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THE TRAINING SYSTEM. 



J 
THE 



TRAINING SYSTEM 

OF EDUCATION. \^^^^ 



MORAL AND KfTELLECTDAL ELEVATION OF YOUTH. 



VnClALLT T/K 



lABGE TOWTJS AM) MAiXFACTTBIXG TILLAGES. 



By DAVID ^TOW, Esq., 

AimOV OF "wmL TKAnomii" ** HBLC TAAiTrina TOR iA urath n-irnnr^" *' GiiAxiiMiiTiitii'- 
niWT T181T TV A TAAlKim IK'nOOL," MTC. 



HEVKNTU XDTTlQTfr E^tXARGED. 



BLACKIE AND SON: 

aUHN BTEMT, OtASOOW; aonTJt COI.LEOX STEEKT, EIllSDfEOHi 

AiiD wABwicK aauABE, Lonuo.\. 

UDCCCXLTI. 



" Train up a, child in the way he should go." 

Holt BoaipTDi 

" Prevention is better than cure." 

PHOTERB. 



" The child IB fether to the man. " 

WoBDaWORTH 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



3 



>i 






Is this Publication there ia embodied an Aiiiilysi-i < 
method pnrsoed in the Free Xomial Seniinarj' ni (ihi 
of training male and female studcutsj to conduct tlie Si 

The primary object which the author had in \ic\v 1' 
years ago in working out thia System van, to [irovi 
antidote to the demoralizing influence of large town 
manufacturing villages — to fill up a " gap" tind d(;hidiri 
in the social economy, by seizing upon and cinjiloyii 
operative principle, out of doors as well as in-doorn, \i 
caUy neglected in popular Education, viz., Tjik 8vui' 
OF NtrstBEBS; and turning this social ixjluence into a ch 
for good instead of evil; — in other words, to provide a sj 
of lMoB.iL Teaiskg instead of the training of the sti 
The System, however, has been found by cxpcriciici! e(j 
successful with children in all circuinstancca and of all r 

^ Whilst it morally and intclleetually elevates tlie hium 

based, it proves a valuable assistance to Christiau pa 

*i m the training of their children. 



Thia was the first system of Education, wc believe, v 
combined the teaching and training of the child iu his v 



powers of body and mind, from infancy to manhooi 
unbroken chain and on one natural method. 

The Intellectual department is conducted 
TURING OUT IN ■woiLDS, assisted by Analogy and . 
Elostrations, and by questions and ellipses mixed; 
Simultajieous, as well as Individual answers; thus ii 
teUectual as well as in the Moral department, e! 
the power of the Sympathy of Numbers. The under 
of particnlar terms, and of a subject in general, u 
precedes the committal of words to the verbal mem 

The Physical department, while it promotes 1 
made subservient to the Intellectual and Moral Tra 

The whole is based on Scriptnral principles, and 
mentary and Scientific Training GaUeiy Lessons an 
are calculated to fit the pupils for the duties of fat« 

The System has never failed, where it has been f 
pursued; and its success, at home and in the col 
now a matter of fact and of history. 



V' 



CONTENTS. 



I 



PBge. 

Chap. I. Introduction — Outline of the object in 

view, -...., I 

Chap. II. Edacationol and Moral Statiatics, 21 

Chap. III. Factory Statiatics, .... 42 

Chap. IV. Moral and Educational Statastics, SI 

S^bath or Sunday Schools, 64 

Chap, V. Sympathy of Nambers, ... 78 

Teaching is not Training, ... 83 

The Force of Habit, ... 81) 

Chap. VT. Training School Apparatus, or Platform, 115 

Play-ground — the Uncovered School, 05 

Gallery 98 

Chap. VTI. School Boolta, 108 

The Use of Monitors, . . Ill 

Chap. VIH. Separation of the Sexes, . 117 

Chap, IX. Reading, 12S 

Enimciation — Elocution, 13,5 

Manner of the Trainer, . . l-fS 

Chap. X. Picturing out in Words — 

Abstract Terms — Figurative Words, 1-10 

A Lecture and a Training Lessoa, , 150 

Objects and Pictures, .... 15(1 

Chap. XI. Physical Exercises, ... 154 
No. 1. — Mode of Rising Up and Sitting 

Down simultaneously in the Caller;-, 15f) 



VI 



OOHTSKTS. 



n 



No. 3.— The Four Motions, 

Airing Grounds for the Adult ^ 
Population in Towns, 

Sing^g, 

Chap. XII. Simnltaneona Anawen, 

Qaeations and Ellipses Conjoined, 

Ellipses, .... 
Chip. XIII. Emulation, . . . ,. . 

Frizes — Places, . 

Pnnishments — the tTse of the Ro^ 
Chap. XIV. Bible Training explained. 
Chap. XV. Secular Training explained'^EIemt 

Science^Arts — Manufactures, , 
Chap. XVI. Elementary Course, 

Mode of analyung one sentence dail; 
ing the ordinary reading lessons. 
Chap. XVII. Elementary course — continued. 
Chap. XVIII. Initiatory Department, 

Kej to the first Spelling-Book, 
Chap. XIX. Junior and JavenUe Department, 

Evening Classes, 
Chap. ■■ XX. Industrial School for FemaleSj 

Introduction of the Training Si 
among the Wealthy Classes, . 
Chap. XXI. Weekly Course for Training School 

Chap. XXII. Bible Training Lessons — Practical 
trations of, . 

The Mode, 

Stage I. — " The Lord my stay," . 
Do. " The man with the withered hai 
Outlines of points which require to be 

tured out step by step. 
Example II. — Stage II. — An Embl< 
" Even aa a hen," Ac., 
St(^ II. — An Emblem Pictured c 
" Aa the shadow of a great rock 
weary land," 
Stage III.—" As the hart paateth, 
Points to be Pictured out, . 



r 


V 


^^^^V COHTBNTS, ^^^1 


1 


^^^n 


^f A ainglQ tvrm |iictured oat — ^ka<3oiik9 




^^^^^^" 


^^ Do. Saliration — Glory — Uoaour, H 


^1 






1 


Chip. 


XXIII. SclectioM of Scnpture for BiUo Tnu^ 
ing I.«saonB — Stage I. . . . 




CaiP. 


XXJV,_ S*l«ctli>iB<)FSefiptTiiwftir Bible Training 


I 




Lessons — Stage H, — W«kiy Coune. 


E 


f ■ Cmr. 


XXV. .SecnUi' Training Lessons — Elein«nta of 
Science — Arta — Manu fae tu res, 

Kianipio I-- — Stiigei L— The Camel. 

Example TI.— Stn^ I.— On Pottery, 

EwJPplo III Stage TI. — The Mole. . 

Kzunpl? IV, — Stage n.^AiraCoiiiluc- 
tor of Sound, .^1 


r 


Cfctf, 


XXVI, Selccttons of eubjiaolx for Sccnilar TrafH 

log LcBaoDH, ^H 

Stage I. — Weekly Couree, . ^| 


^B 


CaAP. 


XXVII. Stage IL—WDokly Course, 


^B 


COAP. 


XXVI] I. lUustralLonsof MDralTmiiiinginSirhool, 


■ 


Chip. 


XXTX. Mfflraorands, or Uinta to School TraiBcrSf 


■ 


Chap. 


XXX. Hints to Directors of Tmiuiiig Schools, 


r 


Cbap. 


XXXI. ProgiesH and Effects of the Sjatem, 

Conaequcnt Incrcaseot'Tcacher^ Salttriea, 
Improvement in E):ncm&l AppeAranoc, 
Written Testimony of I'arents, ij 
.Annual demand for Tnunora, . ^| 






* 


► 


The Training System in the IVeat India 


< 


Istine of the Training Schools erected ii 






Glaa^w, 






The Training Syit^m introduced into 






Pnrkhiirst FrJBou, and its cS(.'cts, 




Ciur. 


XXXtl. NurmAl Somiiuuy fur Training School- 

nuifltei^, .... ^M 

EaLablJsIiwI in 1630. . H 

The Iioati.ne 9 

Can a person Train himself, . ^M 
CritieiAms — Public — Private. ^M 


1 

-J 


^^^ 


ObjeiitioiiaMiawflre*], ^^^H 



TUl 



COMTEXTB. 



r 



StudeDt« of both sexes Trained, 

UnivenitT' Studente, 

Religious CommunionB, 

Can a Model School liecome a !<; 

Seminarr, 
Assistant Trainers — Imitattoiift , 

Training School, 
Removal of the Normal Seminary 

new premises. 



} 



FKEFACE. 



The principka contained in this inanaal hnvo now 
been before the pyblic for many years. In tlie pr&- 
aent editi&Oj we Uavg de&med it neceawuy to extend^ 
the illustrations of Lliem. 

That the last edition should h&Te been disposed 
within twelvo raontlis, is a proof, we trust, of a 
growing interest in the cause of education generally, 
and of the Trainiag System in particukr. 



Very many able treatises httVCj of late years, ai 
peared on the Buhject of Education. They, howeve 
fur the moat part, treat of some single point 
intellectual inetruction. "We know of no other" 
treatise than tho present on tJio subject of niora.1 
training, founded on the only standard of morals — 
the Word of God. And whilst we have chiefly kept 
in view the providing of a practical model, which 



iniglib Serve as an antidots to the demQra]^ 
ence especlallif of manufactiiriDg villages 
towns — our object has been also to train % 
practise tlie system, and we tavc been e^ 
airouB to present the union of intellectual, 
and TQoral training, in one complete natural 
for Ite culture of the wliole child — in otht 
the wbole faculties of man. 

Every syatem of Edtication presents somt 
feature. One is EiPLiSATORY — anothe 
TERBOQATOBY — a third ia Monitorial. 
schools preaent no particular eyfitem of 
whatever, but simply a list of hooks or 
to be taaght ; while ihe great mass of ac! 
sent nothing but an endeavour to teach the \ 
sound of words and the art of usiog figures, 
or on slate, 'withont comm'uiiicating (and ' 
advisedly) scarcely one id&a whatever. 
matter of wonder then that, with the te 
CATiox on every one's lips, so slight an ii 
ia being made on society at large. 



Tlie Explanatory and Interrogatory met! 
made a great stride la Intollcictual teachit 
tliemselves they are ia^flcctual for training 



^^ FliEFJlCE. 

49 a whole. They leave the affoctiona and mi 
hnbits aliQust untouclied — tliey exercise or train 
head to a considcrablo oxt&nt, but they do Dotj 
the wmn,E HAN* 

The purpose of tha Training System is to exS 
nU tbe powers and faculties of ttie child simultimeoa 
according to a correct standard, and conducted 
natural principlea. Otii' aim is tt> unite all tfaa 
essentially valuable itndor former modes of instni'd 
and commiini cation, and to add these two — Moi 
Trainiko and PjciCRiHa out in Woeds. Sim 
terms, analogy, and familiar illustrations are in c 
stant uae throughout the whole process of pictui 
out^ideas are cultivated previous to clothing tiien 
suitable language — the memory o( ideas before 
memory of worda, These form the peculiaritiei 
the gystem, as we shjill endeavour to iUuatrate in 
fallowing pages. 



That these two points, vk,, Picturing out' 
Mornl Training, are new, is proved by none being 3 
to act upon the principle without long practico; s 
that they nro natural and efficient baa been shown 
abovQ twenty years' experience ia this country oat 
the colonies. 




The Btibjects to be tauglit and the requ. 
tione to school accommodation, with thc^ 
teaching and trjuning scholars and Normafe, 
appear ia the ee^juel. We strive to etiinu^ 
powers and facultiea of the pupils daily, fro 
motives than fear or sordidneaa, and to carry o 
ti&n family training in tUo puLHc echool^ — 
moving and aniinatiDg principle being tha Si 
OF NuMBEBS, and the groat end the culiivatic 
rect liahtts of thought, feclLng, aod outward 

BubdivUioa and clos^ificatio'n form impoi 
tures in training. The outlinea of every bu 
elementary lesson are given in the first inata 
coming more and more minute at every si 
stags of progress, — the Infant or Initiatory a 
mean for children under six years of age, p 
a l>roAd base — the outUnes or illusi^rationa 
subject preparatory to the Juvenile, and thia 
the Senior department. The highest point i 
meat of the Normal Student ia to be able ic 
the Initiatory School intellectually and mora 
Bystem presents no change to the child froi: 
of three to fifteen. It may he conducted on 
pnaciple in cla^ical and other adult schooli 
deed has been tried in them with striking fit 



A 



fREFACE. 

As a litcrorj production, the work has no ck 
tipon public attention. My Bole Bim baa been 
make myeelf understood, and to render tlie iUuati 
tions SB simple as possible. It is intended for parcri 
ckirgymcQ, schoolmasters, and directors of schools. 
must, however, beg the reader's forbearance for f 
ij^uent alluaiong to subjecta already discussed— i 
apology buing the necussity of the case — in order 
bring out and illustrata more foreiWj, by means 
these repetitions, certain other points of the aystc 
For whilet, in training, the Physical is distinct fr 
the Intelleotmal, and botli are so from the Moral; 
action, all are so mutually affecti^d, tliat it Ls iliffici 
if not impo^ihle, to say where the influenco of the i 
begins, and that of the other ends. fl 

An objection has been made to the term " Tra 
ing," We at once reply, Scripture ia oui" authoi 
— Scripture our warrant. The wise man has si 
" Train up a child," and we know of no other exp] 
sion that can explain our fall meaning, hitsilect 
inntriiction, aa commonly conducted and understo 
is iiot traininff — it is simply teaching. Pliys 
exercises must ha training; for we cannot instnwi 
teach a cliild to ride — he must be trained (o do 
Moral instruction is not training, uotil those 



I 



jmlniotton are nctually called Tipon to put in exercise 
the moTal prooepla v.-\t\*ih they liave received, as we 
give lliem the opportiitiitj' of doing when At full 
liberty in the play-grouiid. 

Moral training musi, of course, be intellectual. I 
may kill a fell&w-creatute ; bat, by the Inwa of God 
and m&n, it is not murdci* unless I entertain ill-^vill or 
eninity towards him, and know and understand what 
I am doing. If not, I should be a fit inmate of a 
lunatic Mylum. Moral tm,iniiig ig literally moral 
daing^ in thought, feuling, anii outward action. 

The introduction of the principle of family training 
into the public school was one gr*at object, both ft 
its Bimplioily and general application ; hut it wj 
aoon discovered that whilst the achaol would nev 
supersede (nor could we deairs it to do so) the mi 
firegido: sympathies of domestic tifc, still there ' 
in the Training School,— in Ibe intellectuiil and til' 
departments,' — in the Gallery and ih the Play-grt 
— a power, which the limited number of a ' 
does not possfisg) viz., the sympaiAt/ ofnumi/ei 

We, therefore, commenced with very yoU' 
dren, before natural pTopensity had been fo? 



E 



1 



PHBFACB. XT 



linhit, and extfiaded the prinoiple progTessivolj' to 
those more advAQcod ia age, oa we discarored the sya- 
tem was capable of being applied to tlie circurastEmcea, 
habit9, pursuits, and understandings of older childrep. 

Without such a system, there wiil continue to be a 
"gap" in tbg Moral Training of the child — the ex- 
pressed wish of our great Reformer in regard to the 
" godly upbringing of the young " will ba unfulfilled — 
parental traiuiiig, to a certain extent, will be nentniil- 
ized — and the prcachiog of the Word will bo less attend- 
ed to, less understood, and, of course, less eSbctiTe, 

Some points and pecuUariliea of thia syslem have 
beetk adopted by teachers of scliools — e. g,, one erects 
A gallery, atkd terms it the " Gallery System j" atiother 
iisea simultaneous answers, and terms it the " Simul- 
taneous System ;" a tldrd uges ellipses, and calls it the 
'* Elliptical System j'^ and a fourth, valuing the union 
of q^uestions and allipsea ia our lutelkctuAl exercises, 
ttrma it the " Suggestivo System ;" but these are all 
included in it, and are necessary a9 parta of the syatem 
by which the child is morally, intellectually, and 
physically trained. Further, eoma call the Training 
System the *' Normal System," and many more the 
" Glasgow System ;" but in Glasgow, we have every 



XVI PRSPACB. 

possible variety of Bystems, ftova i 
to the most intellectual. Our tc 
we hare already said, is Soriptura 
the whole human family. We t 
exhibited a more natural and pra 
these great prlaciples ; but we mu 
founded as it is on such high 
principle also being strengthened 
experience of its power and efficie 

This Normal Seminary was tfaf 
Her Majesty's dominions. Othei 
followed the example of preparing 
not upon the system of training 
"We rejoice to know, however. 
Normal Seminaries are in progre 
and physical as well as intellectua 
sent their legitimate and natural ai 

From many thousand facts whic 
we firmly believe that, added to 
Training System, as a natural and 
may be rendered, under God's 
powerful moral and intellectual le 

Glasgow, lOth June, 1846. 



f 



I. - . 




TEE 



TEAINING SYSTEM, 



CHAP. I. 

INTRODUCTIOV. 

OCTLI>-ES OF THE OBJECT Hi VIEW. 

In the preaent treatise we propose, for « 
adoption, a natura.1 system of training the young, in. 
tended to supply tSmt must importiint desideratum iii 
mral econuruy, viz., an fcffieiniit method of trainiag 
1 1€ whole man at tlic early and most itiiprefsiblB age 
of from two or tlircG tu fifteen years, n systfin, in 
fact, itLteuded not to supersede but to carry out pri- 
vate und family tmoiag into public life. Tliia has 
hithorto been a lamcntabib deficiency in ail our 
plana, whether of political, social, or parochind ceo- 
iinniy* The promise has been made, that the ohild, 
if trainHtl in the Way he should go, will, when hi 
is old, not dj^part frnm it; and it h to secure tii^ 
more certainly sncli a glorious r&sult, that this sys- 
tem is presented to the notice of all who either are, 
or ou^ht to Lc, intcr^ated in the great work of popula) 
ndacation. 



HitBODUCltOK — tlUlJflNB 6TSTEH. 

The pGJont louks round him m vain to see in 



fhat way, from 



till 



havo bis 



mo'inu ____ ^ 

children properly tmincii, wlien he himself is n^t;e9' 
Baiily abseatj and wlien they cannot, or will nrit, re- 
main with llteir mother — Iiow in fact he can b^st ful- 
fil the diviriQ command. At kugth^ evon ander Ms 
most famiiralih clrcumtfancet, be 13 forced to send Iii& 
children to a school where they are taught^ it may be, 
alHhat i^ right, but where, from ita construction and 
arriiugementa thiiy cannot be trained; and there being 
no provision for the cbildrea during the time allotted 
to play, tliey are kfi to a-rauae themselves on the 
etreets, and tobti traiacd, natliey musl be, by any an/ 
every aort of compaiiion witb whom thoy may bapp' 
tn meet. The Christian pncentftberefore, sends out 
children in the laorniDo;, and receives them in 
t^vening, each day injured in their actual babits, b 
of mind and body, by the unsuperintended tminir 
tbe streeta. Wh desir-e to see a system DstablLahi 
wliicli this evil will be completely neutiilizcd, a 
the other hand, an improvement experienced. 
It was evideut that Moral Training, as d 
brunch, could not be eatabUsbcd otberwige 
connecting it with the or.linary elementar' 
of an English School, In working out V 
portant discovery was made in tbo mode 
iiig tbeao atid other branches, by means o, 
requisite time wag saved for Moral Tniir 
improvements in the made of intollectr 
will appear in the Bequel, and prove tl" 
of the Training System is capable of 1 



O-DTLISES OP THE OBJECT IN VIHW. 



I 



into every depsrtraent of Scicatific, Elementarj, Clas 
ai<^l, and MntSiematical cducatiiDit, as well aa tlie one 
more immediate!}' and primarily intendfld, viz., Mo- 
ral TravEifig, based on tbe revealed will of God. 
Wliilat tlie primary object of the system, was to 
provide an antidote to the demoraiizing influence of 
large towns — as an assistant to tlie Christian parL^nt 
and an extioguislier of crime, yet twenty years' expe- 
rience haa ahown that the system of Physicftl, Moral, 
and Intellectual Training is equally applicable to tlm 
inb&bitiints of rural districts aa to those of large towns 
— altLough its effects are less visible^^tiie passions 
being ctilracr in the country tbnn in tlie crowded city, 
where the sympalkj^ of numberi ia more acnsibly felt 
whether for good or fur evil. 

rt is unrensonable to aiippose, that if to intellectual 
culture there be added Moral Training, Eome addi- 
tional ftcoommodation must not be provided wiiereby 
tlie natural diapositions and moral character of the i:bi|. 
dren may show themselvea, and this can only be done 
in real life. The real life of a child is at play. A play- 
ground, tlierefore, is absnlutely requisite ; but a play- 
ground without a euperiutendent,— who Joining in the 
apiirtg of the children, secures their confidence, and at 
the same time obaervea their moral developments, is 
in fiict a misohief-ground. Such we eay may be one 
for relaxation and healthful exeruise, but certainly 
not fi^r Moral Training, Ev&ry unsiiperintended 
play-ground is generally » miaohief-^ound, and tends 
in no degree whatever to the formation of cor- 
rect moral habits. A Bchool-room, itted up with 



4 isnwDCcnow— rainfiNo ststeh. 

desks and ftnTiis, may serve tlie purpose 
H/stem, or even the more modorn Monitor 
still mora modem Intellectual syeteni; ba 
suiEcicnt, Eta we sliall presently &huw, fur tl 
itig System." To these must be added a 
lery, capable of seating tlia whole sfiholara, i 
ground large euougli to CD^blo the entire 
liavK free ejcerciae for their bodily powen 
dBvolopment of their iintural dispositions f 
In large towiis. -where there are no auuh ft 
innDcent out door amus^me'nt as in the coi 
system makes the [iroTisioo we liarts meuti 
cajryiug out the ti-aioing of t!ie covered 8 
the uncovered School, where it is carried a 
Teloped, But we must not be supposed to i 
the same regular superintendence and partii 
the pursuits of the children on the part of 
tcr, is uot equally necessary in the country as 
On the contfscry, we maiutain that every 
education, or even of training, is incomplc 
provision is not made for this no lesa iinpoi 
of physical and moral trainingi than there 
80U9 of the covered School-room. We, the 
waya recoTHincnd, and when we have the j 
sist upon the pnrchase of a p!ay-gronnd in c 
>vii,h igvery country as well as town School. 
Physical exorcises and singcng are nsed i 
means to an end than for their own sake — tl 
jn^ to arrest and secure the attention of tho 
and prepare them for rocyiving the intelle 
moral l&asona to which they are called — ^jus 



E 



00TLIWE3 OP THE OBJECT IN VIEW. 5 

taJTf diilling prepares the aoMIerfar iiiatant obedience 
and prompt action in tlie iiuilst uf ihe most trying 
circum stances, and at all liinca. Tliese esercist.e9, 
however, are no less important as an eud, alibougli 
BfiCLindary in purpose, for ilie chililren learn to sing as 
an accoTiiplishtneiit, and to sit, stand, walk, &o., ia 
order, in liealihfui comfort and r^'gularity* 

One {liber impcirtanL feature in tlie system we can 
only at present nllnde to, ami that is the use we 
make of the Gallery in ev^^ry department uf Olir 
Schools and at every age, for the exercise of thnt mu- 
tual niCTita] sympathy, which is bo mighty an agent 
constantly at work for goud or fi>a' evil^ exhlbttLil^ its 
con-ijpting orbencficial influcncG in tbo world at 3arge, 
Just according as it is exercised. Nof ia tliis all — it 
provideg a better platform for the practice of simul- 
taneous answers and other exercises, wbicli we con- 
sider so essential a part of the system. The Gallery 
to which WD allude, does notj of cmirse, exclude the 
use of desks and forms, wliicli we regularly employ 
as in. other Bclioule, at certain portions of the day. 

It must he at onea ap]]nreiit to all, that moral 
tmining cannot he condnctc-d withuut being at the 
same time intellectual; and that "morale" must 
have a standard, tho only porfect and uuchangeabla 
one buing the Word mf God, T]iis principle ia so 
aelf-evident, nud lies ao completely a.t the root of 
every attempt in education, even th^e most imperfoct, 
that we do not conceive it necessary to arguo the 
qneation hero with thoi^e who are opposed to religion 
in connection with popular education. 



umuxiHicTioir — TBAtsiiio SYneM. 

To uafo'd and establish the method of training f/if 
trhoh m.t« upon the prinoiples of thia only rule, is our 
intention m the present humble treatise^ Tifc teat tho 
efficiency of this principle was our object iu eitablisli- 
ing the MoJel "iraiTiing Schools ; ami that it might 
be uiuvereally extended, these Modiil SchooU wete 
fornied into a Normal Semiuary, in which future 
SchoclmaatetH might bo trained to practise the art. 
The persons go prepared in the Institution are trrra- 
ed Trainers^ and tlio Bvetem iteetf tho Trainintj 
Ayttim, from tho acriptural injunction to which M'e 
have before »Uuded. And in addition to such an 
authunty fur the term, we may state what experi- 
ence proves, that wo ciumot train without teaching, 
but that we may teacli without training. Training, 
therefore, inetudea teaching. 

Teachinff ia not training. Moral education is not 
nioml trainiii'j. Thia distinction forms the very gist 
of our argnment, intelkctunUy na well as morally. 
Perhaps the most serious practical mia^takc that con- 
tiDxies to be made in modern timea ia tlie confounding 
of two things essentially and inherently different — 
teaching and Ituining We hear from all quarter 
*' train up a child," but yn explanation the prur 
that is actually meant is teach or instnict — nut t' 
The pupil is told hy the master, but loft to 
himself in whatever way he may choosB. 

The traiuer gives the precept — he must aUo 
the example. Tlie child, howeve'r, is not under 
in^ until ha actually puts in practieo the m' 
other leeaoB3 be is taught, wlicther the ' 



7 

nn exercise nf tlioiiglit^ affeetlon, or oatwnrd Jc- 

An eminent member of Her Majeaty'a Govermoent 
and n friend of Uju Triiining System, during a cou- 
Tergadon with we in Loudon, expressed liimscLf tlius: 
" [ know the distinctioa between teaching and train- 
ing. To tell a buy fit sulioal not to ifiglit or quarrel 
witli his companiona out of doora at play is teaching^ 
or inatructjon — to see that he keeps from quaiTeluig, 
and, if he does %n, to exercise Uia niiod on tUa evil uf 
it, on Ilia retnrn to Bcliool, is traininj." — A just ami 
happy illustratiun. 

Some apology may lie espected for preaiuning to 
iDtrQduce a new element in popular education. Why 
talk of intro4lui:ing morsl ttalniug into our Bcboola 
Bay some ? Doea not all edui:ation naturally lead to 
moral training ? Ara not the poor religiimsly in- 
stmcted and tanght "the way they should go?" 
True, now-a-days a large number arelieiogreligioualy 
inatracted and taught, but tliey are not irainedi theta- 
fore the promisa cannot be fulfilled of not departing 
from that in whloli they have uot been irained, 

Earlff irammg is the only rational and hopeful 
expt-riment. It is so in the vegetabto .ind aniraal — 
it ia ao in the uioral world. If com is expected to 
grow and ripen wi^ must not sow in autnmn bat in 
spring. The farmer ploughs and weeds,, and sows and 
barrows, aud doubts not that by God'a blessing he 
■tiall have an abundant harreat. Spiritual husbandry 
bears a closer analogy to natural husbandry than is 
uaually imagined. In the epring-time of lifo ths 



tliig world at wliich to aspire. Evory teaclier worked 
himaclf into any system lie pleased, anJ just as ho 
could, witiiout any guUe or advker, and Was left, 
while serving an apprenticeship to himself^ to<;ut and 
carve the peraona andminda and lialjitsof the cliildren 
under inn cflre entirely according to bis own fancy, 
Tlnj candidate teachers had no Model School to 
look at, far I&ss a Normal Seminary tfl be trainad 
in. The gardener, the joiner, the jockey, muat all 
bfl trained ; and yet, till lately, it was never thonght 
necessary to train the sclioolmaeter. Hu alone wag 
left to train himself, and to try hia unpractised hand 
upon our children, wliilst ho wis creeping on hia 
way to some real or fancied standiird of hia own 
— too generally giving tlie &liell of education for the 
substance — neglectful of mond habits, and perniitt 
ing wliole generationa to grow up at the beat witli t^ 
undergtaTiding only balf educated. Hence tbe j 
mary importance of Normal Setuinarieg, and of 
proved systeiriB of education and training to tvI 
evei-y student may aspire. There was, and stil' 
much need of Bomcthing hcing done — ofBODie sy 
being adopted that may educate and tniln not r 
the head hut the whole child, and of Nurmal ' 
aries to prepare the fuhire schoolmai^tor for h 
Whether the Training System is, or is noi 
that can be presented to public acceptanc 
prepared, after 20 years' eipcrience, to pr 
])as at least been efficient. The experim 
nial Seminaries, under e:sperienced and 
Masters, proves how superior in tlia a' 



OtfTllSEB OP TttB OBJEPT IS VIEW. 33 

and tr.iimng those are who Imve bi.'>en trained in them 
to the great proportion of those who have trained 
thfffitselms. 

WJiilst the Training Sdioql differs in the tnode of 
its operation and in its construction fiom other oridinary 
li^chools, yet, embracing as it does, the usavA elemen- 
tary hranchea, mure or less in nuinber according to 
circumstances, its aspect, to a casual observer, Ls more 
that of an ordinary puhhc school, with some im- 
provements, tlian one po^cssed of a n&w piiDcipId 
in popular education, viz., 3Ioral Training, and a 
nntui-a.! mode uf intLdlc^etual comniuDication In ull 
branches of education. 

We mast here atop to observe, that Education, in 
the sensa in which it is generally understood, never 
haa, andowver uan, morally tlisvate a community. Mere 
secular knowledge cannot by any possibility accom- 
plisli the work, and extensive knowkJge of the his- 
tory and facta of Scripture, apart from tho earl^' habit 
being formed of reducing its ieesons into practice, ia 
frequently conjoined with the moat dissolute manners 
and absolute disbelief of the great end for which the 
Bible wn3 written. Men can discuss the suhjccts and 
ytit hatt the principles and precepta of Scripture. In 
regard to the working chisi^cs, we find very many who 
cau read, write, and cast actionnta, and who hjivo read 
Scripture in school and have retained niueli of it in 
tlioir memories, who are yet profligate, nny, in some 
GAses guilty of flagrant Crimea, iod who, moreover, 
are totally ignorant of the fact that they f^re naturally 
incliacd to evil, or tbat they stoad in need of a Sa- 




HOHTCTIOS- 

" Knowledge iQcIeed U power," bi 
piiwer for evil as well as for good. To tun 
away from liomc, — in France, wlicre thp 
excludBd, It is clearly ppoven that crime est 
increaaes with what is tenin?d education, ai 
look narrowly at home, we shall find that e 
the reading of th« Scriptures in acliool, sin a 
are not dimiuiehed, nor are th^ maniierg at 
of our population at all improved. We < 
read, the Scriptures, it is true, but the coic 
not ginipty "read "hut "■ search " — '* teare. 
hidden treasures'' Huch ia ouif object. Th€ 
as well a3 tht: facts of Scripture, must be enf(, 
the understanding, and reduced into practice 
life, under proper superintendence, ere we c 
that the word of God will be influential In e 
man in all the virtuea and gracee of social U 
iitting Lim for the eujoymejit of a pure and hi 
throughoiit eternity. 

It ia a serious mistake — to suppose that th 
ipg or mere knowledge of Scripture facts, ia 
is sufhcient to make a good min. Scriptur 
"knowledge puffwth up, but cliarity (or loT 
iieth," It doeg not stand alone, like mere 
le ige, but extends its efFecta in eyery direction, 
are influenced by a senae of the stern virtue 
nesty— "Thou slialt not ateal " — and they wtji 
pick their neighbour's pocket for the world, bB 
same persons who reverence the words of the 
commandment, may at^al their neighbour's goo 
without a pang, and be entirely unmindful 



OUTUWra OT? THE OBJfiCT IN VIEW. 

commaQd^" Bo piriful, be courieous." They pi 
tise tlie sterner virtuaa it may be, Ijut make notl 
uf the command — ■'■* WAai-sceper things ara hon 
luTely, and of gwd report, M^'n^- on tSiese things," 
" do.'' Ilencu witliouttlie direct influence of Cliria 
principle, polislied worldly society BOtnetinies ] 
santa that outward courfcecmsneas and politeness 
forbearance which oiif;Iit to be the native fruil 
Hible priuc-iples ; previiod only the pMple were 
merely religioiialy instructed, but alao morally trai 
— in other words, trained to practise the Tirtt 
provided the weeds of sin were tossed about, and 
permitted to grow luxuriantly, and that the h* 
of chiLdret), iofct'lIectuaHy and physically, were 
intended and caused to be rightly exorcised. 

A thorough Bible and Moral Training woul 
the most perfect gentleman, the most Binccre 
■ — would establish all ths grRces of kindnesaand 
bearance and sincerity — would extinguish vice — 
mote ckanhuesg, order, and attention to lieaUli™i 
by the blessing of God, would prodnne a millenni 
Bible and Moml TiTiining, teaching, and doing, oi 
never to be separated iu the education of yoa 
old. 

We Itave no such education genomlly in 
nnd until we havo it for the yonu^ at all age t 
the undei"i9tandtrig is comparatively uuwarped by 
jiidicf, and the fcehngs tender and susceptible, 
folly to look for the moral elevation of onr country 
lug gucceeding generations; and as for a mlUenn 
we iinderstnad it simply to be the conseque; 



Idn 



fr 



eOGM 



tliorougli infiiaioti of jf)rrt«(rrt^B!blepriiicipIe3(notmore 
iutollccti^nl knowlddgo) into tUe understanJing an'l 
affectbns of young and olJ, rich and poor. Prom tFio 
facts wliicli we are prep-ireil to lay before out render*, 
we ask, woulJ not tlie universal exteiidon of Dilito 
and Moriil Training, as part and pnrcvl cf popular 
education, under the bleSsiiTg of God, produce lilcg 
glorious rt-aults? W^asst'rt that it would, aud m doing 
so we would not excludehwi incrertws' every other means 
of knowledge and of grace ; we would treble our pas- 
tira and places of worsliip — ourBocial Cliriatiaii meet- 
inga and our week-day and Sabbath schools ; — but 
tU^ae logt we would extinguish fur tliif family fireside, 
with the father as tha priest and itistrnctor, ao soon 
aa we had this aystein established in week-day schoola 
by which the schokre would reeeive, each day of the 
week, as much rdigious instruction, as they possibly 
could in a Sabbath school, and with thia moat import- 
ant addition — ^tha seeiug that Biblii precepta ato re- 
duced into every-day practice^ 

BlLIc instructiotl might bo renderod & vastly mr 
intnrcitting exercise than it usually is, both in 
subjects: treated of and in the mode of communicn 
The method of comuiuulcation ought to be mor 
tural^tbc natural picture ought to be fully and 
drawn beforo we attempt to elicit tlie Icssr 
must bo admitted by all, that the preachin 
word of truth ia tfu appointed mcan^ of ooi 
and of extending a knowledge of salvation b' 
Keeping this steadily in view, the quegtioD 
18 preaching ? All must acknowledge "■'' 



OTTTLIITES OT TBS OBIBOT W YTEVT 



est and most authoritative ppeacliing, ia that by mi- 
maters who are especially set apart to the sacred of- 
fice, and " who give themselves wliolly to prayer 
nnd the ministry of the word." We highly vahnj the 
office of the ministry of the gospel- But h there ii'> 
other mode of proacMng* or pTumulgating' tlie word 
of life ? Is the Same discourse whifh is ci>uc-hed in 
lan^age suited to adwlta and the cultivated miud, 
oqually applicahle to and apprehended hy the youth- 
ful and the ignorant ? Is it understood at all ? Are 
not such discmiraea to very many the aame us if 
spoken in an unknown tongne? Maya father not 
preach the gospel to his children? May tho tender 
mother not do bo to her infant offspring ? Does 
she not do so often in strains so simple that they 
reach the heart ? May tho selioolmaater, who repre- 
sents and takes the place of tlie parents for a por- 
tion of e^ch day, not promulgate the gospel to the 
TOung hy nnctlyzing and picturing ont the daily 
Bihle lessou? And may not the prayers and endea- 
Toara of parents and scho'olinasters be effectual to the 
conversiun and Chriatian improvement of the young 
committed to their eharge ? Nay, without such ad- 
ditions to the pulpit miuigtry of the word, mny not 
the youu^ he rohhed of tho groat purpose for which 
the gospel was sent ? No restriction ought to be 
laid upon the parent ur the miciibter as to the full 



• Wo beg our reaJpre tt> mmemlvr tluit we use Lli^ word, 

not in ike noccptcJ bciibo, but in ita real and -Scriptural meaa- 
inff. 




1» 



INTRODt'CTIOK — ^TtLilMNC SfHTLM. 



Bxpngitiou and enforcement of Scripture truth upon 
the underetaiidiug and coLscii'Dcee uf all — but tlie 
proviQCfl of the feclioolmaater we conceive to liy more 
in trainii]|iT in tW elcmcnta uf ilJvine truth, Just ftv 
he trahks or ought to tralu in the eknitrtitii uf any 
and. every branch of education thcit he ia rrq^uirett ur 
entrCLsted to tcacli. This lie can best and inuiil satin- 
facturily acuoniplUh by analyzing Scrijjtiire, and by 
picturing oiit it^ Uidtury, with the inurul lesaona it 
naturally furnishes — its precepts too — at the simie time 
sceiiijj that these aro reduced to priiL-tice wliilti the 
L'hildreii are under hid carfi, and unfgldiug and rcmder- 
ijij; Tiaible to their miud^e eye thoae innumerable em- 
blems which, wlien pictured out, present practical 
truths ridi a3 the deepest mine, and swewt as Jurawy 
ti> the taste. Tku naturnl picture 19 always pkasing 
to tho huma.a mind — tbo lesson dudaci>d is nut so pa 
latable. It 13 nu trifling matter to be thd nieuas) 
elucidiitiag the Itfadio^ points of Scripture, and of 
vifying every jjaragraph of it> and thud of asaif 
the parent, and preparing all fur apprehcndin' 
meaning of those innumerable SL-riptwro ternia 
art? employed, and those allusiuna whiuU art 
duriug the public preaching of the word. 7 
allotted to a SerinoQ does uot etl;tble the mi 
unfold or picture out the test so fidly and clei 
s training sclioi^I leeeou. 

Such, then, we conceive to Lc the pac 
vince oF the achoolinaster. Sueh wo ti 
Training in school ; and such the kind 0' 
education we wish to aee established in b 



oiTTLiKbis Of the Object ik vrcw. 



HI 



uf Great Briiain. Merc Bible reading, or explanation, 
or (ju!!stiijn nud answer, will not do, but hy picturing 
out by aaatogy and funiliar iilustrations — by sbnpli- 
fying every teiTi and unfolding everytliiiig that is 
oompliis— you piinblo the youngest cliUil jtrcsent to 
apply the lesson to himatlf, Tlie achooliuaster who 
ia a trnincr, has the peculiar aJvantngs ovur every 
other class of peraoua, of c/ie s^mpatJttj ofnitml/ers, 
of which we havo already spoken. Mind in thus 
brought to bear upon mind. Every variety of teia- 
ptirament and mental power cAti ha made to operate 
upon all. Some cliildrEn more easily apprehend facts 
— utliers imagcry^ — ^nd. otlior^ reasoning. All, how- 
ov€r, learn what aijy one knows ; wlien properly cou- 
dueted, all are siimiiiated and benefitted by the power 
of SYMPATHY, It ia because in the family and in the 
achool, the religious iartructiou ha9 tonsiatod in >com- 
mittiiig words or mere sounda to rauniory, or oxpla,- 
nation by the parent or tutor, a task in which, half 
asleep sooiiitiniea, the children take no part ; or by 
questiO'DS and answers upon tbc^ mere fai:ta or hiMory 
of the passage ; that the public ministrations of the 
pulpit are ao slightly effectual upon a common au- 
dicmce. Hoiv ysry Uttla uf a sermon, either in iU 
frtnts or lessons, is generally remombere'il ! We have 
examined persona a thousaud times, and it was 
inarvenoua how little they reniemhered. It was p09- 
sible that one or two of the hoaJs may have been 
recollected, or perhaps only the toxt, but tha gene- 
ral bearing of the subject, or the lessons deduced, 
were Seldom remembered. Tliat tlis word of God 



so 



ijixnoDfcrioK^ — thaixiko saruM. 



may hare froe cuiirsi;, tlic minds of the yoitng mnst 
bu trained to thi^ undcratandln^ of it. 

Scripture knowledge, in the wide extent of its his- 
tory. precL'pta. promises, embleraa. &c., ia thus daily 
commUDicatal in a simple and natural manner by 
aaalc^gy and CunUiaj' ilhistrabions, aod in language 
suited to the nge Aud capacity of tlie pupil ; and these 
are made the basis nf at) the Mnral Training during 
the day. The elements of aceuUr sciences, which 
are dally given without or with a text-bouk, are also 
conducted in the same manner, — singing, to cheer and 
animate, to soften and aubdae the feelings,— ^physical 
eiceTciaas, to arrest and secure tlie attention, — play, to 
aaiinatQ and invigoratti Loth body and mitid^^^super' 
iatendenca by the master, io observe the children and 
nfterwardti to train the understanding tr> tli«: tru 
cature of their conduct, and then to cultivnte proj 
thought as well as correct behavioLip — the spmpa 
of numbers being used aa the one grand actuating 
moving principle in every department — a princip' 
every society, consisting of young or old, uuifor 
tending to good or evil. 

These points andth^e principles, aa we str 
the Outset, wero added to what previously ex' 
popular Bchools, and tho ordinary elementary ' 
were adapted, in the mode of communicati' 
same " picturing out syateni." 



CHAP. II, 



EDWCATJONAL ANU MOEAX STATISTICS. 



Befqhe taking a view i*f some points in the state of 
society as. at proaent constitutud, anJ the moat pro. 
niinent educational and Christian meana which hafe 
betn set u]i furtlie improvpincut of the people; it may 
bi) proper to aiMwer oiia or two queries which are 
freq^uently put, in regard to ilia original establishnjeiit 
of the ayateni now under conoid ernti on. 

First — What cause or causes led to the pstahSisli- 
ment of the training Bystera, and in conjunctiun with 
itf & Normal Seminary fur the traiiiiiig of Hchool- 
masters? This h not easily auawereiJ, but w« may 
state & few facta wliieb suggested the idea. Mo^t 
cerlainly it was not the result of mere reflection In 
the study oi in the parlour, but arose from the daily 
and yearly tibaervalion of igtioraiici) and crime pre- 
aeiited to my mind, from tlie circumstances in which 
I was jirovidan tidily placed. 

For five yeara preTiona to 1619, I was one of a, 
number who disitributed to poor old men certain funds 
raised hy suhsc^Iption^ and Khich it was expected 
should be paid to iiia parties monthly at tlioir own 
dwellings. The £inall pittance given was only 
<,TaiitBd after tlm moat minute inviistigation of the 



; FDCCATinvM AVP MOIIiL STATIfiTira, 

case of each applEoant for relief. My district was 
(100 of the ieiwest and moBt degraded in the city. 
During these hivcstigations ami private visits, an 
nmoimt of deceiif, igo-orance, and witkcdneaSj w;ia 
gradually disclosed, which convinucd me that the 
favourite idta of rcfonning tlie old was a hopelees 
rme. A few solitary caapg there wtTO indeed of per- 
sons who hjid hcen early cmbuod with Cliristian 
principles, and who had profited thereby; hut -with 
these excepiiong, tho muss was as impenotrahle ax the 
uether millatoue. No motive nwakt^tied their con- 
sideration, Have the silver pencpj wliicli, when pre- 
sented, lighted up their eyo and wartned thi-ir heart. 
On every other subject save Mammon they were in a 
profound sleep, llahits, "our Secoud □iliire," held 
them as wuh an iron grasp. 

1 therefore turned my attention inure partiuularly 
to the yoiiiig; and eis my residence thtin waa on rhel 
south side of the river, the most direct way to whicfj 
lay tlirough the Saltmarket, the very " St, Giles 
Glasgow," my eyea and cars were sliockcd scrr 
times a day by tlie profanity, indecency, and ' 
which were exhibited by children, and evtn inT 
who were growing up pegtg to society, and rui 
themselves. Could nothing be done? was the 
jiressed question in my mind. 1 knew of nut" 
a Sabbath -school J for I then participated in t' 
nnivereal delusion, that rt^hgitiua instruct' 
acfompiish all, and I had not learned iha 
and moral insirucdon and religioua and uk( 
inff are two distinct things. 



■EDDCinOKAt AND lEORAI iTinOTlCS. 23 

Mj- object wag to seize a (liizen or m of these wild 
hnninn beings un tlia stroots, ard ivy wlint, by the 
blessing of Gcini, might be done witb tliem. But liow 
to accomplish tbig, and to teach them when brought 
inCo a. &ciiool-room on a Sabbatli evening, I was olike 
igQorant. Moreover, I iindetstood from others that 
lone but children of tlie weli-dispoaed could be re- 
tained hmgor than a few Jiftemoons, whilst the love 
i*f novel tyb eld ita away. The want of cloth iogforiiied 
auotlier barritjr. I therefore determined that none 
biit neighhuurs shcmld be admitted — tb^pctby remov- 
ing the ftvcraion to nppear ill-drcsaed among strangers 
— the proximity of their roaidences aUn rendering it 
easy for the teacher to call upun the absentee chil- 
dren during the weok, or to send for thcni! on Sabbath 
evenings j also tlkat the scliool-room, although only a 
kitchen, ahould he within or close to. the district. 
Thie principle was afterwards ivide^ly extended in this 
and other districts of the city, and \s termed the Lo- 
cal SyStena. Tlie looftUty was confined to two small 
and narrow lanes, and no child was admitted who 
did not reside iu the diatrict, so I gave up tlie id^ii cif 
the raadoici iiiode of catching the children on the 
streets, 

The result of this strictly local experiment acted 
very lavonniUy on the understanding and morals of 
these children ; and witliout even the temptation of 
an article of dregg, in the coLiTse of n few months all 
found decent clothing for themaelves. We could till 
a volume with the details of the character of the pa- 
rt?nt9 and children of tins smalt locality, which pre- 




2-t 



edccat]o>'ai. A«n> vooal sxAnsria. 



sented. shadGs from tlio most delia^cj, to the' 
althougb we caonot eay tho erdigbtened Ct 
but we ahriU fonHae oiiraclves to oue fact, ex 
tliB extent of their Iruo education and rcligiuu 
ledge^ at t1ie first opening of tho achooL 

From abdiit seventy contigiioug families I c 
twenty-eight boja and girls^ from about the 
nine to fourteen years, all of wliom could re 
nearly all were pc>9sessed of Bibloe. Some 
had been taught In parochixl, and otliers in 
and privnte schoola. The majority of these ■ 
were superior in education, Snch as it was, ; 
in character, to many of (ho rtigamnj^ns an 
pockeLa who ao obviously infiiated tha strcwta. 
were tlia average run of workmen's and In 
ehildren, iiut rude and uncultivated m the o 
Awnrfi that the fact of Uavtog acquired th 
reading the Bible does not infer that ita cent 
understood or remembered, I determioed o 
test of their auriptural koowledgtj. Accordin 
the very first Evening, I took each child apr 
itiqiiired if he or s1ie» knew who waa the £.n 
Was th ore a first man? Did tUfy know an 
about the first man being in paradise ? &e. 
fire of the number could answer any of thea 
tiong. Twenty-three had never heard of A 
of a first mno, or of the garden of Eden, and 
perfectly ignoraat of the origin of our raco 
merest aavage. These, boweveri were term 
gioualy educated children, ui at least had beci] 
in what are termed Scriptural schools j and 



CHAP. n. 



EDUCATIONAL AND MORAL STATISTICS. 



Befohe takiDg o. vkw of soiue points in the state uf 
society as at present constituted, and the most pro. 
ininect educational and Cliristian means winch bave 
;)fit;u Bet up for tJie improvement of the people ; it may 

proper to answer one or two qneriea which ar« 
frequently putj in regard to ihe original establishment 
uf tite ayatem now undcT consideration. 

First — What cause or ctiuBea led to tbe establish- 
mcni of ilie training; syHtem, ntbd in conj unctiun wiih 
it, Ek Normal Seminary fur tba training uf schiHil- 
miisters? This is not easily answered, but we msy 
state a faw facts wEiich suggested tho idea. Most 
cerLaiuIy it was not tbe result of mere refluctlon in 
the study or in tbe parlour, but arose from the daily 
and yearly observation of ignorance and crime pre- 
sented to my roind, from the clrcnnifitances in which 
I waa providentially placed. 

For five years previous to 1310,1 was one of a 
number who distributed to poor old men certain funds 
raised by subscription, and which it was expected 
should he paid to the partiea monthly at their own 
dwellinga. Tbe small pittance given was only 
granted after the most minute investigation of the 



20 



EnnCATtOKAt AJ* MOBAL STATTBTTTl 



Something more aad very diflerent tUt 
peared wanting — practical goud lioibita :iiua( 
uS well 11$ principles inculcated — tlie clilldi 
taiiglit and Bup«rintended daring iln! wee 
aa on two liours of a SaHjnth evening or 
in fact, tlie nutural principles of si/mpalki 
mainiiatiRg current uf evil^ mu^t be; met hy 
ing current of good. It was ovidfint that 1 
of three to fifteen years of age, twelve yi 
niDBt important, because thumuat impress 
of lifo, no moral macbinery existed fijr th< 
upbringing." 

Oiu' eyes ■Were now directed every wlier 
of any and everything that might aaaist oi 
during our vlaita to difierent portions of 
Kingdom, in tlie meantime, the systM 
training was gradually developed, and wo 
my private Sabbath-acbool, which, by the 
character of its picturing out in words, ai 
answecsj r[ueations, and ellipses, gallory pri 
waB afterwards mads the intellucttLHl dcp 
tho first model week-day schools of the 1 
minary — tins method enabling the master 
nicato m much knowledge in one, as on tl 
methods is done in two or three houra. 

This principle of intellectual training, s 
with nature, unexpectedly discovered ho 
could be Saved in cotidiietingtho ordinary 
branches of a school, whereby the children 
time for amusemeut in tho play-ground, ai 
ter aufficicEt lei&ure for morally supcrintc 



EDUCATIO'-'AI, AXE MOEAl STATISTTCS. 

In ll, Rnd afterwiirJa reviewing tlicir conduct OBI 
turning to the sclmol-gallery ; in fact, for adding i 
ral training as a new principle in the public ach 
Teachers wtire immediately ti-ained to lliia systen 
rntellectual and moral training, and in tlie coiiraf 
four or five years, the aaine training Bystom was 
full operation (ur cliilJreti o( alleges, and for teacti 
■nf sclioola in all branches, a3 a Nurmal Train 
Seminary. H 

" Prevention is better tlian cure," was our nwl 
and to begin well iVe cannot begin too early. My I 
nbject tlicreforc wasi to begin with children under 
years of age, before their intellectual and moral hal 
were fuUy formed, tonsctjuently when fewer obatai 
were presented io the oatablishraent of good oi 
Tbis experiment then, and ever since, during m: 
teen years, has proved mo»t triumphantly success! 
and exhibits tho important practicAl priuclplB, tl 
valuable as training ia at nny age, still you incre 
geoinetrioalty in power as yuu descend in age ; foi 
(/YiiWiHy at twelve years of nge be calculated as i 
— at nine it is .la tiro. — at seven as four — at &vs 
ejghi, and at tbree ^'eara of Age as sixteen. 

We wer^ awart; that parents would not eaail' 
prevailed upon to pay for niciral training, even wi 
it practicable to eiitablisli it by itself, npart fri 
the ordinary lirmiches of education, or even to se 
their ehildren afc all to an iiigtitutioa for thatpurpo 
wliieh being unknown, they did not value. 

In regard to young children under sis yoara of aj 
ihero were coniparati vely few ohstaulea preaenti 



I 



A 



28 EDOCATIOMi.L iJtVi KonjiX. STATISTICS. 

becausG tliis period of youth was entirely untouched 
by any existing institution for tbeir nioral or intct- 
bctual improvomentr The greater dilSailty vv^Eia, how 
to ingraft moral training on Bchooh generally, bo that, 
without any change of Bystenj, children mi^ht ba car- 
ried forward in al! the stages of their suba'Cquent edu- 
Ciition, without infringing on the amount and variety 
of the elementary Ijrancheg. 

Borne educational writers have recommended tha 
educBtion should embrace the cultiTntion of th' 
heart, bwt they have not provided for it, Fior ex 
plained the means by which, it might prac£icallt/i ' 
accompliahcd ; and when asked to state in what ms 
ner, and by what apparatus, tliia should be effect 
the almost ^L^ifO'^^l answer has been : Give the d 
dren of tUo poor moral and religioua instraction, 
they will become virtuoua and good ; — ^jiiiat aa if 
ral instruction was one and the same thine 
mora! training; and the mere knowledge of * 
right, aynouynious with the doing of it- 

After the family order, ihcra ought lo ho a 
&t the head of every infant'training school 
the juvenile department, when practifahle, rt 
aister of the master m[iy he au QGcaeiuDal as: 

Although we do not approve of scndiiijr 
eairlff to a school for more teaching or inati 
for teasnna which we shall subsequently 
ever well trained the childron may be 
would in all caaoa advocate the princip 
cannot be sent too early to a st-hool for 
iiig, and tb&t at each stage af tlmir f 



BDrCATIONAX AKD HO&AI. STATIPTICS. 

should be carried forward on the same traminj sys- 
tem j — oc the broad princijiJe, that wbile family 
training fits for domestic, dial of ihc scliool piepares 
for public ftnd socinl life. Infant ieacMnff echools^ 
wllloTit a play-griiunj, are decidedly uijurious tu ibe 
hsRltb of body and mind; and even wiLh a p'ay- 
groucd, if ihe eUiffing system he puranBi], (hey ought 
to be coDdeinaed, and in geQcrat they hiivo proved a 
ftiiluri?. Infant, Irahihig scliools, on tlie contrary, 
where bodily ai?d rat-ntal habits are merely led and 
nourisheil. not forced, are uniformly aucceasful. Pre- 
cocicpTis cultivation is not occording to nature. An 
early and long-sustained exercise of the intellect may 
injure the health of both body and mind, hut the ^ar- 
li'est and longest sustiiiucd c^serclse of the moral atfec- 
tiona only adds power and energy to all the faculties. 
If moral fichool training bean (idrantaga to children 
who are properly attended to at homo, what mn?t be 
the necessity in regard to the thousands of poor ne- 
glected ones who crowd our city lanes and olJcye ! 
Their partnta cannot and do not, either hy esample, 
or pr«i;ept, or suparintendeaee, " train them up in 
tJte way they should go ;" but, on the aontrary,, often 
inculcate principles and show an eianipla perfectly 
the reverse of idt that is godly. Or sober, or virtuous i 
thus leaving their offapring a pny to their own pro- 
pensities, and the evil example and training of chil- 
dren aa bad IB, or worse, than thetngelve?. Need we 
■wonder then at the proTalence of crime, and rndenesa, 
and inaubordinalion, wnd every sort of ungodhaeas ? 
Need WQ wonder that theso habits should stand proof 




ZDUCATIOSAL ISD MOIUL STATISTICS. 

against every stiLaerjueTit ajiplianco tliat may Uebronglit 
to bear upon such a miaa of Ignnratit and ritinted 

Largo towns are comparafively n new state of so- 
ciety, Coramercial and maimfacturing pursuits naiu- 
rally congregate tliepupulation into towns j and what- 
ever may havD been provided for the moral iinpirove- 
niient of the old, no adequate provision has b^cu made 
for the young, -whom we must again call the most 
Aopeful, because the moat impressible portion of &o- 
ciuty. The powerful tendency of their Kympathira 
and susccptibilititis to evil, has been left ivlthuut any 
ESuitELble antiilote. It t» no wonder then tliat our 
Urge cities and towns continue to sink in the sciile 
of morals. 

Ldyge toiens and factories, so far front jtropitiff 
jiursiries of pice, as ai prmaent, might, h^ the prop&r 
tlheclion uf the bympatht op jrirHiiERs, be rejitiered 
poicerfui means of moral and intellectual eleualion. 

The rnra! population of Scotland, upon the whol' 
is superior to ibitt of the towns, arising from the fi 
that, for centuries past^ more minute Christian 
educational m&nns have been adopted for their impr 
munt. The towns have been kftTerymuoh to ' 
aeives; the natural tendency, therefore, has ^ 
evil. Wo are not certain if this holds true in 
to England j for low as the population of it 
are, from the inadequate application of means 
intellectual and moral improvement, yet fro 
wliich it would be foreign to our purpose 
licTOj we believo ibe iahabitants of the F 



EI>1]CA3tQiNAL AWD UORAL STATISTICS. 



51 



districts arc upon ttic whots moro sunk in niorfkls than 
those in towns. 

Wherever, thou, the minds and manners of m\y 
population are low awl dtibased, in town or country, 
the compltite iTAJaiDg system will be found a powerful 
antidote j* at tUe same timo, from the uoiiccntratod 
power of tho stMPAmv of NrstBERs in towns, tha 
progress of evil ia etroogcr, nnd the importance and 
necessity of tlio training gystem are more appitront. 

The grcaleat barrier to a proper syatern of training, 

oriseB from the almost nnivcrgal idea, that morni 

teaching or iiistrucdon and moral training are the same 

thing. This fatal mistake runa through all the arr.iuge- 

nienta of popular education. Tlint buaching orinatriic- 

tion fomiB a part of training is nnfiueationahly true, 

but that thuse arc one and the game thin^ is as untrue 

aa to supposu that, by my being told and shown how 

to manage a horse, I could ride for the St. Leger^ at 

Doncaaterj or that hy the .same le'Cturiug process I 

could make a watch. Dr. Saniuel Johnson remarks 

, — " Wo CBnnot by lecturing enable a pcraon to make 

a shoe;'' but whilst he haa most truly and wisely 

slated this, unfortunately for tho worEd ho has left ua 

without any practical method by which training may 

be accomplished in that department to which he re 

ferred — tho human inteUccttial and moral powers. 

Locke and others have tvrittcn much and v/qU, and 

thoy have told what should bo done, but not Iiqw it 

might hn nccom^lishod. When w>e aTgtte fur moral 



* See Fivgrna and EffuctH. 



iraining, it must not be Biippoficil that we mean 
tasTO c^tcniiii lialjit, by many called " nioraU," wliidi 
tlie poUc'& and penitentiari^ may fully aecomplMb, 
and whicli tlio cuurtcsieB and graces of polislied so- 
c;iety ia some measure present ; but morala, grounded 
on the line: ban gtiiiblo taw of God, aa coDtaincl ia the 
DiviDB Word, tcMch muet lo the boMS tifalllrtte ma- 
rai irainlriff — the spring fram wlikh fillactii>ns ought 
to flow, and tlie Blandard of every principle to which 
10 appeal, and by which alone the conduc:! can be 
guidedf when nu superintending eye is upon the cliiid, 
save that uf the omuiscient and omniproseDt Gi>d. 
Siill we chtitn for tho power of habit all thiit Scrip- 
ture maintains, and experience provis to he tmo. Ti( 
secure cffitiimcy, under God's blotsaing, the principle 
is, that to intellectual and mora! teacshing there must 
he superadded intellectual and moral tratning. Tie 
practice matt accompany the principle. 

The term education hfis been too much a watch- 
word from th'Q senate, the bar, and the pktform 
without attaching to the term any very definite ide 
QiiantU^f not qualitif^ has generally been the dr 
dcrattim for "what education ought in reality to br 

Family training is the best standard of school i 
ing, but the school possesses a power which iho 1 
does not; and that is, as wa have said— •■tub 
tAinv OP NrMBERB." At a subsequent peri' 
shall advert to this groat and powerful ptinci]: 
in the mcantimo we shall give a short a'nalys'' 
warrant for establishing and recomaionding 
tem, which we conceive to be the decide 



■BDUCiTlOWAli AMD VOILLT. STATISTICS. 



99 



tliB "godly upbnnging "* of the youth, more parti- 
cularly of large towns. The Bible says, ^' Train iip 
a cliiM in the way ho sHquIiI go." Train a cliiht from 
its earliest yoatS: — from infancy till it is full grown ; 
and this ought to b^ done at all times and in all cir- 
oiimslances-=personany, when parents can, and by 
prosy when they eannot. It muat not be the head 
of the child merely that is to bo exercised or trained, 
but fhe c/((7fi~tlie whole man — if we are to hope for 
the fiilfilmeist of the promise, that " when he is old, 
he will not depart from it." 

The precept is, to train up a chihl "in the way he 
should go." '• In the way," implies peraonal super- 
intendcnee. 1 am to train " in the way " — not to 
put a child on the way, and leave him to himself, or 
worse than by himself, with evil companions; but 
in the way he ehonld go ;" and cTery Chriatlan pa- 
it will at once achnowledge that the way his child 
^ahonld go " is the way of ah God's commandments 
— in regulating tlie thoughts, feelings, and outward 
demaanuiir. This has botn fiLlfiUed in many a family, 
hut where have been the models of school training? 
and yet, from the ago of five or six years, to fourteen 
or sixteen, two thirds of the time of our youth is spent 
at sehool under tins defective system, or at play under 
a practical influence too generally positively immoml, 
Need wo wonder, then, that the youth of our large 

• Our veuenibk' rrfoniiwa liaJ tliis noIiK* eiiil in view, in re- 
gard to tlio [iftrwliisl wlionli, but thr ivhwL Ihu |iro|»er machin- 
ery wiw not jinivided. mw v/ttc armbgctuents made by which it 
oould be accom|ili;^i«<l. 



34 



EUUCA^TIUNAL AITU MonAL BTATI-.TIC3- 



towns grow up ignorant of their duty to God, to eo' 
ciety^ and to tbeinselvea, seeing in actuid fact tliej 
are tiqt trained to practise these duties ? Our firln- 
cipie, therefore, ia, muraUji' ** train," not Bimpty teacli 
front infancy to manhood ; and if we cannot at alp 
times be with our cliildren, we are bound to provide 
Buitable auLiatitutea ; and who mnre nntural or men 
lik&Iy to h& qualified, or ])Licgd in, such fATuurttbh 
circumatapcea to do &o, tbau the public teacher undei 
wbom we place our cliitdren fur thoir t^lementary in- 
etnictio'n P 

That parents can da little more tlion ad rise or teacb 
their children liow they ought to conduct themAelvea, 
and cannot train, may bo drawn from tho obvious 
state of society. Can tho miison, op bricklayer, oi 
joiner, who may be engaged a. couple of miles fro't 
bome, train hia childrun ? lie leaves at bjx o'cluckj 
morning, before bis children me out of bed, and rt 
tarns iq the evening when he and they are tired 
almost ready for sleep. The mother is buay ditrii 
the dn.y preparing or purchasing the food, attendij 
to liCF infant, or her hands ore in tlie wosbing-ti 
Tho elder boya and girls are out at work, tlie yoJ 
ger, it may be, at school, or at play in the street 
Buch companions oa they can find. The mother 
train the young, it is true, but are they with 
Even the infant hoy^ if in health, will escape t| 
door-Btep, and prefer crawling in the mud, to 
tied to the aprOn string of his mother. Can tl 
chant, when busy on 'Change — the factory ma- 
Ilia spindles — or tlie professional man m hi 




BDUUATTCfyAX kVl> UCMtll STATKTICB. 



3S 



train !iia cliiltirL-n ? Nia—it 13 cliiefly doLB by prox- 
ies. We know that the Divino command ia nothing 
short of speaking to the young " as they walk hy tho 
way, aa they eit down, and aa they rise ii[i." " Lino 
uiDoa lioe, pr»?c&pt upon precept; hers a little, and 
there a little." Ia religious instruction of a Sabbath 
BTening at honiB sufiicient ? Is the piihlic worship 
of the sanctuary ? Is [eaniing to read tho Bible in 
school sufficient ? If not, what is sufficient ? Let 
any man of calm reflection answer the question. 
Amidst all the public means of improvement, where 
ia the moral training imacMns for Iiis children, from 
two or three to fifteen yeara of age ? 

Many parents, in TnriouB ranks in life, have ex- 
pressed tike difficulty they expi^rience in bringing up 
their children when necessarily out of their sight dur 
ing the day. Indeed, thiais almost universal witli per- 
sona of any reflection — they know not what to do, 
more especially in towna. 

I may static the kind of tinning to which I wad 
subjected in my yoiithful days. 

MoitAL School TnAijfiNC is Ol&bn Times — -TUe 
school in which we received our primary English edu- 
cation was a parocliial one, in which were to bo aeen 
tho children of the minister, tho magiatrate, the mer- 
cihant, &nd the mechanic. The schoolmaster wag a 
spiritually- minded good man, and upon the whole, 
kind and benoTolent, although his schoUra could 
lioarcely percoive this, until aftH_'F a lapse of a few years, 
when they had left scliool, and could meet him on the 
street or in society without tcmr. 



96 



BDl'CATIOXAt AXU MOHXV KTATI»TJCI. 



Tbo highest puint <>f nur Uiblo fliieatioa waa, beiog 
able to rend the tentli cliaptur of Nchvnilab. Every 
diild c^nimiutrd tho Westminster AaKmlily'e Sbort«r 
C&tcc)iism verbiitiiTi. The greatest nuxicty was to 

get Advanced cut cfihe BiUe into Lbe Collection. 

"SVlien we asked the mc'aiiing iif any port of our 
lessons, !i Ijux on tlio car gcHirally folltincil, iu)uoni- 
paaied by the cxclniDatbo^ " Vou stupid fullow. why 
don't yo LI know?" Offfnccg were puuiuhed by tbe 
taws, or EL strukc of lliu rulcn TJic litLlu buye and 
girU, tchu could not pitll ihs maHer ojfhit teal durinff 
the injiielien, had their oars occasionally pierced by 
eharp-pointGd pcQS ; and for a serious oft'enco of a big 
boy, he weis placed on the top of a table nt one end 
of the room, crowned with the mastir'a old wig, all 
the scholars being enjoined, with arms at full length, 
to hoot anil hiss hirn, T/tis icaa morel trainiw/ ! I 
It certainly was physical training, but was it culti- 
vating the feelings of kindness, generosity, and for- 
bearance ? "Was it rendering pliysical exenjiaeg / 
mcdns ot intellectual or mural culture ? Tliuro v 
other pumsbineatg of a atill more objectionable T 
which need not he invnticmcd. 

We liad rewards, such as for repoatii>g the * 
psalm within a given pmod. I happened to 
of theao worthies, bnt tlie memory of won' 
wholly disconnected witli tho memory of i 
Ono entire part of the psalm could I n 
months afterwartla. 

At Candkunas term, when we made * 
offering, as a supplement to the qi 



raJUCATIOJTil. A\1J UOBAL ffTATISTICS. 87 

Wnges, each cliilil was rewn.rded according to the 
nraounfc givL*n. Tliere was a king — andfjueen,— who 
■weT€ the liiglieat givers, and were raised on an ela- 
vated seat, or permitted to march up mid down the 
whole line of the floor, on tfrs true priticipies ofm- 
rat training, to indulge in pride, andyanity, and gor- 
didaeas. Our fecUngu are stil! alive to tlio horror we 
then fi'ltj when witnessing one cliUd eating \i\s far- 
thing gingerbrcsad, and another hia orirage, while this 
rnyal procession moved along in all its dignity I 1 1 

It muat not be supposed that such prizes and pii- 
nishmentg are the universal practice io the ]irincipal 
schools of Sciitland now, hut, as iibeady stated, enough 
remains in nmny town and country schocU to render 
this statomeut not umiecc^ary. 

A t'rien'1. wlio luw triiiiieil Himwlf since he left Bclioo], thus 
nritea ; '• Your reiuarka fiii UiC iJUtinfiLiuD bctwLst irain-'Hij auiii 
teaehitui, or tgtliiig, I'cinind ma tliiit tlu; tmcMiig' «I~ inj early 
aeliuul clnys did nut even nniimnt to t-eUing. My first lesaiiu m 
fifitlmictie was in tbis wwi-. The niniitcr tmik my Klatc niid 
i-edivinf, and jotting dt)WTL riovcral rows of figuiica. ili-ew u line 
Linder tliciii, and, retnniiiiEt tlii; :4lflto, t*)lil me that tlicri; was n 
^Oiniit in nilijttiirii. Wluit fuyitlon WUh, I diil tint kijow ; Jic did 
nuit tell mo., and well I ftnitiulKr I darst no-t hhI? hliu. The 
answer wiiuld have lnjen a pindi of tlw eura, Sitting dtiivii Ijo- 
Biilu a liny gnmcwiint fiirllicr advein«<d, 1 in>i]uirL'd nbut the miLf- 
ter wanted DIB tu do f Put tliuac ti^'urca ^uj^eitiDf. suid he — -3 
anil 4 are 7, " and -3 ftl'O It* — put duwn noug'lit find cany unii ; 
1 alid tl am 7, A'*.",, and s'l I wiMii^lit my wny UirougU jriy first 
eieruist! in adilition ; bul tlie meiiiiin-; of sugL wards as fiahtnie- 
tion and" proportion I only li»iraed iiDg after leaTiJi^ the pariali 
achool. Our Icj^rtna iu pcligiou forinwl ttic dpiary vriprk of iirn 
Saturday, u-lien wi> faggod tjilwrittusly thrwugh tlic Shorter Cfl- 
l^cfaijiiin, Witliout nulc ur coranient, or aftytJiinrr whalo^'er but 
wonlH— words — Hurds, aud kluks umA cuS^ when tin) Encmory^ 



3 KDD01.TI0iriJ, ATCD MOBAL BTl,7T&TK9r, 

halted, and tronh vere awiuiting. Times without DUmbw Hie 

veputcd tiw Catechism from Ije^innin^ tu uud, vritliout iliii msa- 
ter e^cr attempting lo ffxplitui its mcnuing. It -n-iu ttic sama 
in roaJiag tlie Bible or any other boftfe. The Bihtc «,lir'Iftr wl» 
was cammendEtd moat, waa the boy or girl w\io oould wurk a to- 
lomltte pnssa^'e throagh tlio list nf ruiuioi) of " tlww that acnlcd " 
in the Ifttli cbaptcr of Keftaminh ; and I remciuber it iiacd to 
be *3n3flwlMit of II feat in sohoo!, to apell "Ilabaktult," glibly, 
in tliLH fiu^lilon, " An H, emd an A, ivuil & B, uml nn A, and >. 
K. and a K, and a U, and a K !" Ouu'h nLcmor; is t«unpiomi 
of wlmt occurred in school daj"s ; but I cannot tax mine vfith ■> 
BiDr>1e iiii^taace in which the ini»t«r [of a |inruchiji1 whml in a 
royn! burgh) ever, even by accident, snggcateil a. ihowjht to tha 
niinil of tis pupils.'^ 

By a Bnrvoy lately mads over the whole town of 
Fatsky, It appeared that, indepeadi?Dt of a rast Qum- 
ber of adults, nearly 3000 children above aLx or Beveu 
years of age were uanble to read^ and not at school ; 
and i\\n.i much of the educiitioa received by othDrs, 
was merely a smattering in evening schools, after 
bang fattgued by the diiy's work. The causes pffo- 
dticing tlto sad detertoratton ia the mannora and 
habits of this once intellectual and inonil town are toci 
Turied, to be analyzed here. Suffice H to say, that 
home training is extinguished, and ao school training 
ia provided. 

We subjoin one or two facta respecting the stata of 
education in Scotland, gathered from the official re- 
port presented to the General Assembly of the Church 
of Scotland in the year 1843, prior to the disru[)tion. 
Aa matters at present stand, the average of professedly 
educated persons among our population ought to be 
as 1 in 0. Now if we tako the Presbytery of Ha- 
milton, withiu nboau buunda J3.re ^me of the most 



extensive collieries and irouworks, it is res 1 in ^4 ! I ] 
Again, in Glaegow it is aa 1 in ^2^ and this, too, in jl 
city wliere tliere is perhaps a greater provision for tho 
poor ami labouring eloase^s than in any other id Scut- 
land, Such is the tnily lamentable condition of yur 
1 1 ighly- favoured and supposed well- educated ooaiitry. 
The fcArful immoral resulta we leavo to be analyzed 
elgg-wliere, 

The practice of teaching and of prcauliing to tlie Iriah 
peasantry in English — a language iii wUich they do 
not think, and therefore, one in which they cannot 
express their feelings, is now, I belioTH, generally <!on- 
demned. The same is now fi-lfc in regartl to the 
Highlanders of Scotland. Preaching has always been 
administered in their native tongue — the Gaelic. Not 
so, however, Scliool teaching. It waa *]^iiite common, 
till within these very few years, for children to ha 
tangbt to read the English Bible, one word of which 
they did not understand ; and tanglit, too, in many 
Instances, by tnaaters who were equally ignorant ! ! 
It is absolutely little better ty teach Engligh children 
to read their own language, when they have not been 
trained to undorstand the leading worda of each sen- 
tence thus read. 

Having presented severAl exaniplea of the kind of 
education in Scottinh schools, as mere specimeTia of 
the degree of culture exercised in oar boasted ednca- 
tional country, viz., in 1800— 1817— 1825— 183l>, 
and 1845 ; I ahnlt content myeelf with one from Eng- 
land, which, inielkciuall^f, is of 3 lower grade still, 
thLLu any I have witntssed at Xmrna, 



40 



, XDHCATIOITAL ASD MORAI' 9Tf^^TSnC9. 



A {sw yoan agn, I TiEiteil a bcIiooI in GnglniMl, taught on tli« 
iii(>nittn'ia.l system, and wiu iiitrMlucoil (o iLe- paasicr by trae uf 
tbv dir^ctQrs, wliu BtAtcd tliht lie vfiia a Vfry qujicrJiT foiurh'Cr, 
and had hia Iwya, tti the number uf at lua*t 3r'j0, in jpH«I ordpr, 
I fuuiid tlie arliuol, as aiatH, Jtt cxv:elk'Ut nrdcr. all hasy at Bpe]- 
liiig losamia, iir reading tho Scripturpa, On reivrliiii^ t]ii' high- 
eat tlnsa, ill cnrapany witli i\k iitxttt^r and dinietni-, I osbod t!n) 
fmrmijr uf 5ie etisr (jU'CstiuliCil tfw^ nchuliira on wEiat llroy read. 
He aoawerpd, " No, I havti no tinie for tliat, tint yuii jnay if 
you pleaao," I aaaiwrcd tim.t csi'ept wlnon ]ieraonaJly kuuwn 
toUlio teacher, I never qutisciomid children in anyseJiool. "By 
all means, do »o now if yiuu pkasc ; but (hsm thiijk-hL'nded Imys 
QlTliiDt Utidcntatld a tMjrd." I procoMl^d : " Boys, sllow mo 
when) you are reading ;" and t« du ihcni jusliii?, they nsad 
fluently. The aubjuct was ttiti utory of Kli and hia tnu eoiu. 
I oaiised the wliole at thorn to read the lirsL v^irep. — "' And Eli 
had two sons, Huphni and Phinehas." "Now, eliildron, dmso your 
txwka" — (presuming it imptiuiUc that Any error coidd be tom- 
mitted in such a pLkiri nairntlvii, 1 pmQ>eiHltd ;) " Woll— who 
was Eli ?" No answer. This queiitkn wa« too hif,dL, reqiuir- 
in^r an exercUc of thou^lit, and a knowEcdi,'c not to In found in 
the TCi'ae read, I thcn^fort' di-jaendcd in tlic scale, and procecfd- 
cd r " Tell me- how many sims Eli hnd !" " UgL i" " Had 
Ell any Bona?" "Sirl" "Open youc- btoks, if you pliriue, 
and iread agftlu." Three or fyyr read in aUcewaion, " And Eli 
had two sooiiS,'' &Q, " Now anuWer ino, bnys — How niuiiy sona 
had Elii" " Soijr?" *■ "Who du you think Eli wim f Had EU 
nnyBoua!" " C'ghJ" " Wjiahoamjiu, doyou tliink^ora bird, 
or a heaflt? Who do you think Eli wjia, childiim ;" '■ Sour J" 
" Look at mp, children, nnd answer lae tluiii — If Eli hftd two mio.% 
do you tiliflk hia twc. sms Iwd » father f™ ■" Sgor !" " Tliink, 
if you pIcaae^-Hivd Elt Ayrao-ns? W-glJ, sinra you cannot tell 
mc how many sons Eli had, how many dau^'htert* hnd he, tliink 
you!" Thretf, Sir.''* '-Where do you find that, children! 
look at youi" Bibles. Who tuld yuti lliJit Eli had three daugh' 
ten »" " Ugh !" Tlie director turned npon [us heels, and th* 



• The t^rpe nHTEOi, [.rerluuily so often ropeatpd, rli., Hi. Bojthnl, and 
Phinehat, weni tu tiaie ibed one ra; of light upon thslr intellactft. 



SDUCATIQffAL AND MOKAL BTATtSTICS. 



master sniJ, " Nuw™ Sir, dtdit-^t IictlyvM ihcvt/dhws c^vld not 
tiiider.sliiiid aitioni f^' .'!! ThLt I Xcrm iiCTl[)tHrs.\ rn'idinff — 
tliost' wliii tliEMisffl may term it scriptwml education. We admit 
the ^jriiicijilii! tbat no scliool or syatcm ought Co he jucl^eil uf by 
H diii^rle i^xliibition, or after n ti'ansionb iiiH[>cctiuii ; but licre 
tlwjrc cnb lao no niiiitaike ; for if thu liighes-t class of a. s^hiKil, 
consisting vt a iluECD boys ol ton to twflvo years of age, who had 
l^ail llie Sci-i[iturMi daily for ypain, could uiakn suth an npfMi'ar- 
ariR;. what are we tn cmipludt, hut Ihnt, in an fur oh rlieir iatel- 
Icx^tual or moral cullure was cwitL-mfd, h motU'red not wlietbcr 
the Scriptures, tkey rcail hud ln-tn printiHl lu Hebrew, or in 
thtir n<&t.liL'r tongiit ! I thought thU at iho tiuii' nn exlretnu 
OaBc, but atlerwarda met wilSi uu^ or tivu ximilur results in otLer 
gdUooIs. 

I BliU pntL-pcifpit, however, plt'iwiDg the tough wnpulvei'lscd 
clod of thtir utidewiamiiiig, till, at the espiration uC wveral 
inuiTlteS, ttiey v/iri MiilJi; tu jiorccJvB that Eli was a tnaii — that 
tiiia man Imd two scna — and thct tile names of these two soos 
wcru Ha[iliiii aud Pliinehiw. 

That the fuiilt was not Ln tlie cMdren, but in ths 
S79tem,was rendered appnraiit from the fatt, that I 
viaiteil auotlier scliool in the imroediate neighbour- 
hood, having the same cla&s of children, but taught 
on the tratmng ajatem, in which was exhihiterf by 
160 pupils (boys and girls), a. miiiuto acquaintance 
witlt Si^riptuFQ iiistory anil doctrine, and an enlarged 
and minute knovvledf^e of elomeiitiiry aclence; more- 
over, tlieir stylo of reading and writing, &€., waa 
quite equal to that of the other school I had visited. 
Tlie whole was conducted by a first and aecouil 
trained masLev, with a sUght infusion of the moiii' 
tori at system. 



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43 



FACTOItT BtATISTTCS. 



Thi^ is a sad picture of thestato of society in GIju- 
guw, witL Ua Cliurclies, Schools, I'arocliial arid City 
Mlssionaricfl, an-l a greater variety of jjliiUntljriipio 
inatitutioTia for llio improvempnt of tlie pfoplc than 19 
to be found petliaps in any city of tlio Uniteil King- 
dom, and proves thdt the Christian patriotism exlub- 
itiid io benevolent eActrts. parochial or privato, has not 
yet applied, tlioae means by which the evil m.iy be 
ciircd. Glasgow, except for n. mere fraction nf its 
populatioa, is etill witlmut t!io antidote by wliicli it 
can be tnorally and inlclltctually ra.ised. Wo have 
raojral machinery for the adult, hut we have not for 
the young, during at b&i^t six days out of the e&vvtL 
To restoTe, 13 the aim kept in view, not io j^rc^ent. 

By thcae reports^ out of C98 young men and 
women who were examined in tlio four factories, and 
drawn from all parts of tho city nnd subiirhs, 128 
nsver heard of ike nanm of Jsius, but from tlie mouth 
of profane swearers; andofthcso who had beard of 
his name, very many wore found entln-Iy ignorant of 
his d]wnity, or charactBr^ or work. Wo aro not to 
euppoac that thtae young persona are Roman Catho- 
lics, fur every person knows th&t what€VbE this class 
maybe ignorant of, the name of Jesus is welt remem- 
bered and often repeated. The Roman Cathohcehil- 
dren which were examined, very readily answered that 
Jesus is the sfcond person of Ihe, hkssed Trvtulif; but 
when questioned as to tkeir knowledge of some of tho 
Patriarchs, or Prophets, or Apostles, answers wero 
given auL^i aa the foUo wing i—^'ir, ire rfojiVfnwic any- 
i/iing abuut t/iese gentlemen. 



PACTOTIT BTATISTTOS. 



The JouTig people attending tlieas factories are far 
frnm being tlic Iciwcat or most neglected of tlie popu- 
lation, and we appreliend. tliese reports preaent a fair 
Baiii]il« of the state of educatien among n large pro- 
portion of tliQ working classes in tlie populous towns 
of the United Kingdom. 

Out of 224', or oac-third of the whole number who 
oonlil read pretty well, very few^ indcfid, unJerstood 
the meaning of tlio words tliey liail riaul ; ao that, far 
aU the purposes o£ ii-npfoveineiit, their reading could 
be of little servico to them. 

In an ordinary staiistical account of the extent of 
educiittoii, two-thirds of the whole nuinhcr, at tho 
least, would have hcen put dowu as educaied, whereaa, 
in autual fad, there was only a fractioual part. 

TiicsG young persons were very partiuula-rly exa- 
mined during til* month of January, lS+5, by the 
Rector and principal Mastera of the Nnnnal Semin. 
aiy, nssistod by a few of the older Studeiita and the 
foremen of each of tlie factorioa — in nil eighteen pcr- 
aons. The exaiulnatioii wra cnndmjted by cauaing 
each young person, apavt from the rt'&t, to rend a few 
verses of scripture narrative, after which they were 
questioned in tba plainest fiud simplest matincr pos- 
Bthle. 

The four factorios aro situated in scparjite parts of 
lliG city nnd its subui-he, and in dirRctiona north, 
south, east, and west of the Cfosb. They wore se- 
lected from others, simply because we knew thut the 
proprit'tora took an intLTeat in tlieir work people, and 
were willing to ascertain their real condition, both as 

D 



so rACKRT STATOTICa. 

lu tl<eir capaliility of rentling uid tlioir amount of 
knowledge. 

Tlia {irnprSetor of ooo of ihcsu footoriee engsg«|] 
dergrmcQ or miaslotiarie'S t« preacii to hm wurk 
people ODO eveiiiug in tli<2 week during a peritKl of 
BIX or seven years, Btid aetablisliod an L-vL>ning clasg 
for a sLort period to teach tliosu ■wlio cotiM not read, 
or wbo read imporfectly ; fliao a library of iittereating 
hiatorical, moral, And roljgioua biiokd. His cxprai- 
cncc is aa foll^jvvs r — At the weekly lectures a large 
iinmber attended nt tlic first, tut tlioy gradunlly di- 
liiintahedf until noQe w'6Ve found present to Ibtun 
even to the moat amimnted addresEcs, save a faw 
uf tha pious and well-disposed ^Lio stood tca^ in 
need of sucli Instnic-tion. Those ftir wliuni these leu- 
turcB were principally intended did not, and would 
not attend. Tlie frequent shifting* and ehnngings of 
many of the workers jrii a town greatly conduce to 
tbis ri^BuEt. 

In regard to tho evening class, teacliing to read, ftl- 
thaugh given almost gratis, presented no attraction to 
IbosB ignorant young people, and the nttendnncG was 
extremely limited and irregular. The library waa 
neglected because it contained nrs novels or politicil 
books. In fact, this gentleniaii found nil his efforts 
paralyzcfl, and is i/nit op to tJie conviction that wliilst 
intellectual and moral cnltivation mnr/ h« carried for 
teard to some slight extent in a factory, yet the ele- 
nieiita of knowledge, and tlic hiihit of uieistnl cierCis**, 
must be formed before tlio period when young per- 
^on^ may engage in a public work. Ab a factory pro- 



FiCIOKT BTiTlSTlCB. 



G1 



girititur, having about 1000 men, woraenj and ehi!- 
<]rca nbovt; tliirteun yenra of nge, employwi ami col- 
lected frnm vnrioua parts of the suburbs of Glnegow, 
I do nrit know whnt I can do to beueJit tbemia these 
rcSjiccts. 

"We are eati^fied, after the Tiio&t minute mventigiv- 
tion, thjit iiuthing esaeatial can he doiH! for the work- 
ers of factories aftiir the ppiiod wh^n they engage in 
work. Let Uf^iglators and jihilnnthropisti look to thit. 
All, OF nearly all, must Lb done for them before thir- 
tttn years of age, which is tho period above ■wiiich 
children may work twelve hours a-tlay. 

Children between the age of eight and thirteen 
mny work six hours a day, by relaya, or a double set 
of hanttB, Qich working six hours. This, kawezer. 
oup/it not to be permiit&l in a ChriHiati counlrtf, or 
at leaat in a euuntry in which the moral conditioD of 
the people is fyit to be of paraTiiount importarcc. 
Under tliirteen years of ago the who5e population 
ought to he at school forming corrQct moral and in- 
tellectual liabits, and eytahlighing their health aad 
uirength on a firm basis and by {>rupeT means. 

The evil of employing children at this early age in 
]niblic works is proposed to be ohTiated by restricting 
the labour to sEa lioura por day, and two hours of 
sehop] teaching. By thia we nndiorgtand it ig pro- 
posed that thoy be taught to read, write, and it may 
be, cast accountg. There ia under ihia arrangement 
no tirao fur exercising their uiiderstaTiding by pictur- 
ing out the meaning of what they do rend, and as to 
moral training it cannot even be attempted — there is 



neither the time nor llie opportmiity. Tlie mailer i» 
necessarily so occupied witli every individual cliUit ai 
iiia varied and ever-rarfing atagos in wlurh they all 
are, frum tlio Alphabet and Spelling Dijok to thft 
Bible and the ColIectioD, that his sole aiixi(!t,y 19 lif 
ffel through icitk their letaons. No BystttumtiBcourss 

can he atteinpted — no classifiL'atiqii can lake place - 

□either intellect uaJ aur moral culturo can be proceeded 
with. Bcaidea ia there no dangerof injury to health hy 
tnking thildrenfrom heated factory nioma, varying from 
fi5 to SO degrees and aomctimes higher, to a. school 
liouHe 20 or 30 degrees cohier? And what are two 
hours of school to accomplish in re^gard in these chil- 
dren beyond acquiring the mere sound nf words? 

This arrangement may succeed to a slight extent 
in some remote and secluded Yillage,, whtru the fa.a- 
tury propiietor owns a great propoTtion of tbti house- 
hold property, and where; from the aimplc manner^ 
of the inhabitants, they may be coatent nv-itli half 
wages for tbair children; but it does not do and never 
will do in townSj where the distant^e from tJie public 
works prevents the children from taking advantage of 
these Jieiay Factory SchooJg. And hesidea the great 
inconvenience to the factory so aa Seldonl or never to 
be ciirried out — the parents in towns aie too generally 
dependent for their Own support upon the wage^ 
which their children receive. They will not, and, X 
find, do not readily accept of the trifling waycs fori 
fiix hours a day. While we unnst condemn the prin-i 
ciple of employing such young children at all, to thrt 
DG-glect of their higher and holier iutereatsj we at th« 




PACTORY BTATTBTTfB. 

same time are satisfied tliat thU benevolent attempt 
to mitigate the evil must prove a fttilure. 

For factory cliildren above tlurteett years of age, 
wlio cannot read, and who are fully employed tlie 
whole day, evening; chiagsB are proposed. This pUn 
is even more absurd than the former. What progress 
in knowledge or in manners are we to expect fruni 
young persona hctwcen eiglit and ten in the evening, 
who have stood ou their feet for ten, eleven, or twolve 
hijurs previoiialy in a heated factory, worn out Ly 
fatigue, and the moment they are seattid half asle&p? 
What but hatlessnoss and hatred of learning? And 
what moral imptovemeut can he expected from hoys 
and girls of thirteen tu perhaps eighteen or twenty 
years of age meeting on their way home at night 
without any moral enpcrintcndencQ whatever, or 
without in mr]^ youth having received the advantages 
we propose of moi'al sehool training? We again re- 
peat that for tlitj improving of ihe young, width ar« 
in form the next generation of our country, Buch ar- 
rangements are as it were sowing hay seed and esptct- 
ing to reap cohIl It is literally nihUing at the surface 
and UEVei!' even attempting to roach the gnui'ce of ihe 
disease. The source or at least the strength of the 
d^easu hes in the carli^ formation of had habits, intel- 
kctual, physical, and moral. If so, then the antidote 
must he the eatly formation of good ones — which 
schouU, as at present constituted, do not and uannut 
accomplish. 



CEtAP. IV. 



UOBAL AitTt EDUCATIONAL STATUTTCB. 



It is a general belief thit ScotUnd oWea ita moral And 
mteHectniil character to tlie system of its parocliUl 
achools. We would not deny tliat they have had a 
share in produdng tlie results, Lut it is much smaltur 
than is gciieriilly iiniigined. The pnrochiiil acliool is 
only part of a more extended moral machine, the 
merits of whieh we are not called Upon in this pub- 
lication to dt&cuas. Tbey have had the effect of en- 
abling the chilli to read, write. Sec, and little mpre, 

I The moral and intellectual efl'ects upon the peasantry 
of Scotland were dependent on other causes, Pufficfl 
it to say, thai there never waa any sj'stem of com- 

' uiuoication painted out for the parochial schools of 
ScotiaaiL The Bihie must be rendered a sehool- 
book, but the maater is not required to explain or 
analyse it; and the Wesimnieter Assembly's Shorter 
Catechieni, with the alphabet printed along with it, 
must be committed tc> memory, it is not imperative 
to use any other books; and in some few cases the 
cbildr&n of remote parishes hare been co«fiaed to thcso 

I two as their only school "books, Tlio system, if sys- 
iem it can be cH,lled, that attracts the attention, atid 




UOBAL AlOt BDCCATIuJTiL SXATKTICa. 

which nieritg very bigli npprobatiun^ is simply tbta, 
that by law, in every rural parish (not in towns,) 
however $niall, tl^e iieritory ur Eanded proprietors are 
bannd to provide a gchooMiniise, a dwelling-house, 
and a garden, fur the sci^oolmastcT, with :in annual 
endowment of i^Sl, and for asaiatdnt or second paro- 
chial gchdola £22 a-year, to enable the master to 
tharge for Englifili reading a small fi'o of from Is. Cd. 
to Sa^ 6d. qxiarterly, from each child; other hraoches 
being chorgeJ, additional: btit the mode of conducting 
the ediitation is left entirely to the taste of the acliool- 
master. It may be the* tddcat possible rote eystem, 
or the most intellectual. Partial endowment and par- 
tial foes, fnrm the glory of the Scottish Parochial 
School system — not the jntellettuaJ character or -va- 
riety of the branchea taiigiit, or the mode of its oper- 
ation. This partial endowment, withhonae and garden 
for the schoolmaster, is a truly enlightened and judi- 
uioug arr,ingenii(?nt worthy of imitation, and tending 
to the perpetuity of tli^ mtians of edncalian. 

School-houses are provided for tt'aching, but th^re 
is no provision for moral traininff^ Play-grouiids 
(ur nncavered schools) are not altaehcd to the pa^ 
rochial gehool-houses; eonset^ncntly the teacher has 
not the Opportunity of superintending the children at 
play, OP of training them on their return to the cover- 
ed school, to the rigLt and proptr nnclerstaudijtg of 
their conduct towards each other during the intervals 
of unrestrained and joyous amugement. The variety 
of the ag(?s of hia pupils^ and also of the elementary 
branches which he ia called upoa to teach, does not 



afiurd the necessary time or leisure to do moro than 

to gH ikrvugk with (heir ietaQni^ 

m Ever^ teacher being left to follow any plan of hiB 
own, in some of thw towns aad oven in country dis- 
tricts, parocbial teachers are to be frjunit, particularly 
of late years, who, by their force of geiiiua havo pro- 
duced inU'lIigpnt anJ excellent schuki-s, and Ltit fur 
the; fact that the hontors of tlio puriah unifortiily re- 
fuse to alter tlia furuitnrc ind nrrnngemcnt uf thu 
echtml house or to provide play -grounds, tlieee en- 
lightened persons wouW long ago hftvo adopted the 
systeiH of training the entire child- In tht! ease of 
priYate teaclicra (having no endowment), the small 
fees pnid hy the parents do not enable them to pro- 
vide auuEi atcomniodation. Some clerg3''racn and 
other directors of private schools, however, have cheer- 
fully provided both. Until the nne parish school be 
Bubdividtd into at k-aet two or t!iree departments, 
each witJi fl aepaiatt! well-trained niaater, we cannot 
espect to have a perfect aystem of education and 
training. 

Without entering into particulars, we may state 
that the heritors, in conjunction with the minister, 
choose the teacher, and the presbytery of the n<?igh- 
bourhood examine his attaiiiinenta, and if ho be found 
incapable, may reject him; in which case the herttore 
must select another candidate. 

"While it is admitted that tha Ordinary week-day 

thool has failed in morally elevating tlie youth uf 
ST country, we mast assert that the real fault does 

'Ot rest with the tcacheraof schoola, but iu the pnrsi- 



MORAX. AND EDUCATTONAFj STATTEfPTOS. 

innoy aad prcjudko of parents aud tlie public at Inrge, 
who do uot value their sorvices as thoy ought, and 
tbercfore remuaeratG thcin oftentimes littk better than 
they would a common labourer. 

The etcmentary schoolmaster (lo[?s not etaiid in his 
proper position ia eodety; he tg not pgi"! according 
to the value of his office. No doubt the deinnud On 
the part of the poor and -workiiig da^aes is for simple 
^'•reading^iprkingyand counting^' without anyanxiety 
^vbeth^r their children can. 'or cannot uudurs^taud what 
is before them. Gut what shall we say of the middle 
and more "VFeaJthy classes of society who \\'illiiigly pay 
5s. OP 10s. for a single lesson for their children in 
music or dancing, and who grudge a mere triBe for a 
whola quarter's English teaching 'i 

After the parochial scliools of Scotland the Prus- 
sian system of national education, )u poiut of anti- 
quity, holds the next place. The Prussian embodies 
a larger variety of sulijeets to he taught tlinn the 
Scotolij and like the latter is deficient in sltiipHciiy or 
the mode of communicatioD, It is also defitricnt in 
moral training — both syeteius are suited to cifuiiiry 
districts, not to the sympathy of tmmfiers in towns. 
This is ehowit by tlio report of Cousin on tin? Prua- 
siau system, and by those who have spent much tima 
. — much more time tlian he did, in investigating them. 
In Scotland the schoolmaster, if he chooses, mcy ex- 
plain soriptuiG ^nd enforce it aa the hasia of moral 
training J bnt in Pmesia, the schoolmaster must not 
do so — all is lift to tho priest or parti<;iilar miuiater 
to wlnpb the party beloBg, and tliereforo, of n&oesaity, 



for wnnt of time mtui nppurtiinity, the inHtruction 
must be very formally and inipcrfoctly giircn.* Oer- 
inaa writers aru awaro of ILbso dcfBcis, anr| now 
strorigly recatnmcnd tliu iaxae priociplu as wo do our- 
Hclveis. Tho following ie from tlie Foreign Qiiarterlj 
lieriow for Nofeiiiberi 18+-4j KcTiew of " Bendke's 
Theory aod I'ractice of Education id Germany.'' The 
talented reviewer obaerve» — " This ia the fnvoorito 
distinction m&do by that excellent fihilanthropist, Mr. 
■ -, in Glasgow. ' Ta inatruct,' saya the northern 



phili)nt]in){)iBt, ' is companttiTely an easy mnttei 
retail dealing in special commoditiea, jl dexterous jug- 
gling with BO many balla ; but in orilur to educate yon 
mmt not merely instruct^ but you mnet train; to 
litiTe o.a educational diyetc^m at all, it must be a 'train- 
ing syBtcni.' Tilts is wiiat the inq;uisitivo trareller 
will find written in large letters in tlie lobby of th« 
Normal Seminary of Glasgow ; and to the aanjc pur- 
pose, tbe Ceiman tells us thfit melraciioti Jeals al- 
inoat exclusively in mere iiitBllectual notions of cxter- 
]ml dextt'rity, wliilo aiucation hsta mainly to du with 

* For exnnipJe, tlit Inti? Mr. Jwlin M'Crip. roi-tor uf ths 
GlBsjjniT Nf>rni»J Seminary, and an cxtvllcut Gcnimn scliolnrt 
was Bent l>y tLo ilirectora of tlie SomJnapy to truvol in Gcmisny 
and Fmnce fur nine infliitlis, in tlie year IS37, wiili a view ex- 
pressly to iLiWtfPtAin tLo wal tx-s.ring of tlie I^nisaion syjucro. He 
entered uii hia {lnli<» rtoji nfler Uis rptiim. atiil tiis d(wt]i look 
plnm It few monttiH Aftorwnrtls. Mr. M'Cri* stated, tliat iH 
tti&t wnfl ViiltmUle in the niixic ol' iniclJectuAl coiuuiuiucBlioa in 
tlic Pnmsian aysttm alir.itly existed in till- TiiLiuJiig Sjr-»tcia, 
and tlmt w(i iind gunii fur liefniTe tlicni in simplicity nod cDii.'ic'ncy 
— " in PiiiMia tlioy had not Moral Training, and an to MibU 
T'^riittinff it was not attpuaptcd." 



f 




UOKAL AND EOnClTIONAI. STATIBTICB. 



fill 



tJiB formation of the character, through the emotions. 
There ia nothing new in this, certainly, hut it is a 
great and imjiO'i'tELiit truth. A mere tsaeher does not 
do half hi9 work; lie mast work on tho heart ^nd on 
the habitsj aa well ViS on the liead of his pupils." 

*' A brain ia not the only part of a Loy; aod liis 
brain ia a thing qf hving growth and arhorescencej 
not an empty bus which an adnlt can ftirnis^h with 
labelled tickets of various arta and sciences, and then 
Bay, * My work is dune, behold an educated young 
gentlcraaa.'' " 

The groat end of all education, however mistaken 
aa to the means, is unqneationahly mural improve- 
ment, and wilh it iulullectnal imiirovcnicnt. \Vc 
knuw of no toUd ruoral culttite <ffhit;h does not pass 
through or carry the tinderBtandtng along with it. 
One object of our present treatise is, to show Uiat 
ithilst intellectual is nect^sBary to moral culture^, and 
therefore insepaiaWy connected with it, yet that 
they are distiottt, and thai inlellecliial cultivation may 
be conducted with no roo^ral imprOTemenl whatever, 
but even ihe ruverse. To have moral resutls, we 
muBt tread on moral ground — cultivate the under- 
standing upon moral subjects, and exorcise those af- 
ffciions inipUnLed by our great Greaiov, jiraclicaUffia 
the affairs of everyday life, upon, and according to, 
tho only standard of faith and manners, namely, the 
\\'ord of God. 

Two moans aro presented to tha public eye for 
these great ends — .teaching schools fur the young, and 
preacluog fiom the pulpit to both old and young. 



|(0 lIonAL aVD EDTCATIOSAI STATISTICS. 

T Imt the furmer has fnited, we believe no pricticjil 
{iliilanllii'opiat will deny ; nad tender aa ia the ground 
npon wbich wa preeume to tread, w« must State that 
*vo believe the latter lias alao faded of much which we 
might legitimately havQ eipucted. The former Iim 
failed, aa wo have ?een, from the uniotelleetual method 
generally pureued, and from its being at tha best moral 
teaching or tnstmction, and aot traiaing. The Itittcr 
liiis failed to a similar extent^ nut because the truth 
has not been faithfully told, but because the bearers 
liavo not actually understoiod what they did hear, 
SeriptUre terms are very frequently not understood. 
In nine cases out of ten they aro not comprehended 
by the: mass ofan ordinary congregation — a fact wbich, 
by investigation, we have proved to oiir own satisfac- 
tion a thousand times. In our training mode wo aay, 
*' a lesson ie not given till it ia received/ How then 
ean we receive the importaut lessons of the preacher^ 
if the terms on which the lesson reata are not com- 
prehended? Jlany clergymen liave expressed to ua 
their conviction, that they preached ov€r the heada 
of their people; and that they felt the necessity of 
coming down to the level of th«ir hearers, but that 
they found it a most difficult task to perfurm. Our 
answer haa been. Come down a little certainly, Mit 
bringupyourjuvenile hearers as qnieklyas you can, by 
iutroducingacourse of Bible training intnyour week day 
schools. Otig day in seven is too limited a courge for 
a subject so viist and important^ Give us laoral 
training, fo^inded on Bible traiiiing, for the yonth of 
'ir population, and we aliall soon have intelligent 



UOBAXj *J(r EBtTCATTflWAI. 9T1TISTICS. <?1 

hearc^ra in the sanctusry. Till then tlio vniuo of thu 
preadicr, to a great extent, must fall pointless even on 
many spiritually -Tisinded persons. It is a mclancliol)' 
reflection to think how little is rememTjered of many 
diBcourafs, exhibiting great talent — much labour in 
preparatiou, and wliich have been dclivereJ by tlio 
man of God after much secret prayer. T!io truth is^, 

OLir Bchoola have not been what they oiigfit to he 

nurseries for the Church ; aod tliereforo we presume 
to sound the aUrni. that even the ministry nf tha 
word fails pardy, becanee it is clothed in language, 
or rather mixt'd witli expreaaiona and scriptural al!u- 
Biona which the pcnpEe have not been prepared to 
understand. 

UftentiniGB tha 'whole meaningof a sentenco reeta 
upon one word as upon a. pivot. It la clear therefore, 
that should the meaning of giicli terms, or exprossiom?, 
ur emblemg, not he understood, the whole falls on the 
ear as if delivered in a foreign tongue. 

Simplicity is certiiinly tho highest and last attain- 
ment of a public speaker, whether frum the desk or 
from the pulpit ; and nothing tends so much to train 
one's self to the habit of being simple as to converao 
with the young and the ignorant. 

A clergyman of the Church of England, celebrated 
and highly popid.ir, complained to me that he felt his 
wcll-iiDished diacourses fall powerkasly on his people, 
and that he could not make himself simple enough. 
I took the Ithtrty of rccoiTi mending him to preath to 
tho young once a montli in tho afternoon— announcing 
hia deaignj and exprcasing a vnsh that the more ad- 



J 



62 KOKAX AMD XbCCAtlOhAI. eTATUTTC*. 

vanced in Eiga woulil alteml, whilo lio adi]r>e3s«il tlie 
juvenile piittton of tlio congcegatioD. He fullowcil my 
advice, aud in » yesr afterwarda, stated tliat hia 
" child " Uisconrsca wrre tlie most useful, ami tlio best 
UTiiIcrstood by all; and that he never failed in iiaving 
a very crowded and atteotiva audience. 

A clergyman in odd of the loWra of Scotlaad, and a 
furmer student says, "if I have aucceed4.Hl in cxprees- 
ing myself simply in my sermons, aud thus maliiingan 
impression uii my henrera, I lougt confess I owe it all 
to my course of training in the Normal Scmiaary." 

Another clergyman GxprcBsoa himself as follows : — 

*' First, I do decidedly consider myself Ijenefited 
by my attendance at the Normal Seminary, both, I 
am inclined to think, as regards my pulpit duties, 
and partieularly as regards my labours among the 
young. 

■' Secondly, I have no hesitation in saying that all 
young men studying ht the ministry would find it to 
he thoip own ititerest to avail tiiemeelvcs of the prac- 
tical experionce in teaching, wliiL-h tlie training system 
so well aftbrJs, in order to their future usufuhiess and 
success as teachers of the goapel both among young 
Aud old. 

'' Thirdly. I would aay that much has been dDQd 
within the Uat twenty years, for the intellectual and 
moral culture of the rising generation, under the va* 
rious aysteius, ormodiEi^ationa of systems, which have 
been auccegsively brought forward; and yet ivithout 
lit All undervaluing thsae (they ware generally great 
Bieps forward,) I would unhesitatingly eay that in 



none of them is there tho sauiQ security SO distinctly 
given for a sound useful education, as that which tlie 
iFaialiig system preaenta; a. system which 1 hope will 
ere long have granted to it ths pTomincnce it justly 
demBmld, and the beneficial (ind suhstantial effects af 
which 1 hope yet to see develoijing themselveH in the 
high iak'tlectual attmnments, and itproiaed moral 
excellcncQ of our people generally. Such hfiefly are 
the views which I am Led to entertain of that aysteiH 
<jf moral trainingj to advance which you have laboured 
80 assidaoualy and devotedly, You have not done bo 
in vain; the effects of it are oven now felt by many; 
nad I trust that ere long yon will havo tho happinosa 
of seeing it yet more suceeaaful. Of its ultimate soo- 
cess I have no fears." 

Extract of a letter from another clergyman, who 
waa trained at this Seminary about eleven years ago t^^ 

"flth N"h3v. 1S44. 

" It 19 With fcelinga of the greatest pleaaure and 
griititude that I look back upon those days I spent in 
the Glasgow Nonual Seminary. In my own cxperi- 
enee, I have felt the greatest advantages derived from 
the system there practised, not merely in tho fatihty 
which I acq^uired there in imjiartiag knowledge to 
children in my visitations, but eTen in my pulpit 
ministrdtions. My huitible opinion is, thmt n cerlili- 
cate from the Normal Seminary is as essentialj if not 
more so, tlian many of those whieh students are re- 
quired to have before license. I have introduced the 
training sy&lena into two pariah acbooU, though at 
first with mncli reluctance to the teachers^ yet after- 



n4 MORAL i-Vl) EDUCATIOyAt 5tATI9TTm. 

wrtrds with ihclr liigiiL-st approbation, and tbe nioai 
beueficiial rpsults. 3Iy kmiluat wisliea for you and 
your aealoug enileavoure for the moral and intellectual 
trsiaiDg of youth." 



SABBATH on eiTHDAY acHOOUS. 

The doplorablo ignorance of onr youlh, anJ their 
immorality, ]ed tothe tstalilishment uf Sabbnth schools, 
Tvhich, with some modifications, Itave chiefly religious 
instruction in view. Mucli good has arisen from these 
humble nnd unobtrusire semiimri^s, but the atnuitnt 
ia as nothing in comparison with the e^vils to be cured. 
The Sabbath school system is at beat a teacJdng on 
one day in peven, opposed tti training of an oppo- 
site tendency on the oth^r aix days of the week. Sab- 
bath schools have been incfficicnit in a groat measure, 
from the inexperience in the art of teaching of the 
great body of the teachers, and the too limited period 
of the attendance of tlio young ihbh, who so dieintcr- 
estedly have engaged in this Christian work. Just 
wheHj after a year or two, tliey have worked them- 
selves into some eflicient e3'Htcni of ooDducting thuir 
class, the parlour firetiide becume6 ioo strong a point 
nf attraction ; and should they happen to " marry a 
wife," they instinctively excuse themaelveg by saying, 
" they cannot come;" thua transforming ona who was 
intended as a help-m^t hito n he/p-hinJraitce. Very 
many children, without doubt, have been led to attend 
public worship in congcqueace of the insinictions re- 
ceived in Sabbath scliools, and through their institi- 
mcntallty many also have become true Christians. 



WOUAt ATcn EDnCATTOKAI. STATTSTICS. 



65 



In tpnllij tliG Sabbath school lias been by far the incist 
eScieat in.'stniment for "excavating" a portion of the 
heathen p^irt of tha population from tlie general tnaas 
of ignorauce and] i5epr[Lvity. But we arc apt to 
orerratQ the results and cnpabilltica of fi systeiu which 
has to contend not merely as oue Jay against mx daya, 
but the moru powerful influence of example and sym- 
pathy of companioBship of the sis days, opposed to 
the fiimpk ejcampla of tlie master anrl his instructions 
on the seventh. To meet the sympathy of compan- 
ionabip in what is evil, therefore,f wa must oppose it 
with the onli/i antirlotu, in addition to that of the fa- 
mily, viz., the s^mpathi/ of companionship ia what 
19 good, within the inHloaare uf a week-day tmiuiug 
Stthool, in which the mofnin^'legSons of the Scriptnrea 
may bo made the basis of the practice of th& children 
throughout the day, whather in-doora at leasona, or 
out of doorg at play» under the eye and superintend- 
ence of the maater- 



W"e may notice a large and influential class of tlie 
community, Tia. : — 

DojlESTJC Sertxn'ts. — The middle and wealthy 
claseea, who so generously subscribe tuwardg the bujj- 
port of ficliDola, and rejoice in the Chri^tiait nnd moral, 
and of course the social improvement of the poor and 
working clasaeB, are personally not uninrerestEd in the 
moral condition of those in humble life; for, from this 
class, their dompgtic servants, niirseg, &c., are drawn, 
who have a mightier influtiico on the morala of their 
children than is generally imagined. S.rvanta impttr- 



08 H«IUL AND EI>UCi.TIOKAt HtAtlBTICa. 

fectly, or rather improperly trained — ignorant — often- 
tioiea secretly vicitms, or doccitful — aorvnnts taken 
from the -very rMk of life, the evil condition of which 
we have been atieinptmg' to exp*>se, are not ftt auh- 
stitutea for ti parent id tr-iining cluldren for any pop- 
tiun of the day. Selfishqesa, therefore, even were ge- 
nerosity absent, ought to atiniiilate inAny who luve 
the time ami thd m&ans, to promote inoral irainirg 
for this claas of the community. 

We might give many exatnplea of the immoral 
training to wliich chijdrci are suhjected hy servants 
improperly liroiight mp, hut shall ahnply etate one 
or two ivhich have fallen iindar our notice. 

A mirsery-maid, in charge of a child of about sis 
nr seven years of age, was walking along one of tli& 
streets of this city, after a heavy shower of rain, and 
iihout ibe middle of the crossing of the Btreet, met a 
female acquaintance, with whom she entered into 
convcrsittinn. My informant, a lady, happened to be 
standing on the aide pavement with a friend, and uh- 
served all that pagged, A carriage came up, and had 
nearly run over the child, before tba maid discovered 
the danger. She inaiantly pulled the child down 
by the arm ; and to avoid the danger, dragged her 
alongi silken pelisse and all, through the mud, till 
the side pavement was reached, and then, shaking 
her fig£ in the terrified child's face, aaid, " Now, 
Mifis, you must tuU your mamma that you fell and 
dirtied your pelisse, for if you teE how it happened, 
HI knock your head, yon little ciilli/.''' The child 
]iad but ono alternative, tik., to save herself a beat- 



ing by telling s. lie, Or to tell the truih, and get a beat- 
ing from the nurac. 

Hero are moral supiirinteadence and moral train' 
ing wtt/i a wengearic-e ! Was tTiere nO need here foP 
a looml training schiiol for tliia child ? Is there nn 
need of sclioula for the moral training of servants, who 
have such influence in farraJDg the m^iTinera and prin- 
ciplea of the children of the weiddiy in early life ? 

TliG followinff also shows the bad training to which 
children are soraetimea subjected by servants. 

A lady of my Oijquaintaticie aays, that whilst bIib 
was watchful of her children's best interests, and al- 
ways eadcaToured to secure their confideuoo, for 
some time past, those of about four to seven or eight 
yeajra of age aeemed to look atispiciouely upon her 
when asked any questions respecting tlia roads they 
walked on witli [he nurse, when out with her profes- 
sedly to take an airing. One day tliis lady asked her 
childroQ if they had had a nice walk with nurse ? 
The children looked at one another — no answer. 
My dears, ttdl me where you walked? SliU no an- 
sicer. Children, their mother rejoined, are you afraid 
to tell mo where you weie ? Has nurse told you 
not to tell where yon were ? The children looked 
at the door, as if afraid the nurse might enter, and 
then at each other — but no anrtcer. Now, children, 
the mother daid, if nur^e lias charged you not to ttdl, 
allow mL' to say, I am yout best friend, and if sha 
haa threatened to beat you, you have nothing to fear ; 
I shall protect you, aud she shall not be permitted 
to toueh you. TelL me how inattera stand, for if it 



88 VOBAL AVD BDUCjLTIONAI STATlSTTina. 

be SO as I suspect, she shall not rcniciin m the house 
loQgcr thac till to-morrow morniug. Did Quree, in- 
stead of Laking a walk wUh you, go into a liouBtJ ? 
Tell me plainly, yes, thnorouAy, was the aaswer. 
Tills lei Lo the opening up of an amount, of deceit and 
lying, horillj tu bo credittid, and disclosed tbe bond. 
age under wliich the little ones were laid by one in 
whom lier mistress had perftci coofidence. In a great 
TEuiety of ways the nuraa had tbrfateucd ihs children 
in SHch language as the following, — You littk sluts, 
if you tell your mother where you were, or what I 
have done, or that I have said thia to you, / shall do 
far yov. ,• I shall shake r/ou to pieces. The lady called 
up the nurse, and gave her her leave. She -confessed, 
after muGh convergation, and soma threats, many lies 
she had told about articles she had used and destroyed 
— placea to which she had stealthily taken the cliildren 
— parties of her own friends she had had in the nur- 
sery, when her mistresfi was out visiting in the even- 
ings ; and that on these oecasiong many pieces of the 
sliver plate were used, and had been injured^ the 
causes of wliich tud not been b&foro dlacoveied. In 
fact, she found her children were being trained to de- 
ceit and lying, to a fearfid degree, and to a want of 
confidence in their parenta. The lady is a first-rate 
family trainer when with her children, and the con- 
clnsion is, tliat while the nurse may have been r^tt- 
ffiauily instructed, she unquestionably hvid not bi^n 
moraUrf tramed. She would not steal moneyj it is 
true, but she could steal the use of her miatress'B sil- 
ver plate — she could rub tbo cihlldren of healthful 



KOBAt ISP TUfWATloyXL STATISnCS. 69 

exercise, and destroy filial confidence — slio could tell 
a tie, And tram ttiti childreu to conceal [he deceit- 
Some persons may say, this ia a very trifling affuir ; 
could sottiL'thing more romantic, sinA ot a Jcejit^r cnstc, 
not liavG been arfdiiced ? No doubt it miglit, bnt wtj 
preTep to giva instances of Dvery day occurrence, and 
fundamental in Family training. If the fuundatiorta 
arc sapped and destroyed, what beoomca of the build- 
ing f If wfl do not take care of the Hlth», the larger 
will not be safe j or, as the Freimh minister said to 
bia BovfireigHf who wm expreSMng great care for the 
pounds of public money, ''Ploaso your majesty, if 
yon permit me to take care of tbe penca, the pounds 
will tako care of thom solves/' So it it in moi a!e — 
:so it is in family — so it is in school trAiciing. 

TIiG habit of purloininj ia painfully common with 
ecFTanta. Strict honesty is the exception, not the 
rule with them, STcn in respect of those wlio have 
been religiQusli/ inttructed. Tho reverse would be 
the praj:tice, however, bad they also been morallif 
trained., in other words, early trained to practise the 
virtue of liotiesty. 

PabTOHAL visits by OLEROyMEN AND MISSIONA- 
RIES. — To tha public services of the pulpit, family 
pastoral viaita ate felt to be next in importanco. 
ThesQ, however, while highly inflnontial as a stiaiu- 
laut, and productive of those kiadly aiid Christian 
feelings wbieh ever ought to exist between a pastor 
and his flock, and between tho minister ot & particu- 
lar parish or locality, yet tho distant opportunities, 
and tho utmost time that can be afforded, dn not reu- 



70 UOIUL wo KDCCAT10Ki.L WTA'nSTlCB. 

der this department sufficient for the direct religioTlS 
iuatruction of the p&opIe^ and certainly not for t>ieir 
mupnl training. They may give '' Iiere a little, nnd 
tliera a little," but they cannot "as ya wnlk hy tha 
way, as ye sit down, cLtid as ye rise up." Tho fami- 
ly-trainer anil tlie scliool- trainer, or ratlier botli com- 
bined, must fulfil that part of the Divine cinnmand. 

Were the moat faithful minister to wait upon auch 
faLiiilica once or even twice every year, whicli, in ordi- 
nary circuinstaBcee, is as much na he possibly can do, 
lie finds scarcfity one-third of the family at home, the 
mother and infant he may meet with, hut the father 
and the rest of tho family nre not at home. 

In ajjrlciiltural diatricts. the father and other adnit 
members of the family may be able to leave their 
out-door work and meet the paalor ; mot so in towns, 
where the largest proportiou are engaged in fnctnriea 
or workshops, erecting huildinga and other out-of-door 
employments, and in circumstances, too, ^vhere each 
JB, in a measure, dependent on his nt'ighbour work- 
men, and, therefore, whose services cannot well bo 
dispensed with. Without undervaluing ministerial 
influcncG in the pulpit, and by houseliold visitations, 
one iota, we would only rest vipon these as gr&at and 
powerful meana for Christiani and moral improve- 
ment, and muat argue that etill the '^ gap," by which 
youth can be morally trained, is unfilled up, which 
the training school nlone supplies. 

On the sauie ground wo aj-gue, that with the addi- 
tion of all the visits of elderg, deacons, ladiea' com- 
mittees, and tract distributors, the deaideratam re- 



HOBAL kVn EDUCAl^OK&L STAtlGTlcS. 



I 



I 



nuiLDS ill equal forci?, and leave not only arapia rotira 
for this moral ninchine^ but ivithout which, sotiely^ in 
towns, must continue to sink, as it hitherto lia^ 
done, and Christian parents will continue lo fiinJ 
tbuir eflorts for the moral training of their children 
in a grciifc measure paralysed. 

City Statistics. — The following notice appearud 
in one of our public journals just aa we were going 
to press, and la of uudoubtcd authuritj'. It presents 
only one of those pic(urea wbich might he preseniEd 
of the deraoralizing machinery now actively at work 
in largo towns : — 

" A eoiTEsponilunt wLo is Ijiiuiiiar wkli many i>f our locfll 
affuirs, resolved t* ascertain wliat numbpr of putiliii-liuuspH wetv 
OIX'D iw oertain streets of tb-i City, OH the evcliing of SuLbatll 
Jjiat, for the sale of intoxicfiting IhiUofB. Fitim tlie Cross to the 
gas-wurk, ho i;ountt:d fwi-ty-four wliuky-shojis open ; cii Salt- 
market, tWrty-twa; in CuLoii'gatt, from tbo Crosa to tlie 
Lflrracka, thirty-one ; in Tnongate, forty-nine : in Kin^ StnJM, 
eleven ; in BrjJjjGgate, tlilrteeti ; In OKI Wyntt, tCL ; giving u 
tot.ll ill theHC seven sfj-pets of one himdrcd and nuicty, ITe alnn 
founil tho lift e pawns (aTifiU [BiwnhrokKrs'aiiopa) dniing, aa UBUtd, 
8 good deal E>r liusiuesK, and Le nku Jusvrlbcs Lite nu'^tomE^ra in 
these jiUices il* chiefly boys anil jirls, who, afer duipO!iinn;of the 
urticles intruated. to them, spent! the proreoiiji en whisky, wbicli 
ihey cunvey to tlielr parents or gUardiatiS. TLla he very properly 
cnnsiiliirs lis a grcut scarce of duijwnilizatioii among the {luorer 
clnsses. The filthy cnnditic.n <if the Walitiea in whidi t^ach 
scenes ncpnr is also puhit'CiUy alluileii W., and ho Is anxiona tlint 
the attentioi] of the nuthuirities Nhmild bo directed tinranls tlietti 
without delay, in nnieir to product- sLirim dfgre* of piiriiication. " 
Suvh liD'tices Eiii^'ht be extunded a [lutidifid fbld, bnt this one 
suSicleiitly jiruYea thecharacter of the parties ivliii prcsont such 
temptationa and of th«so who 3n])]ioft find eiicourago tlieni- 
What but moral trsininjr achoola an; likelv to intln^nci.^ Buch 
boy* and girls ? And if nut trained now, what arc wc to es|icct 



HORAI. AND BDDCATIOHAL STATHITie*. 

froDi tlicLr vStayxing KlioiiJd IIiot iMwcm? ]%reiit)i '! wbxt but that 
tlia BucccL>diiig gt'ucrulinn shall Iw atiU cEccpcr in [irolKuity aod 
profligaey'i TlioiiP wlin nre really iwquainted with «in.'h eiilet 
AS Llvprptwl, Lnii*3on, Kilinhnrgh , nnJ MnntliMhT, mw^t lui^e 
witueaaed SuhbaLh ■cenefl of R truly revulfing amJ iirrtlan^ oba- 
riLcter. It is only of lat« jeara tlut Gloegow has presented 
nuch a ^lomfiilly open prDfiinity as appcnrB in thu fuR'going VX' 
tmct. 

We tnifil; we havo stated enoagh to ahow tbs 
necessity for the establishment of a new element in 
tlio education of the young, and especially in iarga 
towns. We might have given a lioat of facts uf a 
revolttdg Jind almost imcrtidibli; nature, in support of 
oiip argument — facts of a moral nnd intellectual kiiidj 
drawn from tlio personal obsfitvation of ourselves and 
othera — from governore of prisons, bridewells, and 
penitentiaries, and poor law unions, and with many 
of which the reader must already be familiar; biit 
more particularly might we Lave proBented facts in 
reference to the insuificiency of our present ayatera of 
school education, and of gcboolmastera employed, and 
tha actual ignorance and iramorahty of the yctiiAg, 
even of mere iafants, throughout tlie land, from the 
published repRrtsof herMajesty^s inapecloraof sehoola, 
commiasioners of poor law unions, and other conimis- 
siDuers, who havo heea appointed to invostigato the 
atato of the poor, and the meatal and physical condi- 
tion of thoso employed in the working of mines. 
These exhibit aa araount of crime, and ignortince, and 
immorality, hardly to he credited, and which, in 
fact^ we must have considered overcharged, had not a 
cloae personal investigation of thirty years, hero and 



HORA.L AKtt ^^^^TIuHAT: STATUTIfS. ?3 

elaewlierOt taught ns, that really the half had not been 
told. 

Schoyl training, commcTicing early, on tlie principlea 
here recom men died, ratght be the mcans^ in otir geme- 
ration, of altering the face of snciety. Let parents 
train their own cliildron it is said; we affirm the 
statement, with thia addition, at all timei, and on all 
occasions., toAen they can, i. e. when the^ are iBith 
them. Bnt if we hope to have parents capable of 
morally training their oftdpring, we ntust train the 
irAo^ youth of the preaent generatlou. 

Early school training wc eamc3tly contend for, 
before evil propfnaitiea are formed Into habits. Pre- 
Tenttun ifi better than cure. We ought to " begin at 
the beginning." Onr ohserTation of the working nT 
the training system goes to prove, that which we have 
alrondy noticed, that, if we talte its infiuence on un- 
trained boys, at 12 as onri, it will be Itco at 9 — -f*^^f' 
at 7 — eight at 5, and sixteen at 3 years of age- Thus 
a child at twelve ia aixteen titnea more difficult to 
mould and train than one at three years of age. So 
much for the opposing strength of habit 

If the neit generation of thieves, pickpoclieta, and 
other pG:3ts of society is to he diminished,, let ua have 
taaral trainhtg schools^ They will prove to be the 
cheapest police. If the degraded condition of colliers 
and miners is to he elevated from its gunkcn state, 
what can we bo effeotnally establish among them as 
training sehoah ? If we deaire that our orchards be 
kept from depredation, our miliogs and copestones 
preservod unbroken, and our statues and public 



WOKAt kVP EPDClTiaVli tTATUTICt. 

inoiiumeuts undefaceilj let us estaMieh training schools. 
If cleanliness is to be promoted ia th«' p>ersai)a, famt- 
liea, and habitations of the poor of our city-lanes, we 
know of notliiag that would he s*> tlioroughly iaflu- 
CRtiiil for its establishment as well as peminitcnce, an 
the univerjial plantation of moral training achouls. If 
the mass of our working po^mlmtiuD U to be morally 
elevated, what machine can y-c ao effettiiaily apply as 
tlio iraiiiiny schout? If the Church is to be suppliwi 
with intelligent members, can the pliilantliropiat pre- 
iient a more auitablo instrument than t/tet schtiitl for 
earfy training? We stand on the sure footing of 
absolute certninty, and provt^d cxjierience in times 
past, that no oiher ingtrnmcnt has been equally effi- 
cient. It is now a matti?r of fact and history, that an 
almost universal moral improvement takea pisce in 
Dvery school in which the training syatem baa been 
foiibfully cstabliahed. Good liaa no doubt followed 
even the ordinary fichool, particularly those beld 
on the Sabbath, and of course the preaching of iho 
■word from the pulpit; but this last faiU of thrce- 
foiirtba of its legitimate power, from the untrained 
understiiiiding of the hearers. What is more, the 
Church ia robbed of tens of thouaands who ought to 
form its uiombers, nay, whole masses of the commuU' 
ity, who have been trained to any and every thing 
but a reverence for Qod^ his sanctuary, or hig holy 
day. The country is possessed of snfficiesit materials 
for conducting the moral training of the wliola popu- 
lation, but tlio status of the achoolniasfccr must he 
raijiie'd and tkey must he trained to the art. Money 



MOBAt iKD EmWATtOHAt WATIfiTTtS. 

and time alone are wautiag;to prepare a. host of Chris- 
tiati nien for tliis noble and truly patriotic work, We 
speak BoTjcrly, wo liave made the oalculation, and are 
Satisfied tl>atj without an effort, and that in tbe eJU-ly 
training of the young, our pupuLation will continue tu 
eink in tlio scale of morala. Should we coutinuo to 
niliblc at tha mere aurfaco of things, and eXp&nd onr 
en6rgii?s on partial reniodies, which never reach the 
BOiirco of tiie disease, the iinder-current now steadily 
a,t work in our nation's economy, 'n^y break forth 
during some period of commercial distrces, sufficiently 
apparent and overwhelming, 

The existing means of Iraprovenient are not oquiil 
to the wnnta of the adult population, the amount 
therefore cannot be diminished, howover differently 
in some points it ma-y he directed. The energies of 
the country are too exclusively expended, however, 
upon [lie old (theleast hopeful of elficient results). In 
the meantime, the neglected youth fill up the ranks 
year by year, H& unimpres&ible and hopeless as tlieii* 
predecesaots. Lot us no longer pay such exclusive 
attention to the criminal or the juvenile dmliuquent, 
let us rather try to prevent than to eur$, and ahonly 
the esereisea of such benovolence and humanity will 
be comparatively imnecessary. Let US watch the 
opening buds of wayward find sinful davejopoment — ■ 
direct the tender twigs of thoiightj and affection, ami 
habit — pluck up the weeds and prudently nourish the* 
roots of nil that is amiable and virtuous — infus'mg int(* 
the minds of tha juvenile population — and into tlicir 
fife Cliristian habits— and then may wo hope that 



I 



MOHAt AWD BDtrCATrOXAl STATISTICa. 

housoe of refitgo fur tlicjse youtha of at le^cist one crime, 
prisons for tbu more hurdenedl and a1jandoni;d, atid 
nigUt asylums fur tUe wanclorer, ra*y be iinneces- 
aary. Tlie results of t!io training syatom in tha model 
Bohnols of our Beiiiiiinry, fully bear U3 out in these 
aaticipatioua. Were tlio LegislaLure only convmced 
of this fact, tlio mora] machine miglit iooti be in oper- 
ation. The will has been rcpeatadly eihibited of latei 
years — Gnvemment unqHestionaWy has the moans. 

Nothing ghijrt, indued, of a. public grant fur tlia 
GsiDiblishriieiit of training schools, fully equal in extent 
to that given for the emancipation of tlie West India 
slavea, (wq havo made the calm and arithmetical 
calculation) wiU over emancipate the moaa of the 
town popidiUioH of Groit Britam from the opsrativt 
caiues of titeir preteui and progrexaim moral dograida- 
tion. Jiiila, bridevrolld, penltentimea, aod hauaes of 
refuge aro all vcsry u-^eful in their w,iy, and ah^fdiitely 
n0ces3;iry \w pr&SLfnt cirGitrafltances; but they gi> not 
to the root of the enl — they are at best restoratives, 
not preventatives. Training achooU alone, on Chris- 
tian prlnciplos, aad commencing early, by the blassing 
of Qod, can accomplish the work. Tnking tha loweat 
estimate of the advantages to be gitineJ, twenty mil- 
litins sterling advanced by the State would he amply 
repaid by the rodnction of crime, and tlio additional 
peace and a&curily of the whole community. 

Thia amount would certainly be required for the 
mere purchase of school training grouads in sititfthh 
ntualiQiis for th>e mass of tlie people tho CTOotion 
of buildings and a paninl endowment^ bo as to bring 



XOBAL UTO EDDCITIONJX STATWTIC3, 77 

ttie fees within the teaoh of the poor and working 
classes. 

This Bum may startle those who are unaccuatomed 
to view education In its real charnoter anrl bearing?, 
and the opposing principles of opatby and vice it haa 
to contend vrith, in the wide-spread rural districta of 
o\ir country, but isspcciiilly in large towns, wliich arc 
at present the liot-beda of crime, ignorance, and ia- 
subordinadon. And to those who have fotnigd their 
notions Ircilii the aspect nf calm ^ecluaion in the par- 
lour or in tha nuraeryj the necessity fur so mighty an 
expeuditurtj in providing moral machinery, mny ap- 
pear strange. But to those who have been accustomed 
for twenty or thirty yoara tu viait the abodes of 
wretclifldnesg, and crime, and ungodHneas, so fearfully 
general in our city lanes, and even in our rural dis- 
triotB, such a sum, and such a sacrificcr, on tlio part of 
the country for it9 moral renovAtion, will appear stnall 
indeed. Did wo aay sacrifice? We ought U(^t. 
Twenty millions sterling, thua expended, would prove 
an incalculabk blessing to the wording classes, and 
would be thrice repaid to Government in their SU' 
]ieriup indu3try» aobri<;ty, and good ordee. 

We will venture to predict, tltat not many yenrs 
will elapse ere the present calculnLion will be consid- 
ered quite too low. Onr legislators propose thou- 
sands, when millions are needed, as if a city on fire 
could ba Extinguished hy a few buckets of water. 



CHAP. V, 



BVMPATaV OF HUUBEHS^TKAOBlNa IS SOT TBAIWING — THK 
KBCB OF UABIT. 



flTMPATHY OF NUMBEKS. 



It must strike the most cursory observer,' that there 
ia a mighty influence at work in large toivna, which, 
comparatively, Is imt to be found in. the rural dis- 
tricts. Id the country, moral training by the parentis 
19 in a grent racaeure practicable, where the child, 
iieiirLy free from companionship, follows hig father at 
the ploughj or his mother in the dairy; but it ia 
widely difter^nfc in towns, with tlia father in the work- 
aliop or the factory. The mother, also, ifl 80 oooii- 
pied with work and household duties during tbe day, 
as scarcely to be able to pay any a£t&Dtion to the 
moral training of her children, even were it practi- 
cable to keep them confined within the compass of n 
amatl dwelling, perhaps a garret or a cellar. The 
st/mpat/iy of numhers is an influence, mighty either 
for good or for evil. At piesGnt, with the young, it 
ia all on the side of evil. To lay holJ of this prin- 
ciple and turn it to good, is the great desideralum. It 
is not enough to eay to parents, train your chiidreti- 
How can they train them if they are noit witli them, 
but leare them of necessity to the training of the 



TKAIKlTfG BTSTJBt. 



79 



gtreets? Out object, tliiereftire, lias been to render 
the sell oolni aster a moral tr&mer, when parents can- 
not be witli their cliildr<!n, and thus tu direct the 
sifmpiith^} of numbers^ out of iloora as wdl as at the 
flreaidc, into n nglit and Chriatian channeL 

But it is atatfiil — Why propose such a change in 
education as implies that the old schoul-huuse ia no 
longer fjttttd fur the purpose? Our answer ia, the 
(i!d school, at the best, only taught or trained ihe in- 
loUett of the child, aud made no provision for Lm- 
provuig his moral and physical liahiia. This import- 
ant object, as -n-e have already shown, requires a 
gallery in sf^hool, and a contiguoua play-ground or 
nnconered ecliool-roDm, for the moral developmeut 
and training of the children under the snperinten deuce 
of the master. 

Why, it may be asked, at this late stage of the 
■worM, introduce moral training i» echoolj when mo- 
ral instruction and intellectual instruction have hith- 
erto done ao well ? We anaweT—Educatlon hitherta 
has not done well ; upon (he whole, it hog made but 
a slight moral impression on society. It has done 
little for itg moral ebvation. Take away family train- 
ing and aslf-tramiiiff in a few instancos^ and what 
have wa left that school education has accomplished 
in this respect? Marvellously littlo indeed, Read' 
ing, writing, and arithmetic, are Imagined to he sove- 
reign remedii-3 for tlu; eviU of the youth of large 
towns. TVill any Oiieacqiiainted with the mora! con- 
dition of this novel, and to some a fearful, state of 
society, for a moment conclude, that the fcnowkdga 



BO 



SYMPATay OF mrKBKBS. 



of these art?, with mind and habits totally untrnincd 
othe proper use of tliom, tvcr ciin niornlly elevato 
tbe sunken maascs in such cilies as Manchester, Glns- 
govv, London, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Paisley, Bir- 
mingham, and Dnnnlet", suukrn in mind and mannera 
as thousands in these plac^ are, withuut any meana 
that can reach or are talculatyd lo impre&s them ? As 
well might we hope that by sowing hay-seeiT, we 
should reap com. The ulil syeteui may do, to far^ 
for rural districts, but the tminiajj aystem \s rcquiiitte 
for the mor;il elcTalion of society in towns and mnnu^ 
fflcturiiig TiUiiges, 

Iq the training school, children, of whatever age, 
when ft-oni under the eye of pareats, who are cngnged 
io various occuifations during the day, arti kiiipt fram 
the evil compauioQship of the streets^ atid not nieruly 
taught but trained io a moral almospbero. 

Example, indoed, is more powerful ih^n precept ; 
hut gpinpaihy ia more powerful than cither, or both 
combined. And when example, precept, and Bym- 
palhy combine, as in boys of the same a|*e, an influ- 
ence is in oporalion, eompared with which, tha ex- 
ample and precept of pareuls and guardians are ren- 
dered comi'iiratively powerless. 

The power of the syiupathy of unmbcra is felt every 
day in politics, in religion, and in vice.* Our towns 
ara the centres of polititsi power, religion ia apt to 



• "We arc nil nwivrc whitt n |i&ffcrful influtnw the aynijiatLy 
of numlicrs Iiab in ei crowttuJ meeting, hnWi rrn fipciiken and 
Loarcra, ami the oliillhip ■effect ol' tlip Qppysitis cDuilitioii, even 
when tkiitli, Dull uiLmUifs, la iutcnded to sw^y the andicaco. 



cool without DumLcrs, and vice is most prolific in 
city lanei and the busy haunts of men, The same 
liolda Irae in the training suSion] giillery for inteUect- 
Tid anrl moral culturB, and in the play-gruutid for 
moral (level opinent. In both^ the sympathy of num- 
bers is a most powerful influence fur good or for evil, 
according as the chiltiren arQ or arc not properly au- 
perint^aded and trainod by the master. 

There ia an intellectual and :l morul syiQpn.thy tbiit 
children feel with those uf the antue age, which id do: 
felt by the members of a single family. Other syni- 
patliiea are indeed experienced in tha family, whiclii 
no school can possibly furnish j yet intelleutually, and 
even morally, the school la a necessary and piiwcrful 
auxiliary. In a family, the hoy at twelve sympa- 
tliizea not with hia brother at nina or ten, and aliVt 
leas with his sister at seven or eight; he naturally 
chooses for big companions, at any game, oi for any 
pursuit, whether innocent or mischievous, those about 
hia own age, and makes the choice from g^/mprii/iif. 

In conducing a lesson wiili half a dozen children 
in a class of different ages hke a family, tlio queBtiou< 
iiig must all be individual ; whereaa a gallery of 50 
or 100 of nearly the same age fanilthe nearer the bet- 
ter), the questioning, and development, and training, 
may he conducted chiefly gimuitaneaimly ; and thus, 
whntev-cr anawars are brought out by the trainer, 
from one or more of the children, can be made the 
poseesaion of allj so that every one may learn what 
any one knows — thus diffusing knowledge more wide- 
ly, luii] the variety of natural talents and diapositiona 
F 

I 



TRUKiHO' mnv- 



^_ CO: 



operating faToiimbly on all. A eimilar effect takss 
place in the moral devulopm'enl of disjjMitions and 
habits in the play-groundj which may be noticed by 
the trainer on the return of the childrefl to the schouU 
gallery, and when again the ejinpathy of numbers, 
operates favourably in applauding the gooci deed, or 
condcnming tlie misdemeaaour. Tbere ia a power, 

erefore, in numbersj not experienced in individual 
teaching or trainingj and the play-ground arnl the 
gallery conjoined, und^r proper management and sn- 
perintendeace, afford ihe most per feci sj/mpaihi^. 

"We might pres&Dt examples witliont end of the 
power of the a^mpaihj} of numbers. Every person 
feels its influejace in the chureh — tho public meet- 
ing — the place of public resort — in music — in politics 
— in private and social life. Good and evil are alike 
promoted by its inflnenee. 



I 



TEACeiNO 18 SUT TBArNINO. 



Little requires to be said on this particular head; 
as much of the scope of the argument for the ayatem 
under consideration, lies in this important distinction. 

Teaching i-s simply telling> and when not iinited 
with train.lTig ia ^eak, because it stands aJunej whea 
conjoined, however^ the effect i& powerful and strik- 
ingly manifest. 

Training may either ba iNTELLEcruAi, PoYaiCAtif 
fir MoJiAi,, Intellectual training may be carried on 
distinctly and separately — so may pliyaicftl; but mo- 
ral IraiQing, while it in a great measure includes tbe 



TEACirraG IS NOT TRAINISa. 



8;^ 



other two, yet in itself is a more elevated cuUiration 
than [jither. 

The distbction between teaching and trainitig 
might be illuatrateJ in s thousand forms. Aa a ge- 
neral principle, whatsTer a child refuses or negleets 
to do, lie ought to be made to do, aud this is best ac- 
cumpliahcd by the trainer or partnt, calmly, yet 
£rmty, ordering the child to do the thing under his 
own imraediate snperintend€nce. 

A cliild may be clumsy in his manners ot diaoiderly 
in hia liabits. For example, if inatend of hanging up 
his cap on the proper flail or peg, he throws it vn the 
ftoor — hft it who may — cause the boy to lift it /mn- 
self and to pliice it calmly on the peg. See that he 
doea this properly and instantly, on leeeiving the 
command, and repeat the dose until he acquires the 
hahit of doing bo of himself. 

It ia recorded of Dean Swift that he had often been 
tmcking his servant in vain to close tho hbrary door, 
when she left tho room. One day she entered her 
master's study, and requested permission of ]iim that 
she might go to the marriage of a friend, a few miles 
into the conntry, which waa granted. The doorj na 
usual, was left open: annoyed at this, the Dean per- 
mitted the girl to leave the house several mtimtes, and 
thun ordered another servant to follow, and to say to 
li^er that her master wished to speak with her. Sho re- 
luctantly obeyed the summons, and returning in great 
haste, inquired what her master wished to say. The 
Dean calnjly replied, "Oh, nothing partieular; shut 
the door." What teaching had failed to do, training' 




in tliia inatanoo fully accomplifllied — the door was ever 

afterwards properly closed. 

A parent or BchornlniaBter, who trains properly, ^rill 
of coureef in tlie first instance, check tlio more obvi- 
mi3 faults of hia children, and not nibble at trifled 
This ia a fundamental principle in nil Iraining. The 
less apparent faults he will take np at a subser|UGnt 
period m they are dcTe]ajjed,and thus gradually nioiild 
and polish the character. A schdolniaster or a parent 
who does not occMionally join in the eporta of bis 
children may teamh^ bilt he certainly cannot morally 
train, neither can the one nor the othar intellectually 
train, until by condeacension and simplicity of speech a 
mutual sympathy is felt. The parent or echooIniEia- 
ter Btoopa a little without loss of dignity, and tho 
pupils are partially elevated to hL& standard. 

Wc may mention a few of the evil propensities and 
habita which the parent or trainer of a echool ought 
to restrain and suppress sa they are developed; 
whether mental, in the school gallery, or practical, in 
the school play-ground, via., mdenese, aelfishncBa, de- 
ceit, indecency, disorder^ evil-Bpeaking^ cruelty, want 
of courtesy, anger, revenge, injustice, impatience, ca- 
Tetousneffl, and dishonesty, ao fearfully general in 
society. 

On the contrary, sjll the amiable feelings and Chris- 
tian virtuea must be cultivated, such aa — speaking 
truth, ohedience to parents and all in lawful autho- 
rity, honesty, justiWt forbearance, generosity, gentle- 
neas^ kindneeg, fidelity to ppomiaee, courtijousness, 
habita of attention, docihty, diemtereatedness, kind- 



TBACOINa la NOT TRlIHI.tO. 



fla 



I 



rit'95 to inferior animals, pity for the lame, and tlia 
distressed, and the woak in intelkct; and in genera!, 
doing to otliers as we would wisli to be done by, 

Such evil projiengidea must be subdued, aad mond 
habits formed, not by teaching, but by training. We 
cannot lecture a child into good manners, or cliangu 
Imbits of any kind by the longest speech. The phy- 
sical, intellectual, or moral hubit^ ib only chnngod by 
a 8ucc€a93on, or rather by a repetition of d/tJinys. Obe- 
dience — instant obedience, ought to tie the daily and 
lioiirly practical lesson iu every department. 

For thp consideration of politiciaaa and philanthro- 
pists, Wo remark, in regard to the effects of moral 
school training in comparison with mere teaching, 
that, of several thouaauds of children who have at- 
tended tho model schools of the Normal Seminary, it 
is not known that a-ny one has been accused of crime, 
or brought before a magistrate. This is particularly 
noticeable, in respect of one of the modtl acliooU, 
which for seven years waa situated in the Salimarket 
— the very centre of vice. On the contrary, a large 
nnniber of these cliildren are now grown up excellent 
characters. 

In the play-ground of tliia institution, notwithstand- 
ing that two hundred children daily amused them- 
selves under no phyeioal restraint, email Fruit, such as 
strawberries and curranla, wero annually permitted to 
grow tinil ripen uutoucJiod, Some little rascals /rem 
witkaat ivcre the ou!y depredators, and when a thief 
waa occasionally seized in the act of ate^iling a flower 
or a borry, the master brought in the stranger culprit 



Iiefore the gallery^ wtibh furni&hed a suitable text for 
n triiiTjing lesson ; — the whole scliolars sitting as 
judgtis. Teacliiag does not bdiI is cot calculated to 
produce audi results. 

la consequence of the pupulation not being morally 
and mrl>} trained we mny look at ihe fact, thttt in 
Loudnu upwards of 3000 pohcemeTi nre employed for 
the metrnpolitan dUtricla — even the city of London 
proper, having a population «f 50,000 souls, rer[uire3 
501 policemen to keep them in order and protect the 
property of the citizens. The country hnsapent half 
a million sterhug in the eatabliahment of Millbank 
pi-iHQO, Wcatmioster, and other large sums for tlio 
erection of prisDU?^ as^ylums, and pcmtcntiiirics, as a 
means of restoration from crime. What a mighty- 
revolution would take place in these ingtitiitiona were 
moral iraming introduced.* We have plenty of in- 
stitutions for the correctian and punishment of crime. 
The training system ia the only CEnxAiN provonlive 
■ — the only one approaching to an accordance with 
family training — and the most certain means of eventu- 
ally elevating the tone of hmne education^ when ench 
well-tr^bined children shall have become the parents of 
a future generation. 

The very tertii Training is objected to. What we 
mean by training ia, causing {he children fo do^ whether 
doing be the exercise of the heart, the understanding, 
or the haad; to exercise the mind or body in a natural 



TBJLCHINO n HOT TKAIMINS, 

maniiL^r; lo clieck what is wrong, and lead to what is 
right. The world 13 quite satisfied that this !erm refers 
to physical movements, and it does not seriously ohject 
to its also referring to the externa! moral coudnct ; but 
most peraoTia are up in arms when we state that tra'm- 
iTig,t\\.nii3^d(}ing^ is as oompletely applicable to the in- 
Celleci; of a child as to hin physical and moml powers, 
to hia thougbte and feeling^ijis tu his outward actiooa. 
In fact, that training, not simply teaching or ingtruc- 
tiorij is the natural and appointed means of improving 
the wkoU man. MnTiy will not listen to such idea^, 
but instantly say, " What ! ig not prayer tba ap- 
pointed means ?" We ajiswer, prayer must accom- 
pany the me&na — God'i own word is the inatrumeTit. 
To work without prayer is impiety, and to pray with- 
out the use of means is presumption. We cannot too 
highly appreciate the power of habits, mentjilly and 
bodily. Some divinea are not always in Unisoti with 
the Scripturea on this point. Thoy aeom to imagine 
that to impart meTe knowledge ig enough. But the 
Bible Gays, " Add to virtue knowledge." In other 
words, that we know when vf^do. And again, " He 
that doeth my will &hall timif." 

These and other paaaagea prove, that it is training, 
not instruclion — actual doing, not teaching — to which 
the promises arc attached ; and that practice doea 
not flow from prineiple, in the popular sense of the 
idea, so much as it accompanies it. Practice and prin- 
ciple strengthen each other. In fact, nior.illyand in- 
tellectually, aa well ag physically, we only know a 
thing when tee do It. I only linow bow ta think, or 



THUKtlfQ ftgTRS, 



ape&k, or move my limbs, when I do — when I have 
acquirt'il tiio habit.* 



* The following Etatistits ought to have ■ppeonid in tleir pro- 
per plncc ill a previoua clinptcr. 

Tlie Hu1>jriLUCil fcatful aceount is fitiiB ttiD R<^po^t of the BajoJ 
CutaEaiss-iun aEipomtcd b-jr PArliBJuent to iniiulre into iht stKts 
of tlie pBi-aojia employed in mines ami collieries. — " Of the y oun^ 
jioopio cKumJoeil lu Cuuik-rland, the Sub-C^mini^Loue'r etales, 
Lliut the evti^eDFc of thc^ child Joliti Ilalmcs {S22] is & tory fair 
auQple 6f tlie general state of cdiiejition among thc^ bonight^d 
cliiJdircB, ' I don't go to Sunday school, bccAuso I don't like, 
au\l Vd l-ftthor \i]ay. I tlactl to rSad tkc Tc^tUut^ut. 1 don^t 
know Tslio Jc^cM- Ciiriat is. I never heard tell of God neither 
(one cSiild siiid h« had, for tUe ititii damned ;it him very often). 
I am taught to aay ray [»myfre, and I sa.y tliem. I don't know 
wlio Ipriiy to.' " (Symons, Re[>ot1 — Mines, Apii. Pt. I., p. 3U3, 
sac. ii.) 

Again, T«[>Mting Wolfcrhwaptcn, the Report adds, " Of tb* 
atote of GonfaBiim, whi^n nnt in absalnte diLrkneas at to religious 
BuljjectH, in whitih the mlnda of thisK: (.hildri'n aj*, even Hiotujh 
ilnsy have lean in regular attetidanfe at STindiitj schaoh fhoji 
FIVE TO SBTEH TEing, the foll^winfi; arc exa(nplts : — " ' Una at- 
tcnduil Sunday sctool five year* ; dws not know ivho Jeaua 
Christ Was, hut bus heard the name of it ; ne^-r iieurd of tlie 
twelve apostles; never hcnid of Samson -^ uor Junnh — nor 
Moees." {Jforae, Kejiort. App. Pt. \L, p. 2, 18. see. 214, 213, 
317. Ihid., Evidence, p. 30, 1, 33.) 'Ens attended Sunday 
school ncjarly six yeai-a ; knows who Jesns Clirlst waa ; he died 
on the erofts to sIil-J hia blood to Buve >oiii' Sfi.>-iour ; novtit heard 
of St, Petor tjr St, TauL' (Ibid. p. 3fl, 1, 48,) ' Hag attonded 
Siindnj schoola alxiul sevea yeaiB ; can read only in lEieii" books 
' — easy words of Ditu &yllable ; has heard of tho apostles ; does 
nut know if St. Peter was one, nor if St. Joilm was ore, unleaa it 
waa St- ilolin Wcaley ; does mit know any thlnj^tatwuil Jub ; aeTsr 
lieard of Samson.' {Iliid. p. 34, 1, 5S.) Wlicn tins name of 
Joans Chriat has been heard, eitraoi'Jiunry desecrations «r cOll- 
fitsiona, the ivsuU iif [giinr«nce, have been developed. One boy. 



THS tORCB or VABlt. 



90 



-TBIE FORCE OF H&BIT. 

It is scarcely poygilile to dosBribe tlie forco af liaLit 
fully without being charged with firer- stating its 
infln&nce qd mankind. '•Habit" h eaid to be "a 
second luiture." This is true ; and Scripture fully 
recugTii&es the priociple and its power ; e-ff.., " Then 
may they who are AccUSTosiED to ih evil '* (or are in 
the habit of doing evil) '■^ learn to do well," 

If habit is not bo strong as ahuosb to be a eecond 
nature, why the diflicnlty of changing the manners of 
the Hottentot, tho Turk, and the Indian? why the 
diatinotiva features of character in the cautioua Scotcrh- 
nirnij the independent Englishniau, and the sprighfly 
Irishman? Are they not deaceodiinta of tlia same 
common father? and alihough the design of Provi- 
dence may no donbt account for these distinctions, 
stUl it is the poWer of early impressiona and habits 
that presents a barrier to every change. Why U U 
thut the early initiabi^d thief or pickpocket, and tho 
abandoned female, aeem to staud proof against every 
t-ndeavoup that \s oiadQ for their mural improvement ? 
It cannot bo that tli«Ir natures avo difl'erecit, but only 
that tlie example and precept and training to which 



nn bein^ asfc<M if ho knew islio Jesus CSriat was, replied, ' Yes, 
Aduin;' anuth^t- implied, ' ilc wan an apostio ;" anoiher, 'He 
vrnethe Saviour's Lo^'e sun i' andayoungpersonol'lO, ttiQugkt 
tliat JiHua Christ was a king tif Loudon a long thno ago,' " 
(Evidence. ]ip. 31, ci seq.. Nob. 130, U5, lfl€, lUl, 131, IH-t.) 
W« leave suuh fticta to ipeaie for thcmaelves. 



00 



TBAlSryo BTSTEM. 



they liavc been subjected, are dilfurent from ours ; 
tlicsu liavo gradually furmed tlieir habits, while we 
mny hnvo be^n blesg>t:J witb a training of ^iii opposite 
iepdency. The heart may tiirlced rcuiain unchaEged 
in both instances J but, acc;DrLLing lo tlie priiu'lplea 
alri^ady laid don-n, the good babita of ilie cue do not 
prevent the infuaion of better principles, while the bad 
habits uf the oilier, from ftU experience, strengthen sin- 
ful tcDdcnciea as with sinun-a of bnias. 

A plain countryman shrewdly remarked, on being 
invited to Bend, his youngeat children to a tniinitig- 
sclioo! about to bo established in hia ueighbourhood, 
— " I will," he said, " for I can see clearly, that were 
I to walk my children to the river side every Sabbath 
morning instead of leading tbem to churcli, they would 
continue to go there from ibabit, and sihuD the houiie 
of God." 

In looking at the power and inBuence of habit, 
we have only (o notiee tks valk of the aailor, the 
shoemaker, the hotel waiter, and the man of Sedentary 
eniploymenta. The early habits of the soldier abo 
are visible through life in hia stately gatt and 
promptitude of action; hia physical habits of ready 
obedience render him an object of preference for 
many situations for which men of other occupatiooB 
are unfitted. 

Wa might allude to the practice of reading or apeak- 
irg in a soft, or harsh tone — slowly or rapidly, and 
whether prnvincially or free from such alloy. All 
are the effect of habit, for, with very slight variatione, 
every child can be trained to read and apeak in any 



TSH SOSPE OV BlBtT, 



particular maaner or tune of voice. In these respects, 
every district of our country presents its owd peculiar 
phase. So much for phyeical habits. 

In regard to liabita of aa intellectual character, 
■wiincfls the retiring atudent, the effects of Tvhose 
miilnight lamp and abstract mude of thinking mark 
him out mn&t ol}viou3ly at first sight, and still moru 
so in eonveraation, from the merchant of every 
day activity on 'change. No man mistakes which 
of the two classes of pcrsoiia he ia addreasing. Ori- 
ginally their minds msy have bafcn similarly cunsti- 
tiiied. hut hubit has caused the difterence. 

The same ia presented in the moral depEuiinent. 
In it there at& strong marks of distinction in every 
grace and virtue, arising from nature and the operation 
of religioug principle^ hut theae are greatly strength- 
ened or weakened by exetciae. It ia so in regard 
to any hud propensity ; a. g. evil- speaking, covetoUB- 
neaa, pride, and a love of contBution ; it ia also ao in 
regard to the graces of humility, genorosity, courteous- 
nesB, &c. ; all acquire strength by exercise ; and thng 
each good or bad propensity ia strengthened hy l/te 
force of habit. In fact, every succeeding act of mind 
or body, whether good or evil, ia atrongtliened by tho 
preceding one. If aiich be the force of habit, physi- 
cally, intellectually, and morally, vrho can calculate 
the mighty importance of eari^ ivainiug to all that 
is right, " lovely, and of good report I" 

To come to the practical principle. The child wlin 
IS naturally combative, exhibits a disposition to £ght 
and c[UQrrel with his play-fellows, and this feeling is 




1 



92 THAurnfo etbtem. 

eireiigfhcncd, by ex€rciac. let him enter a trainiDg 
school, LiiwevCT, in whitih bugIi feelings are nnt per- 
mitted to lie exercised, but where, on the contrary, 
tliey are directed to what U noble and (xseful, an'i 
BbDrtly tliE power of self-control will not only grow 
iiitoabnbit, but the fooLing ortiie disposition itself wiU 
be greatly subdued. A hoy of thia description^ dur- 
ing tbe first Vveek of his coiirae, sttikes and tliniSts 
right and left, but his blows not being returned^ and 
now breathing a more morsl atraoeplierc than what 
he had been nccrufitotiied to, And patticlpating in a por- 
titin of its spirit from the power of sympathy, joined 
with a more enlightened conacience, hia whrjle cOn- 
ttuct is quickly changed into a more CliristJan and 
moral habit. This is the experience of all trainers, 
in every part of tiie world in vhich they are located. 
In DO department of mural economy is the power 
of habit ijiore apparent than in charitable subscriptions 
for the poor and the extension of tho gospel. Many 
naen of large Tneans content themselves with giving & 
mere trifle, T/m j> i/teir hahU ; the worting classes 
also share in n. similar moral apathy. Fifty yeaiji 
ago few feniihes in the receipt of i-50 a year ever 
thought of giving a subacription, nr if they did ao* a 
penny a week to some special object was considered 
liberal. At the present day, however, it ig not up- 
eommon for every member of a family to give their 
penny. A Christian man of £500 per annum, in the 
year 1800, felt, and was considered hy his neighbours, 
perfectly generous when he eubscrihed his guinea or 
half-guinea to two nr three eocietiea — in all, per. 



93 

liaps be gave £5 n-ymT No^v, however, m lS+6, 
the same man, or rather the same vhaa of persons, 
from the ittfluencii of moral training on !iia Cliriatian 
principles, as rmdily and clieerfuUy gives his £50. 
He haa acquired the haLit of giving more largely, aiii 
we doubt not that training, ere long, will induce the 
Christian public to double tliis jiroportion of their 
ii^come, and feel the parting with it to be no sacrifice, 
hut a privilege. Suuli in t/tefaree of kabU. In the 
mean time, carry on the procees of training. Enlight- 
eu the understanding ant! conscience aa to tliQ duty 
u£ giving. This is well i hut, by all means, get the 
party tn g'lte ; it may be a shilling to comnieucie vrith. 
Get the shilling ; and the next time you get the per- 
son to pnll out his purse, balf-a crown vcill more rea- 
dily follow. The nmn is aflquiring tlie/jaij,iof giring; 
nud from tlio shilling or Jialf-crown you may traui him, 
time after time, enlighteningliis underatandiag unqiiea- 
tioaably, yet pulling — until a pound or fivti ponuda 
may be aa easily had aa was the shilling or half-crown 
in the fii's^t instance, and eitnply because now tho 
bancvoleni man has acquired the halil of giving, 

"We are told by some whoao eentimenta we ought 
to respect and calmly cgnsiderj that we atta^^h too 
much importance to habita. Now, wo consider the 
exercise of all and every piinciple to be Jutbtt, and 
that wo fan scarcely estimate too highly the influ^ntje 
and importance of early training in forming cor- 
rect habits, whether tbeae ba physical, intellectual, 
or mora!. These persons seem to overlook the diffi,- 
culty, if not the improalbility, of training an old horse, 



^ 



04 TRAINING SYSTEM. 

bending an aged oak, curing a miser, a drunkard, or 
the abandoned, or the more innocent practice even of 
snuff-taking. How commonly is it said, such a prac- 
tice is just Irom habit. A man is almost rude, or he 
may be polite, from habit. Children, if not placed 
under training, almost instinctiTely get into bad or 
offensive habits. Who hopes to alter the habits of 
the precise, stayed old bachelor, far less the moral and 
physical habits of a whole kingdom ? but we doubt 
not the latter, by the power of early training, under 
God's blessing, might be accomplished in a single ge- 
neration. This principle of early moral training 
(which of necessity includes intellectual and physical 
training), fully carried out into popular education, 
will, we doubt not, eventually become the great mo- 
ral lever of society, not merely by infusing correct 
principles, bnt by training to correct habits. 



CtlAP. VI. 

loOL J^FAUATUa— tUY-OKOt'Nl] — 6Al.L£Kr, XTC. 

In our introductory observations it waa stated, that 
for tlie promotion of this syati^m, new and additiotial 
accomrnDdation for the development and traSning uf 
tlie real i;hara,.iter and dispositions of the pupils wero 
necesHtirj'^ and that time required to be saved in con- 
ilncting the ordinary elementary brandies. This was 
nccomplidhed by the introduction of the play-ground 
and a gallery, witb the accompauyiDg practical ar- 
rangements. 

PLAT-OHOUND, OH THE DNCOTBHBD SCSOOL- 

The play-gTonnd maybe ciescribed. as the unccwt'- 
ed Bchool-room. The one conered school-room is Dot 
a sntBcient platform for the development and exerciae 
of [til the powoFB, dispositions, and character of the 
child. 

The play-ground has a salutary influence upon the 
children, bodily rnid mentally. Th,e hourly egreas and 
ingress to and from the uncovered and covered school- 
rooms, with the acooiTipanying marching and singing, 
cultivate ord^r, obedience, and precision. 

The play-ground animategjinvigorntos^ and permits 
t^ie steam which may havi? accuiualatad to escape, not 



OB 



TnAtKISG BTSTliB^ 



in furious mischief, but in iunocetit, joyous, and va 
ricd amiwementa, under the sitperintendencs of the 
iiiii5l:eT. 

Tliere ia iti the tniining school so arranged, not 
meruly th& raeaua of keeping tlio children from Lad 
habits usually contracted in the streets, but the op- 
portunity of forming goixl ones. A boy may be told 
not to quarrel whca he leaves tbe ordinary aehool ; 
but mark him at the bottom of tiie stairs, or at tlju 
corner of the street, themotueDt the school dismisses, 
aud, like a bird newly escaped from its cage, ho is apt 
to drive fiirioLialy a^iiiti3t everything he meeta with. 
Let one boy take a top or a marble from aHotber boy, 
and what folLowa will be an ebullition of the worst 
fteliDgs of our nature. Thus both shall haTs erred, 
the one eiCTcising the taking or stealing propensity, 
the other, or perhaps buth, the brutish propensity of 
fighting. The law that will decide the rjiiestion la 
neither reason nor justice, but pEiygical force. 

A hoy, when provoked, will get angry in a train- 
ing school as in any other school, and ho may give hia 
companion a bos on the ear, and m^f probably re- 
ceive one in return; but herss the matter muat atop^ 
for eveo should the master not happen to ba prespnt^ 
the children around, who are partially trained and nut 
under the iafliieace of passion, will instantly stop the 
quarrel. The habit of refraining from fighting curbs 
and weakens tbe propensity, just as indulgence in- 
creases and strengtliens it. 

The true character and dispositions are best de- 
veloped at play with companions similar in years and 



I 



FLAY-OHOITPrD — THE TTKCOrHHED ECHOOL. 



97 



piiranits. A play-ground, however, may either be a 
moral traiuing ground, or a migchief-grouud. It 13 
the latter too generally when the cliildren ara left 
aioTie, ycithout &ny authoritatiTe superintendiag eye 
upon them- 

The public schoolmaster can only be a aiipetinten- 
dent, by having a chsd-^ attaefted uncovered spotj as 
a part of his QBtaliliahment, of sufficient dimensions to 
enable his pupils to have full liberty for joyous recre- 
ation. A janitor or juvenile assistant cannot supply 
the place of tho master. The perann, who aupei'in- 
t>endB must be the same who r&views the ccmduct of 
the children on their return to the gallery, and muat 
be the felt and acknowledged head of the partieular 
depattmeut of the school. * They must be hhi own 
aoholars. 

Bomo persona would have a play-ground at a dis- 
tance freiu the school-room. This does not enable the 
master to ^e superintendent, ami would only reduce 
the training ground to a place for bodily exercise. 
Un question ably the clmractera aud dispositions of the 
children wonld be developed without tlie preaetioe of 
the master; such development, however, could not 
lead to any moral training. TVhat is cuutended for 
13, not the physical training; in one place, the ititellec- 
tuai in janother, and the moral in u third, hut the 
whole each day, and under one supcrinttndeuce. At 
home, training may ba conducted to a certain extent 
at the fireside; but home training, highly vakiablB 
ami important aa it is, no more makes up for the 
school, than the fiohool does for the family. The child 



Q8 THE TRumno btbteM. 

who is excluaively trained at liome, is not so well 
fitted for the dtitiea of active life; he is ignorant of 
much that he ought ta knaw^ und which he ought to 
he trained to shua; mure particuhtrly, lie i» ignorant 
of himself; hia real dijpositj&ns and character have 
not heen fully devclopud — they have not heen tried, 
and tliat at a period of Urej when there is a reasonable 
linpo of their being cheeked and regiitatedi. 

The ptay-ground, or "uncovered acUool," aa we 
have iklr^ady said, permits the superabundant animal 
Spirits or '*ateam " to escape, while at tha aame time 
it adds to t1te health of the pupils, affords rchixation, 
and SUcUrflS conttiatm^nt with theii' othef lesaonS in- 
doors, without the usual coercion which is necessary 
when there la no play-ground. 

Flowcra, trees, shrubs, and curraTit bushes, ought to 
he phinted in the Bidc-h orders, or should the air of the 
Bituation be go confined as not to admit of having 
flower-bordera, let plants and flowers be placed in 
pots, so that tlia principle may he reduced into prac- 
tice — '= Look at everything and touch nothing," thus 
exercising an iajportaat principle for after life, viz., 
honesty and aclf-contro].* 

OALLERT. 

The use of a gallery, coupled with other parts of 
the system, is found in pmcticu to save the recjuisito 



• See the teatimony of 3t12 paronta, rcprcBenting dbovo flOO 
cbildren, attending the four model schoold of tha Nonual Semi- 
nary. 




tiHie iQ the intellectual department, ta enable the 
master to supei intend tils' play-grotiod exercia&s. 

The play-ground and gallcrj', therefore, are inae- 
paraWe, not moroly for the morali but for tbo inteU 
Itjctnal training, as we shall afterwards show by ex- 
amples. 

The gallery is an indit^peitsable port of the nia,chiii' 
ery of the tramtng system, in all tsasm whera there is 
a large number of pupils," 

It is prcferatEe that the children shonld be placed 
in parallel lines, howerer small the class may b&. 
Semicircles or squares do not secure the eye and at- 
tcntioa eq^ually to parallel lines ; and bHouIcI the num- 
ber of pupils exceed two rows of six eacb, the one seat 
must rise a few inches ahore the other. Even in the 
cn&e of only two rows, the second one ought to be 
ntiaed a few inches higher, or as much so as to enable 
the head and ehouldera to he seen abovB in frirnt, and 
BO on, whatever number of forms maybe required. 

For the proper conducting of the Eible nnd secu- 
laC daily tr^nlng lessons, which axe usually given to 
the wholo Bcliool, aa well 33 for revjewing tlio children's 
conduct in the play-ground, it is necessary that the 
gallery be capable of seating the entire scholars. 

The gallery bo eonetructed, enableg the trainer with 
more rcguiarity aud precision to conduct thi? physical 
6Xercid6S, which are requisite according to the age of 
the pupib, whereby the attention may be arrested 



* Fur tlifi ]Kisilian, hoi^t, fflrm, Jkc, nee B]iji«Tidis ; na alt^ 
thG' npparntos and modes of arrangmg the play-graand. 



i 



THB TnAnnMO ststbk. 



and secured. It ennbles tlie master and scliolorg to 
6s tlieir eye more easily upon eacli otlier while pre- 
senting an object ox pitturiBg uut any point of a eub- 
jectt and aJso wliile deducing the Icsaon. Every word 
spoken is more easily heard by all — mdividual, but 
more particuhirly elmuhaneous answcra wre more rea- 
dily obtained — order ia promoted, and instant obe- 
dience and fixed attentiun are more certainly secured 
than when cbilJren are placed at desks, on level forms, 
Iq semicircles, or in squares. luiitatiou and social 
sympatby also operate thus more powerfiiDy with 
children wlian answering simultanflonsly or indiTi- 
dually, as also when reciting or singing rhymes or 
Iiynms, which is tlie usual practice between erery 
lesson. And what is most Importsnt of all, breath- 
leas attention ia secured while the master reviews any 
case of misconduct of any of the children, or pictures 
out its congeqnencea. The whole gallery join in this 
as they do in Gvery one of the exercises, whcthe'r se- 
cular, religious, or moral. 

The Itight Honourable Sir Jiimes Graham in bia 
apflech on education, wIidh proposing a grant to thjg 
institution, was pleased to say, in reference to gallery 
training lessons — ■" One of the greatest improvementa 
of modern tim«s, in reference to education, was that 
system of edncation which is known by tlio name 
of the Training System, and which experience had 
proved to be in the highest degree efficient. In Glas- 
gow, a Normal School had been ej^tabliahed by an 
individual, whom it was impoasiblo to praise too 
highly, , where this system of simultaneous 



OALLBR?. 



101 



education Was first tried on any scale wortby of notice." 

" He believed by that grant there would be provided 
for Scotland a number of school mastera, trained in the 
beat syBtetn of education, adequate to the supply of 
paroubial seboule tbrougbont the 'whole of that coun- 
try ; apd Ilia conviction was, that under thig arrange- 
naent, the education of Scotland would be placed on 
a complete and most satiefactory foundation."^ 

All cducatiun, wliether of a strictly mural or strictly 
Intellectual character, must be stow and progreesive. 
" There is no royal road to learning," it is trus. Every 
step must be taken — every inch of ground muet be 
gone over ; but wh^ not har.6 a railroad? why main- 
tain the unnatural principle of packing as many eliQ' 
dren 33 possible in a school-room ? measuring the 
square of each child, who must bieathe the pestilen- 
tial air of confinenifint, whoBC physical and inte'n&ctual 
powers are often injured, aometimes deatroyedj and 
the whole eource of ■wlioae animal spiritsj when not 
crushed or broken down, ia only reati'aincd by the 
fear of punishment^ and la ready to break forth into 
mischief the first moment they are liberated fi-oni tlieir 
cage of confinenienl They therefore hate school and 
fiohooling i whereas, the play-ground and gallery, with 
their proper and attendant exerciseSj aectrre for gchool 
a grea.t affection. "What is loved therefore, ia aure to 
be followed. 



* House of CommoriB, Fcbrtlfiry ?3tl;i, 1843. — ^Lorrf Ashley's 
MotLuu on the Moral und Raligioua Eduoatiou of tlia H'^orking 

Classes. 



It 18 OS impracticable for a teaclier to train luorAll^ 
anA intcUectaally wttliout a gallery and a pliiy^gruund, 
as it wouU be for a niechaiiic to work without his 
tools. Tlie having b«th of ihese auJtiliarieB docs not 
farm a training school without the trained master ; 
and th& master who is without these is of course un- 
successful. Tim frequent deviations from tliis indis 
peuaable arrangemi^int, are the cauaea why there arc 
so many failures in echoob having the ayatem pro- 
feesedly in view, but which are only itnitatio-n train- 
ing flchools, being either without a trained maeter, or 
a play-ground and a gallery. 

Since tho establi&hmeat of out model, a gallery haa 
been introduced into many schools, and on which the 
Bcholars have been placed, without the syetem having 
been alt^ered in other respects ; httt the ^rallery with- 
out the modB of developmeni and training, is no more 
a part of the training systeni, than 13 the ptay-ground 
without ita superhatendent, aud the subsequent moral 
revigiuu. 

Some directors of schools, cypcricTidng the difficulty 
of procuring ground in the particular locality in which 
thay desire to erect a school, orb&ing a little sc'eptical 
iiB to ita nt:cc33ity, or that of a gallery, and it may be 
from eeoiiomff, desirous of saving the coat of both, but 
ansious to possess all the advantages of the system, 
tliey order trained persons from our Inalitutiou, and 
State that should they succeed, oo trial ! 1 ! they will 
then endeavour to provide both. This is just as ab- 
surd an expectation aa it would he for road propi4etorB 
to order a locomotive engine, and to aay we will try 



SAUiBST. 



10,1 



it On oiit Own turnpike, and if it suc«&eds we nilltlien 
provide & Kill toad ! 1 ! 

There is no doubt a great difiicuUy in procuring a 
Buflicient eiteiit of ground for tlio pvirpoae uf play- 
groiindB fur schook of 80 or 100 ; and it is estrcmely 
hjgli priced in the lanea and streets of a crowded city, 
whtre moral training ia imperiously required ; but 
iadepeQdently of the moral improveraent of the peo- 
ple, the actual cost would be less than is expended 
upon police, bridewells, prisons, houses of refuge, 
publit) pn>3ecutioQ3, and transportation of criminata,*" 

WiLh such machinery in operation, and surrounded 
for several hours a^day by auth a world of pnpils, it 
ia the provincje of the shrewd, inteUigent, and pioua 
superintendent, to watch and direct all their move- 
ments ; and whilst he daily participates in tlieii' juve- 
nile sports, he, in ci.}n&af\\wnce^ gradually ^o\viA a tho- 
rough knowledge of their tTue dispositions, which, at 
the proper timo and reason, he applauds or condemns 
on the principles of the eystcm, an exanipla of whiL'h 
ia aubjoined, and which applause or nprocif, be it oh- 
scrred, ia not f^iven at the inome7it the circumstancfifi 
occur in the pky- ground, but rather when the chil- 
dren Lave re-entered the school, and arc seated ia the 
gallery. Tlie impresalon made on the culprit in such 
ciroumstancea, is mndi more lasting; n-nd, what ia 
also of great imporlaiLue, the whole of the childrcu 
have thus an opportunity of heaiing a generous ae- 



* For plfttw ]f Iraiuiiig Bchoula suited to citi lakes, bm Ap- 



104 



IHlKd SrSTBM. 



tioQ npplandcd, or ungcnerou? and vicioas conduct 
conclemned. 

For example a child of a famtlj' commits a fault — 
he may steal his neiglibour's toy, or "take it" (as 
5tea.liao; in embryo is too ofttiu called) ; tliis propen- 
sity will be chetrked by a mother or father, in every 
variety of shape, according to their capabilities and 
temperament. Under favourable circumstances tho 
parent feels iudignaQt at tbo exhibition of such a crime, 
in one so n&ar and dear to him. The fe&lings excited 
(however much they may be under cuotrul), are in- 
stinctively perceived hy the teen eye of tb© child, 
and, in a greater or leas degree, shut the avenues to 
the little one's haart; and both parties being undoir 
excitemeut, wlnat pasaca on such an occjiaion in the 
way of check or advice, too frequently goes for no- 
thing. ThcTC is leaa danger of Such feelings in an 
experioTiced trainer, whose regard and attentions are 
necesaarily divided amongat a hundred pupila. And 
yre shall again suppose, that one boy steals his play- 
fellow's toy — it may be a ball or a spinning top — thJa 
happens in the play-ground, freely at piay^ for it is 
only when perfectly at liberty that juvenile character 
ia truly exhibited. The master ao'es this, or is told 
of it ; lio takes do notice of the circumstance at the 
momentj but when the filnldren are again seated In 
the acliooI-giiUery, as usual, he commencea tho process 
of examination (elHptieally and interrogatively, i. «, 
the children answering c[uc&tiaiis, and filling in ellips- 
es), in tU« aliape of a atory about a boy who stole bia 
aeigbbour'ii top or something else. In a moment ifiM 



SALIJaiT. 



I 



culprit's head kanga damn — it is unneceaaory to mark 
him out — Ae ia ms'ihle ia all by hia downcast and red- 
dened countenance. (Ninety -nine out of tlie hundred, 
if we except tho injured party, ait in cool judgment 
upon the ca.^s') In the meantime thti trainer reminds 
the child and all present, that although he had not 
obaerved him, God assuredly had ; or rather, hij draws 
out this statement from the children themaelvea — thi 
pannel ai the har, of course, remaining perfectly qui' 
eseent. The (|ne3tion ia pat, What puninhmcni 9 
Some of the more furious hoys, whose anergiea require 
perhaps only to be regulated, in order to make them 
noble tihuracters, call out. Beat hh/t^-cu^' hini.; all the 
rest in the mefintime keeping silence, conceiving such 
puniBhment to bo rather severe- The master, howaver, 
will ask another question or two^ rather than /nlhl the 
con^mands of thia unmerciful jury. " la this boy in 
the kabk of stealing your pUiy-things ?" JVb^ Sir, 
" None of yon have seen him do such a thing till now. 
Then you think this is a ... first offence." Ought » 
child to he puaished as severely fur njirst, aa a second 
or third offence ? iS'o, Sir, " "What then shall we do 
to thig boy ?"'* Instantly the girla will naturally cry 
out, Forgive him — ^forgive him. Now mark the na- 
tural effnat upon all parties : the guilty is coudemocd 
by lu8 feUows— -the milder feehngg aro brought into 
play^ and all have been exercised in the principles of 

L truth *nd justica. Without wasting words, by car- 
■ F. 
illu&tra 



I 



Fw ttie pni^icular m«!tliad 0:^ tlt^vchipmcnt, see practicut 
ill u&trat ions. 



103 



THE TBilKWW «T&IBM, 



ryiDg out tlic probable con vursntloTi, or stating the 
various ramificatiooa ■which this circumstance, and 
Bimilar of daily occurrence among cUilclreciT may pre- 
sent — fur not Dttty ni.iy [he play-things have been 
stolen, but a lie told ta liiile tlie act, and even blows 
given in the way of dc-fence, all of which tequire dis- 
tinct Diodes of trentmcut, aiid, if not early cliecked, 
will hardep the conscience and etr^dngthcn the evil 
propendities of Our common nfiture: Whatever efifect 
fiueh an exibminatiun may have on the guilty incjin' 
dbal, We are quite sure it wUl he most salutury upon 
all others. Tho fuelings are thus moulded down to 
give way to principle j aiid whilst all see what really 
is (nnfurtunately) an every day exhibition in the 
world, and what, perhaps, latently exists in them- 
selves, suuli exhibition!^ ^la ni^du in circumsta-nces 
whieh Tiaturally call fortliT not imitationy but ahhor- 
renee. 

in lilt play-grouad, also, the physically weak and 
timid are encouraged and protected, and the more 
robust, but frequently less intelligent, whiU th&y get 
full scope for their muscular vigour, are not permitted 
to oppre&9 the weak. Any case of oppression or dis- 
honesty, or pai'ticular act of generosity or disinterest- 
ednesB^ is, on the return to the gallery, taken up by 
the master, and thoroughly inv^stigatfd and con- 
dfimned or applauded before the whole scholars, or 
rather simultaneously with the whole scholars, they 
aittjng in a senso both &s judges and jury. 

The play-ground is nccflssary not merely for health 
— 'the development of true character and diapoiaitions 



PHYSICAL EXERCISE8. 107 

thus furnishing practical texts for the trainer to no- 
tice on the return of the children to the school gallery 
— but the shrubs and flowers tend to elevate and im- 
prove the taste of the young, whether they are ac- 
customed to breathe the pestilential air of a city lane, 
or that of a well-furmshed drawing-room. 




Alhobt all syatems of edncatioa that ha-ve come un- 
der our noticSi consist of n list of liooks, or Bubjecta 
to be taaght, or what should be taught, not the nian- 
ner hniE. TUe latter is the great and important coB' 
Btderation, for on this depeuda the difference between 
learning much, or very little. 

Under this systom, and on the principles laid down^ 
every child receives instruction in the gallery, from 
the day hn enters school, and hefore he can read, 
as well as when lie can read — thus tripling, at least, 
the ordinary terra during which school children are 
filacfld \inder instniction — a matter of paramount im- 
portance to that claaa of society in p(tr(ieu}ar, whose 
period of echoo] attendance is so extremely limittsd. 

Books are not used in the initiatory training school^ 
although quite comnion in infant teaching schools, or 
in -what may be tennod the cramming system. The 
introduction of boobs tends uniformly to suhvett the 
tnoral training, and Bomettmee even the physical and 
the intellectual [raining, and is decidedly injurious to 
the heaitii of very young children- But while boots, 
for these reasons, are excluded in thia department, the 
children nevertheless are taught the elements of read- 



I 



BCBOTPT. BOOKS. 



ingj just as they are taught the elementa tif erery oth&r 
bronc^b. Large priutt-d ehtiets, containing apeUing 
lessons and glmple stories, arc pasted on boards, and 
are daily in use. By the simultaneous and oriJ method 
of development, the children acquire the art of read- 
ing, with delight to themselvcg, aod without injury tO 
their healthy nr diminishing the amount of other more 
important mental and moral exeiciges. Thus a oliiid 
of five or ais years of age, who has been two or three 
years in school, may read a simple story fluently, 
without having had a book in hiahand inechool. The 
only objection that can be nrgod against this is th^i 
projudice, that hooka and the mere power of reading 
form knowledge : but we must not sacrifice bGdtfa, 
and knowledge, and moral training at the ahrino of a 
foolish imciginatiou. 

Too many achool-booka are put into the hands of 
children generally, and too many tasks are required to 
be committed to memory. Our conviction is, that not 
more than ons-fourth of the lessons ustiaUi/ given to be 
l&irrted at home aught to he Graclcd, au.d fidl tliroc times 
additional information ought to ba communicated 
orally by the master in school. In no other way can 
an equal amount of knowledge bb communicated, for 
under this mode the trainer adds bia ovra stock of 
knowledge to that which the text-book afFnrds. — 
Books — 'books — what books do you iisa (imagining 
tbe kind of booke to be the aystem) ia the almost 
imiversal cry of sll visitors and all correspoEnlenta. 

The humau Toice and action, and the meniai s^m~ 
pathy (ffihegaUer^^ simplify education, impress know- 




110 THB nUJNlfTO KVaTBM. 

It'dge more lastingly on llie miuJ, and Hive mucli 
of the drndgery to the pupil, altliotigh tlio labour of 
tha ninster, as a traioer, may be iocreafied, particulnrly 
during the first few muiittia of ebildren beiug plficied 
(inder his cliarge. 

If a few Bentances in proBe and verse are to be 
cummitted to incmor}', tho diildren tuce^rsl exercised 
upon tlio ineanlng, and then they commit the worda 
in order- The mere worda ijonitnittecl bj- rote are 
found, tfl a considpraljlG extent, a barrier to the iinder- 
atanding of the subject ; whereas tlie preeioita under- 
standing greatJj Mfligta the memory of words. TJiia 
haa been the experience of some highly intelligent 
teachers. 

Books are eagerly Bougbt after with question and 
answer, set in regular order — a moet incfBcicnt mode 
of intellectual teaching. Scliool-books ought princi- 
pally to be used as ttsts, nnd the greater amount of 
information commuaicatcd orally. 

School-books, however, are necessary, and without 
rpadiPgi our knowledge is apt to be deanltory, and 
otir idesiB undefined ; lliey may be bamI to bc^ the rule 
or mathematical prlocjiplea on which eolid information 
regia."^ 

Under the training system, we use books in school 
and out of school, but place comparatively less de- 
pendence on them than nnder other systems ; for, as 
we hare already stated, the master himself is tho b^st 

* For Ikt 4il' txKilcB in general nso, 8« Appendix. 



THE USE OP MosrroHS. 



ni 



I 



book, (lie most usituriil anil efficient eliapriel of coin- 
munication, rmil tlie result iti all cjises pr&ves the truth 
of this position by its ef^ciency and power. Notwith- 
standing thid, aset of btKiltSj more suited to tlio nature 
of the system than ary to Le met with, are in pro- 
graas of heingpublisbed, at iBaat in so far ns tbo ei.'lec- 
tioii of subjects in natural science and tlie arts and 
nianufactureB aro couccnicd. 



THE USE OF MONITonS. 

There is ecxtoely an^r point in education that has 
excited so much intcreBt and digonssion as the use of 
MONITORS. The q^upstion, however, may be easily 
soKed, It is simply tlii^, whetlicr a young untrained 
and ineipcneuecd boy shall tnlte the place of a maturo 
and. cultivated mastc?r? 

Were this the only question brought under cun- 
sideratlon, eyery rational man would quickly detet- 
mine wbich be would chonae ; for wiiat parent would 
prefer having bia children educated by the former, if 
the latter were witliin bia reach ? 

The b(?nevoknt ptthlic upon wboni chiefly rests the 
responsibility of e&tibliabing schools for the poor and 
ignorant, too generally desire to have the work done 
an cheaply as possible — masters are expensive, but 
monitors may be bad for notliing- Must certainly if 
apprcnticea could do the work in any branch of busi- 
, neas, we would not incur the espenee of employing 

B masters. This is precisiely the point at issue in regard 
B to schools conducted on what ia termed the Bull, or 
I Ijancasterlani or Monitorial aysteuis. Monitors, who 



I 

I 

I 



m 



112 



TBS trajntho system. 



arc iippreniicM in t1t3 art. cannot and do not do the 
work of teacliing, far less of training. In eniploytnig 
monitors, \re have tlio acmblsnce but nut the reality 
of education- 

SubBcrihera to a school remain satisfied, when a 
wholesnla number, such as 200, or 300, or 500 cliil- 
dren arc sought out and congregated together into a 
school-room, wltli one master to (each a certain num- 
ber of monitorg, each of whom ia to teach his 
petty cliiBB, thiit they have done enough' — that the 
propoBed nmnbcr arc being educated. Frona fact and 
observation, we believe, they are deceived, as also the 
parents of tlie children, the public at large, and more 
unfortunately still, the Government of the country, 
which has the necessary funds at command, to pay 
for masifr/f, and the will also to do what ia needftil, 
provided only the country at largo would show the 
autual neceaaity and the means by which true educa- 
tion can bo accomplished. 

Eighty pupila actually present, having it may he 
lOO on tSiG list, wfl consider the maximum for one 
master to be superintended by him, both in-doore and 
out of doors, and these ought to he as nearly of an 
age as possibla, namely, six to eight or nine — 
again eight or nine to twelves — and then twelve to 
fuuzteon or fifteen years. Under six years of ago 
150 may be as easily trainod as SO abnvo that age in 
any one department. We ought not to use a monitor 
but under the full impression that we are employing 
a jobbing appreatice in the art, whoao work must bo 
of necessity imperfectly done, and wlioao materials 



THB WB aV MOKITOBfl. 



113 



must ba so torn, mangledj and misshapen, as aoarccly 
to ptfiseat ihe foroi lukudeid. This, foi- ^ tim&, might 
bo borne witli, in reference to inanimate tilings, hut 
when we have the moral and intellectual nature of a 
whole generation to cultivate for time and eternity, 
Wo mnat paiise ere we tamper with intereeta so "vastly 
important. 

Monitors may teach facts they already know, but 
they cannot develops the ideas of the children or their 
extent of knowledge, nor work the facts repeated or 
dwelt upon into the minds of their classee. Moat 
unquestionably they cannot morally train. They do 
not possess the felt authority requisite, and they have 
not the necessary experience to handle with delicacy 
the varied and ever-vjirying shades of the moral affec- 
tions and hahits. Now, thid is just the point in ques- 
tioD r for the great end of all philantbropie exertions 
on the part of Goverument and private individuals is 
the moral, and witli it, the intellectual elevation of the 
poor and working clasaesi The emplpyment of moni- 
tors instead of well-trained masters, eervea to atultify 
our best eftbrts and inteDtinns. 

The statement is eontinnally repeated and pressed 
upon onr attention, that money camiot he had to pay 
masters for every school of 80 or 100 pnpilsj and 
therefore, that monitors must be employed. Has the 
experiment ever been mado on a 'arge scale, or be- 
yoad a few solitary cases? Haa the puhlic exclaimed 
BB long and loudly for the emancipation of our people 
at home, frnrn vice, and ignorance, and sin, as they 
have done for the emancipatioia of the colonln.1 alaves ? 



114 



TBE TBAHnnO BT«rEH. 



Has tlie Legislature been fairly assailed for an equal ' 
mm for home, as for fort'ign eiiiaticipation? Wo 
kU'Ow it baa tho power tci grant, and the country can 
taiily h^r the expenditufs. 

Mcinityra may be employed uodec the training aya- 
tem, as well n9 under anj other^ witli tlic iirm coa- 
Tiction, however, tlnat in esact proportion as wo em- 
ploy such. Bubatttutea, wc arc destroying tbe effii;iency 
of the sy&t€in. Our aim, however^ viz., the cuStiva- 
tioii of tlie whole man^ is too Ligh willingly to place 
apprecticea as tbe teachers and trainers of youtb, if 
we can g«t masters. 

All we baTO already said refers cbiefly to the effect 
of tliB uae of monitora upon tlieir pupila. But we 
must attend to some evila which relate to themselvea. 

A monitor ig oftentinieg found favouring curtain 
companions of his own ; or, if too old foi: such aa 
iicqiiaiii'taTiceship, he frcqacrstly threatf^na to punisb 
sneb of tb& pupils as may chance to have playthings, 
or awcctiueats, if they do not ehare them with him ; 
and thiB he eeoures, by pntting such quesiions aa may 
cause tLem to make niistnlces and so lose tbeii' position 
in the class. 

One of our students at present in the seminary, 
sayg, that when a monitor, hti has frtqucntly sent up 
boys to tho maater to get flogged, simply Leeause iia 
had been refused aomo playtbiuga or sweetmeats — the 
boys, of course, not daring to complain, leat a eaoond 
beating ahoiild ibUow on their leaving school. 

Huinibty is indeed the basis of all imprnvement, 
inttillectuni, or moral, or even phyelcal. Pride and 



THB OSB OV MOWITOHB. 



115 



I 



vanity, therefore, must Le barriers. No one who has 
^itnefaed the gelf-important gait, and mfinner, and 
strut, of many of these little gentlemen while engaged 
in their temporary or mora permanent official el&va- 
lion, bnt must be convioced, that what&ver inteilec- 
tual vigour or fur;/ they moiy act^uire by esercifle, 
their owtk morrtl training w seriowslyiujurerl, and that 
pride and vnnity are docidodly and most directly cul- 
tivated. More than thia, whilst the office of monitor 
is expected to render them evfiitually snperior teach- 
eta, the reflectiag mind mwat perceive that the habitnal 
exercise of the opposite princijjle to AumiHtt/ must 
prove a fi>rinidahle barrier to their improvement in 
after life. If we are to have moral training in omr 
schools, really or professedly, and if monitors cannot 
morally, or eveu intcJkctually train, and if in a moral 
point of view the office cansea a decided injury to 
themaelvefl, we would use them as seldom aa we cOuIil 
— the Beldomer tho better — and would call on intelli- 
gent toacherg, and tho reflecting and benevolent direc- 
tors of schools, to coasider calmly wheth&r, aa a prin- 
ciple, they ought to be used at aJI. 

We believe, strong a^ the desire is to favour the 
monitorial system, in whole or in part, that for reasons 
we ha,ve already stated, no intelligent man would 
argue for their use, provided money could bei Lad to 
pay pruperly trained masters. Momlora must be held 
only aa substitutes, and poor subatitutea thoy are. 
Keeping this in view wc have no objections to employ 
boys to revigo the lessons in arithmetic ur spelling, or 
to put aside the pens — ^place out th@ fornas and desks 




116 THE Tauifmo tisrtis. 

and other little ij^^ttera that mny serve to ease tUe 
labour of tliB master J Lut aa already stated, they can- 
not train — they cannot explain or analyse any point or 
^fficulty, as the master him&elf may do. 

If momtoifl muat bo used for & time in these days 
of educational parsimony, and we had almost added, 
ignorance, and used we belieTe tliey will be, let na 
keep the truth steadily in view, that the attempt to 
communicate knowledge by moaitcrs, to whatever 
extent, deceives the public and ouiselveSj by raising 
undue expectations, and robs the youtli of our country 
of that substantial religious and secular knowledge, 
and those practical excraises of the moral afiectiojia, 
wKicli it iQ our duty to cultivate^ 



CHAP. VIII. 



asPAXATioN OF TUG sesbs. 



Hating stated tha great object in Tiew,"viz.. the mo- 
ral and mtelkctual traioing^ of the young, nnd the 
new or addilional machinery requisite — b&fore ana- 
lyzing the peculiar mode of conducting the system to 
which the succeeding chapters are devoted, wb may 
state our reasons for estaMishtng the practice of boys 
and girla being trained together in the aame school. 

Till lately in the echoola of Scotland, boys aad girls 
were uniformly taught together. In England, the 
custom of separation hcta been nearly as universal. 
Of late years, amoiig the higher classes in Scotland, 
girls have baeu taught separately from boys, and among 
the poor tho fieparatiou ayatem has been gaining 
ground. 

In England, the tide has begun to flow in the Op- 
posite direction. The public now discuss the aubjeet 
freely and dispaasionately j and as many directors oF 
$chook in the south who haTO been guppUed with 
Craioera from our aeminaryj have ventured to place 
the sexes together in one gallery, and in one pla.y- 
^ouad, with great advantage, prejudice is beginning 
to give way, and the enlightened part of the public 



Its 



tHfi tiuiNima sisTEM. 



are yielding to tlie suggflstions of fact nnJ expe- 
rience. 

It cannot but be important to tbe momt and inteU 
lectual well-beirig of the riamg gencratioji, whetlier 
girls are trained with haja, or separately. 'Xlie pohit 
i^ nut n negative one, but fraught with importaut 
nationnF, aud of cour^p, individuaT consequences. 
Let u$ look cnlmly st tho siibjcci in some of its bear- 
ings. 

We oro vXl aware of the softening and Immanizing 
effect wliicii female society baa upon tlic male crea- 
tion. It iiilluenctjs tlie fireside, tho sncia,! circle, and 
the public meeting, it restrain^ rudeness and im- 
propriety of every kind ; and while tho men are thus 
improved, the femaltig are not less benefited in their 
intellectual and moral cliaracter. Deprive man of 
femaJe gooiety, and be would soon approach to, if 
not actually sink into, barbariBm ; and eiclude females 
from the society of the othor sex — the history of aun- 
neriea will unfold the conge rjuences. What is raonilly 
atid intellectually true in regard to growii-up persons, 
is. equally so in respect of the yonng; and if men 
and women ought to act properly towaida each 
other wben they meel, and meet they tnuat, then 
children cannot be too early trained to practise this 
Tirtue. • 

Every one ig satigficd that boys are improved by 
tho presence of girls— a wholesome restraint is ob- 
"rioasly cxperiouccd. It is not so apparent, however, 
tbat girls are improved by tbe presenca of boya. We 
believe it is parf&ctly mutual, altbougli not ao obvious. 



BEPAS^TION Op the SBX^, 



nn 



The girls are alao under a. restraint, less visible, it is 
trite, Ijecause tlipy fu'e leas boigttTULig, but -equally 
Talimble in eleyating and etrcngtb^iiiiig tbe Tea.\ clia^ 
racter, by preventing the exercise of tittle-tattle, evil 
Bpeaking, Ac, lic, and snbafcitwting tilings ennobling, 
wlitcli females are perfectly capable t>f attaining. Let 
each approauh tlie othtT nearly half-way, and then 
eatrh in manner amd real character >vill be certainly 
and eriunlly Improved. 

The consideration of the separation of tho sexes in 
education is exceedingly iinportant ; for if it forms a 
partoftnnral training, no parent who calmly consi- 
ders the good of his children cnn treat the subject 
with indifi'ifirence or ncgleot. It is a anliject thattian- 
not be too often repeated, and thcrofora we would ask 
thi? question — 

Ought boys and girls to "be educated separately or 
togeth&r? The youth of both sexes of uur Scottish 
peasstntiy have been educated together^ and, upon the 
whole, the Scota are the most moral people on the 
face of the globe. Educaticin in England ia given se- 
parately, a,nd we have never heard from pracLicol men 
that any bemeflt has arisen from this nrrangement* 
Some iiifluential individuals thotOj tuourn ov&r the 
popular prejudice on thia point. In Dublin, a larger 
number of girla turn out badly, who have been edu- 
cated alone till they nttam the age of maturity, than 
of those who have been otherwise brought up-^the 
separatiou of the scxfis has hoen found to be positively 
injurious. In France, the separation of the eexoa in 
youth ifl productive of fearful evils. It is stated on 



the beat aufhority, tliat of tlioae girls educated in (he 
Hchoola in convents apart from boya, the largo majo- 
rity go wrong within a month of their being let loose 
on society, and meeting the other sex. They cannot, 
it is said, resist tha slightest coiDpllment or flattery 
from the other sex. The aeparation is intended to 
keep them strictly Tnoral, but this unnatura.! seclusion 
actually generates the very principles and practices 
deflired to be avoided. 

We may repeatt that it igimposaible to raise girJa 
intellectually as high without boys as with them ; and 
it is impossible to raise boys morally as high without 
the presence of girls. The girls morally elevate the 
boys, and the hnys intiellectiially elevate the girls. 
But more than this, girla themselves are morally ele- 
vated hy tha presence of hoys^ and boys are intell&o- 
tuaJly elevated by the presence of girls. Girls brought 
up with boys are more positizeJy moral, and boys 
brought Up in school mtli girla ace mure positively 
intellectual, by the softening influence of the female 
charaeter. Tho impetuosity and pertnesa of a boya' 
gchool are by no means fiivourablc oven to intefiectvai 
improvement, and the excessive smoothness of fennale 
school discipline does not strength&n or fortify the 
girl for her entrance into real life, when she must 
meet the bulFets and rudeness of the other sex. Nei- 
ther SOX haa participated in the improvement intended 
by Providence^ by boyS and girla being bum iind 
brought up in the same family. Family training is 
the best standard for school training ; and if the 
achoolmastcr, for a portion of each day, is to take the 



SE7AIU,TTeiK O? TVE SBSES. 



I 



of the 



521 

the 



place of the parent, the separati 

elementary schools must be a deviation from this lofty 

standard. 

Much inay be said on this highly impDrtant sub- 
ject. We would solicit thoae benevolent iadiea who 
aigh for the establishment of gii'la' Bcbools, to the ex- 
clusion of the other sex, to ejcamine carofully and 
prayerfully, whether tlie exercise of such tender bene- 
volent feehags may not actually prove injurious to 
society aa a whole. It 13 very prettyj and truly sen- 
timental, to witness the uniform dresa and etill de- 
meanour of a female school ; but we tremble at the 
reaulla, Most certainly, moral Iroiuiug wants One'of 
its mast important ingredit-nts when the sexea are 
not trained together to aet properly towards each 
other. 

A number of the eoboola established of late years 
in tha towns of Scotland, even where the system pur- 
sued has been modern, have been for boys alone, or 
for girls alone — the projectors acting as if they trem- 
bled at a shadow or .1 phantom of their own imagina- 
tion. Man, whether male or female, is, no doubt, a 
sinful creature ;, and sin and fully ara to be avoided 
and checked on their first devolopmeut. We admit 
some danger in a teaching school without superinton- 
deuce, but there can be none in one for training, 

Und-er twelve or tliirteen years of age neai'ly all lea- 
sons may be givttn to boys and girls in the same ckss 
with muttiiil advantage. Beyond that age, the 
branches uscrul to each in the sphere in which Pro- 
vidence intends they should be placed, although in 



k 



122 



THE TRUimO STSTEir. 



aome points the same, yet natarally and grftdually 
lU verge. Abaoluto separation, liowever, for any- 
lengthened period, we conceive to be f ositively in- 
jurious. 

Ill the tnodol schools of the Normal Training Se- 
minary at Glasgow, the moat Iwneiiciai effects have 
resulted from tlie mora natural course. Boya itnd 
giria, from the age of two or three yt'ara, to fourteen 
or fifteen, classified, of course, first, nader aix, then 
nndeT nine, again undur twelve, and again uncier four- 
teen or fifteen, — the female indugtrial department 
being for girls excluaivclys above ten years of age, — 
have been tnuned in the saimo class rooms^ gnlleries, 
and play- grounds, without impropriety. Nay, dur- 
ing the last nineteen years, about lOOO students, clnefiy 
between the ages of eighteen and thirty, have bean 
trained in this instltutioD, three-foartlis generally ber- 
ing males, and one fourth females — and for a consi- 
dera.blB portion of the day iliey have been together, 
in the same model schools and class-rooma, and not 
one case of impropriety has occurred ; on tlie contrary, 
the utmost propriety liaa buon maiutalnGd. OfeoiirBe, 
suitable' masters superintended them during the day, 
and it is hoped that the ha!o of Bible training has 
tended to produce these results. It may be ima^uod 
that such a coarse might lead to imprudent mprriages, 
but, so for (rom this being tlie esse, siuce the com- 
mencement, in 1820, only three marriages havetakcu 
place among the atudcuts, and one of the parties was 
eiigaged or intimately acquainted with each other 
previous to entering the seminary. 



SEFAHAYIOIi or THE SBSm, 



123 



Mucli maybe said for and against the practice of 
male and fmiialu students being tmine'l im the same 
cIsEBe^ and not being kdgcd witLin the walla of the 
institution. We may inore fully enlarge upoa these 
foimts under tlio liead Normal Seminary, but in the 
lUfantime we mny state, thn.t tlie want of a proper 
principle of THAifliNO alone renders it dangerous for 
the sexes to be placed together during the rariety of 
school exerciges, and that the eanio principle which 
diotatcd, at the cromniencement of the iiiatitutioD, 
twenty y&ara ago, tiiat the trainhig of hoys and girla 
ehtiuld not hc3 coudnctc-d separately, also dictated that 
grown persona would alike he henefited by the prac- 
tice. In each case, neither our desirra nor eixpecta- 
tiona liEive been in the alightest degreB diBappointcd. 

After BcEiDol hours, the children are at homo with 
their parents, and the students from the country are 
lodged in respectahle private fanilHea in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the institution— thug copying, ae 
closely as possible, the most natural and improving of 
all modes of education, — at school, under a properly 
trained masler, during the day, and at home, under 
their parents, in the evening. Even where the con- 
duct of the parent* is not altogether exemplary, wg 
prefer tliis mode to any other-^the moral training of 
the School proving a powerful, if not a complete an- 
tidote i and the moral conduct of the ehildrcn is often 
found to have a reflux influence on their parents, pro- 
moting cloanlinosa and sobrieiy, and even piety, at 
home. 

Whether "we nctjuieace in the principle of the non- 




124 THE TRAiyrXO STHTEM- 

aeparation of the sexe& m iraJning or not, the power 
c( stfmpalhii, we telieve, will cotapel ua to the adop- 
tion of tlie principle, if erer the youth of our country 
ore to be traioedl intellect tinlly aod morally. Let it 
be kept in mind that, notwithstanding all the stir and 
speecliifyiag about edocating the poorer classes, wu 
are yet only on tho throsliold of the etiterpriso. 

It 18 in England where the separation system is 
most general and complote. I know, irom many 
commumcations which [ have received for years past 
in regard to tho demand for trainers from this semi- 
nary, that everywhere the clergy and directors of 
schools aro plagued to the uttermost, ard know not 
what to do, by the frequent changes canaet]UGn.t oa 
having separate achqolg for boyg and girb, and, con- 
sequently, malo and female teachers. If a man and 
wife, the latter has young children, and they mnat be 
Attended to ; if not, then the first duty of her life ia 
neglected. She is not always well — sometimes dcli- 
oate. Then ono of three tEiinga follows, — the school 
suffers, her own children, or her own health ; pro- 
bably all to a conBiderahle extent. In only a very 
few Cflsra ia the wife intelligent, active, vigorous, 
and without children, all of whicli are necessary qua- 
lifications in a sohoolmistresa having the entire charge 
of a school. 

If the mistress be unmarried, amiable, intelligent, 
and effi-cient, what moro likely than that she should 
be picked up hy some man of sense with whom she 
gets acquainted, and then the school requires a new 
mistress. Thesfi axe diffi^cutties which must ever a£^ 



SR^ASATTOH OT THRBKXBS. 125 

cDRipany the " separation sjstenQj" and never can te 
cured but by baTJng a man for head-teac!tcr or trainer, 
and where a female is necessary, the wife or sister, 
or au occasional asiaist^t, and, of course, hoys and 
girls taught and trained in the tame school. 

Siiico the first publication ai this article, many 
schoola have adopt&d the principle ; many mor« have 
been shocked at th& " barbajrone idea," the "unheard 
of indecency and impropriety of having boys and girls 
together In the same bcIiodI, and in many of the same 
classes ;" still, boweverj it leavens the public mind, 
and on the sound principles of Aloral Training, and, 
as we have endeaToured to ahow, of n^e^mty and even 
expedieney^ it must BTebtually prevail and become 
general. 

Wg might r[Uote many opinions od the subject* 
One clergyman, writiflg for a trainer for hia puriahj 
says, " Our directors unanimously agr^a to the non- 
separation principle." A former student, a trainer 
in ono of the Poor-law Unions of England, copies the 
opinion of clerical visitors iroro bis note-book as fal- 
lows i. 

" Another point for wliicli joii cont-CEd is that Inys nut! girla 
sliould be taught I'lgotlwp. Wht'ii I fir&t came to tkia p\aee, 
aliDut three years and a Imlf ago. I found the grcateat prejufUce 
esisting against such a p5fin. I tritd if> point out tho ntlvnn- 
tagca of it ; hut iU my effgrUt were trultlesa for* perlwl of flftteu 
iDDitths. At length tliey agreed, to let them liaro the Bible 
Icason ist the taortiing' tog'etlier. It y/aa followpJ Ly none of tho 
rtlI conacquL'Hcea they had n-nticipated ; on tho coutrary, Iho 
happiest, pesulta were |)roiluci(;d. They are now ao ccinvin.D-cd of 
ila good tffecta, both upon boya and girls, that tlioy wiah them 
to Itaie Edl their lesecHis together, eicept writing;. I will giV'C 




ise 



THB TRJUtflKQ ffTSTEX. 



yoii iha tliaplain's opinion of it. Tlie following wocxtracta fromi 
liU rcpoi't Imuk i-— 

■' ' Oi-t. 4, 1853. — The improvpnioHl nmong tlw diililren twJii- 
tintii^. 1 fiu(] thn.t takiiij^ their lessons to^tlier ext^itca amon); 
both hiyt ADil f irla n most iiAefu] apirit of cmulatimsit wltbuut 
anj ill-wiil or rivalry wJifllevcr, 

"'July 3ft, 1^44. — Coatiuue to peretiTe veiy UMifuJ l^e9u1t« 
from the haya and ^irln taking tlitir ]o«4Dlili lu ComjiREiy.' 

" He is not t}ie nn.l^'' pi'i'suD lii^re ^ho now jipprtiTH pf the! pl&n, 
ScTcral clcr^yruen, wbo are ^larillansr think lii^lily uf it ', and 
Bomii of thciQ Eiuvo, I btlievej wluptcd it in the twliuda ouniuwted 
with their own parisLcs. 

" Aa to the cffcot. the training sjatcin as, a whole would bavo 
upon eoeioty, Ihure can lie no doubt but lluit k w<*uid be most 
heneHL'inl. Tbe ellwU it has upon a fsw schotfU, and iipoti tlits 
limited numlicrs who attend tlieni, it wtiiild biivc upua nuUiy. 
It la found to nnswer the riKJwt anngultic expDi^tationR of itfl pro- 
moters, where properly oarrk-d ont ; frCfin tlienoC' it mny (w in- 
ferr«l, that It would liiive thu same offset upon «U lliu auhmils in 
the ppipirfl, and upoci all ilie jHSiitli thereof, iliJ tliey at'tcfid 
thera. I do not mean to sajtSjat CT-ime woiilil beat an ttid wore 
training Kiihoolscstablifliiid throughout the len^h and hreadth 
of the land. Imt I do say that it would bediniiiusliedtiia degree 
of which we have now no OTniM!plion. 

Th'G Wesleyan Cuafcrence have decided to adopt 
tTie entiro " Training System^" iiiclmling tbe noa- 
Beparation principle, and are now catablisliitig a Nor- 
mal Training Seminary Air themseWes in England, 
rcrctors and mastera for which are being prepared in 
our institution. A noble lady and pratttic-a! philaii- 
tbropist, wbo for yoarg past has had several trainers 
in her schools, although convinced of the p^{)priety^ 
fait the public feeling bo etrong again&t boys and 
girls being trained together, that her ladyship in- 
troduced them together, in the first instaiicp, only 
during the mormng hyran, prayers, and Bible train- 



SEPARATION OF THB SEXES, 127 

ing lesson. This was attended by very beneftcial re- 
sults. 

We are not surprised at a portion of the sensitive- 
ness experienced, in regard to the non-separation prin- 
ciple in schools for mere teaching, more especially 
under monitors. We are satisfied, however, tliat it 
only requires the experience of training schools, to 
convince every rt'flecting mind, that in such no danger 
can arise from it, but, on the contrary, great and de- 
cided benefit. 



CHAP. IS. 



SXACIHO— SKVnClAriON — EUWDTIOK— HANNEQ OC TBB 



BBADINQ. 



Beadtno is a most importiiut acqiiMtion, and BTi 
possible means ouglit to be adopted to render it wHat 
it ought to "be, a means of acquiring real and substan- 
tial knowledge ; but reading may be practised in auch 
a way, by its rapidity, slurring, and indistinetnees, 
aa to fail of makiag the impression iutendeil Ly the 
worda which are read. We therefore recommend out 
natural mods to auiTersal adoption in. all schools, 
public or private. 

We apprehead, boweirer, that impressiTe readiDg^ 
can never be acquired without the miderstanding of 
what is read, "We must underatand what we read, 
before we can feel its force ; and without fueling there 
canuol. be good reading. 

Look at the eye and manner of a nmn who feels 
what he reads, and observe how ifc tells on his au- 
dience, canipared with the maa who reads as a task, 
howerer elegantly. 

Impreasion, however, is of the first and last import- 
ance. In the students' Lall we say, In order tu make 
an impreyeioD, we must ... viake an impression^ just 



HB4IHW0. 



I 



M is also aaid, The way to do a tiling ig ,.. jutt to do 
it. All cinnot arrive at what is temieil elegant 
readiag, liut by a simplo proceas, every individual 
may arrive at the power of being dlatinyt, mid even 
impressive^ 

What some few individnflla UBturally exhibit, viz., 
a clear aud distinct nrticulatitm, we propose as o. uni- 
form system to be ac([uired. One or two etmpic rules 
may bo attended to. 0[iea tbe moutb well — rest on 
tbe consonants — never slur ont- word into another — 
avoid a sing-song^ or a monotonous tone ; am) if a 
distinct pansG bo mitde at tbo end of each word, so 
as to gJTo B alow and distinct articwlatioE, and that 
continuously for a few weeks or montha togetlier, the 
children will acquire the habil of reading distinctly 
ever afterwardg, even when reading (Slickly, It 
must be overdone a little at first, in order that at last 
it may be well done: just a^ tho drill-acrjcant does 
with his raw recruiEa. Jn order that they may ac- 
quire the habit of lifting the heel, as it ought to be, 
three inches aboTa the ground In raarchirg^ he causes 
theiu, in thfl first instance, to raise it five or six 
inches. "Were ho to cause thcra to raiao it only three 
inches at first, many would ovcntually scarcely clear 
the smalleBt pebble, and even scrape their heel ou the 
ground. So it ia with readers, 

Tbe public speaker, casteris paribus^ la uniformly 
the most impreBsive amd popular, who reads and ex- 
presses his words separately and vpry distinctly. 
Why are we so very much interested with a public 
address from a. foreigner ? Not froui hia foreign ac- 




ISO THE TIlAWUtO SYSTKSf. 

cent BO much, as that heing under the necessity of 
translating liis ideas into auotUcr language, he hta 
acquired the hahit of repenting each word separately 
and eJawly. The repeating of each word eeparafeltf 
and distinctly, ia as great an improvement in tho art 
of reading, as the same principle is in singing the 
notes of miiBic. 

Let every step be progrcselvie. Dnring the fint 
few weeks or months, let the pFiuee between each 
■word be fony, prcmoanciiig tlie word slowly and Tery 
diatinctly (the master, of course, showing the exum- 
ple). Tlien diminish tbe length of the paiiie a little, 
during tbe next few weeks, aa a second stnge ; and 
80 on. step by step, until tbe children, following the 
example of tbe trainer, and themseWes doinff the 
thing, they arrive at the deeired point of excellence. 

It is a principle, that the whole class should read 
simultaneoualy, and a few individually. The former., 
Tiz., simultaneous reading (and seated in a gallery), 
assists in securing the following important objects : 
first, the saving of time, as all may read what any 
one reads. Secondly, the most perfect concord as 
to tones of Toice^ as in the case of singing — "the 
sympathy of nnnihera" producing this effect. And, 
thirdly, the great means to be used for attaining tliis 
end, is to cause th& children to read each word slowly 
and aeparatel^i aa if it stood alone, and in tho precise 
tones of the master or trainer, also fretjuently repeat- 
ing them. According to this plan of procedure, 81) 
or 100 chiUlrcn in a gallery must attain the same 
toQes which the person training them chooses — thus 



ISl 



followlrig his example, and that of one another by 
" the aympatby of numbers." Tliia^ however, ought 
to be frequently tested, hy calhng upon one here and 
iliere, and sometimes a dozen or half'^a.-dozen at a 
time, in the galkry to read alone, equally slowly, 
and in (he eame tone of voice. This attainment, 
however, h more easily secured hy sltnultansous than 
by individual reading. Wlierever the training bjs- 
tem is applied to reading therefore, if the cliildreu 
do not read slowly and distinctly, the fnu!t is in tlie 
master, not in the scholars. 

Rapid reading ig an inexewsable practice ; it being 
evident that whatever is being worthy of being read 
at all, ought to bo audibly and distinctly espres&ed, 
IrapresBion ought to be the object, fur it must be 
kept in mind that the hatener only receives the im- 
pression as it is made on hia ear, whereas the reader 
himself is doubly impressed hy liig eye on the book, 
and the sound of his own voice. 

ThQ children may be trained as follows : repeating 
after the master, not reading mith him. For the first 
two or three weeks, making a. long pause between 
each word, as in No. 1 ; again for the same period, 
as in No. 2 ; and bo on — simjtltaneotutli/ in general, 
and here and there in the gallery, one child indiri- 
(lualiy. 

1 . AU— people — that — on — earth — do — dwell. 
2i All-^people — that — on — eartli — do — dwell. 

3. All— people — that— on— earth — do — dwell, 

4. All, peopte, that, on, earth, do, dwell,. 

5. AU people that on earth do dwell- 




132 



THE ntuxim srsTEM. 



TliLu prfictico uDiformly proiliicee diBtiQct aFtiOQla~ 
tion in the case uf every child, but aa stage No. 5 is 
usually mode tLe first, distinct and impressive read- 
ing 19 seldom attained unlcsa the chilii has l»een bo 
gifted by nature. 

Reading in any way, is geiietally, nay, almost cjt-^ 
rhisivi'ly, demanded on the part of parents ae the all 
m ivU in educatiop, not merely in jnyeniie ephoola, but 
E'or cliililren of even three or four years trf age in thai 
infant or initiatory dopartmcnt. Let the master give 
all the inatruction and trmning poBBible as a prelimi- 
nary courae, it ia nothing in the eyes of parents with- 
out the art of reading. Give them it, and no com- 
plaint will be heard, although not one word he under- 
stood of what they do read. Tiiia prejudice on the 
part of parents, however, is a Ecrions difficulty, as it 
places tha nioat accomplished ninsters, in many oases, 
nearly on a level with the old dame, the lame soldier, 
or broken down tradi-sman, either of whom can ai 
least teach to read and epeU, i. s., the sound of norda 
without the nndi^rstanding. This prejudice u preg- 
nant with this seridua uvil, that not merely are juve- 
nile schools levelled to the rote syatem, but nearly 
every infant school is in a great measure destroyed, 
and turned into a reading 8cbool. So long aA the 
master teaches reading from printed boarda in the 
initiatory or infant department, he is flafe ; hut intro- 
duca even one spelling-book, and then, like tho letting 
in of water, other books will follow, until moral 
training be entirely excluded, and the health of the 
young children become seriously injurt'd. Another 



I 

I 



RKimiiw. 1 S3 

difficulty presents itsulf : where there is no partial en- 
dowment, the teacher is, generally speaking, too de- 
pendent on numbars for Uis aubaisteucc, consefjuently, 
io most instances, he overcrowds fiis acUciol, A great 
firoportion of p srenta have no desire for tnoral train- 
ing, or even intellectual training for their ehildi-en, 
nor do they understand the ]jrineipl<J9 of either. They 
do indeed experience the waywardness and improper 
conduct of their children ; but how tlio public eclhuol 
can assist tbem> or remove the etils felt and com- 
plained of, they know not, We have education, 
therefore, brought down too generally to the very low- 
est point Hence the extreme low rate of wageg, and 
the couBequent lowering of the profeaaion of the school- 
master from the rank whicEi he ought to hold m the 
scale of society. Tho fault lies not merely with the 
ignorant parents, hut with the more btelligent diroe- 
tora, whose greatcat amiety seems to be — to have the 
largest number of children ebdcatePj as it it termed, 
at the h'asi posgihle expense. 

The mere reading of words, or repetition of aonnda, 
without underatandtiigi is almost uselfas j* and we 
have known persons in mature life, in these circumi- 
stances, lose the incraory aven of the sounds they had 
been in tlie habit of repeating in youth. Tiie figures 
or eamhination of letters awakened do definite idea.; 
they therefore ceased to he interestEd by them. The 
understanding of what we do read, greatly asaists the 
memory of words. Bmt whilst we condemn the prac- 

Soe FmIqit Statiatiat. 




134 



TiiK TBAiHiNe sTsnar. 



tice of reading without the underBlanding^ it mast 
not Lc supposed that we wislt tci liinit the amouQt of 
reading in ecliool, or out of it. Even with the lessons 
in sci«]icer ajid Scripture, and morale, ^ill of wtiicli are 
additional to whn.t is usually given under oth«r sys- 
tems; the galWy fiimultaneoua pHneiple enables the 
childr>GQ to h2V6 as mucb or even more re&diug thao 
cljildreu usually enjoy. For ejtample, when a class 
of 20 or 30 children are exclusively confined to indi- 
vidual reading, they can seldom read more than two 
or three seotences each, j. b,, two or three turns of 
the whole clasa will occupy as much time as the 
teacher can spend during the limited perigd of sehoiol 
hours — leaving him little or no time for explanation^ 
and none for tniining. On the contrary, uader our 
ffyetem, although one here and there in the galleryj 
or in any of the divisions, ia required to read indtvi- 
dually, for various reaaons mentioned under another 
head, yet, on i\i&iiimultuneGU3 gallery inethod, whatever 
one reads, all read ; and each and all may in less time 
road audibly, four times fit least ns much as is the ordi- 
nary practice in achoola. If therefore, less time bo 
occupied in rending under our system, the remainder 
f(f the time, or at all events, part of it, ia spent in 
analyzing and picturing out the lesson to be deduced; 
^thus carrying tho memory of the understanding 
along with you, as well og the memory of soundB, 
and giving a taste for reading at home', during school 
attendance as weJl as in after life. The training sys- 
tem, therefore, whilst it saves lime, secures at the 
least an equal amouat of reading; and in addition, 



BWaireiATIOW— ELOCUTION. 



wben faithfully practised, distinct articulation — a thO' 
roagh understanding — a taate for private readings and, 
we trufitj a discrimiantion of wha.t booksouglitto be 
lead. 



EjnjNCIATlON' — ELOCUTION. 

A distinct forcible enunciation is an important as- 
eistant ill intellectual training. Assisted by Bultablfl 
actioD, it is fuil^ ons half of the poteer of either & 
publio speaker ur a school trainer. Great pains^ 
therefore, hav^ been taken to reduce this departiDcnt 
to natural principlea; und when wa sisk ourselves the 
question, Why is it that so few ptTsona enunciate 
clejuly, forcibly, and distinctly, even whm they have 
been under the care of prufeaaors of elocution ? we can 
only solve the difficulty upon the following principle: 
Elocutionists generally exhibit ia themselves the 
highest point of elegant reading, reciting, or speaking, 
as a stsadard to their pupiU, but not the mode of 
ELrriviug at that point, reversing the mode adopted in 
almost every art— tbe art of writing, for example, 
which is first strokes; second, iu/'ns ; third, t&xt ; 
fourth, haJf-text ; and lastly, small trrilmff or caf- 
rent hand. A child will not acquire the art by 
commencing with smnll meriting. Yet this is the 
usual mode attempted in the art of elocution, and, 
therefore, pupils generally fail. They may repeat or 
read a few aclect pieces, with force, and aOmetiniea 
with elegance ; but their ordinary reading is little 
improved, and their modeof spenking ia eonversation 
not in the slig^bteet degree. In general, ihoss who 



THE TRilKTtIO STyTEK. 



138 

liaTe acquired ei distinct and impressive mode of de- 
livery have geuprally trained tSiemselvos aa in tlic art 
of writing. "Wa would comiU'ence oa the natural 
principk, witli 9(rokei. 

The principle of pausing sen^bly between each 
word, without a drawling or monotonouB tone of 
voice, SGCurcSi that eventually all will read impres- 
sirely if not .elegantly j tlie power of elegaut reading 
or speaking being dependent, in a great meagure, on 
the iiatuiral taste and ear for harmony. 

Tlie power of the voice ia very apparent, when We 
consider what different meaiiingB may be attached to 
the words y^ or no, simply by the variation of tiia 
tone of voice, so complete iodecd, as that j^e* to tha 
ear may le made to mean no, and na to mean jfet: 
most pergtips are faraihar with the efFect such changes 
may produce on tlieae worda, — Do you ride to town 
to-day 1 &c. A clear and distinct cnuuciatioo, there- 
fore, ia not merely a. polish or fiuish, as is generally 
imagiucd, but a main pillar in the whole proceB9 o£ 
communicatioit between master and Bcholnrs. 

Under the training eygtem, tluee-fourthsof the in- 
formation received by the scholare passes to th^m 
direct from the master, without the intervention of 
hooka. Tho master having previously mado himself 
thorougldy acquainted with the Bubjectj works it^ as 
it were, into the children's miada — developes, at 
the same time, their extent of knowledge and under- 
staiiding, and iiseB the kiiowledge he himself is 
possessed of, with all tlie warmth and natural eftect of 
the human voice J hence the great importance of oul- 



KinJKOT&TIOlT SlflClJtlOJf. 



) 



iivatmg a clcnr and distinct cmtiiCiaiion ; as, without 
this, not Only does speaking lose much of ita powur, 
but t!io lialf of what is Baid ia enwtlicred and lost 
in ita waj, between masler and ficliokra. It is -vrell 
to speak and read slowly, and rather in an tinder 
tons: wliat is lost in nipldity ought to be made up 
in energy. Causethe pupil to open hiamoutliwellj and 
inovB his lips froely. The elaghteat approach to drawl- 
ing or iingitiif is injuriona, and ought to be avoided. 

Many intelligent and well-inatmcted young men 
fail in speaking impressively to their scholars, from 
their not auiUci^ntly opening the moutb ; a cknr 
enuncLntion, otlierwiso, ia seldom if ever att.^ined. 
The following method has been practised with advan- 
tage, by the Normsi] students. Two, three, or four 
uitniites are spent at a. time in repiiatinn; clvarly, 
loudly, and emphatically, such words as tho following; 
each word repeated several times in BUccesalon : Re- 
ea-pi-tn-lntion, — Re-ca-pi-tu-latiout — Em-pliatically, 
Eni-phaticaliy, — Im-pract-i-ca-hility, — Im-pract-i- 
ca-hility, — In-cora-pre-li€nBi-hility, &c. ; any word, 
indeed, which of nece&aitycaiisea a considerable motion 
and expansioQ of the mouth and lips, may ho usod. 
Ev^ry eyllabla ought to be fully articulated ; and the 
formality, in the first iastanco, will quickly soften down 
into a clear cnuuci-iition. Much of the effect produced 
by addreases from the pulpit and the bai', or even iu 
ordinary coQTeraation, is unquestionably dependent 
on a proper enunciation ; and, when accompanied 
witb suitable action, forms the perfect speaker. 

A master can mould his pupils to almost taiy tone 



138 



THB THAINIHO BTSTEM. 



or voice audi mnnncr lie pleases, and this is proin^ted 
upon tbe commoTi prinoiple of sociiil ajTnpathy, Each 
new scliolar ^kdopta the tone and manner esta.Llished 
in the class, Tlie greatest difficulty will be found in 
catablishing the principle with iin entirely oew claas. 



UANXER OF THE TRAINEB. 

Manner is important in all, 'vrhatcver their aecupo- 
tion or eircumstancea may bo- It ia especially so in 
a trainer of youth — in none eo much stj, ptirhaj>B, with 
the exception of the pastorj-^tho minister of Christ. 
We remember having for a copy-line in school — " A 
man's manners commonly make his fortune." True it 
is, that if fortunes nre to he made by the Trdning 
School aystem, manner, a good manner, will be found 
to be the meana of realizing them. "What is meant by 
manner atill requirea to be " picstured out," ba H'very 
one has his own idea of the term. We would t!iereforo 
give one definition o( the proper manner of a trainer. 
It includes, in the general, commaod of temper ; con- 
deseension, kiadness, and courteouaneas. And, in 
particular, an easy standing poBition, free from a 
ftoop, and yet stooping frequently, as it ■W'tre, to the 
capacity of his pupils. Keeping his eye fixed on the 
■whole scholars, and having the power of keeping 
theirs fixed on himself. A yoico, moreover, fuli» . 
clear, and varied.^ according to tlio subject; at the- 
same time mild in expressing unijtiportant niattew.. 
In drawing the lesson, ii must be low, alow, ani' 
affeetionate ; firm in giving reproof ; and always dis- 
tinct in articulation. The voice and the eye con- 



stittitc, unqnestinnablj', fullj one-half of tlie power of 
a trainer of yuutb. Thus a trainer^a manner is uc* 
(jucstioDably half liis furtiine, 

Self-Cuntrol. — Tliis, of course, forms part of tbe 
manntT of a. trainer ; "but we would more particuliU'ly 
refer tiiis principle not &f> much to the extcroal habits 
as to that of regulating liia temper, so that unilpr 
ahnyst any po^siljlo provocatiim, he may maintain a 
calm, dignifiedj and afl'thla manner before liia pupila. 
Let a trainer lose Iiig temper, and liis influence h for 
the moment gone. TLe child or cliililren quickly 
p&rceiving the master's impatience, or rather deficiency 
nf self-control, big threats only awaken fear of pun- 
Isliment, not grief at having offended their friend the 
master. The rod is then Apt to be resott'ed to, or a 
threat held out that it will be ns^d ; and, if never 
executed, tha master still faither loaea hia influeDce. 

\Vc have seen many Htudcnta lose temper tho 
moment the children gave one incorrect, or sUly, or 
ladicreuB answer, and retorting in an angry tone, tlifly 
uniformly lost tlie attention of tho class, whether tlio 
children were seitted in the gallery or in divisiona. 
It ia the duty of the more icise and letter informed 
to bear with ignorance and ivaywardneas j gently 
to check, and mould, and lead, but not to scold or 
strike, which generally proves a degree of weakness 
to tlie quick perceptions of youth. Children are pre- 
cisely in these circumstances ; and when firmly yet 
calmly checked, loVe and respect are engendered, and 
their hearts are in the most favourable circumstaQces 
to be intellectually, above all morally, ti'ained. 



CHAP. X- 



PTCTIFRINQ OlIT IN WORDS. 



This is a firadamental principle of the aysteni, and ia 
found to be mora or lesa natura) to every student — 
some having a greater teadencj to ^'picturo out" than 
others, AU, lipwever, may acquire it gyBt&matioallj', 
although, of course, from different mental construc- 
tion, all will not be equally succegsfuL The explan- 
ation of a subject, or meaning of a word, by the mas- 
tor, does DM eecure the understanding of the childf 
neither does a mere verbal answer of explanation by 
the child, prove hia posaeasion of the correct idea or 
ideas, wiihowt comparison, analogy, or illustrations 
auited to their capacity and sympathies. Before a . 
child lias a thorough tEnderstanding of a word or 
point of a subject, the simple elements of the terma 
used must be present to the mind's eye; and, ag un- 
der the training^ aystera, wliatever the ichool exorcise 
may be, secular or sacred, " picturing out" ought uni- 
formly to be adopted, botli io tlie broad outlines and 
minuter points of every lesson. We sliall enter a littla 
more fully into an explanation, and as shortly as wo 
can, een?ihle, however, lUat no written exampleg^ or 
esplanaiiong, or analysest can convey our meaning. 



PltTDHlKn OFT Uf WOTIIIE. 



HI 



without actual practiccr which would then include the 
powerful effect of tiie voicp, and maonei*, oud eye, of 
both niELSter nnd acholara. 

Knowledge makes but glow progress in tlie world, 
and our ideas are ofcetttiinea incorrect and confuged, 
in conaeqwence of using words and pUrases, the m&an- 
inga of which are not clearly apprehended. 

Eveiy word is a figure representing some ohjeoE or 
objeols, or more teclinically, cperj/ icotti either ri^re- 
aenta an object, or a eomhinatwn of ohjeeta^ and ma^ 
iAerqfore he p'lCim'ed oui in icords repreaentUig ohjects. 

We literallj know nothing but from or through the 
luedium of visible oLjecls, The first step, tht^refore, 
13 to store the mind with a knowledge of ohjects, and 
Words espreasiYO of these ohjecla. Onco jircgent to 
the mind a Tariety of objecta, and, by the usa of words 
representing the qualities, relatioDS, and CDnibinntiuns 
nf liieae objects, the mind may be trained from the 
known to the unknown. 

Peetalozz! introduced the uge of ohjecle and pnntg 
in popular education. " The training system'^ has 
added the picturing oat in " worda,'' by analogy and 
familiar iilustraliona of every abstract term, figurative 
Word, and figuratiTC phrase. It must be borne in 
mind that every word in any liingnago either repre- 
sents BJ\ ohjeut, or a conibiuation of objects, and, 
therefore, muy be pictured out and sinipbfied in words 
repreeenring such. Mero objecta and printa oshibit 
only oiso condition or point of the subject they repre- 
sent, wIiercM picturing out in words may ba carrieti 
ad infinitum. 



142 



THE TEtAINTlfa STSTEK. 



All words being figurative, and all phrasea and col- 
locHitione of words being figures, the most complex 
may be reduced to Bimple elements. 

Of course tiiere is a limit wbcn toq corao to fncts, 
which we caDnot thus picture out^ and these become 
objects of faith, an example of wliich we shall ahortly 
give. But the rule of annlysia which we udopt is. 
applicable to every tiling within the range of human 
perception and reason. 

ABSTRACT TERMS. 

In regard to ahstract terms, no explanation can 
convey the idea of a atona or an egg, for example^ 
until tUey are represented to tbe senses. A figh must 
be seen before W9 know what a fish is; but having 
Been one we may be easily trained to know any fiah. 
The same is true in regard to a bird ; but having oneo 
Been a h&n or a huinmLng bird, we may be trained to 
know the appearance, size, and quahties cf an ejigle 
or an ostrich. 



piguhattve woims. 

Wq might analyse innumerable figurative wordi, 
requiring a reduction from complex to simple teTms,J 
before the idea Intended by the use of the word cani 
be formed in tlie mind. We might take the word 
absiract itself aa an example, as denoting aomptbing 
having a prarioua existenco in one condition, and be- 
ing drawn out of that condition into another and dia- 
tinct condilioD. I may abstract a atone from a quarry 



FIOITRATITH "WOUPB. 



14B 



or heap of rubbtsli, or an apptc from a Laskst ; and 
thus from simple we may proceed to complex ideaa 
— auch as tb? ideA of wliat a nmn is vrho ie engrossed 
with one subject^ or wlio is so peculiar in liia mode 
of tlkinkiog, as to be dra.wn out, as it were^ or aside, 
from the generality of luankiiid. 

In educntioD^ many terms are used, which, although 
TerbsHy explained, yet not being pictured out by 
nDalysis and familiar illuatrations, are not. present 
in ih&ir real meaning to the inind'a eye, and are 
conactjuently not understood. Latin grammar, for 
example, might bo rendered a less dry study, and 
more interesting, wera the boy not permitted to use 
any term which had not first been piotured out tn his 
mind ; for eiample^ such wordg a3 participle, perfect, 
indicative, pluperfect, Bubjunctive, &c., &c., why a 
nonn ia declined, and a, yeib coTijugated, And the 
game in English grammar — objective, possesaiivo, &o. 
What more incomprehensible to an uneducated man 
than the terms in use by a lecturer on natural science. 
Wa know of nothing more puzzling to the student 
than the use of terms not previously pictured out. 
This, however, being done, which ia the natural and 
training mode, study becomea a pleasure, every term 
in use having erUknily a meaning. It is a principle 
of the training system, that no abstract term, oi- 
figurative word, be used, or any passage committed 
to memory, xmtil o.ich particular term, and the wliole 
subject, be analysed And familiarly illustrated j ifie 
ererche of the u-aderstanding thm pr^udhuj the 6xer- 
cisD of the rcrhai memory. 



lU 



THE TBAIMIliS ST3TEBI- 



In reading a book, or listeniag to a lecLnre or sbp- 
mtin, elioiiild even one figurative word or phrase be 
Uied whiuh liaa not been pictured out to the mind of 
tlt6 auditory, tbat word or phrase may be a barriet to 
the understan^liug of lliQ whole subject ; hence the 
slow progress of knowledge in tlie world, as we have 
already stated, and tha nocessity of a previous school 
training, and a picturing out, by analysis and familiaT 
illuatfatioafi, of all figuntiva words atid phrases used 
in elementary, adentifiCi and scriptural education. 
Picturing out to the mind ia still more neceaaary, 
when not merely one figurative word is used, but 
when a number are presented in » single Bentencth 
For example, Dr. Biickland^ in giWng " proofa of da-i 
sigTj in the effects of disturbing forcea on the strtita of 
the earthj" thus ospreaSeS himself :.^ — " ElovatiooB and 
subsidences, inclinations and contortions, fractures and 
dislocations, are phenomena, which, although at finit 
sight they present only the appearance of disorder and 
confugion> yet, when fuUy understood, demongtrate 
tbe existence of order, and method, and design, even 
in the operations of the mogt turbulent among the 
mighty physical forces which have affected the terra- 
queoua globe." We know such acntencoa are read in 
schools, without one word having been pictured out ; 
the dietiopary, with its verbal explanation, alone be- 
ing accessible to the pupil j and grown-up persons 
peruse the same words without attaching any detimte 
idea to them; nnd finding no definitions, or rather 
^miliar illiLstrationa, of technical pliraeea in a diction- 
ary, the sense of the author ia loat to them, fi'om the 



tlODHATIVB WOHM. 

neglect of picturing out svery word tliey met wiili 
in tliciir early t'tliicatinii. 

Compiles terras, therefore, being used, otigljt uni- 
formly to be reduced to simple lerras ; and although 
the fulluwing may be considBrod [iii estravagaut case, 
yet as we kaoW it to be an actual occurrence, we giYS 
it &3 an additioTi-tl iUustration of our pi>iiit,and show- 
ing tlic necesaity of a ayetematic mode of picturing Out. 

Aftor a public examination, of n school in a certain 
manufacturing town in Scotland, a learned gentleman 
presiint was invited to put a fevr questions la the 
childii'n. The gentleman proceeded—^" Children , 
Ipok nt me — and answer a few questions— be very 
attentive — answ&r me tliis :— /j it not a fact, that 
7nutalmn is stam^^ed on all suJAunar^ ohjects?" The 
children, of course, remainod eileut. Mutation to 
them was a mere soimd: atamped (it Leing a town 
where muslin is manufactured) only suggested to tliem 
the idea of ataraplng gauzo or Jaconet fur tambouring ; 
tulilunartf had never come under the catalogue of 
their reading, and the term had never been analysed 
or oxpluined — to thera the word was therefore quite 
incomprehcuaible; and as to oi)"^/'Sj in connection with 
the other «npictured-out words, they noturally 
thought of knic men, it being common to term all 
disabled persona ohjectsi " audi and such a one," they 
were accustomed to say, "ig quite an object," 

Amidst Bucli a heterogeneous mass, of sounds and 

imperfect ideas, as might he expected, no answer wna 

given ; and of course thoy were thought stupid Lihil- 

dren. The question commenced witli, '* is it not a 

K 



I 



\ 



140 



THE TRXmaia H T L T IiM . 



fiujt ?" Had the answer been, " No," tlien they 
wouid liava contradicted their examinatrtr; but had 
it been. " YeS," an approviog smile would, no doubt, 
have fullowed from the audience, aceompamed with 
the expression, " Very rights chiUirun " — the clishJren 
remAinitig, Iiowerer^ as ignorant as before. The 
verbal answer would bava been correct, but, neither 
the individual worcla nor the phrase as a wiiolo hav- 
ing been pictured out, or presented to the mind, no 
idea whatever was conveyed. Any word ueed by a 
speaker or teacher, and not clear!/ bafore the mind 
of big pupilg, ia without mea-ning ; by the person 
speaking, it maybe perfectly understood, but to those 
addressed ho spcalcs in a foreign tongue. 

in conducting a Bible training lesaon, it is peculiarly 
necessary that figurative words and phrases be pic- 
tured out in words to the mind, otherwiae no le;8Bon 
can be drawn. Such as, for example, '' Glory," both 
in the abstract and the conventional meauiog. "^ Sa- 
viour," in the abstract — a Saviour, who can aave me 
from danger, and iis Saviour, who alone can save me 
from deatli or hell. Also " Redeemer," " wisdom," 
"kingdom of heaven," "rivers of pleasure,'' — as well 
as innumerable emblems which must be Uaderatood, 
in otlier words, pictured out familiarJy to the piind, 
both in their natural history and accepted eenee, ba*^ 
fore any practical k^on can be drawn. Such passngetj 
aa '* I will refine thee as silver is refined." The wholal 
process of refining Silver must be graphically pictured'j 
out in words, and accompanied by suitable bodily 
raotionB. '■^ Tho path of the ju^t iS, as the EhiQing 



ligfat^ that sliineth more anti more unto tho perfect 
iay" — "Iron sliarpcneth iron, so dofch the fiice of a 
man his fri-end." — '* As an eagle stirretli up Iier nest, 
fliitteretli over her young " &c., "bo the Lord did 
lead thein," Sic. — *' Like a tree piantod by a river." 
— As the hart panteth nfter tho wntcr-broolca, bo 
panteth my soul nftcfr thee, O God." — " Be wise as 
serpenlis, nnd harmless aa doves," — " Keep me as tlie 
app]e of thiBo cj'e."— " Hide me in [lie hallow ofthinp 
hand." — " Tlie righteous shall flourish liko the palm 
tree; he ahg]l grow like a cedar in Lebanon." — " Till 
the day star ^irise in oui" he-ltts." — " A& iron aharpen- 
eth iron so doth the face of one man liis. friend," 

Such words and phrases might be quoted without 
end, every paga of Scripture being full of figurative 
expressions ; and although it la not necessary to enter 
minnieiy into the scicTice or nature of the objects on 
which tha Icfison is baaed, yet as much of the natural 
embkm or metaphor mii!?t be pictured out as to en- 
able the children to draw ihe lesscins ihemgelves, Tliiu 
being done in a week-day eleraenlarysclitiol ;for there 
is not ttnie in Sabbath schools or from the pulpit), then 
the reading of Scripture will become more l«minou&, 
nod sermons from the pulpit better uniiersttiod. 

Figurative words and phrases, which all come 
within the range of our scnaea, wo have seen, are 
capable of being pictured out; but, as we have already 
stated, all language being expressive of senfitUle objects, 
there is therefore a limit. 

A word is not an esptessioa coaTeying an idea, 



« 



118 



THE TRLUnrO' 9TSTEM. 



unless it can te pictured out. Wo cannot picture out 
or cjcpreaa heyoml the ohjecLfi witU wUk-h wo are 
familiar. For example, Paul wns caught up to the 
third lieavena, '"^and heard words which it waa not 
lawful to uttcT," or which ho was not able to utter; 
and why so ? because they were expressive of tliinga 
and ideas^ tliti reality of wliicU no human language 
couid convey;* for all languages, from that of the 
savage to the moat civilised nations, aje formed only 
to express the things that are known. Heaven itself 
IB represented by earthly things and objects, *'songa," 
" arches," " harps of gold," " crowns of glory," "man- 
eiona," " streets of gold," "rivers of pleasure." 

The being and character of God are conveyed to 
us through a similar medium. "Hia right hand is a 
right hand of power ;" " He wdighetli tha mountains 
in ecales, a,nd the hilla in a. haknce, and taketh up tha 
isles aa a very little thing ;" " Ills eyes are like a flame 
of firo ;" '* Tiie channels of water weie eeen, and tha 
foundations of the earth were discovered, Lord, 
with the hlast of the breath of thy nostriU ;" "He 
rideth on the wings of the wind." AU is natural 
imagery of tho loftiest character. Again, "Like as a 
father pitictli his children, so tho Lord piticth them 
that love liim," &c,, &c. And again, He who is re- 



• In pnaaing, we may state, that iL waaduring tlie illiist ration 
of this iMiJtit, at ore of tlie eritipisms in tUe Normal Smroiiiaiy, 
that una of the students (na lie aftorwarJa confe^cd). had his 
mind firat hi-ought to the iLUUUlity of the GDs|>e]. He formerly 
thought then wab ao liimit to t^ knuiMi uudentondlog^ in thta 
life. 



PIOCRATITE WOKDS, 



149 



sealed as tlio express image of God, U deBcribed as 
being *' Tfae foundation fltojie, and the chk-f coroer 
stone,, in whom all the bullijiog, fitly frumed together, 
groweth into an holy temple," SiC. He is also de- 
clared to he " tha way," "the door," "aro«k," "a 
stay," " a star;" for thia latter term we would now 
of course U30 compasi, stars heing unnecegaary to the 
mariner sincii the diaoov^ry of th»t important instni- 
ment, in guiding him to his desired haven, ThcBo 
and other espreasiong prove, that spiritual things can 
be, and only are, revealed through natural thinga. 

For the sake of those who have not practised the 
aystera,, v/e may state that picturing out is not always 
literal, but is frequently uaed conventionally. For 
example, a blind man cannot sgo coloure, and yet the 
yoriecj in colour may be pictured out, or rendered 
present to his mind in words by comparison, It is 
true he cannot see red or green with bia bodily eyes, 
but by touch, or by words describing the difference in 
feeling, he knowa w^hicli article is red or green. We 
haro heard a man, blind from hia birth, say that n 
cow whitih had been presented to him, was tlie finest 
/ts ever saw ; and titia mental sight, we also observed, 
had been acq^uircd by th« butcher by tbo same procesB, 
not by sight, hut by the eenso of touch. The same 
may be stated in regard to sound. A deaf man can- 
not hear musie, but he may feel ii, and can discover, 
to the extent of big sensibility, the distinction of 
sounds. We hoar persons say, I never saw such a 
wind. Why? / iraj almost lhv:n down : and yet 
all language, gecular or gacrcd, i$ formed lo convey 




150 TBE TRAIKtNt^ STSTEH. 

ideas of things tliot strike oiu' eeasea ; sight, or feeUng 
(conTentioaally aX leftat) reprfisCDting tha 'Vt^liole. 
Picturing out to the irnnd's eye, tliorefore, ^'b under- 
stand to ineaiif reuderlng tliie word or subject, wbe' 
ther siinple or complex, present to iba mind, hy 
analogy and familiar illuatratioRs. 

The satiiB idea ruiia tlifiiugli all langiinge. Thus, 
■we have worda derived from sight used to express 
ideas not directly received through that eenm ; aa 
tnuiBpnrency, perspicuity, circumsp^tion, perceptiony 
&c., &c- 

A L&CTtJRE AND ± TRAIHINa LESSOR. 

TVhy ia it that a person greatly prefers a lecture or 
speech to a training legspn? Under the former lie 
aita comfortaLly q^uiet without eflurt ; hu liHtens ur not 
aahepleaaes — he raay he drowsy, or half asleep, or 
wholly asleep — it matters not ; he is not disturbed 
unksa tha speaker, by his majiner and varied tones 
of voice, conipiuls him to listen. But in a training I 
lesson, the scholar or person to he instructed mtat 
attend, he must iill ip the elhpses, and answer the 
([Qestiona^ He must add his own aruount of iiifortna^. 
lion to thut of the master's, and he mnat nt last draw 
the lesson far himself. Sluep, therefore, ia out of the 
qaestion, and if tie clieridiea the t'u ineFiimothia 
nature, a training lesson cannot be so ngreeahk to liim 
aa a speech, a sermon, or a lectcire. 

OBJECTa AND PKtDBEB. 

. The UBS of objects^ and pictures, and the black-r 



»B MOTDHES. 



Ifil 



boftpd (on which figures may be dmwn), ought not to 
be rejected but made use of in every sy&tem of edu(!ft- 
tton. ThesG bring to tlie observation of tho pupH at 
lea^t one cooditioii of the sul^ect which is to be 
analysed, 

This ia particularly the case with young or very 
ignorant cliildren, whose pow^prs of observalion re^ 
quire to b& cuUivcited. An initiatory or infant school 
of course would fail without thei^e. It must be borne 
in mind, however, that by tltese only ono condition is 
brought into Tiew. The colour, and size, and form 
of an ammat, for example, are jireEented, but not its 
disposition, or usos, or liabsis, or any q\tality, but 
what is merely external. These miiut be pictured out 
in words ; and it ia tbia which is eygtematised under 
our plan, hy corapariaon, illuatration and analogy of 
things wilAin and -not bet/otid the experience and 
sympathy of the Bcbofars. To bo understood, not 
inoroly must tlie termg used bo simple and natural^ 
hut so must the illus^tratioDB, whetlier tlie lesson under 
review be given to a class consisting of cliildrec of 
three, Or eight, or thirteen years of n^e. 

Objecta and pktuiea have always been in use more 
or lesa in home and in public education. Milton'a 
TDother used the Dutch tilea of her parlour fireside to 
teach her eon natural history ; and every mother 
knows how llightj' pictures and objecta are Va.lued by 
lier interesting offsipring. The mo^t eyatematic mode 
of teai'hin^ by objects in the public achDol was that 
by Peatalozzi. It was an important step in education ; 
but it waa but one eitep towards a thorough under' 



etiLndiDg of tite S^jetematic mode of picturing out id 
worda, wliiclij in the ascending scale, includes everj 
passible \ariety uf condition tlia.t language can convey- 
The object or picture, as we liave already enid, repre- 
§ent9 oiily one cowditiop of tlie subji-ct, all dsois left 
to be pictured out to the uiind's eye in worda. Un- 
der our system, were we to confine tlie scientific 
gallery leaaona to such objects as can be prceented to 
tlie bodily eye, a, waggon-load of objects at the least 
Tvould be required every day for the model sciboola of 
the Normal Seminary ; and even tben, we would be 
reetricttd in our galkry training lessona. We can- 
not always present, for txanaide, a. cedar of Lebanon, 
or a, Hon alivo, or even stufEiudj or a pieca of Bilver ore j 
but the cliildrcn, in the play-ground or elsewhere, 
bare seen some cedar orpknls of a similar dcscriptioa 
—they have seen a cat or dog, if not a Hon, and with 
wiiich it may m some n^casure be compared. Real 
silver tbey have seen, as well &a sandj clay, &c., with 
which the native ore ig found mixed, and they niay 
be made to understand its nature without having the 
real object before them at tlhat particular moment. 

By the master stating facts, and drawing lironi bis 
class conaequences and rcasona deducible from thosa 
fiicts, both in thc^ir combitiations and dccompositiona, 
&C.J the whole is rendered visible to tba mind's eye 
"without the objects themselves being presented* 

A* a starting point, however, or to arrest the at- 
tention, t>r to present one condition of the subject to 
be analyaedj objecta ought certainly to be used when 
within our rcacli ; but as these are not always to W 



OBJECTS AFD PltTOBiB, 



I 



procured, and as tlie hiiTufl.n voice is always ready at 
liand with botli master and aclialar, aDd as such words 
ought on]y to be used as are withia the comprehen- 
sion of the latter, with illustrations and comparisons 
oE an eq^ually aiinple form, there is no object or com- 
bination of ol>j&ct& wliich 3. master may not thus pic- 
TCRT. OTiT, and progressively render as visible to the 
mind of his pupils, &s if not merely the objects, bnt 
the varied changea and combinations of these objectsj 
were actually before the bodily eye. Objects, there- 
fore, are useful, but picturing out in worda is infinitely 
nmre so. To the use of ohjeCis there is a limit — Co 
picturing ottt in xcordt there is no limit. 



CHAP. XI. 



PHYSICAL BXEI1CI9E8. 



Fnv&ICAL l^JtERCIflEg, although introduced into th« 
infiint &(;1iool system, and, strictly speaking, tlierefore, 
not HEW, are yet new in juvenile stlionls, 

When tlie bodily orgatia liavertinaiQcd iractive for 
a time, whether long or aliort, the tig inertiw of our 
nature needs to he raused hefurc nuy exertion can ba 
put forth, eitlier physically or tnentnUyr In physical 
movementa it is tho same with children as with tha 
lower aiiinials. The swifte&t hnrse will nrit gallop 
with the same epecd from the stable door, ns he woulcl-l 
do after iTiOTJng a >vhile at the slower pace, — till ail 
hig powers liavc been rou&ed into action. The satae 
principle is the experience tif th& public speaker and 
tiainer, and equaOy so of tlic hearers and scholars, 

In commencing a lesson, whetlier on an intellectuJ 
at moral subject, the maaief will find his pupils in ft 
atate of inattention, whether tliey be found in a small 
class, or en masso in the gallery j he bus therefore to 
contend against thia principle — the vis inertm of our 
nature. The attention of hia pupils recj^uirea to be 
roused ; for it must not be ovcrloukEid, that as all 
iiklellBctual knowledge and impressions must pass 



PnTSlCJ.L EXERCISES. 165 

tlirougli tho senaeis, so in order to receivo them into 
the mind, the bodily organs, including the eye otid 
the ear, must be rous>od into aciiviiy and maintaiaed 
in exercise^ otlierwiso the lesson is in a mtasiire lost. 

The IiciaJth of the cliililren is highly valuable, and 
ought not to be overlooked under any sjstem of eda- 
calian ; but while this is carefully Included in tha 
arrangements, onr piiiniiry motive foriatrodueing the 
varied and ever'Tarying pliysical exerciges in school, 
for children of all ngea, »s we have already fliitd^ was 
not BO much as an end, as a necessary lueana of in- 
tellectual and moral culture. Whatever tends to 
awaken and sustain attention, tlierefure, whether by 
the manner or cone^ of voice of the iiiiistor himself, or 
tha bodil/ moTeaientg of the children in answer to 
his cnEI, may be included under this head. 

JPh^sical erercisps may be divided into four partg^ 
having in \-i<iw, Jfrst, the bodily health of the children ; 
tencndlf/, the cu!tivatio]i of correct physical habits or 
bodily movements ; thirdlj/^ the arresting and keep- 
ing up of the attention during the ordinary intellec- 
tual and religious lessons ; and fourihiy, the cvdiiva- 
tiuu of habits of order and pliyaicol obedience, which 
Btrengtb&n ntid assist moral training, 

Tha effect of the firet of these divisions ia raoro 
Bensibly felt In the pky-gronnd exerciaes ; at the 
Bamo time, the niaTcliiiig and singing in-door9 in the 
ecliool-hall, and alternate reat and motiou in the gaU 
lory, tend to promote bodily health. 

The second division in this arrangement cnltivatcs 
gentlenegs, graccfnlnesa, proper modes of sitting, walk- 



156 THE TRAlBIXa BTSTEH. 

ing, and running, holding a book or slate, enuncia- 
tiiQCi, or distinct articuiatiuti i^i Bpieaking and r&iidiing, 
cleanliness, Acq. This laet is prunioted by the phy- 
sical m well as by other partg of the system, particn- 
larly by the '^ sympathy of numLurs." Cleanliness 
of person and neatness of dreasj are veiy q^nicJUy Bx- 
hihited by every child who becnmes a acholar; so much 
90 md{}e'd, that strangers soni&tinLes can ^carc^Jy be 
convinced that the children before theiu in a training 
school, belong to the poor and working classes. 

Under tho third head, tho variety is unlimited, 
Buch 33 clapping of hands, stretching out of arras, 
rising up and sitting down of tho whole gallery en 
vnoBee^ with all the preparatory inovementg of the feet, 
shoulders, &:c,, each inoveinent not being acicording to 
any fixed rule, hut varying according to the will of 
the trainer ; and unless the children be frequently 
taken as it were by surprise, their attention and ob- 
servation cannot be kept up, and miiat flag. The 
younger the children are, the more aimpla must these 
oxercises be, and the more frequently repeated; and 
when attention la formed Into a habit, very slight 
moTemeiits only are neccBsary. Tiie tutiea of the 
voice of the master, however, as a trainer, impressing 
the car and the feelings, are found to be by far the 
most influential m arresting and maintaining the at- 
tention. 

Under the fourth division of the physical depart- 
ment, viz,, to MsUt the moral training, it ig evident 
that as rude, clumsy, boisterous habits are a barrier 
to moral sensibility and the entrance of Cliristiau 



PHTftlCAL BXBRCI8BS. 



trulh to tlie mind, as a principle of moral rectitude. 
ao ttie cultivation of kind nnd obliging manners — for- 
bearance, fln<l giving eacii companion his own posi- 
tion at school and at play — instant obedience Id every 
phytjicat movement aiso, greatly strengthen and pro- 
mote the moral training of tbe child. 

Under tlie teacliing system, these natnra! chulli- 
tlons are restrained and gei\erally coerced into silence, 
breaking out, however, or exploding at the first fa- 
vonralile opportunity ; but, in the training school, 
these inexiinguishahSe accompaniments of good heakli 
aro freely permitted, at short intervals; and, instead 
of proving aoutcea of dUquiat or disturbance, they are 
directed by the trainer, and rendered powerfid En&lru- 
mentB of moral dieciplino. The snpflrahundant steam 
being let Qff\ by thia safety valve, the children, under 
the guidance of the master, natuntlly and more will- 
ingly submit to remain still, during the period requi- 
site tn conducting q lesaon. 

Physical esercises arc as noccaaary in training the 
child to correct intellectual 'and moral habits throiigh 
life,* ae the marching, wheeling, shouldering sm\% 
&c,, are to the soldier, to fit him for the field of bat- 
tle, Upon tho same principle as the drill-serjeant 
acta, so um^t the scbool-trainer not merely command, 
but physically share in what ho wiahca to b* obeyed- 

Without pliysical cscrcisoa in school and in tlie 
play-ground, such a3 we have stated, it is impossible 
tq conduct a training school, in other wqrdg, a school 



See Practical Depfirtmeiit, 



IBS 



TUB Tmiinno stbteb. 



for training " the whi^le man." The master must bu 

tbe aiiperintcndeat in-dnors and oiu of doors, and in 
tliiflf as in the other departmetita of tha aystL-in, the 
power of the " sympathy of nuinbura " is tbe most 
efficient iiistrumeDt. 

Every trainer who attcnjpU to conduct a training 
Il'S^od, wlietlaer secular or sacred, without physical 
exercises, varied according lo the age of his pnpiJs, 
will assuredly fjul. Physicol cxerciaes, therefore, ara 
particularSy vattiabte as accompaHiriienta or assistants 
to tlfo intcHectual rffpartment of the system. 

Examples of physical exercises niiyht bo given 
without end. There is clapping of hands — stretcliing 
out arms — rising up and sitting down in the gallery, 
or elsewhere, in order, q\i\ie a ia imiiiairc—mhrchmir 
in line and in circles, or in curves — ninning-^-s wing- 
ing round the poles — and play in general, according 
to the taste of the individual^ or particular party of 
children. These may be varied in every possible way, 
keeping in view that all he free from mdcnesa or in- 
jury to othersj such as throwing of stones, &e. It ia 
of importance, particularly in-doors and during the 
lessons, that the master 30 regulate the physical exer- 
ciaee that the children be luicicquaintcd with what the 
nest movement may he, wliiuh lie, of course, docs by 
example, viz., by himself doing the thing be desires 
his pupils should do. The uiiceHainty of what the 
succeeding ijiotion may be, arrests the attentiun and 
directs it to himself. 

We shall particularize only two exercises which 
3,Te fttndamenialj and which experience hiis proved 



to be the very best that havo beeTi devised for the 
purpose. The first is to sccuro tliut the wliole gallery 
of lihiliif en may rise np and sit down simuitaneoush/ 
— qqickly or slowly, in the most natural and easy 
manner ; and the second Is to secure an easy carriage 
in sitting or walking, by placing tho shouldera ef|uaro 
^Itead crect-^spino and ancles straight, and opening 
the chest. Tho repetition of these, like every other 
part of the sy&tt'nij of course foniis Clto kahit ; onrl if 
exercised in early hfe will produce throughout tho 
whole school as correct walking. Bitting', and rising, 
and other muvein^tita, as arc accamplishtid with the 
foot soldier or the cavalry horsp, and in unison with 
other eimplo physical exercisea, as much benefit to 
the health and conatituiiou. 



NO, I. QALLEUT SIM 01,1 ANEOPS HISIKG UP A>'D 

aiTTING DOWN. 



To attain this ohjcct, tiie trainer commences the 
physica.1 movements as follows — cx|irc5siiig the orders 
veij distinctly and firmly, and repeatedly. 

No. 1, Shoulders hack. (This naturally elevates 
the neck and head.) 

No. 2. Feet in. {Drawn inwards, with tho tip of 
the kncea perpendicular to tho point uf the toes,) 

No. 3. Hoela cloee. 

No, 4, Toes out. (Forming an acuto angle.) 

No. 5. Hands on kni-ea, not merely on the lap, hut 
grasping the kncQs i^enili/. (This causes the children 



160 



THE TRAININO BTSTEM. 



to indine forward'prepiu-atory to,and in the best p05- 
aibla position for rising. 

The trainer^ in the first inBtanco, and for sojne days 
at least, must himself show the example, by sitting 
on a chair at a sufficient distance from the gallery — ■ 
making every mntitm he intends the children to fol- 
low, and to scD that &ach of tho five motions be at- 
tGnded to hi/ ecory child^ also frequently repeat them 
day after day, until tb^ habit of rising up and sitting 
down simultaneously, without coiifuBioD, or the slight- 
est noise, be formed into a habit. 

After a. few weeks, the trainer may then cause 
them to understand, that the raising or lowprijig o.f 
hie hand (which he must do very slowly) is to be the 
signal for rifliing up and sitting down, as perfL.ctly as 
a regiment of soldiers would lire a volley, aud as free 
frnm bustle, in fact, that a mousG in the act of steal- 
ing would not be disturbed. This gallery arrange- 
ment ia not confined to the initiatory orjnnior, but is 
carried forward and established in every department, 
and with children of all ages. 

NO. 11. — TEE FOITR MOTIONS 



may be conducted by repeating I, 2, 3, *, as each 
motion is made, or by singing any suitable air, regu- 
lating the rapidity according to the tune. 

1. Shoulders back by douhlitig the arma upwards, 
with tlie fists closed^ and back of the hands to tho 
person of the cbild. (Xbis of necessity s^iiarea the 
sbouldere.) 



jiTTirce enDTKM. 



im 



2. ICaise both arms perpendicularly, pointing the 
fiTigera to the ceiling, keeping the feet in ths position 
noticed in the previous exiiraple, viz, keih doss, tees 
out, &e., and at the same nioment in whicli thoj" point 
aad stretch their fingej-s towardatho celling, cause them 
to lige on their toes as high as possible, and to stund 
iu that position two or more seconda aa tlieyhecome 
accustomed to it. (This secures straighineas of arms, 
gpine, and limbs.) 

3. la performed by simply reniruing to the fir&t 
position, viz, J No. 1. 

4. la simply throwing ilio arms perpendicularly 
downwards, with palm of the hands in front — quite 
a lajrancaitej or the reverts of pointing to the ceil- 
in^. 

AiniNG anOCKHB FOR THE ADITLT "WOBKINO POPULA- 
TION IN TOWNS. 



Were it not moving out of our particular sphere^ 
viz, the training of the young, wo would notice ano- 
ther point in our national, Jind of course individual 
ccouomy — the pnvsiCAl, hraltd, and with it the 
ckaiilinesa and cuiiiFort of the working classea^ parti, 
cularly in the lanes and alleys of our large manufac- 
turing towns. And yet if we contend for every school 
having a play-ground, and that it is the duty of the 
Legislature to provide for, and sea that the entire ju- 
venilo population Under thirteen years (the age at 
which children may be admitted into factories), bo 
provided with Buch training schools as we recommend ; 



I 



192 THE TfUIHlfra BTBTEB. 

it may not be out of our way to notice the importance 
and neuE'Siiitj' of establiel^iiig walks and airing grcjunds 
for (fiid adult claasea, in tlie jinmtdiate neigltbnurliood 
of Hie densest portiona of ibe dwellings of the factory 
and working populatinn. 

The nest generation would, unqueationably, be 
greatly iinprwved in healili, as well aa !n intelkct and 
morals, were the wLole yonili placed at prfls&nt in 
training Bcbools ; and it would not be wise after euuh 
a cOurao, oven of pbysicol eojoymeTit in tJie open air, 
05 t!iE training system aff'urds, iliat tliey should be 
cooped up, as at pireeijnt, the whole day in tko fiic- 
tory or -workshop, without the means of healthful 
extTcise in the open air, during part of the naual hours, 
aud in the eyeninga when labour is closed. 

Establish such walks and airing*grounds in several 
parts of our large towns, and they would do much to 
promote the health even of the present adult popula- 
tion, who have not passed tlirougli a course of early 
trnining. Cnnmienco, in good earneat, training schools 
for tlio young, and tlion aa a factory proprietor, I 
would more heartily coincide with Lord Ashley, and 
approve of every limitatioa m the hours of labour, 
that would promote tho health, morals, and family 
tr^iiaing of our truly negleotcd population. 

Qovernment haa unoat g^d^rously and wisely taken 
up the siiLjeet of the physical bcftlLh of the working 
claaSL'S in towna; and tho Marquis of Normauhy has 
tnkon an exemplary lead in this matter^ We trnst 
great good will result from the present moreinent of 
the Legiskture. At this moment a working man 



STNQING. 163 

feels aslmmed to be seen engaireJ at any athletic game, 
Bucli as cricketj golf, or Laudball ; but Itit fi 7ittmler 
of airiitg-grouads be established in close praximlty to 
the dwelliTigs of the working claagea, under strict rules 
that all giimliling be excluded ; and then the women 
might walk with comfort, and the ucd enjoy their 
more athletic exorciaeg ; nnd, coupled with thy habits 
formtid in the training school, the ale and whisky 
sbopa would seleiom bo so frequented, and with bo- 
dies and minds invigorated, home training at thefirq- 
sido would eventually assume a more prominent feii- 
ture in our social (Hionomy. Lectures alao might be 
ostabliabed on various points of science and economics, 
in its Tarioiia branches, hy whicli they tliomatlvea 
and the public at large would be benefited, and which 
their early course of training would euahle them to 
appreciate. 



STNCHHU. 

As the training or natural systBrn has been applied 
to ercry branch of education tnught in the Normal 
Seminary, muaie, therefore, has not been overlooked. 
We believe this iDstitution waa tbe first to introduce 
singing, both with and withont notes, aa a dielinct 
branch of popular education, whioh 13 now becoming 
all but universal througliout the country. It is bc- 
j*onddoiiibt that every eliild can bo trained to smgsimul- 
taneousfi/ with otliera, and however imperfectly, also 
individ ually byhimself — just as lie can be trained to 
Bpeak, which la accomplished in infiincy by example 
and doing^ \a otlier wordsj training. Such being (he 



194 



TOE TRAIKC^Q STST£U. 



fast, and knowiug the power of popular SOngS ia rout- 
ing to evil or to enlightened patriotisnij wliy not en- 
list this powerful instrument in the service of God, 
and of every tiling that ia 'virtuous and good ? Why 
not train early to the habit? Three great ohjecta, 
rherefore, were in view — let, To train the child to 
worship God in the family ; 2d, in Line puhlic gauc- 
tufiry i and 3dly, by furnishing Iho young with inter- 
eeting moral aongSj to displace in their sociat amufle- 
ments, many of at leafit n qnostioaable character. 
These objects have been fully attained by the children 
attending the modi?! schools; and not ouly So, but 
&iicging by, and without the notes,* has proveii a 
powerful assistance lo tlie trainer in couductitig the 
secular lessons and the moral trainings 

Singing is. an important accompanimenE in tnaral 
and intellectual, aa well ua in physical training. The 
]uorall songs cheer, animate, and soolhe the mind ; 
the marching airs fncilitato and regulate every move- 
ment to and from the gallery, the play-groHnd, and 
the cksa.room j and the inomtng and evening hymns 
are iu accordance with t]:e scriptural declaration, 
'^ Spealdug to OQO another in psalms and hymns and 
Spiritual songs." The sentiment of each song ought 
to bo suited to the particular oscrcise, whether secu- 
lar or aacred. Without vocal rauaic, the initiatory 
(qt in&nt) department would he a failure ; and both 



* la popular BchiK>LB, sLnging lougt, of course, be (^ooductod 
cUieBy without hookaj Iho childrpn n-ot lieing able to purcliasc 
hem. 



SWCINO, 



les 



ID it uTid in tha more advaoced departments, it proves 
a powerful mstriLment of moral culture, 

Smging, or music of any kind, tends to calm tliu 
feelings, and, without dissipating tlie minflj prepares 
both forreceiTing those imprassiong, which, in a per- 
turbed or agita^ted slate, would be impracticahle- 
Singing hag this advantage OTcr instrumontal music, 
that the unilerstanding of the words used and the 
feelings accord sympatheticaUy. School singing ia as 
necessary to moral training aa instrumental music is 
to mihtary discipLiue. 

Some years ago tunes wcra used printed ia a large 
type on cloth, the notea being large enough to be 
easily seen hy a gallery of 100 or 150 children^ for 
this reason, that ehildrta of the poor and working 
classes cannot afford to purthaaa books. Singing, 
however^ ia chiefly conducted eiraultancously, without 
books, or from notes chalked on the black board. 
Singing by " the million," or the sitiiuUaneous me- 
thod, was always practised ia this institutinn since its 
original establishment. 

The influence of Tocal mnsic ia not confined to tho 
schooi-house, but is carried into the family, and at 
play 13 exerciaed in displacing many songs of an ex- 
ceptionahle nature ; and since ita introduction into 
the junior and aenior departmenta of this seminary, 
the paolice haa been followed to a considerable ex- 
tent in schools both in town and country, even where 
the training system has not been followed, 



CHAP. XII. 



amuLTJkNsoua AN.twBna. 



Tbb Bympafhy conaequGct on Biniultatieoiia answers 
giTen by clilldren to direct questiona or the filling up 
of suitable ellipses during tLo [jrogreasof exuminntion, 
forraa a fundamental principle of tlia training syetem 
in its intelkctUEil deparfciueut. 

A direct qucBtion ia simply an cxaTninntion of the 
eliild-8 extent of knowledge — ellipaea, propfiily made, 
require him to fill in the LntcTsticos — qaeations arc 
liko the direet linua of a portrait—ellipses alone fill in 
those Tsrifid shades hy which a ti'ue and DAtural 
piebupe can be drawn.. This sympathy in questinn, 
by tho comhinatioit of questions and Glllpses, is beat 
accompUshed by requiring simultaacous anawere. To 
enter into particulars. 

Tlie gallery, or flight of ascending geata, affords the 
heat opportunity for hearing simultanc^jus answera 
from a largo vlasa of children ,- and go importaut ia 
the introduction of thig principle into popular scliools, 
un the principle of questions and ellipses mixed, that 
the irftimng system by many has bee'a termed the 
simnltaneoTia systenn. 

Before noticing a Few points of this part of our 
Bubject, wo may state, th&t whilst in general simuU 



tineoua answers are required, tliey are mingled with 
individual qu^stirina, both for tlio eaUc of variety, in 
ohecfking inattention in any of the children, and for 
particular exam in at J on. 

The great olvj«ct in the intellectual clepartment ie, 
to present food for every rariety of mind — suited to 
every capacity, witliout oTorstraiuing any, and to 
cultivate hy exercise, during each day, every varied 
poyer of huiun.n nature. We thus have the daily 
exercise of the iudividunl powers, and the cotnhined 
simnltaneoua exercise and syrnpatliy of all present, 
which is beet secured by fiimultaneoua answers, AH 
cannot acq^ube the same amount of knowkxigc of any 
kind — and each mind varies in the tapacity aud 
quality of its powers. Some are more imaginaiivt! — 
others illuEttrativc — others more logical — aorac havu a. 
larger capacity for facts^ whether dates, terms, or 
oumbere, and eorae also for music — some have grealer 
powerg of obgervation — others of reflection. It cannot 
be siippoeed, therefore, that all will he equally ready 
in anewerinn every queatian, or iu filling in every 
ellipsis. The matter -of- fact boys in the gallery will 
{ceteris paribus) simultaneou&ly answ&r any question 
about words or dates, more quickly than tlioge of 
imaginative or higical powers ; whilu the iin^iiiative 
will more readily grasp the iV/ea^-and the logical the 
rcaaun. These aru matters of daily and uniform 
Bxperientie ; and therefore, we stiv, it would ha 
unreasonable to* expect that any sixty or eighty 
scholars caji ever ansicer tiinullaneouiili/ any quobtion 
put by the master^ at any one moment. But tha 



Iflfl THE TR*ISlSO SYSTEM. 

quaations arc so vnried, and the ^utjects of a rcHgious, 
acieutific, elementary, moral, and practictil kini], are 
I BD (requetitly brauglit by tliG trainer befure the piipila, 
that each variety of mind, moral and intellectual, 
receivea its daily cultivation, anJ, as alrc-a'ly stated, 
food is prsSQQted, suited to tha taste of nil ; so thai 
by the physical department of the system by which 
attention is st'eurt^d, eiicli admits as mUicH as his 
natural powers aro capahk of rec&iviiig ; — none ara 
surfeited, and none are atarveil. We arc quite aware, 
howeveTj that tlia working of this principle, liko tho 
practice of any otlier art, ia only fully understood by 
thoge who practise it. 

When the system is conducted by a proper trainer, 
each pupil receives what he is capable of, and the 
whole galkiry receives what any one knows, by the 
mostor throwing tlie proper answer, whether to a 
direct question or from an ellijisia, back upon the 
whole gallery, and reciniriiig a aimiiltaneoua response, 
not by mere repetition, but generally fty inverlin^ ihs 
sentence, as may be seen iu the few leasons subse- 
quently given as examples. 

That differcnitly constituted minds will naturally 
answer a question which is suited to their taste more 
quickly than those of a different caste, may ha 
ilhistrated by making the following supposition of two 
very eminent men — th& one conapicuous for his 
powers of calculation, the other for tlioso of imagina- 
tion- — the one a noted politician^ the other a most 
eminent diTine. Were both of these gentlemen to 
ascend tho mountain Benloruond, or visit the lake of 



\ 



TiVindc?niicrCi and were wo to require of them an 
account of what tliey bad seen — what reply sbuuld 
we expect? From the one we should have a par- 
titular eniimera.tion of cvc?ry hill and object witliin 
the compass of his view, and a most miuuto circum- 
stantial account of nil that happened, and of any 
economical iinprovi:ment that might be introduced 
into the farms he had seen ; while the other would 
descant in the most glowing terms, on tliQ splendour 
of the landscape — the freshneaa of tho foliage — tiio 
gilded glory of the setting sun reflected in the still 
walera of the glassy lake — and would tell with 
rapturous delight, how much ]ie had been affected by 
the l>eauty of the whole. Each would sympathizG 
with the other to a Ciertain degree, but each wcmld 
narrate bia obaervationa according to hL5 mind's ptcni- 
Ijar biRS. Few may ha.TB gifts equal to these men, in 
their more proinlnont powers, but ihese are found to 
vary in different degrees of intensity — each learcinj^ 
from his neighbour, and tlierefore all Becuring im- 
provement. In the first instancSj therefore, a aimul- 
taneoua response is not expected to any qiiestlon from 
more than porliaps a fifth of ths gallery present, 
although nearly of the same aga, hut, 09 already slated, 
the proper answers are thrown hacli in inverted een- 
tencea upon the gnllcry^ and thqg aJl Icam. 

Some object to GalleUV and to SiMULTAN-Eotrs 
Answers, and exclaim, What a noiao it occasions ! 
One caunot get hiio the children^ aa it were. Yon 
cannot know or ascertain the progress of each, and 
besides, only u few children answer at a time. Not 



THE TUAIKTWO ftrSfSIf . 

one objection licro alluded to la ftdt, or will he ac- 
knowltitlgeil, by an experi«nced trainer. Noistt ia not 
iiecfisaary, nay, tliere 13 kas tlmo in tlto hubbub uf an 
nrdiniiry teaching sclioul. TUe trainier auttially gola 
nisarer liia pupils, than by individcia! appeal; or 
ratliLT, tlie s^mpalhif of numbers Ijnnga tiie pupil 
nearer to himself in actual development; and in regard 
to the otj'&otioD, that a few only aaswer at any one 
time, we may give the following as a> short analyaia. 

A master, und&r the ordinary niode of t^ac/ibi£if 
puts a. queation to the scholars individuaUi; ; and wb 
shall suppose hita to be of aa imaginative turn of 
mind, and the pupi] to bo the reverge — a plji-in mat- 
ter-of-fact boy. It is evident that the qu'eation or 
questiona generally put by the master will participate, 
to a con&itlerablt; extent, in the particular cast of hia 
own mind, and wi)l either be too lofty, or so ililfereat 
from the idcaa of the questioned party, aa to bo be- 
yond the powpr of the sclioSar tn answer, and simply 
because he doea not comprehend, or readily Bym- 
pathizc with, the style in which the question ia pnt. 
But let the same queatioo or qnestioaa be put hy the 
SRmiQ or UQother individual in the characterof a trainer^ 
to sixty, eighty, or a hundred children seated in a 
gallery, and ten, fifteen, or twenty of these are Bure 
to he found wi|h minds naturaUy constituted like the 
master's, and wlio witl instantly and simultaneously 
anaw&r; or, which ia the same thing, with minda so 
constituted as to sympathize with the kind of quea' 
tiona put, whether theBO bo argmuentative, ini.iglua- 
tire, or plaia matter-of-fact. And if the attention of 



tlie olTitr children bo alive, they liearinq tlio answcrij 
a.Dd johti/iff in Ihem, all will leiim, wliuEtivcr tlie cnn- 
formation of tlieir minds may naturally be. Whatever 
caat of mind, therefore, n trainer may hajipen to have, 
or in whatever etylu tbo qfiestiona may liiippen to be 
put— whether TTifitter-of-fact, illustrntive, argiimcntft- 
tive, or imaginative — it is faUDcl that amung sixty iir 
eighty children seated in a gallery, if permitted to 
answer Biuinltaneoiisly^ tho questiuiia and ellipses put 
by the master will be Bynipnthized with, and met by, 
8ume portion of tha children prcaent ; and, as formerly 
alluded to, ifl/is e^/e and attmtlon are hpljixedon 
him-se^fi all will hear, and all muai {earn, although. 
one-fourth or onc-fiftb only nna'tvcr itt any one time. 
In one word, each chihl will anawer more speedily 
the questions, or fill in tlio ellijises of the point of the 
lesson, which are in accordance with his own natural 
cant of mint). Thug, there is a power in a gallery 
simidttltieous training lesson, lliat enahlea any trainer, 
LowoT(;r CDnetituted, to comnmnicate :ill ho or any 
child Icnows, and to work it into the mind of every 
acliolar present. 

QUJiSTIONS AND ELLITaES CDNJOIHBD 

AIIE A Bl'NBAUKMTAL PART 09 TUIt INTBLLBCTUAL DEJ'AKTMENT 
flFTUia BYfiTEM. 

Qneslionhiff. - — Wliflt qneetionltig is, every one 
knows. A question 19 au examination i it put3 the 
pupil on the defuasive — he ia placed on his tnal — ho 
knows or he does not know what lie is a&kcd. If ho 
knows, he ought to give a direct answer in words 



372 IHB TnAIOTNG STSTElr. 

wbicli lie Htideratiinda, or lie tnny jnercly )i!ivc corn- 
mi tted tlie worils of the answorto niunjory; i^hkliever 
way^t may be, still the boy ia put op tlie defeiigive, 
cither in regard to his memory of lAeas or of worda. 
Questioning is unqueationahly developing or leading 
(lut, It ia not traicsng until the childrer'a ideas ore 
not merely led out by q^uestiontng but l<id oh by 
ellipse?. 

Fur example, a sentence may be worked in tlje fuU 
lowing way, and filled up elliptically ty the pupils. 

If the master has been apeaking of the weather, or 
prospect of the weather, and aays. The sky threatens 
...rain; he nay invert the sentence eo : — It tlireat- 
eofi rain to-day from ,,. the appearatiee of the eky. 
From this anawer, or rather from filling in the ellipso?, 
the children prove that they know trhy. Or the 
master^ with older scbolara, may exprasa himself: — 
The aspect of the sky ,.. indicalea the apprcnch off 
rain. Before, however, getting thia last answer or 
ellipses tilled up, the master ofier saying the aspect 
of the aky — no irnmediate answer being given— may 
require, as he may choose^ for the sake of expedition, 
to pnt the direct q^uestlon, What does the aspect of 
the sky indicate ? Of course such older scholars will 
answer — ths approach of rain. Had they filled in 
the ellipacs,. however, without the question, it ig evi- 
dent they would have exhibited moro knowledge of 
lango.tge, and a greater exorcise of mind. 

If no cross-esaminatioD takea place, the master is 
left i^orant as to wheUiGr his scholars really know 
what is expressed — so far he is not of mcessily 



I 



EtUWES- ITS 

trained. Under tbo tramitig system, mere questum- 
ing is found not sufficient for the full di^fclopraent of 
the intellectual pnvrera, Tliere must tintformly lip 
an analysiaj based on gitnple and fimiliar illustfatic>ns, 
wl)icU must be witliiii the extent of tlie kiiuwledyt; 
)Uid expcrieiilie of the children present. 

ELLIPSES, 

therefore, are introduoed, which, on the mode adopted, 
are, to a great extent, another way of questiotiing. 
An ellipsis awakens the attention. The old mode of 
forming nrn elhpaia ia absurd. It ia a mere giies£, iind 
Bcorceily any exercise of the mind whatever. Aa 
ellipaig ought never to be a gneiss but an exercise of 
idea or thought on the part of the scholars, and ex- 
pressed by tbsm on & point they already know, or 
which they have been at the moment trained to. One 
of the examples given of a ffttssA elUpsis is as follows : 
— " God mado the sky, that looks so . , . Crod made 
the grass so ... God made the little birds so ... In 
pretty colour9 ... "- Not liaviug exorcised the minds 
of the cbildrea previoTisly, aa to the colour of ihe sky, 
Ac, in the first line, the pupils might answer oi' fill 
up what thoy choose, either '■''blue'' which was tho 
iinawer required — or cloudy or red — and go on through 
the other lines. So it ia in teliiug a narrative or etory 
on the "elliptical aystem," as it is termed. For ex- 
ample, " This morning I left ray house, and when 
walking on the street, I 8a.w a . . , Of COUrsii any an- 
swer or Blhng up here must be a mero conjecture. 




A 



VHB tRAmiKu etstat. 

I may have seen a thousaTid things ; lint had any 
story or Ifsson been upon a given pi»iiit or subject, it 
t>f course would have hueii different, QuestLuns and 
ellipsosj therefore, ought Uni/ormltf to he imxt^d — 
Bometimcs only one q^iiestioa, and thon an ellijisis — 
somctimeg two or three questiong ot ellipses togyther, 
varied, however, according to the age and amount of 
knowledge developed by tlio pupils. 

An ethpsis being tha fiUing up of a point ivhicli the 
childvcn ah-eady know, or wliitli tho master may have 
brought out in the lesson in hand^ and whith he re- 
quires to be expressed ia words, it ought to be filled 
in not meiely Uy a singte word, or tlie tLrioination nf 
a. lino or sentence, hut a word or words, including 
the idea qt point to which tho mind has already heen 
trained. It therefore at once Asai^ta t}ie mental cotu- 
pogition of the child — kade him to tho point without 
teUing^* and in fact, is a link qufsiion assisting liJtn 
to walk, as it were, without carrying, whieh telling 
zcQuld he. It places tho cViild also less on the defen- 
sive tlian in mere questioning, and so fills up thoae 
iuteraticea, and that variety of liglit and shade, whieh 
in " picturing out " nro so necessary to the full imder- 
gtandtng of a suhject. By the master inverting the 
sentenue, nnd leaving out other words than he did at 
the first ellipgig — hni which i«voivQ the idea or pro- 
per understanding of the point — these being properly. 



* 5o that to find out wlint is ivantiug, LpcoineK nn exemlse <>f 
" uuJcratnTidiRg, and of coutso kc^jis Tip tho utte-ntion na tlio 
B proceeda. 



filleil inty tlie pnplls, the trainer secures that there 
must be a cleiir smd vivid untleratanding on the part 
of Lis BchuInrB. 

As ivo cfinnot stop here to give illQstrationfl, we 
would 6;niply state, that questions aod elJipses, pro- 
perli/ jiiitcetl in tlio process of intellectiial traiiiisig^ are 
praftfraUe to mero question rmd answer, however va- 
ried ; or pure ellipses, liowevtr well armngod. Tho 
umion affords tlie luost pleasing, tltemoat natural, and 
the most efficient of all mctliods of cultivatiHg ihe 
undtrstaading. We merely add here, that with very 
young thildren, unaccustomed to express their ideas 
in worde, ellipses must be Tiiore frequently resorLeJ to, 
and questiona more frequently as they a.dvance ; hut, 
howeVcsr advanced in jears or attainments, the uae of 
tUipsra, in conjunction with qnestions, will be fonnd 
the nitist efficient course of training. 

There is no difficulty iu putting queftions, and none 
in forming ellipses, that ia to say, in conducting n 
Icason lipDD the simple catechetieal, or the f^iniple; 
elHptical methods, hut there is a considerable diftleuliy 
ill uniting the two principlea in. a natural uiauner, so 
n.g to form s'lmitltanvous training; and without this 
union tliere cannot be picturing out. To the draw- 
ing of a proper picture, tliere is required not merely 
direct or straight lines, Hhe questiuns and iinsvirer=, 
but the filling up of inuumei-ahle interstices, which 
the mere questions leave unsupplied. A question 
may prnve the amount of knowledge, but does not 
supply knowledge to a child. The ellipaiis, properly 
introduced, supplies as well aa draws out knowledge. 




I7fl 



TIIBTRAIKISQ RTETBU. 



Tbe mode of reaaoaing Socrates adopted Id iDsiruct- 
inji; Ilia diac'ipht, m which, availing liitnsulf of tSieir 
jirevioua 'kno^vledge, he led them from admitted ym- 
inises to a natural canclusion, does well with men 
who are furnished with a, large amount of facts, but 
will not do with ciiildren, wLoae stock ia aoon ex- 
liau^tedl. The ellipsis enalillesa tmiiier to supply these 
facts, whilG the question stirs up what he already 
knows. The union of the two euppties materials, 
and produces nn easy nnd natural flow of intellectual 
development and training, and may be stated as the 
" inductiTe philosophy " applicable to the iraiuing of 
children. 




This is an importaiit poiut of the ejetem, and much 
ani mild version has L&en directed agaiDBt va because 
We do not allow the children to take places. How 
tlien, it is asked, can you have ciuuktion without a 
stimulus ? We have a stimulug, ami also emulation, 
but it is conducted upon different principles, and 
ariaes, in some measure, from different motives from 
those employed in the mude generally pursued. 1 aa a 
child maybe gtimnkted from loveof distinction or from 
a love of l^;arning, unquestionably the former feeling is 
more gcTicTally active than the tatter, but if it can be 
proved, in actual practice, that tho latter, or higher 
motive (although other motivea may and ought to 
form ingredients), can bo made iu stimulate, why 
should we cultivate aelfishneaa or any inferior motive? 
But aft&r tbe experience of twenty years, we are fully 
of opinion, that the stimulative process of the whole 
system eombintd^ but moro especially that of simul- 
t3.neoiia answering, renders the 'Making of places" 
quite unneceaaary, and medals qf distinctiou actually 
injurious in a. moral point of view. 

To illusirate this position : Suppose the trainer is 
cuuductiag a losson, be of course puts a question, or 




fornts on ellipaia, which is answt^rcd or filled op by 
one or mori?, according to their DnturnI talents or cx- 
lent of knowledge. Some of the answerers may be 
rigtit, or Dcarly so; others may be wrong, It is 
clmr, when tlio aiiawer which the master accepts as 
right 13 received, and thrown back upon the gallery 
upou the principle already stated, that that boy who 
mny have given the correct anawer feels himself for 
the moment, the " dusj"* and alt who thought as he 
did falthougli not exprcaaed by them), aUo feol to a 
cert&ia extent elevated with him. The very next 
question may be a reason founi3ed on the facts staled 
and will likely he answered by a boy or girl of 
quito a dLficrcnt temperaDicnt, in con&ei^uenc9 of 
which ho or sho ia immediattly clflvatcd, witliout 
changing his or her local positiuu; and so on through 
the whole class. Ono boy may become the leader by 
answering every queBtion, which is nut lik&ly, from 
the variety of the exercises ; or any hoy in the gallery, 
on LhiB principle, may be " dux" during some part of 
every lesson. Those who cannot answer, or hoTe 
ftttswered or thought improperly, of course feci them- 
Belveg in the same position as if they actually were at 
the bottom of the cla^. The great point to bo gained, 
whether ia the moral or intellectual departments, 13 
to cultivate and stimulate tlio higher powers in the 
acquisition of knowledge rather than to appeal to, and 
stimulate by, the selEsh and lower motives of human 
nature. 

* 'Xku u 11 title given in SiwUand tq tlio licnd-boy of a olaaa^ 



PRIZES — PLiCES. 179 

Tbia principle, a few yenrs ago, was a matter of 
theory on our part; now, however, it is a matter of 
fact and esperieneej and is found more eflficiitioiis in 
cultivating the uuderetanding of children ; and, with- 
out tkTiy of the evils alluded to, tends greatly to im- 
prove their moral senaibilitiea. 

The reader will now readily anticipate our views 
on the suljject of prizes. 

PBIZEB PtACEfl. 



W^e give no prizes in the Model Schoola of the 
Normal Seminary, nor dofis any one do so who faith- 
fully follovi'g the training system. We do not say it 
18 not impossible to give pmea without injuring the 
finer feelings, Or injuring the moral sense, when it ia 
confined to one partiuular branch of education — such 
as writing an essay on a given subject, although much 
qualification may he mads even hero — but to give 
prizes in a school in which a variety of anhjeeta arc 
introduced is, upon the whole, attended with serious 
evilSc The liiver dux medal is felt to be elevating, 
no doubtj if we can judge by the mien and strut of 
its temporary posaesaor. A volume, however, miglit 
be written, setting forth the pros and com of thij 
practice, and were the balance taken in referoncB to 
tlie ",whole child" the weight, we aro conviaced, would 
sadly preponderate on ihe side of^w eontra^ Priaes 
are generally, in such circumstances, awarded to the 
memory of words, or general rapidity cf verbal an- 
swers, seldom to memory of ideas or togood behaviour. 



pride and vanity are atrengtliened ; the eeneitive and 
physicaliy-wefilt ore tliscouragefl, however liigli tlieir 
intellectual capacity may be. Many a "poetic Cow- 
per" ereeps into hia cell in the presence of the phyai- 
tally- furious, whoso voice or manner overbears him, 
and uperak's like a loadstouc^ depresstog and weighing 
him down during the whole periud of hia educAtion. 
Ought not the forward, to he restrained, real talent 
brought forward, und the modest and sensitive en- 
couraged by attention and kiodly notice ? Who that 
has Tvitn€Baed and narrowly observed the heartburn- 
ings, and jealousies, and bending of princij)Io, and 
lowering of the moral eensibilities of boys, under the 
influence and excitement of place and priw, does not 
perceive that, with all tlie apparent advantages of snch 
a practice^ it is not without a deep and serious alloy ? 
It 13 quite clear that the intellect k that part of the 
child whiuii is stimulated and reworded by the dis^ 
tinction of phtce, and the prospect of a prize. The 
moral powera, if not positively injured, are at Itiast 
left dormant, or remain unexercised. The vanity or 
pride of the poa'icssor 19 esereiaed and strengthened ; 
those who are unsuccessful are dificOumgcflj and fre- 
quently sink into carelessness; and at fhe very best, 
it 13 elevating tlie few at the expenaa of the many. 
The higher mnial powers are absolutely &acr>£t-ed at 
the shrino of int&lleofc — forgetting, sometiniea, that 
'■knowledge pntfeth up^ but charity huUdeth up," 

We admit that there is a great difficuJiy in meeting 
this question^ as strong intdlcct and strong hualtli ara 
lilik« gifts ofnaturc^, and not dependent on the will of 



FHTZES — PULCEB. 



181 



fhe possessor, altliongh (he proper cxerdae of either 
or toth of tliese mninestionflbly is. 

We do DOt pretend to liave removed all i\w diffi- 
culties, but the priuciple of the Training Systen^, as n 
wliole, has made a 'U<fnsid«rable approach to it; and 
■would be complete, wo believe, as far a9 humau 
nature can ptrmit, w^re t/is eastern uninfersally esta- 
blished from ths mrllesl childhood. Plac&s and prizes 
riiBj' ba necessary, we adniit, in a school for culiivat- 
img the understanding nlone, but are unnecessary and 
inconsistent with the principle of moral trainipg, or 
iT^mmg the whole child j at all events, to dispense 
with these, in the very -n-orat view of iho caao (but 
which we are not prepared to admit), ia sacrificing 
the very few for the good of the many, and moat csr- 
tainly elevating the moral seusibilitiea of all. 

It is evident that a prize cannot he given to the 
Tnost moral ; for where is the standard, and how can 
WH gauge the moraL sensibilities, as well aa the moral 
externa! conduct ? And aa butnaa beings, even iniel- 
leelually, arc eo differently constituted, to be just, we 
ought to award places aud prizes to all the following 
powers of mind, all of whichj whether separate or 
conibinedy are powera which, if properly directed, are 
good in thomsclves, £bnd ought to bo in e:£er'cise each 
day in a school ediLcatiou^-viz,, memory of facts, 
memory of numbers, acquiaitivenesa, tune or power of 
music, reason, comparison, imagination, illustration by 
narrative, benevolence, firmness of purpose, conscien- 
tiouaaesa, and sovtral othera too minute to mention. 
It 18 evident that if the power of ratraory of worda or 




1B2 THE THAIHIXC 9Y&1EX. 

fnctB, and tbe memor]?' of mimhera alonej are Etimn- 
ktiHl, wliich is a very common practice, then other 
and higlicr powers of the intellect arq left dormant ; at 
all events ilicy are not Btimulated. Now, cm* object 
ttul principle 19, to sUmuLiie evory one Df these powers 
in varied and rapid suoecasioa, not by the mere sor- 
didnefis of acqcisitiveaees or vanity, but to stimiL- 
late the higher intellectuEil po'v^ers themselves, by 
natural and animaiing exeri^cs, and to regulate th^ir 
propeir bearing nnd end, by the still higher powerB of 
the mind, viz , the Moral. The nniou of the plajf- 
yrotmd and the gallery sjialiUK Ike trainer to acc&m.- 
plilh thii. 

It 13 stated by some that the Scriptures hold out a 
prize. True; but it ig a prize which all mny attain 
without excluding any. No prizB is h©ld out to 
intellect alone^ or the outward doings alone, but to 
the right use of all the powers besLowed on ua by 
God, and all are required to be dedicated to his glory; 
not ona power, but every power. All ma-y reccivo 
" the crown of glory," according to what he halh. auJ 
not according to what he hath not. Tlie Training 
System acknowledges and endeavours to act upon 
this principle. Each child is rewMded hy the ac- 
knowledged approbation of the master, which ia to 
bim a ptine. 

Simultaneous Angwors, Emulation, PlaeiBa, and 
Prizes, on the principle horo laid down, and fur which 
we contead, are according toi nature, and every day 
provea that they ars sound, practical, and efficient. 
A boy, by the sympathy of numbers, may be moulded 




In Scripture parents arc commanded to uso the 
rod of correctiun, and ^' nut to spare tho child Tur lita 
much crying." This, of coutae, is a comiMaiMl ttt 
parents, not to sclioolmaatere. We admit, however, 
that when a parent delegates his power to a giiarciia.ii 
or eclioohnaster, he may, if he chooaes, io common 
with other aHlhoricy, delcgato abu the divina right 
to chastise; but theBchoolniastcrpo9Sssscsi]oi»hcrciit 
right in himself to do so. The pnrent, of course, ia 
not commanded to whip when there ia no occasion 
for il^, neither must the maater ; and it is a question 
whether tha hteriit rod is always to bo used, or the 
ferulfl, or caoe, or ruler, or tick with the foot, nil of 
which aru common in sohook. It is evident that the 
mere seneationofhodily pain isnot punishraent, unUss 
it is iintletstood to lie so ; for how nmth pniii will a 
hoy suBtain from his companions at play without a 
murmur, certain punishments being the forfeite of the 
game ; and, tliereforej he suppresses his (Ortsire with 
the utmo&t heroism- The underetandtng of the pun- 
ishment rauat he present, or the incro Bcnsation of 
bodily pain is no punishment to him. Inatend, there- 
fore^ of pasaiiig into the understanding, through the 
physicnl department of the human heing, M-e prefer 
pnni&hing aa ivell as stimnjating by the higher SMSl- 
biltiies of our moral nature. 



< 



If a motlier oon mnke il an tionour and privilege 
to h«r child to lift lior handkerchiff, aai a punish' 
mcQt not to be permitted to do 80 ; or if it he possi- 
ble fLud prricticabla that for disobedience, or any other 
fault, a child's exiiluaion frum table for half an hour, 
is f(;lt tu bo a puniabment ao severe^ aa almost to tear 
\m Leart-atringa jwutider ; then it is clear, that by the 
sftim^ process, and by tbo ddditional power of the 
sympathy of niimbi>ra ia school which the mother 
cannot have, the master of a training school may pnn- 
ish a. cbild most geveroly, without corporal infliotioQ. 
To order a boy out from the gallery, after being pro- 
perSy warned ones or twice, is found to be really more 
severe than half a. dozen " palmies." A culf ia a 
Burnmary mode of settling a digpute, but by no means 
an effiiiient mode of preventing a recurrencfl. 

Corporal punishmenta iu school teed to harden or 
break the sjilrit. Wo ought never to associate the 
idea of punishni'eut with wb^t we should love. A 
child ought to love echool, and hla teacher, and hia 
eserases. To putiish a child by causing him to com- 
mit a large task to memory, or \¥Tite a long exercise, 
or read six chapters of the Bible, is the most certain 
mode of generating & dislike for all tbesfi. Our object 
is to Btimulate from s. fear of oftuuding, rather than 
from a fear of tlie rod. Nothing can bo more unjuet 
than to punish a hoy for a deficioncy in the power of 
calculaUop, or the ni&mory of words, while he may 
]i09ae8a in a. high degree reason and imaginatioti — thus 
etimulating the lower at the expense of the higher 
powers of the mind. 



PCWI9HJC8ST9. 



1B5 



Sortie of out olJ teachers, and iiujiatient young men, 
^vlio have been accustomed to use the litercil rod, lo 
save thne or i/io iroalle of investigating afmtU, iiro 
apt to imnginc that, tliere are difficulties in refraining 
from the w^Q of it, wlilch do not exist. Patience ia 
tliis departruent of moral training is iudfcd '* a vir-' 
tue," and iiea at the root of all proper training. From 
long experience we know, that in osaot proportion oa 
a BchoolniaateT trains does the use of the literal rod ap- 
pear to bo imiiecesaHiy, We can eliow, hy actual expe^ 
riiuent,that schools of 100 or 150 boys and girls have 
been taught and trained together for years, without 
having had recourse to the use nf the literal rod; we 
consider ourselves entitled, therefore, to argue for its 
discontiituance in the public aehooh It may he diffi- 
cult to remove the literal rod altogether from the 
teaching school, but it is unneceaaary in one for traiu- 
ing. We know of many schoola conducted upon the 
Training System in which the rod has never been used 
at ath The rod ig na excellent excuse fur the trouble 
of training; it frequently silences the culprit, hut 
seldom convinces him of his fj^ult- The sympathy of 
numheis, prudently used, will do in n echool what, 
without such a sympathy, the parent cannot do at 
home ; and, therefore, parents are wisely pemiitted, 
nay, enjoined, to nse tho rod — whether litorjUly or 
otherwise ia left to the judgment to detcrmiue, A 
parent whose affections to his ofispiing are strong, 
and who is frequently blind to their faults, may be 
safely trusted with the rod. We would not always 
have tba same confidence in a stranger. It is well^ 



189 



TBB Tm4TjnWJ STSTEM, 



tUeirefoTe, tliat there is a luodo by wbiuli solioola cnn 
be conducted without it. We know of nothing that 
80 certainly compels a tnaster to traio^as the feel- 
ingtboit h& tutist tiQi strike. Id fact, if he does hm 
duty, and uses the means witliin Lis ranch, the u3c of 
the rod is i\n\t<i unneceseary. Tlie synipathy of 
numliDrs 13 ptiweiful in every department of life — 
amo^igst the old as well as the young. This principlg, 
in the Bchool gallery^ whatever tlie size of the class 
may bp, ia the great mstruoient in convicting the 
guilty and inflicting puniijlimcnt. 

How, then, it may he asked, do you act in ihe way 
of punishmtnt ? for punish ra cuts, you iadmit, are 
neODSsary, One plan, and the moet common^ is to 
threaten the child, calmly yet fiimly, that he will be 
taken out from the gallery and niEide to stand out by 
himself on the Soot. This, ia felt so severelyt that 
very quickly tlio cu][mt ceaacB big misconduct; but 
should the offence be repeated^ and he bo actunlly 
ordered out from his seat, it is rare, when the whole 
proceas i:& properly conducted by the trainer, that the 
child is not in tears before he reaches the Hoor; and 
then ia the time, tenderl^f pet frml^, to exeTcise the 
whole claaa, as well as the offending party, on what 
ia the offence and the causa of punishment. And 
flfter remaiuing to composo himself a very short time 
— accordmg to circumstances — the child ia permitted 
to return to his seat, the offence of ou^ tlius afl'ording 
nn opportunity of training ihe whole. 




CHAP. XIV. 



BIBLE TRAINING LEftfiOKS. 



BifiLE trainirag is tho natural yet peculiar mode of 
bringing out the truths of Scrijiture agrcealily to tlio 
Scrijiturt mode, anJ not as theso tmtlia are iisiiaSly 
taught or brought out by teachers. For esamjite, 
— Psal. xlii, 1, it ig ^vnttcn, " As the hart pantetb 
after tho water brotilia, 30 panteth my soul after 
thee, O God." Two ways are geuemlly adopted in 
elucidating tbia passage, both of wbich aie unnatural, 
viz.i its liietory of David's persecution by Saul j or 
espUining from tba very first, what it is to lO'Eg aftar 
God and wait upnu God, without any ra.tural illus- 
tration whatever, ns is so UBifunnly done in Scripture, 
and as ia so plainly set forth in ths passage read ; 
but, on the contrary, expressed in n-bstract terms. 
Sttch a mode to young, or ignorant^ or careless per- 
sons, ia most dark and uninteresting. Thoy do not 
understand the analogy of the condition of the liort^ 
for it has not been pictured out, and therefore they 
are left entirely unimpressed. 

Tho Bible training eyatem, on the contrary, com- 
mencat with a pUia and simple analysis uf the natural 
history of tlie hart — its punting — what is panting — 



4 



Ina 



TUB TRLISJSO SYSTOr. 



why it pants — nature of the dlimahe^ — dil3t — liDSt — -■ 
being hunted, it may be, on tho dry mouutaina of 
Judea — wlietlier it muat have plunged into or drank 
of tlie wnter Tirooks formerly, before it could pant 
after them, Szc, &c. Tlius, when "via tha hart 
puntetb after the water broulcA," bas been fully pic- 
tured out, tho chiLdrci), iDtelkctuulIy at Itast, will 
perceiTe tiie analogj-, " So paiitetli my soul after thee, 
O God." They ore prepar&d also for tbe practical 
lesson to tbemselvea. Inti^rest and attention have 
been awakened by tbat ■which never fails to please, 
viz., a natural picture. T/iis mode forms a funda- 
mmtal part of ih^ system, and is as applicable to tho 
Sabbatli school as to the week-day training school ; 
the only exception being, but which is fundamental 
in the complete training of the child, ibat in tho week- 
day school tlie lessons are reduced to practice, under 
the eye and superintendence of the trainer.* 

The only sure basis of a moral and religious edu- 
cation 13 the revealed will of Gad, aa contained in the 
Scriptures of the Old and New Tcgtamentg. The 
daily momicg lesson is, on this account, uniformly read 
fruffi tbe Booli itsLdf.t The system, at the same time, 
baa made ample provision for tboae who cannot rend, 



• See Bmall palilitatiQH, " Bible Training for Sabbatli 
Sclioolji," Stli edition, 

f For when the idea lias been om» Sseil in tlifi aiinds of tib^- 
dreii, thai, tlie Bilile, «« a wA(j/*i, ia tbe revelatiun of GtiJ's will 
to nian> any lesson read from it comes ititL luiu'li luore autlio- 
rity than from a book of eictracta, or tJie [Higes uf nn ordinary 

HptiUiTIg IjDok. 



by tha trainer reading it for, and aoalj-zing tlie suh- 
stance of the quotations conjointly with tiie chUdren. 
WKen ihe cliiltl can read, Ii& do&sso with the master ; 
and when he cannot the l>ook is read for him, and is 
repeated sentence by eentenee by him. The child 
also contributea whatever knowledge he may already 
possess, during thp na.t«ral process of piutnriiig out 
the Biibjectj and in drawing the lesaona which may 
be deduced from it, 

I'he usual ]}eriud of school education is too fibort to 
admit of even the outlines of Scripture being aci^iiired 
by the cbitJren in the course of reading the Bible 
straight througb, as it is called. Of how much im- 
portance, tbeiefore, is it, that in addition to wliat pa- 
rents on communicate at home, or clergymen from 
the pulpit, the clear and hold ouUines of Scriptura 
should be simply analysed and familiarly illustrated 
in the first inatance, bo that, in after life, they may 
be enabled to make considerable advancement, and 
thus fill up these outlines by reading, observation, and 
reflection- If thig simple and natural mode of gallery 
iraintng lesaona be pursued, the children will receive 
as much religioua instruction during school ho ara, be- 
fore they ai'c able to read, as after thoy acquire the 
art of reading. Independently, therefore, of the 
proved ef&ciency of this principlcj when practieally 
and perseveringly carried out, the period of instruc- 
tion is, in this way, greatly extended. Let U3 sup- 
pose a child to commence his school education at tlie 
ago of aixj and to receive no Bibto lesson whatever 
till be attains the age of eight, when we sliall $nppo33 



IM -TttK tUAtxtaa trtnar. 

Iiim able to rtad tLe Scripturea fluently for hiinself. 
If be L'aTfi tlis EDgliali schooL at ten — wliich i& too 
frequently tlie case — his religious ULBtruction is thus 
confined to a couple of years. On tlio principle of 
Bilie Traininff^ howeverj he would receive religioiM 
instruction from tlie dity of liia entering school, con- 
iinned in a regular and progresaWe coarse, till the 
time comes for his comincnijing his labours in the 
factory and workshop. If, in addition to tlie priri- 
kges he win thus have enjoyed^ we snppose him to 
have been aent to the iDitiatory DGpartment at the 
age of two or threo, he •will have liad the very first 
fouodatjopg of Bible knowledge firmly kid, and hia 
mind prepared for the furtlier development of tha 
course of Bible training which, we have said, pro- 
gresscB, both in extent and in minutenesa, up to the 
time of hia leaving school. 

We are aware that no book can exhibit the power" 
and beauty of Bible training ; for, in addition, it re- 
quires the aympathy of master and scholars, the eye 
the action, and the tones of tlte voice. Indeed, it 
know the Byatem properly, we must be able to pra 
tise it* We therefore feel tfio absolute weaknesa of 
representations on paper of that wbicb no words can' 
adequately c?:pre3s. 

The triitlia of Scripture are stated in language suite 
to the condition and capacity of all r.inks ; to th( 
young and the old, the peasant and the pbilogopberi^ 
the governor and the governed ; and whilst " miJlt " 
19 found in the narratives, "strong moat" ia richly 
imbedded in the emblems and imagery. 



BIBLK TRAIh^NC LESSONS. 1 Ul 

The mo3t illiterate may find all that he neecls to 
satisfy him, and the most learnod may find ample 
exercise for all his powers, in ttie contemplation of 
that suhlimest knowledge which it reveals — know- 
ledge of the character of God, and the coudition and 
prospects of man, 

AU nature and art seem brought into requisition 
iu the communication of Ood's will to man, p-om 
whiuli^ and throv^k which, its leHSOns otg dniwn and 
conveyed; and while in ihe history, and poetry, and 
natural emhlsmSj and reasoning; of Scripture, the in- 
teUeet inay he cuhivated, there \% in the Icasong drawn 
from thesOj that which teaches how we may aerve 
God here, and enjoy him through eternity. 

What ancient or modern poem can equal in anbli- 
mity some passages in the boots of Job, and tlie 
Fsalms, and the progihet Isniah, or the statement in 
Genesiy, " God said, Let there be light, and there 
was hght." 

What ordioary hiatoririn could or wonW hare con- 
densed giieli a scene as the transhguration of Clirist 
within the compass of seven short sentences ? 

The lover of natural history nmy bring into eser- 
cii^ bis knowledge of Animal and vegetahle life, as in 
the emblem, " As tlie eagle stirreth up ber nest, 
fluttcreth over her youngs apreadetb abroad her wings, 
taketh them, bcareth thera on her wings," &c.j or 
the " Flower of the field," " Fig tree puiteth forth 
her figa first" (not leaves); wiih the innumerable 
alluaiuna to animal and vegetable life, dl of which, 
though intended not to teach science, but to convey 



192 TpE TKAIPIKO srSTEM. 

moral lessons, presuppose a Icnowleclge of the In 

anJ facta to wliicli tliey refer ; hence the necessit 
and itDporiaDCB of teaching natural science as an ordi 
nary and daily acliool exercise. 

The gBologist may discover proofs of extreme ol 
ago ia thij terrestrial globe, Lut lie will find Dothln 
inconsistent with the account cuf the tteation, containe 
In the first diaptcr of Gcneaie. Thai clifipter wag not 
wrUt(>n to teach geology. A thorough analysis, op a 
training Iceson, ■will (Jiacover to every carnliil niiad 
that that narrative contains nothing which can provi 
whether Ihe creation of the matcriala of the earth 
took place CHOO or 60,000 yeara ago. Every figu 
of Scriptura is trxie to nature^ tlio most appoate that 
could he used, and only re(]^iiire8 to he unfolded to the 
mind's eye, to show its appropriateness, beauty, an 
conslBtcncy. 

" Aa" and "so" are of freqiient occurrence in tL 
Sacred "Volume. Spiritual thinga can alom: ho com 
municated through earthly things. As the ns,t 
thing, io the spiritual or practical lesson. For 
ample, ds tli€ leopard cannot change his spots, 8> 
tbey that sxe accustomed to do evil caanot learn 
do we!]. As tha day- star to the aucieut mariner, sa 
Chj-ist. At iilYer is reined, so, &q. As the eliield 
to the warrior, xo, &c. A.a the sow that is washed 
eo man in his liatural &ta.i6. "As irou sliarpeiieth 
iron, so doth the fnceof one man his friend." Whea 
the as of the natural emblem is clearly pictured ont^ 
the so, or practical lesson, will be apparent to tha 
jnittds of the pupils. They muat he able to give its 



' a 



193 

application, and this is the test of the trainers taviug 
properly conducted tlie lesson. 

Tlie trainer, whcithor in Scripture, or science, or 
morala, wiH find liis trui^st and most natural lUDdel 
in our Saviour's practical exliiLitiooB of doctrine and 
oonduct while on earth. " Is it LL^vful to give inbute 
_to Ca?sar ?" said the Pharisees ; " SliowmaapeDny," 
id our Saviour, *' Who is my neiglibour ?" said 
Ihe same party ; our Saviour pictur&d it out by the 
story of '' thQ good Samaritan." " They watched 
him, whether he would euro on the Sabbath day ;" 
our Saviour looked upon tbcm and asked, " Is it law- 
ful to do good on the Sabbath day, or to do ovil ; to 
save life, or to kill ?" but they held their peace. Ha 
did not tcil the Pharigees whether it was ot waa not 
lawful to do good on the Sabbath day; lie appealed 
to their consciences; 7te trained thetii; they fth the 
rebuke; ''they held their peace." Our SaviouT'e 
illustratioaa were uniformly within the range of the 
experience of his auditory ; "Tine sower went forth 
to sow," &c. '* Even as a hen gathereth h€r brood 
under her winga." " In the evening it will he 
fair weather, because," Arc. Ha only employed illus- 
trationa which were suited tu the experience and oc- 
cupations of those he addlresaed. Had Christ livad 
at the present time, in illuatrating spiritual truth and 
practical duties, he do doubt would have adduced 
illustrations from many points of modern science — 
Astronomy^ Meehanicaj Optica, and Geology. The 
velocity of the loc&motire would not have escaped 
his notice any mo» than the " weaver's shuttle." 

N 



^ 



194 TBZ TRjtlXIKQ BTaTEK. 

Soriplurc generally, indeed^ hut our Siiviour'3 Gxam^ 
pie in particular, la the best standard of training, aa 
Buited to the nature and character of man : and hoi 
could it be otlierwiee ? for " He knew what wae 
man." 

All analogies Anil associations io drawing out thai 
natural picture of a Uibk lesaon, whether DMratiTe 
or doctrinal, ought to be such as, wJiile tliey illustrate 
the subject, do nnj, at the same time, caiise the mind 
to wander from the point in hand. This may be 
familiarly illustrated. In travelling along a road, t 
wander not, although my rit^ht e^e takes in, as it 
were, the hills, and fields, and villas, on the right side 
of the road, provided all the while I keep lay hft eya 
on the road ; and having glanced shortly in tlmt direc- 
tion, neither do I wander, though I look to the scenofl 
on the left, obaerTing the same precaution as befoi 
viz., that the road itself h^ kept in view. I waodier,' 

however, when I take both eyes ofiF from tlia road 

viewing, it may be, the distant horizon or lofty moUR' 
tains — while all the time I move along the road, un- ' 
mindful and unohservant of what ia immediately at 
hand and ought to be the object of my primary ol 
Bervation. 

We ought to enjoy whatever ia viaibla in the coorsa 
of our journey, Some ivandcr 90 far from their aul 
jeot, that the original topic is lost sight of j othoi 
adhere so ri^dly and dryly to it, as to dfiprivo them-] 
selvea of tho natural associations and analogiea whioU] 
tend to give it greatef vividness and interest, and tt 
rivet it on the memory. Qn this point, no rule cai 



9T9I.B TFLLCfDIQ XjESSOVft. 



19S 



be laid dowHf save thb plain one, the practical appli- 
cation of which muat he left to every trniner's dia- 
cretian and experientJB — tlint all digressiona be such 
OS to kad back the scholars easily and epeedily, and 
with iiicreased interest and intelligonce, to the origi- 
nal topic. 

We wowld now briefly notice a few of the coinmon 
errors into which teachers are apt to fiill in the com- 
munication of what they cateem rcligioug instruciion, 
as algo an objection which, particnlarly id England^ 
may perhaps be made to Bible Training, 

I. Bibie Heading alone doee not secure, as wo have 
already eeon, the underatandlsg of what h read ; 
more particularly if read by the teacher to the scho- 
kra. 

II. Bilie Questioning ia important, but partakes 
more of exajntTtalion than traininff. 

III. Bible Explanalion leaves it uncertain whe- 
ther the child has or haa net receited the information 

intended. 

IV. Bihk Instruction is too generally confined to 
the historical parts of Scripture, and the questions put 
are generally regarding the focta of the narrative, very 
seldom in reference to the lesgoo or lessons which 
may be dedu4:ed. 

Agaiuj it must be manifest to every nnprojudiced 
mind, that our reverence and lore for any book can- 
not be prornoted or increased, by its having been made 
the platform for the drudgery and toil of learning to 
read and spell. This is a serious and wide-spread 
evil as respects the Bible,, and we roust raise our voice 




agfliijist w3iat we esteem so liiglilyinjurioufi — so level- 
ing hi its tendcHcy, to the ininda of our youthful popu- J 
!a.tion. Bible training, on tho contrary, ia Bomething^l 
tnore than niero reading or apeHing, ur osplanation, " 
or question aud answer. Wo do not place tho Bible 
in the haiida uf children as a ^cbool-bouk tiU tboy caal 
Mad it with tnletafcle accuracy; and long before il ig 
BO placed, they h^ve ncquircd a relish, if not for its 
lessooF, at lenst for the narratives, and emblema, and 
imagery thraugb which these lessons are conveyed. 

Bible Training includfis the great outhnes of the 
narratives, precepts, promises, thrcatcnings, parables, 
and emblems of Scripture, Every word, and every 
emhlem or metftplior, is pictured out and familiarly 
illustrated, and Lliia secures a thorough understanding 
of the subject* It is only a smaU portion of the en- 
tire Scriptures thjit can he read during the longest 
course of a school education, yet the Tnrled points 
pictured out, day by day, exhibited in the List of 
Bible Lewons, see chap, xziii., must ao illuminate 
every page of Scripture, that tho person, through 
life, tnay profit more certainly under his own private 
reading and the public services of the sanctuary. 



I 



• A kinowliBclgc of the oUniate and pivJtKJtions of Palestine, 

and tlie manners anil customs of the Jews, is absuliitfly tioc*i- 

, sary to tlic Bible trajner, otlicnviw Ltf is apt tofoumliT lit evyry 

|«tep. He rifiY l>(i greatly g-^aiittf'l by peniaing Bcvcral publifsa- 

[iXims lij- the UcliyiuLis Traet Society of Lundon — audi as, Scrip- 

' tun; emlileiriH ; MuDniars, RUett, and Customs of the Jtwa, So;, 

Akof AfiLtiiJti LigH, by the Rev. J. Campbell; TUiisiratiouS of 

Scripture, iiv., &.c. 



Some of our EngliBh, friends may object to layiaea 
analjrring or picturing put, or even explnifling Scrip- 
ture in school. We would, Tiowever, entreat tliom 
to examine any child, or even Tnany grgwa persons 
who can read well^ but whose mind ig uncnltivated 
(for Goltivation is the reauH onty of an eserclse of the 
faculty of uDilerstandiDg), ns to ibo amOTiiit of infor- 
mation he haa drawn frotn the Blblo, by its being 
simply read by him or to him. We have made the 
experinicDt a thousand times, and found itto be almost 
nothing. A point or narcative may have heea appre- 
hended, but no lesson has been deduced. Tho whole 
picture is not present tn the mind ; the child, there- 
fore, doe^ not see that on ichich the lesson rfstg. For 
every practical purpose, then, the mero reading of the 
Scriptures is in a measure lost, and the perfino may 
continue reading on without the undfiTstanding or 
affections being at all im pressed by the wurds he reads. 
Aiid what, after all, is the uSe of Bible reading, or 
Scriptural knowledge, unless we are in circumstances 
to derive practical good from the lessons it ia intended 
te convey ? If thia objection to laymen bo still urged 
by our brethren in the English Churchj we would 
venture to suggest that an order of deacons might ha 
Bet apart by the bishops for the instruction and train- 
ing of youth in the Church Schools, who would then 
be placed under authoritative sypeiintondence and 
control. 

To all who admit the propriety of common expla- 
nation, we would say, that if Scripture is to he ex- 
plained at aff^ a a/iould hs conducted in tko fullest 



198 



TIIE TRAJNINCI UYfriKU. 



and beit manner poatihie ; not to admit this, usanu^ 
cdly to be inconsiatent. The cnmnmnd is not merely, 
rend the Scripturea, but " eearch^Hacarch as for hid- 
den treasurcB/' " Everything worthy of being doDd 
at all ought to ho well done ;" and truth losea nothing 
by eimplifi cation throtigli the fullest analysts. In pro- 
■ecuting BIIjIg Training, n-o do so as a natural and 
efficient prnccss, and the moat powei-ful we have yet 
ieen or practUed ; not indeed in the tame and imper- 
fect mode w& ara ahle to represent on paper,* but SB 
it may be exhibited in actual practice. Let the meao' 
ing of words, and the bearing of the subject in all its 
points, relations, and asBociataons, he/amUmrl^ illua- 
tr&ted or pictured otii to the mind'a eye of the child, 
and he onght and will be found to be able to draw 
out the lesson equally w^ith the master or trainer. 

It ia foreign to our system for the school trainer 
to aasiime the character of a preachur, wbnterer pa- 
rents may do at homCr All that is expected or 
retjuired of him is, ao to conduct the lesson aa that 
the natutal pklure he fully drawn ; in other words, 
rendered visible to the mind's eye of tlio youngcat and 
raoit ignorant child present j and then, aa we haTo 
already stated, the children will he prepared to give 
the moral lesson. 

The master in Bible Training, no doubt, may lead 
the children into error, but he only can do this when 
he biindfoldly leads tlie minds, of his pupils — when he 
does not naturally and clearly j»icfur.d OHt th& wkoh 



BTBLIl TBAINING IrEBSONSi 199 

outlines ^rH-, and then the minuter points of tlie sub- 
ject that has Li^eu r&ad ns the t^jxt cir fonndation uf 
the moming lesson. 

A physical trainer caono more lead hia pupils from 
the safe patli into a fursaco or ditch, for example, 
with their bodily cyc& open» 'than the Bible trainer 
cftE lead hia pupils into erroneous intellectual or moral 
conclusions, provided be clearly pictures out to tbair 
iccDtal eye the plain and natural truths embodied in 
the narralivesj promises, tlireateninp;s, precepts, imag- 
ery, emblems, fine, of the Divine Eecord. Intellec- 
tually, oothe one hand, as weli as physically on tha 
other, they musi ^^icjc ich<tt ihey ftfff, and they never 
can know until they see — bodily or mentally. 

To read without picturing out the meaning, ia aa 
absurd as to teach a Welchman, a Highlander, or an 
Iriahman, to read tlie English Bible, before be under- 
fitauda a. ward of the language — examples of whicli 
baTO come under our notice. 

Out of one tliDusand stndcTits, male and female, 
■who have passed through our hauda in the Normal 
Tiaining Seminary^ vvein&ver met wiili one, who, on 
entering the institution, Jirai pictured out, and then 
drew tlio Igssoq. Some, no doubt, more naturally 
than others, attempted it. The general practice, how- 
ever, has been (the unnatural one), to draw or rather 
give the IcBson at the very commencement, without 
any attempt to draw the natural picture, or lay the 
premises on whieh the lesson regts* Others do so to 
a Tery limited extent, always, however, teaching or 
telling, rather than training, and conapelling thg chiU 



■ 



3 



200 



TtSB TBATNTTftl ETnXlt. 



dren to tako upon trust, Ihiit, of whkh, with the 
proper rnental picture before them, tliey miglit be 
(ancl actuiillj are found to be) abb to judg« for th'Sm- 

Md.aj cures ive proposed for tLo woca of Irelimd. 
One tiling we may safely affi^rm, t!iat Stbie iraininff 
coupled with moral trainimj can alone ful^Tf accom- 
plish the work. From tlie espcrieQce mo have had 
of Iri&I)inen wlio have passed through our institution, 
as atudenta, and also Irish parents in Glasgow^ we 
liQOW enough of the Irish cliaracter, to provo to ua 
that it could not resist being highly intercatcd with 
Scripture emblema and imagery, properly pictured 
oat. 

It 13 not too much to say, that our Irish atudenta 
have been moat useful and successful, wherever they 
have bc!en placed. Give U3 one hundred well-traJDed 
students, and set tEiem down ia any county of their 
native isle ; and witSiout the slightest attempt to 
proselytizBj or intermeddle with the external ritea of 
the Roman catholic Church — permit them to conduct 
or picture out one short Bible training lesson each 
morning j and afiter the lapse of a few years of such 
an elementary course, we might safely leave the youth 
of that interesting country to form their own judg- 
ment of what is truth, from the Scriptures themaelvea. 
IntelligcQcer mdependenC'e, order, and obedienco to 
the laws, would uiitjuestioufthly follow such a cooraa 
of training. 

Coidd we persuade parents, then, of the inestimable 

'U which such a cuurae of training would prove to 



STBIX TK&ININS lissom. 



201 



tbeir oflspring — bearing in mind, as they ouglat to do, 
that a period of life i& fixod by act of Parliament, 
under wbich labour, as well in fuctories as in nnDi?9, 
is probiUiteJ — what a moral revolution would be pro- 
duced among the masses, reaching in its effecta to 
generations yet mibam. If our country ia ever to he 
morally raised, it muat be by directing strong and 
united efForts to the training of the yciimg^ We 
would here, therefoie, call the att&ntionof legislatorB, 
clergymen, and teachers, to the important fact, which 
all tEie statistics of crime — all the experiencB of the 
most devoted philanthropUta prove — viz., tliat in 
proportion as you morally and rtitigiously train the 
youth of a country, you are laying etill firmer the 
basis of national prosperity, and bringing into opera- 
tion an engine for t-fTceting the greatest good, exercis- 
ing as they do, a reflex influence on tbeir parcnta and 
retatioB3 at home. Wo trust the day la not far dis- 
tant when the Legislature of our country will inter- 
fere, and stem the tide of infidelity, vice, and crimi?, 
by the endowment of inatitutions throughout the laud, 
to he conducted on such principles as wo bavc endea- 
voured to explain in this section on Biblc TbaiN'- 

IRO. 



CHAP. XV. 



BECULAB TEArniya lessons — ELEMENTS OP SCIEHCB 
— ARTS HANUFACrCRES. 



Bible training lessons, wo have seen, are nia.de the 
baaiB of moral culture. Secular trainmg lessons to 
a cc^rtaiii extent elucidate ScTipture emblems, on which 
most important monil lessons rest ; at tlis same time 
their direct oliject is to fit the future mnD better for 
the duties of social lifo in tho particular sphere in 
which God may ba pleased to place him. To girls aa 
well as to boys they are found to be not only practi- 
cally useful but highly elevating in an intellectual 
point of viflW". 

Wa would recommend that at least one training 
lesaon ba given in the gallery each day, upon some 
point of science', applicable to the purposes of real 
life ; for whilst this is particularly valuable to persona 
in the humbler walks of society, in fitting them for 
manual and other labour, it is also valuable as the 
fouvda.'tion of a jnore thorough knowledge of science, 
lo those whose circumiatances may enable them to 
prosecute their researches still farther. To the for- 
mer, these school exercises may bo all the theoretical 
knowledge tliey can acquire in life. To the latter, B 

itttoughly analyzed or pictured out training Icsboq, 



I 



BECCIAB TRAlKITfO LESSONS* 



203 



Hay by day^ will Lb fuunrl an elementary exercise 
greatly superior to tiie ordinary mode of mere read- 
ing leaaons, even when accompanied Ijy explaaation. 

As we liavie already stated under a. former head, 
when objects are 'within our reach we make use of 
them in conducting the lessons as a sort of text, or 
starting point ; but ■whether withui rench or not, our 
principle is to picture out the whole leasoo, and every 
paint of the mihjsct maiter of which it is composed. 
Facts are stated by the master — the lesson being then 
drawn from, and given at the time by the children 
theraaelves. Their ability to do so^ m wo have al- 
ready said^ under the head of Bible Training, is the 
teat whether the subject has been properly pictured 
out or not — for if ao, they must understand what they 
mentally see — keeping in view that we do not know 
a thing until we ?ee it with our bodily or mental eye. 
For example, if separate leasnns have been previansly 
given mpoQ the properties of heat, and water, and 
Btenm, and air, and the condensing influence of cold, 
and the screw, and the pulley, and the inclined plane, 
and the leverj and the centrifugal forci?, and if all 
these and other forces be pictured out, as combined 
in one mnehiije, the children wiiil readily form a afeam- 
engine in their mindsj and tell the trainer the com- 
bined effect upon a shaft which may move spinning 
machinery, raise water, or propel a steam-vessel, op 
railway train. 

This ia a fundamental part of the training ayBtem, 
and a knowledge of Secular subjects, particularly what 
is termed natuial scienco, aa we have already said, 




204 



THE TBAINtRO BYffTKH. 



also enables the Bililo trainef more easily to elucidate 

the lessons of Scripture. 

The introduction of daily secular gnUeiy leaaona, on 
the aimuItant.'0U8 principle, which is new in popular 
edupation, is, next to Bible training, the Tiiost direct 
modo' of e:{ervieLng the mind of the pupih. Th&ae 
scientific and secular Icsaoaa give a dEcided tone of 
intelligent obeervatinri and reflation in the ordinary 
intercourse of everyday life. Such is the UBiform 
experience of every one of our students who bava 
been permitt^'d to conduct secular gnlLery lessons la 
their own schools. 

VIsitora sometimes aiy. What ImTc the children of 
the poor to do with science ? let them learn to read 
their Bibles, and repeat their Catechism. Science, 
however, is valuable alike to the mechanic and tha 
man of business, in promoting the arts of life, so in- 
diapengaUk to tlic weaUh nnd comfort of all raukg of 
aocitity. If the bold and clear outlines of science be 
given to all ranks, each tnay maiaiain his proper 
place in the scale of its ageension. The poor man, if 
he choosea, may adTance be}-ond the limited period 
of his elementary school education, and the man of 
leiBurB and scientific reaearcli may rise aa high as he 
pleases ; while the genius, of whatever grade, acquire 
enough to enable Mm to prosecute his studies, nnd 
take his just place in society. But we rise a little 
higher in our gallery training kasous, and uao scientifio 
terms, expressive of scientific priueipleg, sucli as are 
used by lecturers on ustural philosophy. In conse- 

Lence of whichj it is still urged by acme, TV'llY lEACS 



fiECCLAlE TBAHma usssoss. 



SOS 



I 



SCIENCE to cliiSdrcn in aa elementary school ? What 
can tlie^ unilerstand of latent beat, the nidii of a 
circle, centrifugal fmd centripetal Torces, gravitation, 
electric fltlids, and inniiineratik other more com- 
plex tertn3 ? Now, we liave to say, tU:it all sucb 
terms cbq be simplified, and wben reduced to simple 
terms, they can he und4?rEtood by chiklren of a few 
years old. Having these DutliDPS clearly analysed by 
Jamiliar Ulustraiions:, they can he mitde to under- 
stand the most coraple:^ terms, expressive of the most 
eomplex movements and conditions. For example, 
tbo motion of a child round the circular swiuging-pole 
iu the play-ground, may illustrate, in acme measure, 
bow the moon keeps in its orbit ronnd the earth, and 
the latter, or any ether planet, rouud the sim; in 
ether TtorJs, what ia meant by the centrifugal and 
centripetal forces. Tba proper conree of education in 
science has too generaJly been reversed ; and the reil- 
aon why so many adults stnp abort in their progress, 
and cannot educate themselTes (for education ought 
only to close with life), is, that tbey have committed 
to memory teuhaical terms, which, jtot Aupiwy been 
piciurt-'d out and illustrated, are not un^jeratood ; and 
also that the minute points of science have been given 
before the great outlines were drawn. 

The philuaophic terms which a public lecturer finds 
it necessary to use, are not iinderstoDd by the youth; 
they have not been explained, far less pictured out to 
his mind's eye. He does not therefore tee the bearing 
of each point of the premises laid down, or the con- 
clnsions to which the lecturer arrires, and at the close 



SOO THE TiumiNo ststbm* 

ho ifl found oftcutimea to huve acquired no dUtincfi 
impreaslon uftlie actual lessoti, wliicii otherwise might 
hare been recelvfid. Ho may applaud the lecturer as 
being a cleefr man. *' It waa an excelli^nt lecture." 
*^ What beautiful experiments he performed." " How 
remarkalilj' bright he made^ tlie goA to burn, and what 
an exploaion it produced." But the lecture itself he 
has not comprehended. This is the everyday experi- 
ence of tlie young and the old in attending public 
lecturea on science^ It would have beea Otherwise 
after a course of early school training- 

The lessons during tho first stage, or the outlines, 
at whatever age tho child commences his course, 
ought to he exceedingly simple, and should compre- 
hend a Dumber of the mors ob\ioua things in naturs 
and in art, which every child ought to know in their 
great outlineSt before he is perplexed with minute 
points, or tho use of tecliuical terms ; a knowledge 
of which he gradually acquires ns ha advances frQin 
stage to stage. 

As a child, I wish to know what wheaten bread 
and oaten broad are ; the distinction in quality, and 
how they arc made ; how butter and cheese are made ; 
what salt is; liow wine is made, and of what com- 
posed ^ what brown and loaf sugars are; the nature 
of tea and coffee, with the places where they are 
grovPH, and how they an? brought to the condition in 
which they are found when used at home at the fire- 
side ; the disLinction between woollen, cotton, aad 
ailkf both how they are produced, and why more or 
less warm. 



SECniiAR TEAIStpra LBBSONB. 

The child ought to be made acqufl-inteil with articles 
of furniture. These are continually prcaented to his 
cotice, and they aflord the meana of exerci^ng bis 
powers of observation, and training liim to think. 
Their nalnre and rclativo qualities ought to he tnad^i 
familiAr to liini. 

The natural history oi the more common animale^ 
domestic and foreign, i& alao an object of iptereat and 
a means of enlargonient to the young mind, p^jrticu- 
larly when united with a short history, not merely of 
the hahitg of the animals themselves, but of the 
countries and inhabitants in and among which FroVt- 
vidence has placed thcra, and the peculiar adaptation 
of each to its own particular circumstanceB. As a 
child, I wish to know why the swallow is not seen 
during winter; why the hen has open, and the duck 
wehhed fstit ; with other laore minute points of the 
formation of animals ; why the butterfly is se&n in 
Bummer only ; from what origin it has sprung. TVbat 
are all these, the child naturally inqiiircs, and whence 
do some of the latter derive their pearly whiten^s ? 
Of what use rata and mice aro, saving (.hat tliey are 
BO troublesome in our dwellings, and why and whea 
they may be tilled, without our being cliargeable 
with cruelty; how the foot of tho rein-deer is suited 
to the frozen regions of Lapland, and that of the 
camel to the sandy deserts of Arabia. From one and 
all of these training lessiuDs, tho children may learn 
aoniething of the power and wisdom, and goodness of 
God, to al! his cre&tuics ; and suck lessooa ought 
■uniformly to be drawn. 



The child seea liimaelf surrounded on CTcry side by 
men of trf^da and liandicraft, and he wishen atid aught 
to know not merely the qualities of thitig;!^, and the 
material in use, but how they are moulded, or joined, 
or mixed, or decomposed, so as to render them ser- 
viceable. Ho sees the gmith forni a rail or a horse- 
shoe ; why does he heat the iron in a furnace before 
kyiitg it on tho anvil, aod striking it witli tho ham- 
mer? The uses of the pulley^ the screw, and the 
lever, ought to he pictured out to him by analogy and 
illusUatiou. The child sees paper; why not wovea aa 
a piece of cloth, and why more or less impervioug to 
moisture ? 

The child breathes air, drinks water, seea steam, 
hail, and snow. What aro nil these t the child ' 
naturally inquires; and v;\iy is the l^t tchite, &nd, 
when raelted, turns into water ? The eun to him 
appears always rgund, not Bi> the nloon^why so ? 
The principal parts of his own body, and those of 
other auimalB, with their relative functions, ong^t to , 
be known j the qualities and names of the more ■com- 
mon miueralSj and the great outhnes of botany, &c. 

Much of the bewilderment felt by men of all de- 
grees of acquirements rests in the fact that scieatific 
terms liave not been auiilj-zed ur pictured out by 
familiar illuitrations aa a first step in their early 
eduoation. Complex subjects, and complex termB, 
which ought to have been tho last, have generally 
been mad>Q the JRrst stage ; consequently blindfolded- 
ness, to a conaidorablo extent, muat continue ere these 
t and natural steps ha.ve been traced. This is an 



SBDDUJi TRinrrsa LiraacTits. SOD 

orJeal to wbicli every student wlio enters tlie semin- 
ary is more or Icbs subjected before he ciq comiUDnl- 
cate what he knowg to tlie cLiEdreu. 

In tlie industrial ilcjiarLmentp tbi.-re sure monj im- 
portant pointB which the girls ouglit peculiarly to be 
made acquainted wuh, and whiuh may Ijb carried into 
ttomestic and aoclal life ; such a^, the scientific re^ons 
■wby a room is better aired by opening the top of a 
window tather than the bottom — how to sweep a 
floor without " watering," and without raisinn; the 
dust — the effect of making tea with water jnst brought 
to the boiling point, and water wliich has boiled for 
BODie lime — Iiow to make or menJ a fire, so as to 
save fuel, and whether the top or bottom of the fiie 
ought to be stirred in rendering it what is termed 
either a good or a lasting fire — the science of cora- 
bustiop, and whether smoko ouglit to exi^t at 011^ or 
to what estent) and how it may be cured op pre- 
vented — the Bcieutific and practical effect of toasting 
breadj and laying one Blice above another — and the 
effects, practically and Scientifically, of fire on woollen, 
cotton, linen, and silken cloths. These, and a niun- 
ber of otber practical matters^ may be rendered highly 
useful to the children of thia class, in aftor life. 

The child ia exercised daily on some point in each 
of tlieae departments. "Whatever is done, ought to 
be well done. Analyze one point clearly, I'athcr than 
a dozen points imperfeeily, Variety does not dissi- 
pate the mind, or render knowledge superficifll. It 
is only SO when the surface is presented without a 
picturing out and a proper aaalyais. The child is 



no 



THB TBAINIKO BTffTHM. 



fiitigucd and disgusted when kept too long on anyone 
Biibject, whereaa each power of the minii is strength- 
ened by moderate and frequent exercise. The natural 
process on entering a garden^ for exainple, is first to 
look at every thiag within ibs four camera ; biit the 
plan generally adopted by the lecturer is, to spend as 
it were i week at tba door-st&p, analyzing the first 
plant m&t witb. Let the miad see the whole out- 
linea of each department it enters upon in the firal 
imtance^ and then with Laterest and intelligence it will 
patiently investigate. 

In the diiily Bible training department of onr 
conrae, the leasona^ aa we have already stated^ are 
uaiformly read frocn the book itBelf, and in a great 
many instances the natural picture can only be drawn 
by a reference to Bcieace, more or less minute. There 
are only a mry p-v> good text-books on science and 
secular auhjects, which can he read by the childreo 
before, and at the moment the daily secular lesson is 
given, both because they are geTierally too lengthy, 
and because uine-tentbs of the points to which our 
gallery lessons refer are less abstract, and of more 
practical advantage to the working cIeisbcs than the 
subjects to which thc^ treatiaca refer : tin? greater 
proportion of onr gallery secular training lessons, 
therefore, are conducted by the trainer, withcmta book. 
Tho intelligent reader will s^ee nyt only the propriety, 
but necessity of this arrangement, from ttie statemeat 
ah-eady made under the present head, and by con- 
sulting tho course of daily lessons contained in a sub- 

juent chapter. 



CHAP. XYI. 



ELEMENrART- CODRaB, 



I 



I 



Bible training, Gallery sficular lessons^ and Moral 
training, to wliiph wa have already adverted, and 
which may he stated as peculiar to tlie system, are 
conducted on one and the same principle with children 
of every age. The only distinction being that ia the 
Initiatory and Junior Scboola the hroader outlinea are 
first given, whereaa in the more advanced and with 
older spliolara these outlines are progressively fiUeii up 
at each lesson "nith greater niiiLuteU'Gss. 

We shall now briefly notice some Elementary 
branches, which have been adapted more or less to 
the principle of the Training System. 



HOPS OP AKAi'TK)?ia am hvniencb daily dttbino thb 
OBDiMA&ir s.&A-btsa LsaaoMS. 

During the pro'gress of an ordinary reading lesson, 
suppose from a collection in natural biatury, or ccny 
scientific Euhject, the master may proceed as follows, 
£xing upon one sentence, having iome distinct point 
of information : — 

1. Read it on the principles already stated, page 
128. 




I 



212 



THE TBAlIItNO BY5TEH. 



2. Picture out ths general Tncaning of what is. read. 

3. Spell the whole acDtence progressively, each 
child by turns, or BimultaDcously. 

4. Parse it. 

5. Fix upon one or more et;ymotogical roots, &oiil 
which diTerge ; see paga 2 1 8. 

0. Then you may require sentencea to be formed 
and espreaaed, ae under the head Mental Composi- 
tioQ. 

"WhatcTer number of eentcnccs each child or aH 
tha children may have read fot the sake of practising 
the soUQcts and also analyzed, so as to mtcrcat and 
instruct them in what they do read^ a singlu sentence 
or paragraph on this principle will daily afford them 
an exercise at obco in reading, understanding, spell- 
ing, grammar, etymology, and mental compofiition. 

\\'RiTiNG.^In teaching to write, there is nothing 
peculiar in the method followed in tho Model Schoola 
of the Seminnry, if we except the attention paid to 
the physical movcmenta to and from seats, putting 
away pens, &c., which cultivate a hahit of order and 
obedience. The ptn is held easily in the hand, as a 
painter does his pencil or brushy knuckles pointinff to 
the cciUnff : the tips of the little and rin^ fingers 
resting easily on the paper j right elbow angled out- 
ward (not in, as of old, or the Longue out, following 
the motioD of the pen) ; left arm nearly does to the 
aide as a rest for tho chest, and BhoiJdere back, keep- 
ing the aptna pretty nearly erect. 

Mental ARiTHiiiETrc ia an intorMting and implOT- 
ng exerciEe to the young, and presents many advan- 



MHNTil AHITHSraTTO, filS 

to persona engnged in business, ■which the 
highest power of calculation by pen fails of accom- 
plishing. Some persona pRsseaaing the power of 
mental calculation, seldom use a pen except in very 
complex questions. Mental Arithmetic ought to pre- 
cede t!iBt by pen^ aeaompantf it al every stu^e^ and 
even succeed it. It holds the situe place to arithntutio 
on the shtto that mental composition dues to that on 
paper. 

Mental arithmetic may be commencod in the Initi- 
atory department, and ia aii excellent preparative for 
the simple rules by pen, which wctq wont to he the 
duUeat and most unintelleotual of all cxorciseai, if we 
except the ABO, ortbo committing to memory of the 
rules of Epgligh grammar. 

These exeicisea may ha conducted with the whole 
scholars in the gullory, or half the nambcr, or in 
divisions. There are a variety of pubHcationa wirh 
examples of mental ariLhmetic. In the Initiatory and 
even the junior departments it Is prt^ferahle — instead 
of simply asking, How many are one and onei and 
two ? how many Ate two and one and three ? &c. &c. 
— that objfcts be mentioned, e. ff., one duck and two 
sparrowa — how many ? Two hotacs and one ben — 
how many feet ! &c. Two horses, one cow, and one 
hen — how many ? Five chairs and fourteen spoons 
— bow many an idea? &c. &c., proceeding onwards 
slowly Btep by atep- The mention of the objects, in 
addition to the simple mimbers^ adds interest and 
exercise to the young mind. Each question must be 
repeated sloicly and dui'mctl^^ gieing tJie pujnla time 



i 



IH 



THE TRAnOBCI SrSTEM- 



to thifik. The most inlerestmg nioile of comducting 
mentaJ arithmetic ia tlio addition, in the firat instance, 
of articliaa with which the children are familiar, the 
aubtraction of some, and the muliipUcaiicMi and dlvi- 
aion of others, in regard of which both trainer and 
pupils acquire by practice, a facility of proposing and 
afi9WeiiiLg Hj^uestioaa. 

AitiTffMETic o?f Slateb.' — This is found more ef- 
ficient when a. dozen or twenty children arc oxercieed 
by the maater at one stjige, the account bdpg givoa 
by dictation, or from the black board. This excites 
clnuIatioD, and, as is well known, some naturally pos- 
sess the faculty of calculation in a much higher de- 
grco than others. Those who arc generally most 
correct in finding the answers may be removed to a 
higher elasa, and their place fiupplied by tho equally 
d^^se^viBg of the class under them, Thia can ba ac- 
Gompliahed without taking pLices, and while it re- 
tards none, it secures that all progresaively advance 
in thia department of education^ np to the amount of 
their capability. The moral trainer will, of course, 
take pains to encourage the timid in thia, as in erery 
departnieat, and discourage the physical hoisteroua- 
ncHH of the forward. This may be done by putting 
individual questions to the one, and occasionally pass- 
ing by the others. The practice of showing oflf be- 
fore visitors only threo or four of the duxes, is subver- 
aivG of moral training. It may gain applause to the 
master, but it depresgee many who are truly merito- 
ioua, and generates in the few, feelings of pride and 
'Ouity. In a largo school on this plan, there might 



215 



I 



b« four cliLS&es for tlie simple, four for the compound 
rules, and two for the rules next in order. Actmitt- 
iiig that there is ona master and one assistant-trainci' 
to a Bcbool, of ahout 120 children, monitors might be 
employed at tliia branch with leas injury to tliein- 
selveg and the scholars, than at most other branches i 
and uniesa these monitors Eire greatly advanced in ago 
and aeq^tiirements, above those of their classes, eo aa 
to present the character of assistants, they ought to 
be frequently changed, for the sake of the monitors 
tbemselyea. One of the masters ought always to take 
Mie or other of the classes either in the simple, com- 
pound, or advanced rules, and the head master ■would 
do well to superintend tlie whole, and either he, or 
the second master, as may be more convenieiit, ought 
to collect all the claseea in the first division, into the 
gallery at ouo time, and drill thom M'dl in ono or 
othor of the simple rules; a.1 another time, those in 
the compound rules; and, again, thoao in the moro 
advanced rules — proportion, practice, &c. Thsae 
frequent revisala are of great importance. Fractions, 
&0., may be conducted on the same principle. In 
fact it is the want of being thoranghly grounded in 
the commoik rnlcs that accounts for fio (svr persons 
B being good nritbrn^ticiana, and so it is in every other 
branch of icducation. 

Whenever the principle of the sympathy of num- 

bertf which the gallery affords, can bo introduced into 

H any branchj there the greatest amount of knowledge 

H is infused, bow widely soever the natural powers of 

H the children may differ. Th& vigorous need not be 



2ie 



THE TltAINI^G ET5TEH. 



rrtjifded, and the weat and timid are encouraged to 
jieraevore. 

These principles axe parsoed in the Janior and 
Senior departments of the Normal Seminar)-, tut aa 
many of the echolars bad been prevtoiialy at other 
ichook, find had been bccttstomed to the old modaj 
of each -working out his own account at a desk, and 
then showing it to tha master; and vs rnaTiy who 
were practising proportion^ or the compound rulea, 
cottld not work an account quickly, or correctly, in 
the gimple niles, rather than turn fhe vskoh buck at 
once to eimpio addition, a middle course wa& takai, 
of alternating the classification, aa previously sta.led, 
and pormitting them, every second day, to work out 
accounts alone, a3 they were accustomed to do, from 
a book and on desks. Thia ought to be a temporary, 
not n. pernaauent arrangemfiit. 

EBOLTsn (jHiMMAR. — Practical grammar is a daily 
exercise at the ordinary reading lessons, from the 
time tha pupil can read a sentence — i. e., as far as 
the siinplo parts of speech are concerned. 

Grammar by rule ig adopted in the more advanced 
classes; and is illuminated and rendered interesting to 
the young mind, when practica.! grammaT is intro- 
duced, hoth as a precedent and an accompaniment to 
the more syatematio course by book, also when the 
parta of speech are pictured out hy familiar illustra- 
tiotts^ so aa to enahle the pupils in the first instance 
to form n. rule for themselves. 

Sis or scYeii years of age is too early a period to 
teach grammar by rule; it is .burdening the memory 



ENQLIHH GRASmAR, 217 

with 3 load of words, which tend to destroy the 
mind's elasticity. Practical grammar may be intro- 
duced evea into the Initiatory department under six. 
with reaJ beaefit, and in the Juniur divisioQ, aho, it 
i$ taught in its first stages without booka. It is pre- 
ferayi* that the iltustraLions used \>a all taken from, 
or be in regard of, oijicts wtt/Uii sight at the moment, 
or with which they are exceedingly familiar. When 
the lesson is given orally, and not from book, in form- 
ing a sentence the master may say, The height of tha 
ceiliog of this scliool is aa high as fifteen feet. Is this 
aentonce correct? If not, how ought it to bo ei' 
pressed? Or, I am going for to tell you what I paid 
for these chairs. Then parse sueb sentencea after 
being coiTccted. The whale proce8& of communioa- 
tion between master and scholara being condnctod i« 
this, as in evety other elc^yisntavif hr^nch^ Etlipti- 
eailif and Ititerrogati'sel^, SimuUaneouet^ and Indi- 
vidualty. 

Interest ia excited when the subje«t3 spoken of are 
faaiiliarly illustrated, more so than when classic lore, 
and poetic fancy alone, furnish the sentences, the 
construction of which they are called upon to ana- 
lyze. Theae, however, will bo aiTived at and mas- 
tered in duo time. 

The old method of teaching English grammar, al- 
though still too generally practised in schools, is ra- 
pidly giving place to a more rational and intellectual 
exercise. It is even now, howeverj too generally an 
exerei&e of the verbal memory. 

To reduce grammar to the principles of our system. 



ffl8 THU TBATjeUJO STSTKll. 

every woril or teclinical tt^rin, befure being used hy 
the pupils, must bo uoderstood hy being familiarly 
iUuairaletl. The terms Noun, Adjective^ Verb^ Pro- 
noun TclatiTO and demonstrative, Singulnr, Plural, 
Noaiinalive, PosMwive, Objective^ &c-, must be all 
clearly pictiii'ed out lejbre the lesson, or during the 
time of their being used. A mero verbal explapation 
doea not coavey to the raind of the child the real 
mcaoiDg, so as to enable bira to use such terms intel- 
ligibly; and not boing cteaily undGrstood, this brajich 
of education ie nninteresting. But Wt eacb term to be 
used, be familiarly iltustraUd hy objects within the 
range of the c/tilcTs experience, and in language, of 
course, equally simple and intelligible, and then a 
grammar lesson will, and is fonnd to be, really a plea- 
Bure, and the pupils are very ■quickly able, for tbem- 
aelveg, to give the rule for the arrangeraent of every 
word of a sentence, and for its every possible tnuia- 
formation, 

Ettmolooy ia now considered a separate bmnch 
from grammar, and ia valuable in itselfeven to children, 
who are unacquainted with the construction of Latin 
and other languages, from whicli their owo springs j 
and this is the condition of the generality of cliildren 
in popular eehooU. It Is "Well, however, to give it 
only its own place, in the great cause of educating 
and training t/te child. Ttie answers given by chil- 
dren in this braoch are so uppish and attractive, that 
there is a strong temptation to give it au undue place, 
"^ is somstim&s the case in niugic^ and mental cal^ 

lation. One and all of these are nevertheless 



• 



liighly iinportaat, in their tendency, as mental ex- 
ercises. 

We may give a single example of t!ie plan pur- 
sued: — 

Prefixes and Postfixes,' — The ctildren obeerve 
from a boot, or are told by llie master, that a prefix 
is a syllable or a word placed before aQoihcr word, 
Buch as in before visible, Tnalting one word, in-Tisible; 
or any other word, audi as ac-cord, accord; ar-rest, 
arrest; and wjiat the meaning of these prefixes are 
(ooB of course at atime). They are*,., wordsplaced 
he/ore another jtord^ and wlien expreaaed or . . . spoken 
iogeiJier^ form one entire word having a ,,, meaning 
^ and ao on. 

Nest, that a postfix is a word or syllable placed 
after the word, juat aa the prefix ia placed ... he/ore 
ii. For example, accord; accord-ance, making accord- 
ance; and that these postfixes also bare ... a mean' 
ing. What, then, is the meamng of the term prefix ? 
Wliat a postfix ? The meaning of tho (Latin or 
Greek ) root ? These must all bo slowly pictured out 
and familiarly ilhistrated. 

During these lessoDs, the childrea are required to 
givo the varioua changes of the prefisea-^ae, in, aub, 
&c, — and aUo th& postJi:£es. Such lessons direct from 
books, however, rnigiit to ba accompanied Sy oral 
ex&fciaes direct from the master, or during the^ ordi- 
nary reading leggons. 

From pretixes and postfixes, you proceed to entire 

• The cliildrcn will natuimlly (ill in the words prinlcd in 
ItolicB, pruvided what a f rdix i^ ]i3^ \i\xa. clearly pictured out. 




sso 



THB ffUinm STS'THIU. 



L 



wnrdaj witli tlieir roots. Suppose,, Introdoce: tlie 
ftnower is accepted as diice — to leaJ, and intra — 
within; and in tranH-lnte, trana-fer, thu children are 
simplj' tolil wlint tale Qt/er imeang, witliout req^wiriog 
them to conjugate the La.tin rootj wliicli they have 
not liad on Opportunity of learning. 

The trainer may meet with a word la the orilinary 
aclinol readifigi trammistion iar example, or indue 
tivcT or conferred, or supporf. Suppose the last term. 
Support. The pupils are asked. What do yau metin 
hy the word support ? To carry under. What does 
sup mean ? Under. The trainer may also inquire, 
What part of speech ia under? A prepoeition. And 
similar q^nestiona may be put to other words from the 
aame root. Anotherprefis meaning the saineaasup? 
Sub, eup, &c. mean ... under; port means ... carry, 
and so on. Should tboy not know thia, of course they 
Diuat be told. This ■vno.y he the practical stage b&fore 
tlie uae of etymological bookSj and may be uscfulty 
cantinusd. What does port mean? To carry. One 
■who supports? Supporter. Able to bo supported! 
Supportable. Not able to be supported? Inaup- 
portable. One who carries a burden, or keeps a 
gato? Porter; 8io. &c., some of which are verbs, 
others nouns, &e. An adjectiTe? Important. Pic- 
ture out to me what you meaa by one who supports? 
A thing not able to ha supported; &c. &c. SinauU 
taneona answers, by C[Ucstion3 and ellipses mixed, 
may be stated, we repeat, as the chief peculiarity of 
our mode; to which may be added, the utmost sim- 
plicity in the moda of illuatration. 



MBNXAl. COMPOamON. 



221 



Mental Compositiok. — Every obaerving miod 
must perceive that !l person may write eorr<;ctIy and 
yet speak incOrteutly, and vice versa; we tliereforo 
attach to mental and written composition separate 
courses of traJniug- Mmitai C'ovipoaitian ig an exoel- 
leut mode of esercising the uuderatauding, and pre- 
paring for iprHten composition. It ia beet and most 
naturally conducted, when the trainer bringa out seve- 
ral varietiea from one rootj in t!ie ordinary reading 
lessons, and may be conducted Tcry simply. For 
example, suppose &ii€li worda as endure, or export^ 
QT perjnisaioTif to OBCur iu a ecatonce of a book read. 
Say ilie liist of tliese- The master bringi out from 
the children the Latin root, prefix, and postfix ; he 
then asks six or eigUt boys to repeat a word from the 
eanoQ root, each giving one lie chooses or the firat that 
occurs to him. Suppose permit — transmission — emit 
— dismisaioQ^-disnTiM — committal — commisaioa — 
missionary. The master causes each of the boya to 
staTid Up and repeat his own particular word already 
ex^iresscd ; and then, before tbe whole gallery or par- 
ticular class, he requires of each to express a sentence 
embodying iho exact word, not dismigsed for dismiss, 
or missionaries for missionary, but the precise term ; 
thus eiUtivating a habit of thought and caution in 
giving the tarm, in the first inaianoe. The children 
plovB whether they know tha meaniug of the term 
by forming a sentence embodying the particular word ; 
and should the sentence not he grammatically ex- 
pressed, it ia the duty of the mEiBter to train them to 
a proper arrangement of it. It ia easy to perceive 



2S& THB TRAHTINQ STSrTEHi 

tlio emulation and interest thi^ exercise most exdte. 

the qmouDt of Inrormation it communicates, and the 
perfect transcript of each pecuIiariLy of mind it must 
cxliibit. Tlie mfltttr-of'fact hoy will form his sen- 
tence according to tlie cast of hia own mind ; the 
same Viith ths imagioatiTc, and so vrith the argumen- 
tative, &c. 

Tliia exercise is so oxpeditioual^ conducted, and 
productive of such craulatiou, that we wouEd recom,- 
mend its being frequGotly adapted dozing the ordinary 
reading or grammar leaaona. 

In the £rat instance ^e permit the pupils to take 
the widest range they please in the seleetioa of their 
aubjecta^ gradually diminishing tha variety, howGver, 
as they proceed in arraoging their id{,>a3 into words, 
until the habit is so formed, that ihey are required 
to confine the formation of their sentences to some 
one pQint in science, or mechanics, or Scripture, or 
any particular art or maniifacturo. Menial Compo- 
sition is thus found to he at once a cultivation of the 
hahit of expressing thought, and a most intercatiDg 
and thorough m'sntal exercise. 

"Wbittem Composition, — Mental composition, wo 
have already satted^ is an cxcelEent preparative for 
written composition. In the model schoola there is 
httle time left for thia branch. The slate, howeyer, 
is us^d occasionally, as a substitute for paper, ^id 
witli the advanced Bcholars. The Normal Btudentst 
of course, have daily es:eroises in thia branch, and 
write essays on various subjects, which are reviaod 
Ly the rector and masters. That mental compoaitiOQ, 



WB1TTBN COHPOSmON. 223 

and written compoution are two dUtinct branches, is 
apparent. We have known aome students who wrote 
correctly, and were excellent scbolara, who yet epoke 
ungrammatically ; and the young children they ad- 
dressed although unable to write a word, yet forming 
very correct sentences. 



CHAPTER XYII. 



ELEMENTARY COOHSE — COtlimtietl. 



Geoqkaphy. — This branch is introdaced, more or 
1^39 miputely, into each (l>tipartm3nt, from the Initia- 
tory onwards. Maps, globes, and books on the sub- 
ject, are all taken as asaiatants. The wIioIbj liowever, 
ia conducted on tlie principles of tlie syateni ; first, 
the broad outlines, and gradually more and more mi- 
nute, and tlie whole illustrated hy histohy. It ia 
conducted as a first step iucidentally, in the ordinary 
course of the reading Icsfions^ iu which an dlusion 
may havo bicen mado to some place or country, op 
quarter of the globe. The productions, manufactureg, 
and manners of tlie inhabitants ara notictpd; also tlio 
birth-place and doings of any great statesman, war- 
rior, or divine. Tins fixes iu the memory the parti- 
eulai spot, which the pupils may be referred to &om 
time to time, and givea aU interest to what nmy be' 
termed systematic gcogra.pby and Hiistory. 

It 13 » mere exercise of memory, and no cultivation 
of miad tu a child, to he compelled to commit verba- 
tim a whole page of g^3ng^aphy from n book, and then 
to point out on tha map or globe the whole capea, 

ore, towns, &c.,, in regular auccesaion. To parents 



GBOGBAPHT. 



225 



tt may look a getting on of throu;tA, but it is not 
ImrniH^y googniphy. The oulline^ of the whale 
globe ought to he given as a aecoiid stage, or the one 
following the incidental one; noticing lh« equator, 
poIeSj and ideal linea of the eartli j zones and conipa- 
ratire tetiiperatiLres; latitudos and longitudes ; giving 
some historical fatit at each step of the child'a pro- 
gresa. 

The third stage might be (tome particular coimtry, 
its great outlinea and history ; nestj its particular 
towns, rivers, lakes, lic, accompanying somQ histori- 
cal allusion 39 pointed out ; and fourthly, what la 
almost uniformly made tlio first stage, going over all 
the particular points in the regular order of a printed 
book. In thia latter or usual mudo, the child ia be- 
wildered j he feels little interest in plodding 07er Mb 
dr^ task of woida at home ; most studtous indeed he 
may appear to be, but learned he ia not, until he be 
trainod by the raoBterj or by lilraself, or, as ia moat 
common, by the pxactic&l OccurreDces of bis future 
life. 

As a fifth stage, the pupil9 may perform ideal jour- 
neyfi and voyages through every country and quarter 
ofthegtohe, noticing the arta and manufaolures of 
every town throiigh which tbey pass, taking a rapid 
review of every port and country they touch, or land 
at; their latitude and longitude j* the modes of tra- 
Telling everywhere, whether by means of horses^ 



* Of coarse, erery tcolmical tetm xnuEt Le pictnrad out before 
being nited. 



2SS 



Tine TWIWIKS STBTEjr. 



males, caacliea, waggons, railways, canals^ rein'deera, 
camels, Sea- It is umieciessary to sttito what interest 
wouW be excited by euch an idieal journey to London, 
Paris, Peteraburgj Holtand, America, Cnlcutta, Green. 
land, tlii^ North iPolc, the Polynoaian Isl&uda, at round 
the worLdi 

On thia priiDciple> even at tlie Brat stage, maps 
ought to be used in. every training acbooL 

HiaToiiY."When the mind of the ehild la tlius 
partially enlarged, the written history of any particu- 
lar country, or period of time, may bo taken up with 
mud) intere&t and improveraent, every etep being 
illuminated by some pQint, to which his attention has 
been previously caHed. If the Iiistory of England — 
for example, we ■would take the outline of some of 
the most noted nionarch9,tn;/^ff^ra^ instance, although 
these should be at the distance of a century. As a 
tecond coarse^ Bome of the leading cbsiraicters, whe- 
ther statesmen, warriors, or divines, of each of the 
same reigns, is regular succession ; and as a third 
ttage, more minute points connected with such times^ 
from the most ancient to the most modem; and, 
kully, but not till then, wonld we place a full history 
of England in the hands of our pupils^ knowing that 
page after page, through the prcTioualy acquired 
knowledge of the children, would be thug rendered 
far more interesting and intelligible. 

Linear Dkawi^g and Sketcqiho. — This is dooe 
on slates and on paper, and nmy occupy half au hour 
twice or thrice a-week, in an ordinary English school. 
Drawing simple lines and outlines of the forma of ob- 



jecta, natural and artificria], especiall)^ of buildinga 
and articles of furniture, c^^Tciges the eye, improvea 
the taste, aQd gives a correctness of otservation, which 
may, in fnture life, gruatly aid the in£cfaa.nic, in hia 
particular trade or calling. 

Several hoja have been apprenticed to calico ptinfi- 
ers, in conaequence of their sketching powers having 
been, developed in tlie model school of the senior de- 
partment of this institulion. 

Sketcliing in every school, like writing and arith- 
metic, most be tfainini^. All the teaching in the 
world without training will not produce a painter. 
Trainingi however, eo developea tlie natural powers 
hy exercise, that the astablialiment of training in everj" 
department of knowledge, intellectual, physical, and 
niiOraljWOUld bring from obsnuritymanywboBe powers 
remain undeveloped, and who would fill all the places 
society requires — aspa inters, mechanics, eehoolin asters, 
&c. &c. 

Book-keeping.— Th,i« 19 looked upon as a high 
point in a sclioal education ; and so it would be, were 
boys actually trained to keep hooks, and not, as ia 
the general practice, to do little more than copy ac- 
counts in full form and order. Such, a system is 
practically of Httle use to tha young man, ob a prepa- 
ratory step to entering a, counting-house. No inte- 
rest ia felt as if transacting business or keeping tbo 
accounts; andj with the exception of improving the 
hand in figures, little real knowledge is [i.cquired< 

We never met with a young man who could keep 
a. set of acconnt-booka by being taught in school. 




THE TBAlTfinG BfT8TBM. 

All required to lie trained Iq do the tJiivig^ after leav- 
ing sciiooL 

TliU defect raight easily be cured by causing a do- 
zen or half a dozen boys transact a certain piece of 
biialnesa with each otWr, Let one of the boys be a 
buyer; a second, a seller ; a tbird, a banker; a fourth, 
a ship-owner, or carrier^ A:c. In the first instimcs, 
however, let there simply bo a buyer and a seller. 
Let civdi keep bia own set of books, wiiich miglit con- 
sist of a certain number &f penny paaa-books, repre- 
senting day-book, ledger, invoice-book, purchasing- 
IcdgGT, Gash'book, banking account^book, Ac. &lc. ; 
with bit5 of paper, on "wbicli miglit be written the 
invoice, or money paid, or to be lodged in banlc, in 
one sum, bills of excbaoge, li'c. j and \ci each boy 
keep Ilia own supposed place, and etate big own trans- 
actions in his own aet of books. 

This, or some such practical method, would pre- 
pare young men for connling-lioiise buaincBs, and 
would be training (added to^ or) instead of mere 
teaching^ 



IKlTIATORr DEPAETSIENT. 

We have already stated that the training system pro- 
ceeds OD One principle throughout, in every brancli, 
whether Bible, secular, or what may be termed ele- 
mentary, and is the same for the child of whatever 
age, differing only in details. 

The training system, from its "very name, ought to 
he commencec! early, and we ne'pd not repeat the 
arguments in favour of this position, or the facts that 
support it. In this chapter, we shall hurriedly glance 
at the apparatus and a few of the details, commencing 
with the InitiatDTy department, which is the same in 
principlPj whether the school he for children of three, 
Or five, or seven years of age. 



School Buildekqs. — The schoul-houae, whea prac- 
ticable, ought to be erected in an airy and pleaaa,nt 
aitnatioDj detaehed from other buildings^ also a few 
feet back from the street or road, with a pleasaut 
prospect, 30 as to inipresa the young mind with de- 
light, and AsaOciata with Bchool what is cheerful and 




230 TBE TBIUTINO 9TST£H. 

agreeable. As this, liowevcr, is not always attainable, 
egpccinlly in large manufacturing towna, aDd na this 
Bystem is peculiarly intended as an antidote to the 
exposed coodition of childreo, in such circumstances 
wo muBt he content, nay, rather, we would desire to 
see a school institution, initiatory and juvenile, with 
play-grounds for moral BupenDtendence, in every 
densely -peopled street aad laile, in e^ety town ilk the 
Unilcd Kingdom, as one bright spot ftmidst the snr- 
rounding moral wildemcBS. Gloomy, howeTer, oa 
the external prospect in such cases aometimea may 
be, tha following internal school arrangements ought 
to he etrictly attended to. 

The school hall, or principal room, must he large, 
airy, and well- vent tlaled by means of cross windowB ; 
for if thei reverse, it will prove iojurioua to health, 
and unfit for th<3 clasaiiication and personal frQedom 
which are absolutely requisite in the training of eliiil- 
(feeu.* 

A school of 140 to ISO infants affords $ufB^c;ient 
exercise for nJl the intellectual, physical, and moral 
energies of a man and his wife, or a, brother and sis- 
ter; and when neither of these relatiaushipa can be 
combined, of a man and a junior f&malo assistant. 
Tlie initiatory department ought never to be con- 
ducted without a female assktaat for many and obvious 
reasons. 

Plat-Qboiimd, — A school without a play-ground 
may be one for teaching, hut not for moral training. 



INIIIATOaT DKPAnTMEMT. 



It is not one for training the cAild^ which is the com^ 

uaild in Scripturo, whether nt home, or when parents 
t&ke to tlieir nssiistance tha ficboolmoater. Tho cOiH' 
maad and the praniigg are iaeeparable. Rather hava 
oo inittDtory schoct at all, iliau one without a play- 
ground, where health may he irjiirtHl by cunfinement, 
and moral instruction be presented alone, for moral 
tiaimng. 

ThU 19 the ac«tie of the real life of the child, the 
arena on which his true character and dispoaitiona 
are exhibited; and where, free and unconstrained, he 
can hop and jump about, and swing, or play at tig, 
balli or marbles. The girla and bpya of taste jui^y be 
seen examining the opc^uing flowers planted round the 
borders, but without presuming to disturb their deli- 
cate and downy tendrils ; a few mathematical little 
men anrangQ tht'ir squafea and circles in the sandy 
gravel ; and a. few of "cast peculiar " may he seen 
on the school door Btepa, sitting in abstract reveriop 
The wooden bricks nl&a furnish materials for the skill 
and taste of our junior architects. The amusement 
of building castles, sq^uarea, Ac, with wooden bricks, 
may also be enjoyed in-doorg during wet weather. 
Id the play-grounrl, sometimes a number of children 
build one chiEd (w]io ax;t9 as a volunteer in the sport) 
completely up in the centra of a cU-cle, and when 
roofed in, lie or she bursts forth on a signal previouBly 
agreed upon, flnd demolishea the wliole fnhric, Bmidat 
the huzzas of the assembled multitnde. These bricfca 
are four inebra long, by two inched broad, and li inch 
thick. To those cliildren -who hare n constructive 




232 



tm TRinnifO nstux,' 



pmpenaity, such an eserciae may not be -wUbmit it* 
use in tlieir futui-e occupAticua in lite. It 19 aiuosiBg 
to see liow quickly some children show tlieir hmlding 
propensity^ which the others gradually acknowledge, 
aO'J.'wiLhout any authoritative adjustment on the part 
of the traiuer, one or two will be found building mat- 
ters and a. doz^n acting as lahouters, aadcuateutcd to 
carry t!io bricks. It is licre oa in more advanced Mfe, 
ono leads and several follow,* 

The play-gToiind should be walled round, and the 
middle area levelled, having a very gentle slope, so aa 
to permit the water to Bow off ffeely after a ehower, 
and alao should he laid down with pit or river gravel, 
which binds firmly, and ia cleaner than furnace a5hes.+ 
The side borders may be 3i to 4 feet in breadth, and 
should be of good soil, and planted with Aowem and 
shrubs, the border being skirted with sea pink. Or 
daisies, which grow freely, or rather a wooden rail, 
about three niches high above ground. Against the 
wall small fruit bushes ought to be trained, such ae 
red and black eurraats, and, in the borders, a few 
patches of strawberry plants. 

Ia confined situations, where plants will not readily 
grow, geraniuniSj auriculas, aail other flowers, in 
potg, ought to be introduced, iiowever frequently 
they may require to be ronewedi If we are to train 
children to " look at everything and touch nothing," 



* A small covered sbti. ia tlie plaf-grouad is liigM; VB<iflil 
iluruig wet weflthcr. 

t Wure nspbnJtfi e. little lower in pric-e, wc wouM recommpiid 
it cut Uio luoat desirable, iLt least roaad the ewlngin^ pcil<»i. 



"twitutoky depahtmbnt. 233 

-we TBUat not place tbiugs " out of tUo way," but in 

the way. 

Let every tbmg be "kept neat and clean, and such 
important babits will not be lost in after life ; the 
moral taste may be formed^ wbJch delighta in having 
tlie front of every cottago duor neat and cleaa, and its 
Bides decked out witb the rus^c, the deimttis, n.nd the 
■woodbine ; and similar habits carried out into ths 
crowded lane, would add greatly to ihe bealtli, com- 
fort, and Iiappineaa of the community. Tlie flowcrg 
in the play-ground generate pleasing associations, 
afford many useful lessons^ and assist the trainer oc- 
1 eosionally in elucidntiug Scripture emblems. Flowers 
or fruit coaatantly in sight, and within reach^ exerciee 
the virtues of honesty and self-denial. The principle, 
*' Thou God seest me" cDuplc;d with practical for- 
learance, account! for the interesting fact, that in 
8&verftl of the jitvcnile and infant pky-grounds^ in the 
poorest districts of Glasgow, and other large towns, 
from 100 to ISO children huvs freely enjoyed them- 
Selrea from day to day, and yet currants and straw- 
berries have been permitted to ripen, altliough boih 
have been withtn reach of the youngest child. It is 
rare, indeedj that a flower ia touched, liiit if so, a jury 
trial is afterwards instituted in the school gallery, 
the whole school being jurors, so that the discovery 
of the offenders may prove a kssou to all. 

The pla^-gro7tnd must open direct from t/ie »ehool 
Aallf and in full metofrom the tcindows. 

Ci/A38 EooM,— The use of this room is to enable 
the master to (jxamiDe any cla93 eeparati^Iy, und that^ 



SM 



THB TRAININO BT&TZM. 



the children at mi^-dfiy may take lunoheon in a mors 
orderly nrnnner, aftiT asking a bkssing, and also for 
the childrea hanging their oapa, Lonnets, and clooksv 
in regular order, on oomiDg in or leaving achool, each 
child having his own nail. This hitter arrangement 
may ba adopted, provided the necessary accoramoda- 
tion cannot be afFordod, under the gallery, with a 
tliorough passage. 

The clMa room must be open from the school by 
one door, and also ought to lead into the play-ground 
direct by another.* 

PjcrCB-ES AND Objects — These are useful for Btor- 
ing the mind with facts, and, when pictured out iu 
words, the exercise cultivates the underitandiag. Ob- 
jects and pictures are useful at every atage, but they are 
particularly so with young children. They are valu- 
able in this respect, that the eye ia engaged as wall 
as ths ear. They only present one condition, or 
point of time, yet the picturing out iQ words iafor?^ 
tho understHiuding.f 

A scicill luuseum, consisting of home and foreign 
objects, is highly ugeful. A few niaps pre requisite, 
of suoh countries as Palestine, Pant's travele, EiOgv^ 
land^ Gcotknd, Ireland, Europe, and the World, 

CiHCULAB Swing. — Tliis we may state to be au in- 
dispensable part of a play'ground apparatus j without 
one for the girls, and one for tlio boya, within the 
small space alJotted to & play^gronnd, it would ba 
impossible to amuae 120 or 1^0 children so easilyand 



See Chapter vi. 



t See Chapter x. 




BO well ; besides the hnbite of good order and self- 
dienial wlilth the ejcercbe generates among the chil- 
dren, mark H out ea an eligibk amuaemeni in the 
training of the young. At this exerciise tlie cbildreti 
never weHrj", and ifc is perfectly safe, mucli more bo 
than what is usually termed a swing — we mean two 
ropea £xed at e:tcb end of a seat, and suspended be- 
twoen two posts or trees. One of the chief plesisures 
in tliG! latter, proceeds from a sort of stupefaction, 
caused by the motion. In tlie circular Bwing, how- 
iGver, instead of tha lazy liabit of sitting on a aeat, and 
being swung backward and forward at the will and 
mercy of the on-lookers, each individual is tlie regula- 
tor of his own maTeDient3- 

The poles ought to be sunk into the ground, five 
feet at least, well secured, and distant from each other 
at leaat 33 to 35 feet. The height should be 16 or 
IT feet from tlie ground, and never less than 14 feet, 
the higher t|ie more easy is the motion. Six ropes 
are attached to a circular iron plate, of two feet in 
diameter, at the top of the pole, which, on a strong 
iron pivot,* moves round in a ]jerpendioular cylindri- 
cal hole 11 or 12 inches doi^p, and about two inch&a 
in diameter. It should move easily in the eocket, and 
be Very atrong, and well secured eo as to avoid tbo 
possibiUty of breaking, or coming down. The ropeg 
may be banded with worsted tufts, or iimple knots of 
the rope itaeEf, at every few JDches, to suit the vari- 
ous heights of the children. 




S8S THE TKAWrra fTSTEM. 

Each child having grasped a rop« with both hands, 
nearly as high as he can reacli, tfiey all start at the 
aamo iustaat of tiiacr, and their arms being necessarily 
extended, has the effect of opening the cheat, and al~ 
lowing the lungs to play freely^ As their feet reach, 
the ground, the whole children run aa fast as possible 
round the cjrcfe, and the centrifugal force gradually 
throws them off their feet, UQlil one and all find them- 
selves whirling in the air, to tlieir inexpressible de- 
lighti The motion is continued by one or more of 
the childfeu eftendlug their feet to the gronnd, and 
runuiDg a few steps. Amis, liinbsj and indeed every 
muacle of the body^ are thus exeroiBed. After going 
sereral rounds in one direetion, those engaged should 
stop, change hands, and go round in tlie opposite di- 
rection. Each child being irdependent of the Other, 
may continue or leave off at pleasure. It affords a 
greater variety, and engages a larger number of chil- 
dren in the same fipace, than the old swing ; for al- 
though four or sis children only are swinging at one 
time, on either pole, yet 20 or 30 may, and usuaJIy 
do, fomi a circle round it, singing and counting to tlio 
number 30 or 40 — those engaged must then instantly 
let go the ropes, and make way for others. If the 
children remain in adiool from nine o'clock jL.m., till 
four o'clock r.M., it is well that ffill half of ihs lime 
he spent in the ztncovered school at pla^f. Any ap- 
proach to fatigue ought to be avoided, and, wiih this 
view, let the master or mistress, while they join in 
th&ir sports, carefully i&nf, and not drive. 

Amidst this busy scene, the trainer must be present, 



iJiHTllTOET XTEPAB'rMJiST. 237 

not to clieck, "but to stimulato youtliful gayefcy. All 
15 free as air, and subject only to a moral observation 
of any particular delinf|^uency, tlie roview of wbicli is 
reserved for the school gaJIery, and taken up on the 
children's return there, and plctureil out as a mental 
moral exercise^ 

If tlie master did otherwise, a full deTclopment of 
ohciracter would not take places and while he takes 
no notice at the momeiiit, he neverthdess mai-ks what 
be ^ees amiss. The master and mistress ought con- 
stantly to be in the way when the children are at play; 
but if both cannot, one must be present. A momtor 
OT janitor won't do as a Bulstitute fur the flovereign 
authority of the master, which all ackowkdge, and 
mhoBO condescensinn, in taking a game or awing' with 
them, 13 felt as a kindness and a privilege, and who, 
in consequence, i3 enabled to guida them by a moral, 
rather than by a physical influence.* 

ArithmeticonorBallFiiame. — ^Thia instrument 
19 made to fix on the Bible stand, inasniallslitoTgrooTe 
in the wood, to he moved off, and hung up against 
the wall, at pleasure. In a nursery, it might he of a 
gniiiUer eize on a stand. The frame is oblong,, with 
twelve rows of wooden balls, and twelve balla in each 
row, painted alternately black and white, or black 
and red, ^<* that they may be easily distringiiished when 
moved horizontiiUy iilong tho wires on which they are 
strung. This instrument may assist, but ahould not 



* Sec " Ci'uiidiDotlmr'B First VisiL iff ik« TrainiDg SoJjool." 
A dialogue. Sixth edition. 




S38 



TEB TRAIKTHO ETSTEH. 



superscds tlia putting of orithmeitical questiaas in rg- 
gard to natural objectB, by the trainer. 

Arithmetic, agisted by objects, whether the ball 
frame: or otherwise, may be commenced at a very 
early period, just as soon aa the child can be Tnade la 
underatand that collecting playtliings is addition, and 
Bcattering, suhtrBction. 

SucIj questioQfl as the following may be proposed ; — . 

How many beads are three beads and one bead ? 

If you take one bead from four beads, Low many 
remain ? 

How maQy apples are four apples and one apple ? 

If you tako OQO apple from seven apples, how many 
remain ? 

How many ate five pence and one penny ? &c. &c.* 

Bibi-eStand, — This ig siraply a, neatly turned pillar 
of wood, with double row of ehelvee slightly inclined 
upwards, the top forming a email desk (see Plata), 
and i» placed on the Boor, on a stand in front of the 
gallery, about eight feet distant ', on this Hea the 
large Bible from which the daily lesBuu ia taken. It 
also holds any other sghoo! books requisite for the 
master or mi^trees, besides the email hand beO and 
whistle. A amall slit or groove is made in front of 
it, into which may be placed, wliea required, the ball 
frame, or the black board, or a map of Palestine, or 
of our own or any other couatry. 



• It IB comiTKm for cUiUlren in Itifnut leaching schook ta 

rcppat number up to hundreds of mllllioiis on the ball frame, who 

' yet porfecitly ignor^t of how many are two ilucka and threo 



IJilTJATORV DEPARTMENT- 239 

GfiOMSTfilcAL FiGCREe may betaUglit by means of 
printed sheets, or from the black boEtrd, or the Goai- 
grapl], a small instrvunent, compoBQil of twelro Hat 
steel rods, connectGd by pivots, which, at pleoaufe, 
are formed into all possible geometrical figures from 
a siraiglit line or triangle to an octagon or decagon. 
The furnilitre, piUars, icindawn of the school, ^^c.^ 
ou^kt to he used as illustralions. 

The mere outlines only arc taught in the iniTiffltory 
department, tbo more complex being left till the 
pbilJren enter the juvenile achooh S^enous objections 
are started against the uae of these figurea, hut they 
arise from a want ■of due consideration ; for nothing 
is more easily comprehendf! J by llie youngest children, 
A Tjuowledgo of these teima enabiea tlie child to de- 
scribe (he shape of any object, square, ohlong, round, 
or octagon ; alao the poaition of two or more pieces 
of wood, parallel, perpendicular, or horizontal, alao 
the proper manner of carrying the head, and angling 
the toci, itc, while sitting in the gallery. Direct 
usefulness, or innocent amusement alooc, will warrant 
the introductioik of this, or any other exercise. 

Pegs FOR Caps and Cloaks. — These are placed 
tound the cla^s-room, or under the gallery, in double 
rows; attention to regularity in this department, and 
giving eaeh child his own peg or nail, pfcvcnta quar- 
relling or confusion, In seeking those coTeringg on 
leaving school, and besides the habit of order thus 
aoq^nired, will, without doubt, be seen in future life, 
in the neatness of tbo mecbanic'fl tool box, and the 
tidiness of the housewife's fireside. We do not mean 



B4& TBB TaAUTTKO ftTSTSK. 

that this babit akne will accorapltah such important 
objectB ; at the same tiniDi the varinus plans of order 
pursii&d in traioing schools will (and we hava inuu- 
meraUe proofs) greatly firoinote them. 

Small "Whistle ano Hand-Bbll. — ^Tlieae simple 
apparatus are greatly more imp&rtant tlian moat 
persons are apt to imagine ; they promoto the most 
iiDportaitt hahit of the school, viz., cbediencs. In no 
other way can instant chedience be obtained in school 
60 easily^ as by a touch of the bell or a blast of the 
ivory whistle ; and in no other way can oiie hundred 
and fifty or two hundred children, at their various 
Bports, be called in from a play-groimdj within the 
short space of fifty or sixty seconds ; we would, there- 
fore, recommefld every trainer to use bofch^ during the 
progress of the school exercises. 

Obedience. — Thejirst lesson enforced in a training 
school w obedience .- or rather, every cxcrcisie, physi- 
cal, intellectual, or morjil, ig go conducted, that instant 
obedience \s essential to it, and this equally in the 
inkUectuaJ, as in the mora! department of the system. 

The tme method of fcraining to the habit of obe- 
dieneu, is just to mak^e the child do the very thing 
which he may have omitted, forgotten, or refused to do. 

A parent or gehoolma&ter may adopt a very eimple 
method of Ir^vining children to obedience, and of 
fftrengthening their perceptive powers, by requiring 
of them a clear description of any occurrence. For 
example, make a child walk frocn his seat a short 
space, then order Lim to run — to eit down — to run 
a.gain from one seat to another — to walk out of tho 



INITIArOBY DEPARTMENT. 



£41 



room — to walk or run in again — tn sit oti liia funiitT 
sent, or aay other to which he may be ordered. After 
whidij require him, or soniQ other child, or several 
children alternately^ audibly lo state in distinct lan- 
gaage, every particular movement the child ha^made, 
and in exact succession. Tliia may be vavi«d many 
waya. Closely allied to the principle of obodieEce, is 
giving a direct anateer to eeary quetiion. The fol- 
lowing iaa sentimeiit inculcated in school, which ellip- 
ticiilty tho children are left audihlp to fill up. Wo 
should always do what we are ... hid. Children 
should do ,., what they are lid. 

CI.EANLISE86.' — This is an essentia! part of phy- 
sical training ; it forma an occasional exercise in the 
morning, when every child is inapectod by the master 
or mistress. 

Whatever may be the habits of the family at home, 
all should, and do actually appear cleao at school. 
Strange to say, some parents give it as an excuse for 
not sending tlicir children to school, that ihey are 
obliged to k'Gop them bd neat and clean ! 

CJeanlineas, order, and obedience, are not merely 
important parts of the system, hut diatmguish it even 
to the most caBual observer. 

Somo children are naturally more filthy in their 
habits than othera j all such tendencies, however, may 
be cheeked, and in n great measure gubdued, at the 
early age of Iwo^ ihr&s, or four yean, while they cnn 
soldom be so nt the latej: ages of eight, ten, or twelve. 
How much less bo in malurer years ! In every school 
eleanlinc33 ought to be held as " next to godliness.", 
4 





242 



THE TBAISINQ 8TETEM, 



Cloeets. — For arrangements, see Appendix. 

VoCAi. Mpsic.^ — Music is knownto poaa&sa a, power- 
ful influeocs oyer the afibctious, and ereu (Le memory. 
Bhymes, moral aongg, hymns, and psalms^ tlierefote, 
form an important part of each day's esercistsa; and, 
Ets these are generally adapted to the lesson imme- 
diEitely under consitleration, they stamp the iitipreaBioo 
more deeply ou the thongMs and feelings; and, from 
what we have learned regarding those children who 
haro long left school, we believe the essence of such 
rhymes will never be forgotten. 

It is a fact, that nearly every child learns to sing. 
No one, we believe, la entirely destitute of the na.tiiral 
power, and the frequent esorcise of it in the initiatory 
d@p<Lrtmcnt ; — the variety and the sodlal and plea' 
surabld feelings it engenders, certainly call up in 
almost all, a taste for musio. Music tends to refine 
and humftDize the pupils, whether in the infant or 
juvenile department, and we ara surprised that this 
powerful instrument for good fas tcell as/or evil J lias 
been permitted so long to lie unused in pnhlie schools. 

Singing is a necessary qualification In an initiatory 
schoolmaster; but if he cannot sing^ then his wlfe^ or 
other female assistant, must. An initiatory training 
school without music would be a complete failure.* 

Prater.— Tlie sehool is daily opened and closed 
with prayer and singing a hymn. The master's prayer 
ought to be slowly and distinctly expressed, short, 
simple, and impressite, and he ought not lo use a 
single expression which is beyond tho comprehension 
■ Sco page 1G3. 



of his pnpiU i and should the cTiildren afterwards re- 
peat the Lord's prayer^ whiab it is well they lie 
trained to do, care abouM be taken that it bo distinctly, 
simply, and thoroughly understood, by haviag it pic- 
tured out, according to tlie sjatem ; and also that tliey 
Le made, aa much ag possible, to feel its importance. 

Standing with eyes abut will naturally appear a 
more suitable posture ia Iho gallery, and they may be 
trained to rise up and ait down simultanetmaly, nearly 
as if a aolid mass. The usual physical exercises being 
gone through, and their attention secured by tlie 
motion of the hand, before prayer, or at any other 
time, tbe whole may be trained to move quiekly and 
in perfect silence, thus rendering the exereiae aa ap^ 
plieable to a Sabbiith aa a week-day schooL 

Emulation, Taking PlaceAj akd Prizes.*. — It is 
almoat unnecesaiiry to mention that, in infant training 
achoots, taking places, or tlio URual meana whereby 
dull Or Selfish children are atunukted to exertioD, are 
of little use. Under this ayetem such stimulants are 
comparatively unneceaaary, or if, ia any case, they 
prove useful, this is mora than counterbalanoed by 
the envy and j&alousy which they engender. Give 
the children plerity of fun, lively and cheerful exer- 
cise, and full Occupation^ and without presuming to 
condemn all otb^r atlmulantfi, a amile or a frown from 
tho master ao much beloved, because ao touch the cMl- 
dren'aconipamon and friend, will accomplish that, which 
many, nay almost all other means, will fail of doing. 




S44 -rai TR&XlttHO BtffTEM. 

Tlis Bible, and secuEnr, aad otiier gallery lesBona, 
jkre conducted in their great oullinea oa tlia principles 
ttlreELdy kid dawn, and according to the simple ar^ 

rangeTnents of the echcol lessons,* 

Chilbbeu's DisEAHEa The only oltj&ct in intro- 

ducidg thia :subject is, to suggest the guarding against 
infection, by using proper precautions. CliildrBii 
under eix or seven years of age, it ia well known^ aro 
subject to diseases more peculiar to timt age, such 
aa meoslL'S and hooping- coLtgh, and the mOmeTit the 
symptoms of either appear in any one, that child 
ought to be sent home to his parents. The sjTnp- 
totna of mcaftlea may easily be guessed at, or 
ascertained by the particular appearance of the eyee, 
eickuegs, ^o.^ and that of the hooping-cough by the 
hoop itself. Care ought to be taken to prevent the 
^read of such diseases, and when this duty i» attended 
to by the schoolmaster, an airy school-room, and com- 
raodioua play-ground, diminish rather Lhafl propagate 
children's diseaaes. A confined school-room without 
play-ground, as ia commonly the case for children of 
all ages, ts aure lo propagate, if not generate disease. 

Chdeltz to AisisfALS. — It ia of great importance 
that the children form a right notioa of their duty to 
the infenor animals; why we ought to protect and 
be tender towards some, and why we may destroy 
others. 

Respokses. — This exercise is gone through when 
the children are seated in ihe gallery, and ia done in 



See CliftL^I:£rs xiv. &nd kt. 



INITIATOSr DEFAIfnkmNT. 



245 



By two boys 



girU 



sevBraT wa_ 

and a girl questioning each other in preaeace fiou 
witliin hearing of the 'wliole acliolora, or one child 
stauding a few feet in front of the gallery, and being 
q^ueationed in succession by any child who chooses. 
The master himself eomotimes stanirtg in front of the 
gallery^ and permits any of tha children to ask him 
queatioaa. The subjects are various. The natural 
hiatory of amniids, or of an animal. The quality or 
uses of an object. A Bible story. Life of Christ, 
or Mose?, Joseph, Daniel, Balaam, Nnnh, Paul, 
Timothy, or Samuel, Sina recorded in Scripture, 
Graces racorded in Scripture. It forms in the juve- 
nile, as well as in the initiatory sc^hool) an intereBtiDg 
and improving exerciae, and forms a revisal of what 
the children already know, It is not, however, a 
training lessson. 

The minuteneas of the (Questions put, mngt, of 
courae, depend upon the ago of the children. Cor- 
rectnett in no cobs, how>sTor, ought to be dispensed 
with ; at the s-nne time, the wordj^ used must be the 
children's own — no set form of ansvrera. 

PnAOTiCAi. Gbammah, — The master may ask all, 
or each child in rotation, what they would wish to 
have, provided they went to a toy-shop "i One will 
say a top ; a second, a whip; a third, a hah^ Juil / 
3. fourth, a pun. Now, then, the mneter will say, 
the names top — whip — doll^ — W^^^ ^'^ called nouns. 
The name of a thing is a ... 7tounj but the hoy who 
chose the top^ or whip, might say, I want a lar^e top 
or a lotiff whip ; tar^e ebows the kind of topj and 



246 



THE niAIMlKO BVSTEH. 



tlierefore is an adjec^tive, aud long also is an adjective. 
Nowj both these worda are adjectives, because they 
tell or denote the kmd of top and ... ivkip which }^qu 
,,, want. If you had said you wanted a short whip, 
or a email top, which would have been th& adjisctives ? 
The children maj, perhaps, not eveu yet ba prepared 
to answer, and, therefor&j the master will ellipticaUjT 
say, short is .,. the mljec-iive, meaning a short ... lehipf 
and small is the ,,. adjectivs^ meaning a ... small top. 
Thus, the older or more advanced children may be 
taught the articles A and The, and also the verb, sneh 
a9 Eobert tpin? hia top, ic, &e., evEij atop beiqg 
slowly, snrely, and pleasantly taken. 

Toe Ma£tgb. — 'The Infant trainer, in order to be 
able to mould the children's habits, and infuBe correct 
infonnation, must not merely be a highly moral and 
sensible man, hut he must poaaeas literary, religious, 
and aojentific knowledge, greatly beyond what he re- 
quires to comwunicate^ To communicate even the 
eorrsct outlines of a Buhject, as is the principle of the 
aystem with all beginnerg, and more especially with 
infants, requirea the utmost tact, and the most delicate 
management. Few pertona rise to high in practical 
knowledge as to he able to irm7i infants properly. 
The delicato portrait pencil ought to be applied, Dot 
the hard brush of the common painter. 

PnrsicAL Esercises. — Sea page 154. 

Bible asp Secular TsAiNiyy Le33ok5. — -Onoeacb 
is conducted daily in the gallery, according to the 
order ; seo Chapters xiv. and xv. 

If the Preside and its hmited, yet fond sympathies, 



enable the parents to train their children, as weliave 
already said, more especially for tlie dntiea of dome&tie 
life, so tlie school gallety, with its exiendifld sympathy 
of numhers, eoables the master more especiallj' tnfit 
the cliilil for tlie duties of civil nnd social life. The 
fireside training jg incomplete, without sclioal train- 
ing; each assists the other, atid neithor can bs dis- 
pensed with in the training of the cfdUl as a. whole, 
from the earliest to the latest period of Lis education. 
Teaching is not training tlie cliild^ neither is tTaining 
the head, training the eliild^ (let the eyatem pursued 
be as improved as it may). The child may know 
what ig right, and do what is wrong. He ia not 
under BQOral training unless he be acquiring the habit 
of moral do'ing^ any more thaii lie ia under iniclkctual 
or piiysioal training, unless he intellectoally or physi- 
cally does the thing. Moral training ia moral doing-, 
just ns intellectual (raining is intellectual doing. The 
gallery is indispensable to moral training, and it 
greatly assists the intellectuaL training, arising frt>m 
the tympaihi/ of nicmlers.* In it the children get a 
knowledge of morality, hut it is in the play^grmind 
where they caa be seen and stimulate^d to practise it. 
Calcidatlnff men by nature, and nieo compelled to 
calculate clossiy from want of means, may, and We 
know do, say, *'guch a system of school tmining, 
especially for injants^ will not P4t." "We admit this 
to the full. There ia no demand for moral training 
on the aide of the poor, and if the wealthy and en- 
lightened classes of the community do not proride 



^ 



See tumicr Ch«|)tera. 



2ie 



THH TIUIMI^a STSTEH. 



such meana for its cultivation, as, by ihe bli?ssing of 
Got], will gradualiy creato a, Jemand, it b foil)' in the 
extreme to expect tliiit money will ha paid for that 
to which they attacli no value, Tliere is no altema. 
tive. Training schoole, initiatory and juvenile, on 
CArietian principles, must be pro\'iJeJ fur the whole 
youthful population of our towns, else they will con- 
tinue to bink in morfil dfgradalion. Let ev«ry nieana, 
likely to proraoto and extend the moral and spiritual 
iuiprovcnient of tha advanced in life, ho provided. 
Our hopea chiefly rest wiih the young, in regard to 
whom the peculiar " promises " are given. 



KEY TO THE PIRST SPELLING-BOOK. 



AUhongh, under the training system, books are not 
placed in the hands of the children under aix yeara of 
nge, yet the lessons of the first elementa.ry book are 
used in tlie claaeea of the initiatory department, being 
painted in large characlera in sheets, and pasted on 
boards, as an introducLlun to the art of reading ; thua 
preserving n uniformity in tlie ra&da of communicat- 
ing knowledge in that department. The first Bpell- 
ing lessons, therefore, are used at tlia close of (he 
infitnt department, and the commencement of the 
juvenile. lu the former case, in fheeta on hoards ; 
and tu the latter, aa a book, placed in the hands of 
every ^hild. 

Those chi!di'en, of six to eight yoars of ago, who 
ler tbQ Junior School, snd who bave cot undergone 



ISITIATOBT DEFAHTMENT, 



2-19 



the training of the Initiatory Sclkool, in addiiiun to 
the leaaonafrora Spelling- Boolis, No. I., &c,, raustlno 
daily exerciaccl in tho eame simple and natural mode 
of picturing out in words, :ls is pureued wllh infa-nts 
tif twD to five or six years of age; in other ■words, 
the child of eis to eiglit years of age mutl le com- 
menced ifiifA preciselif in the aame mode as the child 
of lico io four*. No JuVbttile School, lioweferj can 
succeed so well witli children whu have not bucu 
previously trained in infancy, and whose phyaioal, 
inCellectunI, and moral powers have lain waste till 
that period. 

It is desirable, even in a First Book, compoaed as 
it ought to be of monosyllables, that every sentence 
should convey a distinut meaning, which may bo 
easily pictured out and illustrated ; a Uttla sacrifice is 
made, however, for the aake of sounds This boolt is 
constructed upon the principle, tbat the children 
ahould not be pulled «*ith new souuds in wSiichthey 
have not been previously exercised. TVe would not 
stop to analyze every word or sentiment in a Firat 
Book ; at the aame titne via would employ none, 
which, when analysed, would leave any improper 
impression on the young luiud. 

In describing the form of tho letters, as well as in 
analyzing words and sentences, take to your assistance 
objects and pictiirea; avail yourselves of these in 
evory atage of the chdd's prygresg, cind wli«n these 
fail, as friil they must, seeing ttiiit pictures can only 
present one atate or condition, then picturB out in 
words ibg idea which you wiah ta convey. 



sso 



TOE IIU.IXI>a SISTBU. 



Do not forget to artLculate anil eDUHciate everj' 
Bj'llable alowly, clearly, and fully, and suit your action 
and modulation of voice to the words, while drawing 
out and training the minds of the children. NeTer 
forget that physical esercises must be given al short 
interTal&j dnring the progress of the shortest lesson ; 
more partieu/ar!j/ with the younger cliildren; if not,. 
ths ti^mt will accumulate and break aut into mischief. 
The natural buoyancy of youthful health and energy 
oiUght to he directed, not merely reatrained. 

LsasGN I. — The powcro of tho letterG ought to bo given Liefore 
their names. TEuu is now becoming a general practice under &U 
improV'Sd systems of education. It \s caarc raMona.) to tht mind 
of A cliHd that certain flgares, prcfteBted ta his eye on a, book or 
board, Ehould hAre budjAc sounda. And that ho should \)q aftcr- 
wardfl told that each of those sounds, roprcseatcU by the particu- 
lar figure, has a name, than to give the name first, without the 
power or aound, and then compel him to apell a Trord, and utter 
sounds he had not hoon trained to exprws. For example, the 
word WHAT will be spelt by the child, who has Uariiid t Jiie powers 
of the letters, aJmoat instinetively, anrl the motion of the mouth 
at tach letter leads him tt> pronounce the word properly ; but 
the iiamea of the letters double uu, nitch, ayj tee, afford no key 
whatever to the Houjid of tbe word what. 

The arrangement of the letters in Ltaaon I. ia intended for 
refePeiiCG. The eliiJdreci are supposed to have aciiuired a know- 
ledge of the geometrical figures prefixed to tTii» l«awn> In g^T- 
ing Le&iwn 11. on the pUm next to be explained, the attention 
of the child will be collod to the forms of the letters, as composed 
of one or more of these geometrleal figures, and the power aaao- 
cJB.ted with tLe form, by preBenting them Hitnultaneouily to the 
Hiind. 



WH n.— The trainer ought to Bound a few lefctcre to the 
scholar on entering sclio^jl, showing the child that the 
lipS) palate, gunu, M., ai^ Qeo^fleary to the fonn&tion uf 



TjnTTJTOTlT PJTIRTMEPST. 



Ul 



ftouud ; b, p, fthoTT A different pressuie of th* lipa ; § clearly 
nliowe the teetti — auil lliia bltcr is calli^d it duatal. The mAD 
who pulla teetb, and acts trath, is 'Calk-d ... adentiat; ulctLttd. 
then, is aomctliing bclon^ng to ... tsslh. 

In coinmonclng LftMon II. the trainer may prwoecd in tluB 
w»y; C'liLldre]], look at me ; sit upright, Btraight ... up ; dr&w 
in ymir fr*t ; heels ... eloa ; tut*, ... mtt : liiind» on ... haea. 

Ob»rve what I print oti tL« hoAtd (Uakiog the letter h). 
Then puLting lib mouth into thn ^(^^n for prosouucing it. ha 
give« th«ponin- of th,u Mt«r. Tha diikU'eii must Imitate the 
bound tnice or thrive, and then print it on theic alatca ; or, if 
infiints, place the letter, pMted on wood, in « frame opiiositB 
theclnsa. The tmuer will then print the vow el a succcfaivcly, 
*lid gi¥* th*ir tuOst comnlotl power. lie filaj* then rcn^uire th^ 
child Ig imitale liim in placing each rowel alternately before and 
Kfter b. l[i thia vc&y hg vUl tre&t In auccesaioD each ktter in 
Leaaon II. 

The siirae phm ia pniBoed wiili the oth^BTH, the procesa lj«:om< 
ing ftlwnyB more easy and more rapid. 







L 


Ksaoif 


III. 




B 


e 






9 


so 


1 









1^3 


1« 


9 









h— o 


no 


ll 









h— o 


ho 


e 









B— 


go 



Ench letter that occuts for the drat tixne must be prhited on 
[the black board, snd pronounced fij-at by t lie master or trainer, 
and then by the children simulCiincuiuly, and, uccABivuaDy, indi- 
vidually, na n«ll aa printed nn their (dates. 

Tiiq trainer callg gpou the obildi*oii to QbHerve the form of his 
mouth, while ho soueiIs e o slowly and Keparn.t4.-ly, whieh they 
repent twice or tlirice ; then t — o a. little mora rapidly, and then 
80. Tliia lout being a word having a meaning, and which may 
be pietuTFd out hy one or more familjir il1mtratiDn«. 

The most (imple and ordinary sound of the vowela aJone is 



£52 



THE TBAINTTJI SYSTEJI, 



gifen at first aad firmly rooted in their memory, ae Ulaatratotl 
in the iui^cci'ditig leflMns. 

It mittti^riiLtly ns^Ute t'he Bcholar ttat hf ia rcnuirod to picture 
out, by dcscrifitJOTl find visJWo action, muip of the oxprvsaioik? 

tliMJ. occur in the orillnary readiniL' IcsSOnB, SUrh SB, ise ffO. Wbtt 

]s mennt by, vjc ffo i What tuutiofi do yo-u iniika i Vou ilo not 
... tii or ... (fond when yuu go, Tho child shows how he g*** 
fay walking, probably : but the tisiner may oak, I)n you alnKy^ 
walk wlion yau go ^ Tlie answer will moat likdy be, Yss, The 
trainer. howL'Ter, will not tell tht' eliild his error, but ffrt'nijiicni* 
tigat h£ k wrong ; nnd for tliis purpose mny put oac or two ([uh- 
tions. Were I lo sftyi I ga to Piuia immedialdy, would I walk' 
the whole *fly ! CouM I say, /<?o,wheii, periiapfi, I might ride 
in a coach, or on horBoback, part of the way. anil sail the rcsti in 
■. alilp ? You IhuB train them to undcrstanil, tliat to ^o ia not 
simply to walk, Tbo child aita too pasaiTely when lis doe* not 
mi up dld ncciiaioruil clliptils, acLd his micid is too mucli cmi tlio 
dcfonsiv^ by the m^ro cju^atioa and answer syeleoi. The whole 
proueaB la better conducted on the gallery pnnpiple— with & dozen 
or twenty cbildrun than with one or two, 

Thia nimplc and progressive modo maybe adopted with be^- 
noni, whether of three, five, or aercD years of ago ; the great 
priitciple being ever kept in viewj that (ftff vmAersio.'adviig of the 
nieaninff ih-ould precede the ewi.nattcil of luords to the verbcd 
memory. Unless this ho dene, the child has the reeling of one 
walking in tho darlc, and the labour of contnilting t* memory 
IB rendered extremely trhsoate. Th* nry uBine ef the bwk In 
which tho child t& taught may remain a mj^tcry. We were 
lately informed by a learned ^ntlemnn, that he had i'sft tho 
IiarocliLal school tlire* or four yeara before h-c knew, mid waa 
nstonijdied when he discovered, that tho nome of the siwlHng- 
book, which he had b«!n ae<iLatomed t« call ReadietnC'deez^, 
was actniiJly Jieadinff-vwde-tai;/- 

Jd the Iiiitiatory department we do not proceed much further 
than the first SpQlling-boolE, or Btotlos composed of uonosyUftble^, 
prirted OB boards. 



CHAP. XIX. 



jnVBNILB DEFABTMEKT. 



The Initiatory Department is for children of two or 
three to six years of age, nod tihs JnTeiiilo for iliasG 
of ail to fomrteen. Thi3 latter ia again divided intu 
Jtinkor and Senior divisions ; tlie former for cliildren 
of six to eight or Dioe years of a,ge, and the latter for 
those i>f nine yeare aad upwarda. Girls arc not ad- 
mitted into the School of Industry, as TL^giilar pupils, 
until about ten yeara of age, aa wb eliall notice in its 
proper place. Tltia is tlic an'ongcmerit in the Normal 
Training Seminnry, as one step in the progresg 4>f 
dagaificatiou, altliough in parochial and private eetab- 
]i3hmc-nts, the JuvcniJe Training Schools hitlierlo 
Lave embraced children of from aix to fourt^n years 
of aga. 

Many persona euperintend a school of lOfi children 
of all agtifi, from five ta fifteen y&nrs, eometimes with 
only one untroincdi assistant, and sometimes oven 
alone. All such schools, cvoii wiih tho aaaiatnince of 
monitors, must bo more imperfe^ct than where there 
ia a proper claseilicatior, and masters to each depart- 
ment, who can /rain, rather than monitors, who can 
only teach facte. 

The auhdivisioik wc propose in the Juvenile School, 



251 THE TRAIHING BY9TE»f. 

Qltliougli not perfect, ia perhaps tte nearest that can 
he fijUowed out in the present starved state of educa- 
tion, Ignorance of the public mind Aa to what real 
education ia, the limited altetitlaiice of children geoG- 
rally, and the prejudice of parents in faTour of mere 
reading, or the sound of words without the uader- 
atanditig of theiu. 

A mnn and his wife can as eaaily train 140 to 100 
children in the Infant Departmient, as one master and 
an assistant (both trained) can train 60 or 1 DO in the 
Juvenile j — for this reason, that in the lafant De- 
partment the exerciaei are nearly all Bimultaneous, 
whereas in the Juycnile, there are not merely the 
auperinteudencQ in the play-ground of childreD very 
dififiimilar in age, the Bible and secular gallery lesgoQS, 
to children varying id age and attainments, at the 
least six or seven years, bat there are all thoso ele- 
mentary branches of writing, arithmetic, graramar, 
geography, science, &c., which require claaaification j 
and although the same training principlES are followed 
out with all the classes, yet if the pupils are to ad- 
vance progressively, there must he aubdiviaions In 
several of the branches in a Juvenile School of 80 or 
lOO scholars. 

Each department, then, ought not t<3 have more 
than 80 or J 00 children present at any one time, with 
first and eecond maetere, and both previously trained. 

All that we have noticed under the head Isitia- 
TORI Department, as to the mode of training in the 

ly-gToundand the gallery, equally applies to the 

penile Department, They are parts of the same 



JBTEHTLH DEPABTMEST, 

system, varying id one particular, tbat from the day 
the child is plaoetj io the JuveniJe Department, a 
spelling or reading book is put in his hands (which 
ia carefully escluded from the infants, for reasons al- 
ready aligned), he continwing to breathe the same 
morfd atnioephere, in-doors and out of doors, tUrougli- 
otit the whale course of his education, and not, as he 
must in general do at present, if he has not paa&^d 
through the Initiatory Departmeutj catering a Jtive- 
iLile Truning School with misd uncultivated, and 
rnde habits, like a garden ovprgi-own with weeds, 
which must be rooted out or subdued, ere a particle 
of good seed can enter the ground. On the other 
hand, should some benevolent lady have Bet up an 
Infant Training SchtKil^ wliers the weeds of nature 
havo been carefully rooted out aa they sprung up ; 
ajid liberty, and joy, and healthful ejterciaa bave been 
granted to the child in the infancy of its days — no 
Juvenile Training School being in the neighhourhood 
of the beloved Initiatory Seminary, they must go to 
a teaching school without the fresh air of the play- 
ground, or the liberty and ennobling exercises of tho 
gallery. Plod over his book ho must ; and kind as 
the teacher may be to all^ the child feels tha Bcbool 
to he a prison, and an unpleasant restraint. And the 
teacher of the school is apt to affirm (wo believe v^ith 
great truth), that " ihe c/iildren from, tke InUiatory 
Training Scltool are the laosl restless of all kit pupils.'^ 
This ig precisely what might be expected, until their 
bodily and mental energies become inured to the re- 
straints under whicb they have been placed. 



2m 



TMB TEA INITIO STBTEM. 



Ttio Juvenile Department is ingufficient without 
the previous traiiitiig of tl>e Initiatory, and tliic Juve- 
nile ecliolar cannot continue liia training, unlcst loth 
dfpaTtmeiils he conducted ow the game gi/stein. 

Before particuliirizLng the requisite apparatus, we 
remark, tliat a diftoMnt course must be followcil with 
tlioac cliildreu who have attended the Initiutory De- 
partment from those who have not. In the one case 
it ie only adding a succoseion of linke to the uhain of 
good habits already begun ; where^e, in the other 
cose, a new course must he entered on, and bad habits 
already formed, which stand aa a barrier to the for- 
mation of good ones, must be overcome. The traia- 
ing in a Juvenile School, w ithout the previous cuUiva 
tioDj wilt thus exhibit less efficiency for a considerable 
period of time. Under a prudent and vigorous mas- 
ter, however^ much will be overcome, more especially 
if the school consiati of one-hmlf or even a fourth of 
trained infant school children. The poworof imitation 
and social sympatliy, added to the master's exertions, 
will, to a gri?at extent, overcome these diflieuldeS' 

School-Room. — The school-room ought to be the 
same in size as the ono for infants. Particulars ■will 
be found in the phms in the Appendix. The gallery 
differs only in the height and breadth (if the steps. 
A few of the pictures in Natural lIiBiory are the 
eame, although many are added, The circular swings 
find other out door arrangeraentB are the samie, 

The maps, and pictures of ohjecta, are hung round 
the walls in donblo rowa ; above these are placed n 
few Scripture texts, in large characters^ such as, — 



" Ftiiir God" — " Love one another" — " Honour thy 
Fatlier and Mother" — Lying lips are an abomination," 
Sec. 

Class-Room. — This room, which should open 
from the school- room, is used hy the master for qxh- 
ininiDg each oLias eeparately. Each class moves frum 
the class-room into the play-ground wiiliout return- 
ing into the school, which would disturb the other 
classes. The play-ground, tlierefore, must lu entered 
direct from the claas-roono, as well as &oni the achoot- 
room. 

The clas3.roora, or the epnco Tinder the gallery, 
tna,y also be used for haugiag hats and cloaks, as in 
the Initiatory Department. The habit of order is 
promoted by this and similar Jirxang^'inonts. With 
some individuala order is natural, but with most per- 
sons it needs to be acr^uired. TVhat a sad drilling do 
some apprentices require from not having been trained 
to habita of order in early life ; and to the same cause 
may be traced tha untidy slovenly dress, and often- 
times confused household, of untrained fooialce. 

Gallery. — See Chapt&r VI., and Appendix, 

Sl.\tes are used in the gallory from the time a, 
child enters the Juvenile school ; he may he taught 
to form hnes, the letters of the alphabet, and outlini^s 
of ohjects ; in the more advanced classes, the whole, 
or any part of the class, when seated, may T,vrite 
down on their slates the root, eopstmction, or mean- 
ing of any word, or the answer to some f^uestions 
verbally given by tlie master, or chalked on the dc- 
monatmtion hoard, nr the ohler classes may be called 




SfiS 



THE TRAINING SYSTEU. 



Upon to eiprcfls their ideas on the slate, in single sen- 
tences. 

The slate is an escoUcnt preparative for the more 
correct art of writing upon paper. It may he sus- 
pended by H piece of tape at thd left side; and for 
durubility os well as safety to the children^ those 
framed with a najtow ronuded wooden edge are to 
be preferred, or they may be placed as in the Model 
Sehoob of the Seminary in slips or grooree id the 
writing desks. 

Demokstuation or Black Board. — The variety 
of uaea to which this iflstrument may be pvit^ wliether 
in reference to objects or geometrical liaes, words, 
seDteftcea, or caleulations, are qiiito familiar to every 
intelligent master of a school: and we notice it not 
merely as being part of tho requisite apparatus, but 
as being pecuUarly valuable to a large school when the 
ehildren are seated in the gallery with slates in their 
hands, enabling the whole or one-half of the mimber 
to receive a leaaon at one time. 

O&JECTa andPiotdbes of Objects. — It iaunder- 
etoodf if the children hare attended the Initiatory 
ilepartment, that they will have been mado aeij^uaiiited 
with the outlines of the natural history of animttls, 
nnd other objects, assisted by pictures, and, there- 
fore, their attention may now bo mora particnlarly 
dit^ctsd to the elnsaitication, &c., of the various spe- 
cies. The object or picture, liowever, ought to bo 
presented to the eye aa frequently as passible in con- 
ducting a lesson, (Seepage ]50.) 

Whistle and Sbtall Hard-Bell, — These, like 



JUVBHIIE DEPASTUENT. 



259 



I 



the pegs, Sic, in tlic class-room, lead to Order, and — 
as already stated uoder the head luitiatory Depart- 
meut^-^nltliougli apparently insigai&cant parts of tho 
appa.rittus, y&t ihei/ flr4 potcer/ul in their rcsidta^ 
(tlie whistle, upon tlie whole, is more handy and 
ready for use,) and are the mare necessary in the 
Javeikila School from tfio csuberance of the animal 
spirits of nida, uiitraiaed youths, from tinio to tiine 
received into the school, and not yet softeued by tli« 
genial moral atuiosphere into which they have just 
entti^red. 

Bible Tbaineno Lesson. — Every mornuig preeed- 
ed by hymu and prayer j see chapter XlV. 

Secular Gallehv Lesson oh Elements dp Sci- 
ence ; SOB chapter XV. 

Mode of TiiAii^iNCi the Chixdhen to Hise up and 
Sit down Simultaneodslt in the Gallekv ; see 
page 15 9j uiidur the head Physical Esercises. 

Musjc." — The singing of rhyrucs, psallLS, ElJld 
hymns, ii introduced, the latter at opening and clos- 
ing the achool, and the former at movementa of the 
different ulassea. Voeal uiuaic, till lately, has been 
almost ontirely neglected in week-day elementary 
sohoota. Yet the practiee ia of great importance, in 
several points of view, alternately enlivening and so- 
lemnizing the mind, awakening kindly aflections, and 
early hahittiating youth to this important part of thu 
worship of God. Accompanying every movement in 
school, and into the play-ground, with singing eomo 



" Seo pajje IS3. 



260 THE nUiyilTC BTsTEir. 

moral song to a cheerful air^ Kflds much to theliappt- 
neaa of the cliildren, as weU M to thcii babita of order 
and obedience. 

Physical EsEncisEs* in-ctoon and in the play- 
groTind, are in use in thia as in tlie initiatory depart- 
ment,' varying, however childlike, although less 
ehildiWi aa the children advance in years. Ahuost 
BTery student or trainer is apt to give too few phy- 
sical exerciser durinff the conduct of s lesion. 

PaiZES, Places, asd PcNrsKMENra ; see chapter 

xin. 

Obgolence. — Under this head we reraar^t ^^^t the 
habit of instant ohediencCy acquired under prevjoiis 
traiaing, will easily bo continncd in the juvenile 
school. If not previously acc[uired, then it touat be 
strictly enforced here. The exercise of this principle 
hoa at tlie foundation of all right training, and closely 
allied to it ia that of giving a direct answer to every 
queetioC. 

THEPL4T-CllotrKD.+ — Thfeiathe uncovered schoal- 
roovt, and \a an indiapenaablapart of ti juvenile trciiu- 
ing school ; for, indepecdently of its salutary influence 
upon the children's health, bodily and nrenlally, it is 
here their true character is best developed, and 
the eshihitions given, by which their moral habits 
can be beat formed. For size, shapa, Sta.^ see Ap>- 
pendix. The whole principle in the juvenile play- 
gtonnd, aa regards superintendence, &c., is the satne 
48 in th« initiatory^ and the more ctotsli/ it is folloit?- 



See page 154. 



) See cLapter VI, 



JTTTeHILB DEFiJtTlIENT. 



261 



e^J, the wore i^ioivu^/i tcUt he its ^cietic^; tlie cliief 
difference lies in the amount of time to be spent in the 
pla J- ground, it being evident that, in it, infants ought 
to spend a larger proportion of the day than j uvtiiiles. 
The scholars are allowod nearly lia.l£ an hour id the 
play-f^oiind in the morning, before the nsurtl time of 
commBncing the in-door exercises ; again, neatly one 
hour at mid-day,' and also during each hour thoy ore 
ftUdWied ten minutes to play; say five minutea before, 
and the same after each hour. Thl^ liouily relief 19 
found to be no loss of time, aa it inrigorates, animates, 
KLdi permits tJis simm^ which may have accumulated, 
io escape^ not in furious mischief, but in innocent and 
joyous amua&ment. 

Flower Bosdebs. — These ought to bo at least 
throe or fimr feet broad, all round, or on three sides 
of the play-ground. 

Cmcui,A.R Swings, — These are two in nmnber, one 
for each sex, who never tire of this exercise.l 

Wateh Closets, etc, — The arrangement of these 
is UB in the initiatory department, and the training is 
particularly valuable at this early period of life. 

Cleanliness out op aMj in-doors. — Tha strict- 
egt attention ought to be paid to cleanliness in ihe ju- 
venile as well as in the initiatory department; and a 
lesflon should be drawn from the caae of any grossly 

* The nifister, of coiirBfi, nmat alao take sumiirffn-slinieiit, 
for B very few minutes. li' Jic livM on tbo preiniKPa and tan ae* 
the ffiiiJdren at play, sii far weU ; hut if at a Jlstnnce, liowever 
short, then sncli refrcslimeat guglit to bo taken in the cksa- 
fgOJn. from the winJciw of wliidi ho lias the play-groimd JnTicw. 

t See Icituilorj Duporttoont, pbgc 231. 




THE TBAINIKG STffTEM. 

in f3M\L Sympathy and example operate powerfally 
in estnbHshing this tmbit. 

School BookiS. — See pago lOS. 

Extracts froin poetic works are auitaWe to advanced 
scholars ; and witlial tliey are better understOoJ and 
appreciated, wljcri a solid foundation of uacful know- 
ledge Iia3 been laid, and tlis scbolars have been ac- 
customed to aaaociato distinct ideas "with tha words 
they eniployt 

All the aubjecta »f a acbool-book auglit to be in- 
teresting, and of ft decidedly ueefui character. Few 
]iersong are sufficiently alive to tbe evila that flow 
frotti briDgiag tlio youn^ tnind intoiicquaiiitaDco with 
bacchanoJinti gongs, and extracts from foolisli playa, in 
acliool-reading. Children, in actual fact, get more 
evil from thi> reading of these, than gocd from rca4- 
ing the Scriptureg; and, as under tbe training ayatcni, 
every word, aud the meaning of every eipreesion, ia 
progreaaivcly and incidentally pieturcd out in tha or- 
dinary course of reading and spelh'ng, it is of the 
utmost importance that every sentiment brought un- 
der their consideration be correct, and of a moral 
tendency. 

Booka are eagerly sought after by strangers, wiih 
(|uestions aud answers set in regular form and order. 
No givon number of books, however, ■even with 
answers, will make "a scholar," nnleaa the master 
cause the children to analyze them. 

OoxnoGRAPHT. — In the JuTtnilc department, in- 
stead nf Bclccting an alphabetic vocabulary of diSiciili 
words, the ordinary reading of a collection is pr«- 



JUVENILE DEPAETHEJiT. 



2((3 



I 



Feired, in ths first instance^ the connecting narrative 
being found to secure a. more permanent remcmbiancc, 
und, at the same time^ a su1fici«ut variety nf words. 
Every word h spelt, which U a&re mlerestbg to ttie 
pupil than when the great ones only are selected. 
For esaanple : This man — cannot walk — a single mile; 
and so on through the whole paragraph, giving each 
child two or more words to spell, ae may be. Ab a 
second stage, a vocabulary is uaed to enlirga the ex- 
tent of their knowledge. 

Catechism:^. — -In almost all schools in Scotland, 
parochial and private, the Westmijister Aaaembly's 
Shorter Catechism is taught. It is atsu intrudu'ced in 
thejuniop and senior departments of the Normal Se- 
minary, and the exercise ia conducted by the master 
nn tbo uniform principle of thiij system, i. e., picturing 
out each answer lefare the exact words are committed 
to Riemory by the children. Of course, in difftipent 
parts of the country, each Christian communion will 
adopt itg own particular catechism. 

School, LiBnAn.Y..^-EYery school ought to have :* 
small library, consisting of books snitcd to the vari- 
ous ages and circumstances of the pupile. 

MtiBEDM. — A museum ia a very useful appendage; 
it briugs the young mind info fAmiliar auquaintaaee 
with real objects, which can bo exhibited but imper- 
fectly in H coloured pictiire. Of course, a very limited 
variety only can be looked for in an ordinary paro- 
chial or private school. Ltt the few, therefore, that 
are selected, be of the mo^t useful kind — specimens of 
mechanics and the axis — &Qch also as may cultivate 




264 



THE TBATmSG SrSTEM. 



a tasto for natural liigtory, ftod can aid m illustrating 
Scriptural anil other lessona. Many tilings suited for 
a E>i:Sool museum may be hn^l at a triEiDg expanse. 
The children tliemselveg^ if rotj^uestod, will bring many 
tilings, such as ioiuerals, stafledl birds, Sec, to which 
rimy be added implements of handicraft, modela of 
sbipB, steam- enginos, and stsam machinery. 



EVENI^'CI tTLK-BSKS. 



Tiiere are no evening classes in the model schools 
of th3 Normal Seminary. We have already stated our 
ohjectioiis to them m respect of factory childr&D ; aod 
these are not less furcible iu regard to ordinary gchools. 
First, the master wbo teaches all day, must be over- 
fatigued by having an evening class; and either his 
healthy OF the education of the childrGn, must su^er. 

If the master, during the day, adds iraining to 
teaching, then the necessary amount of speaking and 
watchful superintendence for so many hours, viz., 
from 9 o'clock a.m. till 4 o'clock p.m., renders it ira- 
practicable for almost any man to conduct an evening 
class. The master ought to liave the ovcnirg to re- 
cruit his strength, and to prepare the substance of his 
daily lessons; also to examine written essays, Sac. 

We object to evening classes becauso there cannot 
be moral traiuiog; and as ihe master has his scholars 
at too many stages of learning to admit nf a proper 
classification, they cannot reach the point nf intellect- 
nal training. 

Evening classes, moreover, suhject grown boys and 



/TTTHHTLB DEPAItTitENT. 



2rt,i 



girls to peculiar temptationst whicli ought to be 
avoided, and tha uIiiHren are absolutely half-asleep, 
and incapable of inteUectual exertion, even tliough 
the tfachora may be in tbe bigliest degree enBrgotic, 
ITpon tbe whole, evening cl.i33€s are bad, 'unnatural, 
imrcjisonablo, and inofficient. 

It is aa absurd to rest upou such a broken reed for 
week-days, as it is toi rest upon Sunday aehoots, iir 
one diy m seveti, for the education of the people, 
Tiiia nibbliog, mistaken, uneconomical Bystcra of edu- 
cating tlic poor and working classes, may occupy our 
attention, and waste our cucrgiiis,, but in the niean- 
time the youtb ore growing np in ignorance and im- 
morality; and should a liberal grant not be made im- 
mediately by Government, let tlic kingdom only be 
visited by depression of trade and bad harvests for 
two or thrco yeara in succession, we fear there will 
be exliiLlted a physical fury and insubordination on 
the part of tbe working claaaes, which will make tbe 
stoutest heart to tremble. 

School Fees. — These, of courae, vary in diflfereut 
parts of the country. Our aim is to make them aa 
low ns in liie parochial and ordinary private schools. 
The training system, however, being new and not un- 
derstood, "we, in tliB ftrat instance, adopted the follow- 
ing plan : — The first tjuarter, fr&e — ^the Sf cond, Id. per 
week, which caused no diminution in numbers — the 
third or fourth quarter, 2d. per week. Tlie numbers 
rather increased, but the attendance was irregular, and 
WQ found that when a boy or girl happened to be un- 
well on a Monday, or perhaps the following day, the 



sm 



TUE TRAtXlNfl SYSTEM. 



mother said, *' Oh, John, or Mary, it ia not worth 
while to pay 2d. for you this week, jftst wail till next 
Monday." To cure tlila crit, 23. and subacquently 
3a. per quarter wag cliargefl, payable in advance. By 
this time the inStience of the systt^m physically, mo- 
rally, and intellectually^ was fvit by many of the 
parents, and the numhors actually iucreaged- The 
attendance was more regular; on tha broad principle, 
that what ia paid for^ia sure to be possessed. Qttar- 
terlff fees, payable lu advancs, therefore, wa recom- 
mend to the nin.at&r of every training school. 

The feQS of tha model gchoob of this institution, 
during the last eight or ten years, have been as fol- 
lows (and at which it is felt a great favour to gain ad- | 
mittanco; so much SO, that although 800 children are 
now in attendance, some of whom travel to thesohoola 
from the most distant parts of the city and suburbs, 
double the number could eagily be obtained] ; — Initi- 
atory dflpartmeut, Ss. per quarter; Junior, Senior, 
and Female Industrial School?, Sa. per <]^iiiirter. To 
tha last three, or at lea^t^ for children about sevea 
yeara of age, la. additional is charged for pens, ink, 
the use of elates, and fire, or what is termed coal money. 

Plat-uays. — Saturday^ from 11 o'clock, ia a play- 
day. In many cases the whole of Saturday is given 
the children as a holiday. Thia ia perhaps too much 
pky at one time. We shoidd prefer half "Wednesday 
and half Saturday, fiom perhaps 12 o'clock noon. 




Wk have no Model School for training hoys to ma- 
nual and other labour, Thefie are Tery "valualjile ifl 
Poor-law Unions and other institutiong in whidiboys 
are boarded, ■with a view to train them to industri- 
ous habits; and as they continue there for seT6ral 
years together, a uumber can be bad to work at any 
particular branch ; but the establiahtu ent of such 
gchools ia out of the question in ordinary parochial or 
private aemiQaries. When boys live at home, parents 
can have thorn better apptenticed to trades, in the re- 
gular and ordinary arrangementg of the social econo- 
my. It 19 the aamo in respect of Schools fut re^iiag 
fenialo gervants. What interest can a girl have in her 
*vOrk to sweep a floor which baa been swept twice be- 
fore? or rub up a etove or grata which, just before, 
bos bean brightenod up half-a-dozen times? Schoola 
for the rearing of female aervanta, therefore, except in 
large imbUc inatitutiona, hava not succeeded, Aa in 
other branches, they are beat trained when they have 
full work, and in circumstances where they perceive 
a real value and use in what they are doing. 

No such objections can be stated, or difficulties pre- 
sented, ia the ease of Sohoola of Industry, in which 




IS 



TBI: TItA.l]V]NQ Sl^lTJilH. 



aewing, darning, patching, and knitting are taught. 
They are valuable to every housewife; and much of 
tlic comfort and econiDniyof a family depends on the 
DeatnBss and expedition by wldcb articLea ofdrcas may 
be kept tidy, and whether time may, or may nut, be 
nffordgd to make every thing new. It is well that the 
practical inilnenco of the saying bo kept up, — " A 
stitcli in time saves nine." 

In our Model Industrial School, not only is plain 
work taught, which is highly valuablo to nU, bat 
fency worki and many girts, on leaving school, have 
been enabled, in consequence, to maintain themaelves 
by plain and fimey work. It is well, also, that the 
tnste be cultivated a little to fit them as domestic 
servants. 

Ii In addition to the industrial work now mentioned, 
the girla are continued in a few of the elementary 
branchea in which they may liavo been imperfectly 
trained before entering ihia department, — sucli as 
writing, arithmetic, outlines of science, geography, 
and arithmetic, More particularly, they have a 
Bible- training gallery lesson every morning, as in the 
other schools ; nnd their conduct is superintended by 
the mi8tTCS9 and her assistant in their own play- 
ground, and reviewed, when necessary, on their re- 
turn to ihe school gallery- 

Tlie girls are not admitted under from nine to ten 
years of age, in order tliat their moral and intellectual 
trainiug, with the boya^ in the Juvenile departuicnt, 
may not be broken up before that age. 




IXTROrUCTION fIFTUE TBAI!(ISe ST3TKM AltOKU THE WBALTIIT 
CLASSES. 

Two estremea ought to be avoided in providing 
educatioD or training for the people j tho one coafin- 
ing the atteDtiou exclusively to the middle, and tlie 
other to the poor and worfciog classes. As the latter 
cannot afford to pay for the beat maaters without n 
partial endowment, come from what quarter it m<iy, 
so as to bring the fees within Llieir r^ach, a benoYolent 
society wouldj of coutsp, commence with this class. 
But if any impTovenient or discovery in the mode of 
communiL'ation has been made, which, after all, is the 
poti>er (f any stfstem of edncalion, additions can be 
presented, they ought not tii bo confined to any ouo 
class of eociety, hut extended to all. During the last 
twenty years, a modc^l for tlio poor and working 
dfiaaes has been eatabliehcd, and teachers have been 
trained to practise it; and, six yenra ago, a school 
waa opened for the wealtliicr classes upon the same 
system in cvei-y respect, only with a few additional 
brandies, having alao galleries, play-grounds, &c. 

There are difficulties peculiar to the training of 
ea<;h class or rank in society. Tlirm of these classeH 
iriBy ho noticed. First, Cliildren in work-houseB 
and hospitals j Secondlf/^ Children of tlia working 
classes, collected from all parts of a city or pariah ; 
and, Thirdfy, The more wealtliy of the commnnity. 
The first, although more sunk in their gonetal habits, 
are yet eapahle of being raised higher by the power 



270 



THE TtUININO eTSTEK. 



»f training, or at least the effects are more visiblo in 
their cose, fi'om the simple fact of their being kept 
under its infiiicncti for a numbier of years in aucceaaion. 
The shiftings and clianginga, and limited period of 
attendance of the aecond claea, diminish the effects of 
their training to a certain extent; and the limited 
Tiumber of tha third or wealthy class, at any one 
gtage of progress^ and the naricl^ of tranches ex- 
pecud to he Uiitgkt, still fartlier diminish the effects of 
the system in regard to them, at least in iJitJirst 
instance. Each of these classes of society Las its 
more oj.iQn or more hidden moral delinquencies to be 
checked and aiihdiiedj each may ho operated upon 
efficiently by the same training or natural priaciples, 
and each rcquireB tho same Christian principle aa 
the hasU of its moral trdning. 

The poor have more external rudeness of manner 
to the eye of a eaaual oheerver, but in reality they 
are not more rude than ttio children of the wealthy. 
The propensity to lying and pilfering is ahout equal. 
The cTiildren of (he wealthy having more highly cul- 
tivated pareutg, their intellectual powers may he more 
sharpened np aad expanded j but, if we except the 
greater removal from temptation, Wo do not, after the 
moBt minute observation, consider them as a body 
more elevated morally than their poor neiighbDura, 
Tliey are in fa-ct not so easily trained by the sehool 
trainer, arising from this ag well as other conaidei-i;- 
tiona that they have all beea too generally kings and 
i|neen9 in the nursery at home, and leaa disposed to 
be ohcdient when placed under restraint. To bo 



TRAIHIKO SCHOOLS FOB TMB WBALTUY. 271 

candid, oiu' experEeiiCH of 80 to 100 Bchcilars fiir sniUG 
years proves tliat external dress alune ek'TatoB tliem 
in any moriil degroG aLova their poorer neiahbourSr 

Tlie wealtliy classes of society can afford a longer 
peiiud of time to be trained intelkctimlly and morally. 
Tlmir station in sodety rendera thent more influf^utial, 
and their thorough ecliool training, tLerefotia, an object 
of Tory liigli importance. 

The system pm-sued in tliia private Traimng Semi, 
nary* we have said, is the same with that of Iho 
public one, with a little more attention to the fitting 
up of the achools, in accordance with the ordinary 
habits of the children." The branches are more varied, 
and the fees of courae higher, than in our publie 
i^chools. The branches are conducted on the princi- 
pleB of the Syetora, and the masters were all trained 
in tlie Normal Seminary, as every one of the masters 
has been in the various departmenta. 

The course ia na followa : — 

English reading, epelbng, gtainmar, etymology, 
mental composition, writton composition, elocution, 
geography iUtistrated by history, ancient ajud modern 
bi&tory, elements of science, writing, mental arith- 
metic, nrithmttic on slates, sketching, Latin, French, 
practical mathematies ; vocal Tnueic, practical and 
theoretical ; first stags of gynrnastics, &c ; Bible 
training, and moral superintendence and training, in 
both the covered and uncovered gtibooi-rooms, each 
day throiTghout the whole coni^e. 

This cla9& continued from about tbreo to four yoare, 
incpcaaiag in numbera and eelebrltyj until Govern^ 



* 



272 THE TBAINUfG SYSTEM. 

tiicnt having proposed a grant to the Normal Semin- 
ary in a department of which huildings the Private 
Seminarj' was conducted, and the grant being exclu- 
sively for the children of the poor and working classes, 
we felt it a duty to close this department, and fill it 
with the children of the poor. 

At the time of its being given up, there were 
ninety boys and girU, with a first and two assistant 
(trained) masters. The fees charged were £2 2s. per 
quarter for about two-thirds, and £l Is. for one- 
third of the number. 




CHAP. xxr. 



WEEKLY course: FllB TRAIMlVa BCHOOLS. 



"We subjoin a course of an Initiatory^ » Junior, and 
a Seninr Scliool, ag one mode of arranging the lessonB, 
but wliicli maf be modified according to the circum- 
atancea of there Ltting one sphniil for children of alt 
agea, or two schctoU, or tlirt-e aclioola (as wb recom- 
mend), with a Girls' School of Industry, in the par- 
ticular jiarisb, or district, op village, in which tlia 
school cstablishmeTit is placed. 

The four schools, or departments, of the Normal 
Training SemEnnry, «ra a mode] of wJiat wo consider 
every school cstablUhnient ought to h& : not that 
it is perfect, for wo would still farther siibdWidg, 
or classify, the children nnder separate masters h.id 
we funds at command. However, th« more nearly 
tho children of a ecliool are of one age tho moro per- 
fectly may any system be conducted, and more par- 
ticularly tha training eystura. We luve, at tenst, 
approached one step towards a proper daseification , 
by Laving three departments for children of from 
eix lo thirteen or fiftoen years of agOs instead of one, 

which id thu almost universal practice. A man 

s 



S74 TUB TKATmKC VfffTEtt. 

who 13 required to teach every elementary branch, 
may liofir leseoos repented, but it ia bejoDd his power 
to tratDp 

Iq moat parishes or diatricts, if an additioD&l school 
be cslablifibed, it is generaliy what 13 called an Infant 
School, or a Sewing School for girls. The latter 
is highly useful under almost aay cirGumstaniCcs ; 
but tlie establish ment of an Infant Sch-ool, unless 
it be initiatory to the Juvfimle, and both be on 
one Bystcni, is not productive of the good intended. 
Tlie principles of uur syateifl suable the child, bb 
we have formerly stated, to be trained from the age 
of two or three years to fourteen or fifteen, and also 
in the most advanced branuhes, upon precisely the 
e;ime nutural system ; whereaa, when the child ia 
removed from the Infant (should it he a training 
one) into an ordinary Engliah school, he f&ela no 
liberty to exp[uiJ those mental or bodily energies 
that may have been under previous cuItiwitiDa, In 
fact, his education and training are broken or dis- 
jointed. 

We, therefore, present tbege three tnhles of a weekly 
cOiu-ae, that they may be followed accorduag to cir- 
cumstances, and the number of branches that may be 
taught ; every lesaon, however, being conducted oa 
the prhicijdes of traioiug. See first chapters of this 
trKatise- 

The question is froq^ueptly put, How little can we 
adopt of the Training System so as not to undermina 
ita efficiency? Our answer is this, That the more 
completely it is followed out in all its parts, we be- 



I 



WEEKLY COUBSB FOB TRiSStSQ SCHOOIS. 276 

Iteve it will be the more efficient. But we say this 
much, that whatever branches are left oat, or what- 
ever branches are taught without training, unless 
those that remain are sufficient to exercise all the 
powers of the child, intellectually, physically, and 
morally, each day, that cannot be the Training Sys- 
tem. 



CHAP. XXII. 

FBACTICAL ILLUSTRATrONS OP BIBLE TB4.INIHO 

IBSBOMS. 

Some would tea-di the precepts, but are very tenn- 
cious lest the doctrines of S^tipture should bo taught 
in Bcboot J and others ara equaHy tenacious lest they 
should not be taught. Now, we conceive erory pre- 
cept to be education^ and we do not know any doc- 
trine which ia not at the same time practical. Thig 
requires no further illustration thun aimply the pciu- 
sal of tbe Bible itaelt. 

THE MODE, 

So far as the system can be exhibited in this phteo, 
We practically proceed in the following rannner : — 

Tlie whole scholnra are sitting before you in parallel 
lines, each row rising above the other in the form of 
a gallery. Jn n school of *0, 60, or 80 children, of 
course, it must be a regularly built gallery.* 

P&AiM on HvMN. — select such OS ara beat suited 



Sco Platf, Aiipendix. 



TBB TRUNIHO' 8TETEH. 



to crlii'dr^n, and tlie subject matter of the lesson, and 
wliicli yoH wiali theln to retain p^riuatieiitly in their 
memory. Supposing the hymik cDntains four, five, or 
SIX verses, aay^ five, and yon commence it on Monday. 
Analyze oiia verse, and no more, then sing it. On 
Tuesdity, nnalyza the eecniid verse, umting the ide^B 
contained in the first yetse with the secund; and then 
sing botln. Wedneaday, analyse the third, and sing 
it with tlie other two verses, or alone. Tliiiraday, 
analyze another verse, einging the third and fourth 
Yersea together. Friday, the same course, adding to 
the ver-HQ fur that day the one of the previnua dny, 
or on Saturday, or on any day succeeding, the one 
which finishes the hymn, — give a rapid analysis of the 
lending sentiments of the whole, jind sing them all. 
Thus, if properly analyzed and pictured out by fami- 
liar illustrations, the meaning T?ill he noderMnod, the 
exact worda will have been committed to memory, and 
if the eame tune has been sung on each of the daya, 
the tune also will be remembered. It might be well 
alao to cause tliQ whole class to repeat the hymn, 
clause by clause, the trainer repeating eacli in the 
first instance, ag a" example, 1st, airaultaneonaly; 
2nd, row by rowj 3d, two or three of the boys and 
gir49 individimlly. The children by turns mi^ht alao, 
lis a variety, be called upon to repeat each a line or a 
word ia succession. TVe have trained a claaa of thirty 
or forty to repeat in this latter way occasionally, 90 
rearly in the same tone of voice, and witli ancli expe- 
dition, as almost to appear one voice a few yards dis- 
tant. Thiij mode, as an occasional exercise, anQihil- 



BTBKB TBiimSQ — THE MODE. 



SSI 



atee the frequent drawling tone of aimultan'eiiTis repe- 
tition, wlien the natural principles of eloc:ii£iiin are 
not Eittcnded to.* It tilso iwakena and secures the 
nttention, and actually forme a physical exerciBC ; for 
exiinipJo, \vlii?n the cliildren cntmot Iiave their uswEil 
aporta in the play-ground, and arc dull during a v,ci 
Any, This may be resorted to in other k^sotia, as 
well as in repeating a hymn. 

By this arrangement, a new hymn will bnvc been 
nnderstood, committed to meiaory, and sung, oh the 
average, each week of the year. 

Wlien a hymn is committed to memory in the first 
inatance, the words prove a barrier to the undiT?tiind- 
ing, but the previous atiderstanding greatly BSsiBtB tbo 
verbal committal ; we speak liere of the great avrrttge 
of children, not of thoae wJiosc whole power of mind 
consists in the memory of facts.t We believe many 
of our readers will remember how uiutli tbo mere 
aoiind of \vords weakened the meaning. 

The hjTnn is followed by a short prayer, which 
ought to he timple^ and at the same time, audibly, 



• See Chapler IX. 

f Like tliti blind niHD at Stirling, Qt'wc'&k iatc]l»;t ^ witb whom 
we Lnva cimvcreed, and wbo conlJ repent every word uf Si;riji- 
ture, from Gcaraia to RcvclatEun, wldiout n niktake; nnd more 
tbnii thia, we wetc listo-nlftlied to find, on. trinl, lie t-uubl give, 
after tiic pn.ii)i£ of r single aeeond or two, tho nii-ddlf' oluuae, or 
any clnilae of any vei'se, even in iho Ifjahf lintiwii. jioiwifrf*' of the 
Old or New Teatameiit. Thie mail a|ipear«l iK-iLbt'r to ucidor- 
atand nor appreciate the inoRRing ; and yt-t ha liu<I all tliB 
woni* ill liis mecioiy. He, of eourBC, liad liad the Scripturea 
i-cad to biiu. 



282 TOB THAOIKG STSTEH. 

sloiflpi fine! impreBsiveiy repeated. Tlie lesson of the 
psalm nr lij^Eon ought to be embodied in tlia prayer, 
and one or more pointa of the Bible liisaon formerly 
giveiij or about to be given. Tlie practico of embo- 
dying the Bible lesson in prnyer, Leaidea awakening 
the attentioD, secures yariety^ and fixes tlie subject 
UQ the memory. 

The necessity and importance of taking only one 
verse each day, for analyflis, will appaar, when wq 
bring to our recollection iiow ma^ny vcrgea we can 
repeat, whlub we did not understand at the time tliey 
wl^re committed ; and the very words (we mean the 
sound of the words) formed a atumblingblock to the 
imderstanding. 

A friend of ours was t,iugbt to repeat the twenty- 
third Psalm by rote. The fourth line had been com- 
mitted thua, " The quai/t-wait waters by," the sound 
leait instead of iet fillirg up the requisito mimber of 
syllables, and years elapsed before he uuderstoud that 
" jMa^^-KJdiif meant quiet, or could get rid of the 
sound. We might state twenty ludicrous mistakes; 
such as, " Whft^e son was Mosea?" One boy answer- 
eel, and none of the others could correct him, " Tha 
ten of his tlaiiffhier^ Sir." As a question by itself, it 
was not perhaps very ea9LlyanBwered,but as tbc ^ound 
of the answer, the ton of hU dauffhter, strongly re- 
semfaled the one wanted, via., ihe son of Pharaoh's 
daughter, it was of course given. 

A lady of our acq^uaintance, when residing in Ja- 
maica, taught a uGgro Sabbath School for religioua 
Uustructioii^ and she states^ that hor uniform asp^ri- 




ence was, that the children -wlio had been taught in 
echoola where they had committed the worda of 
Scripture to memory, -without explanation, were more 
dull of uoderstauding her explanations than those who 
had QOt been taught at all. 

Avoid putting any fixsd or atereotyped aet of quea- 
tiooB to the children. Although the leading points 
ought to be fixed in your mind from which you may 
diverge as you aee fit, avoid repeating Teraes or paa- 
eages not previously pictured out. Avoid putting 
questions ahove thg coni prehension of your scholar^, 
or in terms not already pictured out. "We shall give 
one iUugtration on each of thoae Ihiao pointa- 

No, 1. Imperfect as mere verbal anaweriog is, 
when every child kuowa all tho answers in the lea- 
S0P8, and can repeat them, it ia still more imperfeut 
when the child only commits his own particular one 
to memory, which formerly was and still is too com- 
mon in school. Moat ludicrous scenes havo taken 
place Occasionally during public oxaminationB, when 
a child happened to ahgent himgelfj and thus, hy 
withdrawing a link of the chain, broke its continuity. 
An alert examinator, however, in moat cases, can lienl 
the breach, by a rapid movement to the next (jueation 
in the order. A case lately occurred which ilka- 
tratca the rotation ayalenj. The puhho examioator, 
among other written rjueationa which he was to aak, 
put thia one, *' Who mads the world?" The child 
answered, ** SFoah^ Sir" Tlie examinator said, " I 
beg yout pnrdott, children, I ara wrong; that child 
is cot here (meaning the child who was to answer the 



SM THE TRAINING STSTBU. 

queation); I ought to lirxve asked, "Who made tlie 
ark?" 

Nil. 2. At an enterUinineDt lately given to a large 
body of children, ty the teachers, a frieiiiJ of oura was 
requested to read (Hit tlie worda of the blessing they 
were to sing previously to tlitnr enjoying tlie feast : 

" Bu prcBent at our tMii. Lunl ; 
Bi; he«v and fverj-wlispp adored ; 

Tlii'se <?n*n,liir« 'ilfs*. Hiid grant that we 
May liye in Faradise Vith tlioe." 

This had been repeated and sung perhaps i hundied 
times ijefoire by the same children at difffrent timea. 
Our friend ventured to ask what the cliildren meant 
ifj/ creatures (it being evident that on this hinges the 
whole meaning of the verse^. TLey bad no idea what- 
ever, that creatures meant tl^e beef and plum-pudding 
of which they were about to pavtakc. But that a 
dogj or a onw, or a pig, was a creature, they easily 
cqrnprehiended; and it took twenty minuMS at least 
to bring out this clearly to their minds by a variety 
of illuatrations which it would be tuo tedious ti> men- 
tion. Had these children previouBly received a dozen 
or twenty traitiing lessons, two miuutea wouEd have 
been BuSictent to have elucidated such a puint, for 
they were children who had been largely ingtructed, 
although not trained, in Scripture, In a properly 
conducted Lraining scboid, children will be found ig- 
norant of the menning of a vast variety of words which 
they have read even in school; but tliEj difFtrence is 
this, that being accustomed to anftlyze words and sen- 



DIBLE TJJJLDfrNG^TUE UDDE, 



286 



tcQCCB, the trainer can touch Bomo churd wliicTi in- 
stantly suggests the idea to their mind. Tlila fact, 
however, proves the paTanioiwt importance of their 
not repeating or singirsgnny ]iaspagc in prosfl or vetBGj 
before tliey have been trained to understand its gene- 
ral and particular meaning. 

No. 3. We may atate a single case or two of un- 
picturecE out "worda being ut-ed by most intelligent 
examinators. The other day in tlie school of a friend, 
the children were asked, " W[io is the efficient in re- 
generation I What is the instrumKQt; io regetieriltion? 
Haw doea the word operate, causally or instrnmeTit- 
ally ?" &c. My friend adils that Iiia echnlara received 

from aa in explanation : "Tliia tirises from the 

hypothetical union of i he divine and human natures," 
&c., &:C. Another examinator proceeded, ''' Little 
children, was tliero ever a lime in the liistory of man, 
when the being and perfections of God Were kuowu 
by the light uf unaided reason ?" Of course, no answer 
was received. Such high-aotmdtng words addressed 
tQ ignuraat children, might as well have been pro- 
pounded in Greek. He meant to ask. Was ever God 
known to man before the fall wiiliout the Bible? To 
the latter mode of putting the q^uestiou several would 
have replied. 

Before you L'ondu{;t a. Bihio leBson^ see that all are 
sitting erect, with hc<ils drawn in, their toes angkd 
outwards, jind thtu- hand? folded on their knees or 
lap.* Then tell the uhildrcu, slowly aod very dis- 




286 



Tire TRAINITTC BT6TEM. 



tinctly, what you intend doing. Tlie passage having 
been read, point after poirtt, after you, (not leiih you), 
and nat more than one aentcDce at a time — you pro- 
ceed with some leadiag ])oint ellijitically and interro- 
gatiToly, as it were idling the story, and. making it 
ihe children's owd. Tou then picture out the sub- 
ject in all its leading points and relationa, having re- 
course to analogy and wliatBTsr may afford Buitable 
illustration ; thus rendering the whole subject present 
to the mind'a eye in a simple manner, always prefer- 
ring natural imagery or emblema to abstract terms. 
Such has heen the mind of the Spirit in dictating the 
Scriptures, and all teaehera of CliristiaDity ought to 
follow it. 

This can bo accomptished only by a slow process, 
step by step ; hut then, as we have alreaidy statud, the 
childrea will be quite prepared to draw the lesson 
which the subject is fitted to convoy. If the children 
cannot do tbia, then you have led or driven them too 
fast, or they have been blindfolded on the way- — flon- 
aequently, you must again go over every point pro- 
gressively tintil you attain the object m view. Somei 
may say, " Xliia w too tedious a process, and re(i[uires ■ 
more patience than we would choose to exercise ;" or 
that it ia too difficult. Our answer U, You will find ' 
it so only at the eommencement. Every fresh at- ■ 
tempt will open up new views upon eyery point, 
wliioh will lengthen and expand, and become more , 
easy by every exerciso. ■ 

It is a principle of the training system not to tell 
the children, ia the eourae of the lessons or exerciaes, 



BTBIE TRADfDia THE MODH. 287 

nny thing but ract9, pioyidcd tlicy can be made to fiad 
the answers for themgelves by antilogy or iUugtraUoii. 
Tlie reason why, or the cooseqaence, tbey must be 
prepared to tell ygu. 

Wg would any to every Bibla tramer — Avoid what 
vi ierraed preachint^ in t\i& school. It is re[illy use- 
lass, ichatever setf-complaceticff it maff engender in the 
young man wbo practises it. The Gospel abould be 
tauffkl and pictured out in the achoolj and afterwards 
preached and enforced from the pulpit. To the pa- 
rent thfirc cannot be^ and ought not to be, any re- 
striction. 

No tra.inBr must expect to succeed in his wishes St 
his fir&t or second Attempt; but we can assure bim 
tbttt each successive weet or month will find him bet- 
ter able to develop and traiu the children upon tbe 
simple and natural plan laid down. No unnatural 
restraint is placed upon any. Every one ta left to 
exarciso tbe childrtia according to bia own peculiar 
caat of mind, aa to the tipd of quealions he may pro- 
posE', tbe clhpsis be may form, or tbe illuatrations be 
may present. 

Be content with illustrating one point each day — 
maks uBe of all the knowledge tho children nia.y have 
previously acquired, do not take tbe honey, as it were, 
out of other floweru, not aufxlogous, and put it into tbo 
one preaented, liS if you bad ma<le a discovery of what 
really id not in it, but take out tbo Bweeta out of tbo 
one daily presented in all their variety. Consider 
what 300 points, per annun), and that number added 
for three, five, or Bevcn years in Buccessiorij would do 




£SQ THE IRJlTNISB ststem, 

in illujstfBtiiig tl'ie pages of Scripiure during private' 
reading, or wbile listening to a goa-pel ministry* 



STAY— STAGE I. 

AN EHBLEH PICTURED OUT. 
"Tlie LorJ wu my Stay." — Fkaim iiiii. 17, 18. 

CniLDBEN. — It is said here, *' The Lord was my 
stay." David the ting of [t^rael, wlio <iva9 also called 
the .,. Psaimist, aaid tlmt the Lord was ... his stay. 

Tell me, children, the meaning of tlie word stay? 
(No answer.) What do you mean when yon say, 
the Lord ia my stay ?* When David was siirrO'Unded 
by enemies who hated him and said, that "tlie Lord 
was my stay," what do you mean by God being bis 
stay? iS'iu^ed. I wish to know from you what n 
stay is ? A thing tlial's ata-^^d. Tliink for a mo- 
laentj children. .,3"Aa thinff that's slaved. Do you 
ca,ll the thing or person a stayj that is supported. 
(No ajiswer.)+ 



• UnlesB tJic chilflrcn liarc wjinmitleil ti> memtiiy rddip iiech- 
nicfll answer, genemlly B[n>iikirig l\w.y will lumaia silent. Tlie 
trainer, tlicrefore, may put tlifi queation in two, Ci" three, or 
more fomis bofoFO he fctiircs, oi* tvch espeptH ?,n answer — each 
f{u«9tjDn bt'ing inor* and more Qiia|>li; aiiJ a]'|'ij«9ito, anU voch, of 
Dourac. ft\ercjai]ig the underEtii,nidi»g uf Lis pujjils. 

f Every wonl in itulips is supjioRcJ to !it> wujiplieil by the chU- 
drcn. Grpat patifini'c rauHt lie SKCTcised ■with the answers of tliu 
cliildren, for, although thoy mny Itave sonic imperfect idea of 
wlk-it is meant, they tuny uwt be a|>!o to ^spicea it in words. 



VSS XODD — A STAT. 280 

The PicTcnisa out by some pauiliar lu^vs- 

THATioN Allow TDB to osk, liavfi j'ou Been pcaa 

growing in a garden ? yfi*, -Sir, When tiio peas 
■were grown a few inches abovo ground^ wliat have 
you seen the gardener do to theml Stick thim. 
The gnrdEner stickcd or.., statfecli/iem. tie supporteJ 
or stayed ihe'pcus'by ...sticks— fie stai/ed tAnpea itieAs. 
Think for a momeDt, children. Did the gardener stay 
tha eticlts ? I£<e staged thep&cis. The gardener stayed 
or supported the peas by ,.. aticka^ Each atick that 
supported or held up one of the peas, was to that pea 
a ... ittaif. The peaa were stayed by the aticlcs, and 
the Bticka were to the peas ,,. a stai/i. The pea, you 
know, haa little fibres, called... tendrils; you remem- 
ber we had a gallery lesson upon creeping planti 
lately. The pea seizes hold of the ... slidis with ... 
ftg tendrils. 

Are tha peas ahk to stand upright of themselves, 
like a tree, or h&w? TAetf are weak — the;/ have 
siicka. Very weak, and they reij^uire . . . Hichs. Very 
right. Tlie pea requires a stick or soiKathing else tn 
keep it . , . from, falling. And without being etayed 
... itiffouhhiat gvQw. Would it not grow ? 1% wov.ld 
not grow up. It would ...fall. Tell me, now, what 
the stiok ia to the pea ? A stay, A staff to an old 
man OTi which he leans is ... a stich. Tery true, it 
is a stick ; but the stick or staff to him is ... a sla^. 
I It keeps Mm up. And when the wall of a houso 
threatens to fall, and beams of wood are placed against 
it to ...keep it upi theso beams arc called .,, TAey 

ty thick. True, they are vety thick, but what 
: 



290 



THE TBAIWirrO BTSTEM — BTIGE I. 



are they to the house? (No answer.)* The stick 
kept tlie pea froTo ...falling^ What do the beams 
tothewnll? Keep a from falling. A stay. tStaya^ 
Sir. Any thing on which w& lean, or cling to for 
support, may be called ... a alaif. If any of you, 
children, are acquainted with aliips^ yon will know, 
th&t part of the rigging ia supported by stays. / 
know dhout ships, master^ my grandfather lives in 
Greerwck. Very well, boy, you cad tell what tlia 
rigging of a vesacl ia stayed by ? Mopes. The ropes 
tied up in a particular way hy .. .the sailors^ keep up,.. 
t/te satis and oth&r parts ...of the rigging/. What do 
you call the ropea wlien used in tbie way ? Siayg, 
A staff to an old frail man may be called ... a stay. 
And you told me what the pea requires to keep it up 1 
A st'xk^ or ... iia^. You will remember what wag 
said about ivy clinging to trees, and.,, lushes; and 
these trees and bushes were to the ivy, . . . Ma^s, Sup- 
poaa I were weak and unable to stand upon my feet, 
and some of yau held me up, what would you be to 



rae 



? A 



HaTing presented a natural picture, you opply it — 
you give the moral loason— you draw the natural 
picture as the campartson of the spiritual lesson — 
" Look on this picture, and on that" 

Now, what does David the king of Israel say in the 
verseft you have juat read ? Look at yoitr hooka. 
(The children read the two verses simuHaneousl}/.) 
The king of Israel speaks of enemies that he had to 

* The trRinopmiiet cow go OTer the outlinoa of tJiu ftiraier 

Uastration. 



391 

' "^eet strongep than lie was himself. To whom do 
you tliink cotild he look for help ? God. David 
aayg ...Wliab does he say? '■'■Tko Lord ^as m>f stay." 
You know that the p^a has. Httle fibres, called ... 
tendrils or .., holdcTS, that lay hyld of any thing, such 
BB a .. . stick to .. . keep it up, aad when it losss ita 
hold, what happens? li falls- Now, Da^id, wlieu 
he Lad V€ty etrong eDemica to meet, aud was likely 
to fall befora iJi&im, he natuTally looked for somG stay 
to ... support him. Who waa David's itay ? God. 
He believed that God would ■■■> helphim. Hetnisted 
,.. iH Me' iorrf, and he wag to him ... a star/. Yuu 
say tliattlie Psalmist believed that GodwoxUd ...help 
him. That is, that bo had „, faith in ... God, and 
like aa the pea held ... the atay by its ... tendrils, eo 
Darid, oa it were, held by God, how ? B^ heliezing 
in Miu. Give another word for believing? Faitb. 
David iiL every difficulty trusted ..in God. And 
what did God do ? Us supported kirn-. At the timo 
We now speak of, when he had strong enemies whu 
came , . . against him, and who . . . haled him, to whom 
did David look for help and support ? Tq God. The 
Fsaltnist, tnistiog in bim, and feeling that he waa ... 
supported, aaid^ ... The Lord icas mt/ slap. 

And, now, the trainer may picture oiit various uir- 
cumstancea th^t may or do occur in the experience of 
hiB acbolars, such as dapger, difEcully^ or aickn^s, and 
inquire, or rather bring out (according to the aystem), 
To whom ought, or may, they look to in such cir- 
GUmatancoa, — drawing conjoiutly with the children, 
1st, The natural pictiire^sdly, Applied to David the 



89S THB TRAWTSa STBTEK— BTAOH L 

king of iBme], who, in this psalm, expregBed bis con- 
fidence in GoJ aa his Hljiy — and, Sdly^ The applica- 
tion uf the fianie u^mliidetjce they themselvea ought tit 
have ill Q^il, — making uae of all previoua lessons they 
may have had, such as, *' He will not break the 
bruised reed,'' *' I will be a fatltor to the fatherless," 
" The orphan's stay," &c. 

STAGE I. 

A RAKKATIVE PiClUHEll OCT. 

The man witli tbe witliered haiacL — Mahk iii. 1— -S. 

Verse 1. "And Iio entered again into the aynagogue; 
aod tht^re was a man there which had a withered 
hand. 2. And they watched him uhether he would 
heal him on the Sabbath-day that they might accuse 
him. 3. And he saith unto the man which had the 
withered hand, Stand forth. 4. And he saith unto 
them, la it lawful to do good on the Sabbath-days, ot- 
to do evil; to Bare life, or to kill? But they held 
their peace, 5- And when he had looked round about 
on them with anger, being grieved for the hjirdrie93 
of their hearts, he saith unto the man, Stretch forth 
thine hand. And he stretched it out; and hjg hand 
was restored whole as the other,"* 



* The trainer ooBdncta the reading of the pasaagp, naroUowa: 
TST^t- lut. And he Giit<?W!d. The cbUdren repeat, AtuI As sTOered 
^njfBtu— «<j«i.'n^uit[> tLe STrTiagogui&— -ib(i> (ha Sifti'j^offiie J the 
cliililren wpDating nfier the master aimultaTieuuslj, and ia tlie 
excict loBia of vgieewith him. Aft«r they have iiC43air«i thi^ 



THE MAN WrTH THB WTPHBBED HAND, 

In giving the following lllustrAtioQ, so fnr fiom fix- 
ing down certain qiiestiona and ellipses to bo slavialily 
followed by the trainer, wg merely give tho idea as » 
general priaciple. The most eiperiepced. train<?r 
would assuredly not bring out tLe snine answers twice 
from the same children, 

In actual practice, let it be obaerved, that nearly 
double tbe amount of words in th&se esaraplea will 
generally be used, consequently some of the tranaitiotis 
may appear rather too abrupt. Patience is particu- 
larly requisite in trainlng.t 

The aamc idea may be repeated over and over again 
in different -words. By varying tlie illustratians, and 
reconatnicting the aentone&B, whereby excellent ellip- 
ses are formed, which the children readily answer or 
fill up, not only is the mind better exercised — their 
attention being Tcept up — but a deeper impression is 
left ; and the picture itself, wh&ther of a point in- 
cidentally during the progress of the lesgon, or of the 
whole subject, \& of more permanent endimtnco. 

OITTLINBB OP MINTS WHICH BEacIRE TO BE TICTCHED OUT STUB' 
BY STEP. 

1. The syniigogue. — 2. Difleroaco tu'ltfecil ft HytlogogTip aada 
Ghorcli or a iiiiw|uc, Ac — 3. Jwua cnttred, — -1. Those in the 
synagnguD.— 5. A man who liad a witiered hanil.'^. The 
Jews all BToand n-titcliing Jpsu3.— 7. What ought to be done oti 
tlie Sfflhlpath-dny : gvxRl or cril * — S, Their iilence. — 0. Jemm 



lialjit of readJng slowly, distinctly, nnd in a jirojjcf tohe, th^y 
may bp permitted 1i>rojid simiiitaiicmualjadid in dividualiy, with- 
out previous n^adin^ hy the trainer. 

f The first s^tagD iu inteoded for infuits in imovileige, whether 
of tJjnse, sis, or twelvQ yeara of ago^ 



2^1 



•rac TKAiwnra srmx—vtxieB t. 



Wtdng gn. ihvra iri(h onger,— lO. Was it right to he angry i — 
Faaumgcs reganliag Ckngcr in Scriptarc, — IL. Ite mtia ttsketl to 
Ntrokth furth ]ua hand. — 12. Makes the &tC«tii[)t, believing in 
Christ's power, and etrtitirbiBa it out. — 13. Kentorcil whole jis 
tliB other.— 14. If he lind rofitapd to Btretch fbrth liia hand, wh&t 
voold haye r«Llowedf— 1£. But he did stNtch it out.^10. 
Therefore, Ac, 

riUST ^TADE or TBAIMIH'O. 



XaWf childrmi, wc arc to have a lesson frost tills book ; What 
hook is this ? Tfie Bible. Whst othcp name is it tailed "by ?• 
dScripfireg, or the .., £i&/e.t J^^ij other name? JVb, ^Str. 
Ton sftj. No. Siip[>09e, childrtn, thut any friend «<rot« wr sent 
n letter to yon from Loctton, or tlie Wetti Inilea, a.bout somc- 
tliin)j[ tbi^y wlithed to say to you, wliiit would you sny thnt that 
friend BCtit you? Worii. That they had sent .,. word ahaat 
SomDthing they wished y»u ... Vo Aaoio. Tfln would say, you had 
got -.. vfwrf from your ...fi-iend. 'WcJl, then, God toM hb a«r- 
v&bt M&rk. — I may tell you that Mark ws.i ohq of the four who 
wroto the g>H<[i^ls. Tou know the first booh in tko New Teata- 
mcnt? Matthew. And the uust !' Mark. Tlicn ? Lu/ie. 
And ? Ji/fm. Well, Jlark wrtjt* what is lOTitained in thia book, 
—tiia book oaUeJ ,., Mark, And when yon read it, he is end- 
ing you ,.. -word — the word fvora ... God. Tiua 'hook, tLen, ia 
the ... worrf a/ Go^ : just what Owl wishes to say to me and to 
... «B,J and to ... evtnj JWy.^ 

* Ehoulil none oT the chlJdrcD knnw tli-n aa.m.p Scrlplurna, tits traniAr 
will orcDuric tell tliein,. Whta rttu^b Cbo- -rhildTen r'^t to a. ri^lit nndf^r- 
etaudlng uf wliat tbs Bible l),iUi tlie word ol God, Efii^ iiilrMfi(.ir(0)'y modfl 
IffHI 6e quite nnKi;.!ft;taaTy. 

f K-retj wflfd In iiaiie* la ftnppoieit to be tbe bD^Yi'iEi- b( tbn ohildisi i 
tha iMiuol QBTlced ttina . . . ihow wbisre Cte trainer lititui an sl]j[)«lig 
wliifti (by tlie childrrn) is nfttrwarda nnswMi^l aii4 llll^d up by the words 
ia iti.il\oi. WtiilsC In the Inlcintnr^, i>r »arlio(t sla^i°, a Unf^lff word oe iit 
moat two, hnt wlUch mnat of co'Urst etuboilij Uit iiL^anin^ <>l tliei«ntenco, 
9)«e an ellipsis would bs a laerc s^ten, nndr not tTainiiLf ; yet as the oliil- 
dreo sdi-ante in knowledjtc nnd ^dliCy t-f OKpTMiiufi, i^kumJ wi>r(i«&t n 
tLma may be ttft (lut. Tbeia t-llijia^B fill in the iunumeralj]# tnterd^e^ 
whkh act tlirect qucations c«b Bupply. 

I Action oriniLancr, and tnnoaflr voics, lulted to th» words, alight con- 
atautly ti be liept in. vipvv in tlie priMfes of Iraining-. 

i Oat limits fwUd onlargiiiB upon this point. It ia biftt«i that (be .Tijid 



THE KAK UTTH <r&K WWHERED HANU. 



2M 



I 



We abaU now read, a sliurt passage put »f the ... Bitfe, or ... 
(fbi-d o/' God, irnil I Imvu tu icquest l^rTtCt „. siience. It ia 
about n man who bad n w^icliQi^ h/ind. Tbe l^siKm ia from on^ 
of the miraollia of uur Saviour. You know our Saiiwur lived 
on tliiB earth about... Hew Jong? Abovi 1800 years agn* 
Ydu will find the jiassage in fbc Gkapel f jwwording to Murk iih 
1. All will fifld thm plate, and crnko no 'hnHtlin^ or imise in 
turoiagoter tlie ... /eaccE. Look at mt. Toll will turn o-vor 
tlio leiives in this y^'^^ Hold yoar BibJiCa propcrlv, not wi1.li the 
tbuinb in the middle, for that wilt ... (/i>fj« the hook. Pladng 
yunr thunih in th^ inJddlB, will eoil or dii-ty ... ovrbooks^X 

The wholu of ttp gallery will reatl each of the Torsea in one... 
voice- Tliat ia ,,, fistiiltatteousJtj. Remenilwr that t^e whole 
gaUsry repeating in one ,,. roioe, — a tiiinibef of *liildr«n reading 
togeitii?r in ... unc voice^ means ... reading BirnailaKepusli/. Re- 
jjeait tbe wort! .,. aiiau-koneottilff, Kc^cHng' HimultancniiKlj, 
me&na ... alioffeiher. Very well, look at your lionliw. [Three or 
four nsiid b. verso imlividujiUy, in aucceaaion, after tlio master.) 
Thfl wliO'le gallery will now read the first Terse witb mo : 

"And he (that i3...Jesue) entered agam into 
the synagogue^ and there was a man there 
which had a withtred hand." 



lie, that ia ... Jesus, ontered. Jesus 'Cutered mto tUc.-.s^a- 

dn tiar got Ldo raufA on anj ada day, only little b; Uctlie. Tlic " Ward. " 
baiiiB one of Hie UUbb o( Chrl*t, and Uic " W<ird " beiatt " made BesU," 
must be hr&QghC bffora.tlin -childrt^u'i ntteuCi'in, m othur bii4 ciibg^uent 
eserciaca. Such miouteneefl or varit'ty of pTuliiBliinry obeorvatinne oi Wi 
aro exIiibilJiij^ lu thJii exiimple ot the Fihst Staub lu LmiaiDg-, Li iiat re. 
quisle nt the commence meat of esery ksson. Ic miut he donfl, howL'rar, 
i>ccBuuoH,Uy, to eugnge' tiair sUrntioo, and iraprcas tliiiir iniodji with Che 
ICea thiit tha Word u-f God h a ivord or a m«Eaiige mm to tliemwLvcB. 

* If thediUdren do doI tnow this fflet, of eoana Chey miut lie laid it. 

I PreiincM toMndustiflg a Sret Leaaijn )rom oniinf tlic gmpelE, prnpbrti, 
0/ eplalLH, Uiy diatiiirtioD betwpipn each cliiss of boolia miijit bo |ji«urHd 
Of drawn (ml, and octiionally nfterwarilia, tDTi'Jr'Reh their lUBmory, andat 
Ilie eabm lirii« ecDoie iliat do new sChular remains Ignnraiit. 

t Thiise wliu caunQt read, thlea to the paestge bciuff read eonJotetlj by 
tha mait«f hfad t^ga^ -who are ahle to rL-ad; all, Imwerei, ooita lu the c^- 
erciiiB pr pic tod ug out. 




^ 



go^ue. And wliu is ebii] to hare been in tbe ayrnvgogae T j4 man 
Uf/uch hud a wUhertd hand. 

Do you knuw wbat a Byn&go^eiBl (Chlldron are silent.) 
Wlifi-t ilo yuu cnU tJiQ pj^i:* Tfhero Christian jieoj^ie go to woisliip 
onSaWflitli! ^ c/turcA. Veij wbU. OliriHtia.[iB n-cnship ... tn 
d thwrcA. The Jl'wh aiw wuut to a placo nf woi-aliip. Wliat do 
you cftll tJiupUce that tliQ J>i!wa worahlpiied In ? {NoauBwer^) 
lAAik &t your books, cliildren. Synagogue, SiTi The place 
where the Jiwh worship, b called ,.. a st/nafffjffue- Dwn'l forget 
the n^itnG .... i^a^f^uG^. Tiie Jews woreiiip in,,, a g>/H(ti/o</ite, 
And the ClirlHtiaati in .,. a c/iurcA> Churchra aad fiynngo-gueSj. 
therefore, arc place* ... of woruMp.* 

T]]e Bibk suyH, Be (that ut ,.. Jesus) entored inia tlie Eyna- 
gogne or placQ of,., worship, and there waa a man tlicre which 
had .,. a wilhered hand. Do you tliiiik J4?sub ktul been in the 
ayiuigciguc hihtti i No, Sir.\ Loiik at your books, s-nd read 
with me, " And he ■entersil a^ain into the synagogue." It says 
f affaia," Wtuit does that uitiaii? That he bad been iherv 

* The frDquent repetition oftlLe BiLme t0rin>,&D(I Llieeniployinfi of varied 
illuitrBtiaiiB, may appPFir todioai to gumo of nur rcailer), but La aetuAl 
prnntiee they ore atiEDlateJf rieccstxj, WE'D to a, gr-ebii^r extent thui wo 
cxlubit here, to srcuTe tliE imdcFBtniDdmg of Che pn^sifS b<r aU, Repeti- 
tJiijna mid rorlety make ELo reiiniiitD ImprnABion -uu the huTDho nilal; like 
ttiennvisnt QDl modem onginei ef war— th^ battering- riun and the bnltel, 
on tti4 retlsdcf bnaUoo. What oil's shot will not du, s Aaif.a nay ucc-oiq. 
plUb. 

! Thi» flbowi the aLtgliC ImpTHston the atmple readio;! of tli« ScrlpturBi 
mBk«ii on ttjB mlDd of nn UQCUltlra.t?d rliUd. Ever^ ii^irur !□ the sniwers 
oaght In- Jib ciirrpcted, not hy inyiiig. Children, jnii ml' wroaff ; iJUt by 
the Tnaaters repenting tUA snawcM iiroperly. as thoy oug lit to bu in. tone 
and EUbatniicB ; then unalng tha cblldrcn to fill u;i tlie eeDteD-cB \a one 
TOfcB, B.Qmelnniira in thB inma, but .gcnerall y In Dtier temia. Tha udog 
of VBJiDtia tErtniJ hnTing- the sAtat raiifitiilrrg', cnltivate! the -UDdcTslnudlng, 
lis well as [he verbal meninry. Ifillj J4ked, What thnlKvf do. wllMl piw- 
bably thfii* or fouf ftfonj uiiiwen, Mid one, or twfl rigltt 'aln?^ we glrea 
Httme tiiuH bj different ehlldrea under thU BimnltHiiflnus metbod;> *o 
answpj'i ^j Hjujn dJic o/tfieafi'^no ana™ei'». npeat it nudiily, and yootaay 
*iUjer flak A qui-stiofl ^niEivhA,t etUBlOB^isi*, i° firdiT to show it» nlisurdity. 
Wliich the children very quickly percel»e-tllB BJmple repotltion Bomstinies 
Will dn—vr yon niajr rctmti one of Ihc right aii*wcrB jiBBTi tiy an-othf ekiW 
in tHoA a Iftif and imt^niiT n* I* shuii' the suswer to be tlio correct pne ; 
then cnaaa the wbiilo giillery tn repeat it, ae tlio Comwl ODB, la differaot 
lerins, however, and thep proceed irith the Q-sxt step Of Clie BubjBct. Fc" 
Ma* trH-ljiciKftem-aii tfiaf point— they Mo prepfU"*! M Walk for wurd. It il 



4 



4 



THE MAH WITH THE WTTHBBED HjUTO. 



297 



I 
I 



iiffare. Toh, Jkiiu had often been in tbo teiaplt.* and in tlic 
Jewish aynagogiiL'S to ,.. worship, and thwa ba Iios k':ft cia cs- 
iUuplQ tbat we n^oulii foUoWf ... Ais s/eps, th^t vte nim ahnuld go 
ia ... ^hurci, ami worship... Gorf. Jcaus worshipped ... God. 
iiin hcuvenly -,. Father- Give me an examiile. Oan child 
ajiawers, Jesits prayed all ttifflit on a mountain, Anotfier. he 
sung a htfmn.1 WcUjthon, after Ji^aiu Lad cctered the ,., syjiif- 
ifogae, he saw there a. man who ... had a withered hand. 

Do yuu know, children, nliat n witliered hand iueui& 1 <! 
laUhered hand. 

No douht, a withered Imnd in a withered hand; but can you 
infnnn rae what it is ? Can yon give me sobi& illustMtiun of 
what itdu mean ? ij Is it a fati or a k&n Eiaiid, pr is it neillier ? 
What ia it? ifV /eau. Sir. 

When you see n very old peraon'a anat iiow doca it look ! 
WWismd. Quito witbercJ ! WTtfi^riKf?, SiV. Wdl, thien, 
the man's hand wag ... itrTlA^r^fj. Oil' wh^t vsv cootd his hfuid 
he ? AViw, £ir. 

flTiy! Beaause it urax vtHhered. Without sny .,. poivt'r. 



I 



iir great im[)ortancD that Ihc chUdrtii'Biiuign'erH be acknoiTlpdg^ed, n'hutlipr 
Hjlii or wv^irifii or at liaxt ouC' sf the taavfeis. Cbi1drE!ii Mid to Imvc what 
they SLy attended to, a»d ijrnirr^r ^lerjoiiir Joi^. If fuu lio out !Li^kiioivled!)):e 
the HnnvBrtv Chi EElial^irs ore apt to gut into conrmioo, Iif ri^pefting' tlio 
arUiWiTS arcr and Dvi!r ngrtia, Eomo of n'tiiich may bo right and uthGn 
srTung. Ad thu- trainer proc^cde ivkh Cho EKrrclie or Icsaon, oni? or more 
umiongEt the nriimbET pri>Et?nC are o1mn<<t cf rtaJn to know tho oiiswvt re- 
auirvit, and In Exprr^a it ; lo that, although only a ipry few loay havii 
IcnniviL, or tlmroug'tily remem'bored the faels,— by thli crinc^iilH not only ia 
the memory Fofrcihtid, liut thoss wl^^u u-o i^oraiit, juloing in t]i>a iuiiiivvt^ 
uf tlieir<?ampiiniona, must, thcctiJ'orc, li^uii. Whatvcr KU^n^r or «Ui|)4'<« 
any OQB gJvBE, if nurrdil, tlie mnster alioulJ r^iiuire lUe whLile si-liolHra t» 
?x[>FPsq ttie iiica in a firrn, soft toni^, avoidbig buialcroUisneM and loo greit 
rajiidii)f; ui<l w|ii.t le loat in celerity, ought tebpinade up tim|fbatlcai]ly. 

' The FhitiJrea ara iiipsoj^d (o Iibtc had a lesiou oa tlio temple, oa n 
placQ af wtinliip, but nuns' oa the ayuigogDo, 

i At the avcond or tWrd BtagpLn. training, nlRJigor elllp^s weald bempde 
[topping nt the ivord tliat t?ipy filling in the id-pn. 

I This We IMin AO incideatol iusinn. wlikh ori-anionally on-urs during 

Ill's ci>un« nfHg'anenilliiug]!, ijid ought always to be ieiaed upmi when It 
cnn be not'uraKy draiivn, 

! TLd CDBB'ter iDiglit ihow what a irithersd ktid Ibf from tha liLitarf of 
maay of thi»e IndJRn deroteea. wlm, to atociR for ain, or to gKt theinselroc 
idoliied, hold tliiiir arm or nruu up for y/tui. until t1iey get withered. 




THB THjUWISB BYBTBM — BTASE T. 

Now, I ask you, Wsa it: love fur iliv Sublin.th-daj' tJiat induced 
lliein ta watoli JeHUsT No, Sir, that tliei/ vaitjht accuse Aim, 
Tnwhom! You don't know this (fart), tttrefore* I ahall t*II 
you t ft was Irt the chief [iritsta. The chief priesti hated Jcaua ; 
Aii4 tJie Pharisecfl, knowijig tlmt they hatod -•- Jijstis, and ■wished 
to do hJiDhttrm, evea to ... AiV^Aim.tliejwatcheiliin opportunity 
tc tvU thetffi pnc&tB.t Sumv of Ihrnv PtiarLjcm Mi're luuiia- 
lera of tbu Jevfttp biit thoy were Tcry unlilie .. . miitisiers. They 
were very u.nlikGiiiJiiiiit«rswhu jtteaelt the,,. gospel, and ought nil 
to ... be vertj good. Tlie-se priests were ... bad, for tUey deaired 
... What did they deaire or wish to do to Jmiis? To kiU him. 
Tliey wanted to find soiue ... pretence ii{;jiiiist Jesus, that tliey 
niLgilC ... pvt him io death. The Phnriseea, therelb^Q, could 
haw 110 iboi. Iotb for the .,. Sabbath-day. Their motive in 
tvatdiiiig him wna not lovo ...for the Sabbath, hut ... How 
did they feel towards Chiiat f Hatred. Tlielr motive, theOf in 
watching Jesus, was not love to tte ... Sabhath-day, but, ... 
What woa tioir molive i Hatred to C/trisi, and a. deaire to iO' 
form the chief ^■ricHts, who also ... hated him, Whst did they 
think Jesua likely to do? To heal the man leith the withered 
hand. 

We shall now read the nost verse ; 

Verse Third — AU read ia one voiw, that ia.,.in'aiallaM6aiiiiy, 
Find very slowly, and...rftjti'T(c((y. 

" And he aaith unto the man which had 
the withered hand, Stand forth." 

Where do you think the man waa when Jeaua said, Stand 
tbrth ? Wliat part of the HyniigoguB was ho in i? hi tlie fjaci: 
seats. How do yon think so 1 Seeanse Jestt^ Boitl, Stand. /lyrth. 
You think, then , that thia poor man who had the withered hand 



' Tba trniB^T hm dsT«lapel the (-stent ttf tlid tliUdrco'a ImowlBdgE, 

whli-'h i) tliiri. tbnt they do not knowthe Tmme or fart ( he rousts tliere- 

foTG, tell litem; bllC llie l«fiiofl» to he driwn iTDtti tlu! ftct nr fni'fe 1 10 must 

nut. tell; eiifli miut Im plcturecl out, and the; muet, or ouE'lit tub« girU' 

irad to tell lilm. 

t Thpycf cciune IiaawBomiithiiTigiilKiut the priests befO», boC ItUl Cher 

i ooiiced,. lett ever; one dilght bat know. 



THE ma:* wits TBE ■fflTBERBD HAPTI. 

frftft..,!?! a iack rcat. Why ! Seeame fmtvas M tCand forth— 
to wme ^il. Where n^a liv to itand ? In tJie midii. In the 
... middis of the s^rjnai/oijtse. "Before ail ihe .., peof!e, that is. 
before jill theaD proud .,. J'iiariseeB* And for wliat pur post ! 
That they might see Jdm bettaT, That they might see what 
Jeaufl vss.,.^oin'j to do. Whjifc waa ho going to do f To citre 
{!f6 withered hand. Then, tliis mutiwua asked to.,. st^nd forth, 
t>t vathw ooini]]nad«d,.-ro ttand oat from.., the back ssats. And 
why do y(fl\ onll this man ppor 'i Tlio Bihle diMh§ not cnll Jiini 
]M>or! The Pharisees always i^ok the (i€tt giati. Tou think. 
therefore, ho wag a,. ..poor man, and not ... a Pharisse.* Now, 
then, ehildron — Dois the Biblo say there were aeato in the synn- 
gogUB? Lookj if yoti plense, at UiB vcrao. It aimply Bays .:. 
■■ Stand forth" -wlicther ho, or any, nr ... all, had bfren utting, 
we are in>t--toMi hut JesiL"? bade the mB,n...sta,nd, we shnJ] sup- 
pose in the.,, flWtWftf o/"?Ae SffMflrt^W, that he niigbt be-.-fofftf*- 
jiefji, Ey whom ' Sy the Pharisees, all aronnd t]iv,..chvrch. 
We are now speaking of a Jewish, ..sj/JiajOfWCi not a. ChriHtlan 
...church. Th«n, we shall suppose t£to miin standing in the 
Tiiiidd]e of...tte »^}ia(;ogite,y\th... the Pharisees and other... Jewg 
standing... round him. So tliat everyone could see the miraele 
that Jcsua ^tab n)Mi'at,..to tjo, 

TcdloHs as thia process raaj appear aa pfiper, iBOftt ce»la.ui]y 
in actnal practice ft lar^r aniouTi.t of "worda would req^uire to be 
Used tli.in are hero cxiiibited, and bcaidca somo other unperfect 
or improper anBirer& hy the clahln^n, not imaginod Iirhj, wniild 
require to Ik disposed of on Uie pn'nffiph of the ST/stem. For the 
»»ikc, thcreforo, of nam.omhhsg our limited space, in what foll-ow3 
of Ihia lesson, we shall simply state tlie points which may be 
hrought out conjointly with the diUdron, and appUcd hy him to 
thum ineid^ntafly^ oa the trainer proceeds, taking care at thei 
Jaat that the grand Ibsbobs of the whole jHissagi) bo brought out 
clearly, tus., the compassion, omniscienco, and almighty powarof 

JfSUS. 

VoTM Fotirth, — Wits it right in Jesua to heal on Sabbath- 

• Tlietrftiiiep Blurt li0 Ktrntcnt n-itli thU {mtwer, otherwUe "'boiUi eyes 
would bf token off Irom ihe rfHHi3,"Yet, ia reTbing: the leaaoa (as mual), 
ji Btld 13 openod fnr mn Ifr.iTmn-rj.L I^esaoN^ llut ft pgoc mna might be a 
Phncisea Id roal dispoiitlaa k\& eharactiir. 



302 



TB« TlUtimie BTSTBH — WTAffB IT* 



ds^? 'Wi]ir& tho Phu-iaeM rt^ht or wtud^ in njijiOBiiig CbriaL'd 
dMirc to bonl dh thnl d^jr ! Wiiat wia* their motive ? lAliy >(lid 
tb& PliariMoa lixid their pcooe ? V. Fifth, — JowiuluuktHl muiid 
alxiut luni vrJth auger — Waa Lliia Hjjht i DtAri tint ilkc Scrip- 
ture ppeMfit, " Be y« «tigry And HUi liot." TJie coamaiid 
" atpotch fortb" — TUo coafioqiiencu of attcmptiog to do so (in 
fjutli of Christ's pnwer), lluw wiu the man enabled to atr«teh 
forth his nithcred hand ? Could not do it by hJa own strength 
(of course ) — he, howcvtir, xanda the attempt — La l>ehe'red or tuid 
faith in the [Ktwer of J«ui — o* HiAa^ *o he rccdred the powop— 
ha ntretched hia hftlid forth, And it wua iMBtorcd %rlwlo elb titO- 
other. 

JV-0.-^TItese aevorol jniints vUl aU require! to bo hioughl, ur 
" potumJ flutj" slnwlj and proRresaivQly.* 

What bas beeQ faintly exhibited here would oc- 
cupy two UsEons, 3.Dd the after cociduct of the Pbari- 

Bees *' taking counsel together," would occupy the 
time for anotlier. The hymn and prayer ought to be 
in fLccordance with the lesaoo. 



EXAMPLE III. 



STAGE II. 



AN EUBLKM — ^"£V£N Aa A IIKN," &C. 

" Even 33 a. hen gathereth her chiokens 
under her wings," &c. — Matt. xxiiL 37. 

Childranj ] simll see If you remcmtxir the leasons we bud 
liirm^rly from this poaaBga. Tho J^wg h^d klUed many of the 

* Were tliiia Itfieon eoadncted ftt th>i dot^sf Slng« JL aot mure thnnona- 

■Toftlie maiiunt of wornlB would rcfjitite to Tie tusd, from CLBanmuntfif 
> rdJ Meu thn trainer would bare to build npoD, wtlcJi ike clilldfflii 



ETES LB L BEN S-kTWEOBTR HBH BUOOS, STC. 903 

jiropheta whom Goil hud aent to teacU and to.,.^Bin:A (« thtnn, 
Do you remember any «f the proplicta that th^;y kiUcni ! IsttiaA, 
Jeremurh. Any otL^!fs ? Jtd^. Tes, from riglitcoaa Abel, 
■whom Caiiij bJa...hroCher, shvj, down it-. .ZiclMrUdt^ tliB sotl -of 
Baracbiiis, tJld Biblu aaya Got! would ret;|uire their blood of ttiat 
...ijeneration. That is to say, lliat that geDenttion would Im 
[iiinkh^ for all i\iiim...mv/FdiiTa, Erecnusc they had m3i...rej)«tit~ 
ed of thair eina. Gnd had Bent hia Korvants tlie ^prdphL'ts to ,.. 
preach to them- And what did the Jew? do* Kilkdtfigtn: 
miiny of thos& whom God hnd...9<7]:ic, and pow they were fthaut 
to... What won* \iwj &boQt M do? Whoso lifo wtpo they 
about to take away ^ Cliaitt't. AfLei: th>Q<y hitd kiUed God'a 
aorvanta, His-.-propkeiB, they wt^n; about to kDl hiH.,.Son. Aa 
the Bible says. Ills only. . . ^on. Tull me how Jesas feLt when 
he entered tli-e eity. He rod's Kpoii an ns$, Triiif, be rodo upon 
am a% ; hut what did he any ! How did he express or tell hO'W 
he felt ? Se wspt over it. Tea anoth*^ part of the Bible sayHj 
JesBS, th-e Son of God.--UK!p!. He wept wjigm he beheld the city 
of ... JendDXein doomed to ...to be 4eiiroyed. Whethw do yow 
think ill waa gricTed for what tho .tews wer« ctboat to Jo to him- 
eelf. or woa it on their own niteount that he wept ? ( SUcnt, be- 
ing rather too CDRipLoiL.} Did Jesus weep for himself or for tliem ? 
for tlie Jetas. He wept for ... them, becauae they wuro soon ... 
to be dnitrofjed btj the Romant. Ha was not mnjiar.-.himtelf 
He mlElngly gave himsplf tOr,,iistf, Foe whom? For jur," and 
forlhe,..J"(i!KrB. For aUimuikind that,.. Ac/ieve in Mm. Well, 
then, fh.&.i did Jes^us ride into Jeniaalem upon % An ats. And, 
thinking upon wliat was- to happen tu them, ha-.- Wh*it didhs 
do? i/e tuej^t over it. Do' you romewlMr &ay other ocud^iitti 
«*hen Jesus wept ? Ai tJts grave of La^ante. Jesufl wept witli 
Martha and Mary who had, ..fast their brolJter, The Bibk' saja. 
Rejoice vriih them that do rejoice, and ... taaep tvith (A.mji (Adf 
vieap. Jusua, therefore, wept with thoae that...tc£pC. 
Head verse 37. 

" How often wonld I liaYa gathered tliera 
together, even aa a hen gathereth h^r 




cliickens utid«r her winj 

nut." 



and ye vroulrl 



JcH.ua snj6 lie would UfiTe gatliprod thpm togetber, " even as 
A lioo," Cnn yw t?ll mo how n hua gutliora her chickens to- 
jjeUicrS Have any of yen «vcr goen a b*D ^therJHg bar brood 
of clucikeDB togctljcrl Ysi. Sir, wiy vwtJitr hag hern. And 
litLTe yoTU motlior'fl ticiiB any cluctpna? Ttcs, Sir, Ihey havn 
seven rhickcns. One of yoor tuotber'n liens, I suppoBfi, hia .,, a 
preat mantf ehickotie. Tliis girl will t-eU iia if she bns ever seen 
the c]iiplt<->n» oin under tht wings of the mother ^ Yes^ iSiV, 4A« 
cJHwfcj. a»ti they run ututdr her wings. CTiickens ore ... y&nng 
liens. When do they run undCT t]vt vmgs of the motlier hen 1 
Wlicn Umt/ arc friffJitetKd. Faar caiiaeg them ... lo nm tmder 
tJce A«n. Whenever the hen pciN^vus, that is, 9e«s or ... Mi>ij(*8 
there is any ilanger to..Afie chickem, ahe epreada ht'r winga out 
round al-Kiut her body, and ciiea ...What Joca ahe cry I Ckvck, 
fh^ck. And wliatliappenR? They all run wider (iietoingtvifthaT 
...mother.* If you held your fattior's hand in the street on a 
dR,rk...jii"yftf, you -would thlnlc you were... quite safe. Y&uwoiild 
thibk yoiif&clf <\\iitii-.-aa/e from ,-rfa)i<7er. Or if this little girl 
were to be flttackwl by n iog, and her mother took her in her 

amiB, Low would she feel herself? Safe. Quite---«''f/c. "^'ory 
weil, thp chinkcoH ran undev the wuiga of,., Che hen when they 
are ... afraid u/ieiNy hurl. And when they are und«r the ninga 
of the hen, they,,,Mi>iA ihei/ are safe. And are tliey safe, 
think you 'f Yes, Sir. Supjiose a dog or cat weie to mil after 
tlio little cliickena to sciKe tlieia, where would tliey run ? Under 
the icings of the hen. And the chickens woold feel themsolvrs 
,., safi, and a dog or a cat would So afraid to .., cam^ near ihi; 
here for f«lV pf ... having its ey^g picked oat. 

Now. then, children, do you know hew many inhabitants their 
were in JeruaaJera sit that time, that h, when Jeans wua In thii- 
world? M/ty Ikviinand—More than half-a-miUlon, Sir.\ The 
lust nnswcr wan right, chililrctn. .Tenisalem waa an immense 

' A'Ctloa U or great importaDce it tbU »tag'B al tiie eseTt^lae. The tniinipr 
"■"J* spr^Bil tlio lingqrii uf both lianda, mavlii^ thecn cJrcnlnrly raund hit 
'body, HTjd poiailng kl^ fingers to the gnj-und In lailtntioQ of iIlb pinions of 
(the hvo. 
I* Vju-tom utiw«ri, of Foorae, are giTcn in Ibe^llipry. 




BIDLE mAlSTSO — 1lVV.it AS A BEHj ETC. 

ritj lito ... London, and it Mntained inorii tlinn fifty tliouMiuil 
... inhabitant. It contniiied, IM mie teU 70U, JiboTe half-a-iuil- 
Uou uf [)iH)plti — men, wooicn, anJ .,, chiSdfen, It in «.ii4 by Jo- 
sephuit, a ,Tgw, wlio liTcd alH-iit thnt time, ivnd w)!!} wrulc a bouk 
or htatoiy of iho awful destructioD oi ...Jerasaiem. that in tlia 
city and uei^li!wnirbiK>d, nf mea, womon, nnd children jrat to- 
^tlicr, there wtrp destroyed by tbe Romans tirice the number 
ytio state. How mjuiy would that be ''. Ytm sairl alwva ,.. ?i«{^- 
a-miVfiwi*, or 50,000, I aliall tell yon of tfda snd affair, wLich. 
is told by... Whu ^rrote tlie b(w>fc we arc now Bpenking of J 
Josephus. TiiG man lived at t)ie time ol' our SaTiuUF, and 
be BjivR that- tlicro wpra a great many strang«rB gatbRrerl to- 
gether at .Teniaalcni, just Ixifore tlic Roman army pane against 
it, su that ftlthfjuffh tlicifj W(4-e not nearly a million of inlinbit- 
anU in ... Jentsakm, yet tine wny or anotlior, what with (lie 
Eward when thtJy were ... jjghtmp, and by famine and &tljer ... 
things, more than one njillion ppraona were nWia oad otlicnTtHe 
doBtroyed, not nicrely men and women, hut ... lillie children. 
Tcs, — tlip pcoplo not b«inn;ahle to get out of tbe city, ciii neeonnt 
of t!]p Itoman jiraiy that was rnunil ... tfie city, many thousands, 
wanted food so long that ... Wint hapjiPKed, think you ? T^ey 
(i'ed; hut, befnpe thcydie^, thej" wcfa IctiuwH to eat almost any- 
thing thay ooTiItt get; eyen rat? and oih'-'f ... a»ii/ioh, What 
elae would you call these ! Vermin. "What n and condition 
they wore brought to by the Roiiiau nrniy, and Ly foniin.e, cr 
want of ...Jbad ; and what waa stiJl worse, children, tboy fought 
among theniaelves. No wonilcr, then, when Jcsna knew all these 
Bad thing* that were to ... happen, thnt be ... What did he do 
when he looked on the city f Wei>t over it. ,Tmus was sony 
at tb-e puDialinieut thaE was to coino uj^on ... (hem for their ... 
imcAs4ri-eS8, Mention any (if ihime grpat sins ? KiU'ing the pro- 
phets, and rejecting... Cftn'gt, and now tbcy weru about ta...AcU 
Aim. 

But Jcaua said lie would have taken all these peopk-^ill this 
immeuHc nnmher of ... peop/e, under... At> wU>{1k. Look rA 
your liooka. Tli* Bjblo says. " ITow often would 1 liRTe ^alhtred 
thy children togtth^r." J^ua hero saya thnt He would have 
gathered all the children of Jemwileni, not merely tbo little ... 
children, hut the ... big children, all the people of... Jerusaicm, 



909 



THU TaAlWlHO ITSTEM — STAVB t. 



Bnilvr . . . fiis min^. And tlney would be tjulle aJe, ns aafe 
the cli.ii;ke&3 An . ■ unJer the wiv^s eftlie hen. Jeeits had hb 
ttfingw, master. Tliis little boy is quite riglit ; Jeans hml ... na 
mngs. Con jou tell me ol'vliat usetho win^ of ilic hen arc to 
the i^hichcii** To keep them safe. Then, flaj>poBo any of yoo, 
chilifeTir in tlio gallery wtre afraid of bting attacked by awnc' 
aiiiiDH] while you wcno guing borne from school, an^ I wera to 
take jou under my arm, what would my amis he to you ? Pro- 
tect ujr. I ecmld not fly with tuy ... az-iHs, but mj nnua eould... 
Aerp us. My arm flould keep or protect the boy iyc...girl, as the 
...win^i of a hen to ihe.. -Utile chicketts. My anna ave able t4» 
pmtect a ...child, and the wings uftliii ben nnt i^uiUdiBnt protcc- 
tioti to ... liitii cfitckcns. TUcn, to be cuidfF Chfiat'a wings Ik 
to bo under his ... care and ... protection. 

NoiT, would f/ou all be s&ltf ftt this moEQcat wi^rc a ruriouHbull 
or d(^ tn coTno into liiie BclitmL ? No, Sir, there am too many 
of us, Woidd 1 bo Hsfo Huder your winga or ppotecHoni iV&, 
S^, we're /OD wee. Givft me a jirapec wunl for wee. Little. 
Little ia tht ... [tfoper word to ,., iiffe. 

• Xow, ctildren, yon tliink tliat one of you might be safe un- 
dor my ...o/t;is, but tliat the who'll school wonld not Iw aafo. 
Lft ua see what the Bible sajB:— " llow ot'Sea would I have 
gallicred you togetlier" — that meant ... alt the pevple 0/ Jeru- 
salem'— " even a» a. ... hen gathereth her brood under her tcini^s, 
and ye..,KO]i!d nat." (Espwsaed vwy slowly, and in an andgc 
tone &l'vnice.) " And — yc — .-woidd .,, not." Ju3t like tooinajiy 
pcraoaa who wUl upt pat Lhem.ijelTea under CliriBt'a protection. 
They will not comt;.,,(o C/imi-t Tliejwjilnot put tlioir trust in 
...Jesus, or believe.., ire him.\ And although Jemsnlcm waa a 
largo ftity, aliB{)st ns large ss...Londiin, yet Jesus says lie would 
often hnve taken the whole hujidrads of thousands of the. jjf(jp/« 
of the ... Jews who lived ... in JiirMSatem, under Ilia ifingH, and 
keep thcM all (juite ... *a/e. Could I or any here do Ihat ? JXo, 
Sir. Wllo COtdd do that ? God. God oolyconld do ... such a 
thing. Then, who must Jesus Chriat be? God. But Jesus 



* Plir^iRnl i^s«rci]N mmC not bi> omitlHil, ta ke«p np the HtCenUou la 

CDDjuii<;tiua wiih pJctaHoi ant. 
t [iLcidpntal leBBOTi, 
% InpSdvnCnlle'nDDi 



BIBLE IRAWrflB AS TBB BBADQW OF i. dBELLT SOCX- 807 

wept wlien li* looked on Jerusaloin, At anuther ttino vihca Je- 
Bua looked on ibat largo city, iloomeii to deBtructioQ for its 
gr&ii ... mckc^jiess ... What did ho do? He tcepl (tier it. 
Toil remenjber, aluo, that Je4asiTejit,..«( the grave of JLnzarus. 
It is aaiii in tliat mtereating nficouuL, oa afiproat-Uiig tbo gmve, 
... Jesws !cejii. Can Gtxl weep, think you, cliildreii * No, Sir. 
God cMinot .,. \oecp or sh-L'-d tears an ... we </o, Uut iiii,'a9,...wifpi, 
Thiai ffbsLt rouat Jcana bo ? jVan, Why f Becaune he wept. 
Mon because \i.e ,,.v?epl, and... Whiit else was hn !>mi(loB 
man ? Or^t/. Godj because he ,., could take all Jerunaltiju wi- 
der his K'aiffg, or under ... his care and .„ keeping. Tlieu. wlmt 
mnat Jesua Cliriat huh-liotK God and ware. 

^ £TAGE ir. 

^^^^K AK ZMBLSX PICTOBB& OUT. ^^^| 

" Ag the aliadow of a great rock in a weary 
land." — Isiuah XXxii. 2. 

* You niniemberf cMldrenp we had one or two laaaona from 
this versa Bonie tirae ago, and -a-c ahall now have one from th« 
lafittflauac. Read it very alowly after me.^" Aa tho sliadow 
«r H great rock iti a weaiy hiiid." 

You told Die twfoFi: that tlie " mm " nho i^ ss u hidin^'-phicQ 
iVoQi the wiad ib the ... man Chrisl Jesus. TLit when the niud 
hlew violently, ho was aa a ... ftidinff-place — a place of ... 
shelter, and. whicn the Letnjicst ... came oti. What do you racaii 
hy a toinpcfit ? A t^ery seuere sfoj-m— a. utorm so aevcra that ... 
averif thing is carried le/ore U, W^ll, nhen a. tT.ivG[l)>r is otw- 
taken with a templet, he, tliat is, the ... traveller, rctjuirea not 
iQftrtly a, hiding-place, but a ... What is it said God woiild be 
from the tempest ? A coueri. That... God w<jiuld lie not merdy 
a ... fuding-plaee, but ... a covert, auint^tlung complmdy tu ... 
cover tfis traveller in from ... the tempest. And that in those 

' After thu ubqhI prrlltninaritis, loi-luiliD^ Tili^'ai'ml ui'iviMnr'nu nnd 
nrrnnKGnnents, ncid rendiu? llic ivbule v^rse ivith iki' cliiMrBn. Miuler— 
A iQRji thail ba-^Scliolaj— u ifinii iliall tie — n hidiog-pUco fraio 
lli« ivju-d— a hiddiu piaat from the UPtncf, Jks, 



mz TRA.iHTNe' sTnrai — stags it. 

lirv hot countries, wUat would Cbrlst belike? A.i riven of 
tcater. Aa rirera i»f water in ... a drtj place, IVlio will rise up 
and explain ttii^ Bubdiancc of oar loai lesaona -on iliitt ])iuiiAgG ? 
(Several hands urc iip.) Jane, you explained last Ic&son. 
H'e fllinll take Tliuiuna tliis time. Thomaa, what do yon say 
sliout tilt' li [fling- place. Yau told u«. Sir, that in the land of 
Pateitine the ptopte were freq^ejitln overtaken with drtadfkt 
teindSf more severe than m fAi> cQtnli'y^ und llisl the sand and 
duitrtse so much that the trtii/ellera required a hidiny-place ; 
end tliero being no trees or shelter, pariicularlj in the ilesert, 
tlint whftn ... ihe storm aronef thei; were like tu be destrmjed, 
Titiiess theij hadahiding-plnce, skitaething to ... shelter thetn 
from the Sii/tm, 

Now. Ajnes, what do you say about " » coveTt from thetem- 
pcat ?" A lii<]iiig- place might Jo to ... keep ws frcoi a stronff 
wind, hut ... a tempent being more terrible still, requires a co- 
virt. Wliy? Jlecatise the dwit Jliet much higher, sind In ... 
larcier quanlilks ; nnd wliat C-lse ? Might bury the penon in 
it. Very riglit, Agncs. Now, sevEral othere held ont theip 
liand, what doi you say ahoiat " Riveraof water in a dry place ?"• 
All the gKlleiy T»iil answer. [ShnuMei's back, heola ... close. 
hnnds ... ow knees. ) Chrifit ia said to he to hia people wh^en they 
are ... diitresned by the starm ... of affHetion, as ... a kiding- 
pface, and wh-cn theac ai-c mutst acTer*, Ti'hat is he said to be ? 
As a covert from the tempest. A tempest ia like to ... carnj 
£tertf thing befure it, twcs, and ... houxes^ wd i^verr/ thing, so 
ihut it ... ts impossHle It stand afjaimt it. Whjit condition 
ivould you expect e. person to he in ivfio had suffered n storm or 
tempest, with clouds of dust flying about him ? Vertj tkirstif, 
veiy chfihj. Now, Rolwrt, what do yon say about " the rivera 
of wnter ! What -would the trsvelle!' do, were hu tti siiet>t wUh 
a river ? He lOmtld lake o huth. Aflci vhat else- ? A capital 
gond drink. liVb<;tber would ho baths or drink fii'st. think you I 
Drink. Hs urouid da both. You think ho^voiikl IwLU ... hatha 
and tiiiiih at (he same time. Why ! He trrould be so bitmintf 
and thirsty. 



* Tbii, oFcoaTJ«, IB aneTe T^ti^falof wliftt |]i«y ft^rai«1r w«re CralOfd 



^ 



brBLB TBAlSnSCJ — AS THE BHiDOW OF A OBEAT HOCK, 300 

Wlien GoA'b people, in this wuild, are so troubled and dis- 
trDSBw]. what i& C3ir!at J^^Mia aaid toljo... Fir&t f •' As a hiding- 
place frotn. the wind." snd ... " a covert ftom the tempest" ... 
•' as rivers of water in a dry place i" but there HMinctliiiigclM 
in alKiiTWi, drj, destrt land, wMcli i^freahes & LravelliT wWn 
the aun ia very hot. Wliat do you thirlt that, may Iw 1 Look 
at ywr hocks, if you pleaac, and rend after me. 

" A3 tliQ shadow of a great rock in a 
wear^ lanJ."* 

You Gee the san sluncs through this window, Is there nny 
sliadow there ? Show rae a, ahudow. That is a shadow bchmd 
the chair. Sir- Is there nny other? Behind the book-stand. 
Mt hftlld pla-ced 8O, behind the ... ehair^ or the ... hook^itatid, 
does not receive -,. fAe Tfaj.mf (He $iiii. My hsind kept in ... 
this shadoiP, ivUl not he ... so Aot !\s iiow,vbea.ihs ... sua shines 
an'l, a,3 when th.e sud ehiiiea ... iiprm it. 

Now, chihiren, we ahall su[ipoflo u. man traTDlliTig in a weary 
land. What do you mean by« weary hind? A land wJitreone 
is tegarif, Titib ; but wliy ia Lt calltd wBilry ? W'hnt makes 
the traveller weary T TTie heat and lAirstiJiesa. Yoii lUrnn 
that he wiU bit very ... thirsty and ... heated in such a land as 
we are ... speakhxg about. How 13 the euu? J'eri/hat, und 
therefore tlmt it will be to him s. ... mearif land. People aomo- 
tJDioa Bay, vh&t a weary world. 'Whiin du they say tliis i 
TF/i«n iheg are in irouhle ; ^hen the^y At« afflkt^d very .,, 

Tell rae, children, what country is Isaiah tlje prophet speaking; 
about ? Ia it a t-old or hot eoiintry ? A hat country. Why ia 
it a hot country ? What is the name of the eountry J you will 
remember I told you fcurxnerly ... Patestiiie. Paleatlno fs s. hot 
country. Why ? Look at the g^loL* or map, cliildren, and tell 
me why ? It ia near the equator. Sir. And I told you that 
tlioBB countries near ... the vjualor wure ... hot countries, Im»- 
cau3c ... Why are they hot 'i BeeauBe the sun k ... perpen.- 



• Thifl Ti«w requires to be pliiturei out, maWnj uw of all tlie clilldren'f 
previous l(ji«wlud.Ke, 



SIO 



THE TRATJTIKa BT5TEM — STA&E U. 



dicular. or ... nearly pef}>e»dicu!itr. Were yoa walking along 
the street in n very liot Bununcr itay, tind tlio san Bhiiiin;; very 
brig);tly, wlilch aide would you wiilk <mi i The shady side, 
the aide which is .^. shaded by the houses. Or, mptb yoa 
walking in the wiuntry, yoii wouW liko to be ... Where would 
you like to bo ! Under trees. Ton would like to be undec & 
treo Or ... shade. Why? To keep our heads Jram the heat of 
the sun. 

Now, cMldriMi, it is said that Cliriat will ho to hia peoplo, 
that is, ihtuso that ... fothm him, beeaiiac they ... love him, 
Clirist will tw to hia people as a flhadoir of ... a great rock. 
Why a gTnat rock, and not a small rwlt * Wh^t is a rack ? A 
iarge stone. No iluubt, a rock is a ln.1^0 atotis. Would yon call 
a InrgQ stoac the size of this table, a ktr^c ro«k 1 No, Sir, much 
larger. How large, think you H Like a house. Woulld a wall 
the height of this fcmuti not nhellpr yura frorei tho sun ? Wert 
yon ievBT aliaded by n wall on one eido of tho road ? yes. Sir, 
lull the sun is straight up, Whoro ? In PalesUnv, and, tlmrft- 
fxive, you think, nhilc a w&Il tlie height of this ccihng might 
ahado you from tlie rays of ... the sun m this coantrj', that it 
would ... not do so in Pahsline. Why ? Because ike sun u 
perpendicular above oar heads, nenrly ... perpcndiadar. Too 
think that a smnll rock would not ... do, bat a ... great roek 
utotild do ii. 

Look at this black hoard- Tou eee what 1 bave drawn. Wc 
shall supjio^o this a Email rock, and th&t ... a largerock. If the 
auu were perpendicular, that ia, straight abnirc our licadB, would 
you be shaded were you standing ^r sitting nt tho Iwttftiii of 
eithet the tmo or the other of these mcks * Vss, Sir- Olwerro, 
cliildren, if the sun were ishiuing donii from here (the top), whera 
would it ahiue upon a man standing here ? (th^ bottom). His 
head. Supposing, then, the rocks to be qnitu perjicrdieular, or 
... s^wnre from top to bottO'm, what differenpo would tho large 
rock rnnka to tho smAll one ? (Silent.) Poes tto sun, tveit at 
in.id'^Byr iippcaf to lie iicmediataly above the heads of the poopje 
of PalesLinei I Are its rays pcrpcndicLilar ? Louk at tbc mnp. 
No, Sir, not perp&idicitiar. Tho raya of the sun are ... nearfy 
yerpendicuiar. as you told me before, but .■• not quite perpendt- 
utar, Well, if not q^uJte perpondicular, tie aun will he ... h^re 



BIBLE TRilHIHB — A& TSB SHADOW OS . 



iT KOCK. 311 



(a Utile to the one aiilo),>uiil if Idrawaatraiglit liin!tliJ».,,T4!ay. 
for yon facnw light, or the raya of the ... sun wo arc unw speak- 
ing LbtiUt, go ,-, quite siraight,^ and it' I bring; a straight line 
tLJB wfty iKtn tli9 sun. tg thfi to|» of tlic v<x\l, And from tte tci]> 
of... ^At^ rocA to wherQlLe man is aiippciAed to !». what will 
faaj!]Hn i He wiil be in. a s/iadcw, just att my liand iwvr is io 
the shadow of thiacliair, or this ... hoak-slatul. Under which 
of the mcka w{)iild the man have the givater sbi'u]f>w ! Uadtr 
th& Ifo-^e one, just aa you. see on . . . the black loatd. All roek», 
chiiiclreii, itre nvt ^iju^^r^i lil^^ tLci.<iu I have ... draicn an tha hu&rd, 
nor are they all .,, perpendicular. Hut whether they nre iiiito 
pcrpendieular or ... not, you aao that a. largt! rock will j^ivo (he 
... best sliadotB or ... ehade — this greater the Bhodow, tiic lucro 
will the weary travcUer be ... refreshed. Why ? SEcause the 
lar^t: shads tBiU make lh£ shaded pfa^e coaler. Let nil: UjU ycjH, 
tlinl in Ibesc viiAty lands tb.o traydJer Biny walk uiiiii;f miiei 
under the ... bvrniTiff sun, without finding a houae or a tree, or 
even a amaU bubh to bu ,.. a shade to him. 

Saw, children, Cluiaf, ia said to he a groat numlicr of tbingq 
to hiB pooplo. Mention a few of thosG. What leBsona wprc wo 
reviging just eow? ■■ A hidin^-phtce from the -.- (M w'^J,'" 
"A Covert from Che tempest." As rii-ora «f ... loater in a dry 
place. Mention, a few tilings wliich Christ in aaiil to be to his 
])e&)do. A Tcck 111 ... stand upon. A star to ... tjuide ua. A 
refuge to ... the oppressed. And what is he said to be in our 
le^on to-day t ■" As the shadow of a great rock in a wetuy 
land." When his people are aflUct^ apd distressed, like .., the 

traveller in the iceoru iand, what wiC Christ bo to liitii ? Af 
the sftadow of a ^eal roefi. not cierely b* a Bmall ^o^:^i, wUich 
would nut ... shade him siclficienlly, but ... os a yreal rvek. In 
another lesaon it is said, " We shnll sit under the Eluidow of 
his wings with great delight," So the travcllo]' wniekl «it nnder 
the ahadow of the ... rock with ... ^eat delight. Christ's peu- 
pl(t, you Bay, ehildrcn, Rtc tlioae wlig I'oUuw ... God, Hod ^\ii 
their trust ... in kirn, Chiiat ia <jOinpanjd in our lei^aon to' ... 
a great rock, the shadow ... afa great rock. Scppnae the man 
travelling in the wenry rftfiDrt did not ^niinder the nlmitow, what 

• Thisia [LD-t llie time, of coarK, la tESt-h the rerrartliiiK influence' of the 
BtniMplisrfl oa th« rnya of the ean. A itraight Line is inffieieaUr eKplioit. 




3l2 THE THAISIHG STSTSM — STABE HI. 

would hnppn-n. ? He would not get cooled. He would not ^DJnjr 
tlie ... shadow. Well, nupp<iae. nlien'vreiirif ir distrrasor trouble, 
that we do not go to Clirwt, wlint will liap|wu i We wavld aot 
J* mpported, we would not 1w ... Tefreshed. In a11 the ti-m]« 
and Hltiicticina ot'lhi^ life, wLen th<^ Nuul ia IViint AUil Wi^firieil, 
what j» Chmt tu liis jieople ? Aft: u cAiii]r.Dic, comfortuijr snA ... 
refreihiiiy, b3 ... a sfiwhu: i'rora tlio .,. fretrl o/iAc sun in a de- 
nert land. And you miH, mnny |>eD;)le wlion dii.streswJ in tWm 
world fful it to ho ... a wean/ land. Wliun you Hi-e in troiibls 
and distrcM. children fl'uf wo mttat all CTpcct to liflvu our 
tr<Hl^fles|, when j-o*i are troulikd, to wliOBi ought you tn jfo for 
nlk-f f J"y Gcrf. To God, tlirougli .„ dirkt. who will b« t9 
jQu B» ... fAif ihndoK vfa ffre^t rocfi in a weart/ land, 

STAGE nr. 

"as the riAET PANTGTn," iSec 

In tbia atage of tratniag, the children aPe supposed 
to have acf^mTed a considerable amount of Scriptural 
knowkdgc;. 

" Aa tbe hart panietli after the water brooks, aa 
panteth my soul after thee, O God." — Paalm xlii. 1^ 

MINTS TO BE rrcTUPEii Oct. 

1. Na-twral history of the hart.— 2. Water brooks. 
— B. Sometimes dried np, why bo. — 4. Nature of the 
climate. — 5. Dnst— C. Heat— 7. Panting — 8. Long- 
ing for, and seeking after springs previously drank of. 
— 9- Character of tbe Pealniiat. — 10. CircuuiataDoeg 
then pkcfid jfi— deprived of public ordtnancea for- 
merly enjoyed, — 11. So pantath my soul, ffec. — 12. 
liftL'i- whom? 
CIiii'OL'en, — Tbe BiUo in full of inuigery luid Qmbl«ma dlntwa 



9fi AS rrSE MAM tlKTETHj ETC. 

, from nmtiire am] tlie artii of life. Tlic vci"m ynu have uitw rend 
is ... of that desarijiriiaii, niid is fiiUnf ... natural imagery. 

I must tell you ctkilJien, I>i'lbre we commencti our lesion, tliat 
it ia BuppoMiI ihia jisftlrti was wrill.;n by David, wfio was ubllged 
to flee frool Lis enemlGij. to tliic latid uf Jin'dan. aud tljQ.t, wheo 
tliert', lie [irtitmbly tottk up Etis aljodc in the DiuuiiUiiii!<, away 
from the: piiMie woraliip of Gad's ... house, and samm^ tlie Uarlti 
running ... a^oul the hills, find putitinj!; t'ur tLlrsl. most likely 
induced liim to uso tlio ... yfhai nictapLflr or emblenii diJ ho 
Bso ?■ Look at your iwoka. Dnvid Bays, " As tho hait patiteth 
after the ... water brooks" {tj^ 0Di aMldftn), " So pnnteth my 
soul after ih^e, O God," 

The firat thing we HHtat Speak alm-ut in this pioturi" In ih^ ■■■ 
hart. What is a liart ? Can you t«U mo any other na.mcs ^iven 
to Llie hart? Stag — deer — ffaselle. Very riglit ; i\wix fice 
najuea given to ... this animal or ... species, 

Wellj iu tills verse the name of this animal or ... species is 
is called ..- thi! hart. I fr&9ujae you have seen what ia called a 
stag, or, if not, you Jinvc seen tiie ... picture nfone, iiiid tlicru- 
fure I need not dc^ribc it to you. In it a Blow or quith moTing 
nniuiaL? Swift. It ... mas very stoifilif. 

IVliat countm^ du harts cluutly li?e in f JlfouTttainota coun- 
tries. Wliy do you think ao S The Sidle tayt, "Like a- younrf 
roe upon the mouiUaina." 

Audfi young rue is... a young hait." Well, tlmt ia onu ppoof 
that ttifv live in tho moiintaiiis ; hut con they live in plains % 
Yes, Sir; ihey lim in plains in gtJitiemen' s paiks, whwh are 
soxaetimfv ... plain, or nearly ... level. 

"Vei7 wg!I, Imt when aSlo-wed to roapa fi-eely and ,,. mucureUff, 
tlie-y ... prefer the mountains. Where la tlie hart spoken of iu 
this piwUn supiMjBed to live i Is it in a Wiirm or ralil country, 
lltink you i A team cufintri/. 

Wliy? ... Bring down the map, children, and ahuw the 
toiihtiy or conntrles you suppose to bo lueftnt. (The map at 
Paleatiae ia preaented.) Poitit vut tliose parta you tlilrtk hHta 
live In. You think thu psalmist mt^aus ... the desert mifuniain- 
OHH ptirts nf Palestine vrhero ... tfte hart it to be fo^uid.* 

* Ab tbe 'Cliildreu advance inkn(i»-1e[lg(-,thBTiireeiinblp4lo AU in tiiQgcr 
GlJlpBei, BD lliat uDB ur two Wflrdj uf a icuteui^G being glceQi Ibe cliild cr 



TBB TRjUKTHO system — SFiOE Itl, 

And PalaUne is ,.. ViHiat sort of a oiurtryl Mhunt-aincvs 
cotMtryf and ,., t<efy hot. Now, wo Tuiwt gut sinartly uu. TUa 
hurt livM in n „. kctf coftHlrp, ami in a inountttinots part »f .,. 
a hat rauntrtf, where the Eun sbiDCS ... IIow ? Nsarly par/teit- 
dicutariif over the head ; anil, tlicrefoppj diirmg a great part of 
thfl jear, tbc grnimit must be ... very hot and dry. In what 
Ktatc (rill the soil be ? Parched and duitff. And in mbimtMii- 
0U9 oonntrieH, where tliD sun is very hct, wk&t fullowa I 7^e 
rivefg or streams. Give me onotlier word. Look at the 
veree, Tlio ... brcofis dry vp. It ia then a ilry anil ... ihiratj/ 
/and, where no mater is. If yoii turn up your Blljto to Job, 
cb.ip. vi. \eT. 15, it Ih saifl, " AjiJ &s the Btrtams of brooks they 
jmaiawjiy," Bhuviiiij^ tliat brooka in that hot climate are .*. B*ry 
ojif (o poiM airajf, or ... */n/ w/f. 

Tell mt, children, what ynu mean !iy panting ? Show me what 
panting b ? Tiiiu boy thinks it. is simply opening tlie mouth.* 
Have you ever &wn a ilo^j: walking in 4 very hot, Jcsty day, aft^r 
haringruu a. long way? yes, Sir, ii opea^ in «unitL Doea 
it simply ojren its mouLh as tliis hoy i!m1 ! It pants this aajt. 
Jt ftch vtieasif. Whyuneaay? Becaune it is weary and thirsty. 
Weary aiiJ Ihiraty from .., the heat, and ib thiraty dag (Imt is 
weary an^l vl-iy ... hot. would, like the hurt ... What would it 
wi?h ! To have a drink, or perhaps, to ... phuffc m the hrock. 
or whst had Iha Ijort dmnk before ? T/te broofts. Well— the 
liart having hoth drank ... of the hronk, and ... planijfd in ike 
brook l/efi>re, longed and „, panted to do so again. In thia Bad 
condition, thorofore, beated,,,. tkifftytaii....paMinp,..nni.l Funn- 
ing about, Kikiny for tlie ictt^er ArowAs, how would the hart feel I 
Would lie bo satbificd to lie down? No, Sir: ven/ anxious. 
And whnt more 'i Lofiging trnd panting for water , not at rest 
lecfiUBe it...^?( the want of nomelhin^ it Could not got &i,.Jhat 
tiijle, had that wna ... the water brooks. 

N«w, let OS look at the vcrRe^ nrnJ aee in what staie or ... con- 

Bdult will rGHiiIily Hpprebend the ld«ii to iK< Ailed lu *if BiitwfTfld in any 

fBft .a/thii le-ntenc^. 

*- Tho trainer oiiglit (a tok^nQtli^ngfor grantcil, ntiould It form sfuudn- 

»entdl poJfltofUiB li.'Hort. Tli& rhild ranj hn»a been rnMleatWfl wJien 
eimUnr poililB had fafmetljbcpn hrimghtont ; orliDmay be ft new irLolaf. 

Whlcli*vM wftif, t]i« r^rUfli, ^n^n ti> tilno^teiiithi of the gnll^ri' wto do 
Icaciw ic, li an Imparturt rcfrublng of the tnoiDorf . 



BIJTLE TBAnnWI — AS TITK BAUT rAKTBTHj "ETC. 81 S 

ditien the hart is supposed tg be. Repent it, if you inlenuw, e^di 
wgird BC|nitiLtcly, slowly, and distinctly. " As the hart paateth 
after the iealer broois.'' What is a brrwb ? A small, dear, 
ntnninff stream, iiat a miiilily, stB^ET>a-nt ...pool Pn you tliink 
the hart had drank of a lirwk U-lbro ! Yes, ehe U woald nvt 
have punted for it. Wiat miikca the hart so Ttiry tbiratj ? Se- 
cause it runs about the dry hills, where there is ml* water. Anil 
ta the hfu^ Api^DiS .,. iliMCiuCh, find ... pants Jbr water, (itid rtiiM 
{ibdut it, raJ3ca the ... What (io yon think it wtiaes ) TTit ^ub* 
into its MQuik, whicii ... inertasea its ihirsl, nad oiraws tliie h*rt 
to long miii'o than ... ever for ,,, the brooks ofwhitih it hod Jor- 
merlif drank, but which are now ... dried tip, or perhaps lit .,, a 
great distance. What would you expect tha hart to do wero it 
to rcBch 11 hrook ! DrinA pientifull^. nnd »!»,., p^un^ff i'nlo f/ie 
Vttf^i'. Why f To Cvoi&iiA ... refresh ittelf. 

Now, ehiklren, what doos the Psalmidt Bay lit the end of this 
verse? '■ So paateth ray soml ojier thee, O God-' The hart 
pant>eth allei- something, so did ...David. The onn; pumted ... 
/or wat^r Itrt/Qha, th« other ... panted for God, The b.wt for- 
merly had drank ... of the vtatt-r brooks, and, beinp vtrj thirsty, 
St ... panted for them again.. David luid tantcd of the ... water 
ef li/e, through tha puhlic ordinance? of... tin temple- Think, 
cliUdrea. Wto built tho temple ? Solomon. And Solomoii was 
D*vid'B ... son. Oh. it waa the tahcmacle, Sir. The „. laher- 
nacle. And being dpprived of what lie had formerly . . , enjoyed. 
What had he formerly enjoyed ? The worship of God in the ta- 
bemac^e, anil, thorefure, he longed .., for it again. He loreid 
God, Rnd, therefore, lis thirsted, as it were, ...f/^^ hi'm; ju^t 89 
the hart Wed ,,. thu wafer hr&ohs, and ,., panted for them." 

Now, children, I wiaii to know yuur ideas of what David 
menna, when h&aaya that be panlwl after God, as arJently as 
the hsrt did after thf water brooks ? How did he drink of api- 
ritual streams ? Thinking about good thint/i. Any thing etee t 
Dj reeding the Scriptures 1 



* T^eblPEEing^nf thegcopel are lo frei|ii«iUy dkpft'riM.liiDiin' (he-Fm. 
blpm of wa.CM, wr-lls of vv-B.ti<'r, living; vt^lett, riven, ^CrMina, ItiUi^UiiLE, 
ipriDgB, brooks 1i>-thowaj, Ar., LbiBt tLe tr^ner, during tilt I, and Butiw- 

i|il:«nt Ii>B«OD«, Eciglit uttsWy e^Dllu-ga in ilrirl Bnnlogf Wltb Uie texCi OUi 
Umltii [orbLil aljDoat uuj cxteuEiou of tbia leBaoa. 



31(3 



THE TliAISISO SYSTEM — ffPAGE TJt. 



Vvry well, l«C roe in what oth'er wny DavM caiOd Mnviprea i 
witb GoJ, besides rcuJing tlie Str'ijiturL'B t lii/ praj/ft. HoldiDj 
tNMntaunion ..,u)t'fA Gu^ in ... 8£tT>fC, ELDft in ...pMic. 

Sou mean public and ... private warsliip. 

Hud Dariil toatcd of tUest: tUingG bcfuro, think }-uu ^ Ves. 

Waa liu now deprived «f tiipia ! ( Silunt.) 

Do joa (bitik that if DhyjiIh the man nPter God'a own heart, 
ha^ actually bctMi In |>o«si>a«iun uf tliuEO btu««ing« at tli« tiuie h& 
vrrata this pBaljii, Le would tiavi! pauttid fur tbemJ 

No, Sir, he desired to have thein; lie dr.Vired to hove what 
he httd ,., not ffoc, but what formerTy lie ... had aperkncidi 
Just SH Liu.' luirt piuitL^d iW tlLoso ... itreams uf wliiuli it hsA tar- 
merly ...draxfi. 

Was Dnvid deprir^ of evaiy meatiB ofintereourse with Godf 
No, Sir, he could proy. Although he wns huDted like ... a hart 
and away ...from puhKc /n-dinances. At the close ol' tliia lesson 
or at any subsec^ue&t period iidjdugous poinla mn.y be brought 
out, Scripturg Leiii.gt\ill of such Gmblcma bs the objvst of tha 
tort, — " Springa of water," ■" Liring BtreamB," "Kivers," Ac, 
iie. 

The Bible trainer musl ngt plnit applying the Iraaou to the 
circumstiwioes «f cliildicn who dt> uot loiig after the worship of 
God, a.ad whu iu the sanctiinry, ii^eteud of panting, like Darid, 
are found net tinfreqnentiy half aslcc'p. 

Two Tersea oi'tho 43d Psalm may now be song. 

N.B, — Two or three questions, aiid a very few cUipiea, will ha 
ftnUJid (juite sufficient io analyse and bring out the meaning of 
two vorees, bcft)io heing^ eung, at each Biblo training Icsewi, »nd 
which ought not to oe^ii]>y more flnie than fi-om tlint! to five 
minntea. Fur tlie first few months, however, tJio trainer genor- 
aUy requires a. little longer. 

Wo had intended presenting the student with 
akelchea of tlie ontliiifs of a few Bible tnLiiiiiJf^ l^ssong. 
Our limita, lioweveT, forbid their insertion. Wa 
muBtj therefore, refer to the smaller pnblication, 
" Bible Traiuicg," 7th edition. 



DTEIB TRAlMIMe — THE TEHM WBDOM. 



517 



A SINGLE TERM PICTURED OUT. 



WKSDOlf. 



The distinctioD bebrecn tGachiug and ti'&inlng, and the luefii- 
cfloy of more verKil aiiawera to cammutiicato iiliais, witho-ut pie- 
tuiiibg out, will nppejir from tlie I'ollciwiDg Htatfmont ; 

TLore U ««? wgrd Bfloro Im^ioKaRt, or leas underatood, thau the 
tunu, Wrspoii, We haTo jiiit tliB ij^catioD, What do you ull'uh 
by vriaduiu ? to cliildrcn iadliiidudEy, and to- IhItip ethools coUeet- 
ivply, and tbo unifomi answer Una been, Knauiiedgc. Jvjiow- 
lodge, they say, is wiadetn ; Ts-isdoni and knowk^dgc are nnder- 
atood to bo jicrteftly synonyninus tenns. 

There Jire voTy many passiigca in Spriptnre in. whioh " ivis- 
doni,'" "wist"," ite. are jnentioned, and thPW Tr(.F<'? fonTi iLio Itcy- 
Etonaof the whole Ic»mr to be drawn, TVe ha.TQ Cfrusted au ai 
such pae&ages, eiLilimciitig tlic most impoi'taiit of nil [jracticjil 
Ie«j^uii», Foe esamplc, f.Le parable of the nisc and rudlsli vir- 
giria ; the emblem, "bo wiflo a» se 17)0 nts, and luLrmlfisa as doves.' " 
'■ WIadf.im'8 wayFi arc waya of pleaflantneas," ■' So Icaeh ua to 
number mir daj-s, tli.it w-o may apply nur hearts untn TrisdoiB," 
■' Walk not aa I'ools. but Ks wisev" " The fear of the Lord is the 
boginhingof wjadom, *(!. <£<', 

IVe lind oceaBLon ]at».'!y to ViBit tkrcu large bcIiouU, ombfacing 
together alKrut $50 childrcMi, well msiTuHed. Each of the Jliitle 
lessons upon ivliich we w-cro inTited to esaniinc the cliihhrn, 
included the termft, wisdom or wise, nnd in each caae wc put tlie 
rincstion, in some mch icay aa follows ; What la wisdom, chil- 
dren ? Wi^it d:> you Eneaa by irisdom f (Acswt-r.) Kntnohdije. 
Any thing cLw? Nv, Sir, Wisdom you say U... Knoiclfage, 
and hnonled^... IS uijWom. When yon know a tiling what 
more ought yon to httce. { Silent.) Thinh, if wUdom bo nnj 



tSX TEAinNO VTWB3M. 

Mug besides luiowlcO^ro. Yqq thiuk Ltiut to he yriso ia to ... 
have hnowktlffe. Jinvr, childran. I slmlt tell jon ttiat wieiJoin. 
or Iteittg wise, in ftomeUiing more thnn fcnowli>dgc, instnictioa, or 
UBtlcMtandi Mg. " • 

Iict use Biipitose tlhat your fotbcr or mother were to mme into 
tUia rtx>iin just ncnr, (I preBuma you would bellcvo what joar 
ffttbiT or your mothor anid ?) 

Well, suppoae tliat your father or motbt^i', or any one, whose 
word you would l>e!ievc, were to como into \lus roam nt thid 
HKjment, and to any, ChUdnn, tbo iiuiise is burning nboTc your 
hen/1 ; if you do UDt instantly run out by the door, ycm will he 
buried in the mins. for the roof ia jiLat about t« fiill in. llow 
would you feL'l? Frightened. Quito right, you would... fre 
frightened tit knowing thattho ... house v.vi tiirninir tiUivc your 
head. Wens I or uny otlier person to tell you thia, wliat would 
you hfive received? A.Jrujhl, — knavsladge, Sir. Sooia... m- 
Jbrmatton, Toli would know that ... the house was huming. 
Tou would have roecivcd some... knowiedye. And you wuuld 
also ... Wlmt would it Im to you if stated in plain words by your 
father wr mothtr! Tou would ... uadirftmnd it. Ton would 
both ^in^lw a.n<l ..- iiniierstand that the hoiisu vaa ...tiurningi. 
And if you both knew and ucdei's.tHSod wlmt the peiBon said. 
what would that ho to you? lunlrtiction, Supposi', then, 
that you hml been infitructtd aud understixMi, and ... f/nero that 
the house wns burning at this moment, und the roof ro-ady to 
fall H.b&ul your €Jir»f and tliat you sat atJl U[>&n your seats. 
■WTiattheu? {1110 cliiJdren in gacJi of th^c Mhwls, prtinlly 
porcoivinj their error, sroiW or ^urat into laughter.ff Again, 
children, I B*k you. What is wiBdom ? What ia it to he wiso i 
(Xo answer.} Isit linowledgo — uiidcralandirfr? Ia it Instruc- 
tion? (Children are silent.) Is to know, and to uaderatuiiid;, 
nnd to be instructed in a thing, wisdom ? or in it something 
mo'tti? SomeUmg raore- What, then, is- wiadom, bcBides. 
Efuming out. That ia to any, wt-re you in ait still — when the 
roof was about to ...Jail in — would be ...Jijffif. Tou would be 



• Tills iQi»re urbal cxjilanniitiin will lir riuni] not tn rcitvey the iden. 
I Tliaiiiearif kinjwteiJgHlimng wUdoni, iiT tlintto knuvrio to Uv wiw. ia 
pprfectly aLiiLlo the eifstlnB prHctiptl opro? lo uducHtien, that monU iu- 

fliru(tU(iaaa.J.mor&L trMtilag nn^LboaamethJiig. 



DIBLE TRAIHIKG THE TERM IVISEOS!. 



I 



,..fioh, fir ...foolish, but if you mn out, you woulif he ... wise. 
To sit still Would be ...foolishness, nr ...faUjf, and to 1:^11 out 
70ul(l hi; ... wisdata. Still I wish to know tL>e mQaluiig of the 
Uroi wbdoiu. "What tlo yofl in eon by wisdum ? iJoing, Very 
right, chJldroa, wisdom is ... doing ; but would you Im dQlngiuiy 
thing were you, iiist*!a(l of running oiil of the door, to runup 
flairs into the midst of the fins ? Would thnt lie doing ? Yis, 
Sir, but that wouItS be dainy wron^. You would be -. hiimcd. 
You wotiM bo doing sonietbing. but j'ou would be acting... 
faUshljf. X"ou would uol ... be wise, Vou wouM not be noting 
wisely did you not ... run out of the houne.. You would say ho 
B wiae to ... tua out. Now, I aakj children. Is. wisdom merely 
fcnowlftJgB, Tiiideratandiiig, iind instruction'^ No, Sir, doing. 
\}oin^ yr]\3.t a ,,. right. To do what is wrong ia .../i)%. To 
do what is. right is ... wisdom, or lieing ... wise. We ouglit to-ljc- 
iairtructcd ia what ... ts right, and we ought to laiow what ... is 
right Kud underetnnd wliat -■ is right. Knowing nnd .,. under- 
slandin^ rt thing ia bi>i .„ u/isdfm, until. ..until wo .., do it. To 
nm odt S.I the door were t!ic hou.Be boming. would be ...leiidom 
or ... teise, it would bo acting ... wissly. Wliat would be sitting 
iitili wlien yuu knew and onderatood that the bou^e was burning ? 
Faallsfjitess^ 

Nftw, then, children, aince yoa are satisfied that wisdom, or 
beinn; wiao, is not muifcly knowledge or ...^nderstamfing, or .., 
insfrttcti'oJi, I fehttll giye you a short rtriBww to the qiiestioa. 
What ia wisdom'! Wisdom is ihe nicnT Ati'licaiiom or Know- 
iiEDa-c. Tliiit is, to apply our koowludge pi^jporly is ... wisdom. 
Wisdom ia the ... n'jAf application of knoa/ledye. In Iho raeo 
■wc HTippoBcd of the Iiuiuh: burning ahoTo ... uur heads. To Bit 
Btill^^uld b^ ,„ foolishness. To run out would be ...toisdom.or 
acting ... witehj. To run ii|> stn-ira into the mijlit ... nfthejiru 
would be ... inrGjig. It would not be the ,,. right application of 
ftntwiedffe. Tlio rij!;ht use of the knowledge you bB,4 wctivod 
Traa ... to run out. The wrong iipjdication of your knowiedgo 
wfluld haye been ,,.io sit sfi'/J, or to run ... up ^atr^inttr ihe fire. 
These boys or thow girla who Jo what they know lo be right, 
arc ... i!P£se children. A wise mnn h me who rightly usea ... fiig 
knowledge. Now, answer me, children, WliRtia wiflikm ? The 
right appiieation of Anowledge, or ihe uQht ,.. use pfhnowiedgi, 



220 



THB TaiTNEfO S^TF.H. 



A mrm muy be wXi to be wiae when he riglitly ... uses Ai's Jtnov^ 

Dthor Llhstrntinns were mtidc u»e of i« fix the iili:» in tEiQ 
niintl I'Ctlie childrea ; gUc;h lUj 11' a bny kitty that l>y lliruating 
Ilia fin^^cr iutn tlic Uro, it would be liumuJ., .inil iliil so, wh&t 
woiilii lie Uq J A fool, Kaowing tliia GJid abataiiiiHg or rel'ratn- 
ing from doing so would bo ... wisdom. Ifa Imy knew that by 
takiiijf any pnrtipular fi.iml or di'lult, lie wirnld be injured by it, 
wid dill iKr, he would bo n .,, foai, Xut taking aucli would In 
.., ti'isdoni, or acting... wiseitf. To lay up treasures iipon eartli, 
ua it' wnj wertf t<> live here nJAjiys, Js ... not rclse, Ac. Ac. 

Scripture Cii.^ir.'irrEns, — Aa a part of history, tbese may be 
reiHler«Ml pswedinglyinteroating to the youth uiidw ymtrDhafge, 
by pictiiring oat, or lirawmg mit in cuiijiiJictiioii with, thctn, 
Firat, the ^neral outline oJ' tiie i-liaractL^F of Hie individual or 
patty un<ii?r coimlderation, and this as general oa ]>r«sible, pra- 
Tided yoa seciure that the outliiiL's of the hietorj- are Iiefore the 
mind's cyoof your i/upils- Then sc'imvpon 9amiC)\c point from 
whitb a, jirac-tical le&sDc may bo dmwii. Do not miiible wver a 
nnmher (if pninte. far les.i tL<? nljDle life gf the pLT,i<Ju or party 
presenttd in the pa.'^Bage. One lessun well digested is worth 
twcaty stofl'ed in a confusEd heap. 

For f-sainplc, having read the history of (ToeiEih (he kjng, (or 
if nQj- paaslgC hnpppn to be too lotig to hc tvad til one time, 
after hairing t'Old the tltildrc-u the gdlterai olltlLnt, J yi.u may sclEe 
upua fiis youch/ul pielt/ as a king, and draw the I'ompaiison Ije- 
tweon the temptations tn which he was ■exposed in his exalied 
nwik, to ivhwt your pujiila an! (.■s[M>aed to lu their himible rlreum- 
staurea, and ytt Josiah was, Ae. 

Tn the history of David, Tfte spirit he tnanijented on hii ffoinfi 
forth itgainH Geltah may lit .luffiutenb for one lesson. .His holy 
and Dtognanimous COUdaCt in sparing thv life of Sa«l in the cave, 
another. Sis desire to Luiid a temple to the i-md, a. third. 



* Mnny nuiy say. Hub pirluring out aystem ie tnti alnw a procaa* for u%. 
We ivimld silse time liy tilling' at nnne. Ti;lliu|rfie o »i m, lin ivi^ypp, )iad not 
appi>ni|ilisli"d [he object. OiiraD>werUtlii9,Tlipillu!.tnit1iiTi,Rano-wgt»-»D, 
does n,i)t psliltiit ine half of till' wurilH lliat inuit hP' uaeii by tho traiaer, 
nod tl.o tPiliriGsiiiiH of pirturluie- out dut^ht nfit to he otiiprtpd tn, ivliew It 
arnimpliaJiEd, nt li-Ml ia thrpe BOVCTTll «fl«, tbit, wLich •vory TBrteEf of 
iniEriiarionhndMled of ^ukiji. 



PRACTICAL ULUSTEATIONB — BIBLE TRAITOKG. 321 

Bis ptitiishmenljbr SamAff the idolatrous enemies of God, wlii>ii 
ha was conuiiandod to dratruj' tlietii, n fi[iurtLi. Tiia sorrow at 
the death of Absalom, a £ftli ; njid so on. 

Atlfiabm's vanity aud lebclliun, one lesson ; lusdeath and the 
ra:i,nner of it. auothcr, 

Daniel's pcracveranca in prayer, (me pcint. Hi? faitLfulnCas 
0^ a ruler in BaLj'lcia, another. In tljc lionsi' AfiTt, % third. 

BalaiUD prppli^jing', une llrssotl. Tlia i;oveti>uii ^[lirit-, luiutlier. 

Jolin'a loving epirit. Pc-tcrV liuldncaa. Thomaa's unbelief. 
Timothy's early piety. Th& repentant thief on the cross, prov- 
ing his entire change of heart. Oar Saviour 'a whole life, point 
hy point, from talking- with the doutors, and asking them rjuea- 
tioiw in a teachable spirit, till he Dspirtd on the cross, loaruig 
m an exairiTJte that we should follow hia st-eps. Be contciat with 
one practical lesson {and there is no lesion worth having which 
ia EQt practical), d^y .iftor day. availing yoimtelvos, oa fgrmerly 
stat'Cd, of mil the knowledge your pupils may Iulto formerly ac- 
quired, and vrluch, upon tlio prinoLplca of the system, you 'may 
Kodlly develope, hy oakisg a. few [questions intem^ativuly %zkA 
dlipCically. 



" BALr&IlOX " — "gloht "— " HOWOnH.' ' 

"ffc have aeen that the term wisdom is of frequent occurrence 
in Seryilure. There rare other terms alao equally imporCant to 
be pictured oiit. Our litultti do not permit our giving any of 
th«sse at length, or in the mode tif tminin^, For the sake ^if our 
studtbtS] howevci', we shall simjily notice one or two. Far ex- 
Ampl«. ?ju,v^iion^, or sa^td, or SAPuniB. In these terras, there is 
a. gcn«nJ, and tbcrQ la ft particular iui^iujing. It id hi,[;lity m.- 
porlant that yon picturo out the geucrvil fttnso. in the first in- 
Btancie, as ou suvh pictnrmg out hingea much of thu vi.ilu« of the 
particuhLu or accepted Reuse. Wlion I k]iow tliitt the poraon 
who wives DID from drowuijig- 01' fn)m any daUf^'t'C or difficulty 
wLitever, is to me a saviour ; hut that that j.tL'i'SDn, bcncvdent 
and Idnd as he may bo, cannot WLve me from siekneaa, nr from 
the punieliment of b:q hoM ftr tiprcaflcr, I QTii better prepared for 
terming Jeaua Cluiat tht Saviout. The DUgnitTl'de aod Tsloe 



a&2 



TSB TRAINIlfO fiTSTEU. 



lit' tbe bonofita to ouiaelToa &1bo are more euily apprehend eri 
willei! uji to the mind'a oye, by tire loae of tJic terma, the saved 
^r ih^ SxvrorH. Tslra the natural piotnre, thcrvfore, before yon 
(Imv tlic Iess{)n of the tcirt, And do so the very finat time met 
t«riii5 i<p'[*Br. Otherwko, or oti the ordiTinry nio^c of tesc-hing, 
the ckildren miMt, in a ^At moajnirc, tnke upoii tm?t whnt you 
9tQ-t«, mslf nd uf meiitiLllj em^ing it for IheiuiielTCfl, , 

AgAin, GLOii?.i^Tlu,iuia tenu pfjreiiq'ept p<^i?rren'C« iueaerad ' 
Scripture, and is ofLditiiflca Haed in coTnmon life without any 
TtJry definite mcajiing being attnohed. Vilien a. mau ia seen 
tiiwyanil unnble townJk.ive heat it said, he ia in hia glaiy. We 
licar of the glory of a warrior. Toung pereons are fnmul tu have 
a TPfy confused Jilcn of what is meaat hy the term beinfn attached 
to these opposite CihaiafterH. They have a slight notion, indeed, 
in regard to the latter, that it conglsts in hia sldll or IiraToi-j- in 
vrnr. Of the application to the former, they Imve do noitoii 
wlmteTcr, Again, that glory could be attached to a elorkniakcr 
for the high porfcctiau of hia timc-pie^ea i gr that a shtiemaber 
may gl(iry in malting a Bupcriur shoe — n meclianiu a piece of 
mtLchinci-y ; at thai a florist may he siLtd to be in his glory whqn 
his Howera arc hijihly applauded,— tho ehlldren do not c-ompre- 
lieiid ; and yet nothing is more easy when you picture out the 
fact. What is that which each of the partira highly vflJuea ? 
The drunkard, " Lii«. cups ;" tha wajTior, hia success io battle : 
the cloclcniaher, when he bL'ing^ forth a ■Biiperior time- piece ; the 
t^ioenutker, n, first-i-iite and most &ttiug a.rticle ; the meuhnuic, 
hiK splendid and complex, yet simple conBtructicin of a moying 
sppnratus ; and the florist, in the bright display of his own cut- 
tore. The childi"en are even shochiDd when to any or all of these 
you api^lj" the torm gl^^^ry — nia olody. 

Tou have only to l>ring out each man's sueresa in that which 
io most highly valaM, and the children will tell you that that 
is fiia glory. Kotc, tho fact of tte tenp heing familiariy iEIos- 
trated in the general Bonao is an excellent and altUtiBt Detosaary 
preparativo for the particnJar eense. The Scriptui'ftl alliisions 
to the ghri/ of heaven — the glory of God being seen in the face 
nf his Son Jeans — " Stek for glory, hQnotir> jmd imiuoi-ta! life," 
these are the higbest oirai of th« Christirtn, audi therefore, tho 
childi^n will readily ttll ^you, when obtJiinKl, >,. are his glory. 



FnACTICAL mLtJBTBATlOXS — BIBLE THAININQ^ 



3S3 



*■ Thp lipjivcns declare tlie glciiy nf Gnd." Why? Cim unj 
created heing cm earth or in heaven crt'ato eiich a _picpe of mc- 
cbsDlnnt II' not> then the glory miiat properly ... befonff to 
God, The Iieayi^nH filiow forth ... the ^hnf of God. Tlaey 
cnnnot he the work of any tithur .,. but God. Tliej show forth 
... his ^lory. The aanio in regard to a lilado of grtiKi, or the 
sniallest inaect. 

Again, " Lot not the rich man (floiy in his richn^s ; nor the 
etPOBg man glorj- in hia strength." All excellent Igmob tfl com- 
raaiwe with m^y tie. " Thero ja on* glory of the «iiu,. another 
glgiy of the nioon," Ac. The comparative light, €uu nntLVo, nnd 
the flthcr borrowed, allow tho children at tinco their €on][mrativo- 
gluries. Diiing "all things to the glory of Gotl," or simply 
ifoflecting ha«?k upflu himself liis perfect work, wiiicli man since 
(he fall ia not iDcIlnod tu &», Also, " Geholdin^ as in a glaas 
the glory of Grod, wb are changed into the same inuige, " the 
children will readily tell you, whon. clowly and cttariy pictured 
out (not told)j that it ia simply reflecting or setiiling hacit Gud'a 
glory or work, aa the fitcc would scud haok tho light from a 
burnished tiiirroi"j on which the pers^m looks, or reflects the hght 
As the moun doos the hrlghtncM of the aun. All this, if pRtiently. 
and simply, and progressively pnrsned, ia porfcetly and easily ac- 
complialicd with the ehildrep of an orditmry Bchool. 

Ho\oDa.— We would apply the Kune natural picturing out 
principle to thia important term, and innnincrahlo others that 
occar in siwred Scripture i sueh «b thu honour of the world 
merely, and " the honour that cometli trom God," ic. 

All tliia int*lleetujil proeeaa uniqucBtionaljly will not change 
the heart, but thesa are tho inwnB orinstninicnta through which 
tho Divine Spirit may, aad actually does work- 



II.UJBHUTTOK. 



Tp5 NiTLTiiL PicTiTBK ANB TUB MoBAL Lgsson. — What may 
be t^rmt^d dtif doctrines are not interesting to tho y«uug mitiit, 
we must give tliem a relisL for that apidtnill medieine which (ill 
are naturally diaineliued to take, A sick'jhild v--ill not tako tho 
dry fill prescribod by the physic ian without a Utile jeUy in tine 



324 



THE TRAI^IKd ETSTBM. 



Bpoon. The matUirfLl pmbicm amy be stated as ihfy jelh/ which 
oil cljjldrcn like — the lesson, the pill which tliuy absolutely hntc. 
Some motlem edueationftlists wonld give nothing but jelly — the 
iwrrative — the tftrt-ntlrc — but uu lesBon to be doilur'i^d. The 
ohUdren will of courBe take the J«llyand leave the pill. Others., 
ftgain, would give nothing but pilla, no tiatiitaL cmblenia, no pic- 
turing out, no jelii/, and, therefore, theif are rejeeted. In the 
Biblu syBtiini of training, wp propose always, t-o givo the pill (or 
draw the leaaon), but bcforeliand to proparo & good spoonful of 
jdU/, iiilft which the pill may be thrust, bo that both may be 
sffaliDwod. 

The pm to the Wdily-siek cSti]^, and the doctrine to the bouI' 
aick cliild, alike require the btesaing ef God to render tbesi 
cflcetual for its recovery. Let aa do our part, — God irill do 
Me. We are but inBtruiDeuta^^He the onuiipotent and gnuuciu 
worker. 



CHAP. xxni. 

aSI^CTIOKS FQB BIBLB TEAIXINQ LESSONS. 

Tb be read from the Bible, and afterwards pictured otu as 
daihj irainittg lessons — the narraUoti and precept being suf- 
Jicieat ijejitraUy Jar -one exercise. 

STAGE I. 



Ifarrative. ^c* 
I , God furmcd maji of the 
(lust of the ground, in a holy 
and liappy state ; Gc^.i.2t^, 27i 



Precept, ^C. 
I. AH are uf IIll^ diist und all 
turn to duBt nguin ; EltI. Ui. 
98. 



• A great praportiop gf (h^ lUMTRtlve during the FlBST STiIQB mBlt be 
Btated to th« pu^Ila aimpLj- and f^miiliBriy, f^ 9 mpther would, vtbo nc-ter 
dUtmct? Utc cbildren tritb luot?, et £nt, tli4a the great nulLiiieg. Theie 
iiutliuDi, tiDivever, oiust b« dear)!]' given, n.Dd tbaie painti. in pbtUimiIbt, on 
which Ui« leMOU Jiln|j«a> muot be fully picture uul,. bo as In cualile the tu> 
ruiE(inkLpuwJed£e>oIiFlLBtG'ierBKe,tD'ded.acethvl«g9Da wltA'^ll(^e{^J;fo>ld. 

Wa llavc Blrettdy stated tliftt thif (-ubst^me •>( (ormer ]i"B«Dna It mad? 
nTUlAlilfti In lliB oaa la tiHud, ttiUI i>fagtiimi'/t'iY and ftlmoit in|>«)r£(-ptiMy 
pn<i!ting B itabU t'nbriiz in Chn mitld ol till child, on which Xa rorm habJuof 
memory acid reilecbud. All cliSlilrea. pn«Be9%, In aa «raliieiiiC de^eej th« 
power ofobitfrTing-acdinii and oliject*. It lie* with th« pwect Oi- UBiner, 
to direct tliD oieri-iae of thla poivvr. 

After Cliis modM, IDieiL, at tbe e-nd even of the stxth li?SIf)D, tha tiali tta 
hei^n mBde dc^iin.iiit«d witli tbccTuatloDaf nianfla nhnl^ and happy b«IU{[, 
talking ivlt]: GoiLliisCrnatorutiiDin woul'd >do ta Iili friend; that he it of 
thcdiMUondtliAtliEiDUBtrBtLirD to thadUAta^Bin. Why? Beiausati«MI 
rrom the huLf ajil Aappf atale in wliich he wna created, by d1s!ibe}'iDp God 
— b-f Coking hit nwD ivn; — leniT pntnred Mb br-ep^, niid be htdhimoeirainoEiB- 
the^ treH cf tho- gBTiteji, iiniglalng tlist God did not eco hlin Ui'^rx, or ai 
linut. rDrgettlng ChuUi^dii oTerywbarB pi'eiieiit. Janah, partii-Jp&Ung In 
thn lame ainful natUTA of (lai Ar^-l parents, ^nd ahVe forgcLtlng God, trie-cL 
td tiFSfrum liLi preaeoiiB when be wu cumniiiDilcd taga BJid [irearli to tbe 
Niaerltef- Next, the promise o! n Ss^^uf, who wu to be harD of m w»< 



Niirradve., ire, 
2, Tlic fall «f mail— Adam 
nod Etg hiiiing^ tHiemsolvci ; 
Gn. iiL S. 



bIuL) bruLd' thclicnd of tbo ser- 
pent ; Gm. Ui. 15, 



i. Cain killed his brathfr 
Abel; Gen. It. 8-12, 

5. Tlio Bona of Ooil marriixl 
wItib — flnugbtera of ■wicked 
men ; Gen. vi. 2. 

6. God tlireatans- to destroy 
tbc ivorld by a Jloud in canse- 
(jncnce of ita great wiekedness; 
Gen. vi. 3-9. 

T. Noali biult an ark for the 
HUTiog of Ms huusc, Aiid tLo [>rt- 
■ervatiuti uf every living cpea- 
tare ; Gor. vi. li.22. 

&. Gud d4?atroyed sll fleth 
ttat dwelt upytt tLo unrtL by a 
floud; Gen. vii. 

9. 0n«lar{;r''3geiii theworid 
— b-uildirg of Babel, Bsd contii- 
bIod of tuiLguea ; G«ii.^. 1^10. 

_ 1 ft. ATiHili&sii qiUed to leiiTe 
hiA country aad bia kindred ; 
Gen. Tiil l-O. 

11, Abraham and Lot part ; 
Gfln. liji. 1-13. 



Precept, ^'c. 

2. The cvM ttf the Lord are 
in ovtry plac^, beholding tho 
nvil nnc the e™^ 1 Pi"OV, sy, S, 
But I'onah iFeat tg TArehishto 
flee from the presence of the 
Lord; Jcinabi. 3- 

3. Tlie Saviour is btmi of the 
Vi^a Jlaiy ; Luke il. l-ll, 
■lesiiB stiid, Abmhani saw my 
day nfiir off. mA -wsa glad; 
Joun viii. 5, ft. 

1. He tliat Imtctli his biyitber 
is t. muft-lcrer ; Jolin iii. 15. 

fi. Evil ctimmimicationa cor- 
rupt good nmuinem : 1 Cor, XTi- 

tJ. There ia none rinbteous, 
no not one; Rom. iiL 10, 11. 



7. Tlie Lord is n refuge nnd 
pitwcnt help in time of trouble ; 
Fsakn:XlYi. 1-5, 

8. Thst MTtbj and tbe trorta 
that are thereiD, fdiall be burn- 
ed up ; 2 P«ter iii. T-IL 

9. There is no nbulom, nor 
U[ider3ta.ndin7, nor cnuneel 
aj^aiust the Lord; Frar. xxi. 

aft, 

10. How thay leek a better 
country, tliat ia. aa beavenly ; 
Hob. xi. 1,1-lft. 

H, The beginning of atriTe 
is afl wl]<:n cpne fettetli out water: 
tberefare leave off contention 
before it be meddled with; Prov. 
xvLi. \i. lu honour [frelerrin^ 
one another i Rom, liL 10, 



mav— ifhkt he BirCa&li^ wm bam ai prr>ffll»ed— AlimhHin'g {a\\\\ in tlnit pr'>- 
miie bpf-iiTn it wm fulBiled, wlikh oiflde Lim "pladj" In iither ivordi, it 
WHS Kospct or ^Ind noiva to hirrii nnJl i.i an tn sit wliiii Uke tiim. 'bp-lierei ia 
llint pruraHie. Sabst^qoP'Ott^, th.? tfiEcts ■>/ lAsi. tn Cftin killmi hli brntlier 
4bel— iha wboU WHirld becoming irickeliimd dlMUOJ'edb;aS<^ad, tie. Scii. 



BBLECTIOira POB BJBLE THACnSG tESSOSB. 



027 



13. AhrsJiam sought to save 
SchIou i'taia d-s^ti'UgtiDti ; Gon. 
iriii. 23-33. 

Id. Lot's wif$ tni-Hec] into t. 
pillnr ofsnlt; Geo. xu. 1S-2&, 

14. Abraham offcretli uphis 
eon Isaac ; Gen. Axii. i-lO. 

15. IsflAo's innlTistry and 
piety ; G^n xxri, 17-36. 

16. God'a uromisc to Jacob 
in tbcTtiioii of the ladder; Gm. 
Jtiviij. 10-23. 

17. JoMph's drcama^ Gen. 
is3vii. l-ll. 



18l Jwwph *ttBt into a pit by 
llis brethren, and sold to the 
IihmacLitefl for twenty pieces 
of bUvpf ; G-&E. xnivii. 1 7-3fl. 

10. JoBepii'sbretlirendiphla 
cant in the blood ol' a hid, tu 
ducciveiiiafiithei-; Gen.sMTii. 
20-5 ft. 

SO. Jospph advanced in Ej;ypt 
Tit king Pliaraoli; Gen. sJj. 
U-45. 

31, JoficpIi'B brethren treat- 
ed tia spies : Gan. idij. 1-20. 

2S. Jaacph's l)n?tlircn sftjd 
one t* fliiuthcfj We lu* Tttil/ 
guilty conconuNg our hrother, 
Ac: Gen, xlii. 31-38. 

33. Jowpb's brethren bring 
hiiu presents, and bow ihi-ia- 
selves to thti earth hct'ore liiia ; 
Gen. jcliii. 3(1-34. 

24, .Fuse [lb niaheth him sell' 
ktiQwn tu his bretlirenj Gen. 
xlv. 1-19. 



Precept, A-e. 

13. Tlie Lord heareth the 
prayer nf tlio r%lllt-DttS ; Pnu-p, 
XT. 2U. Ye are thu aait at the 
eaa-th ; Mntt, v. 13. 

13. IIi^ lllAt jiuttetli hia h^nd 
to tlie pion^h ciad iuoketh kick, 
&i>.; Luke ix, 62. 

14. Gud spnj^Kl not hia owa 
Son, but dcLrurcd hioi up for 
u» uU : K<jm. viil. 32. 

Id. Be dtli^ot in buaineeiS 
and fctTi'feBt in s[)irit, aerring 
the Luiol J Rtim. xlE. 11. 

Ifl. In all thy wnya acknow- 
ledge Cod, jirul ]ie will direcG 
thy pcitiiai Truv". ill. ft, 

17. Tlie )jorJ usually reveal- 
ed hiiAK^U* to liin pi^pbcit^ in 
rinivns und diviinui ; ^um.Ali. 
0-8. 

15. Judusr Twtra.yod Jeaua fi%r 
thirty piec«a of hilycr ; Matih. 
ssvii. 3-5. 

1 &. Dewaro of bypocriay, for 
there itt nulliing covered that 

rthrdJ not be WTualed ; iioithcr 
bid, iL'c.i Lulte xii. 1-5. 

20, All things work togetJior 
for good to thecn that luvti God; 
Rgm. vUi, 38, 

21, Be sure yunr sin will find 
you ont ; Nuni, xxsii. 23. 

22, Coufcsas your faults one 
U) another, tibd {jrayoncfor Aii- 
othor, &rt. ; Jamca v. IR, 

23, God piattpth down one 
and setteth up another ; P^l. 
Llxv, 7. 

24, Render not evil for eril ; 
1 T he&, V. 15. If tliiiio tiiicmy 
liUBger, feed him; if he thiTBt, 
giTc him. drink; Rcininnd xli. 
30. 



3SS 



TEB TRAIKIFO ffTBTEH— flTAOB I. 



25. TLic cliildren of Egypt 
ci]i]in«M.'d in Egypt; Eiod. v. 
S-20. 

Sa. Moses laid hr th<o river'a 
brink la nn ark oi bulriub>i:» ; 
Exwi. ii. 3. 

S7. The paiuover ; Exod. xil. 
1-13. 

28. Pliarao3] find liia jmny 
drowned in llio Had Sea ; Exod. 

20'. I«ni«lit«» pratwted by a 
pillar of c-liiud hy day, and & 
pillar of &r« b^ niglit ; £xx)d. 
liv. 10-21. 

30. Mos«4' himd wa^i \AA up 
in prnyor, ftliil« Ii^rael fouglit 
with Atasdi;k ; Exwl, xvii. 8- 
1«. 

31. Moses receiifi'tL (iie Ten 
Commiiiidiiii^nta, writton on two 
tsV'Ies of »t4ine, from God on 
MuUUt SiCLlii ; Exod. six. 

32; Aatou UAketli a gnlilen 
call': Enod. xxxii. ID. 

Sa. Tin; repurt of the sjiiea 
— TliD mtu'niurin^ (rf" the Is- 
raeli tia — ITie Lgrd diwlart'th 
that all of tireDty ypara, nnd 
vpirard9, ahdl dio iu the wil- 
dvnic^H; Num. xiv. 

3k A TJian, cnntmry te the 
lew, found pithvring slitka on 
tho ^iiLljalli dny; Num. s<r. 
S9-3e. 

3f . Kcrt^, DAthnn.uid Abl- 
ram swoUoned uj:i in oonse- 
[{HCiDae of their rcttclliun ; Num. 
iri. 36-33. 

00. Anron and the priusta 

first mnka a ttncriliL-c fur ibnm- 

elvea, nnd tlicn for t-lic pwplc ; 

er.i>'i. 1-11. 

37. McMea rnieed & hrau^n 



Preempt, ^c- 

3ii, En>7 not the opprcsaor. 
And dioow none of hu vays ; 
ProT. iii, 31. 

20. When my father nnd 
mvCber forsitkc mo. tli«a the 
Lord win tiihtf me up ; I^aJ. 
XKvii. lu. 

37. Christ, our plu«sav£r, was 
■ftcriflrad fur us ; ] C«r. r. 7. 

?S. Though linnd join in 
hand, tihc wkkrd ahuJl not go 
tlnpuuishcd ; FniY. xi. 21. 

2B, The Lord la thy helper, 
the Lord b tli^ shade, die, ; 
PsaJ. czxi, 6. 

30. Pray isithout ceasing; 
1 Th<!fl. V. 17. Be bstant in 
prajcr ; Rom. xii. 13. 

31. J^sDS fi&Ld, T a]u not 
'CotHC to destrciy the ]aw, but to 
fulfiJ; Matt. V. 17. 

S3. CMldren, keep ymir- 
selvps frnm Lilut§: 1 Jnnii v. 31. 

33. Let KS tiierefaw fear, 
lest, a prouiisQ being U<ft ua of 
entcnnfr iuUi hui rest, any of 
ynu ahould Boom to cttme uiort 
rfit; agh. iv. I. 

34. Reraemlwr the Sa^bnth 
d.iy to k^ecp it holy; DeuL. r, 
IS- 15. 

&s. The Ticked elull be 
turned into hell, and aU the 
nations that forget God; Psal, 
li. 17. 

3fi. Chmt needed nnC to 
saeritii^e tiks the priest, lirRt for 
hi? ■own 3!Ti, He offered Min- 
Bolf unct^ for all; llub. is. 24- 

37. As Mosea lifted up tkc 




Kiirratcve, ^c. 
ecrjicnt on. n po^i^, tJiat all wha 
luokt^d at a uiigbt !>e cured of 
tliG Rt'uig of the fiery Berpeota ; 
Nuiu. x\.i. 3-0. 

38. Daalmu liJcth upon an 
aea with iho |iTinct% of Muahi, 
&nd conKiderctlithQ bribL>; N'lun, 
Xiii. 21-24. 

39. M08B8 TicwB thp jiroiaia- 
(?(t land, from tiia top ul Mount 
Pixgah, a,nci then dies ; Deut. 
iosiv. IS, 

40. Jo^liua tcadcth the chil^ 
drew of Israpl n^roaa the fitct 
Jonlan; .Josh. iv. 14-2i. 

41. Th« walls of Jericho fall 

by tLe llowinp of the ram'a 
horns, and l^ha.b tho harlot * 
nAwti from destmcticin, with 
h«r father's house; JosL, vi. 
13-30. 

43. Achnn hid4>th the ^r- 
rasbt, ah<^kclB of tiWcf, Aci 
wodge oT gold in liia tent ^ Joali. 
vii. i3-2B. 

4J. Gideonoverthrowtth the 
army uf Midian; Jutlg. vi. 15- 
24. 

11. Rutlifaft^rwaTdHgrftsO- 
inoth<.'r to kitijf Dnvjd) cleaveth 
to Nnomi, Uur mothep-in-law f 
Ruthi. 14-19, 

45. Diivid ai)Qint«el king hy 
tlw jiropLet Samuel ; 1 Siuu. 
xvi. 1-13. 

4U, DjLTid comeLh forth to 
meet Goliath ; I Suiii. syu. 38- 
51. 

4t. Diivi J find'eth ibis en^my, 
8nul, aEili:E.'p in a care ; 1 Sam. 
sxiv. 



PreCepl, 8fc, 
serpent in th^ wjldemew, 80 
«hf)-U lh& $011 of man be lifted 
up, &c.-, John iii. 4^ 

33 . Tto We of money is Llio 

roQi of allevi]; 1 Tim. vi. 10. 



39. WhJe we look not at the 
tilings which iire&oeii, hut, Ac; 
3 Cor. iv. 18. I'hi'ro remain- 
otfi a. reat to the pwple of G«l ; 
Hch. iv. 0. 

40. Tiiough I walk through 
tho Tnileyot'lhcahadciTf ofdtath, 
1 wiil] fear uo <?vil, for thou art 
with me, &c. ; Psal. ssiii. 4. 

41. By faith the walla of 
Jijticlia fell, itc. : JLab. xi. 3D. 
31. 



42, There isnotlting'hidthat 
Hholl not bo kjiowB ; Matt. x. 
2 ft. 

43, T&o rice is not (o tlic 
Bwift, uur tbc battlo to tli€ 
Btmng ; Eecl. is. 11. 

44, Bear ye ono another's 
burdens, Ac. ; Gal. vi. 3. 



4fi. TheMjfrhildJofTMwiiK 
ACLointedi King; ; Acts cv. 34c-27- 

46, Blfsaed is fhci man that 
j^tohelh the Lord Lis trust, and 
raspectctli not tlit praud ; Psai. 

3CI.4. 

47. Avenge not yourselvea, 
but rather, &c, \ Kom. xii. IS. 



' TJie Ilebrew ivii.Fil, lu^ra teodered hnrkt, aluil^fle* au iiut-k««pei'. 



TKB TJUnrDlfl STnW'-eTAQB T, 



Narrative , ^'c. 
43. DnvJil tlio ncrvanC of 
Saul, tlw kiDg; 1 Sum. xxix. 

,^?,^_.A'l»nlinn eonspireth 
'uunat hu.l': hii father; 3 

f&m. ir. fi-11. 

60. Abe&lom t!siiffht by the 
Ti.iir ill fin oak. und Elam by 
J.inb; 2 Sam. sviij. fl-17. 

61, DaTid pioum-eth for liis 
ficpn A.bR.iIum: 2 Sam. Ji.\-iu. 31^ 
33:xis. 1-4. 

52. Sotamon, the feing, buUt 
tho toiujfli? of large eIv[!«», Sk-, 
Knd in whiL'h, wlillo buUdiug, 
the Bound of the ImmmiT wiw 
UU lit'iird; 1 Kinj,^ v, 13-1$, 
atid vi . 7. 

53. Sf>lomoTi (miahe^d the 
toinjill! Jit JprUHnJein f«r the 
vunihiip gf God ; 1 Kiaga vi. 
1 1. 



S4> Tho g;raitiiiesa of Solo- 
mon; 1 Kin^iv". 90-2R. 

5o. REfatj!l>i:>nTn.'B iVioUsli pon- 
duvt, mid reTolt gf tsa tribes ; 
1 Kings xii. &-30. 

60. Elijah fed by ravens ; 
I Kinga xvii. 2-7. 

37. Elijah multijilietli the 
widow'a luindfid of mail, and 
anUQ of oil ; 1 Ktnin xrii. 8- 
Ifl. 

fiS, Elijahrajaetht.hewidon'a 
eon; 1 liitigB kyIL lt-24. 

fi9. Elijah t-arrled up hito 
hcari^n liy a wliirlivind ; 2Kl{ig9 
ii. 0-15. 

60. Forty-two childran torn 
by two Bhc-bcMtra out of the 
ww)d, for thelf icwlvnce to the 



I*recept, ^c, 

m. Servantfi. 1"L- ubfdjpnt to 
then] tltat ^ra ynar master* ; 
Eph. ri. S, (I. 

10. Uodoue' thy latber and 
thy mother; Deut. y> 16. 

SO. It hAdlM^^iigoQdfortlut 
mflin if he hud not been bont ; 
Matt. xsvi. 2i. 

Bl. I will Binj of niCToy iknd 

ofja-dgment; T'sJil. ci. 1. 

B3. Tn whom fill the build- 
in,^, fltly irameJ tvfj^ther, grow- 
eth unto s, liuty tcuiik', &:e. t 
Eph. ii. 10-33. 



^3. The hour ia. come, -when 
not inorely at Jcrusiitcni, Ijut 
everywhere, the true Tvoithiji- 
nera may worship the Fnther 
m spirit ftQd in truth : John ir, 
20-24. 

B4. A grcfltci' tiian Solomon 
HherO; Mal.t. sll. 42. 

55. The [ietir wf the Terd is 
tha hoginiiiii;; of wiEduin, but 
foohi dcapisc wisdom and in- 
BtniOtLi-n; Prgv. i. 7. 

6(i. Thy bread and thy wi- 
tter shall be euro ; Tea. sxxili. 

57. Th^ere Ib that Bejittenftfi, 
and yet increasetli, <to. ; Prov. 
xl. 12. 

59. Thci ofFoctwnl fervent 
prftyerof ariglllcoiUs lilftDftvail- 
c\\i much; JjuniH v. 10. 

.')!>, LiiEBj'Ua curriod by thu 
nrij^eU into Abrjihuni'a hoaom; 
LBkexvi. 22-34. 

30. Itender tn all their due 
— hnnour to wkoui honour ; 
Horn. xiii. 7- Tlioii idialt ri&e 



frONa FOB BIBLE TnHISDm LEfiBdJfS. 



331 



Narrative, ^c. 
agcil prchtyhot Kllalia. ; 2 Singa 
H. l«-3fi. 



fll. NARTnan, tho Syrian, at 
the coinmniul of EHsLa, wanh- 
eth 1iirii:ii.']f sawa limue in thv 
Joi-dao, lUiA is mrtA of iik 
leproay; 3 Kingi? v. I3-1S, 

OS. Geliasi. EllBliu,'a at^rvftfit., 
tnlieth an utiJub njiiaiil ; 2 
Kings \. 5fl. 

OS, Josinh, lliS youtliral and 
goad liiiig ; 2 lungs x^ii, 1, 2. 

Qi. IkitiAT) end MonlccB-i ; 
Estli. T. 13, H. 

fiS. Jab'spnticnrD anil resig- 
nation ULcier severe bcreave- 
jDcnta and l!i>ili]y affliction ; 
Jobi. 2IJ-22, and ii. 7.LO. 

GQ. JuEi curscth tIjQ >^a^ of 
liU birth ; JoL iii. 1-0, 

07. Job 8ai(J, I know that 
my KeclBemci- livt'th, and tl1.1t 
ha slinJl Btand at tite IntWT ilay 
^pon tlliQ eaxi-h, itc,; Job tcLs, 
25. 

68. David bloBseth Grxl for 
t^Aching his hands to war, nnd 
hU finirera ta figlit ; FsaL. cxliv, 
1-4. 

019. Gadliness, with content- 
taent, IH gTeat ghin ; 1 Tim. 
VI'. B. 

70. laijah saw thu g;l<ify of 
tlic Lord ; Isa, ri. 1-5. 



71. [saiah jir«ph«sieth ct>n- 
ceming ChiTst. in Urn fonn ot 
B. nfitrative, 71ti years lieforo 

he appealed ; Isii. liij. 1-9, 



frecxpt, ^c. 
up liefoi-e lUe luiarv hwid, and 
h'Onuur tbe face uf tuo old man, 
and ftar thy God, Ac.; l«v. 
xix.32. 

0). Wash yoa, naalic you 
deiLQ, Ac. ; Ian. i. lfl-18. 



fi2. Thou ubfdt ntit corat; 
Enud. xs. 17. 

B3. BcmcralMM' now (by Cre- 
ator in the dnyu o£' Uiy youth, 
ifcf,: EM. sii. L 

«1, They Imvp diggt^ a pit, 
intowliicb thi-vliteniBL-liVeBhftTQ 
fallen; PmI. yW. IMS. 

liu. Wo know that tribuk- 
tign WE>rketh nnlienee; Itom- v. 
3,4. 

flO. Now no cliasteBhig for 
the present »oenicth to be jiiy- 
oqr. hut a^i'ievoim; Ueb- sii. 11. 

07. yif^vy eye fiimli B«e him, 
&c.\ Rev. i. 1, B. 



08. If poaaihlo, live pcnccflhly 
wittk All men; ]H*m. xii, IS. 



60. A^t'b prayer^ Give me 
noitU^r poyurty tint ri«hoa, Ac; 
I'rov. XXX. 1-fl. 

70. The Christian, Iwhold- 
hig pa ill fl glass the glory of 
tlio Loi'd, is chanpiedi intfl the 
Mtne image from glory to g^loryi 
2 Cor. iii, 13-18. 

71. CtiriHt dliJ no eiii, ami 
when ho 'waa reviletl he revilwl 
not again, ic,; 1 Pet. ii. 22-2.5, 



THE TOinriNin StSTEM — BTACE I. 



12. I^aIi uiy«, Ccifno wilU- 
DuL ni<9'tii:-y, and vritUuut yirlee i 
lea.lv. 1-3. 

is. JcLvmiah, the propliet. 
h cnat into llie diinpfton of the 
court of Llic priBun ; Jen xxxviii. 
S IS. 

1-i. Tine four Jewish pIiLl-dren 
ohoo&D pluin fowl Co cat. and 
water to drink, at the court of 
Babylon; niiti.i.5-3)J. 

7a. Stiadmtti, Mesliticb, and 
Abednego cnst into the ficty 
:ftirEiM»: Dan. JIi.S3-S5, 

70. BfUhauar'9 iju|iiouB 
fefUt ; the liin^dooi taken ; 
Dnn.Y, 30, ^l, 

77. Danial pr.iyed tbrw 
tinier a day, wUh hia face 
turned tnwanla Ji^tiisaleiti,' 

18. Daniel waa ca^t into the 
den of lions, and r^niQiDcd un- 
hurl; Dan. vi. I<!-24. 

79. Jonah fled from the pre- 
sence i)f tke Lihnl, arid the Lord 
sent a great t«mpoBt in Che sea: 
Jtjn.ir 8. 

80. God prepared a. gmsit 
EkU tJ> awallow up JoiiaIi for hia 
diAubediiiacc : Jul. i. 17. 



Precept, ifc, 

72, Jrtus jyij-s, lit t!iat com- 
cth tu me, 1 will in do vrUe caat 
out; Joliin vi. 37. 

73. O JemaalL'in, tliat kiU- 
cflt the pr(;])liL>tK, and latDUCst 
thi-iEL that arc bvnt unto thee, 
how oiltn, ikv.; Matt, xxiit. 37, 

7-i. Every man wlio HtriTetli 
for tha mastery ia teLuperate 
in all things; 1 Co.xs.2i,2B. 

75. >V]ien thou waJkest 
tlirnuf'h the tire, thou sikalt not 
Itc hurned ; Isa. xllii. 2. 

76. Thou fool, thifl nigkl thy 
Br>u]»}iR!l Iw r<K{uir»l of thi.>e; 
Luke xii. 20. 

77. Whoa thou pmycst. ea- 
iD[ intu thj closet. &c.: Matt. 

73. Throuph faith sutrfued 
kiogdoiQfif i'c, stopped the 
Muiitlw of liens;, Ecb. li. 33. 

7y. Whither sliaU I ffo from 
thy spirit, iJm;.; Ps. exjudx. 
7-13. 

SO. A a JonsL was tltree days 
iind tlircc nights in the ivhulo's 
Ix'Ily. 80 ahull tlie S<iii of tofiti 
ho tliree days and tliree nights 
]n, the heiirt erf the CMlh; 
Matt. zii. S8-il. 



mau TBB «£«' TKaTAM£NT. 



IVarrfitive, ^c. 

8 1 , Jesus vros boll) in a, stahlo 
and laid in a umnger ; Lu. 11. 
1-7. 

S2. The star in tlii3 ctiBL nnJ 
the Bhcpheivls come to BiJtlde- 
hcitn to Wuraliip til's child J^^US ; 
AUtt. 11. 1-a. 



Precept, ^c. 

81. JesHshiid no pennnncnt 
dwelling fln earlJi — foxM haTp 
bol'fts, J-'L',; Luke ix. 67, 53. 

&2. Takffl heed to tlif word 
of pmphwy, until the dfiy dawn, 
nnd. thf! day stftr arUc, ^c-; 3 
Pet. i. lfi-21. 



SELECnOlirB FOB BISLB TBAINIKO LESSONS. 



333 



Nwrntive, §v. 

83. Ju!U![>li riiKitii intft Ej^fjit 
with Jcsna anil Mary hia mo- 
thor; MjiU.iL 11-3*, 

Si. John Iha Baptist ppcacl]- 
eth repcrtancet Baying. The 
Jdnftdoni of henven it at lian4 ; 
JKatt, Lii. l-j. 

85. Jcaus, at 'twelv9 yeara of 
BRC, in tlio tcwple with the 
doctors; J^wke ii, -tO-50. 

BO. JesuB, after tweke years 
of Rgc, contiritied »uhJeot to lm< 
parotita; Luke i\.5l,52. 

87. JesiiB ti'mptLHl Uy Satau 
in t!io wUdernt'SB forty Jnya 
' BBtl forty tiiglita ; Matt, iv. 
1-11. 

89. Natlinnaol beliereth Jo- 
BUS to be the Son of God, by 
Ilia b&viag bci<a seen of biin 
vhea not present; John i. 
43-61. 

6Q. Jcaua aak^h a drinlc 
from the wonuin of Samaria nl 
Jacub's well, and aRenvaida 
said. The water that I wUl giye, 
Eball be in tliei! a well of water 
epringiiig up unto everlasting 
iy"c; John iv. T-^-^' 

flo. Jesus UJesadh Uttle 
ekildrcn, and salth, '■ Of euch 
ifr the kingdom of God ;" Mark 
I. 13-1 G. 

91. ChriBt tliDse twcl?« &is- 
Di[ileB, wLom Iiq ordained apus- 
tles! Mark ii3. J3-21. 

02. JssiL^lgTed tbe amiable 
young man., but tlie young 
man laved hia wealth moru ttiaii 
he loved the aiuUority of Christ; 
Marks, i 7-23, 

G3. Je^UB ein«th two tUnd 
nMn ; Matt. Lt 27-31. 



Preempt, fyr, 

S3. If tlipy ba\« (WL'sociitcd 
ran, they will alao peraecntc 
JOU; Jobo IV. liB-21. 

84, Jeijus said. Mv kingdom 
[a not of this world; John xviii. 
39, 3T- 

83. My meal and my drink 
Ib to do t.llia will rif hjii that 
sent nil'; John iv. 31-34. 

S6. Children, obey your 
parents in all things; Col. id, 7- 

87, Ke.'uflt the devil and Eie 
will floe t'roioyou; James iv.2l>. 



SS. ie&ah knew all mon ; 
John 11. 23-25. 



flfl. llo, erciy one tbjit 
thirstetii, ['time ye to the wa- 
ters, dfo.; laa. It. \-S. 



SO. Those that Beolt toe enWy 
ehall find mo; Prov. ix, IT. 



91. It is ordained that they 
will} preach tlie gioapel, have a 
right to live of the gORiwl ; 1 
Co[', ix, 0-U- 

92, It is ea?ier for a cnm«] 
tu ffu through the eye of a 
needle, llinn for a man who 
tni^ts in rit-'hes to *iitei- the 
kingdom of God; Mark x, 34, 

03. Thfi Lord optncfh the 
eyes of the blmd^ Psnl. oxlvi, 
6-10. 



sac 



TBK nunmia systeu — STkCE t. 



Narrative, ^c. 
118. Tliti EijheaiansciTout, 
Grofet » Diana of the Ephe- 

ISO. Fclit tremWtd, and 
SilitJ, " Go thy way fur thlB 
Umo." &G,; AcU mIv. 2i-2r. 

ll?l. PauI ap|M?aIeth to Cb3- 
ur; Act4Xzn.3J-97. 

isa. Paul la ahifivrcrk«] on 
bU way bo llome; Actaxtvii. 
(Tbe whole). 



\^3. Pnvl. in tb« iaUnA of 
AKOita. u3]]iiLrt l>y n. riper 
inhicli caino upon Lis hand ; 
AotH xxviii. 1-1). 

124. Tho Dvble Bercnns 
ecimtie;i] tiie Soriptures dnJly: 
Acta xvii. II, 

12&. Thtj unfiiigiK^il raitli of 
TimntLy's gmndmoDier Ijoia, 
&n(l hia moth(.''r, Eurloo; STiira. 
IS. 

136. Tlie sppstlo JoLn waa 
btuLished to ihc iala uf Pntmoa, 
for the snko of the goapd, and 
WM in tlie Spirit on tliB Lgrd'a 
day; Rcr. 1. 



Precept, ^c, 

lltl. Their idola are silver 
and ^l.tl ; montlis hare they, 
but they speak cut, im.-. PoaJ. 
cxv. 3-8. 

I30. M'ow is iha wxe^xA 

t.JTTm, now ia tfa>^ ^y of l&lVA.- 

tion; 2 Cor. ti. 2. 

l?l. Te «,lukll be brought liu- 
fore gftvemoTH imd kings f&r tnj 
sake: Matt. x. IB. 

las'. Unless these aliidc in the 
ship, ye catimot he savtd ; Acta 
XXViJ. yl . Work flut your gwn 
salmtion with fear and tremb- 
ling, for, Ac!.; Pbit. ii. 13, 13, 

123. I glTO y*n po-wflp to 
tread upon serpents anil sciar- 
pions; Lake x. 39. 

124. Se&rch the Scripturea, 
they teetifir of mei John v. 38. 

125. Timotlty from a clllld 
knew tho Scripturce ; 2 Tim. 
iii. 15. 

120. I will nerer l^nve thee, 
rnir fgiraake thee: Ueb, xiii, 

5,0. 



CHAP. XXIY. 

SELGCTIOKS FOR BIBLE IAAINI>'G LEISSONS. 



HTAGE 11. 

FIRST WEEK, OR. MONDAY. 

OLD TXaTAUKNT BTOaKAFBT. 



Creation of Man ; Hen. i. 

2C-3]. 

Making wf Womah ; Gen. il 
18-38. 

FalUfMan; Gen. Ui. 1-15. 

Murder of Abel ; Gen.iv,a-iG. 

Tranalntion of Enoch ; Gen. 
T. 21-34. 

Noah and tlie Flood ; Gen. 
vii. IS I, 

Alirara called ; Gen. xii. 1-9. 

At;»tliam ajid Lot jukrt ; Geo. 
xili. 5-ie. 

Lot's wife punislied; Gen. 
>i!(. 13-2&. 

AbraluLm offeroth up Isanc ; 
Gen. Ksii. 1-lB. 

Eaan selb his birtlmglit ; 
Gen, IKT. 27-S4. 

Jacob obtains hi a father'ti 
blesainp ; Ger. xstIj, 18-39. 

Jsflob's nwne thung^ ; Gen, 
sxxii, 21-33. 

Jobfph cast into a pit by his 
brethren; Gen. ixivij. 1-24, 

Joseph sold to tho lahmasl- 
itcs ; Gen. xxivii, 2B-36. 

^09tph eLdvaDC<cd in Eizypt 
by Pimraoli. : Gm. sli. 14-A3. 




Joseph's bretliren bring him 
preacnta ; Geiu sliii. 

Jci^ph EnakcthIu!iaaclfkiiQn>ii 
to his brethri'it : Gon. xlv. 

Joacpli prpBt'ntcl.fi Ljb I'iithiT 
and hrethreii bofur-o Pliamoli ; 
Gat}. :xlTii. 

Joseph's intcFview with liia 
brethren aftnrhisfather'adeath; 
Gen. 1. 15-21. 

Joseph's death ; Gen. 1 24-2B. 

The finding of Moses ; Exod. 

U- a-iu. 

Korah , Dathan , and Abiram'B 
rebellion ; Num. svj. 

Moaea lifting up the Irajen 
serpent ; Xum. xxJ. 1-S. 

Balamn and the Asgel ; 
Num. xxii. 

Moiin' death ; Deut. xzxlr. 

Joshun eu'tmnanda ttie bur to 
stftnd tjtill ; JoshuA x, 4-11, 

Saiuuf-d and Eli ; I Sam. iii. 

Death of Eh and hia two 
sona; 1 Sjim, iv, 10-18. 

I>£ivld and Goliuth ; 1 Sani. 
svii. 

JoaiLthiin'a lord for Da'^d ; 
1 Sam. xriji. 1-4, 20. 



THX TBAmHO STf^TSM &TAOK U. 



Saul'B hatred of DtiiA ; 1 
Sam, xriii. 5-lfl. 

Elijiili ftntl the Widoir ; i 
Kirif^ xvii. 

Elijnb Ted by r&TGDa; 1 
K'lbifl xvii. 

Elljiih ia taken ap lato hea- 
vuti : 2 Kinj^ li. 1>I5. 

Naamnn nnd GehAn ; 3 
KingB V. 

Manasseh'B wicked reign ; 2 
Kings nxi. 1-19. 

Joflkli, the good kir?^ ; 3 
I'Xingn udi, 1-3. 

Soltimon'a t'Cm^de ; 3 Chron. 
i. ii. iii. W. t. »i. 

Esther mado quoen ; EBbh. 
ii. 5.S, 15, 20. 

Ilamaniiiid Mordecw; Estb, 
foUcv-ing cimptora. 

Jub'fl trial of patience; Job 
i. 2. 



Dftvid'fr experience ; Fsal. 
cxliv. 1-4. 

Solomon's sermon ; Ecd. lii. 

llezekiali'a aickncss ; Isa. 
xxxviii, 

Isaiah's viaion ; Isa. ti, J-4. 

Dnniel ^nd tho tJire& cliii- 
dren : I>an- i. 

DaiJol in the lions' isa : 
Dan. vi. 

Shadracli, MeaLaoh, and 
Abedne^, cost into the fnr- 
nU3« ; IJftn- iii. 

BelaliAzukr'B impioua fenat : 
Dan. y. 

JuDsb swaUowcd Up by a Ssli ; 
•Fqiui]! i, 

Jonnh'a pmyor and deliver- 
uice i JouEih ii. 

Jtiiiali proaclieth to the Nine- 
vitca ; Jonah iii. 

JoQiJi and tb* gHjord ; Jon. iv. 



SECOND WEEK, OR TUESDAY. 



■1CBLKH8 AJTS tLLCBTBATIOH B. 



Be ye nrt as the liwrao or thio 
mulo, which tave nn under- 
Btatiiling : PsaJ. x.tiii. 0, 10. 

Aa iron sliai'peiiGtli u^ii, wj 
dio. ; Proy. iLxvii. 17, 

Like gr.isH wliich groweth up 
in the morning, and ill the liven- 
ing ia cut duwu oad with^sred ; 
Paal. St:. 4-6. 

Now wc Mo through a glasB 
darkiji 1 Cor. riii, 11. 12, 

I wil] reflnc tiiee aa ailveF is 
rrflned ; Zech. liii. i>. 



All like ahe«p hs.Te gone 
astray : 1 Poter ii. 25, 

Feed my lambs — feed my 
Bhoep ; John xii, 15-11. 

I am the ram of Skaroti. luid 
tlielilyofthe valley; Song ii, 1. 

Be wise na st-qwata, and 
harralesB aa dovea ; ^luU, x, 10, 

Kvcn 113 a lien gatbereth hor 
chickonii imilti; har wings ; 
Matt, ssiii. 37, 

Tbey shall mnnnt up with 
wings as eagka ; laa.xl- 28-01. 



gEL^OnONe POR BIBLE TSAiVfVtQ LBSTOT^S. 



S30 



Joseph, a fruitful hau^h b; a. 
well, ifce. ; Gen. slis, 23. 

Asaaowtlmt b nA^ilicd to 
hsr wallowing^ in lite mire ; 2 
Peter ii- 22, 

As the hart pmiteth after tlie 
water bitmka : Peal. xlii. 1, 2. 

Can tbo Etluflpian cliinnge 
ilia skin, or IIiq l(Kip&f<l hia 
spots ^ iFcr. ziii. 23. 

Like treefi planted bya river ; 
Jer. svii, 7, 8. 

He fitiall l>e 3 hi^iiLg ^iIaki 
from the wind, nnil a cnvort 
fi-om tho temj^st ; Ian. xxxii. 2. 

Like the ebi.idDW uf n groat 
rock in a weary land ; laa. 
xxxli. S. 

Whole armottr of God — loins 
g'trt about witb truth — lireast- 
pkto of r ightoc.ua nesB^ feet 
abod, Ac. ; Eph. Vl. 13-15. 

Shield nf f^ith — bGlmet of 
ftalvation^ — sword of ih^ Spirit 
— prayer, Ac. ; Epb. vi. 16-13, 

Yc firv ihe aaltof tbe earth [. 
Matt. T, 13. 

Ilia right bond ia :^11 of 
righteousness ; Psal. xlviii, 10, 

tieuijl cu'tapa&icJ dbo\iC with 
30 great a. doud of witneEHC«, 
lot US run thfi race, tbc. ; Heb. 
3iiL 1,2. 



"ic are til* light- of the world ; 
Mii.tt.v. li. 

Like ruin upon the mown 
grasa : PsnI. Ixxll. 5, H. 

Cbriat is the doitr of ev- 
tnuica ; iToIui i. 7-fl. 

Tbe Lnril is my stay •„ Psal. 
3:viii. 17. 13. 

Like the lieath in the det^it 
—parched phic& in, tba wilder- 
doBS — snlt Innd not iolmbitcJ ; 
Jor. iivii. 6. 0. 

Like a tfwj l>Iftlited by the 
wateis — leaf green — not ceaa- 
irg ti"oni fnit ; Jer, xvii. ^-9. 

As llie partridge, <bc., bo he 
that gcttetJi ricbra not by rijj[ht 
shfJl learo tbcini in the midet of 
bis d(iyB J Jer. xrii. 0-11. 

The wicked jvre like the 
troubled (k.'a,wblelicHrnmit rest ; 
Ac; Jaa. Ivii, 20, 21, 

TIld stork knowpth her ap- 
poiiitod time ; Jer. Tiit, 7. 

Brotlicriy love — as the dow 
ofllermnn; Pf^al. oixsiii. 1-3- 

Like ilic fish-potils in ileali- 
bon ;* Sung vii. 4, 

'rtiB Lord 18 thy ehade upon 
tby right linud ; Faal. cxxi. 5. 

Thy guodui'XB na tbo morning 
eluud, and the early dew ; 
Uois. siii. 1, 7- 



* The Rsh-iinols of lUelibua arc Itiua dcicribi'd by a, travRller:— "Tira 

large piHila, rising one nbave liie otLer abiiul Gre or six Ceet, mid. each 
DCDUpjing^ tliQ space of uDe or twoacreaiDf htdudiJ ; built-n/ivlilli! mnr&lE!. 
botUim aadaidefti vattt perle^tlr cleu.aud Uircoarriiurfvet dcrp. Tba 
crater cnCars the highest poul, tmd aa. I'liuil quaaLlty Raws into tlie lower 
pool ; uud no mure Uuws out Ironi Ilie lotv-ar pool tbaa eatpn Into tho 
highei OSL'. 

"TI147 nre Tull of tltli, ill^nodsof inaaclB fir Hibnsu the aurfnire of the 
^vateiv ; tJiQ Ipflplng of tbL> Esh 1: very instant nt IrniuiuBrable ipiiii;. the 
flnw of the trimspnTeut n-pt?'r from Lhe lulls oftliefiahi iathf act EFf li-n|iiii^ 
ftir thpir prey, ivhaii iha bright sen sliliici LlirutlKll [h'.-ie traniparencios, 
fflTe* to k>f5i the ppi>l* tlie aspect of two irninpnio dianaoDils/' 

Hi>wfplFndid Bad.lust li rverr nmlilem asei bf the- SpkrlL nf Gml inre- 
prBieating ChrktaDd his Cbiu-cJi: Bi.'fura we wer« iofonoed of Iheio 




340 



traB TBADOKS SnTKH— STAOB li. 



Ia not my vord like n. Urtb, 
unil n ttatiimvr iLat hre&WL) 
t1ic rtx^k in piccco ; Jcr. kxUl. 
2V. 

Aa viaogar to the teeth, «.tn\ 
A9 nncilia tu the ej-cs, ao in the 
nUi^-g:nH U> tLi'm that Rend 

liim ; I'rov. i. SlJ, 

Go to tbe ant thvu sluggard ; 
Prov. vi, ij-ii, 

KcK.'p nil} n« tbo apple of 
thino eye; r»al. xvii, 9; 
Deut. nxjij. 10, 

BuiUling fitly frnmed toge- 
ther : Ejih- ii. lfl-23. 

CompHRa me about like bees : 
Psal-CXviiL 8-14. 

Thaugh your nins ba S£ scar- 
let, All.; laa, i. 10-1S. 

jn thcft a weil of water 
springing up, &c. ; Juha iv, 
13-15. 

It IB esaiiJ!' for" a cftniel to go 
through A needle'e ■eye. than for 
them th&t trust in richca, An. : 
Mark s, 33-25, 

Mv horn shiiU thuu oxnlt ; 
Feairseii. 9, 10- 

Aa the eagle stirrvth up her 
neat, Ac,; Deut, xxKiii, 1')-!?. 

Tlie wUderneas nnd the aoll- 
tary pkec ahnll be glad, ±c, ; 
laa, xxxv. 1, 2. 

Thu pftrcikcMl grnund sliall be 
as H pno], and the tbiraty land 
BpringB of water; Ifla.xKX^■.'5-0. 

I wnit more tbnn they tljat 
w&tcb for the morning: ; l^^l' 
cna. 5-7. 

I am bcHi^ome like a bottle in 
the sriwke ; Psal, c?i^, 53. 

The hniised reed and the 



BiDAking flax tliou ah^li not, 
^c, ; luL. xlii. 3 ; Matt. xii. 
IT-21. 

In the ahflduw of thy -wings 
sviJJ T njoiee ; Psal. bti'li. Q-8. 

The righteous aball Honrish 
like the pnJm tree, and like the 
cedar of Lebansn ; Paal. scii. 
12. 

Bray a flwl In a mortar, Ac. ; 
Piw- xxvi), 23. 

Like gmss upon Uie honae- 
topB ; Pan.!, oxxis. 6, 

God is my fortr<!se. high 
tower, Ac. ; Psal. cxIit. 2. 

God h my refiige, Jcc. ; 
Psal. ilTi. 1-3. 

A 3UI1 and a. shloldr ^. ; 
Psal. liitxiv. 0-13. 

The Hun like a bridogrwim 
coming nut of bia clianibcr ; 
Pujil, 3cix- -i-fl. 

Out of tbo pit and the miry 
clH.y, nnd act my feet on. a rock, 
Ac; Psal.xl. 2. 

Who w this that flomctb out 
of Edi>ru with dyed giLrmeutflt 
dec. ; l»a. hciil. 1-5. 

Fountain of living' 'w^tera ; 
Jer. ii. 13. 

Altboujrh the fij^-troe abnU 
not 5)lo930ta. ito, ; Hab. iii. 17. 

As stubblo Iwfote the tri»d, 
and OS chaff, ifcc. ; Job sxi. IV, 
13. 

Ilis fa™ Hhono as the sun ; 
Matt. xvii. 1-S, 

The ox kfiovicth hia o^wnay, 
aai\ the ana, &c.', I^a. i. 3. 

Ho that is slow to anger is 
iMjtter than be that tak^tb a 
city; ProF, xvi. 33. 



fftcta, wt felt no ntry plQasiug oasocinUoQ ivliil-ffreading'tlieemhietn, "Lik* 
tii« GbIi jiodIb ol H4>Ehban." So JmiiorinnC jslttlinttbs Bible Craiiier«houl<l 
tvTEilih hiiuBpli tvith a thfiroagti Lttujivl-edf^e of (he mannBn, castumc, i.iid 
hIsLgry gf emtem oatiouB, aacJeataiiil moiern. 



BHHHHHRH 


$m.BCTtO?*S FOR BTBtE TRADflNO IE3SON9. 341 ^^^^H 


L*flcl ma to thf tofik wliieh 


Cast thy brctwl upon tlie wa- H 


is higher thnn, I ; Psal. Ixii. 2- 


ter>, itc. ; Eccl. i. 4. H 


i. 


Our days are as a eliadow; H 


Tlie hypocrite's trust R spi- 


1 Chrun.xxix. lo. H 


der's web; Job vJii. 13, 


iliverauf tiyjilcaaiiresiPsal. ^^B 


As r*lil wa<era to a tWrgtj 


sxxvi. S, ^^^H 


soiil, so, ifcc. ; ProT. XXV. 25. 


1 


^^f THIRD WEEK, OR WEDNE8DAT. ^^| 


NEW TGi^TAUENT BIOGRAPB^, AND PABASLEB OF OVa LdBD. ^^^| 


The nfttWtyof Christ; Luke 


Christ^H Agony in the gAiv H 


ii. 


den; Matt.xzcvi. 36-4^. 1 


Theshepherds of Bcthlelicm; 


Judna Itftpaying Christ; H 


Luku ii. 1-20, 


Matt^xsri, 4t3-50, ■ 


Wise iiicn{)fdi€€aGt ; Matt. 


JcMis croimed with thoma; H 


ii. 1-10. 


Matt, sxvii. H 


JdjBepb flwth intft EgyP*: 


Chriat crucifipd ; Johil xix, H 


Matt. ii. 11-23. 


Chciat's resurrection ; Matt. ^^™ 


John preia<^hing in the wilder- 


xxi'iij. ^^^1 


tiOa ; Mntt. iii. 


Chrkt'a aacfnBi-on : Acta i. ^^H 


Simeon, and Anna's proiiheey 
i-cgarding Christ; Luke li. 25- 


1-14. ^ 


Zaccbeus the puhlicvi ; Liilce 


39, 


»x. 


Chmt'witli'tJiDdoctora; Lu. 


The good diepherd ; John 


ii. 10-53. 


Sv 


Jesus t«mjit«l in th^? TfLlder- 


ATiani&:;an4S(ippMra; Acta 


neafl : Matt, iv. 111. 


V. 1-il. 


.k'sua bleiiseth little Lhildrtn; 


.Stejilien'a history of the chil- 


Murkx. 13-lfl. 


Artu <ji Israel ; Actg, vii. 


Clirist at Jacolj'a weU ; Joiin 


Stephen stoned to death ;; 


i(. I-IO. 


Acta vii, 54-00. 


Petw's denud of Christ; 


Said oa the way to Dainae- 


Malt, xjLvi, 51-76. 


cos; Actsix. 


Clirist 'b piitry into Jcrosa- 


Philip luid the Eunueh ; Acta 


Icm ; Markii. l-ll. 


yiii, 20-40. 


Christ '» tran.fliganitioQiMat. 


Pelcir ileliTgred ftoan prison ! 


svii. 1-L3. 


Act.mii. 


Cbri^t institutes. tli« ilolj 


Paul &t Dhqusciu: dstfi 


Supjwr ; Matt. sxri. 1-35. a. ^^^^^B 

% S 



THE THJUWINQ ȴ HTEK-^ffrA l?E IT. 



Piral'a RDflbringK; 2 Cnr. xi. 
2a-ir>*. 

Paul nnd SiIas Id priwn; 
A^fflxvi. 2.5 a 1. 

Eutjchwa restored to Kfr; 
Acta XX. 



Uerod'B pride and dnntli; 

Actsiii. 5D-26, 

Oi'>rc.n!i riLLScd lu life: AcIm 
he. 30-43. 

i.U-.H 17. 



the; I'ASAHt.Ba OPOCTB LOBD ^HBAliiflED ALP11ABBTICA1>I:>T« 



Debhm. tlic two, or grati- 
tDdefiirponlO'tungincn:^; Luke 
vji, HhiS. 

l-'i^-trei', or anpralitablpni,-M 
uiiilL'rtlii? nivalis of grac*; Lulto 
slii. U-ft. 

Iloup« on the rock, and on 
the AEULil, oT the oianiUtent sod 
tlio f^l.s^ pfoftiaiop ci-f the Gos- 
pel; Matt.Tn.24'27. 

Hiislmiiilinen Idlltng- theMion 
of tho hinisphfild-er, cr t^io wii'k- 
l^dlH%a at' the Jeivs; Mutt, sxi, 
33-41, 

Jjoavoi, or tho Hprnid of thf 
Gonpe): Matt.a.iii.S.'J. 

Miutord seed, ur the spread 
of the Gospel; Matt. xUi. 31, 

Mnrringp ft'ast, op thn offer 
of aalvation, and its tifAtnient 
by infidsUty nnd hypocnay ; 
Malt. xxii. 1-13. 

Net cast into the sea, or tta 
(ieslgu of tbti GoiUpcl dJapeiiBO' 
Uou; Matt. xJii. 47-50. 

Peul <jf gtf»t prion, ur the 
v&liu! of thij Gospel ; Hutt. siii. 
-15, 4 a, 

Piece of ailvsT Ht and foond, 
or tlic mercy of Christ to sin- 
Dftm ; Liitcesv. S-lft. 

Prodijjjil aoc.or wtilcome io 
n«iiitont aiutLciTB! Luke xv. 11- 

tebliooa pjid phuisee, or ao- 



'ccptnble and rejected ^wonhip- 

per; Luke icviiLU-14. 

Pound? jfivon tn tmdc witli, 
wr diligence reivarded, ami elotli 
piinished: Lukciij. 12-2fl. 

Hirh fool, OP thfl Miapry mf 
worhlliaeiiij, ; Lukoxii. IG-Sl. 

Hi^^'li mna and Ln^riu, or 
thcendafsensunlity: Lukesvi. 
20-31, 

Sheen, the lost, or the' restoi^ 
Ation of the sitincr the design of 
Cliriat's fiumiiig: Matt. XTiIi. 
11-U. 

Servant, tha truel, or the sin 
of nut (orgmug otbcn ; Matt. 
iriii. 3L-3S. 

Sower, Or the tcirera of tht 
word; Matt. siii. 3-B. 

Sltwiird, the unjuat, or pre- 
paration for the tat^re; Ltihe 
Kvi, 1-10. 

Sainaritim„ the good, orcflin- 
passion to oUt brethf^n; Luk» 
1, 30-37. 

Sln>phord, the good, or the 
chiu-aciter of Ckrkt ; Johnj:. 1 1- 
Ifl, 

Tnfisare hid, at the yalaa of 
the GoBiwl; Matl.siii.4t 

Tareu atuong the wheat, or 
h&d ntnang the good in this 
world,; Matt. siii. 21-30. 

Talents given to trade witli, 
or dUigencc reworded an<i aloth 
punishod; Matt, xxv. 14-<}(l. 



Tint'yjird, ktMarcfa in tUe, 
or tliK G<;ntiles Admitted to 
cqunJ ]3rivilcgB3 with tlieiTows; 
Mntt. sx- L-lg. 

Virgica, the ten, or trna And 



FADAlLLXEl IK THE Ol-O TEBTAJtaHT. 




tha tieea rnflbing a king; 
Judcea. IT. ^. 

'ihs>p(HitmiXt.'aeviiB]&aaii\ 2 
Sam, xii. 1. 

Twd brnttvcTs afcrifitig ivgti- 
thcr; iSini, XJv, 0, 

Tlie prisoner that nindtf hie 
escape J 1 ts ingq XI. 



T!m thistle tutd the cedar; J 
Kin^B sJY. 9. 

The rfiuirc!i mpreaentod aa a 
vino and a vineyaixl; Psal. 
Ixsx. 3-10. 

The vineyard yielding wild 
grnpiB ; laa. t. L 



FOURTH "WEEK, OR THURSDAY. 



HOlUli DOTIEB, ETC., FiLOH EtlBU: BXAM^LES ATV'B meCEITS, 
PHtiJIJSCi), EIC 



Cluist's eariy piety; Lake 
ii. 4S. 47. 

Cliriet'e abedienra ta im 
eartlily pantiia ; Lulipii.51. 

ClirlatV hiuBLlity and lowli- 
HesB of mind : Matt, xi- 31). 

Christ'B Helf-dflaiol ; PbU. ii. 
7,8. 

Ciirkt'd «DDtotitmcnt in it 
■ncjui cnnditiDn ; Luku Lx. 5'S. 

Christ's suhmitting to bo a 
cftippciter; Mark vi, 3, 

Christ's rendinc^ to foi^ve 
injuries; Lnkexxili. S4. 

Clmat'a Kal for tiio jiuhUc 
fforahip of Gud ; LhIic tv. 1 0. 

Cluriat's loTe and practiw rf 




the diTiiLe eoamuuidB ; John ir. 

34. 

Christ's suhJBction to govern- 
nieat : Matt. srii. 27. 

Search the Scriptures ; John 
V. ay ; AcLg 5Tii. 11. 

Fot^'iTinu; spirit ; Luke icdil, 
M ; Acts vTt. 54-80. 

St-ualing: Ex. nut. 15; Juili. 
rii. 

Sftbhath lirenJdng ; Eiod. 
JRC S ; Nuifi, 5V, 3(1-37. 

OhcdJCTicG to piLtvnts., and 
the reyeriM ; Col. ili. 20; 2 
Siun. Jtriii. 

Lying : Zmrh. viii. 16 ; Eph. 
iv. 95; Acta-T. 1-11. 



TffE TRilKUfO araTEW— STAGE tT» 



Earj : 1 P«k U. 1 i Gen. 

Fnjtr i I TI11MB.T. ;? ; Dan. 

h. 

Fraiung Ood ; PmiI. OXiit. 

1 ; Acts XVI. 25, 

have ano nnotlier ; John xv. 
13 ; 1 5anl. xvili. 1-4. 30. 

Moclcinfr ; Prav. sxx. 17 1 2 
KingB ii_ 23-'i5. 

Alitift-jjiviliig ; LuJse si. 41 ; 
Aete X. 2. 

SpGAktng ^ulle ; Fsal. xxxir. 
13 ; Julin 1. 4:7. 

Munli-'r ; ExwL xx. 13 ; 
Matt. siv. 6.11. 

CuvetoLisneaif ; Ejtod.JX 17; 
2Kiiig!iT. lii>-2T. 

nn«pitalitjr ; Rom, xii. 13 ; 
Gen. svii. 1-3. 

Prid« ; Jer. xiLi. 17 ; Acta 
xu. 23; Prov. K\i. IS. 

DmcJci'DiLefla ; Eph. r, 18 ; 
IsB. V. 11-32. 

SwenrinfT ; Eiod. xx. 7 ^ 2 
Snin. xvj. 1-14. 

Early pitfty ; ElcI. iH. 1 ; 
3 Tim. u3. 15. 

irimillily ; I Pet. v. S ; 
Luke XTiii. ti-l4, 

Tlio Golden RnWj Matt. vii. 
13 ; 1 Sfflm, IX. 3o-4&. 

Walking with God ; Dp«t- 
V. 33 ; Gen. t. 23-24. 

Obedietice to God'a law ; 
Jobn xlv. l& i John iv. 34. 

DiligL'nee in doing good ; 

2 Tlicais. iil. 13 ; Actftx. 38. 
•SnbiuissiiDii to sHperiors ; 

Ueb. siil. 17 i Matt. xvii. 27. 



Doty of wrrjiiits : Titruii.?^ 
In^f^liludc ; Gen. xl. 
Wurldiy-inindcdiieaa; 2 Tim. 

Tteiaymg repentance ; Acts, 

ClioDsinj; the good parti 
Luke X. 

Fatient-c, Job ; Jobl. 

OlwdicDEo to pareot* — I 
cbiLliIlsa ; Jer. axjtv, 

B« nut gvercu'me of evil { 
Rum. xU. 34. 

If aumers entice thee, Ac. \ 
ProT. i. IB, 

Be nut wi&G in your oini 
OycB ; PfpT. ii. 7- 

Entcr not into tLe pnth of 
the wicked ; Prov. iv. 14-19. 

A soft answer turfi«tli aiT&y 
wrath ; Prav. iv. 1, 2. 

Ilo that liath fiitf on the 
poor, (fee. ; Pmv. lis. 17. 

Eyca a. cliilil is known by him . 
doings; Prov. xx. 11-13. 

Feed my laml« ; Jqlm xsi.l 
15. 

Whoso curscth hia father opI 
his iDcthcr ; Pmy. xx, 20. 

Whvn rebuked of Gcd, faint ] 
not ; Ueb. xii. 3-5. 

Set yonr aS'i^tiona oa tliinga 
above : Col. ill. 2. 

Ki^ist tbu devil, and he wiQ . 
flee from yon ; Jjimeip iv. 7. I 

Be not weaiy in well doing, 
for, Ac. ; Gal. vi. fl. 

If poasiblL', live penc^ablT , 
iritL all men } Rum. xii. IS. 



^^^^f BELBOriOm FOK BIBI^ TOKUmtti LB330KS, 345 ^^^H 


^^^V FIFTH WEEK, OR FRIDAY. ^H 


UIHACl^a FHDU THS QLU AND NBTV TESTAMEyfa. ^^H 


The plagues of Egypt ; Exocl. 


The sue atatidlng- still r Josh. ^^| 


rii. Tiii. i^. aiiid x. 


^M 


Slaying the firstljorn ; Esod. 


The Hun darkened ; Luko 


ni. 36. 


xxiii. 44. 


Moses cllTidetli tU* Hetl S?*; 


EJijah fo] by ntvena ; I 


Exod, xvi^ 2K 


Iviiigs KiiL 1. 


TLe Egyptians drowned ; 


Elijah multiplicth tha wi- 


Exod. iiv. 33, 


doiw'a O'il aad mieal j 1 Kings 


^uaJU und mnmia Bcnt ; 


svii. 8. 


Ex«l. Kvi. 11. 


Elijah raiseth the widow's 


1 Wfl,ter brought odt of th* 


svn ; 1 KLop x^il. LT. 


rock ; Exod- xvU. 1, 


EiiiiLa. inultE|)lietli the wi- 


\y™ciilou« ht'iiling of the 


dow's oil ; 9 Kings iv. 1. 


, lBmolih.'s. ; Xiiiti. XJii- 7. 


Elbha raiseth the Sliunam- 


Korali. Dntbnn, mid Abirntn 


mite'a son : 2 Kin^ tv. Ifl. -1 


swallowed up byaneartliqualc?; 


XfisQian's lepi-OJiy euired : 2 ] 


Nuni, ivi. 3L, 


KitifB V. 1. 1 


Jordan divided ; Joab.iii, li, 


ELi^ha -irnnscth iron to Bivim ; 1 


The walla af Jericho fall 


2 Kings ri, 1, ■ 


down ; Jo^. ti. 2f . 


■ 


MlBAClItOUS E3CBKCI&C Ot CSftlST'l POWEIt. ^^| 


In ffiving sight to th& blind. 


In cnriag the dumb. 


TWO' ftt Ca^yemsum ; Matt. 


One at CapcnmutQ ; &bttr 


ix. 27-20. 


lii. 25-25. 


Several at tbo sea of Galilee; 


Several at th€ sea of Galilee ; 


Matt. XV. 30. 


Matt. in-. 3ft, 


Two on leaving Jencho j 


Another there; Mack viii. 


Matt, XX. a9-34. 


MUG. 


One oil goiofc tO' Jericho ; 


In curing fever. 


Luke 5vii. 35*4.3. 


On Petor'B lu other- m-U.w ; 


One in tho Temple j John 


Matt. viii. 14-13. 


ix.i. 


Oo tbe nobleman's sou ; 


1 In curing the lamo. 


-TokEiiv, 46- S+, 


P Several at ths sea of Galilee ; 


In curing drojisy. 


1 Matt. XV, 30. 


On a man in tbe Pbatwe'^ 


U 


boUae; Luke m. 1-1. M 

1 



In curing lejirnny. 

On a TOMS at Cspemmtim; 
Matl. viii, 3,3, 

Ten in the region of Galilee; 
Lufcfxvii. 13-10. 
lit curing f> wilbcircti Inuntl. 

Oil a man kt GiaJllc« ; Mfirk 
Jii. 1-5. 

In curing lang-QontinTied ma- 
lad i«i. 

Of twelve ycnra' itandin^ ; 
Matt, ii, 20. 
In PTiring the pnlsy. 

On tlio GonturioD's Bwrvwit; 
Mfttt, \Vu. B. 

In curing SAtanic poeacaBJuii. 
Two mi?n of tbo GcrgracncH; 
Matt. viii. 3R. 

TLo Canamiilie'B tlaugbtor; 
Matt. IV. L'2. 

TLo maji at the tnuunt of 
Tramtfiguration; Matt, svii, 18. 

TIio woman with thu spirit 

of infirmitj; Lukc xili. 11, 

In restoring an cs,t cut alT, 
Tho Ilig'h Priest's sorvant; 

Lube xxij. Sir, 51. 

In ralsiiif the dead. 

The widow of Nnin'a aim : 

Luis Fiii, 13-13. 



Th& ilBUgblEir of Jairus : 
Lukt viii, &4, 55. 

La^arua vf Belliany; John 
XI. 1-44. 
In chang^g wattr into wine. 

At CiLiLA of Galilee: John u. 
1-11. 
In walkiiig on tlia hc3- 

Tlie sea of GulUee; JMatt.)Liv. 
25-2fl. 
In stilling the tranpeat. 

S(.-a uf Galilei) : Matt, vitj, 
2fl. 
In increa^inf the lDBv>es and 

In the deflcrt; Matt. x.y. 34- 
3Q. 

And again; Jollil Vi. 9-14. 
In jnveiiring the large draoght 

□f &ilies. 

At tiie eiM of Gftlil^e ; Luke 

V. 6-e. 

In Bending the Sab with the 

money. 

At tliQ Bsa of Galilw; JdAtt. 
xvii, 27. 
In i)ara]^n^ ast] restering tlie 

HoMiors. 

In the garden of Getiae- 
BifLDe; John jcviii. 6-8. 




^^^^^^^^ELECTfONS FOB BIBta THAININO LEfiSONS. 347 H 


■ Zonr, Gen. siv. 


D-ilmrLnntha, RIark viii. 10. ^^^H 


SAlem, Goo.iiv, 


Sa.reptn, Lukp iT. 9lt. ^^^H 


DnJDfiscua, Gen. xv. 


Nain, Xjuke vij, 1 ^^^| 


K Pklns ul' Mcimro, Gen. xviii. 


Bethany. Luke sxiv. SH. ^^^| 


H Beer-ahebu, Gpn, jtxii. 


Bt'tkuicla, Matt. xi. ^'1. ^^H 


* riebron, Gen. xsili. 


Tyre, Isn,, }:xiii. I, ^^^H 


Mesopofiimla, Trcn. Txir. 


Capernniim, Jolin it. 46. ^^^H 


Harnn, Gtn. ssiii. 


Cans, Jcjlin ^^^H 


Mount Gileud, G«n, nxrdi. 


MagdnJa, Matt. x«. 30. ^^H 


BcittildiKia, Gen. xs.iv. 


S(!» ul'TIIvma. Jnhn vj. 1. ^^^| 


EdorUi Gen, nsyi. 


Lake of Gcnnfsfuvt, Lukcv, t. ^^^B 


EjTj'lrt, Gen. xli. 


Joniiin, Matt. in. 13. ^| 


Goaficn, Gen. rfvii. 


RoniD, Acta xxiii. 11. ^^^^| 


Red Sea, ETod. xiv. 


Spain, Rum, :ct. 24. ^^^^| 


Moal, E:Eod. xv. 


Patmos, R«v. i. 9, ^^H 


WUrtcrneaa of Sin, Exod. iri. 


Jei'iLsidom, Lukexiii. 31. ^^^H 


Mount Siflni, Esod. six. 


Atlicii^, Acta svii. S3. ^^H 


Journey of the laroelitea, Num. 


Dnmiiacua, und Paul's Travels, ^^H 


xsxiii. 


Acb<4, ■ 


Babj'lon, Jer. xxviii. 4. 


Zion, Ibo., bdv. 111. ^^^^| 


Judi;.^, I,ukexsi. 21, 


Sjrin.. M^tt, iv. Si. ^^H 


Land of IsiacJ, 2 Kings v. 2. 


Prmn, Dan. x, xiil. ^^^H 


Samaria., Jcihn iv. ft. 


LcbatiotL. Psnl. xcli. 13. ^^^H 


Galilee, Marksiy. 28. 


Ambk, Ga.1. ^^H 


Cesnrca, Matt. xvi. 13," 


Joppa, AelMs. d. ^^^H 


Naaareth, Luke ii. 5 L 


■ 


' HOUNTAIFfS. ^1 


Calvnry — ■Te^ns Chpjat was 


to cnrsQ God'a- pruipli! ; Sumb, 


crurificil; Liikexxiti 33. 


jLiiii. ll. 


Olivet — .io*n9 wceri'ded up 


CaTmel — tbe Lmrd ansM-orcd 


ta beaven; AcU i. L2. 


Klijoli by fire ; 1 KincH xviii. 


.\rnrat— Noali's Ark rested ; 


20. 


Ggh. vLli. 4. 


CiliioA — Sftnl ftliil hia suns 


GLe.id— Laban OT«look Jj»- 


were killed: 1 Cbrun.x. 8. 


coh; Gen. xsxi, 21. 


Mf>piuli— Solomon built tbc 


Sinai — Grvd gnvc the ten 


temple ; 3 Cbron. iii, 1. 


comiu.intlmcnCa; Exoil. six. 13. 


Lebanon — Hoses prayed to 


Horeb— tlie Lord appeared 
to Moacs in a huah of fire ; 


8ce it before he died ; Leut. iii. 


23. 


Exod.iii-l. 


Talwr — Thearmi™ of Barak 


PlBgah — BnJalt took Dnlaam 


and Si&era Glut; Judy's iv, 12. 


ninT-E osoGnxTrrv. ^^^^ 


Journey of the Israelites from Ei/ppt ta the JVomised Land. ^^H 


— Tilts inaT oommpiipp fmm PJinrnoh'a giving Jacob's thmilv ^| 



CHAP. XXV. 



SECULAR IBAIBIHC LESSOR'S. 



si.eh£?«t8 Qr ^titfca — AKts— uahu fact c; ices 

All educntioD must 'be incomplete, which does not 
prepare man £or the duties of this lifej and the en- 
joymenta of another. In this tUw of educatioD, it 
requires little argument to prove that sci^nte, or a 
kDOwkdgi! of sc^cular things, fomiB an essential ingrc' 
dient (for this life at least), and wbicli, as a distinct 
branch, we couBider lias been too long neglected in 
elementary schools, — not that elementary school 
books have not embraced short notices of sotnepoints 
of Science, but they are not such as without picturing 
out by the master can convey clear ideas of the sub- 
jects treated of. Without oral instruction added to 
readhig there cannot be a regular course of secular 
training- 
It is evident, that although some points of ecienco, 
from observation, reading, and eonvcraation, do force 
themselves upon the young mind, and may be made 
available when s. person attends a. course of public 
lectures in after life j yet, ths fact of bis know- 
ledge having been ^thered up at landom, vvithout 




^ 



THE TRAlININO SYSTEU, 



arrangement or system, kavea liira in the dark as to 
the basis on which all, or any gcieiice, rests. 

In the preceding chapters, we liaTe eadeavoutod to 
prove the importanco of thia principle in religious 
matters^ and now we must shortly applj it to aecular 
education. 

That scienoe ought to form a dUtinct Lranch of 
education and traiaiog, oven for tlie cbildr^q of the 
poor and working classes, will appear, when wo con- 
BidfiT the importance of servanta, workmen, nnd me- 
clionics, having a correct idaa. of things and of Scien- 
tific terms, In regard to the first of this class, for 
example, in ventilating a room or a chnrch^ how many 
colds ID tho head aad stiff necks might be prevented^ 
and how much dust and coala saved in pokering a fire! 
The workman would know better the m&aning of re- 
lative terms, even in the drudgery of manual labour, 
and he might be left to execute much hy a simple or- 
der acieniifically expressed, which he cannot now do 
without the closest superintendence; and althoogh 
the mechanic must h<ive' acquired a proctic^al know- 
ledg'e, at least, of ibe terms and science of \m parti* 
cular profession, yet, early school training in science 
and scieotific terms, would liaV^e expanded and exer- 
cised the mind of many a mechanic, humble in rank, 
but of powerful intellect, eo, as to have producc^d many 
more James "Watts tlian we now have, wbose genius 
and diacoveriea might earich raankiud, and add to the 
lomGBtic and social comfort of all. How' dLfficuH it 

to get a workman out of a beaten track, or if he he 

^feniua to fix him in any track at alU 




The mode of conducting a scientific training lesson 
ia precisely tlie SAme as in Biblo training, and it is im- 
necessary to repeat partitularly what has been ahready 
atated. The priaciple is this, that facts mu£tbe told 
the pupils, uf which they show tliemgelvies ignorant, 
but not the lesson to bo drawn.* Tlie master tmina 
the cbildren from facta they already know, or Tvliit-h 
he may communicate at the time, till they arrive at 
the conclusion to which he wiahea to lead tbem, and 
which the clkildren will draw for themselves, if the 
premises be properly laid, and expressed in language 
withia their comprehension. Picturing out, therefore, 
13 as nccegsary in &ecular as in Bible training. Sci- 
ence, highly valuable in itself, eveuassiaCs Bible train- 
ing ; — for example, in secular training, it taa.ybe, the 
child knows nothing of the difference in poiver be- 
tween the right hand and the left, or the gravitation 
of matter in tha scales of a balancs. These must he 
told aad pictured out to the child as new facta,, and 
applied in Bible training, wheo in describing the 
greatatisa and power of God, it is eaid, "His right 
hand doth valiantly/' and "He weighcth the moun- 
tains in scales, aud the hillg in a balance." Again, a 
knowledge of the qualities of salt in preserving ani- 
mal substances from putrefaction, enables ns to per- 
ceive the meaning and force of the ernhlem, " Ye arc 
the Bait of the earth." And agnin, the mode of refin- 




352 



THE nuimXQ STSTBH. 



ing silver ore, by subjecting it to fire in a crucible, 
and the fa^t tliat it ig only fully rcfincil wTien tlie siJ- 
versmith can sea biafatie reflectodon its surface, assist 
us to underatand the force of the expreasioD, " I vriH 
refine tbce as silver is refined." Secular training les- 
3ona are uniformly found a most powerful mental cul- 
ture w!ien conducted according to the natural prin- 
oiplea laid down. The right esercise &f all our powers, 
bowerer, intellectual as well as moral, is a duty we 
owe to Him who created us, and we are not at liberty 
to leave dormant, powers, by which, the more they 
are exercised agreeably to His will, in regard to tha 
works of nature^ the more we discover proofs of bis 
wisdom and goodness in the adaptation of every flower 
of the field, and animal and mineral substance, to the 
circuSQ stances iu which tbey axe placed, and the pur- 
poses for which they were designed. The more we 
explore nature, the more docs God appear in it, and 
the more clearly does his revealed will iLppear to be 
the gift of the same all-wise and benignant Being. 

There are few secular lessons properly pictured out, 
especially in natural history or sciences ftom which, a 
distinct moral lesson may not be drawn. 

The black board, and pictures, and objects, must, 
of course, be more frequently used and referred to, 
than in Bible training. The object and the diagram 
require to be more frequently present to the eye, con- 
seijuently written examples of the system pursued 
muai be more imperfectly exhibited in secular than 
in Bible training, imperfect aa both muat neceggarily be 
in. the absence of the £y<!, the hands aaithB Uvitiff voice. 



SECUtAB. OAM.BRT lESBOS— ^HE CiMEt. 

Questions and ellipeea, witli analogy, and (Jamiliar) 
illustrations nre alike requisite in conducting the les- 
aons nf hoth departments (secular and sncred), and 
both ought equflllyto he an intellectual exercise, inde- 
jjendently of the practical, or moral, or spiritual leg- 
sons, to be deduced. 




EXAMPLE 1. 



STAGE T., OB INITIATOBY DEPAHTMENT. 



8K€tftAa IRAIHIKO LBSHOH. 



TUQ CAUBli. 



Now. phUiir*n,t jcu tee tliia pk-ture (presentiEg tie |>iphire 
of & Eamcl, \£ you have one, bnt if tiot, you nrnet deserllje ita 
compiiratiTC she with aanw snlnia] they aro acquainted with, 
noticing alsn the pcculiHr liunclnia upon ita lwci(). What la the 
nnme oftliia uaiiuaL? TJie Camel. Camel is the name of... 
thia animal. The caind, i-hildi'uii, Wvim in Iict caunLriosj sa4:h 
as Arahia. Araliia ia a very, ..hot co-ttatry in Asia, where there 
tifi hot sandy dpflerta, in irLdcih thtrii are neiithor trsea nar ... 
grasr. The cawel h^s feet and lega, and ... (pointing tQ the 
parts) ff hea4, and ... « ftfl!-*, as every animal ha*. What a 

' In ererf BtHfe of the fliUd's projresB, fuc ifkng {inJ dlEpg^i moil hp 
jadlriiiusly and iiatni mil; mixed. 

I Nn I'Ms-un h proi-epiJdln-ii]! uutil EtiE. rhildrnn are pl^fairHlly and In- 
l-ellectUBlli' Mlled into order. fS*e Nfttaa. miipp I., ■• a Stay," nnd " Mim 
ivithllic wltliercd hiuil.") At t\\n iind of every point nf liialeeaon, a\ta, 
anme Blight pliyaEca! mov-pmentB arii reiifll.illfl, sijr.li ni rtiDlchiiig- one mrmt 
biraiillaiieoua-ly twice 'tir ttinnr, rlaiag up nil J tilting dowOk Ki?..Tnrii?d ac^ 
cordinu t<i Itir^ ngf nnd cerjiilloa a/lha finRliiigB ot the clilLOren. Sfimc nf 
tfaE9? nrc B^bsoliiitvlj' reqalnitc' bc/ori;, and dud.tig' tbe ptogrfuoC eiery 1m- 
lon, liut the must pno'Erful means of aecurlDg' tlie uientlim on tbe tnlit- 
ui's Butioaaud va-ryhig hia target of vnies. 



au 



THETlUimwC SVSTClIt 



hmp int its back, manterll TliJa la n,.../ump. !Do yOU re-" 
mcinlAr th* luimc I j^va ia tliat Iwiup? I enWA h a Imnoh. A 

jjcat ... I'ltnr.h. lllal, tdcD, L9 a ... huHch. TliU HI*! hgw lUHny 

banclica it haa got ! 'Twu. It lif» g<:it .,. iuio hunches on it) 
bock. TUU one IB on ... Wlicri^ ia tliis que- ueai- ? Suppuetrije^ 
tliUbuy wcut un all fuura, tlial id, suppoHC tliiu bay walkpi] ou 
his hnBdit luvci t^^fee(, and a liunt^li were almve tliis place. Wluit 
dn you call this pla^c? Shoulder*. The cnmcl. tlica. \\aA a 
tuncli uiK>ii ... in shfMciJen, or close Iwliukd.-.i'tfi sAou^e/era.and 
another u[kMi ... Wlmt U tliLa ? Tjk'I. 1« tlu5 tltti tiiil J .fiacdl, 
Sir. It ia ujion...i^ &ac:Ai near .., tA« /ui/, Wt not ... uprni th& 
iaii.' 

KuWt then, children. I Bliall ivU you (mmetliEng- morc-f about 
thia wiindorfiJ aniuial. li lias got crooked Kind legs. Sir. Very 
right, my lUtle girl, the camel hsis got very l>nj8<l Bttuiig.,,kind 
le^s, wtiiL-h look »s it" they were ... crooked, ami in the next les- 
son wc hiivc Eifron tlie camel, wc shall swiy aomctbing about the 
use of what fipjieara a crDuk in ita ... Ai'n^ ^i^^s'. and you 'will be 
better able to understand tlie reaaon then, than you would jusl 
nav.X Let me ttU yoUi that tlie eHiu>el haa got on ita body, 
vory iino hair i>f a lig'ht bfoivti colour, ■caUcd,.. What would you 
cbU the hair thnt grows upon tho camel t (No aSsWer.J Wliat 
wo\ild you fall the hair that grown uimn a cuw ? Cow hair. 
Now. aiLBuer me. What would you call tlie hair that grows upon 
a cnmel \ Cajnel hair. This haiTj eTLildrcn, ia made into clutb, 
and makes very pretty ...Jackets. I haifono ttouU that cloth 
made, from eamo]'8...-Aat>, would laakciijucket astliisHxiyaays, 
but it ia caodc chie£y into cto&ka or ... mantles. The ollmate^ 
h too hub for jiiekcts, tbui is to euy, th^; sua m too hot m the 
coant-vy where the camulB.-.iipe, for the penpie to... wear jackgti. 
Peupls iu hot countries generally prefer loose, wide elothes, upt 
elathes tliat fit tight like ... a jacket. Why ? Becaute they an 
cooler. The body is kept cooler whea the clothca are loose. 



) Snuifl aliRlit pliyiicnl PBiTCisc?-4. 

E W? ^ive the iiLi-tlaneA RraL. See pnstiia, At f.hd SfiOI'C tinirt Ai^knoiv* 
Icdiflng one or otlif.'E' vtthe Aatwits nndobaer^Jitlona r>rtho Ebiiarcii. 

• A vrurcl ttii^; ro-d si^BTcfl^ at }et dudentBiid, but bBl.Dg'es|>r«iHci1, tb« 
iriiiner muiL hreok it -dawn. 



9HCrt4H QAUiBHT LESSOH — THE CiSTEr., 



85$ 



ttan wUen .,. thetf am light, What (lart of Uib wm-lil are wo 
Bpeakin J about ? Tou will rempmbcT I tivld you at tLc Ix'gin- 
niTi^ cf UlQ ksHnti. Wliut Witl llib iLLimc? Atabia. Tlus girl ia 
riffht, don't ftirgel tUo uamc of the touBti-y where caui^ls cUiyfly 
live ... Arabia. Very wdl, tlie gnuiel's hnir ia made into ... 
chaksaai\... mantles. Do you i-etneniber, ia one of our BiililcJeR- 
S0I19 wliD wiifl ftaiil to luivewoirna garment ma^c of cnmcra liair! 
JbAft. Jolin... the Bapthl* Very well, eliildrm, you Uflve 
said that tho onmol Uvea in,..j4rii£i'a, timt it has tw(i.,.hu»chei 
on ils back, one as large as yoii ace, and the otljei% ... §jnall, or 
...Sfflfl/isr, tliat its Imir ia of a ... iiglif brawn colour, and TCpy 
...fme. And wh^t do the people mkko of ita hair? Cloth. 
Clotli for ... maniles.\ 

Look what a nice place iha,i 'woulil be for a ride, chJldrrai. 
Thatpln.ce iBaamcthiiig^lth'Ca,..Wbat is put &s a seat ou aliorae'^ 
Imck ? A saddle, "ftliat do you think that plocc- is lili& bo- 
tween th« two hun<;hes ">. A saddle, that would keep m from 
falling, Sir. Very right, tmy, the hiuich tcliind would keep 
you fmja... falling bacA, iind tUia one tiear...t/je fAou^i/e/-, wauld 
keep you from ...failing on iis 'nenft. Hut jicrhaps you might 
fsJl hy its aides. The stirrups leottid keep me up. Oh, llien yon 
are for atiirups, my hoy. You wduld ride veiy nafely on the 
camel'B hack, jfyou Lad ... stirrups between t\ii»e two lurge ... 
lumps. Lumps! ! Huncheg, Sir. 

Now, I must tell yon sonicLhing more abont this wonderfii] 
animal, and then you will tell mc wlml you tlaink of it. The 
carnal ia ti vciy tftll anim&l, &a high as sJs feet, that ia fwm the 
...floor to ^ little tthoye my ... head^ (The mfkster pointing fiftt 
to til's EIooi' and tUen to the top of liie hend4) SuppusiDg I 
wkhed to take a ride on ?«eli a- high, animal, hew would I get 
on its iMi-ck ? Yvit might lake a stool. Out suppose I cnuld 
not get a stool, and were in tho desorta of Arabia i Iwoxld 



• Of cnurK the trBmer remembaro thot tliti fact occBrred 5n a BtOI* !«- 
ion, ulhcnvisa the queitioD. would nut be put lU. t]ili time. 

t The ditldren, of i^uurai?, raahi) lunny nilgLnkM wtiieli mui,t he corrected 
bftrslntDfr, not ItlNnj; but tQ eiWbSt wlilch du jinper, W'Hulil rtndiT tbe 
piBTUHkl iololcmMy teditiug. 

E Ai-ti>au suited tn tlie ivordE, Ii Importtnt iu trainio^, tu it Ulu ell pabUi: 
<i!!f>Bkin|f. Tlia attention of tEici old aa wdU a» the yaung ia ncresteiL by it. 
null Gvea partially [ilcturea nut tliu eubji'ct. 



as6 



TttK THAHUNG STSTESt. 



jWap. Could you jtiinp u Uigh aa yonpself, think you ? Yes. 
Sir. Try it? No, Sir, ao. Now. I"ll tell jou how it is done. 
The kfvixrn of the canifU train thcni *lwn tliey arc rauq"- to 
kneel ... dawn iinon ...thiir ftnecs. By traiiiing, 1 mean tJjey 
make the cameUi ... Jauel doten, that JS tn sny. when the keepers 
trtuntht^ youngrn-nicktcluicel. tbcy innJcG them ... (/o i"(. When 
the wmeharo tratiR-d to ...kneel an the ... grmind, lhey.,.do )>,• 
The keepers whistle or mnki; some piirticuUr ... cfUAii. and the 
moment the Pamela hear the ... iaIiiUle, tliuy ... Wlhnt do they 
do ? Th?y kneel. And when fb^'j kneel, any man can ...jump 
oa Us back, nmt nft«r a person ia on its bock .., Wh&t might 
they do '! Takt a ride. 

Now thoTi, ihe eamel ridts with a mmi. or any burden^ on ... 
its fiact, just like ... What animal do we ^ijie for riding in tMs 
cauntry ? A hone, but it is much stron;;?er ... than, a Aoras. Jt 
can carry a greattr weight, whorei On Ua back, tlian ... a 
horse, llow long do yuii think a horse could go witEiuiiit water 
tndritik ? Dnn'l know, Sir. Do yoa think a, hurae could 
want water a wliole day T M^/atkur'a nart horse eJrinks et-ery 
morning and every niffhl. Nut oflcn^r than moruiiig and even- 
ii^f? Yes J Sir, al vteal fiours. Tour fnther'a hoiws tak«s 
water, yon say. BOTeral ... limes a-day. Well, let me tell vou. 
tluit the- cnniel can travel throagh ... Wha.t sort of pUeos did 
we Bay it travailed throngh in Amhia! Hot Kands. Drv. 
huming. . iSfiB'Js, faurninj with th« .„ Aea( 0/ ifie Bun. for n 
whol>e week t.ogether, without taking a drink- Boee it gel nu 
water, Sir? I'll tell yuu xboutthat just now, children. Tli.cr«- 
ju-e. no wgUs, or rLveraj or ...ponds, or watorof any kind inthoso 
de^rts, and God hns so mndi? the stomnch of this ... animai, ur 
rather Gwl has gj-ven it two Btomacki. Tou know, the atomacli 
is where... ire jJMf OJiT me&l iH. And what das'? Where do 
you put your drink m? Our raouth. And where does the 
wattir go after that i The stomach. Wellj as tlie eauie-l reijuires 
to en.n-y heavy ... men and ... women, and what have mcsn ami 
n-otd^^n with them somelinaea ? G/jods. The camel haa gitmU 
and otiiei' ... things to carry bcsidea men aTld wom-en wliich are 



■ UitTNci' iB thx priiiriplF uf tti« ttalninK ayttem iDWIlMtuiillir. rti well fti 



BECmAH OAllBBT LSSSOS — THE CAMEL. 



357 



a great liurileti tlirotigih ihe... WlK-rG* Tlit> ... sandy desetta 
HdnietEuea fof a M'holc wteli together, wjth-crat coiriiua; to a placff 
where they could get ■-. Kiier, SO God h.ia, out of liis goudniess, 
proviJed them witli a krp? ... WLtro does an .animal put the 
iratcrit liriiifcs? Itit siomcch. God has provided it with Iwn 
... stomachs, so ]flr^ that it tan take in as miiph water in one 
uf its ... stomachs. Wore it starts nn ths' jouTneVp ^^ scire* it tlie 
... rokole time- This Iwy's lather's hprse* rennifeswat^r every 
... duif. llow often ? Several iimes a-dat/. imd tliLT* i.s jiknty 
of water in thia .,. (own. Wiiat would a IwrAe do iji tlie ^andy 
dcacrta ol" ArabitL, thinli you ? Die. Die for .,. waiit ofMrntir, 
It mould lie so thiwty frniii want of walor, tbat ... t( iraitid die:. 
You say tlie liorse would dk tliL>ro. Woiild tke eamel Jie ? JVb, 
Sir, Vfhy ? It Aas a great quanfiii/ of water. Wlicre '/ /ft 
its intidc, tLat U .., in its stomach, wliidi serves it perluipB f«r 
seven or eight days, wtien it in crossing, tlmt ie, when it ii> walk- 
ing through I., ifle deserts, and burning ... sands cf Arabia. 
The h-orsii, s-uch as we were apr^klng ahout, you say would not 
do for ... Arabia, but the caiqel will do to ride xeroea the ... 
aandy deserts cj Arabia. 

We hnve a number of things to 8E>eak about tlija wonilerful 
animai, whiuh I must telJ you at ncsi lesson, but I wieh to speak 
about another tiling at preacnt. It is aWut its Ibct. The inmcl 
haa very wonderful ...feet. TEiey arc Ijro.id, Iflrgf feet, and v(?ry 
soft and spun^'y, like A [>i«:e uf ,.. Mention atij' thili^ you know 
to be soft? Mititon, bread, butler, beef my cap, Jftah, my 
hand, twopenny loaves, Sir.^ Duuugli, ukUdr^n. One laoy 



■ Wliile }^os. Ackn □ 0-1 edg'e thn acii^i^rs of nil, Frnmtinii^ totirtnf, and iIlub 
■tiuLulHte iill, ihe< nualet. H it nidnit trslni^T, inii3t Cnke tnre nrit In b^ pui- 
tint, and tiLBt wbi\o Lri «ckii<iivleilffei tlbe anawcTi! at thu fnrivnrd aad 
«ficm- tempered chllilfcn (kiAo ari aliBa^s reiifly nnii \eUiing Ur mtxke a 
MhaiB of in la^ii'HX im u altea noticC'a nnd i^oiciin^nte upnnthoee oltpced by 
Che mdr^S^dClesDil timid, whosi) au^w^n are Kfiii'rally ticit li^u eorreul;, 
btit ivbo r<>qigire -uneuurHj^emL-ni to express Ui«mi aiid (li«i purtJrular 
■LOtii'e of wtioiQ an^weTH, in lum. aha nrCs aa a chock nn Itifl too great 
farwBTdni^ss of the nilher parllca. Ttiu practicrU excrdie of lliis priociple 
sLiiDuiBtGi aJ.L alike, pfutfcting' and EncoumifiDg the timid, wlicthc^r malo 
w rsmate, and jcgulittlng Miii mouldlDg;, by ilegreUB, Oii) spirit <if thf fur- 

WBTll. 

1 Tim iviile H quMtino [irt C&ft B jncai): ITie trnififr (■■il!5P-iliieiitly te- 
ceiies Luo maaf aD»wi!T9, noii uiuiit i^ODdeniral'i^ tlivli' idtu upaa une jioiTiC. 



388 



Tflfc TRAimNG ^TSTEU. 



Mys* tlijit the ft*t of tho cEuiicl U at soft aa Ms bntid. ""IWlnw 
whjynu tliink (joil Iiaa ititide tbe feet nf the Mimcl soft * (Ko 
nniiwor.] Tell me, how has God nindu the h^rae'ij teet » AttfludiJ 
eliildtvn. What kinJ of ground does tbc home wfilfc upon ?| 
So/l grottnd. Where does it walk when cnrrytng a burden, or 
wlicn a lunn ridca it ? Ow (Ac rond, And Trbt-n ui towms ? Ott 
(he streets.^ IVlvai wuuid take [iSacB were th« horsp's. fu«t as wft 
ss the (!anw>rfl ^ y/rc^ would tie hurt. 0-ar r<md»< are covered 
avtT with ... hard itones, nnd a soft foot liko the catncrs woold 
... he hurt. The horse's fct iwfl ... herd, iinil tlw farrier — tluil 
is the maa who ah(x« liorse* — tlie farrier mnkca BometMng liaMJ 
for them. Wlin-t docs lie miftke 1 Shoes. "What sort of shooi i 
Iron, shoes. Yoaaiid I wear... leather shoes, Thchorft& wc 
.,. iron oMs. Ill wftUung ujioa buthIf how do you find it aude 
your Jwt ? Sfffl. Were the horse to ride -with a litavy burden 
on its luok on the sands ef Arji'iin, whfit i^oidd happen ? It 
would sink. Its hoola or foet iruuld ... fien^ hi {Ae sand, uid 
then it wurold not ...gel an itsjouraey, when wfiLking &n the ... 
so/i; iSanJ. And what would hapi>eii t« Eta foet ? Do ygu know 
wliftt its Itoofg are m.ido of T ^arrf, Trne, they are luirj, but 
mnny things are Lanl. TLIh table is ... AariJ, Sont/, Sir. I^'oM 
hoatn, but alriLotit aa linrd aa ... a itane.X If the hoofa or feet OU 
the hoi->^ nre iiiird and dry like jl bimOi what would linppen them 
in the hot aandy dei^ertB ? 7'Acf/ would be hiraehd. What do 
you mmn by biraeled ? Beirut. Not (juUc bflnit, but ... hatf 
burnt Then, you tliiijc the horfie would not, do for tko liot ... 



He leiics npoD ona of thtt aoawera na ths nearctt, bhI Cniiiti tho diUdr^n 
to Uifl correct one ho niihna to reach. 

■ The iiKiintini this rn»5trp 3:tE» upon my dub Rnswer. nil nnt alleat, ta 
Iwnr wiLHt U to b-B sbU upnu it. Tl'l^ 4vei nut di<pi-nd oa iU belnj right 
nr wriiiiy. Tliey are latieHi-il that somri Hnswerla aHiindptl tn, 

I During tht' next l«it>n, or in Stage II. ILq rrlu-di^^r mi^-lit be brnugfal 
in, aaaconJpnrJ?iJ'Q, but tlia hcrea, ah iOiniiil n-!1b which l|i*-y ere'/aniiliAr, 
ia enough al pfcaut- 1" future lesions Ihp corapariinn of tlie rpin-d«er in 
Lbe moivs of Lapland, Ui? borae bL home, nnrl the j'ddibI In ihc deaerU *f 
.Arabia, Ll!l'd ili'^ fl'lnpWtloii u' Pat>h to its [>i!i!aliar circunntann.fs, mny Uipa 
ba picturpJ <)uti, sjid from which muriil l^euriu-ii tony he JriLivii. 

; It wou-lilsiit do at thia early stnif^f, wlieii [icnrLjr everj tact ia nDwtO 
tlis n^iEiji^n, til dUttrt t,h.elr ntttritiO'n IroiD the liirect cj:uriie, li|f{iv!.n^ tJiB 
•nnloify between tlie conttructloo iif IIil' houf of tlie horae. with other sub- 
ttBHF9<, ludi n> tiorna, wlinleboue, &c. Thia abouU vvm.e uq^er iti own 
pdiTticiiitaF kL«»<f or ««i;uJiir gallvrj leaaou on hnrai, whklabone, As. 



8BCDLAH SALIrBRT L^BON — THE CAHliL. 

sands of ... Arabia, hwt it does very well fur.., ihis counirp. 
What kimil of feet did you say the eamcl lias? So/t. Very 
ijion^'y ftiid ... soft, like a ... lady's hand, hot dry like the ... 
horse's feet, hni wft and fuU of miiialurCr like Dk jialiii of niy 
... hatui.' WtL&t ba.'j Viia camel tti wjilk upoB, little girl i Sand, 
and tliereforc Gud liia^ niiiilc Ha feet ... ao/i. Soft to wiilk over 
the fine ... sand, and fulS of sap like oil, tJiat nopur dries u|i any 
more than my twt or ,,. hand. Nuw, tell inn, why art tln-y full 
of Baj) J Tliftt th.cy may bo .■- ohle to walk in the tlcscrls n ... 
long liine without th«r ... What would hapE'cn to their fe«t if 
they were as dry as. the horsc'a ftjet ? Dr^ up. Tlii; canw-'l's 
feet thcHj da nnt ... rfry up, although th-i^y nlioiild ha walking 
througli liot ... sand for many ... weeks, llid I aay wei-kB, chil- 
drpo '! Days, Ser. Although the camel's f^ct nrc walking 
ov«r ... Aufftiiiji sands for mnay ... da^s. Its ft.i;t Jirc laj^c. 
"Why are liiey largi"? Don't know. Sir. If yon tfjsIi to fffttk 
through deep snow, whether wsmld you use stilts, like boys iomo- 
times when crossitiig a atrcflm, or woulil ycu piit un buow shoes, 
like tiie Laplftjulcrs* (Silent.) You will remcrnhor we were 
epcakius aboub the anow of tbc nonli the otlicr day. Whether 
do you think the stilts or the unoW shoes Would simk i^a faster ? 
The stihs. The still* would ... sink very deep.— the snow boots 
do .rr iQ-C gink: t-b^y <lo t^ot sink V^ry ... mucA, becauije they are 
... What BiBC ore tJiey T Largs. Thosnow shoes are ... /arje 
and ... broad. Uow hmad i liroader and luiigei' llian a man'i! 
... iooC. Tell ma why the feet of flis camel arc lar^ ? Tfiat 
the;/ mi'jhi nvi sink in the ... deserts, llui^cs hsyo hiird hoofa 
or. ..yVe*. which Buit them t« travel in ...ihifcoiuiiinf, ur any 
I., country where ita fcct ... would not ninh, hut ... not in the 
deserts of Arabia. I must tell you tliat there aro plenty of 
hflraea in Arabia, beautiful hoi-sea, for there is Lai'd ground in 
Arabia as well ... ns sandi) grotind, hut then Arabian borstawont 
do for the ... W}iat were wo speaking of? Sandy deserts, 
where liieir foct would ... sink, aud wJicre there is no ... walur 
to drinJi. 



* The Irsliin-, ^boni.ng nad puinting'lxi the palm of bii hand. The child 
In thiiwny aade.lnriiit'Jifany, nQothar word to fla v-omtiu.lflrj'i vi«., jjirSm^ 
the iAea. ciail the word ii?»|jrMeQC3Dg the objvct beioK comtiiDed. 



300 



ftttt TnAWtsC sTsTfiSr. 



But the c»iiu.4'h )i!<!l. i\t) not ...ainli in the sand, Winj 
(inJ Aij. AiiJ what tlnica it do fcir waiter i /( carrivi it i» it* 
gttiinacfi. In cinp .. of Hi JUomacltB. And wliat does it do wjtii 
ihr olliri' f /f dtgtilt {tmfifod, Uod. then. vvb« made all tUlnsa 
ViL'rr ... ijoad, hoH niadi! thu ciiiil«] to BULt IIiq ... sandy Haterta- 
Vi'iT wt'll', ■cliildiTn.* 

Now, I fear yiii nm geltiug tired. — Let ua havs.- a littJe exer- 
c!m. Heads u|>— shoulder* :,. back f ... chin in — heels .'.. citM 
— twis out lit ... in ufutf flnj/s—handB on ... hneem,,.. NoWp 
i>crfect BiienCe.I We fthftU have done iinmedijitL'ly. Lot mewr 
iryou n-EUcnihiT yhx>.i vvc hrivc Euid? TIiq cmael la on nnimBl 
... IJuvf high's As hijjh as rfov, Sir. IluwrnanyfePt? Sit 
yee/, Inm not quite his feet hi jh.thL'refore it mua-t he ... higher 
than ifou. Sir, 1 forgut to ttll you that the cacii?!! ia ahcAlt ten 
feat l(in^, that U., na long as tha,t ... t/eS'.A;. Six feet ... hifflt, and 
About ... ien/tet hirif. It haa two large ... lumfis. RememW 
lite unioc I gave yuii... fftuiclfis. Whuro f On Us bach. 
which makciB a. ... nice saddle to rede on. How luoJiy stoinabhii 
hns it ? Two, Sir. On« of them is .., larye. For what ]iur- 
po*E? To Mitp Witter in it. A curloutily formed stoiDHeh, tiuit 
coiitiiins ua luiu'li ... water *s Berrca it ... am its joutAey ... 
WUero* Across the san-dy deserts of Arabia, for, uiiWa it Iwd 
a «iua«tity of water ... in itt sfomav/t, ii would dii t'ur \iaMt of 
water or ... tfcirst:. Why ? 0« arxount of the heat and ilryneas 
'Of... the sanJff deserts. You ftl4> told tdc that the uaiuera hair 
waa ..._/iJW, and what colour? .ProiPd. A light ...bruwn colour, 
and thut tiiu people makL' it into ... cloth, for ... mantis* and 
chaks. And what did we say abdut its feet? WUat sork of 
feet aw they? Sflft and sportffifi and what else '? Lar^e. Why 



' Jr^pelfcfw nf the tJect. in ili{r«:rent Ibnria of cxpfeHiqn i« atuwlutC'lr 
nire-UBry dutlJii; Uib Srat oaA eefond. alagee of tnunlug. 

t "When thB c)>]ldreDM upthcGlUpaeathey iiaturHlly perform the netinn, 
Were tlia mivittfr simply to tsit tb«in wLat to do^ he ruuld aut su fcB^y 
aCCUrc the alleDtinn of nil, 

) Hiiing up, asJ itCtiDg d<p;ru, simnllaneoui ' y, not ti-ji^ ft ilamp af th« 
frfot. ivlii[?h is i!Luii»y, hut by rolloivlog the [DOliiiFi of the miiEtere baud, 
rmm the liurJzoolUil, ilnwiy or qult:IOf, to IliQ JiVTpentlii'ular, ur]d again to 
LliD hurlconttiL, and ro;imt4i>d w ottPJ\ as }i|! ^iMa^pi. Tliu -Eyo lielng'accea- 
tnrily nxpd nn Chi? trnlucT, leciurci ttiop-ttcutlvD, Nldtbi4|BpAB|'erf Umilar 
Bsereiio, utubliibea Ibc liabit ofobediie'sce- 



SECULAR OAXLEHY LE30N— THE CAMEL. 



361 



soft ? Tu tread Che sand. AM why nrc they lirofld ? TiM 
thetj inaif not sink in the sand wUph tlio (."anid hiia ... a large 
iurdeit CO. Us hack. The ca-tuda gu in greJit immhcra. thniugU 
the deserts, withmun, women, and ... children, na ... iJieir backs, 
mill alao iiL qimiitlly of.., ffi>ods; but wd niwrit ttjwalt slxiut these 
things again. It ia time now to ^ out to ... the phtj-grftuad 

ful' IL Uttb. 

I am tbiiilung, oliiJdrcn. of the camel's wfl f«et. The camel 
waUo so gently with itu feet, tlint ■wcpo one to t'omo into this 
room, yii« wouhl scarcely bear it ,.. walking. It waiilii scarcely 
disturb little HeDry, hero, who ia beginning to .,, sleep. Henry 
ie not ... KUepimj. just a ... litth thepn, he muat. thercii>ro, get 
uut aiKin Lato the pluy-ground, oise he will get ...Jasi asleep.' 
S(i you think the aoft, gcntla wiilk of the imiueosB caniBl, pafis- 
ing the galleiyf would not dlstnrb a. half ... sleeping cMld. 

New, childftrn. prepare to march to the pley-grounfl, Wc 
sL&ll &icig the " Camel." March prettily — Make httle iluifle — 
do not scrape or heat the floov with your feet. Go on. 

To many persona who are im acquainted with the Tmining 
System, this example must uppeoi- abeurdJy t-edioUB. Slow, 
however, as the prcecM Lf, wliii'h weJjave exhibited., many points, 
even of the few that have b«ii pictured oyt, are too abrupt. 
The whole, tio duuht, uigtit have been told tEte clilldi-cu Uj ex- 
plaiiaiion, and embraeed in half a dozen sentcneea i or by the 
question and answer nynlem, In a cnnplo of ppgcs ; but mere ex- 
ternal objects, however Tariodj or expbinatioii by the muster, 
never can necure an ujoaL amount of uaderstanding an doejt the 
prineiplc of pictaring out by famllinr illu9tnitiunB^-qui:3tioiia 
and icllipiBea mixed, A.e. 

A trainer who can coDduct the first stBEB or outlines ppoperiy, 
finds no difliculty whiil-ever iu ooadnctijig the sabsequent stage*, 
Tlie prineiple is—^sutlinea first. 



* Lnng'brrwre tliii sptpeb f« >»ded llCt1« Henry, -at «Aurs»^,iaqui[eliri!lf. 
A pull, & pu-lh. ■ Ecold, l>r s tOU'i;U with h rod, Wbat^rer mSeet ■uirh mBf 
hav^ Dtthn momeiLt, ia oat bo luting aiti iff atle tppeal to the undcntuiil. 
inf nod heBngi. 



562 



THE TRAIimfQ UTTBTEM — BTA3II I. 



EXAMPLE 11. 



OW PI1TTERT. 



JBHT LBaBON' — STAGE L 



Tse piiDcipIeS of making pottaiy, parcelaJn, clitno, 
&c., cveD when the great outlines onlj arc given, 
would require at least five or bis separate lessons- 
The common practioc with all our HLudcnts, diariiig 
the early part of tbo course, when required to condact 
a. lesson on pottery, h to commence at the third or 
fourth stage.* The simplest principle, viz., tho making 
of a flower-pot or jar, they can scarcely condesceml to. 
They consider or iraagine it too simple to engross 
their own thoughts For a moment; and, therefore, take 
it for granted, wiihoui inquirt/y that the scbolara 
know -what they never have seen, or what haa never 
been pictured out to them. 

The candidate train&r jumps up at onco to tlie third 
or fourth step of the ladder, keeping the child at the 
hasa, who is not capable of such a stride, attempting 
to picture out, perhaps only to explain, a point tho 
child has not readied, and cannot eee; consequently, 
at the close of the lesson, the children arc little boae- 
fited by it, and littlo is left on their mindg, save the 
hurniug or bating in the kiln, glazing and painting, 

* In fnct, id evury lIlEtJUll^e, all studEatacoiDiDeiice Jtt >. holier Bt?p th.Bti 

*lui first, until thi!]i are lirniiglit iloivn and traioed. Tl]ey nill not, or ara 

ftid to sloop. HO lo^. Sa hiffti irr rattier sa^, th^ Ant ilDps Ijeittg hII> 

ptrunl^ and deddisd]]!' tbe luorc ditDcuLL 



with a few terms not understood ty any in the gal- 
lery, btcaiaag uot pictared out before i/my ?mce been 
used; Bucli aa, fusible, infusible, semi-Titrified, trans- 
lucenl, opaque, &c. &c. The student ciillg out to the 
child 13 it were from thetoiJ of St. Paula to come up 
to him. Tilt) nccompliahcd trainer camea diiwn, and 
taking tho child by the hiind le.tde biin up. Why not 
commence aa the Scripturea do? '"As clny in the 
hands of the potter!" Why use a word the chil- 
dren do not understand ? Why not picture out every 
word to be ustd, in order tliiit tliey may understand 
it? and here wb feel the abgoliite weakness of ex- 
ampka on paper, witliout the asaibtancc of the wheel 
aud the hand ; tlio lever power of the foot-board, and 
the circular motion of the table on which the clayre- 
volves, or at least, without the powerful n^aiatanee of 
the visibly foot, the hand, and a circular motionj to the 
mero words of a hook. 

Our short examplo, therefore, will be the first stage 
on 



Clii|iJren, we arc \» lia've a lesaon to-day on pottery. Do yo« 
know wLut tlio pottor mnkee ? Pola. What do ycu use at 
breakfjist nnd dlnnL'p to take your meat out of * Cvps and sane- 
ers, \oa use a Clip ftml Banter ii.t. ..tireakfaiC; and wh.it •}» you 
use nt JIuDcr ? Ptates. TVteBtiun a few nthcr nrticlw you UHe 
at dilTereiit tiraen, of tlie sumo kind! Boiefs, m■ugs^ decanters. 
or whiit aru docantcra niii<3<3 ? Glass. Wbnl is the lesBim to- 
day S Piitrery. la a decanter iiifiJo by tlio aanie pi^raon who 
nuikcs Ijoii'Ls- and pktcs ? ^o, Sir, decanters are lUH made in a 
poiurif. 'lliey ave jnai\ehy...a fj/disliloittr, and a mnn mlif> 
cut9.. .ffhta, liot,.,fti/ fl potJir* A |)flWr jb one •rfho.,.maheK 

* Hevet My, Kuu are wrong, traia Uiem tu wliRl U rif liL 



TBB THAIWIHO BTSTBH 9TA0fi 1. 



pifiB, anii ewiry otliur tiling Lliat ia laado out of clay, like . 
pois. plates, Itowh, and . . . jugs, nnd , , , cups and saucers. And 
wliit Wirt of pottery does the gafdom-r am> Ui iilnnt ;;ecaniiimH 
and othet flowcw Iti ! Tloiait-JiOts. Very well, [iio pgttCT 
nmliCB r.W...the-ie tilings. Would you wish to kiinw bow the put- 
ter mokcH some of tlKno things t Yes, Sir. Well, ifynu ^11 
be Tery quiet and attentiTe, we fihall sec how the potter docs .• 
What ia tlie lirst thin^ thitt llti' {xitler does befbre ha makes a 
doirer^pat nr a mnuniin hssin t What does the potter ti»o to 
mako those articles &f ? Clay, And wh^re does he get tlie ci&j i 
Ik the ground. Does he get the day everywhere* Onltfia 
elaij placea. Oaly in tliat kind uf ground which \i..,fuUof elatf. 
Sumc ^ils or ground arc &c\ fult of annd and otber tbinga, that it 
would -not. ..MdAcpoWiwy things. 

T shall show yon the Bimplcst way of rnnMng a. flower-pot or 
9, eoromon l>a«iti. and afterwanla wo ahull see how the {Mtt^r 
niftlun JHgft and plate*, aud ... Iga-caps, and Ijyw he patiits 
thiim, and gilds thorn, thn-t is, iiow hs [mts.-.guld on tkem.&nd 
also ... Whn.t do yoii see on tha tim cups Hometimc;^ itt home ? 
Flowers. The jiottor prepares, tbat la, ho maksR a machine, or 
gGta a iDachitte maker to,,, wflAe •» mackiae for... kirn, like what I 
have dmwii...oii the board. Vou eee thia larirc wheel, and thia 
thiHg like a ... belt. That belt goes romid ... the ichntlr »nil 
when it in drawn over this ainidl wheel, along tlija way, what 
will it do ! /( will turn k. The large wheel will , . .whsel round. 
And if I put my foot €Q thivi,,, board, and press it np and down, 
tljU...t^ai^. This they Call a cMuli;. Tliia,..tj'anA makes both 
vc)iiBc\s..., go round. How so ? The...&e& turns tliEia. Have you 
seen a sjjimilcig wheel ? Yea, Sir, ray t/raKdmo(/ier Spins. Wdl, 
the large wheel of the potter may he turned in the namB way, 
by tho foot, as thia boy'a ... (/ratidmother'^a u}hetil.\ Were the- 
wheel very large, so that a man could net turn it with hia foot, 
what would be do ? Gel a ittam^n^iae, and the eteam -engine 



• 



■ Ton tabst har^ a llCtla phf ilciil ^priflEit, nceftti«9iJly, nr, u Wfl term 

it, yoU raiut "irrM ^iCrtir (roops. " Vou Imyp, Ijy t-roliminu'r ubHtryalSoBs, 

"■■"■^.k-ened Ui^tlr curiotit jv but yim mint dlio, liy » proper phJ'iiii-i.L 6* w*,!! 

'i^Rtanl nn-H-Pg^Diaiiit, aeciiro tUat their BttoXitLoU bs aUaUlDed 90 m 

hut ruri^i^ity jp^liliDd. 

liar IllastrBtiuul. 



SeCULiJI Qi.CLZRT lESeOH — POTTERY, 



3(J6 



I 
I 
I 



would not Dtily turn one potter's. ..wA??/, but a great iiuiny,,.(if 
an^ lime. 

Well, I'liililfci), when itiis l*rge wke^I t\tn\i txiimd once, it 
makes thia liCtk- ^t'li'CcI tuiii round a grc&t ,,. mau^ fimrs, jue,t 
lilkB a npinaing TcLcel. ora griuding' machine rorgrLndijir;...carn.* 
PBL-faa]TB Bome of you may not have setiii (.-itber a epinning micel 
or s. nnH-'hiuB for griud[ng t'orn, or a steam-engine, Ijtit I sliall 
HhoTV you BoirH! of Hiprc inni-Luiiig, or niodeb, I mean sninll tna- 
chin«a, like the ... large ones, l>y and by, that is, s.t..,unother 
time. 

Tlie pott«r iiSifl iL small boatd or table at tkis ...place, whifli 
turns round. ..cfutcA/y. Now l]ieri. the potter f^ts clay fimm tLo 
...clatf fioles, from the plsco Whcit- day is... .found, nnd lie beats 
it with, a stick many tiini?s this way and.,,(flff( loai/, anil lie 
washes it with wntcr, al)W), a long.,. /line, and you know what is 
ftfund eomi^tiuiiM iw day ? Ston&s. Well, tiic ptrft«r tA^s out 
the little.. .sfones from ii. aud docs n grCftt many things to the 
...ciaif to make it. ..nCi^e. to make it. ..clean ii.KA...smootli, wbieh 
I shall alfio ttll ynu orHt...>incfAer fimc; a,nd he takes a bit of 
the clay tLiat lian lx>cn eloancd, But will the pottor, tbink you, 
UM the clay soft or hard, wbcn he wlabea to put it into a shajw- ? 
"Wiil it do better w«t or dry ? Wet. Why? It will squfeie 
lest. Do yoa say best * Better.} 

The «Uy can be squec^zed «r pressed out mto auy abft-pe, beltei- 
wliQiL it. iii„.irp( i\\&x\,„wiien dry. I know Home filtliy boys un. 
the atroets, who build Hmal] boM3ea, anil rontee clay.../>j'es with ... 
cfey. What kindof clay dotEiey use? Wet cimfmi& dirty their 
hands nntX. ,, their clothes, m that they eannot appear., ^afjsr^/ioo/. 
Wby du these boj'a pr&fer wet clay ? It is easier iqveezed, 
Now, the pottPi- taki^ tliia piece oi-.teet cla^f, and plncca it un 
the small tablk; 1 «p>oko to jou nbout, and wlitn ho jin.'giiCB hia... 
Jbol up and ... down, or whctt tho Btc-atfi'-euglao tum£ the wheel 



* Thl) vlllpsU, alltigiiBh anBiafel-ed as the trfuDer irUh^d, OQgbt not to 
Imv^ Sn«n 4n form ad, bffJDg' ft ni^fS QU^U- fTum liad nol: bnpri nlUl^^d tif, 
apd noed DQt n'ScviBHril; b»v« nreanvil to Ihe mind at [Iib children. It 
DUgltt til hnre been put in til,? (una nran« nr twailiatluct questjont;— Ilnw 
i( com brulasil firmade inlii' Imir ' By «,— &:c. &c. 

t It it preBumcil, PTpn in Hie Initintarjr depiirtnien.t, tluit tlie children 
liHVH befn trBinMl to undentaFId ttie li^rrni g>f rampiiriton, gdu^i. belter. 



faest. 



aOfl THE TKAIKISa SrSTEM — STAOB I. 

,.. Itowf By ihe Itand, li Ihea mak-i^a the. ..table spin 

witli lliw |ii«w (if fifty u|xin it, Ukc.a pecry. Oivc me auut!i<>r 

imn"? fur |>w»ry • Tcr;?. 

TI1& t)0^ wet dny TTuiilJ ipin Tonni ]ikf..,a top. What irould 
Buppcn to B top were it epLnnitif bo quickly, und made of soft 
olay r le wouiil break. Let nictdl j»u that it would swell 
out.,, this wa}/. W]]y? Became tl ffots qnicklg raund, tinA 
being soft, tlifi jwlltT plBM<B Ilia finger or n pifcu of sonnu laard 
wowi, (ir iron, into tho ajiddlo of the c^a.j...that way, (the mas- 
ter ImitAtiiig tbo motion An4 efli>ct9 of tlu r«ntrifii$Al force,) iiud 
u bo presaea, wc sliall E;up]>a9i^ tu£ {in^r tlii» icay> aut from tbe 
centreof tbe-.c/oy, lie boldaliia...oMicr ^Aiff on iMe .. .outside ot 
the clny...f/jaf icay, and as tlic cby is kppt ronstautly whirling 
round aa.,.the table, t)T prpuing it n little uat ihi&.,.!c>tr^ iti the 
■ ^-middle, or at thc..,fc^. he tiiak« the clay iato the fihRpe at n 
Riiyer ...pot, or n ... bowl, or any othar etiApe that ,,, Ae /tAst. 
Bow dnes he fftt the clog off, tnasierf You mean citfthc board, 
I suppose, uliildreii: I shall teil yon. The jiott^r, tiiat is. thi> 
tasLU who has been working the clay, we shall ciippu^e, into the 
form of a flnwcr-pot, talci* a bit of small cord, or twine, wid 
holds it. ..this ipo!/, pnsHaitig it closc to the lionrd on whieh tli* 
ciay .., lltfi and n9 tlie Uble coutinu&lty morea round very... 
qaickli/ .. What will the string du 'i Cat it, £l ^\'<J1Jd cut tLo 
...Jiower-pot, &nd separate the clay tliat 1ms licon made intio tbe 
shape vi.,.ajiower-pot free trora...stic/iing lu the table. 

Do you think the pot would do for Bnwers in this atite ? that 
is, wlieu the clay is soft ? No, Sir, ojiow^-pot is bani, mid n 
bftO'L!) ii. ..hatd. Uuw ie the clay hiirdened, children^ It it 
dried. In which way? {No an&wer.) Teh tnfl whith vay 
brltrks nrc hardened? Bnrned. What am bricliB cnailD off 
C/oy. How do you think they will dry floffcr-[K)it3, aad mips, 
and aaueetv, and othia- artielca niado of clay? Bvrn them. 
Well, they are bumed, but not exactly in tlie aamo Ki-ny ns ... 
bricks. 

Bricks (ire bumed in the midat ol' the fumace, after l>oiiig 
dried a little timo ; but cop&, and other pottery ware, an.- Hr»l 
■dried, nnd then, in caso tho Bhnjte of them has bean injured, for 
yciii know soft clay ia easily .,. sftteexEd, they Jirc put ... riff/it 
'gain, mid all the rough places aTomiLde...siiRoo(A, and after be- 



gECTTLAB aA.l[LEBT lESSns — POTTFUT, 36? 

tng drittl flad heated, they ili|i tli« fansina and jii^ En a c!ft(iiirc-il 
liquid adbslAHce — B lii^iud mi;ixnK a... tnaifrt/ subsCoTtce — nnd tltia 
watoty Hiilistatice hasB. kind ofj^luj; in it. What mill ^hio mjilto 
it do ? Sltch, The gluo in tbn WB!<rr iuiiIcd.'; it.,,stic/i. Sticll 
iiv addiero lo llio B.ide» oi,..the cvpx, gr ptlit-r nrtidca the jiotlar 
...has ijiade, anil then tbey a-re put nil together iuiu tbe iii.sidc 
(if an enflllicn ware liosj ahnficd liko th'ia — look, ehilJrcn — nnd 
then they ciro put into the fiirDB«o a.iiH.,. burned. 

They pwt thera inf-o an etirthen box to kci'p thoin tram eni(?k- 
jng. What ft'oald tho potter ilu witfi his wari;— -wnre means tho 
plA.tf;9 And ... cups, mid ... basins that be makes* — wtre tlic^ 
arackctl, oi' put ont of shape by thi? fire, ■nhaC w^iiUd ho do wJlli 
tlieiu? 

He eouid not tell them. No jrereon would.., &ii^ Chm, Why ? 
TAe^ wouid run out. The uracka, (fr remta, in tlie aides or \>oi- 
tom3oftli£i different kimk of ware, iroulJ let a\ii,.,the water, 
or t\ic.,.ml^,iaiAihotvfore the^y.^.tcoulJ not do. Ttey would.,, 
he of nit MSi. 

Lot inc set; if yo'ii remeiiibcr wiiat wo Lavo aiiiJ * Tlio |iotter 
takes Bomo cilmy (roDi-.-M? ^rotrwJj tvbxa the... clatf Itulev, or,,. 
pit. Aad wh&t Jirca lio do with it first I He beats H with a 
Dticib, jnat n» Lmys do' a<>taGtini«?£ tTheii (hey sqiiwze tlier clny nnd 
boat it, on tht!^...paveTfH!Kt, to iiiake..,f'/av/)ie«. What doi.'s thts 
putL^f do ni^Xit? ilfist&tps it... in water. Why? To it^axh it. 
To wtiah out ci-ccyllung that ia . , , 6arf, nat...^aoit. Ami what do 
ytiii cftllffood ! What d-oes the potUT wwh to (rctaiuf) keep, in 
order to make the carthuu wnrc ? The chtf — tEio eJean washed 
...claff. Well, after Lho id&y Jtss licea T^'jished. and all ihe ... 
atones are taken out oj' it... Where; dnes he plneo the elnyf 
On the table, on the table of the... mac/iiRie, an J vh\f\&h.,. round 
with hi» ...foai, or Iiy the X'owcr of.,. What other powyr 
tiiay lie uae, did yon toll me, rt littlo ago ? j4 £re£rin-enj;j'ne, And 
he has A KEO.all tin thing (vessel will not ilo, mnlcss it has hten 
l^revifib-ly iiictcired o«i, otherwise iho ehiklrcn may imafriop you 
lUOftB n ahip) El tki>ig hke this I am drawing on tlie bhich btmrd. 



■ Nd», or duHilg hilUre Eecular l'?B(i>n«. tl]« term "warn" will bo 
piEtlir?<l out B9 applj-ifig lo piiodi geniTrally, as irell lU sLoQC-Warv, 

t Tno tiifi' a ward at ciiis itAEe, it miuC In rt-nef r^d till Uie Mvoud nr 
third ttitgp. 



TH8 TftAISIBTO 6T6TEM RTl^GE t. 

fAkt ttJ> nil trais't, mantrr. Viry like an oil eruiso. dhUdreii, 
wiilt a unifttl v.. spoutt uhlcli ki'fpB clnj|>{iiii^ a little water ihe 
whole tiiiic tlio p"""* '* moiling the clay intn a.^shape oj a 
imufi, ur Miy <Ahfr„. tiling, to [vrevpiit tbe clay (wing-.-.tffo (iy. 
And b^jw <luQ4 he (Tt't llif rfiajM btti He Cuts U leiCA a »triny 
while the tal>r» in.-.w!iiriiiiii round, a.ud he...driesit, ani\.,.bvmi 
ii. Dqcb Ll- Imrn it or glaie it 6nt ? Burn it. You will te- 
tlicmlMT tlint 1 ^nid tho pcitLer f^ljizvu it licJorE- hu Viunts {kf itaktti 
ii. ^Vhctbur Jo ynu lliink the ^Iiie woulil aink f juicr into soft 
cby, »t wlipti tLi3 eluy is LnnI * WlietUer tlo you thiwk watary 
glu* would run throuj;]] n I jaudkercliief easier when it is wet, or 
wlicci it is 1I17 ? He/. Well, tL>JTi, the g'lup ia put on Hret. and 
nll^rwarda it is liurcted iu thc-Ai/n. Among the coaJs ? JVo, 
S»>, En a bus to keep it from tbti coals, Wbat kind of boTC ( 
Aa earthen box — & hat tujide pf riny, thcut wiU not...&wm, m' 
wood would. „Jo. Now, cliililiun, wto made the «!ay that th« 
poHer furtoa into w many fnats, and cups, auii jilatM, and otbLT 
cartLfu ware ( God. God created... '/'£ c/ay, and man makes 
them into >.. differtnt things, siicli as wo now liove heen speah- 
'"ff 'i/"' And liow should w<! feci towarda G^d fur this and every 
tfiin^ wblcb bo giv«i usi 71ia>thf\tinesi av... gratitude, God 
thcrefoi'D \?,,, .kind and goodr 



Little as the cMldren may have nnw acquired, it 
ia BTident tliat they have got a somsthimj, on which 
El second Icsstin may be added witli mora interest and 
intelligence, than if they had not paased through thia 
etage. 



SSCUUB OAIitKBT LKSRON — THE WOLK. 



EXAMPLE III. 



5TAQE II. 



THE MOLE. 



\ 



Tell nie, riiildcen, wbere tUe mole livis ? In Che earth. Tea. 
under ... the groMnd. How xaany feet lina it i Four. And it 
is therefiiro Killeil ... a qvadruped. Where do ni(i<ft quadrii{ieds 
lire? Aboiie the ground, lliglit. Now, Bince animala live m 
such different silLifltioHS, T.vhat jihoiilii ytm cxijcct tlictn to be? 
(No nnawtT.I Do yon remember the liasonoDlfirda? }'(rs, Sir. 
Well, what WBS eaid itbowt ]ftnd 4iaJ water birds 'f Tits urater 
ones fiad loebhed feel. And wliy? Tliat thetf tniijlit steim. 
But btultlca ttio awiminiiig (men, tticrc are Bonie tliat j;i to the 
ifuler and ... wade. And wba-t have they? Long iegn. And 
txiaidoa th-ey hfl-ve Vtiy -■• hngnechs,aj\A ... short taih. Wlaat 
would a pheasant or a peacott's tail Itc to thcni? It would 
trouble them. It would be ... c««i&e;-»&me. Yea, without Buch 
H tail tliey nrc much mort' ... cemforSabh. When you look at a 
land bird and a wator otiCf iiMtJ ^^^[are tbem, what do yon no- 
tice '. A ^tat difference in the wa^ in which tftei/ are ma<ie. 
"VThiSt WM tLc word ttwt was formerly gin'ti, jtliit-^ii'l of the way 
iii wliioh they are ouide ! Try to rememlier. Struclure. Quite 
right, &nd they aro madu ditfemutly, or have k di;llt*r(!nt...«frU(;- 
lure, hecwusc they differ in their ... wa^s nf living, or their ... 
WLo remtmbora the word that means ways of living ? Ilabita. 
■ Now, all sit upright and a-ttE>iid. When you fmd nn a.niiiinl of a 
I^nrtkulnr stnioturo, wiiHt will ytm He led to think sibout it i 
That it has pariieular hahils. And if you are told that an ani- 
i»al lives in nn unGoniman pkce, or hsA lai'tieulnj* li&bita, such 
as the mole, what will yon expect it to be ? Of a particular 
structure. Ai.1 will now n,nBwer me, Tlie form or structure of 
the animal is Always well ,..J!He4 to its waj 0/ fiviug. All 
sgALH. The hahitB and structure of tha Jtuiioal alwuya . . . agree 
2 A 



370 



, THAiinNQ stete:u — btjok a. 



— eait one anothrr very teeil. We'll now hear this boy iu llje 

If.wi'fit wat pi!p<?Bt it Quite eerreet. 

Many «f you, I dnrc any, liav& floen what the mole m.ikes iu 
tfie fielda ? Yes, molc-hlUt. 1/ yoii luk» Birnj- the ejirth, what 
will you lioil l«luw J A rovnd hole. What sue ? /.ifte f Ac ftofe 
M vur iButer-pipe. jVii4 out of tliis holo it hiia..,tArci'irn ali the 
earth, hi what direction dueatibe hole go! Dcumieartls. T«», 
for ft liiltle, aB(i itien it gws fer ... along, I perceivo most of 
yi)u have ee<?n mole-hills. Naw, hatida ufi all whu hare seta h 
Inolii, OnEy two or three have seen the animnj itaeX Let ti= 
try- to Gad out, then, what kind of body woodd be beat ...fitted 
for iu ... jfioce of living— way af living. Wliat does it feecl 
upoD, cCo you thinl: ? TFutms antf imecls, anO whnt must H do 
ta get theiL ? /( nuist di^ tktoiiijh the. earth. "Yes, just like « 
...nijncr.^ — collier. l3ut thfu tlio minor, -v\it& he nukcft his way 
aDdcrgrvuTid. has ... ^(cA« and ihovtlt. WImt will the mole 
QKi r hi feet — li^ KDBC, When this boyepeakiiof its no3C, whal 
other animul is he TBry liliely thinking of? A piff. And if it 
hbcb its nosf^, what should it be? Sharp and Mtrong, Just like 
,., the piff's, wViL'h uses ]ts none foi* th« same .,, purpase^-ttc 
purpose of ... digging. It d!ga for ... roots. But as the mo]^ 
hoia more dig-^n^; thnn a. ji\j^. besides its nme, what vill it nJso 
uae? Its feet, iln legs. Which? Its fore feet. It will chiefly 
ufiP iia ... two fore feet, for the purpose of ... digging. Wlint 
do you obwrve on tli* toea of aii!nia.l&? NqUs. ckws. Since 
ibe fore feet liate ho roiieh more worit than the hinder onei, yo.ii 
ivuuld exi;«ot them t« be ... stronger. Tes, thoy nro >eiy .,, 
strong, and you would Mty, aiicli »tTeii^h ia very .... necessary. 
What kind of legs do yovi thinJc will be moat conTenJent un^r 
grouind ? Z-ong, short. Whether wiU ji tivll or » sliwti man get 
along » cosl min? more canily^ A tilth man. Dut the motp, 
if it bad loii^' 1<^^< tnight make iti^ hole ... larger, sny» a, rirl> 
Thflt is qnlto trui', and in a large hole or gallery, a long-l$'gged 
tnolc would gi> alorg as ... easUif as d, ... short-legged ene, in a 
... smsHone. But if th« mole wera ±o make n, larg« bulp. it 
wouiJ Iijivo more ... wurk, smd if more work, it must take a .., 
longer iime. liow, if molt^s^arc like children, they will Igeanxiotu 
to E&va thfir ... lime and ... labour. Whiohlegs, then, will beat 
fit the mulo tu tuvu lahocr and time J Sh^rt onef- $hort onet 



I 
I 



will be mOK.. -convenient. Witli sliort lt.-g« Llieir vfnvk,.,ri'iii Oe 
bn. 

Wlwm a dog 8CTft]MS 4way thfl Mrth, wbero docs it put it ? /( 
throtos it under his body. Tea, betwcsn Eta body aiid tlii! ground 
therein plenty of 1.. roDta, bec&iise ita legs are ... long. But 
with Ipgs veiy short, the bw-er part of the ctiolo'a bwly almoBt 
... toKc/ieg the ffrouAJ. And if it Inuchea the gromid, Iww wUI 
it be better to throw tlic earth 1 Awa^ by (Ae airfits. AU will 
repeat. TIie eiutii will be ... ifirtmrn hack, ngt undor HA...tM)dy, 
bm ... bg the sides. Andwhj? Becantie of its ahort legt< A« 
it tliTOwa the cM+h back with its fwt, what Jo thc?y Answer Jur f 
-1 sAoDcf, HigUt ; and a shovel ia ... broad. Wlien it digs, it 
lues itn .../ee/likea ... What do labourers me to break up 
hard gnuunil i A pick. Tlierefiire jta feet muat be..,sAarp and 
Wliat clao! Strontf, and whc-n, thfl earth is locwened, 
it iiReB them for a ... sliovel, therefui'c they dliould b« ... 
broad. 

Now, you told me bcifitre th^t thu UMe wm ... sharp, aod 
round the ahoultlerB it will be ... lliiek. JIuw will the body be 
towania thfl himler piwta? Sntatler — Tlticker. Some say 
thicker^ and otio aay& smaller. Let us see. If this wore the 
^cil« ((IfAwing it on tho blank beard], and the body of tlic m^le 
were large behind in this way — if it were to thivw the soil back 
what Wdiild hflpifCB ? It muuld not fffi past. VThat would not 
^tp£bsl? The eea-ih would not get pasl — past the ... his-der 
part of the Male. Surely ; and then the mule could; not ... get 
farvmrd- When it haa got a quantity al soil past its body, vhat 
wUl it do with i(i Push it all hack. Te», out at the ..> month 
of the hisli:. All will itow toll Qi£ tike ahape tJie niole should be 
ai'. \m\. hs-va heard that its noac aboukl he...stiarp ami ttiony. 
its fvet ... bruad, itii ehuulders ... tkiei, aod itk body growing 
rather ..^ st/taller be/iind. 

What do you think the body ia coTered with I Fur. And 
whelltcr should it Ix; soft or stiff f Soppm^ an enemy of the 
mole to jueet it in front, what wonld tbo taolu do ! Run awoy. 
But bc'dxe it could nin, what muat it do ? Tura ia ilie hole 
Dot you remecuber tbe ^olo is jus.t about tho widtii of ita btvly 
—what muat it dti ? Gv bacAwards. Tea, it will run back- 
wards till it oome to some , . opening or ... ho^, then it will rim 



THSTRAIITTKO RTSTRH ET&OE II. 

... /tarwarda. Ntm, when it i-una Lackwurck, the lialr S7[kulil ... 
n& againtt the tidet of the holt. hti<1 ilic buir wuuld be . . .raii^i/ 
or ... itijffltd. And if it trciw atiff, it would be just like a .,, 
truth, Wtmt, ttion, wouM 1» done if it were to be bmshing aJJ 
tlie wnj- backwards ? TAc eartA would tumble in. Right ; and 
it wovid ^t uitO'.,.<i heap, mid the poor mole wouJd be ... alopi 
■ml . . . Wlittt Mould linpgi^ii to llic mole i It muidd be caugkl. 
Now, wlint kinii of liair would tw best i Soft fur. Tea ; and 
if vpry bi:>ft wbeo you dmw your hAiid nlong^ the bouk to tlie liead. 
it will be nOftHj- as &moot(i jis wbcii yQu.,.(/rnU' tC (/:c niAer uoj. 
Busides. if it were stiff, when tlic e-irtli i& moiat, tla- animal 
would bwonie .... dirly, tbe sod would stick on tlie ... ^tiff' Jiairsi 
but if it were auil . tbe auil or oartli would . . . faii offagmn, OQd 
it would atill be ... dean. 

^Shtn earth or duat is fiklling all ronnd «&, as It will be wL«n 
tbe tnole is digging, wbAt nro "we afraid uf ? Our ei/es. Quit? 
right ; (Mtr eyisi are very ... easi/i/ hurt. Tbcru ore some ani- 
maU, like tlie biirOf that hare veiy laige eyes, but besides being 
lar.ijp, lliey are very ... they standout. Well, let any uae yivo 
tbo word tbat idcana stfimAing out? Prfitninertt, Tlie hare's 
«y(?s iLPG large and ... pFomintHt. Aad If tbc hiule h>i.iJ such 
eytf", wlial would ycu say ? Tfieff would Ae Auri — t/iejj toould 
tie in iAb way. Wliat must 'we Imve bealdca eyta tbnt we. mav 
see* Light. And where doea the uiok live cbioUy { Under 
ground. And, undor ground, it in ... very dark. Wh^n a l-oI- 
ller goes down the pit> he takca ... a lamp ; bnt &i) thcmok lina 
no Iniup, oyL« in tbe dark ... uijrt Ae useIbhs. Will it Imve sjiy 
need (if cyDS at all ? No, Sir. This bt*y, pcrlups, rt- membera 
hearing; ]}ieople say to others, i'ou are as ... blmJ as a mole, I 
raust tell yon that aomttinica the mole toniM above the ground. 
ibeu eyes will bs ... useful. But as it is olteiiest under ^-mind 
amang falling earth, you say thfy need not be ... lart/e, nnd 
espMially ItLoy slujuld iio£ be ... standing out or ... prominent , 
All will miiv repeat ; the eyes should lie ... smuU and low, thnl 
li, Bunk in ... a fiol>oip p?ace, 

WeabaUnowgnoYer the cLieE points once more, all answering, 
VoU think it ehould have- its nose ... sharp Rud.. .str on ff. eIb tcga 
... shurl, foct broad, to make ita way ... through the earth. 
Tie body thick at ... skonldcrs, towards the tail rath^^r .-- sm<eU- 



SECUliAS LESSOR — AIR A m^•DDCTOR 0? S0U>1J. 373 

er, that earth may get ... easiiif past. Itsfiii' .„vefif soft, and 
its PTes pnjininent, -or how ? Sfncli and sunk. 

Ni>w, look nt this jitiiffGiI tdnlc, nnd eonipnre it wjtU what you 
tmve told ran. Ererj- thing that yuti could llilnk of, aad a great 
... deal mare, haa been giveu by ... God to mn.kc the m&lo ... 
comfortahk Rffld .., happij. At onifc, you nee \vtTC the Cmator's 
... wisdom, and ... power, and . . Wniat olat! * PoorfjiieM, 
Very right ; wisilom in -.. conlripinff, jivner in --. 'nahing, und 
goo*3iioss in makintf hia creaturea iu such a m.ami'er, tljat oven 
the ... meanest moff h-e huppff. 




EXAMPLE IV. 



STAGE It. 



Ain A CONIlDOTOil OP BOUKD. 



Cliildrcn, we arc to Kavc a tmiuing lesson to-dny upon Bmnd,* 
"What dp yoH mvuD by euunJ, cl>Qdrenf AWsc. Wlutt ia a 
nQiHe ? You hear my v^iice Juai now ; io you call it soiee ? 
Speaking, Tr»e, I am spealiiiig, fuid you hear me ... spealting 
just now; hut would it be possible for me ta apuak without 
your hearinj; roe* JVo, Sir, ThinlE for a tnnmeiiC. Am I 
B^peatiTig Just now ? Yes, Sir, you ore speaking to yonnelf, 
I ank QJi^akiELE!. yoo thinlt, but yo-U ... do aal hear. NoiV, wliy 
is it yon do not bear ? When you hear me ax any any OBo Bpcak- 
iag, you, ..Afar- asouTtd ; or if I istrike my hand on t]iis...deik, 
yon ... hear a sound. Yn-u. know wliat I luu saying wlii'ti yon 
licar the sf.Hini of my ... voice, and you know nliat I iim daing 
by the sound of ... mi/ hand. 

1 wish to know why it ia tliiit I can move inylipa without 
yoiir hcarinj^ mo H{ic]ik, or liiy my liaud on thia desk witliout 
hearing a sound i ToU me what .viuud ia. I su]i|<oeG I uiuat tell 



It it well to tdl thit oHiIMrea M miM Out lubiaet uf the leuoa. 




iff4 TUB TaAINtSWl etSTEK — IITS.GE n. 

you.* ¥ou ill knww wrlmt sir » ! WnJ. Wind is pcrtnitdy 
alr^-lkir in ... mrtritm, but if not in luulioc it still would bp,,, air. 
Air yoU know (fpom forrner Imsom) [a n... mhetance ; and how- 
eTor Ijgrkt air may W when compared wjtt the .,, deaA,ilis...a 
gubstanre. We raj, " liglil as air ;" air, howeTcr, lias.,, irnirAf. 
Dft yoa romember huw heavy atmoHpberiir air is ? /f prtrssex itn 
all ridet aith a weitfht eijuat to about 1 1 \ia. on the square nieA.t 
It presMM this way, anrl ... that waij, and ... every lemtf. eqiul 
tg fibovt- . I'l iii»- to the Square inck. There ia acini ^tiling sab- 
Btanttnl wMch taay he beaten. *•>' ^Ueel^d, or .., pressed. If 1 
turn this date on ite bnuaii-sido dowly, do jijq bear any thing ! 
No, Sir. Ngw, I shall move it Rinartly, what Jo you hear * A 
KUffh. What k a nMgh 1 A sound, la augh the prqpcr word, 
children ? No, Sir, sotmd.l 

NoWj children, tell ia& how it Li; that yaw hear me epeaking ? 
Sy the mr. When I strike my hAnd on thi? dosk, what happciM * 
TTiere is a sotfKd, Trat, there is a sound ; but bnwis thesoundl 
prwluced i We shall see hgw tt ia, WlieD I strike my hojul upon 
Ihc top (if tbts desk, it makea the ileak ... Winl does it make 
ths desk do t Sound. Observe ; T shall BtriJte mj hand upon 
iiiiB,..ipaU, and then upon the desk, and yow will tell lue wMuh 
gives the groalor souml ? Which ? TAe ifesA- Why s>i ? It 
s'AnAtis mprc! aid vibrates.^ You think the Rtroike ruade ths 
tup of the tableTihrato mure than ... Ihewail. Very well, then, 
why waa there a greater boutk! from the table than from the 
wall? Ton tuld me that you heard me spen-ltiiig by .., ihe air. 
How do you think you oan hear the sound of my striking; tho 
dealt ? j0y the air. Apd, the laound from the wnll ? T7tc air. 
Then why should there be uny iliifercnce between tho Imidnisw 
of the sound from the txbb and tlie wall? Ton don't know, I 
see. 



• The trainer tiu darplniped. i>r bravght nat Uis BiD(iunt«rt&e cliildren's 
hoowledgv. Tlief knuw the fartti, but no^C tli? reHtrn. 

t The ohildrcD xre ujidaritoiiil to liare liad letfoni on air belartfj but 
none do *(inn4, 

I In. msnyqnHTtfra flf tho LTnitofl Kinffiiitm. proTinrlBlisma will he gima 
hji ciLtlitren Jii thH conriu «f traLnlDgi and Uiii mnde maybe aAoyHeA to 
MrrecEtlieiu. 

{ Tnij tvnxi,i>ttb\yit9, b«<) hfreu.plctar0ilauldaiiiiKsotaefiirnu.'r]«iB<j& 
nn inoUon, 



8BCTn..iIl lEBSON — AIR k OOKPtJCTOR W SOmtE. 375 

Toil told me tlint the ^tQioaphnrw ... air, Ihe ujr that ie ia 
iiua,.,room i9...a suhstaTice. Yuii snw n]i« alriki? the air which 
you say is...<i !.^hslitRce, very smartly with the. ..sialc, and you 
licanicr.a sornid. Ngwyon alsn toMme that the tabit vibrated, 
that ia, ..Arembkd. Byyibriitiiig wbftt do you mean \ Trem- 
bUng or quivering ; tlmt is to say, if the top of the tiiblu trem- 
bled or ... quivered, it vras Bet ... a mavinff, or ... in mod'an. 
The top of the table wa5 not at r«3t, but ... in motion, raoring 
VEry.-.tluicklir. "Wnia,t did the top of the tnblesti-ike against, for 
yon knoT* if the top of the table mo^ed* it mudt moTe b^ainst 
Bttmctliing ( Whea the top of the table wibrated like tho top ofa 
drum, what did it etrike ^g^inat I The air. The air being a 
subatnnee. and fllliTig exery part irf ... litis roomj was Htnick 
quickly by tl*a Tihratory uiovemeuta of ... the top nfthe tabte. 
And -,, What did tho trcmhhng or vilvrntory niotion producig ? 
A sound, T3ie air w.ih movtd up and down q^ukldy fr&m it* 
place. Where! On the ta-hi^ ; and this rtipid ... mo/iDji of ... 
the air, nMch ia ... a substance, iind hae. ... weight, yoti also 
told me was not so heavy as ... the table, and it produced ? A 
Bottnd. Whether will there be a greater sound when I strike my 
hand aniartly or aoftly upon the table? SmarUt/. Why? 
MtzauM it will Bihrnte the More. Tlie top of the table will rise 
Up aii'd...dowit more, and, thei'ofore, it will... "Wluilwili itdoT 
Sounri Ihe more. You will hear n greater.. .soitbiJ, bMaimc the 
air is disturbed more by tho ^eater viteution, than ... the little 
ftm, — than by the \isii...vibratiiiti. 

Tfil me now, children, whether the nir n'i]] sound wrhen it i^ 
in motion or at rest J When in motion, Wiml, you know, ie 
.,, air in motion. You Bay you hear the wisdwhen ... it Iftows. 
that la, when the air !s in ... quick motiim; and when It cannot 
coaily pasa a houae or a, ... maa, or a ... tree it maltHi a ...noise, 
or ... a soumi, and you suiy, what a ntiise the ... wind is niiiiA. 
iii^i but wh^ti the Air a cot in matloo, gi" moring only rery ... 
ilowfy, you Bay, there .,. is no wind. 

Now, ohildren, tell me what air in motion ia! Wind. You 
tell me, vrind or ... air in ntiationj strildng again.tt a hou^e or n 

* AlUiDUjih the wboielndy of tbeiabk mn; rfbraCe. \t U prebrmbl* ta 
canflii)! the HttfiQCiuil of tliB chlllren to -JSi! puintj lu lung ai joitf AAtb. 
mciiti Involve agitung' erroDfibDa or cotiuailicur:^. 



J 



376 THE TRXlSISm SYSTEM— 9TA0K U. 

mnn niakra ... a nifist, anJ n. nmkc u ... a toutitf. Well, If f 
Htrike my htnni ur tUe slate tlfis way, against tiie air, what will 
It pnxluco ! A iound. And wlial ilueH it do to the air ? Sets 
t*l tH nation. My banJ, ur thia ... filata, nr nay tliini; T strike 
tlie ftir with, moves it out ... afita place ? And whert' dues the 
air ^n to ibat liua l^et^ti moved out of its plnco ^ To auorA^j- 
place. Aod wljtiw (Im* tSiul n-ir go to ? To another phce. anil 
BO on. JitiJ to ... another place ; and thus tlie vtmlc uir in this 
room will bo ... Wliat will it t>e ? S«( tn nioJion. 

Wo moat now have soma [ihyaica.1 exercMCs, bib I dare say yon 
are a little tired this wpt day,* Wo cannot ^t tliryiigU all that 
uiay W- Eiuti ou utir Ichsuu at prcwnt ; but 1 eiitmld lik? jou to 
tell mv in wlticli way sound i» CAn'iud tl'iroitgli the air, gr m which 
way flir comlucta ,.. Fouvd^ whether this air he in this ... raont. 
ttr ... oi£t bifr -or in th^ ... play-ffround } but T must iirat asfc 
you one lyt two qacBtioHfl. Were 1 to speak li>adly tii the next 
room, wiiuld you hear me! Yes, Would you hear my Toiee 
.lly well aa if 1 wcfc at the same distance from yvi, and wc 
ail m the cj|M!II air ? iVb, Su", the.-K'ui'^ atapa ifie sonnd. 
the wall stop thf3 soond ? Kcs, Sir. Then huw could you 
heap my voice wers I lb the other room ! It breaks it. Tea, 
ithreaksor ... ksicns thesttund. I'Liet'cfore yon hear ... tftroush 
the wait, although nut ... so wi:ll aa... in the open air, where lui 
,.. loall coniea belKEen. The air (icUind the wall aud befotti the 
wall ... shaAvs 01" ... vibrates. Tell me, now,, what moat hajipen 
to the wall, tiiat in b«;tTVt(;n you and the pers^m, before you hear 
aeoiiac)? Jt must oibfale, The rapid motion or ... vibration 
of the air laakca ...a sound. The ptTaon speaking a|fttal<» liratj 
the ... oir, and the air striking ... Wlial du<?a it strike agaiuatl 
The well. And then the viljnttioD tif the wall ngiiin ^ What' 
does it do ht'fnre it leaehea yoiu' eai' f It strilies agninat tht 
air again. Vcij well. ehiJdrcfl. 

lion- ilg«s ^uud travel, thiit Ih, how docH Bound raova ? (No 

answer.) Does it move in a straight line, nr how ? "When I 

Mpeak. or were I to ^und a tniiiijiel, do you think the aound 

wouJd movoHtraij^'ht fi-nni my nioiith, to you, like an anvnv, ar 

Dw ■; Do you know how the rajs of light mure ? Von daii't 



• Rl^uff dp aal tMiOg ditwfl liiiLaltaneously. twice or thrice, Ic. ke. 



knuw, 1 pffpcdve. I eIihU tell jtqu. Sonnd moves from [Le 
fluL-e whence Lt conira in a cirrular way, like wavt« ; an^l sckn- 
tiflc iiitn or .., phihsopherSf wi:Ll, wb shall call tlii^oi pliUoaopliei's. 
think auuDil truvclB in n cireular or rounrli^li lurm. Tiint is iifrt 
ID stiulght linea but in ... cird^s, nnd ihey ox[ilikiii tliptr mean- 
ing in iii'v! way : Tgu iiavo all Mwn a jmnd or pool of vi-:iter! 
i'es. Sir. "ffheu jou tlii-ow a tittni» into tiie water, piiplJOW- 
in Iha iniiltlle nr near the niiildlp of the ivatur, wliat hip- 
pen^ ? There is a plunge. Ami after tkfi plunge wliiit «lu you 
see? IT'ut'fls. Ar-e the wavea up and ilonii tkis way. Uliu wave* 
of the sua, ar liow ? Round. WhereveT the stone atrikca the 
... waUr, it knotka it out of ite ... phct, and the watep where 
the stiiniQ entered, being pualu'd out of"... Hi plave, [■usUm the 
next piece ut' water ... out of its place ; and m on, mnkiiig ... 
What does this pushing of tlio water do? Makes inaues. Of 
whiit sLnpe are these wavea * T nicfvn tho sninJl wa\PS caused 
hy tlie 3tonc being tLrown into tLc [lonid ? Round, or ,.. ciVcK- 
tai: Tfa man stands in 'the middle of a pond, up to his lM*nst 
in tlie wa,ter, HP'S a [wrsoii throws a stono a little 1ji;l!iind tla 
batk, woulJ hi! feel tLc irater jmnving cr agitated at his brefist ? 
Yes, Sir. Wliethor will the waves reacli the man's hack m Ilia 
bi-eaat first ? JJis back. But if, uistead of nnjving in eirelcB, it 
ninved like an arraw, would lie feel the wavea nt his breast ? JWb, 
Sii: You soe> it ia Ejct'auae the waves, coming from tlio ]ii1ac« 

/whera the irfoiiQ was tlirowu iu. arc ... rdunt/, and thi^y sprcutL 

1 wider and wider, and get siunller an.d smalier,* till they reach 
Ito sides of ... the pond, ao Ihat a i>eraon ftnela the wavea at Ilia 
... breast oa vsU aa ... at hln back ; ihut he wuidd uot feel them 
at his hntaat so much ... as at liis hack. 

Wiat la lite reason * YifU, know the reason ? His hack leouid 

fttop them. Entirely? No, Sir, p^ri/y. TLey ivovdd turae 
uund to iiLt hrEa.4t in .„ stimUsncaves, He-vfoukl fee! tlic water 

i moving at liis breasf, but nut so mach so ... aa at his back ; and 
th^uy would never atop til] tiiey ... When would tliese cireuUr 
waves atop ? Www they reached the side. Like the mavca of 
A steam-TesBel, they nBver stop till they roacli ...the shore, 1 



* Tlie g-radiiiil diminntiun of sDUTid, lu it trareli fr^ini Iftc plucB frorii 
wkente it liiis Wen piiudui-cd, innj be tnkeu up more [iBrticuInjly at ai'xt 



THE TRATWryS IFTWrRH — 8TAOB Tf. 

vu suine cbililreD vrhn Tatty not Jl&vc Bc«n a stone tlirnwn 
into a pond, I shall, llicrihforc, diow tljciii an i'X|wrlment- 
3aw, ^tt u|i st&Lti to my houw, acd tell tlie mnii) t<j b/uig tlixni 
A bAlliI luiiin Knd a jug ol" water ; the Tanii will coenu down vith 
y«ii uiuucdiatcly ; quick, cluld. W« skaU ia Uie mcaiTtimeaiiig 
uuc ol'vuur pretty airs, ic. dio. dw. 

Now, cliildrcii, look wMlu I drop tbi» stone Into th« -water. 
Oliecrve ottentEvoly wliat Iida happoaetl. 7?i.c baeiit is Jitled 
with little tfiflfffs, in the same marmcr sHthewatcp ... in ifiu ^a, 
Jt] ... a jtcntd. OliMrre wk-tlieT lh« circular wai-fyj are krger 
whcrv the attme «btcn the wAtt-r, or At tb« Biiles of tho ba,iiu } 
flVrere </i.e stone enlert. And what follows ! TVii';^ become 
smaller and smaller ; till when? 217/ Mcy yet to Ike aides. 
Larger at ...Jiral. krA gnidunlly smaller till they „. get to the 
aides, Now, cliiltkenj it i* HupiHBed that sound travels tbrot^h. 
the air, CtiAt is, it ... »M>i'ei in. the muaB way m t1]>(! tvAres whicb 
joutall.,, What kind ol' waTea? C'trtalur waves. Do yoU 
maembcr whfit we caliled waLer, and milk, anil air, nml uil, the 
other day ? Tlnida. Air, then, is ... aJSuid, and soiuid travela 
ill U like theivaves in thia.,. basin, VHiatie the ear the ur«An 
off Bearing. The wavaS formed in the air, aUhougli th«y 
should coiat froiu Iwt-nty or more places, reach ... the ear. TATiat 
dooa the car hear'' Sounds. The air, therefore, coDdiLots ... 
sound to ,.. (Ae ear, or when the air mdves qniukly, ythu ... A«ar 
a sound, or when you strike tha air Binarlly as \ did wtth thft 
filntej you hear n sound, the air is driven ... natofitaplac^. In 
whatfona? In what ahflpu? Hound, nt ,.. evrHlar, As the 
stone when thrown ifltu the baaiii threw th« water out ,., t^ itx 
place, or aa when a stone ia thrown into a pond, or ... t/ie sea. 
I wish you to tell me why it is thon^lit that iwund through the 
air ia circular. OLsttrd, I ahall drop tbe itore again into the 
bftsiti 6f water ; Sow, little hoy, hold tliig pifrM of wood stflftdlly 
thone, not m the middle of the basin, but a little from ihc side, 
I mean ii little dlstaneo from the plate whero I ... plump it in. 
You mean ? The stone. Now, obBerve, what happens to tha 
wttvcB whkh come, one after another, to the piece of wood! 
They are broken, Sif. The wavos are broken when they .,. 
reacA the stick. They firat atrike the aides of the piece of wood, 
Thich is nearest to where the atone fell in. What happenod to 



BECDLAlt teSSOIT — Ain * COWBTJOTOH Of SOWtTt, 



tlie circuJar waves ? Tliep tutned round jn little waves to... 
ths side. Wliicli side '? Ta the othtr side of the slick. And 
of wliflt &hapi! were these Httlt' wjivta '\ Sounds T]ib large 
wayca wen? ... round, and the small waves broken by tlie sLick 
being placed tliere, wcfc ... also rnuml, iw that any wavM- 
wliMlior htrge or ... small, wiien t^ey wt'i'c bi^keu by ... iht stick, 
went rDiijiil to the ojipuaite siile, wider Aod widt'r, oad slill wCKi., 
round, So it IB suppoitcd to bo witb the air, children. We H&id 
B little ago^ that the raya mf light movB in ... straight lia^s, like 
an amowj or nearly BOj and now T toll you, tbntainwlion agitated. 
that i&, when it ... vibrates like the top of this dctilc when I ... 
itri&e If, that the air, when Rg:itAt«l like the water, when it .„ 
ij agittited, moves in ... eircttlar tcavea. Wen- a gim fired at a 
dutflQCfr irom you, ^uppuGo n qu.irter vf a miler whether would 
y»ii see the tlaah or hear tho ( report)" sound sooner f TTifl fiash 
ofJirB, W!iy ? Sein^ straight. It movea in ... straight lines. 
The flaah emits or sends out a light, and na lijiht laoveti ,.. in 
straight lijies, yi>u Bee It, before you .,, hear the stand, and this 
aniuid moyes, whieh way) In waves, or... iJircufur lines, and 
th«ivforo takes longer to ... conte to ovr earn than the ...Jlaah, 
or light from . , . the gttn. 

Suppose Tou stood with your huxk to the gun, u-ould you sec 
the light? JVoj Sir. Why J Tks U^ht goes straisht. and, 
therefore, would ...pass hy. Woidd yoii bear tho sound 'f Yea, 
Why? (Yon dou't know.) Tiiu forget the esperinient I made 
with the stick of piece of wood I made in the tiaain. Did tJie 
wsTcs pass by the stick completely os the raya of li^ht would 
piisi you ? T^ey mib^ ro^n.d H, KDMiJler, but etiU they came ,,, 
round it. In wliiit shut* ■ Circular. Had the wares rnoved 
in straiglit licoa lifco ,.. tii/ht, would they haTO jnO'VeJ! rovuid to 
the other side O'f the stick 1 .^a, Sir. niere may be other 
reaaouB, cluldren. why light moves qiiieltcr than ... vountf, but 
this certa.inly is,,, pjie reason.] So therefore, it in BUppoflod, 
for we eannot see air as w& see water, it h suppoaed that the 
Bound mores tluTD ugh tho ... air, or air when it is iigitatedr wbioh 
pn>dui;es ... sound, moves on all sides In ... In what form, think 

* tiat yet pU'tiired <|4it. 

t Tliia is luffleleDlly pirtloubr and cnnect, fur the trniuer'i preient 




i 



3W 



THE TRAINIiJ^a SVSTBU — STAOR U. 



J4J11 1 A circttltr fiffriit niiil, therefarc, like tlic vavcs in > poaA 
or ... basin. y«u litiTf lUe tfiund or rppopt of |hp gun, erm whien 
ycKt etMiiJ wjili yiiwT ,,. back to it. Ttiv wnT«9 c(Hn« to yvor 
... COM, mill Ut .., ourfaee. In Btrnigbt ur cutred linca, ifhioh 
ihitik Tiiu ? Cantd. If the floiind niovetl in straight lines, 
like ilic^ rays of tight, what wau.]>l liAppcn f It wotctd ffo past us, 
bdt fts llicy (lu bot go post us, vrliat finn must the wares of. 
Ktunil tlieu be, wimik gta^uij; Lliruugb tlici air to our 'eai?*'^ 
Carved or ... circuliir, Me Llie'wave» in tlie pond or ,.. basin, ix 
ilu> ... sea. 

Nnw, cliUilrcn, you pcrcolvc tLnt »ir isairondueUir af...£i>i(nrf, 
and (lint fiuuDil moTea in tliu Air in ... circuhr teaves. In mio- 
tb^r lesson HO Hliall hunr of DtLiec tiling that cotidU'Ct ^oniid, 
l>es!d«s air. Let ua ha\t a. jti iLrchio}; tuni*, and ve stall go foi: 
alittlp tiims ... iVu thepfay-grannd. Sin^' " The Violet." dawn 
m the *hiidy grnve, itc. The sweet and modcat ... violet, an 
emblem of.. .humility. 

Jhc irBincr iiugbt to direct tlie attentioti Chf Lia p«pil» t* tile 
j^uodiiL'ss uf (jtHxliii ruiniuhiij^ its with the luenns arhimiring.lKith 
UM a &UUIVC of pleosurv iuid uat-fulnass. 

Theae examples of training lessons present but a 
mere shadow of tlia mode of conductiug them. 
Whilst the attentian wf the gallery must be suatainetl, 
simplicity of espressioti, nad /anitliar illuBti'a.tion8, 
alone secure tlj^it the point in hand ia prcrperly pis- 
turetl out. 



CHAP. XXVI. 

SELECTIONS OF SECULAR TBAINING LESSONS. 

Is Stnge I. tlie difficulty has been not to present a 
sufficient number of lessons, but such points or out- 
lines for the infant in knowledge, whether of three, 
five, ten, or fifteen years of age, as will make him 
acquainted with the largest amount of facts, and re- 
lative causes of things, within twelve months, and as 
may enable him, in Stage II., and subsequent Stages, 
to advance in a consecutive and progressive man- 
ner. 

All children, therefore, ought to commence with 
thej^r*^ gtage, and if it be gone over a second time 
before commencing with the second stage, the trainer 
will be able to communicate double or triple the 
amount of information that he could have done during 
the first course of the same lessons. For the same 
reason, Stage II. gone over progressively a second 
time, will be equally and proportionally productive, 
and this arrangement would furnish a four years' 
course, and an excellent foundation alike for the work- 
man, the mechanic, and the man of leisure and re- 
search, being broad in its base and extensively prac- 
tical. The SECOND COURSE of each of the Stages also 



Tint TRAmiira BTsrtH — BTACIB T. 

fumislies a full opportunity of picturing oul, hy fami- 
liar illuatraliinta, scientific terms, a correct kuow- 
Itsd^L* of which 13 so neccssEiry to tlie acquisition of 

Jn the present contracted and crippled state of eda- 
catioi], fryin want of funds, a four years' course is longer 
even than can usuajly be embraced. The whole, how- 
ever would be preparatory to the course of iDstructioii 
at present enjoyed almoat ex^fuaively under pubtic 
lectnrera. 

We refer the trainer to the notes appended to the 
pr&cUcAl illustnitioDS- 



FIRST WEEK, OR MONDAT. 



■ 


STA.OB I, 






ARTICLES OF POOD ANU DBUfK. 


Wlieflten bi^eiul. 


Poultry. 




Cliocolnte. 


Oiiten bread. 


Eggs. 




Brown Sugar. 




Honey. 




Loaf Sugar. 


Lamb, mutton. 


Vfal, 


llai.iiiia, curmnt4., 


Maize or Indian 


b(.-cf. 




RDfi figs. 


com. 


VcnisDa. 




Dutiss. 


Pe&a; nnd beans. 


Bacon. 




ApplM and pc&ra. 


CnrroU and Itlfiup?. 


Herrings, 




Cherries nnd pliuas* 


PotHtiJCS. 


Suliiinn. 




Strawbon-ipa and 


Sago. 


Salt. 




j^noscbeiTitH. 


Tapioca tind aiw* 


Fk'pper and 


muB^ 


Water. 


root. 


lard, 




Wiao. 


Milk mid crRiim. 


Tea. 




Cyder nnd ppny. 


Buttcp fiKtd fliKfi*;. 


Cuflee. 







SELECTIONS OP BBOULAR TRAJKHTO LBSSOKB. 



383 



SECOND WEEK, OR TUESDAY. 





STAGB I. 




ARTICLES OF CLOTHING, FURNITURE, ETC. 


Cotton wool. 


Brick house. 


Bmsh. 


Cotton cloth. 


Stone house. 


Knives, forks, Ac 


Lint or flax. 


Stool, chair, and 


Tallow candle. 


Linen cloth. 


B0&. 


Wax. 


Silk. 


Table. 


Oil. 


Silken cloth. 


Barrels, tube, &c. 


Gas. 


Sheep's wool. 


Baskets. 


Shoes. 


Woollen cloth. 


Carpets. 


Cap or hat. 


Cotton, linen, and 


Hair cloth. 


Gloves. 


thread silk. 


Whalebone. 


Stockinga. 


Furs. 


Comb. (Bone, Tor- 


Buttons. 


Wooden house. 


toise, Irory.) 





THIRD WEEK, OR WEDNESDAY. 





STAGE I. 




NATURAL BISTORT OF AHIMALB. 


Dog. 


Camelopard. 


Mole. 


Cat. 


Wolf. 


Swallow. 


Sheep. 


Fox. 


Eagle. 


Cow. 


Beaver. 


R^n. 


Goat. 


Camel. 


Linnet. 


Horse. 


Reindeer. 


Niehtinirale, 


Ass. 


Elephant. 


Owl. 


Lion. 


Rhinoceros. 


Parrot. 


Tiger. 


Kancaroo. 
Monkey- 


Hen. 


Leopard. 


Duck and Goose 


Brown Bear. 


Rat and Mouse. 


Swan. 


Polar Bear. 


Bat. 


Humming bird. 



01)4 



THE TBA.IN1NG ST&TEH — STAOB I. 



n-ti-iili. 


\\Tialo. 


Bee. 


Viiltun' and Cundor. 


Shark. 


Ilonse-flr. 


1>.']inin. 


Sword fish. 


Butteifly. 


^Enifiiie. Huuk, and 


Seal. 


Worm. 


Kiivi'ii. 


Crocodile and Alli- 


Viper. 


< tvHter and kIicU full. 


gator. 


Rattle Snake and 


Trout. 


Ant. 


Boa Constrictor. 



FOURTH WEEK, OR THURSDAY. 



STAGE I. 



ARTS or LirE.— TliADtS, ETC. 



Biilvcr. 

Tailor. 

Sliwmnker. 

HattLT. 

Tanner. 

Spinner. 

Weaver. 

Dyer. 

Paper maker. 

Blaeksniith. 

Joiner. 

Cabinet maker. 

Mason. 

Gol<l beater 

gilder. 
Plunilwr, 
Tinsmith. 
Slater. 
Plasterer. 



and 



gold- 



Millwright. 

Soap boiler. 

Hope and ttviue 
maker. 

Bleacher. 

Candlemaker. 

Silver and 
smith. 

Watch and clock- 
maker. 

Quill dresser and 
steel pen manu- 
facturer. 

Gunsmith. 

Pavicr. 

Tron smelter. 

Iron founder 
moulder. 



Brewer. 
Distiller. 
Gardener. 
Farmer- 
Miller. 
Printer. 
Bookbinder. 
Typefounder. 
Painter, 
Pinmaker. 
Wool coml>er. 
Silk throwster. 
Sempstress. 
Cutler. 
Brick and 

maker. 
Biickltiver, 
Shipbuilder, 



tile 



'■-^J 



SELSCnONS OF SECHLAB TBAimiTQ LESSONS. 



S85 



FIFTH WEEK, OR FRIDAY. 



STAGE I. 



FIBST LIKES OF SCIENCE. 



Air we breathe. 

Light. 

Heat. 

Ice, water, steam. 

Lightning. 

Loadstone, 

Winds. 

The sea. 

Ebbing and fiowing 

of the tides. 
Clouds. 

Rain, hail, snow. 
Dew. 
Balloon. 
Diving bell. 
Horizon, Cardinal 

points. 
Knowledge of home, 

or topography of 

the eitj in miich 

we liTe. 



Vegetable defined. 

Roots. 

Stem. 

Leaves. 

Fruits and seeds. 

Fir tree. 

Oak. 

Beech. 

Mahogany, 

Plum and box trees. 

Animal defined. 

Coverings of ani- 
mals. 

Bones. 

Brain and nerves, 

Muscles and sinews. 

Arteries and veins. 

Skin. 

Nails, claws, and 
hoofs. 



Teeth. 

Sense of sight. 

Sense of hearing. 

Sense of smelling. 

Sense of taste. 

Sense of touch. 

Mineral defined. 

Limestone, 

Sandstone, 

Slate. 

Coal. 

Flint. 

Platinum. 

Gold. 

Silver. 

Iron. 

Copper. 

Tm. 

Lead. 

Quicksilver. 



2b 



CHAP. XXYII. 

FIRST WEEK, OH MONDAY OF EACH WEEK. 
STAGE ir. 

Some trainers take these lessons progressively, while others »e- 
lect some of the leading or particular points Jbr the daily 

Gallery lesson. 

THE IIUSIA.N FHAUE — NATCHAL HISTORY OF ANIMALS. 



The Human Body. 

Bones, tlieir nature 
and uses. 

Bones of the head. 

Backbone or spine. 

Brain and nerves. 

Chest. 

Joints. 

Muscles and sinews. 

Anus and hands. 

Limbs iind feet. 

The blood. 

Heart, arteries, and 
veins. 

Circulation of the 
blood. 

Lungs and respira- 
tion. . 

The mouth, tongue,! 
and jialate, I 

Teeth, their mode of 



growtli, and adap- 
tation in Btructuro 
and form. 

The jaws, different 
kinds of motion 
they ean perform. 

Mechanism of swal- 
lowing. 

Stomach and diges- 
tive organs. 

Skin. 

Hair and nails. 

The eye. 

The car. 

The nostrils. 

The Human Mind, 

Connection between 
the mind and the 
body. 

Sensation.' 



Perception — Con- 

coption. 
Memory. 
Judgment. 
Conacience. 
Reason and instinct. 

Mammalia or suck- 
giving Animals. 

Man. 

Monkey tribe. 

Carnivorous * ani- 
mals (hedgehog, 
badger, cat). 

Ruminants (ox, deer, 
sheep, camel). 

Marsupials or pouch- 
ed animals (opos- 
sum, kangaroo). 

Gnawing animals 
(rat, hare, beaver). 



* Althoufrli the terms ruminant, f!Tanivorou3, migratory, &c., are pre- 
Bontod in tiii'se lessons, yet they aro not used by the master with hii pn- 
pila until tiipy are fully pictured out, otheriviae he would be adng terniB 
eipreasive of tharncter, &c, not understood by bU scholara. 



SELBCTtONS OF SBCUI.A& TRAIKINO LFSSOSa. 



387 



Edentata '(wanting 
teeth), ant-eater, 
sloth, armadillo. 

Pachy dermata( thick 
skinned animals), 
horee, elephant, 
hog. 

Cetaceous animals 
(whale, dolphin). 

Birds. 

Birds of prey (eagle, 
vulture, owl). 

Birds of the spar- 
row kind (spar- 
row, thrush, swal- 
low). 

Climbing birds (par- 



rot, cuckoo, wood- 
pecker). ! 

Henlike birds (pbea-' 
sant, peacock, 
pigeon). 

Wading birds (stork, 
snipe, heron, 

crane). 

Webfooted (duck, 
goose, swan). 

Migration of birds. 

Reptiles. 
Tortoises (tortoise, 

turtle). 
Lizards (crocodile, 

lizard). 
Serpents (viper, boa, 

Ac.). 



Froglike (newt, frog, 
saJamander). 

Fishes. 
Their general struc- 
ture, organs of 
.respiration, fins, 
scales, &c. 
Migration of fishes, 
Ac. 

Insects. 
Insect transforma- 
tion. 
Insect architecture. 
Beetles. 
Buttoi'flies. 
Bees. 



SECOND WEEK, OR TUESDAY OF EACH WEEK. 



STAGE II. 



ELEMENTS OF SCIENCE. 



Mechanics. 

Matter, atoms. 

Essential properties 
of matter, impe- 
netrability, exten- 
sion, figure. 

Divisibility, inertia, 
attraction. 

Accidental proper- 
ties, density, hard- 
ness, elasticity, 
brittleneas, poros- 
ity. 



Ductility, tenacity, ; 

malleability, I 

Attraction of cohe- 
sion, chemieal and 
capillary attrac- 1 
tion. I 

Attraction of gravi- 
tation. I 

Solid defined, centre 
of grarity. I 

Direction and laws, 
of falling bodies. I 

Force required equal-: 



ly to impart mo- 
tion and to take it 
away. 

Motion rapid, slow, 
uniform, acceler- 
ated, retarded. 

Motion proportioned 
to the force and in 
the direction of 
the forCe, velocity, 
momentum. 

Direction of a body 
when acted on by 



THE THAISINO system — STiOE IT. 



two «r mwre for- 
cea, cvn.liifu.gK] 
uul oeQt]'i[i«ta] 
forces. 

Lerer, t]ir« kinds 
cf. 

trfafcl and axle. 

InclULL>d pluELC, 
Wcilgc. 

27de foJar St/atem, 

Thift Aun aa the c«iitre 
uf Umt eyBtcm. 

Sue jLad |i(Hitiaa of 
the carji, 

tajict!s, orbits, anri 
pcrioda of revolu- 
tion of the Qlhsr 

planet-". 
Form of iho earth, 
ttiumid fiivi Annunl 

lutnlkfu^ mf tlic 

caribi. 
Caiises of tli« Mfi- 

SDEIR, 

DiBsrcDce in th-e 
leiij^tli of day and 
right, 

Themot-Q — ]jor vary- 
ing njiiifjiianctSv 

Hanest mvou. 



EbLin^ anil Bowing 

of tUe tide?. 
Modea of (lotmnnin- 

inglatituJiL'. 
Slodvs of diettsnuiii,- 

iug longitude. 

Light. 

Its sources nnd rs.te 
of progT:^R?ion. 

Liglit fnJlin^ on 
amootli nnd po- 
liaheil surlaicea is 
reflected — Jaws of 
reflect] Dti, 

Liglit [losaing fi-om 
A rATCr to a dob»jr 
iiit*{]ium, or the 
■converWj is re- 
fracted — laws cif 
refract i OB. 

Dift'eTOnt kinds of 
lenses. 

Prieitt'?, 

PrisiuHtic ooloara. 

Rainbow. 

Formation of tbe eye 
reviHcd — manner 
of nsion. 

Accduimvdation of 
the evo to differ- 
ent diatniiees, and 
to different &a- 
grocB of light. 



Defects of TTaion~— 

3aiig-aighteJci«a3 — 

short -aig'htedii pas . 

Spectflclea, ilidiTcnt 

Icinds and iw^ (i£ 

Micrafrcope, -^^ 

Tele-scopca. ^| 

CamcrH, obsou«i— 

magic lAntem. 

Heat. f 
ItB lioiircei^. S 

Modes of transmia- 

Bion by cotidue> 

ticiii, ditfiiaion, and 

mdiutiun^ 
Different powoi-s in 

bodtisB of oondHet- 

ing hent. 
ERS-cta of best, 
Expsnaion, rnporizji- 

tion. H 

Tlicrmonieter. H 
Latent heat. ^ 

Dew. 

Clouds — inun — h ail . 
Snow — aloet — hoar- 

&oBb — ua&a of 

snow. 
Fornuition ■of ice, 
Liquefaction of g^ses. 
Cold [^1 reduced by 

ernpomtion. 
See first week's les- 



■ U la evident Ihnt ttto Rreat -DUtllnm of the subjecte uud^r tliis li.ead 
?Riii only \<s ignne over nt this slays. I.el chcrn I>fl IniJi liow^v i^r. n brdA-il 
ttuil EUTi! I>eae ou ^vhlcli I'S rcEt, aud froiD ivtiich Uiq ictiuLoc may ueeud. 



SELECnoifS OP SBCCLAH TRAINIHCt LESSONS. 



889 



THIRD WEEK, OR WEDNESDAY OF EACH WEEK. 



STAGE II. 



ABTS OF LIPB— MANUFACTURES, WITH OUTLINES OF THEIR 
TAHIOUS USES. 



Architecture. 

Manufacture of gas. 

Mining, 

Davy's safety lamp. 

Iron smelting. 

Iron founding. 

Steel making. 

Gold and silver refin- 
ing. 

Coinixg. 

Silk manufaeturca. 

Cotton manufac- 
tures. 

Soap making. 



Bleaching. 
Pottery. 
Tanning, 
Roads. 
Canals, 
Railways. 
Navigation. 
Sliip-building. 
Lithography. 
Stereotype printing. 
EngraTing and etch- 
ing. 
Printing. 



Making of lead drops. 

Paper making. 

Glass manufacture. 

Materials formerly 
used for writing 
on, 

Steam-engine — his- 
tory of its inven- 
tion. 

Description of Watt 'a 
engine. 

Principal applica- 
tions of steam.* 



FOURTH WEEK, OR THURSDAY OF EACH WEEK, 
STAGE II. 



CI.A88iriCATION AND USES OF MIKEBALS, BOTANY, ETC. 



Characters of 
Minerals, viz.: — 

Solidity or hardness. 



Frangibility. 

Structure. 
Fracture. 



External form. 
Lustre, colour, 
touch. 



• The process of Stage 1, will enable the master. In condactin; a train- 
ing leeson, during the prpBent Stage, to eotermore Into the qo^ties and 
combinations of the matenala used In each art and manufacture, and also 



;l!» 



THE TltllNIKQ 8VSTEH — STAOB II. 



' llitiinicn. 
Fjirlhij Mimruh. '■ Aiitlji-iuite. 

.Mi.ii. Diamond. 

Ainiiinlliii-; i-iirtli 
liliillul;ii]] tliiX. 
(iV|i-mii ..!■ >iili.lijitf 't""t»' 



Paris of Plants, viz. 



Acidifcriiiis, nlha- 
line miiivraln. 

VnH'ilX, 

Jlwk salt. 



Metalliferous viiuci- 



I'liiwL'r stalk, andin- 



of Lin- 
classifica- 



of floivorinj:- 

I'liiwtrs. 
FniitK. 
I'rinfiplcs 
ttxtin 
tiim. 
Iiimiiyntes, ami red. Train to diatingiiiflh 
iri'ii ore, firet six classes and 

Clay iron stone. ordcm, 

GopViT^ pyi-ites andjsj>Mdwcll, veronica. 
CuiTniits and goose- 



iiiiiliihlt 
Giikiia or sulplmre-t 

of lend. 
Ciiin.'tlMir 01' red shI- 

liliuret oi'jiiercuiy. 

Combustible mine- 
rals. 

Sulphur. 



Crowfoot, ranvnca- 

lua. 
Train to diatrngui^ 

next fire claaaes 

and orden. 
Dead nettle, lamium. 
Wallflower, ckeirax- 

thua. 
Pen, pimtm. 
lloit'scucc, or mode Train to distinguish 

next, four clatsee 

and orders. 
Daisy, belUsperennis. 
OrcluH, orchid. 
HaEcl, corylus. 
Train to diBtinguish 

remaining two 

classes and orders. 
Shield fern, aapi- 

dium. 
Mushroom ,Agaric»a. 
Principles of Job- 

sieu s olassiiica- 

tion. 
Plants without seed 

lobes. 
Plants with one seed 

lobe. 
Plants with two or 
more seed lobes.* 



bcn-y, ribes. 
Flax, lintim. 
Train to distinguish 

next Rcvcn classes 

and orders. 
Saxifrages, taxt- 

fraga. 
Pears, apples, pyrus. 



to omptoy a few technicsl phrasea, introductorr, and U an nsiistance to 
more deGnite BcientiGc trainiug. 

* There aro no terms used under this head which are not ea^lyplctnrad 
out, andmar be easily apprehended by a child of eight to tn-elre yean of 
e^e. A thorough knowledge of tlie meaning' of luch terms now stated, 
will eoftble the botanist, the inineralopst, and the man of ledtara, to draw 
fourfold more from the lectares of scientific men than they now d<^ when 
they have to seek for tlie meaning of terms when they might be HCtDKllr 
applying them. Tliii is a minor cnnai deration, hoiverer, compared to the 
early analytical haUt the mind acquires in the progress of each ezerdw. 



^^^^^^^smEOTiomo^EPaiABmfcnmfa tEwowB^^aa^^^^^B 


W FIFTH WEEK, OR FRIDAY OF EACH WEEK. ^H 


^^^B ^^^1 


^HH^^^^ SL£UEHTaOF»CtKKX5. ^^^| 


On the laios of | Asceiit dF b bal-^On the laws of | 


Fluids. 


loon. 


Soaad. H 


Fliiida defined — U- 


Syringe — suckeir — 


Sound ~— how pro- H 


(fiitda. 


cupiiing — - uil'ant 
on IiivaaI. 


d uccd. H 


Elastic aiTiil non-clos.- 


Mode of its ppnpaga- H 


tic fluidH-. 


Prcaauira of mer- 


tiHsn — rut© at 1 


Ill ilili[is<, pressure 


cury. 


which it trdvds 1 


cij^Ufil in oil direc- 


Barometer. 


thniugli diflh'ent H 


tions. 


Mciiitu ration of 


mitlln. ^^^H 


Preasnro aa i^eptli, 


iKiK^Lts hy bnro- 


Ut^lloL'ttGn of sound. ^^^H 


Latc'inl prcs&are, 


meter. 


Echo. ^H 


Iljdriistatit! bellows. 


AJr Is fQastic. 


Speaking trumjiet'— 


Bramah press. 


AJr-;jiin. 


ear trumpet. 


The fliPRn surface oi 


Cnudtinaing iyringe. 


Musical sounds. 


3 fliilil i^lcvd, ^Tld 


Air-pumps. 




if dlflereat pipos 


Air u a fcin pound 


On elfctrt:eir]/ and 


«OtllliiuDicaU, fi, 


bady. 


JUaffiiedsm. 


fluid will ru^, toj Tfie air hb breathe 


EsciUition ofdeElri- 


the same IcTel m 


— rHpiration. 


oity— laws of ftt- 


Aa. 


Air Bwppoi'ts ooni- 


triiftion, ivpulsi&a, 


Mode of suiijilymg 


hustiou. 


(liBtrihutioi). 


cities with water. 


How hest increaBB 


Eloetriei or iion-coTi- 


A boJy miTuersL'd ixi 


the heat of a, Arc 


duetors, and non- 


a fluid ia held up 


l>y Stirring it. 


vloctrics or conduo- 


Yfitli 0, force equal;' Aaccnt of hot air in 


tora. 


to Ihe weight of[ chimnics. 


AMTUBpheric — eleo- 


tJle quantiity {if Ghs. 


tri.c-ity. 


t^uid dUpIaeed. 


Propep mode of air- 


Vitreous or |ioBitive, 


Nfiturnl fuudtaina 


ing a j'ooni. 


and reslnouit or 


ami sprLuga- 


Tlie nature ■ufBiaoke. 


negatiro dwjlri- 


Syphon, 


or wind. 


^^^1 


Lifting puiTip. 


Trade wJnda — mQn- 


Electric tdegraph. ^^^| 


Air liJiB -wcl^tit, 


8D0n«. 


Electrifying ma- ^^B 


Air a Huid piicasea Siuiuom — «irD0C4. 


chlite. ■ 


equally on bU TJatB of wind. 


Lightning— tbitndep ^^^ 


sides. 1 

1 


— lightiUPg rods. ^^^H 



sm 



TUE TRJOKUMJ SITSTEM — STAGE II. 



ThATnagnurt— i u pro- 



Iron i«i]cl«i'C;il mag- 
net k. 
llo^ctic attraction 



VArimu met 

mnlitng Magttetf. 

Mariners Mtn<- 

paas* 



We would recommienil t!io practice of making occa- 
siooal escuraioas tu tlae coimtrj with the pupils, to 
collect specLiDODS, thus uniting practice imd tliDory. 
On the same principle, in teaching geometry, fte 
pupil's attention ought freijuently to be called to the 
application wbich ma^ be made of the ahatmct truths 
demonatratcd. Were the puplU, after demonstrating 
the propositions on which tlic racasurement and cal- 
culation rest, to ha re(|uired actually to measure a 
rectangular or triangular field, and calculate its con- 
tents, hig interest iii the atudy would be greatly in- 
creased. He would see a naeanlcg and a usoiu every 
line lie draws, and every figure he sketches. 

Were every pariah school furnished with specimena 
of its peculiair plants, flowera, raineralB, and UviDg 
animalH, which might be collected by the cliildren of 
the school, not only would the minds of the youth be 
enlarged by daily training lemons, or each in succes- 
sion, hut the metropolitan museum of such a country 
might, by the peculiar specimeDS collected Irom each 
pBTiah, present a complete compendium of the natural 
history of the whole kingdom. 



* Our obiorvHtluni uad^ th'« UvuA ti XieiAa.j npply ^hhIIj to lti« pr«- 
•ent leauna, to vvhk'h wt tanjaAi, that fnr so eletn^nlaTjcDUj-M afKli-ool 
training, it li&i bacn -hut pndHnvDiir tii solect t)i« voi't prniMi>aJLl nnd unTnl 
IsHSD!, whii'ti; \.a uime of tli» telirtlari, taa.j be a\L Xhi-f Khali Tsrent m « 

> Khuol eiliu-atioD: wbllo to rhtlipn, tli4 e^Efciie gf btiiiil tbey affunl wiU 

Lt'^liME iitt future and hijflmr ciDlnanM. 




JIirrSTKATIONB OF MOBAL TSAINIKG IN BCHOOL. 



Webe a stranger, on paying a transient vieit to a 
family, the children of which exhibited such prompt 
obedience aa to be dii-ccted by the parc^nt hy a nod or 
a lock j and fitrther, did they at table and in tbeir 
whole cotidnct, net in such a miLnner 39 to pTova 
ihemBclves to havo been under excellent training, — 
were this stranger visitor to say to tho naotlKr, I am 
quit(t delighted with tbe conduct and polite mannera 
of your family ; pray, tell me how you manage ? How 
do you get your chilclren to be 90 obedient to your- 
self, and kind to one another ? The prudent mother 
wonld say — Come and see — come snd live in my 
house, nnd what I cannot possibly make? you under- 
stand hy telling or explanation, you may fully under- 
atand by obacrving ray COUrae of training. Little 
cjuiurela occur in my fa.mily a.s they do in others, but 
I endeavour to rentlur them as unfrecjuent as possible. 
My children aometimca exhibit a disobedient dispo- 
aitioHt but I check this by causing them instantly to 
obey. The manner hotc, I really cannot explain to 
you. I act according to cireumatances. The results 
you see, but the process I cannot possibly tell. Live 



IlLCISTRATIONS Op 

'vriih me a month or two, &ni you may eeg a liitle. 
I niudt be offc-ndod — the fault must be committed be- 
fore I lutierferG ; aud tlieoj alioutJ you be present, 
not as a stranger, but as bjd. iamate, you aball see how 
1 ondeavour to proceed. The tempera and disposi- 
tions of iDj cliildrcQ are varibd, and tbe xiaturo of 
tbfl provocations, or mutual misconceptions, requires 
the utmost delicacy on my partj more indeed, than in 
my own strength I am capabla of performing ; but [ 
do my best, and God lias been pleased to bleas my 
endeaToure. The mother trainer may again repeat, 
in answor to the visitor's request — Come asd see. 

This is preciaelythe answer that a judicious school 
trainer would give to a stranger visitor who desires 
him to explain how he morally trains his scholars — 
CoMfi aKd see, — remain h«re a month or two, and I 
shall show you how we proceed. My children do 
not always alejil, or lie, or quarrel, or fight, or deceive, 
or exhibit tho strong propensity of selMshness. These 
must be developed in likely circumstances, and are 
met by what we endeavour to render suitable anti- 
dotes. You admire tho demeanour and aJiicrity of 
my children j but I am as incapable of exhihitlug or 
explaining to you how I train my pii2^il3 in a singly 
hour Or a day, aa U tho Intelligent Chriatian mother. 
Her proper mode ia our standard, although the sym- 
pathy of nnmhcra is a power she does not possess, 
which undoubtedly I do. And we each in our own 
spiiero cndeavotir to " train up" the cinldren " in the 
Way they should go." 

Every ti'aintng school furnishes a variety of ind- 



MOBAL Tnitrrisa in school. 396 

dents (ieTeloping tlie diapoaitiona and characters of 
tiio children ; and they aro of such daily occnrrencp, 
that were tlioy noted down, they might fumisli ma- 
terialg for many volumes. Our limits euaUe us only 
to mention a veryfuip,' andtheae, we do not presume 
to say, are Ly any means more interesting than bun- 
dreds of other instances, that have c-scaped tlic me- 
moiy of the trainer as soon as they have bet^n prac- 
tically disposed of. 

The few iUuBtmtions now to be menlioned are 
piincipally furnished by two or thice of our former 
students^ who aia now very successful iu their own 
schools. One of the&e is an Iniiintory or Infant, and 
the other two are Juvenile traiaera^the former hav- 
ing 9liildvcn under six, and the others children above 
that age : — 



t. DoRCAP. — T was lately condueling a Bible leKSnn on " Dor- 
cas raised (o liJi; in niiamci' lo Pc-tti-'a pmyer," flail, tniviircia tlie 
cloaeof it, I endeavtmreil to- sltutv tlia eliJIdrcn how. like Dut- 
caB, tlicj might bo kind to the poor, nndfsjwcially to pifliis, Rood 
peop^, Bui-U. ss those thftt Pofcab la&do ct>a.ts fltid ^amicata for. 
I then cmbmccd the opportunity of litingin^ before tlie gnllery 
the case uf a ]>00r old widon' whci hnd i^nljed iipoD mo n. lew ■la.ytj. 
,ig», in great diatrc^ ibr WAut ii food and fuel. The cLililrf-n 
were tlieu deaixEMl tO' mnku ttiia c&sb kuowu to their pnrunta, and 
if iljey thouglit pi-opar to bpuiI anjtiung to aid lier, I would be 
yecy happy to recciso it aud deliver it to Ikt. I have great 
pleasure in l>ein^ abk to state, ihat tho anm rcnlized from tlio 
infanta in tlio course of a day or two, amounted in Ts. lOd. 

In connection ivitli the aboTe, I miirht mentiun niiiny intG- 
fMiting and pleasing sneedot&s, Trhicli T (tjuvo board from Lbe 
pftWlita. I shall, ha-wevef, onlv relate onie. Tlie Iklhcr of uno 
ufoJr scholars, a little girl abirllt live years of age. called u|k>1i 
mo Mid stilted, that iuis cbild had been tclUag biiu a. great many 



J 



SW tLI.DSTRJ.TIONB 07 

tbinga About a Bible Iraaon, which thi?y hnd reccivi^d a day or 
two before, Tc-ganilng DqrcaSi ani that she wnntoil o, luilfpcmiy 
fnm her mother to buy a pieci of cloth to muke a <?oat foe some 
poor oU whIow, aq Dorcaa did. I iLcu cxjiLuned to hor faEIiQr 
gur mmle of endoaTourLng to render cTwy Bibl^ leaaon h praeti- 
BbJ dDQ, The IfitliGr, nest tlnVi aent a, hal^niiy M-ith his cdiild 
to tlio poor xiridow, hb- nil tlio children culled her. 

Tlie effect of such Bible leasons ia gelf-eTident, not 
meroly directly on thu children themselves, but inci- 
dontally on their parents, who, altliaugh compara- 
tively poor, proved that they were willing to assist 
their poorer HQighboura. 

3. Cu.Liira Nufss. — Ooo maming, while oondDoting a lesaon 
on the evil orni(K>kjQ|;, I waia endeavouring to picture out, by 
TiirioiiB illuat rations, thk sin, wheti » litUe biiy, about Are-and- 
«-53alf ve^re ijf age, ■cciumfiM'td trying ; n.nd, on In^iilring ivhy 
be cried, he replied, tlisl it wns lio who (.'nlleJ iuhhdb at (he old 
num. I ihi>a oskud, At irliat -oM ullm did yoU -cidl tiiLiiiie<i i The 
boy again treinhiiiigly an&weivd, " At the old nmn who aolla 
the applx!^ ?" Wg then finished our lesson, giving the toy an 
Bilvice. After the school was dismiRscd, I enllcd on the old man, 
who informed mc that the little boy hfiil cnlled and told him, 
that he would never call him rameB ncy more, and that to-nio(- 
row, if hti got s halfpenny from hia mother, be ■woold h^y apples 
(torn hiiQ. 

3. Rkhpectfob rsESADBATU.— a i-eliitiveof oiifof myschool- 
boye informed me, a short timo ngo, that the fntlior of the lUtlB 
boy just tilludcd to, had heH.'ii from home for a few days on busi- 
ness., and that he hai] r^^tuTHiwl, on Sabbath, from Edinhurgh by 
railway. In tlip coiu^c of tLe sflmc eyening, tho littlo boy waa 
asked iiy this rvlativo, Would you not have wished to have t>e«n 
■witli your frLther on tho railway to-day 1 To this ({ues^tlon, he 
waa vciy reinotaiit tu givo any answer, until hia futhur pressed 
blm sgidii and a^.^in by putting tbi-^ sninc (^ucHtion. At last, 
with aU aolemuify, the Iwymsplied, "No, father ; because the 
Sibliath is tho Lord's diiy and not your day," 



Moiui TiuiHTwo or BcaooL. 397 

The reply may be considered a little too pert, but 
it must l>e observed that tlie boy ia only three-and- 
a-half years of age; and 3iia reluctance to answer 
showed his difiintlination to hurt his father's feelings, 
whilst the answer, on b^ing hard pressed, proved at 
the same time his coascientlous regard for truth. 

4, CBUBi.n TO AsiuiLa. — One day wliilat supprmtL' tiding in 
tlia play-grouud, I olMcnod a very little cliilil at great pains ti> 
get an inseot Into h[s over-all, I wnited with iw,tieuce to scft 
tEie result ; when the little fellow hom it along, fliid placed lI; 
upon tlie flgwei- harder, nnd then isAtvhcd qff to his amuaemeat, 
I wna, iLowever, aasiQiifi io know hia reason for all tlio pahia ha 
bad bestowed on the iiiBcct, when be boldly replied, he was afraid 
the cliildrEU vrould trea<3 n\>Qi\ it and kill it. 

Boys oRcntlniea torture fliea from mere thaughtlcBSneas, nay, 
kltsoluto ignorance of the poiii they inflict; we therefore ctidcaT- 
frtiT to traiifl them t& treat OTeiy ammnJ kindly. A scold or a. 
caff bus not sucli an offoct in chepking thia proponaity, as flimply 
lu-kjng. Go you thick that uiaect feels ! He-w would you like to 
baye your legs pulled about so ? or eUiptifftUy— Tlu3 little ani- 
mal feela,..;)ain when t>oys puh off...(<s legs. The question and 
ellipses leave the boj'^ time to rcAect on the subject. 

Wi! flometlffliea illastrn.tG tlii& point by occuirencpa that tnkc 
place on the streets where a numhor of boys may be seen follow- 
ing- 4 lofldth, "who is older than tbo restj busy tctt^lug lome un- 
fortunate anininl, or perlmpa a poor idiot, and tho youngest of 
tho throng copying moat man/uUif the niannere, the uaths, nay, 
the very tone of voice of the juvenile leadoi". TUa is tTrtinirgin 
tbe way they ahould not go, B,ud llie moro efliciently, heeauae 
thoro ifl tho united [wner of m/mpalki/ and exa/iiple. 

5. Sblf-Dekial. — A fricnHl who is in the habit of Tisiting the 
model schools of the Normal Seminary, one ilfly on taking leaTc 
cf the ebildrcu, fiaid, thnt the next time he v!i>Uih1 the school 
be ■would brioT tacb of them [ ISO in aU) a largf niuBk-abn.ond 
(sugar-plum), and ho would require tbem (aa nn exercias; of self- 
denial) that they ahuuld tako it home, and next morrdng bring 
it to school, and, sfler showing it to their mnater, thoy might 



a 



CLLUSTIUTIOyE OP 

Ificn f«t the.. .tupar-ptum. After tlila gentkmiui left Ihe 
^ begun to tluiik tlint in," had Antm tathtt a. fooHsli tiling, nioro 
««pecuil1y to ex[>oct th<.> fultilmcat of &ncli an iuirea^r>uable i-e- 
nu«it: howuver. tbc firomiae must bo fuMlluiI ; and to renoov* 
iiart of lliu diffi<'uUj. he purcliaaed twu for vacb, one for present 
eontum}'tion, tlio wther to bo prcscned iia a practical Ecason- 
Np»t time, therefore, wliea out Tiaitor entered tho stinwl, be 
brought -witli bim 400 large 8agiiT-|>biTn>4, unil tbu following is 
gumctbing like the oo»Tor5»tion wliicb took placo on the ocm- 
gjoji ;— kpcjumii in reiQPUjljrjince tliat eyerj woixl in ItuJica is 
Med wp by tlic' i'Iuldn;Ti. 

Kuw, eliildivn, Mbpn T whb loat bpre. I promiaod you wrae- 
thin^. i'fl*, Sir, r/OM promised as a sureeiie. Riglit, J promised 
you a...«ffeefii;. IIuw umny swtcLicB? One. But -would there 
be any lianu In my giTiwg jo" tn-g S Ab, Sir, B ut Euppase I 
had protimi!'il to give you two ftweetii'*, nnd afttTivartla only gave 
yon tmc-, wliat would tliat be, cliildrcn ? TtlUnff a stoitj. Tlxnt 
Would be trt'oldng Qiy..,proniJsa. Then giving tou twi> tvh^n. I 
promised yt>ll one is \\n\..,M?rong. JW, 5i'r. JJut to give one, 
whcc I had pVDmi»ad...fu;o, would lic...a£i>irmilL'a» I could ahsw 
aoniG gflod ftnd prutwr reason for tha cbajige. 

Now, then, cliildrtin, ywu see I have fulfilled my pnwni^e in 
bringing youaome...mri(nA-(i7Bioficfs. I promiaeilvDU ore sugar,,, 
pium, l>nt J have brought you two eaclv, I SUppofio you won't 
obj^t to that * jVd, Sir. 1 don't mean to hand tlit'in to ycm, 
but 1 mean yyn lo take them yn\ir,.,oiDn selves, without my 
looking n.t,..uff,' and tlic monnjntyuu pif^k uptho lva...siceclitt, 
you iH.iy put one '\.uia...y(iur mouth, iind the other tmc you may 
keep till to-mnrrow momin^. Ton wilJ bring it with you, then 
sttow it in Jb\ii'.,. iiiBsieT. and uftcr each of you liolds it up, you 
ms-y thc[i,,,ea( it vp. Weli, then, hcFO are all the »u^r-pInjiiB 
on this sniaU taWe, Ton nmy sing some pretty moral song ag 
uaiml, anil as you mareh post the table into the play-gt-gund, 
each of you will take— how mnny ?..,ritfo. Neither of your 
luaators nor I will look> so you ahali ba loft to pitk up wlint yflu 
thihlc ri^rht, But Buppase you took tiiroe, what then? That 
"-•iiiilt! lie stealing. "Would it lio stealin):; UiK'e sweeties ? ^'o, 
&»' i one ottltf,f{ir yon gave us ihe uther iwo. llaTo I aettuUJv 

Ten them to yo-u t M>t brci t/uu inivmi ijivutj them, and gov 



pmHWcrf to give t&em to ns. Wlioso an^ai'-pluma arc t\i6i>e 8,t 
tliia iiiomiMrit f Fours. But wlie^n I give them Ig jou, tli™ tlicy 
n,re..,oui'rf. Very wtU. But siqi[iti«.' tliut in jinKsing the littlo 
table you thciiiglit, ttrrw I would like very niiicli to liavc twu 
or Uli^o more Btigar-plutus than 1 ought to tiikCf whjit would 
tbatljc ( TTiat teouid he coveting, and would be ii breach of.., 
the Cenlh commandmeJiC. What does the. tenth (omniaixlnwnt 
forbid i Covetintj. It say^, Thow i>it!ittnot...core(. Hut sUp- 
poaoyon snid withici yourselfr as uohody unti siM' )up, I will take 
a few more. WTi.it harm, t'bildfcii, wixild tLere lie in taking 
one Of twn more ! That xcould be ntealing — God would ase va 
— that would be a sin. That would 1>o bruatdng the ... eighth 
commandmettt. which says... 7"Ao« ffialt itnf steal. Wi\(> enys 
that f God, Gwl in tLo eighth coutniandiusnt says, Thgu 
... ahah not steal, ntid it would be a..,. sin to tnke ... more (hun 
two. 

The whfile pupils then, to the numher of 180, tpaivhcd jinat 
the little Inble, one hy one into tho p]ay-ground, airiging a fav- 
oiiritc aix, each linobseired tating wjiat he clufic, and ou count- 
ing oTcr the rcmauider, it appeared tlint OLitdi hoy and girl munt 
have t4ik-en just two. Next moniiog. D^:co^di^^' to FBr[uest, 15ft 
childroQ hniiig'ht each their onti siigar-plum to school, and held 
it up in their right hand (a. moat unoxperteil Mcurrence), tliC 
Kitittinicig 20 or 21 miide vnrioUs escnaes litir not complyiiig 
witliour viaitor'a rvqutst, such ;»h that thcii- parents ordt-rcd 
them to i;iLt tt, an^-uig, it was iboliBh Co keop such n triiiP till ni'xt 
momiiLg. E!.a«h Imy and girl now eat tlieir sugar plum. (The 
chiliLrL']] were betweien the ages- ufeL^ and tlurte«n.} 

fl. What i« teuieed a Half Lie. — During a gii.Ucry lesson, 
the boys were obsorvcJ by the master quarreling : and, as eor- 
pO'Ciil punLthmcnt is avoiJeil, and bringing the (!ul[*it-i out from 
tlieir seat is & comniftu Jiubstitnt*, thoy -were oi-dered hy the mas- 
ter to riso from one of the upper acatn and ?it on th^' one iientf ^ 
the llijor. They inalnntly nbeyed ; one of the two cried liittcrly, 
the other was ipiite flrm, hut not lu the slightest dogrec iusoli'nt 
or djfiohedjent to the master. At the eloatt of the leMdn, th<^ 
master, sa usual in such eaSL's, <!all'ed th? boy^ out oh tho floor 
JR froRt of tiae gallery, and entf^rctl into an in 7ca ligation of tho 
alfair ; the nholit of wfaicli was, ag, lutuol, Kinductcd on the prlU' 



400 



ILLUKtiUTtOHS 07 



cipld fii cimulUae^us <iiic«ti(>ii!> and cUip&ea ; lu mlior wonis, 
tmiiiiii^. I inny, howcrer, rfinni'k. tliat ftira tligLt oil'oncc ilicv 
niv clLU(^<l out froai their Bent to aiiotUtr, wkhout being ckurgeiJ 
Willi the particular offence before tdc giillcry. Thin it found in 
j^tiEiLral if be pDrfMtly pfficitL-ious as a piiiii«liment, bat it being 
n fjuaiTol during tbe progrt-sa qf a leseoi), the Jisimction to Ihu 
cbildi^n, ftlthongli slight, cwept to a fijw close )>eaide them, was 
still peculiarly cffumiyo to tlie roaster, as it ought lo be to every 
trainer, nud, tberefi>re, he nwijelt a jaiycnae to the whole chil- 
dren in the gnilory. 

The maatcr proceeded, " Vliat was the euusc of this Jistnr- 
banoe ?" ■" ^V^lnt ([iiarrcl la this bctM'een yiJU two boya ?" Tom 
com|ii&incd (h&t John had jagged him with somctlilqg ehaip, 
John Auawered, tlmt Tuu had put his linnd into hi^ (John's) 
pocket. Turn, at^utlj deniad that 1»6 had done this, tis:. put lu'a 
hnnd into John's pwhet. John acknowlLil(,^ tliat he had 
•' jivgged" Tom with tho point of the pencil hu hud in his hand. 

Tom was n i-e^oluto boy of tt'n yoiire cif age, and much apoilftd 
at home. John, a very amiable scnaitiTO boy oi' tweLvo. Tom 
Btood fii-ia OB a rock. John cried the vrliol^ time. 

On being cross -qUtetioQcd, Tom at hwt cftnfeaaod, that »]- 
thnugh fts hudiiot put hii hand into John's pacAel, yot thAt h<a 
had puL his fingers, or a bit of iiia fingepa, John anid ihnt \m 
did not ■■ jag" Tom ont of revenge, but that having & peueU in 
hia hand when he felt Tom's hand in hia pocket, he "jagged" 
liitn Tvlien pushing away hia hnnd. The master then pictured 
oiit thgevji of the attempted cltiception — that hehai^ not put hia 
hand into John'R pocket, nlien he had Actually puahed his fin- 
ge-ra in. 

The wliple gaUorj'. ob beiug^ qnestloned, condtfoinod Tom, und 
atated, with all thdr hiindd u]i, that if Ihey had had no evi;dc:n<>« 
regarding; the nlJjiir, they would have sujijuwod Tom was iu ih« 
faiik, liecnuHD ht: was qiujiTcIxomc. and John not go.^he Wine 
vei-y fiolilo-m if pveir in fault, or disposed to quarrcf- 

The niia&tor who liad conducted th* lesson. l»royght out tlu; 
Scripture |>rincipli.', " Aveug* uo-t jotiraely^s,''' Ac, and the 
o^jpwite. " Heap ectla of fire," i£c. What a meanl: hy hca[^i]ic 
Muil& of firo 1)11 the licnd wna understood Iiyall, haWng b^en 
Jlenrly pictured out during a jirovioiia Bible it-dsoii. lie also, of 



»aBA.t tiLittrttre nr ecrdoi.. 



401 



B. Bliowefl, or mthor brouglit out from tliP salleiy, Tom'i* 
ilMcpticin ftiwl sin En stating that lie liid not put hia Imnd into 
John's |«wkct, but rnly lilu fingers, or a hit of hia fingcig. Tom 'a 
cyts were now suffiiinciJ frith tears, and Iicrc iJie mntter ij!i>aed. 
One nnJ eJI (nf the HcllnlfifS aetlially i-eceived ihc lesKJtl,, fuf they 
juinsd icv the investigation. Tom returned to his spat piiuiiilied 
by tlift (Jisappnoliatioti of the wlioli- galiei-y, both .it liia present 
Hoii previoUM couduct, in-doora and out cif dwirs, in the g.allGrj-, 
and intlierlay-grtiiiiid. Tom's conduct was tlio result ot'ln'iiig 
spoilnl at home. John., posBCB.'wd nf tender fE^lingfi, dried up 
his teara, nftd, nithout nny tricmiph over his ndvcvwiryj retunitd 
to his seat, k'l^lin^ ttuit jugtin Lid k'en renderetl to IiId), And 
sat doi'ii perfoctly CtifflpOatd. in th« g'n.llcpy besido Tom. 

7. Wh Mil SrEiS Trc'k Worbs jsd iet Decj^nii:. — Wo have 
stated how tones of Toiee may Ire deceitful, m ill tbe c.ise of Yei 
or No; A'o lieitti^ made to mean j-m. and yes^no.. "We may 
state ti Cftse Llluatratire of how words wliich sonietimos Lave a 
TOnventional and sornetimca a literal meaning, may be used to 
deceive and pvi'Si fob tin! party in regTir"! lo *fhoin they n-re used. 

A res[*ctaljle ^onscitnitQus woinnn, called Jan^t, nccasionn-Hy 
brewed a little mtdt, upon ivliieii llien; was a certain anioimt of 
duty chnrgcable. The KkcIbc officer wua oliae-rvcd one dfiy ap- 
p'roiU.'ldng fior eottagc on hia acenstomed duly of bifipection, and 
while slic fclt no averswn to cheat lAg Gooirriimgnt, yet she 
would tioi tctl n lie for the world I J*net, tlierefo'rp, bumedlj 
tiaovcd the Idteh^u table into a eidu roota, jdncud jiarL of tlK 
(smuggled) liquor in the middle of the Jloui', and tvmhieti a hrgv 
waahing tub over tlio whole, knowing that iLe Exciae officer 
cmdd pliiee bis books and pajiei'a novrherc oltw but on xjiid flat* 
bottom-ed tub. The officer entered the houser and, placing liis 
papers, as was cspected, on the most convenient sp(jt, ho nutod 
in luB hochk the quantity of exeiaeable liquor exactly aa the 
luinest woman had told him ; ami wLc^n bundling up bis papttra, 
he Biinply e*kcd, "Now, Janet, have T scon all the liquor you 
hav'C Oil hand t" " Deed, Sir, yoii have seen it i»ll, and it'g. all 
UTider your hand ! !" Under his h^nd, pbrtaioly, but not undsi 

CMC. The cfQ.ter, trusting tu Janet's ttonesig I ! left 



2 



4M 



JU. U 8TH JJJ (iin (W 



Although ih& honift woman ! may have been kM- 
gioualy iiwtrucled,, it is quite clear she had not heen 
morally trained. A direct He slie would not tell^ and 
theft dho would not commit, a,ccordiDg to her uqch- 
lightened -principleB. It might have been otherwise, 
jiowever, badslKi in early life receivfid a few training 
]e9aoQS, not merely on the ten commandinents, but on 
such an analysis of thom aa " Render unto Ca>sar the 
things tliat are Cwaar's, and unto God the thinga th^t 
are God'a." 

In what a variety of wnya is theft exhibited, such 
ft9 atealirg the place or jioaition of a neighbour in a 
crowd, and that by peraons of whom better things 
m^ht be expected. This principle ought to be a spe- 
cial point of training in every stliool by enlightening 
the understanding', aiid causing tho children to prac- 
tise the Tirtne of self-denial. We have aeen atout 
young men pass by and take the place of old women, 
even at the communioB tal)le, whi^h these jfrail per- 
Bona were preparing to occupy, and causing them to 
stand perliapa half an hour; and yet they call them- 
fielvea ChriatLan men 1 !— the evideat principle of thoir 
conduct being "first come, first served." " Do unto 
otli^ra aa you would wish to ha done by," ig not a 
commandinent in their decalogue. 

S. A former HtiideiLt wrLtOs aa foUon-a : — 

n I sliall for Llic prcacnt iionfine myaelf chiefly to facta, iJIus- 
trative of ita cffuet on (lie moral clmract^r of lUe children. Xha 
ciijwdiL'd state of tLe athool is jiorlinia the beat proof tli*t can be 
given ff its power intelhctualbj, iniLsnuicli eis parcjits gcnemllv 
loolt more tij mere int*nectt!Al actiwireineivt, tlinn to plij-aioid, or 
iwal, or religi*jii8 gultur«. 



MOBAl TltAOflNG IN BCHOOL. 



40S 



The etfecU of physical training wr of the alternation of Ludily 
and mcDknl i^xercLBee, while nmniftiEtDd )iy the hcnlLhy and 
happy loot of all generally, are cs^yccially visible in ttc ease uf 
dcUeat-e cliildren. Many who have euterad the school so fci^ble 
and lanjjvjd in their hobita, as to be scarcely able to enter intw 
any of the boys' ajuueomente, are row as active au^ vigorous ax 
thoir playrellowa. Tlnis cluinge 'Can only be kuoovn to the traiuer 
and parent. 

Many of the poorer ehildrea enter with faces already stulHlcnal 
with the (liStculiiee nhiah prcsa upon the parents ; in othorH- the 
hidden look of tlic villain ia beginmiig tn appear. A mclanolioly 
street troiuisg has hfca going on, in their ease, with fearful 
efffl<it — to oMjunt^rsct ths evil influences of which iho uttnost 
watohfuluees and diligence oa the part ot th(! tniiater are noccs- 
Kary. Tt in deeply inleresting to mark those saddennl and 
haralicr funturee graiiually wearing' aivay imd'cr tlio influence of 
play-ground intercwurso wilh bett-cr traiuDd boys ■ and tosee tliB 
open artless look of boyhood aa^ming its proper place. 

Effbcts MottiLtT.— In the phiy-|ji>raud thorc arc, iindcr 
my own and assistant's supeiintcnde-npc, every day nearly two 
hundretli^bildrj^D at play. Duriog laat aumme^r a^nd niitumit 
there was not, with one excejitiun, a single flower taken from the 
hordera that Hurround the play-groitod. For about ft month 
after the corameneement of each quarter, there is much trouhlc 
with new scholars, qnarreUitig and fighlin.g. One uf the moat 
rcmarkAbld f^aturea in the conduct «f the boys in tli« play- 
grouD'd, who have b^n tmlucd for aoine time, is tlio gcneml 
prevalence of good f«€lhig, n cireumfttsnec at whieh stran^or^ 
have freqiientEy espressod tlieir Burpriae, ailcr aponditig a (hoit 
lime in the play-ground, 

9, IIotfEaxT. — Daily soma of the children drop their half- 
pence • when at play. ( Thoao who do]i't go home bring, as you 
are aware, their "piece money.") These are, as soon as fouad, 
in7ariably broug'ht to mo, The loaerB itnew where to a])ply, iimd 
have their property restored "on ita belo^ proven." Thia I 
conaiilcra moat important iiwtamon^ children, to many of whom 
a lialfpenny is of great v^liif. 



4LM 



iu.miUTio:rs qt 



Two or thre*? hii1f|tciiw have Inin frcijucntljr on the table fiir 
eight 9t ten (lays untoULlheA Tnicn i]notaijiw;d, they are giwn, 
b; eouent «r thi diildren in Ibp gftlli^iy, eiUi«r to the Khool 
library fimii, or to »(iiny cli^ntaUe iiutitutuin.' 

A lilt]« girl cnme to me n frw wveka ago. saying that ths 
had Irmt her penny. I waa isur|irlsctl t1int. dunng the dnv. no 
[lenny lind k-cn brought. Before clbmbeiun, I Asked if any 
money had itecn foand. No answer. Afti r luueli f^uestioniiif!;. 
ao'l A shiirt lesion, on (ho suljpct, I ga.\i> iii|» tlio si.'arrh, Thu 
follo'wlng worda W'Cre gircu to tLuik of durinj:; lire iiftrhi, TTiok, 
God, seest me, and Be xure tfour sin will jind yoft out. At't«r 
[kruiso and pruyiT H'Sl mo-niing, n Icasoa wus fjiven on the -suV- 
joct. To-warda the end of thu les.ian, I obaurved a troubled, 
LcsiCatinj; foce in the gallery. I attked tlicra wIiAt tlicy would 
thiak of thi: boy who bud ta.ki>b it, if he vostt ami eauxe ^-aai luiw 
tg return it. " That h-a is a good buy." "• tbnt ba ia a iiad hoy," 
"that he baa done wliat'a riglit," wer& tbe difffivat anawcra 
given. " I>u ytni think that his iN;ming'a!id restoring the pennv 
mnVes him a bad hoy )" " No, Sir." " Well, if Le dusi't come, 
ta-hil ia the iliflt-i-choe f" " It ruokea him still worse, Sir." *■ It 
is hi** duty, then, to ... res/ere it." Time will not permit to 
detail tbo proceas of the lesson, and the pragrc^ of ojiiuino in 
the gallery, Sufliec it t-i> say, that, afWr some time, the gnilty 
boy stood jmrtially np. I Eakcd him if iio bad .any tbliig to say. 
Noanswep, I asked liJm to eome to me. lie e^ime and t¥- 
fltored — a halfpenny, aa be bad spetit tho othci' os^won aahcbad 
found the pemiy. Anolhcr difficulty presented itself, Tbc little 
gild diS not ^vi\> to make him pay the other halfpenny. Afjoiit 
sixty — who bajipeiied to have a penny for their breni] and milk 
— otlerGd one of their bn]fpeiini{?B to tbe little girl, and vied with 
cacli other in their solicitations to be allowed lo give it. T gave 
liim a luiltpenny, that iie might complete tbe' sum. He wctild 
have di™e it himself, I have no douht, but he t&kea bis luqebeon 
at horae, and is nUowod no inoiipy for bread, lie situ* otttced 
mo ft halfpenny as payment of bis debt. Hei'S vriui a tiiimipli 
over a bad principle, whlifb liarsher means CQuld never have eo 
eflectually Keurud. 

10, LiBTT,Efla IvACTiviiT.— AliBtlDB3inflctivity ofniindsceinied 
flo fully to pi-evail at first in tbe crise of another boy who entered 




MOEAL TBAININO DT SCHOOL. 



406 



ns a EL'liulnr, a fow months ^a. iliat cdl the leaeanQ ftt)^ iliiii«a 
and HmusQiuenta of the U'lioul alike failed to iitlcrest him., At 
tliis 1 felt the more sur|irised, as thnsre Ja almust mvarialily fiome 
one leaaon to wliiuli caeh turns nith mom jikaHurc- than to otlitT i 
— Bomc like Goograplij-, otliurs lliatJ^iy, others Aritlimctit;. The 
hffbits of 'sitention and applicaii'm ticrcised in rerereiife to 
these favourite studies can be judLcioUsly turned to tliose 
brsnchcta nliich, tiy their minds, are ksa uLviting, But in this 
boy's caae, I could perceive no )cstion or exercise wliii;h he 
reliahed, IIo did nothing dieeifulJy, nor waa he netivo in any 
thing save in sly mischief, lie waa so ohBtinat-o, and bo pwivolt- 
ingly contcmptuons in hia looks wlien reproved, tliat I feared I 
ahonld ho undijr the neceMity of having riwoima to c4)iporaI 
punisbmcnt. lie seemed regnrdlc^a of thtf ayiapathy of liie 
scJjool-followB, and preat^rved ii dogged auUeoaess. His csaniplQ 
waa ao pemieiouB, and hia osvn best inttraita as nn intellectuol 
and moral lieing were in eo mui^h danger, that I fclt it my duty 
to write to hia father ( a higtdy ivHpeelabio and intelligent man ) 
ahflut the propriety of trying some other BcUool wLore there 
might be fewer boys. He wiahed hiin to have «, longer trial, 
find the boy waa permitted to continue:, but without o^ihibiting 
any fii,^na of improvcmciiit, until b. short time a.go, when, on hia 
coming to school after an Ulntsa of a day or two, "Are you 
ht'tter to-day, Charles ?" softly aakcd, drew f™)ii him, " Belter, 
tJj.iDk you, Sir/' in 3 tone ynd with a look 90 dilffrPtit fi"cm 
what were habitual, that I resolved to follow it up. During the 
day, he eeemed anxiouB to pleiiu.' mid attend ; but fi-om habitual 
IJfltlesanesB tliiH eost bim apparently a givat effort. I 'cni-onraged 
him by bcBtowlng on him Bueh littlo oftie«;a of tni&t bs taking 
charge of the pens. These duties he fiiithfiilly dischnrgcd, and 
has already murh improvful, Iusti;ad of being itingldy clciilt 
with everywhere, h« felt, I believe, that bo waa sympathiiwd 
with, and tlis^t his master really cared for bim, 

At this simple statement some may be dispoaj^d to smile ; hut 
I feel asaured that in this boy's case, some chord had tpen 
itouehcd, Bomc feeling awakened, which led to the complete rans- 
tery of iris rojnd. There ia a,<iaurGd]y ft key to every mind, and 
to find which it I» tlie duty of every trainer to use ail the means 
in Mb power. There is in this no unduo cundeaoensson, no uime- 




(«nry lowering of staliia : tluTc i* a dignitj and a resjMjrBi- 
UUty in iMrcliing tkrou^h th* Atcann tif niliicl, snd examluiti^ 
its varions E&wa Mid phenuiiieb& for the iiurpoae of more ^^ffcvtu- 
Ally ^^CTdopi^g and dirE>cling aD tb« eaergiija of intcUert, and 
nmiildlni^ thu whule clmnicter. 1u the mere iac'iAenti—iD tlie 
jnietv qoeKion^IIow ure you ! or. Are yon bettor ?— tbt?i« wns 
bo tmiivtDg t but it o^nt^d the dixir for the ifiltit of thu iuflaeuee 
of the system, »nd th"t iniliieiite hi^ been Tiaibly auJ diatinctlj 
exhibited. 

IL Tas CttiuPioM OP ths Somwt, — ^We Bttfler most injury 
frotn thoM who come from other achocik ; t!ii?y are gcneraDy tiie 
Wofs-t behiired of the Bchoo-la they leave. H-cfoi* any cliftSge can 
l« oflevlci] on their conJuct. much injury ia <hT)(^ to the wbiwl, 
nrid Ktach (urd lost — if indeed that time (mlq lie callL-d lost which 
is Bpent in rwUimiDg a fellow -creatnrp. An an instaiiw* of the 
Jnjury likoly to he donei, and of the inod« of dcoMag ^th sucli 
cbam'^ttTR, let t]]o foHon-ing sutfitic :— 

Six xonntha ngo. jv hvy about ten yeniB of agf wae enrolled, 
lie soon ll>ccamc » ganera] favourite with n largo jinoportiou. of 
the Iwyg, Tr tho pIoy-gTouind, he had alwnya arouud lam A 
orowd of phiidren, whiwe BmasempTitH he directed. Ilia minJ 
■wa* vijjorous, Imt ill -regulated. lie delighted in cveiT" species 
of TiuBc-LiL-f. He WAS nliko active iiL tlie acliool-muui and out of 
it. When hifl Attention wna. nrruBtcd, ha wa& the beat anawerer. 
Flogging, I hciew, would nnt roach Mm — of thnt lie had received 
a liberal share in tke sfhook he previously stfenilciU I spoke to 
him hy himaoir, but he seeraed tO' care little for eitlier mitt! ad- 
monition or firm relinke. I &pofco to liim hofore tlie gallery; 
but hy A eertniH rfiguislmess U'f Jook, a certain anJescribahle 
exprcasiuQ of hia eye, he (nvnriaWy exeitcd. In liis behalf, the 
fiymjiathy of his play-frlloiTP, ITa was their lord — thoy wero 
his Bulpjecti. They udmired their hero the nw>re when in dilfi- 
eulty. rie kuew ho had them on liis side, hy that kind of inde^ 
fiuahfc inteUiijent mmethini^ tphich one Lay ^anso eaiiltf read in 
tfit tiauiit^naucf of alio/kfr. To reilt'il liini was dlfiioult fn the 
eitrcrac: to attempt tooruahBueb a temperament into obeilience 
ivonld he Tnin. I was nn^cious to hrinjf to Ijear opoii liini tho 
disapjiraval of the whole gallery, in order to see its effeet on such 
a mind. 



I 



He contintl&l tbt mnatcf-sfirit of the pTfty-gnniiuI, and was 
DDDstantlj in aome " scrape i" Althuugii hia errors were gencntlllT 
lesa egregious tfana at firat, I believe the Biblc-trBumig Ii-Hsuiia 
were working slowly aod gilently i>n liia moral churat'ter. About 
two montha after Jie tntcrod, llie ascendancy over Ma cHinracti'r 
was ubtalned in. the folloifing planner, 

1 snw blm etamlbg m thie nudat of a little orowd, atmid-ilRy, 
in the play-gtOiULd;. Ho was pmpustrig to ihsm qnwitioa'i and 
riJiUe?- Aftor totac time, I was siirjiviiw4 to sec the crowd 
gradually slinking away from him, abasheJ and guilty-like, soma 
LU pairs, and some iu littk groups, in acriona conversation. By 
and by, a boy from one of the gronp<i pawe to tell nie, that ^^— 
had i>cen using', and atiking ih.<)Ta to U^e bad word^ — be had aslcod 
them tp spt'll iTidd ilog backwards, The amuiiemcnU wen* 
etgjiped ; all t'wlt their )«;ats in tlio gallery. The caiue v/aa 
well known, and the words i^pread with a rapidity (rma -end to 
end of the play-ground, which nothing conlJ be done to prevent. 
The attempt to BUpprcss the whis[»ring in the play-grpund 
■wttuld have only paused it to b? more CUriously imjuipad into. 
Th« injury hnd been done, and aomo meaaa of rcpnlrltig it miTBt 
be bad I'Cfluurse to. He iraa brought to tho floor, and on being 
naked if he waa eonsciuuB of having done any thing wrong, lioldly 
said, '■ iVb, Sir. lonlyaskcdthtm to apt^U mad dog backwards 
—-that was nil." He looked, witli hi? ngiilil ]"ogui95i twEnklo^, to 
bis companiona in tlio gallery, but met with no fiyiupatbetip 
glance, liis erimo waa t(x> great to be aequiesced in, and fur 
ODce liad nu atbaima. Hers was ».□ admirable opportunity to 
watch tho effect of the ■' syrapathy of nunibera " w]>oa aueh a. 
mind, lie waa evidently ansious to persimde liia pluyuinteB, by 
his look and manner, that there waa bat little harm in asking 
them to spell ttiew words. 1 tVTote, therefore, before all, on the 
black-board, first, mnd dog, and then liackwardA,. and expn'racd 
my horror. And although all had already spelled them raentally. 
tho effect on the whole children of this palpable exhibition was 
most remarkahk'. They aat motbnlesa — panic-atnick. He &aw 
their calm and saddened look, and, in their very »ilence of ei- 
pT^SSJOn, rea<I his condemnadan. Pur a few tolnutM not a 
syllable waa uttered. A death- like stillnDas prevaded — ami 
every t^yo rented on tho guilty boy — until, unable to bear up 




tmigcr. he bung lu« bc*d And bant inhv tears. Alil^r the .iw- 
fulnn* of t])8 cxpraaaiou. iaA iu reckkftbctu bad lumn ^milu- 
ftUj •H'l cerigualf dravn froui the ciiUdron, «c spnt lilni Ui kk 
itwat, wiihtnit uUroHing to hint €iea a stnple direct pcnoiwl 
tvbuke. He *eein*d «iiiTijic«l of his error, nnd /jt/e, for the firrt 
limo in his lire, I htticTL', thai the niBsttr was Lis fri^uil. Ufl 
ua« tijiqiviu Mid imoyant ici irptrlls as «-T«r, but is tiulaamb 
{&ult, Uu vndcQVDun tv {iL^mCj luid is tlie moet active io intcl- 
Icctual |iurauil9. TW iKiietit of^'aiirayitteiu in tikc dt^i, tbrma- 
tloii uf the lutbito uf thoiigbt and attioa of iKich a buy, who can 
jiMllir aji[ireeiat« ! 

I'J. Op]iort unities daily occur for tbe pscpcise ofnsorattr^timMg, 
wid wo re|K!Ht tlmt whsl ia raonil mu-^b at tb« ^nme time he 'm- 
U'Uef^tual . For example, the other 6&y, tli«j master of a train* 
iajr aehool fouiKi it Dect*aary to eKamime into the fact af a biiy 
liAViuj^ found a. bit of iron uniorig Bomc luliea nliieh another bay 
ilAtod St» bclo'ng'mg t<> him, andi at tlie same hour the csss of a 
li)ii]]Tlili^^to[> whip which one boy bad botTowccl and bruic^n. Tiie 
quentLou naa, acL-in^ tbc vrlup wil-< pivTtrl to !» on crld ome, mUEt 
the IwrrowBr simply repair it. or purvhase n new one. Tlio 
i)ii^sti(Hi WAS jufttlj and aniieubly settled. A visitor listening lo 
the proc^ga of the cxajninati;)!! nrd ctdniirin^' tb-c jui^g^etit of tba 
rhildrpn, cvi-ry fioint U-ui^ cWrly and aimply pictured out by 
the TotiBtt:t — Uild B, l!a«t wiiicU be Iiad jost witae^ss^d «□ th<i 
stPMC, and wished to s&c whiit cDuelanien the cbildreTi wuuid 
cohi# to Afl 14 the propcjety or improprk'ty of the ciwduct vf thA 
Bcveral parties connected. He told the fuLuwiriff Etory ; A coal 
cartel' wUli bii>' wiiggun full of caaIh, liun-lud ]ue bun» on the 
street, which waa i-oug-hly jiavcd. Twenty or thirty pieecs of coal. 
of various siBoa, were itwttcd oa tbe way, the carter lifted only 
ono pit-ce — tliree chiiiii'cn aud twu Woint>tL, seeing the hmJb fall- 
ing, flew to th.1,' spoil and jiickfd them up in tbuir jiprons or put 
them into bags. Tbe couiIb wurc not tlie pro[)erty of tbe wng- 
gouer, but were on tbe wny to aomG party t* be debvered na full 
weiglit — be did not atLem|it to pick up more than one pieci-. 
The coaU were not offertJ to be restoi'ed by tlio women or ■chil- 
dren. \VliHt degreea of guilt were cbprfffiahle on eaeb 'i 

Tbia was a cltrar Kuhject for the ex>ertiae of tbotr moral sonai- 
bUitica, and the boya aud girls, to tbe uumber vt 200, under six 



1 



MOIUL TIlAINIJiG IN SCtfOOL. 



409 



years of ngo, most nobly and ohristiBiily executed the work — 
every pciint being alowly and simply jiietureil out to tlbeir under- 
standing by tlie maatar. During tliu pTOcesaof exaniiiiat.iuii ami 
"' pictartlig -oytj" the cluldren slnted tlie guilt of tb-e carter in not 
lifting II1& coals from tlic street aud placinp; tliem .i^iu in bis 
cart, whith belong*^ to the pei-Bon lo wLniui tlie waU w«r« to bo 
d^livcfGd, nnd were not Ilia onru ; tbe covcbiiis dJ3p»ailiu'LL of tho 
womon &ud cliildren picking them up nud Aer/iin^ /Aeni, wlieii 
net tbeir own property, Ac, tkc. Sacb familinr illustr&licinij ini' 
press the mur&l principlemoreflrmlyinlbomliid tJian a bundrtMl 
iii'ijuiuoatB- 



Wo hsTe already eaid tbnt moral tminini; ntust hs-ve s Btaotl- 
nrd to wUieli to appecil, a.ud tliat we cannot bavo moial irajning 
v'itboutita Ijeing at tlic buthc time aUeUecluaL Whilst t bis 
edilioti W!iB goin^ tbi-ougb the prc*5 we met witli two sad proofs 
. of tbe want of intellectual culture in two aclioola in England, 
both ufiiJer the supermiejidenee of devoted Climti&a men. The 
maBterB wcro uua.cquiLmtcd witli tlu^ nntunkl m^du of t^jmmimi- 
catit>Ei — or picturing out. In tbe one ik1iw1 not a sin^li.' cbOd 
would confess or knew that he was tKbturaliy Inclined tu do any 
tiling wrong, orhad overdisolH-yedbis piirenta, alt bough all quickly 
answered that " there la no man righlMos, no not one." 

In tfic otiioi' school, tbe hiatcry of Soripttire, itefbaih/ at least, 
was, to A gi'eat estent, ffuiiiljur to 111* children. 

When, however, a njiieatioa was pmt in ditfoi-ont teims to whiit 
tlioy had committed to memory, Lboy eoidd not answer.. Fw" 
esBinple. ■' Jcaiia was crucified lictwceu two tliievea," ■'Jeaaa 
came into tlie world to aave simicrs ;" but wben aviked wiiat 
Bort of a mnn he was whom Jeaua saved when he wan dyinj, they 
could nut tell, or th.it iiiiy men died at the. atiJUe tijnf- on the 
cross, they Hiid not know. "' To-day shalt tboU hb with £ne in 
paradise," did cot convey tu their mind the idea of paradise be- 
iiij; heaven, iir crucifixion l»ing deatb. Tlie cblldrpn, in faj:t, 

. bad no idea whatever of the jueaniiig of tho words tiicy iiaed. 

I Hen&G the use of Latin or Greek tetnia to them would have been 

I equally intelligible. 





WEMOHATIPA, OR HIKTS TO SCHOOL TBAINZKB. 

Thi ttHivniag hiaU wftv jirimnrily n>ddfcssed to thv 'Students m 
thft Nonn^ Smainnry, at a time when tLi> stAte q{ tho i^uthor's 
heftltli pri'T-iJiltvd Iiliu frtitn enforcing thi? slitnO l>i>uLt.s dnriug t\x 
weekly jniblic an<l jirivnte crittcioniG. They are added berc in^ 
ccrnMM]ucri[« of the demand they met with in their l«ss 
neuL form. 



MEMORANDA. 



DrrsujerrDAL TBirai"io. 



Here m I 



1. Simplicity h the nio^t dietinguisWig' feature of tilt 
in^' system, nnd tils' hht and hi^lioat altuiiunent of a traiDcr. 

2. Nothmg in more Bimple ami nntura] than the cral Infltnii?- 
tion oF tlie intelligent Chrklinn inothtr nf youth. She guidpn 
xnd lends the <ipening mind, and forms tlie mornl hiibilH of her 
ehildrcn ; she does so becnuso site is nmeh with them. Her Mi- 
mulanta and rpAtnviltts are ax^i^iIm^I W the eBnl.* of lore, not 
tlip I'lid <if (.?rror, Tdew silken cfjrds I'ind jinipni «tid cbUd lo 
a process of moral trjiininf whicli every echool tnilnrr i«ould do 
well to imitnle. ■ 

3. Train not (lie iiitellcet of the cliild merely. l*wt the child — \ 
the isHiok man — the niDniJ being. Rei»pnib<'F tlmt tfig ehUd is ' 
only tmiwed " in the wsy he sliould go." when liia [vlij-nicil, iii- 
tollMtual, and moral (of course) reLigioiis pcrwcra an> simulta- 
neoualif exerciwd in nceordanpo with the precepts iind principles 
of the Divina Record. 





4. Let crery thing' pam fhrcm^h the UDH^erataDi^iiigr in tihe &n% 
instlinoe, brforo y-oii loAge it in ttp verbal idpiuott. Tn other 
words, never toramib words tp incnlory until tbe njisanine be 
prevJDua]? HDalyzcd, pictured out, alid iinderatood. 

fi, Da mot omit to eseixme iha verbal memory of your puplk, 
only let it l>e siibsef[UBiit to tlio exercjac of the umJcrataiHling. 
For Dxanijjlo, LT il hyuui ia to bo committed to memoty, reverse 
the ususJ ractLod ; kt it Iw thnrougtily aniilyMt] befo» the chU- 
drtn are rwjuired to repeat it, 

8. DQveCuil eicry ps-rt of your subjaot togiUhw, Bfttil the 
vhole Iw Bcciirately fttid Jadellbly fixed. 

7. Picturing out is a fundamenljil princijilG of the training 
syBtcm. Pit;turo out tlie outliin^a first, which is the nntural 
mode> ami Set the eame proceaa be ohservcd En drawing out tha 
minuter points progressiveii/. H^memher what wg have often 
iiud, the portrait pointer doe* not finJah aei eye or ihsr mouth, 
Biid afterwartlH the oullioeg rf tEie face. He gives the outlines of 
tho whiole face Ln the first instance, and then Ibe outlines of every 
feature in feuccoaaion, and finishes none of the feattirea entirely 
until hehiiapnintiMl the outlines of all. Suchistho tuituraljiuii)) 
therefore, tho efficicat profMa. 

5. If you h^^e drawn ih^ pigtiire properly out in words, 'whld 
cannot he doDe without /nmHtar illuatmtioti!!, within, and not 
beyond tho oxt»etiGnce of your pupils, the ehilclrpu must be jjre- 
pai'cd to gi^■e the Icsdjon, just as thty would recogniM the like- 
neaa of a human face. If they bpo tho picHtre properly drawn, 
tlity mllat ho able to toll what it l^pFcsont^. WLeti we say, 
■■pictare ont," always reElcmbtr thdt the children drftiff the pic- 
ture wilh jftta, and mako patt of ovury aenttncb their onn. and 
this in done not by mere question and answer, but by question 
and ellipsis mixed. 

D. You will rcmomher, that however highly useful and noeea- 
aary objects and pictures of olijecta are, to interest and inatruot 
the younj mind, yet the systematie prini^ipLe of piotoriBg out 
ia words is more varLed and efficient — a pjcturo ^n^ oTjjvct rppre- 
BcntB OHO -condltiou. Tn conversation, or at the' gallery lessons, 
theri-for&, picturing out filla n[) thow> innumerable int^TBtices of 
n quality or auhject whicli no number or variety of real ohjecis 
or picturea can poasihly do, We proceed on the fundamental jirin- 




.pnM 

atM 



eipie. tb«t CTcry vcrd in tliv EnglJab langu&ge either repreunlt 

OH ittjetl, a EontiinatioH vf objects, ttr maybe pictured out 
wvrdM repreumtiuff abject: 

10, W!itp wo Bpcak of ijicLuriiig oat by familiar ill nst rations, 
every term ticfure it ia Qaed, and tven- pjirt i>f a aulyoct you taJi« 
lip, wfl refer to cvci^ leraon in granimar, etymology, geugrikpby> 
IkAtuntI history, Daturvl gg'ionce, tke Afta of life, aild ScrlptUIVi 
in iu luator}', ciublcmB, imagery, 'di^cUums, proiui&es, and 
Wpta. 

11. AU'Ow nil or nny of tlic cluldn^n iu the gallery to answer 
niinuJtffliiCTiniiiSy. Xotico- oii« nr two of tlic auBVrera or filling? Dp 
(>f the ellij)8Ps, whether these ho right Or wronjf. Cflnviace i 
t<iuldtvR «if the wrong on* by 3<>mcthing anftlogtnu, and esfniii 
tWlr &uud« ujt to ft [Hjiut tliiit ^Uvwa thi'k trivr. If yon ilonnC 
notice tbe wrong ana'aors B£ weU as Iho' rigbt oncsj tliey may 
runtiniK? to l»e repented. If you nntico uo answer till you get the 
riybL ono, yiiu will only create, or at \cti&i prt^etuftle, canfiisiiiii 
niid nuise. CaiiBC tlie wholic diildi-eti to repeat the corrL'ot uti- 
awcr, not in the prcicJM; wordfi funnc'rly ciiiployeJ, but by aJter- 
ing CT iHE^rtiat} the «<n(ence. L&t lliis be frefiuentlv done-. JUli 
»t fivety leading- point tif the escreis* or lisson, Tliia b a fuo- 
dani^nLoI ^rini-iplo on.hetiyHteui, uud iinli»s j^tnctly atCondudUj, 
ninrh of the pow-cr of the gjillci'y will be lust. In oMtT to wcurp 
that nil acquire tin; kuowleJge yiro|iosed to he conununicaied, It 
iit not ni'cusBBTj' that all anavrer at any owe tiine, in thffmt ir- 
alance ; hist it la neceaaaiy tLit you iM.»ciire the eye of the whol* 
chOdrcn, and as a natural coiLseiiucnce. their attctitinn, 

13. Do not say to tlii3 cliilJ, You uit? wran^ ; but I'tidcavDur, 
by exEi^iaing hia miud, to prove 1^ him thnt he ia wi-ung, 
where he is In error. 

13, Tou mtiRt not expect aU the cliUdren tu nmwer or fill 
ihe ellipH-!i at tEne aamc tijue i* each ehUd irill eympatluM wit 
that elaas of qneations suited to his ovm natural cast nf minJ. 

H. Present uitollcctual ioisA &a simple , that the yauugoet may! 
isat and digrot freely | and in atR-Ii qmiutkie^ as that the larg 
cajiflL'sty may Ijavc enough. Tped, hut never stuff, 

1&- Tliuftimultuu™!!* loethoilof am^Tvei-ing, and the sympathy' 
of tbc gallery, iii tu.'ttly more iitituroJ .xiid effo^'tivc thiAti the iadi- 



HINTS TO BCHDOL IB^mKBg, 



413 



Tiilual mctbod. You may tery soon, hy r^uestion and anstrep, 
exhaust -thij knowMge of any out child {or pump the well dry }-, 
liiit you cannot so em]\y cxlidust iHie hundred scAtod In a gallery, 
vnri'iiusly ponatituttd aa ihvy are, and all being [Kmiilted to nn- 
Bwer. The Eiaster'a duty and privilege ia to hi;, as it were, the 
fiUcifri', jiurllyiflp iitnl directing all t\u? aiuwera or anabgica into 
n proju'r fhiititli'l. 

l(i, Willie the aimultaneou!! melhi>d ut in general tv Iw pre- 
ferrcd tor ita natimiliicsli find tfficLtncy, yt-t, H8 a TBriety, ilidi- 
vidual \xjyn and girls may be aeli'Ctcd, who alotie may answer, 
or a ji articular pla=s'nr™w, or the gii'Ia alone, or the hoys alutie. 
However, kt these devlatlana from the aimultauoioiia mode ba 
only Dccnsional. 

17, Let youmnifoTTii practice En every lesson he^iiertion and 
eliipsis mixeJ, aot th^ mtre lyvt'ial'nia aad miswer sy^teni. Re- 
niemher that the inteiTogntorj' system puts th-e mind too much 
KM the dt^fensiTC. aud is tim csciting to lead or train th'O I'hild 
e-asily, natniiLllv or bo clE'cicntly as tho union of tha two. The 
quMtton pumps the water, as it were, front the loeil—lho eCip- 
aia dii*ecta its fout^e ; the inastcr, as wc Eiave already sfiiJ. i» 
the filterer, who AttiAs it hatk, as it were, in one pure stream 
to a]]. 

IS. A purely ellipticAl lesaan is Tcry tamo. Mixed is ovr 
prineiple. Tho qiicstioQ seta the mind astir, t!ie eUipsifi diroctft 
whiit has bwn set a-mon'ng;. 

IOl Iu forraingan ellipaJs, do not i-aiae your voice bo as to 
gise wRriiing that ytfu an mi\kit]g a pAUM, othcrwiso the ntten- 
tion will flag', as the L'liilJreii will otltenLlmPB listleaaly wait till 
they hear such eierfition iir nlterod tone cf voice, 

UO, "Wlteuevfr tht; diildron Cannot read fly fill in the eUipsis. 
you ha.ve not trained iheru properly up to that point. 

2L Never form an ellipBLa in tho course of a rjuestion. 

22. Li forming an ellipiis, do Dot give the firat syllahle of tlio 
word ; thus, do not form an (!l...lijwia in such a Tuanner. 

23. Quralfon and answer is not training; nimple ellipsis is 
not training ; hut r[iiJ?stton and ftUpis mired ia training. 

34. Ail ellipeig in s iiowerfut and very natural link in ir ainj ptr, 
but if not juditiiously made, may heeonic very unmeaning and 
tciiling. 77ie eUipsia ta bejilied in, ovght always to be some 



«14 



nxOBAKDA, OB 



leerd or imrds vAicA the chilirtn tjught /« knme, or which (Aqt 
have at the time hetrt Jruincd to, Bud wbich, wlii-n so expraovtl 
lij' Uie children, while h awikkijna atUintion, &\m-a tins whoir 
poinl in the mruiory, audi buing oTcourau n li'ndirg part uf tlie 

25. An eUijuiii may be nuid« in meatBl Qxercues with pupils 
of nny xge- The younj^r ftnd mntc ignorant the person is. tlio 
more frwiuenlly will It njfjnlre to be ma^ie ; jnat a» young ohU- 
d»n require to Us mi>r« cliO««ljr ]«d th^in ILwc; of maturer yean. 
The mmlflr anil BcholnrBsynipatliiic more iiilimaUrly by i^uc»tifln 
■ad eUJpsU misHl tlian liyany other jiniceaB, 

3fi. Do ntit cxiilaiii, or speecfuf^, or attempt to preach — Inun 
by aoulcigy w\A illiul ration. 

27, Tlie old c^aohLug RyitGin is too mncl] like travelling on « 
railroad, the abjecU ptiw by too mpiiily in succession, witUout 
being tiuffifioDtly impressed «n tbe nucd, Vou nutk lUid digest 
nB yiiu go Along, on the traiiuiig eyetcm. 

^3. Although HESJ-ONsta, or chUdr^n questlonijig cadi otfaer 
on a ^[ytn subject, admit not of traimng, yet pmctLse tJiem 
fn-qucntly &^ a rcvmal of wbal tlia children do know, and && an 
csercisc of mental compoaition and onunciation, in forming and 
BiiEwering tlK- •{Utations. 

28. Hemeiiber tkft the exercise of the f<t<:Ml(iei is the cki^ 
and importajit part of education, not the mere amauiiC of know 
Itidge imparted. We aeipiire, aftor all, little kiiowli'djjc ia acbotJ ; 
tlie impurtant matter ia to have the outHa^s i^o FulLy, bniadlyi 
cltf£irly, aiid firmly laid, that tlin c^ildi-en may b«ve tLe power 
at' acf^uiring and Ming in the minutiT poiuiB aficr they leave 
Bchool. 

30. Always kaep in ticw thai tcachia^ and training arc diii- 
tinct tbing^r and that the former is lucluded in the latter. 

S I r Aim flt tho (cultivation of correct Labits of thinking. e([uslly 
with, the Iufit<ilcin of luio-wkilge. 

3S. nomemU'r the important practical tminm, ike unn/ Co da 
a iking, in...juit to do ii, and wo only da & i.\M\^...u.'heR we do 
ic. Traiiiln^ may be doing- not mercily nlLh ttio !iand or the 
langue, hut the understanding and njfections, Itluml training, 
thercrore^ moans mora] doing. 

33. I>9 pot forget that Biost imporlant pr&slieal axicmt a 



HIHTS TO SCHOOL IRAIHBaS. 



4U 



laiBCis » SOT 6iT*« CHTtt w JB BKc>4TK». It fs Only offered. Yoa 
msy ap^ak, and your pupils may hoar, but ywur lesson in lost 
nnkss th«y underattuid. It is trac, yaa niufit ]K>saefla the know- 
ledge you miean to Infuse, but tlic inimncr Aowr ia practir^y 
pammount. Study, tlierelopo, maHiier, voice, n.i\A sJmplicilyt 
AB of primary impor*-aiice. You all kaow llio pon-crful effect of 
"Wliitefield'a prejic:hiti^, but you havo only to pernHe his dia- 
CQurses to see whttlic'i" ihn power lay ehi*fly iii the soperioriity 
of the matter or tlie icanner. Indeed, your own eipericnce in 
the ScmliiHry must at ouee sbowyoii how powi;rlt»sthc powcaBlutt 
of fcnowlL'dg'e ia, without tlio [wwctr of eonnniiniciiiliiig it^ 

34. Cse no wdrds beyond tlia comprehenflion of the yovn^c^ 
child in tho ^lery er class, 

36. In ijTiflstioiiing^, avoid ming the word what f Such a- — 
It « a what f — you more onwards to what f 

38. In a gaUei^ le^vn, your Btundartl of simplicity, wlieilicr 
ill tho initiatory or juvonile dc'[)&rtnii>tLt, ia the yoimgeat child' 
ren. If they eannot draw the Icbsoq, you hsire overshot their 
heads, or led them blindfold on the way. The pii-turo has not 
been true to nature. 

a*?. The power of the gallery, and its Btimnlatirg; procesa, 
almost ofitii^ly sbpcFEod^B tho tL(>c<!a«iCy of Ukiug places in nchoul. 
Tftkin^ places Btimnlatca the intclIectuiLl pcwcn. but at the 
sam^t time, too freqaently calls forth the Wiirst pasal^ina and pro- 
pensiLicft of ournature. All rewards and stimulants ought, na 
much as jwBsiLlo, to ho In couforiaity with the pritioiple of moral 
traininrr. Ko SACtifiee of the monU tuuBt e-ver l>e mtLde to the 
intellectual powers ; on the contrary, unLfornily give the preoo- 
dcnce to, nnd ex^lt Chi? fufmer. 

38, ViTiile tbe daily Dihlc and sccukr lessoca in the gallery 
are attended to. sec that reading', writing, &c., nre not n^g'tectod. 
Such nc^'li'ct is quite uncalled for, as ihe power of the rjallfjy 
saves (IS much time as is consumed both in the gaikry iraining 
lesson, tiitd the >Koral Crttimng ojthe playground. 

30, In the initiatory or infnnt drpartmcut of tbo Hyste-m, 

whether tlie children are two, four, or eight years of ago. cnTn- 

racDce with analyiirl^ suoli familiar obj^reta B3 gti-ike t^oic itnse^, 

I particularly artii^lits of olothiug, furuituro, &k., aad ae they 4mI- 




I 



VKWOSLKDIl, OS 

Um fiMir «l«ncnU (iK>pu.liirljr ixin*tJAre<l> in Ouirgnmt chu- 
alr, eartli. flrc. uul nuti'r 

to. Ttu- trAfuln^ wyMBUk, m its intelleotuKl dt^pnrtiBeat, du*^ 
t»M pmrnt a li&t of ml^eeta and tnokfl, a. koowlt'tt^c of nhidi 
Um t>ii{ill M ic> A^uiro, liut is a ke^ to vxloeA the utibject o/anti 
toofi. Tliut »vslMn, liuwi'TM, \i iiol tlio trtviniii^ sj-^^t^m uiidtt 
wUii'li Lliv nLok' muriil bving. 1 A? eAi/J, u net truited {jh^sially, 
icttcIlMitimUy. ikuA uioi^ll}'. 

I *l. A lofwu not ill nocunlnnrc with "picturing out," is not 
tniHluPtvd on the training jiystem. What Ls (me in regard w 
chbldrcn, !» «[1U moro ap)Hirc»t In ndiilts. Wc all admit Um 
tlif iiitfUcet rooeivca ina highest pullnh when th& whole atfc<tiow. 
M fttli M the wholf^ undiTMtaadiiig, are os{^rcis«l. Oa this 
point, frequeollj" dm* yeur otwnUon to the atnldug difforcocc 
In the LntelleL'tual i^kratioB o( workmen who KK Acquainted with 
^irioe siienw?, and those of equal natujfll powers who tav ac- 
qaaintcd »nly with oriiinary seienifp. The ti-aining a^'at^ni, 
thcrvfure. a-s a system Ei)))dic.ibLG to tUc nionil being, m incotn' 
pl«te willinut Bible tmining. 

43. It' the young mind, e^pwlnll^ when it remains unctilti- 
mted to five or sij yf'Araof ag*, resemlik*?. a wiuit« fifrld over- 
gpown wit(( w«t!da nnd thorns, you mUat firat timt tlH''ra Qllti and 
eiiJeavour tu piirvBriw the wW, Pre you can hope that thtr aeod 
yotl Rttt'Cniit tt> »DW, will peiiutrate tlie ground, U\ke rout, and 
Licar fruit. . 

43. Tho iroimngsyBtAin (intcllMtiuLlly) inits clitTcrent stag«». ' 
may im shortly ntsted us followH: — In Ihi; initifttoi^ department. 
the bold, ckjir, and wcll-dofincd outlines cf cvory Bul^jeol. Jn 
th4^ Juveiiils dc^i&iLmtnt, nCme of Lbe more luiutit^ uutUnea. In 
llio adult clnu, and in tlie University, miualcr ittiU ; iiud In al^r 
Jife, the^e tmruo uutllncH may cotitlnus tn be prograe&ivel^r &1W 
up liy rtiuling and olMervation. 



PDYSJCAI TKirslNB. 



ii. riiyftital eitertiises may be used as an end, Of Oulj- as ■ 

inoar;s lit an end. Ton ought to use tlicm is both vtew>i, hut 

chioRy in the hitlc-r, viz., tu Bectir? ibo attention, to find acceon lo 

heniiad in the exercise of th-e Intcllectiinl and moral rocultiFis, 



HINTS TO SCHOOL TRAINERS* 4l7 

4S. Be exceedingly carefwl of your cIijIiIkii'b health and j)!iy- 
aical habits in iKtth the oorerecl and unoovered fltliool-rwmjs. A 
■trongcr syrapalUy esistb between thu inteUectual itnd moral and 
the phj-siral powers, thiin is geuerally iinnglued. 

ifl. The grent aocret nf seouring the cttention of cMldPL-n, and 
thprchy Iraining their m<?nt!d niid munU [towers, liw in a proper 
and continued Tariety of physical CSCrcisca. 

47. Let [thj'bicai (jjtctx-ie«« not ody precede, but nctwrnpanj 
every meLtoI ex.er<:iso, otherwiac you cuDnot secure proper atteu- 
tian. 

49. Unless you iirreat and keep the eyca of all Uic cliihlrcn in 
tho gfllk-ryj you Iiaro nu Btc-arity tliat all an? learning. If you 
do this, the Himullaneaua nnBivera ut the few, purified by the 
master aa li Elterer, will he heai-d hy all, and all will ksm. 

19. On their £iHt admliialuii to fiChcH>I, iha children miiat have 
a largci" amount, and greater ratiuty, of phyeical exerciai^a than 
afterwards, just m tlio drill-aergeant cx-erciaes raw recrmte. In 
other words, thu youngor tho cliildren Jire, tlie moro physkal 
exercises do they req^uire to keep up tho attention. If you jnis- 
takft !ift to ^n&Qlity, a.t all times let it he by giving too raqjay 
rathoc than by giving tgo few. 

Bfl. Xcvcr commcnct! a le^aou till yod have drU]e<l your troops 
in thi! gallery, and obtained perfect sileucD, and tEie attention and 
eye oCevcry child present. 

51. If the hundiM not properly employed in Hcbcol, it must be 
emplioyed in raiBchief. 

52. A clup of the hand», nnd a. short laugh, are like letting off 
the steam puffs &f the boiler which enable the t^nginc to work 
with gft^atep regularity: they present tbosc ejcplosioiia so com- 
mon in, and at tLio dl'smlaBKl of, schools. 

53. If yon find any dlffi«nlty in getting the children to repeat 
a h)iuii diatint^tly and without a drawling tone, tauw tiiem to 
rcp<;atby torna the hymn word by word, and then lino by lino, 
and they will soon acqnire tho tone and mannop you wish, pro- 
vided abo tliat yon yourself set the eitftnipli? of nrticnlating every 
syllable, slowly, di^tin'i^tly, and *lpgantly. 

54. ArtiDulato yonrsotf, and cause the children sddo to articn- 
late, every word and Byllable separate^ and diaiiiKtlsf, and the 



^ 



2d 



SBKORjUfDl, OR 

unavuiiUhle acwinpanyuig ■lirthnjsa will loon wear off, ftnd Icftte 
a rlnuir and c1Ti.-<:livo cnuncutivn, 

AS. Speak yuuru'lf. and csu»e the rhi!dn?n to speak in a soft 
IU)d niaetimt^ midor-ione in scFtiml, and allDwthoiD orawsionallv 
ta extend ikmlr Toio) mnA their lungs to ban fuller scope in tht 
jlbny-envnA. 

60. N*vfr spoftk tiiroiisli your Iceth — pprciwl or open your 
moutb well iu speaking, articuldtc every syllabic cUstinctlj. aod 
ev(T>' wurd separately^ but ufcoin'SQ«mphatirB]]y,a])^ cause tla 
fltlUren to da the (lame. Tlie eTcreise wiU supiile the lips, aM 
Aasiat you In enunciation, Hemember to cst-rcisc youpgelf 4allj" 
fi>r tliivc or fotir tiiinut^ at dome, iii repeating aut;h wnr^u 
th« rollawing : — Re-oa-pi-tu-la-tion, rc-ca-pi-di-la-tioa, em- 
pha-li-cal-ly, cni-pha-ti-H^aUy, in-cuiu-pro-liQn-aE-bi-li-ty. Ac, 
every syllable (wing fully anil clearly tiiuiii'taied. 

57, Eniiniiiatiun is a much more imptDrtnnt pnrt uf tmlnlii? 
thlUi ia aaiially imjiginect. Clear enunciatiOTl is a sine yua non 
in n scliool trailer. It is certnioly one half of the poivei' of a 
public speaker. 

58. Be SDre you keep the pJay-^nnd, fiower-bordarSj and 
MUt-Joor convfuicnctfl, neat, clean, and in tlic utniast ordfr. 

53. Train to plcanlincsa, by eanalng bU habitually tO he 
Qlonnlj. 

60. Let the movBinenta to and from the play-grounil gfiitemUy 
be ttPCflmpanied by vwal music — 50111c (hctrfuli animating rhyme 
or other- If of a direct moj-ftl tendeaej, aa much the better, 

81. When you have tLe opportunity, aJIpw the phildreu, or 
part of them, hy turns to weed or rake the grouad, or pick np 
the stunM- Tiio miiro |icrfcptly i ia miliiaire you give tho potq. 
mand, in a hrm, aoft tone of voice, the rtioiv improTing ia Uie 
cxerciBC, and the more delighted arc the children. 

62. A large, empty, or unfumiahed hull, may be made a play- 
ground, when better cannot be had ; but health requires that 
therr bo the open, freali-aired, anil uneov&red Bdhool-rooia, 

63. Se!Q that the gallory Iw kept clcaa, the large room and 
elma-rcKim well swept aud oci'FLsionnlly wsiahcd aad well airedi 
for the comfort und health of the cUIdren. 

C4. Stiind al least seTcn feet from the Eallery— pace along 

■rv IJttk— let your po&ition in geaera! be mtli yonif left loot 

II behind — your head perpeDdicuLu, so aa to movi 




froni si.(lc lo nide, to aocurti the vye oT llio cliildren, tlie rest nt' 
your Itoily rat-mbg an obtase angle quite u /a Ftancaise. 

B5. Train your scbolara to kci;p tlieir eyes sliut during prayer 
and tliey wiU acquiiv the Iiabit of domg- aa in t-liuircli. 

66. Traill the cliiJd how to Sold his book properly, nut with the 
thumb in tine middlCj for that will... rfiVft/ Me leavrs. Whyi Ac. 

flY. Check the slightest pppi-gacU to rudemoaa or iudu'en^y. 
Permit ng on« to cbU nickowtufsi. 

fl6. Look behind over your shoulder, atiil march before i/oitr 
pupiia; aud you amy form themt into any iigui'e iu a lin^ yuu 
please, — raise your finger p6r]>end!eula.rly — canso the furomnst 
cliiliT to keep hia eye on it lis you move it in n atrai^ht, curved, or 
wave liiie, while walking Lef&re liim, ani let each child in &nc- 
ccssion lia liia eye upan tj]* ahoulder uf tlie one walking before 
him. This pan be done without the use of marks on tlit* iloor. 
The habit of marching in urder cultivittc* optlerly habits, olie- 
dience, attentiun, nud dDcUity, 



IlEIJI^iatlH, MOBAL, AND mrELLEGIUALTBAIMNa. 

69. Take every opportunity in the course of your lesscmB to 
cultiTatc resppet for parpnts, and all En lawful auihorlty; of 
cnurae, love to Cod , and pariimonnt obedience to Ilia law, aa the 
rule And stBn-danl gfoWdience, 

71*. Sec-uJar, or acientJfie training Icaaonfl, may intellectBally 
elevato one man abo-ve hia fellows: but Biblo traicing mnrolly 
eietatps him in liheiieHS to God. Tho lattEr, howovtr, under 
our syst-em, in not a whit lesa scientific than the former. Both 
are equally intelleetuaJ in the basis ou which the leason rests — 
the one only is moral. W* eanuot refrain from quating, ax 
memortindA, one pa.<<aagefmm Scripture, adJ one froraCowper; — 

" Knowliidge {lufTelh up. Iiui chsrJlv ertifiHth." i bnildelli op.) 

■' Yon cott)ig«r, wlio weafca at hef own dour, 
PUlow mod babliiDi all her litUe store. 



JthI kuoivB, SD-J knpwB no iqotp, her Biblc'i ttoa— 
A tmtK the lirllliant Frpni-h.niB'n' npter know ; 
And ia that thartm reada, with spulillTi^ ^j^t. 
HfT title to a. treuore in the ^kiea.'' 



Voltaire. 




420 



ltl!H0ftlIIIOA.j OB 



71. Remembn' tliat ia«Te Chri^tiAD knoorl^^Jge k tbe iipniT 
da» not inaraUy e'lcvate — prai^ticiil kiwwledge alone morally 
rl«T»(«. Doing, in coTijuuiidoii vitb the unili^ratanduig saA 
ft:f««[ioiu, 18 moral trftin'iug. 

72. I triiHi it is unnecMSBty to remind you that moral and 
rL'ligiuuB inHtnictiub may be ^lvco, and moral find tcJigiom habits 
fonntMl ^ yet that, without prayer, iine niMt imjjortant ingredient 
towards bucccm la nwnntiiLcr. It' it Sh rielit in you to commnni- 
«a!tt religiauB instruetinn, and to train tine young to pw)pei' liafciU 
during tliow houre when paraota cunnot be trith theia, you are 
bound to jirny ibr succt-sSr on the piinciplt of " ackaowbklL'ing 
God in all your waya." 

73. Be unifoTjnJjf present with Ihc diildren wlien they aro ai 
play, nnd in conjiinctioa with the other inlluccices of the system 
tLey will bfr rtatraJned frotu much evil, nnd trained tn much 
good;, fiir thtiH llipy Will sijauliancuushf Lave in crf ei-ntiu-u the 
liLdiJionL>$ of the toaEtcr. ibaii phiy-feliows, and their own coH' 
science. 

71. It ifl of little use mcn-ly t« tell a iLild not to sui. If you 
wLih to tniin liim not to aia — not to B^eal. for i^xainple, illus- 
trate by such occurrences aa Achin in the camp — not to tell 
ties, by the sad fato of Ananias and Sapphirft — not to Lndolge in 
pride and ranity, by poor Absalom ; and when those mid many 
otbera are fuHj and progreaaiyely pictured out. the cliildren will 
be prepared to icnow, and in anme mcaaure to foel, the principle 
— " Be cure your sin will find you out." 

73. ft'o lesson in ordinary science can esliibit the power of tLt- 
system oqunUy to a Scriptural one — &n OEildcra foi' eKtunpEe — 
beofluae in an onlinar}- acicntifio l(?aBon, the moral powers aw 
not nf^^oasarily excrciaed, 

^S. Nntura] science niiiy and ought to be rendered ji. L^nd- 
maid to SDriptaral science; indeed, without a conaidemblc 
aoquaiatancc with it much of the revelAtiou of GodV wiB muet 
rcniain dark and unraeBJiing, And, ol' course, unintereBting tn 
the young mind, In a training li.'smii in uatura.1 science, the 
mastsr aad jwholnrs may or may not draw a moral leaaon ; but 
in (lie natural emidems of the Divine word, a moral liv'iaon taust 
V drawn, For ewtmple, a moral lessuu tniitf be giTCii from the 
aturni liiatorj' of the ro&e in an. exercise in botany; Lnt in 



nisra to school TaAiNEHs. 



421 



Bi!»lp training, a m-oriJ leason must Le ilrawn fitim tlic paaBii^ 
— I pjn the Rq«-' of SlinroQ." By tliiB aj-at'em, you may ]iiivo, 

. Ha it IB snld, a Sadbath sc^ool evenj daif afthe weefi: tliAt ls, 
you lua.y infufle, by Biblu training in tlie gallery, as much. 
Bible knowledge erery dny ae. you viaM on a Sabbathp and 
this without at all interfering with utlier bntnchea of education. 
77. Xot only is n knowledge of Datural aclcnce, to a consider- 
nlile extent, necessary in the [icnwn whii would prftctiae ihe sya- 
tcm of daily Bible training, but he muat rcnJei' hktisclf faraillar 
alaa wltli tlie lUrtnncrH, ciiskraia, iniageiy, climate, and prodnc- 
tions flf Eafttem nations. We LaTs ojoly t» look at tb* Piyiliiis, 
for a convincing proof of the necessity of tliia. For csiunplc — 
" Like a tree planted by a river;" '• Tlie eun sliall not smite 
then by day, nor thn moon liy night ; " My horn stalt thoa 
exalt ;" " Aa the dew of Ilermon " (so bmthcrly lore, Ac.) ; " As 
fgi- nmn, hla ddys are as graaa, as a flower of thi' field/' Ac. &r. 
&o. Consult, therefthirf, such book,^ aa d^cribe theae miUUieTS, 
cmtoms, lie. The Religious Tract,SueLefy »f Lo]idon has many 
publicatittUH on tlwssQ subji-cta at very modemtis i>rioe8. 

7S. ToTJ will find oxceDent pnictieiil lestwna in eonimentariea 
on the S-cripfcurea. Fnr the picture or the sitnplo lesson that 
BtLoul<i be drawn, howover, you inuist generally depend on the 
analyHia of the nii^aning of tlie natural language ftnd cmLleTfis. 
Used hy the Bible ilself. 

70. In rrgard to Bible training, think of tlie importanco of 
stCH-ing nne new point of Scripture each day in the niinda of th« 
children, or 300 poinL^i per annum; and how luminoufl IfiOO 
pditits would pandeF the pages (jf iJivine tmth, during the five 
yearn before thb ajjb children VLiiiially can rend for tbemselveS'. 
Sueh wfluld rendLT the child intellJg;eiit at fanuly wurship and in 
the eacLctuAryt i^nd ncht less so la privately perusing the word of 
God in after life, when its nHirativea and pmmiaes, its natural 
omblcma and imagery, wocdd be no many bright aiiots meetinj* 
him at evoiy piige. 

SO, One serious ohjection to t1i& Aystebi of Biblu training has 
been siatud by gomQ worthy aedate p^raous, tliat the children 
have things mado ao plain to thein ia (whool, thnl tlicy are not 
Uhehj to read the SariiUures at home. Fncta, howcvx.T, dia- 

.tiuclly prove tho rovorsa] for not only ore the tluldi^eu more 



4tt 



lumaKi.rjin, ob 



Jif[)MMl t« Ktd Ui« Srripliirfa aC hame, 3mt many & '- ITi/ * 
Bible " hxa been relieved of its duat, ani tAkcn iawn froin iJn 
•hetf by pkKntc*, lit the rwfUMt of their ctildren, that they might 
haw rokd to tbcm (before thej coulil read fur iVm^elvea). ml' [he 
laveu -wliicli fi-d Elijah — of Jonat}iHTi who loved David mil 
Kkvod hi» lif*— of SauI of TarsDH — niid of Jc&us &t twolvp yam 
uf n^ uttLng and convCTaitig with the dcoiors of tbe law in ihe 
TctDp]« At Jerusalem. Fjwrt*, imioed, fully prom that man\ 
traiaing at school bas cn't only a dir««;l iaSii«:iicc on tie cliil'lrtfir 
but a paw(?Tfu] reilcx infl^^cncM? at bame. Hsfi. to famllj tialn' 
ing, it is Lhc jjrimarp morn/ fei'er. 

SI. The fint lusMtiy aad the cantinued l«BBon, in & tTaintng 
Khool ii obedience — instant nbrdionoe — i^uitei & ia mUitairt. 
Wiiatover apden yoQ give — t^uiro cnsCant obedic-n^.'f. Obnll- 
VD.M, inslant ot/edience , Ilea At tfao rwt of bU prpp^r tiiuaiiig- 
By dLsulH?(lJ<?Dce man ftll, and by obi-Oicune he exliiliitia hUa re- 
stomtion to the Image, lore, and favour of God. 

83. Authority is not inaintaiiit'd, far Icsa HdAblnhed, by b 
loml, hanli, ot angry tone of voice : a low, jjentle, yL-t limi toiw*, 
is <3<»;id«dly tho most cfGuieat. To fpmaJo traiiiGi*, tnore parti- 
cularly, wo would einiply say, bc/rm. 

83. Noror say to a diild, You aru disobedient — train him to 
obedience. 

Bl, The moral training, m ftomc nspcrts, ia more diwp and 
lasting In a family. The int^U'ectiial training: is decidedly more 
flffijctjvo in (ig school. An oj^duBivD fnaiLly mora] training can 
nSTor fM]uaL ttwt in which tlic pubhc st'huol lotntls ita powerM 
aid. The fatnily wanbt that whlfh the traiLniiig schod haa — 
sympathij of nvmhen of (hi S^^Ae age. Tills Is the accivt of the 
power of tliB triiiniug achool. Tho school onght to s?sist, ^Dt 
never BiipcTsi^do, family training; indoi^ it cannot, nikd does 
not, by ths aeknowlLHlj^TnejiL uf every parent, f 

6J3. Kt-mpmijor tliat tho training eystcm can lie cxaindncd only 
ti-om ita elfi'iits ; the amount of intellectwal knowledge eon, but 
the mora! tminiag faunot. Aa in a family, »0 ip a mural train- 
Ing aohool, wc porueivo the conduct of the child, but tho proceM 
b, in a gtijat measurer hhl from tha transisnt ohaerrar. 



LxfKfl Jlamlly ^hla. 



t ge« Forena' Lctlara, 



HINTS to BCHOOI. YIUINEItS, 



423 



SS. It it quite in your power t€ train the cbildi'on iu imitate 
your Hianner and tone of voiffl. If. thercibi'c, cliltdreii are uader 
yflur ca.w for many ruotttltB, nn-d etmnciatc improperly^ or Art 
rade iu tlejr niHnnera, tliB fault La yourH— you bsTe n&t tMunod 
them — in whatever way you may havi^ laupht tbein. 

37. E^'mtmber tlutt wliilc bad liukits urc a iKXTricr to the 
lutrtHluction ol" goud prlcLCipk-a, good habits streDgtben and faci- 
litate the e^ercwt; &t' good principles. Yoq jire, therelnre^ Iiy t!io 
very term drainer J txiweted and buund tti cultivate gtwyl habits 
aim ultaneo Hilly wltli good principles. 

88, TI11& laornl training of a. Juvenile School ia laes cSfctivA 
than that of the Initiatory or Infant ; in atLei- words, with 
young tliildren rather than with those advanced ; anJ t*r this 
jFlain ri-'aaon, that tin' yuiuigt^r t)ic cljild is, the f^wcF bad habits 
ha.^ the Iraiiu-rtu uudc or oraditntc. 

8fl, Rcmpmber that children of three or four years of ago do 
not BympcLtliire with those of seven or eight, either in thofjallery 
or tu the plAy-grouiid. 

00, Ku mistake hus, bees mote «ciiniaon of late tL^ii the ttae 
of the term moral training, ivhen the partis actually mean 
mcml teachiug ur instruct ion. They arc ilistinct things, the 
one being kjtosnledge, the other practice, Practiw ought, but 
doca not always follow Itnowlcdgo, 

01. If jDu are to train youc clilldivn properly, lut&tally Bft 
well aa physically, give them plenty of fun. If you don't giTB 
it they wjtl take it, and that in the form of miaclilDf. Let tlie 
oftturaf buoyaney of youth hav* it* fuU pkiy at proper (iraes, 

DlTMt thl*m in, but do not deprive them <>i ispart, And yoTi will 
aecun: their conMence and obedience, and also acquire a know- 
ledge of their real di^poBitioufi. 

fiU. II^Yise amusing games for pky-gi-ound exercisea, and euch 
aa will cultivate kindJy aiTectious; for csampio, forbeftrnncs, 
courfiCouaaesB, &.c Diacouragii nil games of chance — eucovtrage 
all innocent jamesi of skill and dext-ei-ity. 

ti3. Ileiaember, in training ehildreu, thnt the mode is rot to 
put thingB ouf of their woy, but in tlieir way. In the flower 
border, tbcrcforCj wb ahould not place the pink or Btrawbcriy. 
the goo-seberry-biish or the ehcrry-treo, beyond, hut within, the 
rcatHofthe yuuagoat ckLld. Such things must c&me within 



I 



tocll ftv^npnily thniiigh life. 
Iruiiieil tu tliu [iriliciplc— " Luck 
iMitliiiig- " 

94. Tnun to fi>r^iveneai, hy aivaiag tho child to do a geDer* 
C1U actiun to anotluT who may bavo offendeiE ti'im. Disctjaragc 
llu tll^kt-C^I- nppriiRch to (.'ru(.'k^: 

&i. Trsio tv b^uevQlent^e aad ji't^nerositTi ^ ufiking the i^bila 
practicaUjKO— uu mait^ Ii'jw triviaJ the Rclion nt gift. The 
princi[i3e may bo exhibited ec]iial]^ with a pctuiy ag wliU a pound 
by n kind luuk an by great pt'rMnai uicritiue; by tliu widuw'a 
Iwg iiiUc4 a? '" by IJie ri<?h nuLa'a gifta." 

yft, SoIf-kiTQ ia natural. Do iiothiiij; to enconragB it in your 
Mholara. Remember aclf-loTc h & prineipte, but Bdf'importance 
is n tittbit, 

DT. iVePt'" pusfi a cAiW or pull him oW i^ the /nm. To apeak 
ought tu be ftul£ci(jnt ; niid it will ho eu if you take the Qatural 
mid jiroper means, pn^Buniing, aa we do, that the eliildren ha.ye 
undergone a ceHnin course of training. Tou will perceive the: 
principle of obcdieneo is invc>lvisd in this point. 

88. NeTer omit to draw u siiilitbl^ moitil leaaon from the daily 
secular, na wi^ll aa frooi tho Bible lossun. 

9B. The glory of a trainer lies in the intellcc^toal, but aboro 
all in the moral elevation of'hia pupils. 

100. Kemcmlicr that the Jidlaence of the play-gronniJ is not 
merely jilij-aical and lutii-al:, but extends to the intcllftctuaJ ; fiir 
if you lUIoiv ttie ^x^m ^sfieani tO' get (iff there at ahoirt Intervala-, 
yoii can, on the ijetnrn tif the cluldrcn lo the gallery, (nonj rea- 
sonably coimcand, and netually secure, tbnt undivided a.ttentiuu 
whereby the whole intullectiLal powers arc mtire fully exeiruiaed. 
There in a sympathy, tfterc/bre, betwcc'ii the covered ond uncov- 
ered seliwd-roOTDS. 

101. Hemembar th«t th« tapral effects prwlueed on th* chil- 
dren ht hoiuD, Under our systeci, have Ijeen found to be, nut 
merely in proportiu'a to tho amount of kftowledge ethmmuuicated, 
but in pniportiun to the phyaiettl and moral excrolBra tJ tire pl&y^ 
ground aJid the gallery. 

102. WberevM- there dn*a not exist a poaitivo objection on thai 
part of [larciila to boys and giria being trained together up to tLe.l 
*ga of twolvflj do not Bepamto them ; and wlien yea aro und«r 



4 
I 




BIHT5 TO SCBOOL TRAlKEEtS. 



m 



* he necessity of teaching tliem wppurntolj-, if pnasiblo let Uicia 
have tliL' Dibla Icbbou togiihte in unc gnilt-ry ; rb we liaTe often 
stuttd, and aa wB btJieTs you are all convinced from exptnetl-COi 
that moml training is Jpprivcd of one of its LUijiortftut linka by 
the separation principle-. 

103. If Hi child Joes a tiling imjiroperly, or ncglMta Co do a 
tiling it bna been bid ta do, tiic amiplest way to cliccV Rueh im- 
propriety ia to caiiH; tbo cliilil ti> d-o tha thiog, Ue may have 
throKC his cap on the floor, iuatend of lusmging it on r peg ; ulni- 
|)ly call liim Kick, undsec that hi- bangs it pio]>erty, Yuii mny 
havfltold liiin to walk softly up stdlrs — you hear him beating or 
shuffling with his feet as he aBceiiiJs ; coll him bafh, and see thnt 
hs waliia up evcrj- step io tbii way you wish him. This method 
ref>C'ated will produce the Imhit, 'wlicn a threat, or a scold, or a. 
cufl', without th« di>ing, may he instantly ftir^otten. The eor- 
tainty of being ohhged to do, ia better for the menira-y than the 
lon^st speech. 

lOi. Keep the oyo of your pupils ii|)on yotiraclf. Let th.eia 
feel tliat your eye is upon them. Ton will then Becore their at- 
tention — " I will guide tbcc by mine eye." 

105. Demand rcgohirity, precision, direct au'^wers, and >order, 
K»d you cultivate cbedience^-^" Let all tlunga be <3«tie deccDtly 
iknd in order." 

lOU. Rcmemlwr what wo have often told yon in the Seminarj', 
that as there ta no doctrine in Scripture wJiicb U iiot praetical, 
BO the™ is no duty epjoLnod that is not dihCtriiiAl. Tho id<:a of 
ftitcluding tba peguUar doutrinca of Sciipture fr«m a. rellgioua 
educittion, thereforo, ia a.t onco irrational and impracticnble. 

l€7. When A pupil d^ohcp or breaks a rule, do not srold — 
pieture out his fault. If from forgetftttnpsa, it will bo enough to 
cauae him do it. If from iaattentioo, atill cause him do it. For 
the first offence, the condemnation of his fC'tloWB will be sufB- 
dent ; but if a second gr r^pE^ted ofFense, although not on tha 
same poirnt, still cause him, <fo Me ihin^, hut pujijah liini by de- 
priving Imn of something he much eiyoyB. Take care, howcTor, 
thttt tliP deprivation be ghort, and not auoh as will tempt Lis coni- 
panion,'? tofcdmore for his puniahment than sympathise with ycu 
in your displeasure and condemnation of the offence committed. 

103. By causing the chUdivn to walk, or miu-eh, to and from 




io and fruui lliclr cluascs, one after •iiinllier. in 
you culcivate obediQacc, ant) the linbit uf cacli 
I'-ttc^^lxiur liiiv legitimate anil (>roper pince in aocicty. 
You knaw tluit iu a tm'iDing achoolj every Eicir sehol&r EtriTex 
either to wnlk first, or ho lingorB behind anil non't walk it &11. 

lOff, Do hdl imaginB tlmt yoQ are trotnin^ wt«n yon merel;^ 
turn and ttrUt tfa« wurdji of & wuteace, Luwevvr adrQitLjr, with-' 
out jicctaring out. 

110, A c&nntniit rcf^reniw to God'e law stampB on tfaenusd 
its tiiglb uutkority an n rale oriifcL 

Hi, Aa you procctil in BretE TEAi^nso, yoii ^ri^l flad tflfl 
Itiinga — Jif. Tlwt there is a rule for tlie moatmimite conduct of 
BTwy-Joy life, and that the raottt perfect niDnil training leads 
to produce tlio niDBt pGi'fect delicacy of feeliug, espreBsion. and 
conduct — in tino vin-d, the mnst perfect genllenmn ; and, 2d, 
Tlmt Cod, in rovtallng Iiis will to man throiigli nntural objects, 
hiti niveajK Ulu^rat^ 1^ IQesDs of th« most 3,ppoait« and appro- 
priate emtjileins. 

113. Aim at tfko fulCivation of tliii mind uf a. cldld every da.y 
by eneriiaiiig all his faculties. Tlie memory of words is nnly 
ocu faculty ; ihs meiaory of compa.rLwn, another, the momoiy 
flf a fact or atflry, a. third ; the memoiy of fcaiioning, » (ourtlj. ; 
thelTiGaiory(tf uumber, A fifth ; ihe meinory of eonscie'O.tioilBIiasB, 
a Bixtli : the memory of order, a ecvenlh ; the memory of imisiD 
ur hirmoay of aoiuids, an eighth, Eyery bitelleiituiil and moral 
faculty, &c. &e. Ttio ■eserciae of ono powur or faculty doea 
not interfere with the exerclK of another, but the eserciae of all 
fltrengthena wll ; aoA ttic exclusive userciac uf oiia dota not culLi- 
TAtc the mitid of n child, but oul^ a portion <tf it, Oitr object un- 
der the trainiiu/ si/siem is to exercise etiery fat:\iUy daily, in the 
most simple, easy, and untuntl mitnoLT, .oiid to keep up tha eym- 
pathy lietwcGU mind and. body, Ly exereiaing hutb,. In other 
wordEt, to train the child Jis a cotfiJiOOiid, physical, intidleclraal, 
and mom] being. 

113. h&i your example iu morsl coiiiluct, iones of yoico. mid 
g^ueral sspcct, and demeanour, alv^ays be ivtiat yon desipt* your 
papils to buoome. Tlie obsenjitloii said to be mnde liy the 
phyaician, ■• Don't do &! I do, b«t doas I bid jou," woti'i do hi 
a truincr. 




I 




&CEODL TniXINSRS. 

Hi. Exaniplu is scknpvfiPilgi'il to bi> mnre powerful tliim pre- 
cept, but to Ilia |preee[>t and examjule of the master w farent 
tliero muat be ai]dod tlio rfoiWr liy the cliild. Tlien, and not 
till th«Ti. ia tho child under traitiaig. "Without the doing Ac u 
OTilri under irLStmctioTt. 

115. A trainer, wbcther parent or scluMjlmaster, by fiilbwing 
natnrnl principles, can inoulil bis pu]iilH^ m maruiDr nnd ia mind 
almost any way ; be feels no barrier huto tliat he cnntiot clinnge 
the litart, but he can, and oTijbt, faithfully nnd prnj-LTfidly to 
use tliosc- nicnna Jy vi'liith and ihrouifh which tlio Divine Spirit 
ciperatei, and to which the immi Bulcmii [iromiscs are [ittathed. 
" Tfain up a gliild (not the unde rata ndi tig merely) in the way 
he should ^u, ani when he is old he wiU not depart fironi itf" 
ha will not depart froia the way ho should go. 

11(1. SmruniTT. — Do not imnginc tbntytiu lower yoTir dig^- 
nity hy being' aimple, yon cannot Iw too simple — the Scriptures 
are Himpic— the most cultivated minds are always limple — they 
use aimple terms, but tbcy grasp notile ideas. The most coHl- 
plGs. machine ia aiiiiple in iLh jHirts. One is aimple, and a tboU- 
eand fe simply a thousanti onea. 

117. NoTUJWci NEW, 8AT SOME, — Tonug fltqdcintH BoineLunea 
nl^ect ta tlie ^vateio, Ipy s^Lyinff, 0, thero i& nutlung; ntjw in it ; 
every tiling, every pait of it, is eiiLtplo — plaLn— and ohvioU9^ Wc 
admit this to be true; we abto tidmit that there ta "noibing 
new under the Biin," but wo, at ths same timeaswrt, that whilst 
steam exiBted in the Garden of Eden, and in the days of Nnah, 
and tliat bi-abb, add iron, anJ timber, were kuflwii in tlift days of 
the wise niEin who uttefed t!ie expi-e&si.oii jast <^«oted, it is only 
lately that such maturiali; were to combined and inado use nf, bb 
to fyiTiisli this generation with the simple, yet ccimplei ateaw-cn- 
giue or IiMomotive, which renders human effort in our times 
more offeetJTG. Why not admit the possibility nf an improi'cd 
iiiode, Tiiore Biniplp, mflrs naturn] ? Wliy not an improTGd mods 
and impravod laaohirerj' for training the child i 

lis. You ought to "picture out'" Msal'mg. but you must 
not " picture owl" indecency to your acliolare, during' any IcasDh, 
except when exhibited by them. 

llfl. Tell facta, but not reasons — fiie children might to bo 
prepared to give y&u tine reason. - 



I 




«■ 



)IB1I0ILLNI)A, OB 



ISft. Tn Bible tmlcJiig. in such aul^etrta aa "Sonlt was 
pntflhcr of rigbtiMiisDM!," illustijitc tluil by every sLrokc i>f the 
bttintTicT ixhig rii)hl in obedienca to GckI's cvuLmoud, it Muuiled 
(rr prtaitbed If tlic i^oxi of ihc p«oplfr the coming deluge. 

131. C'Onilisrend Id mammr and Himpliuity to yvurcliildreiiHs. 
Ihfl best mesjis of raising them up to your IpybI. 

192, If you piujiloyyourioliioliiira' time ful]y. and accoi'ding to 
nsiniT, you vill not re<[Ciiro to aculd tht^ni for idltnc^ oc mietie- 
haviuur. Scolding ia a poor aubatjtule for trainiTt^. 

1!^3. AiDi:i[iijtDiiuuti toTte ot'Titice never i» impreffiive, it oaglit 
thc-rcrai'c to bo avoided. 

Iffi. You willremeniborwliatwBft often ropeiitcd in tho Semi- 
nary; 1/wD aro to make an imprfBHiou, we niUBt..,tniijte an im- 
pretBion, It IB. tbo pliysicfll mouth and the pliysical air by 
■which you make bd impt'oasion on the physical ear. 

125. In cauaiag tlie cliUdrpn to rpad a pjtasdge: ot iscntemce 
after you, and in your precise tones of voice, at the first start 
nByer'givo tbem m&rc thfln two or thtve worda to comment 
wit5i, otherwiBB they will not rcod aimultaneuusly. To read a 
knj point nt flrat is quite as unnaiurid as to irot a borse from 
the stttblc door. 

120. When you examine the gallery of a training schonli 
whicii is not your own, puL a question. If uot anawored iinin«- 
dintely, go lowon If tjuieklj answered, and of courae, not high 
enough, then aflccind in your scale nntil you find the exaat 
amount of their Icnowledge of the sutijcet. 

127. EttrrgEa. — Tou may form a tiuestioa bo th&t the anawer 
is a mere giiesa, but an elJipais ou^'ht neyer to l>e hiiuIq so that 
the answer or filling in is a guesa. Every such el]i]n«ia tltstroT* 
tbe progress O'f the training procesa, which olUpsoa. properly nukilft 
are so well fitted to effect. 

128. MoBAL P nit Ei'fa.— Train ycvur pupils to bo klml 
COUTteouB, founded on the Scrijitupnlprcpept, '*BftOoUrteoua,"&c.* 

Not to eagrosa the conTccsatiou — " Thmi ahalt not aleal/ 
Not to read another's letter, nltliongh left open on tbe tabic. 
From the 8th commandment ; iind also, '■ Do uuto others aa vol! 
'«uld wiwh to be diine by,'* 
Eril speaking (" stealing"). 
A look ja»y Ijs « lie (deceiving), 




Not to pheclc one who pcojiagfltes an L'vil rejiort (injustii*). 

]3!), Provie tn your pnpils, day by day, tliat every jiiywcpt in 
Scripture is a command as well as the Ten ConmiaPflments. 
they being only n sunimiiry of ftll — lovs to God and lo™ to man. 

!30. l'[t*raii.'-(" In, iQjinhj ways acknowledge God,") For- 
g^?tfuklea3 of God is the fruitful sunroe of all evil. 

131. Lirxfi. — ThiH, like aelMineaa, or ita (ruit.atcaling, is 
almost universjil in diildren. A lio to Lido an offi.'D'fe, lor a lie 
from fear, is too common in tlio world. Picture or draw aut, 
therefurc, in conjimction with jowr gitUei^, tlie (,Iig])tp!it rvttompt 
to di?*eiTe, in any vf yonr cluidi'eo. This will iTeakei* Iho pra- 
pcti£ity, jiLst aatlieexercigeaflyinggtrcngthena the eyil principle 
or ULolination. 

132. Think of the power of haInC — the wnJk of the soldier, 
the aajlor, tite shoetaakep ; the difficulty of OTercuming or undo- 
ing habits: the old bachelor, the Jew, the idolater, tlio |irtiTin- 
oal dJ&l(M:t of a country, anuff-t&kliig, and iauiunerahle other 
Imbita exhibited in different couotrieii and by dificrent persiina 
in the saius country. How impcrtatit, therefore, must be ear/y 
iTaining to proper habits. 

13-3. Picture out the goodnesa flf God in adapting tlia vanous 
animals to the situatious in wliieh tLcy arc phwed ; f^t to the 
wlud», to suit this Colli J'CgiotiB of the nOrth ; AuJ Eon^ or short 
wcol or haiTB tO' aheep and other animal.s, according tu the lieat 
of the climate, Ac. Tho samfi ■wisdom in all the varictiea of tho 
Tegetable world; each suited t* its cUmat* and circumHtances. 
Wisdom. Eiho, iu turning the mineral strata of tlie caitli ^^dge- 
ways, or in an angular direction towards the surface. 

1.14. The Vqice^— The EultivatioB of proper and Trari^d tones 
of 'voi'Ce ia most important, so as rcaHy to make an impression. 
Many of the ni&st conmion wotda in, uao seem to esprcFs mean- 
ing, oud mthont patting any str«s3 upO'R ttna point, we may 
^uote a few of bucU; loar — thunder — lightning — Soah— 'Bombre 
— a-torm— harricanc — catjiract — up — down — hjg-li — low — -ealin 
■ — hresze — tremendous crasli — gentle whisper, itc. Ac. 

135. Tliroiighont the wholQ course of training tho chilil, sti- 
muhvte the higher motives of action by & four of offending rnth<!r 
tlinii from a foar of punishment, &e, iiC. 







130, I need aot remind jDU uf what nearly orerr Btndnit bu 
«« p w t d, thnt no man can thomiigfaly understand the traiimif 
flyntera nniil he pnuMi3!« it. Although this fact laay not be ip- 
puwDt bo All, fot the iifinciple of not kiLowing uatJI ne pnctiiA 
la otpl taHj in periiKl noconJunce wlcli eveiy-day experience, bn 
with Goii'a revealed will ( for I know bow to paint a pithifB flnh 
wlien I can doitj. The S<;riptnrefl nay, -' He that dnetAliK 
Hill (if my FatJuer aliall Antmr/' Ac. antl agfl-in, " Add to virtui 
kuotcUd^ei" in olh*."r wonb, doing (tmJ Adds Jji our knowlod^ 
of wfaal is pwd, so till! power of pgoFol training;, which is doin^. 
a known best by tlmw who praotise it. 

137. Wc are irequently a?ke<i tli& question, "Is jmirBii«> 
infill) t whoiil synteuar' Wc nriBwer. Nr. The infgnt scliool 
■jrstcm only BuiCa infiuita, the training system is npplicablt; to 
ehildnn of any a([e, froin two to fourteen ycsrs, and upwanb. 
We do Lh(l««d fldffpt some of tlie apr^iratHs in une nnder ihjit 
*y»ttiTn. but in tta fundamL-ntal priDflplcB it is totally different, 

138. Tou will pleaBO to reincinljcr that derelopment mny be 
undcratoofl m merely unfolding a poiot or auhj&cit ; cdueatign, » 
leading out ; and traijimfr, a lending on, or practical baWi 
Training, theretiiTv, laoludos aU. 

130. TJie tntiiiing syattm heing one tliwran-hout, and doTe- 
ta.iied in all its ptirtii, in charging fees it is not so easy a? imdrr 
the old ayntein tu dititiniinii^tli geof^vipby, grammar, arithmetic,' 
Ac, fiH Qotitiin^ to separate charges, each of thceo beinj;, |<i 
consider&ble extent, blooded in the cxcrviBea t>f tlie o. 
dnily rending lesMna, 

140. 'Vj>i:a] iDUMc ia an ea&eniiiLl pa.rt of ttte Bysteni in esery 
department, wh^'llier initiatory or juvenile, Cnltivato tho art 
ywnreelf. and siionld you bean indiffiTent Mn^r, aelect two or 
three boys or girb, who sing licst, to lofid tb^ nest. N^gthiog 
tcnda mom to Eol\en, \a onlii'cn, Rud t^ train yonrehiWrcn, than 
a IJTely air or verso, at inttrrals during the day, nr an anthom 
in the middle of a lemon, snitcd to th(5 sulij&Etr ChJIdren are 
ftodlof BJnjfing' song^ nt homv, in the sti-e«ts, at phiy, and it 
work. We can only diaplucc wortldess and dGmomliEing sonn 



% 




HINTS TO aOBOOL T HiTV BIlff, 



431 



I 



^ 



by sabstitntirg otben of an oppoaito tendency, find "these are 
brat and moat easily aoijuipcil in gchool, by tha H;)'mpBtliy of 

Hi. ncmciobcr that six or «!ght mi>ntlts" attendance in the 
tTormal Seminary will not make a perfect tmiditT — th*t period 
merely Kfiurds. na mticli inHtrncirf^ii and practical exeixiiae ae 
onnlika tbe peraevcrlng stHdont to tram himself afterwards. 
The training syUcm is a key whereby to unluclc any Hiibjectj 
but the knowledge of tbe subjoct it-aclf must bo had eUewhen. 
Of «ntratf, WQ !spcak compnratively ; for tbe nLind cannot be gs. 
ercisL'd upon litcnay, M^Icntific, religious^ iind miirnl subjects, for 
Bii Dioniha, without greatly ndding to ltd st^wlc of knowledg*. 
In one word, the courae i\f tmiaing enables the trainer Co Com- 
municate aBhe knows, or ninj/ ajieru^ardi aaqaire, in a sitnpU and 
evident manner. 

H2. Evening Classen, — There ia so much Hpc&ldiig in a 
Training Scboob tliat yun onglit not to cndertakc tbe teac-hing 
of on evening cIosb it' you can posaibly avoid it ; forif y*n faith- 
fully perform your duty, by training the children from nina 
o'clock A.M. till four o'fldcit F.M,, and he with thoju on the pi¥- 
Uii^^ the wbola tijnt!, yon 'will reqiiirft the ovening for rest, SllnJ 
for preparinf,^ the lessotts ef the following day, 

1 43. Dinner hour. — Where Ihere is no dwt'lling-hoiuc nttaohod 
to the Bchool, do not leave the acbool for dinner, or even for lun- 
cheon at mid-day. It is preferable thnl the ^hildran bring din- 
ner. Of hare it i>mvided for them, and i^tnain at jjlay u-ithlu the 
{iremiaeg at mid-day. 

Hi. In estimating of comparing Hystems of edwratitm, Iw 
careiul nat to bo led away by more words, for of late je-i™ ttiere 
haa been a very general alteration in tbe terraB used by nearly 
aU teK<?her8 and directoi-B, public and prSvute. We have, for ci- 
ftmplc, the term infant training, instead of infant edupation, 
when, after aJl, the parties mean infiint Ctaching, mut training— 
B teaching withunt der^lopm-ent. We huve als* moral training 
used, when moral teaching or instruction ia aU that h meant, and 
when Ln fact the np^iEUiitaH or platform ia atvanting. wilhout 
which the moral trainuig of the child crunnot he eonduet-ed. 

Hfl. Tbe qneatioa boa been adtcd, if children can oidy sym.- 
pathi») with their e^4ak ia yeoH, bgw do they iiDAniig& to unite 



4 





wiih (liGlr leiirben in Ihe ^[lortH of (-lie juky-gFC-und ? dues (1* 
iIU|»rlty ill agu not lay ihu chililrca mider raatminte vrhich jifc 
vont tlic Irntuer in flomc nipa,4urB fi'oni nrriviTic at n bjtowled^e 
of their dispositions J Our nnswer is gliorily this — Children 
ETiniMi^Iiiia io tWir 8j>6tiH juiil ia<:-iktAl attalnmentf) murt* rc&dily 
wiiL their etiuaU in jenni thitn with lliose much younger or 
aULtr tlmn thciiiLBclrBa. Older childn<ti g«iionJ]y will not, and do 
am, put tiiemselTesona levelwitli the youn^r, either jdijiicslly 
or memaliy, from pride, ipnnrance, or vanity ; but a Bcliool- 
mit^tcr or trninc^r hci^ It to l»< hi^ duty to coudtscend cvqn to tlic 
young«at,juaL ASA fund mother would drea» a doU, or a fnClier 
Ijt'comc* a riding-horeo to hia childron. on ali-fnurs on the floor ; 
and although hpniHl they da m>X perjeeily ^ymimt^mc with enob 
oth^r, yet thoy sytnpntliifte onangh, hysuch uriform i>r frequfflit 
toiM^Bce lesions, m to imnble th^nii to srriTfl at a tcit fall know- 
ledge vl' their real dispontioiu. 



P^EHEVTABT TBAIHI^Q.. 



Hfi. Givu ihttrt lessons, nnd girCft variety cacli day, wbicb 
|)roiJiuce4 tlie niOKt hmlthful state of mJnt], just aa the pliysical 
l>owera of the boily are renderiK) mora henlthy Ijya aimultanomis 
EsciwUc of nil, rather than siniplv uf cne or two. Esehcising 
the mind, thiTcforei, daJJy, on literary as well oa aeientific and 
moral subjects, will jii-oduce s. condition tb« most hcalltif nod 
vigorous. 

147. In teaching to write, let fi'ery raovenicnt of the claaaea 
be fi9 much aa posaiUe aimnltaneous :- — Stop UTiting — clonQ pena 
— pnt ]iast pens— cloao copybooks— stand up — turu right, left, 
or whichever way you wish tine cbilHi'cn to more, 

lie. Let mental H.ritlimctic uuifoniily precede ss wetl as ne- 
foiapflny nritliraetic hy rule, niid then the etuOy will bocome a 
plissure. 

ntl. In English ^amniar, tho various teases, ito., must be 
illusti'ated familiarly. For eititmplc : — Objective case- — Tlio jjifl 
waa preaeritod toiut — me hcing tlie oljeetivo. Possessive e«se 
— Tho dog ia John's — tlie dog btfiiig John's pi'ojrt'rty or posaes- 
fiion. Cause the cluld or cliildren to give iUiistratJona, at every 



HINTS TO SCHOOL TRAIXEHB. 



lesson, on escb of tlie tcnges, moods, ifct.. tlint luay form port i<f 
tbut day's cxereitiefl, byoMO or two aliurt scjitencra fnnned at tUa 
moment, and a^ii data imd papuT aftirwiu-Js in ATrittcn pomjioai- 
tii>a.' .Eaehhoy will vaty the ilhistradons accurding to his jiwu- 
liar ciwt of mind, and thus keep up an intense inlcrettt io iLe 
clBSi. Sao-h. iHaslTUiiom. *ji' mental compcsilwtt, ouglit ta pi-e' 
eddo tk« comzoitting of thii riilca verUiily to memoi-y ; tadced, 
tUe L'xercise eaalilcs tLc pupils ta form rules ftir tliemu'lv-es, Ic 
may Ihj proper, however, ia every case, that tlic cIiildniB after- 
warda commit tu memoiy iho exact words of tlio appvuvcd rulofl 
of accomplished gramnjarjjins. 

150. A3 it nmy fall to your lot io open JuTeuilc Training 
Schook of chjldron of all ag<^, from aijc yeant up tu twelve o^e 
fourtoon, we would give you the foJowing IJaU rtspcctln^ diffi- 
rulties wljich havu Ihwii cipCTienL'Dd in tlic fonuatinii uf sonw; of 
OUT new aflliftoU. Wliatevor branclii's they may l»o Icflmaig-. or 
at wiistcver atage they mrsy be, lunv them buck ta tlic iToginiiiTig, 
and hriog ont tho simple tlenr outlines Arat ; theo I'otiiru, aa 
before, aud draw or picture out the leag, bokl — ncrixint the f&cta 
Bud materials the c^hildreo may hiLve beeu funii^lied with, as 
"oseful only to be liild oa a broad, bnac, and. oriKitGcl lata a, firm 
aupcrstruct ure. 

151. In Tbaohing LiTix apon ■tho training ayBtem, we th*t 
every term be familiarly iHustralecl, ^nd tlma piatureJ out to 
tlie mind of the tjoy, before beritff used — such aa l]idii;a'!.ive, Sub- 
junctive, Pluperfect, itc. ; vrbyn.verh la coiijiigaledj and a noun 
declined. We wTnembcr bcin^ pinaleJ to romembor whetbtsr wo 
ou^bt not to conjuifate a nouo and decline a vurh, for noitliop O'f 
thcHi: terms was present to our mind's eye. Witli tlio exception 
of one or two tcriuH, siith aa Ncimi native, Perfec-t, Singular, and 
Plural, all was dark and unmeaning, The terma will not only 
be understimd, but rc»ndored aetually iDtorestiug Lo Iha boy. wora 
they pictured out nccording to tliis natui-al sytitcm, Suppose, 
before ynu compel the hoy to repeat— Nominative, Fentin, a jwn ; 
GeEJtive, Pcnnfo, of a pen; Dative, Penniu, to a pen ; Ac.— 
thai h« ia made to untleratAtid what Komiiifttlve menjjs, and that 
it be pivtured out in its root, ix., as meaning the whole pen, and, 
tlierefore, the higheni in tlnj bkiIc of that you mean to deciiius i 
t\is.t M'hen Genitive {aha in itci root) mcouu nut Deeoasurily tlie 

S E 





434 



uehobakda, etc. 



yrhfjie i>«ti, but ouly fl/the peT\, »nd iheTnTare % decHuatian — i^ss 
than tlLC whula ; Dative (from Do, Dfidi, du;.]^ to a pea. Ls still 
leas, or feLrtbcr dcciined ; and so «n to the Ablative, wlifji all is 
decliiiGil — tUecL he H<;vcr cnu make the niiatnkQ of CDiijugating a 
noun or dMliniijg n verb. Tlija will hu a slower procpsa In going 
tlii^>i]§li tiie gnkimnnj' in the first instniiNj but it will facilitate 
the tranalatb^ of ecntcticcs, ftndreii'der tihe acquisitivn of Lntia 
a iwrft-ct lii'lighl to llio boy- TkaiuitiiraLDr traioing process in 
fju"i, in OB wo hnvG poinLcd out under tiie head " Histort :" 1st, 
]«ailiiiigp4iiiitsorB(«psof the nilea of gramnmr ; 2(/, more mintite ; 
5<t, iiujiaber still. 

153. For DOC trainer, 'nitboiit an assistant, SO chDdrGti is the 
preteralilc nutu-ber fur it ^dkvy Idfison. ; 151) n^qiiircs grc&t Gtrength 
anrl enrrgy,, and a. full-ttmed voice : 20 is rattpr too few for the 
purposes of devekping a sufficient variety of incntal power and 
diBpositiflDB. It is much rasier to train iU tlinn 4r just as a lor^ 
fiunily h much moro easily trained than a smnU one. 

153, Yon will bcknowltdgt' that thd infabt oriaitiatoiyBphool 
LI not tlio lowest, hut tht> liigitpst in tb& scale. A man who 
Euakea n ^wl infant trainer, never foils in luakijig a first rale 
JLiTciiilc trainer. A rough gardener may raiHO coarse plants, 
but an oxperienccrf &ne can alone be trusted with ciotica. 

154. In choubitig ab a9ait*t.int, uniesB he bo traiaed liko yijur- 
sclf, you ar* certain to injure your pupils. Assistants gonerally 
talct eliarge of the younger clasaoa. If untrained you will hnve 
many bad habits in his pupilw, mentally and bodUy, to undft be- 
fore you can c-arry them forward aa your own. 




1. Some direotors providB an cxceUenl. scliaoUboLisB and a 
plfly-gTOund, the former fitted up witti .1 gnlloiy and deiika, iuil 
QtUer appai-atUS ; the plny-ercund alao neatly orr^ngcd, with 
flowCT-borderH &,tul circular swingg for ths aranseitit-Bt, aniiex- 
ervbe. and trniuin^ of tLc children. Bal — Uiu tunuer teacher 
of the old wliool, although unacquainted nith th* Hjitcin or nn- 
tuml mode of cunduciin^ either the gallery or the plfiy-gi-auud ; 
yet, being very nwrppiiible and a man of CT'Ccllent diameter and 
talents, — U Appointed., The master being untniincd, the mIioqI 
of course proves a deciJedfsUiire (ts a tralmTt^ scminarif. Should 
hia liti.>raiy attainmentE and manners be luw, in that ea.se the 
failure is Ktill more apparent. 

a. On the other hand, a we 11- trained niHster of high atl^n- 
mena is chosen to a Bcbo«l without a pluy-groundc Tlils rIbo 
pr«vc3 A failuro in its moral, and ovcn in Ua InttlkutuiJ rcaulta, 
for thu trainer is without the m^uns or iii&truniente of exert:iBtng 
tiia art. 

Thcso two modes of arrangement art the most commonly 
practised hy Direetors of SchooU, who, TaluiEg the fijalcm, are 
willing to BaftilifC' a little money, hut not enough to sttoia tUo- 
object. The former cIbbb of directora will not pay the esfwnsG 
of training a master j and tlie lattJ>]- will not provide a phitfurm 
or prDjter stihool for training the child. Tht folluwing tatrMt 
of a letter, jnat. received as wc wero going to press, is from a for- 
mer atudeivt ; — 

" I ghalJ now toll you hnw matters have proceeded. During 
the Urat six moaths I had ho plny-graund, and now I have one 
at the diatance of 2(i0 vardls from the achool-Mwm. FroiQ no 



4Ht> 



THB TRXTrmrg system. 



(■art of the scJiool can I mb into it. I Tiaro to march the cliU- 
tlivn (iluiit: liiD i«tr«<!t. wheti i^r^w^ uf cliildivn gather to tritncsa 
the j^ocemiciit, I ]lIlri^ no mitpft — fcwlxxiks — and no picturce. 
My grciito^l ft'^r i». that tbt a^ateiii iiisy Iw Injured and eiwkon 
Kjttiiiiat, T knijirm^. nt rhe srntio time, that in present circuni' 
plancfa it- has not iht sliclitcflt dmncc nf bu-l-cobs." 

3, Swnc ciircet«r» provide ImtU a qovored nnd an uncoTereil 
BC hex fL -room, but— llie sUbecri[]tiuni) liAving fAlMn shoit of the 
rpi|u]sito auiD for Eniitliing the pnMDiBi't^-^'tli'fy step ubort and 
jirnTJJc n<i swing^^ — no prave] for tbe gTonnd — loi'd little fumitare 
iii-(5tiorft, Tlie M'IiooI. therffon;. mist bo overcroivded with nnm- 
hi;r» 'fl ntflAc [> puy— cr the master must be pinched of hL^ salary 
— fit Ae niai/ fciitJfl, rnrtliep. tbe ninsti.'r mu^t provide for 
dialling the stbool-room ami pl/iy-p'OMTid, nnJ out-door conve- 
niL-npes, wliieli be cnnsot do out tjf Ilia small salarj'. Monty— 
mriney — ia tha great want. Tho unfortmnate alfair. liowevcr, ia 
tbis, tbat tlio soIiod! trabior is expected tn bi-ur tlic burden, not 
tbc woaltbj% who ojiffhf to give " as God baa jiroaperod them :" 
SDci if diftiftot* Won't five nl' their o-mi, let tbciii agitate and 
jiethion ftjr the niPMirul whore it tti[(.y Ua found. Government 
would n.H williiiglj^ vote on^ miUinn per nmluUl for cdiica.tiira as 
thirty thousand, provided there existed a suiJiuicnt "pwaaupc 
from whboiit." 

i. T\w. situation of si^bool tminlng » rendered ucGomfurtablo 
ninny wayn. For csampic, one of the diTectovB, and porbupa a 
leading and influential ixtbou, objects lo aiiiiiiltiuii.'(ius angwers; 
being Uiiatq^uaiatcd witli the principle^ lie dciea nut se^ its im- 
portiuicf, and thtrmfiHtcr feani Ihi uae this part of the system 
whenever tliis gentlcmun is present: Another -considerB it 
noDBi^inse to give ttic diildrec sa much play, and a^ to t'lin or n 
laugh sach arc considered " extrcmaly tinbecoming nnd out of 
place ID a atholaatic institiitioti." " If cducatkn be rendered 
too pleassLut it will not do,' ' saj-s a thinl party. " (jive ua as much 
jia you can," say otbers when addressing the trainer, althongh 
gome tliin;^ may be given np. But what things ure likely tn 
Itp^'ivennp? Jnst the things t!mt are moat impi&rtAnt and 
natural and eflicLcut. Thus raaay directors injure and eyi-ii 
pum their hcLocle, render tliem iiiefli<:ient, aad dispirit the 



EIST3 TO DIBECTOKS OP TEATTaj^a ECH*>I>15. 



497 



5. SiL-n of higU liturary iittfliiim^iit* and ClirUtian prim'ipla 
are i,^ eoursis to lie preferred aa seliool tr.iinccs. Wu may nlwkys 
kcL'p in vit!w, however, that a puraun of ;i incdJuni aiiiount of 
knowltJf!*, tcill iFaiiied, witl mnko more inteliigi'nt [m|)i]a than 
onfi o.rt.iie liigliest attaiiiMtfKts Itut at tliii same itmd uutfained. 
In otlier wurds, while ii teaehci? rofty Tiot, ft trAEnet" always ma 
raise hia eLaaa Lo hLi awii ^tunilard in maimera oud kauwk<dgp, 

6. It is of great ijiiiJorlance nt the estiiljliBliiuont of a new 
ecEiiNil, or the npijointmotit of a traiDor to uu old ime. tliiit, wllJj 
the exception of two pcrsoiiH. all jiarenLs and Tisitora and Jiw*- 
toFB he eioludtd during tlie first two moiitlis. uulil tlia niiSSter 
driUa tlie eliiljren into order (ind eatiibliaLw nlwtlienco. These 
twa persans ought alwar/s to be the sirme. This nn'Aiigcment, 
ID ovury Lnstanue, lifta bcvn ottenileil witli the ammL benefciaJ 
results, Fund deelinina; to oido^it the jirinc-ipli? hr^a ruiued Bomf 
Bclioob and led to the reniovaJ of tlic in.isi*r op ttiistre^, 

T- Kevef luterfsf* wiLli or gjve ndviee tq the soliool trainer in 
the presence of the oliildren. To do so iijtilai, 

8. A tixcd salary tu the master 'm found more suiCahle Find 
Bxpediont thnn part sakvry and [lart feea, purticulitrly iluriiig the 
first year or two when the prejadicc of parents ia tO' Iio flViPi-corae, 
and tht» master U lofLdcd witli difUculties arising fiwni the rude- 
ness and igDorance of the cEiiJ-dren. An<!ver-trowded school 
wili prove a csrtaiii failure. It ia preferable to eoumcneo witli 
about (30 chiWren, if abovf aijc years of njje., and when thcso are 
mouhleil into owler a few more may ho added mitil the list rCse 
to lOOi If Initiatory nnder nix: yeara of a^ nearly twice the- 
nunil>er may be commenced with. 

9. In proidding i>ducatian or trainiiig fm a destitute |MirLih or 
dlstn.(it 'W* must not expect all the worsl children to WlBt! out to 
schoul in the' lirst instance. Should thei'c he (laUittJeient num- 
ber of children In tho whole locality to fill three schotrlB, only a 
sinali proportioD af the huh t neglected will come out l-u tUo /!'/■[(,. 
— principally the children of tlie rt'spwtaHe tradesmen anJ 
meehanir^, — n jarfer numlwr to the aCcouil titn\ tliC tlurJ school 
jJon-e iMHJiires that all are broiiglit out. Thus wbn.t the philfitithro- 
pUt m<»t earuMtlj doaires, whirli b to get uul the mo&t depraved 
and ignoraad in the iirst Instance, or perliapa encliiaivoly. aa.ii 
only he accompliH&ecI hy taking out or pro\iding_/Jfr all. Thig 




hMboeDouruDironu ex^vmncein wet.'k-iia.yiLiiil Eralpbatb ecbools. 
The prM;ti«»] tesHcin from thin fwt is apparent. 

PLAN FOR BBUCIIira IHAJIUNO BCPDOM IS THE CBOWDED 
STIJBETa AITD L&KBft QF i DITT. 

The greatest tmrriLT to the eHtnblisJaineiEi.t of TrAiubig Scliwls 
in a lar^' town, is tlic extreme high jiriix: of graLunlfor the un- 
covered wliool-TOfim, w plmy-gTfound. B.nd cspeciallly in the Jensest 
jtoTtLDns of them, whera moral sutl Intellectu&l training is inoBt 
iniporallvelj- rei^uired. 

Wjthoul A plny-pTvund there eiuirwit !» moral training, or ft 
Training Sthool. TIr" questitm ia, therefor?, Can tbi* iiix.'cseity 
Ih; met hy any aulMtiituto, c-van although a limited number aj 
papih onhf may be nccoinnifldated ? 

We aliall suppose it flit* a procured in the lino of ji street op 
IflDc, 73 or '74. feet long, r^oliing Etucktrarda sis for as possible, 
liuf t!ay ] no fe«t,— ^roct a buUding. If three stories, e-rcli the 
ground floor, withoiit MuidiOWR. aji4 from frgut \t> back this will 
fomn a plfty-ground, partly cuverwl by thff flnt above of, wiy 100 
fert long hy BO feci hruad — 13 of the site heiug occupied hj the 
gioasAg'C' nnJ atjiircaaB, 

The ««ci^nd finor will form A s(had OA f^et long h^ 30 feet 
1ii-DB(t, mth A «m»U 'olASB-nw-m 10 ^r 13 fv<ct ec^iidTv, in Sniai of 
the (stiiir. 

Tlip lliird Htopy — sami? aa th-c aoeoni! story, and the Jilay- 
groutHi en (lie rr;(>f, nearly fliit, and |iavcd with afiplialte. and 
aiimiuniled with high militigs, formiiig on tite top a siaftH p]Ay- 
g]-onnd of 11(1 iby 30 feet, If tlio upon fifll rtrnf be nut appiw-ed 
uf. then add a foiirlh wtory, with arched open windows, bo 
thiit air may (ic admitted IJrwly, front iind bnch. The wal«r- 
L'loaptH may lie [iluccd at the vAAef- of the Blair, at each landing, 
and Bowers iu pots may he fi-lriccd &n the Bat rouf, xa a t-rial of 
honcBty and n training to it. 

Some aiu'h plan aa this would reader the ostahlLahmeBit of 
Training Schnob ci til para lively an easy niiLtter in Londtm and 
clgewlicre. Tlit! lower ackml shonild he Tnitifitory, and the upper 
une for mopj advauced schwkrB. The Initiatory may he for 
infants under six, or infBnts of from five {o MTan years «1" age, 
nnd the ather far boya and girla above eeren yeajra of age. 



CHAP. XXXL 



PE09HES9 AND EPPECTB OP THE SYSTEM. 



Were we to trAce the progress and eflFecls of the 
Trailing Systom, from its conameacemcnt in 162C! ta 
the present day, it would ba both tiresome aud unin- 
teresting. The Small dripping stream has indeed he- 
COfne a river, which, week after week, and year after 
year, has Bcnt^ and is aeading, its relxeshing waters 
to many parts of our own and other lands. 

Our limits enable us to notice only a Tery few par- 
ticulars. The testimony of nearly eTery student, and 
innumerable clergymen :ind directors of schools, and 
the parents of the children, hejir witneas^ as well to 
its progress as to its powerful effects on the intellec- 
tual and moral habits oF the young. 

The cemmenceniont was made in a single eohool 
for children under eis yeorg of age. Three yeara af- 
terwarde^ aa soon as it was clearly seen and aatiefac- 
torily proved, that the same natural principles of in- 
tellectual and moral culture might he applied to chil- 
dren of all ages, and in all branches of a school edu- 
cation, — another school was added for children of from 
BIS to fourteen years of ago, with class-rooius for the 
normal students under training. 



Tui: TBAnnna btbtem. 



TobcIkts, both male and female, ^-cTC trained firom 
tti« coiUTiicaceinent, who were appomled to scboals 
in diJlVrmit ^larts of Scotknd, England, IreUnil^ thi 
Wcwt IndioSv Australia, ami Canada. Several oftlieni' 
were miaaitinanca and catecliiate. 

After the lapte of ten years from ita commence- 
ment — via., in 1837 — suitable bullJiBga were erect- 
ed, capable of accommoiiAtiug not merely the Moddi 
Seliools, &(;., but large halla, for subdividing the Ji 
Vfflile Scliotil into two departm&nts, viz,. Junior and 
Senior, the former for children of from eix to eight 
or nine yeara, and the latter for those above that ago, 
«acb heiHg provided with several clasa-rooms. Be- 
aidea these, an Industrial Model Scliool was estab- 
lished for girls above ten years of age. The buildings 
contained a commodious hall for the Normal students ; 
also aoparate rooina for a library and museum; and 
suitable play-grounda or uncovered school-rooms f( 
each of tlio d'OpQrtments. 

Tlie average number of children (boya and girls) 
in the four model sthoola was bftweon 500 and 
GOO. During tho last tea years, however, partly 
from the great prosaure to gain admittance (many 
farailiea having removed from distant prirta of the 
city to near the aeminary for this purpose), but prin- 
cipally from the number who were advancing from 
tho Initiatory and Junior onwards to the other de- 
partments, and TVere Unwilling to lea?© the se 
nary, thn number haa increased to above 700. 

It may be asked, What are the effects of the gys^ 
im ? Tbcee can scarcely be estimated firo: 



3d 

1 




FSOOREaS AlfD SFVBCIE. 441 

apparent resulta merely, however encOurngiiig, be- 
ca.ns6 in working oat And e£t,abli3bmg a. new priaciplo 
in [jopular education, unsupporttil as it waa at first 
by the puLHc generally, difficulties of no ordinary 
nature were to be encountered. Yet the result has 
exceeded the most sangoina espectntions, and proves 
thatj devoid of the superintending care of God, the 
painB, and luLoiir, and pecuniary sacrifice^ muBt have 
prov{!d utterly fruitless. 

Ono highly important effect wiiich we liavo laljour- 
ed hard to ticeomplisii, has followed, and ia of it&elf a 
sufficient return for all the time and expenditure be- 
stowed. We allude to the fact that this Institution 
liaa been the meaas of raising the emoluments of pri- 
vate teachers in genei^l fulEy 30 to 50 per cent., 
with the evident prospect of a progressive imptove- 
ment. At the comra en cement of our labours, jEsO, 
iiflO, or £70, Tvera tlie usual or highest suras offorad 
for aclioolra asters, and sometimes only £30 or f 40. 
^100 a year 19 now a very common amount offered ; 
i'SO "we consider a. fair remuneration; but £70 too 
low, except to commence with for tlio first year. In 
many caaea, however, viry much higher eslaries hare 
been oficred, in the cases of grammar schools and 
private academies. 

We have, of course, different qualities of trainers, 
A, B, and C. Their f[iiariBea.tiQn9 are very varied, 
partly natural,and partly acquired. In aome cases, the 



I 




I 
I 

I 



moot higtily educated have a bod mann€r or are defi- 
cicDt in energy. In otlierfi, very moderate attaiDmeots 
are united with great tire and a winning aod im- 
pressifo maDner. la many tnor>e inatancesi, a f^ and 
improvablo manner h united with respectable attain- 
mcDta. To all these qualilications in a trainer of 
jauth a compaiatiTe value is, of course, attached. 

Some years »go, we were frequently vrgcdj by 
friends, to direct oop eEForta to the obtaining of higher 
ealarles for teachers in tho first instance, and to train 
them afterwards ; but we prefiffred the true mercan- 
iiU principle, to provide a superior article, and then 
claioi a higher price. This has been the uniform and 
auccessful mode of procedure. 

It may be aaked» What are the effects of the sj^- 
tem upon the children 1 The fluctuations in their 
attendance during the first yeara of tho Model and 
other Sellouts, arising from the ignoraDce or prejudice 
of parents, and from oth>C!r causes, have, in a measure, 
broken that chain of evidence which; in future yeara, 
we hope may he kept more entire. Buougli, )tow- 
ever, is known to prove the efficiency of the system 
upOD the conduct of the chitdreu at homeland amone 
companions out of school (the only sure proof of the 
effects of Jlonil Training). One of our maatera alone 
can traee one hundred of his acholara, now young men 
and women, all doing well and in most respectable 
aituationa. We Ecarcety know of a Bingle instoDce 
of a decided falling away. Wo h.-vve been told of 
whole families which have been benefited by the re- 
flex iufluence of one Or two of their children attend- 



ing these training scliooU. TVo possess several htin- 
dreci letters from pwentB, guardiaps, and directors of 
schools, illuatrative of tlie good effects of the Bystem. 
TliQ effect upon tho students has heon most salutary, 
the w]iole course of the Sominary tending to generate 
and confirm good principlos aa well aa correct hahita. 
The scsda ofimproTonient are kid in the delight the 
children feel in the ordinary Bchool exercises in-doors 
and out of doors, and which they prefer to remaining 
I among such companions as they pick up qd th€ street. 



IHPRDTEMErfT W ETTESHilL APPEARANCE. 



I 



Ons effect must not he OTerlookedj although of Ipss 
value than the moral improvemont of the children, 
and it is this; — From the ingpection the children un- 
dergo each day, and tRe natural infuence of sj/rapa- 
tfiff, the wholo scholars appear much cleaner and bet- 
ter dressed than in ordinary schoota. This has led 
TiBitora to imagine that our training Schools are not 
attended by the chi]dr€ii of the poor and working 
claaseB, Without, liowever, giving the children one 
article of dresa, or ao much as once in a week req^uir- 
ing a child to wash liis hands or face on coming to 
achooh such is the effect of the system in producing 
habits of order and eleanlinesa. 

We helieve bcIiooI is now liked better in general 
than in daya of old j hut we were scarcely prepared 
for snch a change, aa that even during a summer vaca- 
tion, thfl children sliould prefer remaining in achool, 
when in their power to leave. Yet such ia the fact. 





I 



Ihlring tlio tnonlh of July. 1838, — tho annual vaca- 
tino in tlic gcminary, — IQ order to employ some of 
t1)« itudcniB who felt it inconvontcnt to rcturo hom?, 
an atleinpt was made to retnili a few of the chiHreo 
ofono Uepartiinent, leaving them at perfect liberty to 
romain or not, as tlicy pleased. Out of 180, 32(1 
rem^unod in close attendance (n larger number tlian 
wa9 dc-sirable); and when asked the reason, they^ve 
for answiT, that they had between their lessons bet- 
ter fan in the plny-groimd than they could got on 



the streets. A simihr dispositiun waa tna.nifested by H 
manT of tho childien at each of the late vacations. " 



I 

I 



> 



many 

On one occasion almoet tha entire School of Industry 
requested permission to remain during the whole 
month allotted to the vacation. Tha universal fael- 
ing seems to be, " Sohoul is » pleasure." 

WEITTKN TBSTIJIOSY nF PAKBRI8. 

In the years 1831, 1834, and ]830, scbedules 
were iaaiied to tlia pnrenlg of the children attend- 
log the Model Schools of the Normal Scsminary, 
having printed queries which they were requeeCed 
to fill up, and to atate the apparent effects of the 
training upon the health and intellectual and mo- 
rul habits of their children. These schedules "were 
quickly returned by those who could write, expreggod 
in a most laudatory spirit; and those who could not, 
crowdtjd to the echool and fied with each other in 
hearlag testimony to the aslonishing results they had 
experienced, and expressing their gratitude for tho 



I 

I 

i 



FRD&RES3 AND BFPBCTS. 

MToIution felt in their faraiUeBj both individ^wUly and 
relatively. 

A fow months ago, uUo, circulars were iaBued lo 
iho parente. These were taken linmc by the cliil- 
drcn witliuut any communication on t3ie part of tlie 
teachera vfiih their paroptg. A small spac& only was 
luft to each of the sixtcmi prlnteJ queries, with the 
eitreptlna of tho last, upon which they might, if they 
choao, enlarge, 272 answers were received in all. 
The foUowing extracts wore niaile and pnbUshed, by 
the Editor of one of our puhlic Journals, from the 
first hundred that ba.d been retmned: — . 

Qitt'ry 3.- — " Aiv yuu Eali&lii?il or uot with tUo amauiit of 
Scri[)tural iiLstmction, or aa it it, termed, Bible trauilng, which 
tiiey hiTfi' received i ' ' 

Answera, — tFuifonttly "aatiafied," " perfectly satifLllftl," Atr. 

Query $. — " I>o you ^d tho health of your cbiJdreo JDJurad 
or improved by the systeiB purened in the TmiQiDp School i" 

AiLRwers all in ibc affirmative, " Naturally robust, but tio 
dnttht that the eserciao ia very favoiirahle to bJ3 heatlh ; " Not 
injured;" "Improved;" "Much impTOvcd ;" am iha genecal 



QiUcrj' ft. — " Do yOn fi™! your cliLlilren luom or It«i obedient 
til yoii n-t home, sinco tbcy •L'ntcred Iha TriLining Sohoul V 

Answen. cxlsihil mi a.musirig and chaEai^teriatic varitty ; moat 
Bay, " mui:h improvfd," '* more oLedient," " better," Jrf. ; but 
sach aa the fallowing: occur: — ■' thi^y nrc always ohpdiDHit ;" [h*iy 
were nlwnys ahcAlttat, for c/tis tjimoui rcaio ft , tbey had t« bo ho, 
aud it still sc^tas to c-ILiig to^tliem ;*' " iNDiimioiily vt'ry oliedicnt, 
jwrhajis more bo aiimre hv iLttc^nd«d ;" " do not know wiy differ- 
ence ;" " they ara certwinly aot Iras obcdiont, hut lieing brought 
u[j in Iiflhitaof olMMliencc, the effect of the ByBtcm is not remarU- 
fd ;" ■■ they w^;ro always obedient ;" " no different ;" " tlicy 
have always Ijcen obedient to their parents j" " Ibcy vtre ohe- 
dieat bofow gain^ to the Nontial School, sad I have no reason 
ta aaj they Lnvo changed," Ac. 



446 



THZ TULnnNO SVJTEK. 



Query 1 1. — " Do you fitiO tike sycteni lias induc£-(j vour chil. 
ilrcn to Ik moro or I'em attentive tv their religious duties on 
wct-k'days aaA 4>n Snhbntlui" 

GeuL-ral aujswer, " More attentire," witli Bcawely any estap- 
tioD. 

Query 12. — " Do ymii finJ, upon tho whole, that the ayatem 
of moTKl Hiipcriiiteri'deni^c at Hcliool baa pnired any aw!istai]>ce to 
youf fiunUy tiuti.in^ at Iwime ?" 

Answers. — " lie commu&J«ttee hjii' liuitnK'tiviia t« his hmtheni 
aiid siBttfF», which ia id toy cttimAtiDti of great iiu|Kirtaiice," 
*< No ilnubt it has saeutcd ua in our LnstniGtions." *' I i-UD8id«r 
the ayBtom n great aeajstani^ to fknulj training." Tlic answuri 
are aU in simihu- t«nu2. 

<iiicry 13- — ■' Tfa you find your childrca uncjous to attead 

BL'llUul ]" 

The BUfiwera are, almost without ezQeption, strangly oQimui- 
tive. 

The pnrcnfcs, In reply to another query, express a. ditcMcd pre- 
ference for Ihc Training System over the old system jraraned jn 
iH:ho4]:ii. Tlii» is £itill fiurtker brought out iu their answers tu 
the last query :-^ 

" Vihut ctTeet on society la t«wiiB would the Training System, 
in your judgm^iit, have, U unlrersaUy eatahtuvhf:d i" 

Answers. — " A very g;reat trflect for tho hotter, and a deoid«d 
improvement fur tlio next generation." " A much to be desirtid 
effect indeed." ■■' In my judgment, if bucIi 7iiod$ of teaching 
were muversally Adopted, and tliH children geuemLiy &iroii<jht un- 
der tiU'ch ti'alnin^. the effect would he, tlmt instead uf liBTing 
our hrldewellii and penitentiaries- iillod with criminaiA. i)ie nuiO' 
ber of Buch would be comjiarfttlTely few," " This ia more tima 
my pen ean Indite ; tho effecta would Iw of greater good than our 
minds ciU Mticcite," " Taking even our own cWldren a« a 
Bpeciniejifwe are very much inclined to think tlint it would have 
a very good effett." " As far as I am ahlc to judge on ao in- 
tereiiting und iiuportB,Ht n aubjcrt, I aim of opiiiiiin that If unWer- 
BflJly estahliahed, the aystem -n-ould very generally improve the 

iracter. and iner-ciso tfig eoiuforts of aoeiDty." " Would 1» 
[bt with Lucalcuhible good." " Would gr$a.tly diiuiiiish 
»i and prove a hlessiiiji; to society, both in to.wn and country," 



PBOGRESS. AND E7VECTS, 



ui 



woiiW have A groat ctFect ; for my iiart, I wish tlitil my 
cJiLIdrtQ ha,J l>eeii sooner ntfut to i%* " A Teiy bepefiriaJ influ- 
ence," " It wuuJd matDnolly iiDprov« aipcifly." '• Would have 
a goocl effect in two waja ; firat, Iiy bem^f aot. ao Kinflning as tho 
old i^yatem, It c-ncourag^ (.'hililix;]! to Btt^ad scliuol, anil girc^ ^| 
them a desire to lentil '. sctonid, the (ess nal Itcing so high, tho ^1 
poowr (l&sses have (in opportunity of givicig their ichildrsn edn- 
c&tioD, wliich may bo tho incaiu i>f lioLh ihiiit spirLtufll atid teul- 
poral welfare." 



I 
I 
I 



KXTRACTS FBOU .UtAWBSS TQ inB LIST qUBBT. 

Query 10. — "What effect woulJ ttie Trainiag System, is 
your judgment, haiTO ou society in tQwos if nniversally e»tab- 
liaiied ? ' ' 

•■ I think the effect would lie Mghly bt'ueikiia.1 both to tiie 
individii&ls thismst'lvcs and to society at large, both in a spiritual 
and moral pgint &f view, sA I would like to see it univenaUy 
adapted. " 

" I tlilnk it la emmoDtly calculated to produce the Intended 
effect, mimely, to infuac into tbfi young mind correct habits gf 
thougftt, affectiai), and outward behn-Tiour ; and ^!Ollld it lie uni- 
v-eraally adopted, must soon pcuduue *■ TBty tienefi^Lal reanit 
upon society," 

" Laying the foundation of general knonled^, nod forming -^ 
uaeftd and intelligent mcmbera of Hopioty." 

" In my opinion, judging from the many examples th^t coma 
under my notiijc, it would materiallj tend to improve tbe morals, 
sharpen the nndcrstandijig', nnd diffuse very generally hubita of 
obedience, persevorpneo, anJ induatrv/* 

"Tt would have the eifcct i>f preventiug the formation of many 
bad habits; at the same time, it would promote the formation 
of muny go™! oneii; and, if nniveraally nd>iiptc>d, would lofflen 
crime, and elevate tho rising generation in tho scale of virtaa' 
nnd luLppiness." 

'■ Tlie effoijt would be, tliat, frcni being a moral wildomcsa, it 
would become as a well-watered garden — ^ignorance, crime, and 
irreligioii, would ho banislied, and poverty and wretclicdncsa 
would be comparatively unknown." 



I 



" Pint, X DDOHider we wduIiI Iuivo no nn^ ciF poliMUa^n; 
mk>oihI. No retiLraint. in Allowing' admiitanoL- to the puUic into 
|)uMi0 gurJrtM, as I urn luitisiicti not & fibkSt of skrub wuuLil W 
u^unnl ; tlwnl, Tljat fiu|>eriiir3. toTerigrs.. atiiI diaals. would tlien, 
hold Litonounw &s Cltriiitians — in fjtct, ic is bit ttmnlde upiniona 
' It would swi-elen tlits bn-Ath of Uritkh society,' " 

" A moat iK'ncfldiuJ t'fft'ct, and no HEvd for police," 

" In my jiidE^ent, tte Irainrng Bj-atem, if nniTUMailT astab- 
tkh(!dr would Imi of ttic most !ii<.'ktculabl<.> value to Uic iiittnstA 
of nionJiLy aad rcli^tpn in loivTia. aaJ in ii i'v^ jcara wonld 
dinaipatQ niiii'h error and vice from tin* ktid." 

" It wnidd raifw! tbc tone of murallty in. n very great Aegret ; 
and T think thnt it ahutdd Iw tbc duty iif Govemmetit to prorida 
similar Institnti-ms all over tho cDiintiy, and enable Llioac wlio 
are not nbk lu pay for tbe edu.catiuii of tbcif cliildi-en, to got 
aiEmisHiun to tliC-oi ^tfttU. Tllty »huuJd aso &terj- indiicnment 
to get them to attend; nay t wuuld suy, ^liould compel tbem ta 
attend, tho iutort^sta of the wLole camiriuuJly being- aL atoike." 

" It would, in Tuy opinion, do miirli g'lod in a. mora,! point of 
viow, besides giving timt natural (wat and modesty of deport- 
ment which 1 think it is calculated to itiBtll into the young/' 

" In myopiuiwci the adoption of the ^atcm would cban^»e the 
eharaeter of the i-ifling genoratton. It would cspaud their 
minds, im[)[yiVL' their ]]earta, and giro a projKT bent to their 
sffbctions — causa moral nnd rchitiTe dutica to lie a pleasing 
obligaEiott, and religioua dutieg to be better fnlilUed, II woald 
decrease ctiltio, and incrCAiiO habits of indu^trj' : aud, in fuel, tn 
& few yt-ars, would chiinge the afijxwt of society iHutdi for ihc 
Iwttei'p wpeeially among' tho middle Jind lower cluflsoa." 

■' I belieTo the traiaing sptera, if uniTcpsfllly cstabliahed, 
would be prodiiotiye of the very beat conseqiioncea to aociety, 
especially iu large towns, an the youth of nil ages and gr^ides 
come BO ii-H adily into coulact. The more cxperL loiave finds 
little trnvdile in eommunipiiting ]\h cspcrieiiKe to the leag pcr- 
fiict, ntid Ids mind heinn- a more blntik. Is suBcept ilile of any 
itupreiaion; but the universttlily of the trp-ining system wutilJ 
'f MiiTHC cultivate b fiir grcfttur proporlioa of tho [Liminn mind. 
oe then, for want of embotliuient, would, in u greiftt tni2jisiire, 
wppcar. Those ara the Lsisty answora I have biMU enabled to 




I 



gke ta the quorlca proftDseil ; xni us I bellevf Ihe cuhivation nf 
the liiimfin tnlod to be of the very higlic^t imp^^tjlI][^e, botii as 
It affMta ow I' present happiness and future prospecta liere anil 
lieroaftei.-, tuy warraeat gpatitade is due. to the ecc-rtftaiy aiid 
tenchera of tho Clnsgow Normal Seminary, foi' their ariluoua 
and <i(>ntimied exertiftn in tLc cause of (he eJui-Btlon ufyoiitL." 

" "We belJere that tie training BjHtern of education Tvoijld 
tend greatly t& promote tlio moral improyenieal of society, by 
loading eliildren to avuid those jwmicious lirtbJts and eusbuma s« 
niinouF to man, physically, momlly, and intcUcttually." 

" The training Byatcm, if univeraallj Kdopteil, ami brDiigbt 
■within the waeh of all children, would, in my judgtticut, hHve a 
mfst benefitial effect in Hiiaing the iatellectual and morul thkr- 
aoler of Bociety." 

" Suuii a beueficial eSsct as mold not he ea/^lly estimated. 
Secular knowledge not based on sound aerii^tural training, daea 
not dewTTC the name of educatjun." 

" Jlnwt rertniiily a good effett." 

From ctergymen and direttorg of Boliools everj*- 
wliere we have received, I nmy say, ■anantmoualy, the 
mogt aatiefactory testimony aa to the powerful effects 
of the systeni, in &ome caseS too laudatory to trao- 
aoribe. The condition of children generally, in every 
part of tho country,, ia slated hy our etudt-nts as being 
low in the e^ftreme, intellectually and morally, and 
this has been fully corroborated by the directora who 
appoiatfid these trainers to their gituations. 

IMTEODUCTIO:* OV THE TPAINIPC STSTflH IWTO fKISOlSS. 

Wb shall tranBcribe a single paragraph of a letter 

from the assistant of one of these trainers who had 
left the prison for another situation. It is addregsed 
to his former master- The letter k dated 12 th 
March, 1845:— 



TUB TRAIiOMO BIS 

" I rfjoif* thai [ WM tlw liumt.le meniu of ^ffprting a amnll 
jHtrttciii uf tlici p'KxJ wbifh jou Iuitl- Buice mRlurcd and jwrfroted. 
llftving ttvn Hif i'llrnunlinurv cflettfi of th* tniinihg nystcin, I 
rwinipt bill avow my pnrliwiDshi[v nnil I ojn foLly iv!K>lvcd to 

panni! the ume Oour» at —^ as a| . Id sa doing, tny 

flrmnMs wUt be scTcrely t^stnl. Sgnie «f our maatiTs, nnt evejj 
txtvpting the ■ ■ frtudente ! ctuirncttriic our Tiewa as Utopian 
■ — somclhinfr that may be dreaincd or. but never realizoj. If X 
poulil sUijw tlipiu :lDI tlio fiL'rw tempers you have bdIxIucJ. and 
'SHifci-ni'iI — nil [be rijfiouji pni]wniuti(?a you have Ijud asleep— all 
th* M-i] b;iliii^ cngMiiltred and fist-d Ijy a life pf sm. you hari' 
ci-A-licjiKxl— (iiiiij nil the despi^r^te charpctera you have reclaimed, 
thta the ajslem would bo establish^ witliout fearof refutation," 



STroKNTa—wnERB appoikted to. 

Tho average number of Normal students diir: 
the Inst few years, has been about fifty, varyiDg ac- 
cording to tlie season of the year. SaTenty is the p 
aL'nt number in atteadnnce. 

"We may notice a few of the places to which 
stLidenta liave been appointed. 

To the West India Ishmdg, between twenty imd 
tliirty, for private schools, and for the Govemmeut 
S[ico cliaritiea. The sttpcrintendfint of the whole of 
the Mico charity fldiook, atid rector of ihcir Nonaa^ 
Semiuary for traiiiing native trainers, waa a formal 
siudent of tins ii\atitHtion. ^* 

To British Anicrica geveral had been appointed to 
private acboola, and one as rector of n small Normal 
Seminary, 

To Australia, eigJiteen, assisted by Government. 

To Ceylon, by order of th&Ki^ht Hon. Lord StjiD- 
ley, colanial secretary, two rectora as heada of diti\ 



FSOOBESS A'SJt SFFECTH. 



4S1 



ent Normal traiiii!i2 seminariea for native teachers. 
These tiistituLions are situated at Colombo and Candy. 
To tlie fornier was appointed Mr. Knighton {Epis- 
copalian), and to the latter, Mr. Murdoch (United 
Secession). 

Repeated orders have Leen received from tlio 
United States (but we failed in inducing any to ac- 
cept of the situationa offered), 

A large number have been appointed to the Poor 
Law Unions of England, since 11^37, at which period 
a Government depxitation visited our Seminary. This 
is a most noble enterprise on the part of the Poor Law 
Commissioners, These union sclioola, however, re- 
quire to be more fully encouraged and extended by 
the boards of guardians, in their several districts. It 
ie stated as being well known that " there are at the 
least 4500 poor neglected outcast childr&n in auch 
unions throughout England," who too generally have 
been turned out upon aooiety to this extent, everr/ 
jfefljj^^ara, ignorant and untrain&d, and, therefore, pesta 
to the community." 

The Wesltiyan Conference committee have not only 
aent a largo number of students of both sexes to be 
trained for private schools throughout England, but 
lately thuy have eent lack several of their most accom- 
plished trainers to acq^uire the system moro fully, 
preparatory to the eatabliahment of a large institution 
of their own, in the metropolia, to be conducted on 
the eompUl^ traiaiog system. And to show their 
hearty good-will and desire to maintain the syatenn 
whilst they served their own cause, by availing th^3Tn- 



«n 



THE TH*IWI»6 BT8TBM. 



selves of the servicea of tliia the pn-'eat institnUon, 
they mtwt willingly trebled tlie usual fee for 70 atn- 
dents, which were trained during the year 1S44^ 
when, from pai-ticular circumstances, our funds were 
at the lowest ebb,* 

Several ttainera have alw) been fumiahed to the 
Eatabliahment at Norwood, and the popular and 
talented head master of Method at theTrdning Col- 
lege at Battersea was trained in thig seminary several 
yeare ago. 

Some clergymen and licentiates have undergoDe a 
course of trainings as also Beveral foreign inissiouariea 
atid catc-chiatg. 

Clergj'mcn of the Chnrch of England in the various 
counties liavo ordered trainers for their parish achools. 
We regret not heing able to supply more than a 
fourth or a fifth of such orders, from the limited 
Dumber of Episcopalian stndenta. Mnny, however, 
have ghidly en:pIoyed Presbyterianaj, who expressed 
a willingneafl to conform to the church service. The 
demand coattQiiea undiminished to thc> present time. 

A highly rcppectablo deputation from the National 
Society visited this seminary some years ago^~ — after 
which were established the Diocesan Training Sclioois 
of England for the training of schoolmastera. The 
system of instruction pursued, excellent in it&elf ne it 
must be, from the high character of the masters, it 
net) /tOiCevery the training system. 

la Scotland, Br large number liave been appointed 



I 



in toTvna and in the conutry, for parOchia.1 and privatQ 
schools, — to the latter more frequently, liowever, _ 
feara the difficulty of ioduciag the heritors to be at I 
t]ia expense of altering the construction of the parish 
schools, and providing /fhy-^round^ and other ap- 
paratoB. 

Persons of every evangelical denoinination, cimrch- 
men and dissenters, have "been regularly under train- 
ing in this institution, all joiuing with the most perfect 
unity and good feeling under our Chrialian maaterg, 
and SL'riptural system; and it is pleasing to notice 
tha.t while many clergymcii and directors of schoola 
required trnlnerB of their own communion, whom we 
were eomelimea unnhle to appoint, they frequently, in 
the spirit of cliarity, accepted for the:r school-trainera 
peraonS of other communions. 



\ 



I 



AHHCAL SBXAKb faK TKJIAIIiaa. 



I 
I 



Some idea of the demand for trainers, the amount 
of correepondence, and influence of tliis institution, 
may he furmed, when we state, that fur tho last eight 
or ttn years I officiaUy have had in my possession, at 
all times, the patronage oFsituatioca varying in total 
value from £600 or i:;iOOO to £2000. The vftlua 
of situations ordered during that period has heen oa 
the average each year about £20,1)00, although from 
the Limited number of atudents that could possibly be 
brought forward, the value of the actual appointments 
has not exceeded £T000 annually. 

Nothing but tlie w^nt of funds to assist the students 



4M 

fn mpporting thnfli^m^^^ffHR us. froio makiug 
iho niinimum coarse oE training tvrtlvo months !n- 
dtL-ad tjf six as at present." HaJ tliTee inontlis been 
ft flu&dont course, we beliuvD five times the number 
gf BtuJenta would readily have enrolled themselvea. 
It "baa been oitr weekly, uiij*. almo&t daily duty, pain- 
fid ihnugik it was, to decline such applicationg for 
a.dmissioD, and frequently from persons of the liigbest 
atta-innicnts. 

From among the many letters in my possesBtoo, 
highly laudatory of the system, I select one which 
was received by a friend of ours, a former student of 
this seminary, and which appeared lately in one of 
our public Journals. Notwithstanding its uDforttinate 
personality, still, for tlie sake of the ezhibition which 
it affords of the progress of the system in foreicni 
parta, I give it entire, along with the note which ac- 
companied it. 



THE TRAINING aiSTSH IN THE WEST IHUIA laLXNnS. 

To the Ediicr of the SceltUh Guardian. 

Ghtsaow, 28th Dec., IS-iJ, 
Mb. Edjtoh, — I Imve imd the jileasiiro af iweiviny the aocam- 

pnnyJLig Iptler froiii mv o^tcpiuod tVbnil, the Sew. W. llauacr. 
Supcrintcnik'ht of the Mi^i^ion of the Unit*] Brotheen in tha 
I>iijki9li W^t 1ndi«s ; nnd I think it Aue to tho iU»tLng^iish«(] 
iniliriduitl of whom tt apc&kfi ao highly, as well ae to tbe sysb-m 
which he lina Jabourtd so ind'cffltigablly to inlToduc*, tliat it 
sliDuld have s. place in your columns. 

It ifl to mc altfi^thor iiJineccunt^hle, thflt, wlule sncc^aa Bhoold 



fltDGREB^ A!«r> £fS£CTa. 



iSS 



tem into Ejiglanil, Noitli America,, autl the West IndirK, here, 
in Glaagow, wliere it took its riae, ihcns aliould Dot be fo^mil o-ne 
Boboul irliere it is allowed to be. tliorouj^hly carried out. Tn the 
tiRLiiiiigsemlnflrieaof the MicaClmrityiii Jamaioiacifl Antigiia, 
■wo luivt! beeij privile^pfl. ig aeqd out upwards <jf two h'liidj^ 
natives to conduct istltoula in connectiDn Hitti tli* various demu' 
tDLnationain this difierent iahiiids, undat eaoltiof our iiutitutinna 
the demand is greatly beyond what we lire able tu supply, Wiur- 
OTer one (if our trainers lias Ik^ce located, we have iiiviiriahly had 
persona sent tooarseinJnicryl'romaclnMlaiii tlie vioirity ; nfford- 
inn- a nn>of of the superiofity of tJ't] syrtein ftvi?rtliHt upoti which 
tliey w«re accustomed to conduet theii' Bcbottk, If the (^stuniiny 
of tlie clprgy nnd niiBSMiinrioa, whose tt'iM-'heni liitve been trained 
undef the Mico Charily, woiild he regarded of nny Viilue, I have 
in ray poss^^8S(ion a host of letters from tliL*m, ro4!ordiog iL^ir ej- 
[Krieuce uf the vastly improved chamcter of the itisttnutiou, and 
the changed appcamncc of th» clilidieD, One cxcuUcnt mkaion- 
ary 'sayB, — " Aficr having Iwen long engaged iii thu worli oi 
education at home, i;d<1 now that L liave seen the Training Sya- 
tem in nperati.on in my own aehool, ao cfficipnlly tiarricd out by 

, I lisTe OQ heaitatioo in saying, tliat I legiui'd it above all 

otljers suited for tho negro childi-en." 

I am, Mr. Editor, 

YouTB, Ac, 

Joux Mtiler, 
CeneraJ Sujiorint^ailentr Mico CharH^ 
KomiEil ScLooliJ. 




LoNPOy, 2l8t 'Dec,, 1811, 
Mt Dear Bbotiibr Mixlbb,— Ton will be intci^sted tb Tii^ar 
of the publication O'f a. work in tho Gemian langtiuge, translated 
troin the English, cntitW, Stow's Tntintng System, w]*icb a& 
jou well kuow, I vaiu-C extr^niely. The a.pjieara-ncc of this cx- 
uellont work and the publieatioii of Its inuoiujiarable njst«-ra, in 
my native Innd, wliert^ it liaa lH>on hitherto i|iiile iinlinown, h 
nut only a matter of rejoicing to me on its own account, bnt alio 
inosmnch us I may consider tnysolf the cause of iia Iranslatioti. 
To ei\it more particulaily iuto tLc gabjcct ; wti^ti I Hni arrived 



I 



4M THE TIUTNTXa STSrEH. 

hi Ht, Croix, iu 1840, my uirUeagues wcra joflt then biuily eii' 
gaged in rvgubtiag the eiglit E^bDals erccfed by Gcvveroment for 
Uie edmcntiun of uegro chililren fnira four to eiglit years old, 
bsYin^ iuvilwl Br. Gardin fi-o«i Anligiia for this [lurjioso, and 
iatnulc-4 Uiiu ■"'ith ibe auiicrmUiiKk-iiM of the wliuk- plan. Much 
that I mW sod heard tlica was quite qow tu mt>, liotli as to the 
InWrn&l irrwi^CKvent u! the achwl house*, jitkI atiU maro the 
repcstL'd ileclaratioiiB of the brcthrett RoTner and tJnrdiji, tliat 
Qiir ywiug bre.thi^a who had l>i?J!n nteustiitncd to our schooli aef- 
Tic« In Eiiriipo and Aniprica. aa I hud Ikbh twelve years mv^e-lf, 
wotdd t>e quit*.' iLuk'ss in the West Indies, till tlltry hi,6 ma 
thetuKlvo* »eqiiaint«l with tbe truitiiii^ systuui. 1 was bu 
lirifrpd and BtunilileJ nt tlm osscrLiuu ; it Eoemcd to me an ex- 
aff^mlan, or a Btriving after sumethiiig novel anil striking, and 
I cim)ii not com]jrehcii<l why our wholi'^ mpthnd of t':uuhii]g elioiilit 
b^ [irvikOiinqed iml] and Toid, aa coippsrcd with a. Bjatcm df whub 
I had lienor heard even tlifi nam^. 

M^' Bituativti, a!) ci^igip^iiiuii uf firoth(>r Uroutelj ds his Yuiiar 
tioii, gave nit! the cipporLuuilj of tamiiDji; an nLTarnle e.itimntflt 
not only of onr niJAaioiiary work in tlieBts iftliimb, but ot'tlie sys- 
tem to be intrtidiui-ttd Into the Hihools ; and I acknowledged that 
1 viDwtjd the latter with some pivjudiw. The first of these 
Bchoula had been fl]rp«i!ir » mouth in prugrewt, when I vlidtcd it 
for th« Itrst time, iti J*\'hnittry, ISdl. What 1 aaw th*re far 
suipn-ised my expectations, The negro echuola, viltii-h I had 
hithiTto regarded mcrt'ly as a eise^ and deslnihlG ins ti Cut ton, 
from that bunr appeared to nif.- a thing of tirBt-rnto and indis- 
p^nsabk itn^^jrlancc, and the training- sy^tam tho only one which 
ooTjld hi; eunlfil out, oi' vrliifh wati suited to the caputlty of the 
negfo youth. Brother JJi'eDtel foiifurrtHi with me in tipinioQ ; 
sail wc now coHiiidi^reJ tbo emlogiEa to which we had so aiivn 
li»tont'd with n degn-o of repugnanpc-f by no mcanB overdiarged, 
And iJepetiding on the Lord, the children's friend, in cunJideiiL 
hope that Ho would never Ie^to us without faithful teachbrw, 
we saw in t.Iie adaption of this Byttchi. tiOt only an effieaeious 
means of Inying hoM on the youthfid hcurla, ii«iJ laying a vnlu- 
ablv foutidatLou fuf Christirui triiining, on nhicb we could mb- 
jwiucuCly baild, but also an cfTuctuiU instrument fur pn.-'fvaring 
the auliool (eachers thud eugnged for practical miwilonaries. 



raodsras Aim mrestvai 



I 
I 



now reoil tliia cscetlpiit book, as w«!I a« my Imowlcdgc 
the langMB^ thi'n enabled me, luid was convmctHl Ibat tlnifi waa 
Uh only educatioral system baaed tlipaughout on Christian prLn- 
I rciaarlcecl to a friund at the time. Our Lord would 
have written autli a syateni Imil lie been n writ*!" ; nor d& I 
nun retrs-vt tin; s^iiertiaa. lil this sy^t^D) th^ Bible ia (llD only ' 
duo, nnd guides tlie way lo BTibjeets for wliicli I could not Imve 
UBed tlie Bible previously, or for wliich I thonght I could not. 
Here in admiralilB unison, th'uro In cultare Ibr spirit, heart, aai 
mind, and for the lK>dy hesides, wElIcIi is too often neglected. 
IleKh iBacliiiig and training go hand in hand, and ate interwoven 
lik« !K>dy and aoul. The Atleiition of tbe childrcb la awakened, ' 
uxercL-'tcd, enchained, aud turned to account, and all thia ilk tDi 
easy, untiiral, uncurjs trained a manner, that ono wundora how onn ' 
eoukl luivo taught ■ithci-wlae n single day. The variety of ubjecfa 
ti-eatcd of aHowa of no weariness, and the calling their own faeiil- 
ties Into action encourages and c^nllvena the cliildren, luaMiig ■ 
time fiy. and miBes tliem tu thJnliiiig beings. The bodily tier- fl 
daca intermixed, unite withdivcrGiuntho restoration cf attention 
und tbc reeal of tlieir Bcalterod ihuugbfE, without the niicessity 
for adnujuitjona, ivbieh by trcqucnt repetition loao tlieir foree. ■ 
j^nd tbe Billies, the Bible is eonst^ntly prominent in ftjl tbeso V 
departments ; its prnetjcfti ap]ilieatioH appears in every lesson ; 
the puni aliments for misbehaviour aire taken from it, and judg- 
luc'at h protLDunced in tlie words of the Bible \ty the children 
thenuelvis. Tho whole g^undwork of the Bj-steia is not an 
affkii' of memory, but inquires und produees tbe exertion of the 
n.iind. to eomprebend the eteinenti^ of wliieh tbo Intelleat pivea 
the reanlt, and ihua approprintcs it, and atorea it deeper than 
what is merely eonddcd to a treacberouB memory ; the rapid and 
punetuibl imitation of the teacLcra moTomentd. whicb uoCilBloiaa i 
to thAt iittentiou In wliieh the negro is so deficient, atriltea even I 
41u adversftrics t>f education, of wliiLdi there are many iji thtit 
idand, and plt^oaes them, iriiisnincli aa it prepares esoelLent aer. 
vanta for tbem. The Kinging, tbe mar^hinjr, all well adapted 
iiot only for learning but eultiyaticn, the Kninll clnnaca before tb?. 
I'eading Iwards, tbe goo<l order observed, the UiU And tb«whiRlsi 
instead of tbe loud Tolee of tho teacher, in Hhort, sll tlint I sawj 
BJid heard, 'exMbited & plan working out its object in admirabls^ 



I 



UB 



THS TKATKOte ftVSIKH. 



luuiuuiiy, loMbio^iuil IrAitiiii^ a11 the f^uJlioe ftf the mind aud 
lilt powers of t!(e Loilj— a will-rousiOcrcd Byitfrm.tlie product of 
Ignai infiight 'mtn hinnan nataro, which mnkvs sL-hiKil a iuirt of 
plcWKTc t<i both tcaolicrh ami vliildri'ii, and Jtaiiei-rep>tihly infttik 
tlicgrent truths iif the goa[)el into tlic jflutiiful honrl, romipted 
an il ia hy tiJri, Aail nhich, llatwiths1il^lllnt,^ iIih^^ nut si;t et<A^\- 
fliTeyly oa either the lieacl i]r the heart, but iiati^c^ Imth, liur- 
iDoniies both, and docs uut leave the dUtpo&llivn of either unin- 
fluenced. 

Ilftre Clu-Jsti&nB arc fomiciid, ae far oa can be dnue by Icacliiug ; 
the PTTOTs of other systLims are P(iji?ijt.cd, and laiowlcJgc la 
vanrwyJ liy religion, whtltt religion is eiJivtned \<y kninvl^Ml^ ; 
here Gvi'e Ioyc » (he nxle yn which the whcilc r«A*uhc9. Sweh 
mujt th& Mhools of the tiret CLriBliiins haTi? been, if tLcM were 
eaeit sehoolB. These were the rDinarks whiuh I Uien ttiHiJc, be- 
fore the Governor-GcnDral El ml Lheiithernutbcrlties ufthe colnoy. 
I wiiB n^liamed of my funLier tencblng, aud wished tlmL 1 toxild 
liave tht! time again to be able Ut work a^ wy coJlcn^es now 
ein drt, •»♦••*••• 

He forms teaclien, eav\i at whom ia a fruitful hud . thut -wIU Ifear 
fruit for eternity a tLonaaiidrQld. Thifi conyiction induced me tu 
wud an aceount of the training system to Brother RoUlgCD of 
CHiristiiinflfebl, head of the school thero, and he, too, was greatly 
Htrutk with it, " T ftlt a (Ojsjjicion." he wrote in replylong ago, 
" tlmt we were ploughing tLifi sGA and sowbtg on sand, and now 
Ihearof your schools 1 nm conTineed of it. Tou hmvo happily 
thrown oEFthe yoke nf old prejudices* and work unfettered, re- 
freshing youraelTes at the well of llff, follinring the line gf which 
ftno end ia fasii-ned to earth, while the other tvuehrs hea-veo." 
Thus, tlio training aVRlOia waa liOi'li known to the circle of 
teachers there ; they OLiicrcd the (louk ; Brother Jn^cbke trans- 
lated it into Gei-mEUi. and it ia now advertised itl the public pa- 
p&re. Mny many of ray counlrymi;ii have theii" eyes openod, as 
toine biTc bcun, • * • * • 

W. IlACKEn. 



A clergyman of the Church of England writes as 
allows, of date 25th March, ] 844;— 



PHOGHEBS AND EFFECTS. 



450 



introduced two years age 
been attended with the 



to say that the ' training Sj-stcm/ 
enrs ago into my national school, has 
best Buccesa. In reading, 
writing, aritliraetic, both slate and mental, the school 
will hear a compariaon with asx other which I havo 
seen- But there oro aome particulars in which the 
system appears to produce resuita almost, I should 
tliinkf peculiar to itself. I will select two or threo 
of the most gratifying of these results in our own esc- 
psrieucs. 

MoBAL Effects. — " Dniing the wliole of the Inst 
eummer, we have no reason to enpposo that, in any 
siflgle iastancc, wero any of the gooseberries, currants, 
or strawberriiBSj in our noble play-grouud, taken by 
the children. The fi-uit when ripe was gathered and 
diyid&d among them in the school-room, 

ScttiPTCBAL Knowledge.—*' At the last public 
e:caTuination which I attended, tho children showed 
an acnte and accurate aeq^uaintance with a large por- 
tion of the Old Testament, such as would have done 
credit to the candidates for ordination. They dia- 
pUyed also an intelligent acquaintance with th@ lead- 
ing doctrines which are referred to in our Articles. 

Geograhpt. — " The knowledge conveyed to the 
children of the great ontlines of tliis branch of know- 
ledgOj I consider to be perfect,, by which I mean 
something Tery different from what ia usually taken 
away from the more respectable achoola in England. 

Intellectual Habits. — *' As the understandings 
of the chitdren are, under your syateri, continually 
e£erci8<ed upon the subjects before them, it is utterly 



40d TUB TRAINING ETSTBH. 

impossible but Oiat they are acquiring a hftljit of in- 
tolUgencc tlint fit* therii for enti^ring into any depart- 
ment of life ititu whicli they may be grafted. I can 
truly any, from wlmt 1 hiivo seen, that I would ra- 
tlier epiploy a masoTi, a. carpenter, or a servant who 
hltd gfino through this preparatory education, thaa 
aoy one who had merely passed In tbc ordinary roii< 
tine. 

*' My itupressioc ia very strong that ycu cannot 
confer a greatt c blessing upon the public, than by pre- 
paring young men of intelligence and piety fur the 
situation of mitsterg in our natioTinl schools — selecting 
such young men of intelligence and piety from the 
Cbureh in whose service they would be employed. 

'* P.8. — 144 children Lave entered this quarter,- 
lUO is the highest winter numbeir in old times. 

" P.S. — I have jnsl inqiiirctl of the master, who corrects my' 
itftCemeDta, liy t(?lliDg me tlmt ime boy was deiocteil m taking a 
gmHebeny, And I may add, tliiit so ptrfccL is tlifi principle (t£ 
moml imiain^ iiu-rouDd in my sclioul, tliat bMct th<^ cxamiiiation 
wliicli Intely took place, I was enabled to present ti> Iho cLildren 
no fewer tlia.n ten j»irila of red and \'/]ntv i^werbaU, which they 
pulliMl and brought to me, and whit'L bad bceu pcnnittcil 4.0 rip«n. 
Ia theu' play -ground. A twbic proof of tho power of the tmin- 
ing Bystem." 



I 



"We bavegeaerally the pleaaura of bearing firotti o\ 
students respeeting tlie progress of the Beveral training 
sclioola to which they may have been appointed. The 
following experience from a furmer etudentj a. natiTe 
of our Sister Isle, and a man of high intellectual vi-A 
gpnr and Christian zeal, we present, as aft'otdiDa; at 
analysis of this natural state of feeling in Glasgow, 



fltOGaBaS AND EFFSCTS. 461 

Tefeired to in Mf. Miller's letter, to which wc shall 
subjoin on& or two other equally natural cauBca which 
tend to produce this result ; — 



* 



"MitDkabSik, — I mosl ctiecrfiilly gire yon a stat-eniGiit of 
my experletiM in reference to the woriting of yoiir gygtcm, and 
of ftoine facta ill ustra tire *f its liifluonc* on the ckUidrcn under 
my esne, 

" Oa tmmJTig to GlttS-^w, S&vfirul years agn, T wna siirpriged 
to fijid pcmpjipatively few. even of those most intuuntply con- 
reeted with cJiicatiun, thoroughly acquainted vrith the pecnlia- 
rities and working of a ByBteni of which I JiaJ Glsewhere lieaixl 
BO mwch. In GiUgland tlic systtm wiia estensisdy kuvwn luid 
adopted, and In Ii-eUnd I hud fnGqiieEitly h^ard itsmcritadk- 
cnsaed. I thorefoHB uaturady expected to find ita lieading priti- 
ciplcB, if not generally a^optpd in Clnsgow, at least genetaJJy 
linderfttood. Instead af thia, thosa with whonn I convorsed on 
tlie auhject almoBt invitriably cgndemned thi eystciu. None 
wxire stH loud in their cemiilaiiits and aecusatictna as these whose 
knowledge of ths ayat<'m liad bec-n aequh-pd by a few 0H«ual visits 
to the Normal Trahdng School. I had read in your books of 
'tlio power of tlic aympaihy of nnniliers/ aa a means of icomi 
government and of aiinultancons intcllcciiiJtl deve]opment^^^^ 
the lienelicial chsiracter of the plaj-ground, or • BDcaverctl achwl,' 
aa iiufulding frvtry vnriel-y of disposition atld opening luOre fully 
and undisguiscijly to tlie eye «f the olj9tTv»cL trainer, the heart 
of each pupil in liia school. I hitd read of thu mipurtancie af 
■cultivating the finer icelings of our natnre---of forming correct 
habits — of the aim, in »hvrt, to 'tr&in Iha whok' man'' as a eo- 
ciftl, an inteilcotuid, and iinmurtftl being ; and to fit iiim, so far 
aa human means can reach, for the highest dcetiniea»f hia tJOet- 
ence. When reference was mude tt* these, and t!ie oiliet- more 
prominent features of your syfltena, it was easy to piteeite th«y 
irerc all regarded as^ UttJo bettor than the idle YflgimM of an 
enthusiast. 

" Snbseq^uent exporionee haa enabled me to acMuot for thia 
feeling. It i» common to aC who make the cultivatiun of the 
intellect the Cnd of education, and who rcs| fatisdcd with a small 



THE TEtAcnira sraTEir. 






ipuJinnit vf rvLJgious ipstroctJvn. a* well u to thofle 
\y lu the aim of tim Tr&iiiing Syslem, nho, however, hare 
inwsl AWSjr dlHsntiafiwi, before tbej liave gjren ha princiitl^a a 
carpfuJ ioTeotiigfttioii, or its working s just and |»iticnt trial. 

AlLhoilEh Coe biy «Hii part, (Vuid A car^luJ <* <aniinii |ini) <)||' 

TiL'Vrs, 1 lliought Uiclily vf tli<? ^stvm,. r cGrtniniy felt mucli 
is iL['|>oUi It'll, uut ouly (luring my tint vlsita io the Nurmal Sip- 
miliary, liut for Rumo weeks afftvr hc'ivg enrolliNi ns • atiulent. To 
form eliifw** nnd to piil (|U<^tJona during' tlie proceas of giving a 
li?Bson — to commuiJeiilo rcligiouB anil general knowledge — to 
t«ach tha wJinnrj braucln?* of im English eduf aiion — to super- 
intend (lie children, and {irsvent miiwlii'ef in tlie pbj- grounds, 
prraetitfid nt fint eigiit i^o little tkut was striking or aovcl, tbnt 
I 1)Ggaa to think wDtti others, tbnt aftoi- all; ' there is nothing id 
tlio Sj-st«m.' I subsequently felt less surprise, that even iu th* 
immediatci vicinity of the Chu^gow S^minnry, so many shuulil 
not apprvciitto tlie beonty jind power of your plflJl of cdiieation. 

■' It ia the nicclinnioal part of llie ayi^teni, cmlinmeiTig Kinging, 
narcliliig. nnd phyaicnl escreisca. thut must furcihiy iirre^ts the 
attoDtian of the CAdual viaitor. He doea not, at firat, perccivii the 
abject vf tLes?. Encli he re^gat^ rather us an etid in itself, 
withiUt swing its aubservjency as a. port ot tlim intliaenge nnd 
m»;baiu»m hy wLiiu^h am flecured that proniptnoaa of obcdienoe, 
Kad that cunstaiLcy of att'enlion, which are ao indinpeuaaMy n-e- 
cessary to tlie tolid upbuilding of tlio whole intelloetual acd 
mural fabric, He ba3 no opportunity of wntcliing the gradual 
unliilding of cliaraotpr — the slow process ot undoing bad habits, 
and of forming &ad st^rengtUeniug new onos— ho caniiot trace tho 
infliience ou the children of a series of Bible leasons, in which 
they iheinsckea tnve taken an important |iart ; nor e.ia he no- 
tice lliii intellectual development cxhiljit'ud iu [iroeeedin^ on thi 
tyalera. Btejj by step, thrpiigli (lio adniiralilo course of ^neral 
and Kieatific les^nit pnacribed in your book. Thew things lie 
too far bc'ow the surface for casiud obMrratioft ; tbcj come only 
witliin the coguizfl.n.ce of the watelifiil trainer or llie parent. 
And yet from the limited view of aomo of tlia more obvious a&d 
in thcmaelv<?s less impartant features of th« system, obtainfMl hy 

'ew desultory viiits, opinions arc hastily fomi<^d, imfaTQarablv 
e whole »L<hoFDe. 



I 



I 



I 



, wftB not unlil 1 liart oarefiilly noteJ ita effcot on the cl 
(Iren, |)hjslc,Tlly, morally, and inlellectualily, that J tiegan to bo 
fuHy BSSUMiii of its etlu'ien<-y and iic]KJrtiiiico ; nor until I maili; 
the att^'Uipt, WJia I couvinced of the (iiffiuultyof properlif inter- 
4?3Li.ng Aciil cxcrci?ing the children's mindfl. This I believe hsa 
teefl the osppri<!Mc« of all who have Mloptol yoyr system, A 
Hhort time's practice is sufficieDt to make us ftcl tiie foree of 
Cetil's remack — that nothing ig <;»sier tti.-in to taJk to cliilJren, 
but to talk til tbc'iu aa they ought to ho talked to rpqiiirca our 
highest etl'oi't, foi- with the knowledge and os|wricne« cf uan- 
bood it i» extremely difSeidt to lliniw our thou^bt^ iiitu the 
iiabitA of riiildrtni's iuind». 1 am now gutisfi^^^d that, wherever 
yonr iyB-teitt ia ajiri'owly ami impartially sU'ted Bjjd examined, 
tho result will be a cotiyiction of its superinrit j. Tliose engaged 
ill active eomnit-rtial pursuits bavo not Icimire for the examiiut- 
ticrn, but it m aurely the duty uf uU conn^ctcit wiib tlie cducft- 
tion of llie people, to maka tliemBolveB nequaintcd with the na- 
ture EJid worliiiig of a aysteia whoso principiua ai-e so strictly in 
accordance with all the Uws thnt trg^lntc ttio human cocistitii- 
tion, and wliosc lAtyxX vi uUD of tho highest aitd iLohleat on earth. 
" Looking forward to tlie miuisti'y mysdf, I wish 1 ronld per- 
suat^c niy fellow -students of the ImporCanoe of acuniring ;i ltnoTv> 
ledge ■of the Training Syatcni, nut & knowledge laei^lj nf the 
meanH and the end proposed, (tbese are cBSily eomprpheu JcJ | ; 
hat of what is of still greater naomout, tkc metkod or art of ninst 
effectually using tlic-se njeaus, for the ac-compliAliment of that 
end. It ia our duty to nsecrtain tha best m«ana of infusing soand 
prineiph's, tmd forming \irtuou8 huLits. A cnrefid serntiny of 
the Jeadiag t;y»temH of the prosent day has convlneed m« of thfl 
superior efiicieuey of yours. For widle, in almost every expanded 
plan of oducatioiii, rdi^iona iagtruction now forms a prominent 
feature — iftn essence " aiH jcantiriffr there must bo more thna 
mere precept or tlicory — there must ho the domff or practice. In 
your sygtem alone, while ample provistou is made for pliyBical 
and intcCcotual improvement — tJiiJa constitute-s one of tho chief 
charftctetlBtLCS- Thia training' to practise the losaous lnelllcftt^}d, 
eannot be begmv top carfy. As the youngest mciubcrs of evory 
congregation are the mast Lopcful nnd moet Qsnilj moulded, ta 
them our highest efforts ought ta bo dii J"te4. Fw if ths for- 



\ 



4G4 



THE 1&jUKJ>C SYSTSar. 



auilion of tbfl moraj cliara^t^r i-i not earJ^ and must eediiloiul; 
wnLrbpd orcr — ircliildren zire It^ft tn thciu&plveB m ao Gir iu rc- 
liginua eisniplcar ]Tli^oua(r»iuitLgiAL-&tioLTucd — it matters nob. 
hsw great tlio IntplltHtuat ^ulturo. a proeiPiiaof vicinua iirlf-ir^in- 
infffoeson. Bad hnljjtn ari> aci|uircd aod BtrenglhoDCd ; pu- 
iJmm gratitied , and fwlin^s cHiorinhed, tbe evil luHueqceaf wlikh 
^«ftr8 of &nxiou!i^ labour on the purl af llie tt-acher may not be 
PUffii^iiMlt to co-untcnurt. Tlie feeling of Lo[h:]l-ssii«i9 that gene- 
rally »tt<?nila tLe attempt tp -effL-ct a vtinn^c iu tho.'se whose ha- 
Lit-i hnrc beoome invcterately corifinuvd by lon^ yeura of pntc- 
tioe Ls natural, nnd to a rertwin extent juat ; for tliB laws ©f our 
mentnJ and moral ccDinnny are, in hucI] it caae, n^iuat the ef- 
forts of the Cliriiitian. Deprayed iutbitsjocig in Esereisf , beeome 
3o a great meMurc part of tliovery tcsture of the tmman cansii- 
t«iion. When t'he tree lias spread its r*ots niddy and deeply, 
and aAauxiicd ita form, who can bend, it ? These fa«ta niak>e me 
nn«t anxjou!!^ that all pi-eparing for tbe wgrk of the niinialry 
should feci it to ho their duty, io (innlify themselves for directing 
the phyacal, mnnd, and uDtfliecluai tntiniDg of tlio young of 
their chsrgc, beforo the tas,!* beconipa all Iiut hopeli^aa, and lo 
adiOpt, with this vie«, those mcuTia wttich lon^ and tried experi- 
ebim has prov^.'d to be most cffioacioos, 

" It ia iiupoBaitjIe tu refer, tn a smgle li?U«r, to all the adrrth- 
tagca wIul^h Uic fuUy eKrrying out uf your Eyatem in Rut'd Utsv- 
eure. Wen) it generally adopted, aad its power brought to bear 
OB the hundreds ut' thonsanda that arc growing ap iu the heart 
of Dur large cities, amid all the tninsroata of a poisonona moral 
atmosphere, Tvho never hear the Tinme of Gi>d uttered eavo In 
anguish or lu miH-kery, th« beucAt woiild he, in every point 
of view, inoidculnble. But, ivithuut entering into spc^eulatioa 
regarding ita probalillQ edects, inaoy of wiiich cannot bo duly 
oatimateJ, it mfly be, on thla aide of eternity, lot eig state 
somo of the practical results alroady furnislioil hy its work- 
ing- in tlie school of whkh I have charge. Tlus ie tho beat and 
sftfest way of jud'.'ing 4jf its elh'uiQnoy, and teating ita prin- 
eiples." •<>•*• • 



Otlier caiisea have operiitecl in reducing the num- 
licr iff Training ScliouU in Glasgoiv, btbd in the face 




I 
I 
I 

I 
I 



JSauS OP TDK TKAIHl^rO SCBOOLB BaTAIUSBSb IN fiLAgoOW. 

We aro generally dispoaed to pay Kigher fot a fo- 
reign than a lioiiie article. This liaa I>een the case iu 
Glasgow in regard (o trainers. What strangers pay 
^100 a-year for, haia liei^n valued at home at abont 
£60 or £70. Conseqiicutly, like every article of 
commodity, the highest bidder is preferred. It ia all 
very well for parting rolling in wcallli, and full of 
philanthropy^ to say to sclioolm asters, You are a very 
useful and intaresting get of men, we cannot do with- 
out you, tut 3'ou must learn to be content with a very 
moderate ghare ol tho good things of thig life, we shall 
give you what endowment we can, but you must take 
in ag many cliildren as yoTir school can hold — yon 
must try and make t/ie sdiool paj/ ittelf. This, how- 
ever, will not enable the respeciable Schoolniiaster to 
appear suitably dressed, or support a wife and chil- 
dren, or pay for the Utter an apprentice foe, ehould 
hs b« disposed to bring up his boys to any trade Gr 
profession, far less set off his daughters in a respectahta 
manner, should they happen to get married, la the 
master to be blamed for accepting a higher salary, pro- 
vided be can only receive, where ho happens to be 
placed, a sum scarcely fit to support him in the sta- 
tion of a mechanic ? Yet such ia the too general prac- 
tico of very many highly intelligent, Christian, and 
wealthy directors of schools in Glasgow. 
2 G 



46t5 



THB TRAIWIHO flTSTEK. 



Within a very f«w yoara, 22 training schools were 
fitted up and cstabUabed in Glasgow and suburbs, 
through the matru mentality and according to the plaD 
of the Slodel Schools of the Normal Seminary. One 
half of the coat of each was received from Government 
for the purchase of play-grouDde, and the erection of 
school -huuacs. To 14 of thette, school trainers (we 
uoao peraona trained in the Seminary) were chosen, 
and 8 ieoohors uatralned, and unaccustomed to the 
syBlem, were appointed to the reniaiuiog schooTs. The 
fate of the former 14 aohoole we shall state %vithout 
entering into particulars, which although sad as re- 
gards the hoped-for effect on the morals of the youth 
of the ueighbourhoods in which those schools were 
located, yet the cause wm natural, partly from the 
reasoTig j tist given in the letter of the Jrigh atudeat, 
and partly from tho fact of the presence in Glasgow 
of the seminary itaelf, whicli from week, to week at- 
tracted tiie attention of Btrangcra who visited it, as 
the parent Normal Institution. 

"We may state that small claries in general were 
given to the trainers in Glasgow, smaller than were 
offered by letter, and otherwise, from dirfictors in dif- 
ferent parta of the kingdom and in the colonice, who 
had arrived at the point of valuing the system. 

Clergymen, noblemen, directors of schoola, and 
persona of all ranks, weekly visiting the Normal Se- 
minary, and e;cpre5girig high admiration of the system. 
puraued, naturally inquired if any private training 
schools existed in Glasgow ? Yea^ of course, was 
the answer. The situations were mentioned. They 



HtOUKESB AJfD EFFECTS. iff?* 

Visited one or otliei of them, and admired the OTder 
of the school, and alacrity and intelligance of the 
children. The trainer was asked tbe question, What 
salary do you receive ? The answer in getieml was, 
Si^tif Pounds. Sixty Pouadg — why, if you tome to 
my pariah, or my district, I shall give you £90 or 
£lOO. Of courae off they went. In bis place an- 
other trainer wag applied for and appointed,,who again 
was bought off in the same way. In several iustan- 
ceSj however, tho directors of the school being only 
partially accLuainted with the aystem, appointed teach- 
ers:, not trainert, until Ijy their shiftings and chang- 
ings all tliese tiuining schools have been turned 
into teaching schools. The teaclierB, of course, not 
beiDg habitua^ted to the use of the gallery, could not 
make it available, and of courae, knew as little how 
to make use of the play^ ground. Each of th€se insti- 
tutions, however, having the apparatua, may be in- 
stantly turned into a training school, by the appoint- 
ment of a trained master. 

The esisteuce of the parent institution, therefore, 
while it was the means of establishing so many train- 
ing Bchools, proved the indirect means of depriving 
th&m of their trainers:, and its moral and intellectual 
efficiency. 

We may state that ia the nelghhouring town of 
Paisley, containing live trainieg schools — one Initia- 
tory and four Juvenile, ihey shared the same fate, 
and frotn similar causes. Thia is a very melancholy 
result ; for certainly there is not a town id the king- 
dom where training schools ore more needed, or where, 



IBS 



tarn ^AiMno rrvnat. 



from the cheapoeea of ground, thej can be more eaailj 
oatnblisiied. 

The qu>GgtioD is frcquentl}^ put. What did yoa find 
to W the rcBulta of the Bible training ■eserciae? in 
y&ur own Sabbath School, the principle of which ifi 
its simple form you endieavoiired to work out during 
BO many ypars? If it be powerful in results, as you 
state, what effect haa it had on your own sc\\olstTsl 
My answer is, first, ihat my Sahbath Scholars, tn the 
number «f 30 to iO, remained with me pretty con- 
tinuously fof le or 18 years. 

Diiritig the first 8 or 9 years, nothing of Tital piety 
appeared in any one of the number, beyond an exter- 
nal dcci^ncy and propriety of behaviour aa well as man- 
ner ; and a decided intellectual elevation. At the 
end of these 8 or 9 years, wlieiij from providential 
circumBtancea,. I was least able to attend to their in- 
struction, nearly every one of the girla became de- 
cidedly pious. This was manifested not merely by tha 
regukrity of their attendance upon pubhc and private 
worship, but in the depth both of thought and feel- 
ing exhibited in their anaweri in school, ami in the 
rapid advaneement they made in spiritual understand- 
ing. They in fact quite outstripped the hoys, their 
mindg were bumbled and their thooghts engaged in 
far higher things than the passing trifles of a day, and 
the empty gewgaws of Sunday finery and dreaa. 

About a year after this nearly all the boys, or rather 

the young men, manifested the same Spirit, and thea 

wtnwf? their own intellectual position in the 

from this period I became the rcg^uhlor or 



rRaO&EBS AXD KFPBCTS. 



4es 



I 



I 



I 



frain^ not the teacher of the school, Bind with plea- 
Bore and gratitude do I state that, on Sabbaths, and 
sometimes during the week, I met my pupilg to hear 
tl^eir elucidations of soripturs truth, and tci be per- 
sonaUy improved by their Tnried aod rapid advance- 
ment in dirine knowledge. "Weekly prayer meetings 
■were held "by (he sexes in most instances s^nratel^, 
and these young people in their turn immediately 
imposed upon themselv&s the task of teaching the gos- 
pel to the mote ignorant children of their own neigh- 
bourhood. A week day JuYenilo training Bchool was 
also established^ and conducted by a student trained 
in the Normal Seminary; they themselves teach 14 
local Bahbath schools, and hare eereral hundred chil- 
dren in attendance, whose families they Tiait on 
week days. Within four years from the eatahliahoient 
of this week-day Trainisig School in conjunction with 
the local Sabbath Schools, the Superintendent of 
Police stated, and which was commitnicated to the 
teachers by him unasked, that, tfie numbsr of c&m- 
mitTnents to the Police OJtce in thai particular die- 
trial had been reduced tito-ihirds. This waa a suh^ 
urban district without churches or schools, without 
any aggressive local Christian influence whatever, and 
therefore most vicious and degraded. Our rulcra may 
gather from thia fact, that Bible Training and Moral 
Training are tHE caeapebt police. 

THK BlflTm INTKODCCXD IHTO FASKHUBST PRiaON. 

In last edition we stated 6A follows. A most in- 
teresting exp^ment is now being made at Parlthuret 





t ab 



* 



roformntory priaon, lalc of Wight, which 19 under the 
immetliate patronage of the Right Hon. the Home 
SecreUry, and to which two trainers were sent 
eiphteen months ago. Ono who had been appointed 
about seven yGaXA ago, died after being there only a 
uplo of years^ Many difficulties have been experi- 
enced in that instiLution in catablishiEg the conipl{>te 
priociple of moral and intellectual training for the 
juvenile dclinijuenta, not merely in the arrangement 
of the premisea, apparatus, >&c., but iu the procutiog 
of proper masters. A third individual from thia 
Bcminary has just bc^en appointed aa aasLatant trainer, 
and as the arrangements of thia prison wiili its gal- 
loriee, play-g^o^od!9^ &c., are being completed for the 
entiru training system^ thu will prove one of the moat 
interesting exporimenta yet made in prison diacipline- 
The happiest results are likely to flow from this as a 
reformatory model for juvenile delbiinents, even to 
Europe at large. 

ThQ following extracts of lettera from the two 
Bchool trainers of the upper prison, Megsrg. Craig and 
Barlow, in which there are 200 boys of eighteen 
years and under^* will in some measure show the 
eflect& of the eyetem under God's blessing. The mas- 
tcTS are both pious intelligent men, and the chaplain 
|ia one of the most devoted Christian clergymen in 
"England, 

" JimioE TFakp, PiBsnuMT, Nut, ISth, 1845. 

" I>KAH SjB,— • » * • • 

* Tlio bltssLQi; of God has &kavm Itaslf upon the 

Training Syatcm in a mnst rctimrkaWe manner. Tlio fusteriDg 



4 



cam (if mir wortlij chaplain, nuJ tlie dLliffence and lieartj activ- 
ity of my Bsaifltant, ti> all Ijuinnn apficAnince have been the 
jneana of turning many from darknoaa U> light— from the jiuwur 
of sin to the Bcniee of Gud. Syuijitoma of n ci)iii[iitut4.i dian^ 
in the gC'fi.iira] sympsthy of the boya have b&cn apparent from 
the tiniff ttie aystem. baa been more fully in openkttoQ. but at laat 
a flame bas bui-st out, if uot of religioua fervour ici aU, coi-taiii]; 
in eoEEie ; thU has extended thrgugh ttio whole of this part of tha 
BitabMimenti an thdl. ihaee who remain in a hardened state dure 
not G^ljit tbeir malcTolcnt pro pens it jea. 

" Alwiit tho beginning of tbia wpefc I wag much ajitoniBhcd at 
aeverAl of those wliom wo considered very good boyp gflthering 
totnitiicr in knot^, and engaged in cameat oonvereatioii about 
something whiuli they evidently did not wish ua to know. Such 
knots and modoa of convoraittion are, or rather used to he, highly 
dangcroua in tho pmon, as they commonly eodtnJ in booio deep- 
laid schemes of wickedness, JyOging ffow ths choTnoter of tho 
boys, they were vut molesteil, but eousiderable attention wJW 
paid to their pr&cewlings, wlilcih, end liow they ■woidd, were evi- 
dently of no common kiud. On Thursday uuo of the leadem 
naked mo for a ahcct of cartridge paper to writ^metn'^randji.^ and 
aa. Le ia mtl]>Qr advanced, he 'is often employed to drii-w diagrama 
in an adjoining room. At the eleven o'dotk rcoesa a nnmljcr of 
tlielxjy&as nlMive went into the tooto. I had ^nlto forgotten 
tho eircumatiinee, and thought the boy was drawing some mc- 
chiitiical diagrams, wht'n T wns very respectfully aolii-ited toatej> 
into tho pooni. And wtint do you think was lliprc ! A whole 
sli«>et iilled with ruloa fui" a society Jor ths guppressiun of vice ia 
the prison,' no ungrammfctical jumble of crude ideas, hut a set 
of most sxcelltiit rutt«, which niigiit have done hon&ur to the 
ablest in the lnnd ! and signed by ulxtvc twenty n^uuea. Boom 
was left at the top for the Coveraor'a naiae as patron, our Chap- 
lain's aa president, and my^^lf and a^aiatant aa vico-preaidentK, 

" The enthusinam of wcll-doisft' has arrived at a groat pitch. 
Great [inrabersoflKiys exert tiicmaclvfia, and that, too, with uoainall 
success, in trying to ntlaim those whoae hearta aro yet hardened. 
Myonly fear is that ive will be unabh' to retain it ao high as it n«w 
ia. However, tlirongh tho Divine hlosaing, we will do our Iwet. 

" Tho hlcsaing of God accompanying the training of tlifao 




47S THE TUIXUtO EYZTEU. 

poor fplJow*. stwptdl U- tlio Upi in mm?, has wwempliBliiid the 
e&ixie whii-h mny itideed be wptcl^d. whweTer tLe training 
, ijstrai in tntrD(1ui%d. TtiEiF mnrol conitiiiDn Ijos fitc&dSy risen 
moA fallen ftoeording t» tlie eilcnt th&t Tlio Training System has 
been prwtisod uaang^ them/' 

PiHKrmwT Pieiftox, Uii nr Wight. 

•■ Dkah Sib.— • • • • • 

* * Y«u havG alrcAcly hpsird of n, ^at mora] cliuij^ 

eSe<i%ed in tbe clmraetiJF and c&nduct of mnDy of our ln>yi. It 
ifl Tery unlikvi a ftchooJ of cmuiniJs. Ttip .eonJiict &f thfi major- 
ity is moet exemplary, And if) ininy Ciuei* tli6 OTldencea cf «van' 
gclioal mnvcraJoii are of tiiu moat eatiafiurtory kind. t am 
ulniost d&ily liOilding'!tpLritiira.E eonfereacee v/ith individim] beys, 
Mid my mind u often dcUg'tited whikt llHtcninfr to tlteir simple 
but affiw.LiMj Btatementis. Witli learn triL'klin^ down iheir 
cheeks, lb«y tell me of tha burdea wf tboir aina, of their anziety 
to bu reconcilwl to Owl, and to walk in lug cjEumandmeBls 
bLuneliisa ; whilst othc-ra art! <!Ti!vl>led to rejoice in a cheoriag hope 
that God for Chrtet's bdJu; has blotted out their oSvnvts, and 
adopted them into his family. For a fcwweoka there was orach 
CKiWCBCnt ; mueh *f tliiSi 1 believe, was aym pathetic only — of 
edUTH, !t could itot be exp^ted. to bo pcrmniii^nt. It haE^ sub- 
tided ; bat the goud., tfis real yaod, has nut gtme witli H- The 
boya delight in holy exerciac!, and aire evidently aa happy sa 
they iiro good. We havo no difficu]ly in conducting the duti-ea 
of tha eclhool ; it is quite a pleiisnre. It is not pcwsible that I 
coold h&vc had a Hituatiun more agrcea.bl» to my wishes jloA 
fcdhigSir J doiibt n<it but, tlirpugb the bleasing of God, that the 
Bible -training les«ODS hayc DOtuewitlipovror aud divine isflueQi^ 
to their hearts and CQUsciencGA, and have been subsenient in 
producing the must salntary effeota," 

Tlii3 Moral Training School was 'Ttsited by Her 
Majeaty, Frince Albert, and suite, accompanied by 
Sir James Gf^tiapi) during the smtumn of litat yoar. 
Her Majesty expreawd ber higb approbation of tbe 
■^duct of tbe boys, and astoniahment at their attain- 
ts in Scripture and secular knowledge. ' 



I<I106&£SE! AXb BPfecrs. 



473 



Having' haA occasion to ■visit London early in April 
last, I visited Parlihurat, and, after a long exatninA* 
tion, found tbe reporta fully confirmed j and being 
deeiroua of liaviog the testimony of the worthy 
Chaplain, I addressed a note to him on my return to 
Glasgow, espresgiog my wigh fo know the extent of 
what he considered real conTereions, he being daily 
occupied in holding privato convcrsatione with the 
hoy#* The foUowirig 13 the Rev. Gentleman's reply. 

'■ pAHitattHHT, April 25, 184B. 

"I>XAB Sia, — T shonld hits replied to your letter sotiner, bijt I 
have been more than Usually occupied for tlie last ilfl)^ or two, 

■'It IB with deep tliankfiiljieBsto Godfor tho wortc wf Iliftgrnco, 
tlwifc I cspress my opMoR, thjitseuera^of the boya in tlio Junior 
ward prffion, liave been, during the Inat eigliteen raoutha, brought 
to sincere rop^^ntancc, and hare cibibiled nnd do continue to 
exhibit, by their entirely i^Iiaiig;ed conduct, the frwil of n. lErely 
faith in tli*? Soq gf God. T use the word aeveral Luste^d of 
many of the boiys, because my pa&t ctxpvrience in tlic miniBtry 
has made me more cautious and Ipbb sangiiioej hut I can add 
that of Biiiifiy I Lave good LopD, but require a longer "continuance 
in well-doilig " before I dare to epcak of Uicm conlideiitly, 

'■ TourRystem of iju parting (nuil folhwi/iy up by applicatioEi] 
Scpjptural knowledge, tiaa been to these poor bcya eminently 
useful. Tbe bleaaing of God bus indeed accompaniMl it, and I 
moat sincerciy hope, that ih* day may not be ftu distant, when 
you may baro in some degree a prcacub reward for your TftlHal>le 
efforts in aecing your sy*t<!ia of Inatnivtion adopted in ftU our 
parochial scLooU, and mtmlKis ciault receiving that relagioiw 
knowledg* from which they liavc too frequently turned away 
with woariiieas and diaguet, produced by the dry and injudicious 
method of teaching hitherto in general puraned. 
" I remain, my dear Sir, 

" Tours very truly, 

"Tuoa. K, Weltjit." 




474 THB trai king srstfM. 

The Rev. T. E. W'ellby. ChapUin of tlie prison 
alludeJto^ being about to remove to n parochial charget 
t1i«6e poor criminale, defiirouE of expreaamg tlielr gra- 
titude to their worttiy poatur, sponto-neously drew up 
and presented the following addresB: — 

Tu tlit> Rev, Tilde. l-laHu WcUfiy. 

Pinnnnsi Pitisos, lOili May. 1B46. 
RKTnucTD Sni, — TAV, the imJoraigned. hAVing btcti for the 
lut two yurs un^kr your immtilint'^ niiniihtiy and oare, and 
having Wn tliDroughJy Imprnscd ))y yQurtSLsiat«rc4ied kmdnesB 
tuwarJ us, Ixith is a tcnujM^ral and spLriliinl wny [ami to sajine 
ot whoni yiJii liare been -Ajilritually tEacfuJ ). nuw tender uur hum-- 
l)le and fcrront (.'xpreAHious of ^^tjtnile and «sl'eciia, Loping Ihat 
you will reft'jve ihetn : tiseurhi^ you, thrtt ymtr departiire ocui^m 
UH murl] urief and soiruw, tut atUl tliniitfiil la tlie Almighty 
God Lh&l ho has ifnuhlvi you to ctnitiuue yoiw tniniatry so l«ag 
with UH. 

Wq also nsBure jod tli&t your memory will exer be cheri&hed 
by ua, in wliatevcr quarter of tho world Providpuce aliall sec fit i 
to place ua ; and that a ]nlin?e vil\ ever Iw found In our prayers 
for yonr eternal welfare, and tli.it God would bless your ministry 
to those orer wlium yuii may have charge, 
Wc beg Iwvg to dubecribe oureelvea, 

Ret. Sin, 
TtMir humblu and obedient ServaDfcs. 

Signed by IfiU of the boya (40 
were not [HMniilted Lu sign, 
not baling yet attained Che 
ffood marlr). 

I most ipamestly wish that all who have committed, 
and ail who may caminit. crime, aa well as eVary child 
in tlie land, were hleaaed with such a religious, moral, 
and inteliectual training as are the boys in Upper 
Prison, Paikburat. 



CHAP. XXXII. 



WOEMAT. SeMiMAhY fob THAIffmO BCfiOOlMABTEfte. 



"What is a Normal Seminary i What is the Normal 
Syslem? are questions frequently asked. In regard 
to the latter we answer, there is do such general 
designation as Kohmal Si'btem, as ev«ry institution 
may Isave a different and particular system of its own. 
Normal is d&rived from norma, a rule. The norma 
of oup Inatitution, therefore, 13 " The Training Sys- 
tem," for the extension and promotion of which it 
was originally estabHahed, 

The term ^formal, although fiignifyiag simply a 
rule, has been generally apphed to institutions for the 
training of school ni asters. We have only to ascertain 
tlie standard or rule of any Normal echool or semin- 
ary, therefore, in order to know the principles OH 
which we may have our teachers trained in it. In 
our Institution, it is foF the training of the habita of 
the child as a moral, intellectual, and physical being; 
and the Institution^ aa a whole, was the first model 
of a Normal Seminary for training schoolmasters. 

Normal Semiuariea have long osiated in Prussia, 



47B THBTBAISINGfltSTEM. 

tmder Ugisktire inBuence and endowmeots. Tlie 
Glasgow Nomia] Scniinary was founded in ignorance 
Qf the PrusBian ]>Uii3, or the particuliu- made ef com' 
munication, if ruj^ which they proaent. Ours wat 
founded with a view to catabUsh a natural sjTBtem of 
cQnimuntcatiDn and moral tramiag, based on the only 
Dnattcrahle standard O'f morals; and secondly, to 
extfiod the system by traiaing persons to practise it. 

A Normal Seminary may give its students ioatruo- 
tion in the various eleinentary branches, or it may 
confioe its attcotion exclusively to the mode or system 
of coumumcation, or it may do both of tbeae; or it 
may add, as in our case, moral traming; including the 
eultiralion, not naerely of the intellectual, but the 
whole powers of the child. In the Glasgow Nornuil 
ScmioaLry, instruction ia given to the Btudeata, hut thi 
chief and pr'tmar^ ohjeet m, the moth of eommuniat- 
tion and moral training. 

Training ia admitted to be necessary in erery art 
but edue&tionj the mechaaic, the soldier, the &aUor, 
tliB lawyer^ the man of business, all require to be 
trainod— all tnuat learn their art. We would not 
employ a gardener or an hostler yi\i<i had not served 
an apprenticeahip ; but the persona who are " to leach 
the young idea how to shoot," and who may be in 
pOBseseioD of a vast fund of knowledge, but ignoract 
of the arts of communioatlon nnd moral tr^niog, must 
work thcmaclTea into a system, good or indiflerent, 
according to oircumstances i not, however, until in 
general a Bad havoc \s mad'C of the human mind, 
which a regulur course of the Normal Seniiciiiry 



( 



477 

iniglit have proTented. Many teachera workout aud 
arrive at a good system of their own, it ifl true, but 
no one man CBn possess all that may bo concentrated 
and exiiibited in a. Notiual Semiaaryj and to which 
every b-tudent may he trained. 

A model school and a Normal Seminary cliSer tn 
this respect, tliat tha former b a, mere exhibition of a 
particular system, whereas the latter is a training to 
the practico of it. I may Bee a gystem in operation 
in a model school, just as I might see a lady hem a. 
frill ; but the witnessing of ihig will not enable nic to 
follow hor example^ until cloth and needle are placed 
io. my hands, and I actually learn to do it practically. 
But although a model school 13 no£ a Normal School, 
yet eTery normal seminary must possess one or more 
mo"Sel school?, I must see the system in operation. 
i muat have it explained to mo by suitable trainers, 
I must endeavour to put it in practico under experi- 
enced BuperinteTi«lent8 ; and I must have the model 
to which to aspire, and children at the same time to 
work upon i the lack of any of which iafliiencea mu;t 
leave nie imperfectly trained. 

When this Institution was establishad in 1826 tlie 
public had no idea of the propriety or necas&ity of a 
teaeher being trained to his art; hence the students 
who enrolled thcmsclvea at that period, rem:ihied only 
two or three weeks, or a month — some even imagined 
they could acquire the system id a day, or half a day, 
hy simpff/ looking on; and many notes of introdiiic- 
tion have been presented in favour of teachers to re- 
main the full comphmstit of two hours ! that they 



i 



47B TSB nunimo aTdisH. 

might bfl BoaMed to carry the system home to their 
uwnaohoob.* Gradually the period was esteoded 
to three months, and this wss considered a great 
aacriiico of time and mnney (as it still is by many 
well-educated young men). But it waa soon found, 
that iacomplete as tlie trainijig of threo months was^ 
the additional Ealaries the students received through^ 
out the kingdom, even after this short course uf 
training, increased th^i inducement to enter, so that 
ten years ago, the period was extended to the present 
course uf six months; that being found the shortest 
period possible to enable the student to train himself 
properly after he leaves the Institution^ 

la this, OS in every other art, the theory may be 
nndersrtood, and the practice not at alt. A maamay 
know what he should toach, and yet may bs i^iiito in- 
cajiahle, from want of practioe, to comiuumcate bis 
knowledge to others, especially to the young, or to 
furm in those uuder his care those habits^ uf the im- 
portance of which he may be fully coTiTinced. 

Upon the average, during the last ten years, there 



* As tmv flf jfflaoy similflp InBtATLc>eB of tliia, it may be men- 
tioned, tliJit on ijciif Mcnaiyn in ISSi a Wy W113 i-eoommended by 
ft clergyman, to acquire a practii'ol kiiuwludgL< ul" the Lniining 
Hystcin, will] tlie view of introdiHjiiig it mtti Ler s:;]ioi>l in the 
fltiantry, On callin)^ at the Sf/mlnary after mid-dfly, euhI pn;- 
acntinjr her not« of intixHliK^tkin, this was askt^d liow many 
niautha she could dttvut^ to tlii^ oIijt«;t- Hur reply n-fis, that she 
imut li'^ftve the town \iy tlic tmat in Iheafternaaa at U\w ti 'clack, 
arid wialied to apeniJ the intermeiliatc Vaaa in the Semiiiaiy, aa 
she wna quite certain, tliat iy seeing tho gjratCIil for tin Irnur or 
two shu wuul J be able to pmctidA it ! 



havB been three or four eituatious under older, for 
every trainer who could "be trought forward- 

"We shiill give a short atalontent of the leading 
points of the Glasgow Normal Seminary, which, from 
the nature of the system pursuBcl, wag of necesaity 
original, both aa to apparatus, airangeiaeiit, and sys^ 
tem. 

This Normal Training Seminaryj the first estab- 
lished in ihe kingdom, has five model eclioola, with 
about 300 scholars, irom among the working classes, 
viz. : — Initiatory, for children under six years of age; 
Junior, (two divisions) for children from sis to ahout 
nine I Senior, for those above nine j aod Indus- 
trialf for giria above ten years of age — each having a 
play-ground and gallery, and presenting a model of 
no more than the reqsiidte edttcaliottal establishment 
for emry cit-y and town parish. In raral districta, 
the division for each parish miglit be Initiatory for 
ohildreD of from five to Boven; Juvenile, for those 
above seven ; and Industrial, for girls above ten, dur- 
mg the afternooQ of each day, — they receiving lessons 
with the boys during the forenoon. The average 
number of students in attendance in the Institution is 
about SQ to GO- The minimum course of training six 
months. Want of funds to assist the atudcutg has 
prevented the period being extended to twelve montha 
. — a course quite abort enough, indeed too short, for 
tho most highly educated to acquire the art. The 
niost accoraplished scholar acquires the art quicker 

r only vshen free from pr^udice and not wedded to old 

I habits. 



J 



The timo of the students 13 occujaied in the Seini- 
nary in giving lessons to the children of the moJel 
stb&ola; observing tha niode of conductiog the Ish- 
sons by the inaatcre of each department; criticising 
each other ia the students' hall, undtr tho direction 
of the rector and principal trainers^ in regard to the 
manner they have conduL-tcd the lessoD3i also, vocal 
riiusic and gjinnuticd, under eepiura'te tna^tera; and 
those who are foimd imperfect in any branch, sach aa 
aritlitnelic, grammar, geography, aai history^ aorip- 
ture, or tha outlines of science, receive inalruction 
from tha private tutors. The whole exercises arecoa- 
ducted on ih& same natural principles of tmitiing ; 
and tbo lesaong and exercigea are so constructed and 
arranged, as lo afford the greatest security that tlm 
intellectual, physical, and moral facultiea of th& chil- 
dren shall be in datfif e^ercisCf jpifhout aHempliTtff to 
force or ortrttark atiff. 

Strangers frequently inquire, Who is your normal 
trainer ? From what we have just stated, it appears, 
that the raast'ers of each of the depaxtmcnts are nor- 
mal trainerg. In one eenso, tha rector ia more at 
liberty to gtre iaatnictioaa and training than any of 
tbe masters of the particular depart mcnta— all, how- 
CT^r, train the students, and as mind opeifttes upon 
mind, aud manner upon manner, so the T&riety of the 
natural capacity of the students, renders it impoBsxbla 
fbr any one person to officiate so powerfiilly as a nnm- 
hep may, *' The sympathy of numbers" is powerful 
in thisi, as it is in every other department. For ex- 
ample: a highly imaginative student would feel him- 



sfilf utterly coUnpsed^ were liis studies and atteiittoTL 
exclusively confined to the course that mjglit be pre- 
gcribsd by a mero matter- of- fact trainer, and yet 
without the solid and sobering iuflueuce of nno such. 
the student would he imperfetitly" traia^d. Tliig va- 
riety of the trainera, acting in different departments, 
and united on one principle, as already atntcd, suiti 
the Tariety of natural talents to be found in the nor- 
mal studenta ; and produces tbat jat^ni^X pulverisa- 
iisn and advancement in the art of training, within a 
given period, which no cm or two masters could pos- 
aibiy accomplish. 

It is Slated as an objection to the univii^rgn,! exten- 
tension of the syetem, tha.t it would be impossible to 
procure persona ao highly gifted anti sueceasful, aa 
trainers for every school, as we have in the Normal 
Sominary. It is trno that wo have a set of masters 
of whoBe Christian worth, zeal, and ^.ttainments, our 
country may well be proud {should pride in any casa 
he permitted), but that there are not men in sufficient 
numbers for all our schools, with adequate talents and 
.accomplishments, after heinc; properly trained, is not 
true. Our maslera are, indeed, highly euccessful, hut 
they have had long experience in the art. One of tlie 
head masters having practised the aj'stem 19 year^, 
another 15 yearg, a third 9 years, two 8 years, and n 
sixth 4 years. 

The Routike. — It is difficult (o atate here, the 

precisG routine to wbicli the students are subjected, 

some being intended for the Initiatnry department; 

others for the Juvenile; others for Schools of Indiis- 

2 n 



4«S 



Tire TRAl.VIKO STSTEU. 
Ooverueasea j whilo 



try, or Nursny 
tion have nii object but to acqutre the sjstciu, and get 
Ao appctntmcMit in any department for whicli 1H 
m»y l*e fwund suUablp. ^ 

Tbe malm students arc uaiforinlj placed first Lnt^ie 
ModH Initifttory School, anii tbeo they alternate fort- 
nightly lic'tween it and tbe Junior, JuvesUe and Se- 
nioT deportmentSj during stated portions of each day, 
tliroughnut the whole of their course. The remain- 
der of ihe day is spent at the criticisms, and in per- 
fecting tliemBclvea in gramnt&r, geogniphy, &c.j or ic 
acfiulring a knowledge of music or elocution. In ad- 
dition to tEio criticiamg, tlie students practise tlie sjts- 
lera with portions of children from the model schoob^ 
one honr-and-a-Uairper day in the class rooms, nndn 
the anpcrintondenco of the Jiead iraiticr of til© parti- 
cular dcp&rtmcnt in which th^y happen to be placed; 
and while tTius engaged, bis place ia supplied by the 
asiiistant trainur. 

The Btudenta spend one day weekly in the particu- 
lar department in which they are placed, simply ob- 
Mrring the master as a model. Eauh alternate day 
in ewcceesion, for an bonr ox two in tUo forenoon, they 
Tcmiun in the hall with a portion of the chiliireD from 
the modiil schools, practising the system under tli^ 
superintendence of the rector. 

Twice a-week the rector requires from each 
dent a written essay, on some lesson previously giyeil 
in the modol gchools, or on some point of the system 
of training. The time of the students, therefore, is 
di%*ided between receiying ingtructions in the llieoiy 



' tie 



d 



VeHXAL B'SHIIfAHT. 



483 



and art of training, obaerving tliG operations of tlie 
moilcl scliooU, and in practising the syeteni in both 
th^ caYerE>d and uncovered bcIiquIs ilfidei the mas- 
tera^ rector, &c. 

The female gtudenta, while they enjoy the same 
variety of superintendence, have their att'ention more 
particuhirlj' confined to the Initiatory Department 
and Junior Department (2nd di-viaion), and Female 
School of Industry — Bible and Moral Training, and 
needle and other industrial work, tbe latter being pri- 
mary objects in schools of industry. 

TIlo model schools, and studenta in the various de- 
partruenta, are frequently examined by the secretary 
and rector ; the diplomaa of the stadeQts being signed 
by these parties. 

GrMNASTEcs.— We have already said, that the 
children receive gyranaatiBs, or roiher physical exer- 
ciseB, of a kind and to an extent fitted to arrest snd 
keep Up their attention during tlioir intellectual and 
moral lessons, tlma rendering physical exLTciaes a 
means ruther than an end. In respect o( the students, 
however, who in turn are to become tr.'^ineie, some- 
thing additional is necessary. The Janitor of the la- 
stitution, tlierefore, who is an old soldier,, exercises 
the students several times a week, iu sueh military 
eserciaes aa to standing poaitiona, gait, manners, &c,, 
ns are found useful, firat to themselvea, and after- 
wards to fit them to train their own scholara, 

Can- a feppon train Hisi9p,lf? — Thequeition ta 
asked. If it be true, as you state, that no person can 
conduct a training lesson properly until he be trained 



rue THJkiiiiMa srsTRjf , 

&I lousl six TiiantliB, liow comea it that any mnn could 
work out tliL- ayslem in tli0 first instance ? We 
iinswer, that any man may work out tlie system for 
IjimftC'If, providud Im ke«ps the natural principk 
steadily in view, and pursues it irrespective of labour 
or expense ; but what took at least seren years to 
accomplish in this way, individually, — as a Normal 
Seminary, subject to the super tut en debce and critl- 
cianos of experienced and well-trained raastora, we 
profess to accomplish in as many montlis. ^""e do 
notaay that six or eigUt months will by any mean^ 
make a perfect trainer, but nt the pnd of that period 
he will liave so o'sercoino the diiGcuUics, as that he 
may io future easily train himatlf. The priuciplo, as 
a whole, howoTer, must be kept steadily and perse- 
veringly in view. 

Criticisms. — Thia is a part of the gyatem of train- 
ing for the students, which is highly importantj and 
at the same time requires great deUcncy in its man- 
agement. Th& principle of the exercise la partly to 
notice any c:sceUence, but chiefly to exhibit eTery 
fault of the students who may have been appointed 
to conduct th>& lesson?, and that openly &nd raitbfully 
before their fellow-stud entg and guperintendcnts, 
ConsiderablG prudence therefore is necessary on the 
part of the Chaimian to keep aU in perfect good 
humour. None can fill the office of Ciiaiiman pro- 
perly, hnt one who is at once practically na well as 
theoretically acquainted with the system in nU its de- 
partments i for lie iniiat be able not merely to tell 
Jfhat ia vvrong or awanting, but instantly to supply 



KOnMA.L SEUIKAVY, 



480 



tile deficiencyj and show how the loss&ns or oxercisea 
ought to be conducted ; ha must not merely give the 
jn-ecept, but also show tho example,* Theae oriti- 
cianis were estalilished fifteen yearg ago, and al- 
though BCTeral hundred students have been subjected 
to them, no had feelings have arisen, which were not 
promptly and easily repressed; and then only in the 
case of thqse who may have been uaderguing their 
first or second ordeal,, and imagined tliem&elvea free 
frons tho irapcrfectiong faithfully noticed by their fel- 
low-students. On the contrary, these criticisma, pub- 
He 3.Dd private, havs produced great moral results, 
and are uucLuestionably the luffkcet practical palish ifia 
students receive i and for this reason, that it is check- 
ing the error at the moiueDt it is committed. The 
whole is conducted on the principle, '* Do unto others 
as ye wish they should do unto you," In other words, 
criticise plainly, as ye wish to be plainly and faith- 
fully criticised. 

There being five Model Schools in the Normal 
Seminary — Initiatory — Junior (let and 2d divisions) 
— Senior, and Female School of Indusiry ; the lessons 
are given in each of these departments successively. 

Public Chiticismb. — Four students who may have 
been at least three months in the seminary, are ap- 
pointed each to give a lesson to the whole gallery of 
one of the five Model Schools in rotation, to be coo- 



• It ia COTiimon for students to Itc able to eritipise n training' 
leiHon niuut fiiithfullj", threi! mvntliB before they c^ji BuerceJ in 
conductiii'' one ihemselves. 




480 THE TIUININ'Q STSTEU. 

ducted on tJie pridcipk'a of the system, accordiug to 
tlio age and capacity of the children, in the presents 
vl the whole students, the masters of the several de- 
partmcutg, and the Tcctor ttod secretary of tha Insti- 
eiUioii. One of the leasona ftt eath criticiam is kcm 
the Scriptures, an embkm, or a point of narrative or 
doctrine. The other three are secular suhjects, such 
HA aatiiral hiitary, gTa.inmar, &c., or the exerciee may 
coQsist ID eondaeting the childroo to and fri>m tho 
play-ground, and reviuwing their conduct on their 
return to the gallery. Twelve minutes only are al- 
lowed for each lesson. This lliniLation compels the 
student to condense and kcop close to the subject. 
Aq appropriate air is sung at the close of each lesson. 
The singing 13 also conducted by the student. The 
fiiiir kssons occupy about one hour iind 3 half, aifter 
which tho whole etudonts leave the cliildren and retire 
into on adjoining closa-raom ot the hall, where each 
in rotation is ajked by the Chairman for his opinion 
of the lessons giveb. Those who give the lessons ar« 
of course excepted, and must aubmit sihntlj^ to tha 
criticisms of alL Ko student is permitted to notice 
tlio criiicismfi of .1 fellow-student. Th!& is reserved 
fur the Chairman, and the whole observations of the 
eLudents are subject to his review. The observations 
arc; usually made by the students and masters, from 
notes taken during tlie conducting of tlie lessons. Tho 
female Btudenta are present, but are esetnpted from 
expressing tlieir sentiments, but which they are re- 
'luired to givo afterwards in writing* Tliis Tha vocf 
criticism occupies about two hours. No defect in tho 




VOmiAL SBIDKARY. 487 

liianncT, tone of -voice, or grammar, is overlooked. 
Every mbpronuacLation, error, ot defect in atatlng tli^ 
succcasivG points of the subject of the leasson, want 
of picturing out, or ftiilurc in Eecuring the attention 
of the children during these exercisea, is |ilainly ex- 
pressed. The Chairinaii, after giving lib own criti- 
cistns, reviewis the others, and generally enlargea on 
some point of tlio eystom suggested by the nature yf 
the leasoaa. The whole U closed with ]jrayer. 

PmvATE Cbitjcishs- — These are termed private, 
Ejimply becaiiBiii the lessons criticised are conducted in 
the students' hall witho-ut the preSGnoe of the chil- 
dren, and mny embrace the whole students, or only a 
portion of them ; the females, for example, or those 
who are most advanced in the art of training, and re- 
quire only to be poliehed in a few points. Myat 
generally, however, the whole students are present at 
the private criticiams, and although criticiam, Ijf the 
Chairman^ be the profeaaed object, the effect of the 
whole m in h<it that of a.pracikal lecture. The chair 
19 taken aa at the public criticisms. The students 
gtre a lesson in guiiceasioQ, and are each allowed 20 
minutes. The other students sit in the gallery* and 
are expected to answer as children icould^ exercising 
their judgment, however, that although they may be 
acquainted with the intention of the person conduct- 
ing the lesson, they must give a. direct answer to every 
question, and fill up every ellipaia exactly as they are 
put, however absurd the conclusion may be to which 
they are led. The student, therefore, feels cuiapelled 
to put proper question! according to the^ Bysten'. 



K to put 



4«t 



THR TtUIKlNO SYSTEH. 



And wlieTBas, m thti puT>Iic criticisms, the rhilJren 
Uitiff fire*-int, tlic student is ponnitted to go on dur- 
itk^ tlie tweire minutes undisturbed, it ia tbu C'hair- 
inait'g dwty and privilege, the children not being pre- 
sent^ ti> interfere at any point, vvhero he sees it pro- 
per 10 put the Btudent Db the rigbt ooorae of the 
exerciae, and to correct at the moment eyery error as 
it \s exiiibiled. 

All students in this Beminary commetice with tlie 
Infant or Initiatory Department, apd finish witli it. 
Nu tniatake is bo fatul to the proper education and 
trMTiing of youth, &3 the practice of using words or 
illiifttrations beydnd the capacity of the pupils, and 
inugining that the passessioa of ktiowkdge implifs 
the power to commuDicnte it intelligibly to others. 
Tho knowledge of a Newton or a Bacon would avail 
little, without a proper mode of communication, aud 
the highest mornl character without the praeiicat 
knowledge of (raining the moral BensihlHtiea of the 
pupilsj would render hia efforts utterly ahortive. 

Novel and trying aa tliese criticiauia are, the stu- 
dent could not by any other means, or to the same 
L'Xtept, acquire the syatem of training the child as a 
ivhule, within the limited attendance of six or eight 
inonthg. These exercises also rub off many incrusta- 
tions, which muat otherwise have remained, and 
which no teaching, or instruction, or mere observation 
')f the mode pursued, could poaaibly have removed. 

(JUALIPICATIONS OF APPI-IOANTa FOB. ADMISSION 

■> THE SEMINAKV AS 6TTJj>ENTB, — Applicantg for ad- 
iteion muat present to the secretary of tho Institu- 






NOBUJlL SEHIK-IBV, 4B0 

tiun a cei'tificate of tiiaiuoter from llieir dergj-niailj, 
after wliicli an es ami nation takes place, which id con-j 
ducted by the rector and three principal mafiters. 
found qualified, tliey are immediately enrolled 
studenta, after paying a. fee of £3 33. for the course, 
whether such he sixj nine, or twelve months. Tlie.^ 
mimmum course is six montiiB, If found very tm-H 
perfect, the applicant is ^^?jBcte■d altogether; hut if 
imperfect only in one or two points, he is placed in a 
preparat&ry class. The nurater of students actually 
received aud trained ainco the commencement of the 
lustitutiou is about 1100. 

Aa to attaiament3 ; about three-fonrtiis of thtf^| 
whole male students admitted hitherto, had p.iascd 
through a course of Latin, to which Hbont one-third 
liad added Greek and mat hematics. None con h^fl 
ddruitted who are unacqiiiitited with auch elem&ntary 
branches as would fit them for teaching an ordinary 
English school; and although gix, eight, or ninefl 
inontha cannot make proficients in knowledge, yet the 
practical exercise of the system re-lat/s whiit has for- 
merly been taught, and eitabUs ihs trainCT lo Cojh- 
municftte all Ae knotts, or iiiaf/ aflerwards arquire^^ 
in a sijnpie, natural^ and evident manner. H 

If everything passes through the understanding 
Jirsi^ ii is said children vill learn Ultle. The facta 
brought forward iu this publication, and innumerable 
other illuatratioDS which must occur to every observ-^ 
ing and reflecting raind, at least shew that tho memory 
of words is one thing, tind the undergtaoding of tlie 
in quite another thing. Both may and ought to exi 



400 THB THAiimro smeH. 

nmultuMnuly, but -vthih the formerr apart &om tlio 
litter, w 4 mere tmkle or souud, all that is truly 
vgJuuble is found in the latter. Our nnswor, there* 
fiirc, istim, what passes through the undorstitiiditigi* 
gat and retained, — what reslB OD the mere verbal' 
i)>t.>mury is heqnent\y lost. 

In projiortion as we are simple, are wo understood ; 
and while simplicity ia the test, it is also the last aad 
moflt difficult attainment <uf a trainer of youth. After 
all these objectinna have hcen answered, it is trium- 
phantly stated, and frequently repeated ; But all 
Studemts who leave the Seminary after being 
trained, are not equally successful, nur are they all 
crjTially qualified to conduct a Training ScLool. Tery 
trUBt indeed ; but are all teachers equally successful, 
or well educated ? Are all preachers equally impres- 
siv& ? Are all who leave the Univeraity philosophers 
or literary men i Need we wonder, tlieUf that some 
persona tiflio leave our seminary, are more highly 
gifted and succeBefiil in tha art of training than others ? 
The objection simply amounts to this — tliat all nieu 
are not equally qualified to conduct any system, be 
that syatem what it may. 

One thing frequontly has occurred, which ie incon- 
venient nud unfortunate. Teachers aie aaked by 
directors of schools, Are you acquainted with tl 
Training iSji'stem 3 They often say they are, ant 
poBsesBing testimonials of respectable el&mentary at- 
tainments, they get appointed to schoolsj a.ud oni 
entering their dutiea, the directors find that they 
entirely ignorant of thei system. On inquiry, it 



fuund they knew the system, bocause they had ^gn 
it in operation BCTerot times in the Normal Semmory, 
or Jn other bcHooIs. Repeated objections are made to 
H3 on thia acore. Our answer is as before, Were I a. 
cabinetmaker or a watclimaker, ought I to be respon- 
sible for the fa«t, that all who had seeu me uiake a 
chair, or the delicatii and complicated mathinery of fi 
watch, and had not beea trained, must fail in the 
attempt of making either? 

Many of the foregoing objections are felt by stu- 
dents who enter the Normal Semiaary for the pur- 
pose of acfjuiriog a knowledge of the syatem ; but all 
are gradually diaaipatcd as they become trftiners, and 
■can practise the system, Ita very simplicity ia the 
groatest stumb ling-blot b, whilst it is their highest 
attainment. 

The common experience of the students ia — During 
llio first fortnight^ sceptical as to the power and effi- 
ciency of the system. At the end of a month, ^- 
wildsred. At the expiration of two months, cautiota in 
offering objections. At tho expiration of four months, 
leginning to be able to give a galkry training ksson. 
At the termination of sis or seven moptha, confessing 
that they ore but beginning to see the beauty and 
power of a syatem wliicb they cau only master by 
long practice. And it ia their uniform expcricncB 
ever after, that each succeesive year's practice not only 
adds to their own knowledge of the Bystem, but to 
the power and efficiency of cultivating tho physical 
and moral, as well as the intellectual faculties of the 
children. If aitcli be the eaeperience of students, it ia 




4ft2 nut Trnvmia stbtbh. 

oviHcnt Ihat n vUit of two or three limirs cannot fully 

eyiiibil lliu systeiii. 

It ia found that erery tano vrha U qualified to be a 
leachrr of youlli may tecome a trainer ; and the best 
security fur the univerial ertt'usion vf tlio system is, 
thnt a lendicT no sooner becomes e^ trainer tbau he 
lovc9 it. But while called upon to adlicre to certain 
great principles, he is permitted to practise the system 
precisely in accordance witbtlie peculiarity of his OTn 
talcnig^ Irausfusing, hy a natural process, his o-nn 
extent of knowledge into the minds of Lis pupils, and 
in every dcpartmDnt rt'odering himself tlielr pattern, 
companion, and leader, in th>g formation of their intel- 
lectual and moral habits, 

Another objector Bays, If you are to have Bible 
Trainings and Jlorol Training, ojid Secular Training 
in schools, in addition, to the ordinary branches of 
education, soc^iety would not produce a eufiG.cieiit 
cumber of suitable masters. We have them not, it ig 
said. Now, this ia quite tnio; but why not create 
them ? Why not prepare a Bet of intelligent Chris- 
tian traineTB for the youug, just aa we raise Cliriatian 
preachers for the more advanced in life ? This ia 
precisely the object and end of the Glasgow Normal 
Seminary. 

But a further ohjcction ia stated. What ! do yoa 
say that six or sevea months' training will accomplish 
this? No, certainly; we admit that it cannot. Xt 
merely puts a man in the way of training liimaelf, and 
of enabling him to rise in the scale as a moral and 
intellectual trainer of youth. Futlds alone are wanted. 



Normal seuin'aI 



493 



to support tlje studeiita long enough itx the Seminary 
tn accuinplish this. The machinery ajid mode of 
working it ure already provided ; it is for the public 
to come forward with the meang of supporting it. 

The iauumernble proofa * of the power of the 
system, as already exhibited, show that when fully 
practiaed, not indeed aa a stereotyped one, hut in 
accordance with the Taried natural powers of the 
master, it would, under the hlessing of God, accom- 
pliuh as great a ctiange in tho moral world as ttiQ 
atcam-cngiae has doae in the commercial. It h true, 
the elements of moral and intellectual training are not 
new. Thoy are to be found ia tha Scriptures of the: 
Oltl and New Testaments vividly set forth, but, ex- 
cept in families, we have not followed them. Steam 
existed in tlie dayg cf Noah, but not till lately waa 
l(B n»lurc understood, and its power exhibited, as 
in ihe machinery of a ffteam-engine. 

One great stumbling-hloct still remains unnoticed, 
the fact that under this system we train infants, as a 
first stage. It is imaginod by some that infants can. 
learn nothing. Cerlainly tliey cannot leam Greek. 
but they caa Icani cviL Our objectors prc&ume, also, 
that hecauBG the teaching of infants, or ihe cramming 
system, has failed, that the training of infants must 
also fait. If so, then must the mother fail, who trains 
oven from the cradle. Wieel^ s-he trains, for teach 
she cannot at that period of life; and as the intelli-fl 
gent and judicioua mother gives instruction chiefly 



I 

I 

I 
I 



Teachers, 



Directura of . 




4M 



TVK TRAtNINO STBTEH. 



orally, «o Oral iitfitnicUori fDniis an impDrtant feature 
of tbe Traming System fr'^ni the earliest to the Utc-et 
period of the child's education. It is not confined to 
the infant, or to oqc brancli, but oowfird tlirougli 
every stage, and in every department. 

Straogers seeing pictures of acim^, &g,, hung up 
against the walla of our acbools, frequently imagiiie 
that jHi^tures form an important and piirticular part 
of tUc system. The uae of pictatefi and objects is not 
to be refused ; they arc exceUent starting puiuts, a.nd 
it would be unwiaa to refuse the use of what belonged 
to Other and previoua systems, merely because not 
peculiar to our own. But tliey startle at the sigbt 
of a picture, lest it SavoUT of tbe infant system. 

What ia termed the Infant School System of edu- 
cation — beaevolent as the original intention was — has 
pjrovpd a complete failure, and chiefly so, because 
it cannot be carried out beyond a certain point. It 
is a phy&ical trniuing, and an exercise of the powers 
of observation on objects and pictureg ; but it wants 
that ^'' picturing out " by which you advance from 
great outline's to minntO' points, and nuinute'r stiH, ad 
iiiJinUiim, It want$ the union of the stimulating 
question with the cementing and correcting ellipsis. 
Tlie facts commumcated too generally resemble a pile 
of looaQ atones, on which no superstructure can bo 
raised, or at least until they are re-laid and cemented. 
The child generally attains no greater an amount of 
koowledge in three years, than in aa many months j 
hence the Ustlessceea and apathy too generally attenJ- 
^t ou these eeliools, and the neeesaity and practice of 



KonntAL siMui'ARY. 



495 



mtrculucing books to occupy the time and Eittention of 
tliG scJiolare. 

When a teacher entera our seminarj, who has been 
accustoiiied to llns ffin-hot'so elylo of communicating 
facts, he requires a considerable eitra period of train- 
ing to undo his previous hahita. 

But BQine Infant Schools, as well as Juvenito 
Schoola, in various parta of the kingdom, hare latdj 
adopted gome of the peculiaritius of the Training 
System, retaining their old names — Infant School 
Systeaij Intellecstual System, Ac. We are aware it 
is common to adopt pacla and portions oF our system 
into jiivenilu schools; and equally common to intro- 
duce tLe more ohvioua and attainable parts of the 
System — pictures and objects, for example — vrhich 
are not pecnSiar to us, and to term it the Training 
System, Others get a gallery and a play-place, -inj 
think they have adopted the ayaiem — others agLiin 
use ellipses not mixed with ijiieationa aa trader the 
Training Syatem, expressing the idea of the particular 
point of the subject to which the ciiildren have reached 
in the proceea of " picturing out," but are mere 
guesses.* To be succeBsful the system muat be em- 
l>raced as a telioie, and the teachers trained to use and 
conduct the machinery. -f- 

NotwiLlistaiidiiLg what Wa havQ now advanced 

* Sfc Cbnplcr on QjUcatioiia and ElUpsea, 

t Some- pmvido (jcie play-ground for two- aohwls. Tliia norei' 
can du. Eacli trniner miost h»\a tL« tullre control ol liia owq 
pupila, iti-dooTs and out of doors. Lues liian iPO i'cct Ion" by 
fibout 60fbet wide, doea not afford acopo for the |>Eiy«JraiJ i^d 
moral deTebpmmt of SO or 100 pupilii, 



406 THE TRJLUttfiia SVSTEU^ 

Agaitist infant teachtug or stuffing, vre are ardent ad- 
mirere of infant training^ and were we GompelleJ lu 
confine ourselves to only one Modd School, or one 
dcjiartiDcnt fur our Nortual S&miTiary, wo would se- 
lect the Inrant. The fact is, we coTnmenccd with the 
Infant or InilSritory, for chilJtfin under six yeara of 
ago, and in it alone as a model and opportunity of 
practice, botob of our very best students have been 
trained, not sitnply for inCints, btit juveniles, and for 
grammar scliooU, and as missionaries. TEie whole 
principle is involved in the firat, steps, and of tliefie 
can bi taken by the student. If Le can ascend (but 
what lao calls descend) to the height of the aimplioity 
of little children, he will find no difficulty ivhatever 
afterwards. The mftater who does aot know ten 
times as much as he actually communicates to his in- 
fiiat aiuditor}', ninst sink into the scala of a mere 
teacher; his mind has not graap enough to conduct 
his pupils to the broad well-defined outlines of every 
subject : the outlines of which, through life, they m-iy 
be called upon to fill up. Strongly, however, as we 
recommend the Initiatory department, and consider it 
as ihs highest point of tho eyatem, wo would have iji 
every Normal Seminary departmentB from it up to 
the point where the pupils are propiired to enter a 
university. Moral, phyaical, and intellectual, like 
every other training, ia moat efficient when early ex- 
ercised, and in these departmenls simjiUtity liee at 
their base. 

In establiahing a, Normal Seminary, we would com- 
mence with the Initiatory (or Infant), and permit sis 



HABHAt SEWIVABt- 41^ 

or at kast four months toelopae, before commencing an- 
titlier <J>ep^rtn]eDt for children ahove fiix and &o on. An 
opposite course will be found cLlmost ti c^ertain failure. 
It is nioro difficult to train a child at six than at 
three — and decidedly morD so at nine or ttn. The 
most highly cultivated trfiiners will be required for 
tba juniors of tlir«e to six yoars, — not ajij/ sort of 
person^ aa ia uaiially iraaginedj— -just as a mora 
acicutnplished gardener is required for exotics than 
for forest tieea — for tender than for hardy plants. If 
it be more di^cult tu train a child at nine than at 
tliree years of age it must be decidedly more so in 
respect of a ninn at, thirty, and nearly impractirable 
at the age of fifty. 

StcOents op doth sexes TBAtHKD.^ — About clflVen 
hundred students have been trained since the com- 
mencement of the Institutionj besidea a large number 
of teacbera who were permitted during the first si. 
Tears of its est.'iblightnent, to remain from two to four 
WBeta ; but these are now entirely cxclude'1. 09 their 
ndmiasion was found to do an injustice to ftit system, 
aTid to the regular students under training ; profess- 
ing, as these teachers frequently did (honestly, we 
believe), that they knew the system by looking 
at it, just as if one by seeing the tiling dono^ could 
(icquire the art of portrait or landscape painting. A 
student once enrolled, however, aad liaving finished a 
BiK months' eoursej is priY'ileged to enter the seminary 
when and as often as he pleases ; and it is cheering 
to find 30 many return annually from all quarters 
to spend a portion of their vacation in the sen:i.uii.T^ . 
2 I 



40B TOe TRAIKTOO SrSTEH. 

UnirEiisrrv Btudekts — As the whole time of 
HtB Normal Studt'nts ia occnpied during tbt day ■with 
tbA Tarious exercises, atid part of their eveniogs for 
oMftf writing and preparatory reailkg, we have moat 
respec^tfully been obliged to decline all applicaliona 
for admission from University Sttidenta. Tlid atr^nd- 
%noe, even of one hour during tho day, with tho time 
nccupi&d in walking to and from the class, coinptetely 
breaks up thu course of traioing. Divinity and other 
atudeuts, who have paastid tlio usual courao in the 
Institation, confess that no session in the UDivcrsity 
lias been more important or valiiahte to them 09 a 
part of I heir curriculum. 

For several years previoua to Igt^ the average 
attendance was ahaut 40, Tarying according to the 
seaaon of tlie year. In >Iay, 1845, it was 53i 
and it may be interesting to state, that they were 
ftwn 33 couDtieit in Scotland and England, 4 from 
Ireland, 2 from the West Indies, 1 from the East 
Indies, 1 a native female from Caffraria, and ) a 
soldier from the dSil Regiment, then stalioned in the 
Infantry Barracks. Iti March, 1846, tlie students were 
from the following counties, Lanark, Roxburgh, Lin- 
coln, Cornwall, Hampshire, Yorkshire, Mid- Lothian, 
Leinster, Cuniherlarid, Norfolk, Kent, Ayr, Cheshire, 
Moiiflghan, Pertli, Clnimie in Caffraria, Staffordshire, 
Fife, Argyle, Antrim, Derby, Donegal, Lancashire, 
Invemeas, Essox, "Warwick, Londonderry, Kenfrcw. 
Berwifik, Moray. 

Lodging of the "Students.. — The bnildirgsof our 
Seminary arc not calculated to lodge the atudeots 



■KOVXiX SSHlHAItT. 



499 



within Hs walla ; but there are in tlie immediate 
neigh bourhood of the Institution some verj" respect- 
able private families, who make it their business to 
accommodate the Btudcnts with lodging and attend- 
aDce. The names and character of these parties are 
well known to our masters, so that male or female 
Btudents can he immediately and comfortably lodged 
according to the extent of iheir means. 

The lodging of students ia a subject which has 
occapied the attention of our fric^nds in Englaad, and 
it is highly important. 

Wo aro aware, that in answer to queries sent lo 
ivraciieal men throughout the country, by persons 
intending to establish Normal ScminarLes, the almost 
uniform answer has been : " By all means have your 
Btudents ludged within the walls of tho InstitHtion,niid 
under the eye of the principal or rector.'* But the 
questions for consideration are ; "Are they, or can. they 
be always under such superintendence?" and if not, 
will "^t/i4 gpmpathff of numhers" and such close 
intimacy, upon the whole, operate favourably or un- 
favourably on their morals ? We douht much if the 
former is found in general to he the result. Mopt 
certainly, for nearly twenty years, we have found the 
opposite principle, so fiir from being injurious, actually 
beneficial. The addition of Moral Training in the 
model schools, which is applied to the students, as well 
aa to the scholars, proves influential as a regulator, 
even during iheir limited course of attendance. 

Wherever Moral Training is established, our plan 
ia safe ; but ia all Normal institutionB, wUerc^ \'n\eU«.<^- 



flOO 



TII8?IlAlHlKd Sr£X£M. 



twU cultun is the exclusive or primary object in 

Tiew (even allliongli tlie Scriptures be daily read), 
wo would Hot recotntnetiil Qur liberty mode ta be 
kdoptod. Under tlie moral training syBtcm^ it it 
■afe. MorBland Intellectual training during the day in 
ichool, and acp.irate liousea in the eveuing, we End 
in fact llie soSkt mode for bolb students and scholars.* 

ItELiGioUB CoMML'MOKS. — Iij rcspecLof tlie Tflrioty 
of rciigioiH coramunions, on the part of Uie Etudenta, 
we baTo experienced no practical diflicuUy whatever. 
Ono principle regulates the maateta. The Seminajy 
ia open to persona of all religious denorainationg. All 
Tf^ligious denoininntions freely participate in the bene- 
fits of ihe Insiitiilion. Students havG preaentcil nates 
of inirodnetion from ministers of all denominatione — 
Established and Dissenting. The samn CfarisliaD and 
moral influence bears upon all, and the utmost har- 
mony and peace hnve uniformly prevailed in every 
department of tbo Seminary between masters, scbot- 
ar^, and students. Children of all denominations are 
freely received into the Model Schools, and all have 
participated in the benefits of the training. The q^uea- 
tion ia never put, To what sect do you belotig? and 
therefore no jealousy or party feeling is experienced. 

Can A Model School becomk a NohmalTkaisiwg 
Seminary? — A single Infant or Initiatory School, and 
a Juvenile School, under one roof, for children of two 
or three to fourteen ycinrs of age, cannot be rendered a 
Normal Seminary for training achoolmastei^, without 
■ojnry both to trainers and scholars, but they may pre- 

* See Chapter on 5cpanitLiiia>DftliB Sexes. 



KOKUAL BESUNARY. 



eoi 



sent a model /or tbe training of children, i.a. with otily 
one master to each. Tlie master of a scliool lias enough 
to iId to manasre Ins own scliolars withoul, students. 

The Model ScUooU of our seinioHry are not im- 
proved by their being part of a Normal Seminaacy ; 
and nothing prevents tlieir being seriously injured, 
but the superior tact and management of their mas- 
ters. Every time a student teaches or trains a cln^, 
the cliildren to a certain extent are injured. Every 
county has its provincia.1 dialect, and every student, 
to a certain extent, carries portions of it along with 
him ; and even admitting the student to possess a 
good mode of communiL'ntion, yet it differs from that 
of (he regular trainer, and proves so far injurious. If 
the children attending the Nurmal Scniiimry nre well 
trained, it is nut in oonsequcncc uf its being guch, fur 
every new student so far injures the children, but in 
conaequencu of the superior tact and experience of 
the masters of each of the departments. 

Besides this, ibij fact of questions being propounded 
oftentimes nnimportant, with all the solemnity of no- 
velty, but which may have be€D put by former stu. 
dents a hundred times before, ig a severe trial of the 
risiblo faoultiea of tlie children, whoao rapidity of 
an&weriitg sometimes stultified the young student, 
under the slow and slereotyped list of qiiestiong hq 
has previously prepared for himself. To repress and 
regulate euch feelings on the part of the children bj 
the niaatcr of tlie particular department is a part of 
moral training, anil proves an excellent iatclleclual 
and moral exercise for the student himself. 




Witliinit two additional masters for teacliing and 
tniioingi and n rector to aiiperintcnd the wIioIb csta- 
bluhni^itf no ecliuol, consisting uf Initiatory and Ju- 
venikf di?parttncnt5^ and with only one or two mastcra 
to each, can Ijecoriie a Norinal ScminaFy ; and we may 
»dd, that any Normal Seminary on tho Training 
System* witliout aa Infant departmeni, must bo 
n Ttry imperfecl one ; for it is only by cojiying the 
timpiicity wliioh miiat bo pureaed with very youn^ 
cliildrcn, tbat the student can be perfected in bis 
habits is a trainer, Tlioac who havo arriTed at the 
hei;;ht of simplification being tha best Initiatory or 
Infant Irainert^ if possessed of the requisite elemen- 
tary fcnowledgpj are uniformly tbo best Juremle 
trainers. 

Assi8TAST&. — On the plan pursued in this semi- 
nary every Juvenile Training School ought to have 
two traitiei'9, viz., a first and a second master : the 
one for tho younger children of us. to eight yeara of 
Jige, and tlio otlipr for those olJer and moro advanced ; 
and as the earlier etages are the more importaiit, the 
gronnd-work or foundation of fu Litre excellence bting 
then laid, so the Bccond njHstcr oiiglit to be an ae- 
compllahcd peraonj and reffularlff trained. 

IMITATIONS OrTnS TItAtHlMD SCQOOL. 



In several scboolg and seminaries lately estahlighed, 
having the Training System professedly in view, ihe 
mors obvious parts of tho syatem havo been adopted, 
and others left ont. 



KOnUAL SEMINARY. 



503 



We dpubt not tlje period will soon arrive when 
Normnl Training Seminnriea will he spread over tho 
country, and wlien yoiuig teachers will not grudga 
flpendiug a couple of years under training, il5 a part 
of tli&ir educational curriculam ; and that very many 
who intend to aiiperintend schoola will spend a few 
weeika, not in looking on or observing meroy, but in 
practising tlie art of training, vrhich may be rendered, 
and actually is, a most elegant accomplighment. 

Sii Normal Scniinai'iea, conducted on the Natural 
or Training syatem, equally extensive with our own, 
would be retiuired for Scotland, and at tho least thirty 
for England. We cannot namo ihQ wants of Ireland. 

BEMDVAL or TUB NORMAL BSUINABV TO KEW PREUISB8. 

During the year 1S41, a grant of £5000 wae offered 
by Government on condition that the institution should 
be placed exclusively under the management of the 
Established Churcli, instead of a private society aa 
formerly. This grant was intended to a&a^ist in litj^ni- 
datiug a debt of £ 1 9,000, wliicli had been incurred 
in the erection of buildings, purchase of play-ground?, 
and deficiency of revenue during the previous yeara 
of tbe existenca of the gemiaary. 

The diaruption of the ChuT.;h of Scotland took 
place in May, 1843, before the grnnt was completed, 
and as tho trustees, with one or two cxcrptions, he- 
came raerabera of the Free Church, it was found that 
either they must ^^bethe whole debt upon th^maelvee, 
or cease to hold tho buiidingSj &d., which accontmo- 
dated the institution. 



XBM TIUIHlirC StBTEK. 

With a riew of maintaiQing the trrunlng system in 
iU Full efficiency, under tlie saniQ highly experienced 
Kbool tnuna-5, who, it nwy be mentioned, are mil 
tp«mbera of the Free Churchy an oSer was made ko 
ttid coramittea of the Established Church to ciintinue 
their sa'Tiocs under their direction. Tiiia was de^- 
cUned, or at least no nnswer wus returtied. 

Another oftl-r was made — to train a sufficient num- 
ber of maaltti^ of the Established Church commttnioD 
who, on the old oiaatera ceonng to occupy the pre- 
mises, might carry on and perpetuate the training 
system for children, and the fcraiulcg of scliuolmaaters 
Da tlie same principle a9 It had been conducted hitherto. 
TUia offer met with the same fate as the former. 

At this juncture^ no party in Scotland showing any 
dispositioQ to continue tliG system after the buildings 
were vacated^ I went to London and prevailed on the 
Wesleyan Conference Committee to add to the number 
<y{ thtir students, and to grant the handsome sum of 
£700 133 part expenses of the Seminary for 1 2 months. 

Before the close of the twelve iriontha, the Educa- 
tional Comtnittee of the Free Church, from a desire 
to maintain the syetem as n, great national object, in 
its full eflicloncy and usofulness^ dutemiinc'd on pur- 
chasing suitable play-grounds, and erecting buildings 
at an expense nf upwards of ^UOOO, to accommodate 
the whole institution.*' 

The twelve months alluded to having expired, and 
before the bulljinaa could he ereotcd-tho niastera wore 
required to f[iiit. Accordingly, a larf;e temporary 

• South Enirangc lij" WtilUnt'ton Aroadiv, Suucliiubsll Hoad. 



I 



t 



wooden erection having bepn placet! on one of the new 
play-groimils, on 8tli May, ISiS, tile whole masters, 
mistr^saea, and superintendent, with the Normal stu- 
dents, 53 in nunibur^ and 700 cliilflrcn, between the 
age of about 3 and 13 years, walked two and two from 
the premisea to the wooden ereotiou — leaving the old 
building, Sit. as it stood. 

The stone buildina; for the five Model schools wag 
ready for their reception in Angiist following, and the 
entire buildings, including the Students' liall^ were 
completed id April, 1S4G, and aro now Dccupiod by 
the former niiisters, 70 students, and 800 scholars. 

The head traitiera of ths institution are — Mr. 
Caugliie, of the Initiatory or Infant department — Mr. 
Stark, of the 2d diytaion of the Juvenile departmi^iit 
— Mr. Fraser, 1st division of the Juvenile department 
— Mrs. Chamberlain, of the Industrinl, for girls above 
1 years of age, and Hr. Hi^lopj Rector and Head 
Master of tho Senioi* department. 

I can scarcely do justice to the disinterested con- 
duct of these persons, mIio are still at the head of the 
seminary, who, during the threiC years previous to the 
disruption, without any engagement, vfith a limited 
number of assistant trainers, and amid many offers 
and inducementfl to leave at tempting salaries, yet they 
atuck firm to their post, assured of the liigh import- 
ance of their position to tlio children, the students, 
aud the country nnd the world at large. 

These persons deserve well of tlicir country, »nd 
WB are Satisfied were influenced by no motive save 
the glory of God and the beat interests of manltind. 




a Circiilar Swing?, ^ Flim-nr Ilnri'T?, o Gntlcry. d C\mi RKnm. 
t Wtiier-ClniPls. /■WnliT-Clnepts fnr Girls. « KtppE nn ^nch iJiln nl the' 
gnllprf Kbaiit 13 inrhH bruad, by ivlilcli to nicfncl an J aeta'iid ju m.BTdiliig 




o luninr Division. WbrW- Thp pluv-trmnnd, in twn flivifilnna. mas' he In 
fro.ni or bnnk nf buHdinir. 6 Ai|(iiTH-pd Division, Id by 28. e Jureiille Clasi- 
Riwm. (i Infant I ■ppnTtmi'iit, 411 by 5«. * Inrnnt ClniB-Ronmi L4 ■by IB. 
Upper FLnor— Mnstci^' Htmm nnd ScIiodI of Inluitn, TLb V^ utci'-CfOs^'ti 
arc pKicfdateachendnrtLe baUdlng. 



^ 




aGsllcfr. «ci>[ilht« Ka.T. e Gsllfcy JoDior Divisinn. Sirfiiatppi. 

This li thu inly rnnspnieiit miide ciT tmrinn; two TraUiitig' Ki^hoaW ^.ai , 
Igi'i or I'il rliilrireii parli, «lipn tlin wiJth ortKagrQiiiui 4ueBViiAiVi'-^««^'Jn*J 
PTV(.tii>n nrt1i4:bui!JiiiKa9plnt>i: Mos.liini^, ^ns.-i wq1\ M-aicAiewa 
UiepTefirsble. pinna f^r Lwu EcLioolfl,wi.tV\ ^U^-tr"'"** ^^^^^" ** 



No. 7.— OAUstT— Ihitutokt ok Infant DiPAiTiiBifT. 




Oallebt.— Juvenile Defabtmbnt. 




No. 



lufiuat Gnllery.— Dimen^on of Seata. 
Breadth. Height. Footbdard. 
11 In. 



1. 
2. 
8.4. 

^c. 

7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 



11} Id. 
II 



loi 


!*V 


10 


9 


10 


8i 


9 


8 


9 


^4 


9 


1 



I3iln. 

in 

13 
13 
13 
13 



Juvenile Ga11#ry>—™<neii^(.ii tfSeati. 
Urendth. Height. Footboard. 

IfilD. 



No. 1 



13 In. 

13 

12 

11 

II 

11 

10 

10 



in 

13 

la 

IS 



IB 

u 

14 



Height ofthe open railing not Boltdtoardfot resting tbe bark— Infant, 10 InrJiet ; and 
'^lle, 11 inches. 
'—The FootboHrd is luok thr thicLneM of the vroodbf hind the nnall railing. 



No. 8.— Bulb Btamd, ftc. 




^a_ 




Writfngr DMin, fixad to Uw ildM of th« Sehool-liKll t or whni mftde 
doable, the; ara morable, tnd Told down doM agidnsttbe wall, leaving 
th« centre area clear wben the detka are not hi lue. 

2k 



No. 10. G*lJ.KEr. FlUALE SCHOOT. OF IxDOSTRV. 

See Descriptive Page S20. 




NoTS— Wltbout tlie imall tablei for tha g(rb' work, ftc. thli fallcrjr 
ia tery suitable for a Senior deportnieiit. 




si I 






in 



II. 



fa 



I EC 



4 






\ 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. Noe, 2, 3. 



e G>lkry. 1.1. TwoMile Ksts. 
A Store-pipe le<3 iato claM-raom rent. 
y GirU" W»tor-CIci»et, twDlve feet l>y Hiree feet. 
« Boy*' ditto, ten feet by tfarcD Peet. Right feeteacii nuglil dv. 
fi Reiirlag plucc for Boys, 
Circular swing, oae cavIi fur Boje And Girl». 
i» Etitrancu to JuTcnUe Schuol. 
t EntrniuH>ta School Room. 
m Eutrance t& loTiint departmcnL. 
p Entmoco to Juvenile departniiirit. 
o Centre gate. 

The DGWel of stair to be of a suXcicut thickness to prermt 
the at«ps being too nanww nt tbe niJos. 

ConJ Cellars bolow stiur. Wrtllii of hotli aehoola liii(.>d with 
wowl fi>tir feet six mcbes above floor. Tbe floors to he of tim- 
ber. Ceilkigs fuurtcfiu feet high, aad if panAcUcd iUi eeha will 
be preyenteJ. Two or more of tliu window breasts nearest the 
ClnsB Room fitted up, fijmiing prcBees for holding the wooden 
brfcka in the intaot school, and in the juvenile school for the 
9&me piirpo^, nn-d for booka^ &c. 

IlatA RPil cloBts bong round the oIbms rooHi. 

N.I3. From ChefH^ plnos, any architect may easily dotermlne 
ilic cofit of an iultlatDry or juvenile school, or both combined, 
with tbo outhouses and cmJosing wall. IIo Ims only to know 
what art* tkc [ir&posed niatofink, brick or stone. About £i(i to 
£50. pilierAlly ^poakiii^, *ill fit up and fiiniiBh a school with 
npparatuH, iuduiling the cii^nhir swinge. 

In Bomc (iaaeB. the gnrrets. are fitted up as a third story with 
lower ceilbig, for girls, for an, uidustrial achoolj or a dwelbng- 
houM for one &f tho masters. 

The tlevfitioiit No. l,!ihoFS projeetioHi ttot reqwaito totha 
praxiticjil workinp, but inay be added by thoao who choow to 
e!tpend a sinftll snni on toBtc. 

Plate. No. 3. Ilei^'ttts, &<:. of gallery, eee No. 7. Five or sis 
»t«p8 in giUlery, junior division.