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Full text of "The training of a forester"

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II 



THE TRAINING OF A 
FORESTER 



FOURTH EDITION 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

University of Britisii Columbia Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/trainingofforesOOpinc 



THE TRAINING OF 
A FORESTER 

BY 

GIFFORD PINCHOT 

REVISED THIRD EDITION 
WITH EIGHT ILLUSTRATIONS 




PHILADELPHIA & LONDON 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY 



COPTBIOHT, I914, BY J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPART 
COPTBIOHT, 1917, BT J. B. LIPPINCOTT COKPAKT 



PKINTED BT J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANT 

AT THE WASHINGTON SQUARE PRESS 

FBILADELPHIA, U.S.A. 



To 
^ OVERTON W. PRICE 

Friend and Fellow Worker 

to whom is due, more than to any other man, the 
high efficiency of the united states forest service 



PREFACE 

At one time or another, the largest ques- 
tion before every young man is, " What 
shall I do with my life? " Among the possi- 
ble openings, which best suits his ambition, 
his tastes, and his capacities? Along what 
line shall he undertake to make a successful 
career? The search for a life work and the 
choice of one is surely as important business 
as can occupy a boy verging into manhood. 
It is to help in the decision of those who are 
considering forestry as a profession that this 
little book has been written. 

To the young man who is attracted to 
forestry and begins to consider it as a possi- 
ble profession, certain questions present 
themselves. "What is forestry? If he takes 
it up, what will his work be, and where? 
Does it in fact offer the satisfying type of 



PREFACE 

outdoor life which it appears to offer? What 
chance does it present for a successful career, 
for a career of genuine usefulness, and what 
is the chance to make a living? Is he fitted 
for it in character, mind, and body? If so, 
what training does he need? These ques- 
tions deserve an answer. 

To the men whom it really suits, forestry 
offers a career more attractive, it may be 
said in all fairness, than any other career 
whatsoever. I doubt if any other profession 
can show a membership so uniformly and 
enthusiastically in love with the work. The 
men who have taken it up, practised it, and 
left it for other work are few. But to the 
man not fully adapted for it, forestry must 
be punishment, pure and simple. Those who 
have begun the study of forestry, and then 
have learned that it was not for them, have 
doubtless been more in number than those 

who have followed it through. 

6 



PREFACE 

1 urge no man to make forestry his pro- 
fession, but rather to keep away from it if 
he can. In forestry a man is either alto- 
gether at home or very much out of place. 
Unless he has a compelling love for the 
Forester's life and the Forester's work, let 
him keep out of it. 

January, 1914. G. P. 

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION 

For this third edition, the facts and figures 
throughout have been revised and brought 
up to date, and a new chapter containing 
some essential information about our forests 
has been added. Special acknowledgment 
is due to Mr. Herbert A. Smith, Editor of 
the U. S. Forest Service, for his unwearied 
assistance both in the work of revision and in 
the new chapter. 

G. P. 

Milford, Pa. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 



What is a Forest ? 13 

The Fokester's Knowledge 18 

The Forest and the Nation 19 

The Forester's Point of View 2S 

The Establishment of Forestry 27 

The Work of a Forester 30 

The Forest Service 30 

The Forest Supervisor *6 

The Trained Forester 50 

Personal Equipment 63 

State Forest Work 84 

The Forest Service in Washington 89 

Private Forestry 106 

Forest Schools H* 

The Opportunity 116 

Tbainino ^** 

SoMK FACTa About Oim Fobebts 150 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAOE 

A Forest Ranger Looking foe Fibe from a National 
Forest Lookout Station Frontispiece 

Stringing a Forest Telephone Line 32 

Forest Rangers Scaling Timber 43 

Western Yellow Pine Seed Collected by the Forest 
Service for Planting up Denuded Lant>3 47 

A Forest Examiner Running a Compass Line 59 

Brush Piling in a National Forest Timber Sale 95 

Forest Rangers Getting Instruction in Methods of 
Work from a District Forest Officer 105 

Forest Service Men Making Forest Measurements 
IN the Missouri Swamps 136 



THE TRAINING OF A 
FORESTER 

WHAT IS A FOREST? 

First, What is forestry? Forestry is the 
// knowledge of the forest. In particular, it is 
the art of handling the forest so that it will 
render whatever service is required of it 
without being impoverished or destroyed. 
For example, a forest may be handled so as 
to produce saw logs, telegraph poles, barrel 
hoops, firewood, tan bark, or turpentine. 
The main purpose of its treatment may be to 
prevent the washing of soil, to regulate the 
flow of streams, to support cattle or sheep, 
or it may be handled so as to supply a wide 
range and combination of uses. Forestry 
is the art of producing from the forest what- 
ever it can yield for the service of man. 

13 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

Before we can understand forestry, cer- 
tain facts about the forest itself must be 
kept in mind. A forest is not a mere collec- 
tion of individual trees, just as a city is not 
a mere collection of unrelated men and 
women, or a Nation like ours merely a cer- 
tain number of independent racial groups. 
A forest, like a city, is a complex community 
with a life of its own. It has a soil and an 
atmosphere of its own, chemically and physi- 
cally different from any other, with plants 
and shrubs as well as trees which are peculiar 
to it. It has a resident population of insects 
and higher animals entirely distinct from 
that outside. Most important of all, frt)m 
the Forester's point of view, the members of 
the forest live in an exact and intricate sys- 
tem of competition and mutual assistance, 
of help or harm, which extends to all the 
inhabitants of this complicated city of 

trees. 

14 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

The trees in a forest are all helped by 
mutually protecting each other against high 
winds, and by producing a richer and moister 
soil than would be possible if the trees stood 
singly and apart. They compete among 
themselves by their roots for moisture in the 
soil, and for light and space by the growth of 
their crowns in height and breadth. Perhaps 
the strongest weapon which trees have 
against each other is growth in height. In 
certain species intolerant of shade, the tree 
which is overtopped has lost the race for 
good. The number of young trees which de- 
stroy each other in this fierce struggle for 
existence is prodigious, so that often a few 
score per acre are all that survive to middle 
or old age out of many tens of thousands of 
seedlings which entered the race of life on 
approximately even terms. 

Not only has a forest a character of its 

own, which arises from the fact that it is a 

15 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

community of trees, but each species of tree 
has peculiar characteristics and habits also. 
Just as in New York City, for example, the 
French, the Germans, the Italians, the Hun- 
garians, and the Chinese each have quarters 
of their own, and in those quarters live in 
accordance with habits which distinguish 
each race from all the others, so the different 
species of pines and hemlocks, oaks and 
maples prefer and are found in certain defi- 
nite types of locality, and live in accord- 
ance with definite racial habits which are as 
general and unfailing as the racial char- 
acteristics which distinguish, for example, 
the Italians from the Germans, or the 
Swedes from the Chinese. 

The most important of these characteris- 
tics of race or species are those which are 
concerned with the relation of each to light, 
heat, and moisture. Thus, a river birch will 
die if it has only as much water as will suffice 

16 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

to keep a post oak in the best condition, and 
the warm climate in which the balsam fir 
would perish is just suited to the require- 
ments of a long leaf pine or a magnolia. 

The tolerance of a tree for shade may- 
vary greatly at different times of its life, 
but a white pine always requires more light 
than a hemlock, and a beech throughout its 
life will flourish with less sunshine or re- 
flected light than, for example, an oak or 
a tulip tree. 

Trees are limited in their distribution also 
by their adaptability, in which they vary 
greatly. Thus a bald cypress will grow both 
in wetter and in dryer land than an oak; a 
red cedar mil flourish from Florida to the 
Canadian line, while other species, like the 
Eastern larch, the Western mountain hem- 
lock, or the big trees of California, are con- 
fined in their native localities within ex- 
tremely narrow limits. 

2 17 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

THE FORESTER'S KNOWLEDGE 

The trained Forester must know the 
forest as a doctor knows the human machine. 
First of all, he must be able to distinguish the 
different trees of which the forest is com- 
posed, for that is like learning to read. He 
must know the way they are made and the 
way they grow ; but far more important than 
all else, he must base his knowledge upon 
that part of forestry which is called Silvics, 
the knowledge of the relation of trees to 
light, heat, and moisture, to the soil, and to 
each other. 

The wxll-trained Forester must also know 
the forest shrubs and at least the more im- 
portant smaller forest plants, something of 
the insect and animal life of his domain, and 
the birds and fish. He must have a good 
working knowledge of rocks, soils, and 
streams, and of the methods of making 

18 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

V roads, trails, and bridges. He should be an 
expert in woodcraft, able to travel the forest 
safely and surely by day or by night. It is 
essential that he should have a knowledge 
of the theory and the practice of lumbering, 
and he should know something about lumber 
^ markets and the value of lumber, about sur- 

^ veying and map making, and many other 
matters which are considered more at length 
in the Chapter on Training. There are as 
yet in America comparatively few men who 
have acquired even fairly well the more im- 
portant knowledge which should be included 
in the training of a Forester. 



THE FOREST AND THE NATION 

The position of the forest in the house- 
keeping of any nation is unlike that of any 
other great natural resource, for the forest 
not only furnishes wood, without which 

19 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

civilization as we know it would be impossi- 
ble, but serves also to protect or make valu- 
able many of the other things without which 
we could not get on. Thus the forest cover 
protects the soil from the effects of wind, 
and holds it in place. For lack of it 
hundreds of thousands of square miles have 
been converted by the winds from moder- 
ately fertile, productive land to arid drifting 
sands. Narrow strips of forest planted as 
windbreaks make agriculture possible in cer- 
tain Tcgions by preventing destruction of 
crops by moisture-stealing dry winds which 
so afflict the central portions of our country. 
Without the forests the great bulk of our 
mining for coal, metals, and the precious 
minerals would be either impossible or vastly 
more expensive than it is at present, because 
the galleries of mines are propped with 
wood, and so protected against caving in. 

So far, no satisfactory substitute for the 
20 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

wooden railroad tie has been devised; and 
our whole system of land transportation is 
directly dependent for its existence upon the 
forest, which supplies more than one 
hundred and twenty million new railroad 
ties every year in the United States alone. 

The forest regulates and protects the flow 
of streams. Its effect is to reduce the height 
of floods and to moderate extremes of low 
water. The official measurements of the 
United States Geological Survey have 
finally settled this long-disputed question. 
By protecting mountain slopes against ex- 
cessive soil wash, it protects also the lowlands 
upon which this wash would otherwise be 
deposited and the rivers whose channels it 
would clog. It is well within the truth to 
say that the utility of any system of rivers 
for transportation, for irrigation, for water- 
power, and for domestic supply depends in 
great part upon the protection which forests 

21 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

offer to the headwaters of the streams, and 
that without such protection none of these 
uses can be expected long to endure. 

Of the two basic materials of our civiliza- 
tion, iron and wood, the forest supplies one. 
The dominant place of the forest in our 
national economy is well illustrated by the 
fact that no article whatsoever, whether of 
use or ornament, whethei* it be for food, 
shelter, clothing, convenience, protection, or 
decoration, can be produced and delivered to 
the user, as industry is now organized, with- 
out the help of the forest in supplying wood. 
An examination of the history of any article, 
including the production of the raw material, 
and its manufacture, transportation, and dis- 
tribution, will at once make this point clear. 

The forest is a national necessity. With- 
out the material, the protection, and the 
assistance it supplies, no nation can long 
succeed. Many regions of the old world, 

22 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

such as Palestine, Greece, Northern Africa, 
and Central India, oiFer in themselves the 
most impressive object lessons of the effect 
upon national prosperity and national char- 
acter of the neglect of the forest and its con- 
sequent destruction. 



THE FORESTER'S POINT OF 
VIEW 

The central idea of the Forester, in hand- 
ling the forest, is to promote and perpetuate 
its greatest use to men. His purpose is to 
make it serv^e the greatest good of the great- 
est number for the longest time. Before the 
members of any other profession dealing 
with natural resources, the Foresters ac- 
quired the long look ahead. This was only 
natural, because in forestry it is seldom that 
a man lives to harvest the crop which he 
helped to sow. The Forester must look for- 

23 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

ward, because the natural resource with 
which he deals matures so slowly, and be- 
cause, if steps are to be taken to insure for 
succeeding generations a supply of the 
things the forest jaelds, they must be taken 
long in advance. The idea of using the 
forest first for the greatest good of the 
present generation, and then for the great- 
est good of succeeding generations through 
the long future of the nation and the race — 
that is the Forester's point of view. 

The use of foresight to insure the exist- 
ence of the forest in the future, and, so far 
as practicable, the continued or increasing 
abundance of its service to men, naturally 
suggested the use of foresight in the same 
way as to other natural resources as well. 
Thus it was the Forester's point of view, 
applied not only to the forest but to the 
lands, the minerals, and the streams, which 

produced the Conservation policy. The idea 

24 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

of applying foresight and common-sense to 
the other natural resources as well as to the 
forest was natural and inevitable. It works 
out, equally as a matter of course, into the 
conception of a planned and orderly de- 
velopment of all that the earth contains for 
the uses of men. This leads in turn to the 
application of the same principle to other 
questions and resources. It was foreseen 
from the beginning by those who were re- 
sponsible for inaugurating the Conservation 
movement that its natural development 
would in time work out into a planned and 
orderly scheme for national efficiency, based 
on the elimination of waste, and directed 
toward the best use of all we have for the 
greatest good of the gi*eatest number for the 
longest time. It is easy to see that this 
principle (the Forester's principle, first 
brought to public attention by Foresters) is 
the key to national success. 

25 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

Forestry, then, is seen to be peculiarly 
essential to the national prosperity, both 
now and hereafter. National degradation 
and decay have uniformly followed the ex- 
cessive destruction of forests by other 
nations, and will inevitably become our por- 
tion if we continue to destroy our forests 
three times faster than they are produced, 
as we are doing now. The principles of 
forestry, therefore, must occupy a command- 
ing place in determining the future pros- 
perity or failure of our nation, and this 
commanding position in the field of ideas is 
naturally and properly reflected in the 
dignity and high standing which the pro- 
fession of forestry, young as it is, has already 
acquired in the United States. This posi- 
tion it must be the first care of every member 
of the profession to maintain and increase. 

In the long run, no profession rises 
higher than the degree of public considera- 

26 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

tion which marks its members. The pro- 
fession of forestry is in many ways a pe- 
culiarly responsible profession, but in noth- 
ing more so than in its vital connection with 
the whole future welfare of our country and 
in the obligation which lies upon its mem- 
bers to see that its reputation and standing, 
which are the measures of its capacity for 
usefulness, are kept strong and clear. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT OE 
FORESTRY 

In the United States, forestry is passing 
out of the pioneer phase of agitation and 
the education of public opinion, and into the 
permanent phase of the practice of the pro- 
fession. The fii'st steps in forestry in this 
country, as in any other where the develop- 
ment and destruction of natural resources 
has been rapid, were necessarily directed 

27 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

mainly to informing the public mind upon 
the importance of forestry, and to building 
up national and State laws and organiza- 
tions for the protection of timberlands set 
aside for the public benefit. The right to be 
heard with respect by the men who were 
already in control of the larger part of our 
total forest wealth had to be won, and has 
been won. What is more, in the teeth of 
the bitterest opposition of private special 
interests, the right of the public to first con- 
sideration in the protection and development 
of the forest and of all the resources it con- 
tains had to be asserted and established. 
That has now been done. 

In the United States these steps in the 
movement for the wise use of the forest have 
been taken mainly in the last dozen or fifteen 
years, during which the Federal forest or- 
ganization has grown from an insignificant 
division of less than a dozen men to the 

28 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

present United States Forest Service, of 
more than three thousand members. During 
this period, also, forestry, both as a profes- 
sion and as a public necessity, has won en- 
during public recognition, and at the same 
time more public timberland has been set 
aside for the public use and to remain in 
the public hands than during all the rest of 
our history put together. To-day the Na- 
tional Forests are reasonably safe in the 
protection of public opinion, not against all 
attack, it is true, but against any successful 
attempt to dismember and turn them over 
to the special interests who already control 
the bulk and the best of our forests. The 
public has accepted forestry as necessary to 
the public welfare, both in the present and 
in the future ; State forest organizations are 
springing up ; forestry has won the right to 
be heard in the business offices as well as in 
the conventions of the private owners of 

29 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

forest land ; and the time for the practice of 
the profession has fully come. 

THE WORK OF A FORESTER 

What does a Forester do? I will try to 
answer this question, first, with reference to 
the United States Forest Service, and later 
as to the numerous other fields of activity 
which are opening or have already opened 
to the trained Forester in the United States. 

THE FOREST SERVICE 

The United States Forest Service is re- 
sponsible both for the general progress of 
forestry, so far as the United States Govern- 
ment is concerned, and for the protection 
and use of the National Forests. These 
National Forests now cover a net area of one 
hundred and fifty-five million acres, or as 
much land as is included in all the New 
30 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

England States, with New York, Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, INIaryland, 
Virginia and West Virginia. The head of 
the Service, whose official title is *' Forester," 
is charged with the great task of protecting 
this vast area against fire, theft, and other 
depredations, and of making all its re- 
sources, the wood, water, and grass, the 
minerals, and the soil, available and useful 
to the people of the United States under 
regulations which will secure development 
and prevent destruction or waste. 

The United States Forest Service con- 
sists, first, of a protective force of Forest 
Guards and Forest Rangers, who spend 
practically the whole of their time in the 
forest; second, of an executive staff of 
Forest Supervisors and their assistants, who 
have immediate charge of the handling of the 
National Forests ; and third, of an adminis- 
trative staff divided between headquarters 

31 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

in Washington and the seven local adminis- 
trative offices, six in the West, where the Na- 
tional Forests mainly lie, and one in the East. 
The work of a Forest Ranger is, first of 
all, to protect the District committed to his 
charge against fire. That comes before all 
else. For that purpose, the Ranger patrols 
his District during the seasons when fires 
are dangerous, or watches for signs of fire 
from certain high points, called fire-look- 
outs, or both. He keeps the trails and fire 
lines clear and the telephone in working 
order, and sees to it that the fire fighting 
tools, such as spades, axes, and rakes, are in 
good condition and ready for service. If he 
is wise, he establishes such relations with the 
people who live in his neighborhood that 
they become his volunteer assistants in 
watching for forest fires, in taking precau- 
tions against them, and in notifying him of 
them when they do take place. 

32 



\ 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

Fighting a forest fire in some respects is 
like fighting a fire in a city. In both, the 
first and most necessary thing is to get men 
and apparatus to the site of the fire at the 
first practicable moment. For this purpose, 
fire-engines and men are always ready in 
the city, while in the forest the telephones, 
trails, and bridges must be kept in condition, 
and the forest oflficers must be ready to move 
instantly day or night. 

It is far better to prevent a fores-t fire 
from starting than to have to put it out after 
it has started; but in spite of all the care 
that can be exercised with the means at 
hand, many fires start. Each year the 
Forest Service men extinguish about forty- 
five hundred fires, nearly all of them while 
they are still small. At times, however, 
when the woods are very dry and the wind 
blows hard, in spite of all that can be done, 

a fire will grow large enough to be danger- 
3 33 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

ous not only to the forest but to human life. 
Thus in the summer of 1910, the driest ever 
known in certain parts of the West, high 
winds drove the forest fires clear beyond 
the control of the fire fighters, many of 
whom were compelled to fight for their own 
lives. 

The worst of these fires were in ISIontana 
and Idaho, where the whole power of the 
Forest Service was used against them. The 
Forest Rangers, under the orders of their 
Supervisors, immediately organized or took 
charge of small companies of fire fighters, 
and began the work of getting them under 
control. But so fierce was the wind and so 
terrible the heat of the fires and the speed 
with which they moved, that in many places 
it became a question of saving the lives of 
the fire fighters rather than of putting out 
the fires. As a matter of fact, nearlj'- a 
hundred of the men temporarily employed to 

34 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

help the Government fire fighters lost their 
lives, and many more would have died but 
for the courage, resource, and knowledge of 
the woods of the Forest Rangers. 

Take, for example, the case of Ranger 
Edward C. Pulaski, of the Coeur d'Alene 
National Forest, stationed at Wallace, 
Idaho. Pulaski had charge of forty Italians 
and Poles. He had been at work with them 
for many hours, when the flames grew to be 
so threatening that it became a question of 
whether he could save his men. The fire 
was travelling faster than the men could 
make their way through the dense forest, 
and the only hope was to find some place 
into which the fii*e could not come. Accord- 
ingly Pulaski guided his party at a run 
through the blinding smoke to an abandoned 
mine he knew of in the neighborhood. When 
they reached it, he sent the men into the 

workings ahead of him, hung a wet blanket 

35 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

across the mouth of the tunnel, and himself 
stood there on guard. The fierce heat, the 
stifling air, and their deadly fear drove some 
of the foreigners temporarily insane, and a 
number of them tried to break out. With 
drawn revolver Pulaski held them back. One 
man did get by him and was burned to 
death. Many fainted in the tunnel. The 
Ranger himself, more exposed than any of 
his men, was terribly burned. He stood at 
his post, however, for five hours, until the 
fire had passed, and brought his party 
through without losing a single man except 
that one who got out of the tunnel, although 
his own injuries were so severe that he was 
in the hospital for two months as a result of 
them. The record of the Forest Service in 
these terrible fires is one of which every 
Forester may well be proud. 

The Ranger must protect his District, not 
only against fire but against the theft of 

36 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

timber and the incessant efforts of land 
grabbers to steal Government lands. To 
prevent the theft of timber is usually not 
difficult, but it is far harder to prevent fake 
homesteaders, fraudulent mining men, and 
other dishonest claimants from seizing upon 
land to which they have no right, and so 
preventing honest men from using these 
claims to make a living. 

In the past, this problem has presented the 
most serious difficulties, and still occasion- 
ally does so. There is no louder shouter 
for " justice " than a balked habitual land 
thief with political influence behind him. To 
illustrate the kind of attack upon the Forest 
Service to which fraudulent land claims have 
constantly given rise, I may cite the state- 
ments made during one of the annual at- 
tempts in the Senate to break dovm the Ser- 
vice. One of the Senators asserted that in 
his State the Forest Service was overbear- 

37 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

ing and tyrannical, and that in a particular 
case it had driven out of his home a citizen 
known to the Senator, and had left him and 
his family to wander houseless upon the hill- 
side, and that for no good reason whatsoever. 
This statement, if it had been true, would 
at once have destroyed the standing of the 
Service in the minds of many of its friends, 
and would have led to immediate defeat in 
the fight then going on. Fortunately, the 
records of the Service were so complete, and 
the knowledge of field conditions on the part 
of the men in Washington was so thorough, 
that the mere mention of the general locality 
of the supposed outrage by the Senator 
made it easy to identify the individual case. 
The man in question, instead of being an 
honest settler with a wife and family, was 
the keeper of a disreputable saloon and 
dance hall, a well-known law-breaker whom 

the local authorities had tried time and again 

38 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

to dispossess and drive away. But by means 
of his fraudulent claim the man had always 
defeated the local officers. When, however, 
the officers of the Forest Service took the 
case in hand, the situation changed and 
things moved quickly. The disreputable 
saloon was promptly removed from the 
fraudulent land claim by means of which 
the keeper of it had held on, and this thor- 
oughly undesirable citizen either went out 
of business or removed his abominable trade 
to some locality outside the National Forest. 

The actual facts were fully brought out 
in the debate next day, remained uncontra- 
dicted, and saved the fight for the Forest 
Service. The whole incident may be found 
at length in the Congressional Record. 

The Forest Ranger is charged with over- 
seeing and regulating the free use of timber 
by settlers and others who live in or near the 
National Forests. Last year (1916) the 

39 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

Forest Service gave away without charge 
more than 120 million board feet of saw tim- 
ber, logs, fencing, fuel, and other material 
to men and women who needed it for their 
own use. Usually it is the Ranger's work 
to issue the permits for this free use, and to 
designate the timber that may be cut. For 
this purpose, he must be well acquainted 
with the kinds and the uses of the trees in 
his District, and it is most important that he 
should know something of how their repro- 
duction can best be secured, in order that 
the free use may be permitted without injury 
to the future welfare of the forest. 

A Ranger oversees the use of his District 
for the grazing of cattle, sheep, and other 
domestic animals. He must acquaint him- 
self with the brands and marks of the vari- 
ous owners, and should be well posted in the 
essentials of the business of raising cattle, 
sheep, and horses. The allotment of graz- 

40 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

ing areas is one of the most difficult problems 
to adjust, because the demand is almost 
always for much more range than is avail- 
able and the division of what range there is 
among the local owners of stock often pre- 
sents serious difficulties, in which the 
Ranger's local knowledge and advice is con- 
stantly sought by his superior officer. 

There is a wise law, passed at the request 
of the Forest Service, under w^hich land in 
the National Forests which is shown to be 
agricultural may be entered under the home- 
stead law, and used for the making of homes. 
This law is peculiarly hard to carry out be- 
cause the ceaseless efforts of land grabbers 
to misuse it demand great vigilance on the 
part of the Forest Officers. In many cases 
it is the Ranger who makes the report upon 
which the decision as to the agricultural or 
non-agricultural character of the land is 
based, although in other cases the examina- 

41 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

tions to determine whether the land is really 
agricultural in character are made by Ex- 
aminers especially trained for this duty. 
Serious controversies into which politics 
enter are often caused by the efforts of 
speculators and others, under pretext of this 
law, to get possession of lands chiefly valu- 
able for their timber. 

The building and maintenance of trails, 
telephone lines, roads, bridges, and fences 
in his District is under the charge of the 
Ranger, and in many cases Rangers and 
Forest Guards are appointed by the State 
as Wardens to see to it that the game and 
fish laws are properly enforced. 

Next to the protection of his District from 
fire, the most important duty of the Ranger 
has to do \\dth the sale of timber and the 
marking of the individual trees which are 
to be cut. The reproduction of the forest 
depends directly on what trees are kept for 

42 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

seed, or on how the existing young growth 
is protected and preserved in felling and 
swamping the trees which have been marked 
for cutting, and in skidding the logs. The 
disposal of the slash must be looked after, 
for it has much to do with forest reproduc- 
tion, and with promoting safety from fire. 
Then, the scaling of the logs determines the 
amount of the payment the Government re- 
ceives for its timber, and there are often 
regulations governing the transportation of 
the scaled logs whose enforcement is of great 
consequence to the future forest. 

Nearly all of these duties the Ranger may 
perform in certain cases without supervision, 
if his judgment and training are sufficient, 
but the marking especially is often done 
under the eye or in accordance with the 
directions of the technical Forester, whose 
duty it is to see that the future of the forest is 
protected by enforcing the conditions of sale. 

43 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

These are but a part of the duties of the 
Ranger, for he is concerned with all the uses 
which his District may serve. The streams, 
for example, may be important for city 
water supply, irrigation, or for waterpower, 
and their use for these purposes must be 
under his eye. Hotels and saw-mills on sites 
leased from the Government may dot his 
District here and there. The land within 
National Forests may be put to a thousand 
other uses, from a bee ranch on the Cleve- 
land Forest in southern California to a 
whaling station on the Tongass Forest in 
Alaska, all of which means work for him. 

The result of all this is that the Ranger 
comes in contact with city dwellers, irri- 
gators, cattlemen, sheepmen, and horsemen, 
ranchers, storekeepers, hotel men, hunters, 
miners, and lumbermen, and above all with 
the settlers who live in or near his District. 
With all these it is his duty to keep on good 

44 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

terms, for well he knows that one man at 
certain times can set more fires than a regi- 
ment can extinguish, and that the best pro- 
tection for his District comes from the 
friendly interest of the men who live in it 
or near it. 

A Forest Guard is in effect an assistant to 
the Ranger, and may be called upon to carry 
out most of the duties which fall upon a 
Ranger. 

The foregoing short statement will make 
it clear that preliminary experience as a 
Ranger may be of the utmost value to the 
man who proposes later on to perform in the 
Government Service the duties of a trained 
Forester. It is becoming more and more 
common, and fortunately so, for graduates 
of forest schools to begin their work in the 
United States Forest Service as Rangers or 



Fdrest Guards. The man who has done well 
a Ranger's work, like the graduate of an 



45 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

engineering school who, after graduation, 
has entered a machine shop as a hand, has 
acquired a body of practical information and 
experience which will be invaluable to him 
in the later practice of his profession, and 
which is far beyond the reach of any man 
who has not been trained in the actual execu- 
tion of this work on the ground and in actual 
daily contact with the multifarious uses and 
users of the forest. 



THE FOREST SUPERVISOR 

The Supervisor is the general manager 

of a National Forest. The responsibility for 

the protection, care, and use of it falls upon 

him, under the direction of the District 

Forester. The Supervisor is responsible for 

making the use of his forest as valuable and 

as convenient as possible for the people in 

and around the area of which he has charge. 

46 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

He deals with the organizations of forest 
users, such as local stock associations, and 
issues permits for grazing live stock in the 
forest. Permits for cutting small amounts 
of timber are granted by him, and he adver- 
tises in the papers the sale of larger amounts 
and receives bids from prospective pur- 
chasers ; keeps the accounts of his forest ; and 
makes regular reports on a variety of im- 
portant subjects, such as the personnel of his 
forest force, the permanent improvements 
made or to be made, the permits issued for 
regular and special uses of the forest and for 
free use of timber and forage, the number 
and kinds of predatory animals killed, the 
amount of forest planting accomplished, and 
the expense and losses from forest fires. He 
has general oversight of the roads, trails, and 
other improvements on his forest; and pre- 
pares plans for the extension of them. In 
particular, he directs, controls, and inspects 

47 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

the work of the Ranger and Guards, and in 
general, he attends to the thousand and one 
matters which go to adjusting the use of the 
forest to the needs of the men who use it, 
and on which depends whether the forest is 
well or badly thought of among the people 
whose cooperation or opposition have so 
much to do with making its management 
successful or otherwise. 

The Supervisor spends about half his 
time in the office and half in the field, in- 
specting the work of his men and consulting 
with them, meeting local residents or asso- 
ciations of local residents who have proposi- 
tions to submit for improving the service of 
the forest to them, or for correcting mis- 
takes, or who wish to lay before the Super- 
visor some one of the numberless matters in 
which the forest affects their welfare. The 
usefulness of the Supervisor depends as 
much upon his good judgment, his ability to 

48 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

meet men and do business with them, and his 
knowledge of local needs and local affairs, 
as it does upon his knowledge of the forest 
itself. As in the case of every superior 
officer, his attitude toward his work, his 
energy, his good sense, and his good will are 
or should be reflected in the men under him, 
so that his position is one of the greatest 
importance in determining the success or 
failure of each National Forest, and hence of 
the Forest Service as a whole. More and 
more of the trained Foresters in the Service 
are seeking and securing appointments as 
Forest Supervisors because of the interest 
and satisfaction they find in the work. Such 
men handle both the professional and busi- 
ness sides of forest management. Many of 
their duties, therefore, are described in the 
succeeding chapter. 

The position of Supervisor is in many re- 
spects the most desirable a trained Forester 

4 49 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

can occup}'^ in the Forest Service, and the 
most responsible of the field positions. 



THE TRAINED FORESTER 

To each forest where timber cutting has 
become important there are assigned one or 
more Forest Assistants or Forest Exami- 
ners. These are professionally trained 
Foresters. They are subordinate upon each 
forest to the Supervisor as manager, but it is 
their work which has most to do with decid- 
ing whether the Forest Service in general is 
to be successful or is to fail in the great task 
of preserving the forest by wise use. 

The Forest Assistant secures his position 
with the Service by passing an examination 
devised to test his technical knowledge and 
his ability. After he has served two years 
as Forest Assistant the quality and quantity 
of his work will have determined his fitness 

50 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

to continue in the employ of the Govern- 
ment. If he is unfit he may be dropped, for 
there are many young and ambitious men 
ready to step into his place. If he makes 
good he is promoted to the grade of Forest 
Examiner and is put definitely in charge of 
certain lines of professional work ; always, of 
course, under the direction of the Supervisor, 
of whom he becomes the adviser on all prob- 
lems involving technical forestry. 

The most important tasks of the trained 
Forester on a National Forest are the prepa- 
ration of working plans for the use of the 
forest by methods which will protect and 
perpetuate it as well, and the carrj^ing out 
of the plans when made. This is forestry in 
the technical sense of the word. It involves 
a thorough studj^ of the kinds of timber, their 
amount and location, their rate of gro^^ih, 
their value, the ease or difficulty of their 

reproduction, and the methods by which the 

51 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

timber can be cut at a profit and at the 
same time the reproduction of the forest can 
be safely secured. A working plan usually 
includes a considerable number of maps, 
which often have to be drawn in the first 
place from actual surveys on the ground by 
the Forest Examiner. These maps contain 
the information secured by working-plan 
studies, and are of the first necessity for the 
wise and skilful handling of the forest. They 
often constitute, also, most important docu- 
ments in the history of its condition and use. 
On many of the National Forests the need 
for immediate use of the timber is so urgent 
and so just that there is no time to prepare 
elaborate working plans. Timber sales must 
be made, and made at once ; but they must be 
made, nevertheless, in a way that will fully 
protect the future welfare of the forest. 
Whether working plans can be prepared or 
not, a most important duty of the technical 

52 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

Forester is to work out the conditions under 
wliich a given body of timber can be cut with 
safety to the forest, especially with safety to 
its reproduction and future growth. The 
principal study for a timber sale will usually 
include an examination of the general 
features and condition of the forest, and the 
determination of the diameter down to which 
it is advisable to cut the standing trees, a 
diameter which must be fixed at such a size 
as will protect the forest and make the 
lumbering pay. It will include also an in- 
vestigation, more or less thorough and com- 
plete, as the conditions warrant, of the silvi- 
cal habits of one or more of the species of 
trees in that forest. The areas which form 
natural units for the logging and trans- 
portation of the timber must be worked out 
and laid off, and careful estimates, or 
measurements, of the amount of standing 
timber and of its value on the stump must 



53 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

be made, as well as of the cost of moving it 
to the mill or to the railroad. 

The Forest Examiner must also consider, 
in many cases, the building of logging roads 
or railroads, timber slides, etc., and must 
make a careful study of the material into 
which the trees to be cut can best be worked 
up, and of the value of such material in the 
market. Most of all, however, he must 
study, think over, and decide what he will 
recommend as to the conditions which are to 
govern the logging conditions by which the 
protection of the forest is to be insured. 
These conditions, fixed by his superiors upon 
the report of the Forest Examiner, deter- 
mine whether an individual timber sale is 
forestry or forest destruction. This is the 
central question in the administration of the 
National Forests from the national point of 
view. 

The principal objects of the conditions 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

laid down for a timber sale are always the re- 
production of the forest and its safety 
against fire. Natural reproduction from 
self-sown seed is almost invariably the result 
desired ; and so the question of the seed trees 
to be left, and how they are to be located or 
spaced, is fundamental, unless there is ample 
young growth already on the ground. In 
the latter case this young growth must not 
be smashed or bent by throwing the older 
trees on top of it, or against it, and the young 
saplings bent down by the felled tops must 
be promptly released. 

In order to avoid danger to the young 
growth already present or to be secured, as 
well as to protect the older trees from fires, 
the slash produced in lumbering, the tops 
lopped from the trees up to and beyond the 
highest point to which the lumbermen are 
required to take the logs, must be satisfac- 
torily disposed of — either by scattering it 

55 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

thinly over the ground, by piling and burn- 
ing, or often by piling alone. 

These and many other conditions of sale 
must be studied out in a form adapted to 
each particular case, and must be discussed 
with the men who propose to buy, who often 
have wise and practical suggestions to make. 

Similar questions on a less important scale 
present themselves and must be answered 
in the matter of small timber sales, and of 
timber given without charge under free-use 
permits to settlers and others. 

When the terms of a contract of sale have 
been worked out and accepted and the 
timber has been sold, then the Forest Assist- 
ant has charge of the extremely interesting 
task of marking the trees that are to be cut, 
in accordance with these terms. Usually 
this is done by marking all the trees which 
are to be felled, but sometimes by marking 
only the trees which are to remain. 

56 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

The marking is usually done by blazing 
each tree and stamping the letters " U. S." 
upon the blaze with a Government marking 
axe or hatchet. It must be done in such a 
way that the loggers will have no excuse 
either for cutting an unmarked tree or leav- 
ing a marked tree uncut, or vice versa, as the 
case may be. The marking may be carried 
out by the Rangers and Forest Guards 
under supervision of the Forest Assistant, or 
in difficult situations he may mark or direct 
the marking of each tree himself. iNIarking 
is fascinating work. 

Later, while the logging is under way, the 
Forest Examiner ^vill often inspect it to see 
that the terms of the sale are complied with, 
that the trees cut are thro\\Ti in places where 
they will not unduly damage either young 
growth or the larger trees which are to re- 
main, and that the other conditions laid 

down for the logging in the contract of sale 
57 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

are observed. The scaling of the logs to 
determine the amount of payment to the 
Government will many times be under his 
supervision, although in the larger sales this 
work, as well as the routine inspection of the 
logging, is usually carried out by a special 
body of expert lumbermen, who often bring 
to it a much wider knowledge of the woods 
than the men in actual charge of the 
lumbering. 

In nearly every National Forest there are 
areas upon which the trees have been de- 
stroyed by fire. Many of these are so large 
or so remote from seed-bearing trees that 
natural reproduction will not suffice to re- 
place the forest. In such localities planting 
is needed, and for that purpose the Forest 
Examiner must establish and conduct a 
forest nursery. The decision on the kind of 
trees to plant and on the methods of raising 
and planting them, the collection of the seed, 

58 




A I'-ouKsr i:\a.mim:u iunmnc; a (<imi'ass link 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

the care and transplanting of the young trees 
until they are set out on the site of the future 
forest, forms a task of absorbing interest. 
Such work often requires a high degree of 
teclinical skill. It is likely to occupy a 
larger and larger share of the time and 
attention of the trained men of the Forest 
Service. 

The Forest Assistant's or Examiner's 
knowledge of survej^ng makes it natural for 
him to take an important part in the laying 
out of new roads and trails in the forest, or 
in correcting the lines of old ones, and there 
is little work more immediately useful. The 
forest can be safeguarded effectively just in 
proportion to the ease with which all parts 
of it can be reached. Forest protection may 
be less technically interesting than other 
parts of the Forester's work, but nothing 
that he does is more important or pays 
larger dividends in future results. 

59 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

In addition to his studies of the habits and 
reproduction of the different trees for work- 
ing plans or timber sales, or simply to in- 
crease his knowledge of the forest, the Forest 
Examiner is often called upon to lay out 
sample plots for ascertaining the exact 
relation of each species to light, heat, and 
moisture, or for studying its rate of growth. 
He may find it necessary to determine the 
effect of the grazing of cattle or sheep on 
young growth of various species and of 
various ages, or to ascertain their relative 
resistance to fire. In general, what time he 
can spare from more pressing duties is very 
fully occupied with adding to his silvical 
knowledge by observation, with studies of 
injurious insects or fungi, of the reasons for 
the increase or decrease of valuable or worth- 
less species of trees in the forest, the in- 
numerable secondary'' effects of forest fires, 
the causes of the local distribution of trees, 

60 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

or with some other of the thousand questions 
which give a never-failing interest to work 
in the woods. 

The protection of a valuable kind of tree 
often depends upon the ability to find a use 
for, and therefore to remove, a less-valuable 
species which is crowding it out, for as yet 
the American Forester can do very little cut- 
ting or thinning that does not pay. Just so, 
the protection of a given tract against fire 
may depend upon the ability to use, and 
therefore to remove, a part or the whole of 
the dead and down timber which now makes 
it a fire trap. For such reasons as these, the 
uses of wood and the markets for its dis- 
posal form exceedingly important branches 
of study for the Forest Examiner, who will 
usuall}^ find that his duties require him to be 
thoroughly familiar with them. 

It is more and more common to find each 
Forest Officer — Ranger, Forest Examiner, 

61 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

or Supervisor — combining in himself the 
qualities and the knowledge required to fill 
any or all of the other positions. The pro- 
fessionally trained man who develops 
marked executive ability is likely to become 
a Supervisor, just as a Ranger, with the 
necessary training and experience, who may 
wish to devote himself to silvical investiga- 
tions may be transferred to that work. The 
point is that each man has individual oppor- 
tunity to establish and occupy the place for 
which he is best fitted. 

The success of the technical Forester, like 
that of the Ranger, and indeed of nearly 
every Government Forest Officer, in what- 
ever position or line of work, will very fre- 
quently depend on his good judgment and 
practical sense, the chief ingredient of which 
will always be his knowledge of local needs 
and conditions, and his sjTnpathetic under- 
standing of the local point of view. This 

62 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

does not mean that the local point of view 
is always to control. On the contrary, the 
Forest Officer must often decide against it 
in the interest of the welfare of the larger 
public. But the desires and demands of the 
users of the forest should always be given 
the fullest hearing and the most careful con- 
sideration. To this rule there is no excep- 
tion whatsoever. 



PERSONAL EQUIPMENT 

Forestry differs from most professions 
in this, that it requires as much vigor of body 
as it does vigor of mind. The sort of man 
to which it appeals, and which it seeks, is the 
man with high powers of observation, who 
does not shrink from responsibility, and 
whose mental vigor is balanced by physical 
strength and hardiness. The man who takes 
up forestry should be little interested in his 

63 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

own personal comfort, and should have and 
conserve endurance enough to stand severe 
physical work accompanied by mental labor 
equally exhausting. 

Foresters are still few in numbers, and 
the point of view which they represent, while 
it is making immense strides in public ac- 
ceptance, is still far from general applica- 
tion. Therefore, Foresters are still mission- 
aries in a very real sense, and since they* are 
so few, it is of the utmost importance that 
they should stand closely together. Differ- 
ences of opinion there must always be in all 
professions, but there is no other profession 
in which it is more important to keep these 
differences from working out into animosi- 
ties or separations of any kind. We are 
fortunate above all in this, that American 
Foresters are united as probably the mem- 
bers of no other profession. This esprit de 
corps has given them their greatest power of 

64 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

achievement, and any man who proposes to 
enter the profession should do so with this 
fact clearly in mind. 

The high standard which the profession of 
forestry, new in the United States, has 
already reached, its great power for useful- 
ness to the Nation, now and hereafter, and 
the large responsibilities which fall so quickly 
on the men who are trained to accept it — 
all these things give to the profession a posi- 
tion and dignitj^ which it should be the first 
care of every man who enters it to maintain 
or increase. 

To stand well at graduation is or ought to 
be far less the object of a Forester's train- 
ing than to stand well ten or twenty years 
after graduation. It is of the first import- 
ance that the training should be thorough 
and complete. 

A friend of mine, John Muir, used to say 
that the best advice he could give young men 

5 65 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

was: " Take time to get rich." His idea of 
getting rich was to fill his mind and spirit full 
with observations of the natm-e he so deeply 
loved and so well understood; so that in his 
mind it was not money which makes riches, 
but life in the open and the seeing eye. 

Next to those basic traits of personal char- 
acter, without which no man is worth his salt, 
the Forester's most important quality is the 
power of observation, the power to note and 
understand, or seek to understand, what he 
sees in the forest. It is just as essential a 
part of the Forester's equipment to be able 
to see what is wrong with a piece of forest, 
and what is required for its improvement, 
as it is necessary for a physician to be able 
to diagnose a disease and to prescribe the 
remedy. 

Silvics, which may be said to be the 
knowledge of how trees behave in health and 
disease toward each other, and toward light, 

66 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

heat, moisture, and the soil, is the foundation 
of forestry and the Forester's first task is to 
bring himself to a high point of efficiency in 
observing and interpreting these facts of the 
forest, and to keep himself there. It should 
be as hard work to walk tlirough the forest, 
and see what is there to be seen, as to wrestle 
with the most difficult problem of mathe- 
matics. No man can be a good Forester 
without that quality of observation and 
understanding which the French call " the 
forester's eye." It is not the only quality 
required for success in forestry, but it is 
unquestionably the first. 

Perhaps the second among the qualities 
necessary for the Forester is common sense, 
which most often simply means a sympa- 
thetic understanding of the circmnstances 
among which a man finds himself. The 
American Forester must know the United 

States and understand its people. Nothing 
67 ' 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

which affects the welfare of his country 
should be indifferent to him. Forestry is a 
farm of practical statesmanship which 
touches the national life at so many points 
that no Forester can safely allow himself to 
remain ignorant of the needs and purposes 
of his fellow citizens, or to be out of touch 
with the current questions of the day. The 
best citizen makes the best Forester, and no 
man can make a good Forester unless he is a 
good citizen also. 

The Forester can not succeed unless he 
understands the problems and point of view 
of his country, and that is the reason why 
Foresters from other lands were not brought 
into the United States in the early stages 
of the forest movement. At that time 
practically no American Foresters had yet 
been trained, and the great need of the situa- 
tion was for men to do the immediately 

pressing work. Foresters from Germany, 

68 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

France, Switzerland, and other countries 
could have been obtained in abundant 
numbers and at reasonable salaries. They 
were not invited to come because, however 
well trained in technical forestry, they could 
not have understood the habits of thought of 
our people. Therefore, in too many cases, 
they would have failed to establish the kind 
of practical understanding which a Forester 
must have with the men who use, or work in, 
his forest, if he is to succeed. It was wiser 
to wait until Americans could be trained, for 
the practising Forester must handle men as 
well as trees. 

One of the most difficult things to do in 
any profession which involves drudgery 
(and I take it that no profession which does 
not involve drudgery is worth the attention 
of a man) is to look beyond the daily routine 
to the things which that routine is intended 
to assist in ajccomplishing. This is pecul- 

69 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

iarly true of forestry, in which, perhaps 
more than in any other profession, the long- 
distance, far-sighted attitude of mind is 
essential to success. The trees a Forester 
plants he himself will seldom live to harvest. 
JMuch of his thought about his forest must 
be in terms of centuries. The great object 
for which he is striving of necessity can not 
be fully accomplished during his lifetime. 
He must, therefore, accustom himself to look 
ahead, and to reap his personal satisfaction 
from the planned and orderly development 
of a scheme the perfect fruit of which he can 
never hope to see. 

This is one of the strongest reasons why 
the Forester, whether in public or private 
employment, must always look upon himself 
as a public servant. It is of the first im- 
portance that he should accustom himself to 
think of the results of his work as affecting, 
not primarily himself, but others, always 

70 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

including the general public. It is essential 
for a Forester to form the habit of looking 
far ahead, out of which grows a sound per- 
spective and persistence in body and mind. 
One of the greatest football players of our 
time makes the distinction between a player 
who is " quick " and a player who is " soon." 
In his description, the " quick " player is the 
man who waits until the last moment and 
then moves with nervous and desperate haste 
in the little time he has left. The man who 
is " soon," however, almost invariably ar- 
rives ahead of the man who is " quick," be- 
cause he has thought out in advance exactly 
where he is going and how to get there, and 
when the moment comes he does not delay 
his start, makes no false motions, and 
thereby makes and keeps himself efficient. 
Forestry is preeminently a profession for 
the " soon " man, for it is the steady prep- 
aration long in advance, the well-thought- 
71 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

out plan well stuck to, which in forestry 
brings success. 

In my experience, men differ compara- 
tively little in mere ability, in the quality of 
the mental machine, through which the spirit 
works. Nine times out of ten, it is not ability 
which brings success, but persistence and 
enthusiasm, which are usually, but not 
always, the same as vision and will. We 
all have ability enough to do the things 
which lie before us, but the man with the will 
to keep everlastingly at it, and the vision 
to realize the meaning and value of the re- 
sults for which he is striving, is the man who 
wins in nearly every case. This is true in all 
human affairs, but it is peculiarly true of 
the Forester and his task, the end of which 
lies so far ahead. 

In a class below me at Phillips-Exeter 

Academy was a boy who had just entered 

the school. His great ambition was to play 

72 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

football, and he came to the practise day 
after day. His abilities, however, were ap- 
parently not on the same plane with his 
ambitions, and his work was so ridiculously 
poor that he became the laughing stock of 
the whole school. That, however, troubled 
him not at all. What held his mind was 
football. Undiscouraged and undismayed, 
he kept on playing football until in his last 
year he became captain of the Exeter foot- 
ball team. 

Every man of experience has known many 
similar cases. It is clear, I think, that the 
master qualities in achievement are neither 
luck nor mere ability, but rather enthusiasm 
and persistence, or vision and will. 

In a peculiar sense the Forester depends 

upon public opinion and public support for 

the means of carrying on his work, and for 

its final success. But the attention which 

the public gives or can give to any particu- 

73 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

lar subject varies, and of necessity must 
vary, from time to time. Under these cir- 
cumstances, it is inevitable that the Forester 
must meet discouragements, checks, and de- 
lays, as well as periods of smooth sailing. 
He should expect them, and should be pre- 
pared to discount them when they come. 
When they do come, I know of no better 
way of reducing their bad effects than for a 
man to make allowance for his own state of 
mind. He who can stand off and look at 
himself impartially, realizing that he will not 
feel to-morrow as he feels to-day, has a 
powerful weapon against the temporary dis- 
couragements which are necessarily met in 
any work that is really worth while. Prog- 
ress is always in spirals, and there is always 
a good time coming. There is nothing so 
fatal to good work as that flabby spirit under 
which some weak men try to hide their in- 
efficiency — ^the spirit of " What's the use? " 

74 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

It has been the experience of every 
Forester, as he goes about the country, to be 
told that a certain mountain is impassable, 
that a certain trail can not be travelled, that 
a certain stream can not be crossed, and to 
find that mountain, trail, and stream can all 
be passed with little serious difficulty by a 
man who is willing to trj'. Most things said 
to be impossible are so only in the mind of 
the man whose timidity or inertness keeps 
him from making the attempt. The whole 
story of the establishment and growth of the 
United States Forest Service is a story of 
the doing of things which the men who did 
them were warned in advance would be im- 
possible. Usually the thing which " can't 
be done " is well worth trying. 

Perhaps I ought to add that I am not urg- 
ing the young Forester to disregard local 
public opinion without the best of reasons, 
or to rush his horse blindly into the ford of a 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

swollen stream. Good sense is the first con- 
dition of success. I am merely saying that 
in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, when 
a thing ought to be done it can be done, if 
the effort is made with that idea in mind. 

All this is but one way of saj^ing that the 
Forester should be his own severest task- 
master. The Forester must keep himself up 
to his own work. In no other profession, to 
my knowledge, is a man thrown so com- 
pletely on his own responsibility. The 
Forester often leads an isolated life for 
weeks or months at a time, seeing the men 
under whom he works onlj'^ at distant inter- 
vals. Because he is so much his own master, 
the responsibility which rests upon him is 
peculiarly his own, and must be met out of 
the resources within himself. 

The training of a Forester should lead 
him to be practical in the right sense of that 
word, which emphatically is not the sense of 

76 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

abandoning standards of work or conduct 
in order to get immediate results. The 
" practical " men with whom the Forester 
must do his work — ^lumbermen, cattlemen, 
sheepmen, settlers, forest users of all kinds 
— are often by very much his superiors in 
usable knowledge of the details of their 
work. Their opinions are entitled to the 
most complete hearing and respect. There 
is no other class of men from whose advice 
the Forester can so greatly profit if he 
chooses to do so. He is superior to them, 
if at all, only in his technical knowledge, 
and in the broader point of view he has de- 
rived from his professional training. It is 
of the first importance that the young 
Forester should know these men, should 
learn to like and respect them, and that he 
should get all the help he can from their 
knowledge and practical experience. The 
willingness to use the information and 

77 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

assistance which such men were ready to 
give has more than once meant the differ- 
ence between failure and success. 

The young Forester, like other young 
men, is likely to be impatient. I do not 
blame him for it. Rightly directed, his im- 
patience may become one of his best assets. 
But it will do no harm to remember, also, 
that the human race has reached its present 
degree of civilization and advancement only 
step by step, and that it seems likely to pro- 
ceed in very much the same way hereafter. 
As a general rule, results slowly and pain- 
fully accomplished are lasting. The results 
to be achieved in forestry must be lasting if 
they are to be valuable. 

In general, the men with whom the 

Forester deals can adopt, and in many 

cases, ought to adopt, a new point of view 

but slowly. To fall in love at first sight 

with theories or policies is as rare as the 

78 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

same experience is between persons. As a 
rule, an intellectual conviction, however well 
founded, must be followed by a period of 
incubation and growth before it can blossom 
into a definite principle of action, before the 
man who holds it is ready to work or fight 
in order to carry it out. There is a rate in 
the adoption of new ideas beyond which 
only the most unusual circumstances will in- 
duce men's minds to move. Forestry has 
gone ahead in the United States faster than 
it ever did in any other land. If it proceeds 
a little less rapidly, now that so much of the 
field has been won, there will be no reason 
for discouragement in that. 



As A SUBORDINATE OFFICER 

Necessarily the young Forester will begin 
as a subordinate. How soon he will come to 
give orders of his o^^^l will depend on how 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

well he executes the orders of his superior. 
In particular, it will depend on whether he 
requires to be coddled in doing his work, or 
whether he is willing and able to stand on his 
own feet. The man for whom every em- 
ployer of men is searching, everywhere and 
always, is the man who will accept the re- 
sponsibility for the work he has to do — who 
will not lean at everj'- point upon his superior 
for additional instructions, advice, or en- 
couragement. 

There is no more valuable subordinate 
than the man to whom you can give a piece 
of work and then forget about it, in the con- 
fident expectation that the next time it is 
brought to your attention it will come in the 
form of a report that the thing has been 
done. When this master quality is joined to 
executive power, loyalty, and common sense, 
the result is a man whom you can trust. On 

the other hand, there is no greater nuisance 

so 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

to a man heavily burdened with the direc- 
tion of affairs than the weak-backed assist- 
ant who is continually trying to get his chief 
to do his work for him, on the feeble plea 
that he thought the chief would like to de- 
cide this or that himself. The man to whom 
an executive is most grateful, the man whom 
he will work hardest and value most, is the 
man who accepts responsibility willingly, 
and is not continually under his feet. 

AS A SUPERIOR OFFICER 

The principles of effective administrative 
work have never, so far as I know, been 
adequately classified and defined. When 
they come to be stated one of the most im- 
portant will be found to be the exact assign- 
ment of responsibility, so that whatever goes 
wrong the administrative head will know 
clearly and at once upon whom the responsi- 
bility falls. This is one of the reasons why, 

81 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

as a rule, boards and commissions are far less 
effective in getting things done than single 
men with clear-cut authority and equally 
clear-cut responsibility. Another principle, 
so well known that it has almost become a 
proverb, is to delegate everything you can, 
to do nothing that you can get someone else 
to do for you. But the wisdom of letting 
a good man alone is less commonly under- 
stood. It is sometimes as important for the 
superior officer not to worry his subordi- 
nate with useless orders as it is for the sub- 
ordinate not to harass his superior with use- 
less questions. 

Let a good man alone. Give him his head. 
Nothing will hold him so rigidly to his work 
as the feeling that he is trusted. Lead your 
men in their work, and above all make of 
your organization not a monarchy, limited 
or unlimited, but a democracy, in which the 
responsibility of each man for a particular 

82 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

piece of work shall not only be defined but 
recognized, in which the credit for each man's 
work, so far as possible, shall be attached 
to his own name, in which the opinions and 
advice of your subordinates are often sought 
before decisions are made; in a word, a 
democracy in which each man feels a per- 
sonal responsibility for the success of the 
whole enterprise. 

The young Forester may be years re- 
moved from the chance to apply these princi- 
ples in practice, but since no superior officer 
can put them into fruitful effect without the 
cooperation of his subordinates, it is well 
that they should be known at both ends of 
the line. 

A PUBLIC SEUVANT 

I repeat that whether a Forester is en- 
gaged in private work or in public work, 
whether he is employed by a lumberman, an 

83 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

association of lumbermen, a fishing and 
shooting club, the owner of a great estate, or 
whether he is an ofiicer of a State or of the 
Nation, by virtue of his profession he is a 
public servant. Because he deals with the 
forest, he has his hand upon the future wel- 
fare of his country. His point of view is that 
which must control its future welfare. He 
represents the planned and orderly develop- 
ment of its resources. He is the representa- 
tive also of the forest school from which he 
graduates, and of his profession. Upon the 
standards which he helps to establish and 
maintain, the welfare of these, too, directly 
depends. 



STATE FOREST WORK 

The work of the States in forestry is still 
in the pioneer stage, and the work of a State 
Forester must still bear largely on the crea- 

84 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

tion of a right public sentiment in forest 
matters. In State forestry the need for 
agitation has by no means passed. It is 
often the duty of the State Forester to pre- 
pare or endeavor to secure the passage of 
good State forest laws, or to interpose 
against the enactment of bad laws. In 
particular, much of his time is likely to be 
given to legislation upon the subjects of 
forest fires and forest taxation. Upon the 
latter there is as yet no sound and effective 
public opinion in many parts of the United 
States, and legislatures and people still do 
not understand how powerful bad methods 
of forest taxation have been and still are in 
forcing the destructive cutting of timber by 
making it impossible to wait for the better 
methods of lumbering which accompany a 
better market. I have known the taxes on 
standing timber to equal six per cent, a year 
on the reasonable value of the stumpage. 

85 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

Thirteen States have State Forests with a 
total area altogether of 3,600,000 acres. Of 
these New York has the largest area. Its 
State Forests cover 1,825,882 acres, partly 
in the Adirondacks and partly in the Cats- 
kills; Pennsylvania comes next with some- 
thing over one million acres ; and Wisconsin 
third, with about four hundred thousand 
acres. 

Thirty-one States make appropriations 
for forest work. Excluding special appro- 
priations for courses in forestry at universi- 
ties, colleges, and schools, the total amount 
spent for this purpose is about $1,300,000. 
Pennsylvania has the largest appropriation, 
— three hundred and fifteen thousand dol- 
lars, in addition to which a special appro- 
priation of two hundred and seventy-five 
thousand dollars was formerly devoted to 
checking the chestnut blight. New York 
comes second with one hundred and seventy- 

86 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

eight thousand dollars ; Minnesota third with 
about one hundred and eighteen thousand 
dollars, and Michigan next with one hundred 
and five thousand dollars. 

Thirty-two States have State forest offi- 
cers, of whom nineteen are State Foresters 
by title, while the majority of the remainder 
perform duties of a very similar nature. 

Twenty-one States are receiving assistance 
from the Federal Govermnent under the 
Weeks law, which authorizes cooperation 
for fire protection, provided the State will 
furnish a sum equal to that allotted to it 
from the National fund, with a limit of ten 
thousand dollars to a single State. 

For purposes of reforestation, ten States 
maintain forest nurseries. During the year 
1912 they produced in round numbers 
twenty million young trees, of which four- 
teen million were distributed to the citizens 
of these ten States. 

87 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

In some States the waterpower question 
falls within the sphere of the State Forester, 
as well as other similar Conservation mat- 
ters, while it has usually been made his duty 
to assist private timberland owners in the 
handling of their holdings, w^hether these 
be the larger holdings of lumber companies 
or the farmers' woodlots. In many States 
the State Forester is made responsible for 
the enforcement of the State forest fire laws, 
and for the control and management of a 
body of State fire wardens, who may or may 
not be permanently employed in that work. 
The enforcement of laws which exempt 
timberlands or lands planted to timber from 
taxation, or limit the taxation upon them, 
are also usually under his supervision. 

The work of forestry in the various 
States being on the whole much less ad- 
vanced than it is in the Nation, the State 
Forester must still occupy himself largely 

88 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

with those preliminary phases of the work 
of forestry through which the National 
Forest Service has already passed. Much 
progress, however, is being made, and we 
may fairly count not only that State forest 
organizations will ultimately exist in every 
State, but that the State Foresters will exert 
a steadily increasing influence on forest per- 
petuation in the United States. 



THE FOREST SERVICE IN 
AVASHINGTON 

A DESCRIPTION of what a Forester has to 
do which did not include the work of the 
Government Foresters at the National Capi- 
tal would necessarily be incomplete. The 
following outline may, therefore, help to 
round out the picture. 

The Washington headquarters of the 
Forest Service are directly in charge of the 

89 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

Forester and his immediate assistants. The 
Forester has general supervision of the 
whole Service. It is he who, with the ap- 
proval of the Secretary of Agi'iculture, 
determines the general policy which is to 
govern the Service in the very various and 
numerous matters with which it has to deal. 
He keeps his hand upon the whole ma- 
chinery of the Service, holds it up to its 
work, and in general is responsible for 
supplying it with the right spirit and point 
of view, without which any kind of efficiency 
is impossible. 

The Forester prepares the estimates, or 
amiual budget, for the expenditures of the 
Service, and appears before Committees of 
Congress to explain the need for money, and 
otherwise to set forth or defend the work 
upon which the Service is engaged. His 
immediate subordinates spend a large part 
of their time in the field inspecting the work 

90 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

of the Serv^ice and keeping its tone high. 
Their reports to the Forester keep him 
thoroughly advised as to the situation on 
all the National Forests, so that he may 
wisely meet each question as it comes up, and 
adjust the regulations and routine business 
methods of the Service to the constantly 
changing needs of the people with whom it 
deals. 

Being responsible for the personnel of the 
Forest Service, the Forester recommends to 
the Secretary of Agriculture, by whom the 
actual papers are issued, all appointments to 
it, as well as promotions, reductions, and dis- 
missals. Under his immediate eye also is 
the very important and necessary work of 
making public the information collected by 
the Service for the use of the people. Since 
1900, 534 publications of the Service have 
been issued, with a total circulation of 
12,832,000 copies. 

91 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

The publications of the United States 
Forest Service include by far the most and 
the best information upon the forests of tliis 
country which has until now been assembled 
and printed. Hence, the prospective stu- 
dent of forestry can do nothing better than 
to write to The Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Washington, D. C, for Price List 43, 
a catalogue of these publications, which are 
sent free to all applicants, and then to secure 
and study such of the bulletins and circulars 
as best meet his individual needs. If he 
looks forward to entering the United States 
Forest Sei'\"ice, he should not fail to get also 
the Use Book, the volmne of directions and 
regulations in accordance with which the 
National Forests are protected, developed, 
and made available and useful to the people 
of the regions in w^iich they lie. 

The dendrological work of the Service, 
which has to do with forest distribution, the 

92 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

identification of tree species and other forest 
botanical work, is also under the immediate 
supervision of the Forester, and the Chief 
Lumberman reports directly to him. 

In addition to the work which falls imme- 
diately under the eye of the Forester, and 
which used to, but does not now, include the 
legal work necessary to support and pro- 
mote the operations of the Service, there are 
six principal parts, or branches, in the work 
of the Washington headquarters. 

The first branch, that of Operation, has 
charge of the business administration both of 
the National Forests and of the other work 
of the Forest Service. Here the business 
methods which are necessaiy to keep the 
organization at a high state of efficiency are 
formulated, put in practice, and constantly 
revised, for it is only by such revision that 
they can be kept, as they are kept, at a 
level with the very best practice of the best 

93 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

modern business. There are very few 
Government bureaus of which this can be 
said. 

The Branch of Operation is responsible 
for the adoption and enforcement of labor- 
saving devices in correspondence, in handling 
requisitions, and in the filing and care of 
papers generally, and for the supply of 
stationery, tools, and instruments, and the 
renting of quarters, — in a word, for the 
whole of the more or less routine transaction 
of business which is essential to keep so large 
an organization at the highest point of 
efficiency. It also has charge of accounts, 
whose value I need not describe further than 
to say that the Service has always owed a 
very large part of its safety against the bitter 
attacks of its enemies to the accuracy, com- 
pleteness, and general high quahty of its 
accounting system. 

The office work needed in the mapping of 
94 



1 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

the National Forests, with all their resources, 
boundaries, and interior holdings, is in 
charge of the Branch of Operation. So is 
the immense amount of drafting which is 
necessary in the other work of the Service, 
and the photographic laboratory in which 
maps are reproduced and where permanent 
photographic records of the condition of the 
forest are made. 

The second branch, that of Lands, has to 
do with the questions which arise from the 
use of the land in the National Forests for 
farming or ranching, mining, and a very 
wide variety of other purposes, and with the 
exceedingly numerous and intricate ques- 
tions which arise because there are about 
20,600,000 acres of land within the bounda- 
ries of the National Forests whose title has 
already passed from the Government. The 
boundaries of the National Forests also are 
constantly being examined to determine 

95 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

whether they include all the land, and only 
the land, rightly contained within them, and 
whether they should be extended or reduced. 
The first permits for the use of water- 
power sites on Government land were issued 
by the Forest Service, and the policy which 
is now being adopted by the Interior De- 
partment and other Government organiza- 
tions in their handling of waterpower 
questions was there first developed. These 
permits are prepared in the Branch of 
Landa. The first steps toward deterring 
men who attempt in defiance of the law to 
get possession of lands claimed to be agri- 
cultural or mineral within the National 
Forests are taken here, but the final decision 
on these points rests with the Department 
of the Interior. The examination of lands 
to determine whether they are agricultural 
in character, and therefore should be opened 
to settlement, is directed from this Branch. 

96 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

The uses to which National Forest lands 
are put are almost unbelievably various. 
Barns, borrow pits, botanical gardens, ceme- 
teries and churches, dairies and dipping vats, 
fox ranches and fish hatcheries, hotels, 
pastures, pipe lines, power sites, residences, 
sanitaria and school-houses, stores and 
tunnels, these and many others make up, 
with grazing and timber sales, the uses of the 
National Forests, for which already more 
than half a million permits have been issued. 
This work also falls to the Branch of Lands. 

The third branch, that of Silviculture, is 
the most important of all. It has oversight 
of the practice of forestry on all the National 
Forests, and of all scientific forest studies 
in the National Forests and outside. It is 
here that the conditions in the contracts 
under which the larger timber sales are made 
are finally examined and approved, and here 
are found the inspectors whose duty it is not 

97 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

only to see that the work is well done, but 
to labor constantly for improvements in 
methods as well as in results. Here centres 
the preparation of forest working plans, and 
the knowledge of lumber and the lumber 
markets. 

The Branch of Silviculture has charge also 
of National cooperation for the advance- 
ment of forestry with the several States, and 
in particular for fire protection under the 
Weeks law. This form of cooperation has 
made the knowledge and equipment of the 
Forest Service available for the study of 
State forest resources and forest problems, 
and much of the progress in forestry made 
by the States is directly due to it. 

The fourth branch, that of Grazing, super- 
vises the use of the National Forests for 
pasture. Over the greater part of the West, 
this was the first use to which the forests 
were put, and an idea of its magnitude may 

96 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

be gathered from the fact that every year 
the National Forests supj^ly feed for nearly 
two million cattle and horses, and more than 
fourteen milhon sheep. It is no easy task to 
permit all this live stock to utilize the forage 
which the National Forests produce, and yet 
do little or no harm to the young gi'owth on 
which the future of the forests depends. To 
exclude the grazing animals altogether is im- 
possible and undesirable, for to do so would 
ruin the leading industry in many portions 
of the West. Consequently, many of the 
most difficult and perplexing questions in the 
practical administration of the National For- 
ests have occurred in the work of the Branch 
of Grazing, and have there been solved, and 
many of the most bitter attacks upon it have 
there been met. 

The fifth Branch is that of Research. As 
a part of its numerous and varied duties it 

99 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

brings together all that is known of the 
nature and growth of trees in this country, 
and to some extent in other countries also, 
conducts independent studies of the greatest 
value in developing better methods of secur- 
ing the reproduction of important forest 
trees, and computes the enormous number of 
forest measurements dealing with the stand 
and the rate of growth of trees and forests 
that are turned in by the parties engaged in 
forest investigation in the field. Under the 
Branch of Research, various studies in forest 
distribution and in the structure of wood are 
carried on, and it includes the Library of the 
Forest Service, by far the most complete and 
effective forest library in the United States. 
The branch of Research on another side is 
concerned with the whole question of the 
uses of wood and other materials produced 
by the forest. Its principal work is con- 

100 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

ducted through the Forest Products Labora- 
tory, in cooperation with the University of 
Wisconsin at Madison. Here timber is 
tested to ascertain its strength, the products 
of wood distillation are investigated, wood 
pulp and paper studies of large reach are 
carried on, the methods of wood preservation 
and the results of applying them are in con- 
stant course of being examined, and the 
diseases of trees and of wood are studied in 
cooperation with the Bureau of Plant In- 
dustry of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. The consumption of wood, and 
the production of lumber and forest prod- 
ucts, are also the subject of continuous in- 
vestigation, and various necessary special 
studies are undertaken from time to time. 
A good example was the recent effort to find 
new uses and new markets for wood killed by 
the chestnut blight in the northeastern 
United States. 

101 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

The sixth branch has to do with the 
study, selection, and acquisition of lands 
under the Weeks law, in accordance with 
which eleven million dollars was api^ropri- 
ated for the purchase of forest lands valuable 
for stream protection, with particular refer- 
ence to the Southern Appalachians and the 
White Mountains of New England. The 
examination of the amount of merchantable 
timber on lands under consideration for pur- 
chase, the study of the character of the land 
and the forest, and the survey of the land 
keep a numerous body of young men very 
fully occupied. Their task is to see that none 
but the right land is recommended for acqui- 
sition by the Government, that the nature 
and value of the lands selected shall be most 
thoroughly known, and that the constant 
effort to make the Government pay unrea- 
sonable prices or purchase under unfavorable 
conditions shall as constantly be defeated. 

102 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

The same branch takes charge of the lands 
as soon as they have been acquired. 

The foregoing description of the work 
which is done in Washington by the Forest 
Service may help to make clear the great 
variety of tasks to which a Forester may be 
required to set his hand, and emphasizes the 
need of a broad training not strictly con- 
fined to purely technical lines. It would be 
defective as a description, however, and 
would fail to show the spirit in which the 
work is done, if no mention were made of 
the Service Meeting, at which the responsi- 
ble heads of each branch and of the work of 
the Forester's office meet once a week to dis- 
cuss every problem which confronts the Ser- 
vice and every phase of its work. This meet- 
ing is the centre where all parts of the work 
of the Service come together and arrange 
their mutual cooperation, and it is also the 

spring from which the essential democracy 
103 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

of the organization takes its rise. The Ser- 
vice Meeting is the best thing in the Forest 
Service, and that is saying a great deal. 

It must not be imagined that the main- 
tenance of Forest Service headquarters in 
Washington indicates that the actual busi- 
ness of handling the National Forests is 
carried on at long range. In order to avoid 
any such possibility seven District offices 
were organized. These are situated at 
Missoula, Denver, Albuquerque, Portland, 
Ogden, San Francisco, and Washington. 
Each of the District offices is in charge of a 
District Forester, who directs the practical 
carrying out of the policies finally deter- 
mined upon in Washington, after consulta- 
tion with the men in the field. The execu- 
tion of all the work, the larger features of 
which the Washington office decides and 
directs (and the details of which it inspects) , 

is the task of the District Forester. The 

104 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

District Forester's office is necessarily or- 
ganized much on the same general lines as 
the Washington headquarters. Thus, the 
subjects of accounts, operation, silviculture, 
grazing, lands, and forest research are all 
represented in the District offices. In addi- 
tion, a legal officer is necessarily attached to 
each District office, and each District For- 
ester has in his District one or more forest 
experiment stations, employed mainly in 
studying questions of growth and reproduc- 
tion; and three forest insect field stations, 
maintained for cooperation by the Bureau of 
Entomologj% are divided among the Districts. 
While the work of the Washington office 
is mainly that of guiding the work of the 
National Forests along broad general lines, 
through instructions to the District Forest- 
ers, \he office of each District Forester deals 
directly with the Forest Supervisors, and so 
with the handling of the National Forests. 
105 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

A multitude of questions which the Super- 
visors can not answer are decided in the 
District office instead, as was formerly the 
case, of being fonvarded to Washington for 
disposal there, with the consequent aggrava- 
ting and needless delay. The establishment 
of the District offices has made the handling 
of the National Forests far less complicated 
and far more prompt, and has brought it far 
closer than ever before to the actual users, 
— that is, has made it far more quickly and 
accurately responsive to their needs. 



PRIVATE FORESTRY 

As yet, the practice of forestry by private 
owners, except for fire protection, has made 
but little progress in the United States, al- 
though without doubt it will be widely ex- 
tended during the next ten or fifteen years. 
The concentration of timberland o^vnership 

106 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

in the United States has put a few men in 
control of vast areas of forest. Many of 
them are anxious to prevent forest destruc- 
tion, so far as that may be practicable with- 
out interfering with their profits, and for 
that purpose Foresters are beginning to be 
employed. Until now the principal tasks 
of Foresters employed by lumbermen have 
been the measurement of the amount of 
lumber in the standing crop of trees, and the 
protection of forest lands from fire. Here 
and there the practice of a certain amount 
of forestry has been added, but this part of 
the work of the private Forester employed 
by lumbermen has not been important. It 
is likely, however, to increase with some 
rapidity before long. In the meantime, the 
private Forester must usually be ^\illing to 
accept a good many limitations on the techni- 
cal side of his work. 

It is essential for the Forester thus em- 

107 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

ployed to have or promptly to acquire a 
knowledge of practical lumbering, that is, of 
logging, milling, and markets, and for the 
forest student who expects to enter this 
work to give special attention to these 
subjects. 

Already about 200 graduates of forest 
schools are in private employ, a considerable 
proportion of which number are employed 
by large lumbermen. 

The time is undoubtedly coming, and I 
hope it may come soon, when forest destruc- 
tion will be legally recognized as hostile to 
the public welfare, and when lumbermen will 
be compelled by law to handle their forests 
so as to insure the reproduction of them 
under reasonable conditions and within a 
reasonable time. The idea is neither 
tyrannical nor new. In democratic Switzer- 
land, private owners of timberland are re- 
strained by law from destroying the forests 

108 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

upon which the welfare of that mountain 
region so largely depends, and if they dis- 
obey, their forest lands are replanted by the 
Government at the owners' expense. 

Another opening for Foresters in the em- 
ploy of lumbermen is through the forest 
fire protective associations. Of these, two 
stand out most conspicuously at the present 
time, one the Western Forestry and Con- 
servation Association, the other the Oregon 
Forest Fire Association. Each has as its 
executive officer a trained Forester whose 
knowledge of the woods not only makes liim 
exceedingly useful to his employers, but also, 
when combined with the Forester's point 
of view, enables him to be of great value 
in protecting the general interest in the 
forest. 

The object and methods of one of the 
associations is described by its Secretary as 
follows : 

109 



THE TRAINmC OF A FORESTER 

" A field hitherto narrow but continually 
broadening, and offering much opportunity 
for those with peculiar qualifications, is the 
management of the cooperative forest work 
carried on by timber owners in many locali- 
ties, often jointly with State and Govern- 
ment. This movement originated in the 
Pacific Northwest, where it still has the high- 
est development, but is extending to the 
Lake States, New England, and Canada. 

" As a rule the primary object of these 
cooperative associations is fire prevention 
and their local managers must have demon- 
strated ability to organize effective patrol 
systems, build telephone lines, apply every 
ingenuity to supplj-ing and equipping their 
forces, and, above all, to handle men in 
emergencies. But in most cases the associa- 
tion of forest owners to this end has led 
also to progress in many other matters in- 
separable from improvement, such as study 
110 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

of reforestation possibilities, forest legisla- 
tion, educating lumberman and public in 
forest preservation, and the extension of 
cooperation in all these as well as in fire pre- 
vention from private to State and federal 
agencies. 

" The development of such activities is 
already employing several highly paid men 
who can command the confidence, not only 
of forest owners, but also of the public and 
of public officials. Advisers in legislative 
as well as technical forestry matters and 
particularly proficient in all that pertains to 
forest protection, their usefulness lies as 
much outside their own association as within 
them, and to be successful they must be skil- 
ful organizers and campaigners. It is these 
men who have developed to its highest extent 
the adaptation to forestrj^ propaganda of 
modern publicity and advertising methods. 

*' As a rule, however, these may be de- 
111 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

scribed as graduate positions, filled by men 
of experience and acquaintance with the 
several agencies involved, rather than by 
newly fledged Foresters. A practical knowl- 
edge of protection problems is essential." 

Forestry associations offer a different, 
but often a most fascinating field, of work 
for the trained Forester. There are at 
present 39 such associations. The work 
which they offer has much in common with 
the duties of a State Forester. 

Fish and game associations are beginning 
to employ Foresters, realizing that the wise 
handling of the forests may well go hand in 
hand with the care of the game and fish 
which the forest shelters and protects. 
Eventually nearly all such associations 
which control any considerable body of land 
in timbered regions may be expected to 
utilize the services of trained Foresters of 
their own. 

112 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

In addition to the work for lumbermen 
and for associations of various kinds, land 
owners in considerable variety have begun 
to employ Foresters. Among these are coal 
and coke companies, iron companies, wood 
pulp and paper companies which are begin- 
ning to look after their supply of timber; 
powder, arms, and ammunition companies, 
hydraulic and water companies; a great 
corporation engaged in the manufacture of 
matches ; and a number of railroads, includ- 
ing the Delaware and Hudson, the Illinois 
Central, and the Pennsylvania. In addition 
to the need for cross ties, railroads are 
among the largest consumers of lumber. 
The Foresters who work for them are largely 
occupied wdth growing the wood supplies 
which the railroads need, and nursery 
practice often occupies a very large share 
of their attention. 



113 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

FOREST SCHOOLS 

Since the first one was founded in 1898, 
the number of forest schools in the United 
States has increased so rapidly as to create 
a demand for forest instructors which it has 
been exceedingly difficult to fill. Indeed, 
the increase in secondary forest schools, or 
schools not of the first gi'ade, has doubtless 
been more rapid than the welfare of the pro- 
fession or the sound practice of forestry re- 
quired, and the brisk demand for teachers 
has led some men to take up the task of in- 
struction who were not well fitted for it. 

There are in this country to-day 23 forest 
schools which prepare men for the practice 
of forestry as a profession, and 51 schools 
which devote themselves to general instruc- 
tion in forestry or to courses for Forest 
Rangers and Forest Guards. The approxi- 
mate number of teachers in all forest schools 

114 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

is at present 110, and this number will doubt- 
less be still further increased by the addition 
of new forest schools or the expansion of old 
ones, while a certain number of places will be 
made vacant by the retirement of men who 
find themselves better fitted for other lines 
of work. 

The teaching staff at three of the princi- 
pal forest schools of the country was as 
follows : 

At School A, 5 men give their whole time 
to forest instruction, and 14 give courses in 
the forest school. 

Schools B and C have each 4 men who 
give their whole time to the work ; and 4 and 
20 respectively who give lectures or indi- 
vidual courses. 

In addition to the work for lumbermen, 
associations, railroads, and others just men- 
tioned, an increasing number of Foresters 
are required to care for the forests on large 

115 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

landed estates in different parts of the 
country. Work of this kind is at present 
restricted almost entirely to the East, and 
especially to New England, where several 
firms of consulting Foresters give to it the 
larger portion of their time. Some of the 
men thus employed are as fully occupied 
with the tasks of the professional Forester as 
any of the men in the Government service, 
while others give a part of their attention to 
the general management of the property, 
or to the protection and propagation of 
game and fish. 

THE OPPORTUNITY 

GOVERNMENT SERVICE 

There is no more useful profession than 
forestry. The opportunity to make himself 
count in affairs of public importance comes 
earlier and more certainly to the Forester 

116 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

than to the member of any other profession. 
The first and most vakiable, therefore, of the 
incentives which lead the Forester to his 
choice is the chance to make himself of use 
to his country and to his generation. 

But if this is the first matter to be con- 
sidered in deciding upon a profession, it is 
by no means the last, and the practical con- 
siderations of a fair return for good work, 
bread and butter for a man and his family, 
the certainty or uncertainty of employment, 
— such questions as these must have their 
full share of attention. 

There are in the United States Forest 
Service 664 Forest Guards, 1091 Forest 
Rangers, 230 Supervisors and Deputy 
Supervisors, and 48 Forest Assistants and 
146 Forest Examiners, who, as already ex- 
plained, are the technical men in charge of 
practical forestry on the National Forests. 

The seven District ofiices together include in 
117 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

their membership about 50 professional 
Foresters, and about 40 more are attached 
to tlie headquarters at Washington, so that 
allowing for duplications there are about 
350 trained Foresters in the United States 
Forest Service. 

The number of new appointments to the 
Forest Service in the different permanent 
grades varies from year to year but may be 
said to be approximately as follows : Rang- 
ers, 110 new appointments; Forest Assis- 
tants, 10; other technical positions, 25. All 
appointments as Supervisors are by promo- 
tion from the lists of Forest Rangers or 
Forest Examiners. 

The yearly pay of the Forest Guard, who, 
like the Ranger, must be a citizen of the 
State in which his work lies, is from $540 
to $900. Forest Rangers, who enter the 
Service through Civil Service examination, 
receive from $600 to $1500 per annum. 

118 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

Forest Supervisors, practically all of whom 
are men of long experience in forest work, 
receive from $1600 to $2800 per annum. 
Forest Assistants enter the Forest Service 
tlu*ough Civil Service examination at a 
salary of $1100 per annum, and are pro- 
moted to a maximum salary of $2400 per 
annum, as Forest Examiners. Professional 
Foresters at work in the District offices are 
recruited mainly from among the Forest 
Assistants and Examiners. They receive 
from $1100 to $3200 yearly. The technical 
men in charge at Washington get from 
$1100 to $5000 per annum, which last is the 
pay of the Forester, at the head of the 
Service. 

STATE SERVICE 

The pay of the State Foresters, or other 
trained Foresters in charge of State work, 
ranges from $2000 to $5000, and that of 
119 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

their technical assistants from $1000 to 
$2500. Out of the total number, only 3 are 
directly in charge of their own work, re- 
sponsible only to the Governor and the 
Legislature, while 26 act as subordinates for 
State forest commissions or commissioners, 
who in the majority of cases are political 
appointees. In striking contrast with the 
United States Forest Serrice, politics has 
so far been a dangerous, if not a dominating, 
influence in the forest work of most of the 
States which have undertaken it. 

Like the National Forests, the State 
Forests already in existence will create an 
increasing demand for the service of teclini- 
cal Foresters. Indeed, as similar forests are 
acquired by most of the States which are 
now without them, as undoubtedly they will 
be, the extent of the opportunity for pro- 
fessionally trained Foresters in State work 
is certain to grow. 

120 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

PRIVATE WOKK 

At present, the demand for Foresters in 
private work is far less pressing and the 
opening is far less attractive than it will be 
in the not distant future. The number of 
men that will be requned for this work will 
depend on the development of legislation as 
well as upon the desire of the private owners, 
lumbermen and others, to protect and im- 
prove their property. The time is coming, 
and coming before long, when all private 
owners of forests in the mountains, or on 
steep slopes elsewhere, will be required by 
law to provide for their protection and re- 
production. When that time arrives, the de- 
mand for Foresters in private work will 
increase to very large dimensions, and will 
probably do so far more rapidly than 
Foresters can be trained to supply it. 

The pay of Foresters in private work, 
whether in the employ of lumbermen, rail- 

121 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

roads, shooting and fishing clubs, the pro- 
prietors of large private estates, or other 
forest owners, has so far been somewhat 
better than that for similar services in 
Government employ. This money differ- 
ence in favor of private employment is, in 
my judgment, likely to continue, and eventu- 
ally the pay of consulting Foresters of estab- 
lished reputation employed in passing upon 
the value of forests offered as security for 
investments, or in estimating the standing 
timber for purchasers or sellers, or in other 
professional work of large business import- 
ance, will certainly reach very satisfactory 
figures. 

TEACHING 

Approximately 110 Foresters are en- 
gaged in teaching in the United States to- 
day. Their pay varies from about $1000 to 
about $3000, and is likely to increase rather 
more rapidly than that of other professional 

122 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

teachers, since less of them are available. 
It is not likely, however, that the number 
of openings in teaching forestry will be 
large within the next ten years. 



TRAINING 

The length of time which his training is 
to take and the particular courses of instruc- 
tion which he shall pursue are to the young 
man contemplating the study of forestry 
matters of the first importance. The first 
thing to insist on in that connection is that 
the training must be thorough. It is natural 
that a young man should be eager to begin 
his life work and therefore somewhat im- 
patient of the long grind of a thorough 
schooling. But however natural, it is not 
the part of wisdom to cut short the time of 
preparation. When the serious work of the 
trained Forester begins later on, there will 

123 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

be little or no time to fill the gaps left at 
school, and the earnest desire of the young 
Forester will be that he had spent more time 
in his preparation rather than less. In this 
matter I speak as one who has gathered a 
conviction from personal experience, and be- 
lieves he knows. 

It would be useless to attempt to strike 
an average of the work prescribed and the 
courses given at the various forest schools. 
I shall describe, therefore, not an average 
S5^stem of instruction but one which, in the 
judgment of men entitled to an opinion, and 
in my own judgment, is sound, practical, and 
effective. 

Forest schools may roughly be divided 
between those which do not prepare men 
for professional work in forestry, and those 
which do. The latter may be divided again 
into undergraduate schools and graduate 
schools. Most of the former offer a four- 

124 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

year undergraduate course, and their stu- 
dents receive their degrees at the same time 
as other members of the University who 
entered at the same time with them. The 
graduate schools require a college degree, or 
its equivalent in certain subjects, before they 
will receive a student. The men who have 
completed their courses have usually, there- 
fore, pursued more extensive and more 
advanced studies in forestry, are better 
trained, and are themselves older and more 
ready to accept the responsibilities which 
forestry brings upon them. For these rea- 
sons, the graduate school training is by far 
the more desirable, in my opinion. 

The subjects required for entrance to a 
graduate forest school should include at 
least one full year in college botany, cover- 
ing the general morphology, histology, and 
physiology of plants, one course each in 
geology, physics, inorganic chemistry, 

125 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

zoology, and economics, with mathematics 
through trigonometry, and a reading knowl- 
edge of French or German. Some acquaint- 
ance with mechanical drawing is also de- 
sirable but not absolutely necessary. Other 
courses which are extremely desirable, if not 
altogether essential, are mineralog\% meteor- 
ology, mechanics, physical geography, 
organic chemistrj^ and possibly calculus, 
which may be of use in timber physics. 

One or two forest schools begin their 
course of training for the first year in July 
instead of in October, in order to give their 
students some acquaintance with the woods 
from the Forester's standpoint before the 
more formal courses begin. The result of 
this plan is to give increased vividness and 
reality to all the courses which follow the 
work in the woods, to make clear the appli- 
cation of what is taught, and so to add 
greatly to the efficiency of the teaching. 

126 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

In addition to this preliminary touch with 
the woods, any wise plan of teaching will 
include many forest excursions and much 
practical field work as vitally important 
parts of the instruction. This outdoor work 
should occur throughout the whole course, 
winter and summer, and in addition, the last 
term of the senior year may well be spent 
wholly in the woods, where the students can 
be trained in the management of logging 
operations and milling, and can get their 
final practice work in surveying and map- 
making, in preparing forest working plans, 
estimating timber, laying out roads and 
trails, making plans for lumber operations, 
and other similar practical work. Several 
of the best forest schools have adopted this 
plan. 

The regular courses of a graduate forest 
school usually cover a period of two years. 
They Should fit a student for nearly every 

127 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

phase of professional work in forestry, and 
should give him a sound preparation not 
merely for practical work in the woods, but 
also for the broader work of forest organiza- 
tion in the Goveimment Service in the 
United States and in the Philippines, and 
in the service of the States; for handling 
large tracts of private forest lands; for ex- 
pert work in the employ of lumbermen and 
other forest owners ; for public speaking and 
writing; for teaching; and for scientific 
research. 

Every well equipped forest school will 
have a working library of books, pamphlets, 
and lumber journals published here and 
abroad, an herbarium at least of native trees 
and shrubs and of the more important forest 
herbs, together with a collection of forest 
tree fruits and seeds, and specimens of do- 
mestic and foreign timbers. Exhibits show- 
ing the uses of woods and the various fonns 

128 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

of tools used in lumbering, as well as the ap- 
paratus for laboratory work and survey- 
ing, and forest instruments for work in the 
field, are often of great value to the student. 
What should a young man learn at a 
forest school? Doubtless there will be some 
variation of opinion as to the exact course 
of study which will best fit him for the work 
of a Forester in the United States. The 
following list expresses the best judgment 
on the subject I have been able to form: 

Dendrology : 

The first step in forestiy is to become 
acquainted with the various kinds of trees. 
The coming Forester must learn to identify 
the woody plants of the United States, both 
in summer and in winter. He must under- 
stand their shapes and outward structures, 
and where they are found, and he must begin 
his knowledge of the individual habits of 

9 129 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

growth and life which distinguish the trees 
which are important in forestry. 

Forest Physiography: 

Trees grow in the soil. It is important to 
know something of the origin of soils and 
their properties and values, and of the 
principal soil types, with special reference 
to their effect upon plant distribution and 
welfare. The origin, nature, value, and con- 
sei*\'^ation of humus, that most essential in- 
gredient of the forest floor ; the field methods 
of mapping soil types ; the rock types most 
important in their relation to soils, how they 
are made up, how they make soil, and where 
they occur — something should be learned of 
all this. Finally, under this head, the stu- 
dent ought to get a usable knowledge of the 
physiographic regions of the United States, 
their boundaries, geologic structure, topog- 
raphy, drainage, and soils, — all this natu- 

130 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

rally with special reference to the relation 
between these basic facts and the forest. 

Silviculture: 

Silviculture is the art of caring for forests, 
and therefore the backbone of forestry. It 
is based upon Silvics, which is the knowledge 
of the habits or behavior of trees in their 
relations to light, heat, and moisture, to the 
air and soil, and to each other. It is the facts 
embraced in Silvics which explain the com- 
position, character, and form of the forest; 
the success or failure of tree species in 
competition with each other ; the distribution 
of trees and of forests; the development of 
each tree in height, diameter, and volmne; 
its form and length of life; the methods of 
its reproduction; and the effect of all these 
upon the nature and the evolution of the city 
of trees, and upon forest types and their life 
histories. 

131 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

This is knowledge the Forester can not 
do without. Silvics is the foundation of his 
professional capacity, and as a student he 
can better afford to scamp any part of his 
training rather than this. A man may be 
a poor Forester who knows Silvics, but no 
man can be a good Forester who does not. 

The practice of Silviculture has to do with 
the treatment of woodlands. The forest 
student must leaim the different methods of 
reproducing forests by different methods of 
cutting them down, and the application of 
these methods in different American forest 
regions. There are also man}^ methods of 
cutting for the improvement of the charac- 
ter and growth of forests, as well as for 
utilizing matei'ial that otherwise would go to 
waste, before the final reproduction cuttings 
can be made. The ways in which forests 
need protection are equally nimierous, and 
of these by far the most important in our 

132 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

country have to do with methods of prevent- 
ing or extinguishing forest fires. 

Well managed forests are handled under 
working plans based on the silvieal char- 
acter and silvicultural needs of the forest, as 
well as upon the purpose set by the owner as 
the object of management, which is often 
closely related to questions of forest finance. 
The student should ground himself thor- 
oughly in the making of silvicultural work- 
ing plans, and the more practice in making 
them he can get, the bettetr. So, too, with 
the marking of trees in reproduction and im- 
provement cuttings under as many different 
kinds of forest conditions as may be possible. 

The artificial reproduction of forests is 
likely to occupy far more of the Forester's 
attention in the future than it has in the past. 
Hence the collection of tree seeds, their 
fertility and vitality as affecting their 
handling, the best methods of seeding and 

133 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

planting, and the lessons of past failures 
and successes, with the whole subject of 
nursery work and the care of young planta- 
tions, must by no means be overlooked. 

Much incidental information on the sub- 
ject of forest protection will come to the 
student in the course of his studies, but 
special attention should be given to learn- 
ing which of the species of forest insects are 
most injurious to forest vegetation, how 
their attacks are made, how they may be dis- 
covered, and the best ways by which such 
attacks can be mitigated or controlled. So 
also the diseases of timber trees will repay 
hard study. The principal fungi which 
causes such diseases should be known, how 
they attack the trees, and what are the reme- 
dies, as well as (although this is far less 
important) the way to treat tree wounds and 
the correct methods of pruning. 



134 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

Forest Economics: 

Forest Economics is a large subject. It 
deals with the productive value of forests 
to their o\Miers, and with the larger question 
of their place in the economy of the Nation. 
It considers their use as conservers of the 
soil and the streams ; their effect on climate, 
locally, as in the case of windbrakes, and on 
a larger scale; and their contribution to the 
public welfare as recreation grounds and 
game refuges. It includes a knowledge of 
wastes from which the forests suffer, and the 
consequent loss to industry and to the public, 
and in this it does not omit the effects of 
forest fires. Statistics of forest consump- 
tion; the relation of the forest to railroads, 
mines, and other wood-using industries; its 
effect upon agriculture, stock raising, and 
manufacturing industries; and its effect 
upon the use of the streams for navigation, 

power, irrigation, and domestic water sup- 
135 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

ply; all these are important. The student 
should consider also the forest resources of 
the United States, their present condition, 
and the needs they must be fitted to supply. 

Forest Engineering : 

Forest engineering is steadily becoming 
more and more necessary to the Forester. 
He must have a working knowledge of the 
use of surveying instruments; the making 
of topographic surveys; the office work re- 
quired of an engineer; the making of topo- 
graphic maps; the location of trails, roads, 
and railroads; and the construction of 
bridges, telephone lines, cabins, and fences, 
together with logging railroads, slides, dams, 
and flumes. 

Forest JNIensuration : 

Forest mensuration, the art of measur- 
ing the contents and growth of trees and 
forest stands, is of fundamental importance. 

136 




FOREST SERVICE MEN MAKING FOREST MEASUREMENTS IN THE 
MISSOURI SWAMPS 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

The principles and methods of timber esti- 
mating, the actual measurement of standing 
timber, log rules, the making of stem 
analyses to show the increase of a tree in 
diameter, height, and volume, the construc- 
tion of tables of current and mean annual 
growth per acre and per tree, and the 
methods of using the information thus 
formulated, — all these are necessarily of 
keen interest to the man who later on will 
have to apply his knowledge in the practical 
management of woods. 

Forest JManagement; 

Forest management is concerned with the 
principles involved in planning the handling 
of forests. Questions of the valuation of 
forests form a most essential part of it, — 
such questions as the cost of growing timber 
crops, the value of land for that purpose, 
the value of young timber, the valuation of 

137 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

damage to the forest, and the legal status 
of the damage and the remedy. 

Business principles are as necessary in 
the management of forests as in the manage- 
ment of mills or farms. These business 
principles work out in different forms of 
forest policy adapted to the needs of differ- 
ent kinds of owners, such as lumbermen and 
the Government. What the young Forester 
has learned about growth and yield, about 
timber estimates and forest statistics, and 
many other matters, all finds its application 
in forest management. He must also con- 
sider the methods and principles for regulat- 
ing the cut of tunber, or for securing sus- 
tained annual yields. All this forms the 
basis for the preparation of working plans 
for the utilization of forests under American 
economic and silvicultural conditions, not 
only without injury, but with benefit, to 

their continued productiveness. 
138 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

The subjects of forest surveying and 
working plans are intimately related. Maps 
are indispensable in the practical work of 
making a forest working plan. Topo- 
graphic mapping, timber estimating, forest 
description, and the location of logging 
roads, trails, and fire lines, together with 
Silvics and a knowledge of growth and 
yield— these and many other subjects enter 
into the making of a practical working plan 
to harvest a forest crop and secure a second 
growth of timber. The student should get 
all the practice he can in marking timber 
for cutting under such a plan. 

The young Forester must make himself 
familiar with the administration of the Na- 
tional Forests. He must know how the 
business of the forest is handled, how it is 
protected against fire, how the timber is 
sold, how claims and entries are dealt with 
under the public land laws, how land in the 

139 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

National Forests is used to make homes, 
how trespass is controlled, how the livestock 
industry on the National Forests is fostered 
and regulated, and how the extremely valu- 
able watersheds they contain are safe- 
guarded and improved. 

The Practice of Forestry: 

The practice of forestry is necessarily 
different in different kinds of forests and 
under different economic conditions. All 
that the Forester knows must here be ap- 
plied, and applied in workable fashion, not 
only to the forest, but to the men who use 
the forest. This is peculiarly true of the 
practice of forestry in National and State 
Forests everjrwhere. 

Forest Products: 

Under this general subject, the forest 
student must acquaint himself, through the 

140 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

microscope, with the minute anatomy of the 
woody stem of coniferous and broadleaf 
trees, and the occurrence, form, structure, 
and variability of the elements which make 
it up. He should become familiar with the 
methods of classifying the economic woods 
of the United States, both under the micro- 
scope and with the unassisted eye, and for 
this purpose should know something of 
their color, gloss, grain, density, odor, and 
resonance both as aids to identification and 
as to their importance in giving value to the 
wood; the defects of timber; its moisture 
content, density, shrinking, checking, warp- 
ing; and the effect of all these upon its uses. 
The chemical composition of wood and of 
minor forest products, such as tannins and 
dye stuffs, is important; the properties 
governing the fuel value and the other 
values of wood must be studied, as well 

as the methods of using these properties in 
141 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

the making of charcoal and wood pulp, in 
wood distillation, the turpentine industiy, 
in tanning and dyeing, and in other 
industries. 

A field of great importance is the relation 
between the physical structure and the me- 
chanical properties of wood. A student 
should inform himself concerning the 
standard methods of testing the properties 
of structural timber, by bending, compres- 
sion, shearing, torsion, impact, and the hard- 
ness and tension tests, with their relation to 
heat and moisture, and the methods of sea- 
soning, the use of preservatives, and the 
effect of the rate of application of the load. 

Woods vary as to their durability. It is 
important, therefore, to know about the 
causes of decay, the decay-resisting power 
of various woods, the relation of moisture 
content to durability, why the seasoning of 
wood is effective, the theory and the com- 

142 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

mercial methods of wood preservation, and 
its relation to the timber supply. 

Lumbering : 

Lumbering the Forester should know 
more than a little about, as how to organize 
lumber operations, the equipment and 
management of logging and milling in vari- 
ous forest regions, the manufacture, season- 
ing, and grading of the rough and finished 
lumber, cost keeping in a lumber business, 
methods of sale, market requirements at 
home and abroad, prices, the relation of the 
lumber tariff to forestry, lumber associa- 
tions, timber bonds, and insurance. The 
practical construction of logging equipment, 
such as aerial tramways, log slides, dams, 
and flumes, is of peculiar importance, and 
so are the conditions and changes of the 
lumber market. 

Experience on the land of some operat- 

143 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

ing lumber company is of great value. It 
should include a study of logging methods, 
log scaling, waste in logging, the equipment 
and handling of the mill, the sawing and 
care of rough and finished lumber, its grad- 
ing, and so far as possible an acquaintance 
with wood w^orking plants of various kinds, 
and with the operations of turpentine 
orcharding. Studies along these lines may 
with advantage be almost indefinitely ex- 
tended to include, for example the utiliza- 
tion of steam machinery for logging, the 
improvement of streams for driving logs, 
and other similar questions. 

Forest Law : 

The Forester must have at least a slight 
acquaintance wdth forest law, both State 
and National, It is important to know 
something of the general principles of classi- 
fying the public lands, of State laws for 

144 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

fire protection, the development of forest 
policies in the various States as legally ex- 
pressed, and the important laws which 
govern the creation and management of 
State forest reserves. 

Forest taxation. State and local, which 
has, when excessive, so much to do with 
hastening forest destruction, is one of the 
most important questions which can engage 
the attention of the Forester. 

Under the subject of Federal Forest Law, 
it is not sufficient for the student to acquaint 
himself with those laws alone which govern 
the forests. He must also have some knowl- 
edge of the creation of a forest policy out 
of the public land policy of the United 
States, some acquaintance with the public 
land laws. A good working knowledge of 
the laws and regulations governing the 
National Forests is indispensable, and the 
student should at least know where to find 

10 145 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

the more important court decisions by which 
they are interpreted. 

Forest History : 

The history of forestry in Europe has a 
certain importance in throwing light on our 
own forest history and its probable develop- 
ment, and this is especially true of the his- 
tory of the administration of (Government 
forest lands and of education in forestry. 

The history of forestry in the United 
States, however, is far more important. The 
Forester must know the story of the growth 
and change of National Forest organiza- 
tions, the Forest Officers and their duties, the 
cost, size, and effectiveness of the Govern- 
ment Forest Service at diiFerent times, the 
Civil Service regulations under which it is re- 
cruited, and other similar matters. It is 
important likewise for him to become 
thorouglily saturated with an intimate 

146 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

knowledge of the development of forestry 
in public opinion in the United States, its 
extension to the other natural resources 
through the conservation policy, and the 
relation of the Forester's point of view thus 
expressed to the present welfare and future 
success of the Nation. 

It is not always possible for the forest 
student to become a woodsman before 
entering his profession, but it is most de- 
sirable. A Forester must be able to travel 
the forest alone by day and- by night, he 
should be a good fisherman and a good 
hunter (which is far more important than 
to be a good shot), and deeply interested in 
both fish and game. The better horseman 
he is the better Forester he will be, and espe- 
cially if he can pack and handle pack horses 
in the woods. So that whether the young 
Forester begins with a practical knowledge 

of woodcraft or not, he must not fail to 
147 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

acquire or improve it, for without it he will 
endanger the M'hole success of his career. 

Some knowledge of first aid to the in- 
jured is likely to be of gi'eat and sudden 
value to a man so much of whose life must 
be spent in the woods, at a distance from 
medical aid. The time spent in getting in- 
formation on this subject will be anything 
but wasted. 

English : 

The ability to write and to speak good, 
plain, understandable English is a prime 
requisite in the Forester's training. It is a 
part of education frequently neglected, espe- 
cially by those in engineering or scientific 
pm'suits ; yet its importance for the Forester 
is very large. As already pointed out, the 
Forester is on the firing line of the conserva- 
tion movement; he is pioneering in a new 
profession. For this reason he will often 
need to explain his stand and convert others 

148 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

to his beliefs. In addition, he must make 
available to others the results he secures 
from the study of new facts. A usable 
command of his oAvn language will stand him 
in good stead, whether he needs to talk face 
to face with another man, or from a plat- 
form to a concourse of people, or to put into 
readable printed form the results of his 
observations or his thinking. 

When the j^oung Forester has completed 
the courses of his school training in America, 
the question may be raised whether he 
should supplement his training by study 
abroad. I am strongly of opinion that he 
should do so if he can. Study abroad is not 
indispensable for the American Forester, 
but it can do him nothing but good to see in 
practical operation the methods of forestry 
which have resulted from the long experience 
of other lands, and especially to become 
familiar with the effect of sound forestry 
on the forest. 

149 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

SOME FACTS ABOUT OUR 
FORESTS 

The forests of the United States originally 
covered an area of some 800,000,000 acres, 
but are now reduced to 550,000,000 acres, of 
which about 190,000,000 acres are in farm 
woodlots, and 360,000,000 acres in larger 
bodies of forest. These forests are naturally- 
divided into the following regions : 

The Northern Forest, which extends from 
lyiaine to northern Georgia along the Appa- 
lachian Mountains, and spreads westward 
over the region of the Great Lakes. The 
white, red, and jack pines, firs, spruces, and 
the beech, birches, and maples are its char- 
acteristic trees. 

The Southern Forest, which follows the 
coast from southern New Jersey to Texas 
with an extension northward over Arkansas 
into southern Missouri. The yeUow pines, 

150 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

the oaks, hickories, and the cypress are char- 
acteristic of this region. 

The Central Forest, lying mainly between 
the Northern and the Southern Forests, but 
extending in a narrow belt from Massachu- 
setts along the eastern border of the Appa- 
lachian JNIountains to northern Georgia and 
Alabama. Thence it spreads north and west 
thi'ough the timbered bottoms of the Ohio 
and the JNIississippi, until it dies out along 
the rivers of the great plains at about the 
one-hundredth meridian. The chief trees of 
this Central Forest are the oaks, hickories, 
and the chestnut, walnut, yellow poplar, 
cherry, and cottonwood. 

The Rocky Mountain Forest covers the 
higher lands of the mountainous West from 
Mexico to the Canadian line. Its charac- 
teristic trees are the yellow pine, the Douglas 
fir, with spruce, firs, and the aspen. 

The Pacific Coast Forest, except for an 

151 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

isolated body along the Continental Divide 
in Idaho, Montana, and Washington, follows 
the coast and the Cascade and Sierra Moun- 
tains from Canada to ^lexico. It contains 
the most magnificent coniferous timberlands 
of the world. Among its characteristic trees 
are the Douglas fir, the sugar pine, many- 
firs and spruces, larches, cedars, yellow and 
white pine, with the redwoods and the big 
trees. 

Southern Florida contains a small area of 
sub-tropical forest, which has, however, little 
more than botanical interest. 

The total amount of saw timber in the 
United States was once upwards of 5000 
billion feet. It has been reduced nearly 
one-half, so that to-day we have about 2800 
billion board feet left. Fire, waste, and limi- 
bering are each about equally responsible 
for this reduction. 

Of the lumber which our forests still con- 

152 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

tain, nearly three-quarters — or more than 
2000 billion feet — is privately owned. 

The National Forests contain a little less 
than one-quarter — 21 per cent. — or nearly 
600 billion board feet. 

About 5 per cent. — or 130 billion board 
feet — ^is owned by the Government outside 
the National Forests, by the States, and by 
municipalities. 

More than one-half of the country's timber 
is in the Pacific Northwest. 

More than one-fourth is in the Southern 
pine region. 

Not quite 4 per cent. (110 billion feet) is 
in the Lake States. 

About 9 per cent. (242 bilhon feet) is in 
the Northeastern States. 

Our supply of standing timber is yearly 
reduced by the following amounts: 

About 40 billion feet of saw timber, 90 
million cords of firewood, 445 million board 

153 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

feet of veneer, 150 million ties, nearly 1700 
million staves, over 135 million sets of head- 
ing, over 350 million barrel hoops, over 
3,300,000 cords of native pulp wood, 170 
million cubic feet of round mine timbers, 
nearly 1,500,000 cords of wood for distilla- 
tion, over 140,000 cords for excelsior, and 
nearly 3,500,000 telegraph and telephone 
poles. 

Nearly half of our annual cut of saw 
timber comes from the southern pine region. 
The Lake States produce about one-sixth, 
and the Pacific Northwest about one-seventh. 

The State which produces the most lumber 
is Washington, followed by Louisiana, Mis- 
sissippi, North Carolina, Texas, Arkansas, 
and Oregon in the order named. 

Oregon has more standing timber than 
any otlier State — oiio billion board feet, or 
about one-fifth of all the standing timber in 
the United States. 

154 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

The annual growth of well-managed for- 
ests in such a region as the United States 
may be taken as fifty cubic feet per acre per 
annum. Actually, we are growing about 
twelve cubic feet per acre per annum. 

Our timber is being used up nearly three 
times faster than it is growing. 

No other Nation has so large a consump- 
tion of timber per capita as the United 
States. We use about 250 cubic feet of 
wood per year for every man, w^oman, and 
child in the country. 

Our present forest area, assuming that we 
have a population of 100,000,000, is about 
five and one-half acres per person. Clear- 
ing land for farms, and other causes, will 
doubtless reduce our forest area to 450,000,- 
000 acres. When our population reaches 
150,000,000, and our forest area the amount 
just given, we shall have only three acres 
for each inhabitant, or at our present rate 

155 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

of forest growth, about thirty- six cubic feet 
per person where we now use 250. 

Our individual consumption could easily 
be reduced to 150 or even 100 cubic feet per 
inhabitant per year without hardship by the 
use of substitutes and the elimination of 
waste. 

We use now, on the average, only about 
one-half of the total volume of every tree. 
The rest is wasted, or left in the woods. 

Forest fires still destroy every year about 
twelve billion board feet of timber, or more 
than one-fourth of the amount sawed in our 
mills. 

The product of the lumber industry in 
1909 was valued by the Census at $1,156,- 
000,000, which in amount was exceeded 
among the manufacturing industries only by 
meats and metals. In the number of men 
employed (over 900,000) the lumber in- 
dustry comes first. 

There are two and a third billion dollars 

156 



THE TRAINING OF A FORESTER 

invested in the lumber industry, whose 
49,000 mills are capable of cutting 117 
billion feet per year, an amount more than 
two and one-half times greater than the 
largest they have ever produced, which was 
46 billion feet in 1907. 

According to the report of the U. S. 
Bureau of Corporations, 195 holders of 
timberlands own one-quarter of all the 
standing timber in the United States, and 
three holders own nearly one-eighth. 

The largest single owner in the United 
States is the Southern Pacific Railroad, with 
over 100 billion board feet. Three holdings, 
the Southern Pacific, Weyerhauser, and 
Northern Pacific, amount to almost 240 
billion feet. 

The same report tells us that 1694 timber 
owners hold more than 100 million acres, or 
something over one-twentieth of the whole 
land area of the United States. 



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