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Full text of "Training in night movements, based on actual experience in war;"

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COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT. 



BASED ON 

ACTUAL EXPERIENCES IN WAR 



TRANSLATED FROM THE JAPANESE 



By First Lieutenant C. BURNETT, Fourtk Cavalry 



U. S. CAVALRY ASSOCIATION 
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 



1914 



COPYRIGHT, IQ14, BY 
S. CAVALRY ASSOCIATION. 



KETCHESON PRINTING CO., 
LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS. 



JIJN -5 1914 



さ'' ノ i^o 



7 



© CI /Um; 1 9 i 



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. 



The importance of night movements and night at- 
tacks in the military operations of the present day is 
so generally recognized, that any discussion on that point 
would be more than superfluous. That the Japanese 
army, from the standpoint of practical experience, 
is best qualified, to discuss such operations, would seem 
to follow as a matter also beyond discussion. For this 
reason it occured to me that the translation of this work 
of a Japanese officer who was a company commander 
during the Japanese-Russian War, might, and I ven- 
ture to say, does contain much that will be of interest 
and profit to our own service. 

Night movements are admittedly among the most 
difficult operations of war ; the margin between victory 
and defeat is so small that it is a difficult matter to say 
to just what comparatively trivial reason success or 
failure may be due. Such being the case, it naturally 
follows that minute and painstaking training is abso- 
lutely necessary if success can be even hoped for. Mili- 
tary writers on this subject have usually recognized 
that fact, but their treatment of the matter has con- 
sisted so largely of vague generalities that they are 
not of much assistance to Captain Jones in the train- 
ing of his company and are absolutely useless to Ser- 



4 



geant Smith in leading his squad. 1 his work is not an 
academic discussion of night movements in general, 
but is full of valuable practical hints on the training of 
the small units that go to make up the great military 
machine ; hints not evolved from the inner conscious- 
ness, but ideas stamped in the mind by actual experi- 
ences of nights on Manchurian battlefields. 

Due perhaps to national characteristics, Japanese 
army training of all kinds proceeds along more exact 
and minute lines than is usual in our own service. While 
many may consider that this work errs in that direction, 
it would be well to consider careiuily the necessity for 
such careful training in the most delicate of all military 
movements. If Private Brown has not been thorougnly 
trained and accustomed to night movements, he is 
sure to make mistakes ; multiply him by a hundred or a 
thousand, and the margin of safety for success will 
become rather slim, to say the least. 

This work has been translated at odd times in the 
press of much other work of the same general character. 
For this reason there has been no time to spend on nice- 
ties of expression or in polishing up the English ; and 
indeed I am not sure but that following the author's 
words rather closely does not more than compensate 
for faulty diction. If the meaning can be comprehended 
I shall be satisfied and beg indulgence for all the things 
lacking. 

Tokyo, Japan. 

October, 1913. 



CONTENTS. 



Page, 

I. Psychological Action at Nighttime 13 

Night and morbid watchfulness, p. 13; night 
and illusions, p. 14; at night, suggestion is 
easy, p, 14; night brings out the weak points 
of the individual, p. 15. * 

II. Important Measures Which Correct Unfav- 

orable PSYCHOLOGICAL ACTION AT NiGHT 16 
At night, especially, strict discipline is neces- 
sary, p. 16; a high morale and a firm defensive 
spirit, p. 16; silence in night movements, 
p. 17; night and massed formations, p. 18; 
night movements and self-confidence, p. 18; 
night movements and self-possession, p. 19. 

III. How TO Dress 19 

The requirements of dress, p. 19; order of 
dressing, p. 20; peace time preparations ― 
preparedness, p. 21. 

IV. Training in Dressing 21 

Occasions, p. 21; orderly methods, p. 22; 
number of times practiced, p. 22. 

V. Night and Vision 23 

Importance of cultivating the vision at 
night, p. 23; vision at night can be improved 
by training, p. 23; night vision 一 detecting 
and losing sight of, p. 24; night vision and 
objects and color of surrounding objects, p. 
24; night vision and relation of light and 
shadow, p. 25; relation of the seasons to 
night vision, p. 25; night vision and our own 
posture, p. 26; night vision and field glasses, 
p. 26, 



6 



- Page. 

VI. Method of Training Night Vision 26 

General principles, p. 26; important points 
of training, p. 27; methods of training, p. 28; 
experiments, p. 29. 

VII. Hearing at Night 30 

Character of the ground and sound, p. 30; 
kinds of covering substances, p. 30; the size 
of the detachment and the relative weight 
of materials, p. 31; weather, p. 31. 

VIII. Training in Hearing at Night 32 

Important points to be considered, p. 32; 
the march of infantry, p. 32; the march of 
' cavalry, p. 32; the march of artillery, p. 32; 

the noise of intrenching, p. 33; methods, p. 
33; inferences to be drawn from sounds, 
p. 34. 

IX. Quiet March at Night 35 

Importance, p. 35; important cautions in a 
night march, p. 35. 

X. Training in Quiet Marches at Night 37 

Dress, p. 37 ; order of training, p. 37 ; method 
of carrying out the above training, p. 37; 
cautions, p. 37. 

XI. The Crossing of Rough Ground at Night 38 
Importance of practice, p. 38; summary, p. 
38. 

XIL Training in Crossing Rough Ground at 

Night 39 

Clothing, p. 39; order of training, p. 39 

XIIL Determination of Direction at Night 40 

Importance, p. 40; methods of determining 
direction, p. 40; by fixed stars, p. 40; by the 
moon, p. 42; by the map, p. 42; by compass, 
p. 42; other methods, p. 42. 

XIV. Training in Determining Direction 43 
How to find the north star and how to use it, 
p. 43; method by compass, p. 43. 



7 



Page. 



XV. Method of Making a Light at Night 44 

Importance, p. 44; manner of making a light, 
p. 44; individual training, p. 45. 

XVI. Connection and Connecting Files at Night.. 45 
Methods, p. 45; by sound, "p. 45; by signals, 
p, 46; connecting files, , p. 47 ; messengers, 
p. 48; relays, p. 53. 

XVII. Night Firing : 

Cautions for individuals, p. 55. 

XVIII. Training in Night Firing 55 

Horizontal firing and posture, p. 55; method 
and order of training, p. 56; formation, p. 56; 
opportunities for training, p. 56; methods, 
p. 56. 

XIX. Night Bayonet Exercises 57 

Importance of such drill, p. 57 ; cautions in 
the use of the bayonet at night, p. 57. 

XX. Training in Night Bayonet Fencing 58 

Scope of training, p. 58; method of training, 
p, 58; against dummy figures, p. 58; funda- 
mental training, p. 58. 

XXI. Night Intrenching 59 

Importance, p. 59; important points in train- 
ing, p. 59. 

XXII. Training in Night Intrenching 61 

Methods, p. 61; cautions, p. 61. 

XXIII. Methods of Recognizing Friendly Troops 

AT Night 

Importance, p. 62; methods of recognition, 
p. 62; disadvantages of speech, p. 62; suit- 
able methods of recognition, p. 63. 

XXIV. Night Demolition Work 63 



Training, p. 63; requisites for demolition 
work, p. 63; important principles of demoli- 
tion work, p. 64 ; methods of training, p. 64. 



8 



Page. 



XXV. Methods OF Using Hand Grenades at Night.. 64 

XXVI. Night Sentinels 65 

Training, p. 65; position of sentinels, p. 65; 
posture, p. 67 ; reconnaissance, p. 67; chal- 
lenging, p. 68; firing, p. 68; reports, p. 70; 
connection, p. 70; friendly patrols, p. 72; 
reliefs, p. 73. 

XXVII. Training of Night Sentinels 74 

Amount of light, p. 74; terrain, p. 74; senti- 
nels and squads, p. 74; example of such train- 
ing, p. 75; character of such training, p. 76. 

XXVIII. Night Patrols 77 



Methods of connection, p. 77; methods of 
maintaining direction, p. 77; methods of pas- 
sing and reconnaissance of various terrain and 
physical objects, p. 79; indications, p. 82; 
reconnaissance of the enemy's line of sen- 
tinells, p. 83; night patrols and quiet, p. 84; 
night patrols and their roads, p. 84; recon- 
naissance and recollection of terrain, p. 84. 



XXIX. Night Hidden Patrols 85 

Suitable characteristics, p. 86; distribution, 
p. 86; position, p. 87. 

XXX. Training of Night Patrols 87 

Training and terrain, p. 87 ; methods of train- 
ing, p. 87. 

XXXI. Movements of a Detachment at Night 90 

Leadership at night, p. 90; to accustom 
troops to change of formation at night, p. 92; 
individual cautions in movements by squad, 
p. 93. 

XXXIL Training in Squad Movements at Night 94 

Orders, p. 94; night movements and strict- 
ness, p. 94. 

XXXIII. A Squad's Night Firing 94 

When carried out, p. 94; important points in 
the preparation for night firing, p, 95; 



9 



Page. 

method of firing, p. 98; collective and in- 
dividual lire, p. 99. 

XXXIV. Method of Training in Squad Firing at 

Night 99 

Orders and methods of training, p. 99, 

XXXV. Squad Night Intrenchments 99 

Method of tracing, p. 99; methods relative 
to the line of trace, p. 100; cautions for in- 
dividual soldiers and execution of work, p. 
100; method of filling sandbags and in- 
trenchments in which used, p. 100. 

XXXVI. Method of Training in Night Intrenching.. 102 

XXXVII. Training and Method of Passing Obstacles 

AT Night 103 

Importance of passing obstacles by detach- 
ment, p. 103; cautions for the Commanding 
Officer with respect to obstacles, p. 103; 
cautions for soldiers when crossing obstacles, 
p. 104. 

XXXVIII. Night Marches and Training 105 

Occasions when night marches are essential, 
p. 105; cautions for staff officers, p. 105; 
cautions for individual soldiers, p. 107 ; 
articles carried by officers, p. 108. 

XXXIX. Night Battles ― (A) The Offensive 109 

Cause of success in night attacks, p. 109; 
cause of non-success in night attacks, p. 109; 
cautions in night movements (General regula- 
tions), p. 110; the Commanding Officers and 
soldiers in night attacks, p. Ill; character- 
istics of night attacks, p. 112; method of 
night attacks, p. 113; night attacks and arms 
of the service, p. 114; the point of attack at 
night, p. 115; reconnaissance and plans, p. 
117; hour for night attack, p. 118; posi- 
tion when beginning a night attack, p. 119; 
night orders or instructions, p. 121; distribu- 
tion and formation for night attacks, p. 122; 
the advance to the attack p. 123 ; night attacks 



10 



Page. 

and firing, p. 124; preparations against the 
enemy's changes of disposition, p. 126; the 
night charge, p. 127; movements after a 
successful charge, p. 128; pursuit after a 
night attack, p. 128. 

(B) The Defensive 129 

Psychological disadvantages, p. 129; action 
of the defense at night, p. 130; steps taken 
when anticipating the enemy's night attack, 
p. 131; the defender's night battle, p. 131; 
steps when the defender has driven off the 
■ enemy, p. 132. 



TRAINING IN NIGHT MOVEMENTS 

BASED ON 

ACTUAL EXPERIENCES IN WAR 



I 



13 



PSYCHOLOGICAL ACTION AT NIGHTTIME. 

From an educational standpoint, a thorough knowl- 
edge of psychological processes at night is a most im- 
portant matter, because the weightiest considerations 
in night movements are mental ones. Therefore, I will 
explain this matter at the very beginning. 

Having seen a thing with my own eyes, I can form 
my judgment concerning it; by knowing that there 
is no danger to my own body, I will be calm. On account 
of my being calm, there will be no uncertainty ; on ac- 
count of there being no uncertainty, all things, neces- 
sarily, will be clear. In order that there may be that 
clearness, a broad field of view and a clear understand- 
ing of facts are necessary. However, at nighttime, a 
person is not able to see his surroundings ; accordingly 
it is only natural that there should be uncertainty. One 
cannot know when there will be danger in the darkness 
just a little ways ahead. In such cases there is a feeling 
of apprehension, of doubt and uncertainty, and finally 
there is extremely cautious watchfulness and fear. In 
short, at nighttime, the mind is agitated and excited. 

Night and Morbid Watchfulness. —— Attention is the 
term applied to a condition of affairs when the con- 
sciousness is concentrated on certain substances or 
certain ideas. At night, as the field of view is very 
limited, great attention must be paid to the multitude 
of surrounding objects ; if this is not done, one will 
quickly fall into danger. In the presence of the enemy, 
how much more must the amount of watchfulness, on 



14 



account of its relation to life and death, give rise to 
the greatest of care ― and one becomes unable to dis- 
tinguish between fact and fancy. As a result of too 
much care and concentration, what has hitherto been 
imagination almost ceases to be such, and approaches 
reality. The imagination is so vivid that unreal things 
seem real. 

Night and Illusions. — At night, illusion is easy; there 
are various kinds of such illusions, as : 

1. し onfusion which arises from an error of the 
senses. 

2 . An illusion which forms a mistaken impression 
through not having made a proper impression on the 
senses. 

3. An illsuion arising entirely from confusion of 
mind. 

At nighttime, illsuions very often arise. For ex- 
ample, white clothes hanging on willow trees, or white 
flags in a cemetery, become ghosts ; an old rope in the 
grasss seems a snake ; tall pillars, or bundles of Manchu- 
rian millet, an enemy, etc. 

In the presence of the enemy, such illusions are 
dangerous. 

At Night, Suggestion is Easy. ― Whenever the mind 
is agitated, the nerves also become keen. Insignificant 
causes, also, have the power to suggest things quickly. 
These suggestions are of various kinds 一 imitative, in- 
ductive, synchronic, etc. On account of such sugges- 
tions, confusion, mistakes, false reports, etc., in one de- 
tachment, will extend quickly to the entire body. On 
this account there are not a few examples where a single 
soldier at nighttime, who fancied that he saw an enemy, 



15 



quickly gave the whole force the impression that there 
was, in reality, an enemy present. Again, if one per- 
son unexpectedly lays down, or halts, those accompany- 
ing him, not understanding the reason for his action, 
in their uncertainty, do the same. Did not such a 
thing cause the rout of the Heishi clan at Fushigawa ? 

At first, probably hearing the noise of a flying bird 
and thinking it was the enemy, the movement or cry 
of a single man extended to the whole army. During 
the Japanese-Russian War, a detachment of the Russian 
army in a seacoast fortification was thrown into dis- 
order on account of one or two men in front crying out 
that there was a night attack, thereby causing the whole 
force to fall into disorder. 

A tght Brings out the Weafs Points of the Individual , ~ 
A state of uncertainty at mgnt gives rise to the idea of 
danger ; from this there develops a state of fear. Man- 
kind, in crowds, has an excessive mental action. That 
is, a crowd is conscious of vast power ; hence, certain 
movements, though difficult for the individual, will be 
bravely carried out by several men together. While 
one man is fearful and uncertain, a number of men 
together, will enter into the movement almost without 
consideration. Therefore, at night, although one man, 
alone, will be afraid, several together will show no in- 
decision whatever. 1 his fact should be borne in mind 
in all night movements. 

In the matter of mental phenomena, the man who 
has weak points in the daytime will be spurred on by 
vanity, love of fame, or perhaps by a self-denying 
spirit ; but when night comes, on account of the lack 
or the slackness of supervision of his officers and com- 
rades, the individual weakness will quickly show. It 



16 



is not a good thing to leave the individual without 
supervision at night, neither is it a good thing to place 
him in such circumstances as will bring out these weak- 
nesses. 

II. 

IMPORTANT MEASURES WHICH CORRECT UN FAVORABLE 
PSYCHOLOGICAL ACTION AT NIGHT. 

Although nighttime has the disadvantages men- 
tioned above, there will be times when it will be abso- 
lutely necessary to employ soldiers individually. It is, 
therefore, necessary to train them so that the evils due 
to fits of characteristic weaknesses will never arise. 

At Night, Especially, Strict Discipline is Necessary. 
― Nighttime is the touchstone which determines the 
value of an army. As supervision is difficult, strict 
discipline is necessary. The greatest influence of 
discipline is to repress the weaknesses which grow out of 
individuality, and to prevent the expression of those 
weaknesses. An army which does not have good dis- 
cipline at night, will completely fall to pieces. If the 
individual is allowed to follow his own desires, an army 
is ruined. Therefore, successful night operations de- 
mand the strictest discipline ; it is such discipline that 
spurs night operations to success. 

A High Morale and a Firm Ojffensive Sptnt. 一 Mental 
agitation depends upon the state of morale. If the 
morale be high, there will be no such agitation ; there- 
fore, the evils, i. e., the mental phenomena previously 
described, will not arise. In general, a negative mind 
always acts unfavorably ; therefore, in the case of in- 



17 



dividuals whose morale is low and who are negative in 
principle, the following psychological action will arise : 

1. A morbid watchfulness. 

2. Illusions. 

3. Suggestions. 

4. Weak points of individual character. 
Therefore, a high morale is necessarily required to 

successfully overcome such weaknesses. As a matter of 
fact, a high morale is the foundation of successful 
night operations. A person with a high morale does not 
stand by passively, but acts, perhaps unconsciously, 
in a positive manner. ' 

Silence in Night Movements. ― Silence causes an agi- 
tated mind to become cool ; on the contrary, disorder 
causes more confusion. Although, at times, it is both 
a material and abstract advantage to powerfully excite 
a man in order to drive him toward a certain oDjective, 
the importance of maintaining silence at night, must 
not be lost sight of. There are, naturally, two reasons 
for this, viz : 

1. In order not to be discovered by the enemy. 
2. In order to avoid falling into confusion, your- 
self. 

At night, as it is impossible to discriminate by sight, 
judgment must be formed from the sounds heard. 
However, in what way will an ordinary sound which 
arises in one detachment, be transmitted to others, 
especially in the case of those detachments who hear this 
disquieting sound and already believe themselves in 
danger ? 



18 



Therefore, at night, in order not to be discovered by 
the enemy, as well as to prevent falling into disorder, 
yourself, it is absolutely necessary to remain quiet. 

Night and Massed Formation. —— On account of its 
large numbers, great things can be accomplished with a 
massed force ; for the self-consciousness of great strength 
causes great energy. At night, a large massed force 
destroys those individual characteristics, the various 
evils of which I have already clearly explained. On 
account of the difficulty of leadersnip, communication 
and contact, confusion and separation are easy. From 
a psychological standpoint, as well, it is advantageous 
to avoid the distribution of columns, and to use the close 
columns instead. A brave, determined advance is of 
special importance in night movements. 

Night Movements and Self-confidence. ― Self-con- 
fidence is the foundation of bravery ; it is the requisite of 
a high morale. If one wishes to obtain self-confidence, 
there must be no indecision ; in order that there may 
be no indecision, there must be no obscurity. There- 
fore it follows that conditions should be clearly under- 
stood, and that we become rich in experience. That is 
the reason why thoroughness of reconnaissance, obser- 
vation, and training are particularly necessary for night 
movements. If the state of the enemy as well as the 
terrain be well known, and if the troops be well trained 
in night movements, there will be no indecision, ana 
the movement can be carried out by methods and means 
which may be deemed best. A thing carried out in the 
belief that success is certain, will be carried out in a 
recklessly brave manner ; that is the reason for the 
necessity of self-confidence at night. 



19 



Night M ovements and Self-possession. ― At night, one 
cannot tell at what distance or at what time there will 
be personal danger. If the enemy be heard, the danger 
seems the same whether he be a hundred, ^or only ten 
paces away. Therefore, a persoij of negative spirit 
feels the enemy pressing upon him, even though in 
reality, he is far away ; and an imaginary enemy be- 
comes the same as a real one. Therefore, in order not 
to make rash and disorderly movements, causes must 
be judged cooly. 

III. 

HOW TO DRESS. 

The Requirements oj Dress. — Dress must conform to 
the following requirements : 
1. Speed. 

2. Propriety. 

3. Reliability. 

To carry out these requirements, training is neces- 
sary. It is a bad thing to attach too great weight to 
speed at first, and make light of propriety and relia- 
bility. Therefore, at first, the following requirements 
must be observed : 

1. Do not demand useless rapidity, but rather 
coolness. 

2. Proper arrangement. 

3. As far as possible, quiteness should be preserved. 
The necessary tnmgs should be taken from their fixed 
places only when about to be put on, so as to avoid 
confusion. 



20 



Coolness. ― More haste, less speed. If one be con- 
fused, he will mistake the proper order or forget import- 
ant things, and sometimes it will be necessary to change 
what has already been put on. 

Order. —— Order is the shortest road, and if followed, 
there will be nothing forgotten. However hurried one 
may be, it is important not to curtail or change the order ; 
therefore, it is necessary to plan carefully, the most 
suitable order of procedure ― a practical impossibility 
for one without experience. For these reasons, it is a 
good thing to fix a suitable order of procedure, and carry 
it out strictly. 

Quietness. ― At night, quietness is very necessary, 
especially in the proximity of the enemy. 1 herefore, 
it is important, in time of peace, to demand quietness, 
and to carry out such a training that there will be no 
talking or noise. If the soldier has had this training, it 
is an easy thing to remain quiet. If he has not, it is a 
very difficult matter. While a sudden demand for 
quiet is no hardship upon persons accustomed to it, it is 
most irksome to those who are not so accustomed to it. 

Order of Dressing. ― In order that dressing may pro- 
gress smoothly, a proper order is necessary. In this 
order, it is important that mind and hand follow natural 
movements. The following example of correct pro- 
cedure is from my own experience : 

1. Clothing, shoes and leggins will be worn and put 
on in the following order : socks, trousers, leggins, 
blouse, cap. 

2 . Hang haversack and water bottle over the shoul- 
der. 



21 



3. Place the required articles in the knapsack, roll 
the overcoat ; attach tools, spare shoes, and mess tin 
to the knapsack, and put it on. 

4. Take the rifle in the hand (at this time, take off 
the muzzle cover and place it in its prescribed place) . 

Although there are times when this order will not 
be adhered to, and it will be necessary to arrange the 
clothing so as to take rifle and ammunition first, the 
habit of handling these articles in their proper order in 
time of peace is most necessary. 

Peace Time Preparations — Preparedness. — During 
peace time, weapons, clothing and equipment are nat- 
urally arranged in a prescribed place in barracks. 
Each article should be so arranged that the soldier will 
put his hand on it naturally, even in the darkness, or 
in emergencies. On account of the articles being in a 
fixed place, the soldier often does not realize the ad- 
vantage of being able to grasp them reaaily. If the 
difficulty of searching for obscure articles in the dark be 
considered, one must realize the great advantage of 
being able to reach them naturally and easily. Accord- 
ingly, while resting on the march, in camp, billet, or 
bivouac, articles will always be arranged in an orderly 
manner, so that they may be seized quickly and cer- 
tainly. 

' . IV. 

TRAINING IN DRESSING. 

Occasions. — This training should be carried out at 
the same time as the ordinary day training. There are 
two opportunities for this : 



22 



1. At the time of changing the daytime course of 
training. 

2. It can be carried out especially as a drill in dress- 
ing. 

In the first instance, have the men dress in a fixed 
place, with each article in a special place. It is im- 
portant to employ the time so as not to enroach upon 
time allotted to other drills. 

Orderly Methods. — In the second instance, the fol- 
lowing points are important : 

1. A comprehension of the method of dressing. 
While explaining this in barracks, or in a fixed position, 
give a signal by a whistle, and say: "Now put on such 
and . such a thing." While assistants instruct and in- 
spect the men, teach them the basic principles of what 
they are doing. 

2. Make them dress, unexpectedly, in daytime. 

3. Explain the method of dressing at night. 

4. Make them dress, unexpectedly, at night. 

By such a method of training, the objective may be 
attained. At this time, without fail, coolness,' order 
and quiet must be maintained. At first, pay no atten- 
tion to the time consumed ; after a little while, demand 
more speed, and finally have the movement executed at 
the rate desired. 

Number of Times Practiced. ― Whenever an army 
is accustomed to a certain manner of dressing in its 
daily life, the dressing is not a difficult matter. On that 
account, time is not specially allotted for such training, 
but practice will be had whenever there is a good 
opportunity. However, the following important princi- 
ples must not be forgotten : 



23 



1. To guard against negligence. 

2. To review the methods of dressing. 

For this reason, it should be practiced every month 
or so, and whenever the men become careless about it. 

V. 

NIGHT AND VISION. 

Importance of Cultivating the Vision at Night. 一 At 
night, one is able to see according to the degree of 
darkness. The amount of vision also differs naturally 
and it is important to know the amount under various 
circumstances. Especially is this true under circum- 
stances where the judgment cannot be formed by 
hearing, i. e., in rainy weather, or under other noisy 
conditions, where vision, though insufficient, is superior 
to hearing. Therefore, the training of the eye at night 
is a most important matter, as, to a certain degree, it 
can be strengthenea by experience and practice. In the 
Japanese-Russian War, the judgment by sight of soldiers 
accustomed to the terrain and to night movements, 
was surprisingly good, and was entirely due to experi- 
ence. 

Vision at Night Can Be Improved by Training. —— One 
accustomed to night movements, compared to one not 
so accustomed, is much more able to form correct 
judgments by sight ; for experience sharpens the nerves 
and increases the faculty of attention. From indica- 
tions, from methods of comparison, together with other 
assisting factors, one's judgment soon becomes accu- 
rate. 



24 



Night Vision — Detecting and Losing Sight of. —— Vision 
at night differs in degree, also, according to the con- 
centration of attention ; in this connection, the follow- 
ing principles are from my own experience : 

1. When you follow with your eyes a thing once 
discovered, you will be able to see it for a long distance. 

2. The distance at which you first discover an ob- 
ject, is less than the distance where you loose sight of 
it. Therefore, at night, when you lose sight of an 
object you have once discovered, it is difficult to find it a 
second time. When you follow it with your eye vision 
is easy, and the distance at which the object is visible 
becomes much greater, especially if there are supple- 
mentary indications. In such a case a thing. liable to be 
unnoticed, will be seen by the observer. 

Night Vision and Objects, and the Color of Surround- 
ing Objects. ― The color of the dress has great bearing 
on vision ; and I have learned the following facts from 
my own observation : 

1 . On a dark night a white coat can be seen farther 
than a ♦black one. 

2. When there is moonlight, often a black coat 
can be seen farther than a white one. 

3. In any case, a light brown or mouse color can 
be seen a long distance. 

4. A black color against a black background is 
more difficult to see than white ; the latter against 
white surroundings is more difficult than black. 

From these facts, the importance of bearing in mind 
the color of surrounding objects when fixing the kind 
of dress, or determining one's movements, is apparent. 



25 



Night Vision and Relations of Light and Shadow. — 
Night vision differs greatly according to one's position 
relative to a luminous body and shadow : 

1. When a luminous body, such as the moon, is 
faced, vision is decreased. 

2. When the light is behind, vision is increased. 

3. When a luminous body is overhead, the mean 
of increase and decrease is the same. 

4. Even though facing the light, if it does not 
strike the eyes directly, it injures vision but little. 

5. One can see when looking from darkness into 
light, but not when looking from light into darkness. 

6. While holding the light yourself, only your own 
surroundings can be seen. 

7. When a light is behind an object, the latter's 
outlines are clearly visible. 

8. A black object or a moving object covered by 
shadow, is difficult to see. 

9. Small objects seem far away, and large ones 
seem near. 

10. Bright objects appear near, and obscure ones, 
far away. 

The above facts teach one that, when covered by 
dark objects, or when moving in the shadow, to look 
at the bright side from the dark as much as possible, 
and not have the light directly in front. 

Relation of the Seasons to Night Vision. — 
1. In level, open country, the field of view is ex- 
tensive. 

2. In close country, the opposite is true. 



26 



Accordingly, from late in the autumn until the 
beginning of spring, on account of the grass having 
withered and the leaves fallen the field of view is ex- 
tensive. From late in the spring until early autumn 
on account of the luxuriant grass and trees, the field 
of view is restricted. During the Manchurian winter 
(in level country) , the field of view is greater than in 
. Japan. In mountainous localities, trees are few, com- 
pared to Japan, and the field of view is correspondingly 
greater. 

Night Vision and our own Posture. — In looking at 
objects which have ground objects in their rear, a stand- 
ing posture is advisable ; without such objects in rear, 
a low posture is best. Therefore, to avoid being seen, 
take a low posture ; if moving, keep physical objects in 
your rear. Even though such objects be distant, they 
will be of great assistance. 

Night Vision and Pteld Glasses. — Whenever there 
is light at night from moon or stars, and at twilight and 
dawn, field glasses will double the power of vision. 
However, as the glasses narrow the field of view, it is 
dangerous to depend upon them, except to confirm a 
thing already seen, or when the locality in which the 
object to be seen, will appear and move, is fixed. 

VI. 

METHOD OF TRAINING NIGHT VISION. 

General Principles. 一 In this training, have the men 
learn thoroughly the preceding principles. After they 
have become somewhat experienced, teach them the 
subject of relative vision under all kinds of circum- 



27 



stances. This will give them a suitable standard of 
judgment ; and it is most necessary that the soldier 
have various kinds of experiences, so that he may learn 
how to act when alone. 

Important Points of Training. —— 

1. The execution of movements at night, without 
reference to the amount of light. In this case, the fol- 
lowing training is suggested for the vision : 

(a) A single soldier moving quietly, first toward the 
soldier under instruction, and second away from him. 
The reason for the quiet movement is to prevent any 
assistance from sound, thus training the soldier in rela- 
tive vision. 

(6) A single moving soldier allowing some noise, 
such as the noise of the bayonet scabbard, water in the 
canteen, footsteps, etc., first toward the man under 
instruction, and second away from him. 

(c) A single soldier in different colored clothing, 
both toward and away from the man under instruction. 

(d.) After a little while, increase the number of 
soldiers and have them move under the following con- 
ditions : 1. Quietly; 2. Under ordinary conditions ; 
3. With different colored clotmng ; Toward the one 
under instruction (discovery) , and away from him 
(losing sight of) . 

{e) With a squad under the same conditions as 
paragraph (d). 

2. Taking the light into consideration. 

に (2 リ With the light (moon, lantern, etc.), above 
and in the rear. 

(6) With the light at a high place in the front. 



28 



(c) With the light in rear of the object to be seen. 

(d) When the object to be seen bears the light. 

(e) When the man under instruction bears the 
light. 

(/) When the object to be seen is on the sky-line, 
and when not. 

(g) Movements in the shadow. 

(h) The relation between one hidden by an ob- 
ject and one covered by a shadow. 

The above practice should be carried out, first, 
quietly ; second, under ordinary conditions ; third, 
with different colored uniforms. 

Methods of Training. —— When the number of soldiers 
under instruction is small, one instructor supervises 
the instruction in one squad ; if the number be large, 
there will be assistant instructors in charge of each squad. 
The instruction of all squads will be carried out at the 
same time, taking care that they be so placed so as not 
to interfere with each other. 



29 



For example, place a squad at A. From this squad 
send one man (later several men) in the direction B. 
When he is about to disappear from view, halt him and 
estimate the distance. Again, based on these princi- 
ples, send one man (later, several) outside the field of 
view, in the direction B. with instructions to advance 
toward A. When he enters the field of view, halt him 
and estimate the distance. 

Try these experiments just mentioned in the fol- 
lowing cases and make each man judge distance, etc., 
for himself, first, quietly ; second, under ordinary con- 
ditions (singly, several men, squad) ; third, with different 
colored uniforms. 

Experiments. ― When this kind of training is finished 
cultivate the understanding and power of judgment by 
movements at will over various kinds of terrain and 
under varying conditions of weather, darkness, etc. 
Teach them to utilize trees, light, terrain, etc., the 
instructors correcting and criticising the movements. 
For example, form the men into a squad, and have 
other soldiers, from a considerable distance outside the 
limit of vision, move toward the squad, making use of 
light, terrain, shadows, etc., as already explained. The 
squad will watch and criticise the movements, the in- 
structor also adding nis criticism. Suitable occasions 
for teaching the relations of terrain, natural objects, 
weather, luminous bodies, etc. 



30 



VII. 

HEARING AT NIGHT. 

At night, on account of the difficulty of vision, the 
ears must be trained to listen attentively, and with 
judgment; the military objective must be attained by 
a combination of sight and hearing. Even when you 
cannot approach an object close enough to see it. In 
many cases, the terrain and the state of the enemy will 
enable you to accomplish your object by hearing. 
Again, in many cases, hearing enables one to judge of 
the proximity of the enemy, and of his movements. 
Therefore the scope of practical use of hearing at night 
is very extensive ; and it is important that the hearing 
be well trained so that one may be able to guess all in- 
dications coming from sounds, and at the same time 
so plan his own movements so as not to furnish the 
enemy with such indications. On that account, it is 
necessary to have a criterion by which indications may 
be judged, and a self-consciousness by which one can 
regulate his own movements. 

1 he Character oj the Ground and Sounds. — 

1. If the ground be hard, the echo is loud. 

2. If the ground be soft, there is but little echo. 

That is, if the ground be hard, the noise is sharp ; if 
soft, it is dull. 

Kinds of Covering Substances and Sound. ― Noise 
varies according to the kind of covering substance ; 
therefore it is very necessary to know the relative 
amount of sound when walking over various kinds of 
ground. 



31 



The Size of a Detachment and the Relative Weight of 
Materials. ― If a detachment be large, it causes a cor- 
responding amount of noise ; and can be heard at a 
distance ; if it be small, the noise is small. If the ma- 
terials be heavy, the noise carries a great distance, 
and if they be light, the contrary is true. These re- 
lations are coexistent with those of the character of 
the ground. 

Weather. 一 ' 

1. Rain and snow. 

(a) When rain is falling there are great differences 
in hearing, depending upon the degree of rain. 

{h) When snow is falling, the amount of obstruc- 
tion to noise, compared to rain, is small. When passing 
over snow, it varies according to the degree of freezing. 

2. Wind. ― 

(a) When there is no wind, conditions are excellent 
for hearing, as sound is not at all obstructed. 

(6) When the wind is blowing, conditions are favor- 
able for hearing sounds which occur in the direction 
from which the wind is blowing, and noises can be heard 
at a long distance. Opposite conditions produce 
exactly opposite results. 

{c) Wind blowing in one's ears is disadvantageous, 
as the noise interferes with hearing. 

3. Time of night. 

At dead of night, surrounding noises can be heard 
better than at twilight or dawn. 

4. Relation of physical objects. 



32 



In level open country, which has no trees, buildings, 
etc., to interfere with the transmission of sound, noises 
travel far. 

5. Relation of seasons. 

In the winter, not only is the ground frozen, but the 
leaves of plants, trees, etc., are fallen, the grass is with- 
ered and dead, and the crops cut and gathered ; there- 
fore, sounds travel especially far. 

VIII. 

TRAINING IN HEARING AT NIGHT. 

Important Points to be Considered. —— In the follow- 
ing training, have the men understand clearly the re- 
lations of the manner of walking, numbers and clothing, 
to the sound produced ; then extend the training as 
follows : 

1. The march of infantry, 
(a) A quiet advance. 

(6) Quick time not in steps に single soldier, several 
men, squad with and without arms, in different kinds 
of weather and over different kinds of ground) . 

(c) Quick time in step , under same conditions as (b) . 

(d) Double time. 

2. March of cavalry. 

This should be carried out whenever there is a good 
opportunity, conformable to the above principles. 

3. March of artillery. 

To be carried out as in (1). 



33 

4. The noise of intrenching. 

(a) The noise of digging with a pick. 

(b) The noise of driving a shovel strongly into the 
ground, 

(c) The noise of pushing a spade into various kinds 
off ground. 

(d) The noise of a squad carrying on the work 
freely. 

Methods. —— The apportionment of squads according to 
the^number of men, is the same as previously described. 

For example, have the neces- 
i i ^ ^ sary number of men ad- 

vance from the squad at A, 
in the direction of B. Hav- 
ing faced the squad at A to 
the rear, have them listen 
to the noise of intrenching at 
B ; when they can no longer 
I " , 1 ゲ hear it, halt the squad at B, 

and estimate the distance. 
Again, have a squad at B, approach the squad at A; 
when the latter can hear the noise, have them estimate 
the distance. This training should be carried out with 
a varying number of men, and under varying conditions 
of ground and weather. By such means, each man, in- 
dividually, will learn the proper pace and manner of 
advance ; the noise of working, also, will teach them how 
to use their tools with a minimum of noise. The fol- 
lowing exercises, also, are important : The intrenching 
of a squad (of so many men) at what distance can it 
be heard, (a) in quiet weather, (b) when the wind is 
favorable, (c) when wind is unfavorable, etc. 



34 



Inferences to be drawn from Sound. — To state it 
briefly, one who is accustomed to noticing sounds at 
night, is able to form his judgment of the causes by 
using the various inferences that may be drawn from 
such sounds. For this reason, such basic instruction 
is very necessary for soldiers ; this instruction, also, will 
give them a basis for the guidance of their own move- 
ments. For this purpose, it is important to take ad- 
vantage of every opportunity for instruction in com- 
paring the causes which give rise to the sounds, to the 
sounds themselves, as for example, the march of a de- 
tachment, cavalry, wagons, etc. When well trained 
in this, the soldier will be able to guess the direction of 
march, the approximate position with reference to him- 
self, distance, etc. If no good opportunities for such 
training present themselves, while moving on the many 
roads, or in their vicinity, listen to all the sounds which 
arise on the road and practice estimating their causes, 
direction, distance, etc. 

It is very necessary to be able to judge by hearing, 
the noise of the enemy's artillery entering a position, 
and the intrenching of infantry. The Japanese-Russian 
War taught us the necessity of often changing our 
positions to conform to those of the enemy made during 
the night ; and our only way of determining those move- 
ments was from the noise of batteries going into position, 
intrenching, etc. 



35 



IX. 

QUIET MARCH AT NIGHT. 

Importance. — A quiet march is not only important 
for the purpose of taking the enemy unawares, but, at 
the same time, it prevents confusion in our own ranks. 
A quiet night march demands absolute silence and a 
suitable pace. In the Japanese-Russian War, although 
it was difficult for large bodies to move without the 
noise of marching, the advantage of quiet movements 
was indisputably shown. There are many cases in 
which an absolutely quiet march is demanded of in- 
dividuals, such as patrols, outposts, etc. ; such train- 
ing should be borne in mind when these men become 
units of a larger force. 

Important Cautions in a Night March. — 
1. Care as to clothing. 

It is important that there be no noise from the 
clothing and equipments ; this should be true at double 
time as well as at quick time. To carry this into effect, 
the following points must be especially borne in mind : 

(a) That there shall be no noise from the ammuni- 
tion in the ammunition boxes. 

(b) That no noise arises from the movements of 
the bayonet scabbard. 

{c) The belt must be kept tight without fail. 

(d) That the contents of the haversack make no 
noise. 

(e) When the overcoat is worn, the skirt must be 
fastened up. 



36 



2. Individual precautions. 

(a) When coughing cannot be prevented, cover the 
mouth with the coat sleeve. 

(6) Be careful to hold the rifle so that it will not 
strike the ground. 

(c) See that no noise arises from the rifle sling and 
swivel. 

3. A detachment. 

(a) Each soldier will take care not to bump into 
his neighbor. 

(6) There will be no talking between adjacent 
files. 

(c) Each soldier will take care not to make it neces- 
sary to leave ranks (for lost clothing, equipment, etc.). 

4. Manner of walking. 

(a) In short grass, raise the feet high. 
(6) In long grass, keep the feet low, 

(c) In climbing a hill, plant the toe first. 

(d) In descending a hill, plant the heel first. 

(e) Don't stumble or fall down. 

5. Connection. 

(a) In line, conform to the movements of the soldier 
on the right or left ; in column, on the soldier in front. 

(6) Don't hang the head; if this is done, connec- 
tion will surely be lost. 

(c) Don't leave ranks, or halt unnecessarily. 

(め At a halt, close up, but do not bump against 
the man in front. 

(e) Listen to signals, commands, etc., and be sure 
not to mistake them. 



37 



X. 

TRAINING IN QUIET MARCHES AT NIGHT. 

Dress. ― At first, the training should be without arms, 
proceeding step by step until fully armea and equipped. 
During this time, the men must study how to prevent 
any noise arising from any part of their dress or equip- 
ment. 

Order of Training. — General explanations will be 
made to the men on the ground where the quiet night 
march is to be made. After indicating the manner of 
walking, each soldier will be made to practice it under 
the supervision of an officer, who will explain the prin- 
ciples involved. When these principles have been 
understood, the number of men will be gradually in- 
creased, and the principles of the quiet march, individu- 
ally, and by squad, will be taught. 

Method of Carrying Out the Above Training. — This 
training will be carried out at the same time and with 
the same formations as the training for hearing. 

Cautions. ~ Although a quiet night march is very 
important, it must not be allowed to injure the offensive 
spirit. A quiet movement never means a spiritless one, 
and it must be made clearly evident that minute care 
never means hesitation. In a quiet night march all 
noise will be prohibited, and each man must take care 
not to cause confusion to the entire command by his 
individual mistakes and errors. 



38 



XI. 

THE CROSSING OF ROUGH GROUND AT NIGHT. 

Importance of Practice. —— At night, the different 
ground objects differ in aspect from the daytime. 
Objects, which in the day are no great obstacle, become 
formidable at night. Open level country which can be 
easily crossed at night, cannot be expected in practice ; 
accordingly, the crossing of rough ground, orderly, 
quickly and exactly, without confusion and without 
delay, is a very important tnmg for an army. If proper 
training be had, such a movement is not very difficult ; 
training insures a minimum of fatigue and disorder. 

Summary. ― 

1. As falling down often follows a stumble, care 
must be taken not to stumble. Even after stumbling, 
one is not liable to fall down unless leaning forward ; 
therefore, that tendency must be avoided. 

2. As falling down is sometimes unadvoidable, the 
following precautions must not be neglected : 

(a) Arrange clothing, equipment, etc., so that there 
will be nothinp- lost or broken ; special care must be 
taken not to lose the hat. 

(6) Not to drop or break the rifle. 

(c) Not to talk or make any noise. 

3. The method of carrying the rifle varies with the 
ground and ground objects; in a forest, etc., it is a 
good thing to carry it in the hand, taking proper care 
not to cause any danger to the rank in front. 



39 



4. If, while in a squad, the soldier only pays at- 
tention to what is underneath his feet, the following 
disadvantages must occur : 

(a) The march will be delayed. 

(b) Collision in front and rear. 

(c) Loss of connection. 

5. When obstacles are encountered, they will be 
passed in accordance with the principles laid down under 
that subject. 

XII. ' 

TRAINING IN CROSSING ROUGH GROUND AT NIGHT. 

Clothing. ― In these movements, care in the matter 
of dress is especially important. If untrained men are 
made to carry arms from the very first, not only will 
the rifles get broken, but the men will sustain personal 
injuries as well. Therefore, if practicable, dummy guns 
should be substituted for the service rifles in the early 
stages of the training ; this training should be carried 
out in the following order : 

(a) Without arms. 

(6) With dummy rifles. 

(c) With service rifles. 

(d) With full equipment. 

Order of Training. — 

1. At the very first, the training should be in- 
dividual, allowing an abundance of time for the execution 
of the movement ; at this time the principles should 
be thoroughly inculcated. 



40 



2. PrDceed, in a short time, by squad ; at first, 
from column of fours in single rank extending to double 
and quadruple ranks, and m line as well. At times, 
have a simple change of direction or formation executed. 
The change of direction by squad to the right or left 
is simple, and will be of practical use; it is important, 
also, to teach, practically, such important movements as 
the change of formation from column to line, line to 
column, company column to line, etc. 

3. When well trained in these movements, require 
them to be made silently. Even though the passage 
of uneven ground is a difficult matter, repeated practice 
makes it comparatively easy. During the Japanese- 
Russian War, the greater part of those who fell down 
during such movements were newly arrived reservists. 

XIIL 

DETERMINATION OF DIRECTION AT NIGHT. 

Its Importance. — That the determination of direc- 
tion, day or night, is important, is clearly evident. 
Especially at night, it is easy to mistake directions, and 
it is difficult to discover the mistake quickly. If the 
direction is once mistaken, the execution of one's mission 
is practically impossible; therefore, the quick deter- 
mination of direction, at any time, is a most important 
matter. 

Methods of Determining Direction. — By fixed Stars : 

1. Direction can be determined by the position of 
the greater number of fixed stars, especially by the north 
star. Accordingly, on a clear night, the direction can 



41 



be accurately fixed by this star. The north star is a 
fixed star in the tail of the Little Bear constellation. 
It is on the prolongation of the line b ― a, which connects 
two stars of the Great Bear constellation, and at about 




a 

•f •© 參 d 參 b 

five times the distance between these two stars. On 
one flank of the Little Bear constellation, which is 
opposite the Great Bear, is a collection of stars in the 
shape of a cross, called Anteus.* Anteus always moves, 

■ The constellation shown in the cut and noted in the text as 
"Anteus" is the well known one jf "Cassiopeia." It is in the form 
of an irregular letter "W" instead of being in the shape of a cross 
as stated above. —— Translator. 



42 



maintaining this relation with the north star at the 
center. Therefore, when these stars are seen, the recog- 
nition of the north star is easy, and the north can be 
fixed. 

2. Method by the moon. 

Although it is difficult to determine direction by the 
position of the moon, the latter has the advantage of 
being recognizable even on nights when all the stars 
cannot be seen. The moon crosses the meridian about 
noon on the first lunar day, and it moves about fifty 
minutes behind the sun every day. Therefore, if the 
age of the moon be known, the approximate passing 
of the meridian can be easily computed. Its approxi- 
mate age can be computed from the shape of its bright 
portion. 

3. Method by a map. 

A map indicates directions in a general way, by its 
outlines. Either the uppper portion is north, or the 
direction is indicated. Therefore, if the map can be 
oriented upon the actual ground, direction can be easily 
determined. Even though such an orientation is dif- 
ficult at night, the general directions can be fixed from 
memory, or from the direction of roads, mountains or 
rivers. If there be a compass it can be done simply and 
conveniently. 

4. Method by compass. 

The blue end of the needle generally indicates the 
north. In a dense fog, snow storm, or in the darkness 
within a forest, in all cases when a mark is difficult to 
see, there is no way as certain as the compass. , 

5. Other methods. 



43 



The condition of trees, the position of the windows 
in houses in cold countries, the direction of prevailing 
winds of a locality, the position of wind shelters, wind 
mills, etc., all aid in determining direction. 



XIV. 

TRAINING IN DETERMINING DIRECTION. 

How to Find the North Star and How to Use it. 一 
In locating the north star, the instructor first points 
it out to each soldier. Next, he explains its relations 
to the previously described constellations. At another 
time, he will take the same men away from barracks, 
and have them individually, locate the star. Practice 
will soon enable them to look up and discover it quickly. 
When once discovered, it fixes the north, and the other 
directions easily follow. Next, using this star as a 
guide, order the men to move in any required direction, 
by such commands, as: "Move southeast ; northwest ; 
etc." When they can do this accurately, they have 
learned how to use the star. 

Method by Looking at the Compass. — When examining 
a compass, except on a moonlight night, a light must 
be made, and each soldier requires practice on that 
point. 



44 



XV. , 

METHOD OF MAKING A LIGHT AT NIGHT. 

Its Importance. —— In any case, it is important that the 
light should not be visiole to the enemy, either directly 
or from its reflection on trees, etc. ; therefore, the fol- 
lowing principles must be observed : 

(a) That the light does not leak out directly. 
(6) That it is not reflected by any object. 

Manner of Making a Light. — From the preceding 
principles, we see that the proper way to make a light, 
is to take advantage of the configuration of the ground, 
the various pyhsical objects, etc. The following are 
examples : 

1. If there are any trees in the vicinity, make the 
light behind them using the body also to shelter it. 

2. Use embankments, houses, stone walls, etc., in 
the same way. 

3 . When there are no such covering oDjects, proceed 
as follows : 

{a) Two men clasp arms together, their backs to- 
ward the enemy ; using their bodies as. a shelther, hold 
the cap near the ground, and make a light in the cap. 

(b) Use the cape of the overcoat as a shelter for the 
light. 

(c) One man alone, will squat down on the ground, 
and make a light between his legs, the ground, and the 
uoper part of his body. 



45 



(d) Light the. tobacco (Japanese) , in the pipe 
quickly ; blow it, and examine the object (watch 
compass, etc.). 

Individual Training. — After the above basic methods 
are understood, each man will be made to carry matches, 
cr ^ ? に c<t w^^^ and lights will be made 
O \\hk^' 'if n\tx4^. singly or in groups, and 

then inspected. For ex- 
ample, have the men un- 
der instruction advance 
the necessary distance in 
front of the squad A ; at 
that place, have them 
make a light so that it 
' ' ' ^ will not be visible from A. 

If a light be seen, have the one who made it do it over 
and instruct him carefully. 

This Method is a Common Sense One. 一 As this 
method is a common sense one, much instruction will 
not be necessary. It will be sufficient, to test the 
memory at times. Thoughtful soldiers will do this, 
properly, even without instruction. 



XVI. 

CONNECTION AND CONNECTING FILES AT NIGHT. 

Methods. ― 

1. Method by sound. 

On a dark night, a luminous medium is necessary 
in maintaining connection by sight. Accordingly, 
when conditions forbid the use of a light, sound must be 



46 



depended upon and preconcerted signals are required. 
For example : 

(a) Sound made by striking the rifle butt. 

(b) Use of the whistle. 

(c) In addition, various methods suitable to the 
conditions. 

When such signals become complicated, their use- 
fulness is destroyed ; they must therefore, be very simple. 
For example : 

(a) t)ignal for attention. 

(b) Signal for announcing one's position, 

(c) Signal when the enemy, or something suspicious 
is discovered. 

(d) Signals for advance, retreat, summoning, etc. 
These signals may be fixed by the tone of the 

whistle, or by the number of blows struck on the rifle 
butt. In this instruction, have the assistant instructors, 
at first, give these signals to the recruits ; and then have 
the signals agreed upon carried out witmn the squad 
of recruits under the supervision of the instructors. 

2. Method of connection by signals. 

Methods of communication on a large scale by re- 
volving or flashing lights, etc., are very important, but 
we shall only discuss the simpler methods here. 

(a) Beacon lights. 

(6) Matches. 

{c) Match-cord. 

(め Bull's-eye lantern. 

0) White cloth. 

During the Japanese-Russian War, beacon lights 
were frequently used, especially by the Russians. 



47 



Lanterns, straw, or some combustible material was tied 
on the end of poles, which were erected at necessary 
places (oil was used if there was any on hand) . On 
account of the nature of the work, it was usually per- 
formed by officers, as it was found dangerous to entrust 
it to enlisted men. 

Matches cannot be used for connection, except in the 
very simplest cases. For example, they can only be 
used for the advance or retreat of patrols, or for the 
transmission of very important single signals. 

By a rope match, comparatively many signals can 
be transmitted, as for example : 

(a) The round one has a certain meaning. 

(b) The flat one has a certain meaning . 

(c) The vertical one has a certain meaning. 

In addition, by various complicated vibrations, 
many different signals can he transmitted. The dis- 
tances at which this rope match is visible are fixed by 
experiments, and each soldier must be taught the 
effective distance. 

Dark lanterns can be used at short distances in 
flashing messages. Though the distance of transmission 
varies with the strength of the flame, it can, under many 
conditions, reach a comparatively great distance. 
When accustomed to this method of transmission, it will 
be found very convenient for outpost duty, and it has 
the further advantage of being concealed from the enemy. 
During the Japanese-Russian War, the author made one 
out of an empty vegetable can. Each squad was sup- 
plied with one of these cans, and they proved of great 
value. 

3. Connecting files. 



48 



Even though the movement of connecting files at 
night are similar to those in the day time, the amount 
of difficulty varies greatly. Accordingly, training 
under varying conditions is necessary. The terrain, 
state of the roads, conditions of the hour, etc., have a 
great influence. This work must be carried out ac- 
curately in the following directions : 

(a) In a longitudinal direction, at a halt and when 
connecting moving bodies. 

(b) In a horizontal direction under similar con- 
ditions. 

4. Messengers. 

The proper performance of the duties of night mes- 
sengers is very difficult, because at night time, on ac- 
count of losing directions, mistaking roads, together 
with the mental state of doubt and fear of the messenger, 
there are many times when their movement is stopped, 
or their objective not carried out. The progress in 
the use of the telephone, telegraph, and other methods 
of transmission, has not rendered the training of mes- 
sengers useless. 

5. Methods by which messengers may advance, 
(a) By roads. 

(6) By rushes, from object to object. 

(c) Moving along a prominent extended physical 
object (as river, mountain, forest, etc.). 

(d) In a certain fixed direction (by compass, etc.). 

(e) By a mark, light, etc., 

The method by roads is very safe if the roads are 
prominent, and there is no danger of losing the way. 
Such roads as those of China which connect village with 



49 



village, are very uncertain and it was very easy to get 
lost. When travelling on a road, the following pre- 
cautions are important : 

1. Care and discrimination in the forks of a road. 

2. Marks or signs at important places. 

3. Pay attention to physical objects on the road, 
or at the side of the road. 

4. Other unusual relations. 

5. The relation between the gradual change in the 
direction of a road and the forks of a road. 

6. The manner in which a road enters or leaves a 
village. 

For example, in sending an orderly from B to A, 
give him directions about the road he is to follow, in 
this manner : "Move from B toward A; at the three 
forks in the road near an umbrella-shaped pine tree, 
take the right road ; after crossing a bridge, you will 
hear the noise of a water-wheel ; continuing on this road, 
you will see a village on the left, which you will be able 
to pick out from its fire-tower, and A is but about five 
minutes walk beyond, etc." (See sketch p. 50). 

The method of advancing by rushes from object to 
object, was used in crossing the Manchurian rice 
fields in winter, and in crossing ground where there were 
no roads. Such conditions forced us to adopt the above 
method. 

7 . Cautions respecting the above method : 

(a) After entering the physical object (woods, 
etc.), do not mistake the direction on exit. 

(ら) If possible to pass around the flank of the ob- 
ject, it is preferable to going through it. 



50 



(c) The interior of villages and woods are im- 
portant, but it is best not to enter them, except when 
clearly advantageous to do so ; roads in the interior of a 
village are complicated, and it is often easy to lose 




direction. When there is no map, memorize beforehand 
the names of the villages in order, as it will facilitate 
communication with the inhabitants of those villages. 
When advancing in an unknown country, you will be 



51 



able to take proper road to the next village even 
though the natives could not tell you the road to the 
destination of the day's march. Whenever there are 
no natives, or you cannot communcicate with them, it is 
difficult to advance without a map. In such' cases, 
objects or marks previously noted in the daytime must 
be depended upon, but it is a most difficult matter, at 
best. 

8. Method by moving along a prominent extended 
object (river, woods, etc.). 

For example, in going from A to B, when the road is 
indistinct and cannot be used, follow along the stream 
which flows in the direction A — B. In important cases, 
the messenger will go down to the stream to verify the 
road. (See sketch p. 52). 

. By this method, or by the direction of mountain 
ranges, rice-fields, ravines, etc., the general direction 
can be kept, but great obstacles will frequently be en- 
countered, which only determination and boldness will 
conquer. 

9. A messenger's looking forward and backward, 
and memory. 

A messenger must always pay attention to the fol- 
lowing things with reference to the road traversed, or 
physical objects passed on the way: 

(a) Look back at the physical objects which he 
passes and at other things which will serve as marks, 
committing them all to memory. 

(6) Memorize physical objects which are at import- 
ant points (so that he will be able to recognize those 
points upon arrival there) . 



52 



(c) In the daytime, think of the night ; memorize 
the marks, and at the same time, judge how the shadows 
will appear at night. (Remember that projecting 




trees will not be visible at night, as they will be covered 

by objects in rear.). 

(d) Establish special recognizing marks, as : 

1. White cloth, white paper, etc., in branches of 

trees. 



53 



2. Special guiding trees. 

3. Scatter paper, white powder, or other easily 
recognizable substances along the road. 

Cautions for all Connecting Files. — 

(a) Avoid the double time for connecting pur- 
poses. It is not only noisy, but there is the danger of 
falling down as well. 

(6) The amount of sound required when reporting 
and for connection purposes will vary according to the 
conditions which obtain at the time. 

{c) Connecting files of a column, upon arriving at a 
fork in the road, must not lose touch with the column in 
rear or lose sight of the detachment in front. At such 
times, paper or white powder will be scattered (See . 
chapter relating to night marches) . 

{d) The position of connecting files should be such 
that they can see our own forces, and be seen by them. 

{e) They must make the transmission of messages 
quick and certain. 

' 10. Method by relays. 

(a) Long distance relays ― written and verbal 
messages. 

(h) ; short relays ~ written and verbal messages. 

The method by relays is frequently carried out in 
war time, and it is therefore necessary that all soldiers 
be well trained m this work. In the training for long 
distance relays, it is very important to begin with very 
simple methods, gradually working up to difficult con- 
ditions. 

For example, place soldiers as indicated above ; from 
the position of the instructor at A, give verbal orders 



54 



and messages to No. 1 in the vicinity of the instructor, 
and cause the message to be transmitted to Nos. 2, 3, 
etc., to the last post, who transmits it to the instructor. 
This exercise can be carried out during other drills, or 
while on the march. 




3 



In short relays, also, it will be found profitable to 
begin the training as described above. Whenever 
necessary, the message will be transmitted in a low tone 
from one soldier to another. Practice may be carried 
out during night maneuvers, or on the march. 



55 



XVII. 

NIGHT FIRING. 

Night firing must not be carried out unnecessarily ; 
however, if conditions are such that it can be carried 
out accurately and without danger, it is permissible. 
Night firing by squad is most effective in volley firing 
by command ; but it is important that training in in- 
dividual fire, also, be carried out, as that kind of firing 
must be used at point blank ranges. 

Cautions for Individuals when String. — 

1. At night, keep cool and obey the commands of 
your leader. 

2. Night firing is usually too high; therefore, take 
care not to incline the upper part of the body to the rear, 
or raise the muzzle of the rifle above the horizontal. 

3. In nnng at night, it is a good thing to release 
the trigger by one pressure of the finger, instead of the 
usual method. 

4. Never get excited, after firing; keep cool. 

5. When firing is stopped, turn the safety without 
fail. 

XVIII. 

TRAINING IN NIGHT FIRING. 

Horizontal tiring and Posture. — The kneeling posi- 
tion is most suitable for horizontal firing ; when aiming, 
raise the buttock from the right heel and hold the rifle 
as in the standing position. This method of aiming 



56 



is suitable to all kinds of terrain, and can be done in 
double rank as well as in single rank. 

Method and Order of Training. — This training may 
carried out as follows : 

(a) Train each soldier to hold his rifle horizontally. 

{b) By such training he will soon be able to hold it 
so, naturally. 

1. Formation. 

The following points are essential : 
(a) One soldier must not interfere with another. 
. (6) It must be convenient for supervision by an 
officer. 

In line with one pace interval fulfills both these 
requirements. This drill trains the muscles to work 
involuntarily ; and daytime will be found most con- 
venient for training and supervision. 

2. Opportunity for training. 

Daytime is best for this training, on account or its 
convenience for observation and instruction. 

3. Methods. 

Have each soldier close his eyes and level his rilie, 
according to the principles that have been explained to 
him. After the rifle has been brought against the cheek, 
the soldier will open his eyes and examine it. Next have 
this movement executed by squad by command, just 
as in pointing and aiming drill. When this movement 
is well understood, order the men to close their eyes, 
and, while in that condition, put up a target and have 
them carry out horizontal fire against it. 



57 



XIX. 

NIGHT BAYONET EXERCISES. 

Importance of Such Drill. — A night battle is a hand 
to hand fight in which the bayonet must be used; 
therefore, the bayonet is the one cause of success in 
night attacks. When well trained in such fighting, it 
raises self-confidence, increases bravery, and drives 
away fear. 

Cautions in the Use of the Bayonet at Night. — 

1. At night, on account of an excessive watchful- 
ness, there is a tendency to misjudge the proximity of 
the enemy, and to dash upon him with the determination 
to overthrow him with the body alone, without making 
use of the bayonet. 

2. Make the men understand that they can over- 
throw the enemy only after they have first put away all 
thought of their own lives. 

3. At the time of the attack and charge, it is im- 
portant not to stumble and fall; in order to avoid this, 
care must be exercised in placing the feet on the ground. 

4. Care will be exercised in the dress, and in tjae 
handling of dummy guns, etc. 

5. An accurate and rigid posture is necessary in 
executing this movement in the prescribed namner. 

6. During training, the following points will be 
observed : 

(a) Be cool, and do not make any sound without 
permission. 



58 



(6) High morale and overflowing spirits are neces- 
sary. 

(c) Cultivate an aggressive spirit. 

XX. 

TRAINING IN NIGHT BAYONET FENCING. 

Scope of Training. 一 In night training in bayonet 
fencing, it will not be necessary to carry out all the move- 
ments given in the Fencing Manual, because at night- 
time, it is important to overthrow the enemy in the first 
charge by a vigorous and violent offensive, in which 
skillful dexterity is no great necessity. Therefore, the 
following training will be found sufficient : 

(a) Direct thrust against temporary targets. 

(b) Fundamental drill. 

When these two things are taught sufficiently, the 
requirements of a night bayonet attack can be fulfilled. 

Method of Training. ― 

1. Against dummy figures. 

Each soldier will be made to charge against a hypo- 
thetical enemy (as used, in Russia), or against a white 
cloth, or figure of a man carried by the instructor. At 
first the figure will be in a fixed position, but later, the 
soldier will charge seeking the target and not knowing 
its position beforehand. As the training progresses, 
make surprise targtes of white cloth, dummy figures, 
targets, etc., and at suitable times, have them appear 
suddenly before the soldier. 

2. Fundamental training. 



59 



In this training, the instructor ― Non-commissioned 
officer, or First Class Private ― wears defensive armor, 
and if necessary, face armor as well. The soldiers under 
instruction wear fencing gloves only, or the regulation 
clothing. The instructor calls out a name, and the 
soldier charges several times, being relieved m turn. At 
this time the soldier must be taught not to fear the in- 
structor's bayonet, but he must be made to approach 
very close to the instructor. Try to make the exercise 
as realistic as possible. On moonlight nights, this ex- 
ercise will conform to that of the daytime, but the best 
way to take advantage of the light can be studied. 

XXI. 

NIGHT INTRENCHING. 

Importance. — The construction of fortifications, on 
the offensive or defensive, in the day or night, is a most 
important matter. Even though prevented m daytime 
by the pressure of battle, the night will bring an oppor- 
tunity for intrenching. Accordinlgy it follows, that, in 
many cases in actual warfare, intrenchments are con- 
structed in front of the enemy at night. For this reason 
training in night intrenching is most necessary. While 
such work is comparatively easy on a moonlight night, 
it is a very difficult thing on a dark night. 

Night Intrenching and Im porta n t Point in 丄 raining. — 

1 . Each man marks out his own section, ana begins 
digging from close by his feet. 

2. Care will be taken to connect the individual 
excavations. 



60 



3. It is easy to make the trench to narrow ; there- 
fore caution is enjoined in this respect. 

4. Be careful that the excavated earth is not thrown 
too far or too near; each, man will watch the way he 
throws the dirt and apply his strength accordingly. 

5. In using the shovel and the spade, much noise 
is caused if the dirt be allowed to fall from an unneces- 
sary height ; therefore the strength should be applied 
when the shovel is near the ground. 

6. Each man's section should be large enough to 
prevent his being struck by his neighbor's tools. 

7. If discovered by the enemy's search lights, do 
not become confused ; simply lie down. 

8. If attacked by the enemy, do not throw the tools 
away ; either put them in the place where the rifles were 
left, or in somq, other fixed position. 

9. Do not use the pick unless- necesssary, as this 
tool requires a wide frontage. 

10. Do not scrape tools together in order to clean 
off the dirt ; use a chip of wood or the toe of the shoe. 

11. Cautions regarding reliefs : 

(a) At the time of relief, intrenching tools will be 
handed to the relief without any talking. 

(b) Care will be taken that no vacant spaces are 
left between the workmen. 

{c) The working place should not be left, except 
upon arrival of the relief. Each man will carry his 
rifle. 

(d) Whenever unadvoidable, leave the tools stick- 
ing up in the ground where they can be easily found. 



61 



In order to prevent losing them, it is a good thing to tie a 
piece of cloth on the handle. 

XXII. 

TRAINING IN NIGHT INTRENCHING. 

Methods. —— To carry out this training, march the 
squad on a dark night, to the training ground. First, 
have the men dig individually, and explain to them how 
it differs from the work , in the daytime. Next, place 
two or more men side by side, indicate each one's sector, 
and have each one execute his prescribed portion. If 
possible to do so, it will be found advantageous for the 
men to see, in the day, the result of their night labors. 
At this time, too, they must be taught the differences 
in sound resulting from the differences in the character 
of ground and the tools used. 

Cautions. —— In this training, the following points 
should be especially noted : 

1. At nighttime, do not have idle soldiers looking 
on at the work. 

2. Take only a small squad at a time, as it is im- 
possible to oversee, properly, the work of a large 
number. 

3. In addition to their own work, have the men 
listen to the noise of others working, thus cultivating 
their judgment as to distance, number of men working, 
etc. 

4. Don't limit the work to nighttime only. Make 
the men understand what is required by work in rainy 
and snowy weather, when such work is difficult. 



62 



5. Carry out this work as often as possible, so that 
they will become accustomed to it. 

Method by Using Sand Bags. ― (See detachment in- 
trenching) . 

XXIII. 

METHODS OF RECOGNIZING FRIENDLY TROOPS AT NIGHT. 

Importance. — At night time there is danger of at- 
tacking and fighting our own forces ; accordingly the 
quick recognition of our own troops is most important. 
If that recognition be delayed, there will be the great 
danger of losing the initiative. 

Methods of RecogmUon. — 
1. Speech. 

(a) Different words from those in daily use. 
{h) Countersign. 
2. Uniform. 

(a) Different from that in daily use. 

(&) Special distinguishing marks. 

Words and clothing in daily use are not sufficient to 
rely upon in war time. During the Japanese-Russian 
War, the Russians frequently wore our uniform, or 
Chinese clothing, and used our speech. 

Disadvantages oj Speech. 一 At night, the one who 
speaks first, is at a disadvantage. In the old days of 
sword and spear fighting, there was no particular danger 
in speech, unless very close together ; but today, one 
who is believed to be an enemy, is quickly killed by 
firearms. 



63 



Suitable Methods of Recognition. — As stated above 
when there is a difference of language and uniform, 
that is a suitable method for quick recognition ; but it is 
most important to gain the initiative. In order to pre- 
vent the enemy from gaining the initiative, such 
methods as striking the rifle stock, signals by whistle, 
etc., may be used, these methods being applicable to 
any country. However, on a very dark night, especially 
in a confused bayonet fight, such methods are not suf- 
ncient ; accordingly, the men must wear some special 
distinguishing mark, which can be readily identified. 
In this case the distinguishing marks must be recogni- 
zable along the whole front, and, if possible, should be 
worn so as not to be visible to the enemy. 

XXIV. 

NIGHT DEMOLITION WORK. 

Training. — When a position for assaulting is taken, 
the position of the enemy must be reconnoitered. Hav- 
ing made certain of the presence of obstacles in front of 
the enemy and their position and character, they must 
be destroyed before the charge. Engineer troops are 
most suitable for this work, but infantry, as well, must 
be able to open their own road. This demolition is a 
very difficult matter, especially in the case of indepen- 
dent infantry, not supplied with explosives. There- 
fore thorough training in peace time is most necessary. 

Requisites for Demolition Work. ― 

(a) Brave men who do not fear death. 

(b) Quick, clever men. 

(c) Coo】 men. 



64 



Even though possessed of the above characteristics, 
if they do not take advantage of a good opportunity, 
success is uncertain. It is the duty of officers to watch 
for good opportunities. 

Important Principles of Demolition Work. 一 Of 
course the point to be demolished must conform to the 
tactical requirements, and must be such a place that, 
having been broken, troops can enter instantly. The 
space demolished should be wide enough for a column 
of fours to pass through. Sufficient preparation should 
be made for this demolition, and its execution must be 
rapid. The obstacle should be approached, as far as 
possible, without the knowledge of the enemy ; when 
this is impossible, it must be demolished under the pro- 
tection of friendly troops. Several places should be 
selected for demolition so that there will be a good 
prospect of success somewhere. 

Methods of Training. — This work is engineering 
work, and the men should be trained m it first in the 
daytime. After they thoroughly understand its re- 
quirements, the work will be carried on at night. 
While of course it is desirable that all men should have 
this training, on account of its difficult nature, it will be 
found sufficient to train only a selected number. 

XXV. 

METHODS OF USING HAND GRENADES AT NIGHT. 

Hand grenades have become more important than 
ever on account of their practical use in the Japanese- 
Russian War; in future wars, their use will become 
more and more general. Even though there will be but 



65 



few instances where great training will be required in 
their use, if they are not used properly success is im- 
possible and they will only serve to alarm the enemy. 
Therefore each soldier will be trained m their use, at 
least to the extent of becoming brave enough to carry 
them without hesitation. On account of their danger, 
soldiers will first be accustomed to them in the daytime ; 
then later, at nighttime, they will throw them at targets 
made of lanterns or lights. Whenever there are but few 
hand grenades, small packages of the same weight will 
be constructed ; to these will be attached the same 
weight of throwing rope, and thus the effort necessary 
for throwing the grenades can be ascertained. Soldiers 
will thus learn the amount of effort necessary for var- 
ious distances. The hurling oi hand grenades is the pre- 
lude of the charge ; if the charge comes too long after 
the shock of the grenades, success is most uncertain ; the 
enemy's works must be penetrated immediately after 
the hand grenades are thrown. 

XXVI. 

NIGHT SENTINELS. 

Training. ― Sentinels will be trained in the daytime 
as well as at night. At night, he must be able to move 
under any condition that may arise during that time. 
This training should be begun only after the soldier un- 
derstands clearly the essential points of the relations 
between sound and vision, the determination of direc- 
tion, silent night marches etc. 

Night, and Position of Sentinels. — (See chapter on 
sight and hearing) . 



66 



1 . A position with a broad field of view. 

2. A position with no obstruction to the field of 
view. 

3. A position where hearing is not interfered with. 

4. A position not visible to the enemy, but con- 
venient for our own view. For example : 

(a) To keep open ground in front. 

(b) To avoid a windy locality, or one where there 
are water-wheels, etc. 

(c) At night, to be in the shadow of a tree with the 
moonlight behind. 

(d) A position from which the sky-line is visible 
is advantageous, even on a dark night. 

(e) A position where you can be seen a long dis- 
tance against the sky-line, is disadvantageous. 

(/) A position which iS known to the natives is 
disadvantageous. 

(g) To be always in a fixed position is disadvan- 
tageous. 

{h) Terrain which prevents the enemy from at- 
tacking suddenly is advantageous. 

Along the Shaho river in Manchuria, a sentinel in a 
fixed position was frequently surprised by the enemy, 
and there were many instances of such surprise caused 
by the fact that the natives knew the sentinel's position. 

When in the daytime position at A, the sentinel can 
see well in the enemy's direction, but at night, such a 
position can be easily seen by the enemy ; therefore the 
sentinel's post should be changed to B, from which 
place an enemy appearing at A can be easily discovered. 



67 



The sentinel's position should be chosen from the most 
suitable ones in the vicinity, and the sentinel, himself, 
should improve his post in accordance with previously 
mentioned requirements. 

To stand carelessly with the rifle in the hand, 
naturally invites danger. This caution is especially im- 
portant to men on such duties as sentinel on outpost , etc., 
which is the first line of defense of an army at the halt. 



o 




Night Sentinels and Posture. ~~ The posture of sen- 
tinels will be laid down in instructions. In fixing the 
posture, the relation of the ground and physical ob- 
jects must be borne in mind. At night, the following 
points will be especially noted : 

(a) The posture should be lower than objects 
which are in rear. 

(b) Avoid a posture visible on the sky-line. 

(c) Other points are the same as in daytime. 
Night Sentinels and Reconnaissance. — The principles 

of night reconnaissance depend upon the following 
points : 

(a) Follow along physical objects as much as 
possible, keeping the body low, and holding the breath ; 
you will thus be able to hear any noise. 

(6) Try to see objects on the sky-line. 



68 



(c) Bear in mind the relation between physical ob 
jects (trees, etc.) and the moon; take care that there is 
no enemy concealed in the shadow. 

(め Form your judgement of conditions from the 
sounds heard. 

(e) Dont move unnecessarily. 

A Sentinel's Challenge at Night. — Our preparation 
at night must be in accordance with the movements of 
the enemy. Signals, countersigns, etc., will not be used 
unnecessarily. It is important that we should know, 
first, something about the enemy. At this time, the 
sentinel's posture will be in accordance with the follow- 
ing requirements : 

(a) When able to fire make preparations for so 
doing ; if fired at by the enemy, take such a posture 
that you will not be hit, i. e., lie down. 

(6) When there is no other course than the use of 
the bayonet, try to overthrow the enemy by one blow; 
care should be taken not to be surprised. 

In short, challenge quickly, and do not allow the 
enemy to obtain the initiative. 

Night Sentinels and Ptring. — Sentinels should be 
careful about firing, even in the daytime ; how much 
more is tnis true at night ! Such firing must conform to 
the following conditions : 

{a) When danger is pressing, and there is no time 
to return with a report, 

(6) Whenever necessary for the sentinel's own 
safety. - 

(c) Whenever certain of hitting the enemy's patrols, 

etc. 



69 



(d) Whenever the enemy's returning patrol al- 
ready knows the sentinel's position, and the latter is 
able to fire effectively. 

We have already explained why sentinels should not 
fire unnecessarily at night. Frotn experiences in actual 
warfare, it has been found that when a sentinel remains 
silent at his post, he gradually becomes excited, and fear 
and illusions fill his mind. Trees seem enemies, and 
naturally, firing soon follows. 

During the Japanese-Russian War, when in contact 
with the enemy, the latter frequently attacked our 
sentinels in the following manner : 



For example, some of the enemy's patrols about 
dusk, persistently operated in the direction B. Even 
at night they did not leave, but gradually approached 
closer in the drkness, just as if they were going to charge 
our post, and finallly opened fire. Our sentinels, being 
diverted by this, returned the fire. The enemy's 
detachment at C, locating the post by the flash and 
neise of firing, charged suddenly from C. 

Sentinels confronting the enemy are in practically 
the same situation as in fortress warfare. Vigilance, of 
course, should be stricter than on the march ; but there 




70 



are many examples which show that the sentinel's 
firing guides the enemy and enables him to approach 
closely. 

Night Sentinels and Reports. — Night sentinels, when 
making reports, will pay special attention to the fol- 
lowing points : 

(a) At the time of moving not to make any noise or 
cast any shadows. 

(6) Not to move at the double time unless abso- 
lutely necessary, nor make any noise. 

(c) The report will be made in a low voice, just 
mutually audible. 

(d) At the time of the report (made to visiting 
patrols or others) , not to let the enemy take advantage 
of it, or, if the enemy knows that one man has gone 
back to the rear to report, not to allow that fact to be 
taken advantage of. 

(e) Not to mistake direction (when moving) . 
Night Sentinels and Connection. —— A sentinel should 

be well acquainted with the neighboring posts, as there 
must be mutual connection in the line of sentinels. 
Therefore a sentinel should know the following things 
with reference to neighboring sentinels : 

(a) The position and number of neighboring posts, 
both day and night. 

(b) The shortest route to those posts. 

(c) The difference in day and night methods of 
communication whether by movement or by sight. 

(め Movements and actions of a post when there 
is an emergency at a neighboring post. 



71 



A clear knowledge of conditions at neighboring posts 
is essential for the accurate execution of a post's own 
duties. During the Japanese-Russian War, many 
sentinels fell into the hands of the enemy while trying 
to connect with neighboring posts, not knowing that the 
latter had changed their positions. Again, often the 
enemy would appear in front of one post and open a 
violent fire, just as if they were about to attack it; 
while a hidden detachment attacked a neighboring 
post and took the sentinels prisoners. The following 
are the results of our experiences during the late war, 
concerning the communication of sentinels : 

1. Visual signaling ; observation. 
Flags and other signals. 

At night, lanterns. (When behind nigh ground, 
simple signals can be sent by disappearing lights) . 

2. Movements made by a moving sentinel, 
(a) From one point to another. 

{b) Advancing from both sides and meeting at a 
certain point. 

(c) By a third person に visiting patrols, etc.). 

During connection by a moving sentinel, there is a 
likelihood that the sentinel will be taken prisoner by the 
secret approach of the enemy, or that he will fall into 
some danger ; therefore, sufficient quiet and caution are 
necessary. 

Even though there is danger in always taking the 
same road, that danger must be disregarded if there is 
a good road within the line of sentinels. If the sentinel 
passes by way of the picket, quick communication can 
be made, but the space intervening cannot be patroliea 
while connection is being made. 



72 



Night Sentinels and Friendly Patrols. — When friendly 
patrols are about to cross the line of sentinels, the latter 
should be well trained in the proper procedure. The 
principal points are as follows : 

(a) There must be a spirit of cooperation between 
patrol and sentinel. 

ゆ) The sentinel must not be lazy or careless in his 
duties. 

On this point, the following precautions are import- 
ant : 

(a) The sentinel will inform the patrol concerning 
what he has seen or heard about the enemy, and all 
things that the patrol ought to know. 

{b) The sentinel must understand the configuration 
of ground, physical objects, and names of localities in 
front, so that he can explain them to the patrol. 

(c) It is important that the sentinel know the pa- 
trol's duties, its road, objective of reconnaissance, the 
time and place of return, etc. 

When a patrol is about to cross the line of sentinels 
and advance toward the enemy, the sentinel must not 
inform the patrol concerning the above mentioned 
points in a careless or perfunctory manner. The sen- 
tinel should regard the patrol as his partner, who is 
moving out to obtain information, and should do all in 
his power to assist the patrol in the proper performance 
of its duties. On this account, a sentinel, knowing that 
a patrol is out in front, will be able to judge the import- 
ance of rifle shots and other indications that he may 
hear. When the patrol returns to the line of sentinels, 
the latter will be informed concerning the following 
points : 



73 



(a) What the patrol has learned about the enemy. 

(6) Whether or not any unusual signs were ob- 
served by the patrol, and, if so, what they were. 

(c) Sentinels will question the patrol regarding 
designation of terrain, and any other points not clearly 
understood. 

When a patrol leaves the line of sentinels, and ad- 
vances to the front, neighboring sentinels will be notified 
by moving sentinels or other means. 

A patrol is able to carry out its own duty well, by 
using what it has learned from the sentinel as a basis. 
That is why it is important that sentinels and patrols 
should work harmoniously together. 

Night Sentinels and Reliefs. — Frequently the noise 
made by the relief, discovers the sentinel's position to 
the enemy, and this fact will be taken advantage of by 
a skillful enemy. Again, if the time of relief is known, 
the sentinel's position will be easily discovered. 

Points which will be taught regarding reliefs : 

(a) The amount of noise in transmitting general 
orders (if the sentinel knows them at the picket, or 
assembly place in rear, it is not necessary to repeat 
them every time) . . 

(6) Cautions at time of transmission ― matters 
relative to watchfulness, etc. . 

(c) Movements of new guard to sentinel's post. 

(d) Their posture after arrival. 

(e) Return of old guard and their subsequent 
movements. 

At the time of transmission of orders, as few men as 
possible will appear at the post. Again, it will be found 
that some sentinels of the old guard will become in- 



74 



attentive, due to the relaxation of their previous mental 
strain 一 such men must be warned. New sentinels, also, 
on account of the presence of old sentinels at the time 
of relief, are liable to be neglectful in watching. On this 
account special care must be exercised, and training 
is important. 

XXVII. 

TRAINING O F NIGHT SENTINELS. 

Training of Sentinels and Amount of Light. — The 
training of sentinels should be carried out at times in 
which the amount of light varies. That is, on moon- 
light, starry and dark nights, with and without wind, 
in rainy and snowy weather, etc. 

Training of Sentinels and Terrain. — It is important 
that the training of night sentinels should be carried out 
in all kinds of terrain. In such varying terrain, the 
power of sight and hearing can be learned, both of which 
are most important for a sentinel to know. 

Sentinels and Squads. — Although for the purpose of 
training, the number of men in a squad should be as few 
as possible, the time will be wasted if the incompetent 
Non-commissioned Officers and First し iass Privates are 
placed in charge of the instruction. Trained men who 
understand thorougnly the ideas of the instructor, should 
be used for assistant instructors. Each assistant in- 
structor will be shown the following : . 

(a) The squad's sector of ground, direction of 
operation, and kind of training to be carried out. 

(6) Means and methods of training. 

(c) Time to be employed for this purpose. 

(d) Position and direction of indicated enemy. 



75 



(e) Signals for assembly, etc. 

An Example of Such Training. — First have an old 
soldier or an assistant instructor execute the movement, 
while the men under instruction observe it (for this pur- 
pose a moonlight night, or just at dusk, is the best time) ; 
next, two or three men will carry out a similar move- 
ment, then proceed as follows : 

66 
I 

で i 
で 1 I 

や % 

c 



气 



a 



a 



"B 



66 66 66 66 

i i I $ ゲ" ふん V'-JT" バふ c /JTf • 



力" 



76 



The instructor distributes the sentinels as in the 
upper sketch, and indicates the sector which they will 
watch. The remainder of the men are formed in a 
squad near the instructor and will form reliefs. An 
assistant instructor will be stationed in the vicinity of 
each sentinel. The instructor will direct his assistants 
to oversee the movements of the men while engaged on a 
certain duty, and to correct their mistakes. The 
necessary number of men will be sent out to represent 
the enemy ; these men, having been given detailed instruc- 
tions, will be guided by previously arranged signals 
(disappearing lights, bull's-eye lanterns, etc.) . When all 
arrangements are completed, the instructor will direct 
the represented enemy to move, and the sentinels will 
oppose them. The instructor and his assistants criti- 
cise and instruct the men in their duties ; or an assistant 
instructor will form a patrol of two or three men, and, 
when this patrol has arrived within the vicinity of a 
sentinel, will instruct the latter how to proceed. When 
these patrols have already gone 'out in front of the line 
of sentinels, they approach the sentinels as an indicated 
enemy. When the instruction on this point is finished, 
they change to friendly patrols, and instruct the sen- 
tinels upon that point. 

Character of the Training. — The subjects in which the 
men will be trained do not differ from those in the day- 
time, i. e" the principal points are as follows : 

(a) Selection of sentinel's position. 

(b) Sentinel's memory of physical objects. 

(c) Sentinel's method of watching. 

(d) Action with respect to patrols which cross line 
of sentinels. 



77 



{e) Action to be taken with respect to indications 
heard. 

(/) Action with respect to the enemy, 

(g) Method of connection. 

{h) Method of reporting. 



XXVIII. 



NIGHT PATROLS. 

Night Patrols and Methods of Connection. — Night 
patrols must be more careful than day patrols in keep- 
ing in touch ; for in the daytime, even at long distances, 
connection can be maintained by sight, which, of course, 
is impossiole at night. Special caution is required in 
the presence of the enemy, as it is then dangerous to 
use sound for the purpose of connection. Accordingly, 
the methods which can be used are as follows : 

(a) Diminish distances so that different subdivi- 
sions can see each other. 

{h) Use of the whistle. 

(c) Sounds made by striking the butt of the gun, 
or ammunition pouch. 

The limit of communication by such methods is 
very restricted ; therefore, it is often convenient that 
there be but one group executing a certain movement, 
but care must be taken that they are not all captured 
by the enemy at the same time. 

Night Patrols and Methods of Maintaining Direction. 
— The difficulty of maintaining direction at night has 
already been mentioned ; the patrol must strive by every 
means to maintain direction accurately. In order to do 



78 



this, see those chapters where we have explained how to 
determine direction, and the chapter treating of the 
movements of connecting files. 

Special cautions in various terrain are as follows : 

1. Broad plains. 

Movements in such a terrain must be in accordance 
with the following principles, as great errrors in direction 
arise from small differences in angles : 

(a) Make reliable roads, or a prolonged physical 
object, the standard. 

(b) Reliance on prominent objects. 

(c) Reliance on the stars. 

(d) Use of the compass. 

(e) Use of maps. 

(/ ) Reliance on the judgment of a well trained 
mind. 

2. Woods. 

It is as easy to mistake directions in woods as in 
open plains ; often it will be so dark that no stars will 
be visible. The principles laid down under "Broad 
Plains," are equally applicable to vVoods." 

3. Depressions. 

After entering a depression, a mistake is often made 
in direction when going up again on high ground. The 
following precautions are therefore important. 

(a) Before entering a depression, establish guiding 
points on high ground both front and rear. 

(6) At the bottom of the depression, especially, 
make certain of the direction in which you will ascend. 

(c) If necessary, establish other directions, also. 



79 



4. Obstacles. 

When crossing obstacles, it is very easy to mistake 
directions even though advancing straight to the front. 
Ihis is especially true when making a detour ; the fol- 
lowing cautions will be found important : 

- (a) Select guiding points in front and rear before 
crossing. 

(6) Observe the direction of the obstacle, and cal- 
culate its angle with your previous road. 

(c) If necesssary, determine the direction anew 
after passing the obstacle. 

Night Patrols and Method of Reconnaissance and 
Passing oj \ arious Terrain and Physical Objects. —— 

1. Woods. 

More minute care must be exercised with respect to 
woods at night than in day time. The following 
things, especially, must be borne in mind : 

(a) Don't enter a woods unless unavoidable ; on 
account of its darkness the field of view is restricted, 
there is sure to be noise, and it is unfavorable for hearing, 
so pass around the edge if possible. 

(6) When about to enter a woods, first reconnoiter 
the interior ; if possible one man will advance to the 
edge. 

(c) While in the woods, stop from time to time and 
listen. 

(め When the passage is difficult, even though you 
force your way through, it will usually do more harm 
than good. 

{e) It is important that one should always expect 
to run into the enemy. 



80 



(/) The principles already stated in previous 
articles concerning direction, connection, etc., should 
be followed. 

2. Villages. 

Villages are similar to woods, but the following 
special cautions are important : 

(a) It is a good thing to avoid villages, as a patrol 
is liable to be molested by dogs, natives, or hidden 
enemies. 

(6) When about to enter a village, first reconnoiter 
the interior from the outside ; if nothing unusual is seen 
then it may be entered. , 

(c) One man should advance along the edge of the 
village. 

(d) Sieze a native and question him concerning 
conditions ; his attitude should afford some clue to con- 
ditions. 

{e) While, at times, it is advantageous to sieze 
hostages, it is disadvantageous to arouse hostility. 

(/ ) The patrol should pass along the side of the 
street in shadow. 

With respect to the maintenance of direction, con- 
nection, etc., see those chapters devoted to those sub- 
jects. 

3. Denies. 

If a defile is encountered in the neighborhood of the 
enemy, act in accordance with the following principles : 

(a) As there is usually a hostile sentinel at the mouth 
of the denle, verify it. 

(b) When about to enter, one man will be placed 
some distance in rear, and will follow only when the 



81 



man preceding him has entered safely. At this time, 
the patrol leader will be in front, with one man some- 
what in his rear, and the third man still further in rear. 

4. Open country. 

In open country, the following principles are appli- 
cable: 

(a) Move with as low a posture as possible. 

(6) Take as much interval as possible ; in this 
case, the patrol leader is in the center, and guides both 
flanks of the patrol. 

(c) Watch the enemy's direction, and put the ear 
to the ground and listen for noises. 

5. Roads. 

In order to avoid being seen by the enemy, march on 
the side of the road in shadow ; if you travel in the center 
of the road, discovery is easy. The character of the 
road surface, and its relation to the amount of noise 
produced, must also be borne in mind. Therefore the 
patrol, itself, should move quietly, and listen for sounds 
made by the enemy. 

6. Gravelly ground. 

As much noise is produced while traveling over 
gravelly ground, special caution is necessary. It will 
be found disadvantageous for the whole patrol to move 
at the same time, and halt at the same time; therefore 
one man will halt, and the other two continue the 
advance, or they will advance in turn, etc. 

7. High ground and depression. 

High ground is advantageous for vision, but there is 
danger of being seen by the enemy when descending. 
When the descending slope is very precipitous, quiet 



82 



movement becomes difficult ; therefore, the patrol 
should proceed as on gravelly ground. When climbing 
to high ground, the patrol should halt at the crest line 
and watch and listen. It is a good thing, too, to stop 
quietly and listen, before crossing the crest line. 

Night Patrols and Indications. 一 When there are 
suspicious indications, the patrol will lie down at once 
and listen. Its duty can best be performed if it is 
always prepared, and discovers the enemy first; accord- 
ingly it must avoid moving or firing rashly. As a patrol's 
movements differ more or less with the nature of their 
duty, we will discuss each duty separately. 

(a) When entrusted with the duty of reconnoiter- 
ing the enemy's outpost line. When on such duty, if a 
hostile patrol is discovered, the patrol will lie down at 
once and allow it to pass. Even though there are op- 
portunities for taking prisoners, the patrol must not 
allow such side issues to divert it from its true mission. 
Its action upon discovery of the enemy's sentinels will 
be discussed m another place. 

(6) When reconnoitering the enemy's outpost line, 
or the position of detachments in rear. The patrol 
advances as in the preceding case. If a hostile patrol 
is encountered while on the return journey, or after the 
weak points of the sentinels have been discovered, it is 
very important not to make any movement which will 
discover its presence and thus cause the enemy to change 
his dispositions. 

(c) After the patrol has performed its mission, 
there are times when it is advantageous to try to capture 
or kill the enemy. However the patrol's prompt report 
must not be sacrificed for this purpose, neither must the 



83 



proper opportunity be mistaken. A plan evolved from 
the prompting of curiosity or the desire for fame, is 
not to be commended. No movement should be decided 
upon without due consideration. 

A Night Patrol's Reconnaissance of the Enemy's Line 
of Sentinels. — 

1. Time for reconnaissance. 

The most advantageous times for such reconnais- 
sance are as follows : 

(a) At the time of the sentinel's relief. ' 
{h) When a visiting patrol passes, 
(c) When a patrol returns. 

{d) At the time of the arrival of connecting moving 
sentinels. 

Such times are convenient on account of the noise 
arising from the movement, and from talking. There- 
fore, the reconnoitering patrol previous to - this time, 
should have approached the line of sentinels, and have 
hidden in their vicinity. 

2. Movements going and returning. 

These movements do not differ from those pre- 
viously made by the patrt)l against the enemy. 

3. Methods of reconnaissance. 

The patrol being hidden, as we have already de- 
scribed, it should strive to discover the position of one 
sentinel ; this being used as a base will assist in the dis- 
covery of the other posts and non-commissioned officer 
posts. Having reconnoitered the intervening open 
ground, the enemy's method of security can be verified, 
and it can be judged whether or not it would be a good 
thing to enter the line of sentinels. To accomplish 



84 



this, it is a good thing to follow directly after a passing 
moving sentinel or a visiting patrol. 

Night Patrols and Quiet. —— Patrols will not fire at 
night. If they do so, their mission will become difficult 
of accomplishment, and it will be harmful to succeeding 
hidden movements as well . Again, patrols will not talk ― 
from this comes danger of discovery by the enemy. A 
patrol's halting, lying down, and hiding, will be without 
word or sound. There must be no double-timing, or 
confusion arising from lack of coolness or fear. Only 
in sudden danger, when there is no other means of 
escape, or as a substitute for a quick report, may firing 
be employed. 

Night Patrols and Their Roads. —— Night patrols will 
vary their roads in coming and going. If this is not 
done, there is danger of encountering a hiaden enemy. 
If, on account of being on the return road, the service 
of security be neglected or noise be made, the enemy is 
liable to take advantage of it. During the late war, a 
patrol opposite the Shaho river, was in the habit of 
resting in a certain locality where the men would make a 
fire. The enemy discovered it, and planted a bomb 
there. For such reasons, it is especially important 
to return by a different road. 

Night Patrols and Reconnaissance and Recollection 
of Terrain. ~ As members of patrols will sometimes be 
used as guides, they will reconnoiter the terrain with 
that object in view, and their memory must be trained 
at the same time. While this training is being carried 
out, the following points will be borne in mind : 

(a) A base for fixing direction. 

(6) The aligning and recollection of places. 



85 



(c) How to pass obstacles, and points to be care- 
ful of in so doing. 

(d) The extent of the use of roads and neighboring 



ground 




(e) 


Special marks ― such may be made as follows 


1. 


Scattering white paper. 




Scattering white powder. 


3. 


Breaking limbs of trees, or trees themselves. 




Tying on white paper or white rags. 


5. 


Establishing road marks or signs. 



The principles governing the recollection of physical 
objects are similar to those under the section "Duties 
of Messengers." . 



XXIX. 

NIGHT HIDDEN PATROLS. 

Such patrols hide in important places and discover 
and report important matters ; their movements, of 
course, depend upon the special purpose for which 
they are employed. However, under no circumstances, 
must they make their appearance rashly. The duties 
of nidden patrols although apparently simple, are not so 
in reality ; success is more and more difficult, according 
to the importance of the mission. To simply order a 
patrol to hide at a certain place and only vaguely in- 
dicate their other movements, is useless. Whether 
it is to capture a hostile patrol, or to simply report 
the approach of the enemy, or to report other conditions 
(the enemy's movements, etc.), all must be indicated 
clearly and accurately. In many instances, hidden 



86 



patrols will not be called upon to perform duties which 
other patrols can execute. On the other hand, there will 
be things difficult for ordinary patrols 一 such as the recog- 
nition of the enemy's night attack, maintenance of close 
contact, etc. 一 which must be entrusted to hidden pa- 
trols. In such cases, if the patrol tries to capture a 
hostile patrol, or if they go to the rear to report, their 
position will be discovered. A hidden patrol, accord- 
ingly almost never receives communication or visiting 
patrols from other bodies. 

Suitable Characteristics for Hidden Patrols. —— A hidden 
patrol, compared to an ordinary patrol, remains a long 
time in proximity to the enemy ; its members must, 
therefore, possess the following qualities : Fearlessness, 
coolness, patience, intelligence and quickness. 

Impetuous men quickly become confused and. are 
not suitable for this duty. During the Japanese- 
Russian War, our hidden patrols on the c^haho river, 
though they did their work well, were sometimes taken 
prisoners by the enemy ; but they did not capture any 
of the enemy's patrols. 

Distribution of Hidden Patrols— No one should 

self, and the one who posts it. In this connection, the 
following points will be borne in mind : 

(a) It is disadvantageous for the natives or enemy 
to know the position. 

ゆ) Do not loiter about the position unnecessarily 
before assuming it. 

(c) Remain in another position until dusk, and when 
it becomes dark enter the true position secretly. 



87 



(d) Other patrols or visiting patrols will not ap- 
proach or halt at this patrol's position. 

{e) When discovered by the enemy, or by natives, 
the patrol will quickly withdraw ; it will strive to create 
the impression that it has entirely withdrawn, but later 
it will assume a new position. 

Position oj Hidden Patrols. — Although the position 
of a hidden patrol will be in accordance with its objective, 
the following points will be borne in mind : 

(a) It should be a place from which important 
things can be discovered. For example, in order to 
learn of the enemy's advance, it must be in the vicinity 
of important roads. 

{b) A place convenient for observation, but diffi- 
cult of detection. 

(c) A place not easy for the enemy to surprise. 

(め A place where the patrol can send a messenger 
or signal to its friends without being discovered by the 
enemy. 

{e) A place not on a road used by the natives. 



XXX. 

TRAINING OF NIGHT PATROLS. 

Training and Terrain. — We have already mentioned 
the necessity of training patrols on varying terrain. 
Both sentinels and patrols require such training. 

Methods of Training. — 

1. Instruction in the relations between sentinels 
and patrols. 

(a J Preparation. 



88 



? 9 



C 



Having assembled the men to be instructed, the im- 
portance of this training will be explained. Distribute 
instructors and sentinels as in the sketch. The opposing 
sentinels will be at such a distance that they cannot 
see each other ; in this interval there is space for patrols 
to move. Time will be wasted, however, if they move 

too far. 

Id 2. Orders for instruct- 

ors. 

Each instructor will be 
informed as to the points 
in which he will instruct his 
men. He will be placed in 
a particular position, and 
given the approximate time 
which he can use for one 
peri od of instruction. Such 
training will follow this gen- 
eral method : 

(a) The instructor at 
B oversees and corrects the 
patrol's movements against 
the sentinel, and vice versa. 
(6) The instructor at C 
;Tai<pt acts in a similar manner to 
to the one at B. 

This distribution having 
I ' I been made, a patrol will be 

み sent out from the squad, 
first, encountering the 
sentinel's post A; after this movements has been cor- 
rected, the patrol will proceed ん ward C ana B. Ihe 
officer in charge will send out other patrols at proper 



ん ひチ 



6 6 A 



89 



b 6 
6 



or 
0*- o- 



p 



a 



intervals, and when the exercise is concluded, will 
assemble the squad at A; then from the reports of his 
assistant instructors and his own observations, will 
comment upon the men's movements. 

3. Secretly entering and leaving enemy's line of 
sentinels. 

(a) Post sentinels as in 
the sketch ; give them simple 
orders, such as, to keep on 
the lookout for the enemy, 
etc. 

(6) Next, send out a pa- 

« 3 trol to act as a hostile patrol 

(they should attach a white 
cloth, or some other distin- 
guishing mark) ; this patrol 
will try to enter the line of 
sentinels without being discovered. . 

(c) The instructors oversee the movements of both 
sentinels and patrol, and judge of the success of the 
movement. 

4. Search for the enemy's line of sentinels. 
Having posted, the sentinels and attached an asssit- 

ant instructor to each post, have them carry out the 
usual duties of sentinels. Their position in unknown 
to the squad from which the patrols are sent out to 
search for the enemy's line of sentinels. At this period 
of instruction, two methods may be employed : 

(a) Make an assistant instructor chief of the patrol, 
the remainder being recruits. 

(6) Place an assistant instructor in the vicinity of 
the sentinels and have them criticise the movement, 



90 



and furnish material for the officer's criticisms. It is 
important to limit the patrol's sphere of movement, 
and thus avoid unprofitable dispersion. 

5. Training when meeting hostile patrols. 

The instructor, having divided the squad into two 
parts, attaches an assistant instructor to each squad, 
and places himself midway between the squads. He 
carries a disappearing light, with which he signals to 
both squads concerning the sending out of patrols. 
The non-commissioned officer in charge of the squads 
divide them into patrols, and sends out these patrols 
in the direction of the instructor. Each patrol will 
be ordered to return to its squad after they have re- 
connoitered the locality indicated by the assistant 
instructor. From his position, the instructor watches 
the movements of both patrols, and corrects them if 
necessary. When the men have had some training in 
this movement, one squad operates directly against 
another. 

6. Methods of training in how to pass and recon- 
noiter terrain and physical objects do not differ in prin- 
ciple from the methods employed in day time, which 
have already been explained. 

XXXI. 

MOVEMENTS OF A DETACHMENT AT NIGHT. 

Leadership at Night. —— We have examined,' roughly, 
the natural qualities required of the men at nighttime, 
the next thing is the manner of leadership. The 
difficulty of such leadership at night, is beyond descrip- 
tion. In turning our attention to this kind of train- 



91 



ing, one point stands out most prominently— quietness 
of leadership. At night, as it is important to avoid 
discovery by the enemy, the men under one's command 
must be a mass without sound —— and this mass must 
move by silent leadership. 

The value of night movements depends upon the 
amount of skill displayed in silent leadership. Such 
leadership is attained by the following means : 

1. By signals. 

These signals will be briefly explained to the men, 
and may be made by a saber, flag or light ; in any case, 
the following requirements must be fulfilled : 

(a) The signal must be clearly understood by the 
men. 

{b) It must not be visible to the enemy. 

There is no necessity for a great amount of drill in 
this kind of signalling, because night movements are 
seldom complicated. Such movements are the causes 
of r allure, and simple movements and consequently 
simple signals only will be employed. For example : 

(a) Advance 一 raise the object with which the 
signal is made, vertically. 

(b) Halt 一 raise and lower the object, keeping it 
vertical. 

(c) Lie down ― Move the object toward the ground. 

(d) To form parallel columns and advance ~ a cir- 
cular motion, or several times to the right and left. 

(e) To form column of companies and advance ~ A 
circular movement. 

There are several other important signals in which 



92 



commanding officers will instruct their men in the day- 
time. 

2. Method by relays. 

The success of this method of silent leadership de- 
pends greatly upon the amount of training in peace time. 
When the voice is used, it is important that it be just 
loud enough to be heard by the neighboring soldier, and 
that the rate of speech be as rapid as possible. Although 
these methods can be accurately executed when the 
enemy is at some distance, there is always the danger 
of messengers making mistakes, and delay is directly 
proportional to the distance from the sender. How- 
ever, in many cases, the formation at nignt being the 
normal formation in column of companies, neither the 
front or depth will be very great, and, if well trained in 
this method, success can be expected. 

3. Method by example. 

Soldiers move in accordance with the movements of 
their leaders ; in order that this may be done, the leader 
must be in such a position that he can be clearly seen by 
his men. Then when the leader moves, the men move; 
when he halts, they halt ; and when he lies down, they 
lie down also. Troops can be led comparatively easily 
by this method ; and even though men cannot see the 
leader directly, they will be able to conform to his 
movements. The weak point of this method is, that 
timid soldiers unconsciously affect the movements of 
others. Therefore in time of peace, the characteristics 
of each man must be known, and the training must be 
done with minute care. 

To Accustom Troops to Change of Formation at 
Night. 一 A change of formation at night is attended with 



93 



various kinds of confusion. Even if this is not the case, 
it is difficult to carry it out quietly, and slackness is 
unavoidable. Therefore training in carrying out simple 
changes of formation quietly and without confusion, is 
most important. Special training should be given in 
executing the following movements : 

(a) Column of fours to parallel columns ― circular 
signal. 

(6) Parallel columns to company columns ― cir- 
cular signal. 

(c) Column of fours to company column ― circular, 
right and left signal. 

(め Column of companieis and parallel columns to 
column of fours— front to rear signal. 

In these signals, as a general principle, a circular 
signal means changing to a broader front ; a signal 
from front to rear means contracting the front and in- 
creasing depth of column. 

Individual Cautions in Movement by Squad. {See 
Night Movements of Squad) . 

(a) Not to talk. 

(b) Not to hang the head during the march. 

(c) To be careful about connection in the squad ; 
each man will keep his place accurately. 

(d) Each man will see that his clothing and 
equipments make no noise. - 



94 



XXXII. 

TRAINING IN SQUAD MOVEMENT AT NIGHT. 

Order. — First, without arms, proceeding by gradual 
steps until fully armed and equipped. Very simple 
movements, as the advance, retreat, etc., will be carried 
out at first, gradually leading up to complicated ones. 
The signals should be learned thoroughly in daytime, 
and, later, executed at night. 

Night Movements and Strictness.— Hi^t move- 
ments, especially, demand the strictest discipline ; be- 
cause, wiien it is a question of life and death, the in- 
fluence of darkness brings into being the animal love 
of life, and there is the fear that supervision may be 
avoided with consequent loss of power. At nighttime, 
therefore, slackness must not be permitted. Speed, 
silence, and strict discipline are essential, and the 
amount of training will be directly proportional to the 
degree in which the troops possess those qualities. 

XXXIII. 

A squad's night firing. 

When Carried Out. —— It is a very rare occasion when 
firing can be executed at night. Conditions must be 
such that the squad is already quietly halted and have 
made sufficient preparations, and, while in an aiming 
position, await the appearance of the enemy. During 
the Japanese-Russian War, night operations were 
frequent, but instances when the charge was executed 
with the bayonet, alone, were few. At the very shortest 



95 



ranges, a fierce fire was poured in, and then the charge 
was attempted. However from the standpoint of the 
offensive, it is a great mistake to prepare for the charge 
by fire action ; as a fundamental principle, the assault of 
the enemy's position must be made directly by the 
bayonet. Under really unavoidable circumstances only 
will an instant's violent fire be executed, and then, 
under cover of the confusion caused by that fire, dash 
in with the bayonet. However, if such fire action 
delays the offensive movement, it will do more harm 
than good. 

From the standpoint of the offensive, however, it 
is a different matter. Knowing of the enemy's attack, 
preparations for night firing are completed, a violent 
fire carried out after the enemy has approached within 
very short range is most effective ; and if this be followed 
by a counter attack, success often follows. For such 
reasons training in night nring is very important, 
especially in the case of small detachments, such as 
sentinels, non-commissioned officer's posts, etc. When 
they understand such night firing and make good 
use of it, they will be able to obtain very good results. 

Important Points in the Preparation for Night Firing. 
― in night nnng, the men must be prepared in all the 
following points. The angle and direction of fire 
should be simple, and the enemy should not be able to 
avoid it. The methods are as follows : 

(a) Prepare a rest for the rifle, and in the daytime 
from this rest, fix exactly the angle of fire, direction, and 
position of aiming. 

(6) Use horizontal nnng. 



96 



(c) Aim by a light from a lantern, bonfire, or other 
luminous object, or fire by reflected light. 

(d) Fix an aiming object near the muzzle of the gun 
(auxiliary firing) . 

First Method. ― In many cases, prepare a wooden 
support ; that is, in order to preserve the angle of the 
rifle, fix a fulcrum at front and rear, and from this obtain 
the angle of fire according to the range. (This is 
easily fixed by practicing in the daytime.) In short, 
provide for the two important points ― maintenance of 
direction, and of the angle of fire. (See sketch.) 

Secona Method. — This method employs horizontal 
fire trained individually during peace time. The train- 
ing will De by squad, and the following ca'utions are 
especially necessary : 

{a) Each man to fire exactly to his front. 

(6) Each man's firing to be exact. 

(c) Ihe feet must not be moved unnecessarily. 

Third Method. ― In a small squad, the following 
expedient may be adopted : Change the day and night 
positions so that the enemy will appear on the skyline. 
When the enemy is outlined against the sky, firing can 
be carried out. However, in large detachments, this 
method gives the advantage of position to the enemy, 
whicn they can utilize to our disadvantage when it 
becomes light. However, in the case of non-commis- 
sioned officer's posts and pickets, good results have been 
obtained in practice during campaigns. 

There are other methods ; there is the firing carried 
out after having caused the enemy to appear in front of 



97 



a bright light which outlines him clearly. Small bodies 
can use this method effectively, if they are composed of 
men who do not fear death. This plan, naturally, re- 
quires the fire to be lighted in rear of the enemy, and, of 
course, great danger cannot be avoided. Flaming shells 
may be fired, and direct aiming carried out by their 
light ; at short ranges there will be a comparatively 
large number of hits. 




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定着 
ス シ 




(2) 



98 



Fourth Method. — An auxiliary target is placed in 
front of the firer at which he aims. Commanding 
officers must examine the sights strictly in this method. 

Method of Firing. — Loading the piece after the 
enemy has approached closely, is the foundation of 
unsuccessful firing. Therefore officers and men must 
know the following things : 

(a) To load so as not to be discovered by the 
enemy. 

(6) Not to forget orders to load, or other orders. 

(c) Not to discover their position to the enemy. 

In order to accomplish this, the firer, of course, 
will load before the enemy's charge. The command for 
firing will be by signal, or in a low tone of voice. It the 
enemy hear the command "Aim," they will quickly lie 
down and thus avoid the flying bullets which come at 
the next command "Fife." Actual experience in cam- 
paign proves this. In small bodies, the following mode 
of action is advantageous, because I have used it suc- 
cessfully in actual practice : 

(a) Have the commands for aiming transmitted 
from the commander by soldiers nearest him to neigh- 
boring soldiers, and so on down the line (in a low tone.) 

(ら) The commanding officer gives the command for 
nnng according to the size of the detacJiment and the 
rapidity of transmission ; at this time, those who have 
not loaded, or those behind time, will not fire. 

(c) After firing at the command, the men will load 
without any special order. 

The above is simply an example, and must not be 
adhered to, blindly. 



99 



Night Firing, and Collective and Individual Fire. — 
Long continued individual fire is not advisable, for it 
discloses the position and range to the enemy. In 
many cases, therefore, it is a good thing to employ 
collective fire, thereby keeping the men well in hand. 
Such fire has the advantage of dazzling the enemy's 
sight by a temporary flash, and then relapsing into 
darkness, and is thus especially valuable at night. In 
any case, firing discloses our position more or less to the 
enemy ; therefore, during firing, strict watchfulness is 
necessary to prevent the enemy from going around our 
fire and appearing on our flank or rear. 

XXXIV. 

METHOD OF TRAINING IN SQUAD FIRING AT NIGHT. 

Order and Methods of Training. 一 Train the squad in 
horizontal firing in daytime ; then execute it at night 
against various kinds of targets. After practice with 
blank cartridges, train them in battle firing with real 
ammunition. It is often convenient to carry out this 
and other necessary training at the time of intrenching. 

XXXV. 

SQUAD NIGHT INTRENCH MENTS. 

Mehtod of Tracing. 一 In tracing intrenchments at 
night, the following methods may be employed : 

(a) Advance as skirmishers, halt, and dig in that 
position. 

(6) Establish soldiers or trees as markers. 



100 



(c) Use a tracing line. 

(d) Scatter white powder or white paper. 

In whatever method that may be adopted, the com 
manding officer will exercise strict watchfulness, and 
when he has fixed the position, he will fix the trace 
according to one of the above plans. It is very import- 
ant not to mistake the direction in night tracing, as 
there are many examples of ridiculous mistakes on the 
battlefield. 

Methods Relative to the Line of Trace. — 
(a) Method in which the ground is occupied in 
column of fours. 

{h) Method by extension or deployment (in posi- 
tion) . 

{c) Method by advancing after deployment. 

Although the conditions of the hour will largely 
govern, on a dark night it is an exact way, to form 
column of fours to the right or left extending to the 
markers (see sketch) . 

Night Intrenchments, Cautions for Individual Sol- 
diers and Execution of the Work. — The above subjects 
have already been discussed at other places. 

Method of Pilling Sandbags, and Intrenchments in 
which Used. ― In this matter, also, much experience is 
required. When sandbags are to be used, the following 
three squads are necessary : 

(a) A squad to fill the bags. 

(b) A squad to transport them. 

(c) A squad to construct the works with them. 



101 



Of course it is advantageous to fill the sacks as near 
as possible to the place where they will be used, but con- 
ditions often prevent this. There are various ways of 
transporting the full sacks. Progress is most rapid 



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when each man works steadily in transporting the sacks 
from the various places where they are filled, but if the 
distance be great, an intermediate station must be 
established, and each man will put down his burden 
there. Although the method of laying the sandbags 
will conform to the actual conditions, they will not be 
laid so as to form pillars, but will be laid generally level 
like a skirmish trench by gradually progressing construe- 



102 



tion. In short, in this work, order, connection, quiet- 
ness and coolness are required, just as in complicated 
engineering works. 



6 



6 



6 



6 



6 



6 



6 



6 




XXXVI. 

METHOD OF TRAINING IN NIGHT INTRENCHING. 

When the men are well trained in this work, the 
remainder is a question of leadership of the command- 
ing officer. The order of training is as follows : 

(a) When the enemy is distant, training in the con- 
struction is the principal objective. 

ゆ) Training in the case of the gradual approach 
of the enemy. 



103 



(c) Training when there is fear of the enemy's 
attack. 

When the above methods of training have been 
carried out in order, practice will be had in opposing an 
attack during the construction of the work ; or con- 
nect this training with some drill in which they will use 
the works they have just constructed. 

XXXVII. 

TRAINING AND METHOD OF PASSING OBSTACLES AT NIGHT. 

Importance of Passing Obstacles by Detachments at 
Night. 一 My experience has been that often small 
obstacles delay the march at night ; and these obstacles 
are all the more troublesome from the inability to judge 
their extent, etc., by the eye. On this account, train- 
ing in crossing obstacles at night is most important. 

Cautigns for the Commanding Officer with respect to 
Obstacles. ― 

(a) He will inform all men who are to cross of the 
nature and extent of the obstacle, the preparations to be 
made, points where lignts will be made, guiding marks, 
etc. 

(6) Orders concerning method of crossing, forma- 
tion, rate (pace) , distribution, etc. 

(c) Steps that will be taken to regain the con- 
nection that will be lost during the passage of the ob- 
stacles. 

The above course of procedure will vary greatly 
according to the state of the enemy, the weather, and 
amount of light. Frequently, in crossing obstacles, the 



104 



column of fours must change to column of files. If 
great distance is taken, much time will be consumed 
and connection will be lost. 

Cautions for Soldiers when Crossing Obstacles. — If 
the men who have already crossed the obstacles try to 
regain the lost distance by double-timing, they will 
lose touch with these in rear. Therefore they should 
be trained in the following points : 一 

(a) After they have been told what the formation 
is, they will maintain that formation while crossing the 
obstacle. 

(b) When obstacles are encountered, if the state of 
the enemy and 'other conditions permit, word will be 
sent back to the rear concerning this obstacle, and a 
report made of safe crossing. 

(c) The obstacle will be passed without sudden 
halts or starts. 

In the grand maneuvers of 1910, a certain brigade 
of the Northern Army had to make a night march over 
entirely unknown country, and the road was only wide 
.enough for a column of twos. On this road was a long 
bridge ; when the head of the column reached it, they 
began crossing in single file. The troops in rear did 
not know the reason of the halt, and, although there 
were officers at the head of the column, the facts of the 
case were not learned, and the brigade fruitlessly 
waited the movements of. the head of the column. 
Now as a matter of fact, the water was very sJiallow 
and easy to ford. On account of the darkness, however 
the men in front did not think of fording. Even though 
some soldiers who fell in forded it, they did not transmit 



105 



the news, and conditions remained as dark as before. 
On this account the march was greatly delayed, and it 
was after midnight when they arrived at their destina- 
tion. 

XXXVIII. 

NIGHT MARCHES AND TRAINING. 

Occasions When Night Marches are Carried Out. — 

. (a) When executing rapid marches or forced 
marches. 

(b) When a beaten army is trying to avoid pursuit. 

(c) When attempting to avoid the attack of a 
superior enemy. 

(d) In order to decrease the effect of the enemy's 
artillery ; to use the darkness of the preceding night to 
advance to a point convenient for preparing for the 
attack. 

(e) When about to carry out a sudden attack by 
taking advantage of the darkness. 

(/) Occasionally used as a substitute for a day 
march on account of the heat. 

Night Marches and Cautions for Staff Officers. — 
1. Consideration as to roads. 

(a) Complete reconnaissance, especially guiding 
marks, and repairs. 

(ろ) Determination of methods of passing, going 
around, and removal of obstacles. 



106 



(c) Steps to be taken to prevent taking wrong 
roads, etc. 

2. Consideration as to troops, 
(a) With reference to connection. 

(6) With reference to the avoidance of sudden 
halts and starts. 

(c) With reference to the clear designation of 
detachments. ' 

(d) With reference to the selection and alteration 
of formation. 

3. Consideration as to security. • 

(a) If lights are permitted, the number of electric 
lights and bull's eye lanterns allowed. 

(6) The manner in which the troops will be led — 
whether by trumpet, command, or signals. 

(c) Whether or not smoking and talking are pro- 
hibited. 

4. Considerations when halting or resting. 

(a) Too great intervals must not be allowed while 
resting. 

(6) Troops will not be allowed to choose their own 
places for rest. 

(c) The men will not throw down their weapons, 
or other articles which they carry, unnecessarily. 

(め At the time of moving on, a rigid inspection 
will be held so that no men or articles will be left behind. 

{e) The time alloted for sleep, no more and no less, 
will be used for that purpose. 



107 



Individual Cautions for Soldiers on a Night March.— 

1. Cautions before starting. 

(a) Clothing and equipments will be properly ar- 
ranged and adjusted firmly. 

ゆ) Care will be taken not to make any noise. 

(c) Sleep during the time allotted for that pur- 
pose. 

(め Do not forget or neglect the calls of nature ; do 
not leave anything behind. 

2. Cautions during the march. 

(a) Be quiet, and do not talk or smoke. 
ゆ) Remain in the position prescribed, 
(r) Maintain a uniform pace. 

(d) Do not start or stop abruptly. 

(e) Be careful about connection. 
(J) Do not open out in ranks. 

3. Cautions during a rest. 

(a) Be quiet, and do not talk or smoke. 

(b) Attend to the calls of nature, without fail. 

(c) Readjust equipments and do not leave any- 
thing behind. 

(め Do not rest away from the vicinity of the stacks 
or the place ordered. 

(e) Keep the haversack near the person. 
(/) Do not sleep except when ordered. 

(g) Do not drink an excessive amount of water. 

(h) Do not enter any house unnecessarily. 

(i) Stay with your comrades and mutually warn 
each other. 



108 



Night Marches, and Articles Carried by Officers. 一 
When about to execute a night march, the command- 
ing officer will exercise the greatest care, and will only 
move after complete preparations have been made. 
Companies, without fail, will carry the following articles : 

(a) Portable lights (electric lights, or some kind of 
disappearing light) . 

(b) Whistle (officers carry these). 

(c) Compasses (carried by sergeants or intendance 
non-commissioned officer) . 

(d) Matches (carried as in (c). 

(e) In the haversack of each non-commissioned 
officer, some white paper will be placed, for use in con- 
nection duty. 

(/) A small white flag or white cloth (officers carry 
this). 

(g) Officers will carry, or there will be placed in the 
segeants' haversacks, twenty to thirty meters of string. 

{h) In the belt of each soldier, about one meter of 
string will be tied; it will be convenient in leading 
them from the rear. 

(i) Usually soldiers will carry a cap cover. 

(;') All watches will be set at time of departure. 

(k) Those who carry a sword will be careful to 
prevent any noise arising from it. 

(/) In a night march, especially when an encounter 
with the enemy is anticipated, drum and fife will not 
be used, and preparations will be made to use the trumpet 
alone. 

(w) All officers will carry field glasses. 



109 



XXXIX. 

Night Battles. 

(a) the offensive. 

The Cause of Success in Night Attacks. —— 

(a) All plans and distributions must be simple, 
and complete preparations must be made. 

(6) The ground, the state of the enemy, and the 
weak points of his distributions must be known. 

(c) Our plans and intentions must be concealed. 

{d) Each detachment must be given an independent 
objective, and absolute uniformity will not be blindly 
adhered to. 

{e) Our movement must begin near the enemy. 

(/) Make use of the weather, move unexpectedly, 
take advantage of the enemy's inattention, and utilize 
any interval he may have left vacant. 

(g) High morale, strict discipline, and excellent 
training are necessary factors. Also, firm resolution, 
quietness and coolness. 

Qi) The attacker must not allow himself to be 
hindered by any emergency, or by any action of the 
natives. 

Causes of Non-success in Night Attacks. ― 
(a) Lack of the different causes stated above. • 
{b) When the defender moves on interior lines, and 

displays skillful leadership, 

(c) When the defender changes his position before 

the assault. 



110 



(d) The occurrence of unforeseen contingencies. 
Cautions in Night Movements ( General Regulations) . 

(a) Things forbidden, and measures adopted for 
maintaining silence. 

Soldiers will not load or fire without orders. Except 
when necessary, information, messages, speech, all 
conversation, commands, etc., will not be given in a 
loud tone of voice. There will be no talking or whisper- 
ing. Men who have a cough, or who cannot see at 
night, and horses that neigh, will not be taken along. 
Take care that no noise arises from ammunition boxes, 
mess tins, bayonets, artillery wheels, iron chains, etc. 
Do not take along horses for light baggage. The neces- 
sary amount of ammunition will be distributed to in- 
dividuals. 

(b) Regulations concerning connection. 

Attach white cloth or other easily recognizable 
material to the body or arm. Mutual recognition will 
be effected by countersign, signals, whistle, etc. There 
are other methods, such as wearing the overcoat, taking 
off the blouse, etc. 

(c) Regulations concerning lights. 

Be careful of the management of bivouac fires, the 
prevention of smoking or making lights, and methods 
of decreasing the reflection from the sword in the moon- 
light. 

(d) Regulations concerning movements. 

Make a clear statement of the objective of the march, 
the road to be taken, and the method of marching. 
The method of connection, recognition, the point of 
arrival, and what to do after arrival there (at such a 



Ill 



time, it is difficult for the commanding officer to give 
commands ; if the troops know beforehand what is 
expected of them, they will strive to do it.) 

The Commanding Officer and Soldiers in a Night 
Attack. — 

1. The commanding officer. 

In order to be aole to make detailed plans, it is im- 
portant that the commanding officer have a thorough 
knowledge of the state of the enemy, his dispositions, 
etc., the terrain, etc. A minute reconnaissance both 
day and night, must be made over the ground where 
he expects to move. 

The commanding officer must direct the fight, with 
a determined spirit. His position must be clearly 
defined, so that information, messages, orders, etc., 
may be sent and received. Although he must keep his 
command well in hand, after his policy and plans have 
been indicated, each detachment must act firmly and 
independently. 

2. Subordinate commanders. 

Subordinate commanders will strive with all their 
might to carry out the task assigned them. They must 
use their own initiative, in accordance with the plans 
of the commanding officer. They must understand 
those plans clearly, and must be diligent in learning 
everything possible about conditions which will affect 
their own movements, such as, the condition of the enemy, 
terrain, etc. They must see that, as far as they are 
concerned, there is no neglect about keeping plans 
secret, that regulations are complied with, that the men 
are kept well in hand, that connection is maintained, 



112 



and that messages, reports, etc., are properly forwarded, 
etc. 

3. Soldiers. 

(a) They will guard the secrecy of plans. 

(b) They will avoid panic. 

(c) They will comply carefully with orders and reg- 
ulations. 

{d) They will maintain connection and touch. 
(e) They will not load or fire without special 
orders. 

(/) Even though fired upon unexpectedly by the 
enemy, they will not answer the fire, or become con- 
fused. " 

(g) When the enemy is encountered, they will 
strive to overthrow him by a fierce hand-to-hand fight. 

Characteristics of Night Attacks. —— A night attack, 
usually, partakes of the nature of a surprise ; accord- 
ingly, it is necessary to gain success at one blow, by 
surprising the enemy. The plans of battle at night, are 
based on the avoidance of visibility ; therefore, the at- 
tacker must press the enemy suddenly, and fight a 
hand-to-hand fight with the bayonet. At such times, 
a high morale must be united to a firm offensive 
spirit ; because the panic of the defender is much greater 
at night than in the day time, and the overwhelming 
menace of the attack will derive a great effect from a 
sudden appearance. 

Such being the characteristics of a night attack, 
great caution must be exercised to prevent discovery 
by the enemy, at such a time. When the enemy 



113 



learns of the proposed attack, and makes his prepara- 
tions accordingly, the attack will waver and the offen- 
sive spirit will become appreciably less. Therefore, 
noise and lights will be forbidden in night attacks ; for 
noise warns the enemy's ears, and lights warn his eyes. 
However, sometimes the noise of a night attack is drowned 
by greater noises, as an artillery and smalll arms 
fight in another locality. If the enemy's attention can 
be scattered from the front to be attacked by such 
means, it will have the effect of a diversion ; if, on the 
contrary, it only adds to his watchfulness, it had better 
be dispensed with. 

At night it is easy to deceive the enemy, because 
of the confusion which arises from the misunderstand- 
ing of noises and the lack of vision. Therefore, it is a 
good thing to carry out a demonstration at the point 
the enemy expects an attack, and execute the real at- 
tack at a point where the enemy does not expect it. 
The demonstration alone will not deceive the enemy if 
it is so unskillfully made that the enemy knows that it 
is a demonstration ; it must be executed from the be- 
ginning, just like a real attack. However, the false 
attack not being the main object, it will be modified as 
much as the necessity for quick reports requires. 

Method of Night Attacks. — The great disadvantages 
of night attacks lie in the difficulty of leadership, and 
the lack of facility in the connection and cooperation 
of troops. Accordingly, methods of attack which re- 
quire a complicated disposition, are seldom successful. 

Although envelopment, in the daytime, is valuable 
for both its physical and moral effect, at night, its phy- 
sical effect is decreased while its moral effect is increased. 
Of course this movement will be carried out whenever 



114 



practicable, but its execution will be very difficult. 
When such a movement is attempted, a combined 
frontal and flank attack is required ; but at night, this 
movement, also, is most difficult. Things go wrong, 
and often the movement is not only not successful but 
our own troops attack each other in the darkness. 
Therefore, when the configuration of the ground, 
amount of light, etc., render such a movement at all 
possible, the greatest amount of care must be taken to 
see that there is no collision with our own troops. Dur- 
ing the envelopment, it will not be necessary for the 
troops to march a long distance in close formation ; it 
will be sufficient to assume that formation immediately 
before the charge. In short, the envelopment wnich is 
of great value in daytime, is of little value at night. 
In the majority of cases, the issue will be decided by a 
frontal charge. 

Night Attack, and Arms of the Service. ― As we have 
said before, the conditions at nightime are entirely 
different from those in the day; so, in regard, to the 
branches of the service, those must be used chiefly 
which are able to remove the obstacles arising from the 
darkness. Acordingly it is not wrong to say that night 
attacks are almost the special duty of infantry. 

The cavalry, except when used dismounted as a 
containing force, will be used only for reconnaissance, 
security and connection. (There are times, however, 
when cavalry makes a night attack on the camp of the 
enemy's cavalry.) In other cases, its function in the 
night attack is to have all preparations made for quick 
movement at daylight. 

Artillery rarely accompanies the attacking troops. 
However, there are times when it continues the day 



115 



firing, or executes the so-called alarm fire by threatening 
another point ; at times, too, artillery firing is carried 
out in order to deceive the enemy as to our plans. 
There are occasions too, when the artillery can assist 
the attack by a violent fire ; but, in such cases, the neces- 
sary preparations must have been made beforehand 
in daytime, and the range must be short. 

Machine guns are not directly necessary in a night 
attack, where fire action is not the main reliance for 
battle. However, when discovered by the enemy, or 
when fire action is especially necessary, machine guns 
have an important role. In the battle of Mukden, 
there was firing on both sides during the night battles, 
and machine guns, bomb guns, and hand grenades were 
used. Although, as a general thing, machine guns were 
used principally in holding occupied points, and for use 
after daylight, and were taken along for this purpose, 
they should be held with the reserve until the oppor- 
tunity for using them arises. 

Engineer troops are necessary for breaking up ob- 
stacles, opening roads, and for the fortification of posi- 
tions which have been seized. It is especially import- 
ant to have such troops during night attacks, as the 
destruction of obstacles in front of the enemy's position 
is chiefly entrusted to the engineers. 

It is a good tning to have the other branches of the 
service carry hand grenades, and use them at the in- 
stant of the charge. 

The Point of Attack at Night. —— This point is by no 
means the same as in daytime. In the latter case, 
the approach is first made under cover, the enemy is 
then overwhelmed by fire action, and then destroyed 



116 



with the bayonet. At . night, however, the bayonet 
is employed at once. 

As we have stated before, at nighttime, the relations 
of physical objects differ greatly from the daytime. 
Therefore the essential elements in the selection of the 
point of attack naturally differ ; the principal points 
are as follows : 

(a) The ease in which approach can be made. 

(6) The shortness of the distance of the approach. 

(c) The point where the bayonet attack can be 
delivered unexpectedly. 

{d) Not only is it possible to hold the principal 
point of the position, but a point from which deploy- 
ment can be made, can be held as well. However, a 
night attack will not be limited, by any means, to one 
point. With large bodies, especially, several points 
of attack must be selected, and independent attacking 
detachments will be used for each point. 

The result of victory or defeat do not extend for 
long distances as in the daytime ; therefore, a victory at 
one place by no means extends to distant points, and 
likewise, a defeat has less influence at other points. If 
these different detachments strive with all their might, 
independently, they will obtain victory. However, 
at nighttime, there is so much noise from shouting and. 
rifle shots, that the original objective is liable to be for- 
gotten. 

In short, a day attack employs fire action to open 
the road for the advance ; a night attack presses for- 
ward under cover of darkness. Therefore, it must be 
remembered that night movements are easy and secret, 



117 



and that the cover which is convenient for approach 
in daytime, must be avoided at night. 

Reconnaissance and Plans. — The principal factor 
in successful night attacks is complete reconnaissance. 
Detailed reconnaissance enables plans to be made 
properly. Those who plan as well as those who exe- 
cute, must reconnoiter thoroughly. As far as possible, 
all officers should be well acquainted with the terrain 
and physical objects. If the officers who execute the 
movement are well acquainted with the state of the 
enemy and the terrain, it will go far in making up for 
defective plans, and will guarantee success. 

Reconnaissance .is carried out at night as well as in 
the day. It is very important to know what degree of 
relation the terrain and physical objects in daytime 
bear to those same objects at night. If this point be 
clear, mistakes and confusion will be avoided at night. 

In a night attack, there must be such a self-con- 
fidence that success is never doubted. Such self-con- 
fidence is only obtained through feeling that the plans 
and execution are the best possible under the circum- 
stances ; and that can only be possible when complete 
reconnaissance has been made. The important cau- 
tions with respect to reconnaissance are as follows : 

(a) State of the enemy. 

His preparations for security, and his distributions. 
(It is important to know, in detail, the position of the 
main body, covering position, protective detachments, 
sentinels' positions, etc.) 

The enemy's strength, discipline, customs and pe- 
culiarities, also, must be known. 



118 



Obstacles and intrenchments. (Detailed recon- 
naissance as to kind, amount, extent, position, method 
of destruction of these objects, place, materials, etc.) 

(6) Terrain. 

Configuration of the ground occupied by the enemy ; 
configuration of ground in front of the enemy's posi- 
tion. 

1. The terrain as far as the assembly point and 
point of deployment ; position of such points and roads 
to the front. The locality in which the advance is 
to be made, advance formation, method of advance, 
method of connection and communication, methods of 
removal of obstacles, etc. 

2. Terrain up to the enemy's position. The 
apportionment of sections for the attack, distribution, 
methods of removal of obstacles, methods of connection 
and communication, etc. 

3. The influence of weather and the amount of 
light. 

Reconnaissance must be made on dark nights and on 
moonlight nights, in clear weather and in stormy weather, 
in order that the differences in such times may be clearly 
understood. Too elaborate plans are the foundation of 
non-success, but it must be remembered that simplicity 
does not mean just as one pleases. Often carelessness 
at the time of execution brings discord and confusion. 

The Hour for Night Attacks. — The darkness can be 
utilized until success is attained; after victory, light 
is essential. This is in order that the fruits of success 
may be increased through the cooperation of the other 
branches of the service, the light facilitating the charge 



119 



and fire action ; it is also necessary and convenient for 
the reconnaissance of the state of the enemy and the 
terrain. 

Ii it is still dark after the charge, it is most incon- 
venient for the succeeding movements, and is favorable 
to the enemy who is well acquainted with the terrain. 
However the time of execution of a night attack de- 
pends upon the objective of the battle, as follows : 

(a) The enemy's position have been taken, if it is 
important to hold it securely, time the charge so as to be 
able to make dispositions for its defence by daylight. 

(6) When it is desired to pursue the enemy after the 
capture of nis position, the movement will be begun so as 
to be successful at daylight. 

(c) When it is desired to attack by cooperation of 
all arms of the service at daylight, the preparations 
must be completed by that time. 

(d) When it is desired, simply, to throw the enemy 
into confusion, it should be executed during the night, 
and the movement must be completed by daylight. 

(e) Diversions, threatening movements, etc., will be 
carried out at necessary times, modified, of course, by 
the weather, amount of light, etc. After midnight, the 
enemy sleeps soundly, and the service of security often 
slackens. 1 herefore, under ordinary conditions, begin 
at midnight and try to finish the movement before day- 
break. 

Position when Beginning a Night Attack. {Point 
oj assembly, deployment, etc.) In movements over long 
distances at night, connection is difficult, and it is easy 
to mistake directions and fall into confusion. It is 
therefore important to shorten the distance of such 



120 



movements. To accomplish this, it is a good thing to 
advance the point of assembly, and deploy as near as 
possible to the enemy. 

In order to conceal this place of assembly from the 
enemy and the natives as well, and to stop the move- 
ments of the latter, a covering screen against the enemy 
must be established. This screen must occupy the neces- 
sary points before hand, so as not to advance with the 
main body. If this precaution is not taken, the enemy 
will learn of the advance of the main body through the 
movements of the screen. 

The point of deployment must be fixed from the 
conditions of the hour. The following points govern 
the selection : 

(a) Amount of the enemy's service of security. 

(b) Terrain. 

(c) Size of our army. 
(め Degree of darkness. 
(e) Weather. 

In short, it is advantageous to have it near the enemy, 
just so that it will not be discovered, and in a place con- 
venient for movement. 

The British Field Service Regulations fix this dis- 
tance at not nearer than 900 meters. If the ground is 
level and open, the assembly will be made in a deployed 
line at once, as a substitute for the assembly in column 
of march. Even when this is done, the zone of move- 
ment will be divided, and all detachments will advance 
in parallel formation. This is especially true when the 
movement for attack must be carried out from a long 
distance. When already near the enemy's line in 
daytime, or when already deployed near the enemy, 



121 



the night attack can be begun from this line. The 
main thing is to make the advance easy by deploying as 
near as possible to the enemy without being discovered. 
The points of assembly and deployment, roads to the 
front, etc., will be marked as far as possible, by paper, 
rags, broken limbs of trees, or soldiers as markers. It is 
a good thing to block up the wrong roads, branch roads 
and unimportant roads. 

Night Odcrs or Instructions. —— Orders for a night 
attack will be based on the usual orders for a day attack- 
However circumstances may arise at night which make 
it necessary to violate regulations. The Infantry 
Drill Regulations say, "In the order for a night attack, 
there will be indicated the object of the march of each 
detachment, the road, together with the method of 
mutual communication, the method of recognition, and, 
if necessary, the point of arrival. Again, it is advan- 
tageous to indicate, beforehand, the first step after 
this movement." 

If the order be made simple, it is especially neces- 
sary to supplement it by instructions. There are two 
kinds of orders necessary, depending on the distance to 
be traversed for the attack, viz. ― the orders for the 
march to the assembly point, and the orders for attack. 
If necessary, both matters will be included in one order, 
or the order will be made as conditions develope. 
Orders from superior headquarters usually include both 
points in one order ; the officer who is to execute the 
order, will divide it into two parts, and give the neces- 
sary orders. In the night attack against Kyucho during 
the late war, the men were told the general tenor of 
Major General Okazaki's orders ; these orders did not 



122 



differ greatly from the usual day order, but the princi- 
pal things desired were explanied by instructions. 

Distribution and Formation for Night Attacks. —— The 
formation for the night attack must be simple. Accord- 
ing to our regulations, company columns in parallel 
lines are used (line of company columns) ; or detach- 
ments covering from front to rear (for example, bat- 
talion column, or double column of companies) . Some- 
times a few skirmishers are sent in froflt, and sometines, 
not. 

Although the line of columns is very advantageous as 
the greatest number of bayonets can be employed at 
the time of the charge, the movement is very difficult 
when the distance to be marched in battle formation 
is very great, or if the terrain is not very favorable, or if 
the night is very dark. The advantages and. disad- 
vantages of the battalion in column, are directly oppo- 
site to the above. The double column of companies 
is midway between the two a Dove formations, with 
corresponding advantages and disadvantages ; this for- 
mation is therefore most often used in night attacks. 

However, the selection of the formation is largely 
governed by circumstances ; each company must con- 
form to the conditions of the hour in adopting the 
company column (column of platoons), or the parallel 
columns. While the latter has less masses strength than 
the former, the march is comparatively easy. There- 
fore, it is a good thing to use that formation while march- 
ing, and change to the other when conditions require 
it. 

According to the state of the enemy and the terrain, 
the attacking troops, in depth of column, are divided 
into two or three echelons. Even when there is fear 



123 



of a counter-attack from the flank, the division into 
three echelons will be made, the second echelon being 
placed in rear of the dangerous flank of the first; the 
third will be placed directly in rear of the first so as to 
make certain the success of the first line. It is import- 
ant that the distance between echelons should be short. 
If it is believed that there will not be strong resistance 
at the point of entry, but that it is probable there will 
be a strong counter-attack after entry, it is important 
to make the rear detachments very strong. On the 
contrary, if it is believed that the enemy can be beaten 
at the first entry, the first echelon will be greatly 
strengthened. 

Even in a night attack, a reserve cannot be dispensed 
with. If it is anticipated that the fight will continue 
until daybreak, an especially strong reserve is important 
in many cases it must be placed very near the first eche- 
lon. Usually, when the attacker's first line charges 
the enemy, its formation is broken up; this is true ir- 
respective of the strength of the enemy. The ranks 
must be reformed at once, and it is the duty of the re- 
serve to cover this movement and repulse the enemy's 
second line. The reserve, often, by an unexpected 
attack, can cover the retreat of the first line. 

The Advance to the Attack. 一 When this advance 
begins, the troops must resolve most firmly, to be silent 
and quiet. If the troops can be led by signals and with- 
out the use of the voice, it is most advantageous. Each 
detachment must maintain the direction of the march 
accurately ; to do this, the following principles must 
be observed : 

(a) Select well defined marks, fix intervening marks, 
and follow them. 



124 



(6) Follow along roads, railroads, ravines, or edges 
of rivers, which prolonged, reach to the selected marks. 

(c) Send out scouts ; establish soldiers as markers, 
sign-posts, etc. 

(め Use military or civilian guides who are familiar 
with the route to be traversed. 

(e) Fix the direction by compass, stars, portable 
electric lights, etc. 

(/) Maintenance of connection. Each detach- 
ment will preserve connection and cohesion ; unex- 
pected incidents must be treated cooly ; if the enemy's 
sentinels are encountered, capture them (without firing) 
or kill them with the bayonet, but it must be done with- 
out noise. In order to recover connection and order, 
halt from time to time. When each detachment has 
arrived at the attacking point, it will maintain order 
and quiet all the more, and will advance most care- 
fully. - 

When the enemy's effective fire is encountered 
during the mrach, or when discovered by his search- 
lights, it is a good thing to halt temporarily, in order to 
decrease the effectiveness of the fire , or escape the enemy , s 
vigilance. Care will .be taken, however, not to re- 
tard the forward movement. 

Night Attacks and Firing. — A night attack should be 
a surprise. However, even though the attack may be 
successful, it must be remembered that the enemy, when 
he fears a night attack, will take sufficient precautions 
and make preparations for fire action ; therefore, never 
think that you will always be able to enter his position 
undiscovered. On the contrary, rather expect to be 
discovered ; and the chief thought in your mind should 



125 



be the necessity of a desperate effort in order to carry- 
out your mission. The attacker must, therefore, be 
prepared to receive the enemy's fire; that is, he must 
be firm under that fire, and come to close quarters with 
the bayonet. 

Night firing will not have a great effect if the at- 
tacker's movement is carried out properly ; therefore, 
even though the enemy may open fire, it does not mean 
that the attack is a lailure at once. On the contrary, 
success or non-success, depends upon the attacker's 
succeeding movements. For this reason the troops 
must not be thrown into confusion by this fire, but must 
quietly continue their movement. Silent intimidation 
will make the enemy believe that there is not a single 
echo to their fire in the darkness. It is of special im- 
portance in night attacks to increase the enemy's doubts 
and fears. If their fire is returned, the following dis- 
advantages result : 

(a) It discovers the attacker's strength to the 
enemy. , . 

(b) It discovers their position as well. 

(c) The enemy will discover the real front of attack, 
and will be able to make his dispositions accordingly. 

{d) Silent intimidation loses its effect. 
{e) It decreases more and more, the charging 
strength. 

Therefore, by nring, the attacker destroys himself, 
does not injure the enemy, and the man who believes 
he injures the enemy by such means, is destined to 
failure. While in daytime it is necessary to open up a 
road by such means, when it is remembered that this 
is unnecessary at night, night firing will become mean- 



126 

ingless. How much more true is this when the fire is 
due to the enticement of the enemy and is defensive 
in nature. One can say with truth, that night firing 
on the part of the offensive means failure. 



Night firing by one detachment encourages meaning- 
less fire at other places, and such things denote clearly 
the inferiority of an army. Therefore, the highest 




bullets and long for the charge. 

However, at times, firing is used to cast down the 
enemy's morale ; this is only done when an entry into 
their works is certain, and is never done to provide an 
opportunity for entry or to open the way of the advance. 
Its functions is to increase the success of the charge 
and to dazzle the enemy, this purpose being best 
effected by the use of hand grenades. 1 his is but the 
matter of an instant, and the attacker must already 
be in the position when the grenades are used ; they will 
then rush forward shouting the battle-cry, and success 
is certain. Sometimes, nnng may be used as a substi- 
tute for hand grenades. . 

Preparations Against the Defenders' Changes of Dis- 
position. ~ The defender, in considering a night attack, 
takes the following steps : 

(a) Complete preparations for night firing. 

(6) Illumination. 

(c) Change of position. 

(d) Counter-attack. 

Therefore, it is important that the attacker be pre- 
pared to take proper steps to meet such actions. Against 
fire action, as we have already stated, lie down tempor- 



127 



ariiy, or avoid the direction of the line of fire. (The 
enemy's firing line at night, on account of the necessary 
preparations, is often fixed) . If illumined by lights, 
lie down and keep still, in order not to make a shadow 
and to make the target as small as possible. It is im- 
portant to avoid gazing at this light, for, if this is done, it 
will dazzle the eyes. 

The defender, at times, will leave a weak detachment 
in the day position, and occupy a night position with his 
main force, and often this old position is attacked at 
night. When the attacker discovers this, he should 
make his plans beforehand, and not fall into the enemy's 
snare. The attacker should not take it for granted that 
the defender always occupies his day position at night. 

When it is discovered that the defender is not in his 
day position, occupy that position with service of 
security troops, reform the ranks and scout to the front 
and flanks. Rear detachments should be called up, 
and emergencies provided against. 

Sometimes when the enemy knows of our advance, 
he will make a counter-attack from a flank. There- 
fore, do not stop at simply providing for the service 
of security on the flank; make such a distribution 
that you will be able to oppose any emergency that may 
arise. , 

With reference to the destruction of obstacles, see the 
section on the attack on strong positions. 

The Night Charge. — A charge at night is the pene- 
tration of the enemy by the power of combined wills 
and a high morale. This charge must come unexpec- 
tedly, and with an overwhelming impulse. The enemy 
must not be allowed to await our coming with rifle in 
hand; we must sieze the position in an instant, and 



128 



must have a collected detachment to hold the position 
when the enemy, awakening, strives to resist. If the 
enemy open a violent fire and we stop to answer it, our 
movement will end in failure, and the movements of 
other detachments will be checked by the fire of one 
detachment. Therefore, no attention should be paid 
to the enemy's fire, but the charge must be continued 
without hesitation. To accomplisn this there must be a 
self-confidence on the part of the commanding officer 
which expects success, and the subordinates must have 
confidence in their commander. 

Movements after a successful Charge. ― When the 
charge is successful, each detachment quickly reforms, 
takes strict precautions for security, provides against 
the enemy's resumption of the offensive, and pursues 
as quickly as possible. 

When a position is once taken, it is necessary to make 
preparations against receiving the enemy's violent fire 
from every side as soon as it becomes light. Again, 
preparations for defense must be made very quietly. 
This makes it difficult for the enemy to plan the re- 
sumption of the offensive, and will make it difficult for 
other detachments to judge how to change their dis- 
positions according to the existing state of affairs. 
Therefore, after a successful night attack, shouts of 
victory and noisy confusion, will disclose our position 
to other detachments of the enemy, and will be the 
cause of our being fired upon and re-attacked. 

Pursuit After Night Attack. ― Even though the night 
attack be successful; it is not good policy to leave the 
position suddenly and pursue the enemy, because of 
the many disadvantages resulting from the fact that 



129 



pursuing fire cannot be carried out, the great amount 
of confusion, and the fear of receiving the enemy's 
counter-attack. It will be found difficult enough to 
hold the position, even. This is especially true when 
the position captured is only one section of the enemy's 
line, his other detachments holding their previous 
positions. In such cases, it is usual to make prepara- 
tions for taking up the pursuit, and await daylight. 
When the pursuit can be taken up without fear of the 
above mentioned disadvantages, the success will be 
correspondingly great. 

(B) The Defense. 

Psychological Disadvantages. 一 At night, the defender 
has a feeling of anxiety, because the surrounding ob- 
sucrity prevents the vision, which is so necessary to 
him. His principal mode of defence is fire action ; and 
while that is very dangerous to the offense in daytime, 
it cannot stop the charge at night. Therefore, it is the 
duty of the offense to increase the defender's doubts, 
fears, suppositions, etc., and make a demoralized army 
more so. 

For such reasons, the commanding officer of the 
defense must always strive to maintain good morale, 
quietness and coolness. How mucJi more must he 
strive at night to force back the individual weaknesses 
of the individual, which arise on account of the difficulty 
of supervision. To do this, he must maintain a close 
formation which is convenient for leadership and which 
enables him to use the psychology of the mass. 

The reasons for the difficulties of the defense are as 
follows : 



130 



(a) The difficulty of preventing the approach of the 
enemy by fire action . 

{b) The difficulty of knowing quickly of the ap- 
proach of the enemy and, consequently, taking proper 
measures against him. 

(c) The difficulty of mutual assistance, on account 
of each detachment being bound down to its place. 

(d) The fight is one of localities ; other troops 
waste time (difficulties of leadership, cooperation, 
movement) . 

(e) The ease in which a defender falls into a feeling 
of being at a disadvantage. 

Action of the Defense at Night. 一 On account of the 
above mentioned disadvantages, the defender must 
adopt measures to offset them. He must, therefore, 
take the following steps : 

(a) Guard against the approach of the enemy by 
sending out detachments in front of the defensive line, 
by distribution of hidden patrols, by establishing 
electric bells, alarms, etc. 

(6) Light up the ground in front, discover the 
enemy's approach at a suitable time, and make such 
approach difficult. 

(c) Fix obstacles at important points in front of 
the position, and prevent the enemy from destroying 
them. 

{d) Make preparations beforehand for night firing 
in the direction of the enemy's attack. Especially, 
provide macnine guns at points where it is possible to 
enfilade the roads by which the enemy will advance, 
and make complete preparations for firing. 



131 



(e) Obstruct , by offensive movements, the approach 
of the enemy, and his engineering works. 

When it is discovered that the enemy has approached 
closely and has constructed works, obstruct him by 
the attack of small detachments. The objective of 
such a sortie, of course, is not the same as that of the 
main battle which drives off the attack. It is therefore, 
not only not necessary to use large detachments, but 
when such are employed it is liable to give rise to a 
battle not planned for. As for the reasons for not always 
carrying out a sortie, all depends upon conditions as 
the time. 

Steps when Anticipating the Enemy's Night Attack. ― 
When the enemy's night attack is anticipated, have 
a formation ready to oppose him. Whenever the dis- 
positions have to be changed at the time of the attack, 
leadership and movement are difficult on account of 
the darkness, and mistakes and confusion will arise. 
Accordingly, when expecting the enemy's attack, the 
following steps will be taken beforehand : 

(a) Strict service of security. 

(6) Place the necessary number of men in the firing 
line. 

(c) Troops in rear should be called up near the firing 
line. 

(d) Take necessary measures for connection and 
communication . (Distribution of lights, markers, etc.) 

The Defender's Night Battle. — The defender, at 
night, will not permit a single soldier to leave his posi- 
tion. Each detachment will guard its assigned posi- 
tion, independently. Even though one section may be 



132 



taken, no time will be wasted in re-attacking it by rear 
detachments. Detachments in the first line must re- 
member that it is generally impossible to count on as- 
sistance from neighboring troops or troops in rear. 
The defense will strive to destroy the enemy by sudden 
violent fire from the shortest ranges. To do this, after 
preparations have been concluded, await the approach 
of the enemy ; when he is very close, open up a violent 
fire, and throw hand grenades. At this instant, use the 
bayonet in a determined counter-attack. The enemy's 
random and searching fire at long ranges must not be 
answered. Premature fire action causes useless nnng 
to start along the whole line; it is not only noisy and 
useless, but it discloses our position to the enemy, as 
well. 

At night, except for the protection of a locality, a 
delaying action will hardly be carried out. In this case, 
also, as large a reserve as possible must be kept in hand 
especially when there is the fear that the engagement 
may last until daylight ; if there is no reserve then, the 
day battle cannot be continued. 

Steps When the Defender Drives Off the Enemy. ― 
When the enemy is repulsed, the defender reforms his 
ranks, but very rarely pursues with his whole force, as 
in daytime. Usually a small detachment from the re- 
serve, or, at times, simply patrols are sent out (accord- 
ing to the French regulations, only pursuing patrols) 
who follow the enemy only. The remainder must 
guard the position firmly, as before. 

Even though the defender is certain that the enemy's 
charge will be successful, he will not heedlessly withdraw 
from his position. This is because a night retreat 
gives rise to extraordinary confusion. A detachment 



133 



which is pursued by the enemy, will again occupy a 
position in rear, and detachments not yet defeated, will 
remain in their former positions. Taking advantage of 
the latter ,s success, the defeated detachment will await 
an opportunity for a counter-attack on the flank or 
rear of the enemy who has penetrated into our lines. 
A general retreat, or a general re-attack, however, had 
better be done in daylight.