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This Volume is for 































A. Specimen Questions, New York Public Library School 152 

B. Typical Questions, Various Schools 155 

INDEX 159 



Number of Hours of Class-room Instruction given by Eleven Library 
Schools in the Major and More Important Minor Subjects in the Cur- 
riculum % 

General Education, Technical Training, and Library Experience of Li- 
brary School Instructors in 1920-21, including only those giving Courses 
of at least Ten Class-room Hours 85 

Library School Budgets: Totals for All Purposes and Amounts of Sal- 
aries at Various Periods 72 

Salaries of the Directors, Principals, and Leading Instructors of Li- 
brary Schools in 1921 73 

Student Fees in 1921 74 

Library School Statistics : Maximum Capacity and Registration in 1920- 

21; Average Initial Salaries of Graduates in 1914 and 1921 75 

General Statistics of Graduates of Library Schools 78 

Salaries of Graduates of Five Representative Library Schools in 1921 81 


THE study on which the following report is based was under- 
taken in accordance with a resolution of the trustees of the 
Carnegie Corporation of New York passed on March 28, 
1919, and Dr. Charles C. Williamson, then Head of the Division of 
Economics and Sociology at the New York Public Library and now 
Director of Information Service of the Rockefeller Foundation, was 
invited to undertake the enquiry. An advisory committee consisting of 
Dr. Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress, Dr. James H. Kirkland, 
Chancellor of Vanderbilt University, and Dr. Wilson Farrand, Princi- 
pal of Newark Academy, was appointed to cooperate in the study and 
to review the report. The verdict of these gentlemen was most favor- 
able: they reported that the publication of the study "would, in the 
judgment of the committee, be highly desirable." 

The subject of training for library service, while possessing an intrin- 
sic importance that is as yet but little appreciated in this country, is 
of such dimensions as to lend itself well to the unitary and comprehen- 
sive treatment which follows. All of the library schools in the United 
States were visited and carefully examined; the most expert opinions 
on the problem were arfalyzed and compared; and, finally, the use made 
of the product of these schools, together with the need and demand for 
more and better training, was subjected to as thorough a statistical 
study as the available material permitted. 

As a whole, therefore, the problem is one which a single, inclusive 
study of this character may do much to illuminate; and it is believed 
that Dr. Williamson's report will prove to be of decisive value in clari- 
fying a situation which was not so difficult as it was neglected. 


Acting President. 
June 1,1923. 


THE primary purpose in preparing the following report was 
to present existing conditions in this country with respect to 
training for library work in such a way that the educator and 
the layman interested in educational problems might be able to form 
a true conception of the steps that should be taken to improve this 
phase of the library situation. 

The author has been obliged to limit the scope of his study to the 
so-called professional schools. He has treated only incidentally training 
classes, summer schools, and other types of library training agency. An 
effort has been made to discover and to point out the strong and weak 
points in the organization of these library schools and in the training 
which they offer. Many of the defects disclosed could be remedied by 
the schools themselves; others are due to extreme poverty and can be 
remedied only by increased income. 

All of the schools were visited and their organization and methods 
studied during the academic year 1920-21. The report therefore de- 
scribes conditions as they existed at that period. 

A brief historical sketch of each of the schools will be found in Ap- 
pendix I. All but two of them, the Riverside Library Service School 
and the University of California library courses, were considered ap- 
proved or accredited schools that is, they had been admitted to mem- 
bership in the Association of American Library Schools, an organization 
described in some detail in the chapter on standardization. Other schools 
are in the process of development*, the University of Texas and the Uni- 
versity of Buffalo, for example, have organized courses of instruction 
for which recognition as professional library schools may ultimately be 
sought; in Portland (Oregon) and in certain other cities plans for the 
organization of schools are also being considered. 



THIS chapter enters into a general discussion of the appropri- 
ate education, general and vocational, for different types of 
library work. Much use is made throughout the following 
pages of the words "professional" and "clerical." Before entering upon 
any systematic description or critical discussion of vocational training 
for library work, it is desirable to make as clear as possible the mean- 
ing which will henceforth be attached to these terms. As the word 
"professional" is used in these pages, it is not synonymous with voca- 
tional, tho that has been customary in library literature. Nor is the 
word "clerical," as used here, confined to that part of the work in a 
library which is essentially the same as the so-called clerical labor 
carried on in business and other organizations. Much of the necessary 
work in a library is peculiar to libraries, yet it is distinctly of clerical 
grade. Those who do this work, however, have not been called clerks 
but have been placed with all other library workers in one vocational 
group of "librarians." 

For clear thinking on the subject of training for library service it is 
necessary to understand the different kinds of work which must go on 
in a library. In this report we recognize two distinct types which, for 
want of better terms, we call "professional" and "clerical." Each of these 
types or phases of library work demands general and vocational edu- 
cation of a particular character. The distinction between the two is only 
vaguely understood and seldom applied in library organization and 
practice. It therefore seems desirable to dwell upon it at some length 
before proceeding to an examination of the library schools and other 
training agencies. While in one sense this is an introductory or pre- 
liminary chapter, it will be apparent that it is also a summary of some 
of the most important conclusions of the whole study. 

In library work of nearly every kind efficiency requires careful atten- 
tion to a large amount of detail. The supreme importance of attention 
to detail in records and the necessity for skill and accuracy in routine 
operations have apparently been allowed to obscure somewhat the real 
nature of professional library work and the kind of training required 
to fit for the highest type of success. Library schools originated at a 
time when methods of handling the detailed record work of libraries 


were being worked out with scientific care and precision. The difficulty 
of supplying libraries with assistants who were skilled in handling such 
detail and possessed of enough general understanding of the signifi- 
cance and importance of care and accuracy seems to have led the first 
schools to shape their curricula to meet the needs of the time, which 
was natural and desirable. The unfortunate result is that an attempt 
has been made ever since, more or less unconsciously, to give to manual 
labor of a purely clerical and routine nature the dignity and impor- 
tance of professional work. This has made and continues to make library 
work unattractive and distasteful to men and women with the proper 
educational and general equipment for successful service in types of 
work which are of real professional character. 

A shortage of persons fitted for the higher grades of library work has 
been felt for some time, and will no doubt continue to be felt until some 
differentiation is recognized by library administrators in the organiza- 
tion of library staffs between duties of clerical and routine character 
and those requiring professional outlook and attainments. A "trained" 
worker in a library may be of either one or the other type, but at pres- 
ent it is commonly assumed that all "trained" workers are of the same 
general grade. There are many kinds of work in any library which can 
be performed just as well (perhaps better) by a young woman with a 
high school education and a little appropriate instruction and experi- 
ence as by a college graduate with the best library school training that 
can be devised. 

Two main types of training for library work are required. The first 
is the broad, general education represented at its minimum by a full 
college course which has included certain important subjects, plus at 
least one year's graduate study in a library school properly organized 
to give a thorough preparation for the kind of service referred to in 
this volume as "professional." The second type calls for a general edu- 
cation represented approximately by a four-year high school course, 
followed by a course of instruction designed to give a good under- 
standing of the mechanics and routine operations of a library, together 
with sufficient instruction and practice to ensure proficiency and skill 
in one or more kinds of the clerical and routine work which we may call 
"sub-professional" or "clerical." 

Library administrators appear to be making little or no effort to 
keep these two types of work distinct; or, if they do recognize such 
grades of work, they assume that the clerical worker will in the course of 


time, and solely by continued experience in clerical work, develop capa- 
city for the higher or professional grades. Occasionally this has occurred 
in the case of exceptional individuals; but the assumption that the dif- 
ference between the clerical and professional worker is length of expe- 
rience only is unfortunate, and has much to do with the low state of 
library service and the absurdly low salaries offered for even important 
positions of professional character. 

Since the library administrator does not organize his staff in such 
a way as to make clear the qualifications needed for different types of 
work, the library schools have not been under the necessity of making 
the distinction ; and many of them have not done so. They have admit- 
ted to the same classes students who by no possible chance could give 
acceptable service of any except the clerical type along with those well 
qualified to enter the highest grade of professional work. Exactly the 
same instruction has been given to both groups. In other words, the 
schools have been trying and are still trying to train clerical workers 
and professional workers in the same classes and in the same way. The 
results could not possibly be satisfactory, and they have not been. The 
time has now come to apply the remedy for this fundamental defect. 
The situation calls for a proper organization of library service and the 
provision of separate facilities for training each class of worker. 

Graduation from an accredited college after four years of study lead- 
ing to the bachelor's degree should now be recognized as the minimum 
of general education needed for successful professional library work of 
any kind. Much of the record-keeping and routine in libraries of all 
kinds can be carried on very well by persons who have less than this 
amount of general education and even by those who have had only a 
high school course. For the sake of the library profession and to elevate 
the standards of library service, some distinction between professional 
and sub-professional or clerical grades of library work is essential. 

College education is now required of the high school teacher in prac- 
tically every part of the country. How can the public library, even in 
the smallest town, be expected to serve intelligently the needs of all 
classes if the librarian is not at least as well equipped as the high school 
teacher? The librarian, indeed, if he is to live up to his opportunities, 
should be the intellectual peer of the high school principal, the super- 
intendent of schools, the minister, the editor, and all other educated 
persons upon whom the community depends for leadership. 

The need of training for librarianship, even for the smallest libraries, 


is almost universally recognized; but the mistake is often made of as- 
suming that the training needed is confined to matters of library tech- 
nique and clerical routine. It is true that to be successful a librarian 
must understand library methods, but no amount of training in library 
technique can make a successful librarian of a person who lacks a good 
general education. The most essential part of training for librarianship 
is the general education that is ordinarily secured nowadays through a 
college course. Some knowledge of foreign languages and literature, 
history, sociology, economics, government, psychology and the natural 
sciences, every librarian worthy of the name must have. Moreover, he 
must know more than the average college graduate about the literature 
and sources of information in all the principal fields of interest, and 
have at his command the bibliographical tools and devices for unlock- 
ing the printed sources of information on any subject. It goes with- 
out saying that the high school student cannot do this. If he could, 
a college education would cease to be important as background and 
preparation for any profession. The time required for the specific train- 
ing for librarianship is comparatively short usually but one year 
because the most important part of the equipment is general education 
and a knowledge of men and books which can be acquired in a variety 
of ways but which is most likely to be found in those who have com- 
pleted a college course. 

A person with the intellectual and general equipment for librarian- 
ship can ordinarily get in one year from a properly organized library 
school the general technical training needed for any type of professional 
library work. In order to do the highest grade of work, however, and to 
make rapid progress in any specialized line, the student should have an 
opportunity for special study, not immediately following the year of 
general technical study, but after at least one year of professional library 

No amount of study in a library school can fit for successful library 
service the individual who lacks the fundamental educational equip- 
ment. On the other hand, many persons having the necessary education 
and native fitness and capacity have taken it up with complete success 
in spite of a lack of technical training. It is far easier for an intelligent 
educated person interested in books and people to make a success of 
library work than it is for one having all the technique the library 
school can give him, but lacking in general intellectual and cultural 


Some discussion has been occasioned in library circles by the fact that 
many of the most successful librarians are without library school train- 
ing. The question has been raised as to whether a library school course 
is helpful; whether, indeed, it may not be an actual hindrance to the 
highest success in types of librarianship requiring initiative, original- 
ity, resourcefulness, and large administrative capacity. Two possible 
conclusions are indicated: in the first place, it should be perceived more 
clearly that the least important part of the librarian's equipment is 
that which the library school gives him, and that therefore a high 
standard of general education should be required for admission to the 
professional school; secondly, it is probable that the schools should so 
adjust their methods of teaching and the content of their curricula 
that students with adequate education and capacity will not find that 
in the process of acquiring a knowledge of library technique they are 
in danger of missing the broad professional outlook, and of suffering a 
certain deadening of initiative and imagination which is likely to result 
from an excessive attention to minute detail. 

Library technique should be presented to men and women, properly 
educated for professional library work, from the point of view of prin- 
ciples and policies. Too often, even in the best of schools, such subjects 
as cataloguing and classification have been taught as if the student had 
no mind. "Do it this way and don't ask why," has frequently repre- 
sented the instructor's attitude. Granting that such a method may 
legitimately be used in dealing with a class of apprentices, it is ridicu- 
lous when applied to college graduates who suppose they are being 
educated for a profession and in a professional spirit. 

To the library school of a graduate and truly professional character 
we should look for the workers needed to fill all positions requiring 
extensive and accurate book knowledge, skill in organization and ad- 
ministration, and expert technical knowledge in many special lines. 
Being professional schools, these institutions will in no case aim to 
train specifically for any one library staff. 

To another type of library school, illustrated by the "training 
classes " conducted by the larger libraries, we must look for trained 
clerical workers. The subjects covered by the two kinds of training 
agency will to a certain extent be the same. Clerical or sub-professional 
workers will need instruction in cataloguing, in classification, in all 
kinds of record-keeping topics, including filing, indexing, alpha- 
beting, and in typewriting. They can be taught such things as the 


nature and uses of subject headings, not with the idea that they will be 
responsible for the subject heading work in any important library, but 
that they may be more intelligent and efficient within their own range 
of duties. For this type of training a large amount of drill and prac- 
tical work will necessarily accompany the class-room instruction. On the 
completion of such a course an intelligent person with a high school 
education should be able to give efficient service, especially in the li- 
brary in which and for which he has been especially trained. It should 
not be possible to say of him, as library administrators now often say 
of library school graduates, that he has been taught a great many things 
and has hazy ideas about library work in general but cannot do any 
kind of work acceptably well. 

Some of the so-called library schools at the present time are not 
equipped to do more than give a good thorough training for clerical 
workers. Under certain conditions that is the most important thing that 
can be done; and the school which neglects to do it well, in an attempt 
to achieve the impossible and give a professional training with inade- 
quate resources and ill-prepared students, is doing the cause of library 
service more harm than good. 

In the last analysis every library will have to make its own decision 
as to what positions on its staff require professional training. The num- 
ber and proportion of such positions will be determined by the size and 
character of the library as well as by the money available for the pay- 
ment of salaries. A reference library will require a larger proportion 
of professional librarians than a circulating library of the traditional 
type. The large library system will require a smaller proportion, tho 
perhaps a higher grade, of professionally trained librarians than the 
small library, for the reason that the greater specialization made pos- 
sible in the large organization permits the professional worker to sup- 
plement and supervise the work of a larger number of workers of cler- 
ical grade. 

The mere recognition of this principle will do much to solve the 
training problem. In the first place, it will considerably reduce the num- 
ber of people that the professional library schools will be called upon 
to turn out. Assuming, as has apparently been done by some library 
executives, that practically the entire body of library workers, even 
down to pages, should have a full library school training, the impossi- 
ble task would fall upon the library schools of training all library work- 
ers by means of one general type of curriculum. At the present moment 


the demand for trained workers, which is alleged to be far in excess of 
the supply, is in reality not solely a demand for fully equipped and 
professionally trained workers, but for both types. When this fact is 
recognized, professional library work will make a far stronger appeal 
to college men and women as a career, not only because the professional 
type of work will be more attractive in itself, but also because it will 
make possible more adequate salaries. The confusion of clerical and 
professional work tends inevitably to keep salaries down to the level of 
the clerical grade. No matter what the financial resources of an insti- 
tution, it is not justified in paying clerical workers much, if any, more 
than those of equal education and experience receive in commercial and 
other competing fields of work. In many cases the law of supply and de- 
mand will make it possible to maintain efficient clerical staffs at salaries 
even lower than those offered by commercial and private employers. 

Until the distinction between clerical and professional workers is 
sharply made and adhered to the demand for adequate salaries for the 
professional group will prove ineffective because they will be economi- 
cally impossible. A careful appraisal of the duties actually performed 
by many workers for whom professional salaries are demanded will show 
that they are often in large part clerical and not worthy of higher re- 
muneration. Until library work is so organized that professional workers 
devote all their time and energy to professional tasks, tasks which 
workers with less adequate general and technical equipment cannot per- 
form without permanent damage to library service, it is not worth 
while to expect librarians to be paid on a professional basis. When 
library work is so oi^anized and is adequately remunerated library 
schools able to offer professional training of high character will not need 
to worry about the difficulty of securing enough students to fill their 
classes, nor will librarians have cause to bemoan the dearth of trained 

The inherent attractions of professional library work will never fail 
to produce the necessary supply of workers when working conditions 
and salaries are properly adjusted. Neither will the call for trained 
clerical workers go unanswered when the type of worker and the type 
of training required are clearly defined. At no time during the last three 
years would the library schools have had any great difficulty in filling 
their classes with a good grade of high school graduate who, with 
proper training, would have made excellent clerical workers. Some of 
the library schools conducted by public libraries should confine them- 


selves to this task and let their libraries look to the professional schools 
for the other type of trained worker. 

Some of the stronger library schools may find it possible and desir- 
able to offer both types of training, in separate classes of course, and 
perhaps to some extent by a separate corps of instructors. In general, 
however, workers of the clerical grade can and will be trained for the 
larger libraries by their own training classes. Any library finding it 
necessary to add to its clerical staff as many as ten new members a year 
is likely to find it wise to maintain a training class. With one compe- 
tent person in charge of the class and doing most of the teaching, aided 
as required by other professionally trained members of the staff, a library 
can provide its own clerical workers more economically and quite as 
efficiently as if it should attempt to conduct a library school. 

To such a program some library executives will make the objection 
that they wish their entire staff to have full professional training. This 
is at best a counsel of perfection, tho in reality it probably reveals a 
lack of understanding of the principles of economical and efficient ad- 
ministration. If it is true that the high school graduate is not fitted 
for the professional work, it is also true that the college graduate will 
not give the best service in strictly clerical positions. If a person with 
college education is satisfied to spend his time, or any considerable part 
of it, on tasks the high school graduate can perform equally well, he 
will probably give no better service than the latter and will actually be 
inferior and likely to be dissatisfied with his position and remuneration. 

Small libraries will find it somewhat more difficult than large ones 
to provide a properly trained personnel. For professional workers they 
will of course look to the library schools, but a supply of trained work- 
ers of the clerical grade will not be so readily secured. Requiring too 
few persons of this grade to warrant the expense of conducting a train- 
ing class, they will have to resort to some other agency for competent 
clerical assistants. The most available but least desirable source will 
be apprenticeship. Young women residing in the community will be 
taken on the staff and expected gradually to learn the work by doing 
it under direction. In some cases this may prove fairly satisfactory. 
The amount of instruction that can be injected into such apprentice- 
ship will necessarily depend on the size of the professional staff and 
the time and teaching ability available for the task. 

In many cases it should be possible for smaller libraries to make 
arrangements with larger ones within easy reach to train their clerical 


assistants. There would seem to be no good reason why the training 
class of a large library should not accept students from libraries in 
smaller adjacent towns and cities, charging a proper fee, to be paid not 
by the student, perhaps, but by the library benefited. In other situ- 
ations a group of smaller libraries in the same neighborhood may con- 
duct a training class cooperatively. Still other small libraries may find 
a solution of the problem by sending their assistants to attend short 
courses and summer schools conducted for that purpose by state com- 
missions, universities, etc. Some help in the training of clerical assist- 
ants may also be expected from properly conducted correspondence 

Whatever the method employed for recruiting clerical workers, it is 
of the greatest importance not to overlook the fact that training is 
necessary for the best results. Without the trained clerical assistant 
the professional worker will be overburdened with responsibilities for 
detail from which he should be free in any properly organized library. 
A certification system should recognize the grade of clerical assistant 
and admit to that grade only those whose general education and library 
training meet the standards provided. Under a certification system 
which makes the essential distinction between professional and clerical 
grades, there will be little or no danger that individuals qualified for 
clerical work will be able to pass themselves off for the higher grade. 
There will be no reason, therefore, why accredited and standard train- 
ing classes cannot, if they choose, accept for training students not under 
appointment or pledged to accept appointment on the library's own 
staff at the end of the period of training. In such a case it would be 
proper, of course, to charge a reasonable fee for the course. 


IN order to make as clear as possible to the general reader the scope 
and content of library school curricula, the following brief descrip- 
tions of courses have been compiled from the current issues of the 
announcements or catalogues of the leading schools. These statements 
are not designed to be a complete outline of the courses given in any 
one school ; they constitute rather a composite summary of the descrip- 
tive statements which seem best adapted to convey a fair idea of the 
subjects in which it is deemed necessary for the professionally trained 
librarian to receive instruction in the schools. 

It may at first seem to the reader that we are introducing here a mass 
of detailed information which should have been relegated to an appen- 
dix. This matter is deliberately brought in at this point, however, in 
order to give at the outset a good idea of the scope and content of the 
library school curriculum. It serves also, it is believed, to give point to 
the contention made throughout this report that professional library 
training should be based on a broad, general education. The different 
courses are arranged in the order of the average amount of time given 
to them in the class-room schedules of the eleven schools which reported 
on this point. Each paragraph under a subject is taken from the state- 
ment of a different school. 


"The course includes lectures, recitations, and practice work in dic- 
tionary cataloguing and alphabeting. Each lesson is followed by 
an exercise in actual cataloguing, the books used being selected to 
furnish illustrative examples of the rules given in class. The exer- 
cises are revised from sample cards and corrections discussed in 
class. The corrected cards are converted into sample dictionary 
catalogues, which are indexed to bring out examples of rules. The 
A. L. A. rules mimeographed on cards for convenience in study and 
reference are followed with minor modifications." 

"A study of mechanical devices and supplies used in cataloguing; 
methods of duplicating cards; problems in ordering cataloguing 

"Practice is given in alphabeting and in the ordering, handling, 
and use of Library of Congress printed cards. . . . Each student 
keeps the revised cards for about 200 books, correctly arranged 
and furnished with guides, as a sample catalogue for future help. 


Additional lectures are given on cataloguing of children's books, 
cataloguer's reference books, supplies, cataloguing of foreign 
books, music scores, and maps. Lectures and practice in the use of 
fuller collation and imprint are given. . . ." 

Book Selection 

"Designed to familiarize, so far as possible, with books and writ- 
ers, their scope, qualities and respective values in certain leading 
classes of literature, and with sources and aids ; ^ book selection in 
these classes; to define and analyze the princijL *s underlying dis- 
criminating selection of books for library use; and to cultivate 
the power of judging books according to their value and suitabil- 
ity lor different types of readers and libraries." 

"(a) Principles of book selection in Biography, History, Travel, 
Sociology, Nature and Popular Science, and Religion ; study of 
standard and current aids and book reviewing publications; study 
and practice in annotation and evaluation; exercises in compi- 
lation of special lists; study of editions and series desirable for 
library use. (b) Survey and analysis of modern fiction (in English), 
covering principlesof critical judgment, aids and guides, and study 
and practice in annotation, for modern fiction, historical fiction, 
foreign fiction in English translation, * borderland' fiction, short 
stories, fiction of the current year." 

"Translation of the works of the leading French novelists are 
read and reported upon, followed by a survey of representative 
novelists of Spain, Italy, Germany, Scandinavia, and Russia. Re- 
cent poetry, the short-story, and modern drama are studied. . . . 
The class examines about forty new books each month, and atten- 
tion is given to current publications by reading and checking the 
issues of the Publishers' Weekly. The large amount of reading re- 
quired in this course may be expected to encroach upon the time 
which a student usually gives to general reading." 
"Aims to cultivate further the power of judging books as to their 
value and adaptability to various types of libraries and people. 
Practical problems in the selection of translations of the classics 
and foreign fiction, series, editions, quick selection of new books, 
etc. Reading of selected modern novelists, dramatists and poets is 
required and problems of selection in these fields discussed. Facility 
in estimating books is developed further through the writing of 
book-notes and reviews. The economical spending of book funds is 
taught through the checking of second-hand, remainder and other 
bargain catalogues of American and English dealers." 
"After considering the qualities of a good edition, the various 


editions of the standard authors are studied, and those best suited 
to library use are recommended. 15 

"The evaluation and selection of periodicals for library use are 
considered briefly." 

Reference Work 

"A study of the standard works of reference, general and special 
encyclopedias, dictionaries, annuals, indexes to periodicals, ready 
reference manuals of every kind, special bibliographies, and the 
more important newspapers and periodicals. Works of similar 
scope are compared, and the limitations of each pointed out. Lists 
of questions made up from practical experience are given, and the 
method of finding the answers discussed in the class. Problems in 
selection of reference books, especially for the small library, are 
assigned and talked over. The aim of this course is not only to pro- 
mote familiarity with a considerable number of well-known refer- 
ence works, but also to give the student some idea of the method 
in the handling of books, to familiarize him with the use of indexes, 
tables of contents, and varying forms of arrangement, and, finally, 
to suggest some method of comparison and evaluation." 

"Lectures and problems from the standpoint of college and uni- 
versity libraries, large reference libraries or departments. Princi- 
pal topics: interlibrary coordination and cooperation in reference 
work; organization of reference material; law libraries and law 
books; care and use of manuscripts; medical libraries; patents pub- 
lications; legislative reference; local history and genealogy; publi- 
cations of learned societies ; dissertations ; indexes to foreign peri- 
odicals; trade and professional journals." 


"The Dewey Decimal classification is used as the basis for a thor- 
ough consideration of the subject matter of books, with a view 
to their arrangement on the shelves, both of the large and small 
library. Lectures are given also on the Cutter Expansive and the 
Library of Congress classifications." 

"... Practical work in classifying selected lists of books, consider- 
ing the various requirements of large, small and special libraries ; 
brief history of classification ; comparison of the principal systems ; 
use of the Cutter- Sanborn tables for assigning book numbers." 

" The importance of adapting classification to the need of special 
localities and types of libraries is emphasized through the discus- 
sion of specific books. Methods of simplification, especially in biog- 
raphy and literature, are taught. The study of book numbers is 
included in this course." 


A dministration 

"This course includes the administration of large libraries, the 
administration of small libraries, and a short course in business 
methods. ... In the consideration of the administration of small 
libraries, practical details of management and the adaptation of 
methods to the needs of a small library are emphasized. The prin- 
cipal topics are: library finance; statistics and reports; relation 
of librarian to trustees; the staff and the reading public; the place 
of the library in the community; cooperation, publicity, and ex- 
tension of the use of the library." 

"Library legislation." 

"Work of a library organizer; office systems ; accounts and book- 
keeping; business correspondence." 

"Forms and supplies." 

"An analytical study of reports and statistics in their vital rela- 
tion to the practical work of the library, including the graphic 
presentation of these." 

"Methods of bringing public and library together. Outside pub- 
licity, including reaching the business men, newspaper publicity, 
miscellaneous printed matter and its distribution, placards, car 
cards, movie slides, outside bulletin boards, window displays and 
exhibits; and inside publicity, including lectures, exhibits, book 
displays, and bulletins." 

"Methods and problems of city extension by means of branch 
libraries, deposit stations and smaller agencies; rural extension, 
including county and township systems and the book automobile; 
state traveling libraries and other work of library commissions." 

Library Work with Children 

"This course aims to give the principles of library work with chil- 
dren, and comprises a series of lectures on management and train- 
ing of children; equipment of a children's room; books for little 
children; books for younger children; how to judge fiction for 
boys and girls; historical stories; boys' reading; girls' reading; 
program of a children's department." 

"Book selection for children; administration and equipment of 
children's rooms; library work with schools and playgrounds; co- 
operation with other educational and social agencies." 

"Principles underlying the art of story-telling, applied to the 
selection, adaptation and oral presentation of stories. Students 
electing this course will tell stories in the playground and other 
branches of the library." 


"History of children's literature. The purpose of the course is 
to trace the development of children's literature in England and 
America and to study the forces which affected it and determined 
its characteristics at different periods. Beginning with the time 
of Aldhelm and Bede, typical books of each period are discussed, 
the chap-books, old-fashioned books for children, and facsimile 
reprints in the Library School collection being used for study and 
comparative purposes. 

Current Events 

"As an aid to the student in following the affairs of the day, atten- 
tion is given to the events chronicled from time to time in the daily 
newspapers and in the weekly and monthly periodicals." 

"Round table devoted to the review of important current activi- 
ties and events, designed to give practice in the use of periodicals 
and to develop judgment of the value of the material presented." 

" Survey of the history of general American periodicals, also the 
best in special subjects, as Science, Fine Arts, and Education; 
English and widely-known continental magazines." 

Public Documents 

"A study of the publications of the United States Government, 
with a consideration of state and municipal documents, as illus- 
trated by the publications of the state of . . . . The Execu- 
tive Departments, Congress, and other government offices are con- 
sidered as sources of information for libraries. The printing and 
distribution of documents, their indexes, and their use in reference 
work are taken up. Emphasis is laid upon the documents of most 
value to the small library." 

Subject Headings 

"Principles of subject indexing as applied to the dictionary cata- 
logue are discussed and the relation and correlation of subjects are 
studied both in relation to the entry of books in the catalogue and 
to the arrangement of books on the shelves." 

" Assigning subject headings on the basis of the A. L. A. List of 
Subject Headings and the Library of Congress lists." 

"In studying subject headings, analytics, cross references, and the 
headings assigned specific books by the students are discussed. The 
A. L. A. subject headings is checked by each student." 


Subject Bibliography 

" The best and most available bibliographies and selected lists in 
various departments are considered as to their authority, date, 
content, arrangement, merits, defects, and adaptation to different 
uses. Special topics, such as the scope, utility and limitations of 
bibliography are also treated. For graduation each student sub- 
mits a selected and annotated bibliography that tests the ability 
to collect, arrange, and definitely to evaluate the literature of the 
subject chosen. Methods of work, authorities used, and results ob- 
tained are examined and criticised. A study is made of the organi- 
zation and work of those societies and institutions of America and 
Europe which are interested in the stimulation of bibliographi- 
cal movements, in the perfecting and unifying of bibliographical 
methods, and the production of bibliographical material. Special 
attention is given to cooperative undertakings and international 
bibliography. " 

History of Libraries 

"History of European libraries, early and present; American 
library movement; library associations and library periodicals; 
great American libraries and their specialties; American library 

66 Development, characteristics and tendencies of the American 
library movement ; different types of libraries; library associations, 
national and state ; library commissions and their work ; library 

"... Origin, materials and development of writing; origin and 
spread of printing; methods of book illustration; history of book- 

" Book illustration, title-pages, printers' marks, and famous print- 
ers and presses." 

(See Book Selection.) 

Lending Systems 

"Discussion of the principles underlying the relations of the li- 
brary to the public brought about by the loan of books, and the 
character of the service to be rendered ; a study of the various neces- 
sary and desirable records connected with this work, representa- 
tive loan systems suitable for various types of libraries, and rules, 
regulations, and practices incidental to the service." 

" History and principles of charging systems, with detailed study 
of Browne, Newark and Columbia University charging systems. 


Circulation of periodicals, music, pictures and books for foreigners. 
Besides loan work routine the following topics are discussed : access 
to shelves, rent collections, book disinfection; distribution through 
branches, stations, schools and home libraries, interlibrary loans." 

"Registration, infectious diseases vs. library books, fines, reserves, 
renewals, rules for lending, pay collections, training of staff, and 
apprentice classes." 

"Consideration of the business principles which should underlie 
routine and of the social principles which should govern relations 
with borrowers forms the basis of the course." 

Trade Bibliography 

"Historical development, national book- trade bibliographies of 
Europe ; English and American book- trade bibliography, general, 
national, and special ; related bibliographical aids, important cata- 
logues, and special bibliographies." 

"Aims to give ... a working knowledge of about thirty-five 
American, English, and foreign trade publications which are of 
constant use to libraries in their dealings with book-sellers and 
publishers and in the acquisition of books in general." 

Binding and Repair 

"Lectures treat of materials, processes, and methods of binding; 
practice is given in judging materials and workmanship as to 
strength, durability, appearance, and cost. Students become fa- 
miliar with all processes by inspecting books in various stages of 
binding, and by visiting binderies. The necessary technical rou- 
tine and the preparation of serials, pamphlets, and books for bind- 
ing and re-binding are also considered. Mending is taught by 
practical work and demonstration." 

"Publishers', and re-inforced bindings, and history of the art of 
bookbinding (with slides)." 

"Practice in mending; in preparing books and periodicals; in giv- 
ing specifications for binding of a varied assortment of books ; in 
estimating wearing qualities of different editions." 

''Mechanical processes necessary in preparing books for circula- 
tion, mounting pictures and clippings, binding pamphlets, maga- 
zine covers, etc." 

Order Work 

"The subjects included in this course are book-buying, discounts, 
ordering books, checking and entering bills, the accession book and 


its substitutes, the shelf list, serials and continuations, exchanges, 
gifts, duplicates, pamphlets, clippings, the history of copyright 
and the copyright law." 

" Importations; second-hand auction purchases." 

Printing and Publishing 

"Lectures discussing the features of a printed book, such as the 
parts of a book, type pages, illustrations and color printing, the 
printing of books from plates, etc., are given to cultivate an ap- 
preciation for well made books. Further, the characteristics of the 
best known American publishers and their works are discussed to 
familiarize the students with the standards of publishing and the 
value of imprint." 

44 Lectures and practice aim to give the student the information 
most needed in preparing the simplest library publications. In- 
cludes the preparation of copy, mechanical editing, routine and 
processes of printing, correction of proof, library stationery and 
blanks and forms, and examination of library reports and bulle- 
tins as to waste and economy, types, indentions, etc." 

School Libraries 

"The value and place of the high school library; types; relations 
to the public library; selection of books and periodicals; modifi- 
cations in classification, cataloguing and other records; charging 
systems; aids in reference work; the administration and use of the 
school library; special problems of the school librarian; making 
and use of a clipping and picture collection; the vertical file; les- 
sons on the use 01 beoks; vocational guidance; special features such 
as lantern slides, stereographs and music records." 

"Previous pedagogic training or teaching experience is desirable 
for this course." 

"The work of the school and teachers' department, deposit sta- 
tions in the schools, educational theories and books are discussed 
in order to give an intelligent understanding of the possibilities of 
cooperation with teachers." 

Library Buildings 

"Methods of planning and equipping library buildings, with dis- 
cussion of the form and arrangement of rooms for various library 
departments and calculation of book capacity." 

"Shelving, lighting, furniture and fittings, decorations, equip- 
ment for social service purposes." 


"Principles are illustrated by lantern slides and photographs show- 
ing plans of library buildings." 

Community Relations 

"Study of library work and possibilities of a definite city or other 
community. The topography, population, political, financial, in- 
dustrial and other social conditions will be considered in their 
relation to actual and potential library work in the community." 

"Designed to give the student a knowledge of the library's re- 
lation to the community as a whole and of the various agencies 
for industrial, social and civic betterment with which it may 

"Municipal and government activities and problems, methods of 
working with local organizations, neighborhood survey, etc." 

Shelf Work 

"This course includes practice in assigning book numbers by the 
Cutter-Sanborn author tables ; lectures on the shelf-list, showing 
its value for inventory and statistical purposes; methods for check- 
ing continuations and government documents, and caring for pam- 
phlets, pictures, slides, etc." 

"Book supports, shelf labels and other appliances; preservation 
and arrangement of pamphlets; inventory; shelf-listing. Model 
shelf-lists are made both on cards and on sheets." 


" Technical French and German. A study of an extensive list of 
German and French book titles, customary abbreviations, etc." 


"The condensed and loose-leaf accession books are used, and other 
systems of keeping accession records and of withdrawing books 
from the library are taught. The mechanical preparation of books 
for the shelves is included." 


"Marking matter for indexing; choice of headings; form of cita- 
tion; verification; filing; full and brief indexing; periodical in- 
dexes; indexing documents; correlation of entries; cross refer- 
ences; editing for print; form of printing; labor-saving methods 
and devices." 


Notes and Samples 

"Each student is required to submit for inspection a collection of 
material on the various phases of library work. This collection in- 
cludes books and pamphlets on library economy, bibliographies 
and reading lists, library periodicals, publications of individual 
libraries, blanks and forms used in library administration and the 
problems, notes and other required work of the regular courses. 
No certificates or diplomas are awarded to students who do not 
present well-selected and well-arranged collections of reasonable 

Special Libraries 

"Information regarding the important and rapidly growing work 
of industrial, commercial, financial, and other special libraries, by 
visiting librarians, and experience in such libraries." 

Books for the Blind 

"Lectures are given on library work for the blind, the history of 
types for the blind, books, magazines, games, writing appliances 
and music, and other subjects of interest to the blind." 

Altho no less than twenty-five distinct courses are recognized in the 
curricula of the library schools, about half of the student's time is de- 
voted to four subjects cataloguing, book selection, reference work, 
and classification. These four subjects may well be called the heart of 
the curriculum, for altho the actual time devoted to any one of them 
varies greatly from school to school, these are the subjects on which 
all the schools lay primary emphasis. 

The table on page % 22 shows the number of class-room hours devoted 
to the major and most of the minor subjects in the curricula of the 
eleven schools from which reports were received. Differences of termi- 
nology and the variety of groupings and combinations of subjects en- 
countered make it impossible to arrive at strictly accurate averages or 
to compare one school with another at every point. The table serves, 
however, to indicate the remarkable variations in the time given by dif- 
ferent schools to even the major subjects. Cataloguing, for example, 
gets 105 class-room hours in one school and only 35 in another, the 
average for the eleven schools being 60. One school devotes 76 hours to 
book selection and another only 27. Time allotted to reference work 
varies from 69 to 30 hours. Classification claims 47 hours in one school 
and only 20 in another. In the minor subjects variations are naturally 
still more pronounced. 










School 1 




Average for 
eleven schools 








35 66a 





Book Selection 







50 60 





Reference Work 







30 44 












20 335 












20 40 





Children's Work 







35 12 





Current Events 







15 c 





Public Documents 







10 16 





Subject Headings 







10 e 





Subject Bibliography 






12 10 





History of Libraries 







10 5 












10/1 24 





Lending Systems 







10 8 





Trade Bibliography 







8 gi 





Binding and Repair 







23 5 





Printing & Publishing 







18 c 





Order Work 







5 16 





School Libraries 







20 gj 





Library Buildings 







3 3 












10 g 





Community Relations 





15 g 





Shelf Work 







Si d 












m m 











2 i 












g g 












lo g 




a Includes shelf listing. 

6. Includes subject headings. 

c. Not given. 

d. Included in cataloguing. 

e. Included in classification, 
/. Included in reference work. 
g. Not segregated. 

h. Included in book selection. 

i Included in order work, 
j. Included m children's work 
k. Included in library administration. 
I. Included in indexing or cataloguing. 
m. Required for entrance, 
n. Included in filing. 
o. Included in shelf work, 
p. Included in accessioning. 

Several conclusions of possible significance may be drawn from these 
facts. Obviously there is no agreement among the schools as to the rela- 
tive importance of the different subjects in the curriculum. The amount 
of time given to a subject seems to depend on the personal opinion or 
desires of the instructor or the principal. While considerable interest 
has been manifested in discussions as to what should constitute the mini- 
mum essential instruction in cataloguing, apparently no effort has been 
made by the Association of American Library Schools to arrive at mini- 
mum standards for the course in cataloguing. Complaint is common that 
the curriculum is overcrowded, while important new subjects are clamor- 

1 Numbers replace names of schools. 


ing for admission. The school that succeeds in giving its students the 
essentials of cataloguing in thirty-five hours, while others require two 
or three times that length of time, can take up other subjects that may 
be more important for the general professional course. Teaching skill, 
as well as equipment and methods, is an important factor in determin- 
ing the amount of time to be given to a subject. 

While it manifestly would not be desirable to bring about strict 
uniformity in the content of the various courses in the curriculum, 
there does seem to be need for a certain degree of standardization of 
both the major and minor courses given in the first year of professional 
library school study. Nomenclature should be standardized and stand- 
ard courses worked out and officially adopted by the proper professional 
body. The term "book selection" means far different things in differ- 
ent schools, and terms used in presenting the subject do not have at all 
the same meaning everywhere. The situation is similar in other parts 
of the curriculum. It is impossible to tell what instruction a student 
has had in book selection from the mere fact that he had a course in 
that subject in an accredited library school. The fundamental courses 
in library schools, as in schools of law and engineering, should all have 
the same scope. To bring this about should be one of the important 
duties of the certification board recommended elsewhere in this report. 
Before such a board can accredit a library school for the certification 
of its graduates, it must satisfy itself that standard courses are given. 
Development of training in service for library workers through other 
agencies than library schools will require the formulation of minimum 
standards as to the scope and the content of courses which are to be 
accepted for certification purposes. 

The library school curriculum has passed through something of an 
evolution, and it is quite likely to undergo even greater changes in the 
future. The schools at first confined their attention largely to technical 
library subjects, such as cataloguing and classification. Later, cultural 
and other studies were introduced to make good any deficiencies in the 
student's education. The present tendency is to eliminate the general 
cultural and informational courses from the library school curriculum, 
requiring for admission everything of that nature considered essential 
for successful library work. Courses in literature are still given in some 
schools, but usually in a limited way as a part of the subject of book 
selection. A "fiction seminar," or special course in the study of fiction, 
is now given in about half of the schools. Where this is considered im- 


portant, it is not looked upon as a cultural subject but rather as a part 
of the technical equipment of the library worker, needed equally by 
those who have and those who have not had adequate college courses 
in literature. There is no doubt that such a course is valuable for the 
librarian who is called upon to select and purchase fiction for his library 
and to guide the reading of its patrons. The point that seems to be over- 
looked, however, is that for similar reasons the library school student 
needs instruction in the literature of scientific, technical, business, so- 
cial, economic, and political subjects. Instruction in such subjects is 
even more important than in pure literature, since the standard library 
reference books and current guides for book selection in fiction and pure 
literature are more numerous and of higher quality than in scientific 
and practical subjects in general. Neglect of these large new fields of 
interest by the reading public may be due in part to the one-sided char- 
acter of the library school curriculum. Too much attention is still paid 
by the library schools to pure literature, both in their entrance require- 
ments and in their curricula. The traditional view of the library as the 
workshop and playground of the literary and leisure classes persists, 
tho social and economic subjects are now competing for first place in 
the interests of book selection experts. 

It is impossible, within the library school curriculum, to give instruc- 
tion in the wide range of subjects which must claim the attention of 
the professional librarian. To be equipped for his work, he must enter 
upon this professional training with nothing less than a good all-round 
college education. Many library schools still consider it desirable to 
give a course in current events in order to create an intelligent interest 
in the more important subjects that engage the attention of the read- 
ing public. For the most part, however, these are the schools that re- 
quire only a high school education for admission. Schools with higher 
standards of education look upon the teaching of current events as 
they would upon a course in elementary economics or general history 
necessary, of course, for the skilled librarian, but a prerequisite to 
and not a part of, library school training. 

The library school curriculum as it stands represents in the main the 
current demands of the librarians who employ the graduates and the 
experience of the graduates themselves. Most library school teachers 
and principals are keenly alert to discover any new topic of interest to 
librarians or any new development in the library world in order to 
bring them into the curriculum. One school has an active advisory com- 


mittee of three graduates to which the question of changes that may 
be desirable in the curriculum is regularly put. Another school circular- 
izes its graduates periodically to get suggestions for new courses or new 
topics to be introduced. Everywhere library school officials have an ear 
to the ground for any evidence of dissatisfaction with what the schools 
are teaching. This attitude, however, does not make for radical changes 
in the curriculum. Rather it results in excessive conservatism and con- 
formity to custom and tradition. The suggestions that come back to 
the schools are only echoes of what they have been doing. 

No school has ever attempted or is now prepared to disregard what 
has been done in the past and make a thorough, scientific analysis of 
what training for professional library work should be and build its cur- 
riculum upon its findings, instead of following tradition and imitating 
others. A more aggressive leadership is needed. Those who are inter- 
ested in promoting training for library work should see to it that men 
and women of energy and initiative are brought into the schools. Some 
of the pioneers in the library school movement were of this type and 
they have left their mark. 

It would be ungracious to criticize the schools for not doing more to 
put library service on a higher plane. Within the limits of their piti- 
fully small resources they have probably done all that can fairly be 
asked of them. Not, therefore, as a criticism but as encouragement to 
push on to better things, it should be pointed out to the library schools 
that an opportunity is theirs to wield a potent influence in bringing 
about a new library movement. Some of the epoch-making advances just 
ahead in the library world are discussed elsewhere in this report. Stand- 
ards of service are to be worked out; a certification system inaugurated; 
methods of training in service for library workers devised, including an 
effective system of correspondence instruction; and county libraries and 
library extension promoted to the point where "books for every body " 
will be a reality. In university, research, and other types of library, 
equally rich opportunities await the advent of leaders with vision and 
enthusiasm to set new standards of service. It is to the library schools 
that we should be able to turn for inspiration and guidance; but it must 
be confessed that trained leadership of the quality now demanded is 
not likely to be produced by the present curriculum and personnel of 
the professional schools. 


WITHIN certain limits it is probably true, as Mr. E. A. Bost- 
wick, librarian of the St. Louis Public Library, says, that the 
greatest service of the library schools is in selecting people 
fitted for library work. 1 Certainly schools cannot turn out a satisfactory 
product with only one year of instruction unless the students selected 
have the necessary education and special aptitude. All the schools pay 
special attention to the selection of their students, but the methods em- 
ployed seem to warrant careful scrutiny and possibly considerable revi- 
sion. Little or no effort seems to have been made to utilize modern voca- 
tional and psychological tests. Except as to age of applicants admitted, 
there is little agreement as to what entrance requirements should be. 
As a rule, applicants must be at least twenty-one years of age and 
not over thirty-five. Two or three schools put the lower limit at twenty 
years, while one specifies thirty and another forty years as the age be- 
yond which a person should not attempt to enter library work through 
the schools. Tho persons above thirty-five are seldom rigidly excluded, 
they are strongly advised against taking the course unless they have 
been continuously engaged in similar intellectual pursuits. Persons 
over thirty-five are said to find the work difficult and to be at a decided 
disadvantage in securing positions. 

A four-year college course is required for admission to only two 
schools, the New York State Library School and the University of 
Illinois Library School. The Los Angeles and the Carnegie Library 
Schools require a college degree only for the special course in high 
school library work. Even the college course is not considered sufficient 
by the better schools unless it has included two foreign languages. 
"A knowledge of foreign languages is always necessary," says the New 
York State Library School, "and each additional language with which 
the student is acquainted is a direct professional asset." The "best 
preparation for general library work is a college course which includes 
a rather wide range of subjects." Most of the schools recognize the 
value of a college education but do not find it practicable to require 
it for admission. In the Los Angeles school, "two years of college will 
ordinarily be required. Four years of college is strongly advised and is 

1 Proceedings of the American Library Association, 1912, p. 156. 


essential for school library work." The Wisconsin catalogue states that 
"the importance of a four years' college course as an educational equip- 
ment for library work cannot be too strongly emphasized." 

Admission to all the schools, except the New York State and the 
University of Illinois, is by examination, altho applicants having de- 
grees from approved colleges are accepted without examination in prac- 
tically all others, with the reservation by some that the college course 
must have included a broad training and modern languages. In all cases 
applicants for examination are required to have had four years of high 
school or its equivalent. The examinations of all the schools cover 
about the same range of subjects history, literature, general informa- 
tion, current events, and one or more modern languages. The purpose 
and scope of these examinations are well expressed in the following 
statement from the circular of the New York Public Library School: 

"The entrance examination is designed to test the candidate's qual- 
ifications for professional library training, and particularly to de- 
termine whether he possesses the habits of mind and the funda- 
mental knowledge essential to the proper performance of his duties 
as a librarian. It involves answering questions on history, current 
events, general information, and literature, together with transla- 
tion of French and of one other modern foreign language, prefer- 
ably German, the choice of which is subject to approval oy the 
Faculty. The questions, while allowing fair range of choice, assume 
reasonable familiarity with the main facts and names of literary 
and general history; and as regards the present, an intelligent in- 
terest in local, national, and international affairs." 

Typical lists of examination questions are given in an appendix to 
this report. To the ordinary educated person, and even to the experi- 
enced library worker who has been out of school or college for a few 
years, the questions asked in many entrance examinations may seem too 
difficult and varied, especially in history and literature. But the exam- 
inations follow practically the same lines each year, so that a candidate 
in possession of a series of questions from the different schools can form 
a pretty close estimate of what he must do to pass. It does not appear 
to be the practice to mark the papers rigidly or to hold to any definite 
passing mark, the theory being that the examiners can learn what they 
need to know about the candidate whether he answers the questions 
correctly or not. 

Two possible criticisms may be made of these examinations. If the 
questions axe used primarily as mental tests, they are very crude and un- 


scientific. Far better tests could be devised for selecting persons with 
the general information and personal qualities requisite for library 
W0 rk tests, too, which would not appear so formidable that many 
excellent persons would be deterred by the fear of failure and disgrace 
from attempting to enter a library school. On the other hand, the kind 
of examination commonly used cannot be considered as an adequate 
means of testing the candidate's general education and information: 
they cover too narrow a range of subjects and in too superficial a way. 

Languages and general information are of fundamental importance 
for all professional library work. But special knowledge of literature 
and history is not as important for many kinds of library work as is 
acquaintance with social and applied sciences. As an educational prep- 
aration for library work nothing has been discovered which can take 
the place of a thorough college course of varied content. The Univer- 
sity of Illinois and certain other schools suggest in some detail a pro- 
gram of college studies which should be followed in preparation for 
library work. A high school graduate may often pass the type of en- 
trance examination given by the library schools as readily as the col- 
lege graduate. Nevertheless, the college graduate of equal native ability 
has a breadth of view and an ability to attack new problems and master 
them which are very important for the professional library worker, but 
which are seldom found in one whose education has not been continued 
beyond the high school. 

It is not meant to imply that every college graduate is fitted for 
library work. It may well be that even when the college degree is re- 
quired some properly constructed selective test should also be applied. 
The point that should not be lost sight of is that a high school edu- 
cation does not fit any one for professional library service, and that no 
entrance examinations can be devised that will serve as a substitute for 
four years of college education. 

Entrance examinations are usually held in June, tho several of the 
library schools which admit by examination also hold another in the 
fall. By the cooperation of local libraries, candidates who live too far 
from the school may take the tests in or near their own home town. 
Since the examinations of all the schools using that method cover ap- 
proximately the same range of subjects and hold to about the same 
minimum standards of education, the desirability of uniform examina- 
tions or a single examination for all the schools suggests itself. Some 
of the schools have felt the need for such a system. It is increasingly 


difficult to prepare examinations without repeating questions previ- 
ously asked by some school. A uniform system would put all candidates 
on the same basis, and make it unnecessary for a student to take the 
examination of two schools or more so that if he fails to pass for one 
he may still enter another. Some school authorities believe a higher 
grade of student would be secured by uniform tests. If scientific and 
approved tests are to be employed, it is particularly desirable to have 
them worked out cooperatively. The uniform college entrance examina- 
tions need only be cited to show the advantage and possibilities of such 
a system. A student who passes the general examination could select 
the school he prefers to attend, while the school itself would be free to 
accept or reject those who pass the general examination. 

As matters stand at present, however, there is little likelihood that 
separate examinations by the schools will be abandoned. Some of the 
schools take a seemingly unwarranted pride in their own particular 
questions ; others find it advantageous to use flexible standards in rat- 
ing the papers of applicants. The heads of some schools state that they 
seek a particular type of student and for that reason could not dis- 
pense with their own examinations. The latter objection would be more 
convincing if some clear description of the special type of student 
sought were given. Should the national certification board, recom- 
mended elsewhere in this report, become a reality, it may be possible to 
work out uniform admission tests that will satisfy all parties. For the 
time being, local conditions, jealousies, and rivalries stand squarely in 
the way of this as of many other desirable improvements. 

Perhaps the most mooted feature of the entrance requirements of 
library schools is actual experience in library work. The views of those 
who insist on the desirability of such previous experience are well ex- 
pressed in this statement, which appears in the catalogue of the Library 
School of the University of Wisconsin : 

"It is desired that as many as possible shall come to the school with 
library experience. Practical work in a good library for a year or 
more, in addition to the educational and literary attainments, is 
the best preparation for the year's work in the school. It tests the 
candidate's aptitude for library work, gives a knowledge of library 
terms, and familiarity with library processes, and makes a student 
more eager for, and appreciative of, what the library school has to 
offer. . . . While it has not seemed wise as yet to establish an abso- 
lutely rigid requirement of library work extending over a definite 
period, still this preliminary library experience is considered so im- 


portant that applicants without it are strongly advised to spend 
much more than the required several months in apprentice work 
before entering the school." 

The New York State Library School also considers previous experi- 
ence so desirable that "all admitted students without such experience 
are strongly urged to spend as much time as practicable in voluntary 
or other staff service in their local libraries or elsewhere before entering 
school." "Some library experience," it is further stated in the latest cat- 
alogue, "will in all probability be an entrance requirement in the near 

On the other hand, several of the most important library schools do 
not even recommend previous experience. They consider that employ- 
ment in libraries of inferior standards, unsupervised and unrelated to 
the student's actual need of preparation for school work, is very likely 
to prove a serious handicap. 

There is no doubt, however, that the wholly inexperienced student 
does need an orientation in the library business before being plunged 
into the maze of technicalities of the professional library course. He 
needs to become familiar with the ordinary library tools and termi- 
nology and to get some insight into the aims and methods of library 
service. This orientation is accomplished by several schools through a 
preliminary period of practice work for inexperienced students just be- 
fore the opening of the regular school year, usually in the library with 
which the school is connected. This preliminary practice ordinarily 
covers two weeks. 

It is not clear that this short practice period is always so organized 
and supervised as to accomplish efficiently the desirable or necessary 
orientation. It would seem that, if this is as important as many au- 
thorities believe it to be, special pains should be taken to give the stu- 
dent as good an introduction as possible through lectures, reading, 
inspections, and individual conferences. It is to be feared that at pres- 
ent so much is left to chance in this preliminary course that it is of 
doubtful value. 

Many of the schools have much to say about the " personality" qual- 
ifications for admission. Several of the circulars announce that in con- 
sidering applications for admission personal qualifications and natural 
aptitudes for library work are taken into consideration. The usual 
method of applying this personality test is an interview with the head 


of the school. The following quotation from the circular of one of the 
schools illustrates the stress laid upon "personality" and the "inter- 

" Personal qualities and a more or less discriminating sense of liter- 
ary values are, however, essential considerations. It follows, there- 
fore, that an interview ... is an important entrance requirement. 
Despite the expenditure of time and money involved by such an 
interview, it is insisted upon, except under unusual conditions." 

Undoubtedly it is very important to give much weight to personal 
qualifications and natural aptitudes. It is impossible, however, to put 
much confidence in the personality tests as now applied. In the first 
place, no attempt has been made to determine scientifically what per- 
sonal qualities are essential: it seems to be assumed that library work 
is of a homogeneous character, and that consequently the same per- 
sonality tests can be applied to all who desire to enter library service. 
It may be questioned whether there is any such thing as "library work" 
in general. There are many kinds of library work; and if there are any 
special capacities and aptitudes which make for success, they must be 
considered in relation to each distinct type of work. It will probably 
be found that any qualities which are necessary for library work in 
general are just those qualities required for success in most other pro- 

The first thing for the library schools to do is to define the qualities 
that they seek in candidates. The next thing is to give more assurance 
that they are able through a brief interview conducted by one per- 
son to detect the presence or absence of those qualities with sufficient 
exactness to justify giving weight to the result. The impressionistic 
method of the interview seems likely to reflect the personality of the 
interviewer as much as that of the interviewed. If it were possible to 
arrange independent interviews by several competent persons the re- 
sults could be accepted with much greater confidence. 

The personality test as conducted at present may actually be re- 
sponsible in part for the acute shortage of competent library workers. 
Those who apply the "personality" test have their own background of 
experience and acquaintance with types of library and library work. 
Their undefined ideal personality seems likely to embody the qualities 
they would seek for the kinds of library work they know best. By elim- 
inating all others in the selective process, school officials may uncon- 


sciously deprive libraries of many excellent workers in special positions. 
The impressionistic, or interview, method cannot disclose temperamen- 
tal defects. These come to light later; and every school has among its 
graduates persons who constitute perpetual "problems" for the school 
principal assuming, as most of them do, a large measure of responsibil- 
ity for keeping every graduate employed and contented. 

Much can be said in favor of simplifying en trance requirements by 
specifying a full college course for all students in professional library 
schools and at least a high school course for admission to training 
classes. If desired, the school can call for the applicant's college record 
and accept only those whose work is of high grade. If classes must be 
further limited, other tests can be applied to applicants; but any effort 
to base selection on personal qualities and aptitudes for library work 
should be discouraged until such qualities and aptitudes are carefully 
and clearly defined and more accurate methods of detecting them are 
worked out by vocational psychologists. It does not appear that up to 
this time any of the library school authorities have approached their 
problem in the scientific spirit or made any use of scientific methods. 

Before leaving the general topic of admission requirements, some 
reference may be made to certain minor features. The earlier schools 
concerned themselves largely with training in the technique, and even 
the mechanics, of library work. With the lapse of time a differentiation, 
not clearly recognized, however, has taken place between the broader or 
professional type of training and the training necessary for those who 
are to do the actual clerical work of record-keeping, etc. The develop- 
ment of library work as a profession has been hampered by the tend- 
ency on the part of the public to look upon it as wholly clerical in 
nature. The library schools and the actual organization of libraries have 
not only done little to remove this handicap but have even done much 
unconsciously to perpetuate it. Some of the library schools still require 
students to acquire the vertical or library handwriting, while nearly all 
of them lay great stress on skilful use of the typewriter. Several schools 
require the ability to operate a typewriter with fair accuracy and speed 
before admission ; others permit students to make good the deficiency 
during the year's course, often providing machines for practice. 

There is much to be said, of course, in favor of ability to operate a 
typewriter as a part of the general equipment of any educated person. 
Any intellectual worker is likely to derive considerable advantage from 
the ability to make skilful use of the typewriter, but it is not clear 


why such skill should be required as part of the professional librarian's 
equipment any more than of that of the teacher, the engineer, or the 
business man. The typewriter is far more indispensable in every busi- 
ness office than it is in the average library, yet the professional schools 
of business do not make typewriting an essential part of their course. 
That is left to the schools for training the clerical staffs required in busi- 
ness offices. The same general relations should obtain between the 
library training class and the professional library school. It is not sur- 
prising to find that able and ambitious college men and women hesi- 
tate to look to library work as a professional career when assured by 
the catalogues of the so-called professional training schools that "a 
ready ability to use the typewriter is an important part of a modern 
librarian's equipment "and is "necessary in almost any library position." 


A DETAILED analysis of the training and experience of mem- 
bers of the teaching staffs of twelve of the library schools 
seems to indicate a quite definite lack of fitness of a large pro- 
portion of them for giving instruction of high professional character 
to students with college or university education. The table on the fol- 
lowing page tells the whole story. About half (48 per cent) of the in- 
structors giving ten lectures or more during the year 1921 were not col- 
lege graduates. Many, it is true, had had a partial college course, while 
others had carried their studies somewhat beyond the high school in 
educational institutions of some kind. 

It should not be inferred that a college degree is considered an ab- 
solutely indispensable part of the equipment of the library school in- 
structor. Certainly some of the most successful teachers now on the 
staffs of the library schools are without the college degree. The bache- 
lor's degree, however, is in general a fair measure of an individual's in- 
tellectual equipment and has come to be regarded as the minimum 
essential for all kinds of teaching above the elementary school. In no 
part of this country would instruction in a well-organized high school be 
considered acceptable if half of the teachers were not college graduates. 

Library school instruction, moreover, should rank not with high 
school but with college instruction. In respect to college faculties, the 
best opinion is even more insistent on full college education, and in the 
better institutions an advanced degree is usually a sine qua non for in- 
structors. It does not seem probable that a few small library schools will 
get better results from a teaching staff of which 48 per cent, are with- 
out the bachelor's degree than would a college. No self-respecting col- 
lege would attempt it. Some of the protagonists of things as they are 
attempt to justify the existing condition by belittling the value of a 
college education and arguing that some instructors are better with- 
out it than others ever will be with it. 

As a matter of fact, the present situation is due almost entirely to 
economic necessities arid inadequate standards. College graduates of 
fair ability are not attracted by the salaries library schools offer. Con- 
sequently library schools have to recruit their staffs from a group which 
is not eligible for attractive positions in other fields. If proper salaries 




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were paid in all library schools and the best instructors possible were 
secured, it would not be long before at least 90 per cent, would have 
college training. 

Most library schools also retain something of the flavor of appren- 
ticeship training, in which beginners are put into the hands of those 
who have not yet risen to the higher ranks but who have become pro- 
ficient in some part of their craft. If the library schools hope to take 
rank with other professional schools of the higher grade, they must 
accept the existing academic standards for all teaching above the ele- 
mentary schools. Throughout this report it has been emphasized that 
professional library work requires a college education. College gradu- 
ates going into library service should not be asked to take their pro- 
fessional training under a group of instructors one-half of whom are 
without the college viewpoint. 

The library schools have been more careful, in recruiting their staffs, 
to secure instructors with technical training than those with general 
education : while only 52 per cent, of the instructors are college gradu- 
ates, 81 per cent, have completed some kind of course in a library school. 
It is significant also that 4$ per cent, are teaching in the same school in 
which they took their own library training. Certain schools, by choice 
or necessity, select nearly all instructors from their own graduates. The 
obvious disadvantages of this practice are an inevitable inbreeding and 
a certain imperviousness to new ideas or methods. 

It is not at all surprising that among library school instructors spe- 
cial skill in teaching is not conspicuous. Only 7 per cent, of the instruc- 
tors have had any kind of training in the science or art of teaching. 
It seems safe to assume that none at all has had the slightest instruc- 
tion in the methodology of the teaching of library subjects. In recent 
years the growth of vocational education has drawn attention to the 
need of special teacher training for each of the many subjects to be 
taught. The need of preparation for teachers of agriculture, for exam- 
ple, seems to be well recognized. A recent report of the United States 
Bureau of Education does not regard the work of a state agricultural 
college as bonajtde "unless the curriculum includes at least a two-hour 
course in special methods of teaching agriculture and at least one three- 
hour course in either psychology or education." Is that an unreasonable 
standard? Is special preparation for his work any more important for 
the teacher of agriculture than for the teacher of library theory and 
practice ? 


Only 20 per cent, of library school teachers bring to the library school 
any experience in teaching. The outstanding successes on the faculties 
are found almost entirely within this 20 per cent, who had behind them 
good teaching experience in school or college before taking up library 
school instruction. 

Opinions may differ as to the desirability of requiring actual expe- 
rience in library work as a qualification for teaching the various sub- 
jects in the curriculum of the library school. Some teachers lacking ex- 
tensive experience in any kind of professional library work may prove 
more satisfactory than others whose experience has been excellent but 
who lack teaching ability. Granted a scholarly attitude of mind, a thor- 
ough knowledge of the subject-matter, an interesting personality, and 
ability to teach, an instructor's work must benefit very greatly from a 
considerable period of somewhat varied experience in library work. 
Long experience alone, however, is no evidence of qualification for 
library school teaching. 

An examination of available information as to the practical library 
experience of these one hundred instructors indicates that a little over 
two- thirds (68) have held library positions of such a character for such 
a period and with sufficient bearing on subjects taught as to make it 
possible to describe their experience as" good." The experience of thirty- 
two of the instructors, on the other hand, must be characterized as 
"apparently inadequate." This is not surprising, however, in view of 
the very low salaries paid. A man or woman with fair qualifications for 
teaching and good experience can ordinarily command a much larger 
salary than is available in library schools. 

Almost without exception library school principals complain of the 
extreme difficulty they experience in securing new teachers. Low sala- 
ries are probably at the root of the problem. On the surface, however, 
it does not seem to be primarily a question of salaries. A strong dis- 
inclination toward teaching pervades the library profession, largely as 
the result, perhaps, of the fact that so many librarians were formerly 
teachers who have found library work more congenial, if not more re- 
munerative. A further difficulty in finding persons to fill the compara- 
tively few positions on library school faculties is the fact that of those 
who are inclined to teach not many are qualified. Few of those who pos- 
sess the necessary professional knowledge and experience have either 
the essential personal qualifications or the training and experience re- 
quired for successful teaching. 


Concerted effort should be directed toward raising the quality of in- 
struction in the library schools. Tho an increase in salaries will not of 
itself bring relief, other measures are likely to be of no avail so long as 
salaries remain at anything like the present level. A teaching position 
on a library school faculty must in some way be made to carry at least 
as much professional prestige as the higher administrative posts in pub- 
lic libraries. It must be made possible for men and women of the high- 
est quality, who are good teachers, to find a permanently satisfactory 
career in library school instruction. The schools themselves must be put 
on a higher professional basis and an opportunity offered to instruc- 
tors, through longer vacations and freedom from excessive drudgery and 
overloaded schedules, to make contributions to the scholarly or "prac- 
tical sides of library work. 

Library school teaching may be less attractive than college teach- 
ing because of the comparative lack of freedom as to the content both 
of the curriculum as a whole and of the individual courses. The tend- 
ency has existed from the beginning for library schools to be more or 
less dominated by a single personality. The ideas and ideals of that per- 
sonality, consciously or unconsciously, mold the content of the courses 
and even determine the methods of instruction. Most school principals 
are conscious of exercising control only to the extent required to pre- 
vent overlapping of courses and direct conflict as to rules and prac- 
tices taught in the schools. As a matter of fact, actual control proba- 
bly goes much farther so far, indeed, that little scope is left for 
the originality and enthusiasm of the gifted teacher. 

In a one-year course this is almost inevitable. The time is so short 
for covering the wide range of topics with which an acquaintance is 
considered essential that the curriculum must be very closely planned 
and organized. In the curriculum of any professional school the neces- 
sity for covering a specified range of subjects is likely to seem more com- 
pelling than in a college of liberal arts. In library schools particular ef- 
fort seems to be made to give the student a cursory acquaintance with 
every kind of library work and every problem he is likely to meet. This 
tends to reduce the teaching to routine and to make the work unat- 
tractive to the genuine teacher, to whom it seems more important to 
give the student a professional attitude toward his work, to awaken 
his enthusiasm, and to develop his power of attacking problems, than 
to hurry him through a prescribed list of topics. 

For apprenticeship and training classes a minute control of the con- 


tent of the course and the rules taught may be quite proper. For the 
professional library school it is at least an open question as to whether 
better results would not follow from a greater use of the project method, 
with less lecturing and a much less strict adherence to syllabi which 
years of use have made well-nigh exhaustive on every subject. 

We could profitably cease to expect the library schools to send out 
graduates crammed with information about every conceivable subject, 
from incunabula to color-band filing, and demand, rather, men and 
women of liberal education, well grounded in the fundamentals of 
library practice and ideals, familiar with the librarian's tools, and re- 
sourceful in attacking and solving problems as they arise. Instead of 
suppressing differences in the views of library school instructors, it 
would be well to encourage them to emphasize their own opinions and 
points of view. Otherwise students, having little incentive to think 
problems through and form their own opinions, take them ready made 
from the instructor who teaches what the principal has decided to be 
the official policy of the school. 


THE lecture method predominates in all library school in- 
struction, altho the better the school the fewer the lectures 
and the larger the use of other methods. In catalogue de- 
scriptions of courses, lectures are usually said to be supplemented by 
readings, problems, recitations, seminars, class discussion, class prac- 
tice, quizzes, or individual conferences with students. While the pro- 
portion of lectures and other forms of instruction necessarily varies 
somewhat, depending on the nature of the subject, the size of the class, 
etc., nevertheless, most of the library schools apparently place an 
excessive dependence on the lecture. This is frankly admitted by most 
of the library school authorities, who agree that, in general, the best 
schools and the best teachers make the least use of the lecture. 

Altho it is freely conceded that the lecture method is overworked, 
it is claimed that the worst abuses have now disappeared, and that 
further improvement is scarcely possible under existing conditions. 
This problem is not peculiar to library schools. In all higher and pro- 
fessional instruction the lecture has proved to be the line of least 
resistance for the poorly prepared, overworked, or unskilled teacher. 
Yet even the skilled teacher in the library school finds a measure of 
justification for much lecturing. Inadequate preparation of a part of 
the students in a class seems to put a natural limit on the effectiveness 
of other methods. Library school classes which include college gradu- 
ates with excellent library experience and students having only a high 
school education and no acquaintance with libraries drive even the best 
teachers to an excessive use of the "pouring in" method. None of the 
schools are large enough to permit of a classification or grading of stu- 
dents on the basis of education and experience. 

As the curriculum has developed, it contains subjects of somewhat 
minor importance to which only a few hours of instruction can be 
given. The necessary orientation, for which the lecture is probably the 
best method, requires so much of the time allotted for the subject that, 
in order to cover the ground in the little time that is left, the instruc- 
tor persuades himself that he must lecture continuously. While a con- 
scious effort on the part of the administrative and teaching staff to 


economize the students' time is entirely praiseworthy, it is doubtful 
whether the desired result can best be reached by emphasizing the lec- 
ture method. The general use of mimeographed syllabi represents a vast 
improvement over the old lecture' system. Yet one still finds occasion- 
ally that library school students are required to write into their notes 
verbatim the language of the instructor. The need of better text-books 
and manuals to save the students' and the teachers' time and to im- 
prove the efficiency of library school teaching is so acute that it will be 
discussed in more detail in another chapter. 

It must also be made clear, in fairness to the library schools, that 
methods of instruction of which more use might advantageously be 
made are out of the question because of the heavy demand they would 
make on the instructor's time in the holding of individual conferences 
and the reading and revision of written work. It is particularly impor- 
tant, not only in teaching all of the so-called "record work," but also 
in such courses as book selection and reference, to require the student 
to express himself in writing. In the professional school this should not 
be allowed to degenerate into a mere drill in routine processes for the 
sake of acquiring skill and speed but should be used judiciously to en- 
sure rapid and firm grasp of principles involved. One of the results of 
the common failure to distinguish between professional library train- 
ing and the training for routine and clerical work is that library schools 
which should be conducted on a professional plane do not stop at giv- 
ing their students a grasp on principles and methods but are deaden- 
ing their initiative and enthusiasm by drilling them in the routine 
processes of hand work and the memorizing of rules and classes. The 
professional library schools have need to be on their guard against over- 
emphasizing skill in clerical technique: there is danger that by forcing 
upon their students a perfection in detail, they will stifle the indispen- 
sable qualities of enthusiasm, imagination, and initiative. 

The wholly legitimate and desirable use of written work is limited 
in the library schools to-day by lack of proper assistance for the in- 
structors. Each school has one or more " revisers," who assist the instruc- 
tors in reading and correcting written work. Not much improvement 
can be made in library school instruction until money is available to 
employ a sufficient number of competent revisers to free the instructor 
from the detailed work which now takes time that should be devoted to 
study and research, and contacts with practical library work and with 


his colleagues in the profession. In important scientific schools labora- 
tory assistants may outnumber the teaching staff itself, but poverty has 
all but denied such aids to library schools. 

We cannot refrain at this point from noting that what has just been 
said about the nature of instruction in library subjects shows it to be 
peculiarly adapted to the correspondence method. Even in the resi- 
dence schools, where student and teacher can meet and talk, the best 
instruction in many courses is carried on by means of written com- 
munication between them. Correspondence instruction as a method of 
"training in service" is fully discussed in a later chapter. 

One of the curious results of low standards for both instructors and 
students and of lack of contact of many schools with institutions of 
learning is the incongruous adaptation of the methods and terminology 
of the university. One who, being accustomed to think of the seminar as 
a group of students engaged in original research under the guidance of 
a scholar and investigator, comes upon the "seminar" of high school 
students engaged in acquiring a modicum of elementary information on 
book selection or some other subject in the curriculum under a teacher 
without college training or experience in research, can understand a 
certain reluctance on the part of university faculties to accord library 
schools the recognition to which their field of work and general rela- 
tions to intellectual pursuits abundantly entitle them. It is fortunate, 
however, that the schools do take themselves with the utmost serious- 
ness, and by dint of patient and devoted, if not brilliant, effort do 
achieve results which are surprisingly large when measured by their re- 
sources in personnel and equipment. Better teaching equipment, higher 
standards of education and experience on the part of the teaching staff, 
and more attention to methods of instruction, are obvious needs of all 
the library schools, tho, of course, in varying degrees. 

On no question in the administration of the library schools is there 
a wider diversity of opinion than on the use of part-time as against full- 
time instructors. As library schools have virtually all developed in close 
connection with some public or university library, their direction and 
most of the teaching have usually been in the hands of the members 
of the library staff. Certain schools have separated the school staff from 
the library staff and are convinced that no other plan is practicable. 
Other schools, on the contrary, have no full-time instructors at all and 
seem equally confident as to the superiority of that method. Most of the 
schools have one or more persons giving full time to instruction, a larger 


or smaller share of the teaching being done, as a rule, by members of 
some library staff in the vicinity. The certainty that the principal of 
each school will be found defending its own practice suggests that 
library schools have acquired the convenient habit of making a virtue 
of necessity. 

There can be no doubt that the part- time and full-time systems have 
each their peculiar advantages as well as disadvantages: that under one 
set of conditions the balance may be in favor of part-time instruction, 
while under other conditions full-time service may give the best results. 
For the most part, the actual practice of the schools is not determined 
by theory but by finances. Schools in a financial position to employ a 
corps of full-time instructors do so. 

The great advantage claimed for part-time instruction, and usually 
the only advantage mentioned by its advocates, is the opportunity 
through constant contact with actual library work to keep abreast of 
library progress. It is alleged that the full-time instructor is in danger 
of becoming an impractical theorist and even a formalist or reaction- 
ist. The claim is made in some schools that under the part-time system 
a better type of person is secured for both sides of the work than either 
school or library alone could hope to secure. Unfortunately, the results 
of actual experience under the two systems are far from conclusive. The 
two schools which give a two-year course and require a college degree 
for admission pursue diametrically opposite policies. The University of 
Illinois Library School has a separate faculty, believing that the greater 
part of any professional course should be in the hands of instructors giv- 
ing full time to the work, and that it is difficult to secure persons who 
can give first-class service on both the library staff and the school staff. 
The New York State Library School, on the other hand, depends for its 
instruction almost entirely on the staff of the state library and holds 
that any other method would be far less satisfactory. 

Serious disadvantages inhere in the part-time method. The instructor 
has no continuous contact with the student and is not so freely avail- 
able for consultation and informal discussion. Part-time instructors are 
not likely to view their teaching in a broadly professional spirit nor take 
a deep interest in educational problems. In any such division of work, 
one part or the other, or both, are almost certain to suffer. 

Not many of those whose opinions have been sought fail to recognize 
the need of at least one or two full-time instructors to look after de- 
tails of organization and administration and to give the technical and 


major courses cataloguing, classification, and perhaps book selection. 
The part-time instructor in such subjects as cataloguing and classifica- 
tion is in too great danger of teaching the methods he uses in his own 
library. For training schools that is possibly acceptable, but for strictly 
professional instruction a broadly comparative and detached point of 
view is essential. Many of the minor subjects in the curriculum can 
well be taught by librarians fresh from their professional duties. 

Perhaps it would not be altogether fair, under present conditions, to 
use as a basis for ranking the schools the proportion of the teaching 
staff giving full time to the school. That, however, is coming to be a 
practical method of appraising other kinds of professional schools and 
must sooner or later be applied also to the library schools. This is, in 
a sense, inevitable, because the part-time instructor is usually a result 
of an attempt to conduct a school with insufficient funds. The school 
with an adequate income, other conditions being the same, will be the 
best, for it will employ the best instructors, who will give all their time 
to their school work. 

It appears from all the available evidence that a library school of 
high professional rank should be large enough and provided with suffi- 
cient funds to require the full-time services of at least four instructors 
to give the major courses, particularly the so-called technical courses. 
Being conscious of the dangers pointed out as inherent in full-time 
service, the individual instructor should, with the cooperation of the 
school, make the necessary plans to get the requisite contact with actual 
library work and problems by vacation service on library staffs, by mak- 
ing library surveys, by sabbatical years, etc. 

The special or visiting lecturer, even more than the part-time in- 
structor, is an outstanding characteristic of nearly all library schools, 
tho in some cases the difference between special lecturer and part-time 
instructor is not very clear. Ordinarily the special lecturer gives only 
one or two lectures. He may be either a resident or non-resident spe- 
cialist who is brought in from year to year to supplement the regu- 
lar instruction in some definite way. The special lecture of the right 
type is considered quite essential in the conduct of many of the minor 
courses, but satisfactory lecturers are difficult to secure. 

Sometimes a course, such as library administration, is made to con- 
sist largely of these special lectures, the instructor's part being to cor- 
relate and supplement them as best he can. In theory the special lec- 
turer, like the part-time instructor, is supposed to bring to the class- 


room the practical point of view and to help in making a vital contact 
between theoretical instruction and actual library work. 

Certain special lectures, usually classified as inspirational, may have 
little or no direct relation to the work of instruction; while others are 
conceded to be neither instructional nor inspirational but are consid- 
ered to have value in introducing the students to the leading person- 
alities in the library profession. In the latter group are found library 
administrators who are invited to talk to students solely for placement 

The best authorities confess that the special lecture feature of li- 
brary school instruction has been overworked. In consequence, in recent 
years the better schools have greatly limited or virtually abandoned the 
number of such lectures. When put to the test, they have been found to 
have very little either of informational or inspirational value. This is 
particularly true of the single lecture. The value of special lectures is 
said to increase with the number given by one individual on the same 
general topic. It has been found difficult to correlate single lectures, 
even when they are excellent in themselves; but too often they have 
been entirely disappointing. Speakers classed as specialists frequently 
fail to develop their subject as desired. One library school principal, 
admitting the futility of special lectures, holds that they do, never- 
theless, have a good effect by giving the students more respect for and 
confidence in their regular instructors! 

For some schools the expense involved constitutes the principal 
objection to the special lectures. Casual lecturers, usually librarians of 
professional standing who happen to be at the school or in the vicinity 
and are asked to talk to a class, ordinarily are not paid, but as a rule the 
special and visiting lecturers receive an honorarium of from $5 to $25, 
traveling expenses also being paid, at least for the single lecture. 

To reduce the item of traveling expense and yet secure desirable 
lecturers from a considerable distance, the library schools in the eastern 
states have cooperated informally in arranging lecture circuits. The 
principal of one of the schools is designated each year to arrange a 
schedule for one or more lecturers, usually of the inspirational type. 
Traveling expenses which would make one lecture or two prohibitive for 
a single school bear less heavily when shared by three or four schools. 
The difficulties of finding lecturers acceptable to several schools and 
of arranging satisfactory schedules tend to confine the lecture circuit 
system, even in the east, to rather narrow limits. In the central and far 


west, distances are so great that it is seldom feasible for even two schools 
to cooperate on a single lecture. 

A more ambitious plan of cooperation among library schools pro- 
posed from time to time combines to some extent the system of part- 
time instructor and visiting lecturer. It seems desirable that many of 
the minor subjects in the library school curriculum should be taught 
by specialists. Local specialists not being available, and the work cov- 
ering only a few weeks each year, so that a full-time member of the fac- 
ulty is out of the question, it is natural to suggest that a person who 
combines the required special knowledge or experience and teaching 
ability should be engaged to go from school to school repeating a short 
intensive course. In theory it would be possible in this way for each 
school to enjoy the best instruction. Too often the minor subjects have 
to be presented by some local librarian not especially qualified or by 
some regular member of the school staff who is not a specialist in the 
subject and is already overburdened with the range of subjects he is ex- 
pected to teach. 

In a very limited way cooperative effort of this kind has been em- 
ployed. The Los Angeles School and the Riverside School, for example, 
both employ Mr. W. Elmo Reavis, of Los Angeles, to teach bookbind- 
ing. Perhaps the two other schools on the Pacific Coast would benefit 
by engaging the same excellent teacher. Serious difficulties, however, 
at once arise. Mr. Reavis might find that his business would not per- 
mit a month's absence in Berkeley and another in Seattle. It might not 
be practicable to give up his business and spend his entire time going 
from school to school. To most persons such an occupation would be 
distasteful, and there is some question as to whether the quality of a 
teacher's work would be maintained through even a short period of 
such teaching. Again, there is the difficulty, at times insuperable, of the 
inflexible schedules of individual schools. On account of the time lost 
between courses and the extra travel and living expenses, the cost to 
each school of securing such specialists might prove prohibitive with 
their present budgets. Si % milar difficulties also stand in the way of ex- 
change of instructors, even for short intensive courses, tho undoubt- 
edly much benefit would result from such exchanges if they could be 

Such considerations may perhaps render any extensive scheme of 
cooperative instruction impracticable at the present time; but as the 
schools raise their standards and undertake more specialization they 


will probably be forced to seek opportunities to cooperate in this way. 
With fewer and larger schools and more adequate budgets, it may also 
become possible to do many things which, under present conditions, 
seem impossible, however desirable in theory. 


THE efficiency of library schools and other training agencies 
would be greatly increased by satisfactory teaching aids, par- 
ticularly text-books. For the most part, the volumes which 
students are required to buy, such as the American Library Association 
Catalog Rules, the Decimal Classification, the American Library Asso- 
ciation List of Subject Headings, and Kroeger's Guide to Reference 
Books, are not text-books at all but manuals of practice and reference 
books for the practising librarian. The library student must, of course, 
learn to use these tools of the trade, just as the engineering student 
must learn to use engineering handbooks, books of formulae, tables of 
logarithms, and many other aids to computation; but while familiarity 
with such tools, an understanding of their purpose, and some skill in 
their use is indispensable, an engineering school could hardly use them 
as text-books in courses devoted to mastering the principles of any 
branch of engineering. 

The emphasis given here to the lack of text-books should not be 
construed as a recommendation that library school instruction be con- 
ducted by the text-book method, the teacher assigning "lessons" and 
hearing recitations. Perhaps that obsolete method, however, has as much 
to commend it as the extreme form of the lecture system under which 
the instructor attempts by the class-room lecture to give the student 
all the information he is supposed to need. Most of the subjects taught 
in the library school involve the presentation of much detailed infor- 
mation. In bibliographical and technical subjects, such as cataloguing 
and other record work, much importance attaches to the precise form 
in which the facts are written or printed. In many of the fundamental 
subjects, also, free use should be made of illustration in the way of re- 
production of forms and records, photographs, plans, etc. Much of the 
content of the curriculum needs, like the subject of architecture, to be 
presented to the eye, so that ordinary lectures are a peculiarly inappro- 
priate method. The student needs to have placed before him an unusu- 
ally large amount of printed matter, much of it prepared especially for 
instructional purposes. 

Two types of printed matter are needed, the text-book and the trea- 
tise: the first designed particularly for the student in training and the 


second more of the nature of an encyclopedic compilation of practice 
and procedure, methods and policies, adapted to the needs of both the 
beginner and the experienced library worker. From the pedagogical 
standpoint, virtually no text-books are available for the library schools 
and other training agencies. The efficiency of all types of library train- 
ing agencies would be incalculably increased by well-written manuals 
presenting a reasonably complete exposition of the theory and practice 
of the various subjects, with enough concrete description and illustra- 
tion to fix the principles and the main facts in the student's mind, the 
whole presented in such form and arrangement as to lead the student 
into the subject by the easiest path, and onward through its more diffi- 
cult phases in the shortest time with the least effort on his part. 

Every library school instructor has now to utilize some unsatisfac- 
tory substitute for the kind of teaching tools that should be available. 
In the hands of the skilful teacher the A. L. A. Catalog Rules and the 
Decimal Classification are better than no text-books at all, but without 
a teacher few students, however serious and capable, could make much 
progress with them. One of the chief difficulties that must be met and 
overcome in establishing the system of correspondence instruction rec- 
ommended in this study is the lack of proper text-books. When such 
volumes do become available they will mean much to the untrained, 
isolated worker everywhere. 

Some teachers attempt to make up for the lack of text-books by pre- 
paring reading lists of the best available material on the topic, in the 
form of periodical articles, reports, papers, etc. On many important sub- 
jects, however, useful literature is not only inadequate but scattered 
and inaccessible. The attempt to use it results in such waste of the stu- 
dent's time that some schools have abandoned required readings alto- 

The lack of text-books has resulted in a very extensive use of syllabi 
in mimeographed form, prepared by each instructor for his own courses 
and revised from time to time. These syllabi, containing outlines of lec- 
tures, bibliographical matter, definitions, etc., are indeed a great step 
forward from the time when the student learned everything by means 
of lectures. Important points, definitions, and much detail regarded as 
important were dictated to the class slowly enough to enable the stu- 
dent to write it out precisely in longhand. Notebooks slowly and labo- 
riously compiled in this way the student was taught to regard as indis- 
pensable, not only for the purpose of his school work, but also for 


guidance in dealing with problems to be met later in his active library 
work a kind of vade mecum or cyclopedia of library practice. 

Adequate handbooks and treatises covering many phases of library 
administration and practice would relieve the schools of the necessity 
that seems now to confront them of presenting to their students a sys- 
tematic and comparative description of library practice and procedure 
largely through lectures. The lack of a suitable professional literature 
of a cyclopedic nature seems to have a tendency to force the library 
schools to develop their lecture courses in that direction. The effort to 
cover the subject comprehensively and completely to the last degree 
tends to obscure principles and policies by the very mass of detail, and 
to substitute the acquisition of facts for an understanding of their sig- 
nificance. If accessible and authoritative treatises were available, it 
would be easier to put professional instruction on a higher plane: the 
instructor would be relieved of the feeling of responsibility for sys- 
tematically presenting every detail of the subject. This would also re- 
lieve the curriculum from extreme pressure and make it possible to de- 
vote more time to accumulating information on subjects which cannot 
easily be worked up from printed sources whenever the need arises. 

It was apparently the need for something of this kind that prompted 
the publication of the A. L. A. Manual of Library Economy. This 
"manual" consists of some thirty-two chapters by different authors, all 
but three of which have appeared as preprints, these three being still 
in course of preparation. Eight of these chapters deal with types of 
libraries, eighteen with problems of organization and administration, 
and six with special forms of library work. Some of these preprints are 
used for instructional purposes in the schools, but all of them are inade- 
quate both as text-books and as manuals of practice. They are too brief 
and sketchy. A volume instead of a pamphlet should be prepared on 
each important subject treated. 

If text-books and systematic treatises are so much needed, why are 
they not forthcoming? One reason is, perhaps, the comparatively small 
demand. The financial return does not promise to be sufficient to stim- 
ulate either their preparation or 'publication. The experience of the 
A. L. A. Publishing Board indicates, however, that such publications 
can be made to yield a small profit, tho of course not enough adequately 
to compensate the author. The preparation of such works should not 
have to wait upon a financial stimulus. Professional interest and ser- 
vice should be sufficient, and doubtless would be, save for the fact that 


comparatively few librarians have either the capacity or the time for 
authorship. In education, engineering, medicine, law, accounting, and 
many other professions, technical treatises and text-books multiply, 
regardless of slender financial returns to the authors. 

We must look to the leading experts in the library profession and, 
above all, to the instructors in the library schools to produce an ade- 
quate and worthy professional literature. Library schools must be able 
to pay salaries that will secure for their instructional staffs the leaders 
in the profession, who not only can teach but who can contribute to 
library progress by producing useful and much needed publications. 
This will help to give the library schools the prestige in university fac- 
ulties which they now lack, and will aid in drawing a better class of 
student to the schools. 

A very important contribution could without doubt be made at this 
time to the improvement of instruction in library schools by a com- 
paratively small amount of money used to stimulate the preparation 
of text-books and manuals adapted to instructional purposes. On the 
faculties of the library schools are a few men and women who have been 
hoping for years to have an opportunity to put into shape for pub- 
lication the results of their study and experience in special fields. 
Teaching schedules are heavy, however, and not many library schools 
can afford to give their instructors sabbatical years. There should be 
available for a period of years a sum of money large enough to pay the 
salary, and perhaps an allowance for traveling expenses, of one library 
school instructor on leave of absence each year for the specific purpose 
of enabling him to Complete for publication a work which, when pub- 
lished, will be useful to the schools and to the library profession gen- 
erally. Such a prize or fellowship should be made competitive and 
awarded by a properly constituted committee instructed to select the 
person who has in hand the piece of work most needed by the schools 
and so near completion that it can be finished within the year. The 
A. L. A. Publishing Board (endowed by Mr. Carnegie) would doubtless 
find it profitable to publish any book written under these conditions. 
The stimulating effect of this would not be confined to the prize winner 
of the year, but would extend to all who might hope by hard work to 
win it in some future year and would therefore begin at once to lay 
their plans with that in view. The entire effect on the teaching in the 
library schools should be good. Such a "fellowship" might be offered 
for a period of five years in the beginning. Toward the end of that 


period it would be easy to determine whether it should be continued 
or modified or abandoned. If the certification board recommended in 
this report should be organized, that would be an ideal body to entrust 
with the responsibility for awarding the fellowship. 


AL library schools supplement their class-room instruction given 
in the form of lectures, readings, discussions, problems, semi- 
nars, etc., by bringing students into contact in one way or an- 
other with some phase of actual library work. The methods of accom- 
plishing this differ very considerably, but the methods are no more 
divergent than the terminology. The Association of American Library 
Schools has made some effort to standardize the terminology, with the 
result that " practical work," as distinguished from "practice work," is 
now the accepted term for describing the activities supposed to be car- 
ried on by the student under actual library conditions. In some cases 
this is done under the supervision of representatives of the school, 
while in others practical work means actual library work done alto- 
gether outside of the supervision of the school. "Practice work" thus 
comes to mean class practice, or the work done by the student either 
in preparation for or following and definitely related to the class-room 
exercises. In cataloguing, classification, book selection, and other courses 
there is ample opportunity for class practice, that is, for work not done 
under actual conditions but in accordance with assignments made by 
the instructor and later corrected or revised, "Field work" in some 
schools has exactly the same meaning as " practical work." In general, 
however, the term tends to be used to describe that part of the prac- 
tical work which is done in a library other than that with which the 
school is connected, and frequently seems to be restricted to work in 
libraries at some distance from the school. But the terminology is not 
settled, some schools Wisconsin, for instance using the terms 
"practice," "field practice," and "practical work," interchangeably. Cer- 
tain schools use the term " laboratory work," with the idea, apparently, 
that such a simile tends to put their field work on a more scientific basis 
or on a little higher plane. As a matter of fact, the class practice, such 
as can well be carried on apart from any actual operating library, bears 
to library instruction the same relation that laboratory work does to in- 
struction in the natural sciences. Class practice is therefore as appro- 
priately labeled "laboratory work" as is the field work. 

In the course of his instruction the student should come into close 
contact with actual library work of many kinds. In doing this through 


his field work he may actually serve as a member of a library staff, or he 
may be present merely as an observer working out problems assigned by 
his instructor. If in the instructor's opinion he can carry on his observa- 
tions better, can get a better insight into the problem assigned and do it 
in a shorter time by working as a member of a library staff, there can be no 
objection to that plan. But there must be many points in a professional 
library course at which the student can gain far more through a very short 
period of purposive observation than through a long period of actual 
service on a library staff. This will be elaborated in subsequent pages. 

Every library school recognizes to some extent the desirability of 
supplementing its theoretical instruction by contact with or active par- 
ticipation in some kind of actual library work. It does not appear, how- 
ever, in the published or oral statements made on behalf of the schools, 
that there is anywhere a very clear understanding of the underlying 
pedagogical principles involved. Certain schools seem to proceed upon 
the assumption that the class-room instruction itself may be expected 
to make of some of the students, at least, skilled librarians, and that the 
field work is designed merely to demonstrate their skill or reveal their 
lack of it. "It is necessary and important," says the catalogue state- 
ment of one school, " that students be brought into contact with actual 
library conditions and their ability tested." 

Other schools proceed on the theory that field work is merely a means 
of clinching the class-room instruction by giving a better understand- 
ing of theory and principles and a firmer grasp on the essential facts. 
This view is expressed by the statement of one school that its field work 
is designed to give " an opportunity for the demonstration of the prin- 
ciples presented through class instruction." Another school bases the 
need of field work on both the test-of-ability and the aid-to-instruc- 
tion theories. Its brief period of supervised "practice" "serves not onlv 
to test the ability of students when confronted with actual conditions, 
but also makes clear much of the class work." 

Most of the schools give no explanation of their reason for devoting 
from an eighth to a quarter of the year to field work; perhaps there is 
no reason why they should. But several of the best schools do attempt 
to explain the basis for their procedure, and these explanations seem to 
show clearly that in so far as the program of the library schools is based 
on any conscious philosophy, it relies almost entirely on formal instruc- 
tion. In theory field work is merely an adjunct to, or one phase of, 
formal instruction. 


In one or two cases, however, the casual use of the word "experience" 
in reference to field work suggests the possibility that some of those in 
charge of schools may be thinking of such work as a means of acquir- 
ing skill of some kind. One school, while clinging to the idea that its 
"practice" work "enables the student to test the theories discussed in 
the class-room," actually goes on to make a fair statement of the way 
in which at least the beginnings of skill in library work may be acquired 
by supervised practice. Explaining the purpose of its field work, the 
Library School of the University of Wisconsin says that by means of 
it students "acquire poise and confidence in meeting and serving the 
public, and ascertain for themselves how library work reaches out to 
all interests in a community, and becomes a vital element in its life." 
This is the nearest approach that has been found in any of the printed 
matter issued by the library schools to a recognition of the fact that 
skill in the performance of any kind of library work must be wrought 
out by actually doing the work. 

The amount of field work included in the one-year library school 
course would seem to have no scientifically determined basis. It actually 
varies in the different schools from a total of four weeks in one school to 
approximately twelve weeks in another, counting a week as forty hours. 
No better illustration can be found of the complete lack of carefully 
determined standards for the library school course. Some schools find 
that the best results can be secured by four weeks of practical work, 
while others find it desirable to extend the period to twelve weeks and 
to reduce correspondingly the amount of class instruction. It does not 
seem possible that both methods can be equally sound, yet it would 
doubtless be difficult by comparing the work of students trained under 
the two methods to say which is more effective. The reason for the diffi- 
culty is that so many other factors are present in the final result. Not 
only are the ability and previous experience of the student to be con- 
sidered, but the amount and character of class-room instruction and, 
in the matter of the field work itself, the efficiency with which it is 
adapted to the needs of the particular student and the amount and 
character of the supervision that he receives. 

The amount of field work varies greatly; but the point in the course 
at which it is introduced is subject to an even greater variation. The 
two main types are: (1) the "blocked," or full-time "practice," usually 
in the months of February or March, or both ; and () an equal or larger 
amount scattered irregularly throughout the year or with a given num- 


ber of hours per week. The first is illustrated by the library schools of 
the New York Public Library and of the University of Wisconsin, and 
the second by the University of Washington. Various combinations of 
these two methods, along with still other devices, are found, as the fol- 
lowing tabular statement shows : 


Four weeks' "blocked practice," in Feb- 
ruary, usually in two assignments 

Fifty hours during year in State Library 
and local libraries; "blocked practice" 
during March, outside of Albany 

Throughout year ; outside field work dur- 
ing spring vacation 

Two weeks in March; two weeks in sum- 
mer vacation between j unior and senior 

One hundred hours, distributed through- 
out the year; eighty-one hours of 
" blocked" field work latter part of 
second semester 

Eight weeks of field work, February and 

One month of field work 

One week in the months of November, 
February, and March; and the month 
of June 

Six hours a week for five quarters for 
undergraduates ; twelve hours a week 
for thirty weeks for graduate students 

Three hours a week throughout the year ; 
four weeks in February 

Three hundred sixty-six hours distrib- 
uted throughout the year 

Three hundred forty-eight hours scat- 
tered throughout year, with two weeks 
"blocked practice" in February 

The wide variation in methods followed grows partly out of theoreti- 
cal and partly out of practical considerations. Those in charge of some 
schools believe that the results for the student are better if he is allowed 

New York Public Library 
New York State Library 

Pratt Institute 
Simmons College 

Western Reserve University 

University of Wisconsin 

University of Illinois 

Los Angeles Public Library 

University of Washington 

St. Louis Library School 
Carnegie Library ', Atlanta 

Carnegie Library School, 


to concentrate on his class-room work for the first semester, and then 
to give all his time to field work for a month or two, coming back to 
the class-room again for the rest of the year, except for occasional ob- 
servational assignments. Other schools proceed to scatter field work 
throughout the year on the theory that the assignments can be so cor- 
related with class instruction that students will benefit by having their 
theoretical and practical work on each subject at about the same time. 
No effort seems to have been made to weigh the merits of these two 
diametrically opposed methods by careful experimentation or scien- 
tific procedure. It seems very doubtful whether it can ever be possible 
for any school to arrange schedules of instruction in such a manner 
that students will actually have their practical and theoretical work on 
every subject at the same time. Most schools would certainly find it 
quite impossible. It may also be somewhat easier in a small library to 
give a large amount of practical work to many students if their assign- 
ments are scattered throughout the year. Where practice students are 
not relied upon to supplement the regular staff, and especially in the 
larger libraries, "blocked practice" is doubtless more convenient. It 
would seem that, on the whole, the time at which the field work is given 
has been determined with reference to the convenience of the practice 
library or of the school rather than from any consideration of educa- 
tional theory. 

Particular enquiry was directed to the methods of making assign- 
ments for field practice. The results are disappointing. No clear-cut and 
well-defined objective was discovered. Among the points considered was 
the method of determining to what type of library and to what par- 
ticular library a given student should be sent for his outside practical 
work, or "field" work. Shall the student be placed in the kind of work 
in which he is already interested, which may be taken to mean his prob- 
able future work, and perhaps the kind of work in which he already has 
some degree of skill? On this point two very widely divergent theories 
emerge. Certain schools assert that assignments are based on the needs 
of the student, which would necessitate placing him in a type of work 
in which he is not especially interested, but in which his class work shows 
he needs to strengthen his equipment, in order to go out with a well- 
rounded training and general acquaintance with professional library 
work. Another group of schools pursues the opposite policy and places 
the student for field practice in that particular type of library in which 
he is most interested and to which he looks forward for permanent ser- 


vice. The latter usually leave the choice of a library for field work to the 
student's own initiative; unless his choice is obviously unwise, it is ap- 
proved. In a few cases an effort is made to divide the practice period 
and follow both methods. The earlier part of the field work would thus 
be devoted to strengthening some weak point, and the later to some 
line of work in which the student is already well equipped. 

Schools that provide a large amount of "practical" work in one li- 
brary usually the one with which they are connected and a rela- 
tively short period of "field" work in outside libraries make more or 
less effort to distribute the former work among all the principal types 
of service. Thus the Pratt Institute School of Library Science devotes 
to practical work in the cataloguing, circulating, and reference depart- 
ments about one hundred hours each, sixty-six hours in the children's 
department, and twenty-one hours in the reading-room. The outside 
work or field work can then be chosen with reference to the student's 
future work, if that is known ; and if not, with reference to his interests 
and preferences. 

Still another basis of selecting a location for field work disregards 
both the student's needs and preferences, and strives to place him under 
the supervision of particular persons. This may be sound philosophy 
and a safe policy to follow, if superior individuals can be found who 
have the time to devote to practice students. Unless the standards for 
this personal basis of choice are very clearly defined and strictly ad- 
hered to, there is grave danger that it will do harm. It would be easy, 
for instance, for a school to assume that any field work must be good 
for its students if done under its own graduates, no matter what the 
type of library. 

The fundamental purpose of field experience should determine the 
method of making assignments. If the purpose is to acquire skill, then 
future work and present interests should be the determining factor. If 
grasp of principles and better understanding of subjects taught is the 
purpose, then the practical work, if it cannot cover all subjects, should 
be selected to represent the branches in which the student has not shown 
proficiency. For example, if his class work in cataloguing has been weak 
and uncertain, he should be put into cataloguing for the field practice. If 
the aim is to try him out, to see whether his success in actual work is 
what could be anticipated from class-room work, then the type of field 
work does not greatly matter, and nearly everything depends on the skill 
of the supervisor and the kind of report made to the school officials. 


Field practice in a one-year professional course as a means of acquir- 
ing skill should be left out of consideration. Grasp of principles and a 
clear understanding of subjects taught are the objects of class-room in- 
struction. If only students of first-class ability and maturity are admit- 
ted to the schools and then if the instruction is of high quality, the stu- 
dent should be able, by the aid of systematic and detailed observation 
in contact with actual library work under the instructor's supervision, 
to get sufficient grasp of the principles of every phase of professional 
work. A prolonged period of field practice should not be necessary as a 
test of the student's general capacity. The faculty should be able, by 
means of class-room exercises and the so-called class practice, to gain 
adequate insight into the student's ability. If it cannot be acquired in 
this way, certainly the chances are small that it will be acquired by 
means of the so-called practical work. 

If a long period of field practice under actual library conditions is 
not necessary or desirable as a part of the first year's professional in- 
struction, neither should much time be given to it as a means of help- 
ing the student to find the type of work he desires to take up. In the 
first place it may be that his mind is already quite made up on that 
point; but even if it is not, he is very likely to find the first openings 
in other and quite different fields. As the "practical" or field work is 
usually managed, the student would not have sufficient opportunity to 
make an adequate experiment in all the different possible lines. Fur- 
thermore, as to the student's actual choice, the testimony of school 
principals seems to show that this does not after all result from the field 
work, but rather from his general range of interests and tastes, aided 
most by the impressions gained from tours of inspection to various li- 

From the report forms furnished by the schools for the use of li- 
brarians who supervise practice work it may be inferred that one im- 
portant object of the field practice is to secure information about the 
student which will be useful in placement. This purpose is nowhere 
avowed in print and is suggested only by inference in oral statements 
and in the report blanks alluded to. It may be an open question 
whether the school is justified in taking very much of the student's 
time to discover, if possible, some of his personal qualities which may 
have a part, even tho a very important part, in determining his pro- 
fessional success. Even if it does nothing else, the year's study must 
lay broad and deep the foundations of knowledge, ensure grasp of prin- 


ciples, impart an appreciation of the ideals of library service, and 
develop a professional attitude toward the work. It seems impossible 
to escape the conclusion that the school cannot be expected in one year 
to do all this and find time for the prolonged practice necessary to 
produce a skilled professional librarian. 

And is the school justified in taking much of the student's time to 
gain information to be used principally for placement purposes? So 
long as the schools feel called upon to give so much attention to this 
phase of their work, undoubtedly all the information they can get about 
the student from the reports of supervisors of practice is valuable. But 
there are at least two large questions involved here : the first is whether 
the schools are not assuming too much responsibility for the placing 
of the student, especially in view of the fact that they cannot pretend 
to turn out skilled workers ; the other point of doubt relates to the full- 
ness and reliability of any information concerning the student's capa- 
city and fitness for library work which is contained in reports on his 
field work. 

Does the use of the field practice for placement purposes justify the 
time devoted to it? Much depends on: (1) the skill used in putting the 
student into an environment which will elicit the desired information 
about him ; and () the skill of the supervisor in taking the student 
through those experiences which will furnish an adequate and reliable 
test of his capacities and in reporting on them. The latter requires on 
the part of the supervisor a full and sympathetic understanding of the 
aims and methods of the school, a fairly intimate acquaintance with 
the student's previous training and experience, and, above all, plenty 
of time to devote to the student under his supervision. As these con- 
ditions are seldom or never fulfilled, it becomes necessary to question 
the value of field practice as a means of gaining information needed 
for placement purposes. Still other considerations point in the same 
direction. Not only do the reports of supervisors fall short in quality, 
but they are inadequate also in point of quantity. Reports are based 
on brief contact with a student who is not, and cannot be, given an op- 
portunity to take responsibility, and who, with a feeling of being on 
trial, does not do himself justice. 

It may well be urged that the task of the school is simply and solely 
to give the student instruction, inspiration, and stimulus, and not to 
assume responsibility for any other element of his success. As it is, the 
schools seem to feel responsibility for (1) selecting only students who 


are certain to succeed; (2) giving instruction; (3) analyzing character, 
ability, and special aptitudes of students in order to place them suc- 
cessfully at the end of the year's study or remedy mistakes as soon 
thereafter as possible; and (4) developing a degree of skill, in several 
lines of library work, so that the student can enter upon the practical 
duties of almost any type of position offered at the close of the course. 
In the discussion of entrance requirements we have already expressed 
doubt as to the success of the selective process as now carried on. 
The primary and fundamental responsibility which the school cannot 
escape, and by which it must be judged, is its work of instruction. It 
probably should assume less responsibility for placement and disclaim 
any pretence of being able in the one-year general course to add to in- 
struction the experience necessary to produce skilled library workers. 
The best thing the school can do for the student and for the library 
profession is to devote itself to instruction and to drop students who 
do not show the mental capacity to maintain a high standard. The pro- 
fessional library school should not permit itself to be turned aside from 
its main purpose to experiment with the student and plan for launch- 
ing him on his professional career. It will do well to confine itself to 
selecting students of the highest ability and broad education, free from 
obvious defects of character or health, and then give them the best pos- 
sible instruction, making the work of so high a grade that differences 
in capacity will appear in records of scholarships. The student's school 
record and the judgment of instructors, added to his own preferences 
and desires, should be the basis for recommendations to employers. 

Many schools take particular pains to emphasize the fact that stu- 
dents are sent into libraries to work as members of the staff under 
actual library conditions. Practice work should not be actual library 
work under normal conditions. Actual library work is not carried on for 
the benefit of the staff or to give instruction to students. Of course an 
intelligent member of the staff gradually acquires information and skill 
in some kind of work, but that is purely incidental to a vast amount 
of routine work ; and some very intelligent people work all their lives 
in a good library without getting a professional outlook. The thing to 
be avoided ordinarily is putting the student to work under actual con- 
ditions. He should not even be treated as a new member of the staff. 
His work must be planned and supervised, not with reference to his 
present or future usefulness to that organization, but solely with a view 
to giving him an opportunity to observe and learn at first hand as rap- 


idly as possible everything he needs in order to possess a broad grasp 
of the whole range of library problems. If his work is properly organ- 
ized, it is not done under actual conditions; it then closely resembles 
class practice in purpose and method. To treat the library school stu- 
dent as a member of the active staff is to exploit him, or, at best, to 
waste his time. 

Field work carried on by the student as a member of a library staff 
is in most cases wasteful of his time and unsatisfactory because it does 
not give him an opportunity to observe minutely, critically, and com- 
paratively all phases of the work of a completely organized library unit. 
It is assumed that, no matter what he is doing, he is gaining experience 
which will help him when he takes a position ; whereas his future work 
may be very different, and even if it is not, it may be so unlike in de- 
tail that what he has acquired by practice may be no help at all but 
an actual hindrance. 

Student practice is in general poorly supervised and inadequately 
analyzed and reported to the schools. To give the best and largest re- 
sults, field work needs as competent guidance as class work. Compara- 
tively few head librarians or heads of divisions and departments have 
the time, the desire, the knowledge, or the skill to supervise the student's 
field work. The ideal supervisor must be a real teacher, a skilled library 
worker, fully informed as to the other work of the school, and well ac- 
quainted with the student's attainments and needs. Such supervisors 
are so rare that it would seem as if the schools must needs keep the 
supervision of the field work pretty much in their own hands. This is 
quite practicable where the instructors are members of the practice 
library staff and can also supervise the field work. This dual function 
puts more responsibility on the instructor and requires more of him 
in the way of all-round practical ability. 

If, however, field work must be supervised by some one not a mem- 
ber of the school staff, the school must see to it that the supervising 
librarian is qualified for the task, has the time to give to it, and is 
possessed of the essential facts about the student. Some schools pay 
considerable attention to this; others very little. The librarian selected 
to supervise a student's field work should be given a full account of his 
previous education and experience, his work and record in the school, 
his strong and weak points, etc. Certain schools do this with some de- 
gree of care. The instructor talks with the students, either as a class 
or individually, about their field work, and then writes more or less 


fully to the outside supervisor. This is all helpful and good so far as it 
goes. Supervisors usually report, either by means of a blank form or by 
letter. The chief use made of these reports, as pointed out above, seems 
to be to gain information for placement purposes. They add compara- 
tively little to what the instructors already know as to the student's 
ability and habits of work. 

There is no doubt that the long period of field work during which 
classes are entirely suspended gives some relief to overworked instruc- 
tional staffs. The poverty of the schools, however, should not be trans- 
lated into poverty of professional equipment on the part of the stu- 
dent. The year's study is none too long to lay well the foundations for 
professional work. The curriculum is crowded and other important sub- 
jects are pressing for recognition. It is exceedingly important, therefore, 
that the student should not put more time than necessary into his field 
work, that it be so organized and supervised that he will gain from it 
the maximum concrete information and breadth of view and resource- 
fulness. If more instructors are necessary, they should be forthcoming. 
If a more competent director of field work is needed, school authorities 
should press for the necessary funds. If satisfactory supervisors of field 
work not connected with the school can be found, they should be paid 
for their services. It is not reasonable to expect librarians to devote 
themselves to students without compensation. The service that can be 
rendered by even the best student in the course of his field work in a 
properly conducted library is not adequate compensation for the atten- 
tion that should be given to him. To try to balance the account in this 
way is certain to result in improper exploitation of the student. Only 
one school, so far as enquiry has shown, pays the outside supervisors 
anything for guiding the students' field work, and even in this one case 
the pay allowed is wholly inadequate. 

One of the weakest points in the "practical" or field work is the com- 
mon failure to require adequate reporting from students. Even in some 
of the best schools students doing field work make no reports at all or 
no regular reports. In some cases the instructor later discusses the work 
with the student; but this is evidently not a satisfactory substitute for 
frequent, regular, and careful written and oral reports by the student. 
It would seem to be self-evident that nothing should be left undone to 
induce the student in the field to think about what he is doing and to 
relate it to what he has learned in the lecture and class-room. The mere 
spending of a certain number of hours a day in a library for a definite 


period carries no assurance that the student is deriving adequate benefit 
from his experiences. He should not be sent to any post except for 
a definite purpose. He should be told what he is expected to get, and 
should make as definite a report as on any assignment in his course. 

This would require a different system and higher standards for super- 
vision of practice work. As a matter of fact, the field work should prob- 
ably be planned by the various instructors, each one laying out a pro- 
gram as definitely related to the instruction given in his own courses as 
is the so-called class practice. This is necessary if the field work is to be 
regarded as a supplement or aid to instruction. Too much is now left 
to chance in definitely relating field work to instruction. If observation 
is to clinch class instruction, the two must be very closely correlated. 

The time that can be devoted to supervised practical work in the 
course of one year's study is entirely too short to produce skilled library 
workers. The most important thing the really essential thing is to 
give the student during the one year as thorough a grounding as pos- 
sible in the principles underlying library practice and methods. There 
is not enough time to give him the background of facts and principles 
which are essential for the highest skill and also to make it possible for 
him actually to acquire some degree of skill in the only way it can be 
acquired, namely, by doing actual library work, preferably, at least in 
the beginning, under the supervision of a skilled worker. The schools 
should not hesitate to admit that they cannot turn out skilled workers, 
and should attempt to give only such instruction as will make the ac- 
quisition of skill speedy and certain. With this clear understanding, the 
schools may properly continue to include in their one-year general 
course a small amount of so-called "practical" work, solely as a means 
of increasing the efficiency of class-room instruction, and not at all with 
an idea of producing skilled library workers. In the best sense, the 
average graduate of a one-year course in a library school is not a trained 
librarian; he should have had the best of instruction, but he should not 
be expected to have acquired special skill. 

A large amount of field practice in a general professional course of 
one year is open to serious question on several counts. The primary pur- 
pose of the school is to lay a broad basis for skill in some type of pro- 
fessional work, not to develop that skill, and certainly not to impart 
skill in the routine processes which belong to the clerical grades of 
library service. The latter is a very important consideration. It is the 
function of the training class to give the student skill in the perform- 


ance of the duties of some particular position in a particular library. 
The relatively small amount of instruction which accompanies the prac- 
tice is not calculated to give any professional equipment, but to make 
the acquisition of skill in routine clerical work easier and more certain. 
One instructor with the aid of members of a library staff can give all 
the instruction required by a training class. Professional library work 
should be organized on a very different basis. The large part which the 
practical work has hitherto played in the professional course is addi- 
tional evidence that no clear distinction has yet been made between 
professional training and clerical training. 

The place for the field practice as a means of imparting skill in pro- 
fessional grades of library work is not in the one-year general course, 
but in a second year devoted to advanced study in some special field. 
This is the real counterpart of the extensive practice which necessarily 
forms a large part of the training-class work. The years immediately 
following the general professional course, together with a second year 
of specialized study, correspond to the medical student's interneship. 
The four-year course in medicine is not interrupted by short interne- 
ships or periods of practical work. Throughout the period of instruc- 
tion, and particularly toward the end, the student is brought close 
to practical work by laboratory and clinic and given full opportunity 
for observation under the guidance of the instructor, but there is no 
thought of turning him loose to "practice" under the actual conditions 
that will confront him after he has his degree and is licensed to practice. 

It will be said, of course, that a student who has not done much prac- 
tice work will be a mere theorist, without practical knowledge and 
unable to do anything well. It is a little theory that is the dangerous 
thing. The present system of field practice does not sufficiently clinch 
and check up theories learned from lectures and reading, but it does 
seriously interfere with thorough instruction. Thorough comparative 
study, carried on under the supervision of competent instructors and 
conforming to a high standard, will be the best safeguard the school can 
have against turning out half-baked theorists. The present system of 
field work in the one-year course certainly gives no such assurance. 

The proposal to do away to a large extent with the so-called prac- 
tical work as a part of the first year's study does not mean that a suc- 
cessful library school can be conducted apart from good library facil- 
ities. On the contrary, it assumes the widest possible range of libraries 
and library service of high standards for observation purposes. Train- 


ing-class work can be conducted in a single library, and even in a very 
small library; but professional training requires a wide acquaintance 
with library methods and organization, to be acquired only by system- 
atic observation and reporting under the guidance of a skilled instruc- 
tor. In passing, it ought to be said that a supervisor of field work should 
be the most experienced and practical library worker on the staff of 
the school, and at the same time a trained teacher. The failure to recog- 
nize the fundamental difference between professional training and the 
sub-professional type of training is nowhere more apparent than in the 
assumption that adequate professional education can be given in a small 
isolated library, however excellent that library may be of its kind. No 
worthy professional school can be conducted out of easy reach of many 
libraries of different types and sizes, maintaining high standards of 
organization and service. 

An important feature of the program of several of the older and best 
known library schools is the annual library "visit," or tour of observa- 
tion and inspection, made by the entire class and lasting a week or more. 
The classes of the New York State Library School, accompanied by 
some member of the faculty, spend about ten days visiting, in one year 
the leading libraries of Washington, Philadelphia, and New York and 
vicinity, and in the alternate year the libraries of Boston, Springfield, 
Worcester, and Providence. Pratt Institute, the New York Public Li- 
brary, the Carnegie Library School of Pittsburgh, and the University 
of Illinois Library School make similar class trips each spring. Other 
schools, not able for one reason or another to provide for such expen- 
sive trips, seek to accomplish the same result by means of one-day visits 
to nearby cities, while still others are able to extend their observations 
no further than to libraries in their immediate locality. 

There is no question that these extended trips are of very great value, 
if not absolutely essential, for professional training. The school author- 
ities in every case report that students return from such trips enthusi- 
astic about what they have seen, and enter into the class work with 
keener interest and greater appreciation. Students thus have an oppor- 
tunity to become acquainted with different types of libraries, to appre- 
ciate the needs which give rise to them, and to observe their methods 
of operation. Many students have a very limited acquaintance with 
large library systems and the more important kinds of special libraries. 
On the basis of the observations made on these trips, they are some- 
times able to decide definitely what line of library work they wish to 


enter. Another very practical end not lost sight of by the school au- 
thorities is the introduction of students to leading workers in the pro- 
fession and even to prospective employers. Various other advantages 
accrue from these trips, in the nature of by-products, perhaps. Thus, 
one school finds the annual trips help to keep the school instruction 
abreast of library progress, while another finds that the instructor in 
charge of the excursion is able to acquire an intimate acquaintance with 
the students such as could be got in no other way. 

These trips are not designed to be mere pleasure junkets. The stu- 
dents are held responsible in one way or another for showing definite 
additions to their professional knowledge and outlook. In some cases 
topics for report are assigned in advance to each student. Other schools 
organize the class into various committees, each being responsible for 
reports on special topics, and after their return the presentation of re- 
ports may be followed by discussion and quizzes. On the whole, the aim 
is very much the same as that of the so-called "practical" work to 
reinforce and illustrate class instruction, to fix important facts and ideas 
in the student's mind, and to instil in him the habit of taking a com- 
parative view of methods and procedure. 

Some schools do not differentiate trips of inspection and observation 
from field work. In the University of Wisconsin there are no library 
visits apart from the field work, but the libraries studied are reported 
on in great detail, following a standardized, elaborate outline. 

Schools which, because of their location or other unfavorable condi- 
tions, cannot make the class trips for observation are still able to realize 
a large part of then* advantages by means of planned visits by indi- 
vidual students to libraries within easy reach. While something of the 
enthusiasm and inspiration which comes from the extended class trip is 
likely to be lost, the student stands to gain, on the other hand, by the 
more leisurely inspection and more detailed reports made possible. 

If our conclusion as to the real object of the field work is valid, it is 
not participation in actual library work so much as directed and super- 
vised observation that is to be sought. This is also the purpose of all 
kinds of library "visits" and inspection trips. Any course designed to 
provide a thorough professional training should include both the ex- 
tensive observation afforded by the brief trips to other cities and the 
intensive observation which must be secured in local libraries. Whether 
the extensive or intensive observation should come first is largely a ped- 
agogical question. Tentatively, it may be assumed that the local and 


intensive observation, related somewhat closely to the class instruction, 
should precede. With this as a background the student will go on the 
extended trips with seeing eyes. The outline of points to be covered in 
the more rapid surveys will have been fixed in his mind by his detailed 
comparative studies in local libraries. 



A CONSIDERABLE proportion of the fifty per cent of library 
school graduates who have the college degree did not take a 
four-year college course and then the library school course, 
but took both in four years, receiving college credit for the library 
courses. About two-thirds of the graduates of the Simmons College 
School of Library Science have taken the library training as a part of 
the general college course. In the University of Washington and the 
University of California the library school admits students who have 
completed the junior year in the undergraduate college. After spend- 
ing his senior year in the library school, the student gets his bache- 
lor's degree. In the University of Wisconsin and Western Reserve Uni- 
versity the library schools receive a few students from the arts colleges 
under a joint course arrangement which enables the student to receive 
both degrees in four years. In some instances colleges in the same 
locality with the library school, tho not parts of the same institution, 
have arranged similar joint courses. Thus Occidental College in Los 
Angeles gives the A.B. degree for three years of work in the college 
and one in the Los Angeles Public Library School. A similar arrange- 
ment has recently been made by the Carnegie Library School with the 
Carnegie Institute of Technology and the University of Pittsburgh. 

Graduates of any accredited library school may be permitted, in in- 
dividual cases, to offer certain library courses for the bachelor's degree; 
but college faculties are not always willing to give full academic credit, 
particularly for technical courses. In the University of Illinois, for ex- 
ample, college credit is given for the courses in the history of libraries, 
reference work, and sometimes book selection. A representative of the 
faculty of one college which has refused to considet a joint course with 
the library school of the same university explained that his college had 
certain standards of scholarship for its own faculty which the library 
school did not maintain; and that since it did not attempt itself to 
instruct seniors and freshmen in the same classes, it did not care to 
credit seniors for library school work taken with a class a majority of 
whose members had had no college study at all. While this position may 
seem ultra-conservative, it is undoubtedly reasonable and exposes a real 


danger that the joint courses may seriously weaken the college course. 

One of the fundamental viewpoints of this report is that professional 
library work requires a college education or its full equivalent. Three 
years of college study, however, are better than two, and two are better 
than none. In so far as the joint courses have been a means of improving 
the general education of library school students, they can be endorsed. 
Certain library schools have frankly sought to effect joint course ar- 
rangements with neighboring colleges with the hope of getting more 
students and raising the general level of their preparation. Even the 
joint course, however, should be considered a temporary expedient. 
Every professional library school should make definite plans to pass on 
to a strictly graduate basis. 

The joint course plan as described above, in which three years of col- 
lege work are followed by one year devoted exclusively to library school 
study, is to be preferred to the Simmons College plan, in which the li- 
brary courses are spread throughout the four years. While compara- 
tively little of the vocational work in Simmons is given before the junior 
year, it would seem much better to postpone all vocational courses until 
the senior year, and better still, until after the bachelor's degree has 
been received. 

Only seven, or less than half, of the library schools recognized in this 
study have the power to confer degrees or are connected with degree- 
conferring institutions. Students in the schools which cannot confer 
degrees usually receive a certificate on satisfactorily completing the 
one-year course, and a diploma at the end of the two-year course. The 
degrees conferred for work in library schools are B.L.S. (Bachelor of 
Library Science), B.S. (Bachelor of Science), A.B. (Bachelor of Arts), 
B.L.E. (Bachelor of Library Economy), and M.L.S. (Master of Library 

A committee of the Association of American Library Schools has re- 
cently considered the subject of professional degrees for library courses. 
In its report it is recommended that the B.L.S. degree be recognized 
as the professional degree to be conferred on the completion of a course 
of two years of professional and technical study, for admission to which 
a four-year college course is required. This has been the practice in the 
past. The New York State Library School and the University of Illinois 
are the only schools that have given the B.L.S. degree (with the ex- 
ception of two by Syracuse University). The B.L.E. degree formerly 
conferred by the University of Washington and Syracuse University as 


a professional first degree on the completion of one or two years of 
study has been dropped, as recommended by the committee. It was also 
recommended that the degree of M.L.S. be conferred whenever the char- 
acter of work done in library schools which are on a graduate basis 
meets the requirements usually set for graduate work leading to a mas- 
ter's degree. Seven M.L.S. degrees have been conferred by the New York 
State Library School and one by Simmons College. 

Approval of the Association is given to the general practice of con- 
ferring the degree of A.B., or B.S., either with or without the addition 
of "in Library Science," on the completion of one year of professional 
and technical study, when that year forms a part of a four-year col- 
lege course, or one year of such study in addition to four years of under- 
graduate college work. The B.S. degree has been conferred in this way 
by Western Reserve University and Simmons College, and the A.B. by 
the University of Illinois, the University of Washington, and the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. 

In library schools affiliated with a municipal or state library and not 
organized as a part of a university, all members of the teaching staff 
have the rank of instructor, regardless of salary, length of service, or 
experience. This fact may, perhaps, have had some influence in keeping 
all salaries low. If different grades of teaching service were recognized, 
it is possible that the higher grades would command larger salaries. In 
schools organized as an integral part of a university, members of the 
faculty in most cases have the same grades and salaries as in other de- 
partments or schools. The head of the university library school usually 
has the rank of profe&sor. In certain cases the rank of assistant profes- 
sor is found, but with few exceptions every one on the staff, except the 
director, ranks as an instructor and has only the salary of an instructor. 

Every existing university library school is a negligible part of the 
institution, often unnoticed or looked down upon by the other facul- 
ties and especially by departments in which research is emphasized. 
The causes for this lack of prestige seem to be the smallness of the li- 
brary school, the brevity of the course, the predominance of women in 
both faculty and student body, the preponderance of teachers having 
only the rank of instructor, and the total lack of anything recognized 
as productive scholarship. All of these conditions are remediable and 
will tend to disappear as the standards of the library profession are 
gradually raised, increasing the size and importance of the professional 


ONLY ten of the library schools were in a position to give any 
information in response to a request for the total amounts of 
their budgets for 1920-21. And of the ten schools included in 
the following table only two, apparently, pretend that the figures give 
anything more than a rough approximation of the total cost of opera- 
tion. Two or three schools only have independent budgets, the others 
being operated as an integral part of a library or an educational insti- 
tution. Probably in no case do the figures include any charge for heat, 
light, janitor service, etc. 







Number 1 


































































a. For 1911-12. 

6. Represent part of budget only; balance not segregated from library budget 

c. Approximate only based on estimates. 

d. For 1919-20. 

e. Not including service of library staff. 

The extreme poverty of most of the library schools is clearly revealed 
by this table. The sum total of the budgets of the fifteen schools prob- 
ably does not exceed $150,000. The budgets for 1920-21, compared 
with those of ten years and five years earlier, reveal a comparatively 
static condition. The schools are evidently not keeping pace with the 
growing needs of the libraries of the country. The total budget of any 
one of the library schools, with the exception of three or four, does not 
exceed the salary of the head librarian of the public library in the larger 

1 See note 1, page 22. 


cities, or the salary of the superintendent of schools in many cities of 
less than 100,000 population. It is small wonder, in light of the figures 
as to salaries of principals and leading instructors shown in the follow- 
ing table, that service on library school faculties does not make a strong 
appeal to successful and ambitious librarians and educators. 



School Director Principal or Best Paid 

Number 1 Vice-Director Instructor 

1 $5,500a $3,200 $2,000 

2 b 2,500 2,000 

3 4,500a 2,700 2,400 

4 8,000a 3,000 2,180 

5 4,000 c 2,530 

6 3,000 c 1,920 

7 2,550 c 2,100 

8 6 2,500 2,100 

9 c 3,300 2,200 

10 4,400 c 3,500d 

11 c 1,920 1,800 

12 9,00()d 2,280 1,500 

13 ft c 1,800 

a. Salaries thus marked are derived from more than one source in gome cases from both pub- 
lic and private funds. 
6 Information not available. 
c. No position with this title. 
d Salary as librarian of the city public library. 

The Western Reserve University School is the only one that has its 
own endowment. The Library School of the New York Public Library 
and the Library School of the Carnegie Library of Atlanta receive an- 
nual grants from the Carnegie Corporation. The schools in Pratt In- 
stitute, Simmons College, and Syracuse University are supported in 
the same way as other departments of those institutions. In the state 
universities of Illinois, Washington, and California, the library school 
is carried in the budget of the university library. Similarly, the New 
York State Library School has no financial status apart from the State 
Library. In Wisconsin the library school is carried in the budget of 
the Free Library Commission. In Riverside, Los Angeles, and St. Louis, 
public library appropriations are used to supplement the income from 
tuition fees. 

1 See note 1, page 22. 



Tuition fees in all the schools are very moderate, in keeping with 
library salaries in general. The Simmons College fee of $200 a year is 
the highest of any school, while the Atlanta school has no tuition fee. 
Tuition and other fees of twelve of the schools are shown in the follow- 
ing statement: 


New York State 

New York Public Library 

Pratt Institute 
University of Illinois 

Simmons College 

Western Reserve University 

Carnegie Library, Atlanta 
University of Wisconsin 

Carnegie Library School, 

Los Angeles Public Library 

St. Louis Library School 

Syracuse University 

$100 for two years; $150 for non-resi- 

$45 for first year for residents of New 
York City or those living within com- 
muting distance; $75 tor others in 
first year; $25 for second year 

$100 a year (one-year course). $5 regis- 

No tuition fee. $50 a year incidental 
fee (two-year course). $10 matricula- 
tion fee; $10 diploma fee 

$200 a year (four-year course and one- 
year course) 

$100 a year (one-year course). $5 regis- 

No tuition fee. $5 registration 

$50 a year (one-year course) for resi- 
dents of Wisconsin; $100 for non- 
residents. $5 registration 

$100 a year (one-year course). $5 ma- 

$50 a year (one-year course) for resi- 
dents of Los Angeles County; $75 
for others. $5 matriculation 

No tuition fee for residents of St. Louis ; 
$45 a year (one-year course) for resi- 
dents of Missouri outside of St. Louis; 
$75 for residents of other states 

$120 a year (two-year course). $5 ma- 
triculation; $6 university infirmary; 
$8 athletic fee 

Light is thrown upon the question of a need for more library schools 
by the fact that the fifteen schools examined are being utilized to only 
about 60 per cent, of their total capacity. These fifteen schools reported 



a total maximum capacity of 612 students enrolled at one time. This 
includes three schools in which some students take a second year'swork, 
so that if all the schools were filled to their capacity, the number fin- 
ishing the course each year would be somewhat less than 600. The total 
number of students enrolled in these schools in 1920-21 was approxi- 
mately 370, or 60 per cent, of their combined maximum capacity. The 



Name of 

No. of students 
school could 

enrolled in 


No. complet- 
ing course 
(n 1921 

Average initial salary 
of graduates 



Percent, of 


New York State 







Pratt Institute 







University of Illi- 








Simmons College 







University of Wis- 








Carnegie Library 

School, Pitts- 








Western Reserve 








New York Public 








Library School, At- 








Los Angeles Public 








University of 








St. Louis Library 







University of Cali- 














Syracuse d 










a. For 1916. 

6. Only seven of these completing the two-year course. 

c. School not yet established. 

d. Does not include "short course" students. 
e Approximate. 

/. No report received. 


estimate of maximum capacity for each school is based on the physi- 
cal equipment, size of rooms, desks available, etc. In a few instances the 
present staff of instructors would not be adequate to care for all the 
students the plant would accommodate. Additional instructors or as- 
sistants to instructors, usually known as revisers, would have to be added 
to the staff of certain schools if they were to receive as many students 
as their rooms and equipment make possible. 

Assuming that the existing schools are properly distributed geo- 
graphically, there seems to be no reasonable doubt that the most effi- 
cient and economical way to increase the number of persons in train- 
ing for professional librarianship is to fill the schools already in opera- 
tion to something like their full capacity, rather than to establish new 
schools with meagre financial support and small enrolment. 

No attempt has been made to estimate the number of new library 
workers with professional training that are required by libraries of all 
kinds each year. When it is considered that a certain proportion of the 
graduates of these fifteen schools enter and remain in clerical positions, 
for which the appropriate training is that afforded by the training 
class rather than by the library school, it seems altogether probable 
that if most of the schools were to put their work on a strictly profes- 
sional basis and fill up their classes, they would be able to turn out all 
the librarians needed for some time to come. 

In most communities the need is not for a professional library school, 
but for a training class designed to take graduates of the local high 
schools who possess the requisite personal qualifications and fit them in 
a comparatively short time for the various grades of clerical work that 
play so large a part in the operation of all libraries. No institution 
for professional training is likely to maintain adequate standards if it 
is mainly engaged in fitting residents of the same community to fill a 
local need. 

Approximately 304 students completed in 1921 a course of one or 
two years in the fifteen library schools, which is about the average 
number of graduates of the same schools in the last few years. Reports 
of enrolment for the year 1921-22 indicate a considerable increase over 

The total number of graduates of all the schools from their begin- 
ning, not including summer school and short-course students, is approx- 
imately 5000. Of this number only 276, or between 5 and 6 per cent., 
were men. Nearly half the schools have never had any men students 


at all. Over 60 per cent, of all the men trained for library work by the 
library schools studied at the New York State Library School, while of 
the 183 men still engaged in library work 122, or 67 per cent., are grad- 
uates of that school. This is a very significant fact in view of the need 
for attracting more men into library work. If we are to judge by the 
statistics, college men prefer a school of the highest standards which 
comes most nearly to meeting the requirements of a professional school 
organized on a graduate basis. 

The statistics of graduates still engaged in library work have no spe- 
cial significance. One would expect to find that a fairly large proportion 
of all the graduates of the older schools have died or taken up other 
work. The figures show that 62 per cent, of the graduates of all schools 
are still actively engaged in some kind of library work. Of all the 
schools established ten years or more ago, the New York Public Library 
School makes the best showing, with nearly 78 per cent, of all its grad- 
uates still in the ranks. The women make a better showing in this re- 
spect than the men, not only in the New York Public Library School, 
but also in the two other schools which have had an appreciable num- 
ber of men graduates. 

The rather high proportion of women graduates who many and leave 
the profession seems to be matched by the greater tendency of men to 
take up other work, due perhaps to the wider range of opportunities 
open to men in administrative and other intellectual pursuits at larger 
salaries than have been customary in library work. Taking all the 
schools together, and including the most recent classes, about 22 per 
cent, of all women graduates have married, very few of them continuing 
in library work after marriage. The percentage differs materially among 
the different schools, being the lowest for the University of California 
and the highest for Simmons College. (See table, page 78.) 

Unfavorable comment has been made at times on the seemingly large 
proportion of women graduates of library schools who marry. The ques- 
tion has been raised as to whether vocational training not utilized is 
a good investment either for the individual or society. A fair inter- 
pretation of the statistics presented here seems to leave little ground 
for criticism of library school graduates on this score. In the first place, 
as the figures show, men graduates drop out of the profession in about 
the same proportion as women. If statistics were available, it would 
probably be found that women trained for teaching and other profes- 
sions marry in even larger proportion than those trained for librarian- 

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ship. It is also claimed, and with some plausibility, that library school 
training is excellent preparation for the duties of homemaking and the 
social responsibilities of married women. Certainly it would be a mis- 
take to assume that a woman librarian who marries is lost to the cause of 
library progress. Not only has she in most cases given a longer or shorter 
period of service in return for her training, but as a responsible citizen, 
perhaps as a member of the board of trustees of her local library, the 
ex-librarian may be able to do more to improve library service than 
she could as an active member of a library staff. 

While therefore we may conclude that library schools cannot justly 
be criticized on the ground that too many of their women graduates 
marry and are lost to the service, it may.still be in order in comparing 
the standing of the different schools to assume that those whose grad- 
uates remain in the profession in the largest proportion have succeeded 
best either in the selection of students with the special qualifications 
needed or in imparting to them the kind of training and inspiration 
which holds them in the ranks of the profession. 

Throughout this report stress has been laid on the view that for pro- 
fessional library work, as distinguished from the more mechanical, rou- 
tine, or clerical aspect of the operation of libraries, a college education 
should be a prerequisite. Two of the best schools do require a college 
degree for admission, while three undertake to give both the bachelor's 
degree and the library school degree for a course of four years' study 
which combines three years of college and one year of library instruc- 
tion. In several of the schools which admit high school graduates on ex- 
amination, the classes have a fair proportion of college graduates. Over 
one-half of the 1921 class in the New York Public Library and in the 
Los Angeles Public Library schools entered with the college degree. 
The proportion of students who enter the schools with a college educa- 
tion is steadily increasing. It should not be difficult within a reasonable 
length of time to make the bachelor's degree an entrance condition for 
all professional library schools. Schools which are called upon to train 
for sub-professional grades of service will naturally continue to accept 
students with only a high school diploma. 

Constant reference has been made to the low salaries paid to library 
workers. Accurate statistics of the salaries of graduates of all the 
library schools are not available. For five representative schools, how- 
ever, complete and fairly comparable data have been secured and are 
shown here in graphic form. The subsequent summary table shows that 


Bars indicate number of persons in each salary group 

Figure 1 

An Eastern School 

84% of graduates receive less than $1500 

Under $1200 8 

$2600 and over 7 


Figure 2 

A Western School 

$8% of graduates receive less than $1500 

Up to $1200 
$1200 to $1299 
$1800 to $1899 
$1400 to $1499 
$1600 to $1599 
$1600 to $1699 
$1700 to $1799 
$1800 to $1899 
$1900 to $1999 

$2300 to $2899 
$2400 to $2499 
$2500 and over 

Figure 3 

One of the Smaller Schools 

50/ of graduates receive not more 

than $1500 

Up to $1200 

$1801 to $1900 
$1901 and over 4 

Figure 4 

School having a fairly typical salary distribution 
47% of graduates receive less than $1500 

o to $1200 

$1200 to $1299 
$1300 to $1399 
$1400 to $1499 
$1500 to $1599 

$1700 to $1799 
$1800 to $1899 
$1900 to $1999 
$2000 and over 

Figure 5 

One of the Oldest Schools 
40% of graduates receive less than $1500 

Up to $1200 
$1200 to $1299 
$1800 to $1399 
$1400 to $1499 
$1500 to $1599 

$1700 to $1799 
$1800 to $1899 
$1900 to $1999 

$2100 to $2199 
$2200 to $2299 
$2300 to $2399 
$2400 to $2499 
$2500 and over I 



over 40 per cent, of all the graduates of the five schools now engaged 
in library work earn less than $1500 a year. Only 15 per cent, receive 
as much as $2000, while only 3.6 per cent are holding positions that 
command as much as $2500 a year. These figures are all based on re- 
cent reports and include the general increases occasioned by war con- 
ditions. One of the five schools is among the oldest and largest, while 
none of them has sent out less than ten graduating classes. Salaries of 
past graduates, however, have not increased since 1914 as rapidly as 
the average initial salaries reported by the schools. On account of the 
careful attention given by the schools to the placement of their grad- 
uates, the initial salaries shown in a preceding table may be accepted 
as accurate. 


IN 1921 

Number l 

No. of graduates 
reported on 


Below $1500 

$2000 or more 

$2500 or more 

























37 a 
























41 6 





a Includes those receiving $1500. 

In 1914 the unweighted average of the initial salaries of graduates 
of the twelve schools reporting on this point was $842, or about $70 a 
month. In 1921, with fourteen schools reporting, it had risen to $1332, 
an increase of 58 per cent. This increase reflects the shortage of library 
workers during and immediately following the war period. No similar 
increase has taken place in library salaries generally. The figures merely 
show that new and inexperienced workers have been taken into library 
staffs at beginning salaries approaching, if not exceeding, salaries paid 
to experienced workers already employed who are not in a position to 
demand the compensation the newcomer can command. 

The actual salaries paid to some 5000 library school graduates, who 
may be called the elite of the library workers, numbering in all prob- 

1 See note 1, page 22. 


ably 15,000, suggest that perhaps library work is not a profession but 
rather a minor intellectual and clerical occupation. Doubt is cast by 
these figures on the insistent assertion that there is an acute shortage 
of librarians. The average increase of initial salaries from 1914 to 1921 
of 58 per cent, does indeed indicate a relative shortage during that 
peiiod; but present salaries do not seem to"show a condition that jus- 
tifies the increase in the number of library schools and of trained work- 
ers advocated by some library administrators. 

Improvement in library service is more likely to result from a limi- 
tation of the product of professional library schools, accompanied by 
a higher standard of general and professional education, until such 
time as salaries paid make it economically possible for library work to 
compete with other professions in attracting men and women of first 
class ability and qualities of intellectual and community leadership. In 
other words, not more library schools or larger classes, but a better 
grade of student and higher standards of instruction are the funda- 
mental needs in professional training for librarianship at the present 



A~UNDAMENTAL cause of any shortage of trained and com- 
petent library workers is the fact that salaries paid in nearly 
every grade and type of library service are lower than in other 
lines of work requiring equal ability and education. Until recently, 
graduates of library schools took their first positions at an average 
salary of $70 a month. Changes brought about by war conditions have 
caused some improvement. At present graduates are being placed in 
their first positions at an average salary of about $1332 a year, but 
this is considerably less than a college graduate with one year of post- 
graduate study is offered in high school teaching. 

The low initial salary, however, is not so great a deterrent to the 
capable and ambitious man or woman who finds the work otherwise at- 
tractive as the slowness of promotion, the small and uncertain salary in- 
creases, and the very meagre income which can reasonably be expected 
even after a long period of service. The lawyer and the physician may 
earn less in the first year or two after leaving the professional school 
than the librarian; but in the older professions a person of ability, 
industry, and good training is almost certain of a good income in a few 
years, and for those whose professional success is marked, an income 
many times that of the successful librarian is assured. 

It is quite possible that library personnel would be improved if ini- 
tial salaries were lower and ultimate salaries higher. Men and women of 
mediocre ability are induced to take up library work by the fair initial 
salaries offered and then never leave it, but remain in the ranks to be 
promoted slowly to the higher positions as the abler workers pass on to 
more lucrative and attractive occupations. In this respect library work 
is not unlike teaching. "The beginning salary for the teacher," says one 
educational authority, 1 "is sufficient to hold, sometimes permanently, 
the teacher who is really a failure, and the upper salary is not sufficient 
to hold in the profession those teachers who show the greater worth. It 
thus happens that the professions of law and medicine usually cast off 
their failures while the teaching profession often casts off its successes." 

Comparatively few library positions pay over $5000, and until re- 

1 J. L. Creech, " Why do Men turn from Teaching? " Educational Administration and Super- 
vision, October, 1920, v. 6, p. 891. 


cently the list of those paying as much as $4000 would not have been 
a very long one; and this, too, for those who have spent a lifetime in 
the service. Such salaries as these, moreover, are paid only in admin- 
istrative positions. It is not surprising, therefore, that those seeking a 
career have come to look upon library work with disfavor as a field 
which, whatever other attractions it may offer, does not promise more 
than a bare subsistence. 

So long as library work as a profession suffers this handicap, library 
schools will be obliged to give relatively short courses, admit all ap- 
plicants except the obviously unfit, and be content to remain small. A 
university devoting its resources to vocational or professional training 
may well hesitate to provide training facilities for a very small group 
whose services are not likely to be valued as highly, on an average, as 
many kinds of unskilled manual labor. It is really surprising that more 
institutions have not abolished their library schools either on account 
of the small demand for graduates or because of the low salaries paid. 

The Drexel Institute, in 1914, did discontinue its library school 
largely on the ground that the demand for its graduates was too slight 
and salaries were too small to justify any further expenditure on it. 1 
On account of the small enrolment the per capita cost of the library 
school students was discovered to be the highest in any department of 
the Institute. From the time of its organization in 1892 to its discon- 
tinuance in 1914, 317 students were graduated (only two of them men), 
or an average of less than fifteen per year. Nor was there any prospect 
of being able to increase the enrolment materially, especially since the 
Institute was designed to be primarily a school for Philadelphia. For 
some years before 1914 the number of students had been limited to 
twenty, but the average number from Philadelphia was less than four 
per annum. 

A study of the salary and employment situation in Philadelphia also 
suggested the discontinuance of the school. On this point Dr. Hollis 
Godfrey, the President of the Institute, reported as follows : 

"We found in comparing the number of positions and salaries in 
a selected group of Philadelphia libraries, that there are one hun- 
dred and twenty holding positions in selected libraries, drawing 
from $216 to $600 per annum; thirty-one drawing from $600 to 
$720 per annum; twenty-seven drawing $900 per annum; and 
twelve drawing over $900. In five years all the general libraries in 

1 Since this report was completed the Drexel Institute Library School has been revived by the 
new President of the Institute, Dr. K. G. Matheson. 


Philadelphia took direct from the Library School seven graduates. 
Total notices on file of vacancies in libraries of the United States 
for the past five years at salaries of $600 and over, were one hun- 
dred and sixty-six. It should be remembered, of course, that this 
employment field is for young women graduates, but it must be 
equally remembered that this is the record for five years. On the 
basis of the facts shown above, the board decided that the Library 
School should be given up." 

The considerations which led to giving up the Drexel Institute Li- 
brary School might almost equally well be used to urge the discontinu- 
ance of all library schools. Enrolment everywhere is small, per capita 
cost of training high, and salaries paid to graduates are uniformly lower 
than in any other field of work. No one, however, who has the slightest 
appreciation of the importance of trained library service would suggest 
giving up all the library schools. On the contrary, the situation points 
to the opposite conclusion. The schools should be strengthened in every 
way, enrolment multiplied, standards of fitness for library work raised, 
and salaries increased to a point that will lead college men and women 
to look upon library work as a desirable career. 

Elevation of professional standards and improvement of salaries will 
have to go hand in hand. Neither is likely to come about until the teach- 
ing staffs of the library schools can command the best talent in the pro- 
fession. They will then take a somewhat broader view of their function 
and be able to make their work appeal to the best type of college man 
and woman. Both the salary and training situations can best be attacked 
through some system of certification for librarians and an efficient 
method of accrediting training agencies. The system which seems to the 
writer most likely to accomplish the best results is outlined in a chapter 
on standardization and certification. 



AIBRARY school conducted by a public library, primarily to 
supply the need for trained workers on its own staff, must 
necessarily labor under many serious disadvantages in endeav- 
oring to offer a thorough professional education. In the first place, every 
library important enough to have its own professional school will need 
also to conduct a training class. The attempt to combine the two is fatal 
to both. But the objections to the public library professional school go 
much deeper. No library is organized for the purpose of providing gen- 
eral professional education. Its object is to furnish library service. But 
if it could be shown that the most practical way to secure profession- 
ally trained librarians is through the service institution, of course any 
more or less theoretical objection would be waived. Such, however, does 
not appear to be the case. 

There is a fundamental contradiction in the very idea of a profes- 
sional training to fit for service on the staff of any one institution. If 
the general training is actually professional in character, it cannot be 
molded even the slightest to the peculiar conditions of a particular in- 
stitution. The only legitimate way in which a library supporting a pro- 
fessional school can gain a special benefit from the supply of trained 
workers created is by paying them as much or more than is offered by 
other employers. If it is prepared to do this, it can get trained workers 
at any time without going to the trouble and expense of conducting 
its own school. The trustees of at least one library which conducts a 
library school are said to be disappointed that so many of the gradu- 
ates go to other libraries. The head of any truly professional school 
will endeavor to place its graduates as widely as possible and at as high 
salaries as possible. A fundamental conflict arises, therefore, in the con- 
duct of a library school by a public library unless the library author- 
ities, understanding the situation thoroughly, declare that it is their 
intention to use public money appropriated for local library service 
to conduct a professional library school in the interest of all libraries, 
and not for the special benefit of their own institution. They should be 
prepared to see every graduate of the school find employment elsewhere, 
if service in other libraries should for any reason prove more attractive. 


As a matter of fact, it is not probable that any library board would 
undertake to conduct a library school if such schools were held up to 
adequate standards. The expense would be so great that they would at 
once see its impropriety, not only from an educational viewpoint, but 
also from the viewpoint of their own trusteeship and responsibility to 
local taxpayers. A training class for clerical workers is amply justified, 
even in comparatively small libraries, and under the existing standards 
of library schools the difference in expense of conducting a training class 
and a library school is so slight that a library board can readily jus- 
tify the additional cost, because of the added prestige that the train- 
ing class gets if it is known as a library school. When proper standards 
for professional schools are insisted upon, the financial burden thus put 
upon public libraries that have schools will lead to their abandonment, 
or to their seeking outside support, or to their affiliation with some of 
those educational institutions organized and supported for the pur- 
pose of providing professional education of whatever kind the public 
welfare demands. The training of professional librarians should cease 
to be the self-imposed task of municipal library boards and be turned 
over to the universities. There should be no more reason for expecting 
or permitting the public library of one city to train librarians for a 
whole state or for the whole country than for allowing the public schools 
of that city to use municipal revenues to train teachers for the whole 
state. The state would not permit the latter as a matter of educational 
policy ; and any taxpayer would seem, on the face of it, to have a clear 
case against a municipal library board which uses money appropriated 
for public library service to support a professional library school of the 
type which should prevail. 

Let us assume, however, that the public library is able to conduct 
its school by means of funds which can be legitimately used for the pur- 
pose. The question then becomes one of general educational policy and 
the answer is perhaps not quite so clear. If the public library can ade- 
quately support a professional library school, we need only enquire as 
to whether it can, for the money put into it, secure as good results as 
if the school were conducted under other auspices. 

The question of general educational policy involves a consideration 
of the adequacy of the teaching staff and general facilities, the relative 
ease of attracting well-educated men and women as students, and the 
actual results attained in the long run under different types of school. 
Looking at the matter in the light of broad educational policy, it would 


seem to require a very exceptional situation in library work to justify 
a plan that has not proved satisfactory in the case of any other pro- 
fession. Medical schools conducted as adjuncts to medical practice or 
hospital service have proved to be inferior and have been supplanted 
almost completely by schools organized within universities. The situ- 
ation is similar in regard to all the other professions. In no other case 
does the need of an institution for professional services on a large scale 
justify it in attempting to^assume the entire responsibility for offering 
professional training in that field. The school system of a large city may 
train its own elementary teachers, but no city attempts to train teachers 
specifically for its high schools or for administrative positions in edu- 
cational service. Universities, state and endowed, can and do maintain 
colleges of education of the highest professional grade. The principles 
and general methods of organizing professional education are funda- 
mentally the same for all the professions for which a higher education 
is commonly required. University boards and university officials are 
better fitted to supervise professional education for library work than 
are public library boards. University authorities are dealing all the time 
with educational problems with problems of professional education. 
Their experience and breadth of view ought to give them a decided 
advantage over a library board whose main business is of a very different 
character and to whom a small library school as the sole responsibility 
in the field of professional education must either be treated as of little 
importance or become unduly burdensome. 

As to the maintenance of proper standards in the teaching staff, the 
advantage would again seem to lie with the university school. It should 
be stated at once that existing library schools not connected with uni- 
versities have some instructors who would take high standing on any 
university faculty. Final judgment, however, cannot rest on individual 
cases. We are approaching a time when the professional library school 
must be a graduate school. The regular instructors must themselves 
have college training, as well as special trainingland experience in their 
own fields at least equal to that required in the teaching staff of the 
best professional schools. Can this be realized in the public library type 
of school? Granted more adequate financial support, perhaps it can, 
but it does not seem probable. University authorities are more likely 
to insist on the graduate school standard than are public library au- 
thorities. Putting the members of the instructional staff on a graduate 
basis does not mean making all of them full-time "academic theorists"; 


it does mean that, in addition to the necessary first-hand knowledge 
of library technique and methods, they shall be possessed of the gen- 
eral education and personality necessary to fit them to instruct college 
men and women. 

College men and women of the type needed in library work will not 
tolerate the standards of instruction found too often in existing library 
schools. The instructor who is wholly competent to train clerical workers 
may fail completely to attain the standards of professional training. 
The school that does not satisfy the needs of college men and women 
should not be allowed to rank as a professional school, for students in 
professional schools must be recruited from the colleges. This is an 
additional and very important reason for believing that the university 
type of school is to be preferred. In the colleges and universities are 
found the men and women who will later occupy positions of leadership. 
Many of them are looking forward to a permanently satisfactory career, 
the gateway to which they will naturally seek in the professional schools 
maintained by their own or other universities. Able college men and 
women are more likely to enter the library schools in universities than 
those in public libraries. The university school seems to offer entrance 
to the whole field of library work; the public library school to the public 
library field alone. Tho this is not necessarily the case, it must seem so 
to the student looking at it from the outside. 

In respect to the variety of types of library work and highly developed 
library systems, adequate support and excellence of administration, 
the advantages are decidedly in favor of the public library. Merely 
as a laboratory, the public library is usually superior to the university 
library. It should be assumed, however, that any library school of pro- 
fessional grade will make the fullest possible use of the best laboratory 
facilities available. A university medical school utilizes the best hospital 
facilities within reach through some form of cooperation or affiliation. 
Naturally a university library school would do the same. A good uni- 
versity library school in close proximity to excellent libraries of all the 
principal types would offer an ideal opportunity for the best professional 

It is true that the library school will be one of the smallest depart- 
ments of a university and thus suffer some disadvantage, but it should 
not be much smaller, even under present conditions, than certain other 
and well-recognized departments. The normal distribution of students 
in a university with a total enrolment of 10,000 students has been 


estimated as follows: Arts and sciences, 500; graduate school, 500; 
medicine, 200; law, 200; dentistry, 200; pharmacy, 200; various lines 
of engineering! 1800; agriculture, 1500; veterinary medicine, 150; 
commerce and business, 1200; education, 1000 ; journalism, 200; library 
science, 50; landscape architecture, 50; architecture and design, 150; 
music, 100. 1 

1 President R. M. Hughes, of Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, in Proceedings of North Central 
Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, 1920, pp. 78-89 


TO bring about a reasonable degree of efficiency in library ser- 
vice, adequate provision must be made for specialized training. 
A glance at the personnel specifications for any of the larger 
libraries is sufficient to show how diversified and specialized library 
work has now become. While library service has been growing more 
and more highly specialized, and will doubtless continue to do so, the 
training afforded by the library schools has for the most part remained 
general. It is approximately accurate to say that the aim of the library 
schools at present is to fit every student to take up any branch of 
library work which may offer an opening when he has finished his one- 
year course. 

In most of the leading professions specialization in practice is 
promptly followed by a corresponding specialization in professional 
education. In engineering, for example, specialization in industry long 
ago forced engineering schools to provide specialized courses. Speak- 
ing of this feature of engineering education, Dr. Charles R. Mann says: 
"Formerly the choice lay among civil, mechanical, and mining engi- 
neering; now the selection must be made from aeronautical, agricul- 
tural, architectural, automobile, bridge, cement, ceramic, chemical, civil, 
construction, electrical, heating, highway, hydraulic, industrial, light- 
ing, marine, mechanical, metallurgical, mill, mining, railway, sanitary, 
steam, textile, telephone, topographical engineering, and engineering 
administration." 1 Library work, to be sure, has not become so highly 
specialized as engineering owing in part to the fact that modern li- 
brary service is a comparatively recent development, and in part also, 
perhaps, to the fact that the library being, as a rule, a branch of the pub- 
lic service, has not benefited by the stimulus toward increased efficiency 
through specialization which comes from commercial competition. 

The schools explain their failure to provide specialized training 
partly on the ground that there is insufficient demand for it, while libra- 
rians reply that there is a potential demand which would become actual 
if the schools were equipped to turn out well-trained specialists. The 
truth seems to lie somewhere between the two positions. Libraries have 
too often expected the schools to turn out in one year assistants who 

1 A Study of Engineering Education, by Charles Riborg Mann. 1918. 189 pages. Bulletin Number 
Eleven, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 


can readily fill any position in any kind of library. Largely for finan- 
cial reasons the schools have been unable to expand their work beyond 
the general one-year course; but had they been able to do so, the low 
salaries paid even to skilled specialists in library work, together with 
the lack of recognized standards of fitness for special work, would have 
kept the number seeking special training so small that the schools 
would scarcely have been justified in offering specialized curricula. 

A point has now been reached, however, where there is apparently 
sufficient demand to make it feasible to provide specialized professional 
training. The rapid expansion of public and private libraries, the de- 
velopment of many types of special library, and a keen interest at the 
present time in higher standards of service, put a responsibility on the 
professional training schools of which they are becoming aware, but 
which as yet they have taken no adequate steps to meet. Specialized 
curricula have been offered so far by accredited library schools in only 
two or three instances, the best examples being the courses in children^ 
library work given by the Carnegie Library School of Pittsburgh and 
Western Reserve University Library School, and a course in legirlative 
reference work by the University of Wisconsin Library School. 

It might be said that a certain kind of specialization has been at- 
tained by the two-year schools New York State and the University 
of Illinois. Since these two schools admit only college graduates and 
give a two-year course, it is possible for them to cover more thoroughly 
all the subjects in the curriculum. As a consequence graduates of these 
two schools have become especially prominent in the administrative 
and scholarly aspects of library work. In point of fact, however, these 
two-year schools do not offer specialized study. Aside from a very few 
elective courses in the second year, they cover in the two years essen- 
tially the same range of subjects taken up by the one-year schools. The 
work is naturally somewhat more thorough, certain second-year courses 
being properly described as "advanced," but it is nevertheless essen- 
tially accurate to say that they attempt, like the one-year schools, to 
prepare students equally well for all kinds of library work. 

Recently the growing demand for workers with specialized training 
has led some of the schools to deviate slightly from their general pro- 
gram in the direction of specialization. Special and visiting lecturers 
have briefly described their specialized work; the students have in- 
spected some of the more notable examples of special library and have 
even been permitted to do their field work in very specialized lines. It 


would be a misfortune, however, if either students or school authorities 
were to be misled into believing that this slight look into specialties 
constitutes specialized professional training. These lectures on special 
libraries and a certain amount of field work in libraries of these types 
are not only legitimate but quite essential features of a general pro- 
fessional course. Specialized training is a very different thing, and is not 
to be secured by listening to a few lectures followed by a brief tour 
of inspection. The specialist is not a beginner but an expert, a master 
of the history, theory, technique, and practical problems of his field. 

Library school authorities very generally take the ground that no 
specialization is possible within the one-year course, and undoubtedly 
this is sound policy. Nothing less than one year's instruction is sufficient 
to provide a broad foundation for professional work of any kind. The 
primary function of every library school must be to provide this general 
all-round training, and it does not appear that this can be done in less 
than one full academic year. Two or three schools, indeed, offer a second 
year's work of general character, while other schools have looked forward 
to adding a second year of the same kind; but it has always been diffi- 
cult, and seems now to be increasingly difficult, to hold students for this 
second year of general instruction. Apparently, fewer students still 
would remain for the senior year if two years' work were not required 
for the desired degree. Many students, moreover, would apparently be 
willing to forego the degree if the work of the junior year represented 
in itself a well-rounded introduction to library work. 

The opinion of experienced library workers is very decidedly against 
the two-year general course. It is believed that it would be much better 
for the two-year schools to give in one year all the essentials of a gen- 
eral professional course and then offer a second year of specialized, ad- 
vanced work. There has been a feeling that it is unnecessary, and even 
a waste of time, to spend two years acquiring the fundamental train- 
ing. Students who have taken two years for the general course show no 
marked superiority over those who take both years in one or those who 
have had their training in the better one-year schools. It is probable 
that any difference which may be pointed out will be due to the higher 
educational standard for admission to the two-year schools. Statistics 
compiled by the University of Illinois show that 152 women students 
who took the second year's work are earning $89 a year more on the 
average than 110 women who stopped at the end of the first year. Nine 
men who took the two years' work are earning $619 more on the aver- 


age than eight who took only one year. These figures do not prove, how- 
ever, that the second year's study was worth while, even from the stand- 
point of earning power. The best students were probably encouraged to 
return for the second year and get the degree, the poorer students being 
allowed or persuaded to drop out at the end of one year. The surprising 
thing is that the difference between the earnings of the two groups is 
not greater. 

Few well-informed librarians have any doubt that a second year of 
training is needed for those who look forward to responsible positions 
in professional library work. The opinion is very widely held, however, 
that while the first year of study should be general and basic, the 
second should be definitely and even minutely specialized in the field 
in which the student is to take up his work. The actual demand for a 
year of specialized training has now become strong enough to make it 
imperative for the schools to give some heed to it. 

Probably the most important group for which specialized training 
should be provided at once are the school librarians, and particularly 
the high school librarians. In states that have the best educational 
standards the high school librarian must have the qualifications of a 
high school teacher which means a college degree with special train- 
ing in education and some graduate study in addition to a certain 
amount of professional library training. A college education and one 
year's study in a library school do not give adequate preparation for 
high school librarian ship. A second year of special preparation is coming 
to be essential, the course to consist of three elements : (1) special study 
of high school library problems, supplementing and adapting the gen- 
eral course; (2) special study and training in educational subjects: his- 
tory of education, educational psychology, and the high school curricu- 
lum; (8) extensive field practice, consisting of quite long periods de- 
voted to actual service in well-organized high school libraries under the 
close supervision and direction of able and experienced high school li- 
brarians. At the end of this second year's work the student would be 
much better equipped to organize and administer a high school library 
than he can be at the end of the second year's work in one of the two- 
year schools at the present time. A graduate of the full course in either 
the New York State or University of Illinois School has spent more time 
than is necessary on various subjects which are highly important for 
other kinds of library work but of little or no value in a high school 
library. He will probably have taken only a brief elective course of 


rather general character on school libraries and will have had a limited 
amount of "practice" in high school libraries. No opportunity will have 
been offered for the training in education which is indispensable for 
acceptable and efficient service as a high school librarian. 

For other types of library service requiring special preparation, the 
present library school facilities are even less adequate than they are for 
the high school library. Leading librarians in the college and univer- 
sity group have for several years been outspoken in their criticism of 
the failure of the library schools to provide adequate or appropriate 
training for special reference and research work of a scholarly character. 
A prominent university librarian writes: 

"The best reference people I have met in my own experience are 
not library school graduates but university-trained people who 
have somehow gone into library work. I recognize, however, the 
extraordinary value of the addition to their other equipment of 
the training afforded by library schools, and I am always seeking 
persons who have had that training for our staff. In looking for 
people to take charge of our graduate reading rooms, however, I 
have given other considerations foremost place and have made a 
known scholarly attainment the basis of selection. I would rather 
have such people with an imperfect knowledge of library technique, 
than the best trained technician who lacks university training and 
some graduate study. 

"It seems to me that the requisite thing is some such sort of scho- 
lastic library work as was given for so many years at Gottingen by 
Dziatzko. Such work could be done at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, 
Michigan, Chicago, perhaps at Minnesota and Cornell; but I am 
absolutely certain, that no one of the librarians or chief assistants 
at those institutions can find the time, under the pressure of their 
work as now arranged, to give such instruction." 

While the demand for this type of training has not been as clearly 
defined as for high school work and other special fields, it would seem 
to call for a second year of study carefully planned with reference to 
the special needs of college and university libraries referred to jn the 
statement just quoted. 

The need for specialized training for library work with children has 
long been recognized and fairly well provided for in the Carnegie Li- 
brary School and, more recently, in Western Reserve University. Under 
the plan of organization proposed in this report, specialized training 
for professional work with children would be given as a second year 
of library school study, consisting of some technical library courses, 


with much attention to literature for children, thorough courses in edu- 
cation, child psychology, and the relations of the library to the pub- 
lic school, accompanied by much field work and practice under expert 

Another important branch of library service which calls for at least 
one full year of specialized study and training is cataloguing and clas- 
sification, combined with several closely related divisions of library 
organization and service. Advanced courses in technical cataloguing 
and the principles of classification, with a large amount of field work, 
giving opportunity for comparative study and responsible service under 
skilled supervision, would afford thorough preparation for positions as 
chief cataloguers and senior assistants in the cataloguing and classifi- 
cation divisions. 

Special preparation for order work could be combined with the cat- 
aloguing and classification, or with advanced training for reference 
work. The actual grouping of subjects for the year of specialized work 
in book selection, order work, cataloguing, classification, and reference 
will require careful consideration. Our purpose here is merely to sug- 
gest in broad outline some of the types of specialized curricula. 

Courses in library administration should be provided among the first. 
Objection is often made to training for administrative positions on the 
ground that administrators are born, not made. The same can probably 
be said with almost equal truth of cataloguers, reference librarians, 
children's librarians, etc. Even the person endowed with a gift for ad- 
ministrative work needs a broad basis of technical knowledge and spe- 
cial familiarity with the problems with which he is concerned. In the 
general one-year course there is no opportunity to take up many sub- 
jects with which heads of libraries, large and small, must deal. Such 
subjects as personnel management, the general principles of organiza- 
tion and management, applied psychology, government, and finance 
should be introduced in this course. Graduate schools of business ad- 
ministration and experiments in training for various types of execu- 
tive positions show conclusively that training for executive work is 

There is abundant material for a year's work in preparation for ex- 
ecutive positions, not only as heads of library systems large and small, 
but as branch librarians, chiefs of division, assistant librarians, college 
and university librarians, etc. It is not proposed to make executives, 
but to take those who have already shown some capacity for adminis- 


trative functions and give them instruction and training that will help 
them to develop their capacity. The futility of trying to teach admin- 
istration in the general course might be admitted without weakening 
the case for advanced training for those who have already shown some 
ability in that direction. 

County and rural library service, which may include secretaries of li- 
brary commissions, state organizers, etc., promises in the near future to 
call for a large number of workers with special training. The develop- 
ment of county library systems is already being seriously retarded by 
the lack of properly qualified leaders and organizers. 

Some library school favorably located should develop a special course 
for the training of persons who are to teach library subjects not only 
in library schools, but in training classes, summer schools, normal 
schools, colleges, etc. The inadequate equipment of library school in- 
structors has been referred to in a preceding chapter. At the present 
time those who find themselves called upon to teach library subjects 
have nowhere to look for help, but must struggle along by means of 
their own unguided experience. Even one short course in principles of 
library school teaching would greatly improve the situation. Unfor- 
tunately, the salaries paid to instructors in library schools and train- 
ing schools are so low that they can scarcely be expected to spend much 
time or money on special training. Experience with a so-called "nor- 
mal course" offered by Pratt Institute School of Library Science a 
decade ago is sometimes cited as evidence that there is no demand for 
such a course. Better salaries, however, and higher standards of qualifi- 
cation for teaching positions should make it possible for some school 
in a strategic position to develop a course of such practical value that 
it could be given in alternate years, if not every year. 

A very large field for specialized training is afforded by the business 
library. While the opinion is still held in some quarters that the worker 
with a thorough general training can make the necessary adaptations 
for the business library field, it is clear from the extent to which busi- 
ness library subjects are being introduced in the one-year courses that 
considerable demand has arisen for special training. It is equally clear 
that it is impossible to furnish the indispensable general professional 
training and also any adequate special training for business library 
work in a one-year course. A second year of specialized work appears to 
offer the only satisfactory solution. Such a course should be organized 
as soon as possible in at least one school, and in a school so located as 


to offer excellent opportunity for field work and tocommand the services 
of competent instructors of wide practical experience. 

A year of specialized training supplementing the general course will 
eventually be called for in various other special fields. Courses in pub- 
lic documents, with statistics and sociology, in chemistry, fine arts, tech- 
nology, law, medicine, and agriculture, are among the possibilities for 
the immediate future. The two-year schools cannot make this radical 
change in the character of their second year's work a moment too soon. 
For the one-year schools the necessary adjustment is simpler. Those 
which are able to secure sufficient financial support, and are so located 
that they can command adequate opportunities for field work and 
secure the services of experienced and superior instructors, can offer 
specialized courses whenever there is a demand for them. 

To provide the kind of specialized training proposed here, it will 
also be necessary in most cases for the library school to be located in 
the vicinity of other educational institutions whose cooperation will 
be indispensable. Thus, for the specialized course for high school libra- 
rians, the instruction in education and pedagogy must be sought in a 
teachers' college or department of education of a university. Tho not 
quite so necessary, it would be highly advantageous to have the coop- 
eration of a school of education in the training of children's librarians. 
For business library training, college courses or, better still, courses in 
a school of business administration should be combined with the spe- 
cial instruction in library technique and the field work. A special course 
in library administration would require the cooperation of college or 
university faculties. In fact, the lines of specialized work which any 
library school can offer will depend very largely on the facilities in the 
same locality for giving instruction in subjects required in the special- 
ized course, but which cannot be given properly by the library school 
itself without unreasonable expense. No advanced work should be under- 
taken where excellent facilities for supervised field work do not exist, 
or where it is difficult to secure the part-time services of superior 

Advanced special work of the character here proposed should not as 
a rule follow immediately the first year of general study. Exception 
might be made in the case of mature students who have had very re- 
markable experience before entering the school. Exception might pos- 
sibly be made also for students who have specialized to an unusual 
degree in the subject-matter of the proposed library specialization. It 


is generally agreed that the second year's work will be taken with far 
greater profit after the student has spent at least one year in library 
work. This preliminary experience gives, what there is no time for in 
the first year of school work, a period of actual service long enough for 
the student to acquire some degree of skill and long enough to enable 
him to decide in what branch of service he wishes to specialize. More- 
over, this period of practical work between the general and special 
courses should serve to eliminate the less competent, for no one should 
be accepted for the year of specialized study who has not made a very 
good record in actual service. 

One very important result of this actual experience will be that the 
student will run no great risk of fitting himself for a special line of work 
in which later he finds no satisfactory opening for employment. One of 
the strongest reasons advanced by school officials for not attempting 
to give specialized courses at present is that very few students know 
what special kinds of work will be available when they have finished 
their course. A student who has been in actual work for at least one 
year would hardly return for a second year of study without having some 
very definite assurance of a position awaiting him at its completion. 
Often he will be able to secure leave of absence from some post to which 
he expects to return better equipped for efficient service and promotion 
as a result of the additional year of study. Library administrators will 
gradually come to require such advanced training for all of the most 
important positions in the professional service. Special training should 
also receive recognition in certification schemes. 

It seems altogether probable that advanced study of the kind and 
quality here proposed would at once attract enough students to make 
the plan practicable. Less than half of the students in the junior classes 
of the two-year schools return for the senior year. Fewer still would re- 
turn if the junior year's work constituted in itself a complete and well- 
rounded course. To get a good general course, many students now feel 
compelled to take the senior year, tho students who leave at the end of 
the junior year find good positions awaiting them and usually "make 
good." Officials of the two-year schools fear that no students would come 
back for a second year's work if all were forced to spend at least one 
year in practical work. And this would probably be so in the case of 
the existing second year of a general nature. A second year of advanced 
study of very practical and specialized character, however, once its value 
is demonstrated, should draw a reasonable number of students, not only 



from the first year classes of the same institution, but also from the 
graduates of other schools. 

Under present conditions the senior classes of the two-year schools 
are recruited almost entirely from the junior classes in the same schools. 
Very few graduates of the one-year schools take the senior year either 
at New York State or the University of Illinois. This may be due to 
some extent to a conviction existing in certain of the schools that in 
their one-year course they cover the general essentials of library train- 
ing as well as the two-year schools do, and that their graduates would 
therefore find the second year's work largely repetition and not worth 
the time and expense. Apparently little effort has been made, except in 
the second year so far developed at the Library School of the New York 
Public Library, to arrange the curricula of the two-year schools so that 
the second year would make a special appeal to graduates of the one- 
year schools. Moreover, the two-year schools require college graduation 
for admission and this in itself necessarily excludes most of the grad- 
uates of the other schools. 

When all professional schools are put on a graduate basis and the 
work of the first year is organized as a thoroughly well-rounded and 
complete general course, graduates from all the schools should naturally 
expect to take a second year of special training wherever accredited 
courses are offered in the special fields they desire to enter. Graduates 
from all the schools might go to Western Reserve for children's work, 
to the New York Public Library for a special business library course, 
to Wisconsin for legislative reference, to the University of California 
for a county library course, and so on. Several schools should offer a 
year of special training for high school libraries. 

Courses in all of the principal special fields of library work should 
be offered by at least one school, and that the one best equipped to give 
them by reason of strong teaching staff, presence of cooperating facul- 
ties, and exceptional opportunities for field work. Probably no one school 
should be expected to develop courses in all the specialties, but all 
should be offered somewhere. In developing its proper specialties each 
school will naturally be guided largely by its own local demand. The 
pressure of this local demand, on the other hand, should not be per- 
mitted to force specialization too far into the year of general profes- 
sional instruction. 

Such courses need not be given every year, if the number seeking them 
does not warrant it. They might well be offered only every third year. 


If definitely announced and made known to all potential applicants, 
those who desire a special course could make their plans one, two, or 
even three years ahead, and arrange for leave of absence from their posts. 
It might be found practicable and desirable to plan all second-year 
courses so that they could be taken one-half at a time. 

The number of students enrolling for this type of specialized train- 
ing would not usually be large enough to require formal lecture courses 
by the library school faculty. The instruction in library subjects would 
therefore be given largely by readings, problems, discussions, and indi- 
vidual conferences with the instructors in charge. Instruction in re- 
lated subjects would ordinarily be given through the regular courses in 
cooperating institutions. Field work should occupy a large part of the 
student's time and be very carefully planned and supervised by practical 
experts in the special field. As in the general course, the field work should 
include a large amount of planned observation and reporting; but 
unlike the method recommended for the general course, it should also 
include much actual work carried on under the direction and criticism 
of a competent expert. In a course of this kind, the acquisition of skill 
is a definite objective. While skill in any kind of library work is not to 
be expected or sought as a primary result of the first year's study, a high 
degree of skill in the chosen work must be the main objective of the 
year of specialized training. 

If organized on some such plan as here suggested, the cost of special- 
ized training for library service, while greater perhaps than for the gen- 
eral work, should not be excessive. The task of organizing and directing 
the work would rest on the principal or some competent member of the 
school staff, but would not require the full time of one person until the 
number of courses offered and the enrolment reached considerable pro- 
portions. The specialists giving the instruction in library subjects and 
directing the field work should be properly compensated for their ser- 
vice; otherwise it will not, as a rule, be efficient. Instruction given by 
cooperating institutions would not entail great expense for the library 
school. The ordinary fees for such courses would have to be added to 
the library school fee, or the regular library school fees shared with the 
cooperating institution. 

On any other plan of operation the expense of a year of first-class 
specialized training is now prohibitive and will indeed remain prohibi- 
tive for a long time to come. Elaborate plans have been proposed for a 
post-graduate library school with a full corps of well-paid instructors 


and an expensive physical equipment. Eventually it may be desirable to 
develop a school of this character. It is clear, however, that the next step 
must be worked out at a minimum expense by utilizing fully the resources 
of the stronger professional schools in cooperation with other educa- 
tional institutions in the same vicinity, using the services of competent 
specialists on the part-time plan and effecting a more thorough utiliza- 
tion of opportunities for field work. 

It is possible that some specialized training of the character described 
above could be given in absentia by an institution properly equipped 
for it. Such study might not be acceptable for a degree, but might, if 
properly safeguarded, receive some recognition in a certification sys- 
tem. The subject of training in service by correspondence methods is 
discussed in a later chapter. 


ElARY schools undertake not only to select and train those who 
are to become our professional librarians but they also serve 
their students and graduates, as well as library boards and 
administrators, in the capacity of employment agencies. Almost every 
library school regards this phase of its work as of great importance 
so important that the active head of the institution usually gives it 
his personal attention and in not a few cases appears to give it a con- 
siderable part of his time, particularly at certain seasons of the year. 
While in their published statements the schools usually disclaim re- 
sponsibility for placing their graduates, they nevertheless feel that re- 
sponsibility keenly. 

It is commonly estimated that from 90 to 95 per cent, of the gradu- 
ates are placed initially by school officers. In the last three or four years, 
however, there has been no difficulty in finding places either for mem- 
bers of the graduating class or for older graduates. Much effort, on the 
other hand, has been expended by the schools in trying to find among 
their graduates persons capable of filling the available positions. 

Most of the schools keep in very close touch with their graduates and 
former students. Through correspondence, regular reports, and various 
other means principals usually know pretty nearly what salary each 
one is receiving and whether he is contented or desirous of making a 
change. All this involves considerable correspondence and, especially 
in the case of the older schools, a large amount of such record work as 
any efficient employment agency requires. 

Several factors have apparently contributed toward making the 
placement function so prominent in the conduct of all library schools, 
particularly of the older ones. In the first place, there has been no other 
agency to which employers could look for library workers. Commercial 
agencies have not developed as they have for teachers. Little use has 
been made of advertising in professional journals, and in any case that 
method has very decided limitations. An unwritten but rather widely 
observed code of professional ethics forbids one library to "steal" em- 
ployees from another. That is to say, subordinate members of a library 
staff often have only such opportunities to move to another library 
as the head librarian approves. To a certain extent the library schools 


bow to this code, yet in the interest of their graduates who are in danger 
of getting "pocketed," they do not hesitate to open the doors of oppor- 
tunity for promotion to better positions. Library administrators gen- 
erally turn to the schools when seeking assistants. Practically speaking, 
they have been the only source of information about professionally 
trained workers. Even those librarians who have been most skeptical of 
the value of library school training turn regularly to the schools for aid 
in recruiting their staffs. 

The very success of the schools as general employment agencies and 
counselors for their graduates has resulted in a certain prejudice on the 
part of not a few library administrators against employing the library 
school product. No sooner has the school-trained assistant learned his 
duties, they say, and become fairly efficient, than his school finds another 
position for him at an increased salary. To employ library school grad- 
uates, therefore, is to have a constant succession of beginners. For this 
reason they prefer to train their own assistants and enjoy some assurance 
of being able to retain them after they have become proficient. 

The proper answer of the library school to this indictment is of course 
evident. Any library can retain a competent assistant by paying him 
what he is worth. Certainly, library salaries do not indicate that there 
has been any objectionable "profiteering." School officials, however, are 
conscious of the criticism they incur in paving the way to promotion 
for their graduates, and try to keep in mind the interests of employers 
as well as of their students. It is quite common for school principals to 
discourage their graduates from changing positions oftener than every 
two years. 

The library schools have also been in a position to give good service 
as employment agencies because of the intimate knowledge they pos- 
sess of their graduates. Useful information has been assembled in the 
first instance in the process of selecting candidates for admission. Classes 
in all the schools are so small that the principal and members of the 
faculty come to know each student somewhat intimately and are able 
to follow his professional career. They are therefore in a position to 
supplement the school records by personal knowledge of the special ca- 
pacities and defects of each graduate, and are thus able to make recom- 
mendations with a high degree of intelligence and discrimination. 

The lack of any generally recognized standards and tests of profes- 
sional fitness tends to put the employment of library assistants on the 
sole basis of personal choice, and thus the recommendation of the library 

school principal is naturally sought. The placement function of the 
library schools would be much less conspicuous if public library staffs 
were more generally recruited by civil service methods in which exam- 
mations, records of experience, and various practical tests formed the 
gateway to competitive appointment. As library employees, however 
are generally the personal choice of the librarian or the choice of the 
library board, great dependence perhaps undue dependence comes 
to be placed on the recommendation of the library school. The school 
indeed, is sometimes looked upon as a substitute for the state and muni - 
cipal civil service machinery through which other positions in the pub- 
lic service are usually filled. We cannot discuss here the interesting 
problem of the soundness of the principle of combining in one agency 
the functions of training for a technical branch of the public service and 
the testing and approving of that training as a basis for appointment 
to office. 

It is perhaps a cause for regret that conditions in the library field have 
made the library schools almost the sole form of employment agency. 
The primary function of a library school is not, of course, to find or 
fill positions, but to fit its students for a high type of professional ser- 
vice. Not a few librarians, however, who lack library school training 
and fail to appreciate its value, are tempted to look upon the school 
as an expensive kind of employment agency. A group of non-school 
librarians has recently organized a Library Workers' Association with 
the avowed and primary purpose of providing for its members an em- 
ployment service, which is designed to open up to them avenues of pro- 
fessional advancement now enjoyed only by the proteges of the librarv 
schools. Unfortunately, many of these non-school library workers seem 
to believe that their chief handicap is not a lack of professional training, 
but the lack of an alma mater ever watchful for opportunities to promote 
the personal and professional interests of her sons and daughters. 

It would be unfair to leave the impression that library schools are 
unique in the attention they give to the placement of their graduates. 
Certain teacher training institutions have acquired a wide reputation 
for success in putting their graduates into important administrative 
positions in the public schools. It may not be out of place, however, to 
suggest that the library schools need to be on their guard against an 
excess of zeal in this entirely legitimate activity. A safe policy to follow 
is that set forth in the following statement from the head of one of the 
best of the schools: 


"We do not initiate the correspondence in respect to a vacancy. 
Our regular practice is to answer those letters that come to us 
asking for candidates, by recommending one or two or three of 
our students who appear to us to be qualified to fill the position, 
and in most instances our correspondence ends with that letter, 
unless the librarian, or library board member, or student, writes 
for further information. To probably 15 or 20 per cent of the re- 
quests during the past year we have replied that we had no one 
to recommend, though most of the time one or two of our former 
students were on our lists as needing places. We try not to rec- 
ommend people unless they fit into the particular place for which 
we are asked to suggest candidates. Two or three times during the 
past year I have recommended librarians who never had any con- 
nection with this school because I thought they were better pre- 
pared for the job than any of our own students who were avail- 

The latter part of this statement refers to a criticism frequently 
directed at the library schools for an alleged tendency to recommend 
one of their own graduates and vigorously push his candidacy even 
tho he is not especially qualified for the post, which might be better 
filled by some one whose school has not heard of the vacancy or is less 
aggressive in its placement policy. It would doubtless be easy to exag- 
gerate the extent of undesirable practices of this sort. Library boards 
and library administrators, also, must share some of the blame, because 
they open the way for such abuses by their uncritical and indiscrim- 
inating use of recommendations. 

It has long been hoped that the American Library Association might 
develop an employment service for employers and trained and untrained 
employees, and relieve the library schools to a large extent of this 
somewhat burdensome function. The prospect is not bright, however, 
for an efficient central agency. The American Library Association is 
without funds to organize it properly, even assuming that it might later 
become self-supporting. It is questionable also whether the country is 
not too large to be served by a single centralized employment office. 

The projected national certification system with its regional agen- 
cies, discussed fully in a later chapter, would seem to go far toward 
solving the problem of securing full and dependable information about 
all professional librarians. Even if it should not be practicable for the 
certification board itself to provide an employment service, its coopera- 
tion might ensure the success of a service conducted in the office of the 
American Library Association. 


IT is a matter of no little urgency that professional library work 
be disentangled forthwith from the skilful use of hands in the me- 
chanical operations that play so large a role in every active and 
useful library. Until this is done, library work will not make a strong 
appeal to the better type of college man and woman. The almost com- 
plete absence of men in library school classes is not to be explained 
solely by the fact that salaries are low and on the assumption that col- 
lege men are ail looking primarily for opportunities to make money. 
Largely because it is generally looked upon as clerical, library work has 
come to be known as "women's work." Men generally, and women to 
a large extent, do not think of it as offering a desirable professional 
career. The so-called "recruiting problem," brought about by the acute 
shortage of competent library workers, will not be solved until library 
service does offer to well-educated men and women as desirable a career 
as other learned professions. 

The library schools have heretofore assumed too large a share of the 
responsibility for recruiting library workers. Partof this error hasdoubt- 
less been due to their deep professional interest, but in part also, no 
doubt, to the necessity for keeping their classes filled, since an impor- 
tant share of the income of nearly all the schools is derived from stu- 
dent fees. The willingness of the schools to serve as the chief recruiting 
agents should not be allowed to obscure the fact that the responsibility 
for keeping up the supply of competent workers rests upon the profes- 
sion at large. Not only is it somewhat undignified for the schools to be 
pressing upon college men and women the desirability of taking up 
library work, but they are not in a position to do it effectively. They 
are, in the first place, open to the suspicion of "drumming up trade." 
Moreover, library school instructors are seldom forceful and convinc- 
ing speakers. Most of them are women, which tends to confirm the im- 
pression that library work is a feminine vocation; many of them are not 
college trained, and for that reason cannot meet the college student on 
his own level; and most important of all, the picture of library work 
given by library school instructors tends to be theoretical: they do not 
always speak as active participants in the many interesting and worth 
while types of library service. College and university officials have re- 


ferred to the harm done to the recruiting cause by the representatives 
sometimes sent out by the library schools. 

In choosing their occupation young people probably are influenced 
more by what they see than by what they are told about any vocation. 
What they ordinarily see in the life of any library worker does not tend 
to magnify the importance of the work in their minds. This is par- 
ticularly true of the staff of the college library, which is likely to be the 
only library the college student knows anything at all about. In too 
many cases the college librarian is an overworked, underpaid individual, 
ranking socially and academically below the teaching staff, and in no 
sense a subject for emulation by the ambitious student. Even where 
the head librarian's position is not inferior to that of the teacher, the 
rank and file of the library staff do not occupy an enviable status. Even 
at its best the college library represents a special type of library work 
of limited appeal. From it the student would get little idea of the 
human interest and opportunities for public service inherent in public 
and other kinds of library work. Unfortunately, the usual vocational 
advisers of college students are not in a position to overcome this nat- 
ural handicap suffered by library work. Deans and professors themselves 
are often ignorant of the rich opportunity for service in the library field; 
they are much better equipped to discuss with students the opportu- 
nities in law, medicine, engineering, and other professions, and even in 

Having in mind this problem of bringing into the schools a some- 
what higher grade and a larger number of students, the library school 
principals were asked what their observation showed to be the chief 
factor in bringing students to the school. Almost without exception the 
answer was, "Our own graduates." Sometimes mere proximity, the rep- 
utation of the library system used for practice work, the friends of the 
teachers, etc., determine which school is selected. 

In the writer's judgment, the organization and curriculum of the 
library schools should be modified to any extent that may be neces- 
sary to make them the gateways to professional library work for college 
men and women. The circularizing of college students and the sending 
of speakers to talk to students will effect little. In the qualifications of 
the teaching staff, the content of the curriculum, and the methods of 
teaching, the schools must be brought to the level of graduate schools. 
More and more, too, it will probably be found that library schools run 
by public libraries will not attract the best college students. As pointed 


out elsewhere, the place for the professional library school is in the 
university which is so located as to command adequate opportunities 
for field work. Large public libraries will continue to maintain training 
classes for the sub-professional grades of the service. When professional 
education of librarians has gone where all other professional education 
is going to the university a long step will have been taken toward a 
solution of the recruiting problem. 

Library schools lack altogether the aid which may be derived from 
scholarships and fellowships in stimulating the interest of desirable can- 
didates for admission. In some schools tuition is free or merely nominal. 
As a rule, however, the tuition fee is a substantial amount. If these 
schools had the funds to provide a few scholarships, to be awarded on 
the basis of merit in such a way as to help bring into the classes prom- 
ising men and women who would not otherwise train for library work, 
the result would be very beneficial. 

In addition to scholarships to cover tuition fees, it is the general 
opinion of the library school officials that great benefits would be de- 
rived from a few scholarships or fellowships which would cover not only 
tuition fees but most of the other necessary expenses of a year's resident 
study in a professional library school. Library schools connected with the 
universities especially feel the need of such aid to enable them to com- 
pete with graduate schools, which draw some of the best students into 
teaching and other lines of work by offering inducements of this kind. 

Most of the older schools have small loan funds provided by the 
alumni for the use of needy students. These funds seem to be wisely 
administered and vejy useful. They are comparatively small, however, 
and the loans that can be made seldom cover more than tuition fees. As 
the money borrowed is always paid back, such funds increase slowly. 

In most schools there is little or no opportunity for needy students 
to meet a part of their expenses by paid labor of any kind. School work 
is definitely planned to occupy all their time and they are discouraged 
from making an effort to earn anything during the school year. Two 
or three schools, however, do permit students to take half-time work 
or less, thus completing a year's study in two years or more while serv- 
ing on some library staff, usually that of the library with which the 
school is connected. In general this practice is looked upon with dis- 
favor, tho it is difficult to see why there should be any objection to it 
if it enables capable workers to secure professional training who would 
otherwise have to forego it. 


TOO little attention has been paid among librarians to the pos- 
sibilities of professional improvement of workers while in ser- 
vice. In this respect perhaps less has been done in the larger 
than in the smaller public libraries. The assumption has become firmly 
fixed that there are only two ways for an individual to reach the upper 
ranks of the profession through the traditional type of library school 
and through the tedious process of learning by experience. Even for the 
graduate of the library school there is a noticeable lack both of incen- 
tive and opportunity for continued intellectual and professional growth 
and improvement. To some extent this could be corrected by the devel- 
opment of specialized, advanced work in library schools. Little can be 
expected, however, from merely offering the opportunity unless at the 
same time sufficient incentive is created. 

The main reason for lack of incentive is the failure on the part of 
libraries to adopt a properly graded schemeof service with definite stand- 
ards of educational and professional attainments for each grade. It has 
not been made sufficiently clear that mere length of service does not fit 
one for the higher and more responsible positions. Very few libraries 
have any kind of system of efficiency ratings, and it is safe to say that 
not one has developed a rating system comparable to those commonly 
used for grading teachers. The narrow salary limits and very small in- 
crements also place too slight a premium on superior ability and suc- 
cess. Whether the library worker enters the service without preliminary 
training or through the library school, after he is once in the system con- 
ditions are not such as to make him feel that his advancement requires 
continued systematic study and growing efficiency. To some extent the 
lack of standards of personal qualifications on the part of library 
workers rests back upon the lack of standards for the service which a 
community should expect of the library as a whole. Only a few pro- 
gressive libraries have made a beginning in the work of standardization 
and classification of personnel. The system of certification advocated 
in this report should be a very great aid in supplying the stimulus to 
improvement in service which is now generally wanting. 

One of the main objects of the state library commissions has been to 
provide a little much needed training for untrained and too often un- 


educated persons actually in charge of small public libraries. In fulfill- 
ing this function use has been made of traveling representatives, often 
called "organizers"; library institutes, modeled to some extent on teach- 
ers' institutes; and summer schools. In regard to the work of organizers 
as a means of giving training in service, little need be said. While under 
any properly organized state system of libraries inspectors are needed 
to visit the libraries frequently and offer suggestions and criticisms, 
it would be financially impossible at present to assign organizers to all 
libraries having an untrained librarian for a long enough period to make 
the instruction effective. If the untrained librarian had the proper edu- 
cation and cultural background, an adequate staff of organizers might 
do effective work; or if advantage could be taken of a well -organized 
system of correspondence instruction, the visits of the state organizer 
might become more fruitful. 

The organizer working single-handed with the individual librarian 
can do so little that a system of local institutes and round tables has 
developed in some states. The general method and purpose of the in- 
stitute and round table are well stated by Miss Plummer, who says: 1 

" The institute was tried first and consisted of two or three meet- 
ings at some town or village containing a library. One of the meet- 
ings was usually open to the public and intended to arouse public 
interest in the welfare and development of the local library. Libra- 
rians from neighboring towns and villages were invited, papers were 
read, discussions encouraged, and a question box was a usual fea- 
ture. Usually an official of the library commission, of the state li- 
brary, or of the state association had charge; the local librarian 
was chairman of aicommittee on local arrangements, and a number 
of trained or experienced librarians assisted with the program. The 
chief value of the institute was a method of propaganda rather than 
of instruction, since the best effect was usually through the public 
session and the making of professional acquaintances outside the 
meetings. The librarians most in need of help often felt timid and 
constrained in the meetings and got most of their practical assist- 
ance from the individual conversations between sessions. These 
facts pointed the way to the round table. This is a gathering of 
librarians living in towns and villages not far apart to whom is sent 
at their request some one capable of giving help in their daily 
problems and difficulties. At least two sessions are held at one of 
the libraries concerned, and attention is concentrated on the im- 
mediate expressed needs of these libraries. It is much easier to se- 

1 Training for Librarian&hip, by Mary W. Pluramer, revised by Frank K. Walter, Chicago, 
A. L. A. Publishing Board, 1920. 


cure such expression under these circumstances than in the institute 
meetings. The older type of institute has largely given way to the 
round table, under whatever name it may be conducted. In New 
York state a definite state program for the institutes is planned 
and the state divided into definite districts where the general pro- 
gram is given. At the same time a large force of volunteer con- 
ductors insures so much latitude in the form of the meeting and 
the treatment of the subject as to make each meeting practically 
local in its application. In states with library commissions the regu- 
lar conduct of round tables is a common, recognized duty of the 
state organizer." 

The need of the institute and round table to remove some of the 
handicaps of the untrained librarian will pass with the coming of 
county libraries and a trained service, to be brought about by certifi- 
cation and higher standards. Professional conferences local, state, 
and national will necessarily continue to have a very large useful- 
ness for the interchange of ideas and information and the fostering of 
professional interests and ideals. Untrained library workers as a rule 
do not attend professional meetings. With the elimination of the un- 
trained worker and the consequent improvement in service and salaries, 
professional organizations will increase in strength and power for ser- 
vice. These organizations can do and have done much good, but their 
activities have been narrowly limited by the lack of financial resources. 
All such organizations depend almost entirely on the dues of individual 
members, which must be kept very low to correspond with library sal- 
aries. Libraries, being supported almost entirely by public or institu- 
tional funds, cannot well contribute financially to the support of the 
activities of professional library organizations, however important the 
work they may be able to do. The most that public libraries can do is 
to grant their employees, without loss of pay, the time required to visit 
other libraries, attend professional conferences, and do a reasonable 
amount of professional committee work. The possible activities of pro- 
fessional library organizations, whether local, state, or national, offer a 
fruitful opportunity for private philanthropy. A comparatively small 
amount of money supplementary to the contributions which library 
workers generally make from their own meagre salaries would accom- 
plish large results in strengthening and supplementing the labor of 
love which librarians are everywhere giving to their organized efforts. 

Training in service in most of its phases is of the nature of a make- 
shift, a substitute for something better which, for the time being, is 


impossible or impracticable. The agencies and methods employed neces- 
sarily change with the conditions which give rise to them. This is true 
not only of the types of training just referred to, but also of the best 
known and most commonly used agencies: the summer school, the train- 
ing class, and apprentice instruction. One method of training in ser- 
vice, of which virtually no use has yet been made, is so promising for 
the future that it will be discussed fully in the following chapter. 


NOTHING better illustrates the general backwardness in the 
development of library service and technical training for it 
than the almost complete failure to make use of the corre- 
spondence method of instruction. Commercial correspondence schools 
long since proved the feasibility of such instruction. It was then adopted 
and improved by great endowed and state-supported institutions, and 
has now developed to an extent unrealized by those who have not had 
occasion to follow educational developments rather closely. 

The United States Bureau of Education reports correspondence work 
conducted by 73 non-commercial institutions in 39 states and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, 61 of these being state supported and 12 privately 
endowed. Both the commercial and non -commercial schools offer cor- 
respondence instruction in a great variety of vocational subjects, tho 
with some minor exceptions nothing has appeared for library work. In 
view of the great dearth of trained workers this is all the more surpris- 
ing and calls for some explanation. 

Apparently the principal reasons for this condition are general un- 
progressiveness, which may be regarded as either a cause or a result of 
low salaries; an attitude of prejudice or suspicion toward correspond- 
ence study; and a lack of standards in library service and of incentives 
to increased efficiency. The difference between what a library assistant 
can earn with and without the kind of instruction and training that 
would be possible by correspondence has been too slight to bring the 
commercial school into the field. The endowed institution also has not 
taken it up because of the comparatively small demand. The lack of de- 
mand in turn can be traced in part to the general absence of graded 
systems of service in which promotion is based on competitive tests of 
skill and efficiency, and in part, perhaps, to an attitude of prejudice 
toward correspondence study on the part of librarians. Librarians are 
essentially conservative. Long overworked and underpaid, submerged 
in routine duties and free from a strong public demand for efficiency, 
librarians as a whole have not themselves been innovators. 

It is not necessary here to describe the methods or set forth the 
possibilities and advantages of correspondence study. This has already 
been so well done that we need only cite the conclusions of competent 


investigators to prove the desirability of making some attempt to apply 
correspondence instruction to the library field. In the conclusion of his 
report on "Correspondence Study in Universities and Colleges," Dr. 
Arthur J. Klein says: 

"Inexpensive methods of quickly reproducing written material in 
considerable quantity have, in combination with cheap and rapid 
mail service, enabled correspondence teaching to be carried on 
extensively and effectively. But more important than these exter- 
nal devices are the pioneer study and practice of the method by 
the proprietary correspondence schools and the universities and 
colleges supported by public funds. Their work has developed the 
technique of the method and shown the extent and effectiveness 
of the service that can be rendered. The experimental state in the 
development of the general method has now been passed and the 
results obtained are now available to serve as a basis for the ap- 
plication of the method upon a more extensive and serviceable 

As to the general method of correspondence study, Dr. Klein says : 

" The essential characteristic of correspondence study is not the 
fact that it is instruction by mail; that is in many cases merely 
incidental. The correspondence method has been tried in resident 
instruction with results which indicate that the ordinary methods 
of class instruction may in some degree be displaced profitably 
by further application of the correspondence method. Indeed, the 
correspondence method has always been used in resident instruc- 
tion in certain subjects and in many cases no other method is 
possible. English composition, for instance, cannot be taught in 
any other way than by correspondence-study methods. 

"It is not, then the intervention of the postal system which gives 
to correspondence study its virtue. The method of instruction is 
the essential thing. It may or may not be applied through the 
mails. The chief characteristics of the method are constant efforts 
by the student and correction by the teacher. As ordinarily ap- 
plied in correspondence study, the method consists of the assign- 
ment by the instructor of definitely planned work, the writing out 
by the student of the results of his work, the correction and criti- 
cism by the instructor of the written lessons, and the suggestion 
and assistance upon points where the student needs such special 
help. The student is tested on the whole of every lesson. He not 
only recites the entire lesson, but reduces it to writing, so that 
any error may be detected and corrected. The criticism by the in- 
structor is also clearly and definitely written. No slipshod or eva- 
sive work, no bluffing is possible for student or for instructor. The 
hard grind which such methods require from students is such an 


ever-present fact, so much a part of correspondence study and so 
seldom found in class work, that this method of working is more 
truly than postal transmission the essential feature of correspond- 
ence study. 

In view of the extensive use now being made of correspondence in- 
struction in vocational subjects, the heads of library schools and many 
librarians were asked to state what subjects taught in library schools 
could not also be taught by correspondence, what difficulties would be 
encountered, and whether they would be in favor of having such in- 
struction tried out under proper conditions. No one was found willing 
to assert that there is any subject in the curriculum which cannot be 
taught by correspondence, provided the student has access to books. 
Organized collections of books are indeed the indispensable laboratory 
for much of the instruction in library methods and problems. Some 
study of value could doubtless be carried on with the aid of compara- 
tively few books, and provision might even be made by the teaching in- 
stitutions for lending these. In few, if any, of the library school courses 
is class discussion an indispensable element. Tho of unquestioned value, 
the advantages of class-room work are likely to be largely or wholly 
offset by specific advantages of the correspondence method. 

Some of the difficulties assumed by librarians to be inherent in cor- 
respondence instruction merely reflect a lack of familiarity with what 
has already been accomplished in perfecting the methods used. Other 
difficulties are real and would have to be faced and solved. The very 
serious need for text-books and teaching material in the library schools 
has been pointed out in a preceding chapter. Successful correspond- 
ence instruction would necessitate some attention to the pedagogy of 
the subjects taught and would require the preparation of text-books 
and other teaching material. This difficulty, however, instead of being 
an argument against correspondence instruction is really an argument 
in its favor. Instruction in library schools and training classes would 
be greatly benefited by the improved methods and tools which would 
have to be produced for correspondence study. 

The difficulty of providing satisfactory opportunity for field work 
for correspondence students is referred to, but this objection seems to 
arise in part from a failure to appreciate the conditions under which 
correspondence study would ordinarily be undertaken. Students would 
usually be actually engaged in library work; if found desirable, enrol- 
ment could be limited to those so engaged. This would give a skilful 


instructor ample opportunity to see that the student relates his study 
to his work. In certain courses opportunities for field work and obser- 
vation might be limited for the person employed in a small, isolated 
library. But so are they limited, and very narrowly limited, for students 
in several of the existing library schools. If there were any courses in 
which the student could derive no profit from the kind of field work 
available to him, he could be refused enrolment. For the student who is 
aiming to cover the whole ground of a full professional training, such 
courses could be reserved for the brief period of resident study which 
it would probably be desirable to require for any professional certifi- 
cate or academic credit. 

In libraries everywhere, large and small, workers are to be found who 
lack technical training and are unable, for financial or other reasons, 
to leave their work and attend a library school. Training classes and 
summer schools will not meet their need, even assuming that those are 
within their reach. With the proper encouragement from library boards 
and administrators, workers of this kind might enroll for correspond- 
ence study in large numbers and derive great benefit from it. For some 
the benefit would take the form of a broadening of vision so as to in- 
clude other phases of work than that in which they are actually en- 
gaged; for others the benefit would lie in a deeper knowledge of the 
principles and technique of their own particular work. For workers of 
ability and broad education, correspondence study might very well be 
made an acceptable substitute for library school training. 

It is indeed the possibility of substituting correspondence study for 
a library school course that constitutes the objection which some school 
authorities make to it. They fear that standards of training and service 
will be lowered. Experience in other fields does not seem to lend sup- 
port to this fear. The popular prejudice against correspondence study 
would likely be sufficient to prevent the person with that training from 
displacing one with better, or even inferior, training acquired in a li- 
brary school. In other words, a person who has acquired his training 
through a correspondence course would necessarily have to possess a 
better equipment than a library school graduate to get the same recog- 
nition. It is to be expected also that the best of those who attempt to 
get some instruction by correspondence will sooner or later find a way 
to take some resident study. A well-managed correspondence course is 
likely to pick out and bring into the schools persons well adapted for 
library work who might otherwise not get to the library school at all. 


In so far as correspondence study aids those already in service to be 
more efficient, it would also tend to raise rather than lower standards. 

The institution conducting correspondence instruction could exer- 
cise any desired amount of control by requiring high standards of pre- 
liminary education and fitness, particularly from those who wish their 
study to count toward a professional certificate or school certificate 
or diploma. It is not apparent that instruction of a high grade given 
by correspondence is in any greater danger of lowering standards than 
are summer schools, short courses, institutes, etc. This also disposes of 
another difficulty foreseen by some in the alleged inability to choose stu- 
dents with sufficient care. It is believed that the correspondence insti- 
tution could select its students as carefully and efficiently as any other. 
However, unless very serious dangers actually appear, it would seem 
wise to put the instruction in many courses at the disposal of all appli- 
cants who show that they can do the work successfully. The proposed 
system of national certification would prevent the wholly unfit from 
masquerading under false pretences. 

The principals of library schools without exception have expressed 
a desire to see correspondence instruction in library subjects tried, if 
it can be done under proper conditions. None of the schools is in a po- 
sition at present to furnish these proper conditions. In the first place, 
none of them has the financial resources to undertake new activities. 
Correspondence instruction, if attempted, should be by the best ob- 
tainable teachers those who are specially qualified for the task and 
who would enter upon it with enthusiasm. They should also be well 
paid for their work. Such instruction could not succeed if expected to 
be self-supporting. No worthy professional education of any kind can 
be wholly supported from students' fees. Library schools are all en- 
dowed or subsidized or supported by public appropriations. Correspond- 
ence students should be required to pay substantial fees, but a large 
part of the cost of instruction should be met from some other source. 
To ensure the highest degree of economy and efficiency, correspondence 
instruction should be offered, for the present at all events, by only one 
institution, and that one selected or created with a view to furnishing 
the most favorable conditions possible. 

Actual experience in teaching library subjects by correspondence is 
too limited to be of real significance, yet the little experience that can 
be cited does, on the whole, confirm the conclusion reached on other 
grounds that this method has large possibilities and should be given a 


fair trial. The University of Chicago has for many years offered through 
its correspondence study department a course of twenty-four lessons on 
44 Technical Methods of Library Science," designed to furnish an ele- 
mentary training in practical library work for those who are unable to 
attend a library school. While the announcements state that students 
should have as preparation for the course at least two years of college 
education or its equivalent, students are accepted who have only a high 
school course. The tuition and matriculation fees amount to $24, or 
$1 a lesson. The books required cost $10 or $12 more. At present the 
average enrolment is about fifteen active students. Most of these are 
engaged in some kind of library work, some of them being teachers who 
have to care for school libraries. The instructor in charge of the course 
states that many of the students get a great deal out of it, short as it 
is, and confined almost exclusively to the mere routine or mechanical 
phases of library work. It seems quite clear that if this course were con- 
siderably expanded and enriched it would have a wide appeal. So long 
as the student has to pay the full cost of the instructors' time and the 
overhead charges, it will not be possible to do thorough work and as- 
sist the student to apply his instruction in such a way as to give him 
the equivalent of practice or field work. Better text-books, better teach- 
ing methods, and many specialized courses are needed. Instruction of 
this sort requires endowment or subsidy quite as much as does resident 

The California State Library is giving correspondence instruction in 
cataloguing, the number of students reported in January, 1921, being 
twenty-six. It was estimated that about half of these were doing good 
work and deriving substantial benefit from the course. The instructor 
in charge feels keenly the need of proper text-books and teaching ma- 
terial. To meet the requirement of a Wisconsin law, every high school 
in that state must have a teacher-librarian who has had a minimum 
of library training in addition to the qualifications of a teacher. The 
supply of teachers with the required amount of library training was 
found to be so small that the Extension Division of the State Univer- 
sity was called upon to provide the necessary instruction by corre- 
spondence. Between 250 and 300 students were enrolled in 1920. Those 
who had previously had a little library experience or knew something 
about books and libraries are reported to have done well in the course, 
while those to whom the whole subject was new got very little out of 
it. It is also reported that a course on reference books and their use is 


offered through the correspondence study department of the University 
Extension Division of the University of Missouri. 

One of the most interesting possibilities in the use of correspondence 
study is its application to graduate, specialized study of the character 
recommended in an earlier chapter. Dr. Klein predicts that " the prac- 
tice of permitting graduate students to secure credit by correspondence 
will undergo a great development during the next few years." Several 
western universities permit candidates for the master's degree to take 
a part of their work by correspondence, while the University of Chicago 
permits candidates for the doctor's degree to "substitute correspond- 
ence study for resident work upon approval in advance of the head of 
the department in which the work lies." 


A every point in our survey of library schools and other training 
agencies, the need for higher standards, for standards of any 
kind, indeed, has been the outstanding conclusion. Practicable 
methods of formulating standards and putting them into practice must 
therefore be sought. 

So far as the library schools are concerned, it would seem that the 
need might be met by the Association of American Library Schools 
which was organized in 1915 with a constitution under which the ten 
charter members agreed to maintain the following standards: (1) a four- 
year high school course, or its equivalent, for admission; (2) a course 
of at least thirty-four weeks of technical instruction in preparation for 
general professional library work; and (3) not less than two full-time 
instructors with at least two instructors who are graduates of a library 
school having such standards. In 1918 an outline of the information 
to be submitted by schools applying for admission was drawn up, but 
no change has been made in the formal standards. A two-thirds vote 
of all members of the Association is required for the admission of new 
schools. Los Angeles was admitted in 1918, the University of Wash- 
ington in 1920, and St. Louis in 1921. Of the fifteen schools reported 
upon in this study only two Riverside and the University of Califor- 
nia are not members of the Association at present. 

It is provided in the constitution that any school failing to main- 
tain the Association's standards may be dropped from membership by 
a two-thirds vote, subject to reinstatement at any time on proof that 
requirements are being complied with. It scarcely seems possible that 
any institution willing to call itself a professional library school could 
fail to meet the extremely simple standards fixed by the Association, 
yet it has been suspected that compliance on the part of certain schools 
has been no more than nominal, at least. Having once organized with- 
out applying proper standards to its charter members, the Association 
is now helpless either to enforce the existing inadequate requirements 
or to make necessary advances. Motives of self-interest and personal 
relationships effectively block any attempt to enforce its standards, 
except perhaps in their application to new schools; and unpleasant 
feelings are easily aroused by demanding of applicants for admission 


standards not being maintained by charter members. If there is to be 
any effective supervision over the standards of library schools, it must 
come from outside the Association. This is the opinion of the best li- 
brary school authorities familial- with the situation and anxious to see 
standards raised. 

If the Association of American Library Schools is not the proper 
agency for formulating and applying standards for library schools, what 
kind of body should take its place? No satisfactory answer can be 
given to this question if considered solely from the side of the profes- 
sional schools. Their standards are low partly because standards of li- 
brary service are low. It would be futile to expect any great and sudden 
improvement in professional training without at the same time doing 
something to create a demand for improved service. True, the converse 
could be alleged, namely, that it is not worth while to demand higher 
standards of service because workers with the capacity and training are 
not to be had. Standards of service and standards of training are indeed 
inseparable. In this chapter, therefore, an effort is made to discover 
where we should begin and what steps should be taken to put profes- 
sional library training and service on a more efficient basis. 

The amazingly low standards of professional fitness of library workers 
have been pointed out from time to time. Librarians have much to say 
about themselves as educators and intellectual leaders in their commu- 
nities an enviable position which they might occupy if they were alive 
to their opportunity. Intellectual leadership requires broad knowledge 
and training. Are library workers qualified for leadership ? A committee 
of the Minnesota Library Association recently reported that outside 
of the Twin Cities and Duluth only nine librarians of public libraries 
in the state have a college education, tho there are 104 public libraries 
and S37 high schools. The situation in most other states is not much, 
if any, better. What can be expected in the way of intellectual leader- 
ship from librarians who have less education than high school teachers ? 
Discouragement over the situation is in no way relieved by the fact that 
many of these uneducated workers are known as "trained" librarians. 
Through library schools, short courses, and summer schools they have 
acquired some smattering of library methods and technique. In many 
cases they are doubtless able to manage their libraries with efficiency 
in matters of routine. The clerical work, in other words, may be well 
done, but that alone does not give a public library the prestige of an 
educational force in the community. 


It is unnecessary to enter at length at this point into a discussion 
of the effect which low standards of professional fitness have on a 
library's standing and influence in a community. The facts are becom- 
ing clear to the leaders in library work. The remedy proposed by the 
Minnesota Library Association is two-fold: (1) improved opportunities 
for training; and (2) certification of librarians. These are the measures 
to which the forward-looking library forces are rapidly turning. In 
some ten other states certification proposals have recently been under 
discussion and some slight experiments are being made. The interest 
of library workers is keen, tho it must be admitted that the public is 
as yet indifferent. Librarians are ready and waiting expectantly for the 
creation of an effective system of certification. 

It must come as something of a shock to the intelligent layman to 
discover that for professional library work there are no recognized 
standards of fitness, by which is meant not only that there are no stand- 
ards required by law for library workers who serve the public at public 
expense, but even that the organized library profession has formulated 
no minimum standards of training and equipment for library workers 
of any class or grade. Here and there a single library has developed a 
"scheme of service" with some definite standards of education, train- 
ing, and experience for each grade and position. Such standards are 
both voluntary and local, however, and can therefore be ignored or 
abandoned at any time. 

The formulation and wide acceptance of standards of fitness is clearly 
the next step in improving library service. Complaint is ever heard of 
low salaries and inadequate appropriations. Without question, salaries 
of library workers are unusually low and libraries inadequately sup- 
ported; but there can also be no question that this condition will con- 
tinue as long as library work stands alone among the professions with- 
out recognized standards of qualification for efficient service. 

Some system of certification is everywhere in force for public school 
teachers. The reasons for certification of teachers need not be reviewed 
here. Many of them, if not all, apply with equal force to library workers. 
Wherever the incompetent are allowed to compete with the competent, 
the former will win when competition is waged on a salary basis, as it 
so conspicuously is in public library service. Men and women of educa- 
tion and ability have no desire to train for a pseudo-profession with- 
out standards, or for work in which a newcomer without education, 
training, or experience is often accorded the same standing and recog- 


nition as the person with the best training obtainable and long and 
successful experience. 

It may be argued that library workers are not called upon to con- 
cern themselves about standards of library service : that it is the public 
which is affected by poor and inadequate service, and that it is to the 
public, therefore, that we should look for the initiative. This attitude, 
tho not uncommon, shows a complete lack of acquaintance with the 
way wholesome standards have been established for other professions. 
As a rule, the need of a minimum standard of qualification for the prac- 
tice of any profession has been recognized clearly by its leading mem- 
bers long before the general public reached the point of demanding it. 
It is to be expected that the capable and conscientious workers them- 
selves will see the result of incompetency and inadequate equipment 
before it becomes evident to the layman. In medicine, law, teaching, 
accounting, engineering, dentistry, pharmacy, and so on, the initiative 
in fixing and advancing standards has been taken by far-seeing and 
public-spirited practitioners. 

Standards may be secured and maintained by law in some professions 
almost from the beginning, while in others it will be necessary to rely 
for a long period on the voluntary action of the professional groups. 
In medicine, law, dentistry, nursing, and in general in those professions 
in which the danger to the public of inadequately trained and incom- 
petent practitioners is easily demonstrated, certain minimum standards 
are usually embodied without difficulty in state law. On the other hand, 
in professions in which the danger to life, health, or property resulting 
from incompetency, either relative or absolute, does not make a strong, 
popular appeal, proper standards may have to be secured and main- 
tained for an extended period by the voluntary action of professional 
organizations. A good illustration of this is found in the case of archi- 
tecture. Voluntary action has long been the sole reliance for fixing 
proper standards. A few states are now passing architects' licensing 
laws, but for a long time to come the only standards in many states will 
be those maintained by the profession itself. 

It is not uncommon or undesirable to have minimum standards of 
fitness embodied both in law and in the rules of voluntary professional 
bodies. This method is well illustrated by accountancy. While every 
state has its accountancy board or corresponding authority for passing 
on the qualifications of public accountants, membership in the Ameri- 
can Institute of Accountants is open only to those who meet certain 


professional qualifications prescribed by the Association itself. Neither 
the American Library Association nor any of the other organizations 
of library workers, unless exception be made of the American Library 
Institute, are, strictly speaking, professional bodies, nor could they 
well be so long as there are no recognized standards of qualification for 
a professional librarian. The American Library Association admits to 
full membership every person, whether engaged in library work or not, 
who shows enough interest in it to pay the small annual dues. The same 
is true of the state library associations. Under these conditions it is 
obvious that library service as a profession is not only without stand- 
ards, but lacks even the machinery for creating standards. 

Starting with conditions as they are, various methods of procedure 
are possible. The American Library Association might (1) create within 
its own membership a selected group or class who meet prescribed 
qualifications (to be determined by examination or otherwise) or (&) it 
might create or foster some agency for formulating and applying stand- 
ards in a voluntary way to all library workers, whether members of the 
Association or not. For many reasons the latter seems to be the more 
desirable course. 

A third method by which librarians themselves might elect to begin 
the work of building up professional standards is through legislation. 
An examination of the experience of other professions and some under- 
standing of the present situation in the library field make it quite 
clear that this is not the line of effort that is likely to produce the best 
results in the long run, or any result at all in the near future. In the 
first place, library work certainly belongs in that group, along with 
architecture and engineering, in which it is most difficult to bring home 
to the general public the necessity for making high standards of per- 
sonal fitness compulsory by law. That may come later, but in the 
meantime and while the public is being educated to appreciate that the 
librarian, no less than the teacher or the doctor, must be competent, 
standards will need to be formulated and applied voluntarily. No other 
method of educating the public to demand a high standard of per- 
sonal service will be so effective as the simple expedient of creating 
such standards by the voluntary action of the profession itself. 

The idea of certification for library workers is necessarily not new. 
Teacher certification and the licensing of practitioners of many other 
professions have inevitably suggested it many times. As a practical 
matter, however, certification of librarians has but very recently been 


given serious consideration. For several years the American Library 
Association has had a committee on standardization and certification, 
its duties being undefined and its activities limited to brief reports on 
the general feasibility and desirability of certification of librarians 
and the formulation of minimum standards of library service. 

Under the influence of teacher certification, it was but natural that 
compulsory standards should be widely adopted first for high school 
librarians. To California, often regarded as the most progressive of all 
the states in library as in educational matters in general, apparently 
belongs the honor of taking the first step in compulsory certification. 
In enacting the county free library law of 1909, the paramount im- 
portance of securing a high degree of fitness in the heads of county 
library systems led to the creation of a board of library examiners " to 
pass upon the qualifications of all persons desiring to become county 
librarians." This certification provision for county librarians was fol- 
lowed by a law requiring all high school librarians to have a special 
certificate similar to that of a high school teacher. A recent Wisconsin 
law required every high school in the state to employ a teacher-libra- 
rian, which means a person who has the general qualifications of a high 
school teacher, plus library training equivalent to a four-credit college 

Aside from a few relatively unimportant beginnings, nothing at all 
has been done in the way of voluntary or compulsory certification. In 
a loose sense, library school diplomas and certificates have stood for a 
kind of elementary certificate of fitness, but many of the best known 
librarians and a large proportion of most library staffs have not had 
library school credentials. The schools, too, have differed widely in 
regard to their standards of admission and training. Moreover, the cer- 
tificate of a library school can bear no evidence as to success after leav- 
ing the school. Library school credentials, therefore, cannot take the 
place of a general system of certification. 

Library workers throughout the country are taking a deep interest 
in certification as a means of improving library service by raising the 
standards of qualification and improving the status and salaries of 
library workers. This interest has been stimulated to an appreciable ex- 
tent by a plan for national certification first presented to the American 
Library Association in June, 1919. This proposal was received with 
unusual interest and manifest approval, and was referred to the Execu- 
tive Board for early consideration. Along with all other proposals for 


enlarging the scope of the Association's activities, the project of a na- 
tional certification board was presently placed in the hands of the 
Committee on Enlarged Program, and after examination and discus- 
sion was adopted and given a prominent place in the so-called Enlarged 
Program. Because of the widespread interest in the plan and an evi- 
dent desire to have it worked out in more detail and better understood 
by the Association, the Executive Board appointed a committee "to 
consider the subject of certification, standardization, and training, and 
report to the annual conference of 1920." The significant features of the 
committee report are the recommendation for the establishment of a 
National Board of Certification for Librarians, a specific plan for the 
composition of a board representing all the library interests of the 
country, and a suggestion for its incorporation under state or federal 
charter. It is further recommended 

" That this Board shall investigate all existing agencies for teach- 
ing library subjects and methods, shall evaluate their work for 
purposes of certification, shall seek to correlate these agencies into 
an organized system and to that end shall recommend such new 
agencies as seem to it desirable and shall establish grades of 
library service with appropriate certificates. . . . 

"That the creation of such a board shall have for one of its pur- 
poses the stimulation, through state and local library commis- 
sions or associations, of the improvement of library service and 
the professional status of library workers." 

Pending the necessary constitutional provision, a special committee, 
constituted substantially as outlined for the proposed board, was recom- 
mended and later appointed. This committee confined its activities to 
a closer study of the composition of the national certification board and 
a general survey of its duties and functions. Until funds are in hand 
to carry on its work, it is useless to create the board. No detailed plan 
for its work can be adopted in advance of its organization and inde- 
pendent study of the problem. 

To summarize the present status of the movement for certification 
of librarians and standardization of library schools, it may be said that 
while a few sporadic efforts are being made to secure certification laws, 
voluntary action seems more likely to be widely effective under present 
conditions. A plan for voluntary national certification has, therefore, 
been worked out in the last two years. To put the plan into operation, 
funds will be needed. After the preliminary work is completed and the 


system well established, it may become at least partially self-support- 
ing by a system of fees for examinations and certificates. In the mean- 
time, a few progressive states are going ahead with plans for compul- 
sory certification for the heads of public libraries. Between these local 
efforts, even where they are successful, and the plans for national cer- 
tification, there is no conflict. As was pointed out in the original pro- 
posal, very little effective legislation can be expected for a long time ; 
and to guide such legislation as can be secured, it is most desirable that 
the library profession should formulate minimum standards of service. 
The few legislative proposals now under consideration present a bewil- 
dering variety of requirements and methods, which is to be expected in 
the absence of any semblance of recognized professional standards. Once 
such standards are set up, it is reasonable to anticipate that state 
schemes will conform to them so far as practicable. 

In one respect the library profession at this moment is in a peculiarly 
fortunate situation. In many other professions such as teaching and 
medicine state or local legislation developed in a haphazard fashion; 
and it has proved to be exceedingly difficult to bring about a reason- 
able degree of uniformity. By the creation of a national board of stand- 
ards at the very beginning of the movement for state certification legis- 
lation, the library systems of the various states can be relieved of trouble- 
some variations and complexities. 

In earlier paragraphs of this chapter some general reasons were ad- 
vanced for voluntary action by professional organizations. At this point 
it may be well to advert to some of the more specific reasons for believ- 
ing that the situation in the library profession demands that emphasis 
be laid at this time on voluntary rather than compulsory methods. 
The voluntary system proposed can be applied at once to the entire 
staff and not merely the head librarian, as contemplated in all pend- 
ing legislation. It can also be adopted by individual libraries in states 
that will as a whole long be backward in library development. Com- 
munities too small to work out systems of service for themselves will 
find it easy to adopt the national standards. In some cases state-wide 
legislation, applicable to all cities, is impossible because of an extreme 
form of home rule charter. 

Perhaps the principal advantage of the national voluntary system 
lies in its second feature, the coordination and accrediting of training 
agencies. Following the modern system of certification for teachers, it 
may be assumed that it will be found desirable to certify without exam- 


ination the graduates of approved training schools. In teacher train- 
ing the state is traditionally a self-sufficient unit and can properly be 
so because of the large number of teachers required. The number of 
professional library workers, on the other hand, is so much smaller that 
few states can expect to rely mainly on their own library schools. They 
will necessarily recruit workers, particularly for specialized types of ser- 
vice, from schools located in other states. But how futile it would be 
for each of the forty-eight states to make its own independent exami- 
nation and accredited list of the twelve or fifteen or more librarv schools 
in all parts of the country, and how confusing for the schools to be sub- 
ject to the separate and often inexpert scrutiny of forty-eight states, 
to find themselves accredited perhaps by some states and not by others. 
Evidently the only sensible thing is to provide one central accrediting 

A more detailed statement in regard to the functions and duties of 
the National Certification Board, including tentative suggestions for 
a system of certificates that such a board might adopt, together with 
some explanation of the way the system would be inaugurated and ap- 
plied, is to be found in the 1921 report of the temporary A. L. A. cer- 
tification committee. 1 As an addition to its primary function, or rather 
as an important phase of that function, the certification board would 
exercise a degree of supervision over the library schools and other train- 
ing agencies. To a certain extent it would take the place of the Associa- 
tion of American Library Schools, which, as has been pointed out, can- 
not be relied upon to become an effective instrument for enforcing mini- 
mum standards on the part of library schools. The power of the board 
to withhold the national professional certificate from the graduates of 
an unaccredited school would make its rulings and decisions effective. 
The board should not stop, however, with merely formulating standards 
and inspecting and accrediting training agencies, and then certifying 
the output of accredited institutions or admitting to certificate by ex- 
amination. It should also become a central agency for promoting pro- 
fessional training in the many ways that would be open to it. It should 
very soon occupy a place analogous to that of the Council on Medical 
Education of the American Medical Association. 

1 American Library Association, Annual Report, 1920-21, pages 78 ff. 


THE problem of creating trained personnel for the small library 
cannot be separated from the improvement of library service 
in general. Free access to books for everybody requires a pool- 
ing of book resources and personal service in a way which has not yet 
been attained. The small library can no more be self-sufficient in per- 
sonal service than in book resources. Even under the present system 
much can be done to help the service in small libraries by raising of 
standards generally. But the only permanent and effective method of 
attacking the problem of service in the small library is by creating a 
workable library system, and this requires the cooperation of all agen- 
cies interested in improving the service in all types of library. 

Briefly, the situation in most of the country is about as follows: In 
the larger cities public libraries, supported, as a rule, by public appro- 
priations, furnish for the capable and determined student some facilities 
for serious study or reading in fields that interest him for vocational 
or other reasons. By means of inter-library loans the intelligent and 
wideawake librarian may supplement his own resources by borrowing 
from other libraries. Very much remains to be done in the way of in- 
creasing public library support and improving the skill of the profes- 
sional library worker and administrator so that the individual who does 
not live in or near a large city can realize the full benefits of access to 
books. In the smaller towns and cities the librarian and staff are in gen- 
eral less skilled in meeting the needs of the public and the library less 
adequately supported than in the large cities. As we pass to smaller 
and smaller towns the situation grows rapidly worse, so that we find in 
the average community of less than ten thousand population a library 
which at best merely purchases a small number of books, often unwisely 
selected, and in a purely routine way performs the clerical process of 
permitting individuals to borrow what they happen to find on the shelves. 

Salaries paid to librarians in small libraries seldom make it possible 
to secure a person of sufficient general or professional education to 
appreciate the opportunity of the library as an educational agency of 
first importance. The book resources of the small library itself are poor 
in quality and inadequate in quantity. The librarian does not know how 
to improve them, how to draw on other agencies when his own fails, or 


how, in other words, to furnish library service. At best he gives only cler- 
ical service. It is not strange, therefore, that small public libraries serve 
their communities mainly by providing reading for recreational pur- 
poses. The person who reads solely for recreation is in the habit of being 
content with anything that happens to be at hand. The inadequacy and 
inefficiency of a library used mainly for recreational purposes may not 
become apparent until it is called upon to serve its community by pro- 
viding sources of information on practical affairs of life. Skilled direc- 
tion should be provided even for recreational reading; but for any 
library to serve vocational and practical every -day bread and butter 
needs, skill and intelligence on the part of the librarian are absolutely 

The librarian's lack of broad education and skill and experience in 
making print serve the practical needs of life now condemns all libraries 
to some extent, but the small library almost always, to a position in 
every community far below that which it could and should occupy. 

The progressive deterioration of rural communities is probably due 
as much to the lack of opportunity to bring to bear on problems of 
country life the experience and information available in print as to in- 
adequate education. If the rural school does nothing more than teach 
children how to read that is, if it gives even a fair degree of facility 
in getting ideas and information from the printed page an adequate 
and adaptable library service can achieve wonders in putting the man 
who lives in the open country on a plane with the city dweller. 

By means of the county system a library service as good as the best 
to be found in any city can be provided for every individual in a terri- 
tory covering thousands of square miles. Moreover, by reason of good 
roads, telephones, and parcel post, this can be done almost as economi- 
cally as in populous centres. 

In library circles there is much talk of county libraries, but little 
understanding, even among professional library workers, of precisely 
what the county system proposes to accomplish and how it functions. 
Virtually nothing of value has been written about county libraries; no 
serious effort has been made to bring the idea to library trustees and 
community leaders in states where it could be applied with very great 

The high degree of transportability of printed matter and the con- 
stant improvement of transportation facilities mean that for practical 
purposes all that stands in the way of equal access to books is the lack 


of intelligence, education, training, and capacity for usefulness on the 
part of the librarian. It should not be assumed that those who live in 
the small community or in the open country are entitled only to a book 
service which consists of a purely mechanical exchange of books into 
whose selection and purchase little or no intelligence, understanding, 
and appreciation have entered. With the perfecting of library systems 
and the general improvement of standards of service, every man should 
be able to command the services of a skilled librarian. 

Tho the problem of an adequately and properly trained service is far 
from being satisfactorily solved even in the large library, it is in small 
public libraries that the situation is on the whole most difficult. Yet the 
need for an intelligent and active library service is no less acute in small 
towns and rural districts than in the larger cities. Indeed, in many re- 
spects the small isolated community has the greater need and presents 
the richer opportunity. Quantitatively speaking, there is less need, of 
course, tho it is probable that in the average small town the proportion 
of the population able and willing to take advantage of a good library 
service is just as high as in the cities. And in the small community sub- 
stitutes for what an active library can offer are less common than in 
the city. Bookstores and newstands do not exist, school libraries are 
undeveloped, lectures and the ordinary means of popular education are 
not so abundantly supplied. 

In the relatively isolated condition of small towns and rural com- 
munities the library has its richest opportunity to cooperate with the 
schools, to provide for all ages the only adequate means of popular edu- 
cation, and to bring to bear on the economic and social problems of 
rural life the information and stimulus now available in abundance 
through a variety of printed matter. The poverty of the schools and 
the inadequacy of the teaching, instead of proving that books are not 
needed, only point to the very great need for the educated, professional 
librarian. The schools at best can only teach the individual to read ; 
the library is the one public agency able to create the desire for reading 
throughout life and to give wise direction as to what to read. It is not 
sufficient to provide "something to read." The lower the average of ed- 
ucation and the weaker the natural impulse to find in books healthful 
recreation, mental growth, and the broadening effect of stories of travel, 
biography, science, etc., the greater the opportunity for, the greater the 
need of the skilled and educated librarian. 

A community of well-educated people may get on very well with an 


uneducated librarian, provided he possesses enough technique to pur- 
chase books selected by some one else and to manage the necessary rec- 
ords and routine clerical work. In the ordinary small town and rural 
community the uneducated librarian who does not have a wide know- 
ledge of books and human nature, who does not understand the mani- 
fold applications of science to our common life, who is not well informed 
and deeply interested in social and economic problems, who does not 
have a real understanding of the problems of community life and organ- 
ization, who, in other words, has not the education or capacity for com- 
munity leadership or the special training necessary to make leadership 
felt through a library service can be of very little value. In any com- 
munity in which the average person has enough education to get at the 
thought and information in the printed page, the librarian has an op- 
portunity for service quite the equal of that possessed by the minister, 
the doctor, the teacher, or the editor. 

It must not be assumed that the small town or rural library has less 
opportunity to be helpful to citizens in their vocational and business 
interests than the city library. Governments are spending millions of 
dollars in this country in scientific study of every phase of agriculture 
and rural economics. The results are published in both popular and 
scientific form, but fail to reach effectively the very persons for whom 
they are designed because an efficient distributing agency is lacking. 
A well-educated librarian, with professional training, can aid in the 
effective use of the wealth of agricultural literature. The clerical type 
of librarian can do nothing at all. 

What can be done for communities too small or too poor to avail 
themselves of the services of a professionally trained librarian? There 
is but one satisfactory answer: make the library unit large enough, and 
efficient service is possible. This may be done through the county sys- 
tem. The same principle is involved in the consolidation of rural schools: 
districts too small to maintain good schools are combined. In no other 
way does it seem possible in this country to give to every citizen the 
fullest access to books, and intelligent direction in their uses. 

But progress towards the county system is slow. What can be done 
while awaiting its development to make the service of existing small 
libraries more efficient without the danger of putting still farther off 
the time when "books for everybody" will be a reality? 

Three distinct situations have to be dealt with: (1) The community 
that has a library and is large enough and wealthy enough to employ 


a professional librarian but does not do so, either because it does not 
know the value of efficient library service or because it thinks it has 
the best that is to be had; (2) the community that appreciates the 
value of a library, but is evidently too small to have an efficient, inde- 
pendent service; and (3) towns and rural districts without books or 
library service of any kind, and without any conscious need for them. 

Until county systems develop, each of these problems requires spe- 
cial treatment. The first calls for education and above all standardiza- 
tion and certification. The expected aid from certification in this situ- 
ation is discussed elsewhere. Improvement can be made only gradually. 
Certification may eliminate poor librarians, but it will not immediately 
produce good ones. Adequate salaries and better training facilities will 
in due time produce the type of librarian demanded. Such librarians will 
not stand in the way of county systems, but will be a very strong factor 
in their development. 

Certification will not set aside economic law. Where adequate salaries 
cannot be paid, certification and a supply of professionally trained 
librarians will avail little. This is the condition which state library com- 
missions have been hopefully attacking. Little libraries in the hands 
of uneducated and untrained, often unpaid, librarians offer as hopeless 
a situation as can be found in the whole range of social and educational 
problems. By such means as state supervision, state organizers, summer 
schools, and short courses for untrained librarians, the commissions 
have sought to improve conditions. Even tho the state commissions 
had adequate funds for their task which none of them have they 
would only be pouring water into a sieve. Fifty years of such effort 
would not suffice to effect appreciable improvement, except so far as it 
might lead to a change of system or to the employment of educated 
librarians, where the latter is possible. 

Indeed, it is a serious question whether the superficial acquaintance 
with those parts of library technique which can be given to persons of 
limited education through summer schools and other means used by the 
commissions may not often prove to be a very real hindrance to the 
development of library service. In spite of the best intentions and ample 
warning, such a librarian is likely to consider himself as thereby fully 
equipped for his task, without knowing or being capable of knowing 
what his real opportunity is. The community so served is in still greater 
danger of mistaking what is at best an efficient routine library service 
for the service which could be given by an educated and professionally 


trained librarian. It is rare nowadays that any community thinks of the 
librarian as a person of education who possesses a knowledge of practical 
affairs which, combined with good judgment and a knowledge of books, 
makes him much more than an efficient book clerk. 

Shall we, then, conclude that it were better to make no effort in be- 
half of the untrained and often uneducated librarian who, along with 
his community, is the victim of an inherently inefficient system ? Let 
the answer be "no." While we are putting all our efforts into securing 
a better system, we can safely, if we understand what we are doing, 
employ all available means for getting the best results from the system 
under which we are working. So long as we must have uneducated and 
inadequately trained librarians and library assistants in small libraries, 
let us supplement their education and give them such technical in- 
struction as they can be brought to seek through summer schools and 
every other agency. Only the best of the class will seek such help, and 
the danger of giving a false impression of what is being done and thus 
helping to entrench a system that must disappear, can be largely, if not 
wholly, avoided by the system of certification. 

The program to be recommended, therefore, while we await the de- 
velopment of the county library system, is this : secure librarians with 
college education and professional training wherever that is econom- 
ically possible; in the smaller places be satisfied for the time being with 
the best that can be had. If it is only possible to secure as librarian 
a person with high school education, give him the technical training 
necessary and a certificate of the clerical, sub-professional class. No 
library, and no community, will then be in danger of imagining that 
it has a professional service. No community, it is to be hoped, will look 
upon such a situation as more than temporary. The mere knowledge 
that its library service is sub-standard will prove a mighty stimulus 
to improvement. Other communities, for the most part of smaller size, 
will find themselves unable to reach even the sub-professional standard 
of service; but if they are doing the best they can do under the sys- 
tem, that is all that can be expected, and every means should be used 
to help them reach at least the lowest standard recognized in the cer- 
tification system. 


/. Types of Library Work and Training 

EACH of the two general types of library work, which may be 
called "professional" and "clerical," demands general education 
of different grades and vocational training quite distinct in char- 
acter and method. The difference between these two types of library 
work has not been kept clearly in view in library organization and ad- 
ministration, and they therefore tend to be confused in the work of the 
library schools. 

2. Professional training calls for a broad, general education, repre- 
sented at its minimum by a thorough college course of four years, plus 
at least one year of graduate study in a properly organized library 
school. For the clerical work of libraries, training may consist of a gen- 
eral education of high school grade, followed by a comparatively short 
period of instruction in library methods combined with sufficient prac- 
tice to ensure proficiency and skill in clerical and routine work. 

3. Library schools should confine themselves to training of the pro- 
fessional type. Training of the clerical type will be provided through 
the so-called training classes conducted by libraries. 

//. The Library School Curriculum 

1. There is little agreement among the schools as to the relative im- 
portance of the different subjects in the curriculum. About half the 
student's time is devoted to four subjects cataloguing, book selec- 
tion, reference work, and classification. But even to these major subjects 
some schools give two or three times as many hours of instruction as 
others do. 

2. There is need for a certain degree of standardization of both 
major and minor courses given in the first year of professional library 
school study. With the adoption of certification systems and the de- 
velopment of various agencies for training in service it will be necessary 
to formulate minimum standards as to scope and content of courses. 

8. To make standards dynamic rather than static they should be 
subjected to constant scrutiny by the schools themselves in the light 
of frequent reanalyses of the training necessary for the professional li- 
brarian. The content of the curriculum, in other words, and the meth- 


ods of instruction, should be determined by first-hand acquaintance 
with the most progressive library service rather than by tradition and 

4. A composite statement of the scope and content of the twenty- 
five or more distinct subjects included in the curricula of the library 
schools reveals (a) the difficulty of providing thorough instruction and 
training in the whole field of library work in one year, and (b) the ne- 
cessity of a broad, general education of collegiate grade as a basis for 
library school instruction. 

///. Entrance Requirements 

1. Two library schools require for admission the completion of an ap- 
proved college course of four years. A four-year high school course or 
its equivalent is the minimum in all other schools, admission being by 
examination, except for college graduates. 

2. Examinations are crude and unscientific, if considered as mental 
tests; as a means of testing the candidate^ general education, they cover 
too superficially too narrow a range of subjects. Languages are prop- 
erly emphasized ; but too much stress is laid on pure literature, history 
and the humanities in general. 

3. Uniform entrance examinations for all the schools would have 
many advantages, but as matters stand at present are not likely to be 

4. On the question of experience in library work as an entrance re- 
quirement, authoritative opinion and actual practice are at variance. 
The orientation needed by the student without adequate experience 
should be carefully planned. 

5. Many library schools lay great emphasis on "personality tests," 
which represent an impressionistic method of very questionable value. 
It is believed that schools will do well to abandon personality tests and 
admit on evidence of education and ability to maintain a high stand- 
ard of scholarship. 

6. Among the minor entrance requirements ability to use the type- 
writer is common. This appears to be a relic of an earlier stage of train- 
ing for library work and not an essential part of the professional libra- 
rian's equipment to-day. It is an actual hindrance to recruiting libra- 
rians among college men and women. 

7. One of the most fundamental conclusions of this report is that 
professional library training should be based on a college education or 


its foil equivalent. Joint courses, in which the student completes a li- 
brary school course and earns the bachelor's degree in four years, rep- 
resent a higher standard than that maintained by most library schools 
at present, but should nevertheless be looked upon merely as a step 
toward placing library schools on a strictly graduate basis. 

IV. The Teaching Staff and Methods of Instruction 

1. Analysis of the training and experience of instructors in library 
schools indicates that many of them are not fitted to give instruction 
of high professional character to college graduates. The statistics show 

(a) Only 52 per cent, of the members of the instructional staffs of 
the library schools in 1921 were college graduates; 

(6) 42 per cent, were teaching in the same library school in which 
they received their own training; 

(c) 93 per cent, of the instructors had no training in the science of 

(d) 80 per cent, had no experience in teaching before joining the 
library school staff; 

(e) 32 per cent, were without adequate experience in practical li- 
brary work. 

2. Concerted effort should be made to raise the quality of instruction 
in library schools by increasing salaries and making teaching positions 
more attractive in various ways to trained and experienced librarians 
of the highest ability. 

3. The principal defects in the methods of instruction are : 

(a) Excessive dependence on the lecture method, due in part to in- 
adequate and uneven preparation of students; 

(b) Lack of suitable text-books and teaching materials; 

(c) Heavy demands on the instructor's time, resulting from a lack 
of clerical assistance; and 

(d) The part-time system of instruction. 

4. The part-time system of instruction, tho not without its advan- 
tages, is the direct result of attempting to conduct library schools with 
insufficient funds. The professional library school should have not less 
than four full-time instructors. 


5. The special or visiting lecturer, giving only one or two lectures in 
each school, has been an outstanding characteristic of instruction in 
most library schools. While these special lectures have not been entirely 
satisfactory, need is felt for some scheme of cooperative instruction that 
will make it possible to have the minor subjects in the curriculum 
taught by specialists. 

6. The efficiency of library school instruction is seriously impaired by 
the lack of suitable text-books and handbooks or treatises on various 
phases of library practice. To stimulate the production of professional 
literature of this kind, it is recommended that a sum of money should 
be provided in the form of an annual fellowship which would pay the 
salary and traveling expenses of one library school instructor on leave 
of absence from his post for the specific purpose of enabling him to 
complete for publication a work which when published will be of spe- 
cial use to library schools. 

7. From four to twelve weeks, or from one-eighth to one-quarter of 
the school year, are devoted by the library schools to field work, usually 
known as "practical" work. Altho this represents a large part of the 
year's work, there seems to be no special interest on the part of the 
school authorities in the educational principles involved. The various 
assumptions underlying this part of the curriculum, so far as any are 
discernible, are: 

(a) That the student during his period of work in the practice library 

is acquiring skill in his profession; 
(6) That the period of field work is needed to reveal his ability or 

general capacity for library work ; 

(c) That it enables the student to discover the special kind of work 
he desires to enter; 

( d) That it is useful in furnishing school officials the kind of infor- 
mation which they need in placing the student after graduation. 

The conclusion reached after an examination of these points of view 
is that all are unsound or unimportant; that field work should be 
looked upon as that phase of formal instruction carried on by purpose- 
ful observation, supplementing class-room instruction; that, in other 
words, field work is merely one important method of instruction. 

8. The field work of library schools is in general unsatisfactory and 
of very doubtful value to the student. The most obvious defects are: 


(a) The point in the course at which field work is introduced seems 
to be determined by the convenience of the practice library or of 
the school, rather than by educational principles; 

(6) Methods of making assignments are not guided by the thought 
of giving the student a broad basis of information and a grasp 
of principles, and holding him up to a high standard of scholar- 

(c) Student field work is in general poorly supervised and inade- 
quately reported on, both by the students themselves and by the 
supervisors of field work ; 

(d) Service on a library staff under actual library conditions, instead 
of being the ideal method, is in reality one of the poorest meth- 
ods, because at best it is a waste of time as a rule, and often rep- 
resents an exploitation of the student; 

(e) Too large a share of the student's time in the first year of pro- 
fessional study is given to the prevailing type of field work. A 
comparatively brief period of well-planned and skilfully super- 
vised observation in approved libraries is recommended. 

9. Opportunities for extensive observation are afforded by class 
"visits" to a large number of important libraries. The intensive ob- 
servation recommended must usually be carried out in local libraries, 
hence the importance of having professional schools located in com- 
munities which offer the widest possible range of well-organized libra- 
ries of different types. 

10. Library schools are placement as well as training agencies. The 
great importance which the placement function has assumed is due 
mainly to the fact that there have been no other agencies to which em- 
ployers could turn for information about trained library workers. 

V. Library School Finances and Salaries 

1. The fundamental cause of many of the deficiencies noted in the 
work of the library schools can be traced to inadequate financial sup- 
port. A study of the finances and financial administration of the li- 
brary schools shows that: 

(a) Only two or three schools have independent budgets and keep 

accurate records of the cost of operation; 
(&) Only four schools had a total expenditure in 1920-21 of more 

than $10,000; 


(c) The average salary of the best paid instructor in each school 
(not including the director) was about $2000; 

(d) Salaries paid instructors are too low to attract well-trained, ex- 
perienced library workers who are willing and able to teach; 

(e) Judging from the comparatively static condition of their budgets, 
the library schools are not keeping pace with the needs of the 
libraries for trained service. * 

VI. The Need for More Library Schools and more Students in Training 

1. Fundamentally the recruiting problem can be solved only by mak- 
ing library service as attractive arid desirable a career for well-educated 
men and women as other learned professions. Library salaries are now 
too low to attract men or women of first-class ability and qualities of 
intellectual and community leadership. Statistics furnished by five rep- 
resentative library schools show that over 40 per cent, of their graduates 
earn less than $1500 a year; only 3.6 per cent, earn over $2500 a year. 

2. It does not appear from salaries paid to educated and trained li- 
brarians that there is need for many new professional library schools 
or a great increase in the number of students. The primary need is for 
a better grade of student and higher standards of instruction. 

3. Statistics for the fifteen schools examined show that the present 
enrolment represents only 60 per cent, of their total physical capacity. 
It is concluded, therefore, that the best way to increase the number 
of persons in training for professional librarian ship is to fill existing 
schools rather than to establish new ones with the same meagre finan- 
cial support and smaU enrolment. 

4. Whatever responsibility the library schools have for the recruit- 
ing problem can best be met by : 

(a) Maintaining the highest standards of professional education; 

(b) Taking a leading part in the movement to put library service 
on a satisfactory economic and professional basis; and 

(c) Cooperating with professional organizations and college and 
university authorities in presenting to college men and women 
the rich opportunities for service in the library field. 

5. Fellowships and scholarships should be established in the best li- 
brary schools to stimulate the interest of desirable candidates for ad- 
mission and to enable the university library schools to compete with 
other graduate departments for the best students. 


VIL The Library School and the University 

1. One of the most important conclusions of this study is that the 
professional library school should be organized as a department of a 
university, along with other professional schools, rather than in public 
libraries, state or municipal. Schools now conducted by public libraries 
should either take the definite status of training classes or be trans- 
ferred to university auspices in fact as well as in name. This conclu- 
sion is based on the following considerations: 

(a) The public library often attempts, with inevitable failure, to 
combine the training class and the professional school ; 

(6) The public library is a service institution, not organized for the 
purpose of providing professional education ; 

(c) Public library authorities should not be permitted to use pub- 
lic funds to conduct a professional library school : they would 
not do so, on account of the expense, if library schools main- 
tained proper standards; 

(d) It is not sound public policy for a local municipal library to 
assume the task of training professional librarians ; 

(e) It is easier for the university library school to establish and main- 
tain proper standards; 

(f) The university school has a better opportunity to attract to the 
library profession men and women with college training. 

2. Library schools are noticeably lacking in the prestige enjoyed by 
professional schools generally. The reasons for this condition seem to be: 

(a) The smallness of the library school ; 

(b) The brevity of the course ; 

(c) The predominance of women in the faculty and student body; 

(d) The preponderance of teachers having only the rank of instructor ; 

(e) The total lack of anything recognized as productive scholarship. 

University library schools developed on the lines laid down in this 
report should gradually overcome these handicaps. 

FIJI. Specialized Study 

1. While library service has been growing more and more highly 
specialized, the training provided by library schools has remained gen- 


eral, partly because of insufficient demand for specialized training and 
partly because the schools have been financially unable to expand their 

2. It is recommended that the first year of professional study con- 
tinue to be general and basic; that the work of the second and follow- 
ing years be definitely and even minutely specialized. 

3. The fields of professional library work for which specialized train- 
ing should now be provided include school libraries, college and uni- 
versity libraries, library work with children, library administration, 
cataloguing and classification, county and rural library work, and busi- 
ness libraries. In various other fields there is a growing demand for spe- 
cialized training. 

4. In the organization of specialized training the following consid- 
erations are fundamental: 

(a) Between the year of general study and the period of special train- 
ing at least one year of first-class library experience should be 

(b) The comparatively small demand for an advanced type of spe- 
cialized training makes it necessary to work out a system at a 
minimum expense by utilizing the resources of the stronger pro- 
fessional schools, in cooperation with other educational institu- 
tions in the same vicinity, using the services of competent spe- 
cialists on the part-time plan, and taking full advantage of 
opportunities for field work. 

(c) No one school should be expected to offer courses in all the 
specialties or to give highly specialized courses every year; in 
developing such courses each school will be guided mainly by 
the local demand and the character of the local cooperating 

(d) To develop the type of specialized training recommended, a li- 
brary school must be so situated that it can cooperate with other 
educational institutions, such as schools of education, schools of 
business, etc. 

IX. Training in Service 

1. There is a conspicuous lack of both opportunity and incentive on 
the part of library workers, including library school graduates as well 
as others, to seek continued professional growth and improvement. 
The principal means of creating the proper incentive are to be found 


in well-developed schemes of service, with proper efficiency ratings, and 
a comprehensive certification system. 

&. Agencies for training in service have been confined to summer 
schools, training classes, apprentice classes, institutes, and meetings of 
professional organizations. Most of these are designed only for the sub- 
professional grades of service. For professional workers a new type of 
summer school and short intensive courses in library schools are needed. 
Correspondence study promises also to be of great value. 

8. Virtually no use has yet been made of correspondence instruction 
as a method of training in service for library workers, altho it has reached 
a high degree of development in its application to many other cultural 
and vocational subjects. 

4. Correspondence instruction in library subjects should be under- 
taken at once, provided it can be done under proper conditions, which 
means that: 

(a) The most competent instructors should be employed and special 
attention paid to methods of teaching and the preparation of 
suitable text-books; 

(6) Correspondence instruction should not be expected to be self- 

(c) Such instruction should not be attempted by all or many of the 
existing library schools, but preferably by one special institu- 
tion, or perhaps cooperatively by a number of schools. 

5. The difficulties and objections that can be pointed out do not 
seem to be at all serious. The general conclusion is that some way should 
be found as soon as possible to offer instruction of the highest grade by 
correspondence methods, under conditions which will ensure it a fair trial. 

X. Certification of Librarians and Standardization of Library Schools 

1. No generally recognized standards of fitness for library workers 
have been formulated. With minor exceptions, standards of training and 
fitness are nowhere fixed by law, even for librarians whose salaries are 
paid from public funds. 

2. Library work belongs in that group of professions, along with 
architecture and engineering, in which the first step in formulating 
standards can best be taken through voluntary action by the profes- 
sion itself. After the public has come to appreciate that the compe- 


tency of the librarian, no less than that of the teacher and the doctor, 
must be guaranteed, it may be possible through legislation to supple- 
ment voluntary by compulsory methods. 

3. A plan for a system of voluntary certification of librarians on a 
nation-wide scale has been worked out and is now under consideration 
by the American Library Association. Granted the right kind of lead- 
ership and adequate financial support during its formative period, this 
plan, which provides for a representative and responsible national cer- 
tification board, could be inaugurated at once. 

4. Among the most obvious advantages of the voluntary system of 
national certification are the following: 

(a) It makes possible the establishing of generally recognized stand- 
ards and uniform methods before state and local legislation has 
developed in a haphazard fashion, eventually making it necessary, 
tho exceedingly difficult, to reverse the process and bring about 
a reasonable degree of uniformity. 

(6) On a voluntary basis standards can be applied at once to all 
grades of library personnel and not merely to head librarians, 
as contemplated in most pending legislation. 

(c) Private libraries of many kinds, as well as individual public 
libraries in states which, on account of legal or other obstacles, 
will not have compulsory certification for a long time, can come 
under the national voluntary certification system at once. 

5. Library schools and other training agencies are in need of a repre- 
sentative and authoritative body to assist them not only in formulating 
standards, but particularly in enforcing standards agreed upon. The 
Association of American Library Schools cannot be expected to per- 
form this function. The proposed national certification board could 
serve also as a standardizing agency for library schools, having au- 
thority to enforce its decisions through its power of certifying without 
examination the graduates of approved schools. Besides its functions 
in the certification of librarians and accrediting of library schools, the 
board would naturally become an effective central agency for the pro- 
motion of all types of library training. 

XL The Problem of the Small Library 

1. The improvement of library service in small towns and rural dis- 
tricts is not to be sought through stimulating the development of train- 


ing agencies specifically adapted to the type of librarian and the eco- 
nomic situation represented by the average small public library. 
General improvement in standards of service, through certification of 
librarians, strengthening of professional library schools, and the train- 
ing of leaders, will accomplish more in the long run for the small public 
library than the multiplication of library courses and training schools 
of the usual type. 

2. A permanent solution of the problem also requires a change from 
a fundamentally unsound system of small isolated, independent libra- 
ries to a system in which the administrative unit islarge enough to make 
it economically possible to command the services of an educated, pro- 
fessionally trained and skilled librarian. In most states this means the 
so-called county library system. 

3. The main effort of all concerned should be directed toward the 
extension and improvement of the county library system. Tho there 
is danger that an inherently inefficient system may become further en- 
trenched by the use of makeshift and inadequate remedies, it would be 
a mistake to conclude that therefore no effort should be made in be- 
half of the untrained and often uneducated librarian who, along with 
the community, is the victim of a bad system. 

4. Awaiting the advent of the county library system, the following 
program should be adopted: 

(a) Every community in which it is economically feasible should be 
stimulated to employ the educated, professionally trained 
skilled librarian. 

(b) Communities unable to employ librarians of this professional 
grade and obliged temporarily to be content with inferior ser- 
vice should be assisted in all possible ways by state library de- 
partments and various methods of training in service. 





James L Wyer, Jr., Director. 

This was the first library school to be established. It was founded by Melvil Dewey in 1887 as the 
Columbia College School of Library Economy, New York City. In 1889 it was removed to the New 
York State Library and is now a separate division of the University of the State of New York 
(State Education Department) closely affiliated with the State Library, the director of the State 
Library being: also director of the Library School. The school is supported as a part of the State 
Library by state appropriations. 


Edward F. Stevens, Director; Josephine Adams Rathbone, Vice-Director. 

Pratt Institute was opened in October, 1887. Three years later a class in library methods was 
started for the purpose of training library assistants, instruction being given by members of the 
staff of the Institute library. In 1895 the training class was organized as a regular library school 
with its own faculty. Since 1911 the librarian of the Pratt Institute Free Library has also acted 
as director of the school. 

P. L. Windsor, Director. 

This school was established in 1893 as the Armour Institute Library School, a department of the 
Armour Institute of Technology, Chicago. The original one- year course was extended in 1894 to 
two years. In 1897 the school was transferred to the University of Illinois with a part of its fac- 
ulty, its students, and its technical equipment. The director of the University library IB also 
director of the library school. Funds for its support are provided by the University. 


John H. Leete, Director; Nina C. Brotherton, Principal 

To provide trained assistants for service in the children's reading rooms, which were then a 
new phase of library work, a training class for children's librarians was formed in the Carnegie 
Library of Pittsburgh in October, 1900 In response to a demand for trained workers from other 
libraries a Training School for Children's Librarians waH organized in 1901. In 1916 the Training 
School became a department of the Carnegie Institute and its name was changed to Carnegie 
Library School. While most of the students are still enrolled in the special course for children's 
librarians, the school is now considered a general professional library school, a course for school 
library work having been added in 1917 and a course in general library work in 1918. From 1908 
to 1916 Mr. Andrew Carnegie contributed to the support of the school. Since 1916 it has been sup- 
ported by funds from the Carnegie Institute, an institution endowed by Mr. Carnegie for educa- 
tional purposes. 


June R. Donnelly, Director. 

Simmons College was opened in 1902 as a vocational college for women. It was the desire of its 
founder to establish an institution that would give instruction in "art, science, and industry 
best calculated to enable the scholars to acquire an independent livelihood." The library school 


is one of eight departments of the college, the others being household economics, secretarial 
studies, general science, social work, industrial teaching, education for store service, and public 
health nursing. The School of Library Science offers two courses the four-year course leading 
to the degree of Bachelor of Science and a one-year course for graduates of other colleges and 
women who have had at least three years of academic study elsewhere. 

Alice L. Tyler, Director. 

This school was established in 1904 by the aid of an endowment of $100,000 given by Mr. Car- 
negie. Instruction and field work are carried on in close cooperation with the Cleveland Public 
Library. A special department of library work with children was added in 1920 in continuation 
of courses given by the Cleveland Public Library since 1909. The College for Women of Western 
Reserve University gives full credit toward the bachelor's degree for a year's work in the Library 

Tommie Dora Barker, Director. 

The Southern Library School was established in 1905 in the Carnegie Library of Atlanta by a gift 
from Mr. Carnegie sufficient to carry it on for an experimental period of three years. Since 1908 
Mr. Carnegie and the Carnegie Corporation have made an annual grant of $4500 a year. In 1907 
the present name was adopted. The director is also librarian of the Carnegie Library of Atlanta. 
The management of the school is vested in the administration committee of the Carnegie Library 
of Atlanta. 


Clarence B. Lester, Director; Mary Emogene Hazeltine, Preceptor (Principal). 

This school is an outgrowth of the Wisconsin Summer School of Library Science conducted by 
the Free Library Commission fiom 1896 to 1905. In 1906 the course was lengthened to one year 
and the name changed to Wisconsin Library School. An act of the legislature in 1909 authorized 
the regents of the University of Wisconsin to cooperate in the maintenance of the school and 
designated the present name. Altho nominally a part of the State University, the school is 
administered by the Free Library Commission. The director of the school is Secretary of the 

Elizabeth G. Thome, Director. 

This school originated in a training class established in 1896 to provide assistants for the Uni- 
versity Library. In 1908 a library school was established as a part of the College of Liberal 
Arts and empowered to confer degrees. Two courses are given. The so-called "degree course " 
consists of two years of technical library work, for which ot least two years of college work are 
required The certificate course, to which high school graduates are admitted, also consists of 
two years of technical work and twelve semester hours in the College of Liberal Arts. The 
director of the school is the librarian of the University. 

Ernest J. Reece, Principal. 

A school for general professional training was opened in the New York Public Library in 1911, 
supported by a grant from Mr. Carnegie of $15,000 a year for five years and since continued from 
year to year by the Carnegie Corporation, being increased to $20,000 in 1921. Besides the regu- 
lar one-year course a program of advanced studies is offered to graduates of schools belonging 
to the Association of American Library Schools Beginning in 1920 "open courses" have been 
offered to experienced library workers. 


William . Henry, Director. 

Beginning in 1911 the University of Washington gave formal training in librarianship through a 
department of instruction in Library Economy. In February, 1917, a library school was created. 
The director of the school is also librarian of the University library. 


The origin of this school is explained by the late director, Mr. Joseph F. Daniels, as follows: 
"During the summer of 1910 a few students, together with the staff of the Riverside Public 
Library, began a study of the day's work in order to improve the service and to determine the 
policy and direction of the institution. During the spring of 1913 the need of a cummer school 
was made plain by the frequent calls for such instruction. The cost of a school served by a fac- 
ulty of experience and reputation seemed prohibitive, but with the training class as a nucleus, 
a beginning was made and the short courses have since been held, summer and winter." The ex- 
penses of the school are met by students' fees. 

Marion Horton, Principal. 

This school is an outgrowth of a course of training for library workers conducted by the Los 
Angeles Public Library from 1891 to 1914. In 1914 the training-class system was organized into 
a one-year professional library school. It is supported by public library funds. 

THE ST. Louis LIBRARY SCHOOL, St. Louis, Mo. 

Arthur E. Bostmck, Director; Mrs. Harriet P. Sawyer, Principal. 

The St. Louis Library School, a department of the St. Louis Public Library, was established in 
1917, as an enlargement and extension of the training class of the St Louis Public Library begun 
in 1910. It is supported from funds of the St. Louis Public Library. The director is librarian of 
the St. Louis Public Library. 

Harold L. Leupp, Librarian. 

Courses in library science in the State University were extended in 1919 to cover approxi- 
mately the scope of the one-year professional library schools. Because it was considered that 
the university was the best place for the state supported library school, the California State 
Library School, established by the State Library in 1913, has now been given up. The library 
courses are given by members of the staff of the University Library and other libraries in the 
vicinity. It is hoped that the legislature will soon make a special appropriation for the support 
of a complete library school. 



Answer question 2 and seven others. 

1. To what nations are we indebted for the fundamental principles of our knowledge of any ten 
of the following : 

Algebra Government Printing 

Arithmetical notation Law Rood making 

Architecture Music Sculpture 

Astronomy Physios Textile making 

Building Pottery Theology 

2. a. Discuss in about 300 words the causes for the fall of Rome; 


b. Give in about 800 words an account of the feudal system; 


c. In about 800 words give the causes and consequences of the French revolution. 

8. What was the Holy Roman Empire? 

4. Give the names of five persons connected with the Renaissance, explaining briefly the part 
played by each. 

5. Locate five of the following, giving briefly their historical associations : 

Anjou Helvetia San Juan Hill 

Byzantium Ionia Tours 

Carthage Jamestown Tyre 

Gaul Runny mede 

6. Who were any five of the following 

Albigenses Covenanters Jacobites 

Benedictines Fenians Know-nothings 

Carbonari Guelphs Populists 

7. Give briefly the historical significance of five of the following: 

Alexander the Great John C. Fremont John Marshall 

Simon Bolivar Giuseppe Garibaldi Carl Schurz 

Edmund Burke John Huss John Wycliffe 

John C. Calhoun Niccolo Machiavelli 

8. a. Give a brief sketch of the history of the German Empire between 1870 and 1914; 

b. Discuss briefly the unification of Italy 

8. o. Give the causes and results of the Russo-Japanese war; 

b. What were the causes of the separation of Norway and Sweden ? 

10. Name three danger points in connection with its foreign relations that the United States 
has passed without resorting to war. 

11. Write a brief account of one of the following : 

Louisiana purchase Missouri compromise Northwest territory 


Current Events 
Answer question 1 and five others, of which one must be either 4, 5, 6, or 7. 

1. Name your home town, or that in which you have chiefly lived for the paat twelve months. 
Give five matters of current interest which in that time and in that place engaged the 
thought or energies of any considerable number of its citizens, 

2. a. Name ten organizations which work for the social welfare of the American people; 


b. Name five such organizations and speak of the program or the work of one of them in th 
past twelve months, or as advertised for the coming months. 

8. Name ten men who have had public mention as possible presidential candidates, and give 
the party of each. 

4. Name five persons immediately concerned with Irish, Italian, or Russian affairs, and state 

briefly their connection. 
6. Describe two of the following: 

American legion Interchurch world movement Non-partisan league 

Committee of 48 National education association 

6. What KS the present status of the League of Nations? Name IS states which are members of 
the League Explain briefly the Council, the Assembly, the Secretariat. 

7 Where are the principal oil-fields of the world " By whom are they owned ? Explain the rela- 
tion of oil to recent, present, and possible future events. 

8. With what do you associate any five of the following : 

Gabnele d' Annunzio Alvarado Obregon San Rerao 

Lady Astor Henry Morgenthau William S. Sims 

Paul Deschanel Glenn E Plumb Arthur Townley 
Morris Hillquit 

9. Through what periodicals or by what means do you personally keep in touch with current 

events ' 

General Information 
Answer question 1 and four others. 

1. Explain the allusions in any five of the following quotations: 

Talk to him of Jacob's ladder, and he would ask the number of the steps. Jerrold. 
Through the Had heart of Ruth, when, sick for home. 

She stood in tears amid the alien corn. Keats. 
The Meccas of the mind. Halleck. 
The Niobc of Nations. Byron. 
*T is Apollo comes leading 
His choir, the Nine. Arnold. 

Doubting Thomases at the convention Newspaper headline. 
Was this the face that launched a thousand ships. 

And burnt the topless towers of Ilium ? Marlowe. 
Earth proudly wears the Parthenon, 

As the best gem upon her zone. Emerton. 

2. Characterize briefly two of the following, giving a somewhat longer account of a third : 

Jenny Lind Johannes Brahms Edward A. MacDowell 

Stephen C Foster Fritz Kreialer 

8. Characterize briefly five of the following : 

FraAngelico Francis Seymour Haden Ralph A. Blakelock 

John S. Copley J. A. M. Whiitler Edwin A. Abbey 

El Greco 


4. Characterize in a single phrase (e.g., English poet, American painter) ten of the following: 

Christopher Wren Orville Wright , Herbert Putnam 

Augustus Saint-Gaudens Augustin Daly Sir William Osier 

George Grey Barnard Charles A. Dana Thomas H. Huxley 

Talcott Williams John Stuart Mill Joseph Chamberlain 
Junius Brutus Booth 

5. Give an account of the development during the 20th century of a subject in science or eco- 
nomics in which you are interested, 

6. Locate ten of the following : 

Belfast Yukon Santiago 

Durazzo Hebrides Johannesburg 

Fiume Honolulu Rio de Janeiro 

Congo Vancouver Versailles 

Answer five questions. 

1. a. Name five well-known translations of Greek or Roman classics ; 

6. Tell the story of one of the Greek or Roman classics. 

2. Supply the missing name in five of the following : 

and Beatrice; and Fanny Brawne , and Laura; and Highland Mary ; 

and Stella; Abelard and ; Mary Wollstonecraft and . 

3. a. Give a brief account of the modern literary development of any country other than the 
United States and England, illustrating by some specific titles; 


6. Name five living dramatists, three of whom are continental writers, and give a list of the 
chief works of any one. 

4. Discuss in about 300 words the literary work of any one of the following writers: 

Dante Goethe Hugo Ibsen 
6. Characterize briefly (e.g., American novelist and poet) ten of the following: 

Joseph Conrad Joseph Hergesheimer John Masefleld 

St. John Ervme A. B Housman Graham Wallas 

Robert Frost Vachel Lindsay William Butler Yeats 

John Galsworthy Amy Lowell Archibald Marshall 
W. W. Gibson 

6. a. What were the chief characteristics and who were the leading writers of the Victorian 

period of English literature ; 

b. Discuss any similar group of writers in whom you are especially interested. 

7. Give source of five of these quotations: 

o. The world is too much with us; late and soon. 

Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers 
6. The light shineth in the darkness, and the darkness comprehendeth it not. 

c. A sorrow's crown of sorrow is remembering happier things. 

d. Oh to be in England 
Now that April *s there. 

e. I saw the spires of Oxford as I was passing by, 

The gray spires of Oxford, against the pearl pray sky. 
/. Or like stout Cortez when with eagle eyes 
He stared at the Pacific, and all his men 
Looked at each other with a wild surmise, 
Silent, upon a peak in Darien. 


0. Or ever the silver cord be loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher be broken 

at the fountain, or the wheel broken at the cistern. 

8. If you were to choose the first ten books to be printed in the new type for blind readers, what 
ones would you choose, and why? 




What leagues of states or nations have existed at various tiroes prior to the Great War? Give 
the object of each. 

State briefly the event connected with each of the following dates : 480 B.C., A.D. 451, A.D. 476, 
A.D. 1066, A.D. 1688. 

What Mediterranean races shaped the 20th century conception of the arts, law, religion, 
mathematics, and philosophy? 

Show how the monastic orders benefited western Europe in other than religious matters. 

Trace the development of the Mediterranean civilization from the earliest known history down 
to the Roman Empire. 

Give an outline history of the 19th century in Europe, showing the principal changes that took 
place in the government and territorial possessions of England, France, Germany, and Italy. 

Discuss the relations that existed between church and state in Europe during the Middle 
Ages. What great ideas underlay the conception of the Holy Roman Empire ? 

What were some of the immediate political results of the Protestant reformation ? 

What peoples of Europe are Celtic in origin ? What are Teutonic ? Which Slavic ? Which Tu- 
ranian? How does their origin affect their political sympathies and relations? 

What progress toward constitutional government has been made among Asiatic countries in 
recent times '* Write about half a page concerning one of those countries. 

Give a brief history of the political parties in the United States showing the issues that led 
to the formation of each, naming their leaders and mentioning as many as you can of the presi- 
dents elected by each party. 

Discuss the causes and results of the Wars of the Roses. 

Give the origin of the " blood and iron " policy of Germany and the outstanding men who laid 
the foundation of the present German Empire 

Around what social questions were the following novels written? 

Alton Locke Nicholas Nickleby Hard Cash 

Uncle Tom's Cabin Daniel Derorida 

In what books do the following characters appear ? Answer 10. 

Tiny Tim * Beatrix Fairfax Gloriana 

Maggie Tulliver John Ridd Nora Helmer 

Bottom Ben Gunn Arthur Dimmesdale 

Bathsheba Everdeen Mrs. Proudie Jeanie Deans 

Who wrote the following and when were they written ? Answer 10. 

Don Quixote Great Expectations Idylls of the King 

Tom Jones Canterbury Tales Pride and Prejudice 

Paradise Lost Quentin Durward Pilgrim's Progress 

The Divine Comedy Pendennis Stones of Venice 

Barchester Towers Old Wives' Tales 


Give author and title and briefly characterize one important work in the literature of each of 
the following countries : 

Norway RuMia Italy Spain India 

Name gome of the men identified with each of the following literary groups : 

English Lake poets Augustan age of Eng- Scandinavian drama- 

Pre-Raphaelites lish literature tists 

Transcendentalists French romanticists Roman poets 

Restoration dramatists 

What is an epic ? What are the three great epics of classical literature ? Give concerning 
one of these (a) Author and language in which written ; (6) Historical foundation; (c) Theme; 
(d) Some of the qualities that determine its rank in literature. 

Plan the chapter heads for a book to be called Literary Landmarks of America. What local- 
ities would have to be included and what names are associated with each? 

What are some of your literary heresies; t.e., authors whom you enjoy reading but whose 
works do not rank with standard literature ? Write a brief defense of one of them. 

Who wrote (answer ten) : 

Montcalm and Wolfe The Blessed Damozel Antigone 

Emma Jerusalem Delivered Modern Painters 

The Wandering Jew The Life of the Bee Woman and Labor 

Literature and Dogma Lycidas On the Heights 

Discuss briefly the poetry movement of the present day. 

What is meant by ten of the following terms: epic; stilted verse ; miracle plays; conven- 
tional verse; genuine pathos; monolog; anthology; sagas; poetic license; psychological devel- 
opment; same thesis; plot; sustained interest; character delineation ; realism; romanticism. 

What is meant by ten of the following: Lake poets; Transcendentalists; Song of Roland; 
Nibelungenlied; Victorian age; Nature poets; Naturalists; Romance literatures; Celtic re- 
vival; Saxon influence; Renaissance; Mediaeval literature; Arthurian legends; Beowulf; 

General Information 

With what do you associate the following : 

Bayreuth festival Non-partisan league Spartacans 

Credit Mobilier Program music Tanagra 

Empirical Psychoanalysis Tara's Hall 


Characterize briefly ten of the following persons, locating each by country and by century : 

Wolsey Thomas a Becket Auguste Rodin 

Cato Noah Webster Henry Davison 

Xerxes Henry David Thoreau Henri Pe*tain 

James Bryce Sobieski William James 

Garibaldi Robespierre Phillips Brooks 

Alexander Hamilton Carmen Sylva Rabindranath Tagore 

Explain what is comprised in the following subjects (answer eight ): 

Chemical technology Counterpoint Archaeology 

Numismatics Physiological chemistry Economic geology 

Child psychology Meteorology Pedagogy 

Impressionism Psychotherapy Aesthetics 

Sanitary engineering Bibliography 


Name the painter or sculptor of the following, and tell, when possible, the whereabout! 
(answer eight} : 

The Laocoftn The Horse Fair Beatrice Cenci 

The Man with the Hoe Napoleon at St Helena Mona Liia 

The Descent from the The Greek Slave Venus de Milo 

Cross Die Heilige Nacht 

What are the favorable results hoped for from (answer five): 

City planning Conservation of water Self government in 

Community pageants power schools 

Rural credits Presidential primaries Restricted immigration 

Indeterminate sentence 

Write about a page on any one of the following subjects : Adamson law; Russian revolution 
of 1917; The situation as to Home Rule in Ireland; Recent movements in public education; 
French revolution ; The Crusades. 



ACADEMIC credit for library school 
courses, 69. 

Accessioning: description of course, 20; 
hours of class-room instruction (table), 

Advanced study, see Specialized study. 

American Library Association : Catalog 
Rules, 48, 49 ; List of Subject Headings, 
48; Manual of Library Economy, 50; 
Publishing Board, 50, 51; as employ- 
ment agency, 106 ; basis of member- 
ship, 125 ; committee on standardiza- 
tion and certification, 126 ; Committee 
on Enlarged Program, 127. 

American Library Institute, 125. 

Apprenticeship, 10, 36, 38. 

Association of American Library Schools : 
standardization of terminology, 53; re- 
port on professional degrees, 70-71; 
organization and standards, 121-122; 
membership, 121; supervision over 
training agencies, 122, 129. 

Atlanta, Carnegie Library of, Library 
School: field work in the curriculum, 
56; support, 73; student fees in 1921, 
74 ; maximum capacity, 75 ; enrolment 
in 1920-21, 75; number completing 
course in 1921, 75; average initial sal- 
ary of graduates, 75; general statistics 
of graduates in 1921 (table), 78; gen- 
eral information, 150. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, Subject: description of 
course, 17; hours of class-room instruc- 
tion (table), 22. 

Bibliography, Trade: description of 
course, 18 ; hours of class-room instruc- 
tion (table), 22. 

Binding and Repair: description of 
course, 18; hours of class-room instruc- 
tion (table), 22. 

Book Selection : description of course, 
13-14 ; hours of class-room instruction 
(table), 22. 

Books for the Blind: description of 
course, 21. 

Bostwick, A. E. (quoted), 26. 

Budgets of library schools (table), 72. 

Business library work : specialized study, 
97-98, 100. 

CALIFORNIA : compulsory certification of 

librarians, 126. 
California State Library: correspondence 

course in cataloguing, 119. 

California, University of, Courses in Li- 
brary Science: joint course, 69; sup- 
port, 73; maximum capacity, 75; en- 
rolment in 1920-21, 75 ; number com- 
pleting course in 1921, 75; average 
initial salary of graduates, 75; general 
statistics of graduates in 1921 (table), 
78; general information, 151. 

Carnegie Corporation: annual grants to 
library schools, 73. 

Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pitts- 
burgh : joint course, 69. 

Carnegie Library of Atlanta, Library 
School, see Atlanta, Carnegie Library 
of, Library School. 

Carnegie Library School, Pittsburgh, see 
Pittsburgh, Carnegie Library School. 

Cataloguing: description of course, 12- 
13 ; hours of class-room instruction, 21, 
(table), 22; specialized study, 96; cor- 
respondence course given by Califor- 
nia State Library, 119. 

Certification of librarians : recognition of 
clerical grade of assistants, 1 1 ; relation 
to salaries, 85 ; recognition of special- 
ized training, 99, 102; as stimulus to 
improvement in service, 1 10 ; as aid to 
county library system, 112; recom- 
mended by Minnesota Library Asso- 
ciation, 123; compulsory in California, 
126; laws relating to, 126; plan of 
A.L.A. committee, 126; present sta- 
tus of movement, 127-128. See also Na- 
tional Board of Certification for Libra- 

Chicago, University of: correspondence 
course in library science, 119; attitude 
toward correspondence study, 120. 

Classification: description of course, 14; 
hours of class-room instruction, 21, 
(table), 22; specialized study, 96. 

Class-room hours given to various sub- 
jects (table), 22. 

College course: prerequisite to profes- 
sional training, 4, 5, 24, 26-27, 79; most 
essential part of training, 6; as qualifi- 
cation for library school instructors, 34, 

Community Relations: description of 
course, 20; hours of class-room instruc- 
tion (table), 22. 

Correspondence study, see Instruction 
Correspondence method. 

Correspondence Study in Universities 
and Colleges, by Dr. A. J. Klein 
(quoted), 115-116, 120. 



County library service, 97, 100, 112, 131, 

Creech, J. L. (quoted), 83. 

Current Events: description of course, 
16; hours of class-room instruction 
(table), 22 ; place in the curriculum, 24. 

Curriculum, 12-25; description of courses, 
12-21; number of courses, 21; relative 
importance of different subjects, 21-23 ; 
hours of class-room instruction (table), 
22 ; need for standardization, 23 ; evolu- 
tion, 23 ; over-emphasis on pure litera- 
ture, 24; reflects demands of profes- 
sional workers, 24-25; annual library 
visit, 66-67. See also Field Work ; also 
names of courses. 

DECIMAL Classification, 48, 49. 

Degrees, 70-71. 

Drexel Institute Library School, 84-85. 

EDUCATION for library work, 3-11. 

Entrance examinations: discussion of 
present system, 27-29 ; uniformity de- 
sirable, 28-29; specimen questions, 
New York Public Library School, 152- 
155 ; typical questions, various schools, 

Entrance requirements, 26-33; age, 26; 
foreign languages, 26; bachelor's de- 
gree, 26-27 ; experience, 29-30 ; per- 
sonal qualifications, 30-32 ; ability to 
use typewriter, 32-33. 

Exchange of instructors, 46. 

Experience as prerequisite to professional 
training, 29-30. 

FEES, Student, in 1921 (table), 74. 

Fellowships : for instructors, 51-52 ; for 
students, 109. 

Fiction: hours of class-room instruction 
(table), 22 ; study as part of technical 
course, 23-24. See also Book Selection 
Description of course. 

Field Work, 53-68; terminology, 53; 
aims and purposes, 54-55; amount 
and position in the curriculum, 55-57, 
(table), 56 ; as means of acquiring skill, 
55, 59, 65 ; methods of making assign- 
ments, 57-58 ; as aid to placement, 59, 
60 ; in one-year professional course, 59, 
65 ; suitable conditions, 61-63; super- 
vision important, 63, 64, 66 ; student re- 
ports, 63-64; for correspondence stu- 
dents, 116-117. 

Filing: hours of class-room instruction 
(table), 22. 

GODFREY, Hollis (quoted), 84-85. 

HIGH school education as preparation 
for library work, 4, 5, 28. 

High school library work, see School Li- 

History of Libraries: description of 
course, 17; hours of class-room instruc- 
tion (table), 22. 

Hughes, R. N., 90. 

ILLINOIS, University of, Library School: 
requirements for admission, 26-27 ; at- 
tention to undergraduate course, 28; 
attitude toward part-time instruct- 
ors, 43 ; field work in the curriculum, 
56 ; annual library visit, 66 ; academic 
credit, 69; degrees, 70, 71; support, 
73 ; student fees in 1921, 74 ; maximum 
capacity, 75 ; enrolment in 1920-21, 
75; number completing course in 1921, 
75 ; average initial salary of graduates, 
75 ; general statistics of graduates in 
1921 (table), 78; specialized study, 92; 
salary statistics, 93-94 ; preparation for 
high school librarianship, 94-95 ; senior 
classes, 100 ; general information, 149. 
Indexing: description of course, 20 ; hours 

of class-room instruction (table), 22. 
Instruction: class-room hours (table), 22; 
higher standards desirable, 38, 51, 
82, 89; use of syllabi, 39, 41, 49; 
methods, 40-47 ; part-time system, 
42-44; special lectures, 44-45; coop- 
erative, 45-47 ; use of reading lists, 

Correspondence method, 114-120; ad- 
aptation to library training, 42 ; need 
for text-books, 49, 116; as aid to im- 
proved library service, 111 ; as re- 
cruiting agency for schools, 117 ; for 
experienced workers, 117; attitude 
of library school principals, 118 ; re- 
striction to one institution, 118; 
courses now offered, 118-120; appli- 
cation to specialized study, 120. 
Lecture method: general discussion, 
40-41; extensive use due to lack of 
text-books, 50. 
Project method, 39. 
See also Field Work. 
Instructors, see Teaching Staff. 
Inventory : hours of class-room instruc- 
tion (table), 22. 

J OINT courses, 69-70. 

KLEIN, A. J. (quoted), 115-116, 120. 
Kroeger's Guide to Reference Books, 48. 



LANGUAGES: description of course, 20; 
hours of class-room instruction (table), 
22; requirement for admission to li- 
brary schools, 26. 

Lecture method of instruction, see In- 
struction Lecture method. 
Legislative Reference Work: special 
course at University of Wisconsin Li- 
brary School, 92, 100. 
Lending Systems : description of course, 
17-18; hours of class-room instruction 
(table), 22. 
Librarianship as a profession, 32-33, 81- 


Library Administration: description of 
course, 15 ; hours of class-room instruc- 
tion (table), 22; specialized study, 96- 
Library appropriations : affected by lack 

of professional standards, 123. 
Library Buildings : description of course, 
19-20; hours of class-room instruction 
(table), 22. 

Library commissions, 110-111, 134. 
Library inspectors, 111. 
Library institutes, 111-112, 134. 
Library organizers, 111, 134. 
Library schools: location in 1921 (map), 
frontispiece; limited resources, 25, 
72; as employment agencies, 60, 
103-106; fundamental responsibil- 
ity, 60-61, 64; annual library visit, 
67; graduate basis, 70, 86-90; 108- 
109; financial statistics, 72-74; utili- 
zation of existing plants, 74-76; need 
for increased number not justified by 
facts, 74-76, 82 ; as adjuncts to pub- 
lic hbraries,86-89; statistics for 1920- 
21 (table), 75; as recruiting agencies, 
107-108 ; standardization movement, 
127-128; general information, 149- 

Graduates: placement, 60, 63, 103- 106 ; 
of joint courses, 69 ; total number, 76 ; 
men, 76, 77 ; women who have mar- 
ried, 77, 79; general statistics, 1921 
(table), 78; salaries, 80-82. 
See also Association of American Li- 
brary Schools; Curriculum; Degrees; 
Entrance examinations; Entrance 
requirements; Instruction; Joint 
courses ; Summer Schools ; Teaching 
Staff; Training Classes; also names 
of schools. 
Library technique: place in training for 

librarianship, 6-8. 

Library work : two distinct types, profes- 
sional and clerical, 3-11. 
Library Work with Children: description 

of course, 15-16 ; hours of class-room 
instruction (table), 22 ; special courses, 
92, 95-96. 

Library Workers'(Association, 105. 

Loan funds for students, 109. 

Loan Work, see Lending Systems. 

Loans, Inter-library, 130. 

Los Angeles Public Library, Library 
School: requirements for admission, 
26-27; cooperative instruction, 46; field 
work in the curriculum, 56 ; joint course, 
69; support, 73; student fees in 1921, 
74 ; maximum capacity, 75 ; enrolment 
in 1920-21, 75; number completing 
course in 1921, 75; average initial sal- 
ary of graduates, 75 ; percentage of 
women graduates who have married, 
77; general statistics of graduates in 
1921 (table), 78 ; college graduates in 
1921 class,79; general information, 151. 

MANN, C. R. (quoted), 91. 
Matheson, K.G.,81. 
Men with library training, 76-77. 
Minnesota Library Association: report 

on college trained public librarians in 

the state, 122, 123. 
Missouri, University of: correspondence 

course in reference books and their 

use, 119-120. 

NATIONAL Board of Certification for Li- 
brarians : as aid to standardization of 
courses, 23 ; as agency for working out 
uniform admission tests, 29; as prize 
awarding body for encouraging prepa- 
ration ot text-books, 52 ; as placement 
aid, 106; recommended by A. L. A. 
committee, 127; financing, 127-128; 
analogy to American Medical Associa- 
tion Council on Medical Education, 
129. See also Certification of librari- 

NewYorkPublic Library, Library School : 
purpose and scope of entrance exami- 
nations, 27 ; field work in the curricu- 
lum, 56 ; annual library visit, 66 ; sup- 
port, 73; student fees in 1921, 74; max- 
imum capacity, 75 ; enrolment in 1920- 
21, 75; number completing course in 
1921, 75 ; average initial salary of grad- 
uates, 75; graduates engaged in library 
work, 77; general statistics of grad- 
uates in 1921 (table), 78; college grad- 
uates in 1921 class, 79; second year 
course, 100 ; favorable location for busi- 
ness library course, 100; general infor- 
mation, 150; specimen entrance exami- 
nation questions, 152-155. 



New York State Library School i require- 
ments for admission, 26, 27 ; experience 
as prerequisite, SO; attitude toward 
part-time instructors, 43; field work in 
the curriculum, 56 ; annual library visit, 
66; degrees, 70, 71; support, 73; stu- 
dent fees in 1921, 74; maximum capa- 
city, 75; enrolment in 1920-21, 75; 
number completing course in 1921, 75 ; 
average initial salary of graduates, 75 ; 
men graduates, 77 ; general statistics 
of graduates in 1921 (table), 78 ; spe- 
cialized study, 92 ; preparation for high 
school librarianship, 94-95; senior 
classes, 100 ; general information, 149. 

Notes and Samples : description of course, 

OCCIDENTAL College, Los Angeles : joint 

course, 69. 
Order Work: description of course, 18-19; 

hours of class-room instruction (table), 

22; specialized study, 96. 

PERSONAL qualifications for admission to 
library schools, 30-32. 

Pittsburgh, Carnegie Library School: re- 
quirements for admission, 26; field work 
in the curriculum, 56 ; annual library 
visit, 66 ; joint courses, 69 ; student fees 
in 1921, 74 ; maximum capacity, 75 ; en- 
rolment in 1920-21, 75 ; number com- 
pleting course in 1921, 75 ; average ini- 
tial salary of graduates, 75; general 
statistics of graduates in 1921 (table), 
78; library work with children, 92, 95; 
general information, 149. 

Pittsburgh, University of : joint course, 

Pluramer, M. W. (quoted), 111-112. 

Practice work : preliminary, for inexperi- 
enced students, 30; definition, 53. 

Pratt Institute School of Library Sci- 
ence: field work in the curriculum, 56, 
58; annual library visit, 66; support, 73; 
student fees in 1921, 74; maximum ca- 
pacity, 75; enrolment in 1920-21, 75; 
number completing course in 1921 , 75; 
average initial salary of graduates, 75 ; 

^eral statistics 01 graduates in 1921 
>le), 78 ; " normal course," 97 ; gen- 
eral information, 149. 

Printing and Publishing: description of 
course, 19 ; hours of class-room instruc- 
tion (table), 22. 

Professional literature : A. L. A. Manual 
of Library Economy, 50 ; as means of 
raising standard of instruction, 50; 
reasons for dearth, 50-52; suggested 

methods of encouraging preparation, 
52. See also Text-books* 

Professional organizations : hampered by 
limited funds, 112. 

Professional standards, see Standardiza- 
tion and Certification. 

Project method of instruction, 39. 

Public Documents : description of course, 
16; hours of class-room instruction 
(table), 22 ; specialized study, 98. 

REAVIS, W. E., 46. 

Recommendations of report, 136-148. 

Recruiting for the library profession, 33, 
51, 89, 107-109. 

Reference Work: description of course, 
14 ; hours of class-room instruction, 21, 
(table), 22 ; inadequacy of present train- 
ing facilities, 95 ; correspondence course 
by University of Missouri, 119-120. 

Research Work : inadequacy of present 
training facilities, 95. 

Riverside Library Service School: coop- 
erative instruction, 46; support, 73; 
maximum capacity, 75; enrolment in 
1920-21, 75 ; number completing course 
in 1921, 75; average initial salary of 
graduates, 75 ; general information, 151. 

Round tables, 111-112. 

SABBATICAL years, 51. 

St. Louis Library School : field work in 
the curriculum, 56 ; support, 73 ; stu- 
dent fees in 1921, 74; maximum ca- 
pacity, 75; enrolment in 1920-21, 75; 
number completing course in 1921, 75 ; 
average initial salary of graduates, 75 ; 
general statistics of graduates in 1921 
(table), 78; general information, 151. 

Salaries, 83-85, 123; of teaching staffs 
(table), 73; of library school graduates, 
79-82, (table), 80, 81. 

Scholarships, 109. 

School Libraries: description of course, 
19; hours of class-room instruction 
(table), 22; specialized study, 94-95; 
correspondence course given by Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, 119. 

Seminar : inappropriate use of term, 42. 

Shelf Work : description of course, 20 ; 
hours of class-room instruction (table), 

Simmons College School of Library Sci- 
ence : field work in the curriculum, 56 ; 
joint course, 69, 70; degrees, 71; sup- 
port, 73; student fees in 1921, 74; 
maximum capacity, 75; enrolment in 
1920-21, 75 ; number completing course 



in 1991, 75; average initial salary of 
graduates, 75 ; percentage of women 
graduates who have married, 77 ; gen- 
eral statistics of graduates in 1991 
(table), 78; general information, 149- 

Small libraries, 130-135; need for trained 
librarian, 5-6, 133 ; recruiting staff, 10- 

Special lectures, 44-4(5. 

Special Libraries : description of course, 
21. See also Business library work. 

Specialized study, 91-102; failure of 
schools to provide, 91-92, 99 ; in one- 
year course, 93; subjects requiring, 94- 
98 ; cooperation with other institutions, 
98; experience a prerequisite, 98-99; 
suggestions for organization, 100-102; 
cost of administration, 101-102 ; in ab- 
sentia, 102. 

Standardization and Certification, 121- 
129; A. L. A. committee, 126. See also 
Certification of librarians; National 
Board of Certification for Librarians. 

Student self-help, 109. 

Students in university : normal distribu- 
tion, 89-90. 

Subject Headings : description of course, 
16; hours of class-room instruction 
(table), 22. 

Summer Schools, 111, 113, 117, 134, 135. 

Syllabi : extensive use in instruction, 39, 
41, 49. 

Syracuse University Library School: 
degrees, 70; support, 73; student fees 
in 1921, 74; maximum capacity, 75 ; en- 
rolment in 1920-21, 75; number com- 
pleting course in 1921, 75; average ini- 
tial salary of graduates, 75; general 
information, 150. 

TEACHER training courses, 97. 

Teaching Staff: 34-39; education, train- 
ing, and experience, 34-37, (table), 35; 
difficulty in recruiting, 37 ; part-time 
instructors, 42-44; special lecturers, 
44-45; exchange of instructors, 46; 
specialists for snort intensive courses, 
46; academic status, 71; salaries 
(table), 73. 

Terminology, 23, 42. 

Text-books, 48-52; for correspondence 
instruction, 116. 

Training Classes : essentials of courses, 
7-8; purpose and function, 10,64-65, 
76, 86; admission of students from 
other libraries, 11. 

Training for Librarianship, by M. W; 
Plummer; rev. by F. K. Walter 
(quoted), 111-112. 

Training in service, 110-113. 

Tuition fees, 74. 

Typewriter, ability to use, as prerequi- 
site to library training, 32-33. 

UNITED States Bureau of Education, 36, 

VISITING lecturers, 44-46. 

\VASHINGTON, University of, Library 
School: field work in the curriculum, 
56; joint course, 69; degrees, 70, 71; 
support, 73; maximum capacity, 75; 
enrolment in 1920-21, 75; number 
completing course in 1921, 75 ; average 
initial salary of graduates, 75 ; general 
statistics of graduates in 1921 (table), 
78; general information, 151. 

Western Reserve University Library 
School : field work in the curriculum, 
56 ; joint course, 69 ; degrees, 71 ; sup- 
port, 73; student fees in 1921, 74; 
maximum capacity, 75 ; enrolment in 
1920-21, 75 ; number completing course 
in 1921, 75; average initial salary of 
graduates, 75; general statistics of 
graduates in 1921 (table), 78; library 
work with children, 92, 95, 100; gen- 
eral information, 1 50. 

Wisconsin, University of, Extension Di- 
vision: correspondence course for 
school librarians, 119. 

Wisconsin, University of, Library 
School: experience as a prerequisite, 
29-30; field work in the curriculum, 
53, 55, 56, 67; joint course, 69; de- 
grees, 71 ; support, 73; student fees in 
1921, 74; maximum capacity, 75; en- 
rolment in 1920-21, 75; number com- 
pleting course in 1921, 75; average 
initial salary of graduates, 75 ; general 
statistics of graduates in 1921 (table), 
78 ; legislative reference work, 92, 100; 
general information, 150. 

Women in library work, 71, 107.