoner taken also joins 
hands, and these assist in capturing others. This is con- 
tinued until all the players are caught and have joined 
hands in a long line, practically reverting to the line form 
of game, and showing, according to my theory of the line 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 483 

game, that all joining hands are of one side or party. If 
the line gets broken the players can run back to their own 
side. There are many other games which are played in a 
similar way (see Contest Games), though farther removed from 
the original form. In most of these we have practically the 
same thing the sides have opposite homes, and the leader, 
though individual at first, becomes merged in the group when 
the line is formed, and the game ends by all the players being 
on one side. It must be mentioned, too, that in these boys' 
games of fighting, the significant custom of " crowning," that 
is, touching the head of the captured one, obtains. If this is 
omitted the prisoner is at liberty to escape (see "Cock," "King 
of Cantland "). 

Although there is no dialogue between the opposing parties 
in these contest games, there are in some versions undoubted 
remains of it, now reduced to a few merely formal words 
called a "nominy." These "nominys" must be said before 
the actual fight begins, and the remains are sufficient to 
show that the nominy was originally a defiance uttered by 
one side and answered by the other. For these nominys, 
see "Blackthorn," " Chickidy Hand," "Hunt the Staigie," 
"Scots and English," " Johnny Rover," "Shepherds," "Stag," 
"Warney,"&c. 

The next most important games in line form are. marriage 
games. In the well-known " Nuts in May " (vol. i. p. 424 
433) there is a contest between the two parties, but the 
contest here is to obtain an individual for the benefit of the 
side. A line is drawn on the ground and a player is delibe- 
rately sent to "fetch " another player from the opposite side, 
and that this player is expected to conquer is shown by 
the fact that he is selected for this purpose, and also because 
the ceremony of " crowning " prevails in some versions. The 
boy, after he has pulled the girl across the line, places his hand 
on her head to complete the capture and to make a prisoner. 
This custom of "crowning" prevails in many games where pri- 
soners are made, and I have already mentioned it as occurring in 
the boys' contest games. If the crowning is performed, the 
capture is complete ; if not performed, the prisoner may escape. 



484 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



The evidence of this game, I consider, points to customs 
which belong to the ancient form of marriage, and to what is 
technically known as marriage by capture. 

In the game of the "Three Dukes" (vol. ii. p. 233-255), it 
will be noticed that the actions are very spirited. Coquetry, 
contempt, and annoyance are all expressed in action, and 
the boys imitate riding and the prancing of horses. I 
must draw special attention to the remarks I have made 
in my account of the game, and for convenience in com- 
paring the line marriage games I will repeat shortly the 
principal points here. 

In some versions, the three dukes each choose a wife at the 
same time, and when these three are " wived" or "paired" 
another three do the same. In another version " five " dukes 
each choose a wife, and all five couples dance round together. 
But most significant of all is the action of the dukes after 
selecting the girl, trying to carry her off, and her side trying 
to prevent it. 

In this game, then, I think we have a distinct survival of 
or remembrance of the tribal marriage marriage at a period 
when it was the custom for the men of a clan or village to seek 
wives from the girls of another clan both belonging to one 
tribe. The game is a marriage game of the most matter-of- 
fact kind. Young men arrive from a place at some distance 
for the purpose of seeking wives. The maidens are apparently 
ready and expecting their arrival. They are as willing to 
become wives as the men are to become husbands. It is not 
marriage by force or capture, though the triumphant carrying 
off of a wife appears. It is exogamous marriage custom. 
The suggested depreciation of the girls, and their saucy 
rejoinders, are so much good - humoured chaff and banter 
exchanged to enhance each other's value. There is no mention 
of "love" in the game, nor courtship between the boy and girl. 
The marriage formula does not appear, nor is there any sign 
that a " ceremony " or " sanction " to marry is necessary, nor 
does "kissing" occur. Another interesting, point about this 
game is the refrain, " With a rancy, tancy, tee," which refrain, 
or something similar, accompanies all verses of all versions, 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 485 



and separates this game from others akin to it. This refrain 
is doubtless a survival of an old tribal war-cry. 

The game of " The Three Knights from Spain " (ii. pp. 257- 
279), played in the same way as "Three Dukes," may appear 
at first to be a variant of the " Three Dukes " ; but it is signi- 
ficant that the form of marriage custom is different, though 
it is still marriage under primitive conditions of society. The 
personal element, entirely absent from the "Three Dukes," 
is here one of the principal characteristics. The marriage is 
still one without previous courtship or love between two 
individuals, but the parental element is present here, or, at 
any rate, if not parental, there is that of some authority, and 
a sanction to marry is given, although there is no trace of 
any actual ceremony. The young men apparently desire 
some particular person in marriage, and a demand is made 
for her. The suitors here are, I think, making a demand 
on the part of another rather than for themselves. They 
may be the ambassadors or friends of the would-be bride- 
groom, and are soliciting for a marriage in which purchase- 
money or dowry is to be paid. The mention of " gold " and 
"silver" and the line, "She must be sold," and the offering 
of presents by the " Knights," are important. These indica- 
tions of purchase refer to a time when the custom of offering 
gold, money, and other valuables for a bride was in vogue. 
While, therefore, the game has traces of capturing or carrying 
off the bride, this carrying off is in strict accord with the con- 
ditions prevalent when marriage by purchase had succeeded 
to marriage by capture. There is evidence in this game of a 
mercantile spirit, which suggests that women and girls were 
too valuable to be parted with by their own tribe or family 
without something deemed an equivalent in return. 

In another line game, " Here comes Three Sailors " (ii. 
pp. 282-289), there is still more evidence of the mercantile or 
bargaining spirit. Here the representative of the parental 
element or other authority selects the richest and highest in 
rank of the suitors, and a sum of money is given with the bride. 
The suitors are supposed to have performed some actions which 
have gained them renown and entitled them to a wife. The 



4 86 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

suitors are accepted or rejected by a person having authority, 
and this authority introduces an interesting and suggestive 
feature. The suitors are invited to stay or lodge in the house 
if accepted, probably meaning admission into the family. The 
girl is to " wake up," and not sleep, that is, to rouse up, be 
merry, dress in bridal array, and prepare for the coming 
festival. She is given to the suitors with " in her pocket 
one hundred pounds," and "on her finger a gay gold ring." 
This is given by the "mother" or those having authority, 
and refers, I believe, to the property the girl takes with her 
to her new abode for her proper maintenance there ; the ring 
shows her station and degree, and is a token that she is a fit 
bride for a " king." Curious, too, is the " Here's my daughter 
safe and sound," which looks like a warrant or guarantee of 
the girl's fitness to be a bride, and the robbery of the bride 
may also have originally related to the removal of the bride's 
wedding-dress or ornaments before she enters on her wifely 
duties. 

Following these definite marriage games in line form, in 
which previous love or courtship does not appear, we have 
several games formerly played at weddings, practically as a 
part of the necessary amusement to be gone through after a 
marriage ceremony by the company present, amusements in 
which are the traces of earlier custom. 

"Babbity Bowster" (i. pp. 9-11) is an old Scottish dance or 
game which used to be played as the last dance at weddings 
and merrymakings. It was danced by two lines of players, 
lads on one side, girls on the other. A lad took a hand- 
kerchief in earlier times a bolster or pillow and danced out 
in front of the girls, singing. He then selected a girl, threw 
the handkerchief into her lap or round her neck, holding both 
ends himself, and placed the handkerchief at her feet on the 
floor. His object was to obtain a kiss. This was not given 
without a struggle, and the line of girls cheered their com- 
panion at every unsuccessful attempt the boy made. When 
a girl took the handkerchief she threw it to a boy, who had 
to "run after and catch her and then attempt to take a kiss. 
When all had done thus they danced in line form. This 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 487 

dance took place at the time when bride and bridegroom 
retired to the nuptial chamber. It is probable the bride and 
bridegroom would first go through the dance, and after the 
bridegroom had caught his bride and they had retired the 
dance would be continued in sport. The chasing of the bride 
in sport by her new-made husband at the close of the marriage 
festivities is mentioned in old ballads. 

In the "Cushion Dance" (i. pp. 87-94) we have an instance 
of another similar old English game sang and danced at 
weddings. The " Cushion Dance/' though not played in line 
form, has two other elements of " Babbity Bowster." The 
description is so interesting, I will repeat it shortly here. The 
company were all seated. Two young men left the room, 
and returned carrying, one a square cushion, the other a 
drinking horn or silver tankard. The young man carrying 
the cushion locked the door, taking the key. The young men 
then danced round the room to a lively tune played by a 
fiddler, and sang the words of the dance. There is a short 
dialogue with the fiddler, in which it is announced that " Jane 
Sandars won't come to." The fiddler says " She must come, 
whether she will or no." The young men then dance round 
again and choose a young woman, before whom they place 
the cushion and offer the horn or cup. The girl and the 
young man kneel on the cushion and kiss. Here there is 
no capturing or chasing of the girl, but her reluctance to be 
brought to the cushion is stated by another person, and the 
locking of the door is evidently done to prevent escape of the 
girls. 

Other line games contain the element of courting, some 
versions of " Green Grass," for instance (i. pp. 161-62), 
show boys on one line, girls on the other, inviting girls to 
come' and dance, and promising them gifts. After the boys 
have selected a girl, she is asked if she will come. She 
replies first No ! then Yes ! " Pray, Pretty Miss," is similar to 
these (vol. ii. pp. 65-67). 

The remaining line form of marriage games are probably 
degenerate versions of "Three Dukes," "Three Knights," 
except " Here Comes a Lusty Wooer " (i. 202) and " Jolly 



4 88 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

Hooper" (i. 287-88). Ritson records the first of these two 
in "Gammer Gurton's Garland," 1783 ; the second is probably 
a degenerate version of the first or similar version. They 
are both demands for a bride. 

The other important line games are "Jenny Jones" (i. 260- 
283), "Lady of the Land," and "Queen Anne." I refer here 
to the Scotch version of "Jenny Jones," quoted from Chambers, 
given in vol. i. p. 281, where "Janet Jo" is a dramatic enter- 
tainment amongst young rustics. Two of the party represent 
a goodman and a goodwife, the rest a family of daughters. 
One of the lads, the best singer, enters, demands to court 
Janet Jo. He is asked by the goodwife what he will give for 
Janet Jo. His offers of a peck o' siller, a peck of gold, are 
refused ; he offers more and is accepted, and told to sit beside 
his chosen one. He then has a scramble with her for kisses. 
Versions of this game which indicate funeral customs will be 
treated under that head; but love and courtship appear in the 
game, and the courting appears to be that of a young man 
or young men, to whom objection is made, pretended or 
real; the suitors are evidently objects of suspicion to the 
parental authority, and their sincerity is tested by the offers 
they make. 

. In " Queen Anne," vol. ii. pp. 90-102, I have attempted a 
conjectural rendering of what the game might have been, by 
putting together the words of different versions. If this con- 
jectural restoration be accepted as something near the original 
form, it would suggest that this game originated from one of the 
not uncommon customs practised at weddings and betrothals, 
where the suitor has to discriminate between several girls all 
dressed exactly alike, and to distinguish his bride by some token. 
This incident of actual primitive custom also obtains in folk- 
tales, showing its strong hold on popular tradition. Many a lost 
bride in the folk-tales proves her identity by having possession 
of some article previously given as a token, and this idea may 
account for the " ball " incident in this game. (See also "King 
William.") 

From these games, when thus taken together, we have 
evidence of the existence of customs obtaining in primitive 



. CHILDREN'S GAMES 489 

marriage, and the fact that these customs, namely, those of 
marriage by capture, marriage by purchase, marriage by 
consent of others than those principally concerned, in other 
words, marriage between comparative strangers, occur in 
games played in line form, a form used for contest and fight- 
ing games, tends to show that the line form is used for the 
purpose of indicating the performance of customs which are 
supposed to take place between people living in different 
countries, towns, and villages, or people of different tribes or of 
different habits and customs. The more imperfect games of 
this type, though they have lost some of the vigour, have 
still enough left to show, when placed with the others, a con- 
nection with customs performed in the same manner. 

In " Lady of the Land," for instance (vol. i. pp. 313-20), the 
words indicate a lady hiring a poorer woman's daughters as 
servants, and, no doubt, originates from the country practice of 
hiring servants at fairs, or from hirings being dramatically acted 
at Harvest Homes. The old practice of hirings at fairs is 
distinctly to be traced in local customs (see p. 319), and is a 
common incident in folk-tales. In this game, too, actions 
would be performed suitable to the work the players under- 
take to do. 

It is not necessary to mention in detail any of the re- 
maining line games, because they are fragmentary in form, 
and do not add any further evidence to that already 
stated. 

In considering this group of games it is obvious, I think, 
that we have elements of custom and usage which would not 
primarily originate in a game, but in a condition of local or 
tribal life which has long since passed away. It is a life of 
contest, a life, therefore, which existed before the days of 
settled politics, when villages or tribal territories had their 
own customs differing from each other, and when not only 
matters of political relationship were settled by the arbitra- 
ment of the sword, but matters now considered to be of purely 
personal relationship, namely, marriage. While great interest 
gathers round the particular marriage customs or particular 
contests indicated in this group of games, the chief point of 



490 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

interest lies in the fact that they are all governed by the 
common element of contest. 

I will now turn to the circle games. Like the line games, 
this form contains games which show marriage custom, but 
it is significant that they all show a distinctly different form of 
marriage. Thus they all show courtship and love preceding 
the marriage, and they show that a distinct ceremony of 
marriage is needful ; but this ceremony is not necessarily the 
present Church ceremony. The two best examples are " Sally 
Water" (vol. ii. pp. 149-179) and " Merry-ma-tansa " (vol. i. 

pp. 369-367)- 

In "Sally Water" the two principal characters have no 
words to say, but one chooses another deliberately, and the 
bond is sealed by a kiss, and in some instances with joining 
of hands. The circle of friends approve the choice, and a 
blessing and good wishes follow for the happiness of the 
married couple, wishes that children may be born to them, 
and the period of the duration of the marriage for seven years 
(the popular notion of the time for which the marriage vows 
are binding). I have printed a great many versions of this 
game (about fifty), and note that in the majority of them 
"Sally" and "Water" are conspicuous words. In fact they 
are usually taken to mean the name of the girl, but on examin- 
ing the game closely I think it is possible, and probable, that 
11 Sally Water " may be a corruption of some other word or 
words, not the name of a girl; that the word "Water" is 
connected, not with the name of the maiden, but with the 
action of sprinkling which she is called upon to fulfil. The 
mention of water is pretty constant throughout the game. 
There are numerous instances of the corruption of words in 
the game, and the tendency has been to lose the sprinkling of 
water incident altogether. 

The sitting or kneeling attitude, which indicates a reverential 
attitude, obtains in nearly all versions, as do the words " Rise 
and choose a young man," and "Crying for a young man." 
This " crying " for a young man does not necessarily mean 
weeping; rather I consider it to mean " announcing a want" 
in the way "wants" or "losses" were cried formerly by the 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 491 

official crier of a town, and in the same manner as in games 
children " cry " forfeits ; but, losing this meaning in this game, 
children have substituted "weeping," especially as " weeping" 
with them expresses many " wants " or " woes." The incident 
of " crying " for a lover, in the sense of wanting a lover, appears 
in several of these games. I have heard the expression they've 
been " cried in church " used as meaning the banns have 
been read. The choosing is sometimes " to the east " and 
" to the west," instead of " for the best and worst." Now, 
the expression " for better for worse " is an old marriage 
formula preserved in the vernacular portion of the ancient 
English Marriage Service, and I think we have the same 
formula in this game, especially as the final admonition is to 
choose the " one loved best." Then comes the very general 
lines of the marriage formula occurring so frequently in these 
games, " Now you're married, we wish you joy," &c. 

In " Merry-ma-tansa " the game again consists of a 
marriage ceremony, with fuller details. The choice of the 
girl is announced to the assembled circle of friends by a 
third person, and the friends announce their approval or 
disapproval. If they disapprove, another choice is made. 
When they approve, the marriage formula is repeated, and 
the capacity of the bride to undertake housewifely duties 
is questioned in verse by the friends (p. 370). All the circle 
then perform actions imitating sweeping and dusting a house, 
baking and brewing, shaping and sewing. The marriage 
formula is sung, and prognostications and wishes for the 
birth of children are followed by actions denoting the nurs- 
ing of a baby and going to church, probably for a christening. 
In one version, too, the bride is lifted into the circle by two 
of the players. This may indicate the carrying of the bride 
into her new home, or the lifting of the bride across the 
threshold, a well-known custom. In another version (Ad- 
denda, p. 444) after the ceremony the bridegroom is blindfolded 
and has to catch his bride. 

These two games relate undoubtedly to marriage customs,, 
and to no other ceremony or practice. They are, so to speak, 
the type forms to which others will assimilate. 



492 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



In " Isabella " (vol. i. pp. 247-56) the actions indicate a 
more modern marriage ceremony. The young couple, after 
choosing, go to church, clasp hands, put on ring, kneel down, 
say prayers, kiss, and eat dinner. The clasping of hands, 
putting on a ring, and kissing are more like a solemn 
betrothal before a marriage ceremony. 

In the other marriage games which show remains of a 
ceremony are those of the kind to which "All the Boys" 
belongs (vol. i. pp. 2-6). In this game, customs which belong 
to a rough and rude state of society are indicated. The 
statement is made that a man cannot be happy without a 
wife. He " huddles " and " cuddles " the girl, and " puts her 
on his knee." 

The principal thing here to be noted is the mention in all 
versions of this game the fact that some food is prepared by 
the bride, which she gives to the bridegroom to eat. This, 
although called a " pudding," refers, of course, to the bridal 
cake, and to the old custom of the bride preparing it herself, 
and giving some to her husband first. 

Other rhymes of this kind, belonging, probably, to the same 
game, are " Down in the Valley," " Mary mixed a Pudding," 
" Oliver, Oliver, follow the King," tl Down in Yonder Meadow." 
In all these the making and eating of a particular " pudding " 
or food is mentioned as an important item ; in two, catching 
and kissing the sweetheart is mentioned ; and in all, "courting" 
and "cuddling"; articles for domestic use are said to be bought 
by the bride. The formal ceremony of marriage is contained 
in the verbal contract of the two parties, and the important 
ceremony of the bridegroom and bride partaking of the bridal 
food. The eating together of the same food is an essential 
part of the ceremony among some savage and semi-civilised 
peoples. The rhymes have a peculiar parallel in the rude and 
rough customs associated with betrothal and marriage which 
prevailed in Wales and the North of England. 

In " Poor Mary sits a-weeping " (vol. ii. pp. 46-62) we have 
.very distinctly the desire of the girl for a "lover." She is 
"weeping" for a sweetheart, and, as in the case of " Sally 
Water," her weeping or "crying" is to make her "want" 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 493 



known. She is told by her companions to rise and make her 
choice. In some versions the marriage lines follow, in others 
the acceptance of the choice ends with the giving of a kiss. 

Others of a similar kind are ll Here stands a Young Man 
who wants a Sweetheart" (vol. i. p. 204), " Silly Old Man 
who wants a Wife" (vol. ii. 196-99). This is a simple 
announcement of the young man's need for a wife or sweet- 
heart (probably originally intended to announce his having 
arrived at manhood, as expressed in the expression, a he 
ain't a man till he's got a sweetheart and gone a-courtin' "). 
These verses are followed by the marriage formula. Games 
of this kind are used for a kiss in the ring game, without the 
chasing and capturing. The ordinary kiss in the ring games 
are probably relics of older custom. These consist of one 
person going round the assembled circle with a handkerchief 
and choosing another of the opposite sex, after saying a 
nominy or form of set words. This was probably originally 
something in the shape of a " counting out " rhyme, to obtain 
sweethearts by "lot." A chase follows, and capture of the 
girl, and the giving and receiving of a kiss in the circle. 
This was a method of choosing sweethearts which prevailed 
until quite a late period at country festivals and fairs, but at 
an earlier period was a serious function. It is still customary 
on Easter and Whit-Monday for this game to be played on 
village greens, and the introduction thus afforded is held 
sufficient to warrant continued acquaintance between young 
people. 

In connection with this class of games I must point out that 
a game such as " Hey, Wullie Wine" (vol. i. pp. 207-210), 
though it cannot be considered exactly a marriage game, points 
to the matter-of-fact way in which it was customary for young 
people to possess sweethearts. It seems to have been thought 
not only desirable, but necessary to their social standing. A 
slur is cast on the young man or young woman who has no 
lover, and so every facility is given them to make a choice 
from among their acquaintances. In the game "King William" 
is a remnant of the disguising of the bride among some of 
her girl friends and the bridegroom's test of recognition, 



494 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

when that custom became one of the forms of amusement 
at weddings. 

The remaining love and marriage games mostly consist of 
lines said in praise of some particular girl or young man, the 
necessity of him or her possessing a sweetheart, and their 
being married. These are probably fragments of the more 
complete forms preserved in the other games of this class. 
Marriage games, preceded by courtship or love-making, are 
played in the second method of the circle form. 

Among the games played in the first method of the circle form, 
"Oats and Beans and Barley," and "Would you know how doth 
the Peasant," show harvest customs. The first of these (vol. ii. 
pp. 1-13) shows us a time when oats, beans, and barley were 
the principal crops grown, before wheat now, and for some 
time, one of the principal crops came into such general culti- 
vation as at present. All the players join in singing the words 
and performing the actions. They imitate sowing of seed, 
folding arms and standing at ease while the corn is growing, 
clap hands and stamp on the ground to awake the earth 
goddess, and turning round and bowing, to propitiate the 
spirit and do reverence to her. 'In "Would you know how 
doth the Peasant" (ii. 399-401) we find actions performed 
showing sowing, reaping, threshing, kneeling, and praying, 
and then resting and sleeping. These actions are in both 
games accompanied by dancing round hand in hand. These 
two games, then, take us back to a time when a ceremony 
was performed by all engaged in sowing and reaping grain ; 
when it was thought necessary to the proper growth of the 
crops that a religious ceremony should be performed to pro- 
pitiate the earth spirit. I believe these games preserve the 
tradition of the formula sung and danced at the spring festivals, 
about which Mr. Frazer has written so fully. 

" Oats and Beans and Barley " also preserves a marriage 
formula, and after the religious formula has been sung and 
danced, courting and marriage follows. A partner is said to be 
wanted, is chosen, and the marriage ceremony follows. The 
addition of this ceremony to the agricultural custom is of 
considerable significance, especially as the period is that of 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 495 

spring, when, according to Westermarck, natural human mar- 
riage, as also animal pairing, takes place. It is evidently 
necessary to this game for all the players to perform the same 
actions, and the centre player is not required until the choosing 
a partner occurs. There is no centre player in the other agri- 
cultural game, and no marriage occurs. 

In "When I was a Young Girl" (ii. pp. 362-374) we have all 
players performing actions denoting the principal events of their 
lives from girlhood to old age. When young, enjoyment in the 
form of dancing is represented (in present day versions, going 
to school is taking the place of this), then courting, marriage, 
nursing a baby, and occupations which women perform; the 
death of the baby and of husband follows, and the woman takes 
in washing, drives a cart to support herself, and finally gets 
old. Here, again, there is little doubt that this game owes its 
origin to those dances originally sacred in character, in which 
men and women performed actions, accompanied with song and 
dance, of the same nature as those they wished or intended to 
perform seriously in their own lives. " Mulberry Bush" is another 
descendant of this custom. In " Green Gravel " and " Wall- 
flowers " we have a death or funeral custom. Originally there 
may have been other actions performed than those the game 
contains now. These two are noticeable for the players turn- 
ing themselves round in the course of the play so that they 
face outwards. It is this turning outwards, or " to the wall," 
which indicates hopeless sorrow and grief, and there is some 
probability that the death mourned is that of a maiden, by the 
other maidens of the village. The game is not a representation 
of an ordinary funeral. 

I must here refer to the game of " Rashes" (Addenda, 
ii. pp. 452, 453). I have not succeeded in obtaining a version 
played now, and fear it is lost altogether, which is, perhaps, 
not surprising, as the use of " rushes " has practically ceased ; 
but, as recorded by Mr. Radcliffe in 1873, there is no doubt it 
represented the survival of the time when rushes were gathered 
and used with ceremony of a religious nature. 

Even in the extremely simple " Ring a Ring of Roses " 
(ii. 108-111), now only a nursery game played by very young 



496 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

children, there can be traced a relationship to a dance, in 
which the use of flowers, and all the dancers bowing or fall- 
ing prostrate to the ground together, with loud exclamations 
of delight obtained. It may well be that sneezing, an imitation 
of which is an essential part of the game, was actually a 
necessary part of the ceremonial, and sneezing was always 
considered of sacred significance among primitive peoples. It 
is not probable that children would introduce this of their own 
accord in a dance and " bop down " game. 

The games played in the third method of this group are also 
representative of custom. In "Old Roger" (vol. ii. pp. 16-24), 
the circle of players is stationary throughout; the circle sings 
the words describing the story, and the other players or actors 
run into the circle and act their several parts in dumb show. 
The story, it will be seen, is not the acting of a funeral, but 
the planting of a tree over the grave of a dead person by 
relatives and friends, and the spirit connection which this tree 
has with the dead. The spirit of the dead "Old Roger" enters 
the tree, and resents the carrying away of the fruit by the 
old woman by jumping up and making her drop the apples. 
Possession of the fruit would give her power over the 
spirit. That the tree is sacred is clear; and I am tempted to 
suggest that we may possibly have in this game a survival 
of the worship of the sacred tree, and its attendant priest 
watching until killed by his successor, as shown to us by 
Mr. Frazer in the story of the " Golden Bough." 

"Round and Round the Village" (ii. pp. 122-143) shows us 
the performance of a recurring festival very clearly in the words 
which accompany all versions, "As we have done before." 
This conveys the idea of a special event, the event in the game 
marriage, and I suggest that we have here a periodical village 
festival, at which marriages took place. It is characteristic of 
this, as in " Old Roger," that the chorus or circle stand still 
and sing the event, while the two characters act. This acting 
is the dancing round the village, going in and out the windows 
and houses, then choosing a lover, and " follow her to London." 
It is quite possible that the perambulation of boundaries with 
which festive dances and courtship were often associated would 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 497 

originate this game. The perambulation was a recurring 
custom periodically performed, and on p. 142, vol. ii., I have 
given some instances of custom which, I think, confirm this. 

In " Who goes round my Stone Wall " we find the players 
in circle form, standing still and representing the houses of a 
village (the stone wall), and also animals. The game repre- 
sents the stealing of sheep, one by one, from the village, by a 
predatory animal or thief. In this game the circle do not sing 
the story. That element has disappeared ; the two actors 
repeat a dialogue referring to the stealing of the sheep from 
the " wall." This dialogue is short, and is disappearing. The 
game is not now understood, and consequently is dying out. 
" Booman," another of the same kind, represents a funeral. 
The grave is dug in action, Booman is carried to his grave, 
the dirge is sang over him, and flowers are pretended to be 
strewn over. 

There are other circle games, which it is not needful to 
examine in detail. They are fragmentary, and do not present 
any fresh features of interest. It is, however, important to 
note that a few examples have evidently been derived from 
love ballads, drinking songs, and toasts ; some of the dance 
games are of this origin. This may be explained by the fact 
that children, knowing the general form of marriage games, 
would naturally dance in circle form to any ballad verses in 
which marriage or love and courtship occurs, and in this 
manner the ballad would become apparently a fresh game, 
though it would only be putting new words to an old formula 
of action. 

Dr. Jacob Jacobsen, in Dialect and Place Names of Shet- 
land, tells us that all the vissiks or ballads have been forgotten 
since 1/50, or thereby. They were sung to a dance, in which 
men and women joined hands and formed a ring, moving 
forwards, and keeping time with their hands and feet. Mr. 
Newell (Games, p. 78), records that "Barbara Allen" was 
sung and danced in New England at children's parties at a 
period when dancing was forbidden to be taught in schools. 
" Auld Lang Syne " is a further instance. 

It will easily be seen that the circle games have a distinctive 

VOL. II. 21 



498 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

characteristic compared with the line games. These, as I have 
already pointed out, are games of contest, whereas the circle 
games are games in which a homogeneous group of persons 
are performing a ceremony belonging entirely to themselves. 
The ceremony is of a religious character, as in " Oats and 
Beans and Barley," or "Old Roger," dedicated to a spirit inti- 
mately connected with the group who perform it, and having 
nothing belonging to any outside group. The position of the 
marriage ceremony in this group is peculiar. It has settled 
down from the more primitive state of things shown in the line 
marriage games, and has acquired a more social and domestic 
form. Except in the very significant water custom in " Sally 
Water," which I have suggested (ii. pp. 176, 177) may take us 
back to perhaps the very oldest stage of culture, all the games 
in this group are evidently of a later formation. Let it be noted, 
too, that the circle has deep religious significance not entirely 
absent from the customs of comparatively later times, among 
which the singing of " Auld Lang Syne" is the most generally 
known. 

But in speaking of matters of religious significance, it is 
important to bear in mind that we are not dealing with the 
religion of the Church. Everywhere it is most significant that 
marriage ceremony, sacred rite, social custom, or whatever is 
contained in these games, do not take us to the religion of 
to-day. Non-Christian rites can only be pre-Christian in 
origin, and these games therefore take us to pre-Christian 
religious or social custom, and this is sufficient to stamp them 
with an antiquity which alone would certify to the importance 
of studying this branch of folk-lore. 

To take now the dialogue or individual form of game, the 
best example for my purpose is " Mother, Mother, the Pot boils 
over" (vol. i. pp. 396-401). Here the chorus has disappeared ; 
the principal characters tell the story in dialogue, the minor 
characters only acting when the dialogue necessitates it, and 
then in dumb show. This is an interesting and important game. 
It is a complete drama of domestic life at a time when child- 
stealing and witchcraft were rife. A mother goes out to work, 
and returns to find one of her seven children missing. The game 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 499 



describes the stealing of the children one by one by the witch, 
but the little drama tells even more than this. It probably 
illustrates some of the practices and customs connected with 
fire-worship and the worship of the hearth. There is a pot, 
which is a magical one, and which boils over when each one of 
the children is stolen and the mother's presence is necessary. 
A remarkable point is that the witch asks to borrow a light from 
the fire. The objection to the giving of fire out of the house is 
a well-known and widely-diffused superstition, the possession 
of a brand from the house fire giving power to the possessor 
over the inmates. The witch in this game takes away a child 
when the eldest daughter consents to give her a light. The 
spitting on the hearth gives confirmation to the theory that the 
desecration of the hearth is the cause of the pot boiling over. 
Instances of magical pots are not rare. 1 

After the children are stolen the mother has evidently a 
long and troublesome journey in search of them ; obstacles 
are placed in her path quite in the manner of the folk-tale. 
Blood must not be spilled on the threshold. This game, 
then, which might be considered, only as one of child-stealing, 
becomes, when examined on the theories accompanying the 
ancient house ritual, an extraordinary instance of the way 
beliefs and customs have been dramatised, and so perpetuated. 
Other games of a similar character to this, and perhaps derived 
from it, are "Witch," "Gipsy," "Steal the Pigs." 

Amongst other games classified as dialogue games are 
those in which animals take part. In some there is a contest 
between a beast of prey, usually a fox or wolf, and a hen 
and her chickens or a goose and her goslings ; in others 
a shepherd or keeper guards sheep from a wolf, and in 
animals of the chase are hunted or baited for sport. In the 
animal contest games, " Fox and Goose," " Hen and Chickens," 

1 Mr. W. F. Kirby refers me to the form of initiation into witchcraft in Saxony, 
where the candidate danced round a pot filled with magic herbs, singing 

" I believe in this pot, 
And abjure God ; " 
or else it was 

" I abjure God, 
And believe in this pot." 



500 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



"Gled-wylie," " Auld Grannie," " Old Cranny Crow," all 
played in the dialogue form, the dialogue 'announces that the 
fox wants some food, and he arouses the suspicion of the 
goose or hen by prowling around or near her dwelling. After 
a parley, in which he tries to deceive the mother animal, he 
announces his intention of catching one of the chickens. The 
hen declares she will protect her brood, and a contest ensues. 
These games have of course arisen from the well-known pre- 
datory habits of the wolf, fox, and kite. On the other hand, 
the games illustrating the hunting or baiting of animals, such 
as " Baste the Bear," " Fox in the Hole," " Hare and Hounds," 
are simply imitations of those sports. " Baiting the Bear," a 
popular and still played game, has continued since the days of 
bear-baiting. 

I may also mention the games dealing with ghosts. " Ghost 
at the Well," " Mouse and Cobbler," show the prevailing belief 
in ghosts. Playing at Ghosts has been one of the most 
popular of games. These two show the game in a very de- 
generate condition. I need not, I think, describe in detail any 
more of the dialogue games. There are none so good as 
" Mother, the Pot boils over," but that was hardly to be ex- 
pected. The customs which no doubt were originally drama- 
tised in them all have in many cases been lost, as in the case 
of some versions of " Mother, the Pot boils over." 

The dialogue games appear to me to be later in form than both 
line and circle games. They are, in fact, developments of these ear- 
lier forms. Thus the "Fox and Goose " and " Hen and Chickens " 
type is played practically in line form, and belongs to the con- 
test group, while the " Witch " type is probably representative 
of the circle form. But they have assumed a dramatic char- 
acter of a very definite shape. This, as will be seen later on, 
is of considerable importance in the evidence of the ancient 
origin of games ; but I will only point out here that this group 
has allowed the dramatic element to have full scope, with the 
result that a pure dialogue has been evolved, while custom and 
usage has to some extent been pushed in the background. 

The next group is the arch form of game. This I divide 
into two kinds those ending in circle or dance form, and 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 50 r 

those ending with a contest between two leaders. Of this first 1 
form there are several examples. "London Bridge" (i. pp. 
333-50) is possibly the most interesting. Two players form 
the arch, all the others follow in single file. The words of 
the story are sung while all the players run under or through 
the arch. The players are all caught in turn in the arch, and 
then stand aside ; their part is finished. In some cases the 
game begins by all forming a circle, and the verses are sung 
while the circle dances round. The arch is then formed, and all 
run through it in single file, and are caught in turn by being 
imprisoned between the lowered arms. Also, we find the 
circle-dancing following the arch ceremony. In my account 
of this game (vol. i. pp. 341-50), I have drawn attention to the 
incident of a prisoner being taken as indicative of the wide- 
spread custom known as the foundation sacrifice, because of 
the suggested difficulty of getting the bridge to stand when 
the prisoner is taken. I have given a few instances of the 
custom, and the tradition that the stones of London Bridge 
were bespattered with the blood of little children, and that the 
mortar was tempered with the blood of beasts. In stories 
where a victim is offered as a foundation-sacrifice, the victim, 
often a prisoner, is sometimes forced to enter a hole or cavity 
left on purpose in the building, which is then walled or built 
up, enclosing the victim. In some, recourse to lottery is had ; 
in others, as at Siam, mentioned by Tylor (Primitive Culture, 
i. 97), it was customary, when a new city gate was being 
erected, for a number of officers to lie in wait and seize the 
first four or eight persons who happened to pass by, and who 
were then buried alive under the gate-posts. After these 
customs of human sacrifice had ceased to be enforced, animals 
were slaughtered instead ; and later still the ceremony would 
be performed, as a ceremony, by the incident being gone through, 
the person or animal seized upon being allowed to escape the 
extreme penalty by paying a money or other forfeit; and it 
may be this later stage which is represented in the game. 
The dancing in circle form, which belongs, I think, to the 
original method of play, shows us a ceremony in which people 
of one place are concerned, and would supersede an older line 



502 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

form of game, if there were one, when the custom showed a real 
victim being taken from outsiders by force, who would resist the 
demand. The circle dance would follow as the completion of 
the ceremony. The " line " form would also be the first portion 
of the game to disappear when once its meaning was lost. 

The game, " Hark ! the Robbers" (i. 192-99) may be a 
portion of " London Bridge " made into a separate game by 
the part of the building being lost, or the children who play 
both games may have mixed up the method of playing ; but as 
it ends in some places with a contest and in some with a dance, 
it is difficult to say which is right. 

"Thread the Needle," played by all players running through 
an arch and then dancing round, is a game well illustrated by 
customs obtaining on Shrove Tuesday in different parts of the 
country. All the children play " Thread the Needle " in the 
streets of Trowbridge, Bradford-on-Avon, South Petherton, 
Evesham, besides other places, in long lines, whooping 
and shouting as they run through the arches they make. 
After this they proceed to the churchyard, and encompassing 
the church by joining hands, dance all round it three times, 
and then return to thjeir homes. Here is the undoubted per- 
formance of what must have been an old custom, performed 
at one time by all the people of the town, being continued as 
an amusement of children. It was played at Evesham only 
on Easter Monday, and in three other places only on Shrove 
Tuesday, and another correspondent says played only on a 
special day. In other places where it is played the game is not 
connected with a special day or season. The circle dance does 
not always occur, and in some cases the children merely run 
under each other's'clasped hands while singing the words. In 
the places above mentioned we see it as a game, but still 
connected with custom. It is a pity that the words used by 
the children on all these occasions should not have been 
recorded too. " How many Miles to Babylon (vol. i. pp. 
231-238) may with good reason be considered a game of the 
same kind. It represents apparently a gateway of a town, 
and a parley occurs between the gatekeepers and those 
wishing to enter or leave the town. Small gateways or 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 503 



entrances to fortified towns were called needle's 1 eyes, which 
were difficult to enter. But notwithstanding these apparent 
identifications with the conditions of a fortified town, I think 
the practice of going through the arch in this and in the previous 
game relates to the custom which prevailed at festivals held 
during certain seasons of the year, when people crept through 
holed stones or other orifices to propitiate a presiding deity, 
in order to obtain some particular favour. This would be 
done by a number of people on the same occasion, and would 
terminate by a dance round the church or other spot associated 
with sacred or religious character. " Long Duck " is another 
probably almost forgotten version of this game. 

"Draw a Pail of Water" (vol. i. pp. 100-108), though not 
quite in accord with the arch form in its present state, is cer- 
tainly one of the same group. This game I consider to be a 
descendant of the custom of "well worship." In its present 
form it is generally played by children creeping under the arms 
of two or four others, who clasp hands and sway backwards 
and forwards with the other children enclosed in them. The 
swaying movement represents, I believe, the drawing of water 
from the well. The incidents of the game are : 

(1) Drawing water from a well. 

(2) For a devotee at a well. 

(3) Collecting flowers for dressing the well. 

(4) Making a cake for presentation. 

(5) Gifts to the well [a gold ring, silver pin, and probably a 
garter]. 

(6) Command of silence. 

(7) The presence of devotee at the sacred bush. 

(8) The reverential attitude (indicated' by the bowing and 
falling on the ground). 

I can now add another incident, that of the devotee creeping 
through a sacred bush or tree (signified by the creeping under 
or getting enclosed within the arms of the leaders). These 
are all incidents of primitive well worship. 

I have from many different versions pieced together the 
lines as they might appear in earlier versions (i. p. 107). 



5 o 4 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

This restoration, though it is far from complete, shows 
clearly enough that the incidents belong to a ceremonial of 
primitive well worship. Dressing holy wells with garlands 
and flowers is very general ; cakes were eaten at Rorrington 
Well, Shropshire, and offerings of pins, buttons, and portions 
of the dress, as well as small articles worn on the person, 
are very general; silence is enforced in many instances, and 
sacred trees and bushes are to be found at nearly all holy 
wells. Offerings are sometimes hung in the bushes and trees, 
sometimes thrown into the well. Miss Burne records in 
Shropshire Folk-Lore (pp. 414, 433, 434) that at Rorrington 
Green, in the parish of Chirbury, is a holy well, at which a 
wake was celebrated on Ascension Day. The well was adorned 
with green bowers, rushes, and flowers, and a maypole was 
set up. The people used to walk round the hill with fife, 
drum, and fiddle, dancing and frolicking as they went. They 
threw pins into the well for good luck, and to prevent them from 
being bewitched, and they also drank the water. Cakes were 
eaten. These were round flat buns, from three to four inches 
across, sweetened, spiced, and marked with a cross, and were 
supposed to bring good luck if kept. 

Instances of similar practices at holy wells could be multi- 
plied, and they are exhaustively examined in my husband's 
book on Ethnology in Folk-Lore. Halliwell records in 
his nursery rhymes what is perhaps the oldest printed 
version of the rhyme. He says the children form a 
long string, hand in hand; one stands in front as leader, 
two hold up their clasped hands to form an arch, and the 
children pass under; the last is taken prisoner. Though 
this way of playing does not appear to be used now no 
version, at least, has reached me it is clear that the game 
might be played in this way, probably as a commencement .of 
the ceremonial, and then the other positions might follow. 
Halliwell may not have recorded it minutely or have heard 
of it as a whole, or the version sent him may have been in 
degenerate form. It is, however, clear that the arch form here 
indicates a ceremonial, and- not the taking of a prisoner. 

" Oranges and Lemons " (vol. ii. pp. 25-35) is the best-known 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 505 

game of the arch form, followed by the contest or tug-of-war. 
In this game two players, sometimes chosen by lot, clasp 
hands and form an arch. They have each a name, which is 
secret. One is called " Orange," the other is " Lemon." They 
sing the words of the game-rhyme, and the other players run 
under the arch in a long line or string. At the close of the 
verses which ends with the line, " Here comes a chopper to 
chop off your head," one of the string of players is caught and 
is asked which she prefers, orange or lemon. She chooses, 
and is told to stand behind that leader who took that name. 
This is repeated until all the players have been separately 
caught, have chosen their side, and are standing behind the 
respective leaders, holding on to each other by clasping each 
other's waists. A line is then drawn on the ground, and both 
sides pull ; each endeavours to drag the other over the line. 
The tug is generally continued until one side falls to the 
ground. Now this is an undoubted contest, but I do not think 
the contest is quite of the same kind as the line game of con- 
test and fighting. The line form is one of invaders and invaded, 
and the fight is for territory. In this form it seems to me that 
the contest is more of a social contest, that is, between people 
of the same place, perhaps between parishes and wards of 
parishes, or burghers and apprentices (townspeople) on one side, 
and the followers of lords or barons (military power) on the 
other, or of two lords and barons. The leaders are chosen by 
lot. Each leader has a "cry" or "colour," which he calls out, 
and the other players run and place themselves under the 
banner they choose. 

In my account of this game I draw particular attention to 
the following details : The game indicates contest and a 
punishment, and although the sequence is not clear, as the 
execution precedes the contest, that is not of particular im- 
portance in view of the power of the old baronial lords to 
threaten and execute those of their following who did not join 
their armed retainers when required. All rhymes of this game 
deal with saints' names and with bell ringing. Now, the only 
places where it would be probable for bells to be associated 
with different saints' names in one area would be the old 



506 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



parish units of cities and boroughs. The bells were rung 
on all occasions when it was necessary to call the people 
together. The "alarm" bell tolling quickly filled the open 
spaces and market-places of the towns, and it is a well-known 
fact that serious contests and contest games between parishes 
and wards of parishes were frequent. The names " oranges " 
and " lemons," given to the leaders in the game, usually con- 
sidered to be the fruits of these names, are, in my opinion, the 
names of the " colours " of the two rival factions. 

The passing under the arch in this game is not absolutely 
necessary in order that the players may exercise their choice 
of leaders, nor is the " secrecy " which is observed necessary 
either. Even this may have its origin in custom. It may 
signify the compulsory attendance of a vassal under pain of 
punishment to serve one side, or the taking prisoner and con- 
demning to death for serving on the opponents' or losing side. 
An idea is current that it represents cutting off the last person's 
head, the last of the string or line of players, and in some 
places the last one in the line is always caught instead of one 
whom the leaders choose to enclose in their arms. Of course 
a " laggard " or late arrival would be liable to suspicion and 
punishment, and this idea may be suggested in the game ; 
but I do not think that the game originates from the idea of 
catching a "last" player. The passing under the arch can 
also be attributed to the custom of compelling prisoners to 
pass under a yoke to signify servitude, and the threat of 
execution would follow attempt to escape or disobedience. 
Again, prisoners were offered life and freedom on condition 
of joining the army of their opponents. 

The other games of this method of play, "Three Days' 
Holiday," and "Tug of War," are the same game under other 
names, with only a nominy surviving, and the method of play. 
Several games entered under the title of " Through the Needle 
Eye," are really the " arch " type with the " tug," that is the 
" Orange and Lemons " game, instead of belonging to the 
"Thread the Needle" or first form of arch type, as they are 
usually considered. The Scottish form, described by Jamieson 
(ii. p. 290), is an exception which should have been in- 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 507 

eluded with " Thread the Needle," to which group it belongs. 
The other games, " Through the Needle Eye," have lost a 
portion of their play, which probably accounts for the mix- 
ture of name with the " Thread the Needle " games, because 
of both containing the arch form. " Namers and Guessers," 
"Fool, Fool, come to School," "Little Dog, I call you/' 
practically versions of one and the same game, which I have 
classed in this type because of the " tug," have an additional 
element of guessing in them. The leader or namer on one 
side and the guesser on the other take sides. All the players 
have names given them, and it is the first business of the 
guesser to guess which of the players has taken a particular 
name. If he guesses correctly, he takes that player on his 
side ; if incorrectly, he stays on the namer's side. After he 
has " guessed " at all the players, the " tug " follows, and the 
beaten side has further to run the gauntlet between two lines 
of the successful side. This game, having all its players 
chosen by guessing, by what might have been originally choos- 
ing by " lot " or by magical powers, may have an entirely 
different meaning, but it is clearly a contest game, although 
there is no indication as to the why or wherefore. The 
punishment of "running the gauntlet" is found in the game, 
which again indicates military fighting. 

This group of games, though small, is perhaps one ot the 
most indicative of early custom, for beyond the custom which 
is enshrined in each game foundation sacrifice, well worship, 
&c. it will be noticed there is a common custom belonging to 
all the games of this group ; this is the procession under the 
arch. The fact that this common custom can also be referred 
to primitive usage, confirms my view that the particular 
customs in each game owe their origin to primitive usage. 
Mr. W. Crooke has very kindly supplied me with some notes 
on this interesting subject, and I gladly avail myself of 
his research : 

11 In Cairo, women walk under the stone on which criminals are 
decapitated, in the hope of curing ophthalmia and getting children. 
They must go in silence, and left foot foremost." Lane, Modern 
Egyptians, i. p. 325 ; Hartland, Perseus, i. p. 163. 



5o8 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



" Rheumatism and lumbago cured by crawling under granitic 
masses in Cornwall." Hunt, Popular Romances, p. 177. 

" Passing children under bramble to cure rupture." Ibid., pp. 412, 

4i5- 

"This cures chincough." Aubrey, Remains, p. 187. 

"In Scotland, sick children are passed through the great stones 
of Odin at Stennis, and through a perforated monolith at Burkham, 
in Yorkshire." Rogers, Social Life in Scotland, i. p. 13. 

" Barren women pass their hands through the holes of the Bore 
Stone at Cask in order to obtain children." Ibid., iii. p. 227. . 

"Similar rites prevail in Cyprus." Hogarth, Devia Cypria, p. 48; 
Gardner, Neiv Chapters in Greek History, p. 172. 

" This again gives rise to the use of the gateway through which pil- 
grims pass to temples. Such are the Indian Torana, in this shape, 
which are represented by the Torio, so common in Japan. 

"The Greeks had the same, which they called Dokana (So/cava, 
from 8oK05, ' a beam '). With them they represented the Dioscuri 
Castor and Pollux. They are described by Plutarch." De Amor. 
Fratr., i. p. 36. 

"Similar arches, covered with charms, were seen at Dahomi by 
Burton." Mission to Gelele, i. pp. 218, 286. 

"Women in England creep under a galk>ws to get children." (I 
have mislaid the reference.) 

"There are many 'creeps' or narrow holes in Irish dolmens 
certainly used by people, who had to creep in to worship the ghost 
or bring offerings. Captives intended to be slaughtered had to 
creep through such places." Borlase, Dolmens of Ireland, ii. p. 554. 

"Barren women pass their hands through such holes.*' Ibid., ii. 
p. 650. 

"A good picture of such a stone from France." Ibid., ii. pp. 626, 
700, 702, 707. 

Mr. Albany F. Major has also kindly drawn my attention 
to the following interesting passages from the sagas, which 
Dr. Jon Stefansson has kindly translated as follows : 

" In old times this had been the custom of brave men, who made 
an agreement (pact) that the one who lived the longest should 
revenge the other's death. They were to go under three earth-sods, 
and that was their oath (eiftr). This ceremony (leikr) of theirs was 
in this wise, that three long earth-sods (turfs) should be cut loose. 
All the ends were to be fast in the ground (adhere to it), but the 
coils (bends) were to be pulled upward, so that a man might go 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 509 

under them. .This play Thorgeir and Thormod went through." 
Fbstbradra Saga, ed. 1822, ch. i. p. 7.' 

" Now is spread about this report of Thorkell and his men, but 
Gudmund had before told [the story] somewhat otherwise. Now 
that tale seemed to those kinsmen of Thorarins somewhat doubtful, 
and they said they would not put trust in it without proof, and they 
claimed for themselves [to share] half the property with Thorkell, 
but Thorkell thought to 'own it himself alone, and bade go to ordeal 
after their custom. This was then the [form of] ordeal at that time, 
that they should go under an earth-belt, that is, a sod [which] was 
ripped up from the field. The ends of the sod must be fast in the 
field, but the man who was to perform the ordeal must go there- 
under. Thorkell of the Scarf somewhat suspects whether the death 
of those men can have happened in the way that Gudmund and his 
men had said the latter time. Now, heathen men thought that they 
had no less at stake, when they had to play such a part, than 
Christian men think nowadays when ordeals are held. Then the 
man who went under the earth-belt was clear if the sod fell not on 
him. Thorkell took counsel with two men that they should let 
themselves fall out about something or other, and be there standing 
near at hand when the ordeal was being performed, and should 
touch the sod so hard that all might see that they brought it down. 
After this the man who was to perform the ordeal starts, and as soon 
as he was come under the earth-belt those men who were set to do 
it sprang to meet each other under arms, and they encounter near 
the bend of the sod and lie fallen there, and the earth-belt fell down, 
as was to be expected. At once men spring between them and 
separate them ; that was easy, because they were fighting with no 
risk to life. Thorkell of the Scarf asked what people thought of the 
ordeal ; now all his men say that it would have done well if no one 
had spoilt it. Then Thorkell took all the loose property, but the 
land is joined on to Hrappstead." Laxdala Saga, ch. xviii. 

" Berg gave notice of the blow for the Hunawaterthing and began 
the lawsuit there. As soon as men came to the thing they tried to 
arrange a settlement. Berg said that he would not take payment in 
atonement, and would only be reconciled under these terms, that 
Jokull should go under three earth-belts, as was then the custom after 
great transgressions, 'and thus show humility towards me.' Jokull 
said the trolls should take him before he thus bowed himself. 
Thorstein said it was a matter for consideration, 'and I will go 
under the earth-belts.' Berg said then would the matter be paid 
for. The first earth-belt reached to the shoulder, the next to the 



510 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

waist-belt, the third to mid-thigh. Then Thorstein went under 
the first Then said Berg : ' Now I make thee stoop like a swine, 
who wast the loftiest of the Vatnsdale men.' Thorstein answers, 
* That hadst thou no need to say, but this will be the first return for 
those words, that I will not go under any more.' Finnbogi said, 'That 
is clearly not well said, but then not much comes in repayment for 
Berg's wrong, that he gat from Jokull, if the matter shall here come 
to a standstill, and everything seems to you lowly by the side of 
you Vatnsdale men, and I will challenge thee, Thorstein, to holm- 
gang a week hence by the stackyard which stands on the island 
down before my farm at Borg.' " Vatnsdcela Saga, ch. xxxiii. 

These significant customs, I think, bear out my theory as to 
the origin of the games played in the two methods of the arch 
form. 

Lastly, I come to the " winding up " games. " Eller Tree " 
(i. p. 119) and "Wind up the Bush Faggot" (ii. pp. 384-387), 
show a game in which a tree or bush is represented, and is pro- 
bably indicative of tree worship. The tallest player represents 
the tree, and all the other players walk round and round in line 
form, getting closer and closer each time, until all are wound 
round the centre player. They call out when winding round 
"The old tree gets thicker and thicker," and then jump all 
together, calling out " A bunch of rags," and try and tread on 
each other's toes. This last action is evidently performed 
from not understanding the action of stamping, which is, 
without doubt, the object of the players. It is probable that 
this game descends from the custom of encircling the tree 
(Mr. Addy suggests the alder-tree) as an act of worship, and 
the allusion to the " rags " bears at least a curious relationship 
to hanging rags on sacred trees. A ceremonial of this kind 
would probably take place each spring, and the stamping on 
the ground would be, as in " Oats and Beans and Barley," a 
part of the ceremony to awake and arouse the earth spirit to 
the necessity of his care for the trees under his charge. The 
connection of all the players, by means of the clasped hands, 
with the central figure or tree, may also be considered a means 
of communicating life and action to it ; the tree requiring contact 
with living and moving creatures .tQ enable it to put forth 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 511 

its leaves. In a version of this game from Lincoln, called the 
" Old Oak Tree " (ii. p. 386), we find practically the same 
words and same actions, the dancing round and jumping up 
and down are constant features of this game. It remains in 
some degenerate versions from Scotland (ibid.), where the 
game has assumed the modern name of " Rolling Tobacco." In 
"Wind up the Bush Faggot " we have again the tree or bush 
suggested, and the dancing and jumping, or stamping up and 
down. In Shropshire it is the closing game of any playtime, 
and was played before " breaking- up" at a boys' school in 
Shrewsbury in 1850-1856. This tends to show that the game 
had originally been played at a special time or season. 

For an example of this custom I may repeat (from ii. p. 386) 
that in mid-Cornwall, in the second week in June, at St. Roche 
and one or two adjacent parishes, a curious dance, like a 
serpent's coil, is performed at the annual " feasts." The 
young people are assembled in a meadow, and the band plays 
a lively tune. The band leads, and all the people follow 
hand in hand. The band or head keeps marching in an 
ever-narrowing circle, while its train of dancing followers 
becomes coiled round it in circle after circle. Then the 
band, taking a sharp turn about, begins to retrace the circle, 
still followed as before, and a number of young men, with 
long leafy branches in their hands as standards, direct this 
counter -movement. Although there is no mention of a tree 
in the account round which this ceremony is performed, the 
custom is so striking as to leave very little doubt of their con- 
nection. Lady Wilde (Ancient Cures, Charms, and Usages of 
Ireland, p. 106) says, " On May-Day in Ireland all the young 
men and maidens hold hands, and dance in a circle round a 
tree hung with ribbons or garlands, or round a bonfire, moving 
in curves from left to right, as if imitating the windings of a 
serpent." This is a closer parallel to the game still, and leaves 
no doubt as to its connection with custom. There may be, 
too, some connection between these winding-up or serpentine 
dances and the Maypole dances on May-Day in England. 

The detail into which I have gone in the case of these games 
makes it, I think, unnecessary that I should enter into equal 



512 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

detail in other customs mentioned in the classification. Thus, 
with regard to the funeral customs indicated in " Jenny Jones/' 
we have not only a ceremony of burial, but the courting of a 
maiden or maidens by a band of suitors, the opposition of 
the mother or guardians to their suit, the putting forward of 
domestic occupations as pretexts for refusal ; there is also the 
illness, dying and death of the maiden, the manner of her 
funeral indicated by the colour selected for her burial, followed 
by the burial itself, the singing of the lament or funeral dirge, 
and, in some versions, the rising of the ghost or spirit of the 
departed. This game in its best versions is played in line 
form. But in those versions where two children only play 
the parts of "mother" and " Jenny Jones," there is also 
evidence of the tendency of the game to develop into the 
individual form. 

Again, those games in which " guessing " occurs remind 
us of the important part that guessing or chance plays in 
the beliefs of the savage and uncivilised. A person who, by 
a guess, discovers a special person out of a number, or the 
exact number of articles concealed in a hand or under a foot, 
has something of the supernatural or witch -element about him. 
This is largely the foundation of the belief in witchcraft and 
the sorcerer. It is not surprising to find, therefore, the 
guessing-element largely extant in the dramatic game. The 
" guesser " is usually chosen by lot by means of the counting- 
out rhyme ; the leader then proceeds to confuse the guesser's 
or witch's mind by re-naming secretly the rest of the players. 
He calls the " guesser," and in a doggerel rhyme (the remains 
or imitation probably of an incantation), tells him to pick 
out or name a certain person or thing. If the guess is correct, 
the "guesser" takes that person to his side, indicating power 
over that individual or thing. If the " guesser " is unsuccessful, 
he is scouted, mocked, and ill-used. 

I now proceed with the second classification referred to on 
p. 461. Of the games classified on pp. 461-470, ante, it. will 
be found on examination that nearly all of them are dramatic 
in form. This leads me at once to suggest that so important 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 



5*5 



a phase of their character needs separate investigation, and 
this I proceed to do. 

In the first place, it will be found that certain of the games 
are wholly dramatic whatever may be the customs or rites they 
imitate. These games are of two classes first, where dramatic 
action is complete throughout the whole game, that is where 
singing, action, and words are represented ; secondly, where 
singing has dropped out, action and words only remaining. 

These two classes are as follows : 

DRAMATIC GAMES. 
(i) SINGING (containing words ; tune, action}. 



All the Boys. 
Babbity Bowster. 
Booman. 
Curly Locks. 
Cushion Dance. 
Dillsie, Dollsie Dee. 
Down in the Valley. 
Down in yonder Meadow. 
Galley, Galley, Ship. 
Glasgow Ships. 
Green Grass. 
Green Gravel. 
Hark the Robbers. 
Hear all ! let me at her. 
Here comes a Lusty Wooer. 
Here comes a Virgin. 
Here I sit on a Cold Green Bank. 
Here's a Soldier. 
Here stands a Young Man. 
Hey Wullie Wine. 
Isabella. 
Jenny Jones. 
Jolly Fishermen. 
Jolly Hooper. 
Jolly Miller. 
Jolly Rover. 
Jolly Sailors. 
Keys of Heaven. 
King William. 
Kiss in the Ring. 
Knocked at the Rapper. 
Lady of the Land. 
VOL. II. 



Lady on the Mountain. 

London Bridge. ' 

Mary Brown. 

Mary mixed a Pudding. 

Merry-ma-tansa. 

Milking Pails. 

Mulberry Bush. - 

Needle Cases. 

Nettles Grow. 

Nuts in May. 

Oats and Beans. 

Old Dame. 

Old Roger. 

Oliver, Oliver, follow the King. 

Oranges and Lemons. 

Poor Mary sits a-weepin f . 

Poor Widow. 

Pray, pretty Miss. 

Pretty little Girl. 

Queen Anne. 

Queen Mary. 

Ring me Rary. 

Rosy Apple. 

Round and Round the Village. 

Sally Water. 

Salmon Fishers. 

Silly Old Man. 

Soldier. 

Soldiers. 

Three Dukes. 

Three Knights. 

Three Old Bachelors. 

2 K 



5i4 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



Three Sailors. Widow. 

Wallflowers. Wind. 

We are the Rovers. Would you. know how doth the 

When I was a Young Girl. Peasant ? 

(2) DIALOGUE AND ACTION (no singing}. 

Auld Grannie. Lady on yonder Hill. 

Barbaric, King of the. Lend me your Key. 

Chickens, come clock. Mother, may I go out ? 

Deil amo' the Dishes. Mother Mop. 

Doagan. Mother, Mother, the Pot boils over. 

Draw a Pail of Water. Mouse and Cobbler. 

Dumb Motions. Namers and Guessers. 

Eller Tree. Old Cranny Crow. 

Fox and Geese. . Old Dame. 

Ghost at the Well. Rashes. 

Giddy. Shepherds and Sheep. 

Gipsy. Steal the Pigs. 

Gled-Wylie. Thread the Needle. 

Hen and Chickens. Three Jolly Welshmen. 

Honey Pots. Tower of London. 

How many Miles to Babylon. Trades. 

Jack, Jack, the Bread's a-burning. Who goes round my Stone Wall ? 

Keeling the Pot. Willie Wastell. 

King of Barbaric. Witch. 

King of the Castle. Wolf. 

Nearly all the remaining dramatic games form a third class, 
namely, those where action remains, and where both words 
and singing are either non-existent or have been reduced to 
the merest fragments. 

In order to complete the investigation from the point we 
have now reached, it is necessary to inquire what is the con- 
trolling force which has preserved ancient custom in the form 
of children's games. The mere telling of a game or tale from 
a parent to a child, or from one child to another, is not alone 
sufficient. There must be some strong force inherent in these 
games that has allowed them to be continued from generation to 
generation, a force potent enough to almost compel their con- 
tinuance and to prevent their decay. This force must have 
been as strong or stronger than the customs which first 
brought the games into existence, and I identify it as the 
dramatic faculty inherent in mankind. 

A necessary part of this proposition is, that the element of 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 515 



the dramatic in children's games is more ancient than, or at 
all events as ancient as, the customs enshrined in the games 
themselves, and I will first of all see if this is so. 

With the child the capacity to express itself in words is 
small and limited. The child does not apparently pay as 
much attention to the language of those adults by whom he 
is surrounded as he does to their actions, and the more limited 
his vocabulary, the greater are his attempts at expressing his 
thoughts by action. Language to him means so little unless 
accompanied by action. It is too cold for a child. Every one 
acquainted with children will be aware of their dramatic way 
of describing to their mother or nurse the way in which they 
have received a hurt through falling down the stairs or out of 
doors, or from knocking their heads against articles of furni- 
ture. A child even, whose command of language is fairly good, 
will usually not be content to say, "Oh, mother, I fell down 
and knocked my head against the table," but will say, " Oh, I 
fell down like this " (suiting the action to the word by throwing 
himself down) ; " I knocked my head like this " (again suiting 
the action to the word by knocking the head against the table), 
and does not understand that you can comprehend how he got 
hurt by merely saying so. He feels it necessary to show you. 
Elders must respond in action as well as in words to be under- 
stood by children. If "you kiss the place to make it well," 
and if you bind up a cut or sore, something has been done 
that can be seen and felt, and this the child believes in as a 
means of healing. A child understands you are sorry he has 
been hurt, much more readily than if you say or repeat that 
you are sorry; the words pass almost unheeded, the action 
is remembered. 

Every one, too, must have noticed the observation of detail a 
child will show in personifying a particular person. When a 
little child wishes to personate his father, for instance, he will 
seat himself in the father's chair, cross his legs, pick up a piece 
of paper and pretend to read, or stroke an imaginary beard or 
moustache, put on glasses, frown, or give a little cough, and 
say, " Now I'm father," if the father is in the habit of indulging 
in either of the above habits, and it will be found that sitting 



516 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



in the chair (if a special chair is used by the father to sit in 
when at home) is the foundation and most important part of 
the imitation. Other men of the child's acquaintance read 
papers, smoke, wear glasses, &c., but father sits in that chair ; 
therefore to be father, sitting in the chair is absolutely neces- 
sary, and is sufficient of itself to indicate to others that 
" father" is being personified, and not another person. To 
be " mother" a child will pretend to pour out tea, or sew, 
or do some act of household work, the doing of which is 
associated with " mother," while a lady visitor or a relative 
would be indicated by wearing hat or bonnet or silk dress, 
carrying a parasol, saying, " How do you do ? " and carrying 
on conversation. Again, too, it is noticeable how a child realises 
a hurt if blood and swelling ensues after a knock. This is 
something that can be seen and shown. 

When wishing to be an animal, a child fixes at once on 
some characteristic of that animal which is special to it, and 
separates it from other animals similar in other ways. Children 
never personate horses and cows, for instance, in the same 
manner. Horses toss their heads, shake their manes, paw the 
ground, prance, and are restless when standing still, gallop and 
trot, wear harness, and their drivers have reins and a whip. 
When a child is a cow he does none of these things ; he walks 
in a slower, heavier way, lowers the head, and stares about as 
he moves his head from side to side, lies down on the ground 
and munches ; he has horns, and rubs these against a tree or 
a fence. 

A child of mine, when told that he must not run in the 
gutter when out of doors, because that was not the place for 
little boys, replied, " I am not a little boy now, I am a dog, so I 
may run in the gutter." When he came into the path again he 
became a boy. 

Again the same child, when called by his name and told to 
come out from under a table, a round one, under which he was 
lying rubbing his head against the pedestal centre, because 
under the table was not the place for little boys, said, "But 
I'm not [ ], I'm a cow, and it's not a table, it's a tree, 

and I'm rubbing my horns." 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 517 



Again, when personating a train, the actions used are com- 
pletely different from those used when personating an animal. 
The child moves at a steady rate, the feet progressing without 
raising the legs more than necessary, because engines only 
have wheels, which keep close to the ground; they don't 
jump up like feet do, the arms are used as the propeller, and 
the puffing and screeching, letting off steam, taking in water, 
are imitated in sound to perfection. This is entirely on the 
child's own initiative. When children play in groups the same 
things occur. Instances could be given ad nauseam. It can- 
not, therefore, surprise us that in these games children should 
be found to use actions which indicate to them certain persons 
or things, although the words they use may render action un- 
necessary, as action is to them most important. Children, 
when acting these games or dramas, appear not to need the 
element of dress or of particular garments to indicate their 
adoption of certain characters or characteristics. To display 
your heels and look down at them while doing so signifies a 
man who wears spurs, a knight ; to prance along as if a horse, 
shows a man on horseback, a duke a-riding. A child lies or 
stoops down and shuts her eyes, she is dead ; if she is passively 
carried by two others a little distance, she is going to be buried. 
The child, by standing still, becomes a tree, a house, or a stone 
wall. If an animal is required to be shown, down goes the 
child on hands and knees, bends her head down, and the 
animal is there. If a gate, fortress, or castle is wanted, two 
children join hands, and their arms are raised or lowered when 
required for opening the gate, &c. If one child is to personate 
a "mother," one or two or more smaller children are placed 
behind or beside her as her children, because " mother's have 
children," and so on. Many other examples could be given 
from these games of the same kind of thing. There is, then, no 
difficulty as to the reason why children should have continued 
playing at these games when once they had seen their elders 
play them or similar performances, nor why children should 
not have embodied in a game or play some of the manners and 
customs which were constantly going on around them in. olden 
times as they do now, imitating the habits and customs of 



5i8 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

the men and women and animals by whom they were sur- 
rounded. 

We know from the evidence of those who have collected the 
games that many were played as amusements by young men and 
women up to a few years ago. Some are still so played, and 
some years further back it was a general practice for men and 
women in country districts to play these or similar games at 
fairs and festivals ; it is unlikely that adults would play seri- 
ously at children's games, but children having seen their elders 
playing at these amusements would adopt them and use 
them in their turn, until these amusements become in turn too 
frivolous and childish for them. It is not so very many years 
since that the then educated or cultured classes amused them- 
selves by occupations now deemed silly and unfit even for 
children of the uneducated class witness practical joking, cock- 
fighting, &c. 

The natural instinct to dramatic action in children is paral- 
leled by the same instinct in grown-up people when in a state 
of culture where they are chiefly dependent upon their natural 
capacities for existence. Thus evidence of the natural dramatic 
power in savages and in semi-civilised races is abundant. The 
dances of savages are strongly dramatic. They advance in 
lines dancing, gesticulating, and singing, while others sit and 
look on ; they dance in circles joining hands, they go down on 
all fours imitating animal postures and noises, they wear 
masks, special dresses and ornaments, and these have signifi- 
cance for their audience. Some of these dances are peculiar 
to and only witnessed by men, others performed by men are 
witnessed by both sexes. These ceremonial dances are per- 
formed principally at the celebration of the initiative rites, but 
some also represent other customs periodically performed. 

Catlin's (North American Indians) description of the Buffalo 
dance among the Mandan Indians shows the dancers wearing 
masks made of a buffalo's head and horns, and a tail hanging 
down behind. The dancers went through the actions of 
hunting, being shot with bow and arrow, skinned and cut up, 
accompanied by singing and yelling. This dance was performed 
as a ceremony when food was required and the hunters were 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 519 

at a loss, and would continue until a herd of buffalos came in 
sight on the prairie. , 

Mr. W. E. Roth gives dances accompanied by songs and 
pantomimic action and games practised by the N.W. Central 
Australian aborigines. 1 

In " Secular and Ceremonial Dances " of Torres Straits 
(Zeit. filr Ethnogr., vi. 1893, p. 131), Dr. Haddon describes a 
"saw-fish dance" performed by natives. He says "the advent 
of different seasons of the year is celebrated by ceremonies 
amongst most peoples; the most frequent of these are harvest 
festivals, or periods of rejoicings at the abundance of food. 
Very frequent also are ceremonies which relate to the preparing 
for crops or the inauguration of a season which promises 
abundant food supply. The saw-fish dance belongs to the 
latter class." Dr. Haddon visited the men, and saw the making 
of the masks which he describes at length. These were worn 
by the dancers, and consisted of an imitation of a human face 
resting on a crocodile's head, and surmounted by a figure of a 
saw-fish represented in a traditional method. The dance, 
which lasted for hours, was accompanied by singing a chant, 
the words of which served as a description of the meaning of 
the dance. This dance is performed to ensure a good harvest 
from the sea. 

He also refers to dramatic death dances and war dances, and 
describes some interesting forms of other dances, one in which 
crabs are represented. He says, all the men dance in single 
file, and each man during the dance performs some definite 
movements which illustrate an action in real life, such as agri- 
cultural, nautical, or fishing employments ; for example, a man 
would crouch and move his hands about as if he were planting 
yams or looking for pearl shell at the bottom of the sea. These 
movements are known to the spectators, though the foreign 
observer may not catch the allusion. Probably most of these 
actions have become more or less conventionalised during 
innumerable dance representations, just as some of the adjuncts 
to the dance are degenerate representations of objects used in 

1 Ethnological Studies among the N. W. Central Queensland Aborigines. By 
Walter E. Roth. 1897. London. 



520 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

everyday life. In the war dance the actions illustrate the 
method pursued in war, ending with an evolution which repre- 
sented the successful warriors threading the heads of the slain 
on the rattan slings which always hung on their backs when 
they went out to fight. 

Mrs. Murray-Aynsley in a paper on the secular and re- 
ligious dances in Asia and Africa (Folk-lore Journal, vol. v. 
pp. 273, 274), describes an aboriginal dance which still takes 
place annually in certain villages in the Khassia and Jaintia 
hills. It generally takes place in May. The special reason 
of the dance is the display of all the unmarried girls from 
far and near to choose, or be chosen by, suitable parties, 
and from description it is probable that the girls choose. 
Many marriages result from this one annual dance. The 
dances take place in a circular enclosure which is set apart for 
this annual feast. The musicians sit in the centre, and the 
girls form a large circle round the musicians, and behind the 
girls, holding hands in a larger circle, the men dance and go 
through their part of the performance. The girls perform very 
quiet movements and dance slowly, while the men jig, leap, 
hop, and wave their arms, legs, umbrellas, and daos in the 
wildest confusion, accompanying their movements with the 
most savage war-whoops, signifying nothing. It is also usual 
for the men to dance when one of their tribe is buried. 

In the Kulu district at Sultanpore is held the feast of Rugo- 
nath, the chief god, when the gods belonging to every village 
in the valley are bound to appear and pay him respect. There 
is feasting, and the men dance round and round the palanquins 
containing the inferior gods. When the excitement is at its 
height the temple attendants seize the palanquins and dance 
them up and down violently, and make the godlings salaam to 
each other and to Rugonath, the chief god. 

In Spiti, a valley in the Western Himalayas, the people fre- 
quently dance for hours for their own amusement. Men and 
women dance together, all join hands and form a long line or 
circle. They commence by singing, then dance to the accom- 
paniment of their own voices, and the fun speedily becomes 
fast and furious (ibid. p. 281). 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 521 

Amongst the Lamas there are also religious and secular 
dances performed at their feasts or fairs, the religious dances 
by the Lamas, the secular by men and women together, or by 
each sex separately. In one dance those who take part form 
themselves into two long lines. Each dancer holds on to the 
one in front of him, as in our game of "Fox and Goose." The 
two strings of dancers wind in and out, then divide and dance 
opposite each other, advancing and receding with a slow undu- 
lating movement, which gradually becomes more energetic. 
Mock sword fights then take place between two combatants, 
also sword dances, with two crossed weapons laid on the 
ground, and precisely like those performed at our Highland 
gatherings. In the religious dances each man wears a gigantic 
headpiece, which comes down as far as the shoulders. Some 
of the masks are ornamented. They perform several different 
dances, in which separate characters are performed, one a 
Chinese mandarin and his wife, another, two actors wear masks 
resembling ferocious-looking dogs, one places himself against 
the entrance door, the other guards the door of exit. They 
remind one, says Mrs. Murray-Aynsley, of the divan-palas, or 
doorkeepers, whose statues are seen placed as guards on each 
side of the shrine of some old Hindu temple. In Algeria the 
dancing at weddings is performed by men and women. Before 
each woman went out to dance she was enveloped in a garment 
which covered her from head to feet, her hands even not being 
visible, the sleeves being drawn over and tied at the ends so 
that the hands and arms were enclosed as in a bag. This was 
apparently a form of disguise, as one woman was sent back 
because her husband had discovered her. At a funeral also 
hired female mourners were dancing on the surface of a newly- 
made grave and uttering wild shrieks. 

An interesting account of the war-dance of the Coorgis is 
also given (ibid. p. 251). "The Coorgis assembled in a clear- 
ing in the natural jungle. The forest was only illumined by 
jungle. The torch-bearers formed a large circle; within the 
open space, in the centre, were the musicians. One dance 
was very peculiar, inasmuch as it seemed to be a remnant of 
a period when every man's hand was against his brother's. 



522 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

The performers may consist of any equal number of persons ; 
they always dance in pairs. Before they begin each man is 
given a bundle of sticks or bamboos. This he holds in his 
left hand, and a stouter stick is given him in his right hand. 
At first all the men dance round and round, with head erect, as 
if going to war. Presently they narrow the circle and assume 
a crouching attitude, their eyes glancing here, there, and 
everywhere. The respective adversaries have been singled 
out ; the intending aggressors make a feint or two, then bend 
their knees so that they are only about two-thirds of their 
ordinary stature ; at the same time they place their feet 
together and make a succession of bounds, or rather hops, 
like a frog, and with the sticks the attacking party aim cuts 
at the legs of the men whom they selected as their adversaries. 
The latter now takes up the same attitude ; he wards off 
attack, and returns the blow if he can. Whether intention- 
ally or not, one party is victorious in the end." 

" A curious dance is also executed by Hindu women at 
Sagar, in the Central Provinces of India (ibid. p. 253). Men 
are present, but as spectators only. Some little time before 
preparations have been made for this feast. Wheat or other 
grain has been sown in earth placed in pots made of large 
leaves, held together by thorns of a species of acacia. The 
richer women walk along, followed by their attendants carry- 
ing trays filled with such pots ; the poorer people carry their 
own plants. As soon as each procession arrives at the ghat, 
or flight of steps leading down to the lake, every family-circle 
of friends deposit their pots on the ground and dance round 
them. After a time the dancers descend to the water's edge, 
taking their pots of earth and corn with them. They then 
wash away the soil from the plants, and distribute these 
amongst their friends. The whole of the ceremony is observed 
by the men, but they take no part in it. It probably fixes 
the season for sowing some particular crop." 

These amongst others are all dances of semi-civilised 
peoples, and these dances, being all of a ceremonial nature, 
are probably derived from older customs, and performed in 
commemoration of these. 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 523 

There are also surviving some ceremonial dances, such as 
the singular ceremony observed at Echternach, in Luxemburg, 
on Whit-Tuesday, in which ten or fifteen thousand pilgrims 
take part. Professor Attwell thus describes it in Notes and 
Queries of May 17, 1890 : 

" Early on the morning of Whit-Tuesday pilgrims arrive at 
Echternach from the neighbouring villages, some alone, or in 
little family parties, some in small bodies personally conducted 
by their cur/s, singing litanies in honour of St. Willibrord. 
At about eight o'clock the bells of the parish church begin 
to peal, and the clergy, intoning the ' Veni Creator,' and 
preceded by numerous banners, issue from the principal porch 
and march along the bank of the Sure to a stone crucifix, near 
which, from an extemporised pulpit, the crowd is addressed. 
The short sermon ended, the procession begins. It is headed 
by a choir of some hundreds of voices chanting antiphonally 
with the clergy the litanies of the saint. Then come numerous 
ecclesiastics, followed by a band playing the cadenced music 
of the dance. The pilgrims are headed by young children 
and men and women belonging to the parish, after whom 
comes the throng, in groups of from three to six persons of 
either sex. The dancers take three jumps forward and one 
backward, or five forward and two backward. It is, of course, 
impossible for a moving crowd consisting of many thousands 
to keep anything like time, save those who are near one of the 
many bands of music, which, at irregular intervals, accompany 
the procession. No special order is observed, but there is no 
confusion. Poor mothers with sickly children in their arms 
jump side by side with young well-to-do girls; old men, 
broken with toil, jump in step with vigorous fellows in the 
heyday of youth. Water and wine are freely offered by 
the townsfolk to the pilgrims, many of whom sink exhausted 
under the unwonted effort. It sometimes happens that sick 
persons get paid substitutes to perform for them the expiatory 
jumping. The distance traversed is less than a mile, but the 
time occupied is fully two hours. Before the church can be 
entered sixty-four steps have to be mounted. But the singular 
backward and forward movements and the accompanying music 



524 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



are continued, not only while the steps are ascended, but 
during the circumambulation of the church, beneath the altar 
of which is the tomb of the saint. On reaching the hallowed 
shrine the devotees manifest their enthusiasm in various ways, 
kneeling before the altar, which is surrounded by votive offer- 
ings, with sobs and gesticulations. When the whole of the 
immense multitude has passed the shrine, the clergy ascend 
the altar, the ' Salve Regina' is sung, the Benediction is 
given, and the imposing ceremony is ended." 

Grimm also records the fact that about the year 1133 in 
a forest near Inda (Ripuaria) a ship was built, set upon 
wheels, and drawn about the country by men who were yoked 
to it, first to Aachen (Aix), and up the river to Tongres, 
Looz, and so on, everywhere with crowds of people assembling 
and escorting it. Wherever it halted there were joyful shouts, 
songs of triumph, and dancing round the ship, kept up till far 
into the night. This Grimm describes as a recollection of an 
ancient heathen festival. It was utterly repugnant to and 
opposed strongly by the clergy as a sinful and heathenish 
piece of work. On the other hand, the secular power authorised 
and protected it (Teutonic Mythology, i. 258). 

The story of the pied piper of Hamelin probably commemo- 
rates a procession similar to the Echternach (see Folk-lore 
Journal, vol. ii. 209). 

With this may also be noted a dance recorded by Mr. Newell 
(Games of American Children, p. 89), who states that the 
name " Threading the Needle " is given to a dance in which 
hundreds take part ; in which from time to time the. pair who 
form the head of the row raise their arms to allow the line to 
pass through, coiling and winding like a great serpent. When a 
French savant asked the peasants of La Chatre why they per- 
formed this dance, the answer was, " To make the hemp grow." 

I remember when quite a small child planting hemp seeds 
in a patch of garden ground, and being told 1 by a maid-servant, 
an illiterate country girl, that the seeds would not grow well 
unless we danced, we joined hands and danced round and 
round in a circle, then stooped down and jumped about, say- 
ing, " Please, God, send it all up," then again danced round. 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 525 



This may have been said only to amuse us, but it may also 
have been the remains of an old festival dance. I believe 
there were more words, but I cannot remember them. Hemp 
seed is associated with ceremonies of magical nature, being 
one of those used by maidens as a charm to enable them to 
see a future husband. 

Representation in pantomime of the different actions used in 
the ceremonies of sowing the grain, its growth, and the con- 
sequent reaping, binding, and carrying the grain, are practised 
in different parts of the globe. This is brought down to later 
times by the custom noted on p. 319, vol. i., where from Long 
Ago and Best's Rural Economy of Yorkshire (1641), instances 
are given of it being customary, at harvest-homes, to give 
representations of " hirings " of farm-servants. The hiring of 
a farm labourer, the work he had to do, his terms of service, 
and the food to be supplied him, were dramatically performed, 
showing clearly that it had been customary to go through this 
sort of thing, in earnest of what was expected in fact, a sort 
of oral contract, in presence of witnesses. 

I will conclude this part of my evidence by a summary of 
the conclusions arrived at by anthropological authorities. 

Sir John Lubbock, in Origins of Civilisation (fifth ed., 
p. 257), says, " Dancing among savages is no mere amuse- 
ment." He quotes from Robertson's America (iv. p. 133) 
as follows : " It is an important occupation, which mingles in 
every occurrence of public or private life. If any intercourse 
be necessary between two American tribes, the ambassadors 
of the one approach in a solemn dance, and present the 
calumets or emblem of peace ; the sachems of the other 
receives it with the same ceremony. If war is denounced 
against an enemy, it is by a dance expressive of the resent- 
ment which they feel, and of the vengeance which they 
meditate. If the wrath of their gods is to be appeased, or 
their beneficence to be celebrated ; if they rejoice at the birth 
of a child, or mourn the death of a friend they have dances 
appropriate to each of these situations, and suited to the 
different sentiments with which they are animated. If a 
person is indisposed, a dance is prescribed as the most 



526 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

effectual means to restore him to health ; and if he himself 
cannot endure the fatigue of such an exercise, the physician 
or conjurer performs it in his name, as if the virtue of his 
activity could be transferred to his patient." 

Sir J. Lubbock mentions some special dances practised 
among different peoples, and gives an illustration of a circle 
dance practised by the natives of Virginia round a circle of 
upright stones (p. 268). 

Dr. Tylor {Anthropology, p. 296) says, " Savages and 
barbarians dance their joy and sorrow, love and rage, even 
their magic and religion. The forest Indians of Brazil, rattle 
in hand, stamp in one-two-three time round the great earthen 
pot of intoxicating kawi-liquor ; or men or women dance a 
rude courting dance, advancing in lines with a kind of primitive 
polka step ; or the ferocious war-dance is performed by armed 
warriors in paint. We have enough of the savage left in us 
to feel how Australians leaping and yelling at a corrobboree 
by firelight in the forest can work themselves up into frenzy 
for next day's fight. But with our civilised notions it is not 
so easy to understand that barbarians' dancing may mean still 
more than this ; it seems to them so real, that they expect it to 
act on the world outside. Such an example as the buffalo 
dance (given ante, p. 518) shows how, in the lower level of 
culture, men dance to express their feeling and wishes. All 
this explains how in ancient religion dancing came to be one of 
the chief acts of worship. Religious processions went with 
song and dance to the Egyptian temples, and Plato said all 
dancing ought to be thus an act of religion. . . . Modern 
civilisation has mostly cast off the sacred dance. . . . To see 
this near its old state the traveller may visit the temples of 
India, or among the Lamas of Tibet watch the mummers in 
animal masks dancing the demons out or the new year in, to 
wild music of drums and shell-trumpets. Remnants of such 
ceremonies come down from the religion of England before 
Christian times are still sometimes to be seen in the dances 
of boys and girls round the midsummer bonfire or mummers 
of Yuletide." 

Dr. Tylor continues: "At low levels in civilisation it is clear 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 527 

that dancing and play-acting are one. The scenes of hunting 
and war furnish barbarians with subjects for dances, as when 
the Gold Coast negroes have gone out to war and their wives 
at home dance a fetish dance in imitation of battle to give their 
absent husbands strength and courage. . . . Historians trace 
from the sacred dances of ancient Greece the dramatic art of 
the civilised world. Thus from the festivals of the Dionysia 
arose tragedy and comedy. In the classic ages the players' art 
divided into several branches. The pantomimes kept up the 
earliest form, where the dancers acted in dumb show such 
pieces as the labours of Herakles, or Kadmos sowing the 
dragons teeth, while the chorus below accompanied the play 
by singing the story. The modern pantomime ballets which 
keep up remains of these ancient performances show how gro- 
tesque the old stage gods and heroes must have looked in their 
painted masks. In Greek tragedy and comedy the business of 
the dancers and chorus were separated from that of the actors, 
who recited or chanted each his proper part in the dialogue." 

Grimm (Teutonic Mythology, i. p. 43), says, "Easter fires, 
May Day fires, Midsummer fires, with their numerous cere- 
monies, carry us back to heathen sacrifices, especially such 
customs as rubbing the sacred flame, running through glowing 
embers, throwing flowers into the fire," baking and distributing 
loaves or cakes, and the circular dance. Dances passed into 
plays and dramatic representations." 

It is then clear that dances accompanied with song and pan- 
tomimic action have been used by men and women from the 
earliest period of which we have record, at all times and upon 
all occasions. In times of joy and mirth, sorrow and loss, 
victory or defeat, weddings and funerals, plagues and pesti- 
lences, famine and plenty, civilised and savage alike dance, act, 
and sing their griefs and their joys. The gods of all nations 
have been worshipped by pantomimic dance and song, their 
altars and temples are encircled by their worshippers ; and as 
the occasion was one of fear or joy, and the god entreated or 
terrified by his followers, so would the actions and voices of 
the dancers be in accord. When once certain actions were 
recognised as successful, fitting, or beautiful, they would tend 



528 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 



to become repeated and stereotyped, and the same form would 
be used for other gods, other occasions, and other customs 
where the requirements were similar or the same. The circle 
dance, for instance, after being performed several times would 
necessarily become a part of the religious customs or ceremony, 
and form a part of the ordinary religious observance. It would 
become particularly associated with the place where it was first 
instituted, and might be used to inaugurate other festivals. 
We know that the early Christians when taking over to their 
use the temples and altars of their so-called heathen predeces- 
sors, or when erecting a church where a temple had previously 
stood, held their worship there and performed their dances to 
their God as the heathens had done to theirs. The custom of 
encircling a church on its festival day existed until lately in 
several parishes in England, and this could only be a descendant 
of the custom once held sacred by all the followers of one belief, 
demonstrating by their action in group form the fact that they 
all believed in the same thing and held together, by the clasp 
of hands and the dance round, their determination to hold to 
and keep to it. 

If these customary dances obtained and have survived in 
religious ritual to the present day, is it not to be expected that 
we should find survivals "in dance form of non-religious customs 
which also impressed themselves strongly on the minds of the 
people? Births, marriages, deaths, the sowing and gathering in 
of the crops ; the protection of cattle from disease and animals 
of prey; the necessity for water and fire; the protection of 
the house and the village have all helped to surround these 
events with ceremonials which have lasted, and been trans- 
mitted from generation to generation, altering to suit later 
ideas, it is true, but preserving through all some trace of the 
events which first called them into existence. 

It is because of this tendency to believe more in the power 
of expression by action, than in the power of expression by 
language alone, that dramatic action and gesture have formed 
such a necessary part of representation of custom as to become 
an integral part of it. Limited as is our knowledge of the 
popular plays performed about the country by troops of strol- 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 529 

ling players before the age of the written play, we know that 
their chief attraction must- have been the dramatic rendering of 
characters and events personified by certain well-known actions 
of the actors, accompanied by special style of dress, or portions 
of dress, which were recognised as sufficient in themselves to 
show who and what was being personified. The story was 
shown more by action than by words ; the idea being to 
present events to the onlooker, and impress them on his mind- 
It is in these dramatic performances of what was expected we 
have the germs of the dramatic art that afterwards developed 
into the regular play or drama. Every important custom of 
life was probably depicted by pantomimic action. We have, 
first, words, describing the events, sung or said by a chorus of 
onlookers and dancers, afterwards a short dialogue between 
the chief characters taking the place of the chorus, and then, 
as the number of characters were increased, the representa- 
tions become something that could be performed independently, 
without the need of a particular season or custom to render it 
intelligible. 

At this stage of the primitive drama the characters merely 
present actions of the dramatis persona time after time, always 
performed in the same manner, and this would produce con- 
ventional methods of presenting certain events. We know 
that events of a religious nature were presented in the same 
manner by the Church. This must have been in consequence 
of the attraction plays possessed as depicting pagan religion 
and events of ordinary life and manners and customs. It is 
easily conceivable that before the era of books and literature, a, 
rough sort of presentation of life, present and past, would be 
eagerly welcomed; and it would not be until the advent of a writer 
who Developed the individual acting, at the expense of the 
event depicted, that what we know as a play could be written. 

Mr. Ordish, in his study of Folk drama, published in the Folk- 
lore Society's journal, has conclusively proved the development 
of the drama independently of the miracle and mystery plays of 
the Middle Ages, or from the old Greek plays, and this develop- 
ment has taken place through the action of the people, always 
accustomed to the influence of dramatic representation. Hence 

VOL. II. 2 L 



530 MEMOIR ON THE STUDY OF 

in the remains of the traditional games we have preserved a 
form in which we can see the beginning and early development 
of the drama. When once the line form was firmly established 
as an indication of two opposite parties, it would be used for 
such indication wherever it was required, and thus it became 
the common property of the children's game and the early 
stage. The remains of the line and circle form, as denoting 
opponents and friendly communion can, I think, be traced in 
old plays and old methods of acting. 

In old pantomimes, the demons or evil spirits and their 
followers enter on one side and stand in lines ; the good fairy 
and her followers enter on the opposite side and stand in line ; 
the principal characters advance from the line, and talk defiance 
to each other. We do not have a circle form on the stage, but 
a half-circle, seated on the stage, is or was until comparatively 
lately a method of representing a social or family party. 
Every one who has seen a mummer's play performed, either 
in or out of doors, will be aware that the same method obtains 
in them the performers are all on the stage or stand together 
at once, walking forward as each one's name is mentioned, 
saying his allotted part, and then standing back again, while 
the next player has his turn. 

The action in these plays has remained in stationary form ; 
as far as the method goes there has probably been very little 
difference in the manner of presenting them for a long period 
of time. 

These traditional games are valuable, therefore, for the 
information they afford in a direction not hitherto thought of, 
namely, in the study of the early drama. If the drama can be 
seen in its infancy anywhere, surely it can be seen in these 
children's plays. 

The study of. children's games takes us, therefore, into 
several departments of research. Many traces of customs 
that do not belong to modern life, customs that take us back 
to very early times indeed, are brought before us. The 
weapons are bows and arrows, the amusements hunting and 
hawking; animals are found in such close relationship with 
human beings, that only very primitive conditions of life would 



CHILDREN'S GAMES 531 

allow : contests between men and women occur in such a way 
that we are taken back to one of the earliest known customs of 
marriage, that known as marriage by capture then from this 
stage to a later, where purchase or equivalent value obtains ; 
then to a marriage with a ceremony which carries us back to 
the earliest forms of such ceremonies. That such customs can 
be suggested in connection with these games goes far to prove 
that they, in fact, originate the game that no other theory 
satisfactorily accounts for all the phenomena. 

In looking for the motive power which has caused the con- 
tinuity of these customs to be practised as a'musements, we 
have found that the dramatic power inherent in mankind sup- 
plies the necessary evidence, and from this stage we have been 
led to an interesting' point in the early history of the drama and 
of the stage. It is not, therefore, too much to say that we 
have in these children's games some of the oldest historical 
documents belonging to our race, worthy of being placed side 
by side with the folk-tale and other monuments of man's pro- 
gress from savagery to civilisation. 

ALICE B. GOMME. 



THE END 



Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON &> Co. 
Edinburgh &* London 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY